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Sample records for derivatives stabilize plausible

  1. Nitrogenous Derivatives of Phosphorus and the Origins of Life: Plausible Prebiotic Phosphorylating Agents in Water.

    PubMed

    Karki, Megha; Gibard, Clémentine; Bhowmik, Subhendu; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayanan

    2017-07-29

    Phosphorylation under plausible prebiotic conditions continues to be one of the defining issues for the role of phosphorus in the origins of life processes. In this review, we cover the reactions of alternative forms of phosphate, specifically the nitrogenous versions of phosphate (and other forms of reduced phosphorus species) from a prebiotic, synthetic organic and biochemistry perspective. The ease with which such amidophosphates or phosphoramidate derivatives phosphorylate a wide variety of substrates suggests that alternative forms of phosphate could have played a role in overcoming the "phosphorylation in water problem". We submit that serious consideration should be given to the search for primordial sources of nitrogenous versions of phosphate and other versions of phosphorus.

  2. Dynamic Stability Derivatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    the needed characteristic motions while avoiding sting /support interference effects, keeping the model near the center of the test section (where the...mounted between the model and sting . Other methods have been used. One example is the free-oscillation technique where the model is free to rotate...technique, the model is connected to the sting through a "flexure" or torsion spring. Again the decay rate is related to the dynamic derivative

  3. A prebiotically plausible synthesis of pyrimidine β-ribonucleosides and their phosphate derivatives involving photoanomerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianfeng; Tsanakopoulou, Maria; Magnani, Christopher J.; Szabla, Rafał; Šponer, Judit E.; Šponer, Jiří; Góra, Robert W.; Sutherland, John D.

    2016-11-01

    Previous research has identified ribose aminooxazoline as a potential intermediate in the prebiotic synthesis of the pyrimidine nucleotides with remarkable properties. It crystallizes spontaneously from reaction mixtures, with an enhanced enantiomeric excess if initially enantioenriched, which suggests that reservoirs of this compound might have accumulated on the early Earth in an optically pure form. Ribose aminooxazoline can be converted efficiently into α-ribocytidine by way of 2,2‧-anhydroribocytidine, although anomerization to β-ribocytidine by ultraviolet irradiation is extremely inefficient. Our previous work demonstrated the synthesis of pyrimidine β-ribonucleotides, but at the cost of ignoring ribose aminooxazoline, using arabinose aminooxazoline instead. Here we describe a long-sought route through ribose aminooxazoline to the pyrimidine β-ribonucleosides and their phosphate derivatives that involves an extraordinarily efficient photoanomerization of α-2-thioribocytidine. In addition to the canonical nucleosides, our synthesis accesses β-2-thioribouridine, a modified nucleoside found in transfer RNA that enables both faster and more-accurate nucleic acid template-copying chemistry.

  4. A prebiotically plausible synthesis of pyrimidine β-ribonucleosides and their phosphate derivatives involving photoanomerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianfeng; Tsanakopoulou, Maria; Magnani, Christopher J.; Szabla, Rafał; Šponer, Judit E.; Šponer, Jiří; Góra, Robert W.; Sutherland, John D.

    2017-04-01

    Previous research has identified ribose aminooxazoline as a potential intermediate in the prebiotic synthesis of the pyrimidine nucleotides with remarkable properties. It crystallizes spontaneously from reaction mixtures, with an enhanced enantiomeric excess if initially enantioenriched, which suggests that reservoirs of this compound might have accumulated on the early Earth in an optically pure form. Ribose aminooxazoline can be converted efficiently into α-ribocytidine by way of 2,2‧-anhydroribocytidine, although anomerization to β-ribocytidine by ultraviolet irradiation is extremely inefficient. Our previous work demonstrated the synthesis of pyrimidine β-ribonucleotides, but at the cost of ignoring ribose aminooxazoline, using arabinose aminooxazoline instead. Here we describe a long-sought route through ribose aminooxazoline to the pyrimidine β-ribonucleosides and their phosphate derivatives that involves an extraordinarily efficient photoanomerization of α-2-thioribocytidine. In addition to the canonical nucleosides, our synthesis accesses β-2-thioribouridine, a modified nucleoside found in transfer RNA that enables both faster and more-accurate nucleic acid template-copying chemistry.

  5. Stability-Derivative Determination from Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holowicz, Chester H.; Holleman, Euclid C.

    1958-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of the various factors affecting the determination of stability and control derivatives from flight data is presented based on the experience of the NASA High-Speed Flight Station. Factors relating to test techniques, determination of mass characteristics, instrumentation, and methods of analysis are discussed. For most longitudinal-stability-derivative analyses simple equations utilizing period and damping have been found to be as satisfactory as more comprehensive methods. The graphical time-vector method has been the basis of lateral-derivative analysis, although simple approximate methods can be useful If applied with caution. Control effectiveness has been generally obtained by relating the peak acceleration to the rapid control input, and consideration must be given to aerodynamic contributions if reasonable accuracy is to be realized.. Because of the many factors involved In the determination of stability derivatives, It is believed that the primary stability and control derivatives are probably accurate to within 10 to 25 percent, depending upon the specific derivative. Static-stability derivatives at low angle of attack show the greatest accuracy.

  6. A Model of Plausibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Louise; Keane, Mark T.

    2006-01-01

    Plausibility has been implicated as playing a critical role in many cognitive phenomena from comprehension to problem solving. Yet, across cognitive science, plausibility is usually treated as an operationalized variable or metric rather than being explained or studied in itself. This article describes a new cognitive model of plausibility, the…

  7. Missile Motion Sensitivity to Dynamic Stability Derivatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    to Lifting-Surface/Body Interference." AFFDL- TR-71-5, April 1972. 5. Williams, John E. and Vukelich, Steven R. "The USAF Stability and Control...and Laberge , J. G. "Direct and Cross-Coupling Subsonic Moment Derivatives Due to Oscillatory Pitching and Yawing of an Aircraft- Like Model of

  8. Definition and application of longitudinal stability derivatives for elastic airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, W. B., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A set of longitudinal stability derivatives for elastic airplanes is defined from fundamental principles allowing perturbations in forward speed. Application of these derivatives to longitudinal stability analysis by use of approximate expressions for static stability and control parameters as well as the dynamic equations of motion is illustrated. One commonly used alternative formulation for elastic airplanes is shown to yield significant inaccuracies because of inappropriate interpretation of inertial effects.

  9. Derived Categories and Zero-Brane Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Albion

    2001-07-25

    We define a particular class of topological field theories associated to open strings and prove the resulting D-branes and open strings form the bounded derived category of coherent sheaves. This derivation is a variant of some ideas proposed recently by Douglas. We then argue that any 0-brane on any Calabi-Yau threefold must become unstable along some path in the Kahler moduli space. As a byproduct of this analysis we see how the derived category can be invariant under a birational transformation.

  10. Summary of methods for calculating dynamic lateral stability and response and for estimating aerodynamic stability derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, John P; Mckinney, Marion O

    1952-01-01

    A summary of methods for making dynamic lateral stability and response calculations and for estimating the aerodynamic stability derivatives required for use in these calculations is presented. The processes of performing calculations of the time histories of lateral motions, of the period and damping of these motions, and of the lateral stability boundaries are presented as a series of simple straightforward steps. Existing methods for estimating the stability derivatives are summarized and, in some cases, simple new empirical formulas are presented. Detailed estimation methods are presented for low-subsonic-speed conditions but only a brief discussion and a list of references are given for transonic and supersonic speed conditions.

  11. Extraction of stability and control derivatives from orbiter flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Shafer, Mary F.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter has provided unique and important information on aircraft flight dynamics. This information has provided the opportunity to assess the flight-derived stability and control derivatives for maneuvering flight in the hypersonic regime. In the case of the Space Shuttle Orbiter, these derivatives are required to determine if certain configuration placards (limitations on the flight envelope) can be modified. These placards were determined on the basis of preflight predictions and the associated uncertainties. As flight-determined derivatives are obtained, the placards are reassessed, and some of them are removed or modified. Extraction of the stability and control derivatives was justified by operational considerations and not by research considerations. Using flight results to update the predicted database of the orbiter is one of the most completely documented processes for a flight vehicle. This process followed from the requirement for analysis of flight data for control system updates and for expansion of the operational flight envelope. These results show significant changes in many important stability and control derivatives from the preflight database. This paper presents some of the stability and control derivative results obtained from Space Shuttle flights. Some of the limitations of this information are also examined.

  12. Process for stabilizing the viscosity characteristics of coal derived materials and the stabilized materials obtained thereby

    DOEpatents

    Bronfenbrenner, James C.; Foster, Edward P.; Tewari, Krishna

    1985-01-01

    A process is disclosed for stabilizing the viscosity of coal derived materials such as an SRC product by adding up to 5.0% by weight of a light volatile phenolic viscosity repressor. The viscosity will remain stabilized for a period of time of up to 4 months.

  13. Estimation of Aerodynamic Stability Derivatives for Space Launch System and Impact on Stability Margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pei, Jing; Wall, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the techniques involved in determining the aerodynamic stability derivatives for the frequency domain analysis of the Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle. Generally for launch vehicles, determination of the derivatives is fairly straightforward since the aerodynamic data is usually linear through a moderate range of angle of attack. However, if the wind tunnel data lacks proper corrections then nonlinearities and asymmetric behavior may appear in the aerodynamic database coefficients. In this case, computing the derivatives becomes a non-trivial task. Errors in computing the nominal derivatives could lead to improper interpretation regarding the natural stability of the system and tuning of the controller parameters, which would impact both stability and performance. The aerodynamic derivatives are also provided at off nominal operating conditions used for dispersed frequency domain Monte Carlo analysis. Finally, results are shown to illustrate that the effects of aerodynamic cross axis coupling can be neglected for the SLS configuration studied

  14. Exfoliation and Stability Studies of Germanane and its Derivatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Germanane and its Derivative (an Undergraduate Thesis) The discovery of graphene has demonstrated that stable single-layer sheets can be isolated...Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 2D Materials beyond Graphene , Graphane, Germanane REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11...1016 ABSTRACT Exfoliation and Stability Studies of Germanane and its Derivative (an Undergraduate Thesis) Report Title The discovery of graphene has

  15. Summary of Methods for Calculating Dynamic Lateral Stability and Response and for Estimating Lateral Stability Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, John P; Mckinney, Marion O

    1951-01-01

    A summary of methods for making dynamic lateral stability and response calculations and for estimating the aerodynamic stability derivatives required for use in these calculations is presented. The processes of performing calculations of the time histories of lateral motions, of the period and damping of these motions, and of the lateral stability boundaries are presented as a series of simple straightforward steps. Existing methods for estimating the stability derivatives are summarized and, in some cases, simple new empirical formulas are presented. Reference is also made to reports presenting experimental data that should be useful in making estimates of the derivatives. Detailed estimating methods are presented for low-subsonic-speed conditions but only a brief discussion and a list of references are given for transonic- and supersonic-speed conditions.

  16. Computational Methods for Dynamic Stability and Control Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.; Spence, Angela M.; Murphy, Patrick C.

    2004-01-01

    Force and moment measurements from an F-16XL during forced pitch oscillation tests result in dynamic stability derivatives, which are measured in combinations. Initial computational simulations of the motions and combined derivatives are attempted via a low-order, time-dependent panel method computational fluid dynamics code. The code dynamics are shown to be highly questionable for this application and the chosen configuration. However, three methods to computationally separate such combined dynamic stability derivatives are proposed. One of the separation techniques is demonstrated on the measured forced pitch oscillation data. Extensions of the separation techniques to yawing and rolling motions are discussed. In addition, the possibility of considering the angles of attack and sideslip state vector elements as distributed quantities, rather than point quantities, is introduced.

  17. Computational Methods for Dynamic Stability and Control Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.; Spence, Angela M.; Murphy, Patrick C.

    2003-01-01

    Force and moment measurements from an F-16XL during forced pitch oscillation tests result in dynamic stability derivatives, which are measured in combinations. Initial computational simulations of the motions and combined derivatives are attempted via a low-order, time-dependent panel method computational fluid dynamics code. The code dynamics are shown to be highly questionable for this application and the chosen configuration. However, three methods to computationally separate such combined dynamic stability derivatives are proposed. One of the separation techniques is demonstrated on the measured forced pitch oscillation data. Extensions of the separation techniques to yawing and rolling motions are discussed. In addition, the possibility of considering the angles of attack and sideslip state vector elements as distributed quantities, rather than point quantities, is introduced.

  18. Stability in higher-derivative matter fields theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretyakov, Petr V.

    2016-09-01

    We discuss possible instabilities in higher-derivative matter field theories. These theories have two free parameters β _1 and β _4. By using a dynamical system approach we explicitly demonstrate that for the stability of Minkowski space in an expanding universe we need the condition β _4<0. By using the quantum field theory approach we also find an additional restriction for the parameters, β _1>-1/3β _4, which is needed to avoid a tachyon-like instability.

  19. Stability evaluation of Styrylpyrone derivative (SPD) incorporated products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahtiar, Adibah Ahamad; Nor, Norefrina Shafinaz Md.; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Styrylpyrone derivative (SPD) from Goniothalamus umbrosus has been shown to have antiviral properties against Herpes Simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1). This study aimed to evaluate the purity of isolated SPD and stability of SPD-incorporated formulations. Pure SPD was isolated from dried roots of G. umbrosus as confirmed by GC-MS. Two types of SPD-incorporated products (ointment and gel) were produced. Both products showed stable physical properties after two months and retained the SPD content for one month.

  20. Stability derivatives of triangular wings at supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribner, Herbert S; Malvestuto, Frank S , Jr

    1948-01-01

    The analysis of the stability derivatives of low-aspect-ratio triangular wings at subsonic and supersonic speeds, given in NACA TN no. 1423, is extended to apply to triangular wings having large vertex angles and traveling at supersonic speeds. The lift, rolling moment due to sideslip, and damping in roll and pitch for this more general case have been treated elsewhere on the basis of the theory of small disturbances. The surface potentials for angle of attack and rolling taken therefrom are used to obtain the several side-force and yawing-moment derivatives that depend on leading-edge suction, and a tentative value for the rolling moment due to yawing. The lift and moment due to downward acceleration are obtained on the basis of an unpublished unsteady-flow solution. All the known stability derivatives of the triangular wing at supersonic speeds, regardless of source, are summarized for convenience and presented with respect to both body axes and stability axes. The results are limited to Mach numbers for which the triangular wing is contained within the Mach cone for its vertex. The spanwise variation of Mach number in the case of yawing is neglected, although the effect must be of importance.

  1. Approximate relations and charts for low-speed stability derivatives of swept wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, Thomas A; Queijo, M J

    1948-01-01

    Contains derivations, based on a simplified theory, of approximate relations for low-speed stability derivatives of swept wings. Method accounts for the effects and, in most cases, taper ratio. Charts, based on the derived relations, are presented for the stability derivatives of untapered swept wings. Calculated values of the derivatives are compared with experimental results.

  2. Theoretical prediction of airplane stability derivatives at subcritical speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulinius, J.; Clever, W.; Nieman, A.; Dunn, K.; Gaither, B.

    1973-01-01

    The theoretical development and application is described of an analysis for predicting the major static and rotary stability derivatives for a complete airplane. The analysis utilizes potential flow theory to compute the surface flow fields and pressures on any configuration that can be synthesized from arbitrary lifting bodies and nonplanar thick lifting panels. The pressures are integrated to obtain section and total configuration loads and moments due side slip, angle of attack, pitching motion, rolling motion, yawing motion, and control surface deflection. Subcritical compressibility is accounted for by means of the Gothert similarity rule.

  3. Determination of zafirlukast by stability indicating LC and derivative spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishna, T; Satyanarayana, J; Satyanarayana, A

    2002-10-15

    Two analytical methods have been developed for the determination of zafirlukast, a novel anti-asthmatic drug: high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and derivative spectrophotometry (DS). HPLC with ultraviolet detection at 225 nm is carried out with a Symmetry Shield RP18 column and a mobile phase constituted of acetonitrile and 0.01 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer, adjusted the pH to 3.5 with 0.1 M KOH. The LC method is simple, rapid, selective and stability indicating. Indole was used as internal standard for the purpose of quantification of zafirlukast in HPLC. Spectrophotometry uses the third order derivative of the UV spectrum at 251.1 nm (deltalambda value 2.1 nm) for determination. Both methods were fully validated and a comparison was made. The results confirm that the methods are highly suitable for its intended purpose. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  4. Plausible Reasoning in Tactical Planning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    nodes. A part-hierarchy is organized by the part-of relation holding between connected nodes. Any given node may be a member of more than one hierarchy...reflect different ratios that affect the certainty of plausible inferences in systematic ways. Frequency reflects the proportion of members of the... members of the set that are O members of the subset specified in the statement. For example, chickens constitute a high proportion of barnyard fowl

  5. Plausibility arguments and universal gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Ricardo F. F.; Tort, A. C.

    2017-05-01

    Newton’s law of universal gravitation underpins our understanding of the dynamics of the Solar System and of a good portion of the observable universe. Generally, in the classroom or in textbooks, the law is presented initially in a qualitative way and at some point during the exposition its mathematical formulation is written on the blackboard and some quantitative consequences are discussed. In the present paper we argue that this approach can be improved by the use of plausibility arguments.

  6. Stability Indices derived from Atmospheric Measurements on a Cable Car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herma, F.; Seidel, J.; Bárdossy, A.

    2012-04-01

    Stability indices are meteorological parameters to describe vertical atmospheric layering and therefore it is possible to predict convective events such as thunderstorms. Commonly, weather balloons with radiosondes are used for the analysis of vertical atmospheric layering. These weather balloons reach high altitudes and atmospheric layering can be determined for the entire troposphere. On the other hand, these balloon ascents are expensive, require the appropriate equipment and permissions and cannot be conducted several times a day on an operational basis. Due to the limitations of the application of weather balloons the unconventional idea came up to equip a cable car with meteorological instruments for vertical profile measurements. To some extent the meteorological instruments had to be customized to the particular requirements and data are transmitted via GSM. The investigated area is a small alpine catchment which is prone to flash floods and thus a reliable forecast for such floods mostly caused by convective rainfall events is important. Therefore the purpose of this contribution is to proof if a cable car can be used for measuring continuous data during the operating hours and whether it is possible to derive reliable conclusions about the stability in the lower troposphere. Several stability indices (e.g. Lifted-, Showalter-, Boyden- and Convective-Index) were investigated. Indices which are calculated on the basis of the "Lifted Parcel Theory" were tested with different approaches to determine the most unstable parcel and therefore the initial values of the required parameters. The derived indices were flagged in active (thunderstorms) and non-active (no thunderstorms) cases. The classification results from available lightning maps in this region. Threshold values were established to distinguish stable, potential indifferent and unstable atmospheric conditions. On the basis of this division pre-warnings for the occurrence of thunderstorms are declared

  7. Estimation of Stability and Control Derivatives of an F-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Mark; Moes, Tim

    2006-01-01

    A technique for real-time estimation of stability and control derivatives (derivatives of moment coefficients with respect to control-surface deflection angles) was used to support a flight demonstration of a concept of an indirect-adaptive intelligent flight control system (IFCS). Traditionally, parameter identification, including estimation of stability and control derivatives, is done post-flight. However, for the indirect-adaptive IFCS concept, parameter identification is required during flight so that the system can modify control laws for a damaged aircraft. The flight demonstration was carried out on a highly modified F-15 airplane (see Figure 1). The main objective was to estimate the stability and control derivatives of the airplane in nearly real time. A secondary goal was to develop a system to automatically assess the quality of the results, so as to be able to tell a learning neural network which data to use. Parameter estimation was performed by use of Fourier-transform regression (FTR) a technique developed at NASA Langley Research Center. FTR is an equation- error technique that operates in the frequency domain. Data are put into the frequency domain by use of a recursive Fourier transform for a discrete frequency set. This calculation simplifies many subsequent calculations, removes biases, and automatically filters out data beyond the chosen frequency range. FTR as applied here was tailored to work with pilot inputs, which produce correlated surface positions that prevent accurate parameter estimates, by replacing half the derivatives with predicted values. FTR was also set up to work only on a recent window of data, to accommodate changes in flight condition. A system of confidence measures was developed to identify quality-parameter estimates that a learning neural network could use. This system judged the estimates primarily on the basis of their estimated variances and of the level of aircraft response. The resulting FTR system was implemented

  8. Esculentin-1a-Derived Peptides Promote Clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Internalized in Bronchial Cells of Cystic Fibrosis Patients and Lung Cell Migration: Biochemical Properties and a Plausible Mode of Action.

    PubMed

    Cappiello, Floriana; Di Grazia, Antonio; Segev-Zarko, Li-Av; Scali, Silvia; Ferrera, Loretta; Galietta, Luis; Pini, Alessandro; Shai, Yechiel; Di, Y Peter; Mangoni, Maria Luisa

    2016-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major microorganism colonizing the respiratory epithelium in cystic fibrosis (CF) sufferers. The widespread use of available antibiotics has drastically reduced their efficacy, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a promising alternative. Among them, the frog skin-derived AMPs, i.e., Esc(1-21) and its diastereomer, Esc(1-21)-1c, have recently shown potent activity against free-living and sessile forms of P. aeruginosa Importantly, this pathogen also escapes antibiotics treatment by invading airway epithelial cells. Here, we demonstrate that both AMPs kill Pseudomonas once internalized into bronchial cells which express either the functional or the ΔF508 mutant of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator. A higher efficacy is displayed by Esc(1-21)-1c (90% killing at 15 μM in 1 h). We also show the peptides' ability to stimulate migration of these cells and restore the induction of cell migration that is inhibited by Pseudomonas lipopolysaccharide when used at concentrations mimicking lung infection. This property of AMPs was not investigated before. Our findings suggest new therapeutics that not only eliminate bacteria but also can promote reepithelialization of the injured infected tissue. Confocal microscopy indicated that both peptides are intracellularly localized with a different distribution. Biochemical analyses highlighted that Esc(1-21)-1c is significantly more resistant than the all-l peptide to bacterial and human elastase, which is abundant in CF lungs. Besides proposing a plausible mechanism underlying the properties of the two AMPs, we discuss the data with regard to differences between them and suggest Esc(1-21)-1c as a candidate for the development of a new multifunctional drug against Pseudomonas respiratory infections.

  9. Estimation of Rotary Stability Derivatives at Subsonic and Transonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobak, Murray; Lessing, Henry C.

    1961-01-01

    The first part of this paper pertains to the estimation of subsonic rotary stability derivatives of wings. The unsteady potential flow problem is solved by a superposition of steady flow solutions. Numerical results for the damping coefficients of triangular wings are presented as functions of aspect ratio and Mach number, and are compared with experimental results over the Mach number range 0 to 1. In the second part, experimental results are used. to point out a close correlation between the nonlinear variations with angle of attack of the static pitching-moment curve slope and the damping-in-pitch coefficient. The underlying basis for the correlation is found as a result of an analysis in which the indicial function concept and. the principle of super-position are adapted to apply to the nonlinear problem. The form of the result suggests a method of estimating nonlinear damping coefficients from results of static wind-tunnel measurements.

  10. Polymer quantization, stability and higher-order time derivative terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumsille, Patricio; Reyes, Carlos M.; Ossandon, Sebastian; Reyes, Camilo

    2016-03-01

    The possibility that fundamental discreteness implicit in a quantum gravity theory may act as a natural regulator for ultraviolet singularities arising in quantum field theory has been intensively studied. Here, along the same expectations, we investigate whether a nonstandard representation called polymer representation can smooth away the large amount of negative energy that afflicts the Hamiltonians of higher-order time derivative theories, rendering the theory unstable when interactions come into play. We focus on the fourth-order Pais-Uhlenbeck model which can be reexpressed as the sum of two decoupled harmonic oscillators one producing positive energy and the other negative energy. As expected, the Schrödinger quantization of such model leads to the stability problem or to negative norm states called ghosts. Within the framework of polymer quantization we show the existence of new regions where the Hamiltonian can be defined well bounded from below.

  11. Stability derivatives for bodies of revolution at subsonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, D. D.; Platzer, M. F.; Ruo, S. Y.

    1976-01-01

    The paper considers a rigid pointed body of revolution in a steady uniform subsonic flow. The body performs harmonic small-amplitude pitching oscillations around its zero angle of attack position. The body is assumed to be smooth and sufficiently slender so that the small perturbation concept can be applied. The basis of the method used, following Revell (1960), is the relation of a body-fixed perturbation potential to the general velocity potential. Normal force distributions as well as total force and moment coefficients are calculated for parabolic spindles and the numerical results show good agreement between Revell's second-order slender body theory and the present theory for the static stability derivatives of the parabolic spindles.

  12. Stochastic stability of the derivative unscented Kalman filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Gao-Ge; Gao, She-Sheng; Zhong, Yong-Min; Gao, Bing-Bing

    2015-07-01

    This is the second of two consecutive papers focusing on the filtering algorithm for a nonlinear stochastic discrete-time system with linear system state equation. The first paper established a derivative unscented Kalman filter (DUKF) to eliminate the redundant computational load of the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) due to the use of unscented transformation (UT) in the prediction process. The present paper studies the error behavior of the DUKF using the boundedness property of stochastic processes. It is proved that the estimation error of the DUKF remains bounded if the system satisfies certain conditions. Furthermore, it is shown that the design of the measurement noise covariance matrix plays an important role in improvement of the algorithm stability. The DUKF can be significantly stabilized by adding small quantities to the measurement noise covariance matrix in the presence of large initial error. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61174193) and the Doctorate Foundation of Northwestern Polytechnical University, China (Grant No. CX201409).

  13. A plausible model of phyllotaxis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard S; Guyomarc'h, Soazig; Mandel, Therese; Reinhardt, Didier; Kuhlemeier, Cris; Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    2006-01-31

    A striking phenomenon unique to the kingdom of plants is the regular arrangement of lateral organs around a central axis, known as phyllotaxis. Recent molecular-genetic experiments indicate that active transport of the plant hormone auxin is the key process regulating phyllotaxis. A conceptual model based on these experiments, introduced by Reinhardt et al. [Reinhardt, D., Pesce, E. R., Stieger, P., Mandel, T., Baltensperger, K., et al. (2003) Nature 426, 255-260], provides an intuitively plausible interpretation of the data, but raises questions of whether the proposed mechanism is, in fact, capable of producing the observed temporal and spatial patterns, is robust, can start de novo, and can account for phyllotactic transitions, such as the frequently observed transition from decussate to spiral phyllotaxis. To answer these questions, we created a computer simulation model based on data described previously or in this paper and reasonable hypotheses. The model reproduces, within the standard error, the divergence angles measured in Arabidopsis seedlings and the effects of selected experimental manipulations. It also reproduces distichous, decussate, and tricussate patterns. The model thus offers a plausible link between molecular mechanisms of morphogenesis and the geometry of phyllotaxis.

  14. A plausible model of phyllotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard S.; Guyomarc'h, Soazig; Mandel, Therese; Reinhardt, Didier; Kuhlemeier, Cris; Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    2006-01-01

    A striking phenomenon unique to the kingdom of plants is the regular arrangement of lateral organs around a central axis, known as phyllotaxis. Recent molecular-genetic experiments indicate that active transport of the plant hormone auxin is the key process regulating phyllotaxis. A conceptual model based on these experiments, introduced by Reinhardt et al. [Reinhardt, D., Pesce, E. R., Stieger, P., Mandel, T., Baltensperger, K., et al. (2003) Nature 426, 255–260], provides an intuitively plausible interpretation of the data, but raises questions of whether the proposed mechanism is, in fact, capable of producing the observed temporal and spatial patterns, is robust, can start de novo, and can account for phyllotactic transitions, such as the frequently observed transition from decussate to spiral phyllotaxis. To answer these questions, we created a computer simulation model based on data described previously or in this paper and reasonable hypotheses. The model reproduces, within the standard error, the divergence angles measured in Arabidopsis seedlings and the effects of selected experimental manipulations. It also reproduces distichous, decussate, and tricussate patterns. The model thus offers a plausible link between molecular mechanisms of morphogenesis and the geometry of phyllotaxis. PMID:16432192

  15. Applications of Computational Methods for Dynamic Stability and Control Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.; Spence, Angela M.

    2004-01-01

    Initial steps in the application o f a low-order panel method computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code to the calculation of aircraft dynamic stability and control (S&C) derivatives are documented. Several capabilities, unique to CFD but not unique to this particular demonstration, are identified and demonstrated in this paper. These unique capabilities complement conventional S&C techniques and they include the ability to: 1) perform maneuvers without the flow-kinematic restrictions and support interference commonly associated with experimental S&C facilities, 2) easily simulate advanced S&C testing techniques, 3) compute exact S&C derivatives with uncertainty propagation bounds, and 4) alter the flow physics associated with a particular testing technique from those observed in a wind or water tunnel test in order to isolate effects. Also presented are discussions about some computational issues associated with the simulation of S&C tests and selected results from numerous surface grid resolution studies performed during the course of the study.

  16. Input design for identification of aircraft stability and control derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, N. K.; Hall, W. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An approach for designing inputs to identify stability and control derivatives from flight test data is presented. This approach is based on finding inputs which provide the maximum possible accuracy of derivative estimates. Two techniques of input specification are implemented for this objective - a time domain technique and a frequency domain technique. The time domain technique gives the control input time history and can be used for any allowable duration of test maneuver, including those where data lengths can only be of short duration. The frequency domain technique specifies the input frequency spectrum, and is best applied for tests where extended data lengths, much longer than the time constants of the modes of interest, are possible. These technqiues are used to design inputs to identify parameters in longitudinal and lateral linear models of conventional aircraft. The constraints of aircraft response limits, such as on structural loads, are realized indirectly through a total energy constraint on the input. Tests with simulated data and theoretical predictions show that the new approaches give input signals which can provide more accurate parameter estimates than can conventional inputs of the same total energy. Results obtained indicate that the approach has been brought to the point where it should be used on flight tests for further evaluation.

  17. Stability Characterization of Quinazoline Derivative BG1188 by Optical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Militaru, Andra; Smarandache, Adriana; Mahamoud, Abdallah; Damian, Victor; Ganea, Paul; Alibert, Sandrine; Pagès, Jean-Marie; Pascu, Mihail-Lucian

    2011-08-01

    3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-6-nitroquinazolin-4(3H)-one, labeled BG1188, is a new synthesized compound, out of a series of quinazoline derivatives developed to fight the multidrug resistance of antibiotics acquired by bacteria. A characterization of the BG1188 powder was made using FTIR spectra in order to evidence the functional groups in the medicine's molecule. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectra were used to study the stability of the BG1188 solutions in two solvents and at different temperatures. BG1188 concentration in ultrapure water was varied between 2×10-3 M (stock solution) and 10-6 M. The concentration recommended by higher activity on bacteria was 10-3 M. For the same reason, this was the utilized concentration of BG1188 in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Time stability was characterized by comparing the time evolution of the UV-Vis absorption spectra of the BG1188 solutions in ultrapure de-ionized water or in DMSO. The spectra were recorded daily for about 4 months after the preparation for the BG1188 solutions in ultrapure water. Generally, samples are stable within the experimental errors at concentrations higher than 10-5 M, but the stability time interval may vary from 119 days at 10-4 M to 34 days at 10-5 M. Time evolution of the absorption spectra at 10-3 M in ultrapure water shows reproducibility within the measuring errors (±1.045%) for time intervals up to 1032 hours (more than 40 days) after preparation. On the other hand, BG1188 solutions in DMSO may be considered unstable because the absorption spectra modify in terms of peak shapes and intensities, indicating that the samples exhibit modifications immediately after preparation. Regardless the solvent used, some aggregation phenomena took place and wire-like aggregates were observed in all the solutions with the naked eye. These aggregates were analyzed, tentatively, using optical microscopy and FTIR.

  18. Proton stability and light Z' inspired by string derived models

    SciTech Connect

    Faraggi, Alon E.; Mehta, Viraf M.

    2011-10-15

    Proton stability is one of the most perplexing puzzles in particle physics. While the renormalizable standard model forbids proton decay mediating operators due to accidental global symmetries, many of its extensions introduce such dimension four, five and six operators. Furthermore, it is, in general, expected that quantum gravity only respects local gauge, or discreet, symmetries. String theory provides the arena to study particle physics in a consistent framework of perturbative quantum gravity. An appealing proposition, in this context, is that the dangerous operators are suppressed by an Abelian gauge symmetry, which is broken near the TeV scale. A viable U(1) symmetry should also be anomaly free, be family universal, and allow the generation of fermion masses via the Higgs mechanism. We discuss such U(1) symmetries that arise in quasirealistic free fermionic heterotic-string derived models. Ensuring that the U(1) symmetry is anomaly free at the low scale requires that the standard model spectrum is augmented by additional states that are compatible with the charge assignments in the string models. We construct such string-inspired models and discuss some of their phenomenological implications.

  19. The Universal Plausibility Metric (UPM) & Principle (UPP).

    PubMed

    Abel, David L

    2009-12-03

    Mere possibility is not an adequate basis for asserting scientific plausibility. A precisely defined universal bound is needed beyond which the assertion of plausibility, particularly in life-origin models, can be considered operationally falsified. But can something so seemingly relative and subjective as plausibility ever be quantified? Amazingly, the answer is, "Yes." A method of objectively measuring the plausibility of any chance hypothesis (The Universal Plausibility Metric [UPM]) is presented. A numerical inequality is also provided whereby any chance hypothesis can be definitively falsified when its UPM metric of xi is < 1 (The Universal Plausibility Principle [UPP]). Both UPM and UPP pre-exist and are independent of any experimental design and data set. No low-probability hypothetical plausibility assertion should survive peer-review without subjection to the UPP inequality standard of formal falsification (xi < 1).

  20. The Universal Plausibility Metric (UPM) & Principle (UPP)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Mere possibility is not an adequate basis for asserting scientific plausibility. A precisely defined universal bound is needed beyond which the assertion of plausibility, particularly in life-origin models, can be considered operationally falsified. But can something so seemingly relative and subjective as plausibility ever be quantified? Amazingly, the answer is, "Yes." A method of objectively measuring the plausibility of any chance hypothesis (The Universal Plausibility Metric [UPM]) is presented. A numerical inequality is also provided whereby any chance hypothesis can be definitively falsified when its UPM metric of ξ is < 1 (The Universal Plausibility Principle [UPP]). Both UPM and UPP pre-exist and are independent of any experimental design and data set. Conclusion No low-probability hypothetical plausibility assertion should survive peer-review without subjection to the UPP inequality standard of formal falsification (ξ < 1). PMID:19958539

  1. Matrix methods for determining the longitudinal-stability derivatives of an airplane from transient flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donegan, James J

    1954-01-01

    Three matrice methods are developed and presented for determining the longitudinal-stability derivatives from transient flight data. In these methods the expressions for some of the stability derivatives are in the form generally used in stability calculations. The first method requires the combination of four measurements in time-history form, two of which must be incremental elevator deflection and incremental tail load and the other two measurements can be chosen from a possible three, namely incremental load factor, pitching velocity, and angle of attack. The method demonstrates the use of the tail load to separate the pitching-moment derivatives and to determine the downwash derivative. (author)

  2. Effects of Plausibility on Structural Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christianson, Kiel; Luke, Steven G.; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2010-01-01

    We report a replication and extension of Ferreira (2003), in which it was observed that native adult English speakers misinterpret passive sentences that relate implausible but not impossible semantic relationships (e.g., "The angler was caught by the fish") significantly more often than they do plausible passives or plausible or implausible…

  3. Stabilization of caffeic acid derivatives in Echinacea purpurea L. glycerin extract.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Chantal; Gafner, Stefan; Batcha, Laura L; Angerhofer, Cindy K

    2002-07-03

    Recent work has shown that enzymatic degradation and oxidation of cichoric acid and other caffeic derivatives occurs in Echinacea preparations. However, very little is known as to the means of stabilizing these phytopreparations. To stabilize the glycerin extract of Echinacea purpurea, we have evaluated the effects of 3 natural antioxidants (citric acid, malic acid, and hibiscus extract) on the stability of the major caffeic acid derivatives (caftaric acid, caffeic acid, cichoric acid, and 2-O-feruloyl-tartaric acid). Chlorogenic acid, which normally occurs in an ethanol extract of E. purpurea, was not present in the glycerin extract. The caffeic acid derivatives, with the exception of 2-O-feruloyl-tartaric acid, were subject to degradation in the control sample. 2-O-Feruloyl-tartaric acid was stable during the whole testing period. All antioxidant treatments greatly improved the stability of caffeic acid derivatives. Stability was dependent upon the concentration of antioxidant added.

  4. Analytic Models of Plausible Gravitational Lens Potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Baltz, Edward A.; Marshall, Phil; Oguri, Masamune

    2007-05-04

    Gravitational lenses on galaxy scales are plausibly modeled as having ellipsoidal symmetry and a universal dark matter density profile, with a Sersic profile to describe the distribution of baryonic matter. Predicting all lensing effects requires knowledge of the total lens potential: in this work we give analytic forms for that of the above hybrid model. Emphasizing that complex lens potentials can be constructed from simpler components in linear combination, we provide a recipe for attaining elliptical symmetry in either projected mass or lens potential.We also provide analytic formulae for the lens potentials of Sersic profiles for integer and half-integer index. We then present formulae describing the gravitational lensing effects due to smoothly-truncated universal density profiles in cold dark matter model. For our isolated haloes the density profile falls off as radius to the minus fifth or seventh power beyond the tidal radius, functional forms that allow all orders of lens potential derivatives to be calculated analytically, while ensuring a non-divergent total mass. We show how the observables predicted by this profile differ from that of the original infinite-mass NFW profile. Expressions for the gravitational flexion are highlighted. We show how decreasing the tidal radius allows stripped haloes to be modeled, providing a framework for a fuller investigation of dark matter substructure in galaxies and clusters. Finally we remark on the need for finite mass halo profiles when doing cosmological ray-tracing simulations, and the need for readily-calculable higher order derivatives of the lens potential when studying catastrophes in strong lenses.

  5. Stabilization of linear higher derivative gravity with constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Tai-jun; Lim, Eugene A. E-mail: eugene.a.lim@gmail.com

    2014-05-01

    We show that the instabilities of higher derivative gravity models with quadratic curvature invariant αR{sup 2}+βR{sub μν}R{sup μν} can be removed by judicious addition of constraints at the quadratic level of metric fluctuations around Minkowski/de Sitter background. With a suitable parameter choice, we find that the instabilities of helicity-0, 1, 2 modes can be removed while reducing the dimensionality of the original phase space. To retain the renormalization properties of higher derivative gravity, Lorentz symmetry in the constrained theory is explicitly broken.

  6. Stabilization of linear higher derivative gravity with constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tai-jun; Lim, Eugene A.

    2014-05-01

    We show that the instabilities of higher derivative gravity models with quadratic curvature invariant αR2+βRμνRμν can be removed by judicious addition of constraints at the quadratic level of metric fluctuations around Minkowski/de Sitter background. With a suitable parameter choice, we find that the instabilities of helicity-0, 1, 2 modes can be removed while reducing the dimensionality of the original phase space. To retain the renormalization properties of higher derivative gravity, Lorentz symmetry in the constrained theory is explicitly broken.

  7. Yield stability in genotypes derived through basic breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sugarcane variety ‘LCP 85-384’ was derived through basic (introgression) breeding, and after its release in 1995, the variety quickly gained acreage in the state of Louisiana. The primary reason for the popularity of the variety was the plant vigor and increase in the number of ratoon harvests ...

  8. The Effects on Dynamic Lateral Stability and Control of Large Artificial Variations in the Rotary Stability Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schade, Robert O; Hassell, James L , Jr

    1953-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation conducted in the Langley free-flight tunnel to determine the effects of large artificial variations of several rotary lateral-stability derivatives on the dynamic lateral stability and control characteristics of a 45 degree sweptback-wing airplane model. Calculations of the period and damping of the lateral motions and of the response to roll and yaw disturbances were made for correlation with the experimental results. The calculated results were in qualitative agreement with the experimental results in predicting the general trends in flight characteristics produced by large changes in the stability derivatives, but in some cases the theory with the assumption of zero lag was not in good quantitative agreement with the experimental results.

  9. Lateral stability and control derivatives extracted from space shuttle Challenger flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiess, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Flight data taken from six flights of the Space Transportation System shuttle Challenger (STS-6, 7, 8, 11, 13 and 17) during atmospheric entry are analyzed to determine the shuttle lateral aerodynamic characteristics. Maximum likelihood estimation is applied to data derived from accelerometer and rate gyro measurements and trajectory, meteorological and control surface data to estimate lateral-directional stability and control derivatives. The vehicle stability and control surface effectiveness are compared across the flights and to preflight predicted values.

  10. Estimation of spaceplane longitudinal stability and control derivatives from dynamic wind tunnel test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagihara, Masaaki; Sasa, Shuichi; Shimomura, Takashi; Takizawa, Minoru; Suzuki, Seizo; Nagayasu, Masahiko

    Dynamic wind tunnel tests using a 5-percent cable-mounted model of the NAL spaceplane have been conducted in the NAL low-speed large scale wind tunnel. A parameter identification study of the recorded data was undertaken to extract longitudinal stability and control derivatives. The following three estimation methods were adopted: (1) estimate all the derivatives simultaneously; (2) estimate the stability and control derivatives separately; and (3) estimate the dynamic derivatives only while the static derivatives are fixed in results from static wind tunnel tests. The estimated derivatives were evaluated by comparing mathematically simulated time histories based on them with tunnel test data. As a result, all major derivatives were estimated well and the effectiveness of the dynamic test was shown.

  11. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal-Derived Liquids. Volume 15. Thermal Stability of Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    Ronald M. Copenhaver Janice Perison Harold H. Schobert Department of Materials Science and Engineering Penn State University University Park, PA 16802...XV - Thermal Stability of Coal-Derived Jet Fuels 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) S. Eser, C. Song, R. Copenhaver , J. Perison, and H. Schobert 13a. TYPE OF

  12. Correlation of Predicted and Flight Derived Stability and Control Derivatives with Particular Application to Tailless Delta Wing Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weil, J.

    1981-01-01

    Flight derived longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control derivatives were compared to wind-tunnel derived values. As a result of these comparisons, boundaries representing the uncertainties that could be expected from wind-tunnel predictions were established. These boundaries provide a useful guide for control system sensitivity studies prior to flight. The primary application for this data was the space shuttle, and as a result the configurations included in the study were those most applicable to the space shuttle. The configurations included conventional delta wing aircraft as well as the X-15 and lifting body vehicles.

  13. Lexical evolution rates derived from automated stability measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2010-03-01

    Phylogenetic trees can be reconstructed from the matrix which contains the distances between all pairs of languages in a family. Recently, we proposed a new method which uses normalized Levenshtein distances among words with the same meaning and averages over all the items of a given list. Decisions about the number of items in the input lists for language comparison have been debated since the beginning of glottochronology. The point is that words associated with some of the meanings have a rapid lexical evolution. Therefore, a large vocabulary comparison is only apparently more accurate than a smaller one, since many of the words do not carry any useful information. In principle, one should find the optimal length of the input lists, studying the stability of the different items. In this paper we tackle the problem with an automated methodology based only on our normalized Levenshtein distance. With this approach, the program of an automated reconstruction of language relationships is completed.

  14. Analytical study to define a helicoper stability derivative extraction method, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molusis, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    The data generated during tests to determine helicopter stability derivatives are presented in the form of graphs. The data are based on CH-53A helicopters and CH-54B helicopters with various digital filters operating at various airspeeds. Curves are plotted for a time history comparison of identified derivative models against flight data for the helicopters at specific airspeeds and maneuvers.

  15. Steady-State Computation of Constant Rotational Rate Dynamic Stability Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Green, Lawrence L.

    2000-01-01

    Dynamic stability derivatives are essential to predicting the open and closed loop performance, stability, and controllability of aircraft. Computational determination of constant-rate dynamic stability derivatives (derivatives of aircraft forces and moments with respect to constant rotational rates) is currently performed indirectly with finite differencing of multiple time-accurate computational fluid dynamics solutions. Typical time-accurate solutions require excessive amounts of computational time to complete. Formulating Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations in a rotating noninertial reference frame and applying an automatic differentiation tool to the modified code has the potential for directly computing these derivatives with a single, much faster steady-state calculation. The ability to rapidly determine static and dynamic stability derivatives by computational methods can benefit multidisciplinary design methodologies and reduce dependency on wind tunnel measurements. The CFL3D thin-layer N-S computational fluid dynamics code was modified for this study to allow calculations on complex three-dimensional configurations with constant rotation rate components in all three axes. These CFL3D modifications also have direct application to rotorcraft and turbomachinery analyses. The modified CFL3D steady-state calculation is a new capability that showed excellent agreement with results calculated by a similar formulation. The application of automatic differentiation to CFL3D allows the static stability and body-axis rate derivatives to be calculated quickly and exactly.

  16. The IDV and IHV Indices: Derivation and Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalgaard, L.

    2008-05-01

    We review the recently introduced geomagnetic activity indices: IDV (InterDiurnal Variability) and IHV (InterHourly Variability). Their salient features are the use of night-time data only to cleanly avoid the effect of the daily 'quiet- time' variation and the use of only hourly values of the magnetic elements. Since the two indices have different dependencies on interplanetary magnetic field strength (B) and solar wind speed (V), they can be used to deduce B and V separately affording us a way of estimating solar wind properties in the past ~180 years. In addition, they provide a valuable check on the calibration of other long-term indices, e.g. the aa-index, which has been found in need of a recalibration. We discuss the physical meaning of the indices, e.g. show that IHV is directly proportional to the power input to the ionosphere [POES Hp-index]. We discuss the construction and stability with time of the indices and the several pitfalls to avoid.

  17. Differential Mitotic Stability of Yeast Disomes Derived from Triploid Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Douglas; Doctor, John S.; Feuersanger, Jeane H.; Doolittle, Mark M.

    1981-01-01

    The frequencies of recovered disomy among the meiotic segregants of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) triploids were assessed under conditions in which all 17 yeast chromosomes were monitored simultaneously. The studies employed inbred triploids, in which all homologous centromeres were identical by descent, and single haploid testers carrying genetic markers for all 17 linkage groups. The principal results include: (1) Ascospores from triploid meiosis germinate at frequencies comparable to those from normal diploids, but most fail to produce visible colonies due to the growth-retarding effects of high multiple disomy. (2) The probability of disome formation during triploid meiosis is the same for all chromosomes; disomy for any given chromosome does not exclude simultaneous disomy for any other chromosome. (3) The 17 yeast chromosomes fall into three frequency classes in terms of disome recovery. The results support the idea that multiply disomic meiotic segregants of the triploid experience repeated, nonrandom, post-germination mitotic chromosome losses (N+1→N) and that the observed variations in individual disome recovery are wholly attributable to inherent differences in disome mitotic stability. PMID:7035289

  18. Some effects of nonlinear variation in the directional-stability and damping-in-yawing derivatives on the lateral stability of an airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sternfield, Leonard

    1951-01-01

    A theoretical investigation has been made to determine the effect of nonlinear stability derivatives on the lateral stability of an airplane. Motions were calculated on the assumption that the directional-stability and the damping-in-yawing derivatives are functions of the angle of sideslip. The application of the Laplace transform to the calculation of an airplane motion when certain types of nonlinear derivatives are present is described in detail. The types of nonlinearities assumed correspond to the condition in which the values of the directional-stability and damping-in-yawing derivatives are zero for small angle of sideslip.

  19. Determination of Stability and Control Derivatives using Computational Fluid Dynamics and Automatic Differentiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Green, Lawrence L.; Montgomery, Raymond C.; Raney, David L.

    1999-01-01

    With the recent interest in novel control effectors there is a need to determine the stability and control derivatives of new aircraft configurations early in the design process. These derivatives are central to most control law design methods and would allow the determination of closed-loop control performance of the vehicle. Early determination of the static and dynamic behavior of an aircraft may permit significant improvement in configuration weight, cost, stealth, and performance through multidisciplinary design. The classical method of determining static stability and control derivatives - constructing and testing wind tunnel models - is expensive and requires a long lead time for the resultant data. Wind tunnel tests are also limited to the preselected control effectors of the model. To overcome these shortcomings, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solvers are augmented via automatic differentiation, to directly calculate the stability and control derivatives. The CFD forces and moments are differentiated with respect to angle of attack, angle of sideslip, and aircraft shape parameters to form these derivatives. A subset of static stability and control derivatives of a tailless aircraft concept have been computed by two differentiated inviscid CFD codes and verified for accuracy with central finite-difference approximations and favorable comparisons to a simulation database.

  20. Effects of time-shifted data on flight determined stability and control derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steers, S. T.; Iliff, K. W.

    1975-01-01

    Flight data were shifted in time by various increments to assess the effects of time shifts on estimates of stability and control derivatives produced by a maximum likelihood estimation method. Derivatives could be extracted from flight data with the maximum likelihood estimation method even if there was a considerable time shift in the data. Time shifts degraded the estimates of the derivatives, but the degradation was in a consistent rather than a random pattern. Time shifts in the control variables caused the most degradation, and the lateral-directional rotary derivatives were affected the most by time shifts in any variable.

  1. Biologically Plausible, Human-scale Knowledge Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Eric; Gingerich, Matthew; Eliasmith, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Several approaches to implementing symbol-like representations in neurally plausible models have been proposed. These approaches include binding through synchrony (Shastri & Ajjanagadde, 1993), "mesh" binding (van der Velde & de Kamps, 2006), and conjunctive binding (Smolensky, 1990). Recent theoretical work has suggested that…

  2. Biologically Plausible, Human-scale Knowledge Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Eric; Gingerich, Matthew; Eliasmith, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Several approaches to implementing symbol-like representations in neurally plausible models have been proposed. These approaches include binding through synchrony (Shastri & Ajjanagadde, 1993), "mesh" binding (van der Velde & de Kamps, 2006), and conjunctive binding (Smolensky, 1990). Recent theoretical work has suggested that…

  3. A summary of lateral-stability derivatives calculated for wing plan forms in supersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Arthur L; Alksne, Alberta

    1951-01-01

    A compilation of theoretical values of the lateral-stability derivatives for wings at supersonic speeds is presented in the form of design charts. The wing plan forms for which this compilation has been prepared include a rectangular, two trapezoidal, two triangular, a fully-tapered swept-back, a sweptback hexagonal, an unswept hexagonal, and a notched triangular plan form. A full set of results, that is, values for all nine of the lateral-stability derivatives for wings, was available for the first six of these plan forms only. The reasons for the incompleteness of the results available for other plan forms are discussed.

  4. Both solubility and chemical stability of curcumin are enhanced by solid dispersion in cellulose derivative matrices.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Konecke, Stephanie; Wegiel, Lindsay A; Taylor, Lynne S; Edgar, Kevin J

    2013-10-15

    Amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) of curcumin (Cur) in cellulose derivative matrices, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), carboxymethylcellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB), and cellulose acetate adipate propionate (CAAdP) were prepared in order to investigate the structure-property relationship and identify polymer properties necessary to effectively increase Cur aqueous solution concentration. XRD results indicated that all investigated solid dispersions were amorphous, even at a 9:1 Cur:polymer ratio. Both stability against crystallization and Cur solution concentration from these ASDs were significantly higher than those from physical mixtures and crystalline Cur. Remarkably, curcumin was also stabilized against chemical degradation in solution. Chemical stabilization was polymer-dependent, with stabilization in CAAdP>CMCAB>HPMCAS>PVP, while matrices enhanced solution concentration as PVP>HPMCAS>CMCAB≈CAAdP. HPMCAS/Cur dispersions have useful combinations of pH-triggered release profile, chemical stabilization, and strong enhancement of Cur solution concentration.

  5. Analytical study to define a helicopter stability derivative extraction method, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molusis, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    A method is developed for extracting six degree-of-freedom stability and control derivatives from helicopter flight data. Different combinations of filtering and derivative estimate are investigated and used with a Bayesian approach for derivative identification. The combination of filtering and estimate found to yield the most accurate time response match to flight test data is determined and applied to CH-53A and CH-54B flight data. The method found to be most accurate consists of (1) filtering flight test data with a digital filter, followed by an extended Kalman filter (2) identifying a derivative estimate with a least square estimator, and (3) obtaining derivatives with the Bayesian derivative extraction method.

  6. Diphosphite ligands derived from carbohydrates as stabilizers for ruthenium nanoparticles: promising catalytic systems in arene hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Gual, Aitor; Axet, M Rosa; Philippot, Karine; Chaudret, Bruno; Denicourt-Nowicki, Audrey; Roucoux, Alain; Castillon, Sergio; Claver, Carmen

    2008-06-28

    Ruthenium nanoparticles (RuNPs) were prepared through the hydrogenation of [Ru(COD)(COT)] (COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene, COT = 1,3,5-cyclooctatriene) in the presence of diphosphites derived from carbohydrates as stabilizing agents, and interestingly, structural modifications of the diphosphite backbone were found to influence nanoparticle size and dispersity, as well as their catalytic activity in arene hydrogenation.

  7. Chromatin fiber functional organization: Some plausible models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesne, A.; Victor, J.-M.

    2006-03-01

    We here present a modeling study of the chromatin fiber functional organization. Multi-scale modeling is required to unravel the complex interplay between the fiber and the DNA levels. It suggests plausible scenarios, including both physical and biological aspects, for fiber condensation, its targeted decompaction, and transcription regulation. We conclude that a major role of the chromatin fiber structure might be to endow DNA with allosteric potentialities and to control DNA transactions by an epigenetic tuning of its mechanical and topological constraints.

  8. Effect of sampling rate and record length on the determination of stability and control derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, M. J.; Iliff, K. W.; Whitman, R. K.

    1978-01-01

    Flight data from five aircraft were used to assess the effects of sampling rate and record length reductions on estimates of stability and control derivatives produced by a maximum likelihood estimation method. Derivatives could be extracted from flight data with the maximum likelihood estimation method even if there were considerable reductions in sampling rate and/or record length. Small amplitude pulse maneuvers showed greater degradation of the derivative maneuvers than large amplitude pulse maneuvers when these reductions were made. Reducing the sampling rate was found to be more desirable than reducing the record length as a method of lessening the total computation time required without greatly degrading the quantity of the estimates.

  9. Biologically Plausible, Human-Scale Knowledge Representation.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Eric; Gingerich, Matthew; Eliasmith, Chris

    2016-05-01

    Several approaches to implementing symbol-like representations in neurally plausible models have been proposed. These approaches include binding through synchrony (Shastri & Ajjanagadde, ), "mesh" binding (van der Velde & de Kamps, ), and conjunctive binding (Smolensky, ). Recent theoretical work has suggested that most of these methods will not scale well, that is, that they cannot encode structured representations using any of the tens of thousands of terms in the adult lexicon without making implausible resource assumptions. Here, we empirically demonstrate that the biologically plausible structured representations employed in the Semantic Pointer Architecture (SPA) approach to modeling cognition (Eliasmith, ) do scale appropriately. Specifically, we construct a spiking neural network of about 2.5 million neurons that employs semantic pointers to successfully encode and decode the main lexical relations in WordNet, which has over 100,000 terms. In addition, we show that the same representations can be employed to construct recursively structured sentences consisting of arbitrary WordNet concepts, while preserving the original lexical structure. We argue that these results suggest that semantic pointers are uniquely well-suited to providing a biologically plausible account of the structured representations that underwrite human cognition.

  10. Longitudinal stability and control derivatives obtained from flight data of a PA-30 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turley, D. R.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    In order to obtain reliable and accurate values of the stability and control derivatives, the Dryden Fligh Research Center (DFRC) developed a technique for extracting the derivatives from flight data. This technique is implemented by a set of FORTRAN computer programs that is based on a modified maximum likelihood estimator that uses the Newton-Raphson algorithm to perform the required minimization of the derivatives. Data was obtained with a PA-30, light twin-engine general aviation aircraft in zero, half, and full flap configuration in level unaccelerated flight with the landing gear retracted. The derivatives were plotted as functions of angle of attack using various graphical arrangements to show variations of wind tunnel and flight determined values at zero flap settings. Also, data was displayed to show the effects of flap deflection and thrust variation on the longitudinal stability derivatives. The angle of attack and angle of sideslip were measured. The dynamic pressure, velocity, and altitude were calculated, using a FORTRAN computer program, from the static and dynamic pressures. The control deflections of the stabilator, ailerons, and rudder also were recorded along with left throttle position, engine rpm, and manifold pressure.

  11. Solid dispersion of quercetin in cellulose derivative matrices influences both solubility and stability.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Konecke, Stephanie; Harich, Kim; Wegiel, Lindsay; Taylor, Lynne S; Edgar, Kevin J

    2013-02-15

    Amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) of quercetin (Que) in cellulose derivative matrices, carboxymethylcellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), and cellulose acetate adipate propionate (CAAdP) were prepared with the goal of identifying an ASD that effectively increased Que aqueous solution concentration. Crystalline quercetin and Que/poly(vinylpyrrolidinone) (PVP) ASD were evaluated for comparison. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRPD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to examine the crystallinity of ASDs, physical mixtures (PM) and quercetin. ASDs were amorphous up to 50 wt% Que. Que stability against crystallization and solution concentrations from these ASDs were significantly higher than those observed for physical mixtures and crystalline Que. PVP stabilizes against both Que degradation and recrystallization; in contrast, these carboxylated cellulose derivatives inhibit recrystallization but release Que slowly. PVP ASDs afforded fast and complete drug release, while ASDs using these three cellulose derivatives provide slow, incomplete, pH-triggered drug release.

  12. Relative stability of radicals derived from artemisinin: A semiempirical and DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arantes, C.; de Araujo, M. T.; Taranto, A. G.; de M. Carneiro, J. W.

    The semiempirical AM1 and PM3 methods, as well as the density functional (DFT/B3LYP) approach using the 6-31g(d) basis set, were employed to calculate the relative stability of intermediate radicals derived from artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone having an endoperoxide bridge that is essential for its antimalarial activity. The compounds studied have their nonperoxidic oxygen atom of the trioxane ring and/or the carbonyl group replaced by a CH2 unit. Relative stabilities were calculated by means of isodesmic equations using artemisinin as reference. It was found that replacement of oxygen atoms decreases the relative stability of the anionic radical intermediates. In contrast, for compounds with inverted stereochemistry the intermediate radicals were found to be more stable than those with the artemisinin-like stereochemistry. These relative stabilities may modulate the antimalarial potency. Radicals centered on carbon are always more stable than the corresponding radicals centered on oxygen.

  13. Direct NMR Monitoring of Phase Separation Behavior of Highly Supersaturated Nifedipine Solution Stabilized with Hypromellose Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Keisuke; Higashi, Kenjirou; Moribe, Kunikazu

    2017-07-03

    We investigated the phase separation behavior and maintenance mechanism of the supersaturated state of poorly water-soluble nifedipine (NIF) in hypromellose (HPMC) derivative solutions. Highly supersaturated NIF formed NIF-rich nanodroplets through phase separation from aqueous solution containing HPMC derivative. Dissolvable NIF concentration in the bulk water phase was limited by the phase separation of NIF from the aqueous solution. HPMC derivatives stabilized the NIF-rich nanodroplets and maintained the NIF supersaturation with phase-separated NIF for several hours. The size of the NIF-rich phase was different depending on the HPMC derivatives dissolved in aqueous solution, although the droplet size had no correlation with the time for which NIF supersaturation was maintained without NIF crystallization. HPMC acetate and HPMC acetate succinate (HPMC-AS) effectively maintained the NIF supersaturation containing phase-separated NIF compared with HPMC. Furthermore, HPMC-AS stabilized NIF supersaturation more effectively in acidic conditions. Solution (1)H NMR measurements of NIF-supersaturated solution revealed that HPMC derivatives distributed into the NIF-rich phase during the phase separation of NIF from the aqueous solution. The hydrophobicity of HPMC derivative strongly affected its distribution into the NIF-rich phase. Moreover, the distribution of HPMC-AS into the NIF-rich phase was promoted at lower pH due to the lower aqueous solubility of HPMC-AS. The distribution of a large amount of HPMC derivatives into NIF-rich phase induced the strong inhibition of NIF crystallization from the NIF-rich phase. Polymer distribution into the drug-rich phase directly monitored by solution NMR technique can be a useful index for the stabilization efficiency of drug-supersaturated solution containing a drug-rich phase.

  14. Nonminimal derivative coupling scalar-tensor theories: Odd-parity perturbations and black hole stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisterna, Adolfo; Cruz, Miguel; Delsate, Térence; Saavedra, Joel

    2015-11-01

    We derive the odd-parity perturbation equation for the nonminimal kinetic coupling sector of the general Horndeski theory, where the kinetic term is coupled to the metric and the Einstein tensor. We derive the potential of the perturbation, by identifying a master function and switching to tortoise coordinates. We then prove the mode stability under linear odd-parity perturbations of hairy black holes in this sector of Horndeski theory, when a cosmological constant term in the action is included. Finally, we comment on the existence of slowly rotating black hole solutions in this setup and discuss their implications on the physics of compact object configurations, such as neutron stars.

  15. Stability of vitamin C derivatives in topical formulations containing lipoic acid, vitamins A and E.

    PubMed

    Segall, A I; Moyano, M A

    2008-12-01

    The stability of ascorbyl palmitate, sodium ascorbyl phosphate and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate in topical formulations was investigated by direct reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography after sample dilution with a suitable buffer - organic solvent mixture. Ascorbyl palmitate, sodium ascorbyl phosphate and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate are derivatives of ascorbic acid which differ in hydrolipophilic properties. They are widely used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations. According to the results, ascorbyl esters showed significant differences: sodium ascorbyl phosphate and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate are more stable derivatives of vitamin C than ascorbyl palmitate and may be easily used in cosmetic products.

  16. Flight testing techniques for the evaluation of light aircraft stability derivatives: A review and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, F. O.; Summery, D. C.; Johnson, W. D.

    1972-01-01

    Techniques quoted in the literature for the extraction of stability derivative information from flight test records are reviewed. A recent technique developed at NASA's Langley Research Center was regarded as the most productive yet developed. Results of tests of the sensitivity of this procedure to various types of data noise and to the accuracy of the estimated values of the derivatives are reported. Computer programs for providing these initial estimates are given. The literature review also includes a discussion of flight test measuring techniques, instrumentation, and piloting techniques.

  17. Effects of heteroatoms of tetracene and pentacene derivatives on their stability and singlet fission.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuhan; Shen, Li; Li, Xiyou

    2014-07-31

    The effects of the introduction of an sp(2)-hybridized nitrogen atom (═N-) and thiophene ring on the structure geometries, frontier molecular orbital energies, and excited state energies related to singlet fission (SF) for some tetracene and pentacene derivatives were theoretically investigated by quantum chemical methods. The introduction of a nitrogen atom significantly decreases the energies of frontier molecular orbitals and hence improves their stabilities in air and light illumination. More importantly, it is helpful for reducing the energy loss of the exothermic singlet fission of pentacene derivatives. For fused benzene-thiophene structures, the (α, β) connection pattern could stabilize the frontier molecular orbitals, while the (β, β) connection pattern can promote the thermodynamic driving force of singlet fission. These facts provide a theoretical ground for rational design of SF materials.

  18. Computational assessment of non-heteroatom-stabilized carbene complexes reactivity: formation of oxazine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Funes-Ardoiz, Ignacio; Sampedro, Diego

    2014-12-05

    A complete DFT-level mechanism elucidation of the two-step reaction of non-heteroatom-stabilized carbenes with imines, followed by addition of alkynes to yield oxazine derivatives, is presented. These compounds show different reactivity than the equivalent Fischer carbene complexes. A rationale of the experimental outcome is presented together with some suggestion for increasing the scope of the reaction, with special attention to the solvent effects in the regioselectivity.

  19. Stability of apigeninidin and its methoxylated derivatives in the presence of sulfites.

    PubMed

    Ojwang, Leonnard O; Awika, Joseph M

    2010-08-25

    3-Deoxyanthocyanin pigments are more stable than anthocyanins and show promising bioactive properties. However, little is known about their stability in the presence of food additives such as sulfites. This work investigates the stability of apigeninidin and its derivatives in the presence of sulfites. Pigment (apigeninidin, 5-mono-, and 5,7-dimethoxyapigeninidin) stability at pH 1.8, 3.0, and 5.0, in the presence of sodium metabisulfite (molar ratio ∼ 1:40, pigment/SO2) was monitored over 21 days at room temperature. The structure of sulfite complexation products was monitored using HPLC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. All pigments were significantly bleached within 30 min in the presence of sulfites; the bleaching effect was more severe at pH 5.0 and 3.0 compared to pH 1.8. Apigeninidin was more resistant to bleaching than its methoxylated derivatives. However, all pigments regained some or all of the bleached color within 14-21 days at pH 3.0 and 1.8 in the presence of sulfites, indicating equilibrium favored flavylium cation at these pH values. Formation of colorless sulfonates via bisulfite ion addition at C-4 was responsible for the bleaching effect. Both structure and pH significantly affected stability of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins in the presence of sulfites. The pigments may have potential applications in low pH systems containing sulfites.

  20. Benefits of combinations of vitamin A, C and E derivatives in the stability of cosmetic formulations.

    PubMed

    Gianeti, Mirela Donato; Gaspar, Lorena Rigo; Camargo, Flávio Bueno de; Campos, Patrícia Maria Berardo Gonçalves Maia

    2012-02-22

    Chemically stable ester derivatives of vitamins A, C and E have become a focus of interest for their role in the satisfactory results in skin aging treatments. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical stability of a cosmetic formulation containing 1% retinyl palmitate, ascorbyl tetraisopalmitate and tocopheryl acetate, alone or in combination. In the studies of physical stability, a Brookfield rheometer was used to determine rheological behavior of formulations containing the vitamins. Chemical stability was determined by HPLC on a Shimadzu system with UV detection. Results showed that formulations had pseudoplastic behavior and that vitamins did not alter their apparent viscosity and thixotropy. In the chemical stability studies, first-order reaction equations were used for determinations of the shelf-life of vitamins derivatives considering a remaining concentration of 85%. Combined vitamins in a single formulation had a slightly lower degradation rate as compared to different preparations containing only one of the vitamins. Considering that many cosmetic formulations contain vitamin combinations it is suggested that the present study may contribute to the development of more stable formulations containing liposoluble vitamins.

  1. Investigating the performance of LiDAR-derived biomass information in hydromechanic slope stability modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmaltz, Elmar; Steger, Stefan; Bogaard, Thom; Van Beek, Rens; Glade, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Hydromechanic slope stability models are often used to assess the landslide susceptibility of hillslopes. Some of these models are able to account for vegetation related effects when assessing slope stability. However, spatial information of required vegetation parameters (especially of woodland) that are defined by land cover type, tree species and stand density are mostly underrepresented compared to hydropedological and geomechanical parameters. The aim of this study is to assess how LiDAR-derived biomass information can help to distinguish distinct tree stand-immanent properties (e.g. stand density and diversity) and further improve the performance of hydromechanic slope stability models. We used spatial vegetation data produced from sophisticated algorithms that are able to separate single trees within a stand based on LiDAR point clouds and thus allow an extraordinary detailed determination of the aboveground biomass. Further, this information is used to estimate the species- and stand-related distribution of the subsurface biomass using an innovative approach to approximate root system architecture and development. The hydrological tree-soil interactions and their impact on the geotechnical stability of the soil mantle are then reproduced in the dynamic and spatially distributed slope stability model STARWARS/PROBSTAB. This study highlights first advances in the approximation of biomechanical reinforcement potential of tree root systems in tree stands. Based on our findings, we address the advantages and limitations of highly detailed biomass information in hydromechanic modelling and physically based slope failure prediction.

  2. Development of Small-Molecule Cryptochrome Stabilizer Derivatives as Modulators of the Circadian Clock

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Wook; Hirota, Tsuyoshi; Kumar, Anupriya; Kim, Nam-Jung; Irle, Stephan; Kay, Steve A

    2015-01-01

    Small-molecule probes have been playing prominent roles in furthering our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of the circadian clock. We previously discovered a carbazole derivative, KL001 (N-(3-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-2-hydroxypropyl)-N-(furan-2-ylmethyl)methanesulfonamide), as a stabilizer of the clock protein cryptochrome (CRY). Herein we describe an extensive structure–activity relationship analysis of KL001 derivatives leading to the development of a highly active derivative: 2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-N-(2-chloro-6-cyanophenyl)acetamide (KL044). Subsequent 3D-QSAR analysis identified critical features of KL001 derivatives and provided a molecular-level understanding of their interaction with CRY. The electron-rich carbazole, amide/hydroxy linker, sulfonyl group, and electron-withdrawing nitrile moieties contribute to greater biological activity. The hydrogen bonding interactions with Ser394 and His357 as well as stronger CH–π interactions with Trp290 make KL044 a better binder than KL001. KL044 lengthened the circadian period, repressed Per2 activity, and stabilized CRY in reporter assays with roughly tenfold higher potency than KL001. Altogether, KL044 is a powerful chemical tool to control the function of the circadian clock through its action on CRY. PMID:26174033

  3. [Effect of polyethylene glycol-lipid derivatives on the stability of grafted liposomes].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Shi, Li; Deng, Yi-hui

    2011-10-01

    It is reported that polyethylene glycol-lipid (PEG-lipid) derivatives increase liposomes stability, prolong the blood circulation of liposomes, enhance their tumor-targeting efficiency, and improve drug efficacy. Therefore, it is of great importance to investigate the influence of modified PEG-lipid derivatives on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of liposomes for the promotion of dealing with the existed problems, such as the accelerated blood clearance (ABC) phenomenon when repeated intravous injection at a certain time-interval, and developing novel targeted pharmaceutical preparations. In this review, the effects of modified PEG-lipid derivatives were summarized in many aspects. It indicats that the chemical bonds (amide, ether, ester, and disulfide) between PEG and lipid, as well as the species of lipids, such as the commonly used phosphatidylethanolamine, cholesterol, and diacylglycerol have substantial effects on the grafted liposomes stability in vitro and in vivo. Besides, the properties of lipids (the fatty acid chain length and saturation) and the groups (methoxy, carboxylic and amino) at the distal ends of the PEG chains were also considered to be important factors. In the end, the influence of the average molecular weight of PEG and the molar ratio of PEG-lipid derivatives in the total lipid were further focused.

  4. Estimation of longitudinal stability and control derivatives for an icing research aircraft from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batterson, James G.; Omara, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    The results of applying a modified stepwise regression algorithm and a maximum likelihood algorithm to flight data from a twin-engine commuter-class icing research aircraft are presented. The results are in the form of body-axis stability and control derivatives related to the short-period, longitudinal motion of the aircraft. Data were analyzed for the baseline (uniced) and for the airplane with an artificial glaze ice shape attached to the leading edge of the horizontal tail. The results are discussed as to the accuracy of the derivative estimates and the difference between the derivative values found for the baseline and the iced airplane. Additional comparisons were made between the maximum likelihood results and the modified stepwise regression results with causes for any discrepancies postulated.

  5. Comprehending Conflicting Science-Related Texts: Graphs as Plausibility Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isberner, Maj-Britt; Richter, Tobias; Maier, Johanna; Knuth-Herzig, Katja; Horz, Holger; Schnotz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    When reading conflicting science-related texts, readers may attend to cues which allow them to assess plausibility. One such plausibility cue is the use of graphs in the texts, which are regarded as typical of "hard science." The goal of our study was to investigate the effects of the presence of graphs on the perceived plausibility and…

  6. The Role of Plausible Values in Large-Scale Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    In large-scale assessment programs such as NAEP, TIMSS and PISA, students' achievement data sets provided for secondary analysts contain so-called "plausible values." Plausible values are multiple imputations of the unobservable latent achievement for each student. In this article it has been shown how plausible values are used to: (1)…

  7. Comprehending Conflicting Science-Related Texts: Graphs as Plausibility Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isberner, Maj-Britt; Richter, Tobias; Maier, Johanna; Knuth-Herzig, Katja; Horz, Holger; Schnotz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    When reading conflicting science-related texts, readers may attend to cues which allow them to assess plausibility. One such plausibility cue is the use of graphs in the texts, which are regarded as typical of "hard science." The goal of our study was to investigate the effects of the presence of graphs on the perceived plausibility and…

  8. Maximum likelihood identification and optimal input design for identifying aircraft stability and control derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepner, D. E.; Mehra, R. K.

    1973-01-01

    A new method of extracting aircraft stability and control derivatives from flight test data is developed based on the maximum likelihood cirterion. It is shown that this new method is capable of processing data from both linear and nonlinear models, both with and without process noise and includes output error and equation error methods as special cases. The first application of this method to flight test data is reported for lateral maneuvers of the HL-10 and M2/F3 lifting bodies, including the extraction of stability and control derivatives in the presence of wind gusts. All the problems encountered in this identification study are discussed. Several different methods (including a priori weighting, parameter fixing and constrained parameter values) for dealing with identifiability and uniqueness problems are introduced and the results given. The method for the design of optimal inputs for identifying the parameters of linear dynamic systems is also given. The criterion used for the optimization is the sensitivity of the system output to the unknown parameters. Several simple examples are first given and then the results of an extensive stability and control dervative identification simulation for a C-8 aircraft are detailed.

  9. Development of Small-Molecule Cryptochrome Stabilizer Derivatives as Modulators of the Circadian Clock.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Wook; Hirota, Tsuyoshi; Kumar, Anupriya; Kim, Nam-Jung; Irle, Stephan; Kay, Steve A

    2015-09-01

    Small-molecule probes have been playing prominent roles in furthering our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of the circadian clock. We previously discovered a carbazole derivative, KL001 (N-(3-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-2-hydroxypropyl)-N-(furan-2-ylmethyl)methanesulfonamide), as a stabilizer of the clock protein cryptochrome (CRY). Herein we describe an extensive structure-activity relationship analysis of KL001 derivatives leading to the development of a highly active derivative: 2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-N-(2-chloro-6-cyanophenyl)acetamide (KL044). Subsequent 3D-QSAR analysis identified critical features of KL001 derivatives and provided a molecular-level understanding of their interaction with CRY. The electron-rich carbazole, amide/hydroxy linker, sulfonyl group, and electron-withdrawing nitrile moieties contribute to greater biological activity. The hydrogen bonding interactions with Ser394 and His357 as well as stronger CH-π interactions with Trp290 make KL044 a better binder than KL001. KL044 lengthened the circadian period, repressed Per2 activity, and stabilized CRY in reporter assays with roughly tenfold higher potency than KL001. Altogether, KL044 is a powerful chemical tool to control the function of the circadian clock through its action on CRY. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

  10. A GRID-derived water network stabilizes molecular dynamics computer simulations of a protease.

    PubMed

    Wallnoefer, Hannes G; Liedl, Klaus R; Fox, Thomas

    2011-11-28

    Structural water molecules are crucial for the stability and function of proteins. Recently, we presented a molecular dynamics (MD) study on blood coagulation factor Xa (fXa) to investigate the effect of water molecules on the flexibility of the protein structure. We showed that neglecting important water positions at the outset of the simulation leads to severe structural distortions during the MD simulations: A stable trajectory was obtained with a water set that was derived from all 73 X-ray structures of the protein. However, for many proteins of interest, only limited structural data is available, which precludes the merging of information from many X-ray structures. Here, we show that an in silico assembled water network, derived from molecular interaction fields generated with the GRID program, is a viable alternative to X-ray data. MD simulations with the GRID water set show a significantly improved stability over alternative setups without water or the X-ray resolved water molecules in the starting structure. The performance is comparable to a water setup derived from a recently presented clustering approach.

  11. Phase I Metabolic Stability and Electrophilic Reactivity of 2-Phenylaminophenylacetic Acid Derived Compounds.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yi Yun; Tan, Yee Min; Chan, Eric Chun Yong; Ho, Han Kiat

    2016-07-18

    Diclofenac and lumiracoxib are two highly analogous 2-phenylaminophenylacetic acid anti-inflammatory drugs exhibiting occasional dose-limiting hepatotoxicities. Prior data indicate that bioactivation and reactive metabolite formation play roles in the observed toxicity, but the exact chemical influence of the substituents remains elusive. In order to elucidate the role of chemical influence on metabolism related toxicity, metabolic stability and electrophilic reactivity were investigated for a series of structurally related analogues and their resulting metabolites. The resulting analogues embody progressive physiochemical changes through varying halogeno- and aliphatic substituents at two positions and were subjected to in vitro human liver microsomal metabolic stability and cell-based GSH depletion assays (to measure electrophilic reactivity). LC-MS/MS analysis of the GSH trapped reactive intermediates derived from the analogues was then used to identify the putative structures of reactive metabolites. We found that chemical modifications of the structural backbone led to noticeable perturbations of metabolic stability, electrophilic reactivity, and structures and composition of reactive metabolites. With the acquired data, the relationships between stability, reactivity, and toxicity were investigated in an attempt to correlate between Phase I metabolism and in vitro toxicity. A positive correlation was identified between reactivity and in vitro toxicity, indicating that electrophilic reactivity can be an indicator for in vitro toxicity. All in all, the effect of substituents on the structures and reactivity of the metabolites, however subtle the changes, should be taken into consideration during future drug design involving similar chemical features.

  12. Metabolic stability of superoxide adducts derived from newly developed cyclic nitrone spin traps.

    PubMed

    Bézière, Nicolas; Hardy, Micael; Poulhès, Florent; Karoui, Hakim; Tordo, Paul; Ouari, Olivier; Frapart, Yves-Michel; Rockenbauer, Antal; Boucher, Jean-Luc; Mansuy, Daniel; Peyrot, Fabienne

    2014-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species are by-products of aerobic metabolism involved in the onset and evolution of various pathological conditions. Among them, the superoxide radical is of special interest as the origin of several damaging species such as H2O2, hydroxyl radical, or peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Spin trapping coupled with ESR is a method of choice to characterize these species in chemical and biological systems and the metabolic stability of the spin adducts derived from reaction of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals with nitrones is the main limit to the in vivo application of the method. Recently, new cyclic nitrones bearing a triphenylphosphonium or permethylated β-cyclodextrin moiety have been synthesized and their spin adducts demonstrated increased stability in buffer. In this article, we studied the stability of the superoxide adducts of four new cyclic nitrones in the presence of liver subcellular fractions and biologically relevant reductants using an original setup combining a stopped-flow device and an ESR spectrometer. The kinetics of disappearance of the spin adducts were analyzed using an appropriate simulation program. Our results highlight the interest of the new spin trapping agents CD-DEPMPO and CD-DIPPMPO for specific detection of superoxide with high stability of the superoxide adducts in the presence of liver microsomes.

  13. Theoretical investigation on detonation performances and thermodynamic stabilities of the prismane derivatives.

    PubMed

    Chi, Wei-Jie; Li, Lu-Lin; Li, Bu-Tong; Wu, Hai-Shun

    2013-03-01

    Based on DFT-B3LYP/6-311G** method, the molecular geometric structures of polynitramineprismanes are fully optimized. The detonation performances, energy gaps, strain energies, as well as their stability were investigated to look for high energy density compounds (HEDCs). Our results show that all polynitramineprismanes have high and positive heat of formation. To construct the relationship between stabilities and structures, energy gaps and bond dissociation energies are calculated, and these results show that the energy gaps of prismane derivatives are much higher than that of TATB (0.1630). In addition, the C-C bonds on cage are confirmed as trigger bond in explosive reaction. All polynitramineprismanes have large strain energies, and the strain energies of all compounds are slightly smaller than prismane, which indicated that the strain energies were somewhat released compared to prismane. Considering the quantitative criteria of HEDCs, hexanitramineprismane is a good candidate of high energy compounds.

  14. Nanocomplexation of thrombin with cationic amylose derivative for improved stability and hemostatic efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Baoxiong; Li, Zhihua; Pang, Jiadong; Li, Wenbin; Huang, Pinbo; Wang, Jie; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Qing; Zhou, Quanbo; Ye, Xiao; Ye, Huilin; Liu, Yimin; Zhang, Li-Ming; Chen, Rufu

    2015-01-01

    As a topical hemostatic agent, thrombin has wide application for many surgical treatments. However, native thrombin always suffers from its physical and chemical instabilities. In this work, a nanocomplexation strategy was developed for modifying the stability and hemostatic efficacy of thrombin, in which a water-soluble cationic amylose derivative containing poly(l-lysine) dendrons was prepared by a click reaction and then used to complex thrombin in an aqueous system. For resultant thrombin nanocomplexes, their morphology and particle size distribution were investigated. Their stabilities were studied in terms of activity retention percentages under different storage time, pH values, and illumination time. In addition, their ability to achieve in vitro fibrinogen and blood coagulation were evaluated. Via a rat hepatic hemorrhage model and a rat iliac artery hemorrhage model, these thrombin nanocomplexes were confirmed to have good tissue biocompatibility and in vivo hemostatic effectiveness. PMID:25673989

  15. Development and Validation of Stability-Indicating Derivative Spectrophotometric Methods for Determination of Dronedarone Hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadha, R.; Bali, A.

    2016-05-01

    Rapid, sensitive, cost effective and reproducible stability-indicating derivative spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the estimation of dronedarone HCl employing peak-zero (P-0) and peak-peak (P-P) techniques, and their stability-indicating potential assessed in forced degraded solutions of the drug. The methods were validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. Excellent linearity was observed in concentrations 2-40 μg/ml ( r 2 = 0.9986). LOD and LOQ values for the proposed methods ranged from 0.42-0.46 μg/ml and 1.21-1.27 μg/ml, respectively, and excellent recovery of the drug was obtained in the tablet samples (99.70 ± 0.84%).

  16. Preoperative Computed Tomography-Derived Bone Densities in Hounsfield Units at Implant Sites Acquired Primary Stability

    PubMed Central

    Hiasa, Kyou; Abe, Yasuhiko; Okazaki, Yohei; Nogami, Keisuke; Mizumachi, Wataru; Akagawa, Yasumasa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate preoperative CT-derived bone densities in Hounsfield units (HU) at implant sites that acquired primary stability, and to compare these values to the optimal bone densities proposed in the literature. Fifty-one patients, 18 males (37 implant sites) and 33 females (67 implant sites) between 2003 and 2010 were assessed. CT data for different jaw sections, regions, and operating procedures were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Scheffe's test for multiple comparisons (P < 0.05). The mean bone density in the maxilla was significantly lower than that in the mandible (P < 0.05); the mean bone densities in the 4 jaw regions decreased in the following order: anterior mandible > anterior maxilla > posterior mandible > posterior maxilla. The bone densities assessed by HU fell into the range of optimal bone densities associated with acquired primary implant stability proposed in the literature. PMID:22203910

  17. Linearization of digital derived rate algorithm for use in linear stability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. E.; Porada, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    The digital derived rate (DDR) algorithm is used to calculate the rate of rotation of the Centaur upper-stage rocket. The DDR is highly nonlinear algorithm, and classical linear stability analysis of the spacecraft cannot be performed without linearization. The performance of this rate algorithm is characterized by a gain and phase curve that drop off at the same frequency. This characteristic is desirable for many applications. A linearization technique for the DDR algorithm is investigated. The linearization method is described. Examples of the results of the linearization technique are illustrated, and the effects of linearization are described. A linear digital filter may be used as a substitute for performing classical linear stability analyses, while the DDR itself may be used in time response analysis.

  18. A FORTRAN program for determining aircraft stability and control derivatives from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maine, R. E.; Iliff, K. W.

    1975-01-01

    A digital computer program written in FORTRAN IV for the estimation of aircraft stability and control derivatives is presented. The program uses a maximum likelihood estimation method, and two associated programs for routine, related data handling are also included. The three programs form a package that can be used by relatively inexperienced personnel to process large amounts of data with a minimum of manpower. This package was used to successfully analyze 1500 maneuvers on 20 aircraft, and is designed to be used without modification on as many types of computers as feasible. Program listings and sample check cases are included.

  19. A vortex-lattice method for calculating longitudinal dynamic stability derivatives of oscillating delta wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, D.

    1981-01-01

    A nonsteady vortex-lattice method is introduced for predicting the dynamic stability derivatives of a delta wing undergoing an oscillatory motion. The analysis is applied to several types of small oscillations in pitch. The angle of attack varied between + or - 1 deg, with the mean held at 0 deg when the flow was assumed to be attached and between + or - 1 deg and the mean held at 15 deg when both leading-edge separation and wake roll-up were included. The computed results for damping in pitch are compared with several other methods and with experiments, and are found to be consistent and in good agreement.

  20. Plausibility and evidence: the case of homeopathy.

    PubMed

    Rutten, Lex; Mathie, Robert T; Fisher, Peter; Goossens, Maria; van Wassenhoven, Michel

    2013-08-01

    Homeopathy is controversial and hotly debated. The conclusions of systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials of homeopathy vary from 'comparable to conventional medicine' to 'no evidence of effects beyond placebo'. It is claimed that homeopathy conflicts with scientific laws and that homoeopaths reject the naturalistic outlook, but no evidence has been cited. We are homeopathic physicians and researchers who do not reject the scientific outlook; we believe that examination of the prior beliefs underlying this enduring stand-off can advance the debate. We show that interpretations of the same set of evidence--for homeopathy and for conventional medicine--can diverge. Prior disbelief in homeopathy is rooted in the perceived implausibility of any conceivable mechanism of action. Using the 'crossword analogy', we demonstrate that plausibility bias impedes assessment of the clinical evidence. Sweeping statements about the scientific impossibility of homeopathy are themselves unscientific: scientific statements must be precise and testable. There is growing evidence that homeopathic preparations can exert biological effects; due consideration of such research would reduce the influence of prior beliefs on the assessment of systematic review evidence.

  1. Maintaining the Phenotype Stability of Chondrocytes Derived from MSCs by C-Type Natriuretic Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Quan; Qian, Zhiyong; Liu, Donghua; Sun, Jie; Xu, Juan; Guo, Ximin

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play a critical role in cartilage tissue engineering. However, MSCs-derived chondrocytes or cartilage tissues are not stable and easily lose the cellular and cartilage phenotype during long-term culture in vitro or implantation in vivo. As a result, chondrocytes phenotypic instability can contribute to accelerated ossification. Thus, it is a big challenge to maintain their correct phenotype for engineering hyaline cartilage. As one member of the natriuretic peptide family, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is found to correlate with the development of the cartilage, affect the chondrocytes proliferation and differentiation. Besides, based on its biological effects on protection of extracellular matrix of cartilage and inhibition of mineralization, we hypothesize that CNP may contribute to the stability of chondrocyte phenotype of MSCs-derived chondrocytes. PMID:28337152

  2. Fractional derivation stabilizing virtue-induced quenching phenomena in coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngueuteu, G. S. M.; Yamapi, R.; Woafo, P.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate quenching oscillations phenomena in a system of two diffusively and mutually coupled identical fractional-order Stuart-Landau oscillators. We first consider the uncoupled unit and find that the stabilizing virtue of the fractional derivative yields suppression of oscillations via a Hopf bifurcation. The oscillatory solutions of the fractional-order Stuart-Landau equation are provided as well. Quenching phenomena are then investigated in the coupled system. It is found that the fractional derivatives enhance oscillation death by widening its domain of existence in coupling strength space and initial conditions space, leading to oscillation death dominance. A region of stable homogeneous steady state appears where the uncoupled oscillators are resting and not oscillating as usually accepted for the realization of amplitude death.

  3. Wettability Control of Gold Surfaces Modified with Benzenethiol Derivatives: Water Contact Angle and Thermal Stability.

    PubMed

    Tatara, Shingo; Kuzumoto, Yasutaka; Kitamura, Masatoshi

    2016-04-01

    The water wettability of Au surfaces has been controlled using various benzenethiol derivatives including 4-methylbenzenethiol, pentafluorobenzenethiol, 4-flubrobenzenethiol, 4-methoxy-benzenethiol, 4-nitrobenzenethiol, and 4-hydroxybenzenethiol. The water contact angle of the Au surface modified with the benzenethiol derivative was found to vary in the wide range of 30.9° to 88.3°. The contact angle of the modified Au films annealed was also measured in order to investigate their thermal stability. The change in the contact angle indicated that the modified surface is stable at temperatures below about 400 K. Meanwhile, the activation energy of desorption from the modified surface was estimated from the change in the contact angle. The modified Au surface was also examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  4. Subtle interplay of stochasticity and deterministic dynamics pervades an evolutionary plausible genetic circuit for Bacillus subtilis competence.

    PubMed

    Xi, Hongguang; Yang, Zhuoqin; Turcotte, Marc

    2013-11-01

    Here we study the interplay of stochastic and deterministic dynamics in an evolutionary plausible candidate core genetic circuit for Bacillus subtilis competence. We find that high noise would not necessarily be detrimental to the circuit's ability to deliver the phenotype, due to an unexpected built-in robustness that we further investigate. Also, we find that seemingly subtle deterministic dynamical features of the regulation, unstable and stable limit cycles, while in the presence of biochemical noise, would result in a distinctive new observable in the phenotype. We conduct mathematical analyses of the system's stability at the fixed points and derive some general model-independent consequences. We also show how imperfect time-scale separation in the system would result in observables detrimental to the phenotype, that nature could have harnessed for selection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Structure, Stability, and Thermochemistry of the Fullerene Derivatives C64X6 (X = H, F, Cl)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lei; Shao, Xueguang; Cai, Wensheng

    2009-09-01

    The geometrical structures, electronic properties, and stabilities of the unconventional fullerene derivatives C64X6 (X = H, F, Cl) have been systematically studied by the first-principle calculations based on the density functional theory. The fullerene derivatives 1911(2)-C64X6 generated from the pineapple-shaped C64X4 are predicted to possess the lowest energies. The other two X atoms are added to the carbon atoms with the highest local strain assessed by the pyramidalization angles. The calculations of the nucleus-independent chemical shifts suggest that the aromaticity of C64X6 affects the stability order of the derivative isomers. To address why C64H6 was not observed in the experimental study of Wang et al. (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 6605) and if the halogenated derivatives C64X6 (X = F, Cl) can be synthesized, thermochemical analysis of the reaction C64X4 + X2 → C64X6 was also performed. The results indicate that the formation of C64H6 and C64Cl6 is not favored at high temperatures. The former may be a reason why C64H6 was not found in the experiment. In sharp contrast, the Gibbs free energy change to form C64F6 is found to be -23.29 kcal/mol at 2000 K, suggesting that this compound may be formed and detected in experiments. The NMR and IR spectra of 1911(2)-C64F6 are sequentially calculated and presented to facilitate future experimental identification.

  6. Experimental and theoretical studies on stability of new stabilizers for N-methyl-P-nitroaniline derivative in CMDB propellants.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qiufan; Fan, Xuezhong; Li, Jizhen; Bi, Fuqiang; Fu, Xiaolong; Zhai, Lianjie

    2017-04-05

    Although N-methyl-P-nitroaniline (MNA) was a quite effective stabilizer in composite modified double base (CMDB) propellants, it undergoes crystallization easily from nitroglycerin (NG) during storage. In order to improve its solubility in nitroglycerin (NG) and the stability in propellants, several new stabilizers including N-ethyl-p-nitroaniline (ENA), N-n-propyl-p-nitroaniline (n-PNA), N-i-propyl-p-nitroaniline (i-PNA), N-n-butyl-p-nitroaniline (n-BNA) and N-t-butyl-p-nitroaniline (t-BNA) were designed and synthesized to replace MNA by increasing the carbon chain length. The interaction between NG and different stabilizers was simulation by Materials Studio 5.5 and the stability and the high temperature stability performance of those new stabilizers in propellants were calculated by Gaussian 09. It was found that both the solubility of new stabilizers in NG and the stability and the high temperature stability performance of those in propellants were improved when the carbon chain length of substitution groups on nitrogen atom was increased. Thus, the n-BNA was a most potential stabilizer. Then all properties of the stabilizers were studied experimentally, which was agreement well with the theoretical analysis.

  7. Examining the Stability of "DSM-IV" and Empirically Derived Eating Disorder Classification: Implications for "DSM-5"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Swanson, Sonja A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.; Agras, W. Stewart; Halmi, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to derive an empirical classification of eating disorder symptoms in a heterogeneous eating disorder sample using latent class analysis (LCA) and to examine the longitudinal stability of these latent classes (LCs) and the stability of DSM-IV eating disorder (ED) diagnoses. Method: A total of 429…

  8. Examining the Stability of "DSM-IV" and Empirically Derived Eating Disorder Classification: Implications for "DSM-5"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Swanson, Sonja A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.; Agras, W. Stewart; Halmi, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to derive an empirical classification of eating disorder symptoms in a heterogeneous eating disorder sample using latent class analysis (LCA) and to examine the longitudinal stability of these latent classes (LCs) and the stability of DSM-IV eating disorder (ED) diagnoses. Method: A total of 429…

  9. Organic sensitizers featuring thiophene derivative based donors with improved stability and photovoltaic performance.

    PubMed

    Miao, Kai; Liang, Mao; Wang, Zhihui; Zhang, Chunyao; Sun, Zhe; Xue, Song

    2017-01-18

    Thiophene derivatives, including thieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (TBT), benzo[b]thiophene (BT), 2-phenylthieno[3,2-b]thiophene (PTT) and 2-phenylthiophene (PT), have been introduced as donors for the construction of triarylamine organic dyes (M52, M53, M56, M57 and M52A). The absorption, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties as well as the stabilities of these dyes are systematically investigated and compared with the reference dye (M55), whose donor is composed of the hexyloxybenzene (HOB) unit. It is found that introducing the TBT, BT, PTT or PT donors positively shifted the HOMO and LUMO levels of the organic dyes, providing a larger driving force for regeneration and reducing the energy loss for electron injection. In addition, we found that M52, which contains the TBT unit, exhibited better photovoltaic performance and photostability as compared to the reference dye. In contrast, M53 displayed the lowest efficiency and stability of these dyes, indicating that the BT unit is not a good building block for donors. Interestingly, upon the incorporation of the mixed donor (TBT-HOB), M52A achieved a desirable driving force for regeneration without a loss in light absorption, thus resulting in a further improved photovoltaic performance with respect to that of M52. This work demonstrates that introducing donors based on thiophene derivatives is a good strategy for tuning the energy levels and thereby enhancing the efficiency of the resulting devices.

  10. An Insight into Different Stabilization Mechanisms of Phenytoin Derivatives Supersaturation by HPMC and PVP.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Naoya; Ueda, Keisuke; Ohyagi, Naoko; Shimizu, Kozue; Katakawa, Kazuaki; Kumamoto, Takuya; Higashi, Kenjirou; Yamamoto, Keiji; Moribe, Kunikazu

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we examined the stabilization mechanism of drug supersaturation by hypromellose (HPMC) and polyvinylpirrolidone (PVP). The poorly water-soluble drugs, phenytoin (diphenylhydantoin, DPH), and its synthesized derivatives monomethylphenytoin (MDPH) and dimethylphenytoin (DMDPH) were used. DPH supersaturation was efficiently maintained by both HPMC and PVP. HPMC maintained the supersaturation of MDPH and DMDPH in a similar manner to that of DPH, whereas the ability of PVP to maintain drug supersaturation increased as follows: DPH > MDPH > DMDPH. Caco-2 permeation studies and nuclear magnetic resonance measurements revealed that the permeability and molecular state of the drug in a HPMC solution barely changed. In fact, the solubilization of the drug into PVP changed its apparent permeability and molecular state. The drug solubilization efficiency by PVP was higher and followed the order: DPH > MDPH > DMDPH. The different drug solubilization efficiencies most likely result from the different strengths in the intermolecular interaction between the DPH derivatives and PVP. The difference in the stabilization mechanism of drug supersaturation by HPMC and PVP could determine whether the efficient maintenance of the drug supersaturation was dependent on the drug species. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  11. A computational study on the enhanced stabilization of aminophenol derivatives by internal hydrogen bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, José R. B.; Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A. V.

    2006-05-01

    The stabilization of aminophenol derivatives and their radicals due to internal hydrogen bonding has been analyzed by means of density functional theory and by topological electron density analysis. The calculations have been carried out at the B3LYP level of theory, using several basis sets, and by means of the CBS-4M composite approach. A strong O-H⋯NH 2 hydrogen bond is found to stabilize the aminophenol with the lone-pair of the nitrogen atom co-planar with the aromatic ring, contrasting with the optimized structure found for aniline. The effect of electron donors and electron acceptors on the strength of the internal hydrogen bond is also analyzed. For one of the species studied, 2,6-diaminophenol, the computed O-H bond dissociation enthalpy is only 300 kJ/mol, the lowest value found so far for phenol and other compounds containing the O-H bond, almost 25 kJ/mol lower than those found experimentally for pyrogallol and for vitamin E. The explanation for such a small value comes from the enhanced stabilization of the corresponding radical species by internal hydrogen bonding, combined with a decrease of the steric effects caused by rotation of the amino groups.

  12. Torsional stability of interference screws derived from bovine bone - a biomechanical study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the present biomechanical study, the torsional stability of different interference screws, made of bovine bone, was tested. Interference screws derived from bovine bone are a possible biological alternative to conventional metallic or bioabsorbable polymer interference screws. Methods In the first part of the study we compared the torsional stability of self-made 8 mm Interference screws (BC) and a commercial 8 mm interference screw (Tutofix®). Furthermore, we compared the torsional strength of BC screws with different diameters. For screwing in, a hexagon head and an octagon head were tested. Maximum breaking torques in polymethyl methacrylate resin were recorded by means of an electronic torque screw driver. In the second part of the study the tibial part of a bone-patellar tendon-bone graft was fixed in porcine test specimens using an 8 mm BC screw and the maximum insertion torques were recorded. Each interference screw type was tested 5 times. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the different 8 mm interference screws (p = 0.121). Pairwise comparisons did not reveal statistically significant differences, either. It was demonstrated for the BC screws, that a larger screw diameter significantly leads to higher torsional stability (p = 9.779 × 10-5). Pairwise comparisons showed a significantly lower torsional stability for the 7 mm BC screw than for the 8 mm BC screw (p = 0.0079) and the 9 mm BC screw (p = 0.0079). Statistically significant differences between the 8 mm and the 9 mm BC screw could not be found (p = 0.15). During screwing into the tibial graft channel of the porcine specimens, insertion torques between 0.5 Nm and 3.2 Nm were recorded. In one case the hexagon head of a BC screw broke off during the last turn. Conclusions The BC screws show comparable torsional stability to Tutofix® interference screws. As expected the torsional strength of the screws increases significantly with the diameter. The safety

  13. Neoproterozoic Glacial Extremes: How Plausible is the

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltier, W. R.

    2004-05-01

    The suggestion that the glaciation events of the Neoproterozoic could have been global in extent, so-called "snowball" glaciations, during which the oceans were entirely covered by sea ice and the continents by massive continental ice sheets, is an idea tha is recurrent in the geological and climate dynamics literature. It is an idea that haa both critics and defenders but concensus concerning it's plausiblity has yet to emerge. Previous work on this problem has led to the suggestion that a more likely scenario than the "hard snowball" is one in which open water continues to persist at the equator, thus enabling biological evolution into the Cambrian to proceed, perhaps stimulated by the transition from the cold conditions of the Neoproterozoic to the warm condition of the Cambrian, thus leading to the Cambrian "explosion of life". We will discuss recent extensions of our previous efforts to model the extreme climate of the Neoproterozoic, using both the University of Toronto Glacial Systems Model and the NCAR Community Climate System Model. With an appropriate choice for the albedo of sea ice, the former model conntinues to deliver hysteresis in the surface temperature vs. CO2 concentration space when solar luminosity is reduced by 6% below modern, and thus continues to suggest the existence of the previously hypothesized "CO2 attractor". We argue here that the system could be locked onto this attractor by the strong "out of equilibrium" effects of the carbon cycle recently discussed by Rothman et al. (PNAS, 2003). The open water solution is confirmed as the preferred mode of the system by the detailed CCSM integrations that we have performed.

  14. Encoding the target or the plausible preview word? The nature of the plausibility preview benefit in reading Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jinmian; Li, Nan; Wang, Suiping; Slattery, Timothy J.; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a plausible preview word can facilitate the processing of a target word as compared to an implausible preview word (a plausibility preview benefit effect) when reading Chinese (Yang, Wang, Tong, & Rayner, 2012; Yang, 2013). Regarding the nature of this effect, it is possible that readers processed the meaning of the plausible preview word and did not actually encode the target word (given that the parafoveal preview word lies close to the fovea). The current experiment examined this possibility with three conditions wherein readers received a preview of a target word that was either (1) identical to the target word (identical preview), (2) a plausible continuation of the pre-target text, but the post-target text in the sentence was incompatible with it (initially plausible preview), or (3) not a plausible continuation of the pre-target text, nor compatible with the post-target text (implausible preview). Gaze durations on target words were longer in the initially plausible condition than the identical condition. Overall, the results showed a typical preview benefit, but also implied that readers did not encode the initially plausible preview. Also, a plausibility preview benefit was replicated: gaze durations were longer with implausible previews than the initially plausible ones. Furthermore, late eye movement measures did not reveal differences between the initially plausible and the implausible preview conditions, which argues against the possibility of misreading the plausible preview word as the target word. In sum, these results suggest that a plausible preview word provides benefit in processing the target word as compared to an implausible preview word, and this benefit is only present in early but not late eye movement measures. PMID:24910514

  15. Encoding the target or the plausible preview word? The nature of the plausibility preview benefit in reading Chinese.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinmian; Li, Nan; Wang, Suiping; Slattery, Timothy J; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a plausible preview word can facilitate the processing of a target word as compared to an implausible preview word (a plausibility preview benefit effect) when reading Chinese (Yang, Wang, Tong, & Rayner, 2012; Yang, 2013). Regarding the nature of this effect, it is possible that readers processed the meaning of the plausible preview word and did not actually encode the target word (given that the parafoveal preview word lies close to the fovea). The current experiment examined this possibility with three conditions wherein readers received a preview of a target word that was either (1) identical to the target word (identical preview), (2) a plausible continuation of the pre-target text, but the post-target text in the sentence was incompatible with it (initially plausible preview), or (3) not a plausible continuation of the pre-target text, nor compatible with the post-target text (implausible preview). Gaze durations on target words were longer in the initially plausible condition than the identical condition. Overall, the results showed a typical preview benefit, but also implied that readers did not encode the initially plausible preview. Also, a plausibility preview benefit was replicated: gaze durations were longer with implausible previews than the initially plausible ones. Furthermore, late eye movement measures did not reveal differences between the initially plausible and the implausible preview conditions, which argues against the possibility of misreading the plausible preview word as the target word. In sum, these results suggest that a plausible preview word provides benefit in processing the target word as compared to an implausible preview word, and this benefit is only present in early but not late eye movement measures.

  16. Thermodynamic stability, kinetic inertness and relaxometric properties of monoamide derivatives of lanthanide(III) DOTA complexes.

    PubMed

    Tei, Lorenzo; Baranyai, Zsolt; Gaino, Luca; Forgács, Attila; Vágner, Adrienn; Botta, Mauro

    2015-03-28

    A complete thermodynamic and kinetic solution study on lanthanide(III) complexes with monoacetamide (DOTAMA, L1) and monopropionamide (DOTAMAP, L2) derivatives of DOTA (DOTA = 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) was undertaken with the aim to elucidate their stability and inertness in aqueous media. The stability constants of GdL1 and GdL2 are comparable, whereas a more marked difference is found in the kinetic inertness of the two complexes. The formation of the Eu(III) and Ce(III) complexes takes place via the formation of the protonated intermediates which can deprotonate and transform into the final complex through a OH(-) assisted pathway. GdL2 shows faster rates of acid catalysed decomplexation with respect to GdL1, which has a kinetic inertness comparable to GdDOTA. Nevertheless, GdL2 is one order of magnitude more inert than GdDO3A. A novel DOTAMAP-based bifunctional chelating ligand and its deoxycholic acid derivative (L5) were also synthesized. Since the coordinated water molecule in GdL2 is characterized by an exchange rate ca. two orders of magnitude greater than in GdL1, the relaxivity of the macromolecular derivatives of L5 should not be limited by the slow water exchange process. The relaxometric properties of the supramolecular adduct of GdL5 with human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated in aqueous solution by measuring the magnetic field dependence of the (1)H relaxivity which, at 20 MHz and 298 K, shows a 430% increase over that of the unbound GdL5 chelate. Thus, Gd(III) complexes with DOTAMAP macrocyclic ligands can represent good candidates for the development of stable and highly effective bioconjugate systems for molecular imaging applications.

  17. Enzyme stabilization by glass-derived silicates in glass-exposed aqueous solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ives, J.A.; Moffett, J.R.; Arun, P.; Lam, D.; Todorov, T.I.; Brothers, A.B.; Anick, D.J.; Centeno, J.; Namboodiri, M.A.A.; Jonas, W.B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the solutes leaching from glass containers into aqueous solutions, and to show that these solutes have enzyme activity stabilizing effects in very dilute solutions. Methods: Enzyme assays with acetylcholine esterase were used to analyze serially succussed and diluted (SSD) solutions prepared in glass and plastic containers. Aqueous SSD preparations starting with various solutes, or water alone, were prepared under several conditions, and tested for their solute content and their ability to affect enzyme stability in dilute solution. Results: We confirm that water acts to dissolve constituents from glass vials, and show that the solutes derived from the glass have effects on enzymes in the resultant solutions. Enzyme assays demonstrated that enzyme stability in purified and deionized water was enhanced in SSD solutions that were prepared in glass containers, but not those prepared in plastic. The increased enzyme stability could be mimicked in a dose-dependent manner by the addition of silicates to the purified, deionized water that enzymes were dissolved in. Elemental analyses of SSD water preparations made in glass vials showed that boron, silicon, and sodium were present at micromolar concentrations. Conclusions: These results show that silicates and other solutes are present at micromolar levels in all glass-exposed solutions, whether pharmaceutical or homeopathic in nature. Even though silicates are known to have biological activity at higher concentrations, the silicate concentrations we measured in homeopathic preparations were too low to account for any purported in vivo efficacy, but could potentially influence in vitro biological assays reporting homeopathic effects. ?? 2009 The Faculty of Homeopathy.

  18. Stability and cytotoxicity of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides derived from bovine casein*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Yu, Pan-pan; Zhang, Feng-yang; Che, Hong-xia; Jiang, Zhan-mei

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of heat treatment combined with acid and alkali on the angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of peptides derived from bovine casein. The free amino group content, color, and cytotoxicity of the peptides were measured under different conditions. When heated at 100 °C in the pH range from 9.0 to 12.0, ACE inhibitory activity was reduced and the appearance of the peptides was significantly darkened. After thermal treatment in the presence of acid and alkali, the free amino group content of ACE inhibitory peptides decreased markedly. High temperature and prolonged heating also resulted in the loss of ACE inhibitory activity, the loss of free amino groups, and the darker coloration of bovine casein-derived peptides. However, ACE inhibitory peptides, within a concentration range of from 0.01 to 0.2 mg/ml, showed no cytotoxicity to Caco-2 and ECV-304 cell lines after heat treatment. This indicated that high temperature and alkaline heat treatment impaired the stability of bovine casein-derived ACE inhibitory peptides. PMID:24510707

  19. Thermal stability of some aircraft turbine fuels derived from oil shale and coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal stability breakpoint temperatures are shown for 32 jet fuels prepared from oil shale and coal syncrudes by various degrees of hydrogenation. Low severity hydrotreated shale oils, with nitrogen contents of 0.1 to 0.24 weight percent, had breakpoint temperatures in the 477 to 505 K (400 to 450 F) range. Higher severity treatment, lowering nitrogen levels to 0.008 to 0.017 weight percent, resulted in breakpoint temperatures in the 505 to 533 K (450 to 500 F) range. Coal derived fuels showed generally increasing breakpoint temperatures with increasing weight percent hydrogen, fuels below 13 weight percent hydrogen having breakpoints below 533 K (500 F). Comparisons are shown with similar literature data.

  20. Stability, transdermal penetration, and cutaneous effects of ascorbic acid and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Stamford, Nicholas P J

    2012-12-01

    Topically applied antioxidants exert their benefits by offering protection from damaging free radicals and over-the-counter cosmeceuticals incorporating antioxidants are among the most popular anti-aging products available. One potent antioxidant of particular note, vitamin C, has been extensively utilized because it possesses a variety of other cutaneous benefits including photoprotection from UV A & B, neocollagenesis, inhibition of melanogenesis and improvement of a variety of inflammatory skin disorders. However, the instability of this water-soluble vitamin, together with difficulties associated with its topical delivery, has presented issues for the formulation chemist. This article reviews the scientific data and clinical studies that underpin the stability, percutaneous absorption, and cutaneous effects of vitamin C together with its commonly utilized, commercially available derivatives.

  1. Proportional integral derivative, modeling and ways of stabilization for the spark plasma sintering process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manière, Charles; Lee, Geuntak; Olevsky, Eugene A.

    The stability of the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control of temperature in the spark plasma sintering (SPS) process is investigated. The PID regulations of this process are tested for different SPS tooling dimensions, physical parameters conditions, and areas of temperature control. It is shown that the PID regulation quality strongly depends on the heating time lag between the area of heat generation and the area of the temperature control. Tooling temperature rate maps are studied to reveal potential areas for highly efficient PID control. The convergence of the model and experiment indicates that even with non-optimal initial PID coefficients, it is possible to reduce the temperature regulation inaccuracy to less than 4 K by positioning the temperature control location in highly responsive areas revealed by the finite-element calculations of the temperature spatial distribution.

  2. Pramipexole Derivatives as Potent and Selective Dopamine D3 Receptor Agonists with Improved Human Microsomal Stability

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Cheng; Levant, Beth; Li, Xiaoqin; Zhao, Ting; Wen, Bo; Luo, Ruijuan; Sun, Duxin

    2014-01-01

    We report herein the synthesis and evaluation of a series of new pramipexole derivatives as highly potent and selective dopamine-3 (D3) receptor agonists. A number of these new compounds bind to the D3 receptor with subnanomolar affinities and show excellent selectivity (>10,000) for the D3 receptor over the D1 and D2 receptors. Compound 23 for example, binds to the D3 receptor with a Ki value of 0.53 nM and shows a selectivity of >20,000 over the D2 receptor and the D1 receptor in the binding assays using a rat brain preparation. It has excellent stability in human liver microsomes and in vitro functional assays showed it to be a full agonist for the human D3 receptor. PMID:25338762

  3. Genetic stability of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stromal cells in the Quantum System.

    PubMed

    Jones, Mark; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Skokan, Margaret; Bryce, Steven; Schowinsky, Jeffrey; Peters, Rebecca; Vang, Boah; Brecheisen, Michelle; Startz, Thomas; Frank, Nathan; Nankervis, Brian

    2013-11-01

    The Quantum® Cell Expansion System (Quantum; Terumo BCT, Inc, Lakewood, CO, USA) is a novel hollow fiber-based device that automates and closes the cell culture process, reducing labor intensive tasks such as manual cell culture feeding and harvesting. The manual cell selection and expansion processes for the production of clinical-scale quantities of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-hMSCs) have been successfully translated onto the Quantum platform previously. The formerly static, manual, in vitro process performed primarily on tissue culture polystyrene substrates may raise the question of whether BM-hMSCs cultured on a hollow fiber platform yields comparable cell quality. A rigorous battery of assays was used to determine the genetic stability of BM-hMSCs selected and produced with the Quantum. In this study, genetic stability was determined by assessing spectral karyotype, micronucleus formation and tumorigenicity to resolve chromosomal aberrations in the stem cell population. Cell phenotype, adherent growth kinetics and tri-lineage differentiation were also evaluated. HMSC bone marrow aspirates, obtained from three approved donors, were expanded in parallel using T225 culture flasks and the Quantum. BM-hMSCs harvested from the Quantum demonstrated immunophenotype, morphology and tri-lineage differentiation capacity characteristics consistent with the International Society of Cell Therapy standard for hMSCs. Cell populations showed no malignant neoplastic formation in athymic mice 60 days post-transplant, no clonal chromosomal aberrations were observed and no DNA damage was found as measured by micronucleus formation. Quantum-produced BM-hMSCs are of comparable quality and demonstrate analogous genetic stability to BM-hMSCs cultured on tissue culture polystyrene substrates. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Complex formation and stability of westiellamide derivatives with copper(II).

    PubMed

    Comba, Peter; Dovalil, Nina; Haberhauer, Gebhard; Hanson, Graeme R; Kato, Yuki; Taura, Toshiaki

    2010-09-01

    The CuII coordination chemistry of three synthetic analogues of westiellamide (H3Lwa) with an [18]azacrown-6 macrocyclic structure and imidazole (H3L1), oxazole (H3L2), or thiazole (H3L3) heterocyclic donors in addition to the peptide groups, is reported. The Nheterocycle-Npeptide-N(heterocycle) binding sites are highly preorganized for the coordination to CuII ions. The stability constants of mono- and dinuclear CuII complexes of H3L1, H3L2, and H3L3, obtained by isothermal titration microcalorimetry, are reported. EPR and NMR spectroscopy as well as electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) were used to characterize the complexes formed in solution. The stabilities of the mononuclear and dinuclear CuII complexes of the three ligands are in the range of 10(5) M(-1), but there are subtle differences; specifically the oxazole-derived ligand has, in contrast to the other two macrocycles, a negative formation entropy for coordination to the first CuII ion and a higher stability for complexation to a second CuII center in comparison with the first CuII center (cooperativity). Differences between the three ligands are also apparent in terms of the formation mechanism. With the oxazole-based ligand H3L2, NMR spectroscopy, EPR spectroscopy, and ESI-MS indicate the formation of a ligand-CuII 2:1 intermediate, and this may explain the differences in the formation entropy as well as the cooperativity.

  5. Stabilization of cationic and anionic metal species in contaminated soils using sludge-derived biochar.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shen'en; Tsang, Daniel C W; Zhou, Fengsha; Zhang, Weihua; Qiu, Rongliang

    2016-04-01

    Currently, sludge pyrolysis has been considered as a promising technology to solve disposal problem of municipal sewage sludge, recover sludge heating value, sequester carbon and replenish nutrients in farmland soils. The resultant sludge-derived biochar (SDBC) is potentially an excellent stabilizing agent for metal species. This study applied the SDBC into four soils that had been contaminated in field with cationic Pb(II) and Cd(II)/Ni(II), and anionic Cr(VI) and As(III), respectively. The performance of metal stabilization under various operational and environmental conditions was evaluated with acid batch extraction and column leaching tests. Results indicated the SDBC could effectively stabilize these metals, which was favored by elevated temperature and longer aging. Periodic temperature decrease from 45 to 4 °C resulted in the release of immobilized Cr(VI) and As(III) but not Pb(II). However, a longer aging time offset such metal remobilization. This was possibly because more Pb was strongly bound and even formed stable precipitates, as shown by XRD and sequential extraction results. With increasing time, Cr(VI) was sorbed and partly reduced to Cr(III), while immobilized As(III) was co-oxidized to As(V) as indicated by XPS spectra. Column tests revealed that adding SDBC as a separate layer was unfavorable because the concentrated Cd(II) and Ni(II) in localized positions increased the peak levels of metal release under continuous acid leaching. In contrast, uniformly mixed SDBC could effectively delay the metal breakthrough and reduce their released amounts. Yet, a long-term monitoring may be required for evaluating the potential leaching risks and bioavailability/toxicity of these immobilized and transformed species in the SDBC-amended soils.

  6. Synthesis, Tribological and Hydrolysis Stability Study of Novel Benzotriazole Borate Derivative

    PubMed Central

    Liping, Xiong; Zhongyi, He; Liang, Qian; Lin, Mu; Aixi, Chen; Sheng, Han; Jianwei, Qiu; Xisheng, Fu

    2014-01-01

    Benzotriazole and borate derivatives have long been used as multifunctional additives to lubricants. A novel, environmentally friendly additive borate ester (NHB), which contains boron, ethanolamine, and benzotriazole groups in one molecule, was synthesized by a multi-step reaction, and its tribological properties in rapeseed oil (RSO) were investigated by a four-ball tribometer. The hydrolysis stability of the additive was investigated by half-time and open observation methods, and the mechanism of hydrolysis stability was discussed through Gaussian calculation. The novel compound NHB showed excellent performance under extreme pressure, against wearing, and in reducing friction, and its hydrolysis time is more than 1,220 times, which is better than that of triethyl borate. The mass ratio of NHB is bigger than that of the mixed liquid of triethyl borate and ethanolamine. The lone electron of amino N atoms forms a coordination effect with the B atom to compensate for the shortage of electrons in the B atom and to improve the hydrolysis stability of NHB. The surface morphology and the traces of different elements in the tribofilms formed with 1.0 wt.% NHB in were detected with scanning electron microscopy(SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX)and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS). The results shown that the additive caused a tribochemical reaction with the steel ball surface during the lubricating process. A mixed boundary lubrication film that contains organic nitrogen and inorganic salts, such as BN, B2O3, FeOx, Fe–O–B, and FeB, was also formed, and the formation of the lubricating film improved the tribological properties of the base oil. PMID:24465382

  7. Penem derivatives: beta-lactamase stability and affinity for penicillin-binding proteins in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ohya, S; Utsui, Y; Sugawara, S; Yamazaki, M

    1982-03-01

    Penem derivatives, a new group of beta-lactam antibiotics with potent activities against a wide range of bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were tested for their stability against hydrolysis by beta-lactamases purified from clinical isolates of Morganella morganii. Proteus vulgaris, and Escherichia coli and by a penicillinase from Bacillus cereus. Penems having 6 alpha substituents, such as hydroxyethyl, hydroxymethyl, and ethyl groups, were very stable against hydrolysis by each of the enzymes. Penems having no 6 alpha substituents were easily hydrolyzed by P. vulgaris and E. coli enzymes, whereas they were rather stable against hydrolysis by M. morganii and B. cereus enzymes, a typical cephalosporinase and penicillinase, respectively. Affinity of the penems for E. coli penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) was also tested. beta-Lactamase-stable penems having a 6 alpha-hydroxyethyl group showed high affinity for PBP-4, -5, and -6 as well as for PBP-1A, -1Bs, and -2. However, the penems having no 6 alpha substituents showed a far lower affinity for PBP-4, -5, and -6 than that shown by the corresponding 6 alpha-hydroxyethyl penems. Among the penems tested, affinity for PBP-4, -5, and -6 was closely related to their beta-lactamase stability, as was the case among cephamycins and cephalosporins. Effects of the penems on the morphology of a strain of E. coli are also described.

  8. Dihydrochelerythrine and its derivatives: Synthesis and their application as potential G-quadruplex DNA stabilizing agents.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Rajesh; Rarhi, Chhanda; Diveshkumar, K V; Barik, Rajib; D'cunha, Ruhee; Dhar, Pranab; Kundu, Mrinalkanti; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Roy, Subho; Basu, Sourav; Pradeepkumar, P I; Hajra, Saumen

    2016-07-01

    A convenient route was envisaged toward the synthesis of dihydrochelerythrine (DHCHL), 4 by intramolecular Suzuki coupling of 2-bromo-N-(2-bromobenzyl)-naphthalen-1-amine derivative 5 via in situ generated arylborane. This compound was converted to (±)-6-acetonyldihydrochelerythrine (ADC), 3 which was then resolved by chiral prep-HPLC. Efficiency of DHCHL for the stabilization of promoter quadruplex DNA structures and a comparison study with the parent natural alkaloid chelerythrine (CHL), 1 was performed. A thorough investigation was carried out to assess the quadruplex binding affinity by using various biophysical and biochemical studies and the binding mode was explained by using molecular modeling and dynamics studies. Results clearly indicate that DHCHL is a strong G-quadruplex stabilizer with affinity similar to that of the parent alkaloid CHL. Compounds ADC and DHCHL were also screened against different human cancer cell lines. Among the cancer cells, (±)-ADC and its enantiomers showed varied (15-48%) inhibition against human colorectal cell line HCT116 and breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 albeit low enantio-specificity in the inhibitory effect; whereas DHCHL showed 30% inhibition against A431 cell line only, suggesting the compounds are indeed cancer tissue specific.

  9. Simultaneous Determination and Stability Studies on Diminazene Diaceturate and Phenazone Using Developed Derivative Spectrophotometric Method

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed Gadkariem, Elrasheed; Awadalla Mohamed, Magdi

    2017-01-01

    This work presents UV first derivative spectrophotometry as a precise, accurate, and feasible method for simultaneous determination of diminazene diaceturate and phenazone in bulk and dosage forms. The absorbance values of diminazene diaceturate and phenazone aqueous mixture were obtained at 398 nm and 273 nm, respectively. The developed method was proved to be linear over the concentration ranges (2–10) μg/mL and (2.496–12.48) μg/mL for diminazene diaceturate and phenazone, respectively, with good correlation coefficients (not less than 0.997). The detection and quantitation limits were found to be (LOD = 0.63 and 0.48 μg/mL; LOQ = 1.92 and 1.47 μg/mL, resp.). The developed method was employed for stability studies of both drugs under different stress conditions. Diminazene diaceturate was prone to degrade at acidic pH via first-order kinetics. The degradation process was found to be temperature dependent with an activation energy of 7.48 kcal/mole. Photo-stability was also investigated for this drug. PMID:28246529

  10. Plausibility Judgments in Conceptual Change and Epistemic Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Doug; Nussbaum, E. Michael; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2016-01-01

    Plausibility judgments rarely have been addressed empirically in conceptual change research. Recent research, however, suggests that these judgments may be pivotal to conceptual change about certain topics where a gap exists between what scientists and laypersons find plausible. Based on a philosophical and empirical foundation, this article…

  11. The Nature and Time Course of Pragmatic Plausibility Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Wayne S.

    2006-01-01

    The experiments reported in this article used a delayed same/different sentence matching task with concurrent measurement of eye movements to investigate the nature of the plausibility effect. The results clearly show that plausibility effects are not due to low level lexical associative processes, but arise as a consequence of the processing of…

  12. Source Effects and Plausibility Judgments When Reading about Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Doug; Seyranian, Viviane; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2014-01-01

    Gaps between what scientists and laypeople find plausible may act as a barrier to learning complex and/or controversial socioscientific concepts. For example, individuals may consider scientific explanations that human activities are causing current climate change as implausible. This plausibility judgment may be due-in part-to individuals'…

  13. Plausibility Judgments in Conceptual Change and Epistemic Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Doug; Nussbaum, E. Michael; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2016-01-01

    Plausibility judgments rarely have been addressed empirically in conceptual change research. Recent research, however, suggests that these judgments may be pivotal to conceptual change about certain topics where a gap exists between what scientists and laypersons find plausible. Based on a philosophical and empirical foundation, this article…

  14. Source Effects and Plausibility Judgments When Reading about Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Doug; Seyranian, Viviane; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2014-01-01

    Gaps between what scientists and laypeople find plausible may act as a barrier to learning complex and/or controversial socioscientific concepts. For example, individuals may consider scientific explanations that human activities are causing current climate change as implausible. This plausibility judgment may be due-in part-to individuals'…

  15. Influence of Hydrogen Bonding on the Kinetic Stability of Vapor Deposited Glasses of Triazine Derivatives

    DOE Data Explorer

    Laventure, Audrey [Departement de chimie, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada] (ORCID:0000000208670231); Gujral, Ankit [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, United States] (ORCID:0000000250652694); Lebel, Olivier [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario K7K 7B4] (ORCID:0000000217376843); Ediger, Mark [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, United States] (ORCID:0000000347158473); Pellerin, Christian [Departement de chimie, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada] (ORCID:0000000161441318)

    2017-02-01

    It has recently been established that physical vapor deposition (PVD) can produce organic glasses with enhanced kinetic stability, high density, and anisotropic packing, with the substrate temperature during deposition (Tsubstrate) as the key control parameter. The influence of hydrogen bonding on the formation of PVD glasses has not been fully explored. Herein, we use a high-throughput preparation method to vapor-deposit three triazine derivatives over a wide range of Tsubstrate, from 0.69 to 1.08Tg, where Tg is the glass transition temperature. These model systems are structural analogues containing a functional group with different H-bonding capability at the 2-position of a triazine ring: (1) 2-methylamino-4,6-bis(3,5-dimethyl-phenylamino)-1,3,5-triazine (NHMe) (H-bond donor), (2) 2-methoxy-4,6-bis(3,5-dimethyl-phenylamino)-1,3,5-triazine (OMe) (H-bond acceptor), and (3) 2-ethyl-4,6-bis(3,5-dimethyl-phenylamino)-1,3,5-triazine (Et) (none). Using spectroscopic ellipsometry, we find that the Et and OMe compounds form PVD glasses with relatively high kinetic stability, with the transformation time (scaled by the α-relaxation time) on the order of 103, comparable to other highly stable glasses formed by PVD. In contrast, PVD glasses of NHMe are only slightly more stable than the corresponding liquid-cooled glass. Using IR spectroscopy, we find that both the supercooled liquid and the PVD glasses of the NHMe derivative show a higher average number of bonded NH per molecule than that in the other two compounds. These results suggest that H-bonds hinder the formation of stable glasses, perhaps by limiting the surface mobility. Interestingly, despite this difference in kinetic stability, all three compounds show properties typically observed in highly stable glasses prepared by PVD, including a higher density and anisotropic molecular packing (as characterized by IR and wide-angle X-ray scattering).

  16. Influence of Hydrogen Bonding on the Kinetic Stability of Vapor-Deposited Glasses of Triazine Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Laventure, Audrey; Gujral, Ankit; Lebel, Olivier; Pellerin, Christian; Ediger, M D

    2017-03-16

    It has recently been established that physical vapor deposition (PVD) can produce organic glasses with enhanced kinetic stability, high density, and anisotropic packing, with the substrate temperature during deposition (Tsubstrate) as the key control parameter. The influence of hydrogen bonding on the formation of PVD glasses has not been fully explored. Herein, we use a high-throughput preparation method to vapor-deposit three triazine derivatives over a wide range of Tsubstrate, from 0.69 to 1.08Tg, where Tg is the glass transition temperature. These model systems are structural analogues containing a functional group with different H-bonding capability at the 2-position of a triazine ring: (1) 2-methylamino-4,6-bis(3,5-dimethyl-phenylamino)-1,3,5-triazine (NHMe) (H-bond donor), (2) 2-methoxy-4,6-bis(3,5-dimethyl-phenylamino)-1,3,5-triazine (OMe) (H-bond acceptor), and (3) 2-ethyl-4,6-bis(3,5-dimethyl-phenylamino)-1,3,5-triazine (Et) (none). Using spectroscopic ellipsometry, we find that the Et and OMe compounds form PVD glasses with relatively high kinetic stability, with the transformation time (scaled by the α-relaxation time) on the order of 10(3), comparable to other highly stable glasses formed by PVD. In contrast, PVD glasses of NHMe are only slightly more stable than the corresponding liquid-cooled glass. Using IR spectroscopy, we find that both the supercooled liquid and the PVD glasses of the NHMe derivative show a higher average number of bonded NH per molecule than that in the other two compounds. These results suggest that H-bonds hinder the formation of stable glasses, perhaps by limiting the surface mobility. Interestingly, despite this difference in kinetic stability, all three compounds show properties typically observed in highly stable glasses prepared by PVD, including a higher density and anisotropic molecular packing (as characterized by IR and wide-angle X-ray scattering).

  17. Hydrolysis of tannic acid catalyzed by immobilized-stabilized derivatives of Tannase from Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Curiel, Jose Antonio; Betancor, Lorena; de las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario; Guisan, Jose M; Fernández-Lorente, Gloria

    2010-05-26

    A recombinant tannase from Lactobacillus plantarum , overexpressed in Escherichia coli , was purified in a single step by metal chelate affinity chromatography on poorly activated nickel supports. It was possible to obtain 0.9 g of a pure enzyme by using only 20 mL of chromatographic support. The pure enzyme was immobilized and stabilized by multipoint covalent immobilization on highly activated glyoxyl agarose. Derivatives obtained by multipoint and multisubunit immobilization were 500- and 1000-fold more stable than both the soluble enzyme and the one-point-immobilized enzyme in experiments of thermal and cosolvent inactivation, respectively. In addition, up to 70 mg of pure enzyme was immobilized on 1 g of wet support. The hydrolysis of tannic acid was optimized by using the new immobilized tannase derivative. The optimal reaction conditions were 30% diglyme at pH 5.0 and 4 degrees C. Under these conditions, it was possible to obtain 47.5 mM gallic acid from 5 mM tannic acid as substrate. The product was pure as proved by HPLC. On the other hand, the immobilized biocatalyst preserved >95% of its initial activity after 1 month of incubation under the optimal reaction conditions.

  18. Real-Time Stability and Control Derivative Extraction From F-15 Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Mark S.; Moes, Timothy R.; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2003-01-01

    A real-time, frequency-domain, equation-error parameter identification (PID) technique was used to estimate stability and control derivatives from flight data. This technique is being studied to support adaptive control system concepts currently being developed by NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), academia, and industry. This report describes the basic real-time algorithm used for this study and implementation issues for onboard usage as part of an indirect-adaptive control system. A confidence measures system for automated evaluation of PID results is discussed. Results calculated using flight data from a modified F-15 aircraft are presented. Test maneuvers included pilot input doublets and automated inputs at several flight conditions. Estimated derivatives are compared to aerodynamic model predictions. Data indicate that the real-time PID used for this study performs well enough to be used for onboard parameter estimation. For suitable test inputs, the parameter estimates converged rapidly to sufficient levels of accuracy. The devised confidence measures used were moderately successful.

  19. Wind-tunnel Measurement of Propeller Whirl-flutter Speeds and Static-stability Derivatives and Comparison with Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, Samuel R.; Bennett, Robert M.

    1963-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation of propeller whirl flutter are presented for a model consisting of an isolated, rigid system of propeller and simulated power plant mounted with flexibility in pitch and yaw on a rigid sting. A range of propeller blade angles, restraint stiffnesses, and restraint damping coefficients was investigated for a system symmetrical i n pitch and yaw with a windmilling propeller. Measurements of the static-stability derivatives were also made by using a simple balance and were compared with two sets of theoretical derivatives. Whirl-flutter calculations were made with the theoretical and measured derivatives. Some limited results were obtained for the whirl flutter of the model mounted on a cantilever semispan wing. The measured whirl-flutter speeds and frequencies of the isolated model were in very good agreement with those predicted by calculations in which measured derivatives and viscous damping were used. This agreement was better than that obtained by using structural damping. Predicted whirl-flutter speeds for the isolated model were lower when theoretical stability derivatives were used than when measured derivatives were used. The theoretical and experimental static-stability derivatives exhibited the same trends, but in certain instances differed appreciably in magnitude. the measured whirl-flutter boundary for the one configuration considered.

  20. Tebipenem pivoxyl. Derivative spectroscopy study of stability of the first oral carbapenem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta; Paczkowska, Magdalena; Zalewski, Przemysław; Talaczyńska, Alicja; Mizera, Mikołaj

    2015-01-01

    A simple and selective derivative spectrophotometric method was developed for the quantitative determination of tebipenem and its pivoxyl ester in the presence of degradation products formed during degradation in aqueous solutions (hydrolysis, oxidation, phosphate buffer pH ∼6.0) and in the solid state (photolysis, thermolysis in dry air and at an increased relative air humidity). The method was based on zero-crossing first-derivative spectrophotometry (λ = 341 nm for tebipenem pivoxyl and λ = 320 nm for tebipenem), which eliminated the overlapping caused by various degradation products. The selectivity of the method for determination of tebipenem pivoxyl and tepipenem during stability studies was an effect of lack of substituents containing π-bond system chromophores in degradation products. It was also confirmed by comparison of the experimental spectra sample with the theoretical UV spectra and their first derivatives which were obtained by using the density functional theory with the B3LYP hybrid functional and 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The method were linear in the concentration range 16.70-220.0 μg mL-1 for tebipenem (λ = 320 nm; r = 0.9989) and 10.70-160.0 μg mL-1 for tebipenem pivoxyl (λ = 341 nm, r = 0.9990). The limits of detection and quantitation were 4.72 and 15.60 μg mL-1 for tebipenem and 2.54 and 8.40 μg mL-1 for tebipenem pivoxyl, respectively. The method had a good intra-day precision (RSD from 0.12% to 0.62%) and inter-day precision (RSD from 0.22% to 2.13%). The recovery of tebipenem and tebipenem pivoxyl ranged from 99.61% to 99.86% and from 99.38% to 99.87%, respectively. First-derivative spectrophotometry was used for a routine analysis of tebipenem and its ester as well as to monitor the conversion of tebipenem pivoxyl to tebipenem and to predict their degradation pathways.

  1. Tebipenem pivoxyl. Derivative spectroscopy study of stability of the first oral carbapenem.

    PubMed

    Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta; Paczkowska, Magdalena; Zalewski, Przemysław; Talaczyńska, Alicja; Mizera, Mikołaj

    2015-01-25

    A simple and selective derivative spectrophotometric method was developed for the quantitative determination of tebipenem and its pivoxyl ester in the presence of degradation products formed during degradation in aqueous solutions (hydrolysis, oxidation, phosphate buffer pH ∼6.0) and in the solid state (photolysis, thermolysis in dry air and at an increased relative air humidity). The method was based on zero-crossing first-derivative spectrophotometry (λ=341 nm for tebipenem pivoxyl and λ=320 nm for tebipenem), which eliminated the overlapping caused by various degradation products. The selectivity of the method for determination of tebipenem pivoxyl and tepipenem during stability studies was an effect of lack of substituents containing π-bond system chromophores in degradation products. It was also confirmed by comparison of the experimental spectra sample with the theoretical UV spectra and their first derivatives which were obtained by using the density functional theory with the B3LYP hybrid functional and 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The method were linear in the concentration range 16.70-220.0 μg mL(-1) for tebipenem (λ=320 nm; r=0.9989) and 10.70-160.0 μg mL(-1) for tebipenem pivoxyl (λ=341 nm, r=0.9990). The limits of detection and quantitation were 4.72 and 15.60 μg mL(-1) for tebipenem and 2.54 and 8.40 μg mL(-1) for tebipenem pivoxyl, respectively. The method had a good intra-day precision (RSD from 0.12% to 0.62%) and inter-day precision (RSD from 0.22% to 2.13%). The recovery of tebipenem and tebipenem pivoxyl ranged from 99.61% to 99.86% and from 99.38% to 99.87%, respectively. First-derivative spectrophotometry was used for a routine analysis of tebipenem and its ester as well as to monitor the conversion of tebipenem pivoxyl to tebipenem and to predict their degradation pathways.

  2. Genetic Stability of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome-Derived Human Cytomegalovirus during Culture In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Murrell, Isa; Wilkie, Gavin S; Davison, Andrew J; Statkute, Evelina; Fielding, Ceri A; Tomasec, Peter; Wilkinson, Gavin W G; Stanton, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    natural killer cells, and less pathogenic. Following isolation from clinical material, HCMV genomes can be stabilized by cloning into bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), and then virus is regenerated by DNA transfection. However, mutations can occur not only during isolation prior to BAC cloning but also when virus is regenerated. We have identified conditions under which BAC-derived viruses containing an intact, wild-type genome can be propagatedin vitrowith minimal risk of mutants being selected, enabling studies of viruses expressing the gene complement of a clinical strain. However, even under these optimized conditions, sporadic mutations can occur, highlighting the advisability of sequencing the HCMV stocks used in experiments. Copyright © 2016 Murrell et al.

  3. Donor-Acceptor Interface Stabilizer Based on Fullerene Derivatives toward Efficient and Thermal Stable Organic Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Li, Junli; Zhu, Xiaoguang; Yuan, Tao; Shen, Jiulin; Liu, Jikang; Zhang, Jian; Tu, Guoli

    2017-02-22

    An interface stabilizer based on alkylation-functionalized fullerene derivatives, [6, 6]-Phenyl-C61-butyric acid (3,5-bis(octyloxy)phenyl)methyl ester (PCB-C8oc), was successfully synthesized and applied for the active layer of Organic Photovoltaics (OPVs). The PCB-C8oc can replace part of the phenyl-C61-buty-ric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and be distributed on the interface of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and PCBM to form P3HT/PCBM/PCB-C8oc ternary blends, leading to thermally stable and efficient organic photovoltaics. The octyl groups of PCB-C8oc exhibit intermolecular interaction with the hexyl groups of P3HT, and the fullerene unit of PCB-C8oc are in tight contact with PCBM. The dual functions of PCB-C8oc will inhibit the phase separation between electron donor and acceptor, thereby improving the stability of devices under long-time thermal annealing at high temperature. When doped with 10 wt % PCB-C8oc, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the P3HT system decreased from 3.54% to 2.88% after 48 h of thermal treatment at 150 °C, whereas the PCE of the reference device without PCB-C8oc dramatically dropped from 3.53% to 0.73%. When doping 10 or 20 wt % PCB-C8oc, the unannealed P3HT/PCBM/PCB-C8oc device achieved a higher PCE than the P3HT/PCBM device without any annealing following the same fabricating condition. For the PTB7/PCBM-based devices, after adding only 5 wt % PCB-C8oc, the OPVs also exhibited thermally stable morphology and better device performances. All these results demonstrate that the utilization of alkyl interchain interactions is an effective and practical strategy to control morphological evolution.

  4. Stabilization of asphaltenes in aliphatic solvents using alkylbenzene-derived amphiphiles. 1. Effect of the chemical structure of amphiphiles on asphaltene stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.L.; Fogler, H.S. )

    1994-06-01

    Stabilization of crude oil asphaltenes in apolar alkane solvents was investigated using a series of alkylbenzene-derived amphiphiles as the asphaltene stabilizers. In this paper (i.e., part I), we present the study on the influences of the chemical structure of these amphiphiles on the effectiveness of asphaltene solubilization and on the strength of asphaltene-amphiphile interaction using both UV/vis and FTIR spectroscopies. The results showed that the amphiphile's effectiveness of asphaltene stabilization was primarily controlled by the polarity of the amphiphile's head group and the length of the amphiphile's alkyl tail. Increasing the acidity of the amphiphile's head group could promote the amphiphile's ability to stabilize asphaltenes by increasing the acid-base attraction between asphaltenes and amphiphiles. On the other hand, although decreasing the amphiphile's tail length increased the asphaltene-amphiphile attraction slightly, it still required a minimum tail length (six carbons for p-alkylphenol amphiphiles) for amphiphiles to form stable steric layers around asphaltenes. We also found additional acidic side groups of amphiphiles could further improve the amphiphile's ability to stabilize asphaltenes. The effect of the molecular weight of alkane solvents on the amphiphile's ability to stabilize asphaltenes was also studied. 18 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Stabilization of silica nanoparticles dispersions by surface modification with silicon derivative of thiacalix[4]arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachuk, Vladimir V.; Ziatdinova, Ramilia V.; Evtugyn, Vladimir G.; Stoikov, Ivan I.

    2015-03-01

    For the first time, silica nanopowder functionalized with thiacalixarene derivatives was synthesized by ultrasonication of nanoparticles (diameter 23.7 ± 2.4 nm) with organosilicon derivative of thiacalixarene in glacial acetic acid. The protocol resulted in the formation of colloidal solution of low-disperse (polydispersity index of 0.11) submicron-sized (diameter 192.5 nm) clusters of nanoparticles according to the dynamic light scattering data. As defined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mean diameter of thiacalixarene-functionalized nanoparticles is equal to 25.5 ± 2.5 nm and the shape is close to spherical. SEM images confirm low aggregation of thiacalixarene-modified nanoparticle compared to initial silica nanopowder (mean diameter of aggregates 330 and 429 nm, correspondingly). According to the thermogravimetry/differential scanning calorimetry and elemental analysis of the nanoparticles obtained, 5 % of the powder mass was related to thiacalixarene units. The effect of thiacalixarene functionalization of silica nanoparticles on linear polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)—silica dispersions was modeled to achieve high resistance toward liquid media required for similar sol-gel prepared PDMS-based materials applied for solid-phase microextraction. In such a manner, the influence of thiacalixarene-modified nanofiller on thermal stability and resistance against polar organic solvents was estimated. Similarity of decomposition temperature of both thiacalixarene-functionalized nanoparticles and non-functionalized silica nanoparticles was found. Swelling/solubility behavior observed was related to partial dissolution of PDMS/silica (10 % mixture) in alcohols. Thiacalixarene-functionalized silica particles exerted significantly higher resistance of PDMS/silica composites toward alcohol solvents.

  6. Gamma-radiolytic stability of new methylated TODGA derivatives for minor actinide recycling

    DOE PAGES

    Galan, Hitos; Zarzana, Christopher A.; Wilden, Andreas; ...

    2015-09-15

    The stability against gamma radiation of MeTODGA (methyl tetraoctyldiglycolamide) and Me2TODGA (dimethyl tetraoctyldiglycolamide), derivatives from the well-known extractant TODGA (N,N,N',N';-tetraoctyldiglycolamide), were studied and compared. Solutions of MeTODGA and Me2TODGA in alkane diluents were subjected to 60Co γ-irradiation in the presence and absence of nitric acid and analyzed using LC-MS to determine their rates of radiolytic concentration decrease, as well as to identify radiolysis products. The results of product identification from three different laboratories are compared and found to be in good agreement. The diglycolamide (DGA) concentrations decreased exponentially with increasing absorbed dose. The MeTODGA degradation rate constants (dose constants) weremore » uninfluenced by the presence of nitric acid, but the acid increased the rate of degradation for Me2TODGA. The degradation products formed by irradiation are also initially produced in greater amounts in acid-contacted solution, but products may also be degraded by continued radiolysis. As a result, the identified radiolysis products suggest that the weakest bonds are those in the diglycolamide center of these molecules.« less

  7. Gamma-radiolytic stability of new methylated TODGA derivatives for minor actinide recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Galan, Hitos; Zarzana, Christopher A.; Wilden, Andreas; Nunez, Ana; Schmidt, Holger; Egberink, Richard J. M.; Leoncini, Andrea; Cobos, Joaquin; Verboom, Willem; Modolo, Giuseppe; Groenewold, Gary S.; Mincher, Bruce J.

    2015-09-15

    The stability against gamma radiation of MeTODGA (methyl tetraoctyldiglycolamide) and Me2TODGA (dimethyl tetraoctyldiglycolamide), derivatives from the well-known extractant TODGA (N,N,N',N';-tetraoctyldiglycolamide), were studied and compared. Solutions of MeTODGA and Me2TODGA in alkane diluents were subjected to 60Co γ-irradiation in the presence and absence of nitric acid and analyzed using LC-MS to determine their rates of radiolytic concentration decrease, as well as to identify radiolysis products. The results of product identification from three different laboratories are compared and found to be in good agreement. The diglycolamide (DGA) concentrations decreased exponentially with increasing absorbed dose. The MeTODGA degradation rate constants (dose constants) were uninfluenced by the presence of nitric acid, but the acid increased the rate of degradation for Me2TODGA. The degradation products formed by irradiation are also initially produced in greater amounts in acid-contacted solution, but products may also be degraded by continued radiolysis. As a result, the identified radiolysis products suggest that the weakest bonds are those in the diglycolamide center of these molecules.

  8. Structural and Immunogenicity Studies of a Cleaved, Stabilized Envelope Trimer Derived from Subtype A HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yun (Kenneth); Andjelic, Sofija; Binley, James M.; Crooks, Emma T.; Franti, Michael; Iyer, Sai Prasad N.; Donovan, Gerald P.; Dey, Antu K.; Zhu, Ping; Roux, Kenneth H.; Durso, Robert J.; Parsons, Thomas F.; Maddon, Paul J.; Moore, John P.; Olson, William C.

    2015-01-01

    SOSIP gp140 trimers represent a soluble, stabilized, proteolytically cleaved form of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoproteins. SOSIP gp140 derived from a subtype A HIV-1 isolate, KNH1144, forms exceptionally stable trimers that resemble virion-associated Env in antigenicity and topology. Here, we used electron microscopy to demonstrate that KNH1144 SOSIP gp140 trimers bound three soluble CD4 molecules in a symmetrical orientation similar to that seen for native Env. We compared the immunogenicities of KNH1144 SOSIP gp140 trimers and gp120 monomers in rabbits and found that the trimers were superior at eliciting neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) to homologous virus as well as neutralization-sensitive subtype B and C viruses. The NAb specificities for SOSIP antisera mapped in part to the CD4 binding site on gp120. We also observed adjuvant-dependent induction of antibodies to the residual levels of host cell proteins (HCPs) contained in the purified Env preparations. When present, HCP antibodies enhanced pseudovirus infection. Our findings are relevant for the further development of Env-based vaccines for HIV-1. PMID:19567243

  9. Structural and immunogenicity studies of a cleaved, stabilized envelope trimer derived from subtype A HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yun Kenneth; Andjelic, Sofija; Binley, James M; Crooks, Emma T; Franti, Michael; Iyer, Sai Prasad N; Donovan, Gerald P; Dey, Antu K; Zhu, Ping; Roux, Kenneth H; Durso, Robert J; Parsons, Thomas F; Maddon, Paul J; Moore, John P; Olson, William C

    2009-08-13

    SOSIP gp140 trimers represent a soluble, stabilized, proteolytically cleaved form of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoproteins. SOSIP gp140 derived from a subtype A HIV-1 isolate, KNH1144, forms exceptionally stable trimers that resemble virion-associated Env in antigenicity and topology. Here, we used electron microscopy to demonstrate that KNH1144 SOSIP gp140 trimers bound three soluble CD4 molecules in a symmetrical orientation similar to that seen for native Env. We compared the immunogenicities of KNH1144 SOSIP gp140 trimers and gp120 monomers in rabbits and found that the trimers were superior at eliciting neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) to homologous virus as well as neutralization-sensitive subtype B and C viruses. The NAb specificities for SOSIP antisera mapped in part to the CD4 binding site on gp120. We also observed adjuvant-dependent induction of antibodies to the residual levels of host cell proteins (HCPs) contained in the purified Env preparations. When present, HCP antibodies enhanced pseudovirus infection. Our findings are relevant for the further development of Env-based vaccines for HIV-1.

  10. Phenotype and Stability of Neural Differentiation of Androgenetic Murine ES Cell-Derived Neural Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wolber, Wanja; Ahmad, Ruhel; Choi, Soon Won; Eckardt, Sigrid; McLaughlin, K. John; Schmitt, Jessica; Geis, Christian; Heckmann, Manfred; Sirén, Anna-Leena; Müller, Albrecht M.

    2013-01-01

    Uniparental zygotes with two paternal (androgenetic, AG) or two maternal genomes (gynogenetic, GG) cannot develop into viable offsprings but form blastocysts from which pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells can be derived. For most organs, it is unclear whether uniparental ES cells can give rise to stably expandable somatic stem cells that can repair injured tissues. Even if previous reports indicated that the capacity of AG ES cells to differentiate in vitro into pan-neural progenitor cells (pNPCs) and into cells expressing neural markers is similar to biparental [normal fertilized (N)] ES cells, their potential for functional neurogenesis is not known. Here we show that murine AG pNPCs give rise to neuron-like cells, which then generate sodium-driven action potentials while maintaining fidelity of imprinted gene expression. Neural engraftment after intracerebral transplantation was achieved only by late (22 days) AG and N pNPCs with in vitro low colony-forming cell (CFC) capacity. However, persisting CFC formation seen, in particular, in early (13 or 16 days) differentiation cultures of N and AG pNPCs correlated with a high incidence of trigerm layer teratomas. As AG ES cells display functional neurogenesis and in vivo stability similar to N ES cells, they represent a unique model system to study the roles of paternal and maternal genomes on neural development and on the development of imprinting-associated brain diseases. PMID:26858862

  11. Immobilization-stabilization of proteins on nanofibrillated cellulose derivatives and their bioactive film formation.

    PubMed

    Arola, Suvi; Tammelin, Tekla; Setälä, Harri; Tullila, Antti; Linder, Markus B

    2012-03-12

    In a number of different applications for enzymes and specific binding proteins a key technology is the immobilization of these proteins to different types of supports. In this work we describe a concept for protein immobilization that is based on nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). NFC is a form of cellulose where fibers have been disintegrated into fibrils that are only a few nanometers in diameter and have a very large aspect ratio. Proteins were conjugated through three different strategies using amine, epoxy, and carboxylic acid functionalized NFC. The conjugation chemistries were chosen according to the reactive groups on the NFC derivatives; epoxy amination, heterobifunctional modification of amino groups, and EDC/s-NHS activation of carboxylic acid groups. The conjugation reactions were performed in solution and immobilization was performed by spin coating the protein-NCF conjugates. The structure of NFC was shown to be advantageous for both protein performance and stability. The use of NFC allows all covalent chemistry to be performed in solution, while the immobilization is achieved by a simple spin coating or spreading of the protein-NFC conjugates on a support. This allows more scalable methods and better control of conditions compared to the traditional methods that depend on surface reactions.

  12. A Sugar-Derived Room-Temperature Sodium Sulfur Battery with Long Term Cycling Stability.

    PubMed

    Carter, Rachel; Oakes, Landon; Douglas, Anna; Muralidharan, Nitin; Cohn, Adam P; Pint, Cary L

    2017-03-08

    We demonstrate a room-temperature sodium sulfur battery based on a confining microporous carbon template derived from sucrose that delivers a reversible capacity over 700 mAh/gS at 0.1C rates, maintaining 370 mAh/gS at 10 times higher rates of 1C. Cycling at 1C rates reveals retention of over 300 mAh/gS capacity across 1500 cycles with Coulombic efficiency >98% due to microporous sulfur confinement and stability of the sodium metal anode in a glyme-based electrolyte. We show sucrose to be an ideal platform to develop microporous carbon capable of mitigating electrode-electrolyte reactivity and loss of soluble intermediate discharge products. In a manner parallel to the low-cost materials of the traditional sodium beta battery, our work demonstrates the combination of table sugar, sulfur, and sodium, all of which are cheap and earth abundant, for a high-performance stable room-temperature sodium sulfur battery.

  13. Comparison of spice-derived antioxidants and metal chelators on fresh beef color stability.

    PubMed

    Allen, Karin; Cornforth, Daren

    2010-08-01

    Effects of Type I antioxidants eugenol and rosmarinic acid were compared to those of Type II antioxidants milk mineral (MM), sodium tripolyphosphpate (STPP), and phytate in raw ground beef held for 14 days at 4 degrees C in oxygen-permeable polyvinylchloride. Meat color stability was measured as % oxymyoglobin, Hunter a * value, chroma, and hue angle. Significant correlations (P<0.0001) were observed between all color measurement methods. By day 14, STPP-treated patties lost more red color (P<0.05 for a* and hue angle) and had higher thiobarbituric acid values than other treatments. By day 14, MM was as effective as eugenol and rosmarinate at preventing oxymyoglobin oxidation (72, 76, and 71% retained, respectively) and red color loss as measured by a * (9.2, 9.4, and 10.9), hue angle (58.4, 56.2, and 53.5), and chroma (17, 17, and 18), but was unable to inhibit microbial growth as effectively as the spice-derived antioxidants.

  14. Application of plausible reasoning to AI-based control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid; Lum, Henry, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Some current approaches to plausible reasoning in artificial intelligence are reviewed and discussed. Some of the most significant recent advances in plausible and approximate reasoning are examined. A synergism among the techniques of uncertainty management is advocated, and brief discussions on the certainty factor approach, probabilistic approach, Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence, possibility theory, linguistic variables, and fuzzy control are presented. Some extensions to these methods are described, and the applications of the methods are considered.

  15. Application of plausible reasoning to AI-based control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid; Lum, Henry, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Some current approaches to plausible reasoning in artificial intelligence are reviewed and discussed. Some of the most significant recent advances in plausible and approximate reasoning are examined. A synergism among the techniques of uncertainty management is advocated, and brief discussions on the certainty factor approach, probabilistic approach, Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence, possibility theory, linguistic variables, and fuzzy control are presented. Some extensions to these methods are described, and the applications of the methods are considered.

  16. The Effects of Test Order and Nodal Distance on the Emergence and Stability of Derived Discriminative Stimulus Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; Dymond, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of equivalence test order and nodal distance on the emergence and stability of derived discriminative stimulus functions. Participants in 1 group were exposed to a transfer of functions test following a symmetry and equivalence test, another group of participants completed a symmetry and equivalence test…

  17. Pilgrims sailing the Titanic: plausibility effects on memory for misinformation.

    PubMed

    Hinze, Scott R; Slaten, Daniel G; Horton, William S; Jenkins, Ryan; Rapp, David N

    2014-02-01

    People rely on information they read even when it is inaccurate (Marsh, Meade, & Roediger, Journal of Memory and Language 49:519-536, 2003), but how ubiquitous is this phenomenon? In two experiments, we investigated whether this tendency to encode and rely on inaccuracies from text might be influenced by the plausibility of misinformation. In Experiment 1, we presented stories containing inaccurate plausible statements (e.g., "The Pilgrims' ship was the Godspeed"), inaccurate implausible statements (e.g., . . . the Titanic), or accurate statements (e.g., . . . the Mayflower). On a subsequent test of general knowledge, participants relied significantly less on implausible than on plausible inaccuracies from the texts but continued to rely on accurate information. In Experiment 2, we replicated these results with the addition of a think-aloud procedure to elicit information about readers' noticing and evaluative processes for plausible and implausible misinformation. Participants indicated more skepticism and less acceptance of implausible than of plausible inaccuracies. In contrast, they often failed to notice, completely ignored, and at times even explicitly accepted the misinformation provided by plausible lures. These results offer insight into the conditions under which reliance on inaccurate information occurs and suggest potential mechanisms that may underlie reported misinformation effects.

  18. Synthesis, properties and formation of (RCp)Co- and (RCp)Rh-stabilized[4.8]3cyclacene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kornmayer, Stefan C; Hellbach, Björn; Rominger, Frank; Gleiter, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    Metal-stabilized belts: A torus, 3, consisting of three four- and three eight-membered conjugated rings and stabilized by (RCp)Co- and (RCp)Rh- units, was generated by irradiation of [(RCp)Co(CO)(2)] and [(RCp)Rh(C(2)H(4))(2)], respectively, and 1.Eleven metal stabilized [4.8](3)cyclacene derivatives were synthesized. The substances were prepared in one-pot reactions by irradiation of a solution of 5,6,11,12-tetradehydro-dibenzo[a,e]cyclooctatetraene and the corresponding cobalt reagents or rhodium compounds. The resulting cyclacene derivatives reveal D(3h) symmetry in solution. In the solid state the hoop shaped systems crystallize in layers, which are intercalated with solvent layers. To unravel the mechanism of the one-pot reaction we isolated an intermediate, which shows almost planar cyclooctatetraene rings.

  19. Calculation of lateral-directional stability derivatives of wings by a nonplanar quasi-vortex-lattice method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. E.

    1981-01-01

    The nonplanar quasi-vortex-lattice method is applied to the calculation of lateral-directional stability derivatives of wings with and without vortex-lift effect. Results for conventional configurations and those with winglets, V-tail, etc. are compared with available data. All rolling moment derivatives are found to be accurately predicted. The prediction of side force and yawing moment derivatives for some configurations is not as accurate. Causes of the discrepancy are discussed. A user's manual for the program and the program listing are also included.

  20. Selective binding to transthyretin and tetramer stabilization in serum from patients with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy by an iodinated diflunisal derivative

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    In familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy, TTR (transthyretin) variants are deposited as amyloid fibrils. It is thought that this process involves TTR tetramer dissociation, which leads to partially unfolded monomers that aggregate and polymerize into amyloid fibrils. This process can be counteracted by stabilization of the tetramer. Several small compounds, such as diclofenac, diflunisal and flufenamic acid, have been reported to bind to TTR in vitro, in the T4 (thyroxine) binding channel that runs through the TTR tetramer, and consequently are considered to stabilize TTR. However, if these agents bind plasma proteins other than TTR, decreased drug availability will occur, compromising their use as therapeutic agents for TTR amyloidosis. In the present work, we compared the action of these compounds and of new derivatives designed to increase both selectivity of binding to TTR and inhibitory potency in relation to TTR amyloid fibril formation. We found two diflunisal derivatives that, in contrast with diclofenac, flufenamic acid and diflunisal, displaced T4 from TTR in plasma preferentially over binding to albumin and thyroxine binding globulin. The same diflunisal derivatives also had a stabilizing effect on TTR tetramers in plasma, as studied by isoelectric focusing of whole plasma under semi-denaturing conditions. In addition, by transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrated that, in contrast with other proposed TTR stabilizers (namely diclofenac, flufenamic acid and diflunisal), one of the diflunisal derivatives tested efficiently inhibited TTR aggregation. Taken together, our ex vivo and in vitro studies present evidence for the selectivity and efficiency of novel diflunisal derivates as TTR stabilizers and as inhibitors of fibril formation. PMID:15080795

  1. Flight data identification of six degree-of-freedom stability and control derivatives of a large crane type helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomaine, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Flight test data from a large 'crane' type helicopter were collected and processed for the purpose of identifying vehicle rigid body stability and control derivatives. The process consisted of using digital and Kalman filtering techniques for state estimation and Extended Kalman filtering for parameter identification, utilizing a least squares algorithm for initial derivative and variance estimates. Data were processed for indicated airspeeds from 0 m/sec to 152 m/sec. Pulse, doublet and step control inputs were investigated. Digital filter frequency did not have a major effect on the identification process, while the initial derivative estimates and the estimated variances had an appreciable effect on many derivative estimates. The major derivatives identified agreed fairly well with analytical predictions and engineering experience. Doublet control inputs provided better results than pulse or step inputs.

  2. Plausible rice yield losses under future climate warming.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chuang; Piao, Shilong; Wang, Xuhui; Huang, Yao; Ciais, Philippe; Elliott, Joshua; Huang, Mengtian; Janssens, Ivan A; Li, Tao; Lian, Xu; Liu, Yongwen; Müller, Christoph; Peng, Shushi; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-12-19

    Rice is the staple food for more than 50% of the world's population(1-3). Reliable prediction of changes in rice yield is thus central for maintaining global food security. This is an extraordinary challenge. Here, we compare the sensitivity of rice yield to temperature increase derived from field warming experiments and three modelling approaches: statistical models, local crop models and global gridded crop models. Field warming experiments produce a substantial rice yield loss under warming, with an average temperature sensitivity of -5.2 ± 1.4% K(-1). Local crop models give a similar sensitivity (-6.3 ± 0.4% K(-1)), but statistical and global gridded crop models both suggest less negative impacts of warming on yields (-0.8 ± 0.3% and -2.4 ± 3.7% K(-1), respectively). Using data from field warming experiments, we further propose a conditional probability approach to constrain the large range of global gridded crop model results for the future yield changes in response to warming by the end of the century (from -1.3% to -9.3% K(-1)). The constraint implies a more negative response to warming (-8.3 ± 1.4% K(-1)) and reduces the spread of the model ensemble by 33%. This yield reduction exceeds that estimated by the International Food Policy Research Institute assessment (-4.2 to -6.4% K(-1)) (ref. 4). Our study suggests that without CO2 fertilization, effective adaptation and genetic improvement, severe rice yield losses are plausible under intensive climate warming scenarios.

  3. Performance, methanol tolerance and stability of Fe-aminobenzimidazole derived catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastián, David; Serov, Alexey; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Atanassov, Plamen; Aricò, Antonino S.; Baglio, Vincenzo

    2016-07-01

    Highly active and durable non-platinum group metals (non-PGM) catalyst based on iron-nitrogen-carbon (Fe-N-C) for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) derived from pyrolyzed Fe-aminobenzimidazole (Fe-ABZIM) was synthesized by sacrificial support method (SSM), and characterized by several physical-chemical techniques: scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In half-cell electrochemical configuration, the Fe-ABZIM catalyst presented a significant improvement of ORR activity with respect to a recently reported non-PGM formulation based on Fe-aminoantipyrine, with an enhancement of half-wave potential of about 85 mV in O2-saturated sulfuric acid solution. To the moment, the gap with respect to a benchmark Pt/C catalyst was about 90 mV. The Fe-ABZIM catalyst showed a remarkably high tolerance to methanol, resulting in superior ORR performance compared to Pt/C at methanol concentrations higher than 0.02 M. In direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) good performances were also obtained. A durability test (100 h) at 90 °C, feeding 5 M methanol, was carried out. A certain decrease of performance was recorded, amounting to -0.20 mW cm-2 h-1 at the very beginning of test and -0.05 mW cm-2 h-1 at the end. However, the Fe-ABZIM is more adequate than previously reported formulations in terms of both ORR activity and stability.

  4. Telomerase Inhibition and Human Telomeric G-Quadruplex DNA Stabilization by a β-Carboline-Benzimidazole Derivative at Low Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kranthikumar; Meka, Penchala Narasimha Rao; Sadhu, Sudeshna; Guggilapu, Sravanthi Devi; Kovvuri, Jeshma; Kamal, Ahmed; Srinivas, Ragampeta; Devayani, Panuganti; Babu, Bathini Nagendra; Nagesh, Narayana

    2017-08-22

    Guanine rich regions in DNA, which can form highly stable secondary structures, namely, G-quadruplex or G4 DNA structures, affect DNA replication and transcription. Molecules that stabilize G4 DNA have become important in recent years. In this study, G4 DNA stabilization, inhibition of telomerase, and anticancer activity of synthetic β-carboline-benzimidazole derivatives (5a, 5d, 5h, and 5r) were studied. Among them, derivatives containing a 4-methoxyphenyl ring at C1 and a 6-methoxy-substituted benzimidazole at C3 (5a) were found to stabilize telomeric G-quadruplex DNA efficiently. The stoichiometry and interaction of a synthetic, β-carboline-benzimidazole derivative, namely, 3-(6-methoxy-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (5a), with human intermolecular G-quadruplex DNA at low concentrations were examined using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Spectroscopy techniques indicate that 5a may intercalate between the two stacks of G-quadruplex DNA. This model is supported by docking studies. When cancer cells are treated with 5a, the cell cycle arrest occurs at the sub-G1 phase. In addition, an apoptosis assay and fluorescence microscopy studies using cancer cells indicate that 5a can induce apoptosis. Results of biochemical assays such as the polymerase chain reaction stop assay and telomerase activity assay indicate that 5a has the potential to stabilize G-quadruplex DNA, and thereby, it may interfere with in vitro DNA synthesis and decrease telomerase activity. The results of this study reveal that the β-carboline-benzimidazole derivative (5a) is efficient in G-quadruplex DNA stabilization over double-stranded DNA, inhibits telomerase activity, and induces apoptosis in cancer cells.

  5. Negotiating plausibility: intervening in the future of nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Selin, Cynthia

    2011-12-01

    The national-level scenarios project NanoFutures focuses on the social, political, economic, and ethical implications of nanotechnology, and is initiated by the Center for Nanotechnology in Society at Arizona State University (CNS-ASU). The project involves novel methods for the development of plausible visions of nanotechnology-enabled futures, elucidates public preferences for various alternatives, and, using such preferences, helps refine future visions for research and outreach. In doing so, the NanoFutures project aims to address a central question: how to deliberate the social implications of an emergent technology whose outcomes are not known. The solution pursued by the NanoFutures project is twofold. First, NanoFutures limits speculation about the technology to plausible visions. This ambition introduces a host of concerns about the limits of prediction, the nature of plausibility, and how to establish plausibility. Second, it subjects these visions to democratic assessment by a range of stakeholders, thus raising methodological questions as to who are relevant stakeholders and how to activate different communities so as to engage the far future. This article makes the dilemmas posed by decisions about such methodological issues transparent and therefore articulates the role of plausibility in anticipatory governance.

  6. The Plausibility of a String Quartet Performance in Virtual Reality.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, Ilias; Azevedo, Sergio; Papiotis, Panos; Saldanha, Nuno; Slater, Mel

    2017-04-01

    We describe an experiment that explores the contribution of auditory and other features to the illusion of plausibility in a virtual environment that depicts the performance of a string quartet. 'Plausibility' refers to the component of presence that is the illusion that the perceived events in the virtual environment are really happening. The features studied were: Gaze (the musicians ignored the participant, the musicians sometimes looked towards and followed the participant's movements), Sound Spatialization (Mono, Stereo, Spatial), Auralization (no sound reflections, reflections corresponding to a room larger than the one perceived, reflections that exactly matched the virtual room), and Environment (no sound from outside of the room, birdsong and wind corresponding to the outside scene). We adopted the methodology based on color matching theory, where 20 participants were first able to assess their feeling of plausibility in the environment with each of the four features at their highest setting. Then five times participants started from a low setting on all features and were able to make transitions from one system configuration to another until they matched their original feeling of plausibility. From these transitions a Markov transition matrix was constructed, and also probabilities of a match conditional on feature configuration. The results show that Environment and Gaze were individually the most important factors influencing the level of plausibility. The highest probability transitions were to improve Environment and Gaze, and then Auralization and Spatialization. We present this work as both a contribution to the methodology of assessing presence without questionnaires, and showing how various aspects of a musical performance can influence plausibility.

  7. Virtual karyotyping reveals greater chromosomal stability in neural cells derived by transdifferentiation than those from stem cells.

    PubMed

    Weissbein, Uri; Ben-David, Uri; Benvenisty, Nissim

    2014-12-04

    Neural cells can be derived either from pluripotent or adult stem cells via differentiation or by transdifferentiation from other cell types with the aid of tissue regulators. We compared the chromosomal stability of over 500 neural cell samples from human and mouse with virtual karyotyping (e-karyotyping). We detected notable genomic instability in cells derived from pluripotent or adult stem cells, but surprisingly, transdifferentiated cells seemed more chromosomally stable, except if they were reprogrammed using pluripotency factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Corrosion and stability study of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki starch industry wastewater-derived biopesticide formulation.

    PubMed

    Gnepe, Jean R; Tyagi, Rajeshwar D; Brar, Satinder K; Valéro, José R; Surampalli, Rao Y

    2014-01-01

    Biopesticides are usually sprayed on forests by using planes made up of aluminum alloy. Bioval derived from starch industry wastewater (SIW) in suspension form was developed as stable anticorrosive biopesticide formulation. In this context, various anticorrosion agents such as activated charcoal, glycerin, ethylene glycol, phytic acid, castor oil and potassium silicate were tested as anticorrosive agents. There was no corrosion found in Bioval formulation where potassium silicate (0.5% w/v) was added and compared with Foray 76 B, as an industrial standard, when stored over 6 months. In relation to other parameters, the anticorrosion formulation of Bioval+buffer+KSi reported excellent zeta potential (-33.19 ± 4 mV) and the viscosity (319.13 ± 32 mPa.s) proving it's stability over 6 months, compared to the standard biopesticide Foray 76 B (-36.62 ± 4 mV potential zeta, pH 4.14 ± 0.1 and 206 ± 21 mPa.s viscosity). Metal analysis of the different biopesticides showed that Bioval+buffer+KSi has no corrosion (5.11 ± 0.5 mg kg(-1) of Al and 13.53 ± 1.5 mg kg(-1) of Fe) on the aluminum alloy due to the contribution of sodium acetate buffer at pH 5. The bioassays reported excellent results for Bioval+Buffer+KSi (2.95 ± 0.3 × 10(9) CFU mL(-1) spores and 26.6 ± 2.7 × 10(9) IU L(-1) Tx) compared with initial Bioval (2.46 ± 0.3 × 10(9) CFU mL(-1) spores and 23.09 ± 3 × 10(9) IU L(-1) Tx) and Foray 76 B (2.3 ± 0.2 × 10(9) CFU mL(-1) spores and 19.950 ± 2.1 UI L(-1) Tx) which was due to the break-up of the external chitinous membrane due to abrasive action of potassium silicate after ingestion by insects. The contribution of sodium acetate buffer and potassium silicate (0.5% and at pH = 5) as anticorrosion agent in the Bioval allowed production of an efficient biopesticide with a reduced viscosity and favorable pH as compared to Foray 76 B which enhanced the entomotoxic potential against spruce budworm (SB) larvae (Lepidoptera: Choristoneura fumiferana).

  9. Determination of lateral-stability derivatives and transfer-function coefficients from frequency-response data for lateral motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donegan, James J; Robinson, Samuel W , Jr; Gates, Ordway, B , jr

    1955-01-01

    A method is presented for determining the lateral-stability derivatives, transfer-function coefficients, and the modes for lateral motion from frequency-response data for a rigid aircraft. The method is based on the application of the vector technique to the equations of lateral motion, so that the three equations of lateral motion can be separated into six equations. The method of least squares is then applied to the data for each of these equations to yield the coefficients of the equations of lateral motion from which the lateral-stability derivatives and lateral transfer-function coefficients are computed. Two numerical examples are given to demonstrate the use of the method.

  10. Navier-Stokes predictions of dynamic stability derivatives for air-breathing hypersonic vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xu; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Yunfei

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic derivatives are important parameters for designing vehicle trajectory and attitude control system that directly decide the divergence behavior of vibration of the aircraft open-loop system under interference. After calibration model validation, the dynamic behavior of air-breathing hypersonic vehicle WR-A is characterized. The unsteady flow field of aircraft forced simple harmonic vibration (SHV) is simulated using N-S equation. The direct damping derivatives, cross derivatives, acceleration derivatives and rotary derivatives of WR-A under different frequencies, amplitudes and positions of centroid are obtained. Research demonstrates that the proportion of acceleration derivatives, which represents the flow time lag effect, in the direct damping derivatives can be as high as 40% but is opposite to the damping derivative value symbols in some cases, contributing to dynamic instability. Numerical simulation on large-amplitude forced vibration of WR-A indicates that the aerodynamic behavior predicted by the dynamic derivative model agrees well with unsteady calculations. The inlet performance parameter derivatives are solved using the Etkin theory. The inlet performance parameters under large-amplitude vibration are successfully predicted using the dynamic derivative model. This offers a guideline for characterizing the dynamic internal flow field and unsteady inlet performance.

  11. Solute-Derived Thermal Stabilization of Nano-sized Grains in Melt-Spun Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. H.; Sanders, P. G.; Lass, E. A.; Kapoor, Deepak; Kampe, S. L.

    2016-08-01

    Thermal stabilization of nanograined metallic microstructures (or nanostructures) can be difficult due to the large driving force for growth that arises from the inherently significant boundary area. Kinetic approaches for stabilization of the nanostructure effective at low homologous temperatures often fail at higher homologous temperatures. Alternatively, thermodynamic approaches for thermal stabilization may offer higher temperature stability. In this research, modest alloying of aluminum with solute (1 pct by mole Sc, Yb, or Sr) was examined as a means to thermodynamically stabilize a bulk nanostructure at elevated temperatures. Following 1-hour annealing treatments at 673 K (400 °C) (0.72 Tm), 773 K (500 °C) (0.83 Tm), and 873 K (600 °C) (0.94 Tm), the alloys remain nanocrystalline (<100 nm) as measured by Warren-Averbach Fourier analysis of X-ray diffraction peaks and direct observation of TEM dark-field micrographs, with the efficacy of stabilization: Sr ≈ Yb > Sc. The disappearance of intermetallic phases in the Sr- and Yb-containing alloys in the X-ray diffraction spectra is observed to occur coincident with the stabilization after annealing, suggesting that precipitates dissolve and the boundaries are enriched with solute.

  12. Calculation of lateral-directional stability derivatives for wing-body combinations with and without jet-interaction effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical method is presented for predicting the lateral-directional stability derivatives of wing-body combinations with or without the blowing jet effect. The fuselage effect is accounted for by the axial distribution of vortex multiplets. Comparison of the predicted results with experiments and other theoretical methods show good agreement for configurations without the blowing jet. More applicable experimental data with blowing jets are needed to establish the accuracy of the theory.

  13. Estimation of Directional Stability Derivatives at Moderate Angles and Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaattari, George E.

    1959-01-01

    A study of some of the important aerodynamic factors affecting the directional stability of supersonic airplanes is presented. The mutual interference fields between the body, the lifting surfaces, and the stabilizing surfaces are analyzed in detail. Evaluation of these interference fields on an approximate theoretical basis leads to a method for predicting directional stability of supersonic airplanes. Body shape, wing position and plan form, vertical tail position and plan form, and ventral fins are taken into account. Estimates of the effects of these factors are in fair agreement with experiment.

  14. Intrinsic (gas phase) thermodynamic stability of 2-adamantyl cation. Its bearing on the solvolysis rates of 2-adamantyl derivatives.

    PubMed

    Abboud, José-Luis M; Castaño, Obis; Dávalos, Juan Z; Jiménez, Pilar; Gomperts, Roberto; Müller, Paul; Roux, María Victoria

    2002-02-22

    The standard enthalpy of formation of gaseous 2-adamantyl chloride(2-Ad-Cl) was determined by calorimetric techniques. The standard Gibbs energy change for the chloride anion exchange between 1-adamantyl (1-Ad+) and 2-adamantyl (2-Ad+) cations in the gas phase was obtained by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance spectroscopy (FT ICR). Theoretical calculations at the G2(MP2) level were performed on these and other relevant species. This and data from the literature provided three highly consistent independent estimates of the relative stabilities of 2-Ad+ and 1-Ad+. This difference in gas-phase stability was compared to the differential structural effects on the rates of solvolysis of the corresponding chlorides and tosylates, and it was shown that the thermodynamic stability of the secondary cation is the leading factor determining the solvolytic reactivity of the precursors in the absence of solvent effects. Thus, under these conditions, the previously established linear free energy correlation between carbenium ion stability and solvolytic reactivity of bridgehead derivatives applies also to secondary derivatives.

  15. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as Plausible Prebiotic Membrane Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groen, Joost; Deamer, David W.; Kros, Alexander; Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    2012-08-01

    Aromatic molecules delivered to the young Earth during the heavy bombardment phase in the early history of our solar system were likely to be among the most abundant and stable organic compounds available. The Aromatic World hypothesis suggests that aromatic molecules might function as container elements, energy transduction elements and templating genetic components for early life forms. To investigate the possible role of aromatic molecules as container elements, we incorporated different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the membranes of fatty acid vesicles. The goal was to determine whether PAH could function as a stabilizing agent, similar to the role that cholesterol plays in membranes today. We studied vesicle size distribution, critical vesicle concentration and permeability of the bilayers using C6-C10 fatty acids mixed with amphiphilic PAH derivatives such as 1-hydroxypyrene, 9-anthracene carboxylic acid and 1,4 chrysene quinone. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) spectroscopy was used to measure the size distribution of vesicles and incorporation of PAH species was established by phase-contrast and epifluorescence microscopy. We employed conductimetric titration to determine the minimal concentration at which fatty acids could form stable vesicles in the presence of PAHs. We found that oxidized PAH derivatives can be incorporated into decanoic acid (DA) vesicle bilayers in mole ratios up to 1:10 (PAH:DA). Vesicle size distribution and critical vesicle concentration were largely unaffected by PAH incorporation, but 1-hydroxypyrene and 9-anthracene carboxylic acid lowered the permeability of fatty acid bilayers to small solutes up to 4-fold. These data represent the first indication of a cholesterol-like stabilizing effect of oxidized PAH derivatives in a simulated prebiotic membrane.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as plausible prebiotic membrane components.

    PubMed

    Groen, Joost; Deamer, David W; Kros, Alexander; Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    2012-08-01

    Aromatic molecules delivered to the young Earth during the heavy bombardment phase in the early history of our solar system were likely to be among the most abundant and stable organic compounds available. The Aromatic World hypothesis suggests that aromatic molecules might function as container elements, energy transduction elements and templating genetic components for early life forms. To investigate the possible role of aromatic molecules as container elements, we incorporated different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the membranes of fatty acid vesicles. The goal was to determine whether PAH could function as a stabilizing agent, similar to the role that cholesterol plays in membranes today. We studied vesicle size distribution, critical vesicle concentration and permeability of the bilayers using C(6)-C(10) fatty acids mixed with amphiphilic PAH derivatives such as 1-hydroxypyrene, 9-anthracene carboxylic acid and 1,4 chrysene quinone. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) spectroscopy was used to measure the size distribution of vesicles and incorporation of PAH species was established by phase-contrast and epifluorescence microscopy. We employed conductimetric titration to determine the minimal concentration at which fatty acids could form stable vesicles in the presence of PAHs. We found that oxidized PAH derivatives can be incorporated into decanoic acid (DA) vesicle bilayers in mole ratios up to 1:10 (PAH:DA). Vesicle size distribution and critical vesicle concentration were largely unaffected by PAH incorporation, but 1-hydroxypyrene and 9-anthracene carboxylic acid lowered the permeability of fatty acid bilayers to small solutes up to 4-fold. These data represent the first indication of a cholesterol-like stabilizing effect of oxidized PAH derivatives in a simulated prebiotic membrane.

  17. Plausibility: Is There a Place for It in Chemistry Teaching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    Some of the persistent misinformation offered to secondary students while studying chemistry is discussed. A few cases where plausibility, knowingly or otherwise, has been offered to students instead of the accurate explanation are described. Concepts of charge, current, the mole, amount, rates, activation energy, sign convention in voltaic cells,…

  18. Plausibility: Is There a Place for It in Chemistry Teaching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    Some of the persistent misinformation offered to secondary students while studying chemistry is discussed. A few cases where plausibility, knowingly or otherwise, has been offered to students instead of the accurate explanation are described. Concepts of charge, current, the mole, amount, rates, activation energy, sign convention in voltaic cells,…

  19. Phospholipid derivatives of nucleoside analogs as prodrugs with enhanced catabolic stability

    SciTech Connect

    Matsushita, T.; Ryu, E.K.; Hong, C.I.; MacCoss, M.

    1981-07-01

    The nucleoside 5'-diphosphate-L-1,2-dipalmitin derivatives of 1-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-D), 9-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosyladenine (ara-A), and tubercidin have been synthesized, and their cytotoxicity has been evaluated against a mouse myeloma cell line (MPC-11) in vitro and against L1210 lymphoid leukemia both in vitro and in vivo. Sonication methods were utilized to solubilize these lipophilic derivatives in aqueous solution in order to facilitate such biological evaluation; the ara-A derivative resisted solubilization by several techniques. (JMT)

  20. Denatured state aggregation parameters derived from concentration dependence of protein stability.

    PubMed

    Schön, Arne; Clarkson, Benjamin R; Siles, Rogelio; Ross, Patrick; Brown, Richard K; Freire, Ernesto

    2015-11-01

    Protein aggregation is a major issue affecting the long-term stability of protein preparations. Proteins exist in equilibrium between the native and denatured or partially denatured conformations. Often denatured or partially denatured conformations are prone to aggregate because they expose to solvent the hydrophobic core of the protein. The aggregation of denatured protein gradually shifts the protein equilibrium toward increasing amounts of denatured and ultimately aggregated protein. Recognizing and quantitating the presence of denatured protein and its aggregation at the earliest possible time will bring enormous benefits to the identification and selection of optimal solvent conditions or the engineering of proteins with the best stability/aggregation profile. In this article, a new approach that allows simultaneous determination of structural stability and the amount of denatured and aggregated protein is presented. This approach is based on the analysis of the concentration dependence of the Gibbs energy (ΔG) of protein stability. It is shown that three important quantities can be evaluated simultaneously: (i) the population of denatured protein, (ii) the population of aggregated protein, and (iii) the fraction of denatured protein that is aggregated.

  1. Rice Husk Ash-Derived Silica Nanofluids: Synthesis and Stability Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiliang; He, Wenxiu; Zheng, Jianzhong; Wang, Guangquan; Ji, Jianbing

    2016-12-01

    Nanofluids, colloidal suspensions consisting of base fluids and nanoparticles, are a new generation of engineering working fluids. Nanofluids have shown great potential in heat/mass transfer applications. However, their practical applications are limited by the high production cost and low stability. In this study, a low-cost agricultural waste, rice husk ash (RHA), was used as a silicon source to the synthesis of silica nanofluids. First, silica nanoparticles with an average size of 47 nm were synthesized. Next, by dispersing the silica nanoparticles in water with ultrasonic vibration, silica nanofluids were formed. The results indicated that the dispersibility and stability of nanofluids were highly dependent on sonication time and power, dispersant types and concentrations, as well as pH; an optimal experiment condition could result in the highest stability of silica nanofluid. After 7 days storage, the nanofluid showed no sedimentation, unchanged particle size, and zeta potential. The results of this study demonstrated that there is a great potential for the use of RHA as a low-cost renewable resource for the production of stable silica nanofluids. Graphical Abstract Rice husk ash was used as a low-cost renewable resource for production of silica nanofluids with high stability.

  2. Metal Hydride Nanoparticles with Ultrahigh Structural Stability and Hydrogen Storage Activity Derived from Microencapsulated Nanoconfinement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiguang; Zhu, Yunfeng; Lin, Huaijun; Liu, Yana; Zhang, Yao; Li, Shenyang; Ma, Zhongliang; Li, Liquan

    2017-06-01

    Metal hydrides (MHs) have recently been designed for hydrogen sensors, switchable mirrors, rechargeable batteries, and other energy-storage and conversion-related applications. The demands of MHs, particular fast hydrogen absorption/desorption kinetics, have brought their sizes to nanoscale. However, the nanostructured MHs generally suffer from surface passivation and low aggregation-resisting structural stability upon absorption/desorption. This study reports a novel strategy named microencapsulated nanoconfinement to realize local synthesis of nano-MHs, which possess ultrahigh structural stability and superior desorption kinetics. Monodispersed Mg2 NiH4 single crystal nanoparticles (NPs) are in situ encapsulated on the surface of graphene sheets (GS) through facile gas-solid reactions. This well-defined MgO coating layer with a thickness of ≈3 nm efficiently separates the NPs from each other to prevent aggregation during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles, leading to excellent thermal and mechanical stability. More interestingly, the MgO layer shows superior gas-selective permeability to prevent further oxidation of Mg2 NiH4 meanwhile accessible for hydrogen absorption/desorption. As a result, an extremely low activation energy (31.2 kJ mol(-1) ) for the dehydrogenation reaction is achieved. This study provides alternative insights into designing nanosized MHs with both excellent hydrogen storage activity and thermal/mechanical stability exempting surface modification by agents. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Genomic stability of Palmer amaranth plants derived by macro-vegetative propagation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Q-PCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were utilized to investigate genetic stability of Palmer amaranth cloned plants over 10 generations. Q-PCR analysis of DNA from parent Palmer amaranth plants was repeated and confidence levels for determining ...

  4. Peroxidase-like activity of gold nanoparticles stabilized by hyperbranched polyglycidol derivatives over a wide pH range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd, Marcin; Pietrzak, Mariusz; Parzuchowski, Paweł; Mazurkiewicz-Pawlicka, Marta; Malinowska, Elżbieta

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to carry out comparative studies on the peroxidase-like activity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) stabilized with low molecular weight hyperbranched polyglycidol (HBPG-OH) and its derivative modified with maleic acid residues (HBPG-COOH). The influence of the stabilizer to gold precursor ratio on the size and morphology of nanoparticles obtained was checked, and prepared nanoparticles were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results indicated the divergent effect of increasing the concentration of stabilizers (HBPG-OH or HBPG-COOH) on the size of the nanostructures obtained. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized as having intrinsic peroxidase-like activity and the mechanism of catalysis in acidic and alkaline mediums was consistent with the standard Michaelis-Menten kinetics, revealing a strong affinity of AuNPs with 2, 2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 3, 3‧, 5, 5‧-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), and significantly lower affinity towards phenol. By comparing the kinetic parameters, a negligible effect of polymeric ligand charge on activity against various types of substrates (anionic or cationic) was indicated. The superiority of steric stabilization via the application of tested low-weight hyperbranched polymers over typical stabilizers in preventing salt-induced aggregation and maintaining high catalytic activity in time was proved. The applied hyperbranched stabilizers provide a good tool for manufacturing gold-based nanozymes, which are highly stable and active over a wide pH range.

  5. On (in)stabilities of perturbations in mimetic models with higher derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yunlong; Shen, Liuyuan; Mou, Yicen; Li, Mingzhe

    2017-08-01

    Usually when applying the mimetic model to the early universe, higher derivative terms are needed to promote the mimetic field to be dynamical. However such models suffer from the ghost and/or the gradient instabilities and simple extensions cannot cure this pathology. We point out in this paper that it is possible to overcome this difficulty by considering the direct couplings of the higher derivatives of the mimetic field to the curvature of the spacetime.

  6. Slow Computing Simulation of Bio-plausible Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    shown earlier. The discrete approximation to S is comparable to the Sobel operator used for edge detection in image processing; however, this...however, we focus on the problem of stabilization of a small, power-constrained platform. Traditional localization and stabilization methods are based ...environment. Visual stabilization refers to platform stabilization based on visual input. Traditional control methods for visual stabilization are too

  7. A parametric study of planform and aeroelastic effects on aerodynamic center, alpha- and q- stability derivatives. Appendix A: A computer program for calculating alpha- and q- stability derivatives and induced drag for thin elastic aeroplanes at subsonic and supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.; Lan, C.; Mehrotra, S.

    1972-01-01

    The computer program used to determine the rigid and elastic stability derivatives presented in the summary report is listed in this appendix along with instructions for its use, sample input data and answers. This program represents the airplane at subsonic and supersonic speeds as (a) thin surface(s) (without dihedral) composed of discrete panels of constant pressure according to the method of Woodward for the aerodynamic effects and slender beam(s) for the structural effects. Given a set of input data, the computer program calculates an aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix and a structural influence coefficient matrix.

  8. Improved stability of TMS derivatives for the robust quantification of plant polar metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Quéro, Anthony; Jousse, Cyril; Lequart-Pillon, Michelle; Gontier, Eric; Guillot, Xavier; Courtois, Bernard; Courtois, Josiane; Pau-Roblot, Corinne

    2014-11-01

    Plant metabolite profiling is commonly carried out by GC-MS of methoximated trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives. This technique is robust and enables a library search for spectra produced by electron ionization. However, recent articles have described problems associated with the low stability of some TMS derivatives. This limits the use of GC-MS for metabolomic studies that need large sets of qualitative and quantitative analyses. The aim of this work is to determine the experimental conditions in which the stability of TMS derivatives could be improved. This would facilitate the analysis of the large-scale experimental designs needed in the metabolomics approach. For good repeatability, the sampling conditions and the storage temperature of samples during analysis were investigated. Multiple injections of one sample from one vial led to high variations while injection of one sample from different vials improved the analysis. However, before injection, some amino acid TMS derivatives were degraded during the storage of vials in the autosampler. Only 10% of the initial quantity of glutamine 3 TMS and glutamate 3 TMS and 66% of α-alanine 2 TMS was detected 48 h after derivatization. When stored at 4 °C until injection, all TMS derivatives remained stable for 12 h; at -20 °C, they remained stable for 72 h. From the integration of all these results, a detailed analytical procedure is thus proposed. It enables a robust quantification of polar metabolites, useful for further plant metabolomics studies using GC-MS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of advanced techniques for the assessment of bio-stability of biowaste-derived residues: A minireview.

    PubMed

    Lü, Fan; Shao, Li-Ming; Zhang, Hua; Fu, Wen-Ding; Feng, Shi-Jin; Zhan, Liang-Tong; Chen, Yun-Min; He, Pin-Jing

    2017-06-12

    Bio-stability is a key feature for the utilization and final disposal of biowaste-derived residues, such as aerobic compost or vermicompost of food waste, bio-dried waste, anaerobic digestate or landfilled waste. The present paper reviews conventional methods and advanced techniques used for the assessment of bio-stability. The conventional methods are reclassified into two categories. Advanced techniques, including spectroscopic (fluorescent, ultraviolet-visible, infrared, Raman, nuclear magnetic resonance), thermogravimetric and thermochemolysis analysis, are emphasized for their application in bio-stability assessment in recent years. Their principles, pros and cons are critically discussed. These advanced techniques are found to be convenient in sample preparation and to supply diversified information. However, the viability of these techniques as potential indicators for bio-stability assessment ultimately lies in the establishment of the relationship of advanced ones with the conventional methods, especially with the methods based on biotic response. Furthermore, some misuses in data explanation should be noted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quinazoline derivative QPB-15e stabilizes the c-myc promoter G-quadruplex and inhibits tumor growth in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zeng; Liu, Chen; Huang, Cheng; Meng, Xiaoming; Zhang, Lei; He, Jinhui; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The ribozyme-sensitive element NHE-III1 in the P1 promoter region of the important proto-oncogene c-myc contains many guanine (G)-rich sequences. Induction and stabilization of the G-quadruplex formed by NHE-III1 can downregulate c-myc expression. In the present study, we found that QPB-15e, a quinazoline derivative designed and synthesized by our laboratory, binds to and stabilizes the c-myc G-quadruplex in vitro, thereby inhibiting double-stranded DNA replication, downregulating c-myc gene expression and arresting cancer cell proliferation. PCR termination experiments showed that QPB-15e blocked double-stranded DNA replication by inducing or stabilizing the c-myc G-quadruplex. FRET-melting further confirmed that QPB-15e improved the stability of the G-quadruplex, and CD spectroscopy indicated that the compound interacted directly with the G-rich sequence. In competitive dialysis experiments, QPB-15e bound preferentially to quadruplex DNA in various structures, especially the G-quadruplex within the c-myc promoter region. Moreover, QPB-15e reduced the weights and volumes of tumors transplanted into nude mice. These findings strongly suggest that QPB-15e is a c-myc G-quadruplex ligand with anti-tumor properties, and may be efficacious for treating cancer in humans. PMID:27144522

  11. X-29A Lateral-Directional Stability and Control Derivatives Extracted From High-Angle-of-Attack Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles Wang

    1996-01-01

    The lateral-directional stability and control derivatives of the X-29A number 2 are extracted from flight data over an angle-of-attack range of 4 degrees to 53 degrees using a parameter identification algorithm. The algorithm uses the linearized aircraft equations of motion and a maximum likelihood estimator in the presence of state and measurement noise. State noise is used to model the uncommanded forcing function caused by unsteady aerodynamics over the aircraft at angles of attack above 15 degrees. The results supported the flight-envelope-expansion phase of the X-29A number 2 by helping to update the aerodynamic mathematical model, to improve the real-time simulator, and to revise flight control system laws. Effects of the aircraft high gain flight control system on maneuver quality and the estimated derivatives are also discussed. The derivatives are plotted as functions of angle of attack and compared with the predicted aerodynamic database. Agreement between predicted and flight values is quite good for some derivatives such as the lateral force due to sideslip, the lateral force due to rudder deflection, and the rolling moment due to roll rate. The results also show significant differences in several important derivatives such as the rolling moment due to sideslip, the yawing moment due to sideslip, the yawing moment due to aileron deflection, and the yawing moment due to rudder deflection.

  12. Understanding the nucleophilic character and stability of the carbanions and alkoxides of 1-(9-anthryl)ethanol and derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Ramsés E; García-Martínez, Cirilo; Méndez, Francisco

    2013-08-22

    The nucleophilic character and stability of the carbanions vs. alkoxides derived from 2,2,2-trifluoro-1-(9-anthryl)ethanol and 1-(9-anthryl)ethanol containing X electron-releasing and X electron-acceptor substituents attached to C-10, have been studied at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. Results analyzed in terms of the absolute gas-phase acidity, Fukui function, the local hard and soft acids and bases principle, and the molecular electrostatic potential, show that the central ring of the 9-anthryl group confers an ambident nucleophilic character and stabilizes the conjugated carbanion by electron-acceptor delocalization.

  13. [Effect of carnosine and its N-acetyl derivative on the stability of erythrocytes in patients with alcoholism during abstinence].

    PubMed

    Prokop'eva, V D; Bohan, N A; Johnson, P; Boldyrev, A A

    1998-01-01

    The effects of carnosine, a natural dipeptide, and its derivative, N- acetyl-carnosine (Ac-carnosine), on the stability and shape of red blood cells obtained from abstinent alcoholics was studied. In the presence of both carnosine and Ac-carnosine, the erythrocytes of abstinent alcoholics show a statistically significant increase in their ability to resist acidic hemolysis. Investigations of microscope pictures also show that carnosine and Ac-carnosine have beneficial effects on the pathological state of abstinent alcoholic erythrocytes. The addition of carnosine and Ac-carnosine resulted in the normalization of cell morphology (in 12 and 17 out of 30 cases, respectively). These results may be due to the stabilizing and regenerating ability of these compounds on alcoholic erythrocytes.

  14. Stabilities of daidzin, glycitin, genistin, and generation of derivatives during heating.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhimin; Wu, Qiju; Godber, J Samuel

    2002-12-04

    The soy isoflavones daidzin, glycitin, and genistin were purified from defatted soy flour using preparative-scale reverse-phase HPLC. The stabilities of the three isoflavones at different heating temperatures were investigated. Daidzin, glycitin, and genistin were lost at a rate of 26, 27, and 27% of their original concentration, respectively, after 3 min at 185 degrees C. At 215 degrees C, decreases of daidzin, glycitin, and genistin were 65, 98, and 74% after 3 min and 91, 99, and 94% after 15 min, respectively. The order of the thermal stabilities, from lowest to highest, was glycitin, genistin, and daidzin. Acetyl daidzin and acetyl genistin, daidzein, glycitein, and genistein were produced during heating at temperatures above 135 degrees C. The rate of binding of an acetyl group to form acetyl daidzin and acetyl genistin from daidzin and genistin was higher than the rate of loss of a glucoside group to form daidzein and genistein. However, acetyl daidzin and acetyl genistin decreased sharply at temperatures above 200 degrees C, while daidzein, glycitein, and genistein were relatively stable over 30 min. The stability of daidzein was higher than that of glycitein or genistein.

  15. Rice Husk Ash-Derived Silica Nanofluids: Synthesis and Stability Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiliang; He, Wenxiu; Zheng, Jianzhong; Wang, Guangquan; Ji, Jianbing

    2016-11-01

    Nanofluids, colloidal suspensions consisting of base fluids and nanoparticles, are a new generation of engineering working fluids. Nanofluids have shown great potential in heat/mass transfer applications. However, their practical applications are limited by the high production cost and low stability. In this study, a low-cost agricultural waste, rice husk ash (RHA), was used as a silicon source to the synthesis of silica nanofluids. First, silica nanoparticles with an average size of 47 nm were synthesized. Next, by dispersing the silica nanoparticles in water with ultrasonic vibration, silica nanofluids were formed. The results indicated that the dispersibility and stability of nanofluids were highly dependent on sonication time and power, dispersant types and concentrations, as well as pH; an optimal experiment condition could result in the highest stability of silica nanofluid. After 7 days storage, the nanofluid showed no sedimentation, unchanged particle size, and zeta potential. The results of this study demonstrated that there is a great potential for the use of RHA as a low-cost renewable resource for the production of stable silica nanofluids.

  16. Identification of stability and control derivatives for AS 355 L2 helicopter with Quad-M/CTA methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Sérgio Servilha; Menegaldo, Luciano Luporini

    2012-11-01

    This work presents results obtained from a study of case for H-55 Helicopter System Identification which was carried out by an implementation of Quad-M Methodology purposed for Jategaonkar. The implementation performed was based on Cruz et al whose works were developed in Centro Técnico Aeroespacial (CTA). A comparison between Stability and Control Derivatives tables from these results and those from literature is performed for some important flight conditions. This comparison allows us to conclude about the reliability of the method, to present preliminary SCD tables for the studied aircraft and point to possible future works.

  17. A Wind-tunnel Test Technique for Measuring the Dynamic Rotary Stability Derivatives at Subsonic and Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beam, Benjamin H

    1956-01-01

    A method is described for measuring the dynamic stability derivatives of a model airplane in a wind tunnel. The characteristic features of this system are that single-degree-of-freedom oscillations were used to obtain combinations of rolling, yawing and pitching motions; that the oscillations were excited and controlled by velocity feedback which permitted operation under conditions unfavorable for more conventional types of oscillatory testing; and that data processing was greatly simplified by using analog computer elements in the strain-gage circuitry. A small number of experimental data are included to illustrate the general scope of results obtainable with this system.

  18. Estimation of Stability Derivatives in Pitch for an Oscillating Wedge in Hypersonic Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afghan Khan, Sher; Asadullah, Mohammed

    2017-03-01

    A similitude has been obtained for an oscillating two-dimensional wedge in pitch with attached shock at high angle of incidence in hypersonic flow. A strip theory, in which flow at infinite span wise location is two dimensional and independent of each other is being used. Further this unites the similitude with piston theory to give one dimensional piston theory with large flow deflection. Closed form solution is obtained for stiffness and damping derivatives in pitch. The present theory is valid when the shock wave is attached with the nose of the wedge. With the increase in semi vertex angle of the wedge the stiffness and the damping derivatives are found to increase progressively, and with the increase in the Mach number both stiffness and damping derivatives are found to decrease then with increase in Mach number it becomes independent of Mach number. From the amalgamation of theory developed, we can evaluate the stiffness and damping derivatives for in pitch for a wide range of Mach numbers, for various pivot positions, and angle of attack. Significantly the same results are being validated with the analytical results of Liu and Hui [4] and Lighthill’s [3] theory for some cases.

  19. Does Chernobyl-derived radiation impact the developmental stability of Asellus aquaticus 30years on?

    PubMed

    Fuller, Neil; Smith, Jim T; Nagorskaya, Liubov L; Gudkov, Dmitri I; Ford, Alex T

    2017-01-15

    Effects of long-term, environmentally relevant doses of radiation on biota remain unclear due to a lack of studies following chronic exposure in contaminated environments. The 1986 Chernobyl accident dispersed vast amounts of radioactivity into the environment which persists to date. Despite three decades of research, impacts of the incident on non-human organisms continues to be contested within the scientific literature. The present study assessed the impact of chronic radiation exposure from Chernobyl on the developmental stability of the model aquatic isopod, Asellus aquaticus using fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as an indicator. Fluctuating asymmetry, defined as random deviations from the expected perfect bilateral symmetry of an organism, has gained prominence as an indicator of developmental stability in ecotoxicology. Organisms were collected from six lakes along a gradient of radionuclide contamination in Belarus and the Ukraine. Calculated total dose rates ranged from 0.06-27.1μGy/h. Fluctuating asymmetry was assessed in four meristic and one metrical trait. Significant differences in levels of pooled asymmetry were recorded between sample sites independent of sex and specific trait measured. However, there was no correlation of asymmetry with radiation doses, suggesting that differences in asymmetry were not attributed to radionuclide contamination and were driven by elevated asymmetry at a single site. No correlation between FA and measured environmental parameters suggested a biotic factor driving observed FA differences. This study appears to be the first to record no evident increase in developmental stability of biota from the Chernobyl region. These findings will aid in understanding the response of organisms to chronic pollutant exposure and the long term effects of large scale nuclear incidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima.

  20. Extraction of Lateral-Directional Stability and Control Derivatives for the Basic F-18 Aircraft at High Angles of Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles

    1997-01-01

    The results of parameter identification to determine the lateral-directional stability and control derivatives of an F-18 research aircraft in its basic hardware and software configuration are presented. The derivatives are estimated from dynamic flight data using a specialized identification program developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The formulation uses the linearized aircraft equations of motions in their continuous/discrete form and a maximum likelihood estimator that accounts for both state and measurement noise. State noise is used to model the uncommanded forcing function caused by unsteady aerodynamics, such as separated and vortical flows, over the aircraft. The derivatives are plotted as functions of angle of attack between 3 deg and 47 deg and compared with wind-tunnel predictions. The quality of the derivative estimates obtained by parameter identification is somewhat degraded because the maneuvers were flown with the aircraft's control augmentation system engaged, which introduced relatively high correlations between the control variables and response variables as a result of control motions from the feedback control system.

  1. Enhancement of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) thermal and processing stability using a bio-waste derived additive.

    PubMed

    Persico, Paola; Ambrogi, Veronica; Baroni, Antonio; Santagata, Gabriella; Carfagna, Cosimo; Malinconico, Mario; Cerruti, Pierfrancesco

    2012-12-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is a biodegradable polymer, whose applicability is limited by its brittleness and narrow processing window. In this study a pomace extract (EP), from the bio-waste of winery industry, was used as thermal and processing stabilizer for PHB, aimed to engineer a totally bio-based system. The results showed that EP enhanced the thermal stability of PHB, which maintained high molecular weights after processing. This evidence was in agreement with the slower decrease in viscosity over time observed by rheological tests. EP also affected the melt crystallization kinetics and the overall crystallinity extent. Finally, dynamic mechanical and tensile tests showed that EP slightly improved the polymer ductility. The results are intriguing, in view of the development of sustainable alternatives to synthetic polymer additives, thus increasing the applicability of bio-based materials. Moreover, the reported results demonstrated the feasibility of the conversion of an agro-food by-product into a bio-resource in an environmentally friendly and cost-effective way.

  2. Analysis of Dynamic Stability of Space Launch Vehicles under Aerodynamic Forces Using CFD Derived Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trikha, M.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Mahapatra, D. Roy

    2011-09-01

    A computational framework is developed to investigate the dynamic stability of space launch vehicles subjected to aerodynamic forces. A detailed mechanics based mathematical model of a moving flexible vehicle is used. The aerodynamic forces on the vehicle are obtained from simulation using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) package. The objective behind this investigation is to analyze the problem of aeroelastic instability in blunt/conical nose slender space launch vehicles. Coupling among the rigid-body modes, the longitudinal vibration modes, and the transverse vibrational modes are considered. The effect of propulsive thrust as a follower force is also considered. A one-dimensional finite element model is developed to investigate the occurrence of aeroelastic instabilities of various types. Eigenvalues of the vehicle are determined in order to analyze the stable regimes. As a special case, we show numerical simulations by considering a typical vehicle configuration, for a vehicle Mach number of 0.8. Phenomenon of flutter is observed at this Mach number. The proposed analysis is suitable for different launch events such as vehicle take-off, maximum dynamic pressure regime, thrust transients, stage separation etc. The approach developed in this paper can be utilized for preliminary design of launch vehicles and establishing the stability boundaries for different trajectory parameters.

  3. Bio-lubricants derived from waste cooking oil with improved oxidation stability and low-temperature properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Weimin; Wang, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) was chemically modified via epoxidation using H2O2 followed by transesterification with methanol and branched alcohols (isooctanol, isotridecanol and isooctadecanol) to produce bio-lubricants with improved oxidative stability and low temperature properties. Physicochemical properties of synthesized bio-lubricants such as pour point (PP), cloud point (CP), viscosity, viscosity index (VI), oxidative stability, and corrosion resistant property were determined according to standard methods. The synthesized bio-lubricants showed improved low temperature flow performances compared with WCO, which can be attributing to the introduction of branched chains in their molecular structures. What's more, the oxidation stability of the WCO showed more than 10 folds improvement due to the elimination of -C=C-bonds in the WCO molecule. Tribological performances of these bio-lubricants were also investigated using four-ball friction and wear tester. Experimental results showed that derivatives of WCO exhibited favorable physicochemical properties and tribological performances which making them good candidates in formulating eco-friendly lubricants.

  4. Atomistic Origins of High Capacity and High Structural Stability of Polymer-Derived SiOC Anode Materials.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong; Zhao, Kejie

    2017-09-28

    Capacity and structural stability are often mutually exclusive properties of electrodes in Li-ion batteries (LIBs): a gain in capacity is usually accompanied by the undesired large volumetric change of the host material upon lithiation. Polymer-derived ceramics, such as silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) of hybrid Si-O-C bonds, show an exceptional combination of high capacity and superior structural stability. We investigate the atomistic origins of the unique chemomechanical performance of carbon-rich SiOC using the first-principles theoretical approach. The atomic model of SiOC is composed of continuous Si-O-C units caged by a graphene-like cellular network and percolated nanovoids. The segregated sp(2) carbon network serves as the backbone to maintain the structural stability of the lattice. Li insertion is first absorbed at the nanovoid sites, and then it is accommodated by the SiOC tetrahedral units, excess C atoms, and topological defects at the edge of or within the segregated carbon network. SiOC expands up to 22% in volumetric strain at the fully lithiated capacity of 1230 mA h/g. We examine in great detail the evolution of the microscopic features of the SiOC molecule in the course of Li reactions. The first-principles modeling provides a fundamental understanding of the physicochemical properties of Si-based glass ceramics for their application in LIBs.

  5. Oxidative stability and ignition quality of algae derived methyl esters containing varying levels of methyl eicosapentaenoate and methyl docosahexaenoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucy, Harrison

    Microalgae is currently receiving strong consideration as a potential biofuel feedstock to help meet the advanced biofuels mandate of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act because of its theoretically high yield (gallons/acre/year) in comparison to current terrestrial feedstocks. Additionally, microalgae also do not compete with food and can be cultivated with wastewater on non-arable land. Microalgae lipids can be converted into a variety of biofuels including fatty acid methyl esters (e.g. FAME biodiesel), renewable diesel, renewable gasoline, or jet fuel. For microalgae derived FAME, the fuel properties will be directly related to the fatty acid composition of the lipids produced by the given microalgae strain. Several microalgae species under consideration for wide scale cultivation, such as Nannochloropsis, produce lipids with fatty acid compositions containing substantially higher quantities of long chainpolyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in comparison to terrestrial feedstocks. It is expected that increased levels of LC-PUFA will be problematic in terms of meeting all of the current ASTM specifications for biodiesel. For example, it is known that oxidative stability and cetane number decrease with increasing levels of LC-PUFA. However, these same LC-PUFA fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA: C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA: C22:6) are known to have high nutritional value thereby making separation of these compounds economically attractive. Given the uncertainty in the future value of these LC-PUFA compounds and the economic viability of the separation process, the goal of this study was to examine the oxidative stability and ignition quality of algae-based FAME with varying levels of EPA and DHA removal. Oxidative stability tests were conducted at a temperature of 110°C and airflow of 10 L/h using a Metrohm 743 Rancimat with automatic induction period determination following the EN 14112 Method from the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214

  6. The influence of time dependent flight and maneuver velocities and elastic or viscoelastic flexibilities on aerodynamic and stability derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrane, Alexander P.; Merrett, Craig G.; Hilton, Harry H.

    2014-12-10

    The advent of new structural concepts employing composites in primary load carrying aerospace structures in UAVs, MAVs, Boeing 787s, Airbus A380s, etc., necessitates the inclusion of flexibility as well as viscoelasticity in static structural and aero-viscoelastic analyses. Differences and similarities between aeroelasticity and aero-viscoelasticity have been investigated in [2]. An investigation is undertaken as to the dependence and sensitivity of aerodynamic and stability derivatives to elastic and viscoelastic structural flexibility and as to time dependent flight and maneuver velocities. Longitudinal, lateral and directional stabilities are investigated. It has been a well established fact that elastic lifting surfaces are subject to loss of control effectiveness and control reversal at certain flight speeds, which depend on aerodynamic, structural and material properties [5]. Such elastic analyses are extended to linear viscoelastic materials under quasi-static, dynamic, and sudden and gradual loading conditions. In elastic wings one of the critical static parameters is the velocity at which control reversal takes place (V{sub REV}{sup E}). Since elastic formulations constitute viscoelastic initial conditions, viscoelastic reversal may occur at speeds V{sub REV<}{sup ≧}V{sub REV}{sup E}, but furthermore does so in time at 0 < t{sub REV} ≤ ∞. The influence of the twin effects of viscoelastic and elastic materials and of variable flight velocities on longitudinal, lateral, directional and spin stabilities are also investigated. It has been a well established fact that elastic lifting surfaces are subject to loss of control effectiveness and control reversal at certain flight speeds, which depend on aerodynamic, structural and material properties [5]. Such elastic analyses are here extended to linear viscoelastic materials under quasi-static, dynamic, and sudden and gradual loading conditions. In elastic wings the critical parameter is the velocity at

  7. The influence of time dependent flight and maneuver velocities and elastic or viscoelastic flexibilities on aerodynamic and stability derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, Alexander P.; Merrett, Craig G.; Hilton, Harry H.

    2014-12-01

    The advent of new structural concepts employing composites in primary load carrying aerospace structures in UAVs, MAVs, Boeing 787s, Airbus A380s, etc., necessitates the inclusion of flexibility as well as viscoelasticity in static structural and aero-viscoelastic analyses. Differences and similarities between aeroelasticity and aero-viscoelasticity have been investigated in [2]. An investigation is undertaken as to the dependence and sensitivity of aerodynamic and stability derivatives to elastic and viscoelastic structural flexibility and as to time dependent flight and maneuver velocities. Longitudinal, lateral and directional stabilities are investigated. It has been a well established fact that elastic lifting surfaces are subject to loss of control effectiveness and control reversal at certain flight speeds, which depend on aerodynamic, structural and material properties [5]. Such elastic analyses are extended to linear viscoelastic materials under quasi-static, dynamic, and sudden and gradual loading conditions. In elastic wings one of the critical static parameters is the velocity at which control reversal takes place (VREVE). Since elastic formulations constitute viscoelastic initial conditions, viscoelastic reversal may occur at speeds VREV<≧VREVE, but furthermore does so in time at 0 < tREV ≤ ∞. The influence of the twin effects of viscoelastic and elastic materials and of variable flight velocities on longitudinal, lateral, directional and spin stabilities are also investigated. It has been a well established fact that elastic lifting surfaces are subject to loss of control effectiveness and control reversal at certain flight speeds, which depend on aerodynamic, structural and material properties [5]. Such elastic analyses are here extended to linear viscoelastic materials under quasi-static, dynamic, and sudden and gradual loading conditions. In elastic wings the critical parameter is the velocity at which control reversal takes place (VREVE

  8. Foundations of Soil Organic Matter Stabilization: Tracing the Influence of Mineralogy on the Initial Sorption of Root-Derived Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neurath, R.; Nico, P. S.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Firestone, M.

    2014-12-01

    Soils are the largest terrestrial carbon (C) reservoir, storing 2,300 Gt C globally, with the largest C input allocated by plant roots. Many root-derived C inputs are low molecular weight compounds (exudates), although complex C compounds from sloughed off cells and decaying roots also contribute precursors to the soil organic matter (SOM) pool. Root-derived compounds are metabolized by microorganisms, using extracellular enzymes to degrade the more complex C compounds. Thus, products of microbial use of root C may be free in soil solution or occur as microbial cell material. Products of root decomposition are stabilized in soil when C compounds are protected from degradation by (i) chemical recalcitrance, (ii) physical protection by aggregation, or (iii) physical-chemical protection by sorption to mineral surfaces. Previous studies show that sorption of SOM to soil minerals can stabilize C compounds for up to thousands of years. We examined the influence of soil mineralogy on sorption of root-derived C. We hypothesized that differences in specific surface area (SSA) and chemical reactivity of four mineral types: goethite, kaolinite, quartz, as well as native minerals extracted from field soil, are significant controls on the rate, quantity, and composition of mineral-sorbed SOM. Soils were collected at the UC Hopland Research and Extension Center in Hopland, CA and planted in soil microcosms with the common annual grass A. barbata; seeds collected from the field site. Microcosms were incubated in a sealed chamber under 13CO2 (99 atom%) for 8 weeks. Plant photosynthesized-C is allocated to the soil via roots, and with the 13C label, allows us to trace the fate of plant-derived C in the soil. Minerals, which were isolated in 18 μm mesh to exclude roots but not microorganisms, were extracted and measured for total C and 13C atom% after a 12 week growing season of A. barbata. Preliminary FTIR and 13C-NMR analysis show differences in the chemical composition of

  9. Aminopyridinyl-Pseudodeoxycytidine Derivatives Selectively Stabilize Antiparallel Triplex DNA with Multiple CG Inversion Sites.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Hidenori; Taniguchi, Yosuke; Sasaki, Shigeki

    2016-09-26

    The sequence-specific formation of triplex DNA offers a potential basis for genome-targeting technologies. In an antiparallel triplex DNA, the sequence-specificity is established by the formation of specific base triplets (G-GC, A-AT, and T-AT) between a triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) and a duplex DNA. However, there are no natural nucleosides that can selectively recognize the inverted CG and TA base pairs. Therefore, the recognition of the CG and TA inversion sites to form a stable triplex DNA has been a long-standing goal for the triplex-forming technology. We now describe the design and synthesis of pseudo-deoxycytidine (ΨdC) derivatives for selective recognition of the CG base pair to expand the triplex-forming sequence. The aminopyridine-bearing ΨdC derivatives showed high selectivity and affinity toward the CG base pair in all neighboring base contexts. Remarkably, 3-methyl-2-aminopyridinyl-ΨdC ((Me) AP-ΨdC) formed a stable triplex with the promoter sequence of the hTERT gene containing four CG inversion sites, and effectively inhibited its transcription in human cancer cells. Thus, (Me) AP-ΨdC is expected to serve as a new starting point of triplex-forming oligonucleotides for a wide variety of genome-targeting applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Theoretical studies on the stability, detonation performance and possibility of synthesis of the nitro derivatives of epoxyethane.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueli; Gong, Xuedong

    2014-08-01

    Compounds with heterocyclic rings and NO2 groups have drawn much attention as high energy density compounds in recent years. In this study, the nitro derivatives 1-4 of epoxyethane (ETO) were investigated, and their synthetic possibilities in thermodynamics and thermal stability were predicted. The trigger bond for 1, 2 and 3 is the C-C bond, but for 4 it is the C-NO2 bond. The bond dissociation energies (EBDs) were estimated to be 205.40-164.86 kJ mol(-1) and h 50s were 53-126 cm. EBD, h 50 and energy gap all decrease from 1 to 4. A linear relationship exists between the strain energy and the number of the NO2 group. Derivative 2 has a zero oxygen balance and possesses the best detonation properties (D=8.77 km s(-1) and P=33.88 GPa) as a single explosive. Derivatives 3 and 4 used as oxidizers in the composite explosives of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) produce very good detonation performance (D=9.36 km s(-1), P=40.15 GPa and I s = 281.56 s for 3/RDX, and D=9.45 km s(-1), P=41.04 GPa and I s=280.34 s for 4/RDX). The intermolecular hydrogen bonding and dispersion interactions of 3/RDX and 4/RDX show that the compatibilities of these composites are acceptable.

  11. Microphysically derived expressions for rate-and-state friction and fault stability parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianye; Niemeijer, Andre; Spiers, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    Rate-and-state friction (RSF) laws and associated parameters are extensively applied to fault mechanics, mainly on an empirical basis with a limited understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms. We recently established a general microphysical model [Chen and Spiers, 2016], for describing both steady-state and transient frictional behavior of any granular fault gouge material undergoing deformation by granular flow plus an arbitrary creep mechanism at grain contacts, such as pressure solution. We further showed that the model is able to reproduce typical experimental frictional results, namely "velocity stepping" and "slide-hold-slide" sequences, in satisfactory agreement with the main features and trends observed. Here, we extend our model, which we explored only numerically thus far, to obtain analytical solutions for the classical rate and state friction parameters from a purely microphysical modelling basis. By analytically solving the constitutive equations of the model under various boundary conditions, physically meaningful, theoretical expressions for the RSF parameters, i.e. a, b and Dc, are obtained. We also apply linear stability analysis to a spring-slider system, describing interface friction using our model, to yield analytical expressions of the critical stiffness (Kc) and critical recurrence wavelength (Wc) of the system. The values of a , b and Dc, as well as Kc and Wc, predicted by these expressions agree well with the numerical modeling results and acceptably with values obtained from experiments, on calcite for instance. Inserting the parameters obtained into classical RSF laws (slowness and slip laws) and conducting forward modelling gives simulated friction behavior that is fully consistent with the direct predictions of our numerically implemented model. Numerical tests with friction obeying our model show that the slip stability of fault motion exhibits a transition from stable sliding, via self-sustained oscillations, to stick slips

  12. Studies on chalcone derivatives: Complex formation, thermal behavior, stability constant and antioxidant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sayed, Yusif S.; Gaber, M.

    2015-02-01

    The chalcone 3-[4‧-dimethylaminophenyl]-1-(2-pyridyl) prop-2-en-1-one (DMAPP) and 3-(4‧-diethylaminophenyl)-1-(2-pyridinyl) prop-2-en-1-one abbreviated as DEAPP have been synthesized and characterized with IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques as described previously (El-Daly et al., 2008; Gaber et al., 2009; El-Sayed, 2013). By using UV visible spectroscopy method the mole fraction ratio for copper with DMAPP and DEAPP complexes were determined and it was found to be 1:1. The stability constants of this complex have been determined by Job's method. The stability constant (Kf) of copper with DMAPP and DEAPP complexes in universal buffer pH = 3.2 was determined to be 9.9 × 104 and 5.2 × 104 respectively. The effect of Cu(II) ion on the emission spectrum of the free chalcone is also assigned. Adherence to Beer's law and Ringbom optimum concentration ranges are determined. The thermal decomposition of the metal complexes is studied by TGA technique. The kinetic parameters like activation energy, pre-exponential factor and entropy of activation are estimated. The structure of complexes was energetically optimized through molecular mechanics applying MM+ force field coupled with molecular dynamics simulation. The bond lengths and bond angles have been calculated to confirm the geometry of the ligands and their Cu(II) complexes. The mode of interaction of the chalcone to copper nanoparticles was studied. The apparent association constants of the colloidal copper nanoparticles:chalcone complexes in solution were evaluated using the spectral method and compared with the formation constant of the Cu(II) chalcone complexes. Antioxidant activity of these chalcones was evaluated by using 1,1‧-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPHrad) radicals scavenging method, which showed that the antioxidant activity of DMAPP has higher value than the DEAPP. Semi-empirical study results showed that DMAPP have higher dipole moment than DEAPP [1].

  13. Secondary Amine Stabilized Aluminum Hydrides Derived from N,N'-Di-tert-butylethylenediamines.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Michael G.; Lawrence, Stacey M.; Raston, Colin L.

    1996-02-28

    The metalation of substituted N,N'-di-tert-butylethylenediamines by various aluminum hydride sources has been investigated. HN(t-Bu)CH(t-Bu)CH(2)N(H)(t-Bu) forms a dimeric lithium chelated adduct of LiAlH(4), [{[HN(t-Bu)CH(t-Bu)CH(2)N(H)(t-Bu)]Li(&mgr;-H)(2)AlH(2)}(2)], 4, which thermally decomposes to yield the tetrameric lithium diamidoaluminum hydride [{Li[N(t-Bu)CH(t-Bu)CH(2)N(t-Bu)]AlH(2)}(4)], 5. The same diamine reacts with AlH(3).NMe(3) or AlH(3) diethyl etherate to give the secondary amine stabilized amidoaluminum hydride species [{HN(t-Bu)CH(t-Bu)CH(2)N(t-Bu)}AlH(2)], 2. Similarly, the same aluminum hydride sources react with the diamine rac-HN(t-Bu)CH(Me)CH(Me)N(H)(t-Bu) to yield [{rac-HN(t-Bu)CH(Me)CH(Me)N(t-Bu)}AlH(2)], 3. Compounds 2 and 3 are stable with respect to elimination of hydrogen to form diamidoaluminum hydrides, but can be converted to the alane rich species, [H(2)Al{N(t-Bu)CH(t-Bu)CH(2)N(t-Bu)}AlH(2)],6, and [H(2)Al{rac-N(t-Bu)CH(Me)CH(Me)N(t-Bu)}AlH(2)], 7, by reaction with AlH(3).NMe(3) under special conditions. The varying reactivity of the three aluminum hydride sources in these reactions has enabled mechanistic information to be gathered, and the effect of the different steric requirements in the diamines on the stability of the complexes is discussed. Crystals of 3are monoclinic, space group P2(1)/n (No. 14), with a = 8.910(4), b = 14.809(1), and c = 12.239(6) Å, beta = 109.76(2) degrees, V = 1520(1) Å(3), and Z = 4. Crystals of 4 are orthorhombic, space group Pbca (No. 61), with a = 15.906(9), b = 24.651(7), and c = 9.933(7) Å, V = 3895(3) Å(3), and Z = 4. Crystals of 6 are monoclinic, space group P2(1)/c (No. 14), with a = 8.392(1), b = 17.513(2), and c = 12.959(1) Å, beta = 107.098(8) degrees, V = 1820.4(3) Å(3), and Z = 4.

  14. A dihydroindolizino indole derivative selectively stabilizes G-quadruplex DNA and down-regulates c-MYC expression in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nagesh, Narayana; Raju, G; Srinivas, R; Ramesh, P; Reddy, M Damoder; Reddy, Ch Raji

    2015-01-01

    Telomeric and NHE III1, a c-MYC promoter region is abundant in guanine content and readily form G-quadruplex structures. Small molecules that stabilize G-quadruplex DNA were shown to reduce oncoprotein expression, initiate apoptosis and they may function as anticancer molecules. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, Taq DNA polymerase stop assay, real time PCR and luciferase reporter assay. Cell migration assay to find out the effect of derivatives on normal as well as cancer cell proliferation. Among three different dihydroindolizino indole derivatives, 4-cyanophenyl group attached derivative has shown maximum affinity, selective interaction and higher stability towards G-quadruplex DNA over dsDNA. Further, as a potential G-quadruplex DNA stabilizer, 4-cyanophenyl linked dihydroindolizino indole derivative was found to be more efficient in inhibiting in vitro DNA synthesis, c-MYC expression and cancer cell proliferation among human cancer cells. The present study reveals that dihydroindolizino indole derivative having 4-cyanophenyl group has potential to stabilize G-quadruplex DNA and exhibit anticancer activity. These studies are useful in the identification and synthesis of lead derivatives that will selectively stabilize G-quadruplex DNA and function as anticancer agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An ester derivative of the drug gabapentin: pH dependent crystal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Vânia; Marques, M. Matilde; da Piedade, M. F. Minas; Duarte, M. Teresa

    2010-06-01

    Gabapentin solutions with different pHs were prepared and slow crystallization was allowed to occur. Different crystalline forms were obtained at pHs up to 7, whereas alkaline media (pH 9) gave rise to an amorphous product. A new crystal structure of an ethyl ester derivative, obtained at pH 2 under Fischer esterification conditions, is described herein. Esterification blocked the supramolecular interactions typically observed through the carboxyl group of gabapentin, which resulted in a dramatic change in the solid-state structure. As it is known, this change could have a marked influence on the physiological absorption characteristics of the drug, which supports the search for ester-based gabapentin prodrugs as a means of improving the limited bioavailability of the drug.

  16. Radiophase development in hot-pressed alkoxide-derived titanate ceramics for nuclear waste stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, F.J. ); Mitamura, H. ); White, T.J. )

    1989-06-01

    This paper reports phase development as a function of hot-pressing temperature studied in alkoxide-derived titanate-based ceramics doped with a 10 wt% loading of a sodium-rich (NAR) and a sodium-poor (NAP) simulated high-level waste. Pyrochlore was found to be the most abundant phase in both calcine powders. A pseudobrookite phase existed metastably at hot-pressing temperatures between 890{degrees} and 920{degrees} C. After hot-pressing at 1100{degrees} C, the final phase assemblage for the NAP material consisted of zirconolite, hollandite-type, perovskite, alloy, and reduced rutile (Magneli phases). In addition, NAR samples contained hibonite, freudenbergite, and loveringite. Phase development was driven to completion over a very narrow temperature range ({le}50{degrees} C), beginning at 870{degrees} and 850{degrees} C for NAP and NAR, respectively, although full densification was not achieved below 1100{degrees} C. Both waste forms exhibited comparable microstructure and aqueous durability.

  17. Reliability and Stability of VLBI-Derived Sub-Daily EOP Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artz, Thomas; Boeckmann, Sarah; Jensen, Laura; Nothnagel, Axel; Steigenberger, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Recent investigations have shown significant shortcomings in the model which is proposed by the IERS to account for the variations in the Earth s rotation with periods around one day and less. To overcome this, an empirical model can be estimated more or less directly from the observations of space geodetic techniques. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the quality and reliability of such a model based on VLBI observations. Therefore, the impact of the estimation method and the analysis options as well as the temporal stability are investigated. It turned out that, in order to provide a realistic accuracy measure of the model coefficients, the formal errors should be inflated by a factor of three. This coincides with the noise floor and the repeatability of the model coefficients and it captures almost all of the differences that are caused by different estimation techniques. The impact of analysis options is small but significant when changing troposphere parameterization or including harmonic station position variations.

  18. Development of eco-friendly submicron emulsions stabilized by a bio-derived gum.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mosqueda, Luis María; Ramírez, Pablo; Trujillo-Cayado, Luis Alfonso; Santos, Jenifer; Muñoz, José

    2014-11-01

    Many traditional organic solvents are being gradually replaced by ecofriendly alternatives. D-Limonene is a terpenic (bio)-solvent that fulfils the requirements to be considered a green solvent. D-Limonene sub-micron emulsions suffer from Ostwald ripening destabilization. In this study, we examined the influence of the addition of a natural gum (rosin gum) to D-limonene in order to prevent Ostwald ripening. This contribution deals with the study of emulsions formulated with a mixture of D-limonene and rosin gum as dispersed phase and Pluronic PE9400 as emulsifier. The procedure followed for the development of these formulations was based on the application of product design principles. This led to the optimum ratio rosin gum/D-limonene and subsequently to the optimum surfactant concentration. The combination of different techniques (rheology, laser diffraction and multiple light scattering) was demonstrated to be a powerful tool to assist in the prediction of the emulsions destabilization process. Not only did the addition of rosin gum highly increase the stability of these emulsions by inhibiting the Ostwald ripening, but it also reduced the emulsions droplet size. Thus, we found that stable sub-micron D-limonene-in-water emulsions have been obtained in the range 3-6 wt% Pluronic PE-9400 by means of a single-step rotor/stator homogenizing process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Odourous algal-derived alkenes: differences in stability and treatment responses in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Satchwill, T; Watson, S B; Dixon, E

    2007-01-01

    Drinking water supplies are often impacted by taste and odour (T/O) episodes caused by algal volatile organic compounds (AVOCs) from algal blooms. Treatment and control of these events is important to utility operators, as customer confidence in the safety of public drinking water supplies is based primarily on their palatability and odour. To manage T/O outbreaks successfully, knowledge about treatment responses of AVOCs and anticipation of their outbreaks are thus of major importance to the water industry. The Glenmore Reservoir and water treatment plant (GWTP) supplies drinking water to over 50% of the ca. 1 million consumers in Calgary (Alberta). Despite low nutrients and high raw water quality, the reservoir experiences periodic outbreaks of fishy/floral T/O, caused by chrysophytes and diatoms (Uroglena americana, Dinobryon spp., Synura petersenii, Asterionella formosa). These odours are produced by the unsaturated C7-C10 alkenes 2,4-heptadienal, 2,4,7-octatriene, 2,4-decadienal and 2,4,7-decatrienal, generated during from the enzymatic breakdown of algal polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The formation, persistence and stability of these compounds in both the raw water and treatment plant is not well understood.

  20. Thermal Stabilization of Metal–Organic Framework-Derived Single-Site Catalytic Clusters Through Nanocasting

    SciTech Connect

    Malonzo, Camille D.; Shaker, Sammy M.; Prinslow, Steven D.; Platero-Prats, Ana E.; Gallington, Leighanne C.; Ren, Limin; Borycz, Joshua; Thompson, Anthony B.; Wang, Timothy C.; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Lu, Connie C.; Chapman, Karena W.; Myers, Jason C.; Penn, R. Lee; Gagliardi, Laura; Tsapatsis, Michael; Stein, Andreas

    2016-03-02

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) provide convenient systems for organizing high concentrations of single catalytic sites derived from metallic or oxo-metallic nodes. However, high-temperature processes cause agglomeration of these nodes, so that the single-site character and catalytic activity are lost. In this work, we present a simple nanocasting approach to provide a thermally stable secondary scaffold for MOP-based catalytic single sites, preventing their aggregation even after exposure to air at 600 degrees C. We describe the nanocasting of NU-1000, a MOP with 3 nm channels and Lewis-acidic oxozirconium clusters, with silica. By condensing tetramethylorthosilicate within the NU-1000 pores via a vapor-phase HCl treatment, a silica layer is created on the inner walls of NU-1000. This silica layer provides anchoring sites for the oxozirconium clusters in NU-1000 after the organic linkers are removed at high temperatures. Differential pair distribution functions obtained from synchrotron X-ray scattering confirmed that isolated oxozirconium clusters are maintained in the heated nanocast materials. Pyridine adsorption experiments and a glucose isomerization reaction demonstrate that the clusters remain accessible to reagents and maintain their acidic character and catalytic activity even after the nanocast materials have been heated to 500-600 degrees C in air. Density functional theory calculations show a correlation between the Lewis acidity of the oxozirconium clusters and their catalytic activity. The ability to produce MOF-derived materials that retain their catalytic properties after exposure to high temperatures makes nanocasting a useful technique for obtaining single-site catalysts suitable for high-temperature reactions.

  1. Thermal Stabilization of Metal-Organic Framework-Derived Single-Site Catalytic Clusters through Nanocasting.

    PubMed

    Malonzo, Camille D; Shaker, Sammy M; Ren, Limin; Prinslow, Steven D; Platero-Prats, Ana E; Gallington, Leighanne C; Borycz, Joshua; Thompson, Anthony B; Wang, Timothy C; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T; Lu, Connie C; Chapman, Karena W; Myers, Jason C; Penn, R Lee; Gagliardi, Laura; Tsapatsis, Michael; Stein, Andreas

    2016-03-02

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) provide convenient systems for organizing high concentrations of single catalytic sites derived from metallic or oxo-metallic nodes. However, high-temperature processes cause agglomeration of these nodes, so that the single-site character and catalytic activity are lost. In this work, we present a simple nanocasting approach to provide a thermally stable secondary scaffold for MOF-based catalytic single sites, preventing their aggregation even after exposure to air at 600 °C. We describe the nanocasting of NU-1000, a MOF with 3 nm channels and Lewis-acidic oxozirconium clusters, with silica. By condensing tetramethylorthosilicate within the NU-1000 pores via a vapor-phase HCl treatment, a silica layer is created on the inner walls of NU-1000. This silica layer provides anchoring sites for the oxozirconium clusters in NU-1000 after the organic linkers are removed at high temperatures. Differential pair distribution functions obtained from synchrotron X-ray scattering confirmed that isolated oxozirconium clusters are maintained in the heated nanocast materials. Pyridine adsorption experiments and a glucose isomerization reaction demonstrate that the clusters remain accessible to reagents and maintain their acidic character and catalytic activity even after the nanocast materials have been heated to 500-600 °C in air. Density functional theory calculations show a correlation between the Lewis acidity of the oxozirconium clusters and their catalytic activity. The ability to produce MOF-derived materials that retain their catalytic properties after exposure to high temperatures makes nanocasting a useful technique for obtaining single-site catalysts suitable for high-temperature reactions.

  2. Stability changes upon mutation of solvent-accessible residues in proteins evaluated by database-derived potentials.

    PubMed

    Gilis, D; Rooman, M

    1996-04-19

    The stability changes in peptides and proteins caused by the substitution of a single amino acid, which can be measured experimentally by the change in folding free energy, are evaluated here using effective potentials derived from known protein structures. The analysis is focused on mutations of residues that are accessible to the solvent. These represent in total 106 mutations, introduced at different sites in barnase, bacteriophage T4 lysozyme and chymotrypsin inhibitor 2, and in a synthetic helical peptide. Assuming that the mutations do not modify the backbone structure, the changes in folding free energies are computed using various types of database-derived potentials and are compared with the measured ones. Distance-dependent residue-residue potentials are found to be inadequate for estimating the stability changes caused by these mutations, as they are dominated by hydrophobic interactions, which do not play an essential role at the protein surface. On the contrary, the potentials based on backbone torsion angle propensities yield quite good results. Indeed, for a subset of 96 out of the 106 mutations, the computed and measured changes in folding free energy correlate with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.87. Moreover, the ten mutations that are excluded from the correlation either seem to cause modifications of the backbone structure or to involve strong hydrophobic interactions, which are atypical for solvent-accessible residues. We find furthermore that raising the ionic strength of the solvent used for measuring the changes in folding free energies improves the correlation, as it tends to mask the electrostatic interactions. When adding to these 106 mutations 44 mutations performed in staphylococcal nuclease and chemotactic protein, which were first discarded because some of them were suspected to affect the backbone conformation or the denatured state, the correlation between measured and computed folding free energy changes remains quite good

  3. Plausible scenarios for the radiography profession in Sweden in 2025.

    PubMed

    Björkman, B; Fridell, K; Tavakol Olofsson, P

    2017-11-01

    Radiography is a healthcare speciality with many technical challenges. Advances in engineering and information technology applications may continue to drive and be driven by radiographers. The world of diagnostic imaging is changing rapidly and radiographers must be proactive in order to survive. To ensure sustainable development, organisations have to identify future opportunities and threats in a timely manner and incorporate them into their strategic planning. Hence, the aim of this study was to analyse and describe plausible scenarios for the radiography profession in 2025. The study has a qualitative design with an inductive approach based on focus group interviews. The interviews were inspired by the Scenario-Planning method. Of the seven trends identified in a previous study, the radiographers considered two as the most uncertain scenarios that would have the greatest impact on the profession should they occur. These trends, labelled "Access to career advancement" and "A sufficient number of radiographers", were inserted into the scenario cross. The resulting four plausible future scenarios were: The happy radiographer, the specialist radiographer, the dying profession and the assembly line. It is suggested that "The dying profession" scenario could probably be turned in the opposite direction by facilitating career development opportunities for radiographers within the profession. Changing the direction would probably lead to a profession composed of "happy radiographers" who are specialists, proud of their profession and competent to carry out advanced tasks, in contrast to being solely occupied by "the assembly line". Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fidelity and plausibility of bimanual interaction in mixed reality.

    PubMed

    Hough, Gregory; Williams, Ian; Athwal, Cham

    2015-12-01

    When human actors interact with virtual objects the result is often not convincing to a third party viewer, due to incongruities between the actor and object positions. In this study we aim to quantify the magnitude and impact of the errors that occur in a bimanual interaction, that is when an actor attempts to move a virtual object by holding it between both hands. A three stage framework is presented which firstly captures the magnitude of these interaction errors, then quantifies their effect on the relevant third party audience, and thirdly assesses methods to mitigate the impact of the errors. Findings from this work show that the degree of error was dependent on the size of the virtual object and also on the axis of the hand placement with respect to the axis of the interactive motion. In addition, actor hand placement outside and away from the object surface was found to affect the visual plausibility considerably more than when the actor's hands were within the object boundaries. Finally, a method for automatic adaptation of the object size to match the distance between the actor's hands gave a significant improvement in the viewers' assessment of the scene plausibility.

  5. Assessing the plausibility of life on other worlds.

    PubMed

    Irwin, L N; Schulze-Makuch, D

    2001-01-01

    As the field of astrobiology matures and search strategies for life on other worlds are developed, the need to analyze in a systematic way the plausibility for life on other planetary systems becomes increasingly apparent. We propose the adoption of a simple plausibility of life (POL) rating system based on specific criteria. Category I applies to any body shown to have conditions essentially equivalent to those on Earth. Category II applies to bodies for which there is evidence of liquid water and sources of energy and where organic compounds have been detected or can reasonably be inferred (Mars, Europa). Category III applies to worlds where conditions are physically extreme but possibly capable of supporting exotic forms of life unknown on Earth (Titan, Triton). Category IV applies to bodies that could have seen the origin of life prior to the development of conditions so harsh as to make its perseverance at present unlikely but conceivable in isolated habitats (Venus, Io). Category V would be reserved for sites where conditions are so unfavorable for life by any reasonable definition that its origin or persistence there cannot be rated a realistic probability (the Sun, gas giant planets). The proposed system is intended to be generic. It assumes that life is based on polymeric chemistry occurring in a liquid medium with uptake and degradation of energy from the environment. Without any additional specific assumptions about the nature of life, the POL system is universally applicable.

  6. Thinking about Russia: plausible pasts and probable futures.

    PubMed

    Tetlock, P E; Visser, P S

    2000-06-01

    This paper uses both correlational and experimental methods to explore the power of counterfactual cognitions about the past to constrain judgments about the future as well as policy preferences. Study 1 asked 47 specialists on the Soviet Union to assess both the plausibility of controversial counterfactuals and the probability of controversial conditional forecasts. The results reveal deep ideological schisms, with liberals much more likely than conservatives to believe that Stalinism was not inevitable, that the Cold War could have ended earlier, and that Gorbachev might have succeeded in democratizing the Soviet Union if he had been a better tactician, among others. Reactions to these counterfactuals proved to be highly predictive of positions that experts in early 1992 endorsed concerning the advisability of 'shock therapy', expanding NATO eastward, and economic aid to Russia. Study 2 manipulated the salience and plausibility of counterfactual scenarios concerning (a) why the Cold War ended as it did, and (b) how close the US and USSR came to nuclear war. Changes in the counterfactual scenarios that non-experts endorsed produced significant changes in their policy preferences in the direction suggested by the salient counterfactual. Experts, however, were unswayed, often generating counter-arguments against dissonant counterfactuals. Taken together, the studies show that assumptions about what happened in the missing control conditions of history are highly subjective, largely theory-driven and profoundly consequential.

  7. Stabilization of the cyclodecadiene derivative isofuranodiene by silver (I) coordination. Mechanistic and biological aspects.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Filippo; Papa, Fabrizio; Pucciarelli, Stefania; Bramucci, Massimo; Quassinti, Luana; Barboni, Luciano; Ben, Diego Dal; Ramadori, Anna Teresa; Graiff, Claudia; Galassi, Rossana

    2017-03-01

    The industrial extraction and further applications of isofuranodiene are limited because at room temperature it spontaneously converts to curzerene, a structurally less active isomer. This work definitively identified the structure of isofuranodiene in the solid state, showing the two methyl groups in syn position. In addition, two bioactive metal cations, namely, silver(I) and copper(II) ions, were used in the attempt to obtain the chemical stability of isofuranodiene: in the case of silver(I), a labile adduct was formed, while in the case of copper(II), a more stable 1:1 adduct was achieved. In the former, the presence of silver did not significantly affect the biological activities of isofuranodiene, while in the latter, the copper(II) coordination suppressed them. The biological activities of the isofuranodiene adducts were then evaluated as antiproliferative agents against human tumor cell lines (HCT116, MDA-MB 231, and T98G). In addition, for the first time, isofuranodiene was tested as an inhibitor of DHFR (DiHydroFolateReductase) from Escherichia coli. Anticancer activity was observed in the isofuranodiene with the AgCF3SO3 adduct, in the tested cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 4.89μM to 13.06μM, while inhibition assays highlighted a Ki of 6.22μM for isofuranodiene and of 0.17μM for the related silver adduct. Docking studies indicated a binding mode score of -6.83Kcal/mol for isofuranodiene, and an energy value of -11.82Kcal/mol for methotrexate (a classic DHFR inhibitor). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Adipose-Derived Cell Construct Stabilizes Heart Function and Increases Microvascular Perfusion in an Established Infarct

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quang T.; Touroo, Jeremy S.; Aird, Allison L.; Chang, Raymond C.; Ng, Chin K.; Hoying, James B.; Williams, Stuart K.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that myocardial infarction (MI) immediately treated with an epicardial construct containing stromal vascular fraction (SVF) from adipose tissue preserved microvascular function and left ventricle contractile mechanisms. In order to evaluate a more clinically relevant condition, we investigated the cardiac recovery potential of an SVF construct implanted onto an established infarct. SVF cells were isolated from rat adipose tissue, plated on Vicryl, and cultured for 14 days. Fischer-344 rats were separated into MI groups: (a) 6-week MI (MI), (b) 6-week MI treated with an SVF construct at 2 weeks (MI SVF), (c) 6-week MI with Vicryl construct at 2 weeks (MI Vicryl), and (d) MI 2wk (time point of intervention). Emax, an indicator of systolic performance and contractile function, was lower in the MI and MI Vicryl versus MI SVF. Positron emission tomography imaging (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose) revealed a decreased percentage of relative infarct volume in the MI SVF versus MI and MI Vicryl. Total vessel count and percentage of perfusion assessed via immunohistochemistry were both increased in the infarct region of MI SVF versus MI and MI Vicryl. Overall cardiac function, percentage of relative infarct, and percentage of perfusion were similar between MI SVF and MI 2wk; however, total vessel count increased after SVF treatment. These data suggest that SVF treatment of an established infarct stabilizes the heart at the time point of intervention by preventing a worsening of cardiac performance and infarcted volume, and is associated with increased microvessel perfusion in the area of established infarct. PMID:24106337

  9. Practical aspects of a maximum likelihood estimation method to extract stability and control derivatives from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, K. W.; Maine, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    A maximum likelihood estimation method was applied to flight data and procedures to facilitate the routine analysis of a large amount of flight data were described. Techniques that can be used to obtain stability and control derivatives from aircraft maneuvers that are less than ideal for this purpose are described. The techniques involve detecting and correcting the effects of dependent or nearly dependent variables, structural vibration, data drift, inadequate instrumentation, and difficulties with the data acquisition system and the mathematical model. The use of uncertainty levels and multiple maneuver analysis also proved to be useful in improving the quality of the estimated coefficients. The procedures used for editing the data and for overall analysis are also discussed.

  10. Carbohydrate-derived 1,3-diphosphite ligands as chiral nanoparticle stabilizers: promising catalytic systems for asymmetric hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Gual, Aitor; Godard, Cyril; Philippot, Karine; Chaudret, Bruno; Denicourt-Nowicki, Audrey; Roucoux, Alain; Castillón, Sergio; Claver, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Metallic Ru, Rh, and Ir nanoparticles were prepared by the decomposition of organometallic precursors under H(2) pressure in the presence of 1,3-diphosphite ligands, derived from carbohydrates, as stabilizing agents. Structural modifications to the diphosphite backbone were found to influence the nanoparticles' size, dispersion, and catalytic activity. In the hydrogenation of o- and m-methylanisole, the Rh nanoparticles showed higher catalytic activity than the corresponding Ru nanoparticles. The Ir nanoparticles presented the lowest catalytic activity of the series. In all cases, the hydrogenation of o-methylanisole gave total selectivity for the cis-product, however, the ee of the product was always less than 6 %. A maximum of 81 % cis-selectivity was obtained for the hydrogenation of m-methylanisole, however, no asymmetric induction was observed. These results show that the catalytic activity is affected by a combination of influences from the substrate, the diphosphite ligands, and the metallic nanoparticles.

  11. Stabilized rhodium(0) nanoparticles: a reusable hydrogenation catalyst for arene derivatives in a biphasic water-liquid system.

    PubMed

    Schulz, J; Roucoux, A; Patin, H

    2000-02-18

    A colloidal system based on an aqueous suspension of rhodium(o) nanoparticles proved to be an efficient catalyst for the hydrogenation of arene derivatives under biphasic conditions. The rhodium nanoparticles (2-2.5 nm) were synthesized by the reduction of RhCl3 x 3H2O with sodium borohydride and were stabilized by highly water-soluble N-alkyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ammonium salts (HEA-Cn). These surfactant molecules were characterized by measurements of the surface tension and the aqueous dispersions with rhodium were observed by transmission electron cryomicroscopy. The catalytic system is efficient under ultramild conditions, namely room temperature and 1 atm H2 pressure. The aqueous phase which contains the protected rhodium(0) colloids can be reused without significant loss of activity. The microheterogeneous behavior of this catalytic system was confirmed on a mercury poisoning experiment.

  12. Peri-Synaptic Glia Recycles Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor for LTP Stabilization and Memory Retention.

    PubMed

    Vignoli, Beatrice; Battistini, Giulia; Melani, Riccardo; Blum, Robert; Santi, Spartaco; Berardi, Nicoletta; Canossa, Marco

    2016-11-23

    Glial cells respond to neuronal activation and release neuroactive molecules (termed "gliotransmitters") that can affect synaptic activity and modulate plasticity. In this study, we used molecular genetic tools, ultra-structural microscopy, and electrophysiology to assess the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on cortical gliotransmission in vivo. We find that glial cells recycle BDNF that was previously secreted by neurons as pro-neurotrophin following long-term potentiation (LTP)-inducing electrical stimulation. Upon BDNF glial recycling, we observed tight, temporal, highly localized TrkB phosphorylation on adjacent neurons, a process required to sustain LTP. Engagement of BDNF recycling by astrocytes represents a novel mechanism by which cortical synapses can expand BDNF action and provide synaptic changes that are relevant for the acquisition of new memories. Accordingly, mice deficient in BDNF glial recycling fail to recognize familiar from novel objects, indicating a physiological requirement for this process in memory consolidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Infrapatellar fat pad-derived mesenchymal stromal cells from osteoarthritis patients: In vitro genetic stability and replicative senescence.

    PubMed

    Neri, Simona; Guidotti, Serena; Lilli, Nicoletta Libera; Cattini, Luca; Mariani, Erminia

    2017-05-01

    Different sources of mesenchymal stromal cells can be considered for regenerative medicine applications. Here we analyzed human adipose-derived stromal cells from infrapatellar fat pad (IFPSC) of osteoarthritis patients, representing a very interesting candidate for cartilage regeneration. No data are available concerning IFPSC stability after in vitro expansion. Indeed, replicative potential and multipotency progressively decrease during culture passages while DNA damage and cell senescence increase, thus possibly affecting clinical applications. To investigate whether in vitro expansion influences the genetic stability and replicative senescence of IFPSC, we performed long-term cultures and comparatively analyzed cells at different culture passages. Stromal vascular fraction was harvested from infrapatellar fat pad of 11 osteoarthritis patients undergoing knee replacement surgery. Cell recovery, growth kinetics, surface marker profile, and differentiation ability in inductive culture conditions were recorded. Genetic integrity maintenance was estimated by microsatellite instability analysis and mismatch repair gene expression, whereas telomere length and telomerase activity were assessed to evaluate replicative senescence. Anchorage-dependent growth was tested by soft agar culture. IFPSC displayed a phenotype similar to mesenchymal stromal cells from subcutaneous fat and showed differentiation ability. No microsatellite instability was documented even at advanced culture times in accordance to a sustained expression of mismatch repair genes, thus highlighting stability of short repeated sequences in the genome. No significant telomere attrition nor telomerase activity were documented during culture and cells did not lose anchorage-dependent growth ability. The presented data support the suitability and safety of in vitro expanded IFPSC from osteoarthritis patients for applications in regenerative medicine approaches. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society

  14. A novel ionic amphiphilic chitosan derivative as a stabilizer of nanoemulsions: Improvement of antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil.

    PubMed

    Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Sandri, Giuseppina; Rossi, Silvia; Usai, Donatella; Liakos, Ioannis; Garzoni, Alice; Fiamma, Maura; Zanetti, Stefania; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Caramella, Carla; Ferrari, Franca

    2017-04-01

    Amphiphilic chitosans have been recently proposed to improve delivery of poorly soluble drugs. In the present paper a derivative obtained by ionic interaction between chitosan and oleic acid was for the first time studied to physically stabilize o/w nanoemulsions of an antimicrobial essential oil, Cymbopogon citratus (Lemongrass), in a low energy and mild conditions emulsification process. The novel combination of spontaneous emulsification process with chitosan oleate amphiphilic properties resulted in a stable dispersion of a few hundred nanometer droplets. Positive zeta potential confirmed the presence of a chitosan shell around the oil droplets, which is responsible for the nanoemulsion physical stabilization and for the maintenance of chitosan bioactive properties, such as mucoadhesion. Cytotoxicity test was performed on four different cell lines (HEp-2, Caco-2, WKD and McCoy cells) showing biocompatibility of the system. The maintenance and in some cases even a clear improvement in the essential oil antimicrobial activity towards nine bacterial and ten fungal strains, all of clinical relevance was verified for Lemongrass nanoemulsion.

  15. Stability of nonaqueous suspension formulations of plasma derived factor IX and recombinant human alpha interferon at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Knepp, V M; Muchnik, A; Oldmark, S; Kalashnikova, L

    1998-07-01

    To identify a suitable nonaqueous, parenterally acceptable suspending vehicle whereby a therapeutic protein is delivered as a stable flowable powder, making it amenable to delivery from sustained delivery systems maintained at body temperature. Formulations of plasma derived Factor IX (pdFIX) and recombinant human alpha interferon (rhalpha-IFN) were formulated as dry powders, suspended in various vehicles (perfluorodecalin, perfluorotributylamine, methoxyflurane, polyethylene glycol 400, soybean oil, tetradecane or octanol) and stored at 37 degrees C. Stability was assessed by size exclusion chromatography, reverse phase chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, and bioassay, and was compared to the stability of dry powder formulations stored at 37 degrees C and -80 degrees C. PdFIX was stable when stored at 37 degrees C as a dry powder, or when the dry powder was suspended in the pharmaceutically acceptable vehicles perfluorodecalin or perfluorotributylamine. Suspensions of the powder in other pharmaceutically/parenterally acceptable vehicles such as soybean oil or PEG 400 resulted in aggregation and loss of bioactivity. A dry powder formulation of rhalpha-IFN suspended in perfluorodecalin was also stable at 37 degrees C. This study shows the potential utility of perfluorinated hydrocarbons as nonaqueous suspending vehicles for long term in-vivo delivery of therapeutic proteins.

  16. Neural networks, nativism, and the plausibility of constructivism.

    PubMed

    Quartz, S R

    1993-09-01

    Recent interest in PDP (parallel distributed processing) models is due in part to the widely held belief that they challenge many of the assumptions of classical cognitive science. In the domain of language acquisition, for example, there has been much interest in the claim that PDP models might undermine nativism. Related arguments based on PDP learning have also been given against Fodor's anti-constructivist position--a position that has contributed to the widespread dismissal of constructivism. A limitation of many of the claims regarding PDP learning, however, is that the principles underlying this learning have not been rigorously characterized. In this paper, I examine PDP models from within the framework of Valiant's PAC (probably approximately correct) model of learning, now the dominant model in machine learning, and which applies naturally to neural network learning. From this perspective, I evaluate the implications of PDP models for nativism and Fodor's influential anti-constructivist position. In particular, I demonstrate that, contrary to a number of claims, PDP models are nativist in a robust sense. I also demonstrate that PDP models actually serve as a good illustration of Fodor's anti-constructivist position. While these results may at first suggest that neural network models in general are incapable of the sort of concept acquisition that is required to refute Fodor's anti-constructivist position, I suggest that there is an alternative form of neural network learning that demonstrates the plausibility of constructivism. This alternative form of learning is a natural interpretation of the constructivist position in terms of neural network learning, as it employs learning algorithms that incorporate the addition of structure in addition to weight modification schemes. By demonstrating that there is a natural and plausible interpretation of constructivism in terms of neural network learning, the position that nativism is the only plausible model of

  17. The bornavirus-derived human protein EBLN1 promotes efficient cell cycle transit, microtubule organisation and genome stability

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Katie N.; Barone, Giancarlo; Ganesh, Anil; Staples, Christopher J.; Howard, Anna E.; Beveridge, Ryan D.; Maslen, Sarah; Skehel, J. Mark; Collis, Spencer J.

    2016-01-01

    It was recently discovered that vertebrate genomes contain multiple endogenised nucleotide sequences derived from the non-retroviral RNA bornavirus. Strikingly, some of these elements have been evolutionary maintained as open reading frames in host genomes for over 40 million years, suggesting that some endogenised bornavirus-derived elements (EBL) might encode functional proteins. EBLN1 is one such element established through endogenisation of the bornavirus N gene (BDV N). Here, we functionally characterise human EBLN1 as a novel regulator of genome stability. Cells depleted of human EBLN1 accumulate DNA damage both under non-stressed conditions and following exogenously induced DNA damage. EBLN1-depleted cells also exhibit cell cycle abnormalities and defects in microtubule organisation as well as premature centrosome splitting, which we attribute in part, to improper localisation of the nuclear envelope protein TPR. Our data therefore reveal that human EBLN1 possesses important cellular functions within human cells, and suggest that other EBLs present within vertebrate genomes may also possess important cellular functions. PMID:27739501

  18. Determination of the stability and control derivatives of the NASA F/A-18 HARV using flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Napolitano, Marcello R.; Spagnuolo, Joelle M.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents the research conducted for the NASA-Ames Cooperative Agreement No. NCC 2-759 with West Virginia University. A complete set of the stability and control derivatives for varying angles of attack from 10 deg to 60 deg were estimated from flight data of the NASA F/A-18 HARV. The data were analyzed with the use of the pEst software which implements the output-error method of parameter estimation. Discussions of the aircraft equations of motion, parameter estimation process, design of flight test maneuvers, and formulation of the mathematical model are presented. The added effects of the thrust vectoring and single surface excitation systems are also addressed. The results of the longitudinal and lateral directional derivative estimates at varying angles of attack are presented and compared to results from previous analyses. The results indicate a significant improvement due to the independent control surface deflections induced by the single surface excitation system, and at the same time, a need for additional flight data especially at higher angles of attack.

  19. The bornavirus-derived human protein EBLN1 promotes efficient cell cycle transit, microtubule organisation and genome stability.

    PubMed

    Myers, Katie N; Barone, Giancarlo; Ganesh, Anil; Staples, Christopher J; Howard, Anna E; Beveridge, Ryan D; Maslen, Sarah; Skehel, J Mark; Collis, Spencer J

    2016-10-14

    It was recently discovered that vertebrate genomes contain multiple endogenised nucleotide sequences derived from the non-retroviral RNA bornavirus. Strikingly, some of these elements have been evolutionary maintained as open reading frames in host genomes for over 40 million years, suggesting that some endogenised bornavirus-derived elements (EBL) might encode functional proteins. EBLN1 is one such element established through endogenisation of the bornavirus N gene (BDV N). Here, we functionally characterise human EBLN1 as a novel regulator of genome stability. Cells depleted of human EBLN1 accumulate DNA damage both under non-stressed conditions and following exogenously induced DNA damage. EBLN1-depleted cells also exhibit cell cycle abnormalities and defects in microtubule organisation as well as premature centrosome splitting, which we attribute in part, to improper localisation of the nuclear envelope protein TPR. Our data therefore reveal that human EBLN1 possesses important cellular functions within human cells, and suggest that other EBLs present within vertebrate genomes may also possess important cellular functions.

  20. On the biological plausibility of Wind Turbine Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Robert V

    2015-01-01

    An emerging environmental health issue relates to potential ill-effects of wind turbine noise. There have been numerous suggestions that the low-frequency acoustic components in wind turbine signals can cause symptoms associated with vestibular system disorders, namely vertigo, nausea, and nystagmus. This constellation of symptoms has been labeled as Wind Turbine Syndrome, and has been identified in case studies of individuals living close to wind farms. This review discusses whether it is biologically plausible for the turbine noise to stimulate the vestibular parts of the inner ear and, by extension, cause Wind Turbine Syndrome. We consider the sound levels that can activate the semicircular canals or otolith end organs in normal subjects, as well as in those with preexisting conditions known to lower vestibular threshold to sound stimulation.

  1. Linking dioxins to diabetes: epidemiology and biologic plausibility.

    PubMed Central

    Remillard, Rene B J; Bunce, Nigel J

    2002-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies suggest a possible association between dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) and diabetes in human populations, although experimental links between DLCs and diabetes are lacking. The public health significance of such an association is that all populations are exposed to small but measurable levels of DLCs, chronic low-dose exposure to which may hasten the onset of adult-onset diabetes in susceptible individuals. In this article, we review the epidemiologic studies and propose biologically plausible connections between dioxins and diabetes. Specifically, we suggest that aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor functions may antagonize peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) functions, and hence that the Ah receptor may promote diabetogenesis through a mechanism of PPAR antagonism. PMID:12204817

  2. Complex Learning in Bio-plausible Memristive Networks

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lei; Li, Guoqi; Deng, Ning; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Ziyang; He, Wei; Li, Huanglong; Pei, Jing; Shi, Luping

    2015-01-01

    The emerging memristor-based neuromorphic engineering promises an efficient computing paradigm. However, the lack of both internal dynamics in the previous feedforward memristive networks and efficient learning algorithms in recurrent networks, fundamentally limits the learning ability of existing systems. In this work, we propose a framework to support complex learning functions by introducing dedicated learning algorithms to a bio-plausible recurrent memristive network with internal dynamics. We fabricate iron oxide memristor-based synapses, with well controllable plasticity and a wide dynamic range of excitatory/inhibitory connection weights, to build the network. To adaptively modify the synaptic weights, the comprehensive recursive least-squares (RLS) learning algorithm is introduced. Based on the proposed framework, the learning of various timing patterns and a complex spatiotemporal pattern of human motor is demonstrated. This work paves a new way to explore the brain-inspired complex learning in neuromorphic systems. PMID:26090862

  3. A computer program for calculating symmetrical aerodynamic characteristics and lateral-directional stability derivatives of wing-body combinations with blowing jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. E.; Mehrotra, S. C.; Fox, C. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The necessary information for using a computer program to calculate the aerodynamic characteristics under symmetrical flight conditions and the lateral-directional stability derivatives of wing-body combinations with upper-surface-blowing (USB) or over-wing-blowing (OWB) jets are described. The following new features were added to the program: (1) a fuselage of arbitrary body of revolution has been included. The effect of wing-body interference can now be investigated, and (2) all nine lateral-directional stability derivatives can be calculated. The program is written in FORTRAN language and runs on CDC Cyber 175 and Honeywell 66/60 computers.

  4. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR DOE STANDARD 3013 EQUIVALENCY SUPPORTING REDUCED TEMPERATURE STABILIZATION OF OXALATE-DERIVED PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE PRODUCED BY THE HB-LINE FACILITY AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, J. M.; Livingston, R. R.; Berg, J. M.; Veirs, D. K.

    2013-02-06

    This report documents the technical basis for determining that stabilizing highpurity PuO{sub 2} derived from oxalate precipitation at the SRS HB-Line facility at a minimum of 625 {degree}C for at least four hours in an oxidizing atmosphere is equivalent to stabilizing at a minimum of 950 {degree}C for at least two hours as regards meeting the objectives of stabilization defined by DOE-STD-3013 if the material is handled in a way to prevent excessive absorption of water.

  5. The application of parameter estimation to flight measurements to obtain lateral-directional stability derivatives of an augmented jet-flap STOL airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    Flight experiments with an augmented jet flap STOL aircraft provided data from which the lateral directional stability and control derivatives were calculated by applying a linear regression parameter estimation procedure. The tests, which were conducted with the jet flaps set at a 65 deg deflection, covered a large range of angles of attack and engine power settings. The effect of changing the angle of the jet thrust vector was also investigated. Test results are compared with stability derivatives that had been predicted. The roll damping derived from the tests was significantly larger than had been predicted, whereas the other derivatives were generally in agreement with the predictions. Results obtained using a maximum likelihood estimation procedure are compared with those from the linear regression solutions.

  6. Radar-derived asteroid shapes point to a 'zone of stability' for topography slopes and surface erosion rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, J.; Graves, K.; Bowling, T.

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies of the combined effects of asteroid shape, spin, and self-gravity have focused primarily upon the failure limits for bodies with a variety of standard shapes, friction, and cohesion values [1,2,3]. In this study, we look in the opposite direction and utilize 22 asteroid shape-models derived from radar inversion [4] and 7 small body shape-models derived from spacecraft observations [5] to investigate the region in shape/spin space [1,2] wherein self-gravity and rotation combine to produce a stable minimum state with respect to surface potential differences, dynamic topography, slope magnitudes, and erosion rates. This erosional minimum state is self-correcting, such that changes in the body's rotation rate, either up or down, will increase slope magnitudes across the body, thereby driving up erosion rates non-linearly until the body has once again reached a stable, minimized surface state [5]. We investigated this phenomenon in a systematic fashion using a series of synthesized, increasingly prolate spheroid shape models. Adjusting the rotation rate of each synthetic shape to minimize surface potential differences, dynamic topography, and slope magnitudes results in the magenta curve of the figure (right side), defining the zone of maximum surface stability (MSS). This MSS zone is invariant both with respect to body size (gravitational potential and rotational potential scale together with radius), and density when the scaled-spin of [2] is used. Within our sample of observationally derived small-body shape models, slow rotators (Group A: blue points), that are not in the maximum surface stability (MSS) zone and where gravity dominates the slopes, will generally experience moderate erosion rates (left plot) and will tend to move up and to the right in shape/spin space as the body evolves (right plot). Fast rotators (Group C: red points), that are not in the MSS zone and where spin dominates the slopes, will generally experience high erosion rates

  7. Stability analysis of phonon transport equations derived via the Chapman-Enskog method and transformation of variables.

    PubMed

    Banach, Zbigniew; Larecki, Wieslaw; Zajaczkowski, Wojciech

    2009-10-01

    Under the assumption of Callaway's model of the Boltzmann-Peierls equation, the Chapman-Enskog method for a phonon gas forms the basis to derive various hydrodynamic equations for the energy density and the drift velocity of interest when normal processes dominate over resistive ones. The first three levels of the expansion (i.e., the zeroth-, first-, and second-order approximations) are satisfactory in that they are entropy consistent and ensure linear stability of the rest state. However, the entropy density contains a weakly nonlocal term, the entropy production is a degenerate function of variables, and the next order in the Chapman-Enskog expansion gives the equations with linearly unstable rest solutions. In the context of Burnett and super-Burnett equations, a similar type of problem was recognized by several authors who proposed different ways to deal with it. Here we report on yet another possible device for obtaining more satisfactory equations. Namely, inspired by the fact that there exists no unique way to truncate the Chapman-Enskog expansion, we combine the Chapman-Enskog procedure with the method of variable transformation and subsequently find a class of epsilon -dependent transformations through which it is possible to derive the second-order equations possessing a local entropy density and nondegenerate expression for the entropy production. Regardless of this result, we also show that although the method cannot be used to construct linearly stable third-order equations, it can be used to make the originally stable first-order equations asymptotically stable.

  8. Enriching plausible new hypothesis generation in PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seung Han; Lee, Dahee; Kim, Minjoo; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-01-01

    Background Most of earlier studies in the field of literature-based discovery have adopted Swanson's ABC model that links pieces of knowledge entailed in disjoint literatures. However, the issue concerning their practicability remains to be solved since most of them did not deal with the context surrounding the discovered associations and usually not accompanied with clinical confirmation. In this study, we aim to propose a method that expands and elaborates the existing hypothesis by advanced text mining techniques for capturing contexts. We extend ABC model to allow for multiple B terms with various biological types. Results We were able to concretize a specific, metabolite-related hypothesis with abundant contextual information by using the proposed method. Starting from explaining the relationship between lactosylceramide and arterial stiffness, the hypothesis was extended to suggest a potential pathway consisting of lactosylceramide, nitric oxide, malondialdehyde, and arterial stiffness. The experiment by domain experts showed that it is clinically valid. Conclusions The proposed method is designed to provide plausible candidates of the concretized hypothesis, which are based on extracted heterogeneous entities and detailed relation information, along with a reliable ranking criterion. Statistical tests collaboratively conducted with biomedical experts provide the validity and practical usefulness of the method unlike previous studies. Applying the proposed method to other cases, it would be helpful for biologists to support the existing hypothesis and easily expect the logical process within it. PMID:28678852

  9. A plausible explanation for male dominance in typhoid ileal perforation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of consistent male dominance in typhoid ileal perforation (TIP) is not well understood. It cannot be explained on the basis of microbial virulence, Peyer's patch anatomy, ileal wall thickness, gastric acidity, host genetic factors, or sex-linked bias in hospital attendance. The cytokine response to an intestinal infection in males is predominantly proinflammatory as compared with that in females, presumably due to differences in the sex hormonal milieu. Sex hormone receptors have been detected on lymphocytes and macrophages, including on Peyer's patches, inflammation of which (probably similar to the Shwartzman reaction/Koch phenomenon) is the forerunner of TIP, and is not excluded from the regulatory effects of sex hormones. Hormonal control of host-pathogen interaction may override genetic control. Environmental exposure to Salmonella typhi may be more frequent in males, presumably due to sex-linked differences in hygiene practices and dining-out behavior. A plausible explanation of male dominance in TIP could include sex-linked differences in the degree of natural exposure of Peyer's patches to S. typhi. An alternative explanation may include sexual dimorphism in host inflammatory response patterns in Peyer's patches that have been induced by S. typhi. Both hypotheses are testable.

  10. Biologically plausible learning in neural networks with modulatory feedback.

    PubMed

    Grant, W Shane; Tanner, James; Itti, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    Although Hebbian learning has long been a key component in understanding neural plasticity, it has not yet been successful in modeling modulatory feedback connections, which make up a significant portion of connections in the brain. We develop a new learning rule designed around the complications of learning modulatory feedback and composed of three simple concepts grounded in physiologically plausible evidence. Using border ownership as a prototypical example, we show that a Hebbian learning rule fails to properly learn modulatory connections, while our proposed rule correctly learns a stimulus-driven model. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time a border ownership network has been learned. Additionally, we show that the rule can be used as a drop-in replacement for a Hebbian learning rule to learn a biologically consistent model of orientation selectivity, a network which lacks any modulatory connections. Our results predict that the mechanisms we use are integral for learning modulatory connections in the brain and furthermore that modulatory connections have a strong dependence on inhibition.

  11. Plausible inference: A multi-valued logic for problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, L.

    1979-01-01

    A new logic is developed which permits continuously variable strength of belief in the truth of assertions. Four inference rules result, with formal logic as a limiting case. Quantification of belief is defined. Propagation of belief to linked assertions results from dependency-based techniques of truth maintenance so that local consistency is achieved or contradiction discovered in problem solving. Rules for combining, confirming, or disconfirming beliefs are given, and several heuristics are suggested that apply to revising already formed beliefs in the light of new evidence. The strength of belief that results in such revisions based on conflicting evidence are a highly subjective phenomenon. Certain quantification rules appear to reflect an orderliness in the subjectivity. Several examples of reasoning by plausible inference are given, including a legal example and one from robot learning. Propagation of belief takes place in directions forbidden in formal logic and this results in conclusions becoming possible for a given set of assertions that are not reachable by formal logic.

  12. A perspective on SIDS pathogenesis. The hypotheses: plausibility and evidence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Several theories of the underlying mechanisms of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) have been proposed. These theories have born relatively narrow beach-head research programs attracting generous research funding sustained for many years at expense to the public purse. This perspective endeavors to critically examine the evidence and bases of these theories and determine their plausibility; and questions whether or not a safe and reasoned hypothesis lies at their foundation. The Opinion sets specific criteria by asking the following questions: 1. Does the hypothesis take into account the key pathological findings in SIDS? 2. Is the hypothesis congruent with the key epidemiological risk factors? 3. Does it link 1 and 2? Falling short of any one of these answers, by inference, would imply insufficient grounds for a sustainable hypothesis. Some of the hypotheses overlap, for instance, notional respiratory failure may encompass apnea, prone sleep position, and asphyxia which may be seen to be linked to co-sleeping. For the purposes of this paper, each element will be assessed on the above criteria. PMID:21619576

  13. When laboratory tests can mislead even when they appear plausible.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Adel Aa

    2017-07-01

    A laboratory test has three phases, pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical. The purpose of this review is to highlight an issue concerning the analytical phase of one of the most widely deployed groups of in vitro diagnostic tests using a common technology - namely immunoassay.Immunoassay entails an inherently high error rate and, therefore, has the potential for inaccurate and misleading results susceptible to misinterpretation and/or diagnostic misapplication by clinicians. An approach based on Bayesian inference (without mathematics or equations) - illustrated by examples - is presented; this may help clinicians in discerning potentially erroneous results even when they appear plausible and not unreasonable.Essentially, false positive results are most likely to occur when the disease prevalence/incidence is low. False negative results become more prominent when the prevalence/incidence of disease increases. When concern is raised, available follow-up laboratory tests should be initiated to establish with confidence the diagnostic reliability or unreliability of such results. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  14. Understanding mechanisms and documenting plausibility of palliative interventions for dyspnea.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Donald A

    2011-06-01

    To review the mechanisms for the perception of dyspnea and to consider the plausibility of interventions that palliate dyspnea after optimal treatment of the underlying disease. Activation of sensory receptors by blood gas abnormalities, mechanical respiratory loads, and hyperinflation provides afferent information to the central nervous system for integration and processing. It has been proposed that a discriminative pathway processes afferent impulses to the somatosensory cortex that reflects the intensity of dyspnea, whereas an affective pathway projects afferent impulses to structures of the limbic system that reflects the unpleasantness of dyspnea. In one study, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease reported consistently higher ratings of breathlessness after administration of naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, compared with physiological saline during high-intensity treadmill exercise. This finding supports the role of endogenous opioids in modulating dyspnea. Nebulized furosemide, anti-inflammatory therapy, and chest wall vibration are potential approaches for modulating lung and chest wall receptors to relieve dyspnea. Targets for palliating dyspnea in patients with advanced disease include sensory receptors within the lung/chest wall and the central nervous system. The opioid system plays an important role in palliating dyspnea. Both endogenous (β-endorphins) and exogenous (morphine) opioids modulate breathlessness.

  15. Formulation, Characterization and Stability Assessment of a Food-Derived Tripeptide, Leucine-Lysine-Proline Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Danish, Minna K; Vozza, Giuliana; Byrne, Hugh J; Frias, Jesus M; Ryan, Sinéad M

    2017-09-01

    The chicken- or fish-derived tripeptide, leucine-lysine-proline (LKP), inhibits the angiotensin converting enzyme and may be used as an alternative treatment for prehypertension. However, it has low permeation across the small intestine. The formulation of LKP into a nanoparticle (NP) has the potential to address this issue. LKP-loaded NPs were produced using an ionotropic gelation technique, using chitosan (CL113). Following optimization of unloaded NPs, a mixture amount design was constructed using variable concentration of CL113 and tripolyphosphate at a fixed LKP concentration. Resultant particle sizes ranged from 120 to 271 nm, zeta potential values from 29 to 37 mV, and polydispersity values from 0.3 to 0.6. A ratio of 6:1 (CL113:TPP) produced the best encapsulation of approximately 65%. Accelerated studies of the loaded NPs indicated stability under normal storage conditions (room temperature). Cytotoxicity assessment showed no significant loss of cell viability and in vitro release studies indicated an initial burst followed by a slower and sustained release. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Unsolicited Nominalizations by Aphasics: The Plausibility of the Lexicalist Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Harry A.

    This paper uses a discussion of experiments with aphasics' use of verbally derived nouns to illustrate how one linguistic model may be superior to another in accounting for the facts of verbal behavior. The models involved are the transformational, which relates derived nominals to their source verb and lists only the verb in the lexicon, and the…

  17. A biologically plausible learning rule for the Infomax on recurrent neural networks.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Takashi; Kaneko, Takeshi; Aoyagi, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental issue in neuroscience is to understand how neuronal circuits in the cerebral cortex play their functional roles through their characteristic firing activity. Several characteristics of spontaneous and sensory-evoked cortical activity have been reproduced by Infomax learning of neural networks in computational studies. There are, however, still few models of the underlying learning mechanisms that allow cortical circuits to maximize information and produce the characteristics of spontaneous and sensory-evoked cortical activity. In the present article, we derive a biologically plausible learning rule for the maximization of information retained through time in dynamics of simple recurrent neural networks. Applying the derived learning rule in a numerical simulation, we reproduce the characteristics of spontaneous and sensory-evoked cortical activity: cell-assembly-like repeats of precise firing sequences, neuronal avalanches, spontaneous replays of learned firing sequences and orientation selectivity observed in the primary visual cortex. We further discuss the similarity between the derived learning rule and the spike timing-dependent plasticity of cortical neurons.

  18. From ether to acid: A plausible degradation pathway of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Lei; Birgel, Daniel; Elling, Felix J.; Sutton, Paul A.; Lipp, Julius S.; Zhu, Rong; Zhang, Chuanlun; Könneke, Martin; Peckmann, Jörn; Rowland, Steven J.; Summons, Roger E.; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2016-06-01

    Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are ubiquitous microbial lipids with extensive demonstrated and potential roles as paleoenvironmental proxies. Despite the great attention they receive, comparatively little is known regarding their diagenetic fate. Putative degradation products of GDGTs, identified as hydroxyl and carboxyl derivatives, were detected in lipid extracts of marine sediment, seep carbonate, hot spring sediment and cells of the marine thaumarchaeon Nitrosopumilus maritimus. The distribution of GDGT degradation products in environmental samples suggests that both biotic and abiotic processes act as sinks for GDGTs. More than a hundred newly recognized degradation products afford a view of the stepwise degradation of GDGT via (1) ether bond hydrolysis yielding hydroxyl isoprenoids, namely, GDGTol (glycerol dialkyl glycerol triether alcohol), GMGD (glycerol monobiphytanyl glycerol diether), GDD (glycerol dibiphytanol diether), GMM (glycerol monobiphytanol monoether) and bpdiol (biphytanic diol); (2) oxidation of isoprenoidal alcohols into corresponding carboxyl derivatives and (3) chain shortening to yield C39 and smaller isoprenoids. This plausible GDGT degradation pathway from glycerol ethers to isoprenoidal fatty acids provides the link to commonly detected head-to-head linked long chain isoprenoidal hydrocarbons in petroleum and sediment samples. The problematic C80 to C82 tetraacids that cause naphthenate deposits in some oil production facilities can be generated from H-shaped glycerol monoalkyl glycerol tetraethers (GMGTs) following the same process, as indicated by the distribution of related derivatives in hydrothermally influenced sediments.

  19. A biologically plausible learning rule for the Infomax on recurrent neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Takashi; Kaneko, Takeshi; Aoyagi, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental issue in neuroscience is to understand how neuronal circuits in the cerebral cortex play their functional roles through their characteristic firing activity. Several characteristics of spontaneous and sensory-evoked cortical activity have been reproduced by Infomax learning of neural networks in computational studies. There are, however, still few models of the underlying learning mechanisms that allow cortical circuits to maximize information and produce the characteristics of spontaneous and sensory-evoked cortical activity. In the present article, we derive a biologically plausible learning rule for the maximization of information retained through time in dynamics of simple recurrent neural networks. Applying the derived learning rule in a numerical simulation, we reproduce the characteristics of spontaneous and sensory-evoked cortical activity: cell-assembly-like repeats of precise firing sequences, neuronal avalanches, spontaneous replays of learned firing sequences and orientation selectivity observed in the primary visual cortex. We further discuss the similarity between the derived learning rule and the spike timing-dependent plasticity of cortical neurons. PMID:25505404

  20. A robust and biologically plausible spike pattern recognition network.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric; Perrone, Ben P; Sen, Kamal; Billimoria, Cyrus P

    2010-11-17

    The neural mechanisms that enable recognition of spiking patterns in the brain are currently unknown. This is especially relevant in sensory systems, in which the brain has to detect such patterns and recognize relevant stimuli by processing peripheral inputs; in particular, it is unclear how sensory systems can recognize time-varying stimuli by processing spiking activity. Because auditory stimuli are represented by time-varying fluctuations in frequency content, it is useful to consider how such stimuli can be recognized by neural processing. Previous models for sound recognition have used preprocessed or low-level auditory signals as input, but complex natural sounds such as speech are thought to be processed in auditory cortex, and brain regions involved in object recognition in general must deal with the natural variability present in spike trains. Thus, we used neural recordings to investigate how a spike pattern recognition system could deal with the intrinsic variability and diverse response properties of cortical spike trains. We propose a biologically plausible computational spike pattern recognition model that uses an excitatory chain of neurons to spatially preserve the temporal representation of the spike pattern. Using a single neural recording as input, the model can be trained using a spike-timing-dependent plasticity-based learning rule to recognize neural responses to 20 different bird songs with >98% accuracy and can be stimulated to evoke reverse spike pattern playback. Although we test spike train recognition performance in an auditory task, this model can be applied to recognize sufficiently reliable spike patterns from any neuronal system.

  1. Urey prize lecture: On the diversity of plausible planetary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    Models of planet formation and of the orbital stability of planetary systems are used to predict the variety of planetary and satellite systems that may be present within our galaxy. A new approximate global criterion for orbital stability of planetary systems based on an extension of the local resonance overlap criterion is proposed. This criterion implies that at least some of Uranus' small inner moons are significantly less massive than predicted by estimates based on Voyager volumes and densities assumed to equal that of Miranda. Simple calculations (neglecting planetary gravity) suggest that giant planets which acrete substantial amounts of gas while their envelopes are extremely distended ultimately rotate rapidly in the prgrade direction.

  2. Urey prize lecture: On the diversity of plausible planetary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    Models of planet formation and of the orbital stability of planetary systems are used to predict the variety of planetary and satellite systems that may be present within our galaxy. A new approximate global criterion for orbital stability of planetary systems based on an extension of the local resonance overlap criterion is proposed. This criterion implies that at least some of Uranus' small inner moons are significantly less massive than predicted by estimates based on Voyager volumes and densities assumed to equal that of Miranda. Simple calculations (neglecting planetary gravity) suggest that giant planets which acrete substantial amounts of gas while their envelopes are extremely distended ultimately rotate rapidly in the prgrade direction.

  3. Discovery of Novel 11-Triazole Substituted Benzofuro[3,2-b]quinolone Derivatives as c-myc G-Quadruplex Specific Stabilizers via Click Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Zeng, De-Ying; Kuang, Guo-Tao; Wang, Shi-Ke; Peng, Wang; Lin, Shu-Ling; Zhang, Qi; Su, Xiao-Xuan; Hu, Ming-Hao; Wang, Honggen; Tan, Jia-Heng; Huang, Zhi-Shu; Gu, Lian-Quan; Ou, Tian-Miao

    2017-07-13

    The specificity of nucleic acids' binders is crucial for developing this kind of drug, especially for novel G-quadruplexes' binders. Quindoline derivatives have been developed as G-quadruplex stabilizers with good interactive activities. In order to improve the selectivity and binding affinity of quindoline derivatives as c-myc G-quadruplex binding ligands, novel triazole containing benzofuroquinoline derivatives (T-BFQs) were designed and synthesized by using the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of a series of alkyne and azide building blocks. The selectivity toward c-myc G-quadruplex DNA of these novel T-BFQs was significantly improved, together with an obvious increase on binding affinity. Further cellular and in vivo experiments indicated that the T-BFQs showed inhibitory activity on tumor cells' proliferation, presumably through the down-regulation of transcription of c-myc gene. Our findings broadened the modification strategies of specific G-quadruplex stabilizers.

  4. Changing beliefs about implausible autobiographical events: a little plausibility goes a long way.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, G A; Loftus, E F; Kirsch, I

    2001-03-01

    Three experiments investigated the malleability of perceived plausibility and the subjective likelihood of occurrence of plausible and implausible events among participants who had no recollection of experiencing them. In Experiment 1, a plausibility-enhancing manipulation (reading accounts of the occurrence of events) combined with a personalized suggestion increased the perceived plausibility of the implausible event, as well as participants' ratings of the likelihood that they had experienced it. Plausibility and likelihood ratings were uncorrelated. Subsequent studies showed that the plausibility manipulation alone was sufficient to increase likelihood ratings but only if the accounts that participants read were set in a contemporary context. These data suggest that false autobiographical beliefs can be induced in clinical and forensic contexts even for initially implausible events.

  5. The plausibility of a role for mercury in the etiology of autism: a cellular perspective

    PubMed Central

    Garrecht, Matthew; Austin, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Autism is defined by a behavioral set of stereotypic and repetitious behavioral patterns in combination with social and communication deficits. There is emerging evidence supporting the hypothesis that autism may result from a combination of genetic susceptibility and exposure to environmental toxins at critical moments in development. Mercury (Hg) is recognized as a ubiquitous environmental neurotoxin and there is mounting evidence linking it to neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism. Of course, the evidence is not derived from experimental trials with humans but rather from methods focusing on biomarkers of Hg damage, measurements of Hg exposure, epidemiological data, and animal studies. For ethical reasons, controlled Hg exposure in humans will never be conducted. Therefore, to properly evaluate the Hg-autism etiological hypothesis, it is essential to first establish the biological plausibility of the hypothesis. This review examines the plausibility of Hg as the primary etiological agent driving the cellular mechanisms by which Hg-induced neurotoxicity may result in the physiological attributes of autism. Key areas of focus include: (1) route and cellular mechanisms of Hg exposure in autism; (2) current research and examples of possible genetic variables that are linked to both Hg sensitivity and autism; (3) the role Hg may play as an environmental toxin fueling the oxidative stress found in autism; (4) role of mitochondrial dysfunction; and (5) possible role of Hg in abnormal neuroexcitory and excitotoxity that may play a role in the immune dysregulation found in autism. Future research directions that would assist in addressing the gaps in our knowledge are proposed. PMID:22163375

  6. The influence of pH and temperature on the stability of N-[(piperidine)methylene]daunorubicin Hydrochloride and a comparison of the stability of daunorubicin and its four new amidine derivatives in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Piekarski, Mikołaj; Dołhań, Agnieszka; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta; Zalewski, Przemysław; Kycler, Witold; Kaczmarek, Aleksandra; Firlej, Artur; Oszczapowicz, Irena; Jelińska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The influence of pH and temperature on the stability of N-[(piperidine)methylene]daunorubicin hydrochloride (PPD) was investigated. Degradation was studied using an HPLC method. Specific acid-base catalysis of PPD involves hydrolysis of protonated molecules of PPD catalyzed by hydrogen ions and spontaneous hydrolysis under the influence of water zwitterions, unprotonated molecules, and monoanions of PPD. The thermodynamic parameters of these reactions, energy, enthalpy, and entropy, were calculated. Also, the stability of daunorubicin and its new amidine derivatives (piperidine, morpholine, pyrrolidine, and hexahydroazepin-1-yl) in aqueous solutions was compared and discussed.

  7. A study of the use of experimental stability derivatives in the calculation of the lateral disturbed motions of a swept-wing airplane and comparison with flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, John D; Jaquet, Byron M

    1951-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine the accuracy with which the lateral flight motions of a swept-wing airplane could be predicted from experimental stability derivatives, determined in the 6-foot-diameter rolling-flow test section and 6 by 6-foot curved-flow test section of the Langley stability tunnel. In addition, determination of the significance of including the nonlinear aerodynamic effects of sideslip in the calculations of the motions was desired. All experimental aerodynamic data necessary for prediction of the lateral flight motions are presented along with a number of comparisons between flight and calculated motions caused by rudder and aileron disturbances.

  8. Synthesis, structure and stability of a chiral imine-based Schiff-based ligand derived from L-glutamic acid and its [Cu4] complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muche, Simon; Levacheva, Irina; Samsonova, Olga; Biernasiuk, Anna; Malm, Anna; Lonsdale, Richard; Popiołek, Łukasz; Bakowsky, Udo; Hołyńska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Studies of the stability of a ligand derived from L-glutamic acid and ortho-vanillin and its new [Cu4] complex are presented. The [Cu4] complex contains a heterocubane [CuII4O4] core and pendant carboxylic groups increasing its solubility in water, also under basic conditions. The stability of the complex in different solvents is confirmed with ESI-MS studies and such experiments as successful recrystallization. The complex is stable also under physiological conditions whereas the ligand is partly decomposed to L-glutamic acid and ortho-vanillin.

  9. Validated stability-indicating derivative and derivative ratio methods for the determination of some drugs used to alleviate respiratory tract disorders and their degradation products.

    PubMed

    Hassib, Sonia T; El-Zaher, Asmaa A; Fouad, Marwa A

    2011-05-01

    Derivative and derivative ratio methods are presented for the determination of butamirate citrate, formoterol fumarate, montelukast sodium, and sodium cromoglycate. Using the second derivative ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry, butamirate citrate and formoterol fumarate were determined by measuring the peak amplitude at 260.4 and 261.8 nm, respectively, without any interference of their degradation products. Butamirate citrate degradation product, 2-phenyl butyric acid, was determined by the measurement of its second derivative amplitude at 246.7 nm where butamirate citrate displays zero crossing. Formoterol fumarate degradation product, desformyl derivative, could be evaluated through the use of the first derivative at peak amplitude of 264.8 nm where interference of formoterol fumarate is negligible. In the first mode, the zero-crossing technique was applied at 305 nm for the determination of montelukast sodium in the presence of its photodegradation product, cis-isomer. The derivative of ratio spectra of montelukast sodium and its cis- isomer were used to determine both isomers using the first derivative of the ratio spectra by measuring the amplitudes of the trough at 305 nm and the peak at 308 nm, respectively. The later technique was also used for the determination of a ternary mixture of sodium cromoglycate and its two degradation products using zero-crossing method. In the derivative ratio spectra of the ternary mixture, trough depths were measured at 271.6, 302.8 and 302.2 nm, using the second, the first, and the second mode to evaluate sodium cromoglycate, degradation product (1) and degradation product (2), respectively. All the methods were applied successfully to the pharmaceutical preparation and were validated according to ICH guidelines.

  10. Flight-determined aerodynamic stability and control derivatives of the M2-F2 lifting body vehicle at subsonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, R. W.; Thompson, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    Aerodynamic derivatives were obtained for the M2-F2 lifting body flight vehicle in the subsonic flight region between Mach numbers of 0.41 and 0.64 and altitudes of 7000 feet to 45,000 feet. The derivatives were determined by a flight time history curve-fitting process utilizing a hybrid computer. The flight-determined derivatives are compared with wind-tunnel and predicted values. Modal-response characteristics, calculated from the flight derivatives, are presented.

  11. Curved-flow, rolling-flow, and oscillatory pure-yawing wind-tunnel test methods for determination of dynamic stability derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, J. R.; Grafton, S. B.; Lutze, F. H.

    1981-01-01

    The test capabilities of the Stability Wind Tunnel of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University are described, and calibrations for curved and rolling flow techniques are given. Oscillatory snaking tests to determine pure yawing derivatives are considered. Representative aerodynamic data obtained for a current fighter configuration using the curved and rolling flow techniques are presented. The application of dynamic derivatives obtained in such tests to the analysis of airplane motions in general, and to high angle of attack flight conditions in particular, is discussed.

  12. Two- and Three-Centered Hydrogen Bonds Involving Organic Fluorine Stabilize Conformations of Hydrazide Halo Derivatives: NMR, IR, QTAIM, NCI, and Theoretical Evidence.

    PubMed

    Lakshmipriya, A; Suryaprakash, N

    2016-10-13

    The presence of two- and three-centered hydrogen bonds (HB) of the type H(N)···X-C and C═O···H(N)···X-C, respectively, involving organic fluorine in the synthesized hydrazide halo derivatives have been convincingly established by extensive multidimensional NMR studies. The stabilized conformation of the molecules involving two- and three-centered HBs derived by NMR studies have been further confirmed by density functional theory (DFT)-based calculations, such as quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), noncovalent interaction (NCI), and relaxed potential energy scan.

  13. Conventional and first derivative synchronous fluorometric determination of ethamsylate in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids. Application to stability studies.

    PubMed

    Belal, Fathalla; El-Brashy, Amina; El-Enany, Nahed; Tolba, Manar

    2011-07-01

    Two simple, accurate and highly sensitive spectrofluorometric methods were developed for the determination of ethamsylate (ETM). Method I is based on measuring the native fluorescence of ethamsylate in water at 354 nm after excitation at 302 nm. The calibration plot was rectilinear over the range of 0.05-1 μg/mL for ETM with limits of detection and quantitation of 7.9 and 26 ng/mL, respectively. Method II involved synchronous and first derivative synchronous fluorometric methods for the simultaneous determination of ethamsylate (ETM) and hydroquinone (HQ) which is considered as an impurity and/or acidic degradation product. The synchronous fluorescence of both the drug and its impurity were measured in methanol at Δ λ of 40 nm. The peak amplitudes ((1)D) were estimated at 293.85 or 334.17 nm for ETM and at 309.05 nm for HQ. Good linearity was obtained for ETM over the ranges 0.1-1.4 μg/mL and 0.1-1.0 μg/mL at 293.85 and 334.17 nm, respectively. For HQ, the calibration plot was rectilinear over the range of 0.01-0.14 μg/mL at 309.05 nm. Limits of detection were 20, 2.01 ng/mL and limits of quantitation were 60, 6.7 ng/mL for ETM and HQ by method II, respectively. Both methods were successfully applied to commercial ampoules and tablets. The results were in good agreement with those obtained by the reference method. Method I was utilized to study the stability of ETM and its degradation kinetics using peroxide. The apparent first-order rate constant, half-life times and activation energy of the degradation process were calculated. Method I was further extended to the in-vitro and in-vivo determination of ETM in spiked and real plasma samples. The mean% recoveries were 99.57 ± 3.85 and 89.39 ± 5.93 for spiked and real human plasma, respectively.

  14. Plausibility Reappraisals and Shifts in Middle School Students' Climate Change Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Doug; Sinatra, Gale M.; Nussbaum, E. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Plausibility is a central but under-examined topic in conceptual change research. Climate change is an important socio-scientific topic; however, many view human-induced climate change as implausible. When learning about climate change, students need to make plausibility judgments but they may not be sufficiently critical or reflective. The…

  15. Plausibility Reappraisals and Shifts in Middle School Students' Climate Change Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Doug; Sinatra, Gale M.; Nussbaum, E. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Plausibility is a central but under-examined topic in conceptual change research. Climate change is an important socio-scientific topic; however, many view human-induced climate change as implausible. When learning about climate change, students need to make plausibility judgments but they may not be sufficiently critical or reflective. The…

  16. Subsonic stability and control derivatives for an unpowered, remotely piloted 3/8-scale F-15 airplane model obtained from flight test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, K. W.; Maine, R. E.; Shafer, M. F.

    1976-01-01

    In response to the interest in airplane configuration characteristics at high angles of attack, an unpowered remotely piloted 3/8-scale F-15 airplane model was flight tested. The subsonic stability and control characteristics of this airplane model over an angle of attack range of -20 to 53 deg are documented. The remotely piloted technique for obtaining flight test data was found to provide adequate stability and control derivatives. The remotely piloted technique provided an opportunity to test the aircraft mathematical model in an angle of attack regime not previously examined in flight test. The variation of most of the derivative estimates with angle of attack was found to be consistent, particularly when the data were supplemented by uncertainty levels.

  17. Photoinduced catalytic synthesis of biologically important metabolites from formaldehyde and ammonia under plausible "prebiotic" conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delidovich, I. V.; Taran, O. P.; Simonov, A. N.; Matvienko, L. G.; Parmon, V. N.

    2011-08-01

    The article analyzes new and previously reported data on several catalytic and photochemical processes yielding biologically important molecules. UV-irradiation of formaldehyde aqueous solution yields acetaldehyde, glyoxal, glycolaldehyde and glyceraldehyde, which can serve as precursors of more complex biochemically relevant compounds. Photolysis of aqueous solution of acetaldehyde and ammonium nitrate results in formation of alanine and pyruvic acid. Dehydration of glyceraldehyde catalyzed by zeolite HZSM-5-17 yields pyruvaldehyde. Monosaccharides are formed in the course of the phosphate-catalyzed aldol condensation reactions of glycolaldehyde, glyceraldehyde and formaldehyde. The possibility of the direct synthesis of tetroses, keto- and aldo-pentoses from pure formaldehyde due to the combination of the photochemical production of glycolahyde and phosphate-catalyzed carbohydrate chain growth is demonstrated. Erythrulose and 3-pentulose are the main products of such combined synthesis with selectivity up to 10%. Biologically relevant aldotetroses, aldo- and ketopentoses are more resistant to the photochemical destruction owing to the stabilization in hemiacetal cyclic forms. They are formed as products of isomerization of erythrulose and 3-pentulose. The conjugation of the concerned reactions results in a plausible route to the formation of sugars, amino and organic acids from formaldehyde and ammonia under presumed 'prebiotic' conditions.

  18. Comparison of Space Shuttle Orbiter low-speed static stability and control derivatives obtained from wind-tunnel and approach and landing flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, D. C., Jr.; Spencer, B., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the 8 foot transonic pressure tunnel to obtain wind tunnel data for comparison with static stability and control parameters measured on the space shuttle orbiter approach and landing flight tests. The longitudinal stability, elevon effectiveness, lateral directional stability, and aileron effectiveness derivatives were determined from the wind tunnel data and compared with the flight test results. The comparison covers a range of angles of attack from approximately 2 deg to 10 deg at subsonic Mach numbers of 0.41 to 0.56. In general the wind tunnel results agreed well with the flight test results, indicating the wind tunnel data is applicable to the design of entry vehicles for subsonic speeds over the angle of attack range studied.

  19. Structural pairwise comparisons of HLM stability of phenyl derivatives: Introduction of the Pfizer metabolism index (PMI) and metabolism-lipophilicity efficiency (MLE).

    PubMed

    Lewis, Mark L; Cucurull-Sanchez, Lourdes

    2009-02-01

    Data mining by pairwise comparison of over 150,000 human liver microsome (HLM) intrinsic clearance values stored within the internal Pfizer database has been performed by an automated tool. Systematic probability tables of specific structural changes on the intrinsic clearance of phenyl derivatives have been generated. From these data two new parameters, the Pfizer Metabolism Index (PMI) and Metabolism-Lipophilicity Efficiency (MLE) are introduced for each fragment. The findings are applied to a Topliss style analysis that focuses on metabolic stability.

  20. HSiCl3-Mediated Reduction of Nitro-Derivatives to Amines: Is Tertiary Amine-Stabilized SiCl2 the Actual Reducing Species?

    PubMed

    Orlandi, Manuel; Benaglia, Maurizio; Tosi, Filippo; Annunziata, Rita; Cozzi, Franco

    2016-04-01

    The mechanism of a recently reported, highly chemoselective metal-free protocol of wide general applicability for the reduction of aromatic and aliphatic nitro-derivatives to amines has been investigated. The reaction is supposed to occur through the generation of a Si(II) reducing species; quantum mechanical calculations, and spectroscopic and experimental data strongly suggest the tertiary amine-stabilized dichlorosilylene to be the most probable reducing agent.

  1. The effects of photographs and event plausibility in creating false beliefs.

    PubMed

    Blandón-Gitlin, Iris; Gerkens, David

    2010-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that using photographs as memory retrieval aids can significantly increase the likelihood of false memories. The current study further investigated this effect by examining the interactive effects of photographs and event plausibility in developing false beliefs. At Time 1 and two weeks later at Time 2, participants rated 20 events on the Life Events Inventory (LEI) as to whether each occurred to them in childhood. One week after Time 1, participants were told that two target events were plausible and two were implausible. They then used event-related photographs to visualize one plausible and one implausible event. Occurrence ratings significantly increased from Time 1 to Time 2 for plausible events in the photo condition. These results suggest that the use of photographs as a memory enhancing technique is unlikely to cause false memories for events that are not perceived personally plausible. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal-Derived Liquids. Volume 13. Evaluation of Storage and Thermal Stability of Jet Fuels Derived from Coal Liquids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    at the Great Plains Gasification Plant ( GPGP ) in Beulah, North Dakota. Funding was provided to the Department of Energy. (DOE), Pittsburgh Energy...Petroleum and Energy Research-(NIPER)>of the lIT Research Institute to study the storage and thermal stability of a JP-8 fuel produced from the GPGP liquid by...fuel produced from the GPGP liquid by-product streams. DOE/PETC was funded through Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request (MIPR) FY1455-86- N0657

  3. Assessing the severity of rainfall-derived infiltration and inflow and sewer deterioration based on the flux stability of sewage markers.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Jessica M; Kim, Lavane; Fang, Jiasong; Ray, Chittaranjan; Yan, Tao

    2011-10-15

    This study investigated the flux stability of select chemical and biological sewage markers, including caffeine, total nitrogen (TN), total suspended solids (TSS), E. coli, and enterococci, and their suitability in assessing the severity of rainfall-derived infiltration and inflow (RDII) in a residential sewershed. To quantify and compare marker flux stability, concentrations of the candidate markers in two dry-weather periods were determined and the one-day lag autocorrelation coefficients (r) of their mass fluxes were calculated. TN (r = 0.82-0.88) exhibited higher and more consistent flux stability than TSS (r = 0.49-0.82), caffeine (r = 0.56-0.58), E. coli (r = 0.36-0.87), and enterococci (by culture; r = 0.40-0.52), all of which except enterococci by qPCR (r = -0.10-0.21) showed significant autocorrelation. Sewage flows and marker concentrations were also monitored in two wet-weather periods, and the severity of RDII (R(RDII)) were calculated using either flow measurements or marker concentrations independently. Corresponding to its outstanding flux stability, R(RDII) values estimated by TN predicted all severe RDII instances and gave the highest and most consistent correlation (r = 0.74-0.78) among the different sewage markers. Overall, the study illustrated the feasibility of using the flux stability of sewage markers in assessing the severity of RDII and thereby deterioration levels in sewer systems.

  4. Curved-flow, rolling-flow, and oscillatory pure-yawing wind-tunnel test methods for determination of dynamic stability derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, J. R.; Grafton, S. B.; Lutze, F. H.

    1981-01-01

    Dynamic stability derivatives are evaluated on the basis of rolling-flow, curved-flow and snaking tests. Attention is given to the hardware associated with curved-flow, rolling-flow and oscillatory pure-yawing wind-tunnel tests. It is found that the snaking technique, when combined with linear- and forced-oscillation methods, yields an important method for evaluating beta derivatives for current configurations at high angles of attack. Since the rolling flow model is fixed during testing, forced oscillations may be imparted to the model, permitting the measurement of damping and cross-derivatives. These results, when coupled with basic rolling-flow or rotary-balance data, yield a highly accurate mathematical model for studies of incipient spin and spin entry.

  5. Linear stability of the tearing mode with two-fluid and curvature effects in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Meshcheriakov, Dmytro; Maget, Patrick; Garbet, Xavier; Luetjens, Hinrich; Beyer, Peter

    2012-09-15

    Curvature and diamagnetic effects are both recognized to have a stabilizing influence on tearing modes in the linear regime. In this paper, we investigate the impact of these effects on the linear stability of a (2, 1) magnetic island using non-linear two-fluid MHD simulations and we apply our results to Tore Supra experiments where its stability is not well understood from the single fluid MHD model. Simulations show an initial increase of the linear growth rate and then its reduction until full stability as diamagnetic frequency increases. This mechanism is therefore a plausible explanation for experimental observations where the (2, 1) mode was not observed although the single fluid model predicted its growth. Our simulations also show the importance of curvature for an efficient stabilization. A simple analytical model is derived to support the numerical results.

  6. Influence of biological assay conditions on stability assessment of radiometal-labelled peptides exemplified using a 177Lu-DOTA-minigastrin derivative.

    PubMed

    Ocak, Meltem; Helbok, Anna; von Guggenberg, Elisabeth; Ozsoy, Y; Kabasakal, Levent; Kremser, Leopold; Decristoforo, Clemens

    2011-02-01

    Lack of correlation between in vitro and in vivo stability is a general problem for the development of radiopeptides especially in the case of minigastrin derivatives for therapeutic applications. In this study, we compared the influence of experimental conditions on radiopeptide stability results in vitro using a model Minigastrin (MG) analogue labelled with Lu-177. Additionally, we attempted to characterize the main serum enzymatic cleavage sites by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. In vitro stability of a DOTA-minigastrin derivative ((177)Lu-DOTA-His-His-Glu-Ala-Tyr-Gly-Trp-NIe-Asp-Phe-NH(2)) was tested in serum, rat tissue homogenates and two different standardised enzymatic mixtures. Quantification of the metabolised radiopeptides at different time intervals was performed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Metabolites were characterised by MALDI-TOF-MS. Urine was collected after 15 min p.i. into the mice and compared with in vitro metabolites by RP-HPLC. Faster degradation of the radiopeptide was found in blood in comparison with plasma and serum incubation and in components from rats faster than from human origin. Fast degradation was observed in kidney and liver homogenates as well as in standardised enzymatic mixtures, also revealing variations in the metabolic profile. In urine, no intact peptide was detected already 5 min post injection. MALDI-TOF-MS revealed major cleavage sites at the carboxy terminus of the peptide. Very variable results may be found when different kind of incubation media for testing radiopeptide stabilities is used. Serum incubation studies may overestimate stability; therefore, results should be interpreted with care and combined with alternative in vitro and in vivo investigations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Spectral Mixing in Nervous Systems: Experimental Evidenceand Biologically Plausible Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinfeld, D.; Mehta, S. B.

    The ability to compute the difference frequency for two periodic signals depends on a nonlinear operation that mixes those signals. Behavioral and psychophysical evidence suggest that such mixing is likely to occur in the vertebrate nervous system as a means to compare rhythmic sensory signals, such as occurs in human audition, and as a means to lock an intrinsic rhythm to a sensory input. Electrophysiological data from electroreceptors in the immobilized electric fish and somatosensory cortex in the anesthetized rat yield direct evidence for such mixing, providing a neurological substrate for the modulation and demodulation of rhythmic neuronal signals. We consider an analytical model of spectral mixing that makes use of the threshold characteristics of neuronal firing and which has features consistent with the experimental observations. This model serves as a guide for constructing circuits that isolate given mixture components. In particular, such circuits can generate nearly pure difference tones from sinusoidal inputs without the use of band-pass filters, in analogy to an image-reject mixer in communications engineering. We speculate that such computations may play a role in coding of sensory input and feedback stabilization of motor output in nervous systems.

  8. High-internal-phase emulsions stabilized by metal-organic frameworks and derivation of ultralight metal-organic aerogels

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bingxing; Zhang, Jianling; Liu, Chengcheng; Peng, Li; Sang, Xinxin; Han, Buxing; Ma, Xue; Luo, Tian; Tan, Xiuniang; Yang, Guanying

    2016-01-01

    To design high-internal-phase emulsion (HIPE) systems is of great interest from the viewpoints of both fundamental researches and practical applications. Here we demonstrate for the first time the utilization of metal-organic framework (MOF) for HIPE formation. By stirring the mixture of water, oil and MOF at room temperature, the HIPE stabilized by the assembly of MOF nanocrystals at oil-water interface could be formed. The MOF-stabilized HIPE provides a novel route to produce highly porous metal-organic aerogel (MOA) monolith. After removing the liquids from the MOF-stabilized HIPE, the ultralight MOA with density as low as 0.01 g·cm−3 was obtained. The HIPE approach for MOA formation has unique advantages and is versatile in producing different kinds of ultralight MOAs with tunable porosities and structures. PMID:26892258

  9. High-internal-phase emulsions stabilized by metal-organic frameworks and derivation of ultralight metal-organic aerogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bingxing; Zhang, Jianling; Liu, Chengcheng; Peng, Li; Sang, Xinxin; Han, Buxing; Ma, Xue; Luo, Tian; Tan, Xiuniang; Yang, Guanying

    2016-02-01

    To design high-internal-phase emulsion (HIPE) systems is of great interest from the viewpoints of both fundamental researches and practical applications. Here we demonstrate for the first time the utilization of metal-organic framework (MOF) for HIPE formation. By stirring the mixture of water, oil and MOF at room temperature, the HIPE stabilized by the assembly of MOF nanocrystals at oil-water interface could be formed. The MOF-stabilized HIPE provides a novel route to produce highly porous metal-organic aerogel (MOA) monolith. After removing the liquids from the MOF-stabilized HIPE, the ultralight MOA with density as low as 0.01 g·cm-3 was obtained. The HIPE approach for MOA formation has unique advantages and is versatile in producing different kinds of ultralight MOAs with tunable porosities and structures.

  10. Stability and maturity of biowaste composts derived by small municipalities: Correlation among physical, chemical and biological indices.

    PubMed

    Oviedo-Ocaña, E R; Torres-Lozada, P; Marmolejo-Rebellon, L F; Hoyos, L V; Gonzales, S; Barrena, R; Komilis, D; Sanchez, A

    2015-10-01

    Stability and maturity are important criteria to guarantee the quality of a compost that is applied to agriculture or used as amendment in degraded soils. Although different techniques exist to evaluate stability and maturity, the application of laboratory tests in municipalities in developing countries can be limited due to cost and application complexities. In the composting facilities of such places, some classical low cost on-site tests to monitor the composting process are usually implemented; however, such tests do not necessarily clearly identify conditions of stability and maturity. In this article, we have applied and compared results of stability and maturity tests that can be easily employed on site (i.e. temperature, pH, moisture, electrical conductivity [EC], odor and color), and of tests that require more complex laboratory techniques (volatile solids, C/N ratio, self-heating, respirometric index, germination index [GI]). The evaluation of the above was performed in the field scale using 2 piles of biowaste applied compost. The monitoring period was from day 70 to day 190 of the process. Results showed that the low-cost tests traditionally employed to monitor the composting process on-site, such as temperature, color and moisture, do not provide consistent determinations with the more complex laboratory tests used to assess stability (e.g. respiration index, self-heating, volatile solids). In the case of maturity tests (GI, pH, EC), both the on-site tests (pH, EC) and the laboratory test (GI) provided consistent results. Although, stability was indicated for most of the samples, the maturity tests indicated that products were consistently immature. Thus, a stable product is not necessarily mature. Conclusively, the decision on the quality of the compost in the installations located in developing countries requires the simultaneous use of a combination of tests that are performed both in the laboratory and on-site.

  11. Flight-Determined, Subsonic, Lateral-Directional Stability and Control Derivatives of the Thrust-Vectoring F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV), and Comparisons to the Basic F-18 and Predicted Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles

    1999-01-01

    The subsonic, lateral-directional, stability and control derivatives of the thrust-vectoring F-1 8 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) are extracted from flight data using a maximum likelihood parameter identification technique. State noise is accounted for in the identification formulation and is used to model the uncommanded forcing functions caused by unsteady aerodynamics. Preprogrammed maneuvers provided independent control surface inputs, eliminating problems of identifiability related to correlations between the aircraft controls and states. The HARV derivatives are plotted as functions of angles of attack between 10deg and 70deg and compared to flight estimates from the basic F-18 aircraft and to predictions from ground and wind tunnel tests. Unlike maneuvers of the basic F-18 aircraft, the HARV maneuvers were very precise and repeatable, resulting in tightly clustered estimates with small uncertainty levels. Significant differences were found between flight and prediction; however, some of these differences may be attributed to differences in the range of sideslip or input amplitude over which a given derivative was evaluated, and to differences between the HARV external configuration and that of the basic F-18 aircraft, upon which most of the prediction was based. Some HARV derivative fairings have been adjusted using basic F-18 derivatives (with low uncertainties) to help account for differences in variable ranges and the lack of HARV maneuvers at certain angles of attack.

  12. Neuronal Dysfunction in iPSC-Derived Medium Spiny Neurons from Chorea-Acanthocytosis Patients Is Reversed by Src Kinase Inhibition and F-Actin Stabilization.

    PubMed

    Stanslowsky, Nancy; Reinhardt, Peter; Glass, Hannes; Kalmbach, Norman; Naujock, Maximilian; Hensel, Niko; Lübben, Verena; Pal, Arun; Venneri, Anna; Lupo, Francesca; De Franceschi, Lucia; Claus, Peter; Sterneckert, Jared; Storch, Alexander; Hermann, Andreas; Wegner, Florian

    2016-11-23

    Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is a fatal neurological disorder characterized by red blood cell acanthocytes and striatal neurodegeneration. Recently, severe cell membrane disturbances based on depolymerized cortical actin and an elevated Lyn kinase activity in erythrocytes from ChAc patients were identified. How this contributes to the mechanism of neurodegeneration is still unknown. To gain insight into the pathophysiology, we established a ChAc patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell model and an efficient differentiation protocol providing a large population of human striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs), the main target of neurodegeneration in ChAc. Patient-derived MSNs displayed enhanced neurite outgrowth and ramification, whereas synaptic density was similar to controls. Electrophysiological analysis revealed a pathologically elevated synaptic activity in ChAc MSNs. Treatment with the F-actin stabilizer phallacidin or the Src kinase inhibitor PP2 resulted in the significant reduction of disinhibited synaptic currents to healthy control levels, suggesting a Src kinase- and actin-dependent mechanism. This was underlined by increased G/F-actin ratios and elevated Lyn kinase activity in patient-derived MSNs. These data indicate that F-actin stabilization and Src kinase inhibition represent potential therapeutic targets in ChAc that may restore neuronal function.

  13. Studies on enhancing operational stability of a reusable laccase-based biosensor probe for detection of ortho-substituted phenolic derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sarika, C; Rekha, K; Narasimha Murthy, B

    2015-12-01

    An amperometric principle-based biosensor containing immobilized enzyme laccase from Trametes versicolor was developed for detection of ortho-substituted phenolic derivatives. Different immobilization methods for Trametes versicolor laccase enzyme on cellophane membrane and the enhancement of operational stability of the immobilized enzyme electrode using various protein-based stabilizing agents were studied. Among tested methods of immobilization, co-cross-linking method with bovine serum albumin was superior to the other methods in terms of sensitivity, limit of detection, response time, and operating and thermal stability. Biosensor response reached steady state within 3 min and exhibited maximum activity at 45 °C and pH 6.8. The sensitivity of the ortho-substituted phenols for the test biosensor developed with co-cross-linking method of immobilization using bovine serum albumin as the protein-based stabilizing agent was in the order: 2-aminophenol > guaiacol(2-methoxyphenol) > catechol(2-hydroxyphenol) > cresol(2-methyl phenol) > 2-chlorophenol. Validation of the newly developed biosensor by comparison with HPLC showed good agreement in the results. A newly developed biosensor was applied for quantification of ortho-substituted phenols in simulated effluent samples.

  14. Plausibility Effects When Reading One- and Two-character Words in Chinese: Evidence from Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jinmian; Staub, Adrian; Li, Nan; Wang, Suiping; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Eye movements of Chinese readers were monitored as they read sentences containing a critical character that was either a one-character word or the initial character of a two-character word. By manipulating the verb prior to the target word, the one-character target word (or the first character of the two-character target word) was either plausible or implausible, as an independent word, at the point at which it appeared, whereas the two-character word was always plausible. The eye movement data showed that the plausibility manipulation did not exert an influence on the reading of the-two character word or its component characters. However, plausibility significantly influenced reading of the one-character target word. These results suggest that processes of semantic integration in reading Chinese are performed at a word level, instead of a character level, and that word segmentation must take place very early in the course of processing. PMID:22612173

  15. Plausibility effects when reading one- and two-character words in Chinese: evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinmian; Staub, Adrian; Li, Nan; Wang, Suiping; Rayner, Keith

    2012-11-01

    Eye movements of Chinese readers were monitored as they read sentences containing a critical character that was either a 1-character word or the initial character of a 2-character word. Due to manipulation of the verb prior to the target word, the 1-character target word (or the first character of the 2-character target word) was either plausible or implausible, as an independent word, at the point at which it appeared, whereas the 2-character word was always plausible. The eye movement data showed that the plausibility manipulation did not exert an influence on the reading of the 2-character word or its component characters. However, plausibility significantly influenced reading of the 1-character target word. These results suggest that processes of semantic integration in reading Chinese are performed at a word level, instead of a character level, and that word segmentation must take place very early in the course of processing.

  16. Study of CO2 cyclic absorption stability of CaO-based sorbents derived from lime mud purified by sucrose method.

    PubMed

    Ma, AiHua; Jia, QingMing; Su, HongYing; Zhi, YunFei; Tian, Na; Wu, Jing; Shan, ShaoYun

    2016-02-01

    Using lime mud (LM) purified by sucrose method, derived from paper-making industry, as calcium precursor, and using mineral rejects-bauxite-tailings (BTs) from aluminum production as dopant, the CaO-based sorbents for high-temperature CO2 capture were prepared. Effects of BTs content, precalcining time, and temperature on CO2 cyclic absorption stability were illustrated. The cyclic carbonation behavior was investigated in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Phase composition and morphologies were analyzed by XRD and SEM. The results reflected that the as-synthesized CaO-based sorbent doped with 10 wt% BTs showed a superior CO2 cyclic absorption-desorption conversion during multiple cycles, with conversion being >38 % after 50 cycles. Occurrence of Ca12Al14O33 phase during precalcination was probably responsible for the excellent CO2 cyclic stability.

  17. Factors important in the extraction, stability and in vitro assembly of the hepatitis B surface antigen derived from recombinant plant systems.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark L; Keegan, Mark E; Mason, Hugh S; Shuler, Michael L

    2002-01-01

    The expression of vaccine antigens in edible plant material together with their delivery by the oral route constitutes a powerful paradigm, with the potential to dramatically reduce the cost of vaccine production and administration, in addition to improving distribution and patient compliance. These products will be subject to many of the same regulations applied to current injectable vaccines, so reliable methods to quantify antigen and ensure stability in crude plant extracts are required. As a model system the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was expressed in soybean and tobacco cell cultures. This complex antigen consists of membrane-associated small surface antigen proteins (p24(s)), disulfide cross-linked to yield dimers and higher multimers. Although the total p24(s) extracted from plant cells was relatively unaffected by detergent concentration, the quantification of antigenically reactive product depended strongly on the ratio of detergent to cell concentration. Furthermore, 1-20% w/v sodium ascorbate improved the measured levels of monoclonal-reactive antigen 4- to 12-fold. Detergent also influenced antigen stability in cell lysates stored at 4 degrees C; under optimum conditions stability was maintained for at least 1 month, whereas excess detergent rendered the antigen susceptible to proteolytic degradation. This proteolysis could be counteracted by the addition of skim milk or its protein component, which stabilized antigenically reactive p24(s) for up to 2 months. The immunologically relevant epitopes of HBsAg are critically dependent on disulfide bonding. By altering the sodium ascorbate concentration or buffer pH the proportion of HBsAg displaying the monoclonal reactive epitopes was increased between 8- and 20-fold. In addition, under certain conditions the dimerized p24(s) could be converted to oligomeric aggregates, resembling the form of the serum-derived antigen. These simple in vitro manipulations, compatible with the goal of a minimally

  18. Graphene oxide derivatives with variable alkyl chain length and terminal functional groups as supports for stabilization of cytochrome c.

    PubMed

    Patila, Michaela; Pavlidis, Ioannis V; Kouloumpis, Antonios; Dimos, Konstantinos; Spyrou, Konstantinos; Katapodis, Petros; Gournis, Dimitrios; Stamatis, Haralambos

    2016-03-01

    In this study we report the ability of reduced and non-reduced graphene oxide-based nanomaterials (GONs), modified with variable alkyl chain length and terminal functional groups, to act as effective scaffolds for the immobilization of cytochrome c (cyt c) using different immobilization procedures. The GONs/cyt c conjugates are characterized by a combination of techniques, namely atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron and FT-IR spectroscopies as well as thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analysis. The effect of the structure of functional groups and the surface chemistry of GONs on the immobilization efficiency, the peroxidase activity and the stability of the cyt c was investigated and correlated with conformational changes on the protein molecule upon immobilization. The enhanced thermal stability (up to 2-fold) and increased tolerance (up to 25-fold) against denaturing agents observed for immobilized cyt c, indicates that these functionalized GONs are suitable as nanoscaffolds for the development of robust nanobiocatalysts.

  19. The Utility of Cognitive Plausibility in Language Acquisition Modeling: Evidence From Word Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Lawrence; Pearl, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    The informativity of a computational model of language acquisition is directly related to how closely it approximates the actual acquisition task, sometimes referred to as the model's cognitive plausibility. We suggest that though every computational model necessarily idealizes the modeled task, an informative language acquisition model can aim to be cognitively plausible in multiple ways. We discuss these cognitive plausibility checkpoints generally and then apply them to a case study in word segmentation, investigating a promising Bayesian segmentation strategy. We incorporate cognitive plausibility by using an age-appropriate unit of perceptual representation, evaluating the model output in terms of its utility, and incorporating cognitive constraints into the inference process. Our more cognitively plausible model shows a beneficial effect of cognitive constraints on segmentation performance. One interpretation of this effect is as a synergy between the naive theories of language structure that infants may have and the cognitive constraints that limit the fidelity of their inference processes, where less accurate inference approximations are better when the underlying assumptions about how words are generated are less accurate. More generally, these results highlight the utility of incorporating cognitive plausibility more fully into computational models of language acquisition. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. Determination of genetic stability in long-term somatic embryogenic cultures and derived plantlets of cork oak using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Tina; Pinto, Glória; Loureiro, João; Costa, Armando; Santos, Conceição

    2006-09-01

    Microsatellites were used to test genetic stability in somatic embryos (SE) of Quercus suber L. The SE were obtained by a simple somatic embryogenesis protocol: leaf explants from two adult plants (QsG0, QsG5) and from two juvenile plants (QsGM1, QsGM2) were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and zeatin. Calluses with primary embryogenic structures were transferred to MSWH (MS medium without growth regulators) and SE proliferated by secondary somatic embryogenesis. High morphological heterogeneity was found among cotyledonary SE. However, converted plants looked morphologically normal with well-developed rooting systems and shoots. The genetic stability of the plant material during the somatic embryogenesis process was evaluated by using six to eight nuclear microsatellites transferred from Q. myrsinifolia Blume, Q. petraea (Matts.) Liebl. and Q. robur L. Five of eight microsatellites distinguished among the genotypes analyzed, and for QsG0, QsGM1 and QsGM2, uniform microsatellite patterns were generally observed within and between SE and the respective donor genotypes. For genotype QsG5, the same pattern was observed in all samples analyzed except one, where the mutation percentage was 2.5%. We conclude that microsatellite markers can be used to assess genetic stability of clonal materials and to determine genetic stability throughout the process of somatic embryogenesis. The simple somatic embryogenesis protocol described has potential for the commercial propagation of Q. suber because it results in a low percentage of mutations.

  1. Carotenoid stabilized gold and silver nanoparticles derived from the Actinomycete Gordonia amicalis HS-11 as effective free radical scavengers.

    PubMed

    Sowani, Harshada; Mohite, Pallavi; Damale, Shailesh; Kulkarni, Mohan; Zinjarde, Smita

    2016-12-01

    The Actinomycete Gordonia amicalis HS-11 produced orange pigments when cultivated on n-hexadecane as the sole carbon source. When cells of this pigmented bacterium were incubated with 1mM chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) or silver nitrate (AgNO3), pH 9.0, at 25°C, gold and silver nanoparticles, respectively, were obtained in a cell associated manner. It was hypothesized that the pigments present in the cells may be mediating metal reduction reactions. After solvent extraction and High Performance Liquid Chromatography, two major pigments displaying UV-vis spectra characteristic of carotenoids were isolated. These were identified on the basis of Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (APCI-MS) in the positive mode as 1'-OH-4-keto-γ-carotene (Carotenoid K) and 1'-OH-γ-carotene (Carotenoid B). The hydroxyl groups present in the carotenoids were eliminated under alkaline conditions and provided the reducing equivalents necessary for synthesizing nanoparticles. Cell associated and carotenoid stabilized nanoparticles were characterized by different analytical techniques. In vitro free radical scavenging activities of cells (control, gold and silver nanoparticle loaded), purified carotenoids and carotenoid stabilized gold and silver nanoparticles were evaluated. Silver nanoparticle loaded cells and carotenoid stabilized silver nanoparticles exhibited improved nitric oxide (NO) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activities compared to their control and gold counterparts. This paper thus reports cell associated nanoparticle synthesis by G. amicalis, describes for the first time the role of carotenoid pigments in metal reduction processes and demonstrates enhanced free radical scavenging activities of the carotenoid stabilized nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Stability of the Stevia-Derived Sweetener Rebaudioside A in Solution as Affected by Ultraviolet Light Exposure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiewen; Bell, Leonard N

    2017-04-01

    Rebaudioside A is a natural noncaloric high-potency sweetener extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. With rebaudioside A use increasing in foods, understanding the factors affecting its stability is necessary. This project evaluated the degradation rate constants of rebaudioside A in water, 0.1 M phosphate buffer, and 0.1 M citrate buffer at pH 3 and 7 as a function of ultraviolet (UV) light intensity (365 nm, 0 μW/cm(2) for dark conditions, 27 μW/cm(2) for low intensity, and 190 μW/cm(2) for high intensity) at 32.5 °C. Rebaudioside A stability was adversely affected by light exposure. The pseudo-1st-order degradation rate constants increased significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing light intensity in all solutions. Under dark conditions, rebaudioside A in phosphate buffers was more susceptible to breakdown than in water and citrate buffers at both pH levels. However, exposure to UV light resulted in rebaudioside A degradation occurring approximately 10 times faster in citrate than in phosphate buffers at both pH levels. The sensitivity of rebaudioside A to UV light was greater in citrate buffers than in water or phosphate buffers. The use of light-protective packaging for beverages containing rebaudioside A will improve its stability. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. The Stability of Rankings Derived from Composite Indicators: Analysis of the "IL Sole 24 Ore" Quality of Life Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lun, G.; Holzer, D.; Tappeiner, G.; Tappeiner, U.

    2006-01-01

    The calculation of composite indicators and the derivation of respective rankings is a common method used to benchmark countries or regions. However, although the statistical robustness of these rankings is often criticised, they often still spark off heated political debate. Here, we assess the sensitivity of the province ranking published by the…

  4. The Stability of Rankings Derived from Composite Indicators: Analysis of the "IL Sole 24 Ore" Quality of Life Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lun, G.; Holzer, D.; Tappeiner, G.; Tappeiner, U.

    2006-01-01

    The calculation of composite indicators and the derivation of respective rankings is a common method used to benchmark countries or regions. However, although the statistical robustness of these rankings is often criticised, they often still spark off heated political debate. Here, we assess the sensitivity of the province ranking published by the…

  5. Using critical evaluation to reappraise plausibility judgments: A critical cognitive component of conceptual change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardi, D.

    2011-12-01

    Plausibility judgments-although well represented in conceptual change theories (see, for example, Chi, 2005; diSessa, 1993; Dole & Sinatra, 1998; Posner et al., 1982)-have received little empirical attention until our recent work investigating teachers' and students' understanding of and perceptions about human-induced climate change (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010, 2011). In our first study with undergraduate students, we found that greater plausibility perceptions of human-induced climate accounted for significantly greater understanding of weather and climate distinctions after instruction, even after accounting for students' prior knowledge (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010). In a follow-up study with inservice science and preservice elementary teachers, we showed that anger about the topic of climate change and teaching about climate change was significantly related to implausible perceptions about human-induced climate change (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2011). Results from our recent studies helped to inform our development of a model of the role of plausibility judgments in conceptual change situations. The model applies to situations involving cognitive dissonance, where background knowledge conflicts with an incoming message. In such situations, we define plausibility as a judgment on the relative potential truthfulness of incoming information compared to one's existing mental representations (Rescher, 1976). Students may not consciously think when making plausibility judgments, expending only minimal mental effort in what is referred to as an automatic cognitive process (Stanovich, 2009). However, well-designed instruction could facilitate students' reappraisal of plausibility judgments in more effortful and conscious cognitive processing. Critical evaluation specifically may be one effective method to promote plausibility reappraisal in a classroom setting (Lombardi & Sinatra, in progress). In science education, critical evaluation involves the analysis of how evidentiary

  6. Plausible antioxidant biomechanics and anticonvulsant pharmacological activity of brain-targeted β-carotene nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, Mohammad; Khan, Riaz A; Khan, Maria; Ahmed, Bahar

    2012-01-01

    increased in P-80-BCNP to 231.0 ± 16.30 seconds, as compared to PTZ (120.10 ± 4.50 seconds) and placebo control (120.30 ± 7.4 seconds). The results of this study demonstrate a plausible novel anticonvulsant activity of β-carotene at a low dose of 2 mg/kg, with brain-targeted nanodelivery, thus increasing its bioavailability and stability. PMID:22915852

  7. Chemical derivation to enhance the chemical/oxidative stability of resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin

    SciTech Connect

    Hubler, T.L.; Shaw, W.J.; Brown, G.N.; Linehan, J.C.; Franz, J.A.; Hart, T.R.; Hogan, M.O.

    1996-09-01

    Tank wastes at Hanford and SRS contain highly alkaline supernate solutions of conc. Na, K nitrates with large amounts of {sup 137}Cs. It is desirable to remove and concentrate the highly radioactive fraction for vitrification. One candidate ion exchange material for removing the radiocesium is R-F resin. This report summarizes studies into synthesis and characterization of 4-derivatized R-F resins prepared in pursuit of more chemically/oxidatively robust resin. 85% 4-fluororesorcinol/15% phenol formaldehyde resin appears to have good stability in alkaline solution, although there may be some nucleophilic displacement reaction during synthesis; further studies are needed.

  8. Low-Speed Measurements of Static and Oscillatory Lateral Stability Derivatives of a 1/5 Scale Model of a Jet-Powered Vertical-Attitude VTOL Research Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanks, Robert E.; Smith, Charles C., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    Force tests of the static and dynamic lateral stability characteristics of a VTOL airplane having a triangular wing mounted high on the fuselage with a triangular vertical tail on top of the wing and no horizontal tail have been made in the Langley free-flight tunnel. The static lateral stability parameters and the rolling, yawing, and sideslipping dynamic stability derivatives are presented without analysis.

  9. Low-Speed Measurements of Static and Oscillatory Lateral Stability Derivatives of a 1/5-scale Model of a Jet-Powered Vertical-Attitude VTOL Research Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanks, Robert E.; Smith, Charles C., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the Langley free-flight tunnel to determine the low-speed static lateral stability characteristics and the rolling, yawing, and sideslipping dynamic stability derivatives of a 1/5-scale model of a jet-powered vertical-attitude VTOL research airplane. The results of this investigation are presented herein without analysis.

  10. Prediction of overall in vitro microsomal stability of drug candidates based on molecular modeling and support vector machines. Case study of novel arylpiperazines derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ulenberg, Szymon; Belka, Mariusz; Król, Marek; Herold, Franciszek; Hewelt-Belka, Weronika; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Bączek, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Other than efficacy of interaction with the molecular target, metabolic stability is the primary factor responsible for the failure or success of a compound in the drug development pipeline. The ideal drug candidate should be stable enough to reach its therapeutic site of action. Despite many recent excellent achievements in the field of computational methods supporting drug metabolism studies, a well-recognized procedure to model and predict metabolic stability quantitatively is still lacking. This study proposes a workflow for developing quantitative metabolic stability-structure relationships, taking a set of 30 arylpiperazine derivatives as an example. The metabolic stability of the compounds was assessed in in vitro incubations in the presence of human liver microsomes and NADPH and subsequently quantified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to obtain 30 models of the molecules, and Dragon software served as a source of structure-based molecular descriptors. For modeling structure-metabolic stability relationships, Support Vector Machines (SVM), a non-linear machine learning technique, were found to be more effective than a regression technique, based on the validation parameters obtained. Moreover, for the first time, general sites of metabolism for arylpiperazines bearing the 4-aryl-2H-pyrido[1,2-c]pyrimidine-1,3-dione system were defined by analysis of Q-TOF-MS/MS spectra. The results indicated that the application of one of the most advanced chemometric techniques combined with a simple and quick in vitro procedure and LC-MS analysis provides a novel and valuable tool for predicting metabolic half-life values. Given the reduced time and simplicity of analysis, together with the accuracy of the predictions obtained, this is a valid approach for predicting metabolic stability using structural data. The approach presented provides a novel, comprehensive and reliable tool for investigating

  11. Physicochemical properties of peanut oil-based diacylglycerol and their derived oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by sodium caseinate.

    PubMed

    Long, Zhao; Zhao, Mouming; Liu, Ning; Liu, Daolin; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Zhao, Qiangzhong

    2015-10-01

    High purity peanut oil-based diacylglycerol (PO-DAG) (94.95 wt%) was prepared via enzymatic glycerolysis from peanut oil (PO). The resulting dominance of DAGs was proven to greatly influence the properties of corresponding fresh or frozen-thawed emulsions. Stable fresh oil-in-water emulsions were produced using either PO-DAG or PO, with stability enhanced by increased concentrations of Na-CN. The lower equilibrium interfacial tension along with greater negative ζ-potential of PO revealed that Na-CN was preferentially adsorbed to the PO interface. Adding 0.05 mol/L NaCl to the PO emulsions minimized depletion flocculation caused by the unadsorbed Na-CN, but further NaCl addition increased oil droplet size and concomitant coalescence. For the PO-DAG emulsions, adding 0.2 mol/L NaCl did not significantly (p>0.05) affect their ζ-potential but adding 0.05 or 0.1 mol/L NaCl lowered ζ-potential, although NaCl at these concentrations increased oil droplet size and coalescence. Freezing-thawing process considerably weakened the stability of PO-DAG emulsions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Flight-Determined Subsonic Longitudinal Stability and Control Derivatives of the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) with Thrust Vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles

    1997-01-01

    The subsonic longitudinal stability and control derivatives of the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) are extracted from dynamic flight data using a maximum likelihood parameter identification technique. The technique uses the linearized aircraft equations of motion in their continuous/discrete form and accounts for state and measurement noise as well as thrust-vectoring effects. State noise is used to model the uncommanded forcing function caused by unsteady aerodynamics over the aircraft, particularly at high angles of attack. Thrust vectoring was implemented using electrohydraulically-actuated nozzle postexit vanes and a specialized research flight control system. During maneuvers, a control system feature provided independent aerodynamic control surface inputs and independent thrust-vectoring vane inputs, thereby eliminating correlations between the aircraft states and controls. Substantial variations in control excitation and dynamic response were exhibited for maneuvers conducted at different angles of attack. Opposing vane interactions caused most thrust-vectoring inputs to experience some exhaust plume interference and thus reduced effectiveness. The estimated stability and control derivatives are plotted, and a discussion relates them to predicted values and maneuver quality.

  13. Rapid and simple stability indicating HPLC method for the determination of cilazapril in pure substance and pharmaceutical formulation in comparison with classic and derivative spectrophotometric methods.

    PubMed

    Paszun, Sylwia K; Stanisz, Beata; Pawłowski, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    The present study describes development and subsequent validation of high performance liquid chromatographic method (HPLC) in comparison with spectrophotometric methods (classic, first, second and third order derivative) for determination of pure cilazapril in substance and pharmaceutical preparation. The main aim of this study was to find the method suitable not only for determination of cilazapril, but additionally useful in degradation kinetic study. Only the HPLC method is stability indicating. The HPLC method utilizes LiChroCART 250-4 HPLC-Cartridge, LiChrospher 100 RP-18 (5 μm) column, at ambient temperature, eluted at the flow rate 1.0 mL/min. The mobile phase consists of acetonitrile, methanol and phosphate buffer (pH 2.0) (60:10:30, v/v/v). Wavelength of detection is set at 212 nm. Benzocaine is used as an internal standard. The second and third order derivative spectrophotometric methods can be applied for the cilazapril analysis in substance and tablet, but not for stability evaluation (the lack of selectivity towards degradation product).

  14. Dynamics stability derivatives of space shuttle orbiter obtained from wind-tunnel and approach and landing flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, D. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A comparison was made between ground facility measurements, the aerodynamic design data book values, and the dynamic damping derivatives extracted from the space shuttle orbiter approach and landing flight tests. The comparison covers an angle of attack range from 2 deg to 10 deg at subsonic Mach numbers. The parameters of pitch, yaw, and roll damping, as well as the yawing moment due to rolling velocity and rolling moment due to yawing velocity are compared.

  15. Aerodynamic Characterizations of Asymmetric and Maneuvering 105-, 120-, and 155-mm Fin-Stabilized Projectiles Derived from Telemetry Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    in table 1. Figure 3. The 155-mm airframe. 5 Table 1. Physical properties of projectiles. Projectile (mm) Mass (kg) Axial Inertia...VAPP-8 Aerodynamic Coefficients The aerodynamic coefficients derived for the 10-5mm airframe are shown in figures 14 and 15. Zero-yaw axial force...coefficients ( 0xC ) for VAPP-8 and VAPP-7 agree well. The zero-yaw axial force coefficient increases slightly as Mach number increases. The pitching

  16. Quantitation of various indolinyl caged glutamates as their o-phthalaldehyde derivatives by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem spectroscopic detections: derivatization, stoichiometry and stability studies.

    PubMed

    Vasanits-Zsigrai, A; Majercsik, O; Tóth, G; Csámpai, A; Haveland-Lukács, Cs; Pálfi, D; Szadai, Z; Rózsa, B; Molnár-Perl, I

    2015-05-15

    Quantification, stability and unique spectroscopic properties of indolinyl-caged glutamates (ICGs), with the o-phthalaldehyde-3-mercaptopropionic acid (OPA-MPA) reagent, were described, at first. As new principle to the field, reactivity and stoichiometry of variously substituted OPA-MPA derivatized ICGs, such as 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl-(MNI-Glu), 4-methoxy-5,7-dinitroindolinyl-(DNI-Glu), 2-dimethylamino-propoxy and dimethylamino-isobutoxy alternatives (2DMA-1PO-DNI-Glu, 1DMA-2P-DNI-Glu and 3DMA-1iBU-DNI-Glu), was demonstrated. Derivatives' stability was determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) applying simultaneous photodiode array (DAD) and fluorescence (Fl) detections, while their structural identity was confirmed by HPLC-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF-MS). The SH-additive of the reagents was also varied. ICGs react unequivocally, with one OPA-SH-group molecule, in the molar ratios of ([OPA-SH-additive]/[ICG]=1/1, resulting in species with the characteristic isoindole spectral property (EEx/EEm=337/454nm; λmax=337nm). ICGs' isoindole derivatives, due to their sandwich structure, are manifesting the π-π-stacking phenomenon: they fail to show fluorescence. ICGs' stability decreased in the order of MNI-Glu, 2DMA-1PO/1DMA-2PO, 3DMA-1iBU and DNI-Glu, correspondingly, resulting in increasing order of free glutamic acid (GA), as their decomposition product. GA and ICGs were determined as their OPA/MPA derivatives while uncaged species (MNI, DNI and its substituted alternatives) in their initial forms. The practical utility of the method was confirmed analyzing ICGs and their decomposition products, simultaneously. Quantifications' reliability and reproducibility were characterized with the relative standard deviation percentages of responses (RSDs%): for GA 0.41-12 RSD% for ICGs 0.057-7.0 RSD% were obtained. Stability properties of variously substituted, recently introduced ICGs, prepared in laboratories of Institute of

  17. Improvement of the redox stability of dithieno[3,2-b:2‧,3‧-d]thiophene derivatives by using bulky substituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Shinjiro; Yamada, Kenji

    2013-04-01

    With the goal of improving the long term redox stability of dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]thiophene (DTT), we synthesized derivatives with differently sized substituents. It is well known that substituents in the 2, 6 positions of DTT are active in this respect. We provide in this article more insight into mechanism. The present study provides the first support for a size effect. Large size substituents in the 2, 6 positions of the DTT are more effective than small size substituents. In these compounds, the DTT acts as a core of a molecule where the HOMO is located and the substituents work as a cage to protect the core from various attacks from the outside. This core-cage system is not only effective to prevent polymerization but also to increase the long term redox stability. The compounds with large size substituents, such as (1,1':3',1″-terphenyl)-2-yl and 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-(1,1'-biphenyl)-2-yl, showed excellent long term redox stability. The oxidation potential was maintained during repeated oxidation up to 17,000 and 20,000 times, respectively. The compounds with small size substituents, such as phenyl and mesityl, showed 1/10 or less of this durability. We show the substituent effects on repeated oxidation by investigating the electrochemical and photophysical properties.

  18. The Influence of Arginine on the Response of Enamel Matrix Derivative (EMD) Proteins to Thermal Stress: Towards Improving the Stability of EMD-Based Products

    PubMed Central

    Bolisetty, Sreenath; Marascio, Matteo; Gemperli Graf, Anja; Garamszegi, Laszlo; Mezzenga, Raffaele; Fischer, Peter; Månson, Jan-Anders

    2015-01-01

    In a current procedure for periodontal tissue regeneration, enamel matrix derivative (EMD), which is the active component, is mixed with a propylene glycol alginate (PGA) gel carrier and applied directly to the periodontal defect. Exposure of EMD to physiological conditions then causes it to precipitate. However, environmental changes during manufacture and storage may result in modifications to the conformation of the EMD proteins, and eventually premature phase separation of the gel and a loss in therapeutic effectiveness. The present work relates to efforts to improve the stability of EMD-based formulations such as Emdogain™ through the incorporation of arginine, a well-known protein stabilizer, but one that to our knowledge has not so far been considered for this purpose. Representative EMD-buffer solutions with and without arginine were analyzed by 3D-dynamic light scattering, UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy at different acidic pH and temperatures, T, in order to simulate the effect of pH variations and thermal stress during manufacture and storage. The results provided evidence that arginine may indeed stabilize EMD against irreversible aggregation with respect to variations in pH and T under these conditions. Moreover, stopped-flow transmittance measurements indicated arginine addition not to suppress precipitation of EMD from either the buffers or the PGA gel carrier when the pH was raised to 7, a fundamental requirement for dental applications. PMID:26670810

  19. Formation and stabilization of the telomeric antiparallel G-quadruplex and inhibition of telomerase by novel benzothioxanthene derivatives with anti-tumor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen; Chen, Min; Ling Wu, Yan; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Juan Ji, Yan; Lin Zhang, Su; He Wei, Chuan; Xu, Yan

    2015-09-01

    G-quadruplexes formed in telomeric DNA sequences at human chromosome ends can be a novel target for the development of therapeutics for the treatment of cancer patients. Herein, we examined the ability of six novel benzothioxanthene derivatives S1-S6 to induce the formation of and stabilize an antiparallel G-quadruplex by EMSA, UV-melting and CD techniques and the influence of S1-S6 on A549 and SGC7901 cells through real-time cell analysis, wound healing, trap assay methods. Results show that six compounds could differentially induce 26 nt G-rich oligonucleotides to form the G-quadruplex with high selectivity vs C-rich DNA, mutated DNA and double-stranded DNA, stabilize it with high affinity, promote apoptosis and inhibit mobility and telomerase activity of A549 cells and SGC7901 cells. Especially, S1, S3, S4 displayed stronger abilities, of which S3 was the most optimal with the maximum ΔTm value being up to 29.8 °C for G-quadruplex, the minimum IC50 value being 0.53 μM and the maximum cell inhibitory rate being up to 97.2%. This study suggests that this type of compounds that induce the formation of and stabilize the telomeric antiparallel G-quadruplex, and consequently inhibit telomerase activity, leading to cell apoptosis, can be screened for the discovery of novel antitumor therapeutics.

  20. Improved activity and stability of alkaline phosphatases from psychrophilic and mesophilic organisms by chemically modifying aliphatic or amino groups using tetracarboxy-benzophenone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, K S; Poljak, A; Cavicchioli, R

    2004-07-01

    The activity-stability-structure relationship of the cold-active alkaline phosphatase from Red Arctic shrimp, Pandalus borealis (SAP) was studied by chemically modifying aliphatic (C-H) or amino (NH2) groups using benzophenone tetracarboxylic derivatives in either a light (UV-A) or dark reaction. The response of the cold-adapted enzyme was compared to a similarly modified calf alkaline phosphatase (CAP). MALDI-TOF-MS was used to determine the extent and nature of the modifications in both SAP and CAP. On average 2 to 4 amino acid residues were linked to a BP-modifier, with up to 18 to 21 amino acids modified in a smaller portion of the material. The effect of the modifications on kinetic and thermodynamic properties varied with the enzyme and type of modification. The aliphatic-group modified SAP demonstrated typical characteristics of a mesophilic enzyme, consistent with an activity-stability trade-off where gain in thermostability was attained at the expense of decreased activity. In contrast, the activity of the amino-group modified SAP attained an even more psychrophilic character with respect to its kinetic (increase in kcat and Km) and thermodynamic (reduction in deltaH#) properties. Interestingly, the amino-group modified SAP also acquired higher thermostability, thus demonstrating that both activity and stability can be simultaneously enhanced using chemical modification. The study demonstrates the applicability of benzophenone chemical modification for improving the thermal properties of enzymes from psychrophiles and mesophiles.

  1. Stereotyping to infer group membership creates plausible deniability for prejudice-based aggression.

    PubMed

    Cox, William T L; Devine, Patricia G

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, participants administered painful electric shocks to an unseen male opponent who was either explicitly labeled as gay or stereotypically implied to be gay. Identifying the opponent with a gay-stereotypic attribute produced a situation in which the target's group status was privately inferred but plausibly deniable to others. To test the plausible deniability hypothesis, we examined aggression levels as a function of internal (personal) and external (social) motivation to respond without prejudice. Whether plausible deniability was present or absent, participants high in internal motivation aggressed at low levels, and participants low in both internal and external motivation aggressed at high levels. The behavior of participants low in internal and high in external motivation, however, depended on experimental condition. They aggressed at low levels when observers could plausibly attribute their behavior to prejudice and aggressed at high levels when the situation granted plausible deniability. This work has implications for both obstacles to and potential avenues for prejudice-reduction efforts.

  2. Low levels of the AhR in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-derived lung cells increases COX-2 protein by altering mRNA stability

    PubMed Central

    Zago, Michela; Sheridan, Jared A.; Traboulsi, Hussein; Hecht, Emelia; Zhang, Yelu; Guerrina, Necola; Matthews, Jason; Nair, Parameswaran; Eidelman, David H.; Hamid, Qutayba

    2017-01-01

    Heightened inflammation, including expression of COX-2, is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) pathogenesis. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is reduced in COPD-derived lung fibroblasts. The AhR also suppresses COX-2 in response to cigarette smoke, the main risk factor for COPD, by destabilizing the Cox-2 transcript by mechanisms that may involve the regulation of microRNA (miRNA). Whether reduced AhR expression is responsible for heightened COX-2 in COPD is not known. Here, we investigated the expression of COX-2 as well as the expression of miR-146a, a miRNA known to regulate COX-2 levels, in primary lung fibroblasts derived from non-smokers (Normal) and smokers (At Risk) with and without COPD. To confirm the involvement of the AhR, AhR knock-down via siRNA in Normal lung fibroblasts and MLE-12 cells was employed as were A549-AhRko cells. Basal expression of COX-2 protein was higher in COPD lung fibroblasts compared to Normal or Smoker fibroblasts but there was no difference in Cox-2 mRNA. Knockdown of AhR in lung structural cells increased COX-2 protein by stabilizing the Cox-2 transcript. There was less induction of miR-146a in COPD-derived lung fibroblasts but this was not due to the AhR. Instead, we found that RelB, an NF-κB protein, was required for transcriptional induction of both Cox-2 and miR-146a. Therefore, we conclude that the AhR controls COX-2 protein via mRNA stability by a mechanism independent of miR-146a. Low levels of the AhR may therefore contribute to the heightened inflammation common in COPD patients. PMID:28749959

  3. Functional analysis of the stability determinant AlfB of pBET131, a miniplasmid derivative of bacillus subtilis (natto) plasmid pLS32.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Teruo

    2010-03-01

    Bacillus subtilis plasmid pBET131 is a derivative of pLS32, which was isolated from a natto strain of Bacillus subtilis. The DNA region in pBET131 that confers segregational stability contains an operon consisting of three genes, of which alfA, encoding an actin-like ATPase, and alfB are essential for plasmid stability. In this work, the alfB gene product and its target DNA region were studied in detail. Transcription of the alf operon initiated from a sigma(A)-type promoter was repressed by the alfB gene product. Overproduction of AlfA was inhibitory to cell growth, suggesting that the repression of the alf operon by AlfB is important for maintaining appropriate levels of AlfA. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay and footprinting analysis with purified His-tagged AlfB showed that it bound to a DNA region containing three tandem repeats of 8-bp AT-rich sequence (here designated parN), which partially overlaps the -35 sequence of the promoter. A sequence alteration in the first or third repeat did not affect the AlfB binding and plasmid stability, whereas that in the second repeat resulted in inhibition of these phenomena. The repression of alfA-lacZ expression was observed in the constructs carrying a mutation in either the first or third repeat, but not in the second repeat, indicating a correlation between plasmid stability, AlfB binding, and repression. It was also demonstrated by the yeast two-hybrid system that AlfA and AlfB interact with each other and among themselves. From these results, it was concluded that AlfB participates in partitioning pBET131 by forming a complex with AlfA and parN, the mode of which is typified by the type II partition mechanism.

  4. A mesoscale gravity-wave event observed during CCOPE. IV - Stability analysis and Doppler-derived wave vertical structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Steven E.; Einaudi, F.; Dorian, Paul B.; Lang, Stephen; Heymsfield, Gerald M.

    1993-01-01

    A summary of the results of a detailed study of the vertical structure of mesoscale gravity waves conducted during the Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment (CCOPE) is presented. Pressure perturbation fields derived from the Doppler wind fields are compared with the vertical structure of eigenfunctions resulting from a solution to the Taylor-Goldstein linear wave equation for an atmosphere whose mean state is described by vertical profiles obtained from a representative CCOPE sounding. An analysis of the potential for shear instability is also performed on all of the soundings taken on this day to assess the representativeness of the one chosen for the linear theoretical analysis.

  5. Inter-microcarrier transfer and phenotypic stability of stem cell-derived Schwann cells in stirred suspension bioreactor culture.

    PubMed

    Shakhbazau, Antos; Mirfeizi, Leila; Walsh, Tylor; Wobma, Holly M; Kumar, Ranjan; Singh, Bhagat; Kallos, Michael S; Midha, Rajiv

    2016-02-01

    Emerging bioreactor technologies offer an effective way for scaled-up production of large numbers of cells for cell therapy applications. One of the clinical paradigms where cell therapy can be an asset is restorative neurosciences. Nerve repair can benefit from the injections of stem cells and/or Schwann cells, acting as a source for axon myelination, myelin debris clearance, and trophic support. We have adapted microcarrier-based suspension bioreactor culture for Schwann cells (SCs) differentiated from a new stem cell source - skin-derived precursors (SKPs). SKP-derived SCs attach and grow on different types of microcarriers in both static and stirred culture, with Cytodex 3 and CultiSpher-S found most effective. Inter-microcarrier migration of SKP-SCs represents a key mechanism for rapid expansion and colonization in stirred suspension culture. We have shown that microcarrier-expanded SKP-SCs cells express Schwann cell markers p75-NTR, GFAP and S100 and retain their key ability to myelinate axons both in vitro and in vivo. Scaled-up microcarrier-based production of SKP-SCs in suspension bioreactors appears feasible for timely generation of sufficient cell numbers for nerve repair strategies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effect of pH, temperature, and salt on the stability of Escherichia coli- and Chinese hamster ovary cell-derived IgG1 Fc.

    PubMed

    Li, Cynthia H; Narhi, Linda O; Wen, Jie; Dimitrova, Mariana; Wen, Zai-qing; Li, Jenny; Pollastrini, Joseph; Nguyen, Xichdao; Tsuruda, Trace; Jiang, Yijia

    2012-12-18

    The circulation half-life of a potential therapeutic can be increased by fusing the molecule of interest (an active peptide, the extracellular domain of a receptor, an enzyme, etc.) to the Fc fragment of a monoclonal antibody. For the fusion protein to be a successful therapeutic, it must be stable to process and long-term storage conditions, as well as to physiological conditions. The stability of the Fc used is critical for obtaining a successful therapeutic protein. The effects of pH, temperature, and salt on the stabilities of Escherichia coli- and Chinese hamster ovary cell (CHO)-derived IgG1 Fc high-order structure were probed using a variety of biophysical techniques. Fc molecules derived from both E. coli and CHO were compared. The IgG1 Fc molecules from both sources (glycosylated and aglycosylated) are folded at neutral pH and behave similarly upon heat- and low pH-induced unfolding. The unfolding of both IgG1 Fc molecules occurs via a multistep unfolding process, with the tertiary structure and C(H)2 domain unfolding first, followed by changes in the secondary structure and C(H)3 domain. The acid-induced unfolding of IgG1 Fc molecules is only partially reversible, with the formation of high-molecular weight species. The CHO-derived Fc protein (glycosylated) is more compact (smaller hydrodynamic radius) than the E. coli-derived protein (aglycosylated) at neutral pH. Unfolding is dependent on pH and salt concentration. The glycosylated C(H)2 domain melts at a temperature 4-5 °C higher than that of the aglycosylated domain, and the low-pH-induced unfolding of the glycosylated Fc molecule occurs at a pH ~0.5 pH unit lower than that of the aglycosylated protein. The difference observed between E. coli- and CHO-derived Fc molecules primarily involves the C(H)2 domain, where the glycosylation of the Fc resides.

  7. Visual saliency: a biologically plausible contourlet-like frequency domain approach.

    PubMed

    Bian, Peng; Zhang, Liming

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we propose a fast frequency domain saliency detection method that is also biologically plausible, referred to as frequency domain divisive normalization (FDN). We show that the initial feature extraction stage, common to all spatial domain approaches, can be simplified to a Fourier transform with a contourlet-like grouping of coefficients, and saliency detection can be achieved in frequency domain. Specifically, we show that divisive normalization, a model of cortical surround inhibition, can be conducted in frequency domain. Since Fourier coefficients are global in space, we extend to this model by conducting piecewise FDN (PFDN) using overlapping local patches to provide better biological plausibility. Not only do FDN and PFDN outperform current state-of-the-art methods in eye fixation prediction, they are also faster. Speed and simplicity are advantages of our frequency domain approach, and its biological plausibility is the main contribution of our paper.

  8. Investigating effects of selectional restriction violations and plausibility violation severity on eye-movements in reading

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Tessa; McConnell, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a study investigating whether and how different kinds of knowledge affect the detection of plausibility and possibility violations. Readers’ eye-movements were monitored while reading sentences describing impossible events cued by selectional restriction violations, extremely implausible events without selectional restriction violations, and plausible events, in order to determine whether the time course of disruption is determined by overall implausibility/unlikelihood, or whether impossibility cued by selectional restriction violations additionally affects disruption. Both early and late fixation measures showed stronger disruption in the impossible/selectional restriction violation condition. However, measures indexing regressive eye-movements showed similar disruption in both extremely implausible conditions. This suggests that the magnitude and latency of disruption to possibility and plausibility violations is not a simple function of the overall implausibility/unlikelihood of the resulting event, but that selectional restriction violations influence the early and late time course of disruption. PMID:17972747

  9. The degree of disparateness of event details modulates future simulation construction, plausibility, and recall.

    PubMed

    van Mulukom, Valerie; Schacter, Daniel L; Corballis, Michael C; Addis, Donna Rose

    2016-01-01

    Several episodic simulation studies have suggested that the plausibility of future events may be influenced by the disparateness of the details comprising the event. However, no study had directly investigated this idea. In the current study, we designed a novel episodic combination paradigm that varied the disparateness of details through a social sphere manipulation. Participants recalled memory details from three different social spheres. Details were recombined either within spheres or across spheres to create detail sets for which participants imagined future events in a second session. Across-sphere events were rated as significantly less plausible than within-sphere events and were remembered less often. The presented paradigm, which increases control over the disparateness of details in future event simulations, may be useful for future studies concerned with the similarity of the simulations to previous events and its plausibility.

  10. Wind-Tunnel Investigation at Low Speed of the Rolling Stability Derivatives of a 1/10-Scale Model of the Grumman F9F-9 Airplane, TED No. NACA AD 3109

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolhart, Walter D.; Thomas, David F., Jr.

    1955-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been made in the Langley stability tunnel to determine the low-speed yawing, pitching, and static stability characteristics of a 1/10-scale model of the Grumman F9F-9 airplane. Tests were made to determine the effects of duct-entrance-fairing plugs on the static lateral and longitudinal stability characteristics of the complete model in the clean condition. The remaining tests were concerned with determining tail contributions as well as the effect of duct-entrance-fairing plugs, slats, flaps, and landing gear on the yawing and pitching stability derivatives. These data are presented without analysis in order to expedite distribution.

  11. Stabilizing short-lived Schiff base derivatives of 5-aminouracils that activate mucosal-associated invariant T cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mak, Jeffrey Y. W.; Xu, Weijun; Reid, Robert C.; Corbett, Alexandra J.; Meehan, Bronwyn S.; Wang, Huimeng; Chen, Zhenjun; Rossjohn, Jamie; McCluskey, James; Liu, Ligong; Fairlie, David P.

    2017-03-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are activated by unstable antigens formed by reactions of 5-amino-6-D-ribitylaminouracil (a vitamin B2 biosynthetic intermediate) with glycolysis metabolites such as methylglyoxal. Here we show superior preparations of antigens in dimethylsulfoxide, avoiding their rapid decomposition in water (t1/2 1.5 h, 37 °C). Antigen solution structures, MAIT cell activation potencies (EC50 3-500 pM), and chemical stabilities are described. Computer analyses of antigen structures reveal stereochemical and energetic influences on MAIT cell activation, enabling design of a water stable synthetic antigen (EC50 2 nM). Like native antigens, this antigen preparation induces MR1 refolding and upregulates surface expression of human MR1, forms MR1 tetramers that detect MAIT cells in human PBMCs, and stimulates cytokine expression (IFNγ, TNF) by human MAIT cells. These antigens also induce MAIT cell accumulation in mouse lungs after administration with a co-stimulant. These chemical and immunological findings provide new insights into antigen properties and MAIT cell activation.

  12. Stabilizing short-lived Schiff base derivatives of 5-aminouracils that activate mucosal-associated invariant T cells

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Jeffrey Y. W.; Xu, Weijun; Reid, Robert C.; Corbett, Alexandra J.; Meehan, Bronwyn S.; Wang, Huimeng; Chen, Zhenjun; Rossjohn, Jamie; McCluskey, James; Liu, Ligong; Fairlie, David P.

    2017-01-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are activated by unstable antigens formed by reactions of 5-amino-6-D-ribitylaminouracil (a vitamin B2 biosynthetic intermediate) with glycolysis metabolites such as methylglyoxal. Here we show superior preparations of antigens in dimethylsulfoxide, avoiding their rapid decomposition in water (t1/2 1.5 h, 37 °C). Antigen solution structures, MAIT cell activation potencies (EC50 3–500 pM), and chemical stabilities are described. Computer analyses of antigen structures reveal stereochemical and energetic influences on MAIT cell activation, enabling design of a water stable synthetic antigen (EC50 2 nM). Like native antigens, this antigen preparation induces MR1 refolding and upregulates surface expression of human MR1, forms MR1 tetramers that detect MAIT cells in human PBMCs, and stimulates cytokine expression (IFNγ, TNF) by human MAIT cells. These antigens also induce MAIT cell accumulation in mouse lungs after administration with a co-stimulant. These chemical and immunological findings provide new insights into antigen properties and MAIT cell activation. PMID:28272391

  13. Two Ag(I) coordination polymers derived from melamine and dicarboxylates: Syntheses, crystal structures and thermal stabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun-Hua; Sun, Di; Luo, Geng-Geng; Liu, Fu-Jing; Hao, Hong-Jun; Wen, Yi-Mei; Zhao, Yang; Huang, Rong-Bin; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2011-08-01

    Two mixed-ligand Ag(I) coordination polymers (CPs), [(NH 4)Ag 3(MA) 2(suc) 2] n ( 1), [Ag 2(MA) 2(adip)·CH 3OH·H 2O] n ( 2), (where MA = melamine, H 2suc = succinic acid, H 2adip = adipic acid) have been synthesized and structurally characterized by element analysis, IR and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The CP 1 is a three-dimensional (3D) framework in which the MA acts as a tridentate ligand and suc 2- anion shows three types of coordination modes. Each Ag(I) ion acts as a 4-connected node to generate three- and six-membered cycles, as a result, the network can be simplified to be an overall multi-layered Kagomé topology. The CP 2 is a 2D single-layer structure constructed by tridentate MA ligands and adip 2- anions. The adjacent single-layers are inter-linked to form a double-layer 2D structure through the Ag⋯Ag interactions. Two CPs structurally vary from 2D sheet to 3D framework, which indicates that the different dicarboxylates and coordination modes of MA ligand have significant influence on the final structures. Moreover, the thermal stabilities of them were also discussed.

  14. Bioactivity of a Rice Bran-Derived Peptide and its Sensory Evaluation and Storage Stability in Orange Juice.

    PubMed

    Graves, Amanda M; Hettiarachchy, Navam; Rayaprolu, Srinivas; Li, Ruiqi; Horax, Ronny; Seo, Han-Seok

    2016-04-01

    A pentapeptide prepared from rice bran demonstrated growth inhibition on human lung, liver, breast, and colon cancer cell lines. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the human prostate cancer growth inhibition by the pentapeptide and its 6-mo storage stability by incorporating spray-dried orange juice, and determining sensory acceptability. The pentapeptide showed inhibition of human prostate cancer cells by 45% at 460 μg/mL concentration. When incorporated in spray-dried orange juice, and reconstituted with water and tested, there was an approximately 10% degradation of the peptide at 620 μg/mL concentration under refrigerated conditions over a 6 mo storage period, whereas at ambient temperature the degradation was 30%. Larger degradation was observed when 240 or 460 μg/mL pentapeptide was used. Overall, consumer panelists liked sensory aspect of the reconstituted pentapeptide incorporated orange juice beverage. Also consumer panelists liked the color and mouthfeel attributes, their hedonic impression of flavor attribute was slightly low due to unpalatable bitter note caused by the presence of the peptide. Incorporation of the pentapeptide in spray-dried orange juice has the potential to serve as a functional food ingredient that can offer health benefits to consumers. It is possible that the structural instability can be minimized by encapsulation.

  15. Gastrointestinal stability, physicochemical characterization and oral bioavailability of chitosan or its derivative-modified solid lipid nanoparticles loading docetaxel.

    PubMed

    Shi, Li-Li; Lu, Jia; Cao, Yue; Liu, Jiang-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Xue; Zhang, Hongjian; Cui, Jing-Hao; Cao, Qing-Ri

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare the positively charged chitosan (CS)- or hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan (HACC)-modified solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) loading docetaxel (DTX), and to evaluate their properties in vitro and in vivo. The DTX-loaded SLNs (DTX-SLNs) were prepared through an emulsion solvent evaporation method and further modified with CS or HACC (CS-DTX-SLNs or HACC-DTX-SLNs) via noncovalent interactions. The gastrointestinal (GI) stability, dissolution rate, physicochemical properties and cytotoxicities of SLNs were investigated. In addition, the GI mucosa irritation and oral bioavailability of SLNs were also evaluated in rats. The HACC-DTX-SLNs were highly stable in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF). By contrast, the CS-DTX-SLNs were less stable in SIF than in SGF. The drug dissolution remarkably increased when DTX was incorporated into the SLNs, which may be attributed to the change in the crystallinity of DTX and some molecular interactions that occurred between DTX and the carriers. The SLNs showed low toxicity in Caco-2 cells and no GI mucosa irritations were observed in rats. A 2.45-fold increase in the area under the curve of DTX was found in the HACC-DTX-SLN group compared with the DTX group after the modified SLNs were orally administered to rats. However, the oral absorption of DTX-SLN or CS-DTX-SLN group showed no significant difference compared with that of DTX group. The positively charged HACC-DTX-SLNs with a stable particle size could provide the enhanced oral bioavailability of DTX in rats.

  16. Two-dimensional titanium carbonitrides and their hydroxylated derivatives: Structural, electronic properties and stability of MXenes Ti3C2-xNx(OH)2 from DFTB calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enyashin, A. N.; Ivanovskii, A. L.

    2013-11-01

    The structural, electronic properties and stability of the new MXene compounds—two-dimensional pristine carbonitrides Ti3C2-xNx and their hydroxylated derivatives Ti3C2-xNx(OH)2 are studied by means of DFTB calculations. The genesis of the properties is discussed in the sequence: binary MXenes Ti3C2 (Ti3N2)→hydroxylated forms Ti3C2(OH)2 (Ti3N2(OH)2)→pristine MXene Ti3C2-xNx→hydroxylated Ti3C2-xNx(OH)2. All examined materials are metallic-like. The most favorable type of OH-covering is presented by the occupation of the hollow sites between three neighboring carbon (nitrogen) atoms. Two-dimensional MXene carbonitrides with random distribution of C and N atoms are found to be thermodynamically more favorable.

  17. The neuroendocrine-derived peptide parathyroid hormone-related protein promotes prostate cancer cell growth by stabilizing the androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    DaSilva, John; Gioeli, Daniel; Weber, Michael J; Parsons, Sarah J

    2009-09-15

    During progression to an androgen-independent state following androgen ablation therapy, prostate cancer cells continue to express the androgen receptor (AR) and androgen-regulated genes, indicating that AR is critical for the proliferation of hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed for the development of AR-dependent hormone-refractory disease, including changes in expression of AR coregulatory proteins, AR mutation, growth factor-mediated activation of AR, and AR protein up-regulation. The most prominent of these progressive changes is the up-regulation of AR that occurs in >90% of prostate cancers. A common feature of the most aggressive hormone-refractory prostate cancers is the accumulation of cells with neuroendocrine characteristics that produce paracrine factors and may provide a novel mechanism for the regulation of AR during advanced stages of the disease. In this study, we show that neuroendocrine-derived parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP)-mediated signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Src pathways contributes to the phenotype of advanced prostate cancer by reducing AR protein turnover. PTHrP-induced accumulation of AR depended on the activity of Src and EGFR and consequent phosphorylation of the AR on Tyr(534). PTHrP-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of AR resulted in reduced AR ubiquitination and interaction with the ubiquitin ligase COOH terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein. These events result in increased accumulation of AR and thus enhanced growth of prostate cancer cells at low levels of androgen.

  18. Virucidal Properties of Bioceramic Derived from Chicken Feces pH 13 and its Stability in Harsh Environments.

    PubMed

    Thammakarn, Chanathip; Sangsriratanakul, Natthanan; Ishida, Yuki; Suguro, Atsushi; Yamada, Masashi; Toyofuku, Chiharu; Nakajima, Katsuhiro; Kitazawa, Minori; Ota, Mari; Hakim, Hakimullah; Alam, Md Shahin; Shoham, Dany; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2016-09-01

    Bioceramic derived from chicken feces (BCX) is a material produced by a sintering process for the purpose of use in animal farms to control livestock infectious diseases. In the present study, BCX at pH 13 was evaluated for the durability of its virucidal activity in simulated field conditions. First it was shown that BCX had activity toward Newcastle disease virus, infectious bursal disease virus, and goose parvovirus within 3 min and toward avian influenza virus (AIV) within 1 hr. BCX was further tested by keeping it under simulated harsh environmental conditions with sunlight for several weeks as well as by repeatedly soaking it with water and drying under sunlight many times. After sampling every 2 consecutive weeks and every 2 (of 9) consecutive resuspensions, BCX was evaluated for its efficacy against AIV. Evaluation under the harsh conditions illustrated that BCX could retain its satisfactory efficacy toward AIV throughout 7 wk and through 9 resuspensions. It is hence concluded that BCX is an excellent material for applying in livestock farming as a trapping disinfectant, due to its efficacy to inactivate various viruses, and that this efficacy is prolonged even under harsh environmental conditions.

  19. Effects of atmospheric ageing under different temperatures on surface properties of sludge-derived biochar and metal/metalloid stabilization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Feng, Mingyu; Zhou, Fengsa; Huang, Xinchen; Tsang, Daniel C W; Zhang, Weihua

    2017-10-01

    Ageing is a common phenomenon during biochar storage and its soil application. In this study, we exposed sludge-derived biochar (SDBC) in the air under 4 °C, 22 °C, and 45 °C for 30-120 d to imitate the ageing process after SDBC production. The aged SDBC was characterized and its sorption capacities for Pb(II), Cr(V) and As(III) were compared with the fresh ones in batch sorption experiments. The results showed an increase in acidity, cation exchange capacity, and carboxyl groups of SDBC surface, but a decrease in alkalinity and Fe(III) species during ageing, indicating the oxidation. In addition, ageing for more than 30 d was found to favor the Pb(II) and As(III) sorption, because of higher density of available oxygen-containing groups. The Cr(VI) sorption was found to be compromised by the ageing, because some reducing agents for Cr(VI) reduction was consumed there. Higher temperatures accelerated the above-mentioned ageing effect. Yet, when the SDBC was applied in the heavy-metal contaminated soil, its performance would be affected by both ageing of SDBC itself as well as long-term interactions among soil components, such as colloids and solution, heavy metals, and SDBC, which require further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rheological and physical parameters correlations in formulations with pinhão derivatives stability study: building up an analytical route.

    PubMed

    Moschini Daudt, Renata; Medeiros Cardozo, Nilo Sergio; Damasceno Ferreira Marczak, Ligia; Clemes Külkamp Guerreiro, Irene

    2017-06-07

    This study focuses on the correlation investigation between rheological and physical parameters and how it can contribute to optimize the topical formulations development. A gel and an emulgel containing pinhão derivatives, and their respective controls, were analyzed along six months of storage. A flowchart of analyses was proposed to use in topical formulation development when a benchmark is the goal or when it is necessary to change some raw material. All formulations were stable over the storage time and the formulations containing pinhão starch and coat extract presented similar properties to those of the control formulations. Correlations between rheological and physical data, as moisture content and particle size, were determined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. A moderate positive correlation was verified between particle size distribution and flow index, and a strong positive correlation between particle size and flow index. It was also found that the higher the moisture content, the higher the consistency index, quality factor, and apparent viscosity. The correlation analyses applied in this study contributed to build up an analytical route for topical formulation development, saving time and costs.

  1. Hydrophobic matching controls the tilt and stability of the dimeric platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) β transmembrane segment.

    PubMed

    Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Hoffmann, Silke; Afonin, Sergii; Grage, Stephan L; Polyansky, Anton A; Windisch, Dirk; Zeitler, Marcel; Bürck, Jochen; Ulrich, Anne S

    2012-07-27

    The platelet-derived growth factor receptor β is a member of the cell surface receptor tyrosine kinase family and dimerizes upon activation. We determined the structure of the transmembrane segment in dodecylphosphocholine micelles by liquid-state NMR and found that it forms a stable left-handed helical dimer. Solid-state NMR and oriented circular dichroism were used to measure the tilt angle of the helical segments in macroscopically aligned model membranes with different acyl chain lengths. Both methods showed that decreasing bilayer thickness (DEPC-POPC-DMPC) led to an increase in the helix tilt angle from 10° to 30° with respect to the bilayer normal. At the same time, reconstitution of the comparatively long hydrophobic segment became less effective, eventually resulting in complete protein aggregation in the short-chain lipid DLPC. Unrestrained molecular dynamics simulations of the dimer were carried out in explicit lipid bilayers (DEPC, POPC, DMPC, sphingomyelin), confirming the observed dependence of the helix tilt angle on bilayer thickness. Notably, molecular dynamics revealed that the left-handed dimer gets tilted en bloc, whereas conformational transitions to alternative (e.g. right-handed dimeric) states were not supported. The experimental data along with the simulation results demonstrate a pronounced interplay between the platelet-directed growth factor receptor β transmembrane segment and the bilayer thickness. The effect of hydrophobic mismatch might play a key role in the redistribution and activation of the receptor within different lipid microdomains of the plasma membrane in vivo.

  2. Bounds for damping that guarantee stability in mass-spring systems.

    PubMed

    Bhasin, Yogendra; Liu, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Mass-spring systems are often used to model anatomical structures in medical simulation. They can produce plausible deformations in soft tissue, and are computationally efficient. Determining damping values for a stable mass-spring system can be difficult. Previously stable models can become unstable with topology changes, such as during cutting. In this paper, we derive bounds for the damping coefficient in a mass-spring system. Our formulation can be used to evaluate the stability for user specified damping values, or to compute values that are unconditionally stable.

  3. Sintering Effects on Morphology, Thermal Stability and Surface Area of Sol-Gel Derived Nano-Hydroxyapatite Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapoor, Seema; Batra, Uma; Kohli, Suchita

    2011-12-01

    TEM showed that the nanopowder sintered at 600 °C is composed of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (26.0-45.6 nm), which is well in agreement with the crystallite size calculated using XRD data. TGA study showed the thermal stability of the synthesized nano-HAP powder. The BET surface area decreased with increase in sintering temperature.

  4. Sintering Effects on Morphology, Thermal Stability and Surface Area of Sol-Gel Derived Nano-Hydroxyapatite Powder

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, Seema; Batra, Uma; Kohli, Suchita

    2011-12-12

    at 1200 deg. C. Photomicrograph of TEM showed that the nanopowder sintered at 600 deg. C is composed of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (26.0-45.6 nm), which is well in agreement with the crystallite size calculated using XRD data. TGA study showed the thermal stability of the synthesized nano-HAP powder. The BET surface area decreased with increase in sintering temperature.

  5. A model for triple helix formation on human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter and stabilization by specific interactions with the water soluble perylene derivative, DAPER.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Luigi; D'Isa, Giuliana; Mauriello, Clementina; Varra, Michela; De Santis, Pasquale; Mayol, Luciano; Savino, Maria

    2007-08-01

    The promoter of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, in the region from -1000 to +1, contains two homopurine-homopyrimidine sequences (-835/-814 and -108/-90), that can be considered as potential targets to triple helix forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) for applying antigene strategy. We have chosen the sequence (-108/-90) on the basis of its unfavorable chromatin organization, evaluated by theoretical nucleosome positioning and nuclease hypersensitive sites mapping. On this sequence, anti-parallel triplex with satisfactory thermodynamic stability is formed by two TFOs, having different lengths. Triplex stability is significantly increased by specific interactions with the perylene derivative N,N'-bis[3,3'-(dimethylamino) propylamine]-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (DAPER). Since DAPER is a symmetric molecule, the induced Circular Dichroism (CD) spectra in the range 400-600 nm allows us to obtain information on drug binding to triplex and duplex DNA. The drug-induced ellipticity is significantly higher in the case of triplex with respect to duplex and, surprisingly, it increases at decreasing of DNA. A model is proposed where self-stacked DAPER binds to triplex or to duplex narrow grooves.

  6. Re-exploring the N-phenylpicolinamide derivatives to develop mGlu4 ligands with improved affinity and in vitro microsomal stability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaoda; Kil, Kun-Eek; Poutiainen, Pekka; Choi, Ji-Kyung; Kang, Hye-Jin; Huang, Xi-Ping; Roth, Bryan L; Brownell, Anna-Liisa

    2015-09-15

    In recent years, mGlu4 has received great attention and research effort because of the potential benefits of mGlu4 activation in treating numerous brain disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Many positive allosteric modulators of mGlu4 have been developed. To better understand the role of mGlu4 in healthy and disease conditions, we are interested in developing an mGlu4 selective radioligand for in vivo studies. Thus, we had synthesized and studied [(11)C]2 as a PET tracer for mGlu4, which demonstrated some promising features as a PET radioligand as well as the limitation need to be improved. In order to develop an mGlu4 ligand with enhanced affinity and improved metabolic stability, we have modified, synthesized and evaluated a series of new N-phenylpicolinamide derivatives. The SAR study has discovered a number of compounds with low nM affinity to mGlu4. The dideuteriumfluoromethoxy modified compound 24 is identified as a very promising mGlu4 ligand, which has demonstrated enhanced affinity, improved in vitro microsomal stability, good selectivity and good permeability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Intermolecular and regioselective access to polysubstituted benzo- and dihydrobenzo[c]azepine derivatives: modulating the reactivity of group 6 non-heteroatom-stabilized alkynyl carbene complexes.

    PubMed

    González, Jairo; Gómez, Aránzazu; Funes-Ardoiz, Ignacio; Santamaría, Javier; Sampedro, Diego

    2014-06-02

    We highlight the versatility of non-heteroatom-stabilized tungsten-carbene complexes 3 synthesized in situ, which have been used in a modular approach to access 2-benzazepinium isolable intermediates 5. By employing very mild conditions, benzazepinium derivatives 5 have been obtained in high yield from simple compounds, such as acetylides 2, Fischer-type alkoxycarbenes 1, and phenylimines 4. The process, involving a formal [4+3] heterocycloaddition, occurs in a totally regioselective manner, which differs from the approach previously observed in similar procedures for other carbene analogues. This work, which involves three components, reveals a control of the reactivity of non-heteroatom-stabilized carbene complexes 3 ([4+3] vs. [2+2]-heterocycloaddition reactions) depending on the acetylide substitution pattern. The influence of the substitution pattern in the behavior of the complexes has been computationally analyzed and rationalized. Finally, elaboration of the 2-benzazepinium intermediates allows access to 3H-benzo[c]azepines 6 and 3H-1,2-dihydrobenzo[c]azepines 7-9 with high control of the substitution of the nine positions of the heterocycle.

  8. Altered morphology, nuclear stability and adhesion of highly metastatic derivatives of osteoblast-like SAOS-2 osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Muff, Roman; Nigg, Natalie; Gruber, Philipp; Walters, Denise; Born, Walter; Fuchs, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of death in patients with osteosarcoma (OS). High alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and resistance to chemotherapy are independent predictors of poor clinical outcome of osteosarcoma. Here, the osteoblastic phenotype, cell and nuclear morphology, cell adhesion and drug resistance of the SAOS-2 cell line and two in vivo selected highly metastatic derivatives, LM5 and LM7, were compared. ALP activity and deposition of mineralized extracellular matrix were the same in the parental SAOS-2 and the LM5 and LM7 cells, but parathyroid hormone (PTH)-stimulated cAMP accumulation was lost in the LM7 cells. The LM5 and LM7 cells were smaller than the parental SAOS-2 cells, and 10% of the LM7 cells had distorted nuclei. The adhesion of LM5 and LM7 cells was decreased when compared to SAOS-2 cells. The cytotoxic responses of the SAOS-2, LM5 and LM7 cells to Cisplatin, Doxorubicin and Etoposide were indistinguishable. The increased metastatic potential of LM5 and LM7 as compared to SAOS-2 cells is not associated with a substantial change of the osteoblastic phenotype or of the cytotoxic response to current chemotherapeutic drugs. The decrease in cell size and altered cell adhesion, reflecting cytoskeletal rearrangement, together with increased nuclear instability and partial dedifferentiation, as revealed by the loss of PTH responsiveness in LM7 cells, may account for the higher metastatic potential of the LM5 and LM7 sublines as compared to the parental SAOS-2 cells.

  9. The Radical Promise of Reformist Zeal: What Makes "Inquiry for Equity" Plausible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashaw, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Education reform movements often promise more than they deliver. Why are such promises plausible in light of seemingly perpetual education reform? Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork based in a nonprofit education reform organization, this article explores the appeal of popular notions about "using data to close the racial achievement…

  10. The Utility of Cognitive Plausibility in Language Acquisition Modeling: Evidence from Word Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Lawrence; Pearl, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The informativity of a computational model of language acquisition is directly related to how closely it approximates the actual acquisition task, sometimes referred to as the model's "cognitive plausibility." We suggest that though every computational model necessarily idealizes the modeled task, an informative language acquisition…

  11. Causality vs. Plausibility: Alternative Stances for Inquiry into Human Behavior. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guba, Egon G.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.

    Arguing that the concept of causality in human experience is archaic, unnecessary, and misleading, particularly in the social/behavioral sciences, a new plausibility approach is proposed for understanding relationships among entities. The epistemological history of causality includes positivist, deductive-nomological, essentialist, activity or…

  12. Preview Effects of Plausibility and Character Order in Reading Chinese Transposed Words: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jinmian

    2013-01-01

    The current paper examined the role of plausibility information in the parafovea for Chinese readers by using two-character transposed words (in which the order of the component characters is reversed but are still words). In two eye-tracking experiments, readers received a preview of a target word that was (1) identical to the target word, (2) a…

  13. The Utility of Cognitive Plausibility in Language Acquisition Modeling: Evidence from Word Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Lawrence; Pearl, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The informativity of a computational model of language acquisition is directly related to how closely it approximates the actual acquisition task, sometimes referred to as the model's "cognitive plausibility." We suggest that though every computational model necessarily idealizes the modeled task, an informative language acquisition…

  14. Pictorial Retention of Plausible vs. Bizarre Images as a Function of Unexpected Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iaccino, James F.; Spirek, Pamela

    Previous research has demonstrated that bizarre imagery facilitates long-term recall of noun pairs. A study investigated the effects of bizarreness when more pronounced delays were used. Subjects, 40 introductory psychology students from Illinois Benedictine College, were shown 30 plausible and 30 bizarre scenes at a viewing distance of…

  15. The Collision of Plausibility with Reality: Lifting the Veil of the Ethical Neutrality of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgmann, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Technology, thought of as the ensemble of utilities and devices and of their impact on our lives, proceeds in steps, each of which seems plausible. This kind of development also encourages the view that technology is value-neutral. It always can be used both for good and ill, and we decide how to use it. The production of food and the development…

  16. The Collision of Plausibility with Reality: Lifting the Veil of the Ethical Neutrality of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgmann, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Technology, thought of as the ensemble of utilities and devices and of their impact on our lives, proceeds in steps, each of which seems plausible. This kind of development also encourages the view that technology is value-neutral. It always can be used both for good and ill, and we decide how to use it. The production of food and the development…

  17. Get Real: Effects of Repeated Simulation and Emotion on the Perceived Plausibility of Future Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szpunar, Karl K.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    People frequently imagine specific interpersonal experiences that might occur in their futures. The present study used a novel experimental paradigm to examine the influence of repeated simulation of future interpersonal experiences on subjective assessments of plausibility for positive, negative, and neutral events. The results demonstrate that…

  18. Plausibility check of a redesigned rain-on-snow simulator (RASA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rössler, Ole; Probst, Sabine; Weingartner, Rolf

    2016-04-01

    Rain-on-snow events are fascinating but still not completely understood processes. Although, several studies and equations have been published since decades that describe past events and theoretical descriptions, empirical data of what is happening in the snow cover is far less available. A way to fill this gap of empirical data, rain-on-snow-simulators might be of help. In 2013, Juras et al. published their inspiring idea of a portable rain-on-snow simulator. The huge advantage of this devise - in contrast to other purely field-based experiments - are their fixed, and mostly standardized conditions and the possibility to measure all required data to monitor the water fluxes and melting processes at a time. Mounted in a convenient location, a large number of experiments are relatively easy conductible. We applied and further developed the original device and plausified the results of this redesigned version, called RASA. The principal design was borrowed from the original version being a frame with a sprinkler on top and a snow sample in a box at the bottom, from which the outflow is measured with a tipping gauge. We added a moving sprinkling plate to ensure a uniform distribution of raindrops on the snow, and - most importantly - we suspended the watered snow sampled on weighting cells. The latter enables to continuous measurement of the snow sample throughout the experiment and thus the indirect quantification of liquid water saturation, water holding capacity, and snowmelt amount via balance equations. As it is remains unclear if this device is capable to reproduce known processes, a hypothesis based plausibility check was accomplished. Thus, eight hypothesizes were derived from literature and tested in 28 experiments with the RASA mounted at 2000 m elevation. In general, we were able to reproduce most of the hypotheses. The RASA proved to be a very valuable device that can generate suitable results and has the potential to extend the empirical-experimental data

  19. Students' conceptions about climate change: Using critical evaluation to influence plausibility reappraisals and knowledge reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardi, Douglas Adler

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007) reported a greater than 90% chance that human activities are responsible for global temperature increases over the last 50 years, as well as other climatic changes. The scientific report also states that alternative explanations (e.g., increasing energy received from the Sun) are less plausible than human-induced climate change. These climate scientists have made their plausibility judgment---which I define as the relative potential truthfulness of alternative explanations---based on the evaluation and coordination of multiple lines evidence with competing theoretical perspectives. Climate change is a highly relevant and gravely serious topic; in an educational setting, climate change also presents an opportunity for students to learn about fundamental scientific principles and how scientists construct knowledge. However, students may be neither naturally evaluative when learning about controversial topics, such as climate change, nor reflective while engaging in judgments about knowledge and knowing (King & Kitchener, 2004), such as plausibility judgments. The purpose of this study was to examine how plausibility judgments and knowledge about human-induced climate change transform during instruction that promotes critical evaluation abilities. An instructional scaffold---called a model evidence link (MEL) diagram---was used in this study. The MEL allowed students to weigh the strength of connections between two alternative models of climate change (i.e., the scientifically accepted model of human-induced climate change and a popular skeptics' model that climate change is caused by increases in the Sun's energy). The results revealed that treatment group participants who used the MEL diagram experienced a significant shift in their plausibility judgments toward the scientifically accepted model. This shift was accompanied by significantly greater postinstructional knowledge of human-induced climate change, with

  20. Submicron mineral structures control the stabilization of litter-derived organic matter in soils - A NanoSIMS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Cordula; Mueller, Carsten W.; Höschen, Carmen; Buegger, Franz; Heister, Katja; Schulz, Stefanie; Schloter, Michael; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2014-05-01

    The sequestration of carbon and nitrogen by clay-sized particles in soils is well established. However, in the most cases, the complex structure of the organo-mineral associations remain a black box due to the common measurements of soil fractions as a whole. By combining nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) with isotopic tracing it is possible to study the formation and spatial heterogeneity of organo-mineral associations. NanoSIMS enables the detection of up to seven secondary ion species (e.g. 13C-, 12N15N-, 27Al16O-, 56Fe16O-) simultaneously, to generate a submicron-scale image of the elemental and isotopic composition (e.g. 13C, 15N, Al and Fe) down to a lateral resolution of ~150 nm. Therefore this technique can be used to study organo-mineral associations at the relevant scale. The aim of our study was to follow the formation of organo-mineral associations over different time steps and the distribution of C and N by imaging the complex arrangement between soil mineral surfaces and litter-derived organic matter (OM). Parallel to the determination of the isotopic N and C composition of bulk soil and soil fractions (combined density and particle size fractionation) using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), the spatial distribution of the OM was investigated by NanoSIMS analysis of the clay-sized fraction. In our study we show that only some of the clay-sized surfaces bind OM. Surprisingly, less than 19% of the mineral areas visible by scanning electron microscopy and NanoSIMS show an OM attachment. We demonstrate that mineral clusters with rough surfaces exhibit the preferential binding spots for OM. By combining NanoSIMS and isotopic tracing, we distinguish between new labelled and pre-existing OM and show that new OM is preferentially attached to already present organo-mineral clusters. Vogel, C., Mueller, C.W., Höschen, C., Buegger, F., Heister, K., Schulz, S., Schloter, M., Kögel-Knabner, I., 2014. Submicron structures provide

  1. New synthesis of a high molecular weight ligand derived from dota; thermodynamic stability of the MRI contrast agent formed with gadolinium.

    PubMed

    Pierrard, Jean-Claude; Rimbault, Jean; Aplincourt, Michel; Le Greneur, Soizic; Port, Marc

    2008-01-01

    The new total synthesis in four steps of the compound P1041 is reported. This compound is a high molecular mass ligand (MW 6.32 kDa) derived from dota in which the four substituents are hydroxylated and contain amidic groups. The attribution of the nine protonation constants of P1041 is based on the comparison with the behaviour of the precursor ligands dota and tced, a tetracarboxylated derivative of dota. From these results, the studies of the systems P1041/Na(+) and P1041/Gd(3+) lead to the determination of the stability constants corresponding to the three species Na(P1041)H(h) (h = 0, 2 or 4) and to the five complexes Gd(P1041)H(h) (h = 0, 2, 3, 4 or 5). The complexing ability of P1041 towards Gd(3+) is compared with those of dota and tced. At physiological pH = 7.4, the very stable species Gd(P1041)H(4) (-) (currently named P792 in the literature) of this rapid clearance blood pool agent is predominant. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Relative genomic stability of adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells: analysis of ploidy, H19 long non-coding RNA and p53 activity.

    PubMed

    Ravid, Orly; Shoshani, Ofer; Sela, Meirav; Weinstock, Ada; Sadan, Tommy Weiss; Gur, Eyal; Zipori, Dov; Shani, Nir

    2014-12-17

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent and have been derived from various tissues. Although MSCs share many basic features, they often display subtle tissue specific differences. We previously demonstrated that bone marrow (BM) MSCs frequently become polyploid in culture. This tendency was mediated by a reduction in the expression of H19 long non-coding RNA during the transition from a diploid to a polyploid state. MSCs were derived from both BM and adipose tissue of mice and expanded under normoxic and hypoxic culture conditions. Cells were stained by propidium iodide and their ploidy was evaluated by FACS. Gene expression of independent MSC preparations was compared by quantitative real time PCR and protein expression levels by Western blot analysis. p53 silencing in MSCs was performed by a specific small hairpin RNA (shRNA). We set to examine whether genomic instability is common to MSCs originating from different tissues. It is demonstrated that adipose derived MSCs (ASCs) tend to remain diploid during culture while a vast majority of BM MSCs become polyploid. The diploid phenotype of ASCs is correlated with reduced H19 expression compared to BM MSCs. Under hypoxic conditions (3% oxygen) both ASCs and BM MSCs demonstrate increased RNA expression of H19 and Vascular endothelial growth factor A. Importantly, ASC gene expression is significantly less variable than BM MSCs under both oxygen conditions, indicating to their superior homogeneity. Gene expression analysis revealed that p53 target genes, often induced by DNA damage, are up-regulated in ASCs under basal conditions. However, p53 activation following treatment with DNA damaging agents was strongly elevated in BM MSCs compared to ASCs. We found that p53 is involved in maintaining the stable diploid state of ASCs as p53 shRNA induced ploidy changes in ASCs but not in BM MSCs. The increased genomic stability of murine ASCs together with their lower H19 expression and relative homogeneity suggest a

  3. Effect of the 3-halo substitution of the 2'-deoxy aminopyridinyl-pseudocytidine derivatives on the selectivity and stability of antiparallel triplex DNA with a CG inversion site.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Taniguchi, Yosuke; Okamura, Hidenori; Sasaki, Shigeki

    2017-07-15

    Triplex formation against a target duplex DNA has the potential to become a tool for the genome research. However, there is an intrinsic restriction on the duplex DNA sequences capable of forming the triplex DNA. Recently, we demonstrated the selective formation of the stable antiparallel triplexes containing the CG inversion sites using the 2'-deoxy-1-methylpseudocytidine derivative (ΨdC), whose amino group was conjugated with the 2-aminopyridine at its 5-position as an additional hydrogen bonding unit (AP-ΨdC). The 1-N of 2-aminopyridine was supposed to be protonated to form the hydrogen bond with the guanine of the CG inversion site. In this study, to test the effect of the 3-substitution of the 2-aminopyridine unit of AP-ΨdC on the triplex stability, we synthesized the 3-halogenated 2-aminopyridine derivatives of AP-ΨdC. The pKa values 1-N of the 2-aminopyridine unit of AP-ΨdC as the monomer nucleoside were determined to be 6.3 for 3-CH3 ((Me)AP-ΨdC), 6.1 for 3-H (AP-ΨdC), 4.3 for 3-Cl ((Cl)AP-ΨdC), 4.4 for 3-Br ((Br)AP-ΨdC), and 4.7 for 3-I ((I)AP-ΨdC), suggesting that all the halogenated AP-ΨdCs are not protonated under neutral conditions. Interestingly, although the recognition selectivity depends on the sequence context, the TFO having the sequence of the 3'-G-((I)AP-ΨdC)-A-5' context showed the selective triplex formation with the CG inversion site. These results suggest that the protonation at the 1-N position plays an important role in the stable and selective triplex formation of AP-ΨdC derivatives in any sequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechanism of inhibition of human leucocyte elastase by beta-lactams. 2. Stability, reactivation kinetics, and products of beta-lactam-derived E-I complexes.

    PubMed

    Green, B G; Chabin, R; Mills, S; Underwood, D J; Shah, S K; Kuo, D; Gale, P; Maycock, A L; Liesch, J; Burgey, C S

    1995-11-07

    The monocyclic beta-lactams reported by Knight et al. [Knight, W. B., et al. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 8160; Chabin, R., et al. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 8970] as inhibitors of human leucocyte elastase (HLE) produce stable HLE-inhibitor complexes that slowly reactivate with half-lives ranging from less than 1 to 15 h at 37 degrees C. The complexes produced between PPE and two C-3 dimethyl-substituted beta-lactams are less stable than those produced between HLE and analogous C-3 diethyl-substituted lactams. The stability of the HLE-I complexes is governed primarily by the structure of the substituted urea portion of the inhibitors and not by the identity or presence of a leaving group at C-4 of the lactam ring. In some cases substitutions on the urea portion of the inhibitors yielded complexes that displayed biphasic reactivation kinetics. This suggests the presence of at least two different complexes. The stereochemistry of the leaving group at C-4 has a small effect on the stability of the final complex (1.3-2-fold); therefore, the identity of the final complex is dependent upon the initial stereochemistry at that position. The stability of the complexes was relatively insensitive to hydroxylamine, which suggests that the acyl-enzymes are protected from nucleophilic "rescue". The rate of reactivation of the complex derived from L-680,833,[S-R*,S*)]-4-[(1-(((1-(4- methylphenyl)butyl)amino)carbonyl)-3,3-diethyl-2-oxo-4-azetidinyl)ben zeneacetic acid, was pH independent, while the L-684,481, (R)-(1-(((1-(4-methylphenyl)butyl)amino)carbonyl)-3,3-diethyl-2-azeti din one generated complex displayed a pH-dependent reactivation rate. In the latter case, the increase in reactivation rate with pH displayed a pKa of 7.2. This is consistent with the requirement for base catalysis by the active site histidine to regenerate enzymatic activity. Reactivation of the L-680,833-derived complex produced different products as a function of pH, suggesting two different pH-dependent routes

  5. Mass Spectrometry Based Identification of Geometric Isomers during Metabolic Stability Study of a New Cytotoxic Sulfonamide Derivatives Supported by Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Belka, Mariusz; Hewelt-Belka, Weronika; Sławiński, Jarosław; Bączek, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    A set of 15 new sulphonamide derivatives, presenting antitumor activity have been subjected to a metabolic stability study. The results showed that besides products of biotransformation, some additional peaks occurred in chromatograms. Tandem mass spectrometry revealed the same mass and fragmentation pathway, suggesting that geometric isomerization occurred. Thus, to support this hypothesis, quantitative structure-retention relationships were applied. Human liver microsomes were used as an in vitro model of metabolism. The biotransformation reactions were tracked by liquid chromatography assay and additionally, fragmentation mass spectra were recorded. In silico molecular modeling at a semi-empirical level was conducted as a starting point for molecular descriptor calculations. A quantitative structure-retention relationship model was built applying multiple linear regression based on selected three-dimensional descriptors. The studied compounds revealed high metabolic stability, with a tendency to form hydroxylated biotransformation products. However, significant chemical instability in conditions simulating human body fluids was noticed. According to literature and MS data geometrical isomerization was suggested. The developed in sillico model was able to describe the relationship between the geometry of isomer pairs and their chromatographic retention properties, thus it supported the hypothesis that the observed pairs of peaks are most likely geometric isomers. However, extensive structural investigations are needed to fully identify isomers’ geometry. An effort to describe MS fragmentation pathways of novel chemical structures is often not enough to propose structures of potent metabolites and products of other chemical reactions that can be observed in compound solutions at early drug discovery studies. The results indicate that the relatively non-expensive and not time- and labor-consuming in sillico approach could be a good supportive tool assisting the

  6. Engineering the Pores of Biomass-Derived Carbon: Insights for Achieving Ultrahigh Stability at High Power in High-Energy Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Thangavel, Ranjith; Kaliyappan, Karthikeyan; Ramasamy, Hari Vignesh; Sun, Xueliang; Lee, Yun-Sung

    2017-07-10

    Electrochemical supercapacitors with high energy density are promising devices due to their simple construction and long-term cycling performance. The development of a supercapacitor based on electrical double-layer charge storage with high energy density that can preserve its cyclability at higher power presents an ongoing challenge. Herein, we provide insights to achieve a high energy density at high power with an ultrahigh stability in an electrical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) system by using carbon from a biomass precursor (cinnamon sticks) in a sodium ion-based organic electrolyte. Herein, we investigated the dependence of EDLC performance on structural, textural, and functional properties of porous carbon engineered by using various activation agents. The results demonstrate that the performance of EDLCs is not only dependent on their textural properties but also on their structural features and surface functionalities, as is evident from the electrochemical studies. The electrochemical results are highly promising and revealed that the porous carbon with poor textural properties has great potential to deliver high capacitance and outstanding stability over 300 000 cycles compared with porous carbon with good textural properties. A very low capacitance degradation of around 0.066 % per 1000 cycles, along with high energy density (≈71 Wh kg(-1) ) and high power density, have been achieved. These results offer a new platform for the application of low-surface-area biomass-derived carbons in the design of highly stable high-energy supercapacitors. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Of paradox and plausibility: the dynamic of change in medical law.

    PubMed

    Harrington, John

    2014-01-01

    This article develops a model of change in medical law. Drawing on systems theory, it argues that medical law participates in a dynamic of 'deparadoxification' and 'reparadoxification' whereby the underlying contingency of the law is variously concealed through plausible argumentation, or revealed by critical challenge. Medical law is, thus, thoroughly rhetorical. An examination of the development of the law on abortion and on the sterilization of incompetent adults shows that plausibility is achieved through the deployment of substantive common sense and formal stylistic devices. It is undermined where these elements are shown to be arbitrary and constructed. In conclusion, it is argued that the politics of medical law are constituted by this antagonistic process of establishing and challenging provisionally stable normative regimes.

  8. Spelling in oral deaf and hearing dyslexic children: A comparison of phonologically plausible errors.

    PubMed

    Roy, P; Shergold, Z; Kyle, F E; Herman, R

    2014-11-01

    A written single word spelling to dictation test and a single word reading test were given to 68 severe-profoundly oral deaf 10-11-year-old children and 20 hearing children with a diagnosis of dyslexia. The literacy scores of the deaf children and the hearing children with dyslexia were lower than expected for children of their age and did not differ from each other. Three quarters of the spelling errors of hearing children with dyslexia compared with just over half the errors of the oral deaf group were phonologically plausible. Expressive vocabulary and speech intelligibility predicted the percentage of phonologically plausible errors in the deaf group only. Implications of findings for the phonological decoding self-teaching model and for supporting literacy development are discussed.

  9. Identifying Plausible Genetic Models Based on Association and Linkage Results: Application to Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Weihua; Boehnke, Michael; Pluzhnikov, Anna; Cox, Nancy J.; Scott, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    When planning re-sequencing studies for complex diseases, previous association and linkage studies can constrain the range of plausible genetic models for a given locus. Here, we explore the combinations of causal risk allele frequency RAFC and genotype relative risk GRRC consistent with no or limited evidence for affected sibling pair (ASP) linkage and strong evidence for case-control association. We find that significant evidence for case-control association combined with no or moderate evidence for ASP linkage can define a lower bound for the plausible RAFC. Using data from large type 2 diabetes (T2D) linkage and genome-wide association study meta-analyses, we find that under reasonable model assumptions, 23 of 36 autosomal T2D risk loci are unlikely to be due to causal variants with combined RAFC < .005, and four of the 23 are unlikely to be due to causal variants with combined RAFC < .05. PMID:22865662

  10. Identifying plausible genetic models based on association and linkage results: application to type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Guan, Weihua; Boehnke, Michael; Pluzhnikov, Anna; Cox, Nancy J; Scott, Laura J

    2012-12-01

    When planning resequencing studies for complex diseases, previous association and linkage studies can constrain the range of plausible genetic models for a given locus. Here, we explore the combinations of causal risk allele frequency (RAFC ) and genotype relative risk (GRRC ) consistent with no or limited evidence for affected sibling pair (ASP) linkage and strong evidence for case-control association. We find that significant evidence for case-control association combined with no or moderate evidence for ASP linkage can define a lower bound for the plausible RAFC . Using data from large type 2 diabetes (T2D) linkage and genome-wide association study meta-analyses, we find that under reasonable model assumptions, 23 of 36 autosomal T2D risk loci are unlikely to be due to causal variants with combined RAFC < 0.005, and four of the 23 are unlikely to be due to causal variants with combined RAFC < 0.05.

  11. Biologically plausible learning in recurrent neural networks reproduces neural dynamics observed during cognitive tasks.

    PubMed

    Miconi, Thomas

    2017-02-23

    Neural activity during cognitive tasks exhibits complex dynamics that flexibly encode task-relevant variables. Chaotic recurrent networks, which spontaneously generate rich dynamics, have been proposed as a model of cortical computation during cognitive tasks. However, existing methods for training these networks are either biologically implausible, and/or require a continuous, real-time error signal to guide learning. Here we show that a biologically plausible learning rule can train such recurrent networks, guided solely by delayed, phasic rewards at the end of each trial. Networks endowed with this learning rule can successfully learn nontrivial tasks requiring flexible (context-dependent) associations, memory maintenance, nonlinear mixed selectivities, and coordination among multiple outputs. The resulting networks replicate complex dynamics previously observed in animal cortex, such as dynamic encoding of task features and selective integration of sensory inputs. We conclude that recurrent neural networks offer a plausible model of cortical dynamics during both learning and performance of flexible behavior.

  12. Effective Teacher Practice on the Plausibility of Human-Induced Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niepold, F.; Sinatra, G. M.; Lombardi, D.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change education programs in the United States seek to promote a deeper understanding of the science of climate change, behavior change and stewardship, and support informed decision making by individuals, organizations, and institutions--all of which are summarized under the term 'climate literacy.' The ultimate goal of climate literacy is to enable actors to address climate change, both in terms of stabilizing and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, but also an increased capacity to prepare for the consequences and opportunities of climate change. However, the long-term nature of climate change and the required societal response involve the changing students' ideas about controversial scientific issues which presents unique challenges for educators (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010; Sinatra & Mason, 2008). This session will explore how the United States educational efforts focus on three distinct, but related, areas: the science of climate change, the human-climate interaction, and using climate education to promote informed decision making. Each of these approaches are represented in the Atlas of Science Literacy (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2007) and in the conceptual framework for science education developed at the National Research Council (NRC) in 2012. Instruction to develop these fundamental thinking skills (e.g., critical evaluation and plausibility reappraisal) has been called for by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) (Achieve, 2013), an innovative and research based way to address climate change education within the decentralized U.S. education system. However, the promise of the NGSS is that students will have more time to build mastery on the subjects, but the form of that instructional practice has been show to be critical. Research has show that effective instructional activities that promote evaluation of evidence improve students' understanding and acceptance toward the scientifically accepted model of human

  13. Stabilization of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor ion channel-FKBP12 complex by the 1,4-benzothiazepine derivative S107.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yingwu; Xu, Le; Kramer, Henning F; Tomberlin, Ginger H; Townsend, Claire; Meissner, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Activation of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR1) complex results in the rapid release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and muscle contraction. Dissociation of the small FK506 binding protein 12 subunit (FKBP12) increases RyR1 activity and impairs muscle function. The 1,4-benzothiazepine derivative JTV519, and the more specific derivative S107 (2,3,4,5,-tetrahydro-7-methoxy-4-methyl-1,4-benzothiazepine), are thought to improve skeletal muscle function by stabilizing the RyR1-FKBP12 complex. Here, we report a high degree of nonspecific and specific low affinity [(3)H]S107 binding to SR vesicles. SR vesicles enriched in RyR1 bound ∼48 [(3)H]S107 per RyR1 tetramer with EC(50) ∼52 µM and Hillslope ∼2. The effects of S107 and FKBP12 on RyR1 were examined under conditions that altered the redox state of RyR1. S107 increased FKBP12 binding to RyR1 in SR vesicles in the presence of reduced glutathione and the NO-donor NOC12, with no effect in the presence of oxidized glutathione. Addition of 0.15 µM FKBP12 to SR vesicles prevented FKBP12 dissociation; however, in the presence of oxidized glutathione and NOC12, FKBP12 dissociation was observed in skeletal muscle homogenates that contained 0.43 µM myoplasmic FKBP12 and was attenuated by S107. In single channel measurements with FKBP12-depleted RyR1s, in the absence and presence of NOC12, S107 augmented the FKBP12-mediated decrease in channel activity. The data suggest that S107 can reverse the harmful effects of redox active species on SR Ca(2+) release in skeletal muscle by binding to RyR1 low affinity sites.

  14. HPLC, TLC, and first-derivative spectrophotometry stability-indicating methods for the determination of tropisetron in the presence of its acid degradates.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Fattah, Laila S; El-Sherif, Zeinab A; Kilani, Khadiga M; El-Haddad, Dalia A

    2010-01-01

    Three stability-indicating assay methods were developed for the determination of tropisetron in a pharmaceutical dosage form in the presence of its degradation products. The proposed techniques are HPLC, TLC, and first-derivative spectrophotometry (1D). Acid degradation was carried out, and the degradation products were separated by TLC and identified by IR, NMR, and MS techniques. The HPLC method was based on determination of tropisetron in the presence of its acid-induced degradation product on an RP Nucleosil C18 column using methanol-water-acetonitrile-trimethylamine (65 + 20 + 15 + 0.2, v/v/v/v) mobile phase and UV detection at 285 nm. The TLC method was based on the separation of tropisetron and its acid-induced degradation products, followed by densitometric measurement of the intact spot at 285 nm. The separation was carried out on silica gel 60 F254 aluminum sheets using methanol-glacial acetic acid (22 + 3, v/v) mobile phase. The 1D method was based on the measurement of first-derivative amplitudes of tropisetron in H2O at the zero-crossing point of its acid-induced degradation product at 271.9 nm. Linearity, accuracy, and precision were found to be acceptable over concentration ranges of 40-240 microg/mL, 1-10 microg/spot, and 6-36 micro/mL for the HPLC, TLC, and 1D methods, respectively. The suggested methods were successfully applied for the determination of the drug in bulk powder, laboratory-prepared mixtures, and a commercial sample.

  15. Predictability, plausibility, and two late ERP positivities during written sentence comprehension

    PubMed Central

    DeLong, Katherine A.; Quante, Laura; Kutas, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Van Petten & Luka’s (2012) literature survey of late positive ERP components elicited by more or less predictable words during sentence processing led them to propose two topographically and functionally distinct positivities: a parietal one associated with semantically incongruent words related to semantic reanalysis and a frontal one with unknown significance associated with congruent but lexically unpredicted words. With the goal of testing this hypothesis within a single set of experimental materials and participants, we report results from two ERP studies: Experiment 1, a post hoc analysis of a dataset that varied on dimensions of both cloze probability (predictability) and plausibility, and Experiment 2, a follow-up study in which these factors were manipulated in a controlled fashion. In both studies, we observed distinct post-N400 positivities: a more anterior one to plausible, but not anomalous, low cloze probability sentence medial words, and a more posterior one to semantically anomalous sentence continuations. Taken together with an observed canonical cloze-modulated N400, these dual positivities indicate a dissociation between brain processes relating to written words’ sentential predictability versus plausibility, clearly an important distinction for any viable neural or psycholinguistic model of written sentence processing. PMID:24953958

  16. What happened (and what didn’t): Discourse constraints on encoding of plausible alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Fraundorf, Scott H.; Benjamin, Aaron S.; Watson, Duane G.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments investigated how font emphasis influences reading and remembering discourse. Although past work suggests that contrastive pitch contours benefit memory by promoting encoding of salient alternatives, it is unclear both whether this effect generalizes to other forms of linguistic prominence and how the set of alternatives is constrained. Participants read discourses in which some true propositions had salient alternatives (e.g., British scientists found the endangered monkey when the discourse also mentioned French scientists) and completed a recognition memory test. In Experiments 1 and 2, font emphasis in the initial presentation increased participants’ ability to later reject false statements about salient alternatives but not about unmentioned items (e.g., Portuguese scientists). In Experiment 3, font emphasis helped reject false statements about plausible alternatives, but not about less plausible alternatives that were nevertheless established in the discourse. These results suggest readers encode a narrow set of only those alternatives plausible in the particular discourse. They also indicate that multiple manipulations of linguistic prominence, not just prosody, can lead to consideration of alternatives. PMID:24014934

  17. What happened (and what didn't): Discourse constraints on encoding of plausible alternatives.

    PubMed

    Fraundorf, Scott H; Benjamin, Aaron S; Watson, Duane G

    2013-10-01

    Three experiments investigated how font emphasis influences reading and remembering discourse. Although past work suggests that contrastive pitch contours benefit memory by promoting encoding of salient alternatives, it is unclear both whether this effect generalizes to other forms of linguistic prominence and how the set of alternatives is constrained. Participants read discourses in which some true propositions had salient alternatives (e.g., British scientists found the endangered monkey when the discourse also mentioned French scientists) and completed a recognition memory test. In Experiments 1 and 2, font emphasis in the initial presentation increased participants' ability to later reject false statements about salient alternatives but not about unmentioned items (e.g., Portuguese scientists). In Experiment 3, font emphasis helped reject false statements about plausible alternatives, but not about less plausible alternatives that were nevertheless established in the discourse. These results suggest readers encode a narrow set of only those alternatives plausible in the particular discourse. They also indicate that multiple manipulations of linguistic prominence, not just prosody, can lead to consideration of alternatives.

  18. The effect of plausibility on sentence comprehension among older adults and its relation to cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jungmee; Campanelli, Luca; Goral, Mira; Marton, Klara; Eichorn, Naomi; Obler, Loraine K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Older adults show age-related decline in complex-sentence comprehension. This has been attributed to a decrease in cognitive abilities that may support language processing, such as working memory (e.g., Caplan, DeDe, Waters, & Michaud, 2011,Psychology and Aging, 26, 439-450). The authors examined whether older adults have difficulty comprehending semantically implausible sentences and whether specific executive functions contribute to their comprehension performance. Forty-two younger adults (aged 18-35) and 42 older adults (aged 55-75) were tested on two experimental tasks: a multiple negative comprehension task and an information processing battery. Both groups, older and younger adults, showed poorer performance for implausible sentences than for plausible sentences; however, no interaction was found between plausibility and age group. A regression analysis revealed that inhibition efficiency, as measured by a task that required resistance to proactive interference, predicted comprehension of implausible sentences in older adults only. Consistent with the compensation hypothesis, the older adults with better inhibition skills showed better comprehension than those with poor inhibition skills. The findings suggest that semantic implausibility, along with syntactic complexity, increases linguistic and cognitive processing loads on auditory sentence comprehension. Moreover, the contribution of inhibitory control to the processing of semantic plausibility, particularly among older adults, suggests that the relationship between cognitive ability and language comprehension is strongly influenced by age.

  19. Families of Plausible Solutions to the Puzzle of Boyajian’s Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Jason T.; Sigurd̵sson, Steinn

    2016-09-01

    Good explanations for the unusual light curve of Boyajian's Star have been hard to find. Recent results by Montet & Simon lend strength and plausibility to the conclusion of Schaefer that in addition to short-term dimmings, the star also experiences large, secular decreases in brightness on decadal timescales. This, combined with a lack of long-wavelength excess in the star's spectral energy distribution, strongly constrains scenarios involving circumstellar material, including hypotheses invoking a spherical cloud of artifacts. We show that the timings of the deepest dimmings appear consistent with being randomly distributed, and that the star's reddening and narrow sodium absorption is consistent with the total, long-term dimming observed. Following Montet & Simon's encouragement to generate alternative hypotheses, we attempt to circumscribe the space of possible explanations with a range of plausibilities, including: a cloud in the outer solar system, structure in the interstellar medium (ISM), natural and artificial material orbiting Boyajian's Star, an intervening object with a large disk, and variations in Boyajian's Star itself. We find the ISM and intervening disk models more plausible than the other natural models.

  20. THE EFFECT OF PLAUSIBILITY ON SENTENCE COMPREHENSION AMONG OLDER ADULTS AND ITS RELATION TO COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jungmee; Campanelli, Luca; Goral, Mira; Marton, Klara; Eichorn, Naomi; Obler, Loraine K.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Study Context Older adults show age-related decline in complex-sentence comprehension. This has been attributed to a decrease in cognitive abilities that may support language processing, such as working memory (e.g., Caplan, DeDe, Waters, & Michaud, 2011,Psychology and Aging, 26, 439–450). The authors examined whether older adults have difficulty comprehending semantically implausible sentences and whether specific executive functions contribute to their comprehension performance. Methods Forty-two younger adults (aged 18–35) and 42 older adults (aged 55–75) were tested on two experimental tasks: a multiple negative comprehension task and an information processing battery. Results Both groups, older and younger adults, showed poorer performance for implausible sentences than for plausible sentences; however, no interaction was found between plausibility and age group. A regression analysis revealed that inhibition efficiency, as measured by a task that required resistance to proactive interference, predicted comprehension of implausible sentences in older adults only. Consistent with the compensation hypothesis, the older adults with better inhibition skills showed better comprehension than those with poor inhibition skills. Conclusion The findings suggest that semantic implausibility, along with syntactic complexity, increases linguistic and cognitive processing loads on auditory sentence comprehension. Moreover, the contribution of inhibitory control to the processing of semantic plausibility, particularly among older adults, suggests that the relationship between cognitive ability and language comprehension is strongly influenced by age. PMID:25978447

  1. The Time Course of Plausibility Effects on Eye Movements in Reading: Evidence from Noun-Noun Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, Adrian; Rayner, Keith; Pollatsek, Alexander; Hyona, Jukka; Majewski, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Readers' eye movements were monitored as they read sentences containing noun-noun compounds that varied in frequency (e.g., elevator mechanic, mountain lion). The left constituent of the compound was either plausible or implausible as a head noun at the point at which it appeared, whereas the compound as a whole was always plausible. When the head…

  2. The Time Course of Plausibility Effects on Eye Movements in Reading: Evidence from Noun-Noun Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, Adrian; Rayner, Keith; Pollatsek, Alexander; Hyona, Jukka; Majewski, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Readers' eye movements were monitored as they read sentences containing noun-noun compounds that varied in frequency (e.g., elevator mechanic, mountain lion). The left constituent of the compound was either plausible or implausible as a head noun at the point at which it appeared, whereas the compound as a whole was always plausible. When the head…

  3. Theoretical study of stability and charge-transport properties of coronene molecule and some of its halogenated derivatives: A path to ambipolar organic-based materials?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sancho-García, J. C.; Pérez-Jiménez, A. J.

    2014-10-01

    We have carefully investigated the structural and electronic properties of coronene and some of its fluorinated and chlorinated derivatives, including full periphery substitution, as well as the preferred orientation of the non-covalent dimer structures subsequently formed. We have paid particular attention to a set of methodological details, to first obtain single-molecule magnitudes as accurately as possible, including next the use of modern dispersion-corrected methods to tackle the corresponding non-covalently bound dimers. Generally speaking, this class of compounds is expected to self-assembly in neighboring π-stacks with dimer stabilization energies ranging from -20 to -30 kcal mol-1 at close distances around 3.0-3.3 Å. Then, in a further step, we have also calculated hole and electron transfer rates of some suitable candidates for ambipolar materials, and corresponding charge mobility values, which are known to critically depend on the supramolecular organization of the samples. For coronene and per-fluorinated coronene, we have found high values for their hopping rates, although slightly smaller for the latter due to an increase (decrease) of the reorganization energies (electronic couplings).

  4. Theoretical study of stability and charge-transport properties of coronene molecule and some of its halogenated derivatives: A path to ambipolar organic-based materials?

    SciTech Connect

    Sancho-García, J. C. Pérez-Jiménez, A. J.

    2014-10-07

    We have carefully investigated the structural and electronic properties of coronene and some of its fluorinated and chlorinated derivatives, including full periphery substitution, as well as the preferred orientation of the non-covalent dimer structures subsequently formed. We have paid particular attention to a set of methodological details, to first obtain single-molecule magnitudes as accurately as possible, including next the use of modern dispersion-corrected methods to tackle the corresponding non-covalently bound dimers. Generally speaking, this class of compounds is expected to self-assembly in neighboring π-stacks with dimer stabilization energies ranging from –20 to –30 kcal mol{sup −1} at close distances around 3.0–3.3 Å. Then, in a further step, we have also calculated hole and electron transfer rates of some suitable candidates for ambipolar materials, and corresponding charge mobility values, which are known to critically depend on the supramolecular organization of the samples. For coronene and per-fluorinated coronene, we have found high values for their hopping rates, although slightly smaller for the latter due to an increase (decrease) of the reorganization energies (electronic couplings)

  5. Spatial distribution of stabilizer-derived nitroxide radicals during thermal degradation of poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) copolymers: a unified picture from pulsed ELDOR and ESR imaging.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Gunnar; Schlick, Shulamith

    2006-09-21

    Double Electron-Electron Resonance (DEER) provides information on the spatial distribution of radicals on the length scale of a few nanometres, while Electron Spin Resonance Imaging (ESRI) provides information on a length scale of millimetres with a resolution of about 100 micrometres. Despite the gap between these length scales, results from the two techniques are found to complement and support each other in the characterization of the identity and distribution of nitroxide radicals derived from the Hindered Amine Stabilizer (HAS) Tinuvin 770 in poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) (ABS) copolymers. DEER measurements demonstrate that there is no significant formation of biradicals from the bifunctional HAS, and provide the distributions of local radical concentrations. These distributions are poorly resolved for model-free analysis of the DEER data by the Tikhonov regularization; the resolution was significantly improved by utilizing information obtained by ESRI. DEER data can be fitted with only one adjustable parameter, namely the average radical concentration, if 1D and 2D spectral--spatial ESRI results on both the spatial distribution of nitroxides and their distribution between the acrylonitrile--styrene-rich (SAN) and butadiene-rich (B) microphases are considered.

  6. Hemocyanin-derived phenoloxidase activity with broad temperature stability extending into the cold environment in hemocytes of the hair crab Erimacrus isenbeckii.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Gu; Jung, Byung Wook; Kim, Hahyung

    2011-06-01

    Phenoloxidase (PO) activity is a major component of the innate immune response in arthropods. In this study, we characterized PO activity from the hair crab Erimacrus isenbeckii, which inhabits very cold regions (2.4-3.4°C) of the Bering Sea. Hemocyte lysate supernatant (HLS) prepared from E. isenbeckii was inactive HLS until activated by nonspecific agents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate and trypsin, and elicitors such as lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid from the cell wall constituent of bacteria. The PO activity was maximal at 4°C, decreased slightly at temperatures up to 60°C, and fell rapidly at 80°C. Both L-DOPA and catechol were efficient substrates for the PO (EC 1.10.3.1), with K(m) values of 0.96 and 1.15mM, respectively, whereas tyrosine and hydroquinone were not. We isolated a protein fraction from HLS as a hexamer of 75kDa units with 216.7-fold higher PO activity than that of the HLS. The N-terminal amino acid analysis of an isolated protein revealed 80% sequence identity to hemocyanins from other crabs. These results suggest that cold-adapted hemocyanin-derived PO activity is important to the survival of these crabs. This is the first report of a crab PO activity with broad temperature stability extending into the cold environment.

  7. Bacteria-Derived Compatible Solutes Ectoine and 5α-Hydroxyectoine Act as Intestinal Barrier Stabilizers to Ameliorate Experimental Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aziz, Heba; Wadie, Walaa; Scherner, Olaf; Efferth, Thomas; Khayyal, Mohamed T

    2015-06-26

    Earlier studies showed that the compatible solute ectoine (1) given prophylactically before induction of colitis by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats prevented histological changes induced in the colon and the associated rise in inflammatory mediators. This study was therefore conducted to investigate whether ectoine (1) and its 5α-hydroxy derivative (2) would also be effective in treating an already established condition. Two days after inducing colitis in rats by instilling TNBS/alcohol in the colon, animals were treated orally once daily for 1 week with either 1 or 2 (50, 100, 300 mg/kg). Twenty-four hours after the last drug administration rats were sacrificed. Ulcerative lesions and colon mass indices were reduced by 1 and 2 in a bell-shaped manner. Best results were obtained with 100 mg/kg ectoine (1) and 50 mg/kg 5α-hydroxyectoine (2). The solutes normalized the rise in myeloperoxidase, TNFα, and IL-1β induced by TNBS but did not affect levels of reduced glutathione or ICAM-1, while reducing the level of fecal calprotectin, an established marker for inflammatory bowel disease. The findings indicate that the naturally occurring compatible solutes ectoine (1) and 5α-hydroxyectoine (2) possess an optimum concentration that affords maximal intestinal barrier stabilization and could therefore prove useful for better management of human inflammatory bowel disease.

  8. On the Electronic Spectroscopy of Closed Shell Cations Derived from Resonance Stabilized Radicals: Insights from Theory and Franck-Condon Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troy, Tyler P.; Kable, Scott H.; Schmidt, Timothy W.; Reid, Scott A.

    2012-06-01

    Recent attention has been directed on closed shell aromatic cations as potential carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands. The spectra of mass-selected, matrix-isolated benzylium and tropylium cations were recently reported [Nagy, A., Fulara, J., Garkusha, I. and Maier, J. P. (2011), Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 50: 3022-3025]. The benzylium spectrum shows an extended progression in a low frequency (510 cm-1) ring distortion mode. Modeling of the benzylium spectrum using (TD)DFT and MCSCF-PT2 methods in concert with multidimensional Franck-Condon (FC) analysis is found to yield excellent agreement with the experimental spectrum. We extended this analysis to larger (2 and 3 ring) PAH cations derived from resonance stabilized radicals, which are predicted to show strong S0 → Sn transitions in the visible region. The FC progression is significantly quenched in the larger species, and our results for 1-napthylmethylium are in excellent agreement with very recent experiments [Nagy, A., Fulara, J., and Maier, J. P. (2011), J. Am. Chem. Soc., 133, 19796]. Since carriers of the DIBs should exhibit spectra dominated by a single vibronic transition, our results demonstrate that closed-shell cations may present spectra with the required properties. Furthermore, the calculated ionization energies of a range of CSCs were found to be in the 13-14 eV range, consistent with variations in behaviour of the DIB carriers with respect to various astrophysical environments.

  9. Stochastic Dynamics Underlying Cognitive Stability and Flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Ueltzhöffer, Kai; Armbruster-Genç, Diana J. N.; Fiebach, Christian J.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive stability and flexibility are core functions in the successful pursuit of behavioral goals. While there is evidence for a common frontoparietal network underlying both functions and for a key role of dopamine in the modulation of flexible versus stable behavior, the exact neurocomputational mechanisms underlying those executive functions and their adaptation to environmental demands are still unclear. In this work we study the neurocomputational mechanisms underlying cue based task switching (flexibility) and distractor inhibition (stability) in a paradigm specifically designed to probe both functions. We develop a physiologically plausible, explicit model of neural networks that maintain the currently active task rule in working memory and implement the decision process. We simplify the four-choice decision network to a nonlinear drift-diffusion process that we canonically derive from a generic winner-take-all network model. By fitting our model to the behavioral data of individual subjects, we can reproduce their full behavior in terms of decisions and reaction time distributions in baseline as well as distractor inhibition and switch conditions. Furthermore, we predict the individual hemodynamic response timecourse of the rule-representing network and localize it to a frontoparietal network including the inferior frontal junction area and the intraparietal sulcus, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. This refines the understanding of task-switch-related frontoparietal brain activity as reflecting attractor-like working memory representations of task rules. Finally, we estimate the subject-specific stability of the rule-representing attractor states in terms of the minimal action associated with a transition between different rule states in the phase-space of the fitted models. This stability measure correlates with switching-specific thalamocorticostriatal activation, i.e., with a system associated with flexible working memory updating and

  10. Temporal distribution of mantle-derived potassic rocks and carbonatites linked to stabilization of mantle lithosphere and redox states during subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    Mantle-derived potassic igneous rocks and carbonatites first appear in the geological record in the late Archean, coinciding with major crust-forming events on most continents. The compositions of potassic rocks require sources including discrete ultramafic rocks with phlogopite and pyroxenes, whereas carbonatites and ultramafic lamprophyres (carbonate-rich potassic rocks) require oxidizing conditions in which carbonate is stable. The presence of these source rocks from this time is probably related to the stabilization of mantle lithosphere. If mantle lithosphere had not been stable for considerable periods of time, then melting would be restricted to peridotite, which is not a viable option for strongly potassic rocks. The phlogopite-rich source-rock assemblages that are necessary precursors for potassic melts could be introduced into the lithosphere by either subduction processes or by multiple stages of low-degree melting. Many modern examples involve subducted sedimentary material, which concentrates potassium by the stabilization of micas in subduction metamorphism. Subduction involves a great variety of redox states, but the bulk effect is the return of oxidized material from the surface into the mantle. However, we cannot apply uniformitarianism unthinkingly, because subduction processes at and before 2.7 Ga may have had different redox states. Before the Great Oxidation Event the distribution and abundances of geological formations such as banded iron formations, red beds, and uraninites indicate that geological reservoirs became gradually oxidized, preventing an earlier increase in atmospheric oxygen. This means that the function of the subduction process to oxidize the upper mantle by the return of oxidized rocks from the surface was much weaker in the early Earth. Early continental mantle lithosphere was, therefore, likely to accumulate carbon in reduced form, which would be more easily remobilized in melts through low-temperature redox melting much

  11. Understanding Karma Police: The Perceived Plausibility of Noun Compounds as Predicted by Distributional Models of Semantic Representation.

    PubMed

    Günther, Fritz; Marelli, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Noun compounds, consisting of two nouns (the head and the modifier) that are combined into a single concept, differ in terms of their plausibility: school bus is a more plausible compound than saddle olive. The present study investigates which factors influence the plausibility of attested and novel noun compounds. Distributional Semantic Models (DSMs) are used to obtain formal (vector) representations of word meanings, and compositional methods in DSMs are employed to obtain such representations for noun compounds. From these representations, different plausibility measures are computed. Three of those measures contribute in predicting the plausibility of noun compounds: The relatedness between the meaning of the head noun and the compound (Head Proximity), the relatedness between the meaning of modifier noun and the compound (Modifier Proximity), and the similarity between the head noun and the modifier noun (Constituent Similarity). We find non-linear interactions between Head Proximity and Modifier Proximity, as well as between Modifier Proximity and Constituent Similarity. Furthermore, Constituent Similarity interacts non-linearly with the familiarity with the compound. These results suggest that a compound is perceived as more plausible if it can be categorized as an instance of the category denoted by the head noun, if the contribution of the modifier to the compound meaning is clear but not redundant, and if the constituents are sufficiently similar in cases where this contribution is not clear. Furthermore, compounds are perceived to be more plausible if they are more familiar, but mostly for cases where the relation between the constituents is less clear.

  12. Understanding Karma Police: The Perceived Plausibility of Noun Compounds as Predicted by Distributional Models of Semantic Representation

    PubMed Central

    Günther, Fritz; Marelli, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Noun compounds, consisting of two nouns (the head and the modifier) that are combined into a single concept, differ in terms of their plausibility: school bus is a more plausible compound than saddle olive. The present study investigates which factors influence the plausibility of attested and novel noun compounds. Distributional Semantic Models (DSMs) are used to obtain formal (vector) representations of word meanings, and compositional methods in DSMs are employed to obtain such representations for noun compounds. From these representations, different plausibility measures are computed. Three of those measures contribute in predicting the plausibility of noun compounds: The relatedness between the meaning of the head noun and the compound (Head Proximity), the relatedness between the meaning of modifier noun and the compound (Modifier Proximity), and the similarity between the head noun and the modifier noun (Constituent Similarity). We find non-linear interactions between Head Proximity and Modifier Proximity, as well as between Modifier Proximity and Constituent Similarity. Furthermore, Constituent Similarity interacts non-linearly with the familiarity with the compound. These results suggest that a compound is perceived as more plausible if it can be categorized as an instance of the category denoted by the head noun, if the contribution of the modifier to the compound meaning is clear but not redundant, and if the constituents are sufficiently similar in cases where this contribution is not clear. Furthermore, compounds are perceived to be more plausible if they are more familiar, but mostly for cases where the relation between the constituents is less clear. PMID:27732599

  13. Formation, spectroscopic characterization, and solution stability of an [Fe4S4]2+ cluster derived from β-cyclodextrin dithiolate.

    PubMed

    Lo, Wayne; Zhang, Ping; Ling, Chang-Chun; Huang, Shaw; Holm, R H

    2012-09-17

    The formation and solution properties, including stability in mixed aqueous-Me(2)SO media, have been investigated for an [Fe(4)S(4)](2+) cluster derived from β-cyclodextrin (CD) dithiolate. Clusters of the type [Fe(4)S(4)(SAr)(4)](2-) (Ar = Ph, C(6)H(4)-3-F) are generated in Me(2)SO by redox reactions of [Fe(4)S(4)(SEt)(4)](2-) with 2 equiv of ArSSAr. An analogous reaction with the intramolecular disulfide of 6(A),6(D)-(3-NHCOC(6)H(4)-1-SH)(2)-6(A),6(D)-dideoxy-β-cyclodextrin (14), whose synthesis is described, affords a completely substituted cluster formulated as [Fe(4)S(4){β-CD-(1,3-NHCOC(6)H(4)S)(2)}(2)](2-) (15). Ligand binding is indicated by a circular dichroism spectrum and also by UV-visible and isotropically shifted (1)H NMR spectra and redox behavior convincingly similar to [Fe(4)S(4)(SPh)(4)](2-). One formulation of 15 is a single cluster to which two dithiolates are bound, each in bidentate coordination. With there being no proven precedent for this binding mode, we show that the cluster [Fe(4)S(4)(S(2)-m-xyl)(2)](2-) is a single cubane whose m-xylyldithiolate ligands are bound in a bidentate arrangement. This same structure type was proposed for a cluster formulated as [Fe(4)S(4){β-CD-(1,3-SC(6)H(4)S)(2)}(2)](2-) (16; Kuroda et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc.1988, 110, 4049-4050) and reported to be water-stable. Clusters 15 and 16 are derived from similar ligands differing only in the spacer group between the thiolate binding site and the CD platform. In our search for clusters stable in aqueous or organic-aqueous mixed solvents that are potential candidates for the reconstitution of scaffold proteins implicated in cluster biogenesis, 15 is the most stable cluster that we have thus far encountered under anaerobic conditions in the absence of added ligand.

  14. iPSC-derived neurons as a higher-throughput readout for autism: promises and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Prilutsky, Daria; Palmer, Nathan P; Smedemark-Margulies, Niklas; Schlaeger, Thorsten M; Margulies, David M; Kohane, Isaac S

    2014-02-01

    The elucidation of disease etiologies and establishment of robust, scalable, high-throughput screening assays for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been impeded by both inaccessibility of disease-relevant neuronal tissue and the genetic heterogeneity of the disorder. Neuronal cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from autism patients may circumvent these obstacles and serve as relevant cell models. To date, derived cells are characterized and screened by assessing their neuronal phenotypes. These characterizations are often etiology-specific or lack reproducibility and stability. In this review, we present an overview of efforts to study iPSC-derived neurons as a model for autism, and we explore the plausibility of gene expression profiling as a reproducible and stable disease marker.

  15. iPSC-derived neurons as a higher-throughput readout for autism: Promises and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Prilutsky, Daria; Palmer, Nathan P.; Smedemark-Margulies, Niklas; Schlaeger, Thorsten M.; Margulies, David M.; Kohane, Isaac S.

    2014-01-01

    The elucidation of disease etiologies and establishment of robust, scalable, high-throughput screening assays for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been impeded by both inaccessibility of disease-relevant neuronal tissue and the genetic heterogeneity of the disorder. Neuronal cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from autism patients may circumvent these obstacles and serve as relevant cell models. To date, derived cells are characterized and screened by assessing their neuronal phenotypes. These characterizations are often etiology-specific or lack reproducibility and stability. In this manuscript, we present an overview of efforts to study iPSC-derived neurons as a model for autism, and we explore the plausibility of gene expression profiling as a reproducible and stable disease marker. PMID:24374161

  16. A BIOMASS-BASED MODEL TO ESTIMATE THE PLAUSIBILITY OF EXOPLANET BIOSIGNATURE GASES

    SciTech Connect

    Seager, S.; Bains, W.; Hu, R.

    2013-10-01

    Biosignature gas detection is one of the ultimate future goals for exoplanet atmosphere studies. We have created a framework for linking biosignature gas detectability to biomass estimates, including atmospheric photochemistry and biological thermodynamics. The new framework is intended to liberate predictive atmosphere models from requiring fixed, Earth-like biosignature gas source fluxes. New biosignature gases can be considered with a check that the biomass estimate is physically plausible. We have validated the models on terrestrial production of NO, H{sub 2}S, CH{sub 4}, CH{sub 3}Cl, and DMS. We have applied the models to propose NH{sub 3} as a biosignature gas on a 'cold Haber World', a planet with a N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} atmosphere, and to demonstrate why gases such as CH{sub 3}Cl must have too large of a biomass to be a plausible biosignature gas on planets with Earth or early-Earth-like atmospheres orbiting a Sun-like star. To construct the biomass models, we developed a functional classification of biosignature gases, and found that gases (such as CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}S, and N{sub 2}O) produced from life that extracts energy from chemical potential energy gradients will always have false positives because geochemistry has the same gases to work with as life does, and gases (such as DMS and CH{sub 3}Cl) produced for secondary metabolic reasons are far less likely to have false positives but because of their highly specialized origin are more likely to be produced in small quantities. The biomass model estimates are valid to one or two orders of magnitude; the goal is an independent approach to testing whether a biosignature gas is plausible rather than a precise quantification of atmospheric biosignature gases and their corresponding biomasses.

  17. Plausibility and the Theoreticians' Regress: Constructing the evolutionary fate of stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipe, Alex Ike

    2002-10-01

    This project presents a case-study of a scientific controversy that occurred in theoretical astrophysics nearly seventy years ago following the conceptual discovery of a novel phenomenon relating to the evolution and structure of stellar matter, known as the limiting mass. The ensuing debate between the author of the finding, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar and his primary critic, Arthur Stanley Eddington, witnessed both scientists trying to convince one another, as well as the astrophysical community, that their respective positions on the issue was the correct one. Since there was no independent criterion—that is, no observational evidence—at the time of the dispute that could have been drawn upon to test the validity of the limiting mass concept, a logical, objective resolution to the controversy was not possible. In this respect, I argue that the dynamics of the Chandrasekhar-Eddington debate succinctly resonates with Kennefick's notion of the Theoreticians' Regress. However, whereas this model predicts that such a regress can be broken if both parties in a dispute come to agree on who was in error and collaborate on a calculation whose technical foundation can be agreed to, I argue that a more pragmatic path by which the Theoreticians' Regress is broken is when one side in a dispute is able to construct its argument as being more plausible than that of its opponent, and is so successful in doing so, that its opposition is subsequently forced to withdraw from the debate. In order to adequately deal with the construction of plausibility in the context of scientific controversies, I draw upon Harvey's Plausibility Model as well as Pickering's work on the role socio-cultural factors play in the resolution of intellectual disputes. It is believed that the ideas embedded in these social- relativist-constructivist perspectives provide the most parsimonious explanation as to the reasons for the genesis and ultimate closure of this particular scientific controversy.

  18. Wood-derived-biochar combined with compost or iron grit for in situ stabilization of Cd, Pb, and Zn in a contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Oustriere, Nadège; Marchand, Lilian; Rosette, Gabriel; Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang; Mench, Michel

    2017-03-01

    In situ stabilization of Cd, Pb, and Zn in an Austrian agricultural soil contaminated by atmospheric depositions from a smelter plant was assessed with a pine bark chip-derived biochar, alone and in combination with either compost or iron grit. Biochar amendment was also trialed in an uncontaminated soil to detect any detrimental effect. The pot experiment consisted in ten soil treatments (% w/w): untreated contaminated soil (Unt); Unt soil amended with biochar alone (1%: B1; 2.5%: B2.5) and in combination: B1 and B2.5 + 5% compost (B1C and B2.5C), B1 and B2.5 + 1% iron grit (B1Z and B2.5Z); uncontaminated soil (Ctrl); Ctrl soil amended with 1 or 2.5% biochar (CtrlB1, CtrlB2.5). After a 3-month reaction period, the soil pore water (SPW) was sampled in potted soils and dwarf beans were grown for a 2-week period. The SPW Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations decreased in all amended-contaminated soils. The biochar effects increased with its addition rate and its combination with either compost or iron grit. Shoot Cd and Zn removals by beans were reduced and shoot Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations decreased to common values in all amended soils except the B1 soil. Decreases in the SPW Cd/Pb/Zn concentrations did not improve the root and shoot yields of plants as compared to the Ctrl soil.

  19. Compatibility and stability of aplidine, a novel marine-derived depsipeptide antitumor agent, in infusion devices, and its hemolytic and precipitation potential upon i.v. administration.

    PubMed

    Nuijen, B; Bouma, M; Henrar, R E; Manada, C; Bult, A; Beijnen, J H

    1999-11-01

    Aplidine is a novel marine-derived antitumor agent isolated from the Mediterranean tunicate Aplidium albicans. The compound is pharmaceutically formulated as a lyophilized product containing 500 microg active substance per dosage unit. Prior to i.v. administration it is reconstituted with a solution composed of Cremophor EL, ethanol absolute and Water for Injection (15/15/70% v/v/v) with further dilution in 0.9% w/v sodium chloride for infusion (normal saline). The aim of this study was to investigate the compatibility of aplidine infusion solutions with polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-containing and PVC-free administration sets, and to determine the stability of aplidine after reconstitution and further dilution in infusion solutions. Furthermore, in vitro biocompatibility studies to estimate the hemolytic and precipitation potential of aplidine infusion solutions upon i.v. administration were conducted. In this study we show that sorption of aplidine to PVC and to a lesser extent to PVC-free administration set materials occurs. Also, most probably due to the presence of Cremophor EL in the infusion solution, significant leaching of diethylhexyl phtalate (DEHP) from the PVC administration set occurs. After reconstitution and dilution the drug is stable for at least 24 and 48 h, respectively, in glass containers when stored at room temperature (20-25 degrees C) and ambient light conditions. We found that aplidine should be administered in infusion concentrations equal or above 28.8 microg/ml using a PVC-free administration set consisting of a glass container and PVC-free infusion tubing. After reconstitution it must be diluted further with normal saline within 24 h after preparation and subsequently administered to the patient within 48 h. Additionally, results from the biocompatibility studies show that neither hemolysis nor precipitation of aplidine is expected upon i.v. administration.

  20. Optimized Blanching Reduces the Host Cell Protein Content and Substantially Enhances the Recovery and Stability of Two Plant-Derived Malaria Vaccine Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Stephan; Holland, Tanja; Boes, Alexander; Spiegel, Holger; Bolzenius, Johanna; Fischer, Rainer; Buyel, Johannes F.

    2016-01-01

    Plants provide an advantageous expression platform for biopharmaceutical proteins because of their low pathogen burden and potential for inexpensive, large-scale production. However, the purification of target proteins can be challenging due to issues with extraction, the removal of host cell proteins (HCPs), and low expression levels. The heat treatment of crude extracts can reduce the quantity of HCPs by precipitation thus increasing the purity of the target protein and streamlining downstream purification. In the overall context of downstream process (DSP) development for plant-derived malaria vaccine candidates, we applied a design-of-experiments approach to enhance HCP precipitation from Nicotiana benthamiana extracts generated after transient expression, using temperatures in the 20–80°C range, pH values of 3.0–8.0 and incubation times of 0–60 min. We also investigated the recovery of two protein-based malaria vaccine candidates under these conditions and determined their stability in the heat-treated extract while it was maintained at room temperature for 24 h. The heat precipitation of HCPs was also carried out by blanching intact plants in water or buffer prior to extraction in a blender. Our data show that all the heat precipitation methods reduced the amount of HCP in the crude plant extracts by more than 80%, simplifying the subsequent DSP steps. Furthermore, when the heat treatment was performed at 80°C rather than 65°C, both malaria vaccine candidates were more stable after extraction and the recovery of both proteins increased by more than 30%. PMID:26925077

  1. On the electronic spectroscopy of closed-shell cations derived from resonance-stabilized radicals: Insights from theory and Franck-Condon analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troy, T. P.; Kable, S. H.; Schmidt, T. W.; Reid, S. A.

    2012-05-01

    Context. Recent attention has been directed on closed-shell aromatic cations as potential carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands. The spectra of mass-selected, matrix-isolated benzylium, and tropylium cations were recently reported. The visible spectrum of benzylium exhibits a large Franck-Condon (FC) envelope, inconsistent with diffuse interstellar band carriers. Aims: We perform a computational analysis of the experimentally studied benzylium spectrum before extending the methods to a range of larger, closed-shell aromatic cations to determine the potential for this class of systems as diffuse interstellar band carriers. Methods: Density functional theory (DFT), time-dependant ((TD)DFT), and multi-configurational self-consistent field second-order perturbation theory (MRPT2) methods in concert with multidimensional FC analysis is used to model the benzylium spectrum. These methods are extended to larger closed-shell aromatic hydrocarbon cations derived from resonance-stabilized radicals, which are predicted to show strong S0 → Sn transitions in the visible region. The ionization energies of a range of these systems are also calculated by DFT. Results: The simulated benzylium spectrum was found to yield excellent agreement with the experimental spectrum showing an extended progression in a low frequency (510 cm-1) ring distortion mode. The FC progression was found to be significantly quenched in the larger species: 1-indanylium, 1-naphthylmethylium, and fluorenium. Excitation and ionization energies of the closed-shell cations were found to be consistent with diffuse interstellar band carriers, with the former lying in the visible range and the latter straddling the Lyman limit in the 13-14 eV range. Conclusions: Large closed-shell polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon cations remain viable candidate carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands.

  2. Date palm waste-derived biochar composites with silica and zeolite: synthesis, characterization and implication for carbon stability and recalcitrant potential.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Munir; Ahmad, Mahtab; Usman, Adel R A; Al-Faraj, Abdullah S; Abduljabbar, Adel; Ok, Yong Sik; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I

    2017-03-23

    Engineered organo-mineral composites were synthesized from date palm waste biochar and silica or zeolite via mechanochemical treatments. Date palm tree rachis (leaves) waste biomass was pre-treated with silica or zeolite minerals via ball milling and sonication prior to pyrolysis at 600 °C. The resultant organo-mineral composites and pristine materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric-differential thermal (TG-DTA), Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscope analyses and surface area and porosity analyzer to investigate the variations in physiochemical and structural characteristics. Compared to the resultant composites derived from non-milled date palm biomass, ball milling increased surface area, while decreased crystallinity index and effective particle size of the biochar composites. Silica composited biochars were located near origin in the van Krevelen diagram indicating lowest H/C and O/C molar ratios, thus suggesting higher aromaticity and lower polarity compared to other biochars. TGA thermograms indicated highest thermal stability of silica composited biochars. Ash and moisture corrected TGA thermograms were used to calculate recalcitrance index (R 50) of the materials, which speculated high degradability of biomass (R 50 < 0.4), minimal degradability of biochars and zeolite composited biochars (0.5 < R 50 < 0.7) and high recalcitrant nature of silica composited biochars (R 50 > 0.7). Silica composited biochars exhibited highest carbon sequestration potential (64.17-95.59%) compared to other biochars. Highest recalcitrance and carbon sequestration potential of silica composited biochars may be attributed to changes in structural arrangements in the silica-biochar complex. Encapsulations of biochar particles with amorphous silica via Si-C bonding may have prevented thermal degradation, subsequently increasing recalcitrance potential of silica composited biochars.

  3. Bipolar tetraether lipids derived from thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius for membrane stabilization of chlorin e6 based liposomes for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Gihan; Jedelská, Jarmila; Strehlow, Boris; Bakowsky, Udo

    2015-09-01

    The initial burst release of water-soluble photosensitizers is one of the major problems encountered the development of controlled release formulations. In this study, the freely water soluble chlorin e6 (Ce6) was assembled with cationic lipid 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) to improve its loading efficiency in the liposomal bilayer. Tetraether lipids (TELs) derived from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius were added to DOTAP:Ce6 assembly in a concentration range of 2.5×10(-4)-1.6×10(-3)M to stabilize the membrane rigidity of the liposomes and to provide controlled release system. From the comparative spectroscopic experiments, it has been shown that the assembled DOTAP:Ce6 along with addition of TELs have improved the loading efficiency of Ce6 in TELs-liposomes and obviously modified the release profile of Ce6. The in vitro cell viability of Ce6 in mouse neuro-blastoma (Neuro-2a) and ovarian cell carcinoma (SK-OV-3) confirmed neglected dark cytotoxicity and presented potential photo-induced cytotoxicity with the effect was being more pronounced in Neuro 2a than in SK-OV-3. In-situ IV-injection of chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) showed hemorrhage and necrosis 30 min post irradiation at 1.8 mol% TELs (19.9J/cm(2)). Higher TELs of 2.2 and 3.7 mol% in particular demonstrated localized vascular destruction within the irradiated area. Our results suggest that TELs favored slower release rates of Ce6. This, in turn, tetraether lipids can be considered as a versatile class of lipids for photodynamic modality for destruction of cancer cells and tumor vasculature while sparing the quiescent ones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Exploring discrepancies between quantitative validation results and the geomorphic plausibility of statistical landslide susceptibility maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steger, Stefan; Brenning, Alexander; Bell, Rainer; Petschko, Helene; Glade, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Empirical models are frequently applied to produce landslide susceptibility maps for large areas. Subsequent quantitative validation results are routinely used as the primary criteria to infer the validity and applicability of the final maps or to select one of several models. This study hypothesizes that such direct deductions can be misleading. The main objective was to explore discrepancies between the predictive performance of a landslide susceptibility model and the geomorphic plausibility of subsequent landslide susceptibility maps while a particular emphasis was placed on the influence of incomplete landslide inventories on modelling and validation results. The study was conducted within the Flysch Zone of Lower Austria (1,354 km2) which is known to be highly susceptible to landslides of the slide-type movement. Sixteen susceptibility models were generated by applying two statistical classifiers (logistic regression and generalized additive model) and two machine learning techniques (random forest and support vector machine) separately for two landslide inventories of differing completeness and two predictor sets. The results were validated quantitatively by estimating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) with single holdout and spatial cross-validation technique. The heuristic evaluation of the geomorphic plausibility of the final results was supported by findings of an exploratory data analysis, an estimation of odds ratios and an evaluation of the spatial structure of the final maps. The results showed that maps generated by different inventories, classifiers and predictors appeared differently while holdout validation revealed similar high predictive performances. Spatial cross-validation proved useful to expose spatially varying inconsistencies of the modelling results while additionally providing evidence for slightly overfitted machine learning-based models. However, the highest predictive performances were obtained for

  5. Higher Data Quality by Online Data-Entry and Automated Plausibility Checks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietragalla, Barbara; Sigg, Christian; Güsewell, Sabine; Clot, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    Long-term phenological observations are now recognized as important indicators for climate change impact studies. With the increased need for phenological data, there is also an increased need for higher data quality. Since 1951 MeteoSwiss has been operating a national phenological observation network. Currently the network consists of about 150 active stations observing up to 69 different phenophases. An important aim of a running three years project at MeteoSwiss is a further increase of the quality of the collected data. The higher data quality will be achieved by an automated procedure performing plausibility checks on the data and by online data-entry. Further measures such as intensified observer instructions and collection of more detailed metadata also contribute to a high data quality standard. The plausibility checks include the natural order of the phenophases within a species and also between different species (with regard to possible natural deviation). Additionally it will be checked if the observed date differs by less than two standard deviations from the average for this phenophase at the altitude of the station. A value outside of these limits is not necessarily a false value, since occurrences of extreme values will be beyond these limits. Therefore, within this check of the limits, the timing of the season of the respective year will also be taken into account. In case of an implausible value a comparison with other stations of the same region and sea level is proposed. A further possibility of data quality control could be to model the different phenophases statistically and to use this model for estimating the likelihood of observed values. An overall exploratory data analysis is currently performed providing a solid basis to implement the best possible methods for the plausibility checks. Important advantages of online data-entry are the near real-time availability of the data as well as the avoidance of various kinds of typical mistakes

  6. A biological plausible Generalized Leaky Integrate-and-Fire neuron model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenzhong; Guo, Lilin; Adjouadi, Malek

    2014-01-01

    This study introduces a new Generalized Leaky Integrate-and-Fire (GLIF) neuron model. Unlike Normal Leaky Integrate-and-Fire (NLIF) models, the leaking resistor in the GLIF model equation is assumed to be variable, and an additional term would have the bias current added to the model equation in order to improve the accuracy. Adjusting the parameters defined for the leaking resistor and bias current, a GLIF model could be accurately matched to any Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model and be able to reproduce plausible biological neuron behaviors.

  7. A Biologically Plausible Transform for Visual Recognition that is Invariant to Translation, Scale, and Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Sountsov, Pavel; Santucci, David M.; Lisman, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Visual object recognition occurs easily despite differences in position, size, and rotation of the object, but the neural mechanisms responsible for this invariance are not known. We have found a set of transforms that achieve invariance in a neurally plausible way. We find that a transform based on local spatial frequency analysis of oriented segments and on logarithmic mapping, when applied twice in an iterative fashion, produces an output image that is unique to the object and that remains constant as the input image is shifted, scaled, or rotated. PMID:22125522

  8. Low-Speed Investigation of the Effects of Frequency and Amplitude of Oscillation in Sideslip on the Lateral Stability Derivatives of a 60 deg Delta Wing, a 45 deg Sweptback Wing and an Unswept Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtenstein, Jacob H.; Williams, James L.

    1961-01-01

    A low-speed investigation has been conducted in the Langley stability tunnel to study the effects of frequency and amplitude of sideslipping motion on the lateral stability derivatives of a 60 deg. delta wing, a 45 deg. sweptback wing, and an unswept wing. The investigation was made for values of the reduced-frequency parameter of 0.066 and 0.218 and for a range of amplitudes from +/- 2 to +/- 6 deg. The results of the investigation indicated that increasing the frequency of the oscillation generally produced an appreciable change in magnitude of the lateral oscillatory stability derivatives in the higher angle-of-attack range. This effect was greatest for the 60 deg. delta wing and smallest for the unswept wing and generally resulted in a more linear variation of these derivatives with angle of attack. For the relatively high frequency at which the amplitude was varied, there appeared to be little effect on the measured derivatives as a result of the change in amplitude of the oscillation.

  9. Theoretical and Analog Studies of the Effects of Nonlinear Stability Derivatives on the Longitudinal Motions of an Aircraft in Response to Step Control Deflections and to the Influence of Proportional Automatic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curfman, Howard J , Jr

    1955-01-01

    Through theoretical and analog results the effects of two nonlinear stability derivatives on the longitudinal motions of an aircraft have been investigated. Nonlinear functions of pitching-moment and lift coefficients with angle of attack were considered. Analog results of aircraft motions in response to step elevator deflections and to the action of the proportional control systems are presented. The occurrence of continuous hunting oscillations was predicted and demonstrated for the attitude stabilization system with proportional control for certain nonlinear pitching-moment variations and autopilot adjustments.

  10. Wind-Tunnel Investigation at Low Speed of the Pitching Stability Derivatives of a 1/9-Scale Powered Model of the Convair XFY-1 Vertically Rising Airplane, TED No. NACA DE 373

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Queijo, M. J.; Wolhart, Walter D.; Fletcher, H. S.

    1953-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted in the Langley stability tunnel at low speed to determine the pitching stability derivatives of a 1/9-scale powered model of the Convair XFY-1 vertically rising airplane. Effects of thrust coefficient, control deflections, and propeller blade angle were investigated. The tests were made through an angle-of-attack range from about -4deg to 29deg, and the thrust coefficient range was from 0 to 0.7. In order to expedite distribution of these data, no analysis of the data has been prepared for this paper.

  11. The Sarrazin effect: the presence of absurd statements in conspiracy theories makes canonical information less plausible

    PubMed Central

    Raab, Marius Hans; Auer, Nikolas; Ortlieb, Stefan A.; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2013-01-01

    Reptile prime ministers and flying Nazi saucers—extreme and sometimes off-wall conclusion are typical ingredients of conspiracy theories. While individual differences are a common research topic concerning conspiracy theories, the role of extreme statements in the process of acquiring and passing on conspiratorial stories has not been regarded in an experimental design so far. We identified six morphological components of conspiracy theories empirically. On the basis of these content categories a set of narrative elements for a 9/11 story was compiled. These elements varied systematically in terms of conspiratorial allegation, i.e., they contained official statements concerning the events of 9/11, statements alleging to a conspiracy limited in time and space as well as extreme statements indicating an all-encompassing cover-up. Using the method of narrative construction, 30 people were given a set of cards with these statements and asked to construct the course of events of 9/11 they deem most plausible. When extreme statements were present in the set, the resulting stories were more conspiratorial; the number of official statements included in the narrative dropped significantly, whereas the self-assessment of the story's plausibility did not differ between conditions. This indicates that blatant statements in a pool of information foster the synthesis of conspiracy theories on an individual level. By relating these findings to one of Germany's most successful (and controversial) non-fiction books, we refer to the real-world dangers of this effect. PMID:23882250

  12. The Sarrazin effect: the presence of absurd statements in conspiracy theories makes canonical information less plausible.

    PubMed

    Raab, Marius Hans; Auer, Nikolas; Ortlieb, Stefan A; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2013-01-01

    Reptile prime ministers and flying Nazi saucers-extreme and sometimes off-wall conclusion are typical ingredients of conspiracy theories. While individual differences are a common research topic concerning conspiracy theories, the role of extreme statements in the process of acquiring and passing on conspiratorial stories has not been regarded in an experimental design so far. We identified six morphological components of conspiracy theories empirically. On the basis of these content categories a set of narrative elements for a 9/11 story was compiled. These elements varied systematically in terms of conspiratorial allegation, i.e., they contained official statements concerning the events of 9/11, statements alleging to a conspiracy limited in time and space as well as extreme statements indicating an all-encompassing cover-up. Using the method of narrative construction, 30 people were given a set of cards with these statements and asked to construct the course of events of 9/11 they deem most plausible. When extreme statements were present in the set, the resulting stories were more conspiratorial; the number of official statements included in the narrative dropped significantly, whereas the self-assessment of the story's plausibility did not differ between conditions. This indicates that blatant statements in a pool of information foster the synthesis of conspiracy theories on an individual level. By relating these findings to one of Germany's most successful (and controversial) non-fiction books, we refer to the real-world dangers of this effect.

  13. Particulate air pollution and increased mortality: Biological plausibility for causal relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.F.

    1995-02-01

    Recently, a number of epidemiological studies have concluded that ambient particulate exposure is associated with increased mortality and morbidity at PM concentrations well below those previously thought to affect human health. These studies have been conducted in several different geographical locations and have involved a range of populations. While the consistency of the findings and the presence of an apparent concentration response relationship provide a strong argument for causality, epidemiological studies can only conclude this based upon inference from statistical associations. The biological plausibility of a causal relationship between low concentrations of PM and daily mortality and morbidity rates is neither intuitively obvious nor expected based on past experimental studies on the toxicity of inhaled particles. Chronic toxicity from inhaled, poorly soluble particles has been observed based on the slow accumulation of large lung burdens of particles, not on small daily fluctuations in PM levels. Acute toxicity from inhaled particles is associated mainly with acidic particles and is observed at much higher concentrations than those observed in the epidemiology studies reporting an association between PM concentrations and morbidity/mortality. To approach the difficult problem of determining if the association between PM concentrations and daily morbidity and mortality is biologically plausible and causal, one must consider (1) the chemical and physical characteristics of the particles in the inhaled atmospheres, (2) the characteristics of the morbidity/mortality observed and the people who are affected, and (3) potential mechanisms that might link the two.

  14. Climate dynamics in deep time: Modeling the [snowball bifurcation] and assessing the plausibility of its occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltier, W. R.; Tarasov, L.; Vettoretti, G.; Solheim, L. P.

    The apparently global scale glaciation events that occurred during the Neoproterozoic era, in the interval from 750 Ma to 550 Ma, represent a significant challenge to our understanding of climate system behavior. If these episodes of glaciation were truly of "snowball" type, with the continents covered by thick ice-sheets and the oceans entirely capped by sea ice, then special pleading is required to understand the Cambrian explosion of life that occurred subsequently. Detailed models of Neoproterozoic climate, however, suggest the plausibility of preference for "equatorial refugium" or "oasis" solutions in which significant regions of open water are able to persist at the equator. We describe further analyses of such solutions in this paper, using both simple EBM coupled ice sheet models and fully articulated atmosphere-ocean-sea ice coupled models of climate evolution. Recently published analyses of the dynamics of the Neoproterozoic carbon cycle, taken together with the predictions of the models discussed herein, are strongly supportive of the equatorial refugium solutions as the most plausible form of the Neoproterozoic cooling events.

  15. Morality Principles for Risk Modelling: Needs and Links with the Origins of Plausible Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solana-Ortega, Alberto; Solana, Vicente

    2009-12-01

    In comparison with the foundations of probability calculus, the inescapable and controversial issue of how to assign probabilities has only recently become a matter of formal study. The introduction of information as a technical concept was a milestone, but the most promising entropic assignment methods still face unsolved difficulties, manifesting the incompleteness of plausible inference theory. In this paper we examine the situation faced by risk analysts in the critical field of extreme events modelling, where the former difficulties are especially visible, due to scarcity of observational data, the large impact of these phenomena and the obligation to assume professional responsibilities. To respond to the claim for a sound framework to deal with extremes, we propose a metafoundational approach to inference, based on a canon of extramathematical requirements. We highlight their strong moral content, and show how this emphasis in morality, far from being new, is connected with the historic origins of plausible inference. Special attention is paid to the contributions of Caramuel, a contemporary of Pascal, unfortunately ignored in the usual mathematical accounts of probability.

  16. Age-Related Differences in Plausibility-Checking Strategies During Arithmetic Problem Verification Tasks.

    PubMed

    Hinault, Thomas; Tiberghien, Kerensa; Lemaire, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    We examined whether older adults use plausibility-checking strategies while verifying arithmetic problems. We also tested trial-to-trial modulations of plausibility-checking strategies, and aging effects on these sequential modulations. We asked young and older adults to verify arithmetic problems that violated or respected arithmetic rules (i.e., 5×16 = 87. True/False?). Both young and older adults solved problems violating parity rule and five rule more quickly than problems violating no rule. We also found that both age groups had better performance when both five rule and parity rule are violated than when only one or no rules are violated. These results suggest age invariance in using rule-violation checking strategies and a smaller, but still efficient, strategy combination in older adults. Finally, for young adults only, strategy combination was larger following problems violating rules than after problems respecting rules. These findings have important implications regarding mechanisms underlying age-related differences in using rule-violation checking strategies to verify arithmetic problems and in combining two strategies into a single, more efficient one. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Self-Assembly of Phosphate Amphiphiles in Mixtures of Prebiotically Plausible Surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Albertsen, A.N.; Duffy, C.D.; Sutherland, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The spontaneous formation of closed bilayer structures from prebiotically plausible amphiphiles is an essential requirement for the emergence of early cells on prebiotic Earth. The sources of amphiphiles could have been both endo- and exogenous (accretion of meteorite carbonaceous material or interstellar dust particles). Among all prebiotic possible amphiphile candidates, those containing phosphate are the least investigated species because their self-assembly occurs in a seemingly too narrow range of conditions. The self-assembly of simple phosphate amphiphiles should, however, be of great interest, as contemporary membranes predominantly contain phospholipids. In contrast to common expectations, we show that these amphiphiles can be easily synthesized under prebiotically plausible environmental conditions and can efficiently form bilayer structures in the presence of various co-surfactants across a large range of pH values. Vesiculation was even observed in crude reaction mixtures that contained 1-decanol as the amphiphile precursor. The two best co-surfactants promoted vesicle formation over the entire pH range in aqueous solutions. Expanding the pH range where bilayer membranes self-assemble and remain intact is a prerequisite for the emergence of early cell-like compartments and their preservation under fluctuating environmental conditions. These mixed bilayers also retained small charged solutes, such as dyes. These results demonstrate that alkyl phosphate amphiphiles might have played a significant role as early compartment building blocks. Key Words: Vesicles—Alkyl phosphate—Prebiotic synthesis—Amphiphile mixtures. Astrobiology 14, 462–472. PMID:24885934

  18. In Silico Structure Prediction of Human Fatty Acid Synthase-Dehydratase: A Plausible Model for Understanding Active Site Interactions.

    PubMed

    John, Arun; Umashankar, Vetrivel; Samdani, A; Sangeetha, Manoharan; Krishnakumar, Subramanian; Deepa, Perinkulam Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN, UniProt ID: P49327) is a multienzyme dimer complex that plays a critical role in lipogenesis. Consequently, this lipogenic enzyme has gained tremendous biomedical importance. The role of FASN and its inhibition is being extensively researched in several clinical conditions, such as cancers, obesity, and diabetes. X-ray crystallographic structures of some of its domains, such as β-ketoacyl synthase, acetyl transacylase, malonyl transacylase, enoyl reductase, β-ketoacyl reductase, and thioesterase, (TE) are already reported. Here, we have attempted an in silico elucidation of the uncrystallized dehydratase (DH) catalytic domain of human FASN. This theoretical model for DH domain was predicted using comparative modeling methods. Different stand-alone tools and servers were used to validate and check the reliability of the predicted models, which suggested it to be a highly plausible model. The stereochemical analysis showed 92.0% residues in favorable region of Ramachandran plot. The initial physiological substrate β-hydroxybutyryl group was docked into active site of DH domain using Glide. The molecular dynamics simulations carried out for 20 ns in apo and holo states indicated the stability and accuracy of the predicted structure in solvated condition. The predicted model provided useful biochemical insights into the substrate-active site binding mechanisms. This model was then used for identifying potential FASN inhibitors using high-throughput virtual screening of the National Cancer Institute database of chemical ligands. The inhibitory efficacy of the top hit ligands was validated by performing molecular dynamics simulation for 20 ns, where in the ligand NSC71039 exhibited good enzyme inhibition characteristics and exhibited dose-dependent anticancer cytotoxicity in retinoblastoma cancer cells in vitro.

  19. In Silico Structure Prediction of Human Fatty Acid Synthase–Dehydratase: A Plausible Model for Understanding Active Site Interactions

    PubMed Central

    John, Arun; Umashankar, Vetrivel; Samdani, A.; Sangeetha, Manoharan; Krishnakumar, Subramanian; Deepa, Perinkulam Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN, UniProt ID: P49327) is a multienzyme dimer complex that plays a critical role in lipogenesis. Consequently, this lipogenic enzyme has gained tremendous biomedical importance. The role of FASN and its inhibition is being extensively researched in several clinical conditions, such as cancers, obesity, and diabetes. X-ray crystallographic structures of some of its domains, such as β-ketoacyl synthase, acetyl transacylase, malonyl transacylase, enoyl reductase, β-ketoacyl reductase, and thioesterase, (TE) are already reported. Here, we have attempted an in silico elucidation of the uncrystallized dehydratase (DH) catalytic domain of human FASN. This theoretical model for DH domain was predicted using comparative modeling methods. Different stand-alone tools and servers were used to validate and check the reliability of the predicted models, which suggested it to be a highly plausible model. The stereochemical analysis showed 92.0% residues in favorable region of Ramachandran plot. The initial physiological substrate β-hydroxybutyryl group was docked into active site of DH domain using Glide. The molecular dynamics simulations carried out for 20 ns in apo and holo states indicated the stability and accuracy of the predicted structure in solvated condition. The predicted model provided useful biochemical insights into the substrate–active site binding mechanisms. This model was then used for identifying potential FASN inhibitors using high-throughput virtual screening of the National Cancer Institute database of chemical ligands. The inhibitory efficacy of the top hit ligands was validated by performing molecular dynamics simulation for 20 ns, where in the ligand NSC71039 exhibited good enzyme inhibition characteristics and exhibited dose-dependent anticancer cytotoxicity in retinoblastoma cancer cells in vitro. PMID:27559295

  20. The time course of plausibility effects on eye movements in reading: evidence from noun-noun compounds.

    PubMed

    Staub, Adrian; Rayner, Keith; Pollatsek, Alexander; Hyönä, Jukka; Majewski, Helen

    2007-11-01

    Readers' eye movements were monitored as they read sentences containing noun-noun compounds that varied in frequency (e.g., elevator mechanic, mountain lion). The left constituent of the compound was either plausible or implausible as a head noun at the point at which it appeared, whereas the compound as a whole was always plausible. When the head noun analysis of the left constituent was implausible, reading times on this word were inflated, beginning with the first fixation. This finding is consistent with previous demonstrations of very rapid effects of plausibility on eye movements. Compound frequency did not modulate the plausibility effect, and all disruption was resolved by the time readers' eyes moved to the next word. These findings suggest (contra Kennison, 2005) that the parser initially analyzes a singular noun as a head instead of a modifier. In addition, the findings confirm that the very rapid effect of plausibility on eye movements is not due to strategic factors, because in the present experiment, unlike in previous demonstrations, this effect appeared in sentences that were globally plausible. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Plasmalogen enrichment in exosomes secreted by a nematode parasite versus those derived from its mouse host: implications for exosome stability and biology

    PubMed Central

    Simbari, Fabio; McCaskill, Jana; Coakley, Gillian; Millar, Marissa; Maizels, Rick M.; Fabriás, Gemma; Casas, Josefina; Buck, Amy H.

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate communication between cells and organisms across all 3 kingdoms of life. Several reports have demonstrated that EVs can transfer molecules between phylogenetically diverse species and can be used by parasites to alter the properties of the host environment. Whilst the concept of vesicle secretion and uptake is broad reaching, the molecular composition of these complexes is expected to be diverse based on the physiology and environmental niche of different organisms. Exosomes are one class of EVs originally defined based on their endocytic origin, as these derive from multivesicular bodies that then fuse with the plasma membrane releasing them into the extracellular environment. The term exosome has also been used to describe any small EVs recovered by high-speed ultracentrifugation, irrespective of origin since this is not always well characterized. Here, we use comparative global lipidomic analysis to examine the composition of EVs, which we term exosomes, that are secreted by the gastrointestinal nematode, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, in relation to exosomes secreted by cells of its murine host. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) analysis reveals a 9- to 62-fold enrichment of plasmalogens, as well as other classes of ether glycerophospholipids, along with a relative lack of cholesterol and sphingomyelin (SM) in the nematode exosomes compared with those secreted by murine cells. Biophysical analyses of the membrane dynamics of these exosomes demonstrate increased rigidity in those from the nematode, and parallel studies with synthetic vesicles support a role of plasmalogens in stabilizing the membrane structure. These results suggest that nematodes can maintain exosome membrane structure and integrity through increased plasmalogens, compensating for diminished levels of other lipids, including cholesterol and SM. This work also illuminates the prevalence of plasmalogens in some EVs

  2. Theoretical study of the stabilities and detonation performance of 5-nitro-3-trinitromethyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueli; Gong, Xuedong

    2015-02-01

    5-Nitro-3-trinitromethyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole (NTMT, A) and its substituted derivatives A-CH3, A-OCH3, A-NH2, A-OH, A-NO2, and A-ONO2 were studied using density functional theory (DFT). For all of the molecules except for A-ONO2, the C-NO2 bond in the trinitromethyl group was found to be the weakest, and no transition state occurred during the scission of this bond. The weakest C-NO2 of the trinitromethyl group bond dissociation energies for all of the molecules were all very similar. Most of the title molecules had similar frontier orbital distributions and comparable energy gaps between the frontier orbitals. The impact sensitivity (h 50, in cm), predicted at various levels of theory, decreased in the order A-NH2 (53.0-71.0) > A-CH3 (53.0) > A (36.7) > A-OCH3 (32.6-42.3) > A-OH (26.7-53.0) > A-NO2 (5.6-7.4) > A-ONO2 (4.6-6.1). Their detonation velocities (D), detonation pressures (P), and specific impulses (I s) were 8.02-8.82 km/s, 29.92-35.54 GPa, and 214-260 s, respectively. Composite explosives made from hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and A, A-OH, A-NH2, A-NO2, or A-ONO2 as an oxidizer were found to possess much better detonation performance (D = 9.04-9.29 km/s, P = 37.25-39.26 GPa, and I s = 270-281 s). Thus, introducing -OCH3, -OH, and -NH2 groups into A produced new explosives with acceptable stability and good detonation performance. A-OH and A-NH2 appear to be promising candidates for oxidizers in composite explosives.

  3. Enhanced stability and gene silencing ability of siRNA-loaded polyion complexes formulated from polyaspartamide derivatives with a repetitive array of amino groups in the side chain.

    PubMed

    Suma, Tomoya; Miyata, Kanjiro; Ishii, Takehiko; Uchida, Satoshi; Uchida, Hirokuni; Itaka, Keiji; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2012-03-01

    The delivery of siRNA therapeutics owes its success to the development of carrier systems with high efficacy and minimum toxicity. Here, cationic polyaspartamide derivatives with a regulated number and spacing of positively charged amino groups in the side chain were prepared from a single platform polymer of poly(β-benzyl l-aspartate) to assess their availability as siRNA carriers through polyion complex (PIC) formation. These polymers have 1,2-diaminoethane, 1,3-diaminopropane, and N,N'-bis(2-aminoethyl)-1,2-diaminoethane moieties in the side chain, and are termed as PAsp(DET), PAsp(DPT), and PAsp(TEP), respectively. siRNA-loaded PICs stable in serum-containing media were formed from PAsp(TEP) and PAsp(DPT) with two positive charges in the side chain at pH 7.4, whereas no such stable PIC was obtained from PAsp(DET) with only a single charge in the side chain, suggesting facilitated multivalent interactions with siRNA molecules to increase the PIC stability. The PAsp(DPT) and PAsp(TEP) PICs stable in the serum-containing media underwent an appreciably enhanced uptake into cultured cells through endocytosis, and subsequently exerted effective endosomal escape for the significant silencing of target gene expression. Notably, PAsp(TEP) PIC displayed negligible cytotoxicity in sharp contrast to the highly toxic feature of PAsp(DPT) PIC. This cytotoxicity is apparently correlated with the minimal damage to the cytoplasmic membrane of cells exposed to PAsp(TEP) at pH 7.4 evidenced from the fluorescent dye (YO-PRO-1) permeation assay. There was, in turn, a significant increase in YO-PRO-1 permeability at endosomal pH of 5.5 for PAsp(TEP)-exposed cells, indicating that PAsp(TEP) exerts membrane damage in a pH-selective manner, and eventually facilitates the translocation of siRNA-loaded PIC from the acidic endosomal compartment into the cytoplasm for effective gene silencing without any severe toxicity at physiological conditions. This acidic pH modulated enhancement in

  4. Modeling, stability analysis, and computational aspects of some simplest nonlinear fuzzy two-term controllers derived via center of area/gravity defuzzification.

    PubMed

    Arun, N K; Mohan, B M

    2017-09-01

    The mathematical models reported in the literature so far have been found using Center of Sums (CoS) defuzzification method only. It appears that no one has found models using Center of Area (CoA) or Center of Gravity (CoG) defuzzification method. Although there have been some works reported to deal with modeling of fuzzy controllers via Centroid method, all of them have in fact used CoS method only. In this paper, for the first time mathematical models of the simplest Mamdani type fuzzy Proportional Integral (PI)/Proportional Derivative (PD) controllers via CoG defuzzification are presented. L-type and Γ-type membership functions over different Universes of Discourse (UoDs) are considered for the input variables. L-type, Π-type and Γ-type membership functions are considered for the output variable. Three linear fuzzy control rules relating all four input fuzzy sets to three output fuzzy sets are chosen. Two triangular norms namely Algebraic Product (AP) and Minimum (Min), Maximum (Max) triangular co-norm, and two inference methods, Larsen Product (LP) and Mamdani Minimum (MM), are used. Properties of the models are studied. Stability analysis of closed-loop systems containing one of these controller models in the loop is done using the Small Gain theorem. Since digital controllers are implemented using digital processors, computational and memory requirements of these fuzzy controllers and conventional (nonfuzzy) controllers are compared. A rough estimate of the computational time taken by the digital computer while implementing any of these discrete-time fuzzy controllers is given. Two nonlinear plants are considered to show the superiority of the simplest fuzzy controller obtained using CoA or CoG defuzzification method over the simplest fuzzy controller obtained using CoS method and reported recently. Real-time implementation of one of the developed controller models is done on coupled tank experimental setup to show the feasibility of the developed model

  5. Plasmalogen enrichment in exosomes secreted by a nematode parasite versus those derived from its mouse host: implications for exosome stability and biology.

    PubMed

    Simbari, Fabio; McCaskill, Jana; Coakley, Gillian; Millar, Marissa; Maizels, Rick M; Fabriás, Gemma; Casas, Josefina; Buck, Amy H

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate communication between cells and organisms across all 3 kingdoms of life. Several reports have demonstrated that EVs can transfer molecules between phylogenetically diverse species and can be used by parasites to alter the properties of the host environment. Whilst the concept of vesicle secretion and uptake is broad reaching, the molecular composition of these complexes is expected to be diverse based on the physiology and environmental niche of different organisms. Exosomes are one class of EVs originally defined based on their endocytic origin, as these derive from multivesicular bodies that then fuse with the plasma membrane releasing them into the extracellular environment. The term exosome has also been used to describe any small EVs recovered by high-speed ultracentrifugation, irrespective of origin since this is not always well characterized. Here, we use comparative global lipidomic analysis to examine the composition of EVs, which we term exosomes, that are secreted by the gastrointestinal nematode, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, in relation to exosomes secreted by cells of its murine host. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) analysis reveals a 9- to 62-fold enrichment of plasmalogens, as well as other classes of ether glycerophospholipids, along with a relative lack of cholesterol and sphingomyelin (SM) in the nematode exosomes compared with those secreted by murine cells. Biophysical analyses of the membrane dynamics of these exosomes demonstrate increased rigidity in those from the nematode, and parallel studies with synthetic vesicles support a role of plasmalogens in stabilizing the membrane structure. These results suggest that nematodes can maintain exosome membrane structure and integrity through increased plasmalogens, compensating for diminished levels of other lipids, including cholesterol and SM. This work also illuminates the prevalence of plasmalogens in some EVs

  6. Biochemical stability of organic matter in soils amended with organic slow N-release fertilizer derived from charred plant residues and ammonoxidized lignin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knicker, Heike; de la Rosa, José Maria; López Martín, María; Clemente Barragan, Reyes; Liebner, Falk

    2013-04-01

    As an important plant nutrient, N that has been removed from the soil by plant growth is replaced mainly by the use of synthetic fertilizers. Although this practice has dramatically increased food production, the unintended costs to the environment and human health due to surplus and inefficient application have also been substantial. Major losses of N to the environment can be minimized if "sustainable" agricultural practices are combined with reasonable fertilization. The latter can be achieved by applying slow N-release fertilizers. Here, the N is incorporated into an organic matrix, which after its amendment to soils, slowly decompose, allowing the liberation of the nutrient. Deriving from organic waste, such an amendment helps to efficiently recycle resources and increases the C sequestration potential of soils. However, in order to turn this approach into a successful strategy, the material has to be bioavailable but still sufficiently recalcitrant to ensure slow and controlled N-release. In the present study, we tested potential slow N-release fertilizers recycled from organic waste for their biochemical stability in soils. They comprised N-rich charred grass residues and N-lignin derived from waste of the pulp and paper industry and enriched in N by ammonoxidation. The substrates were mixed with soil of an Histic Humaquept and subsequently subjected to microbial degradation at 28°C in a Respicond IV Apparatus for 10 weeks. Additionally, soil material without organic amendment and soils mixed with lignin or charcoal both with and without KNO3 were included into the experiment. During the degradation experiment the CO2 production was determined on an hourly base. The degradation rate constants and the mean residence times were calculated using a double exponential decay model (pools with fast and slow turnover). Alterations of the chemical composition of the organic matter during degradation were studied by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy. First results

  7. Structural Stabilities of β-Ti Alloys Studied Using a New Mo Equivalent Derived from [ β/( α + β)] Phase-Boundary Slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Dong, Chuang; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-08-01

    Structural stabilities of β-Ti alloys are generally investigated by an empirical Mo equivalent, which quantifies the stability contribution of each alloying element, M, in comparison to that of the major β-Ti stabilizer, Mo. In the present work, a new Mo equivalent (Moeq)Q is proposed, which uses the slopes of the boundary lines between the β and ( α + β) phase zones in binary Ti-M phase diagrams. This (Moeq)Q reflects a simple fact that the β-Ti stability is enhanced, when the β phase zone is enlarged by a β-Ti stabilizer. It is expressed as (Moeq)Q = 1.0 Mo + 0.74 V + 1.01 W + 0.23 Nb + 0.30 Ta + 1.23 Fe + 1.10 Cr + 1.09 Cu + 1.67 Ni + 1.81 Co + 1.42 Mn + 0.38 Sn + 0.34 Zr + 0.99 Si - 0.57 Al (at. pct), where the equivalent coefficient of each element is the slope ratio of the [ β/( α + β)] boundary line of the binary Ti-M phase diagram to that of the Ti-Mo. This (Moeq)Q is shown to reliably characterize the critical stability limit of multi-component β-Ti alloys with low Young's moduli, where the critical lower limit for β stabilization is (Moeq)Q = 6.25 at. pct or 11.8 wt pct Mo.

  8. Wind-Tunnel Investigation at Subsonic and Supersonic Speeds of the Static and Dynamic Stability Derivatives of an Airplane Model with an Unswept Wing and a High Horizontal Tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lessing, Henry C.; Butler, James K.

    1959-01-01

    Results are presented of a wind-tunnel investigation to evaluate the static and dynamic stability derivatives of a model with a low-aspect-ratio unswept wing and a high horizontal tail. In addition to results for the complete model, results were also obtained of the body alone, body and wing, and body and tail. Data were obtained in the Mach number range from 0.65 to 2.2, at a Reynolds number of 2 million based on the wing mean aerodynamic chord. The angle-of-attack range for most of the data was -11.5 deg to 18 deg. A limited amount of data was obtained with fixed transition. A correspondence between the damping in pitch and the static stability, previously noted in other investigations, was also observed in the present results. The effect observed was that a decrease (or increase) in the static stability was accompanied by an increase (or decrease) in the damping in pitch. A similar correspondence was observed between the damping in yaw and the static-directional stability. Results from similar tests of the same model configuration in two other facilities over different speed ranges are presented for comparison. It was found that most of the results from the three investigations correlated reasonably well. Estimates of the rotary derivatives were made using available procedures. Comparison with the experimental results indicates the need for development of more precise estimation procedures.

  9. Reciprocity-Based Reasons for Benefiting Research Participants: Most Fail, the Most Plausible is Problematic

    PubMed Central

    Sofaer, Neema

    2014-01-01

    A common reason for giving research participants post-trial access (PTA) to the trial intervention appeals to reciprocity, the principle, stated most generally, that if one person benefits a second, the second should reciprocate: benefit the first in return. Many authors consider it obvious that reciprocity supports PTA. Yet their reciprocity principles differ, with many authors apparently unaware of alternative versions. This article is the first to gather the range of reciprocity principles. It finds that: (1) most are false. (2) The most plausible principle, which is also problematic, applies only when participants experience significant net risks or burdens. (3) Seldom does reciprocity support PTA for participants or give researchers stronger reason to benefit participants than equally needy non-participants. (4) Reciprocity fails to explain the common view that it is bad when participants in a successful trial have benefited from the trial intervention but lack PTA to it. PMID:24602060

  10. Reciprocity-based reasons for benefiting research participants: most fail, the most plausible is problematic.

    PubMed

    Sofaer, Neema

    2014-11-01

    A common reason for giving research participants post-trial access (PTA) to the trial intervention appeals to reciprocity, the principle, stated most generally, that if one person benefits a second, the second should reciprocate: benefit the first in return. Many authors consider it obvious that reciprocity supports PTA. Yet their reciprocity principles differ, with many authors apparently unaware of alternative versions. This article is the first to gather the range of reciprocity principles. It finds that: (1) most are false. (2) The most plausible principle, which is also problematic, applies only when participants experience significant net risks or burdens. (3) Seldom does reciprocity support PTA for participants or give researchers stronger reason to benefit participants than equally needy non-participants. (4) Reciprocity fails to explain the common view that it is bad when participants in a successful trial have benefited from the trial intervention but lack PTA to it. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Oxidation of cefazolin by potassium permanganate: Transformation products and plausible pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Liping; Wei, Dongbin; Wei, Guohua; Du, Yuguo

    2016-04-01

    Cefazolin was demonstrated to exert high reactivity toward permanganate (Mn(VII)), a common oxidant in water pre-oxidation treatment. In this study, five transformation products were found to be classified into three categories according to the contained characteristic functional groups: three (di-)sulfoxide products, one sulfone product and one di-ketone product. Products analyses showed that two kinds of reactions including oxidation of thioether and the cleavage of unsaturated CC double bond occurred during transformation of cefazolin by Mn(VII). Subsequently, the plausible transformation pathways under different pH conditions were proposed based on the identified products and chemical reaction principles. More importantly, the simulation with real surface water matrix indicated that the proposed transformation pathways of cefazolin could be replayed in real water treatment practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Probability, plausibility, and adequacy evaluations of the Oriente Study demonstrate that supplementation improved child growth.

    PubMed

    Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-02-01

    This article presents evidence that the high-nutrient supplement in the Oriente study (Atole) improved child growth. The evidence is presented at 4 levels. There was a causal effect of the intervention on child length, as assessed by probability analyses of the randomized, controlled trial (P < 0.05). The plausibility analyses, which included an examination of wasting, showed that the nutritional impact was due to the Atole, especially in those who were <3 y old and who suffered from diarrhea. The adequacy analyses revealed excellent biological efficacy of the Atole at the individual level. At the level of the whole population, the efficacy of impact was much less, because many children did not participate fully in the supplementation program. The external validity of the biological impact is likely to be good for populations with similar diets and medical care.

  13. A plausible simultaneous synthesis of amino acids and simple peptides on the primordial Earth.

    PubMed

    Parker, Eric T; Zhou, Manshui; Burton, Aaron S; Glavin, Daniel P; Dworkin, Jason P; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayanan; Fernández, Facundo M; Bada, Jeffrey L

    2014-07-28

    Following his seminal work in 1953, Stanley Miller conducted an experiment in 1958 to study the polymerization of amino acids under simulated early Earth conditions. In the experiment, Miller sparked a gas mixture of CH4, NH3, and H2O, while intermittently adding the plausible prebiotic condensing reagent cyanamide. For unknown reasons, an analysis of the samples was not reported. We analyzed the archived samples for amino acids, dipeptides, and diketopiperazines by liquid chromatography, ion mobility spectrometry, and mass spectrometry. A dozen amino acids, 10 glycine-containing dipeptides, and 3 glycine-containing diketopiperazines were detected. Miller's experiment was repeated and similar polymerization products were observed. Aqueous heating experiments indicate that Strecker synthesis intermediates play a key role in facilitating polymerization. These results highlight the potential importance of condensing reagents in generating diversity within the prebiotic chemical inventory.

  14. Quantum theory as plausible reasoning applied to data obtained by robust experiments.

    PubMed

    De Raedt, H; Katsnelson, M I; Michielsen, K

    2016-05-28

    We review recent work that employs the framework of logical inference to establish a bridge between data gathered through experiments and their objective description in terms of human-made concepts. It is shown that logical inference applied to experiments for which the observed events are independent and for which the frequency distribution of these events is robust with respect to small changes of the conditions under which the experiments are carried out yields, without introducing any concept of quantum theory, the quantum theoretical description in terms of the Schrödinger or the Pauli equation, the Stern-Gerlach or Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments. The extraordinary descriptive power of quantum theory then follows from the fact that it is plausible reasoning, that is common sense, applied to reproducible and robust experimental data.

  15. Saliency detection based on biological plausibility of hypercomplex Fourier spectrum contrast.

    PubMed

    Li, Ce; Xue, Jianru; Tian, Zhiqiang; Li, Lu; Zheng, Nanning

    2012-09-01

    This Letter proposes a novel saliency detection method based on biological plausibility of a hypercomplex Fourier spectrum contrast algorithm. The proposed algorithm takes into consideration not only simulation of simple cortical cells in the receptive field of humans but also the texture-color feature global spectrum contrast of an image. First, we utilize log-Gabor filters to mimic simple cortical cells in the receptive field of humans. Two complex numbers of texture colors are acquired through feature maps in hue, saturation, and value color space by log-Gabor. Second, we build the hypercomplex number using these representations of feature maps. Finally, the salient object is detected by spectrum contrast in the hypercomplex Fourier domain. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

  16. Plausible role of nanoparticle contamination in the synthesis and properties of organic electronic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananikov, Valentine P.

    2016-12-01

    Traceless transition metal catalysis (Pd, Ni, Cu, etc.) is very difficult to achieve. Metal contamination in the synthesized products is unavoidable and the most important questions are: How to control metal impurities? What amount of metal impurities can be tolerated? What is the influence of metal impurities? In this brief review, the plausible origins of nanoparticle contamination are discussed in the framework of catalytic synthesis of organic electronic materials. Key factors responsible for increasing the probability of contamination are considered from the point of view of catalytic reaction mechanisms. The purity of the catalyst may greatly affect the molecular weight of a polymer, reaction yield, selectivity and several other parameters. Metal contamination in the final polymeric products may induce some changes in the electric conductivity, charge transport properties, photovoltaic performance and other important parameters.

  17. Thimerosal and autism? A plausible hypothesis that should not be dismissed.

    PubMed

    Blaxill, Mark F; Redwood, Lyn; Bernard, Sallie

    2004-01-01

    The autism-mercury hypothesis first described by Bernard et al. has generated much interest and controversy. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) reviewed the connection between mercury-containing vaccines and neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism. They concluded that the hypothesis was biologically plausible but that there was insufficient evidence to accept or reject a causal connection and recommended a comprehensive research program. Without citing new experimental evidence, a number of observers have offered opinions on the subject, some of which reject the IOM's conclusions. In a recent review, Nelson and Bauman argue that a link between the preservative thimerosal, the source of the mercury in childhood vaccines, is improbable. In their defense of thimerosal, these authors take a narrow view of the original hypothesis, provide no new evidence, and rely on selective citations and flawed reasoning. We provide evidence here to refute the Nelson and Bauman critique and to defend the autism-mercury hypothesis.

  18. Spontaneous formation and base pairing of plausible prebiotic nucleotides in water

    PubMed Central

    Cafferty, Brian J.; Fialho, David M.; Khanam, Jaheda; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayanan; Hud, Nicholas V.

    2016-01-01

    The RNA World hypothesis presupposes that abiotic reactions originally produced nucleotides, the monomers of RNA and universal constituents of metabolism. However, compatible prebiotic reactions for the synthesis of complementary (that is, base pairing) nucleotides and mechanisms for their mutual selection within a complex chemical environment have not been reported. Here we show that two plausible prebiotic heterocycles, melamine and barbituric acid, form glycosidic linkages with ribose and ribose-5-phosphate in water to produce nucleosides and nucleotides in good yields. Even without purification, these nucleotides base pair in aqueous solution to create linear supramolecular assemblies containing thousands of ordered nucleotides. Nucleotide anomerization and supramolecular assemblies favour the biologically relevant β-anomer form of these ribonucleotides, revealing abiotic mechanisms by which nucleotide structure and configuration could have been originally favoured. These findings indicate that nucleotide formation and selection may have been robust processes on the prebiotic Earth, if other nucleobases preceded those of extant life. PMID:27108699

  19. A neurally plausible parallel distributed processing model of event-related potential word reading data.

    PubMed

    Laszlo, Sarah; Plaut, David C

    2012-03-01

    The Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) framework has significant potential for producing models of cognitive tasks that approximate how the brain performs the same tasks. To date, however, there has been relatively little contact between PDP modeling and data from cognitive neuroscience. In an attempt to advance the relationship between explicit, computational models and physiological data collected during the performance of cognitive tasks, we developed a PDP model of visual word recognition which simulates key results from the ERP reading literature, while simultaneously being able to successfully perform lexical decision-a benchmark task for reading models. Simulations reveal that the model's success depends on the implementation of several neurally plausible features in its architecture which are sufficiently domain-general to be relevant to cognitive modeling more generally.

  20. Comparison of manual and homogenizer methods for preparation of tick-derived stabilates of Theileria parva: equivalence testing using an in vitro titration model.

    PubMed

    Mbao, V; Speybroeck, N; Berkvens, D; Dolan, T; Dorny, P; Madder, M; Mulumba, M; Duchateau, L; Brandt, J; Marcotty, T

    2005-07-01

    Theileria parva sporozoite stabilates are used in the infection and treatment method of immunization, a widely accepted control option for East Coast fever in cattle. T. parva sporozoites are extracted from infected adult Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks either manually, using a pestle and a mortar, or by use of an electric homogenizer. A comparison of the two methods as a function of stabilate infectivity has never been documented. This study was designed to provide a quantitative comparison of stabilates produced by the two methods. The approach was to prepare batches of stabilate by both methods and then subject them to in vitro titration. Equivalence testing was then performed on the average effective doses (ED). The ratio of infective sporozoites yielded by the two methods was found to be 1.14 in favour of the manually ground stabilate with an upper limit of the 95% confidence interval equal to 1.3. We conclude that the choice of method rests more on costs, available infrastructure and standardization than on which method produces a richer sporozoite stabilate.

  1. CD25 signaling regulates the function and stability of peripheral Foxp3+ regulatory T cells derived from the spleen and lymph nodes of mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kunpeng; Gu, Jian; Ni, Xuhao; Ding, Zheng; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Haoming; Zheng, SongGuo; Li, Bin; Lu, Ling

    2016-08-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in sustaining immune tolerance and maintaining immune balance to alloantigen after transplatation. However, the functions of peripheral Tregs in different organs have not been fully characterized. Here, we showed that spleen-derived Tregs exhibited higher expression of Foxp3, greater suppressive capacity, and lower levels of IL-17A secretion than lymph node-derived Tregs in vitro in the presence or absence of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6. We found a higher percentage of CD25(bright) Tregs among spleen-derived Tregs than among lymph node-derived Tregs. Additionally, in vivo experiments demonstrated that adoptive transfer of spleen-derived Tregs, but not lymph node-derived Tregs, alleviated ischemia-reperfusion injury. These results reveal novel functions of Tregs derived from peripheral organs. In particular, spleen-derived Tregs, primarily consisting of CD25(bright) cells, may provide a more significant contribution to the suppression of immune-mediated autoimmune and inflammatory disease.

  2. Conformational and Thermal Stability Improvements for the Large-Scale Production of Yeast-Derived Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus-Like Particles as Multipurpose Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, Lídice; González, Nemecio; Parra, Francisco; Martín-Alonso, José M.; Limonta, Miladys; Sánchez, Kosara; Cabrales, Ania; Estrada, Mario P.; Rodríguez-Mallón, Alina; Farnós, Omar

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant virus-like particles (VLP) antigenically similar to rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) were recently expressed at high levels inside Pichia pastoris cells. Based on the potential of RHDV VLP as platform for diverse vaccination purposes we undertook the design, development and scale-up of a production process. Conformational and stability issues were addressed to improve process control and optimization. Analyses on the structure, morphology and antigenicity of these multimers were carried out at different pH values during cell disruption and purification by size-exclusion chromatography. Process steps and environmental stresses in which aggregation or conformational instability can be detected were included. These analyses revealed higher stability and recoveries of properly assembled high-purity capsids at acidic and neutral pH in phosphate buffer. The use of stabilizers during long-term storage in solution showed that sucrose, sorbitol, trehalose and glycerol acted as useful aggregation-reducing agents. The VLP emulsified in an oil-based adjuvant were subjected to accelerated thermal stress treatments. None to slight variations were detected in the stability of formulations and in the structure of recovered capsids. A comprehensive analysis on scale-up strategies was accomplished and a nine steps large-scale production process was established. VLP produced after chromatographic separation protected rabbits against a lethal challenge. The minimum protective dose was identified. Stabilized particles were ultimately assayed as carriers of a foreign viral epitope from another pathogen affecting a larger animal species. For that purpose, a linear protective B-cell epitope from Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) E2 envelope protein was chemically coupled to RHDV VLP. Conjugates were able to present the E2 peptide fragment for immune recognition and significantly enhanced the peptide-specific antibody response in vaccinated pigs. Overall these results

  3. Testing the plausibility of several a priori assumed error distributions for discharge measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Eerdenbrugh, Katrien; Verhoest, Niko E. C.

    2017-04-01

    Hydrologic measurements are used for a variety of research topics and operational projects. Regardless of the application, it is important to account for measurement uncertainty. In many projects, no local information is available about this uncertainty. Therefore, error distributions and accompanying parameters or uncertainty boundaries are often taken from literature without any knowledge about their applicability in the new context. In this research, an approach is proposed that uses relative differences between simultaneous discharge measurements to test the plausibility of several a priori assumed error distributions. For this test, simultaneous discharge measurements (measured with one type of device) from nine different Belgian rivers were available. This implies the assumption that their error distribution does not depend upon river, measurement location and measurement team. Moreover, it is assumed that the errors of two simultaneous measurements are not mutually dependent. This data set does not allow for a direct assessment of measurement errors. However, independently of the value of the real discharge, the relative difference between two simultaneous measurements can be expressed by their relative measurement errors. If a distribution is assumed for these errors, it is thus possible to test equality between the distributions of both the relative differences of the simultaneously measured discharge pairs and a created set of relative differences based on two equally sized samples of measurement errors from the assumed distribution. If the assumed error distribution is correct, these two data sets will have the same distribution. In this research, equality is tested with a two-sample nonparametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The resulting p-value and the corresponding value of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic (KS statistic) are used for this evaluation. The occurrence of a high p-value (and corresponding small value of the KS statistic) provides no

  4. Semantics-based plausible reasoning to extend the knowledge coverage of medical knowledge bases for improved clinical decision support.

    PubMed

    Mohammadhassanzadeh, Hossein; Van Woensel, William; Abidi, Samina Raza; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2017-01-01

    Capturing complete medical knowledge is challenging-often due to incomplete patient Electronic Health Records (EHR), but also because of valuable, tacit medical knowledge hidden away in physicians' experiences. To extend the coverage of incomplete medical knowledge-based systems beyond their deductive closure, and thus enhance their decision-support capabilities, we argue that innovative, multi-strategy reasoning approaches should be applied. In particular, plausible reasoning mechanisms apply patterns from human thought processes, such as generalization, similarity and interpolation, based on attributional, hierarchical, and relational knowledge. Plausible reasoning mechanisms include inductive reasoning, which generalizes the commonalities among the data to induce new rules, and analogical reasoning, which is guided by data similarities to infer new facts. By further leveraging rich, biomedical Semantic Web ontologies to represent medical knowledge, both known and tentative, we increase the accuracy and expressivity of plausible reasoning, and cope with issues such as data heterogeneity, inconsistency and interoperability. In this paper, we present a Semantic Web-based, multi-strategy reasoning approach, which integrates deductive and plausible reasoning and exploits Semantic Web technology to solve complex clinical decision support queries. We evaluated our system using a real-world medical dataset of patients with hepatitis, from which we randomly removed different percentages of data (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) to reflect scenarios with increasing amounts of incomplete medical knowledge. To increase the reliability of the results, we generated 5 independent datasets for each percentage of missing values, which resulted in 20 experimental datasets (in addition to the original dataset). The results show that plausibly inferred knowledge extends the coverage of the knowledge base by, on average, 2%, 7%, 12%, and 16% for datasets with, respectively, 5%, 10%, 15%, and

  5. Mindfulness and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: State of the Evidence, Plausible Mechanisms, and Theoretical Framework

    PubMed Central

    Schuman-Olivier, Zev; Britton, Willoughby B.; Fresco, David M.; Desbordes, Gaelle; Brewer, Judson A.; Fulwiler, Carl

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide (1) a synopsis on relations of mindfulness with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major CVD risk factors, and (2) an initial consensus-based overview of mechanisms and theoretical framework by which mindfulness might influence CVD. Initial evidence, often of limited methodological quality, suggests possible impacts of mindfulness on CVD risk factors including physical activity, smoking, diet, obesity, blood pressure, and diabetes regulation. Plausible mechanisms include (1) improved attention control (e.g., ability to hold attention on experiences related to CVD risk, such as smoking, diet, physical activity, and medication adherence), (2) emotion regulation (e.g., improved stress response, self-efficacy, and skills to manage craving for cigarettes, palatable foods, and sedentary activities), and (3) self-awareness (e.g., self-referential processing and awareness of physical sensations due to CVD risk factors). Understanding mechanisms and theoretical framework should improve etiologic knowledge, providing customized mindfulness intervention targets that could enable greater mindfulness intervention efficacy. PMID:26482755

  6. A plausible mechanism of biosorption in dual symbioses by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal in plants.

    PubMed

    Azmat, Rafia; Hamid, Neelofer

    2015-03-01

    Dual symbioses of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi with growth of Momordica charantia were elucidated in terms of plausible mechanism of biosorption in this article. The experiment was conducted in green house and mixed inoculum of the VAM fungi was used in the three replicates. Results demonstrated that the starch contents were the main source of C for the VAM to builds their hyphae. The increased plant height and leaves surface area were explained in relation with an increase in the photosynthetic rates to produce rapid sugar contents for the survival of plants. A decreased in protein, and amino acid contents and increased proline and protease activity in VAM plants suggested that these contents were the main bio-indicators of the plants under biotic stress. The decline in protein may be due to the degradation of these contents, which later on converted into dextrose where it can easily be absorbed by for the period of symbioses. A mechanism of C chemisorption in relation with physiology and morphology of plant was discussed.

  7. European freshwater vulnerability under high rates of global warming and plausible socio-economic narratives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Papadimitriou, Lamprini; Grillakis, Manolis; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2017-04-01

    Recent developments could postpone climate actions in the frame of the global climate deal of the Paris Agreement, making higher-end global warming increasingly plausible. Although not clear in the COP21 water security is fundamental to achieving low-carbon ambitions, thus climate and water policies are closely related. The projection of the relationship between global warming, water availability and water stress through their complex interactions among different sectors, along with the synergies and trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation actions, is a rather challenging task under the prism of climate change. Here we try to develop and apply a simple, transparent conceptual framework describing European vulnerability to hydrological drought of current hydro-climatic and socioeconomic status as well as projected vulnerability at specific levels of global warming (1.5oC, 2oC and 4oC) following highly rates of climatic change (RCP8.5) and considering different levels of adaptation associated to specific socioeconomic pathways (SSP2, SSP3 and SSP5).

  8. Isomeric effects on the self-assembly of a plausible prebiotic nucleoside analogue: A theoretical study

    DOE PAGES

    Vallejo, Emmanuel; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel; Sumpter, Bobby G.; ...

    2016-10-22

    For this study, the self-assembly properties of N(9)-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl adenine) (DHPA), a plausible prebiotic nucleoside analogue of adenosine, were investigated using density functional theory. Two different isomers were considered, and it is found that while both isomers can form a variety of structures, including chains, one of them is also able to form cages and helixes. When these results were put in the context of substrate supported molecular self-assembly, it is concluded that gas-phase self-assembly studies that consider isomer identity and composition not only can aid interpreting the experimental results, but also reveal structures that might be overlooked otherwise. In particular,more » this study suggest that a double-helical structure made of DHPA molecules which could have implications in prebiotic chemistry and nanotechnology, is stable even at room temperature. For example electrical properties (energy gap of 4.52eV) and a giant permanent electrical dipole moment (49.22 Debye) were found in our larger double-helical structure (3.7 nm) formed by 14 DHPA molecules. Lastly, the former properties could be convenient for construction of organic dielectric-based devices.« less

  9. Isomeric effects on the self-assembly of a plausible prebiotic nucleoside analogue: A theoretical study

    SciTech Connect

    Vallejo, Emmanuel; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Rangel Cortes, Eduardo

    2016-10-22

    For this study, the self-assembly properties of N(9)-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl adenine) (DHPA), a plausible prebiotic nucleoside analogue of adenosine, were investigated using density functional theory. Two different isomers were considered, and it is found that while both isomers can form a variety of structures, including chains, one of them is also able to form cages and helixes. When these results were put in the context of substrate supported molecular self-assembly, it is concluded that gas-phase self-assembly studies that consider isomer identity and composition not only can aid interpreting the experimental results, but also reveal structures that might be overlooked otherwise. In particular, this study suggest that a double-helical structure made of DHPA molecules which could have implications in prebiotic chemistry and nanotechnology, is stable even at room temperature. For example electrical properties (energy gap of 4.52eV) and a giant permanent electrical dipole moment (49.22 Debye) were found in our larger double-helical structure (3.7 nm) formed by 14 DHPA molecules. Lastly, the former properties could be convenient for construction of organic dielectric-based devices.

  10. Is the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics really plausible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kurt

    2013-06-01

    Bohmian mechanics also known as de Broglie-Bohm theory is the most popular alternative approach to quantum mechanics. Whereas the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics is based on the complementarity principle Bohmian mechanics assumes that both particle and wave are concrete physical objects. In 1993 Peter Holland has written an ardent account on the plausibility of the de Broglie-Bohm theory. He proved that it fully reproduces quantum mechanics if the initial particle distribution is consistent with a solution of the Schrödinger equation. Which may be the reasons that Bohmian mechanics has not yet found global acceptance? In this article it will be shown that predicted properties of atoms and molecules are in conflict with experimental findings. Moreover it will be demonstrated that repeatedly published ensembles of trajectories illustrating double slit diffraction processes do not agree with quantum mechanics. The credibility of a theory is undermined when recognizably wrong data presented frequently over years are finally not declared obsolete.

  11. On the biological plausibility of grandmother cells: implications for neural network theories in psychology and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Jeffrey S

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental claim associated with parallel distributed processing (PDP) theories of cognition is that knowledge is coded in a distributed manner in mind and brain. This approach rejects the claim that knowledge is coded in a localist fashion, with words, objects, and simple concepts (e.g. "dog"), that is, coded with their own dedicated representations. One of the putative advantages of this approach is that the theories are biologically plausible. Indeed, advocates of the PDP approach often highlight the close parallels between distributed representations learned in connectionist models and neural coding in brain and often dismiss localist (grandmother cell) theories as biologically implausible. The author reviews a range a data that strongly challenge this claim and shows that localist models provide a better account of single-cell recording studies. The author also contrast local and alternative distributed coding schemes (sparse and coarse coding) and argues that common rejection of grandmother cell theories in neuroscience is due to a misunderstanding about how localist models behave. The author concludes that the localist representations embedded in theories of perception and cognition are consistent with neuroscience; biology only calls into question the distributed representations often learned in PDP models.

  12. Plausibility of freshwater lenses adjacent to gaining rivers: Validation by laboratory experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, A. D.; Kawachi, A.; Laattoe, T.

    2016-11-01

    The occurrence of freshwater lenses in saline aquifers adjoining gaining rivers has recently been demonstrated as being theoretically possible by way of analytical solution. However, physical evidence for freshwater lenses near gaining rivers is limited largely to airborne geophysical surveys. This paper presents the first direct observations of freshwater lenses adjacent to gaining rivers, albeit at the laboratory-scale, as validation of their plausibility. The experimental conditions are consistent with the available analytical solution, which is compared with laboratory observations of lens extent and the saltwater flow rate, for various hydraulic gradients. Numerical simulation shows that dispersion can account for the small amount of mismatch between the sharp-interface analytical solution and laboratory measurements. Calibration and uncertainty analysis demonstrate that accurate mathematical predictions require calibration to laboratory measurements of the lens. The results provide unequivocal proof that freshwater lenses can persist despite gaining river conditions concordant with theoretical lenses predicted by the analytical solution, at least within the constraints of the experimental setup.

  13. Solvent effects on the photochemistry of 4-aminoimidazole-5-carbonitrile, a prebiotically plausible precursor of purines.

    PubMed

    Szabla, Rafał; Sponer, Judit E; Sponer, Jiří; Sobolewski, Andrzej L; Góra, Robert W

    2014-09-07

    4-Aminoimidazole-5-carbonitrile (AICN) was suggested as a prebiotically plausible precursor of purine nucleobases and nucleotides. Although it can be formed in a sequence of photoreactions, AICN is immune to further irradiation with UV-light. We present state-of-the-art multi-reference quantum-chemical calculations of potential energy surface cuts and conical intersection optimizations to explain the molecular mechanisms underlying the photostability of this compound. We have identified the N-H bond stretching and ring-puckering mechanisms that should be responsible for the photochemistry of AICN in the gas phase. We have further considered the photochemistry of AICN-water clusters, while including up to six explicit water molecules. The calculations reveal charge transfer to solvent followed by formation of an H3O(+) cation, both of which occur on the (1)πσ* hypersurface. Interestingly, a second proton transfer to an adjacent water molecule leads to a (1)πσ*/S0 conical intersection. We suggest that this electron-driven proton relay might be characteristic of low-lying (1)πσ* states in chromophore-water clusters. Owing to its nature, this mechanism might also be responsible for the photostability of analogous organic molecules in bulk water.

  14. Biologic plausibility, cellular effects, and molecular mechanisms of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Borow, Kenneth M; Nelson, John R; Mason, R Preston

    2015-09-01

    Residual cardiovascular (CV) risk remains in dyslipidemic patients despite intensive statin therapy, underscoring the need for additional intervention. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is incorporated into membrane phospholipids and atherosclerotic plaques and exerts beneficial effects on the pathophysiologic cascade from onset of plaque formation through rupture. Specific salutary actions have been reported relating to endothelial function, oxidative stress, foam cell formation, inflammation, plaque formation/progression, platelet aggregation, thrombus formation, and plaque rupture. EPA also improves atherogenic dyslipidemia characterized by reduction of triglycerides without raising low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Other beneficial effects of EPA include vasodilation, resulting in blood pressure reductions, as well as improved membrane fluidity. EPA's effects are at least additive to those of statins when given as adjunctive therapy. In this review, we present data supporting the biologic plausibility of EPA as an anti-atherosclerotic agent with potential clinical benefit for prevention of CV events, as well as its cellular effects and molecular mechanisms of action. REDUCE-IT is an ongoing, randomized, controlled study evaluating whether the high-purity ethyl ester of EPA (icosapent ethyl) at 4 g/day combined with statin therapy is superior to statin therapy alone for reducing CV events in high-risk patients with mixed dyslipidemia. The results from this study are expected to clarify the role of EPA as adjunctive therapy to a statin for reduction of residual CV risk. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Event-based plausibility immediately influences on-line language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Matsuki, Kazunaga; Chow, Tracy; Hare, Mary; Elman, Jeffrey L; Scheepers, Christoph; McRae, Ken

    2011-07-01

    In some theories of sentence comprehension, linguistically relevant lexical knowledge, such as selectional restrictions, is privileged in terms of the time-course of its access and influence. We examined whether event knowledge computed by combining multiple concepts can rapidly influence language understanding even in the absence of selectional restriction violations. Specifically, we investigated whether instruments can combine with actions to influence comprehension of ensuing patients of (as in Rayner, Warren, Juhuasz, & Liversedge, 2004; Warren & McConnell, 2007). Instrument-verb-patient triplets were created in a norming study designed to tap directly into event knowledge. In self-paced reading (Experiment 1), participants were faster to read patient nouns, such as hair, when they were typical of the instrument-action pair (Donna used the shampoo to wash vs. the hose to wash). Experiment 2 showed that these results were not due to direct instrument-patient relations. Experiment 3 replicated Experiment 1 using eyetracking, with effects of event typicality observed in first fixation and gaze durations on the patient noun. This research demonstrates that conceptual event-based expectations are computed and used rapidly and dynamically during on-line language comprehension. We discuss relationships among plausibility and predictability, as well as their implications. We conclude that selectional restrictions may be best considered as event-based conceptual knowledge rather than lexical-grammatical knowledge.

  16. Place illusion and plausibility can lead to realistic behaviour in immersive virtual environments

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Mel

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I address the question as to why participants tend to respond realistically to situations and events portrayed within an immersive virtual reality system. The idea is put forward, based on the experience of a large number of experimental studies, that there are two orthogonal components that contribute to this realistic response. The first is ‘being there’, often called ‘presence’, the qualia of having a sensation of being in a real place. We call this place illusion (PI). Second, plausibility illusion (Psi) refers to the illusion that the scenario being depicted is actually occurring. In the case of both PI and Psi the participant knows for sure that they are not ‘there’ and that the events are not occurring. PI is constrained by the sensorimotor contingencies afforded by the virtual reality system. Psi is determined by the extent to which the system can produce events that directly relate to the participant, the overall credibility of the scenario being depicted in comparison with expectations. We argue that when both PI and Psi occur, participants will respond realistically to the virtual reality. PMID:19884149

  17. Plausible ergogenic effects of vitamin D on athletic performance and recovery.

    PubMed

    Dahlquist, Dylan T; Dieter, Brad P; Koehle, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine vitamin D in the context of sport nutrition and its potential role in optimizing athletic performance. Vitamin D receptors (VDR) and vitamin D response elements (VDREs) are located in almost every tissue within the human body including skeletal muscle. The hormonally-active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, has been shown to play critical roles in the human body and regulates over 900 gene variants. Based on the literature presented, it is plausible that vitamin D levels above the normal reference range (up to 100 nmol/L) might increase skeletal muscle function, decrease recovery time from training, increase both force and power production, and increase testosterone production, each of which could potentiate athletic performance. Therefore, maintaining higher levels of vitamin D could prove beneficial for athletic performance. Despite this situation, large portions of athletic populations are vitamin D deficient. Currently, the research is inconclusive with regards to the optimal intake of vitamin D, the specific forms of vitamin D one should ingest, and the distinct nutrient-nutrient interactions of vitamin D with vitamin K that affect arterial calcification and hypervitaminosis. Furthermore, it is possible that dosages exceeding the recommendations for vitamin D (i.e. dosages up to 4000-5000 IU/day), in combination with 50 to 1000 mcg/day of vitamin K1 and K2 could aid athletic performance. This review will investigate these topics, and specifically their relevance to athletic performance.

  18. Constructing a 'plausible narrative of progress' for nursing: a neopragmatist suggestion.

    PubMed

    Mason, Walter H

    2009-01-01

    Identity, difference, and the associated subject of cultural diversity pose challenges for nursing. As the demographics of the world change, demands are rising for nurses to provide sensitive, individualized care to people living in our ever-changing global community. Issues concerning gender, sexuality, disability, age, language, economic and occupational status, multiculturalism, and ethnicity are made more complex because many of these topics strike a personal chord for individual nurses. In order for nursing to provide appropriate care to the world's people and to meet future challenges, nursing must define itself in new ways. Kikuchi and Simmons have stated that the best way for nursing to approach this task is through the development of a 'sound' philosophy of nursing that will 'accommodate diversity in nursing thought'. They contend that before we can establish a philosophy of nursing, nurses will have to agree upon the nature of reality, human beings, truth, and knowledge. This paper will suggest that neopragmatism, as described by Richard Rorty, is a way to assure diversity of thought in nursing. However, I will argue against the requirement for this philosophy to be 'sound' in the sense that Kikuchi and Simmons use this term. In place of their call for 'truth and unity in nursing thought'. I will attempt to demonstrate how neopragmatic ideas relate to the construction of what Rorty called a unifying 'plausible narrative of progress'. This change will allow nursing to abandon the dead end debate over epistemologies and instead focus on more important issues related to improving nursing practice.

  19. Mindfulness and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: State of the Evidence, Plausible Mechanisms, and Theoretical Framework.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Eric B; Schuman-Olivier, Zev; Britton, Willoughby B; Fresco, David M; Desbordes, Gaelle; Brewer, Judson A; Fulwiler, Carl

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide (1) a synopsis on relations of mindfulness with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major CVD risk factors, and (2) an initial consensus-based overview of mechanisms and theoretical framework by which mindfulness might influence CVD. Initial evidence, often of limited methodological quality, suggests possible impacts of mindfulness on CVD risk factors including physical activity, smoking, diet, obesity, blood pressure, and diabetes regulation. Plausible mechanisms include (1) improved attention control (e.g., ability to hold attention on experiences related to CVD risk, such as smoking, diet, physical activity, and medication adherence), (2) emotion regulation (e.g., improved stress response, self-efficacy, and skills to manage craving for cigarettes, palatable foods, and sedentary activities), and (3) self-awareness (e.g., self-referential processing and awareness of physical sensations due to CVD risk factors). Understanding mechanisms and theoretical framework should improve etiologic knowledge, providing customized mindfulness intervention targets that could enable greater mindfulness intervention efficacy.

  20. Place illusion and plausibility can lead to realistic behaviour in immersive virtual environments.

    PubMed

    Slater, Mel

    2009-12-12

    In this paper, I address the question as to why participants tend to respond realistically to situations and events portrayed within an immersive virtual reality system. The idea is put forward, based on the experience of a large number of experimental studies, that there are two orthogonal components that contribute to this realistic response. The first is 'being there', often called 'presence', the qualia of having a sensation of being in a real place. We call this place illusion (PI). Second, plausibility illusion (Psi) refers to the illusion that the scenario being depicted is actually occurring. In the case of both PI and Psi the participant knows for sure that they are not 'there' and that the events are not occurring. PI is constrained by the sensorimotor contingencies afforded by the virtual reality system. Psi is determined by the extent to which the system can produce events that directly relate to the participant, the overall credibility of the scenario being depicted in comparison with expectations. We argue that when both PI and Psi occur, participants will respond realistically to the virtual reality.

  1. Tsunami simulations for historical and plausible mega-thrust events originating in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle, Brett; Kalligeris, Nikos; Findikakis, Angelos; Okal, Emile; Synolakis, Costas

    2013-04-01

    Tsunamis have been reported at rates of one to two per year in the Mediterranean Sea, on average, over the past 2000 years (Ambraseys and Synolakis, 2010). However, quantification of tsunami hazards in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea remains difficult, as large events are infrequent. Simulations were performed for a series of seismic events originating along the Eastern Hellenic Arc and Western Cyprian Arc. The locations and source characteristics represent plausible mega-thrust events similar to historical events along the Hellenic Arc, including the 365 AD and 1303 AD events. Sensitivity simulations were performed to address uncertainty in the location and source characteristics of the 1303 AD event, and in consideration of potential future events originating along the Eastern Hellenic Arc. Sensitivity simulations were also performed for events originating along the Western Cyprian Arc. The hydrodynamic simulations used a series of codes known as the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) (Titov and Synolakis, 1998). Reported results include wave propagation in the Eastern Mediterranean and tsunami inundation near Alexandria, Egypt, and for neighboring coastlines. References: Ambraseys, N. and C.E. Synolakis (2010), Tsunami Catalogs for the Eastern Mediterranean, Revisited, Journal of Earthquake Engineering 14(3): 309-330; and Titov V.V. and C.E. Synolakis (1998), 'Numerical modeling of tidal wave runup,' J. Waterw. Port Coast. Ocean Eng. 124(4): 157-171.

  2. Event-based Plausibility Immediately Influences On-line Language Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Matsuki, Kazunaga; Chow, Tracy; Hare, Mary; Elman, Jeffrey L.; Scheepers, Christoph; McRae, Ken

    2011-01-01

    In some theories of sentence comprehension, linguistically-relevant lexical knowledge such as selectional restrictions is privileged in terms of the time-course of its access and influence. We examined whether event knowledge computed by combining multiple concepts can rapidly influence language understanding even in the absence of selectional restriction violations. Specifically, we investigated whether instruments can combine with actions to influence comprehension of ensuing patients. Instrument-verb-patient triplets were created in a norming study designed to tap directly into event knowledge. In self-paced reading (Experiment 1), participants were faster to read patient nouns such as hair when they were typical of the instrument-action pair (Donna used the shampoo to wash vs. the hose to wash). Experiment 2 showed that these results were not due to direct instrument-patient relations. Experiment 3 replicated Experiment 1 using eyetracking, with effects of event typicality observed in first fixation and gaze durations on the patient noun. This research demonstrates that conceptual event-based expectations are computed and used rapidly and dynamically during on-line language comprehension. We discuss relationships among plausibility and predictability, as well as their implications. We conclude that selectional restrictions may be best considered as event-based conceptual knowledge, rather than lexical-grammatical knowledge. PMID:21517222

  3. 13C- and 1H-NMR studies of oxyanion and tetrahedral intermediate stabilization by the serine proteinases: optimizing inhibitor warhead specificity and potency by studying the inhibition of the serine proteinases by peptide-derived chloromethane and glyoxal inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Malthouse, J P G

    2007-06-01

    Catalysis by the serine proteinases proceeds via a tetrahedral intermediate whose oxyanion is stabilized by hydrogen-bonding in the oxyanion hole. There have been extensive (13)C-NMR studies of oxyanion and tetrahedral intermediate stabilization in trypsin, subtilisin and chymotrypsin using substrate-derived chloromethane inhibitors. One of the limitations of these inhibitors is that they irreversibly alkylate the active-site histidine residue which results in the oxyanion not being in the optimal position in the oxyanion hole. Substrate-derived glyoxal inhibitors are reversible inhibitors which, if they form tetrahedral adducts in the same way as substrates form tetrahedral intermediates, will overcome this limitation. Therefore we have synthesized (13)C-enriched substrate-derived glyoxal inhibitors which have allowed us to use (13)C-NMR and (1)H-NMR to determine how they interact with proteinases. It is hoped that these studies will help in the design of specific and highly potent warheads for serine proteinase inhibitors.

  4. Wind-Tunnel Investigation at Low Speed of the Yawing Stability Derivatives of a 1/9-Scale Powered Model of the Convair XFY-1 Vertically Rising Airplane, TED No. NACA DE 373

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Queijo, M. J.; Wolhart, w. D.; Fletcher, H. S.

    1953-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted in the Langley stability tunnel at low speed to deter+nine the yawing stability derivatives of a 1/9-scale powered model of the Convair XFY-1 vertically rising airplane. Effects of thrust coefficient were investigated for the complete model and for certain components of the model. Effects of control deflections and of propeller blade angle were investigated for the complete model. Most of the tests were made through an angle-of-attack range from about -4deg to 29deg, and the thrust coefficient range was from 0 to 0.7. In order to expedite distribution of these data, no analysis of the data has been prepared for this.

  5. Wind-Tunnel Investigation at Low Speed of the Rolling Stability Derivatives of a 1/9-Scale Powered Model of the Convair XFY-1 Vertically Rising Airplane, TED No. NACA DE 373

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Queijo, M. J.; Wolhart, Walter D.; Fletcher, H. S.

    1953-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted in the Langley stability tunnel at low speed to determine the rolling stability derivatives of a 1/9-scale powered model of the Convair XFY-1 vertically rising airplane. Effects of thrust coefficient were investigated for the complete model and for certain components of the model. Effects of control deflections and of propeller blade angle were investigated for the complete model. Most of the tests were made through an angle-of-attack range from about -4deg to 29deg, and the thrust coefficient range was from 0 to 0.7. In order to expedite distribution of these data, no analysis of the data has been prepared for this paper.

  6. Long-term rice cultivation stabilizes soil organic carbon and promotes soil microbial activity in a salt marsh derived soil chronosequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Yalong; Li, Lianqing; Cheng, Kun; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Joseph, Stephen; Pan, Genxing

    2015-10-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration with enhanced stable carbon storage has been widely accepted as a very important ecosystem property. Yet, the link between carbon stability and bio-activity for ecosystem functioning with OC accumulation in field soils has not been characterized. We assessed the changes in microbial activity versus carbon stability along a paddy soil chronosequence shifting from salt marsh in East China. We used mean weight diameter, normalized enzyme activity (NEA) and carbon gain from straw amendment for addressing soil aggregation, microbial biochemical activity and potential C sequestration, respectively. In addition, a response ratio was employed to infer the changes in all analyzed parameters with prolonged rice cultivation. While stable carbon pools varied with total SOC accumulation, soil respiration and both bacterial and fungal diversity were relatively constant in the rice soils. Bacterial abundance and NEA were positively but highly correlated to total SOC accumulation, indicating an enhanced bio-activity with carbon stabilization. This could be linked to an enhancement of particulate organic carbon pool due to physical protection with enhanced soil aggregation in the rice soils under long-term rice cultivation. However, the mechanism underpinning these changes should be explored in future studies in rice soils where dynamic redox conditions exist.

  7. Long-term rice cultivation stabilizes soil organic carbon and promotes soil microbial activity in a salt marsh derived soil chronosequence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Yalong; Li, Lianqing; Cheng, Kun; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Joseph, Stephen; Pan, Genxing

    2015-10-27

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration with enhanced stable carbon storage has been widely accepted as a very important ecosystem property. Yet, the link between carbon stability and bio-activity for ecosystem functioning with OC accumulation in field soils has not been characterized. We assessed the changes in microbial activity versus carbon stability along a paddy soil chronosequence shifting from salt marsh in East China. We used mean weight diameter, normalized enzyme activity (NEA) and carbon gain from straw amendment for addressing soil aggregation, microbial biochemical activity and potential C sequestration, respectively. In addition, a response ratio was employed to infer the changes in all analyzed parameters with prolonged rice cultivation. While stable carbon pools varied with total SOC accumulation, soil respiration and both bacterial and fungal diversity were relatively constant in the rice soils. Bacterial abundance and NEA were positively but highly correlated to total SOC accumulation, indicating an enhanced bio-activity with carbon stabilization. This could be linked to an enhancement of particulate organic carbon pool due to physical protection with enhanced soil aggregation in the rice soils under long-term rice cultivation. However, the mechanism underpinning these changes should be explored in future studies in rice soils where dynamic redox conditions exist.

  8. Long-term rice cultivation stabilizes soil organic carbon and promotes soil microbial activity in a salt marsh derived soil chronosequence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Yalong; Li, Lianqing; Cheng, Kun; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Joseph, Stephen; Pan, Genxing

    2015-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration with enhanced stable carbon storage has been widely accepted as a very important ecosystem property. Yet, the link between carbon stability and bio-activity for ecosystem functioning with OC accumulation in field soils has not been characterized. We assessed the changes in microbial activity versus carbon stability along a paddy soil chronosequence shifting from salt marsh in East China. We used mean weight diameter, normalized enzyme activity (NEA) and carbon gain from straw amendment for addressing soil aggregation, microbial biochemical activity and potential C sequestration, respectively. In addition, a response ratio was employed to infer the changes in all analyzed parameters with prolonged rice cultivation. While stable carbon pools varied with total SOC accumulation, soil respiration and both bacterial and fungal diversity were relatively constant in the rice soils. Bacterial abundance and NEA were positively but highly correlated to total SOC accumulation, indicating an enhanced bio-activity with carbon stabilization. This could be linked to an enhancement of particulate organic carbon pool due to physical protection with enhanced soil aggregation in the rice soils under long-term rice cultivation. However, the mechanism underpinning these changes should be explored in future studies in rice soils where dynamic redox conditions exist. PMID:26503629

  9. Effects of Reading Span and Plausibility in the Reanalysis of "Wh"-Gaps by Chinese-English Second Language Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dussias, Paola E.; Pinar, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    This study utilizes a moving window technique to investigate how individual cognitive resources (operationalized in terms of reading span scores) might modulate the extent to which native English speakers and Chinese second language (L2) learners of English utilize plausibility information to recover from an initial misparse in the processing of…

  10. Effects of Reading Span and Plausibility in the Reanalysis of "Wh"-Gaps by Chinese-English Second Language Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dussias, Paola E.; Pinar, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    This study utilizes a moving window technique to investigate how individual cognitive resources (operationalized in terms of reading span scores) might modulate the extent to which native English speakers and Chinese second language (L2) learners of English utilize plausibility information to recover from an initial misparse in the processing of…

  11. Bio-physically plausible visualization of highly scattering fluorescent neocortical models for in silico experimentation.

    PubMed

    Abdellah, Marwan; Bilgili, Ahmet; Eilemann, Stefan; Shillcock, Julian; Markram, Henry; Schürmann, Felix

    2017-02-15

    We present a visualization pipeline capable of accurate rendering of highly scattering fluorescent neocortical neuronal models. The pipeline is mainly developed to serve the computational neurobiology community. It allows the scientists to visualize the results of their virtual experiments that are performed in computer simulations, or in silico. The impact of the presented pipeline opens novel avenues for assisting the neuroscientists to build biologically accurate models of the brain. These models result from computer simulations of physical experiments that use fluorescence imaging to understand the structural and functional aspects of the brain. Due to the limited capabilities of the current visualization workflows to handle fluorescent volumetric datasets, we propose a physically-based optical model that can accurately simulate light interaction with fluorescent-tagged scattering media based on the basic principles of geometric optics and Monte Carlo path tracing. We also develop an automated and efficient framework for generating dense fluorescent tissue blocks from a neocortical column model that is composed of approximately 31000 neurons. Our pipeline is used to visualize a virtual fluorescent tissue block of 50 μm(3) that is reconstructed from the somatosensory cortex of juvenile rat. The fluorescence optical model is qualitatively analyzed and validated against experimental emission spectra of different fluorescent dyes from the Alexa Fluor family. We discussed a scientific visualization pipeline for creating images of synthetic neocortical neuronal models that are tagged virtually with fluorescent labels on a physically-plausible basis. The pipeline is applied to analyze and validate simulation data generated from neuroscientific in silico experiments.

  12. Identifying and reducing potentially wrong immunoassay results even when plausible and "not-unreasonable".

    PubMed

    Ismail, Adel A A

    2014-01-01

    The primary role of the clinical laboratory is to report accurate results for diagnosis of disease and management of illnesses. This goal has, to a large extent been achieved for routine biochemical tests, but not for immunoassays which remained susceptible to interference from endogenous immunoglobulin antibodies, causing false, and clinically misleading results. Clinicians regard all abnormal results including false ones as "pathological" necessitating further investigations, or concluding iniquitous diagnosis. Even more seriously, "false-negative" results may wrongly exclude pathology, thus denying patients' necessary treatment. Analytical error rate in immunoassays is relatively high, ranging from 0.4% to 4.0%. Because analytical interference from endogenous antibodies is confined to individuals' sera, it can be inconspicuous, pernicious, sporadic, and insidious because it cannot be detected by internal or external quality assessment procedures. An approach based on Bayesian reasoning can enhance the robustness of clinical validation in highlighting potentially erroneous immunoassay results. When this rational clinical/statistical approach is followed by analytical affirmative follow-up tests, it can help identifying inaccurate and clinically misleading immunoassay data even when they appear plausible and "not-unreasonable." This chapter is largely based on peer reviewed articles associated with and related to this approach. The first section underlines (without mathematical equations) the dominance and misuse of conventional statistics and the underuse of Bayesian paradigm and shows that laboratorians are intuitively (albeit unwittingly) practicing Bayesians. Secondly, because interference from endogenous antibodies is method's dependent (with numerous formats and different reagents), it is almost impossible to accurately assess its incidence in all differently formulated immunoassays and for each analytes/biomarkers. However, reiterating the basic concepts

  13. A Plausible (Overlooked) Super-luminous Supernova in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Zuzanna; Kozłowski, Szymon; Wyrzykowski, Łukasz; Djorgovski, S. George; Glikman, Eilat; Mahabal, Ashish A.; Koposov, Sergey

    2013-12-01

    We present the discovery of a plausible super-luminous supernova (SLSN), found in the archival data of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82, called PSN 000123+000504. The supernova (SN) peaked at m g < 19.4 mag in the second half of 2005 September, but was missed by the real-time SN hunt. The observed part of the light curve (17 epochs) showed that the rise to the maximum took over 30 days, while the decline time lasted at least 70 days (observed frame), closely resembling other SLSNe of SN 2007bi type. The spectrum of the host galaxy reveals a redshift of z = 0.281 and the distance modulus of μ = 40.77 mag. Combining this information with the SDSS photometry, we found the host galaxy to be an LMC-like irregular dwarf galaxy with an absolute magnitude of MB = -18.2 ± 0.2 mag and an oxygen abundance of 12+log [O/H]=8.3+/- 0.2; hence, the SN peaked at M g < -21.3 mag. Our SLSN follows the relation for the most energetic/super-luminous SNe exploding in low-metallicity environments, but we found no clear evidence for SLSNe to explode in low-luminosity (dwarf) galaxies only. The available information on the PSN 000123+000504 light curve suggests the magnetar-powered model as a likely scenario of this event. This SLSN is a new addition to a quickly growing family of super-luminous SNe.

  14. Evaporative water loss is a plausible explanation for mortality of bats from white-nose syndrome.

    PubMed

    Willis, Craig K R; Menzies, Allyson K; Boyles, Justin G; Wojciechowski, Michal S

    2011-09-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) has caused alarming declines of North American bat populations in the 5 years since its discovery. Affected bats appear to starve during hibernation, possibly because of disruption of normal cycles of torpor and arousal. The importance of hydration state and evaporative water loss (EWL) for influencing the duration of torpor bouts in hibernating mammals recently led to "the dehydration hypothesis," that cutaneous infection of the wing membranes of bats with the fungus Geomyces destructans causes dehydration which in turn, increases arousal frequency during hibernation. This hypothesis predicts that uninfected individuals of species most susceptible to WNS, like little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), exhibit high rates of EWL compared to less susceptible species. We tested the feasibility of this prediction using data from the literature and new data quantifying EWL in Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri), a species that is, like other European bats, sympatric with G. destructans but does not appear to suffer significant mortality from WNS. We found that little brown bats exhibited significantly higher rates of normothermic EWL than did other bat species for which comparable EWL data are available. We also found that Natterer's bats exhibited significantly lower rates of EWL, in both wet and dry air, compared with values predicted for little brown bats exposed to identical relative humidity (RH). We used a population model to show that the increase in EWL required to cause the pattern of mortality observed for WNS-affected little brown bats was small, equivalent to a solitary bat hibernating exposed to RH of ∼95%, or clusters hibernating in ∼87% RH, as opposed to typical near-saturation conditions. Both of these results suggest the dehydration hypothesis is plausible and worth pursuing as a possible explanation for mortality of bats from WNS.

  15. Role of a plausible nuisance contributor in the declining obesity-mortality risks over time.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Tapan; Pajewski, Nicholas M; Keith, Scott W; Fontaine, Kevin; Allison, David B

    2016-12-15

    Recent analyses of epidemiological data including the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) have suggested that the harmful effects of obesity may have decreased over calendar time. The shifting BMI distribution over time coupled with the application of fixed broad BMI categories in these analyses could be a plausible "nuisance contributor" to this observed change in the obesity-associated mortality over calendar time. To evaluate the extent to which observed temporal changes in the obesity-mortality association may be due to a shifting population distribution for body mass index (BMI), coupled with analyses based on static, broad BMI categories. Simulations were conducted using data from NHANES I and III linked with mortality data. Data from NHANES I were used to fit a "true" model treating BMI as a continuous variable. Coefficients estimated from this model were used to simulate mortality for participants in NHANES III. Hence, the population-level association between BMI and mortality in NHANES III was fixed to be identical to the association estimated in NHANES I. Hazard ratios (HRs) for obesity categories based on BMI for NHANES III with simulated mortality data were compared to the corresponding estimated HRs from NHANES I. Change in hazard ratios for simulated data in NHANES III compared to observed estimates from NHANES I. On average, hazard ratios for NHANES III based on simulated mortality data were 29.3% lower than the estimates from NHANES I using observed mortality follow-up. This reduction accounted for roughly three-fourths of the apparent decrease in the obesity-mortality association observed in a previous analysis of these data. Some of the apparent diminution of the association between obesity and mortality may be an artifact of treating BMI as a categorical variable. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Coordinated motor activity in simulated spinal networks emerges from simple biologically plausible rules of connectivity.

    PubMed

    Dale, Nicholas

    2003-01-01

    The spinal motor circuits of the Xenopus embryo have been simulated in a 400-neuron network. To explore the consequences of differing patterns of synaptic connectivity within the network for the generation of the motor rhythm, a system of biologically plausible rules was devised to control synapse formation by three parameters. Each neuron had an intrinsic probability of synapse formation (P(soma), specified by a space constant lambda) that was a monotonically decreasing function of its soma location in the rostro-caudal axis of the simulated network. The neurons had rostral and caudal going axons of specified length (L(axon)) associated with a probability of synapse formation (P(axon)). The final probability of synapse formation was the product of P(soma) and P(axon). Realistic coordinated activity only occurred when L(axon) and the probabilities of interconnection were sufficiently high. Increasing the values of the three network parameters reduced the burst duration, cycle period, and rostro-caudal delay and increased the reliability with which the network functioned as measured by the coefficient of variance of these parameters. Whereas both L(axon) and P(axon) had powerful and consistent effects on network output, the effects of lambda on burst duration and rostro-caudal delay were more variable and depended on the values of the other two parameters. This network model can reproduce the rostro-caudal coordination of swimming without using coupled oscillator theory. The changes in network connectivity and resulting changes in activity explored by the model mimic the development of the motor pattern for swimming in the real embryo.

  17. Plausible self-reported dietary intakes in a residential facility are not necessarily reliable.

    PubMed

    Whybrow, S; Stubbs, R J; Johnstone, A M; O'Reilly, L M; Fuller, Z; Livingstone, M B E; Horgan, G W

    2016-01-01

    Comparing reported energy intakes with estimated energy requirements as multiples of basal metabolic rate (Ein:BMR) is an established method of identifying implausible food intake records. The present study aimed to examine the validity of self-reported food intakes believed to be plausible. One hundred and eighty men and women were provided with all food and beverages for two consecutive days in a residential laboratory setting. Subjects self-reported their food and beverage intakes using the weighed food diary method (WDR). Investigators covertly measured subjects' actual consumption over the same period. Subjects also reported intakes over four consecutive days at home. BMR was measured by indirect calorimetry. Average reported energy intakes were significantly lower than actual intakes (11.2 and 11.8 MJ/d, respectively, P<0.001). Two-thirds (121) of the WDR were under-reported to varying degrees. Only five of these were considered as implausible using an Ein:BMR cut-off value of 1.03*BMR. Under-reporting of food and beverage intakes, as measured by the difference between reported and actual intake, was evident at all levels of Ein;BMR. Reported energy intakes were lower still (10.2 MJ/d) while subjects were at home. Under-recording of self-reported food intake records was extensive but very few under-reported food intake records were identified as implausible using energy intake to BMR ratios. Under-recording was evident at all levels of energy intake.

  18. Identifying plausible adverse drug reactions using knowledge extracted from the literature

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Ning; Xu, Hua; Rindflesch, Thomas C.; Cohen, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance involves continually monitoring drug safety after drugs are put to market. To aid this process; algorithms for the identification of strongly correlated drug/adverse drug reaction (ADR) pairs from data sources such as adverse event reporting systems or Electronic Health Records have been developed. These methods are generally statistical in nature, and do not draw upon the large volumes of knowledge embedded in the biomedical literature. In this paper, we investigate the ability of scalable Literature Based Discovery (LBD) methods to identify side effects of pharmaceutical agents. The advantage of LBD methods is that they can provide evidence from the literature to support the plausibility of a drug/ ADR association, thereby assisting human review to validate the signal, which is an essential component of pharmacovigilance. To do so, we draw upon vast repositories of knowledge that has been extracted from the biomedical literature by two Natural Language Processing tools, MetaMap and SemRep. We evaluate two LBD methods that scale comfortably to the volume of knowledge available in these repositories. Specifically, we evaluate Reflective Random Indexing (RRI), a model based on concept-level co-occurrence, and Predication-based Semantic Indexing (PSI), a model that encodes the nature of the relationship between concepts to support reasoning analogically about drug-effect relationships. An evaluation set was constructed from the Side Effect Resource 2 (SIDER2), which contains known drug/ADR relations, and models were evaluated for their ability to “rediscover” these relations. In this paper, we demonstrate that both RRI and PSI can recover known drug-adverse event associations. However, PSI performed better overall, and has the additional advantage of being able to recover the literature underlying the reasoning pathways it used to make its predictions. PMID:25046831

  19. Multiple Solutions to the Same Problem: Utilization of Plausibility and Syntax in Sentence Comprehension by Older Adults with Impaired Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Amichetti, Nicole M.; White, Alison G.; Wingfield, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental question in psycholinguistic theory is whether equivalent success in sentence comprehension may come about by different underlying operations. Of special interest is whether adult aging, especially when accompanied by reduced hearing acuity, may shift the balance of reliance on formal syntax vs. plausibility in determining sentence meaning. In two experiments participants were asked to identify the thematic roles in grammatical sentences that contained either plausible or implausible semantic relations. Comprehension of sentence meanings was indexed by the ability to correctly name the agent or the recipient of an action represented in the sentence. In Experiment 1 young and older adults’ comprehension was tested for plausible and implausible sentences with the meaning expressed with either an active-declarative or a passive syntactic form. In Experiment 2 comprehension performance was examined for young adults with age-normal hearing, older adults with good hearing acuity, and age-matched older adults with mild-to-moderate hearing loss for plausible or implausible sentences with meaning expressed with either a subject-relative (SR) or an object-relative (OR) syntactic structure. Experiment 1 showed that the likelihood of interpreting a sentence according to its literal meaning was reduced when that meaning expressed an implausible relationship. Experiment 2 showed that this likelihood was further decreased for OR as compared to SR sentences, and especially so for older adults whose hearing impairment added to the perceptual challenge. Experiment 2 also showed that working memory capacity as measured with a letter-number sequencing task contributed to the likelihood that listeners would base their comprehension responses on the literal syntax even when this processing scheme yielded an implausible meaning. Taken together, the results of both experiments support the postulate that listeners may use more than a single uniform processing strategy for

  20. Multiple Solutions to the Same Problem: Utilization of Plausibility and Syntax in Sentence Comprehension by Older Adults with Impaired Hearing.

    PubMed

    Amichetti, Nicole M; White, Alison G; Wingfield, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental question in psycholinguistic theory is whether equivalent success in sentence comprehension may come about by different underlying operations. Of special interest is whether adult aging, especially when accompanied by reduced hearing acuity, may shift the balance of reliance on formal syntax vs. plausibility in determining sentence meaning. In two experiments participants were asked to identify the thematic roles in grammatical sentences that contained either plausible or implausible semantic relations. Comprehension of sentence meanings was indexed by the ability to correctly name the agent or the recipient of an action represented in the sentence. In Experiment 1 young and older adults' comprehension was tested for plausible and implausible sentences with the meaning expressed with either an active-declarative or a passive syntactic form. In Experiment 2 comprehension performance was examined for young adults with age-normal hearing, older adults with good hearing acuity, and age-matched older adults with mild-to-moderate hearing loss for plausible or implausible sentences with meaning expressed with either a subject-relative (SR) or an object-relative (OR) syntactic structure. Experiment 1 showed that the likelihood of interpreting a sentence according to its literal meaning was reduced when that meaning expressed an implausible relationship. Experiment 2 showed that this likelihood was further decreased for OR as compared to SR sentences, and especially so for older adults whose hearing impairment added to the perceptual challenge. Experiment 2 also showed that working memory capacity as measured with a letter-number sequencing task contributed to the likelihood that listeners would base their comprehension responses on the literal syntax even when this processing scheme yielded an implausible meaning. Taken together, the results of both experiments support the postulate that listeners may use more than a single uniform processing strategy for

  1. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR DOE STANDARD 3013 EQUIVALENCY SUPPORTING REDUCED TEMPERATURE STABILIZATION OF OXALATE-DERIVED PLUTONIUM OXIDE PRODUCED BY THE HB-LINE FACILITY AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.; Berg, J.; Veirs, D.

    2012-07-02

    The HB-Line (HBL) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is designed to produce high-purity plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) which is suitable for future use in production of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. The MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) requires PuO{sub 2} feed to be packaged per the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Standard 3013 (DOE-STD-3013) to comply with the facility's safety basis. The stabilization conditions imposed by DOE-STD-3013 for PuO{sub 2} (i.e., 950 C for 2 hours) preclude use of the HBL PuO{sub 2} in direct fuel fabrication and reduce the value of the HBL product as MFFF feedstock. Consequently, HBL initiated a technical evaluation to define acceptable operating conditions for production of high-purity PuO{sub 2} that fulfills the DOE-STD-3013 criteria for safe storage. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate that within the defined operating conditions, the HBL process will be equivalent for meeting the requirements of the DOE-STD-3013 stabilization process for plutonium-bearing materials from the DOE complex. The proposed 3013 equivalency reduces the prescribed stabilization temperature for high-purity PuO{sub 2} from oxalate precipitation processes from 950 C to 640 C and places a limit of 60% on the relative humidity (RH) at the lowest material temperature. The equivalency is limited to material produced using the HBL established flow sheet, for example, nitric acid anion exchange and Pu(IV) direct strike oxalate precipitation with stabilization at a minimum temperature of 640 C for four hours (h). The product purity must meet the MFFF acceptance criteria of 23,600 {micro}g/g Pu (i.e., 2.1 wt %) total impurities and chloride content less than 250 {micro}g/g of Pu. All other stabilization and packaging criteria identified by DOE-STD-3013-2012 or earlier revisions of the standard apply. Based on the evaluation of test data discussed in this document, the expert judgment of the authors supports packaging the HBL product under a 3013

  2. Discovery of novel histidine-derived lipo-amino acids: applied in the synthesis of ultra-short antimicrobial peptidomimetics having potent antimicrobial activity, salt resistance and protease stability.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Mija; Murugan, Ravichandran N; Jacob, Binu; Hyun, Jae-Kyung; Cheong, Chaejoon; Hwang, Eunha; Park, Hyo-Nam; Seo, Ji-Hyung; Srinivasrao, G; Lee, Kyung S; Shin, Song Yub; Bang, Jeong Kyu

    2013-10-01

    Here we report for the first time the synthesis of Histidine (His) derived lipo-amino acids having pendant lipid tails at N(τ)- and N(π)-positions on imidazole group of His and applied it into synthesis of lipo-peptides. The attachment of His-derived lipo-amino acid into the very short inactive cationic peptides endows potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria without hemolytic activity. Furthermore, our designed His-derived lipo-peptidomimetics (HDLPs) consisting of two or three residues displayed strong anti-MRSA activity and protease stability as well as retained potent antimicrobial activity under high salt concentration. Our results demonstrate that the novel lipo-amino acid is highly flexible to synthesize and carry out the extensive structure-activity relationship (SAR) on lipo-antimicrobial peptidomimetics and represents a unique amenable platform for modifying parameters important for antimicrobial activity. Through this study, we proved that the discovery of His-derived lipo-amino acid and the corresponding HDLPs are an excellent candidate as a lead compound for the development of novel antimicrobial agents.

  3. Ethoxy and silsesquioxane derivatives of antimony as dopant precursors: unravelling the structure and thermal stability of surface species on SiO2.

    PubMed

    Alphazan, T; Florian, P; Thieuleux, C

    2017-03-14

    We report here the controlled preparation of SiO2 supported Sb-(mono)layers and their thorough characterization by in situ IR, solid-state NMR and elemental analyses. This study allows for the molecular understanding of the surface Sb species derived from the grafting of ethoxy and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane antimony derivatives as mono- or bi-podal Sb(iii) surface species depending on the number of surface SiOH groups. This result is different from what was observed with the phosphorus analogue (POSS-P) that yielded P(v) species. A monolayer coverage of Sb species onto silica was also obtained using both POSS-Sb and the [Sb(OEt)3]2 derivative with surface densities ranging from ∼0.3 Sb nm(-2) to 1.8 Sb nm(-2), respectively. It is noteworthy that under optimized conditions, a layer of antimony species or suboxides on silica was produced using POSS-Sb without significant Sb loss, highlighting the protective properties of the POSS cage. These results open new perspectives for the controlled and non-destructive Sb-doping (Molecular Layer Doping) of semiconductors dedicated to nano-device applications.

  4. Stability of multiple antigen receptor gene rearrangements and immunophenotype in Hodgkin's disease-derived cell line L428 and variant subline L428KSA.

    PubMed

    Athan, E S; Paietta, E; Papenhausen, P R; Augenlicht, L; Wiernik, P H; Gallagher, R E

    1989-07-01

    The Hodgkin's disease (HD) derived cell line L428 and a phorbol ester-selected subline L428KSA, which have been independently passaged in tissue culture for several years, were studied for possible antigen receptor gene and immunophenotypic differences. Multiple but identical alterations of these genes were found, including: the deletion of one and rearrangement of the other immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain allele; the rearrangement of one kappa and one lambda light chain allele; and the rearrangement of one T cell receptor (TCR) beta allele. Restriction mapping of the Ig heavy chain locus indicated that rearrangement of the retained allele produced a JH-C gamma 4 fusion product by an isotype switch mechanism. The 14q+ chromosome [t(14q32;?)] present in both cell cultures derived either from translocation 5' (telomeric) to the rearranged JH allele or 3' (centromeric) to the deleted Ig heavy chain allele and did not involve detectable rearrangement of the c-myc, bcl 1, or bcl 2 oncogenes. No differences in the immunophenotype were found between the L428 and L428KSA cells: both expressed leukocyte activation antigens and some determinants associated with myelomonocytic cells but no lymphoid markers. It is postulated that these phenotypic characteristics derived from secondary genetic events/differentiative reprogramming which produced extinction of primary lymphoid characters, including terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) essential to generation of the Ig and TCR gene rearrangements, and expression of an incomplete set of myelomonocytic markers.

  5. Perturbations of the denatured state ensemble: modeling their effects on protein stability and folding kinetics.

    PubMed Central

    Wrabl, J. O.; Shortle, D.

    1996-01-01

    By considering the denatured state of a protein as an ensemble of conformations with varying numbers of sequence-specific interactions, the effects on stability, folding kinetics, and aggregation of perturbing these interactions can be predicted from changes in the molecular partition function. From general considerations, the following conclusions are drawn: (1) A perturbation that enhances a native interaction in denatured state conformations always increases the stability of the native state. (2) A perturbation that promotes a non-native interaction in the denatured state always decreases the stability of the native state. (3) A change in the denatured state ensemble can alter the kinetics of aggregation and folding. (4) The loss (or increase) in stability accompanying two mutations, each of which lowers (or raises) the free energy of the denatured state, will be less than the sum of the effects of the single mutations, except in cases where both mutations affect the same set of partially folded conformations. By modeling the denatured state as the ensemble of all non-native conformations of hydrophobic-polar (HP) chains configured on a square lattice, it can be shown that the stabilization obtained from enhancement of native interactions derives in large measure from the avoidance of non-native interactions in the D state. In addition, the kinetic effects of fixing single native contacts in the denatured state or imposing linear gradients in the HH contact probabilities are found, for some sequences, to significantly enhance the efficiency of folding by a simple hydrophobic zippering algorithm. Again, the dominant mechanism appears to be avoidance of non-native interactions. These results suggest stabilization of native interactions and imposition of gradients in the stability of local structure are two plausible mechanisms involving the denatured state that could play a role in the evolution of protein folding and stability. PMID:8931153

  6. Stability of the Resistance to the Thiosemicarbazone Derived from 5,6-Dimethoxy-1-Indanone, a Non-Nucleoside Polymerase Inhibitor of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Eliana F.; Campos, Rodolfo H.; Cavallaro, Lucía V.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the prototype Pestivirus. BVDV infection is distributed worldwide and causes serious problems for the livestock industry. The thiosemicarbazone of 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone (TSC) is a non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor (NNI) of BVDV. All TSC-resistant BVDV variants (BVDV-TSCr T1–5) present an N264D mutation in the NS5B gene (RdRp) whereas the variant BVDV-TSCr T1 also presents an NS5B A392E mutation. In the present study, we carried out twenty passages of BVDV-TSCr T1–5 in MDBK cells in the absence of TSC to evaluate the stability of the resistance. The viral populations obtained (BVDV R1–5) remained resistant to the antiviral compound and conserved the mutations in NS5B associated with this phenotype. Along the passages, BVDV R2, R3 and R5 presented a delay in the production of cytopathic effect that correlated with a decrease in cell apoptosis and intracellular accumulation of viral RNA. The complete genome sequences that encode for NS2 to NS5B, Npro and Erns were analyzed. Additional mutations were detected in the NS5B of BVDV R1, R3 and R4. In both BVDV R2 and R3, most of the mutations found were localized in NS5A, whereas in BVDV R5, the only mutation fixed was NS5A V177A. These results suggest that mutations in NS5A could alter BVDV cytopathogenicity. In conclusion, the stability of the resistance to TSC may be due to the fixation of different compensatory mutations in each BVDV-TSCr. During their replication in a TSC-free medium, some virus populations presented a kind of interaction with the host cell that resembled a persistent infection: decreased cytopathogenicity and viral genome synthesis. This is the first report on the stability of antiviral resistance and on the evolution of NNI-resistant BVDV variants. The results obtained for BVDV-TSCr could also be applied for other NNIs. PMID:24950191

  7. Mechanochemical preparation and thermal stability of. gamma. -Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ derived from. gamma. -FeOOH

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Villacieros, R.; Hernan, L.; Morales, J.; Tirado, J.L.

    1987-04-01

    The dehydration process of lepidocrocite, ..gamma..-FeOOH, induced by wet grinding procedures has been studied. Microcrystals of maghemite, ..gamma..-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, are found in the product of ball-milling in hexane and cyclohexane media. In contrast, grinding in air leads to hematite ..cap alpha..-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/. This change is accompanied by the development of a characteristic texture in which a slit-shaped porous system is present. On the other hand, mechanochemically prepared maghemite increases in its thermal stability. This fact has been attributed to the higher crystallinity of ground microcrystals as revealed by the values of crystallite size and microstrains.

  8. Ternary inclusion complex formation and stabilization of limaprost, a prostaglandin E1 derivative, in the presence of α- and β-cyclodextrins in the solid state.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yasuo; Iohara, Daisuke; Sekiya, Noboru; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Sakiyama, Yoko; Hirayama, Fumitoshi; Arima, Hidetoshi; Uekama, Kaneto

    2016-07-25

    Limaprost/α-cyclodextrin (CD)/β-CD ternary inclusion complex was prepared by freeze-drying a solution containing all three components. Under humid conditions, limaprost was more stable in the ternary α-/β-CD inclusion complex than in the binary α- or β-CD complex. Specifically, during storage at 30°C/75% relative humidity (R.H.) for 4 weeks, about 19% of limaprost degraded into 17S,20-dimethyl-trans-Δ(2)-prostaglandin A1 (referred as 11-deoxy-Δ(10)) in the β-CD complex, 8.1% degraded in the α-CD complex, and only 2.2% degraded in the α-/β-CD complex. The mechanism of limaprost stabilization in the presence of both CDs was investigated by Raman and solid-state NMR spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffractometry. The fast degradation of limaprost to 11-deoxy-Δ(10) in the β-CD complex was due to the rapid crystallization of β-CD from the complex, liberating the free amorphous drug, which is susceptible to degradation. The dissociation and crystallization of β-CD from the inclusion complex were suppressed by freeze-drying limaprost in the presence of both α- and β-CDs. In addition, the interaction between limaprost and the two CDs was reinforced by inclusion of different moieties of limaprost: α-CD predominantly included the alkyl ω-chain, whereas β-CD included the five-membered ring. Thus, a stable ternary inclusion complex was formed that included limaprost, maintaining the amorphous state of the complex and dramatically stabilizing the drug under humid conditions.

  9. The cloud-radiative processes and its modulation by sea-ice cover and stability as derived from a merged C3M Data product.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, B.

    2016-12-01

    The polar regions of the world constitute an important sector in the global energy balance. Among other effects responsible for the change in the sea-ice cover like ocean circulation and ice-albedo feedback, the cloud-radiation feedback also plays a vital role in modulation of the Arctic environment. However the annual cycle of the clouds is very poorly represented in current global circulation models. This study aims to take advantage of a merged C3M data (CALIPSO, CloudSat, CERES, and MODIS) product from the NASA's A-Train Series to explore the sea-ice and atmospheric conditions in the Arctic on a spatial coverage spanning 70N to 80N. This study is aimed at the interactions or the feedbacks processes among sea-ice, clouds and the atmosphere. Using a composite approach based on a classification due to surface type, it is found that limitation of the water vapour influx from the surface due to change in phase at the surface featuring open oceans or marginal sea-ice cover to complete sea-ice cover is a major determinant in the modulation of the atmospheric moisture and its impacts. The impact of the cloud-radiative effects in the Arctic is found to vary with sea-ice cover and seasonally. The effect of the marginal sea-ice cover becomes more and more pronounced in the winter. The seasonal variation of the dependence of the atmospheric moisture on the surface and the subsequent feedback effects is controlled by the atmospheric stability measured as a difference between the potential temperature at the surface and the 700hPa level. It is found that a stronger stability cover in the winter is responsible for the longwave cloud radiative feedback in winter which is missing during the summer. A regional analysis of the same suggests that most of the depiction of the variations observed is contributed from the North Atlantic region.

  10. High Genetic and Epigenetic Stability in Coffea arabica Plants Derived from Embryogenic Suspensions and Secondary Embryogenesis as Revealed by AFLP, MSAP and the Phenotypic Variation Rate

    PubMed Central

    Bobadilla Landey, Roberto; Cenci, Alberto; Georget, Frédéric; Bertrand, Benoît; Camayo, Gloria; Dechamp, Eveline; Herrera, Juan Carlos; Santoni, Sylvain; Lashermes, Philippe; Simpson, June; Etienne, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Embryogenic suspensions that involve extensive cell division are risky in respect to genome and epigenome instability. Elevated frequencies of somaclonal variation in embryogenic suspension-derived plants were reported in many species, including coffee. This problem could be overcome by using culture conditions that allow moderate cell proliferation. In view of true-to-type large-scale propagation of C. arabica hybrids, suspension protocols based on low 2,4-D concentrations and short proliferation periods were developed. As mechanisms leading to somaclonal variation are often complex, the phenotypic, genetic and epigenetic changes were jointly assessed so as to accurately evaluate the conformity of suspension-derived plants. The effects of embryogenic suspensions and secondary embryogenesis, used as proliferation systems, on the genetic conformity of somatic embryogenesis-derived plants (emblings) were assessed in two hybrids. When applied over a 6 month period, both systems ensured very low somaclonal variation rates, as observed through massive phenotypic observations in field plots (0.74% from 200 000 plant). Molecular AFLP and MSAP analyses performed on 145 three year-old emblings showed that polymorphism between mother plants and emblings was extremely low, i.e. ranges of 0–0.003% and 0.07–0.18% respectively, with no significant difference between the proliferation systems for the two hybrids. No embling was found to cumulate more than three methylation polymorphisms. No relation was established between the variant phenotype (27 variants studied) and a particular MSAP pattern. Chromosome counting showed that 7 of the 11 variant emblings analyzed were characterized by the loss of 1–3 chromosomes. This work showed that both embryogenic suspensions and secondary embryogenesis are reliable for true-to-type propagation of elite material. Molecular analyses revealed that genetic and epigenetic alterations are particularly limited during coffee somatic

  11. Determination of stability and control derivatives from the NASA F/A-18 HARV from flight data using the maximum likelihood method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Napolitano, Marcello R.

    1995-01-01

    This report is a compilation of PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) results for both longitudinal and lateral directional analysis that was completed during Fall 1994. It had earlier established that the maneuvers available for PID containing independent control surface inputs from OBES were not well suited for extracting the cross-coupling static (i.e., C(sub N beta)) or dynamic (i.e., C(sub Npf)) derivatives. This was due to the fact that these maneuvers were designed with the goal of minimizing any lateral directional motion during longitudinal maneuvers and vice-versa. This allows for greater simplification in the aerodynamic model as far as coupling between longitudinal and lateral directions is concerned. As a result, efforts were made to reanalyze this data and extract static and dynamic derivatives for the F/A-18 HARV (High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle) without the inclusion of the cross-coupling terms such that more accurate estimates of classical model terms could be acquired. Four longitudinal flights containing static PID maneuvers were examined. The classical state equations already available in pEst for alphadot, qdot and thetadot were used. Three lateral directional flights of PID static maneuvers were also examined. The classical state equations already available in pEst for betadot, p dot, rdot and phi dot were used. Enclosed with this document are the full set of longitudinal and lateral directional parameter estimate plots showing coefficient estimates along with Cramer-Rao bounds. In addition, a representative time history match for each type of meneuver tested at each angle of attack is also enclosed.

  12. Rearrangement of the cyclohexadiene derivatives of C60 to bis(fulleroid) and bis(methano)fullerene: structure, stability, and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Cherumuttathu H; Vijayalakshmi, Periya S; Iwamatsu, Sho-ichi; Murata, Shizuaki; Koga, Nobuaki

    2003-05-02

    The cyclohexadiene derivative of C(60) rearranges photochemically to bis(fulleroid) (two [6,5] open structure) and bis(methano)fullerene (two [6,6] closed structure). During this process, a [6,5] open/[6,6] closed intermediate is observed. The isolated intermediate undergoes photochemical rearrangement to bis(fulleroid) and bis(methano)fullerene. On the other side, it undergoes retrorearrangement to the starting material in the dark. The structure and energetics of these C(60) derivatives have been studied at the AM1, PM3, RHF, and B3LYP levels of theory. It is found that bis(fulleroid) bearing four tert-butoxycarbonyl substituents is 5.8 kcal/mol (B3LYP) more stable than the corresponding bis(methano)fullerene. The isolated intermediate having the [6,5] open/[6,6] closed structure is 6.7 kcal/mol more favorable than the previously proposed two [6,5] closed intermediate, and the formation of this compound is well explained by the di-pi-methane rearrangement. (13)C NMR calculation at the B3LYP level reproduced the experimental chemical shifts with very good accuracy for each molecular system. Theoretical studies mainly at the unrestricted B3LYP level on singlet and triplet state potential energy surfaces on fullerene derivatives support the di-pi-methane rearrangement mechanism. The previously proposed symmetrical [4+4]/[2+2+2] and the novel proposed unsymmetrical di-pi-methane pathways may coexist during the reaction.

  13. Thermal stability of water ice in Ceres' crater Oxo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formisano, Michelangelo; Federico, Costanzo; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Frigeri, Alessandro; Magni, Gianfranco; Tosi, Federico

    2016-10-01

    Dwarf planet Ceres, target of the NASA Dawn mission, exhibits evidences of ammoniated phyllosilicates on its surface [1], compatible with a likely outer Solar System origin. Considerable amounts of water ice have recently been detected in some craters by the Visible InfraRed mapping spectrometer (VIR) onboard Dawn in some small fresh crater, such as Oxo, located at about 40° N. The exposure mechanism of water ice is unknown: cryovolcanism, cometary type sublimation/recondensation [2]or impacts with other bodies are likely mechanisms. The evaluation of the time stability of the water ice is crucial to understand the plausible mechanism for its existence. For this purpose, we developed a 3D finite-elements model (FEM) by using the topography given by the shape model of Ceres derived on the basis of images acquired by the Framing Camera in the Survey mission phase. The illumination conditions are provided by the SPICE toolkit. We performed several simulations by analyzing the effect of thermal inertia and albedo on the temperature and rate of ice sublimation. The results of the simulations about the stability of water ice will be presented.[1] De Sanctis et al. NATURE, doi:10.1038/nature16172[2] Formisano et al. MNRAS, doi: 10.1093/mnras/stv2344

  14. In vitro stability of Cucumber mosaic virus nanoparticles carrying a Hepatitis C virus-derived epitope under simulated gastrointestinal conditions and in vivo efficacy of an edible vaccine.

    PubMed

    Nuzzaci, M; Vitti, A; Condelli, V; Lanorte, M T; Tortorella, C; Boscia, D; Piazzolla, P; Piazzolla, G

    2010-05-01

    The Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is an isodiametric plant virus with an extremely wide host range, present worldwide. CMV chimeric particles (R9-CMV), engineered to express a 27-aa synthetic peptide derived from Hepatitis C virus (HCV), were demonstrated to be stable under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. Then the possibility of inducing a humoral immune response in rabbits fed with R9-CMV infected lettuce plants was demonstrated, suggesting that this system could function as a confirming tool of a bioreactor for the production of a stable edible vaccine against HCV.

  15. Multi-Satellite and Sensor Derived Trends and Variation of Snow Water Equivalent on the High-Latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere: Implications for Permafrost Biosequestration Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muskett, R. R.

    2012-04-01

    Permafrost biosequestration regions are affected by changes in land-surface temperature and snow cover. We investigate trends and variations of snow water equivalent derived from more than 30 years of satellite-microwave sensors. Our focus is on snow water equivalent patterns on the high-latitudes of the northern hemisphere co-located to elevation. Low-elevation tundra regions encircling the Arctic show high statistically significant trends of SWE. From Arctic Siberia and Far East Russia through North America and northern Greenland we find increasing trends of snow water equivalent with local region variations in strength. Interestingly across the high Arctic of western Russia through Norway we find decreasing trends of snow water equivalent of varying strength. Power density spectra identify significant power at quasi-biennial and associated lunar nodal cycles. These cycles of the upper atmosphere circulation, ENSO and ocean circulation perturbations from tides forms the causative linkage between increasing snow water equivalent on low-elevation tundra landscapes and decreasing coastal sea ice cover as part of the Arctic system energy and mass cycles. Reference: R.R. Muskett (2012) Multi-Satellite and Sensor Derived Trends and Variation of Snow Water Equivalent on the High-Latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, International Journal Geosciences 3(1) (in press Jan. 2012) http://www.scirp.org/Journal/ijg.

  16. Improving the stability and antioxidant properties of sesame oil: water-soluble spray-dried emulsions from new transesterified phenolic derivatives.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Juliana; Gosset, Gaëlle; Robin, Maxime; Pique, Valérie; Culcasi, Marcel; Clément, Jean-Louis; Mercier, Anne; Pietri, Sylvia

    2009-08-26

    Hydrosoluble sesame oil fatty acid transesters having enhanced antioxidant activities were synthesized in a two-step process. The key step involved the biocatalyzed (lipase from Candida antarctica) acylation of sesame oil methanolic ester with either vanillyl (VNA) or piperonyl benzylic alcohols, or 5-hydroxymethyl resorcinol (5-HMR). These substrates were selected to introduce phenolic or sesamol structurally related frameworks. The VNA and 5-HMR-derived transesters were obtained with 20-40% yields and retained the starting proportions of sesame oil linoleic, oleic, and saturated acids, these fatty acids also being the only constituents of the nonesterified fraction. The VNA-derived transester showed the best antioxidant capacity in standard assays and was processed as the unique lipid phase of spray-dried emulsions containing a high level of linoleic acid phenolic ester. These emulsions provided a high degree of protection to UV-irradiated fibroblasts, through the potential synergy between VNA antioxidant action and replenishment of damaged membranes by unsaturated fatty acids.

  17. CDKL5 ensures excitatory synapse stability by reinforcing NGL-1-PSD95 interaction in the postsynaptic compartment and is impaired in patient iPSC-derived neurons.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Sara; Ungaro, Federica; Hambrock, Melanie; Rademacher, Nils; Stefanelli, Gilda; Brambilla, Dario; Sessa, Alessandro; Magagnotti, Cinzia; Bachi, Angela; Giarda, Elisa; Verpelli, Chiara; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Sala, Carlo; Kalscheuer, Vera M; Broccoli, Vania

    2012-09-01

    Mutations of the cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) and netrin-G1 (NTNG1) genes cause a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with clinical features that are closely related to Rett syndrome, including intellectual disability, early-onset intractable epilepsy and autism. We report here that CDKL5 is localized at excitatory synapses and contributes to correct dendritic spine structure and synapse activity. To exert this role, CDKL5 binds and phosphorylates the cell adhesion molecule NGL-1. This phosphorylation event ensures a stable association between NGL-1 and PSD95. Accordingly, phospho-mutant NGL-1 is unable to induce synaptic contacts whereas its phospho-mimetic form binds PSD95 more efficiently and partially rescues the CDKL5-specific spine defects. Interestingly, similarly to rodent neurons, iPSC-derived neurons from patients with CDKL5 mutations exhibit aberrant dendritic spines, thus suggesting a common function of CDKL5 in mice and humans.

  18. The Reference Ability Neural Network Study: Life-time stability of reference-ability neural networks derived from task maps of young adults.

    PubMed

    Habeck, C; Gazes, Y; Razlighi, Q; Steffener, J; Brickman, A; Barulli, D; Salthouse, T; Stern, Y

    2016-01-15

    Analyses of large test batteries administered to individuals ranging from young to old have consistently yielded a set of latent variables representing reference abilities (RAs) that capture the majority of the variance in age-related cognitive change: Episodic Memory, Fluid Reasoning, Perceptual Processing Speed, and Vocabulary. In a previous paper (Stern et al., 2014), we introduced the Reference Ability Neural Network Study, which administers 12 cognitive neuroimaging tasks (3 for each RA) to healthy adults age 20-80 in order to derive unique neural networks underlying these 4 RAs and investigate how these networks may be affected by aging. We used a multivariate approach, linear indicator regression, to derive a unique covariance pattern or Reference Ability Neural Network (RANN) for each of the 4 RAs. The RANNs were derived from the neural task data of 64 younger adults of age 30 and below. We then prospectively applied the RANNs to fMRI data from the remaining sample of 227 adults of age 31 and above in order to classify each subject-task map into one of the 4 possible reference domains. Overall classification accuracy across subjects in the sample age 31 and above was 0.80±0.18. Classification accuracy by RA domain was also good, but variable; memory: 0.72±0.32; reasoning: 0.75±0.35; speed: 0.79±0.31; vocabulary: 0.94±0.16. Classification accuracy was not associated with cross-sectional age, suggesting that these networks, and their specificity to the respective reference domain, might remain intact throughout the age range. Higher mean brain volume was correlated with increased overall classification accuracy; better overall performance on the tasks in the scanner was also associated with classification accuracy. For the RANN network scores, we observed for each RANN that a higher score was associated with a higher corresponding classification accuracy for that reference ability. Despite the absence of behavioral performance information in the

  19. Increases thermal stability and cellulose-binding capacity of Cryptococcus sp. S-2 lipase by fusion of cellulose binding domain derived from Trichoderma reesei

    SciTech Connect

    Thongekkaew, Jantaporn; Ikeda, Hiroko; Iefuji, Haruyuki

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CSLP and fusion enzyme were successfully expressed in the Pichia pastoris. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion enzyme was stable at 80 Degree-Sign C for 120-min. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion enzyme was responsible for cellulose-binding capacity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion enzyme has an attractive applicant for enzyme immobilization. -- Abstract: To improve the thermal stability and cellulose-binding capacity of Cryptococcus sp. S-2 lipase (CSLP), the cellulose-binding domain originates from Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I was engineered into C-terminal region of the CSLP (CSLP-CBD). The CSLP and CSLP-CBD were successfully expressed in the Pichia pastoris using the strong methanol inducible alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter and the secretion signal sequence from Saccharomyces cerevisiae ({alpha} factor). The recombinant CSLP and CSLP-CBD were secreted into culture medium and estimated by SDS-PAGE to be 22 and 27 kDa, respectively. The fusion enzyme was stable at 80 Degree-Sign C and retained more than 80% of its activity after 120-min incubation at this temperature. Our results also found that the fusion of fungal exoglucanase cellulose-binding domain to CSLP is responsible for cellulose-binding capacity. This attribute should make it an attractive applicant for enzyme immobilization.

  20. [Correlation of pure tone thresholds and hearing loss for numbers. Comparison of three calculation variations for plausibility checking in expertise].

    PubMed

    Braun, T; Dochtermann, S; Krause, E; Schmidt, M; Schorn, K; Hempel, J M

    2011-09-01

    The present study analyzes the best combination of frequencies for the calculation of mean hearing loss in pure tone threshold audiometry for correlation with hearing loss for numbers in speech audiometry, since the literature describes different calculation variations for plausibility checking in expertise. Three calculation variations, A (250, 500 and 1000 Hz), B (500 and 1000 Hz) and C (500, 1000 and 2000 Hz), were compared. Audiograms in 80 patients with normal hearing, 106 patients with hearing loss and 135 expertise patients were analyzed in a retrospective manner. Differences between mean pure tone audiometry thresholds and hearing loss for numbers were calculated and statistically compared separately for the right and the left ear in the three patient collectives. We found the calculation variation A to be the best combination of frequencies, since it yielded the smallest standard deviations while being statistically different to calculation variations B and C. The 1- and 2.58-fold standard deviation (representing 68.3% and 99.0% of all values) was ±4.6 and ±11.8 dB for calculation variation A in patients with hearing loss, respectively. For plausibility checking in expertise, the mean threshold from the frequencies 250, 500 and 1000 Hz should be compared to the hearing loss for numbers. The common recommendation reported by the literature to doubt plausibility when the difference of these values exceeds ±5 dB is too strict as shown by this study.