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Sample records for derivatives stabilize plausible

  1. Stability-Derivative Determination from Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holowicz, Chester H.; Holleman, Euclid C.

    1958-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of the various factors affecting the determination of stability and control derivatives from flight data is presented based on the experience of the NASA High-Speed Flight Station. Factors relating to test techniques, determination of mass characteristics, instrumentation, and methods of analysis are discussed. For most longitudinal-stability-derivative analyses simple equations utilizing period and damping have been found to be as satisfactory as more comprehensive methods. The graphical time-vector method has been the basis of lateral-derivative analysis, although simple approximate methods can be useful If applied with caution. Control effectiveness has been generally obtained by relating the peak acceleration to the rapid control input, and consideration must be given to aerodynamic contributions if reasonable accuracy is to be realized.. Because of the many factors involved In the determination of stability derivatives, It is believed that the primary stability and control derivatives are probably accurate to within 10 to 25 percent, depending upon the specific derivative. Static-stability derivatives at low angle of attack show the greatest accuracy.

  2. Definition and application of longitudinal stability derivatives for elastic airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, W. B., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A set of longitudinal stability derivatives for elastic airplanes is defined from fundamental principles allowing perturbations in forward speed. Application of these derivatives to longitudinal stability analysis by use of approximate expressions for static stability and control parameters as well as the dynamic equations of motion is illustrated. One commonly used alternative formulation for elastic airplanes is shown to yield significant inaccuracies because of inappropriate interpretation of inertial effects.

  3. Extraction of stability and control derivatives from orbiter flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Shafer, Mary F.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter has provided unique and important information on aircraft flight dynamics. This information has provided the opportunity to assess the flight-derived stability and control derivatives for maneuvering flight in the hypersonic regime. In the case of the Space Shuttle Orbiter, these derivatives are required to determine if certain configuration placards (limitations on the flight envelope) can be modified. These placards were determined on the basis of preflight predictions and the associated uncertainties. As flight-determined derivatives are obtained, the placards are reassessed, and some of them are removed or modified. Extraction of the stability and control derivatives was justified by operational considerations and not by research considerations. Using flight results to update the predicted database of the orbiter is one of the most completely documented processes for a flight vehicle. This process followed from the requirement for analysis of flight data for control system updates and for expansion of the operational flight envelope. These results show significant changes in many important stability and control derivatives from the preflight database. This paper presents some of the stability and control derivative results obtained from Space Shuttle flights. Some of the limitations of this information are also examined.

  4. Summary of methods for calculating dynamic lateral stability and response and for estimating aerodynamic stability derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, John P; Mckinney, Marion O

    1952-01-01

    A summary of methods for making dynamic lateral stability and response calculations and for estimating the aerodynamic stability derivatives required for use in these calculations is presented. The processes of performing calculations of the time histories of lateral motions, of the period and damping of these motions, and of the lateral stability boundaries are presented as a series of simple straightforward steps. Existing methods for estimating the stability derivatives are summarized and, in some cases, simple new empirical formulas are presented. Detailed estimation methods are presented for low-subsonic-speed conditions but only a brief discussion and a list of references are given for transonic and supersonic speed conditions.

  5. Process for stabilizing the viscosity characteristics of coal derived materials and the stabilized materials obtained thereby

    DOEpatents

    Bronfenbrenner, James C.; Foster, Edward P.; Tewari, Krishna

    1985-01-01

    A process is disclosed for stabilizing the viscosity of coal derived materials such as an SRC product by adding up to 5.0% by weight of a light volatile phenolic viscosity repressor. The viscosity will remain stabilized for a period of time of up to 4 months.

  6. Estimation of Aerodynamic Stability Derivatives for Space Launch System and Impact on Stability Margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pei, Jing; Wall, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the techniques involved in determining the aerodynamic stability derivatives for the frequency domain analysis of the Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle. Generally for launch vehicles, determination of the derivatives is fairly straightforward since the aerodynamic data is usually linear through a moderate range of angle of attack. However, if the wind tunnel data lacks proper corrections then nonlinearities and asymmetric behavior may appear in the aerodynamic database coefficients. In this case, computing the derivatives becomes a non-trivial task. Errors in computing the nominal derivatives could lead to improper interpretation regarding the natural stability of the system and tuning of the controller parameters, which would impact both stability and performance. The aerodynamic derivatives are also provided at off nominal operating conditions used for dispersed frequency domain Monte Carlo analysis. Finally, results are shown to illustrate that the effects of aerodynamic cross axis coupling can be neglected for the SLS configuration studied

  7. Summary of Methods for Calculating Dynamic Lateral Stability and Response and for Estimating Lateral Stability Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, John P; Mckinney, Marion O

    1951-01-01

    A summary of methods for making dynamic lateral stability and response calculations and for estimating the aerodynamic stability derivatives required for use in these calculations is presented. The processes of performing calculations of the time histories of lateral motions, of the period and damping of these motions, and of the lateral stability boundaries are presented as a series of simple straightforward steps. Existing methods for estimating the stability derivatives are summarized and, in some cases, simple new empirical formulas are presented. Reference is also made to reports presenting experimental data that should be useful in making estimates of the derivatives. Detailed estimating methods are presented for low-subsonic-speed conditions but only a brief discussion and a list of references are given for transonic- and supersonic-speed conditions.

  8. Computational Methods for Dynamic Stability and Control Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.; Spence, Angela M.; Murphy, Patrick C.

    2004-01-01

    Force and moment measurements from an F-16XL during forced pitch oscillation tests result in dynamic stability derivatives, which are measured in combinations. Initial computational simulations of the motions and combined derivatives are attempted via a low-order, time-dependent panel method computational fluid dynamics code. The code dynamics are shown to be highly questionable for this application and the chosen configuration. However, three methods to computationally separate such combined dynamic stability derivatives are proposed. One of the separation techniques is demonstrated on the measured forced pitch oscillation data. Extensions of the separation techniques to yawing and rolling motions are discussed. In addition, the possibility of considering the angles of attack and sideslip state vector elements as distributed quantities, rather than point quantities, is introduced.

  9. Computational Methods for Dynamic Stability and Control Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.; Spence, Angela M.; Murphy, Patrick C.

    2003-01-01

    Force and moment measurements from an F-16XL during forced pitch oscillation tests result in dynamic stability derivatives, which are measured in combinations. Initial computational simulations of the motions and combined derivatives are attempted via a low-order, time-dependent panel method computational fluid dynamics code. The code dynamics are shown to be highly questionable for this application and the chosen configuration. However, three methods to computationally separate such combined dynamic stability derivatives are proposed. One of the separation techniques is demonstrated on the measured forced pitch oscillation data. Extensions of the separation techniques to yawing and rolling motions are discussed. In addition, the possibility of considering the angles of attack and sideslip state vector elements as distributed quantities, rather than point quantities, is introduced.

  10. Stability in higher-derivative matter fields theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretyakov, Petr V.

    2016-09-01

    We discuss possible instabilities in higher-derivative matter field theories. These theories have two free parameters β _1 and β _4. By using a dynamical system approach we explicitly demonstrate that for the stability of Minkowski space in an expanding universe we need the condition β _4<0. By using the quantum field theory approach we also find an additional restriction for the parameters, β _1>-1/3β _4, which is needed to avoid a tachyon-like instability.

  11. Stability evaluation of Styrylpyrone derivative (SPD) incorporated products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahtiar, Adibah Ahamad; Nor, Norefrina Shafinaz Md.; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Styrylpyrone derivative (SPD) from Goniothalamus umbrosus has been shown to have antiviral properties against Herpes Simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1). This study aimed to evaluate the purity of isolated SPD and stability of SPD-incorporated formulations. Pure SPD was isolated from dried roots of G. umbrosus as confirmed by GC-MS. Two types of SPD-incorporated products (ointment and gel) were produced. Both products showed stable physical properties after two months and retained the SPD content for one month.

  12. The transformation of aerodynamic stability derivatives by symbolic mathematical computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The formulation of mathematical models of aeronautical systems for simulation or other purposes, involves the transformation of aerodynamic stability derivatives. It is shown that these derivatives transform like the components of a second order tensor having one index of covariance and one index of contravariance. Moreover, due to the equivalence of covariant and contravariant transformations in orthogonal Cartesian systems of coordinates, the transformations can be treated as doubly covariant or doubly contravariant, if this simplifies the formulation. It is shown that the tensor properties of these derivatives can be used to facilitate their transformation by symbolic mathematical computation, and the use of digital computers equipped with formula manipulation compilers. When the tensor transformations are mechanised in the manner described, man-hours are saved and the errors to which human operators are prone can be avoided.

  13. Stability of acetaldehyde-derived DNA adduct in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hori, Kimiko; Miyamoto, Shin'ichi; Yukawa, Yoshiyuki; Muto, Manabu; Chiba, Tsutomu; Matsuda, Tomonari

    2012-07-13

    Acetaldehyde (AA) derived from alcoholic beverages is a confirmed carcinogen for esophageal and head and neck cancers. AA forms various DNA adducts and is thought to play a crucial role in carcinogenesis. Transient DNA adducts are usually repaired, but the stability of AA-derived DNA adducts has not been elucidated. We investigated the stability of N(2)-ethylidene-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-ethylidene-dG), a major AA-derived DNA adduct, in cultured cells. First, to determine the optimal concentration of AA for detecting N(2)-ethylidene-dG in cell culture, a dose-response study was performed using HL60 cells of the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line. An AA concentration ≥ 0.01% (1.8 mM) was required to detect N(2)-ethylidene-dG in vitro. We next examined the stability of N(2)-ethylidene-dG. After a 1 or 2h exposure to 0.01% of AA in a tightly sealed bottle, N(2)-ethylidene-dG content was measured by sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry immediately, 24h, and 48 h after exposure. After the 1h exposure, the mean (± SD) N(2)-ethylidene-dG contents were 12.1 ± 1.28, 8.20 ± 0.64, and 6.70 ± 0.52 adducts per 10(7) bases at each postexposure time. After the 2h exposure, N(2)-ethylidene-dG content increased to 21.4 ± 7.50, 10.5 ± 3.61, and 9.83 ± 3.90 adducts per 10(7) bases at each postexposure time. The half-life of this adduct was calculated as ∼35 h in independent experiments. These results indicate that AA exposure from daily alcohol consumption may cause DNA damage and may increase the risk of alcohol-related carcinogenesis. PMID:22683642

  14. Approximate relations and charts for low-speed stability derivatives of swept wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, Thomas A; Queijo, M J

    1948-01-01

    Contains derivations, based on a simplified theory, of approximate relations for low-speed stability derivatives of swept wings. Method accounts for the effects and, in most cases, taper ratio. Charts, based on the derived relations, are presented for the stability derivatives of untapered swept wings. Calculated values of the derivatives are compared with experimental results.

  15. Theoretical prediction of airplane stability derivatives at subcritical speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulinius, J.; Clever, W.; Nieman, A.; Dunn, K.; Gaither, B.

    1973-01-01

    The theoretical development and application is described of an analysis for predicting the major static and rotary stability derivatives for a complete airplane. The analysis utilizes potential flow theory to compute the surface flow fields and pressures on any configuration that can be synthesized from arbitrary lifting bodies and nonplanar thick lifting panels. The pressures are integrated to obtain section and total configuration loads and moments due side slip, angle of attack, pitching motion, rolling motion, yawing motion, and control surface deflection. Subcritical compressibility is accounted for by means of the Gothert similarity rule.

  16. Indomethacin derivatives as tubulin stabilizers to inhibit cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Chennamaneni, Snigdha; Gan, Chunfang; Lama, Rati; Zhong, Bo; Su, Bin

    2016-01-15

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor Indomethacin analogs exhibited more potent cancer cell growth inhibition and apoptosis inducing activities than the parental compound. The anti-proliferative mechanism investigation of the analogs revealed that they inhibited tubulin polymerization at high concentrations whereas enhanced polymerization at low concentrations. The two opposite activities might antagonize each other and impaired the anti-proliferative activity of the derivatives eventually. In this study, we further performed lead optimization based on the structure activity relationship (SAR) generated. One of the new Indomethacin derivatives compound 11 {2-(4-(benzyloxy)phenyl)-N-(1-(4-bromobenzoyl)-3-(2-((2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)amino)-2-oxoethyl)-2-methyl-1H-indol-5-yl)acetamide} inhibited the proliferation of a panel of cancer cell lines with IC50s at the sub-micromole levels. Further study revealed that the compound only enhanced tubulin polymerization and was a tubulin stabilizer.

  17. Estimation of Stability and Control Derivatives of an F-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Mark; Moes, Tim

    2006-01-01

    A technique for real-time estimation of stability and control derivatives (derivatives of moment coefficients with respect to control-surface deflection angles) was used to support a flight demonstration of a concept of an indirect-adaptive intelligent flight control system (IFCS). Traditionally, parameter identification, including estimation of stability and control derivatives, is done post-flight. However, for the indirect-adaptive IFCS concept, parameter identification is required during flight so that the system can modify control laws for a damaged aircraft. The flight demonstration was carried out on a highly modified F-15 airplane (see Figure 1). The main objective was to estimate the stability and control derivatives of the airplane in nearly real time. A secondary goal was to develop a system to automatically assess the quality of the results, so as to be able to tell a learning neural network which data to use. Parameter estimation was performed by use of Fourier-transform regression (FTR) a technique developed at NASA Langley Research Center. FTR is an equation- error technique that operates in the frequency domain. Data are put into the frequency domain by use of a recursive Fourier transform for a discrete frequency set. This calculation simplifies many subsequent calculations, removes biases, and automatically filters out data beyond the chosen frequency range. FTR as applied here was tailored to work with pilot inputs, which produce correlated surface positions that prevent accurate parameter estimates, by replacing half the derivatives with predicted values. FTR was also set up to work only on a recent window of data, to accommodate changes in flight condition. A system of confidence measures was developed to identify quality-parameter estimates that a learning neural network could use. This system judged the estimates primarily on the basis of their estimated variances and of the level of aircraft response. The resulting FTR system was implemented

  18. Estimation of Rotary Stability Derivatives at Subsonic and Transonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobak, Murray; Lessing, Henry C.

    1961-01-01

    The first part of this paper pertains to the estimation of subsonic rotary stability derivatives of wings. The unsteady potential flow problem is solved by a superposition of steady flow solutions. Numerical results for the damping coefficients of triangular wings are presented as functions of aspect ratio and Mach number, and are compared with experimental results over the Mach number range 0 to 1. In the second part, experimental results are used. to point out a close correlation between the nonlinear variations with angle of attack of the static pitching-moment curve slope and the damping-in-pitch coefficient. The underlying basis for the correlation is found as a result of an analysis in which the indicial function concept and. the principle of super-position are adapted to apply to the nonlinear problem. The form of the result suggests a method of estimating nonlinear damping coefficients from results of static wind-tunnel measurements.

  19. Stability derivatives for bodies of revolution at subsonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, D. D.; Platzer, M. F.; Ruo, S. Y.

    1976-01-01

    The paper considers a rigid pointed body of revolution in a steady uniform subsonic flow. The body performs harmonic small-amplitude pitching oscillations around its zero angle of attack position. The body is assumed to be smooth and sufficiently slender so that the small perturbation concept can be applied. The basis of the method used, following Revell (1960), is the relation of a body-fixed perturbation potential to the general velocity potential. Normal force distributions as well as total force and moment coefficients are calculated for parabolic spindles and the numerical results show good agreement between Revell's second-order slender body theory and the present theory for the static stability derivatives of the parabolic spindles.

  20. Input design for identification of aircraft stability and control derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, N. K.; Hall, W. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An approach for designing inputs to identify stability and control derivatives from flight test data is presented. This approach is based on finding inputs which provide the maximum possible accuracy of derivative estimates. Two techniques of input specification are implemented for this objective - a time domain technique and a frequency domain technique. The time domain technique gives the control input time history and can be used for any allowable duration of test maneuver, including those where data lengths can only be of short duration. The frequency domain technique specifies the input frequency spectrum, and is best applied for tests where extended data lengths, much longer than the time constants of the modes of interest, are possible. These technqiues are used to design inputs to identify parameters in longitudinal and lateral linear models of conventional aircraft. The constraints of aircraft response limits, such as on structural loads, are realized indirectly through a total energy constraint on the input. Tests with simulated data and theoretical predictions show that the new approaches give input signals which can provide more accurate parameter estimates than can conventional inputs of the same total energy. Results obtained indicate that the approach has been brought to the point where it should be used on flight tests for further evaluation.

  1. Applications of Computational Methods for Dynamic Stability and Control Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.; Spence, Angela M.

    2004-01-01

    Initial steps in the application o f a low-order panel method computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code to the calculation of aircraft dynamic stability and control (S&C) derivatives are documented. Several capabilities, unique to CFD but not unique to this particular demonstration, are identified and demonstrated in this paper. These unique capabilities complement conventional S&C techniques and they include the ability to: 1) perform maneuvers without the flow-kinematic restrictions and support interference commonly associated with experimental S&C facilities, 2) easily simulate advanced S&C testing techniques, 3) compute exact S&C derivatives with uncertainty propagation bounds, and 4) alter the flow physics associated with a particular testing technique from those observed in a wind or water tunnel test in order to isolate effects. Also presented are discussions about some computational issues associated with the simulation of S&C tests and selected results from numerous surface grid resolution studies performed during the course of the study.

  2. Stability Characterization of Quinazoline Derivative BG1188 by Optical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Militaru, Andra; Smarandache, Adriana; Mahamoud, Abdallah; Damian, Victor; Ganea, Paul; Alibert, Sandrine; Pagès, Jean-Marie; Pascu, Mihail-Lucian

    2011-08-01

    3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-6-nitroquinazolin-4(3H)-one, labeled BG1188, is a new synthesized compound, out of a series of quinazoline derivatives developed to fight the multidrug resistance of antibiotics acquired by bacteria. A characterization of the BG1188 powder was made using FTIR spectra in order to evidence the functional groups in the medicine's molecule. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectra were used to study the stability of the BG1188 solutions in two solvents and at different temperatures. BG1188 concentration in ultrapure water was varied between 2×10-3 M (stock solution) and 10-6 M. The concentration recommended by higher activity on bacteria was 10-3 M. For the same reason, this was the utilized concentration of BG1188 in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Time stability was characterized by comparing the time evolution of the UV-Vis absorption spectra of the BG1188 solutions in ultrapure de-ionized water or in DMSO. The spectra were recorded daily for about 4 months after the preparation for the BG1188 solutions in ultrapure water. Generally, samples are stable within the experimental errors at concentrations higher than 10-5 M, but the stability time interval may vary from 119 days at 10-4 M to 34 days at 10-5 M. Time evolution of the absorption spectra at 10-3 M in ultrapure water shows reproducibility within the measuring errors (±1.045%) for time intervals up to 1032 hours (more than 40 days) after preparation. On the other hand, BG1188 solutions in DMSO may be considered unstable because the absorption spectra modify in terms of peak shapes and intensities, indicating that the samples exhibit modifications immediately after preparation. Regardless the solvent used, some aggregation phenomena took place and wire-like aggregates were observed in all the solutions with the naked eye. These aggregates were analyzed, tentatively, using optical microscopy and FTIR.

  3. The Universal Plausibility Metric (UPM) & Principle (UPP)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Mere possibility is not an adequate basis for asserting scientific plausibility. A precisely defined universal bound is needed beyond which the assertion of plausibility, particularly in life-origin models, can be considered operationally falsified. But can something so seemingly relative and subjective as plausibility ever be quantified? Amazingly, the answer is, "Yes." A method of objectively measuring the plausibility of any chance hypothesis (The Universal Plausibility Metric [UPM]) is presented. A numerical inequality is also provided whereby any chance hypothesis can be definitively falsified when its UPM metric of ξ is < 1 (The Universal Plausibility Principle [UPP]). Both UPM and UPP pre-exist and are independent of any experimental design and data set. Conclusion No low-probability hypothetical plausibility assertion should survive peer-review without subjection to the UPP inequality standard of formal falsification (ξ < 1). PMID:19958539

  4. [Choice based on plausible reasons].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ayumi; Toyama, Midori

    2010-12-01

    This study tested the prediction that preferences induced by hidden factors would be justified and even accelerated by other factors that seem to be plausible determinants as causes but, in fact, do not have any influence on the preferences. Participants were repeatedly exposed to a variety of product logos of detergents and then asked to choose one from a pair of detergents with different logos. For half of the participants, information on product quality was available at choice; for the other half, only logos were available. The participants showed a tendency to prefer detergents with the logos that were more frequently exhibited, and this tendency was stronger when information was available about the product quality. The participants seemed to believe that they based their decisions on the relative superiority of quality between the pairs as well as their logos. Provided with convincing, but incorrect, reasons to make a choice, the participants were encouraged to select the detergents whose attractiveness had actually been manipulated by exposing the participants to their logos. PMID:21226288

  5. [Choice based on plausible reasons].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ayumi; Toyama, Midori

    2010-12-01

    This study tested the prediction that preferences induced by hidden factors would be justified and even accelerated by other factors that seem to be plausible determinants as causes but, in fact, do not have any influence on the preferences. Participants were repeatedly exposed to a variety of product logos of detergents and then asked to choose one from a pair of detergents with different logos. For half of the participants, information on product quality was available at choice; for the other half, only logos were available. The participants showed a tendency to prefer detergents with the logos that were more frequently exhibited, and this tendency was stronger when information was available about the product quality. The participants seemed to believe that they based their decisions on the relative superiority of quality between the pairs as well as their logos. Provided with convincing, but incorrect, reasons to make a choice, the participants were encouraged to select the detergents whose attractiveness had actually been manipulated by exposing the participants to their logos.

  6. Matrix methods for determining the longitudinal-stability derivatives of an airplane from transient flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donegan, James J

    1954-01-01

    Three matrice methods are developed and presented for determining the longitudinal-stability derivatives from transient flight data. In these methods the expressions for some of the stability derivatives are in the form generally used in stability calculations. The first method requires the combination of four measurements in time-history form, two of which must be incremental elevator deflection and incremental tail load and the other two measurements can be chosen from a possible three, namely incremental load factor, pitching velocity, and angle of attack. The method demonstrates the use of the tail load to separate the pitching-moment derivatives and to determine the downwash derivative. (author)

  7. Stability of Biomass-derived Black Carbon in Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Biqing; Lehmann, Johannes C.; Solomon, Dawit; Sohi, Saran; Thies, Janice E.; Skjemstad, Jan O.; Luizao, Flavio J.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Neves, Eduaro G.; Wirick, Sue

    2008-12-15

    Black carbon (BC) may play an important role in the global C budget, due to its potential to act as a significant removal (sink) of atmospheric CO2. In order to fully evaluate the influence of BC on the global C cycle, a sound understanding of the stability of BC is required. The biochemical stability of BC was assessed in a chronosequence of high-BC containing Anthrosols from the central Amazon, Brazil, using a range of spectroscopic and biological methods. Results revealed that the Anthrosols had 61-80% lower (P<0.05) CO2 evolution over 532 days compared to that in the corresponding adjacent soils with low BC contents. No significant (P>0.05) differences of CO2 respiration were observed between Anthrosols with contrasting ages of BC and soil textures. Molecular forms of core regions of micrometer-sized BC particles quantified by synchrotron-based near-edge x-ray fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy coupled to scanning x-ray transmission microscopy (STXM) remained similar regardless of their ages (600 to 8,700 years) and closely resembled the spectral characteristics of fresh BC. Deconvolution of NEXAFS spectra revealed greater oxidation on the surfaces of BC particles with little penetration into the core of the particles. The similar C mineralization between different BC-rich soils regardless of soil texture underpins the importance of chemical recalcitrance for the stability of BC, in contrast to adjacent soils which showed the highest mineralization in the sandiest soil. However, C distribution between free, intra-aggregate and organo-mineral pools was significantly different between soils with high and low BC contents, suggesting some degree of physical stabilization, and BC-rich Anthrosols had higher proportions (72-90%) of C in the organo-mineral fraction than BC-poor adjacent soils (2-70%).

  8. Stabilization of linear higher derivative gravity with constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Tai-jun; Lim, Eugene A. E-mail: eugene.a.lim@gmail.com

    2014-05-01

    We show that the instabilities of higher derivative gravity models with quadratic curvature invariant αR{sup 2}+βR{sub μν}R{sup μν} can be removed by judicious addition of constraints at the quadratic level of metric fluctuations around Minkowski/de Sitter background. With a suitable parameter choice, we find that the instabilities of helicity-0, 1, 2 modes can be removed while reducing the dimensionality of the original phase space. To retain the renormalization properties of higher derivative gravity, Lorentz symmetry in the constrained theory is explicitly broken.

  9. Analytic Models of Plausible Gravitational Lens Potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Baltz, Edward A.; Marshall, Phil; Oguri, Masamune

    2007-05-04

    Gravitational lenses on galaxy scales are plausibly modeled as having ellipsoidal symmetry and a universal dark matter density profile, with a Sersic profile to describe the distribution of baryonic matter. Predicting all lensing effects requires knowledge of the total lens potential: in this work we give analytic forms for that of the above hybrid model. Emphasizing that complex lens potentials can be constructed from simpler components in linear combination, we provide a recipe for attaining elliptical symmetry in either projected mass or lens potential.We also provide analytic formulae for the lens potentials of Sersic profiles for integer and half-integer index. We then present formulae describing the gravitational lensing effects due to smoothly-truncated universal density profiles in cold dark matter model. For our isolated haloes the density profile falls off as radius to the minus fifth or seventh power beyond the tidal radius, functional forms that allow all orders of lens potential derivatives to be calculated analytically, while ensuring a non-divergent total mass. We show how the observables predicted by this profile differ from that of the original infinite-mass NFW profile. Expressions for the gravitational flexion are highlighted. We show how decreasing the tidal radius allows stripped haloes to be modeled, providing a framework for a fuller investigation of dark matter substructure in galaxies and clusters. Finally we remark on the need for finite mass halo profiles when doing cosmological ray-tracing simulations, and the need for readily-calculable higher order derivatives of the lens potential when studying catastrophes in strong lenses.

  10. The Effects on Dynamic Lateral Stability and Control of Large Artificial Variations in the Rotary Stability Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schade, Robert O; Hassell, James L , Jr

    1953-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation conducted in the Langley free-flight tunnel to determine the effects of large artificial variations of several rotary lateral-stability derivatives on the dynamic lateral stability and control characteristics of a 45 degree sweptback-wing airplane model. Calculations of the period and damping of the lateral motions and of the response to roll and yaw disturbances were made for correlation with the experimental results. The calculated results were in qualitative agreement with the experimental results in predicting the general trends in flight characteristics produced by large changes in the stability derivatives, but in some cases the theory with the assumption of zero lag was not in good quantitative agreement with the experimental results.

  11. Stability and control derivative estimates obtained from flight data for the Beech 99 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, R. R.; Montgomery, T. D.

    1979-01-01

    Lateral-directional and longitudinal stability and control derivatives were determined from flight data by using a maximum likelihood estimator for the Beech 99 airplane. Data were obtained with the aircraft in the cruise configuration and with one-third flap deflection. The estimated derivatives show good agreement with the predictions of the manufacturer.

  12. Calculation of stability derivatives for slowly oscillating bodies of revolution at Mach 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruo, S. Y.; Liu, D. D.

    1971-01-01

    A parabolic method for steady transonic flow is extended to bodies of revolution oscillating in a sonic flow field. A Laplace transform technique is employed to derive the dipole solution, and the Adams-Sears iterative technique is used in the stability derivative calculation. A computer program is developed to perform the stability derivative calculation for the slowly oscillating cone and parabolic ogive. Inputs for the program are body geometry thickness ratio, acceleration constant, and pitch axis location. Sample calculations were performed for the parabolic ogive and circular cone and results are compared with those obtained by using other techniques and the available experimental data for circular cones.

  13. Steady-State Computation of Constant Rotational Rate Dynamic Stability Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Green, Lawrence L.

    2000-01-01

    Dynamic stability derivatives are essential to predicting the open and closed loop performance, stability, and controllability of aircraft. Computational determination of constant-rate dynamic stability derivatives (derivatives of aircraft forces and moments with respect to constant rotational rates) is currently performed indirectly with finite differencing of multiple time-accurate computational fluid dynamics solutions. Typical time-accurate solutions require excessive amounts of computational time to complete. Formulating Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations in a rotating noninertial reference frame and applying an automatic differentiation tool to the modified code has the potential for directly computing these derivatives with a single, much faster steady-state calculation. The ability to rapidly determine static and dynamic stability derivatives by computational methods can benefit multidisciplinary design methodologies and reduce dependency on wind tunnel measurements. The CFL3D thin-layer N-S computational fluid dynamics code was modified for this study to allow calculations on complex three-dimensional configurations with constant rotation rate components in all three axes. These CFL3D modifications also have direct application to rotorcraft and turbomachinery analyses. The modified CFL3D steady-state calculation is a new capability that showed excellent agreement with results calculated by a similar formulation. The application of automatic differentiation to CFL3D allows the static stability and body-axis rate derivatives to be calculated quickly and exactly.

  14. Some effects of nonlinear variation in the directional-stability and damping-in-yawing derivatives on the lateral stability of an airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sternfield, Leonard

    1951-01-01

    A theoretical investigation has been made to determine the effect of nonlinear stability derivatives on the lateral stability of an airplane. Motions were calculated on the assumption that the directional-stability and the damping-in-yawing derivatives are functions of the angle of sideslip. The application of the Laplace transform to the calculation of an airplane motion when certain types of nonlinear derivatives are present is described in detail. The types of nonlinearities assumed correspond to the condition in which the values of the directional-stability and damping-in-yawing derivatives are zero for small angle of sideslip.

  15. Determination of Stability and Control Derivatives using Computational Fluid Dynamics and Automatic Differentiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Green, Lawrence L.; Montgomery, Raymond C.; Raney, David L.

    1999-01-01

    With the recent interest in novel control effectors there is a need to determine the stability and control derivatives of new aircraft configurations early in the design process. These derivatives are central to most control law design methods and would allow the determination of closed-loop control performance of the vehicle. Early determination of the static and dynamic behavior of an aircraft may permit significant improvement in configuration weight, cost, stealth, and performance through multidisciplinary design. The classical method of determining static stability and control derivatives - constructing and testing wind tunnel models - is expensive and requires a long lead time for the resultant data. Wind tunnel tests are also limited to the preselected control effectors of the model. To overcome these shortcomings, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solvers are augmented via automatic differentiation, to directly calculate the stability and control derivatives. The CFD forces and moments are differentiated with respect to angle of attack, angle of sideslip, and aircraft shape parameters to form these derivatives. A subset of static stability and control derivatives of a tailless aircraft concept have been computed by two differentiated inviscid CFD codes and verified for accuracy with central finite-difference approximations and favorable comparisons to a simulation database.

  16. Effects of time-shifted data on flight determined stability and control derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steers, S. T.; Iliff, K. W.

    1975-01-01

    Flight data were shifted in time by various increments to assess the effects of time shifts on estimates of stability and control derivatives produced by a maximum likelihood estimation method. Derivatives could be extracted from flight data with the maximum likelihood estimation method even if there was a considerable time shift in the data. Time shifts degraded the estimates of the derivatives, but the degradation was in a consistent rather than a random pattern. Time shifts in the control variables caused the most degradation, and the lateral-directional rotary derivatives were affected the most by time shifts in any variable.

  17. A summary of lateral-stability derivatives calculated for wing plan forms in supersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Arthur L; Alksne, Alberta

    1951-01-01

    A compilation of theoretical values of the lateral-stability derivatives for wings at supersonic speeds is presented in the form of design charts. The wing plan forms for which this compilation has been prepared include a rectangular, two trapezoidal, two triangular, a fully-tapered swept-back, a sweptback hexagonal, an unswept hexagonal, and a notched triangular plan form. A full set of results, that is, values for all nine of the lateral-stability derivatives for wings, was available for the first six of these plan forms only. The reasons for the incompleteness of the results available for other plan forms are discussed.

  18. Derivation of line-of-sight stabilization equations for gimbaled-mirror optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debruin, James C.

    1992-01-01

    The gimbaled flat steering mirrors commonly used for pointing the outgoing line-of-sight of optical systems can also be driven to stabilize the line-of-sight, effectively isolating it from vehicle base motion. The stabilization equations provide the relative rates of the gimbal angles as functions of the angular velocity of the base. These equations are of use in feed-forward stabilization systems. Two algorithmic methods of deriving the stabilization equations are presented. These methods are distinguished from others by their use of a kinematic reference frame that is attached to the line-of-sight. The first method is completely general and can be applied to any system. The second is limited to systems of a specific configuration, but allows direct generation of uncoupled stabilization equations. Analysis of an aerial photography system is presented as an example.

  19. Specific stability region analysis for uncertain fuzzy descriptor systems with multiple derivative matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chih-Peng

    2016-06-01

    This paper addresses the specific stability region for uncertain fuzzy descriptor systems with distinct derivative matrices in the rules. First, an equivalent poles' location criterion for the nominal descriptor system is originally derived and expressed as one compact form of strict and complex linear matrix inequality (LMI). Then, the result can be extended to cope with the specific stability region for the uncertain fuzzy descriptor systems with integrating multiple derivative matrices. Moreover, since the presented criteria involve complex LMIs, we appropriately conduct a projection scheme, where current LMI tools cannot evaluate them. By deriving useful projection operators onto the formed convex sets, an analysing algorithm is consequently presented for numerical evaluation. Finally, three numerical examples, two nonlinear systems and a physical circuit system, are given to demonstrate the validity and the practicability of the proposed approach.

  20. Modeling groups of plausible virtual pedestrians.

    PubMed

    Peters, Christopher; Ennis, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    In a proposed methodology for modeling dynamic crowd scenarios, a video corpus informs the modeling process, after which the resultant animations undergo perception-based evaluation. The aim is to improve the crowd's visual plausibility rather than the simulation's correctness. A real-life crowd animation system demonstrates the methodology's practical application. PMID:19798863

  1. Biologically Plausible, Human-scale Knowledge Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Eric; Gingerich, Matthew; Eliasmith, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Several approaches to implementing symbol-like representations in neurally plausible models have been proposed. These approaches include binding through synchrony (Shastri & Ajjanagadde, 1993), "mesh" binding (van der Velde & de Kamps, 2006), and conjunctive binding (Smolensky, 1990). Recent theoretical work has suggested that…

  2. Lateral stability and control derivatives extracted from five early flights of the space shuttle Columbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiess, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    Flight data taken from the first five flights (STS-2, 3, 4, 5 and 9) of the Space Transportation System Shuttle Columbia during entry are analyzed to determine the Shuttle lateral aerodynamic characteristics. Maximum likelihood estimation is applied to data derived from accelerometer and rate gyro measurements and trajectory, meteorological and control surface data to estimate lateral-directional stability and control derivatives. The estimated parameters are compared across the five flights and to preflight predicted values.

  3. Another Look At The Canon of Plausible Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solana-Ortega, Alberto; Solana, Vicente

    2005-11-01

    Systematic study of plausible inference is very recent. Axiomatics have been traditionally limited to the development of uninterpreted pure calculi for comparing individual inferences, ignoring the need of formalisms to solve each of these inferences and leaving the interpretation and application of such calculi to ad hoc statistical criteria which are open to inconsistencies. Here we defend a different viewpoint, regarding plausible inference in a holistic manner. Specifically we consider that all tasks involved in it, including the formalization of languages in which to pose problems, the definitions and axiomatics leading to calculation rules and those for deriving inference procedures or assignment rules, ought to be based on common grounds. For this purpose a set of elementary requirements establishing desirable properties so fundamental any theory of scientific inference should satisfy is proposed under the name of plausible inference canon. Its logical status as an extramathematical foundation is investigated, together with the different roles it plays as constructive guideline, standard for contrasting frameworks or normative stipulation. We also highlight the novelties it introduces with respect to similar proposals by other authors. In particular we concentrate on those aspects of the canon related to the critical issue of adequately incorporating basic evidential knowledge to inference.

  4. Longitudinal stability and control derivatives obtained from flight data of a PA-30 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turley, D. R.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    In order to obtain reliable and accurate values of the stability and control derivatives, the Dryden Fligh Research Center (DFRC) developed a technique for extracting the derivatives from flight data. This technique is implemented by a set of FORTRAN computer programs that is based on a modified maximum likelihood estimator that uses the Newton-Raphson algorithm to perform the required minimization of the derivatives. Data was obtained with a PA-30, light twin-engine general aviation aircraft in zero, half, and full flap configuration in level unaccelerated flight with the landing gear retracted. The derivatives were plotted as functions of angle of attack using various graphical arrangements to show variations of wind tunnel and flight determined values at zero flap settings. Also, data was displayed to show the effects of flap deflection and thrust variation on the longitudinal stability derivatives. The angle of attack and angle of sideslip were measured. The dynamic pressure, velocity, and altitude were calculated, using a FORTRAN computer program, from the static and dynamic pressures. The control deflections of the stabilator, ailerons, and rudder also were recorded along with left throttle position, engine rpm, and manifold pressure.

  5. Solid dispersion of quercetin in cellulose derivative matrices influences both solubility and stability.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Konecke, Stephanie; Harich, Kim; Wegiel, Lindsay; Taylor, Lynne S; Edgar, Kevin J

    2013-02-15

    Amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) of quercetin (Que) in cellulose derivative matrices, carboxymethylcellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), and cellulose acetate adipate propionate (CAAdP) were prepared with the goal of identifying an ASD that effectively increased Que aqueous solution concentration. Crystalline quercetin and Que/poly(vinylpyrrolidinone) (PVP) ASD were evaluated for comparison. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRPD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to examine the crystallinity of ASDs, physical mixtures (PM) and quercetin. ASDs were amorphous up to 50 wt% Que. Que stability against crystallization and solution concentrations from these ASDs were significantly higher than those observed for physical mixtures and crystalline Que. PVP stabilizes against both Que degradation and recrystallization; in contrast, these carboxylated cellulose derivatives inhibit recrystallization but release Que slowly. PVP ASDs afforded fast and complete drug release, while ASDs using these three cellulose derivatives provide slow, incomplete, pH-triggered drug release. PMID:23399255

  6. Higher derivative extensions of 3 d Chern-Simons models: conservation laws and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaparulin, D. S.; Karataeva, I. Yu.; Lyakhovich, S. L.

    2015-11-01

    We consider the class of higher derivative 3 d vector field models with the field equation operator being a polynomial of the Chern-Simons operator. For the nth-order theory of this type, we provide a general recipe for constructing n-parameter family of conserved second rank tensors. The family includes the canonical energy-momentum tensor, which is unbounded, while there are bounded conserved tensors that provide classical stability of the system for certain combinations of the parameters in the Lagrangian. We also demonstrate the examples of consistent interactions which are compatible with the requirement of stability.

  7. Nonminimal derivative coupling scalar-tensor theories: Odd-parity perturbations and black hole stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisterna, Adolfo; Cruz, Miguel; Delsate, Térence; Saavedra, Joel

    2015-11-01

    We derive the odd-parity perturbation equation for the nonminimal kinetic coupling sector of the general Horndeski theory, where the kinetic term is coupled to the metric and the Einstein tensor. We derive the potential of the perturbation, by identifying a master function and switching to tortoise coordinates. We then prove the mode stability under linear odd-parity perturbations of hairy black holes in this sector of Horndeski theory, when a cosmological constant term in the action is included. Finally, we comment on the existence of slowly rotating black hole solutions in this setup and discuss their implications on the physics of compact object configurations, such as neutron stars.

  8. Stability of vitamin C derivatives in topical formulations containing lipoic acid, vitamins A and E.

    PubMed

    Segall, A I; Moyano, M A

    2008-12-01

    The stability of ascorbyl palmitate, sodium ascorbyl phosphate and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate in topical formulations was investigated by direct reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography after sample dilution with a suitable buffer - organic solvent mixture. Ascorbyl palmitate, sodium ascorbyl phosphate and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate are derivatives of ascorbic acid which differ in hydrolipophilic properties. They are widely used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations. According to the results, ascorbyl esters showed significant differences: sodium ascorbyl phosphate and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate are more stable derivatives of vitamin C than ascorbyl palmitate and may be easily used in cosmetic products.

  9. Thermal stability of coal-derived jet fuels in the autoxidative and pyrolytic regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, J.M.; Strohm, J.J.; Song, C.

    1999-07-01

    Coal-based liquids have a great potential as precursors for advanced jet fuels that meet the more stringent thermal stability requirements for the future high-Mach jet aircraft. In current commercial planes, the fuel may be exposed to temperatures up to 300 C. However, as the flight speed will be increased to high Mach numbers, the fuel is expected to experience temperatures as high as 480 C (900 F) in the future, since the jet fuel also functions as the main coolant for the different electronic and mechanical parts of the aircraft. Even though the residence time at such elevated temperatures is expected to be fairly short (matter of minutes), the jet fuels presently used have shown to form solid deposits that can lead to catastrophic malfunction of the jet aircraft. The current jet fuels are petroleum-derived and consequently rich in linear alkanes, which are highly susceptible to pyrolytic cracking resulting in coking. The thermal stability of a jet fuel in the pyrolytic regime can be greatly enhanced by utilizing liquids rich in cyclo-alkanes. This is the case for hydro-treated coal-derived liquids, where the aromatic structures have been transformed over to their corresponding cyclo-alkanes. An additional problem with jet fuels is the presence of dissolved oxygen (from air), which reacts with the fuel during the autoxidative regime (150--250 C) before the fuel and its oxygenated reaction products enter the pyrolytic regime (400--500 C). Accordingly, this study compares the thermal stability of a linear alkane (tetradecane), a cyclo-alkane (decahydronaphthalene) and a coal-derived jet-fuel as they go through the autoxidative regime into the pyrolytic regime. Differences in chemical reactivity between the linear- and cyclo-alkane have been related to the stability of the coal-derived jet-fuel.

  10. An overview on chemical derivatization and stability aspects of selected avermectin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Atul; Razzak, Majid; Al-Kassas, Raida; Harvey, Joanne; Garg, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring avermectins (AVMs) and its derivatives are potent endectocide compounds, well-known for their novel mode of action against a broad range of nematode and anthropod animal parasites. In this review, chemical and pharmaceutical aspects of AVM derivatives are described including stability, synthetic and purification processes, impurities and degradation pathways, and subsequent suggestions are made to improve the chemical stability. It has been found out that unique structure of AVM molecules and presence of labile groups facilitated the derivatization of AVM into various compounds showing strong anthelmintic activity. However, the same unique structure is also responsible for labile nature related to sensitive stability profile of molecules. AVMs are found to be unstable in acidic and alkaline conditions. In addition, these compounds are sensitive to strong light, and subsequently presence of photo-isomer in animals treated topically with AVM product is well known. The pharmacoepial recommendations for addition of antioxidant into drug substance, as well as its products, arises from the fact that AVM are very sensitive to oxidation. Formations of solvates, salts, epoxides, reduction of double bonds and developing liquid formulation around pH 6.2, were some chemical approaches used to retard the degradation in AVM. This coherent review will contribute towards the better understanding of the correlation of chemical processes, stability profile and biological activity; therefore, it will help to design the shelf-life stable formulations containing AVMs. PMID:22863694

  11. Stability of apigeninidin and its methoxylated derivatives in the presence of sulfites.

    PubMed

    Ojwang, Leonnard O; Awika, Joseph M

    2010-08-25

    3-Deoxyanthocyanin pigments are more stable than anthocyanins and show promising bioactive properties. However, little is known about their stability in the presence of food additives such as sulfites. This work investigates the stability of apigeninidin and its derivatives in the presence of sulfites. Pigment (apigeninidin, 5-mono-, and 5,7-dimethoxyapigeninidin) stability at pH 1.8, 3.0, and 5.0, in the presence of sodium metabisulfite (molar ratio ∼ 1:40, pigment/SO2) was monitored over 21 days at room temperature. The structure of sulfite complexation products was monitored using HPLC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. All pigments were significantly bleached within 30 min in the presence of sulfites; the bleaching effect was more severe at pH 5.0 and 3.0 compared to pH 1.8. Apigeninidin was more resistant to bleaching than its methoxylated derivatives. However, all pigments regained some or all of the bleached color within 14-21 days at pH 3.0 and 1.8 in the presence of sulfites, indicating equilibrium favored flavylium cation at these pH values. Formation of colorless sulfonates via bisulfite ion addition at C-4 was responsible for the bleaching effect. Both structure and pH significantly affected stability of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins in the presence of sulfites. The pigments may have potential applications in low pH systems containing sulfites.

  12. The Stability of Aryl Carbanions Derived from Pyridine N-Oxide: The Role of Resonance in Stabilizing Aryl Anions

    PubMed Central

    Koehn, Scott; Tran, Ngoc L.; Gronert, Scott; Wu, Weiming

    2009-01-01

    The gas phase stability of carbanions centered at various positions on pyridine N-oxide were investigated by computational and experimental methods. In addition, G3MP2 computations were completed on ring-deprotonated pyridine and N-methylpyridinium. With these species, the effect of a nitrogen-centered positive charge on carbanion stability was assessed. Introduction of the nitrogen-oxide group into the benzene ring decreases the ΔHacid by about 20 kcal/mol, but surprisingly, the effect is nearly independent of the position of the group (ortho, meta, or para). The results indicate that the N-oxide offers a balance of field, resonance, and local effects that cancels out any positional preferences. G3MP2 calculations indicate that a similar lack of positional selectivity is seen in nitrobenzene and benzonitrile. Overall, the data suggest that π-effects are limited in phenyl anions and as a result, ylide-like, rather than carbene-like, resonance structures are most important in the anions derived from ring deprotonation of arenes and heterocycles of these general types. PMID:20000602

  13. Plausible Organic Synthesis on Titan's Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, S. H.; Schulze-Makuch, D.

    2009-12-01

    Titan’s nitrogen and hydrocarbon dominated atmosphere is the site of very complex organic chemistry leading to the production of numerous species including larger molecules from smaller molecular, ionic and radical precursors. Photochemical conversion of methane and other precursors produces smog in the middle to upper layers of the atmosphere, and an organic rain of methane, higher hydrocarbons, and nitrogen-containing aerosols falls onto Titan’s surface, producing an Earth-like terrain of extended river channels that contain a “soup” of several important organic precursors. Here we describe plausible organic chemistry under Titan’s surface and near surface conditions and present synthetic schemes based on acetylene, hydrocyanic acid, and other small organic precursors resulting in the production of larger molecules. Among the products of these reactions are important biological precursors such as nitrogenous bases and amino acids. We present details of several plausible prebiotic organic synthetic routes in Titan’s surface environment and the implications of such chemistries to the overall process of prebiotic evolution on Titan.

  14. Haplotype inference constrained by plausible haplotype data.

    PubMed

    Fellows, Michael R; Hartman, Tzvika; Hermelin, Danny; Landau, Gad M; Rosamond, Frances; Rozenberg, Liat

    2011-01-01

    The haplotype inference problem (HIP) asks to find a set of haplotypes which resolve a given set of genotypes. This problem is important in practical fields such as the investigation of diseases or other types of genetic mutations. In order to find the haplotypes which are as close as possible to the real set of haplotypes that comprise the genotypes, two models have been suggested which are by now well-studied: The perfect phylogeny model and the pure parsimony model. All known algorithms up till now for haplotype inference may find haplotypes that are not necessarily plausible, i.e., very rare haplotypes or haplotypes that were never observed in the population. In order to overcome this disadvantage, we study in this paper, a new constrained version of HIP under the above-mentioned models. In this new version, a pool of plausible haplotypes H is given together with the set of genotypes G, and the goal is to find a subset H ⊆ H that resolves G. For constrained perfect phlogeny haplotyping (CPPH), we provide initial insights and polynomial-time algorithms for some restricted cases of the problem. For constrained parsimony haplotyping (CPH), we show that the problem is fixed parameter tractable when parameterized by the size of the solution set of haplotypes.

  15. Development of Small-Molecule Cryptochrome Stabilizer Derivatives as Modulators of the Circadian Clock

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Wook; Hirota, Tsuyoshi; Kumar, Anupriya; Kim, Nam-Jung; Irle, Stephan; Kay, Steve A

    2015-01-01

    Small-molecule probes have been playing prominent roles in furthering our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of the circadian clock. We previously discovered a carbazole derivative, KL001 (N-(3-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-2-hydroxypropyl)-N-(furan-2-ylmethyl)methanesulfonamide), as a stabilizer of the clock protein cryptochrome (CRY). Herein we describe an extensive structure–activity relationship analysis of KL001 derivatives leading to the development of a highly active derivative: 2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-N-(2-chloro-6-cyanophenyl)acetamide (KL044). Subsequent 3D-QSAR analysis identified critical features of KL001 derivatives and provided a molecular-level understanding of their interaction with CRY. The electron-rich carbazole, amide/hydroxy linker, sulfonyl group, and electron-withdrawing nitrile moieties contribute to greater biological activity. The hydrogen bonding interactions with Ser394 and His357 as well as stronger CH–π interactions with Trp290 make KL044 a better binder than KL001. KL044 lengthened the circadian period, repressed Per2 activity, and stabilized CRY in reporter assays with roughly tenfold higher potency than KL001. Altogether, KL044 is a powerful chemical tool to control the function of the circadian clock through its action on CRY. PMID:26174033

  16. Estimation of longitudinal stability and control derivatives for an icing research aircraft from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batterson, James G.; Omara, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    The results of applying a modified stepwise regression algorithm and a maximum likelihood algorithm to flight data from a twin-engine commuter-class icing research aircraft are presented. The results are in the form of body-axis stability and control derivatives related to the short-period, longitudinal motion of the aircraft. Data were analyzed for the baseline (uniced) and for the airplane with an artificial glaze ice shape attached to the leading edge of the horizontal tail. The results are discussed as to the accuracy of the derivative estimates and the difference between the derivative values found for the baseline and the iced airplane. Additional comparisons were made between the maximum likelihood results and the modified stepwise regression results with causes for any discrepancies postulated.

  17. Maximum likelihood identification and optimal input design for identifying aircraft stability and control derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepner, D. E.; Mehra, R. K.

    1973-01-01

    A new method of extracting aircraft stability and control derivatives from flight test data is developed based on the maximum likelihood cirterion. It is shown that this new method is capable of processing data from both linear and nonlinear models, both with and without process noise and includes output error and equation error methods as special cases. The first application of this method to flight test data is reported for lateral maneuvers of the HL-10 and M2/F3 lifting bodies, including the extraction of stability and control derivatives in the presence of wind gusts. All the problems encountered in this identification study are discussed. Several different methods (including a priori weighting, parameter fixing and constrained parameter values) for dealing with identifiability and uniqueness problems are introduced and the results given. The method for the design of optimal inputs for identifying the parameters of linear dynamic systems is also given. The criterion used for the optimization is the sensitivity of the system output to the unknown parameters. Several simple examples are first given and then the results of an extensive stability and control dervative identification simulation for a C-8 aircraft are detailed.

  18. Comprehending Conflicting Science-Related Texts: Graphs as Plausibility Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isberner, Maj-Britt; Richter, Tobias; Maier, Johanna; Knuth-Herzig, Katja; Horz, Holger; Schnotz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    When reading conflicting science-related texts, readers may attend to cues which allow them to assess plausibility. One such plausibility cue is the use of graphs in the texts, which are regarded as typical of "hard science." The goal of our study was to investigate the effects of the presence of graphs on the perceived plausibility and…

  19. The Role of Plausible Values in Large-Scale Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    In large-scale assessment programs such as NAEP, TIMSS and PISA, students' achievement data sets provided for secondary analysts contain so-called "plausible values." Plausible values are multiple imputations of the unobservable latent achievement for each student. In this article it has been shown how plausible values are used to: (1) address…

  20. Synthesis, enzymatic stability and in vitro cytostatic effect of Daunorubicin-GnRH-III derivative dimers.

    PubMed

    Schreier, Verena Natalie; Mező, Gábor; Orbán, Erika; Dürr, Claudia; Marquardt, Andreas; Manea, Marilena

    2013-04-01

    Bioconjugates containing chemotherapeutic agents attached to peptide hormones, such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), are developed as drug delivery systems for targeted cancer chemotherapy. We report here the synthesis and biochemical characterization of disulfide bond-linked dimeric bioconjugates in which daunorubicin was coupled via an oxime linkage to aminooxyacetylated GnRH-III ([Glp-His-Trp-Ser-His-Asp-Trp-Lys(DauAoa-Cys)-Pro-Gly-NH2]2; where Glp is pyroglutamic acid and Aoa is aminooxyacetyl) and its derivatives modified in position four by N-Me-Ser and Lys(Ac). The in vitro stability/degradation of the bioconjugates was determined in human serum, as well as in the presence of rat liver lysosomal homogenate and digestive enzymes. All compounds were stable at least for 24h in human serum and in the presence of pepsin and trypsin, while they were degraded by lysosomal enzymes. The daunorubicin-GnRH-III derivative dimers were partly digested by α-chymotrypsin; however, they had increased stability compared to the corresponding monomers, making them potential candidates for oral administration. The in vitro cytostatic effect of the compounds was determined on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. All daunorubicin-GnRH-III derivative dimers exerted slightly increased in vitro cytostatic effect (IC50 values in low μM range) than the corresponding monomeric bioconjugates.

  1. Metabolic stability of superoxide adducts derived from newly developed cyclic nitrone spin traps.

    PubMed

    Bézière, Nicolas; Hardy, Micael; Poulhès, Florent; Karoui, Hakim; Tordo, Paul; Ouari, Olivier; Frapart, Yves-Michel; Rockenbauer, Antal; Boucher, Jean-Luc; Mansuy, Daniel; Peyrot, Fabienne

    2014-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species are by-products of aerobic metabolism involved in the onset and evolution of various pathological conditions. Among them, the superoxide radical is of special interest as the origin of several damaging species such as H2O2, hydroxyl radical, or peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Spin trapping coupled with ESR is a method of choice to characterize these species in chemical and biological systems and the metabolic stability of the spin adducts derived from reaction of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals with nitrones is the main limit to the in vivo application of the method. Recently, new cyclic nitrones bearing a triphenylphosphonium or permethylated β-cyclodextrin moiety have been synthesized and their spin adducts demonstrated increased stability in buffer. In this article, we studied the stability of the superoxide adducts of four new cyclic nitrones in the presence of liver subcellular fractions and biologically relevant reductants using an original setup combining a stopped-flow device and an ESR spectrometer. The kinetics of disappearance of the spin adducts were analyzed using an appropriate simulation program. Our results highlight the interest of the new spin trapping agents CD-DEPMPO and CD-DIPPMPO for specific detection of superoxide with high stability of the superoxide adducts in the presence of liver microsomes. PMID:24161442

  2. Antiparallel triple helices. Structural characteristics and stabilization by 8-amino derivatives.

    PubMed

    Aviñó, Anna; Cubero, Elena; González, Carlos; Eritja, Ramon; Orozco, Modesto

    2003-12-24

    The structural, dynamical, and recognition properties of antiparallel DNA triplexes formed by the antiparallel d(G#G.C), d(A#A.T), and d(T#A.T) motifs (the pound sign and dot mean reverse-Hoogsteen and Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds, respectively) are studied by means of "state of the art" molecular dynamics simulations. Once the characteristics of the helix are defined, molecular dynamics and thermodynamic integration calculations are used to determine the expected stabilization of the antiparallel triplex caused by the introduction of 8-aminopurines. Finally, oligonucleotides containing 8-aminopurine derivatives are synthesized and tested experimentally using several approaches in a variety of systems. A very large stabilization of the triplex is found experimentally, as predicted by simulations. These results open the possibility for the use of oligonucleotides carrying 8-aminopurines to bind single-stranded nucleic acids by formation of antiparallel triplexes.

  3. Nanocomplexation of thrombin with cationic amylose derivative for improved stability and hemostatic efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Baoxiong; Li, Zhihua; Pang, Jiadong; Li, Wenbin; Huang, Pinbo; Wang, Jie; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Qing; Zhou, Quanbo; Ye, Xiao; Ye, Huilin; Liu, Yimin; Zhang, Li-Ming; Chen, Rufu

    2015-01-01

    As a topical hemostatic agent, thrombin has wide application for many surgical treatments. However, native thrombin always suffers from its physical and chemical instabilities. In this work, a nanocomplexation strategy was developed for modifying the stability and hemostatic efficacy of thrombin, in which a water-soluble cationic amylose derivative containing poly(l-lysine) dendrons was prepared by a click reaction and then used to complex thrombin in an aqueous system. For resultant thrombin nanocomplexes, their morphology and particle size distribution were investigated. Their stabilities were studied in terms of activity retention percentages under different storage time, pH values, and illumination time. In addition, their ability to achieve in vitro fibrinogen and blood coagulation were evaluated. Via a rat hepatic hemorrhage model and a rat iliac artery hemorrhage model, these thrombin nanocomplexes were confirmed to have good tissue biocompatibility and in vivo hemostatic effectiveness. PMID:25673989

  4. Development and Validation of Stability-Indicating Derivative Spectrophotometric Methods for Determination of Dronedarone Hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadha, R.; Bali, A.

    2016-05-01

    Rapid, sensitive, cost effective and reproducible stability-indicating derivative spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the estimation of dronedarone HCl employing peak-zero (P-0) and peak-peak (P-P) techniques, and their stability-indicating potential assessed in forced degraded solutions of the drug. The methods were validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. Excellent linearity was observed in concentrations 2-40 μg/ml ( r 2 = 0.9986). LOD and LOQ values for the proposed methods ranged from 0.42-0.46 μg/ml and 1.21-1.27 μg/ml, respectively, and excellent recovery of the drug was obtained in the tablet samples (99.70 ± 0.84%).

  5. A FORTRAN program for determining aircraft stability and control derivatives from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maine, R. E.; Iliff, K. W.

    1975-01-01

    A digital computer program written in FORTRAN IV for the estimation of aircraft stability and control derivatives is presented. The program uses a maximum likelihood estimation method, and two associated programs for routine, related data handling are also included. The three programs form a package that can be used by relatively inexperienced personnel to process large amounts of data with a minimum of manpower. This package was used to successfully analyze 1500 maneuvers on 20 aircraft, and is designed to be used without modification on as many types of computers as feasible. Program listings and sample check cases are included.

  6. Structure, Stability, and Thermochemistry of the Fullerene Derivatives C64X6 (X = H, F, Cl)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lei; Shao, Xueguang; Cai, Wensheng

    2009-09-01

    The geometrical structures, electronic properties, and stabilities of the unconventional fullerene derivatives C64X6 (X = H, F, Cl) have been systematically studied by the first-principle calculations based on the density functional theory. The fullerene derivatives 1911(2)-C64X6 generated from the pineapple-shaped C64X4 are predicted to possess the lowest energies. The other two X atoms are added to the carbon atoms with the highest local strain assessed by the pyramidalization angles. The calculations of the nucleus-independent chemical shifts suggest that the aromaticity of C64X6 affects the stability order of the derivative isomers. To address why C64H6 was not observed in the experimental study of Wang et al. (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 6605) and if the halogenated derivatives C64X6 (X = F, Cl) can be synthesized, thermochemical analysis of the reaction C64X4 + X2 → C64X6 was also performed. The results indicate that the formation of C64H6 and C64Cl6 is not favored at high temperatures. The former may be a reason why C64H6 was not found in the experiment. In sharp contrast, the Gibbs free energy change to form C64F6 is found to be -23.29 kcal/mol at 2000 K, suggesting that this compound may be formed and detected in experiments. The NMR and IR spectra of 1911(2)-C64F6 are sequentially calculated and presented to facilitate future experimental identification.

  7. Examining the Stability of "DSM-IV" and Empirically Derived Eating Disorder Classification: Implications for "DSM-5"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Swanson, Sonja A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.; Agras, W. Stewart; Halmi, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to derive an empirical classification of eating disorder symptoms in a heterogeneous eating disorder sample using latent class analysis (LCA) and to examine the longitudinal stability of these latent classes (LCs) and the stability of DSM-IV eating disorder (ED) diagnoses. Method: A total of 429…

  8. Examining the Stability of "DSM-IV" and Empirically Derived Eating Disorder Classification: Implications for "DSM-5"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Swanson, Sonja A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.; Agras, W. Stewart; Halmi, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to derive an empirical classification of eating disorder symptoms in a heterogeneous eating disorder sample using latent class analysis (LCA) and to examine the longitudinal stability of these latent classes (LCs) and the stability of DSM-IV eating disorder (ED) diagnoses. Method: A total of 429…

  9. Plausibility and evidence: the case of homeopathy.

    PubMed

    Rutten, Lex; Mathie, Robert T; Fisher, Peter; Goossens, Maria; van Wassenhoven, Michel

    2013-08-01

    Homeopathy is controversial and hotly debated. The conclusions of systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials of homeopathy vary from 'comparable to conventional medicine' to 'no evidence of effects beyond placebo'. It is claimed that homeopathy conflicts with scientific laws and that homoeopaths reject the naturalistic outlook, but no evidence has been cited. We are homeopathic physicians and researchers who do not reject the scientific outlook; we believe that examination of the prior beliefs underlying this enduring stand-off can advance the debate. We show that interpretations of the same set of evidence--for homeopathy and for conventional medicine--can diverge. Prior disbelief in homeopathy is rooted in the perceived implausibility of any conceivable mechanism of action. Using the 'crossword analogy', we demonstrate that plausibility bias impedes assessment of the clinical evidence. Sweeping statements about the scientific impossibility of homeopathy are themselves unscientific: scientific statements must be precise and testable. There is growing evidence that homeopathic preparations can exert biological effects; due consideration of such research would reduce the influence of prior beliefs on the assessment of systematic review evidence.

  10. A computational study on the enhanced stabilization of aminophenol derivatives by internal hydrogen bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, José R. B.; Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A. V.

    2006-05-01

    The stabilization of aminophenol derivatives and their radicals due to internal hydrogen bonding has been analyzed by means of density functional theory and by topological electron density analysis. The calculations have been carried out at the B3LYP level of theory, using several basis sets, and by means of the CBS-4M composite approach. A strong O-H⋯NH 2 hydrogen bond is found to stabilize the aminophenol with the lone-pair of the nitrogen atom co-planar with the aromatic ring, contrasting with the optimized structure found for aniline. The effect of electron donors and electron acceptors on the strength of the internal hydrogen bond is also analyzed. For one of the species studied, 2,6-diaminophenol, the computed O-H bond dissociation enthalpy is only 300 kJ/mol, the lowest value found so far for phenol and other compounds containing the O-H bond, almost 25 kJ/mol lower than those found experimentally for pyrogallol and for vitamin E. The explanation for such a small value comes from the enhanced stabilization of the corresponding radical species by internal hydrogen bonding, combined with a decrease of the steric effects caused by rotation of the amino groups.

  11. Stability and antioxidant activity of gossypol derivative immobilized on N-polyvinylpyrrolidone.

    PubMed

    Ionov, Maksim; Gordiyenko, Nataliya V; Zukowska, Izabela; Tokhtaeva, Elmira; Mareninova, Olga A; Baram, Nina; Ziyaev, Khairulla; Rezhepov, Kuralbay; Zamaraeva, Maria

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study is analysis of stability and antioxidant and antiradical activities of the gossypol derivative - megosin conjugated with N-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The results of study have shown the greater stability of megosin+PVP than megosin in aqueous solution of wide range of pH. Here we also demonstrated that megosin+PVP, named rometin, possess high antioxidant activity in the same range as well known antioxidant trolox as determined by its ability to scavenge free ABTS(+) and DPPH radicals in vitro. In addition, megosin+PVP was able to prevent accumulation of products of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and diene conjugates) and lysophospholipids formation in mitochondria membranes caused by CCl(4)-induced oxidative stress in rat liver in vivo. Furthermore, megosin+PVP rescued mitochondrial functions, such as respiration and oxidative phosphorylation, which declined after CCl(4) administration. Thus we present that the conjugation of megosin to PVP increase its stability and remain antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro.

  12. Enzyme stabilization by glass-derived silicates in glass-exposed aqueous solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ives, J.A.; Moffett, J.R.; Arun, P.; Lam, D.; Todorov, T.I.; Brothers, A.B.; Anick, D.J.; Centeno, J.; Namboodiri, M.A.A.; Jonas, W.B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the solutes leaching from glass containers into aqueous solutions, and to show that these solutes have enzyme activity stabilizing effects in very dilute solutions. Methods: Enzyme assays with acetylcholine esterase were used to analyze serially succussed and diluted (SSD) solutions prepared in glass and plastic containers. Aqueous SSD preparations starting with various solutes, or water alone, were prepared under several conditions, and tested for their solute content and their ability to affect enzyme stability in dilute solution. Results: We confirm that water acts to dissolve constituents from glass vials, and show that the solutes derived from the glass have effects on enzymes in the resultant solutions. Enzyme assays demonstrated that enzyme stability in purified and deionized water was enhanced in SSD solutions that were prepared in glass containers, but not those prepared in plastic. The increased enzyme stability could be mimicked in a dose-dependent manner by the addition of silicates to the purified, deionized water that enzymes were dissolved in. Elemental analyses of SSD water preparations made in glass vials showed that boron, silicon, and sodium were present at micromolar concentrations. Conclusions: These results show that silicates and other solutes are present at micromolar levels in all glass-exposed solutions, whether pharmaceutical or homeopathic in nature. Even though silicates are known to have biological activity at higher concentrations, the silicate concentrations we measured in homeopathic preparations were too low to account for any purported in vivo efficacy, but could potentially influence in vitro biological assays reporting homeopathic effects. ?? 2009 The Faculty of Homeopathy.

  13. Helical Folding-Induced Stabilization of Ferromagnetic Polyradicals Based on Triarylmethyl Radical Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Reta Mañeru, Daniel; Moreira, Ibério de P R; Illas, Francesc

    2016-04-27

    Magnetic ordering in purely organic π-conjugated materials is a challenging, rare, and desirable event. The interest lies on the unique magnetic properties derived from high-spin carbon-based polymers/macromolecules tailored through appropriate synthetic routes. Ground-breaking achievements have been reported regarding magnetic ordering in an organic polymer using spin clusters as building blocks. This strategy leads to two-dimensional extended polyradicals with a concomitant loss of appealing macroscopic properties such as expected magnetic anisotropy in elongated shaped macromolecules containing carbon-bearing radicals. Here we provide compelling evidence of a secondary structure-induced stabilization of ferromagnetic polyradicals with robust magnetic properties and strongly suggest revisiting a discarded attempt to obtain polymeric linear-like radicals. An alternative synthetic approach is also proposed, based on polyradicals obtained from discrete molecular precursors (oligomers) long enough to ensure a secondary structure, rather than from polymerization processes. PMID:27046281

  14. Thermal stability of some aircraft turbine fuels derived from oil shale and coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal stability breakpoint temperatures are shown for 32 jet fuels prepared from oil shale and coal syncrudes by various degrees of hydrogenation. Low severity hydrotreated shale oils, with nitrogen contents of 0.1 to 0.24 weight percent, had breakpoint temperatures in the 477 to 505 K (400 to 450 F) range. Higher severity treatment, lowering nitrogen levels to 0.008 to 0.017 weight percent, resulted in breakpoint temperatures in the 505 to 533 K (450 to 500 F) range. Coal derived fuels showed generally increasing breakpoint temperatures with increasing weight percent hydrogen, fuels below 13 weight percent hydrogen having breakpoints below 533 K (500 F). Comparisons are shown with similar literature data.

  15. Stabilization of cationic and anionic metal species in contaminated soils using sludge-derived biochar.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shen'en; Tsang, Daniel C W; Zhou, Fengsha; Zhang, Weihua; Qiu, Rongliang

    2016-04-01

    Currently, sludge pyrolysis has been considered as a promising technology to solve disposal problem of municipal sewage sludge, recover sludge heating value, sequester carbon and replenish nutrients in farmland soils. The resultant sludge-derived biochar (SDBC) is potentially an excellent stabilizing agent for metal species. This study applied the SDBC into four soils that had been contaminated in field with cationic Pb(II) and Cd(II)/Ni(II), and anionic Cr(VI) and As(III), respectively. The performance of metal stabilization under various operational and environmental conditions was evaluated with acid batch extraction and column leaching tests. Results indicated the SDBC could effectively stabilize these metals, which was favored by elevated temperature and longer aging. Periodic temperature decrease from 45 to 4 °C resulted in the release of immobilized Cr(VI) and As(III) but not Pb(II). However, a longer aging time offset such metal remobilization. This was possibly because more Pb was strongly bound and even formed stable precipitates, as shown by XRD and sequential extraction results. With increasing time, Cr(VI) was sorbed and partly reduced to Cr(III), while immobilized As(III) was co-oxidized to As(V) as indicated by XPS spectra. Column tests revealed that adding SDBC as a separate layer was unfavorable because the concentrated Cd(II) and Ni(II) in localized positions increased the peak levels of metal release under continuous acid leaching. In contrast, uniformly mixed SDBC could effectively delay the metal breakthrough and reduce their released amounts. Yet, a long-term monitoring may be required for evaluating the potential leaching risks and bioavailability/toxicity of these immobilized and transformed species in the SDBC-amended soils. PMID:26866964

  16. Synthesis, tribological and hydrolysis stability study of novel benzotriazole borate derivative.

    PubMed

    Liping, Xiong; Zhongyi, He; Liang, Qian; Lin, Mu; Aixi, Chen; Sheng, Han; Jianwei, Qiu; Xisheng, Fu

    2014-01-01

    Benzotriazole and borate derivatives have long been used as multifunctional additives to lubricants. A novel, environmentally friendly additive borate ester (NHB), which contains boron, ethanolamine, and benzotriazole groups in one molecule, was synthesized by a multi-step reaction, and its tribological properties in rapeseed oil (RSO) were investigated by a four-ball tribometer. The hydrolysis stability of the additive was investigated by half-time and open observation methods, and the mechanism of hydrolysis stability was discussed through Gaussian calculation. The novel compound NHB showed excellent performance under extreme pressure, against wearing, and in reducing friction, and its hydrolysis time is more than 1,220 times, which is better than that of triethyl borate. The mass ratio of NHB is bigger than that of the mixed liquid of triethyl borate and ethanolamine. The lone electron of amino N atoms forms a coordination effect with the B atom to compensate for the shortage of electrons in the B atom and to improve the hydrolysis stability of NHB. The surface morphology and the traces of different elements in the tribofilms formed with 1.0 wt.% NHB in were detected with scanning electron microscopy(SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX)and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS). The results shown that the additive caused a tribochemical reaction with the steel ball surface during the lubricating process. A mixed boundary lubrication film that contains organic nitrogen and inorganic salts, such as BN, B2O3, FeOx, Fe-O-B, and FeB, was also formed, and the formation of the lubricating film improved the tribological properties of the base oil.

  17. Real-Time Stability and Control Derivative Extraction From F-15 Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Mark S.; Moes, Timothy R.; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2003-01-01

    A real-time, frequency-domain, equation-error parameter identification (PID) technique was used to estimate stability and control derivatives from flight data. This technique is being studied to support adaptive control system concepts currently being developed by NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), academia, and industry. This report describes the basic real-time algorithm used for this study and implementation issues for onboard usage as part of an indirect-adaptive control system. A confidence measures system for automated evaluation of PID results is discussed. Results calculated using flight data from a modified F-15 aircraft are presented. Test maneuvers included pilot input doublets and automated inputs at several flight conditions. Estimated derivatives are compared to aerodynamic model predictions. Data indicate that the real-time PID used for this study performs well enough to be used for onboard parameter estimation. For suitable test inputs, the parameter estimates converged rapidly to sufficient levels of accuracy. The devised confidence measures used were moderately successful.

  18. Estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities of 17 benzophenone derivatives used as UV stabilizers and sunscreens

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Tomoharu; Kitamura, Shigeyuki . E-mail: skitamu@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Khota, Ryuki; Sugihara, Kazumi; Fujimoto, Nariaki; Ohta, Shigeru

    2005-02-15

    Estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities of benzophenone and 16 of its derivatives, which are used as UV stabilizers, were comparatively examined with hormone-responsive reporter assay in various cell lines. Hydroxylated benzophenones exhibited estrogenic activity in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, but their activities varied markedly. The highest activity was observed with 2,4,4'-trihydroxybenzophenone (2.4.4'-triOH-BP), followed by 2,3',4,4'-tetrahydroxybenzophenone, 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone, 2,2',4,4'-tetrahydroxybenzophenone, 4-hydroxybenzophenone and 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone. Benzophenone itself showed little activity in the assay. In contrast, benzophenone and some related compounds showed significant inhibitory effects on the androgenic activity of dihydrotestosterone in rat fibroblast cell line NIH3T3. The highest activity was observed with 2,4,4'-triOH-BP, followed by 2,3',4,4'-tetrahydroxybenzophenone, 2,2',4,4'-tetrahydroxybenzophenone, 3-hydroxybenzophenone and 2,2'-dihydroxybenzophenone. However, 2,3,4,4'-tetrahydroxybenzophenone and 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzophenone showed little activity. 2,4-Dihydroxybenzophenone, 2,4,4'-triOH-BP and benzophenone gave positive responses in uterotrophic assay using ovariectomized rats, and 2,4,4'-triOH-BP was positive in the Hershberger assay using castrated rats. These results suggest that a 4-hydroxyl group on the phenyl ring of benzophenone derivatives is essential for high hormonal activities, and the presence of other hydroxyl groups markedly alters these activities.

  19. Hydrolysis of tannic acid catalyzed by immobilized-stabilized derivatives of Tannase from Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Curiel, Jose Antonio; Betancor, Lorena; de las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario; Guisan, Jose M; Fernández-Lorente, Gloria

    2010-05-26

    A recombinant tannase from Lactobacillus plantarum , overexpressed in Escherichia coli , was purified in a single step by metal chelate affinity chromatography on poorly activated nickel supports. It was possible to obtain 0.9 g of a pure enzyme by using only 20 mL of chromatographic support. The pure enzyme was immobilized and stabilized by multipoint covalent immobilization on highly activated glyoxyl agarose. Derivatives obtained by multipoint and multisubunit immobilization were 500- and 1000-fold more stable than both the soluble enzyme and the one-point-immobilized enzyme in experiments of thermal and cosolvent inactivation, respectively. In addition, up to 70 mg of pure enzyme was immobilized on 1 g of wet support. The hydrolysis of tannic acid was optimized by using the new immobilized tannase derivative. The optimal reaction conditions were 30% diglyme at pH 5.0 and 4 degrees C. Under these conditions, it was possible to obtain 47.5 mM gallic acid from 5 mM tannic acid as substrate. The product was pure as proved by HPLC. On the other hand, the immobilized biocatalyst preserved >95% of its initial activity after 1 month of incubation under the optimal reaction conditions.

  20. Colloidal stability of nanoparticles derived from simulated cloud-processed mineral dusts.

    PubMed

    Kadar, Enikö; Fisher, Andrew; Stolpe, Björn; Calabrese, Sergio; Lead, Jamie; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Shi, Zongbo

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory simulation of cloud processing of three model dust types with distinct Fe-content (Moroccan dust, Libyan dust and Etna ash) and reference goethite and ferrihydrite were conducted in order to gain a better understanding of natural nanomaterial inputs and their environmental fate and bioavailability. The resulting nanoparticles (NPs) were characterised for Fe dissolution kinetics, aggregation/size distribution, micromorphology and colloidal stability of particle suspensions using a multi-method approach. We demonstrated that the: (i) acid-leachable Fe concentration was highest in volcanic ash (1 m Mg(-1) dust) and was followed by Libyan and Moroccan dust with an order of magnitude lower levels; (ii) acid leached Fe concentration in the<20 nm fraction was similar in samples processed in the dark with those under artificial sunlight, but average hydrodynamic diameter of NPs after cloud-processing (pH~6) was larger in the former; iii) NPs formed at pH~6 were smaller and less poly-disperse than those at low pH, whilst unaltered zeta potentials indicated colloidal instability; iv) relative Fe percentage in the finer particles derived from cloud processing does not reflect Fe content of unprocessed dusts (e.g. volcanic ash>Libyan dust). The common occurrence of Fe-rich "natural nanoparticles" in atmospheric dust derived materials may indicate their more ubiquitous presence in the marine environment than previously thought.

  1. Source Effects and Plausibility Judgments When Reading about Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Doug; Seyranian, Viviane; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2014-01-01

    Gaps between what scientists and laypeople find plausible may act as a barrier to learning complex and/or controversial socioscientific concepts. For example, individuals may consider scientific explanations that human activities are causing current climate change as implausible. This plausibility judgment may be due-in part-to individuals'…

  2. Plausibility Judgments in Conceptual Change and Epistemic Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Doug; Nussbaum, E. Michael; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2016-01-01

    Plausibility judgments rarely have been addressed empirically in conceptual change research. Recent research, however, suggests that these judgments may be pivotal to conceptual change about certain topics where a gap exists between what scientists and laypersons find plausible. Based on a philosophical and empirical foundation, this article…

  3. Investigation at Low Speeds of the Effect of Aspect Ratio and Sweep on Rolling Stability Derivatives of Untapered Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Alex; Fisher, Lewis R

    1950-01-01

    A low-scale wind-tunnel investigation was conducted in rolling flow to determine the effects of aspect ratio and sweep (when varied independently) on the rolling stability derivatives for a series of untapered wings. The rolling-flow equipment of the Langley stability tunnel was used for the tests. The data of the investigation have been used to develop a method of accounting for the effects of the drag on the yawing moment due to rolling throughout the lift range.

  4. Tebipenem pivoxyl. Derivative spectroscopy study of stability of the first oral carbapenem.

    PubMed

    Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta; Paczkowska, Magdalena; Zalewski, Przemysław; Talaczyńska, Alicja; Mizera, Mikołaj

    2015-01-25

    A simple and selective derivative spectrophotometric method was developed for the quantitative determination of tebipenem and its pivoxyl ester in the presence of degradation products formed during degradation in aqueous solutions (hydrolysis, oxidation, phosphate buffer pH ∼6.0) and in the solid state (photolysis, thermolysis in dry air and at an increased relative air humidity). The method was based on zero-crossing first-derivative spectrophotometry (λ=341 nm for tebipenem pivoxyl and λ=320 nm for tebipenem), which eliminated the overlapping caused by various degradation products. The selectivity of the method for determination of tebipenem pivoxyl and tepipenem during stability studies was an effect of lack of substituents containing π-bond system chromophores in degradation products. It was also confirmed by comparison of the experimental spectra sample with the theoretical UV spectra and their first derivatives which were obtained by using the density functional theory with the B3LYP hybrid functional and 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The method were linear in the concentration range 16.70-220.0 μg mL(-1) for tebipenem (λ=320 nm; r=0.9989) and 10.70-160.0 μg mL(-1) for tebipenem pivoxyl (λ=341 nm, r=0.9990). The limits of detection and quantitation were 4.72 and 15.60 μg mL(-1) for tebipenem and 2.54 and 8.40 μg mL(-1) for tebipenem pivoxyl, respectively. The method had a good intra-day precision (RSD from 0.12% to 0.62%) and inter-day precision (RSD from 0.22% to 2.13%). The recovery of tebipenem and tebipenem pivoxyl ranged from 99.61% to 99.86% and from 99.38% to 99.87%, respectively. First-derivative spectrophotometry was used for a routine analysis of tebipenem and its ester as well as to monitor the conversion of tebipenem pivoxyl to tebipenem and to predict their degradation pathways. PMID:25036644

  5. Genetic Stability of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome-Derived Human Cytomegalovirus during Culture In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Murrell, Isa; Wilkie, Gavin S.; Davison, Andrew J.; Statkute, Evelina; Fielding, Ceri A.; Tomasec, Peter; Wilkinson, Gavin W. G.

    2016-01-01

    tropism, more susceptible to natural killer cells, and less pathogenic. Following isolation from clinical material, HCMV genomes can be stabilized by cloning into bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), and then virus is regenerated by DNA transfection. However, mutations can occur not only during isolation prior to BAC cloning but also when virus is regenerated. We have identified conditions under which BAC-derived viruses containing an intact, wild-type genome can be propagated in vitro with minimal risk of mutants being selected, enabling studies of viruses expressing the gene complement of a clinical strain. However, even under these optimized conditions, sporadic mutations can occur, highlighting the advisability of sequencing the HCMV stocks used in experiments. PMID:26842472

  6. Experimental designed optimisation and stability evaluation of dry suspensions with artemisinin derivatives for paediatric use.

    PubMed

    Gabriëls, M; Plaizier-Vercammen, J

    2004-09-28

    There is a great need for oral anti-malaria preparations especially for small children, which are easy to administer and keep their stability under tropical conditions. The purpose of this work was therefore to develop a dry suspension, containing one of the artemisinin derivatives, namely artesunate, artemether and dihydroartemisinin using fast wetting suspending agents, i.e. xanthan gum and Avicel CL611. For the optimisation of these two variables, namely the suspending agent's content, a Doehlert design was applied. Via preliminary tests on sedimentation behaviour, the limits of both products were determined, respectively 0.1-0.4% (w/v) and 1.0-2.5% (w/v). As responses, sedimentation as a function of time, viscosity and price of the suspension, were evaluated. The stability tests of the reconstituted suspensions showed bad results for artesunate, even when the pH was adapted. In contrast, dihydroartemisinin showed only 10% degradation within 10 days and artemether was stable at least 21 days. Practically the last one was able to foresee a chemically and physically stable suspension at least during the administration period (5 to 7 days) and was therefore selected for further optimisation concerning taste and appearance. Based on the results of selection tests for the colourant, sweetener and taste masking agent, the following composition was proposed for a suitable dry powder with artemether (AM) as active compound to prepare 100 ml reconstituted suspension: AM 300 mg, Avicel CL611 2 g, xanthan gum 200 mg, crystalline saccharose 35 g, citric acid monohydrate 150 mg, Nipagine 80 mg, Nipasol 20 mg, sodium saccharinate 250 mg, tutti-frutti 250 mg and Sunset yellow 10 mg. PMID:15363498

  7. Gamma-radiolytic stability of new methylated TODGA derivatives for minor actinide recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Galan, Hitos; Zarzana, Christopher A.; Wilden, Andreas; Nunez, Ana; Schmidt, Holger; Egberink, Richard J. M.; Leoncini, Andrea; Cobos, Joaquin; Verboom, Willem; Modolo, Giuseppe; Groenewold, Gary S.; Mincher, Bruce J.

    2015-09-15

    The stability against gamma radiation of MeTODGA (methyl tetraoctyldiglycolamide) and Me2TODGA (dimethyl tetraoctyldiglycolamide), derivatives from the well-known extractant TODGA (N,N,N',N';-tetraoctyldiglycolamide), were studied and compared. Solutions of MeTODGA and Me2TODGA in alkane diluents were subjected to 60Co γ-irradiation in the presence and absence of nitric acid and analyzed using LC-MS to determine their rates of radiolytic concentration decrease, as well as to identify radiolysis products. The results of product identification from three different laboratories are compared and found to be in good agreement. The diglycolamide (DGA) concentrations decreased exponentially with increasing absorbed dose. The MeTODGA degradation rate constants (dose constants) were uninfluenced by the presence of nitric acid, but the acid increased the rate of degradation for Me2TODGA. The degradation products formed by irradiation are also initially produced in greater amounts in acid-contacted solution, but products may also be degraded by continued radiolysis. As a result, the identified radiolysis products suggest that the weakest bonds are those in the diglycolamide center of these molecules.

  8. Gamma-radiolytic stability of new methylated TODGA derivatives for minor actinide recycling

    DOE PAGES

    Galan, Hitos; Zarzana, Christopher A.; Wilden, Andreas; Nunez, Ana; Schmidt, Holger; Egberink, Richard J. M.; Leoncini, Andrea; Cobos, Joaquin; Verboom, Willem; Modolo, Giuseppe; et al

    2015-09-15

    The stability against gamma radiation of MeTODGA (methyl tetraoctyldiglycolamide) and Me2TODGA (dimethyl tetraoctyldiglycolamide), derivatives from the well-known extractant TODGA (N,N,N',N';-tetraoctyldiglycolamide), were studied and compared. Solutions of MeTODGA and Me2TODGA in alkane diluents were subjected to 60Co γ-irradiation in the presence and absence of nitric acid and analyzed using LC-MS to determine their rates of radiolytic concentration decrease, as well as to identify radiolysis products. The results of product identification from three different laboratories are compared and found to be in good agreement. The diglycolamide (DGA) concentrations decreased exponentially with increasing absorbed dose. The MeTODGA degradation rate constants (dose constants) weremore » uninfluenced by the presence of nitric acid, but the acid increased the rate of degradation for Me2TODGA. The degradation products formed by irradiation are also initially produced in greater amounts in acid-contacted solution, but products may also be degraded by continued radiolysis. As a result, the identified radiolysis products suggest that the weakest bonds are those in the diglycolamide center of these molecules.« less

  9. Selective binding to transthyretin and tetramer stabilization in serum from patients with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy by an iodinated diflunisal derivative

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    In familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy, TTR (transthyretin) variants are deposited as amyloid fibrils. It is thought that this process involves TTR tetramer dissociation, which leads to partially unfolded monomers that aggregate and polymerize into amyloid fibrils. This process can be counteracted by stabilization of the tetramer. Several small compounds, such as diclofenac, diflunisal and flufenamic acid, have been reported to bind to TTR in vitro, in the T4 (thyroxine) binding channel that runs through the TTR tetramer, and consequently are considered to stabilize TTR. However, if these agents bind plasma proteins other than TTR, decreased drug availability will occur, compromising their use as therapeutic agents for TTR amyloidosis. In the present work, we compared the action of these compounds and of new derivatives designed to increase both selectivity of binding to TTR and inhibitory potency in relation to TTR amyloid fibril formation. We found two diflunisal derivatives that, in contrast with diclofenac, flufenamic acid and diflunisal, displaced T4 from TTR in plasma preferentially over binding to albumin and thyroxine binding globulin. The same diflunisal derivatives also had a stabilizing effect on TTR tetramers in plasma, as studied by isoelectric focusing of whole plasma under semi-denaturing conditions. In addition, by transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrated that, in contrast with other proposed TTR stabilizers (namely diclofenac, flufenamic acid and diflunisal), one of the diflunisal derivatives tested efficiently inhibited TTR aggregation. Taken together, our ex vivo and in vitro studies present evidence for the selectivity and efficiency of novel diflunisal derivates as TTR stabilizers and as inhibitors of fibril formation. PMID:15080795

  10. Application of plausible reasoning to AI-based control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid; Lum, Henry, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Some current approaches to plausible reasoning in artificial intelligence are reviewed and discussed. Some of the most significant recent advances in plausible and approximate reasoning are examined. A synergism among the techniques of uncertainty management is advocated, and brief discussions on the certainty factor approach, probabilistic approach, Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence, possibility theory, linguistic variables, and fuzzy control are presented. Some extensions to these methods are described, and the applications of the methods are considered.

  11. Flight data identification of six degree-of-freedom stability and control derivatives of a large crane type helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomaine, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Flight test data from a large 'crane' type helicopter were collected and processed for the purpose of identifying vehicle rigid body stability and control derivatives. The process consisted of using digital and Kalman filtering techniques for state estimation and Extended Kalman filtering for parameter identification, utilizing a least squares algorithm for initial derivative and variance estimates. Data were processed for indicated airspeeds from 0 m/sec to 152 m/sec. Pulse, doublet and step control inputs were investigated. Digital filter frequency did not have a major effect on the identification process, while the initial derivative estimates and the estimated variances had an appreciable effect on many derivative estimates. The major derivatives identified agreed fairly well with analytical predictions and engineering experience. Doublet control inputs provided better results than pulse or step inputs.

  12. Pilgrims sailing the Titanic: plausibility effects on memory for misinformation.

    PubMed

    Hinze, Scott R; Slaten, Daniel G; Horton, William S; Jenkins, Ryan; Rapp, David N

    2014-02-01

    People rely on information they read even when it is inaccurate (Marsh, Meade, & Roediger, Journal of Memory and Language 49:519-536, 2003), but how ubiquitous is this phenomenon? In two experiments, we investigated whether this tendency to encode and rely on inaccuracies from text might be influenced by the plausibility of misinformation. In Experiment 1, we presented stories containing inaccurate plausible statements (e.g., "The Pilgrims' ship was the Godspeed"), inaccurate implausible statements (e.g., . . . the Titanic), or accurate statements (e.g., . . . the Mayflower). On a subsequent test of general knowledge, participants relied significantly less on implausible than on plausible inaccuracies from the texts but continued to rely on accurate information. In Experiment 2, we replicated these results with the addition of a think-aloud procedure to elicit information about readers' noticing and evaluative processes for plausible and implausible misinformation. Participants indicated more skepticism and less acceptance of implausible than of plausible inaccuracies. In contrast, they often failed to notice, completely ignored, and at times even explicitly accepted the misinformation provided by plausible lures. These results offer insight into the conditions under which reliance on inaccurate information occurs and suggest potential mechanisms that may underlie reported misinformation effects.

  13. Performance, methanol tolerance and stability of Fe-aminobenzimidazole derived catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastián, David; Serov, Alexey; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Atanassov, Plamen; Aricò, Antonino S.; Baglio, Vincenzo

    2016-07-01

    Highly active and durable non-platinum group metals (non-PGM) catalyst based on iron-nitrogen-carbon (Fe-N-C) for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) derived from pyrolyzed Fe-aminobenzimidazole (Fe-ABZIM) was synthesized by sacrificial support method (SSM), and characterized by several physical-chemical techniques: scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In half-cell electrochemical configuration, the Fe-ABZIM catalyst presented a significant improvement of ORR activity with respect to a recently reported non-PGM formulation based on Fe-aminoantipyrine, with an enhancement of half-wave potential of about 85 mV in O2-saturated sulfuric acid solution. To the moment, the gap with respect to a benchmark Pt/C catalyst was about 90 mV. The Fe-ABZIM catalyst showed a remarkably high tolerance to methanol, resulting in superior ORR performance compared to Pt/C at methanol concentrations higher than 0.02 M. In direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) good performances were also obtained. A durability test (100 h) at 90 °C, feeding 5 M methanol, was carried out. A certain decrease of performance was recorded, amounting to -0.20 mW cm-2 h-1 at the very beginning of test and -0.05 mW cm-2 h-1 at the end. However, the Fe-ABZIM is more adequate than previously reported formulations in terms of both ORR activity and stability.

  14. Host-guest system of hesperetin and β-cyclodextrin or its derivatives: Preparation, characterization, inclusion mode, solubilization and stability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Juan; Xia, Sha; Ma, Shui-Xian; Zhou, Shu-Ya; Zhao, Xue-Qiu; Wang, Shu-Hui; Li, Min-Yan; Yang, Xiao-Dong

    2016-02-01

    The inclusion complexation behavior, characterization and binding ability of hesperetin with β-cyclodextrin and its derivatives were investigated in both the solution and solid state by means of XRD, DSC, SEM, (1)H and 2D NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy. The results showed that the water solubility and stability of hesperetin were obviously increased in the inclusion complex with cyclodextrins. This satisfactory water solubility and high stability of the hesperetin/CD complexes will be potentially useful for their application as herbal medicines or healthcare products.

  15. Peroxidase-like activity of gold nanoparticles stabilized by hyperbranched polyglycidol derivatives over a wide pH range.

    PubMed

    Drozd, Marcin; Pietrzak, Mariusz; Parzuchowski, Paweł; Mazurkiewicz-Pawlicka, Marta; Malinowska, Elżbieta

    2015-12-11

    The aim of this work was to carry out comparative studies on the peroxidase-like activity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) stabilized with low molecular weight hyperbranched polyglycidol (HBPG-OH) and its derivative modified with maleic acid residues (HBPG-COOH). The influence of the stabilizer to gold precursor ratio on the size and morphology of nanoparticles obtained was checked, and prepared nanoparticles were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results indicated the divergent effect of increasing the concentration of stabilizers (HBPG-OH or HBPG-COOH) on the size of the nanostructures obtained. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized as having intrinsic peroxidase-like activity and the mechanism of catalysis in acidic and alkaline mediums was consistent with the standard Michaelis-Menten kinetics, revealing a strong affinity of AuNPs with 2, 2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 3, 3', 5, 5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), and significantly lower affinity towards phenol. By comparing the kinetic parameters, a negligible effect of polymeric ligand charge on activity against various types of substrates (anionic or cationic) was indicated. The superiority of steric stabilization via the application of tested low-weight hyperbranched polymers over typical stabilizers in preventing salt-induced aggregation and maintaining high catalytic activity in time was proved. The applied hyperbranched stabilizers provide a good tool for manufacturing gold-based nanozymes, which are highly stable and active over a wide pH range.

  16. Peroxidase-like activity of gold nanoparticles stabilized by hyperbranched polyglycidol derivatives over a wide pH range.

    PubMed

    Drozd, Marcin; Pietrzak, Mariusz; Parzuchowski, Paweł; Mazurkiewicz-Pawlicka, Marta; Malinowska, Elżbieta

    2015-12-11

    The aim of this work was to carry out comparative studies on the peroxidase-like activity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) stabilized with low molecular weight hyperbranched polyglycidol (HBPG-OH) and its derivative modified with maleic acid residues (HBPG-COOH). The influence of the stabilizer to gold precursor ratio on the size and morphology of nanoparticles obtained was checked, and prepared nanoparticles were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results indicated the divergent effect of increasing the concentration of stabilizers (HBPG-OH or HBPG-COOH) on the size of the nanostructures obtained. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized as having intrinsic peroxidase-like activity and the mechanism of catalysis in acidic and alkaline mediums was consistent with the standard Michaelis-Menten kinetics, revealing a strong affinity of AuNPs with 2, 2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 3, 3', 5, 5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), and significantly lower affinity towards phenol. By comparing the kinetic parameters, a negligible effect of polymeric ligand charge on activity against various types of substrates (anionic or cationic) was indicated. The superiority of steric stabilization via the application of tested low-weight hyperbranched polymers over typical stabilizers in preventing salt-induced aggregation and maintaining high catalytic activity in time was proved. The applied hyperbranched stabilizers provide a good tool for manufacturing gold-based nanozymes, which are highly stable and active over a wide pH range. PMID:26567596

  17. Improved stability of TMS derivatives for the robust quantification of plant polar metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Quéro, Anthony; Jousse, Cyril; Lequart-Pillon, Michelle; Gontier, Eric; Guillot, Xavier; Courtois, Bernard; Courtois, Josiane; Pau-Roblot, Corinne

    2014-11-01

    Plant metabolite profiling is commonly carried out by GC-MS of methoximated trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives. This technique is robust and enables a library search for spectra produced by electron ionization. However, recent articles have described problems associated with the low stability of some TMS derivatives. This limits the use of GC-MS for metabolomic studies that need large sets of qualitative and quantitative analyses. The aim of this work is to determine the experimental conditions in which the stability of TMS derivatives could be improved. This would facilitate the analysis of the large-scale experimental designs needed in the metabolomics approach. For good repeatability, the sampling conditions and the storage temperature of samples during analysis were investigated. Multiple injections of one sample from one vial led to high variations while injection of one sample from different vials improved the analysis. However, before injection, some amino acid TMS derivatives were degraded during the storage of vials in the autosampler. Only 10% of the initial quantity of glutamine 3 TMS and glutamate 3 TMS and 66% of α-alanine 2 TMS was detected 48 h after derivatization. When stored at 4 °C until injection, all TMS derivatives remained stable for 12 h; at -20 °C, they remained stable for 72 h. From the integration of all these results, a detailed analytical procedure is thus proposed. It enables a robust quantification of polar metabolites, useful for further plant metabolomics studies using GC-MS.

  18. Is semantic preview benefit due to relatedness or plausibility?

    PubMed

    Veldre, Aaron; Andrews, Sally

    2016-07-01

    There is increasing evidence that skilled readers of English benefit from processing a parafoveal preview of a semantically related word. However, in previous investigations of semantic preview benefit using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm the semantic relatedness between the preview and target has been confounded with the plausibility of the preview word in the sentence. In the present study, preview relatedness and plausibility were independently manipulated in neutral sentences read by a large sample of skilled adult readers. Participants were assessed on measures of reading and spelling ability to identify possible sources of individual differences in preview effects. The results showed that readers benefited from a preview of a plausible word, regardless of the semantic relatedness of the preview and the target. However, there was limited evidence of a semantic relatedness benefit when the plausibility of the preview was controlled. The plausibility preview benefit was strongest for low proficiency readers, suggesting that poorer readers were more likely to program a forward saccade based on information extracted from the preview. High proficiency readers showed equivalent disruption from all nonidentical previews suggesting that they were more likely to suffer interference from the orthographic mismatch between preview and target. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26752734

  19. Corrosion and stability study of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki starch industry wastewater-derived biopesticide formulation.

    PubMed

    Gnepe, Jean R; Tyagi, Rajeshwar D; Brar, Satinder K; Valéro, José R; Surampalli, Rao Y

    2014-01-01

    Biopesticides are usually sprayed on forests by using planes made up of aluminum alloy. Bioval derived from starch industry wastewater (SIW) in suspension form was developed as stable anticorrosive biopesticide formulation. In this context, various anticorrosion agents such as activated charcoal, glycerin, ethylene glycol, phytic acid, castor oil and potassium silicate were tested as anticorrosive agents. There was no corrosion found in Bioval formulation where potassium silicate (0.5% w/v) was added and compared with Foray 76 B, as an industrial standard, when stored over 6 months. In relation to other parameters, the anticorrosion formulation of Bioval+buffer+KSi reported excellent zeta potential (-33.19 ± 4 mV) and the viscosity (319.13 ± 32 mPa.s) proving it's stability over 6 months, compared to the standard biopesticide Foray 76 B (-36.62 ± 4 mV potential zeta, pH 4.14 ± 0.1 and 206 ± 21 mPa.s viscosity). Metal analysis of the different biopesticides showed that Bioval+buffer+KSi has no corrosion (5.11 ± 0.5 mg kg(-1) of Al and 13.53 ± 1.5 mg kg(-1) of Fe) on the aluminum alloy due to the contribution of sodium acetate buffer at pH 5. The bioassays reported excellent results for Bioval+Buffer+KSi (2.95 ± 0.3 × 10(9) CFU mL(-1) spores and 26.6 ± 2.7 × 10(9) IU L(-1) Tx) compared with initial Bioval (2.46 ± 0.3 × 10(9) CFU mL(-1) spores and 23.09 ± 3 × 10(9) IU L(-1) Tx) and Foray 76 B (2.3 ± 0.2 × 10(9) CFU mL(-1) spores and 19.950 ± 2.1 UI L(-1) Tx) which was due to the break-up of the external chitinous membrane due to abrasive action of potassium silicate after ingestion by insects. The contribution of sodium acetate buffer and potassium silicate (0.5% and at pH = 5) as anticorrosion agent in the Bioval allowed production of an efficient biopesticide with a reduced viscosity and favorable pH as compared to Foray 76 B which enhanced the entomotoxic potential against spruce budworm (SB) larvae (Lepidoptera: Choristoneura fumiferana).

  20. Navier-Stokes predictions of dynamic stability derivatives for air-breathing hypersonic vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xu; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Yunfei

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic derivatives are important parameters for designing vehicle trajectory and attitude control system that directly decide the divergence behavior of vibration of the aircraft open-loop system under interference. After calibration model validation, the dynamic behavior of air-breathing hypersonic vehicle WR-A is characterized. The unsteady flow field of aircraft forced simple harmonic vibration (SHV) is simulated using N-S equation. The direct damping derivatives, cross derivatives, acceleration derivatives and rotary derivatives of WR-A under different frequencies, amplitudes and positions of centroid are obtained. Research demonstrates that the proportion of acceleration derivatives, which represents the flow time lag effect, in the direct damping derivatives can be as high as 40% but is opposite to the damping derivative value symbols in some cases, contributing to dynamic instability. Numerical simulation on large-amplitude forced vibration of WR-A indicates that the aerodynamic behavior predicted by the dynamic derivative model agrees well with unsteady calculations. The inlet performance parameter derivatives are solved using the Etkin theory. The inlet performance parameters under large-amplitude vibration are successfully predicted using the dynamic derivative model. This offers a guideline for characterizing the dynamic internal flow field and unsteady inlet performance.

  1. Solute-Derived Thermal Stabilization of Nano-sized Grains in Melt-Spun Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. H.; Sanders, P. G.; Lass, E. A.; Kapoor, Deepak; Kampe, S. L.

    2016-08-01

    Thermal stabilization of nanograined metallic microstructures (or nanostructures) can be difficult due to the large driving force for growth that arises from the inherently significant boundary area. Kinetic approaches for stabilization of the nanostructure effective at low homologous temperatures often fail at higher homologous temperatures. Alternatively, thermodynamic approaches for thermal stabilization may offer higher temperature stability. In this research, modest alloying of aluminum with solute (1 pct by mole Sc, Yb, or Sr) was examined as a means to thermodynamically stabilize a bulk nanostructure at elevated temperatures. Following 1-hour annealing treatments at 673 K (400 °C) (0.72 Tm), 773 K (500 °C) (0.83 Tm), and 873 K (600 °C) (0.94 Tm), the alloys remain nanocrystalline (<100 nm) as measured by Warren-Averbach Fourier analysis of X-ray diffraction peaks and direct observation of TEM dark-field micrographs, with the efficacy of stabilization: Sr ≈ Yb > Sc. The disappearance of intermetallic phases in the Sr- and Yb-containing alloys in the X-ray diffraction spectra is observed to occur coincident with the stabilization after annealing, suggesting that precipitates dissolve and the boundaries are enriched with solute.

  2. Calculation of lateral-directional stability derivatives for wing-body combinations with and without jet-interaction effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical method is presented for predicting the lateral-directional stability derivatives of wing-body combinations with or without the blowing jet effect. The fuselage effect is accounted for by the axial distribution of vortex multiplets. Comparison of the predicted results with experiments and other theoretical methods show good agreement for configurations without the blowing jet. More applicable experimental data with blowing jets are needed to establish the accuracy of the theory.

  3. Dynamic Longitudinal and Directional Stability Derivatives for a 45 deg. Sweptback-Wing Airplane Model at Transonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielat, Ralph P.; Wiley, Harleth G.

    1959-01-01

    An investigation was made at transonic speeds to determine some of the dynamic stability derivatives of a 45 deg. sweptback-wing airplane model. The model was sting mounted and was rigidly forced to perform a single-degree-of-freedom angular oscillation in pitch or yaw of +/- 2 deg. The investigation was made for angles of attack alpha, from -4 deg. to 14 deg. throughout most of the transonic speed range for values of reduced-frequency parameter from 0.015 to 0.040 based on wing mean aerodynamic chord and from 0.04 to 0.14 based on wing span. The results show that reduced frequency had only a small effect on the damping-in-pitch derivative and the oscillatory longitudinal stability derivative for all Mach numbers M and angles of attack with the exception of the values of damping coefficient near M = 1.03 and alpha = 8 deg. to 14 deg. In this region, the damping coefficient changed rapidly with reduced frequency and negative values of damping coefficient were measured at low values of reduced frequency. This abrupt variation of pitch damping with reduced frequency was a characteristic of the complete model or wing-body-vertical-tail combination. The damping-in-pitch derivative varied considerably with alpha and M for the horizontal-tail-on and horizontal-tail-off configurations, and the damping was relatively high at angles of attack corresponding to the onset of pitch-up for both configurations. The damping-in-yaw derivative was generally independent of reduced frequency and M at alpha = -4 deg. to 4 deg. At alpha = 8 deg. to 14 deg., the damping derivative increased with an increase in reduced frequency and alpha for the configurations having the wing, whereas the damping derivative was either independent of or decreased with increase in reduced frequency for the configuration without the wing. The oscillatory directional stability derivative for all configurations generally decreased with an increase in the reduced-frequency parameter, and, in some instances

  4. Interpreting a Graph and Constructing Its Derivative Graph: Stability and Change in Students' Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubuz, Behiye

    2007-01-01

    This present study investigated engineering students' conceptions and misconceptions related to derivative, particularly interpreting the graph of a function and constructing its derivative graph. Participants were 147 first year engineering students from four universities enrolled in first year undergraduate calculus courses with or without the…

  5. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as Plausible Prebiotic Membrane Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groen, Joost; Deamer, David W.; Kros, Alexander; Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    2012-08-01

    Aromatic molecules delivered to the young Earth during the heavy bombardment phase in the early history of our solar system were likely to be among the most abundant and stable organic compounds available. The Aromatic World hypothesis suggests that aromatic molecules might function as container elements, energy transduction elements and templating genetic components for early life forms. To investigate the possible role of aromatic molecules as container elements, we incorporated different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the membranes of fatty acid vesicles. The goal was to determine whether PAH could function as a stabilizing agent, similar to the role that cholesterol plays in membranes today. We studied vesicle size distribution, critical vesicle concentration and permeability of the bilayers using C6-C10 fatty acids mixed with amphiphilic PAH derivatives such as 1-hydroxypyrene, 9-anthracene carboxylic acid and 1,4 chrysene quinone. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) spectroscopy was used to measure the size distribution of vesicles and incorporation of PAH species was established by phase-contrast and epifluorescence microscopy. We employed conductimetric titration to determine the minimal concentration at which fatty acids could form stable vesicles in the presence of PAHs. We found that oxidized PAH derivatives can be incorporated into decanoic acid (DA) vesicle bilayers in mole ratios up to 1:10 (PAH:DA). Vesicle size distribution and critical vesicle concentration were largely unaffected by PAH incorporation, but 1-hydroxypyrene and 9-anthracene carboxylic acid lowered the permeability of fatty acid bilayers to small solutes up to 4-fold. These data represent the first indication of a cholesterol-like stabilizing effect of oxidized PAH derivatives in a simulated prebiotic membrane.

  6. Plausibility: Is There a Place for It in Chemistry Teaching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    Some of the persistent misinformation offered to secondary students while studying chemistry is discussed. A few cases where plausibility, knowingly or otherwise, has been offered to students instead of the accurate explanation are described. Concepts of charge, current, the mole, amount, rates, activation energy, sign convention in voltaic cells,…

  7. Choosing from Plausible Alternatives in Interpreting Qualitative Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donmoyer, Robert

    This paper addresses a variation of the traditional validity question asked of qualitative researchers. Here the question is not "How do we know the qualitative researcher's question is valid?" but rather, "How does the qualitative researcher choose from among a multitude of apparently valid or at least plausible interpretations?" As early as…

  8. Stabilization and detection of hydrophylloquinone as di-O-methyl derivative.

    PubMed

    Sussmann, Rodrigo A C; de Moraes, Marcilio M; Cebrián-Torrejón, Gerardo; Porta, Exequiel O; Doménech-Carbó, Antonio; Yamaguchi, Lydia F; Katzin, Alejandro M; Kato, Massuo J

    2016-10-15

    Phylloquinone is a redox active naphthoquinone involved in electron transport in plants. The function of this reduced form remains unclear due to its instability, which has precluded detection. Herein, a simple method that permits the stabilization of the reduced form of phylloquinone by di-O-methylation and HPLC detection is described.

  9. Genomic stability of Palmer amaranth plants derived by macro-vegetative propagation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Q-PCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were utilized to investigate genetic stability of Palmer amaranth cloned plants over 10 generations. Q-PCR analysis of DNA from parent Palmer amaranth plants was repeated and confidence levels for determining ...

  10. Peroxidase-like activity of gold nanoparticles stabilized by hyperbranched polyglycidol derivatives over a wide pH range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd, Marcin; Pietrzak, Mariusz; Parzuchowski, Paweł; Mazurkiewicz-Pawlicka, Marta; Malinowska, Elżbieta

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to carry out comparative studies on the peroxidase-like activity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) stabilized with low molecular weight hyperbranched polyglycidol (HBPG-OH) and its derivative modified with maleic acid residues (HBPG-COOH). The influence of the stabilizer to gold precursor ratio on the size and morphology of nanoparticles obtained was checked, and prepared nanoparticles were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results indicated the divergent effect of increasing the concentration of stabilizers (HBPG-OH or HBPG-COOH) on the size of the nanostructures obtained. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized as having intrinsic peroxidase-like activity and the mechanism of catalysis in acidic and alkaline mediums was consistent with the standard Michaelis-Menten kinetics, revealing a strong affinity of AuNPs with 2, 2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 3, 3‧, 5, 5‧-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), and significantly lower affinity towards phenol. By comparing the kinetic parameters, a negligible effect of polymeric ligand charge on activity against various types of substrates (anionic or cationic) was indicated. The superiority of steric stabilization via the application of tested low-weight hyperbranched polymers over typical stabilizers in preventing salt-induced aggregation and maintaining high catalytic activity in time was proved. The applied hyperbranched stabilizers provide a good tool for manufacturing gold-based nanozymes, which are highly stable and active over a wide pH range.

  11. A parametric study of planform and aeroelastic effects on aerodynamic center, alpha- and q- stability derivatives. Appendix A: A computer program for calculating alpha- and q- stability derivatives and induced drag for thin elastic aeroplanes at subsonic and supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.; Lan, C.; Mehrotra, S.

    1972-01-01

    The computer program used to determine the rigid and elastic stability derivatives presented in the summary report is listed in this appendix along with instructions for its use, sample input data and answers. This program represents the airplane at subsonic and supersonic speeds as (a) thin surface(s) (without dihedral) composed of discrete panels of constant pressure according to the method of Woodward for the aerodynamic effects and slender beam(s) for the structural effects. Given a set of input data, the computer program calculates an aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix and a structural influence coefficient matrix.

  12. X-29A Lateral-Directional Stability and Control Derivatives Extracted From High-Angle-of-Attack Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles Wang

    1996-01-01

    The lateral-directional stability and control derivatives of the X-29A number 2 are extracted from flight data over an angle-of-attack range of 4 degrees to 53 degrees using a parameter identification algorithm. The algorithm uses the linearized aircraft equations of motion and a maximum likelihood estimator in the presence of state and measurement noise. State noise is used to model the uncommanded forcing function caused by unsteady aerodynamics over the aircraft at angles of attack above 15 degrees. The results supported the flight-envelope-expansion phase of the X-29A number 2 by helping to update the aerodynamic mathematical model, to improve the real-time simulator, and to revise flight control system laws. Effects of the aircraft high gain flight control system on maneuver quality and the estimated derivatives are also discussed. The derivatives are plotted as functions of angle of attack and compared with the predicted aerodynamic database. Agreement between predicted and flight values is quite good for some derivatives such as the lateral force due to sideslip, the lateral force due to rudder deflection, and the rolling moment due to roll rate. The results also show significant differences in several important derivatives such as the rolling moment due to sideslip, the yawing moment due to sideslip, the yawing moment due to aileron deflection, and the yawing moment due to rudder deflection.

  13. Quinazoline derivative QPB-15e stabilizes the c-myc promoter G-quadruplex and inhibits tumor growth in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zeng; Liu, Chen; Huang, Cheng; Meng, Xiaoming; Zhang, Lei; He, Jinhui; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The ribozyme-sensitive element NHE-III1 in the P1 promoter region of the important proto-oncogene c-myc contains many guanine (G)-rich sequences. Induction and stabilization of the G-quadruplex formed by NHE-III1 can downregulate c-myc expression. In the present study, we found that QPB-15e, a quinazoline derivative designed and synthesized by our laboratory, binds to and stabilizes the c-myc G-quadruplex in vitro, thereby inhibiting double-stranded DNA replication, downregulating c-myc gene expression and arresting cancer cell proliferation. PCR termination experiments showed that QPB-15e blocked double-stranded DNA replication by inducing or stabilizing the c-myc G-quadruplex. FRET-melting further confirmed that QPB-15e improved the stability of the G-quadruplex, and CD spectroscopy indicated that the compound interacted directly with the G-rich sequence. In competitive dialysis experiments, QPB-15e bound preferentially to quadruplex DNA in various structures, especially the G-quadruplex within the c-myc promoter region. Moreover, QPB-15e reduced the weights and volumes of tumors transplanted into nude mice. These findings strongly suggest that QPB-15e is a c-myc G-quadruplex ligand with anti-tumor properties, and may be efficacious for treating cancer in humans. PMID:27144522

  14. Quinazoline derivative QPB-15e stabilizes the c-myc promoter G-quadruplex and inhibits tumor growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Zeng; Liu, Chen; Huang, Cheng; Meng, Xiaoming; Zhang, Lei; He, Jinhui; Li, Jun

    2016-06-01

    The ribozyme-sensitive element NHE-III1 in the P1 promoter region of the important proto-oncogene c-myc contains many guanine (G)-rich sequences. Induction and stabilization of the G-quadruplex formed by NHE-III1 can downregulate c-myc expression. In the present study, we found that QPB-15e, a quinazoline derivative designed and synthesized by our laboratory, binds to and stabilizes the c-myc G-quadruplex in vitro, thereby inhibiting double-stranded DNA replication, downregulating c-myc gene expression and arresting cancer cell proliferation. PCR termination experiments showed that QPB-15e blocked double-stranded DNA replication by inducing or stabilizing the c-myc G-quadruplex. FRET-melting further confirmed that QPB-15e improved the stability of the G-quadruplex, and CD spectroscopy indicated that the compound interacted directly with the G-rich sequence. In competitive dialysis experiments, QPB-15e bound preferentially to quadruplex DNA in various structures, especially the G-quadruplex within the c-myc promoter region. Moreover, QPB-15e reduced the weights and volumes of tumors transplanted into nude mice. These findings strongly suggest that QPB-15e is a c-myc G-quadruplex ligand with anti-tumor properties, and may be efficacious for treating cancer in humans.

  15. Understanding the nucleophilic character and stability of the carbanions and alkoxides of 1-(9-anthryl)ethanol and derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Ramsés E; García-Martínez, Cirilo; Méndez, Francisco

    2013-08-22

    The nucleophilic character and stability of the carbanions vs. alkoxides derived from 2,2,2-trifluoro-1-(9-anthryl)ethanol and 1-(9-anthryl)ethanol containing X electron-releasing and X electron-acceptor substituents attached to C-10, have been studied at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. Results analyzed in terms of the absolute gas-phase acidity, Fukui function, the local hard and soft acids and bases principle, and the molecular electrostatic potential, show that the central ring of the 9-anthryl group confers an ambident nucleophilic character and stabilizes the conjugated carbanion by electron-acceptor delocalization.

  16. Structure, stability, and antiplatelet activity of O-acyl derivatives of salicylic acid and lipophilic esters of acetylsalicylate.

    PubMed

    Zavodnik, Ilya B; Lapshina, Elena; Sudnikovich, Elena; Boncler, Magdalena; Luzak, Bogusława; Rózalski, Marcin; Helińska, Magdalena; Watała, Cezary

    2009-01-01

    The anti-thrombotic activity of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) has been shown to be due to specific irreversible acetylation of blood platelet cyclooxygenase. The aim of our study was to investigate the associations between the antiplatelet activities of derivatives of both ASA and salicylic acid (SA), as well as the structure, stability, and molecular properties of these compounds. Homologous series of O-acyl derivatives of salicylic acid (propionyl-, butyrylsalicylic acids, PSA, BSA) and lipophilic dodecyl (C12)-, hexadecyl (C16)-, and cholesteryl acetylsalicylates were synthesized and tested for structure-activity relationships. The molecular properties (heat of formation, molecular surface area, dipole moment) of ASA and SA derivatives obtained by theoretical calculations changed with the increasing length of the acyl or alkyl residue. The inhibition of whole blood platelet aggregation and the reduction in thromboxane (TX) generation by O-acyl derivatives were concentration-dependent and decreased along with increasing the length of acyl hain. These effects correlated with the extent of platelet reactivity and P-selectin expression inhibition in collagen-activated platelets. In contrast to ASA and O-acyl derivatives of SA, none of the lipophilic ASA derivatives had a significant inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation. In conclusion, all SA and ASA derivatives studied under in vitro conditions showed much lower antiplatelet activities than ASA itself, despite their higher affinity to plasma proteins or membrane components and their equivalent ability to acetylate protein free amino groups.We suggest the significance of the carboxylic group, dipole moment, geometry, and size of these pharmaceuticals in their ability to bind to the active site of cyclooxygenase and their antiplatelet efficacy.

  17. The measured and estimated rotary stability derivatives of the X-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinling, Bruce; Surber, True; Tunnell, Phillips J; Lopez, Armando

    1958-01-01

    Measurements of the rotary derivatives of the X-15 aircraft were made in several of the wind tunnels of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The speed range was from landing speed up to Mach number, 3.5. The measurements were made on the steady-state, forced-oscillation equipment. The apparatus measures the rotary derivatives during small-amplitude, single-degree-of-freedom oscillations. In this paper the results of the wind-tunnel tests are compared with the values of the rotary derivatives estimated by the available procedures. Whenever possible, the results of wind-tunnel measurements of the static forces and moments on the X-15 have been utilized in the estimation procedures to obtain lift-curve slopes and centers of pressure of the tail surfaces. In this way, at least a partial account is taken of the effects of the fuselage and wing downwash and pressure field on the tail surfaces.

  18. A Wind-tunnel Test Technique for Measuring the Dynamic Rotary Stability Derivatives at Subsonic and Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beam, Benjamin H

    1956-01-01

    A method is described for measuring the dynamic stability derivatives of a model airplane in a wind tunnel. The characteristic features of this system are that single-degree-of-freedom oscillations were used to obtain combinations of rolling, yawing and pitching motions; that the oscillations were excited and controlled by velocity feedback which permitted operation under conditions unfavorable for more conventional types of oscillatory testing; and that data processing was greatly simplified by using analog computer elements in the strain-gage circuitry. A small number of experimental data are included to illustrate the general scope of results obtainable with this system.

  19. Application of the conservation laws to the derivation of stability conditions for stationary flows of an ideal liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, V. A.

    1987-06-01

    A study is made of the motion integrals of an ideal incompressible liquid which are of interest from the standpoint of applications to the stability problem. The motion integrals are used to derive a functional which achieves its steady-state value over a given stationary flow. An analysis of the second variation shows that it has a fixed sign (flow is stable) only in the case of motion with symmetries. It is shown that general expressions for the second variation are integrals of linearized equations of motion. A generalization to the case of a stratified liquid is presented.

  20. Extraction of Lateral-Directional Stability and Control Derivatives for the Basic F-18 Aircraft at High Angles of Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles

    1997-01-01

    The results of parameter identification to determine the lateral-directional stability and control derivatives of an F-18 research aircraft in its basic hardware and software configuration are presented. The derivatives are estimated from dynamic flight data using a specialized identification program developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The formulation uses the linearized aircraft equations of motions in their continuous/discrete form and a maximum likelihood estimator that accounts for both state and measurement noise. State noise is used to model the uncommanded forcing function caused by unsteady aerodynamics, such as separated and vortical flows, over the aircraft. The derivatives are plotted as functions of angle of attack between 3 deg and 47 deg and compared with wind-tunnel predictions. The quality of the derivative estimates obtained by parameter identification is somewhat degraded because the maneuvers were flown with the aircraft's control augmentation system engaged, which introduced relatively high correlations between the control variables and response variables as a result of control motions from the feedback control system.

  1. On a Model for Mixture Flows: Derivation, Dissipation and Stability Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudon, Thierry; Vasseur, Alexis

    2016-04-01

    We propose a new model describing mixture flows. The non linear system couples heterogeneous Navier-Stokes equations with a constraint on the mean volume velocity of the flow. The PDE system is obtained from a more microscopic viewpoint, involving a Vlasov-like equation describing the disperse phase, through a certain hydrodynamic limit. The model has remarkable dissipation properties, inherited from the structure of the fluid-kinetic description. Based on these properties, together with additional estimates that can be obtained in the one-dimension framework, we establish the stability of weak solutions.

  2. Analysis of Dynamic Stability of Space Launch Vehicles under Aerodynamic Forces Using CFD Derived Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trikha, M.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Mahapatra, D. Roy

    2011-09-01

    A computational framework is developed to investigate the dynamic stability of space launch vehicles subjected to aerodynamic forces. A detailed mechanics based mathematical model of a moving flexible vehicle is used. The aerodynamic forces on the vehicle are obtained from simulation using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) package. The objective behind this investigation is to analyze the problem of aeroelastic instability in blunt/conical nose slender space launch vehicles. Coupling among the rigid-body modes, the longitudinal vibration modes, and the transverse vibrational modes are considered. The effect of propulsive thrust as a follower force is also considered. A one-dimensional finite element model is developed to investigate the occurrence of aeroelastic instabilities of various types. Eigenvalues of the vehicle are determined in order to analyze the stable regimes. As a special case, we show numerical simulations by considering a typical vehicle configuration, for a vehicle Mach number of 0.8. Phenomenon of flutter is observed at this Mach number. The proposed analysis is suitable for different launch events such as vehicle take-off, maximum dynamic pressure regime, thrust transients, stage separation etc. The approach developed in this paper can be utilized for preliminary design of launch vehicles and establishing the stability boundaries for different trajectory parameters.

  3. Electroweak vacuum stability and inflation via nonminimal derivative couplings to gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vita, Stefano; Germani, Cristiano

    2016-02-01

    We show that the standard model vacuum can be stabilized if all particle propagators are nonminimally coupled to gravity. This is due to a Higgs-background dependent redefinition of the standard model fields: in terms of canonical variables and in the large Higgs field limit, the quantum fluctuations of the redefined fields are suppressed by the Higgs background. Thus, in this regime, quantum corrections to the tree-level electroweak potential are negligible. Finally, we show that in this framework the Higgs boson can be responsible for inflation. Due to a numerical coincidence that originates from the CMB data, inflation can happen if the Higgs boson mass, the top mass, and the QCD coupling lie in a region of the parameter space approximately equivalent than the one allowing for electroweak vacuum stability in the standard Model. We find some (small) regions in the standard model parameter space in which the new interaction "rescues" the electroweak vacuum, which would not be stable in the standard model.

  4. Pentaleno[1,2-a:4,5']diacenaphthylenes: Uniquely Stabilized Pentalene Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bingxin; Zhuang, Junpeng; Kirmess, Kristopher M; Bridgmohan, Chelsea N; Whalley, Adam C; Wang, Lichang; Plunkett, Kyle N

    2016-09-16

    We demonstrate the preparation of diacenaphthopentalene derivatives via a palladium-catalyzed dimerization of 1-iodo-2-arylethynyl-acenaphthylenes. The resulting 7,14-diarylpentaleno[1,2-a:4,5a']diacenaphthylenes, which contain four linearly fused five-membered rings, are benchtop stable and behave as hole-transporting or ambipolar semiconductors in organic field effect transistors. The X-ray crystal structure shows the important role of the fused naphthalene unit that enforces a formal pentalene subunit at the central five-membered rings and [5]-radialene-like structures at the proximal five-membered rings. Nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS) calculations show the internal pentalene rings are intermediate in antiaromaticity character between known pentalene and dibenzopentalenes derivatives. The diacenaphthopentalene derivatives give high optical gap materials owing to a forbidden HOMO to LUMO transition, yet have narrow electrochemical gaps and are reduced at small negative potentials giving LUMO energy levels of -3.57 to -3.74 eV. PMID:27559925

  5. An integer order approximation method based on stability boundary locus for fractional order derivative/integrator operators.

    PubMed

    Deniz, Furkan Nur; Alagoz, Baris Baykant; Tan, Nusret; Atherton, Derek P

    2016-05-01

    This paper introduces an integer order approximation method for numerical implementation of fractional order derivative/integrator operators in control systems. The proposed method is based on fitting the stability boundary locus (SBL) of fractional order derivative/integrator operators and SBL of integer order transfer functions. SBL defines a boundary in the parametric design plane of controller, which separates stable and unstable regions of a feedback control system and SBL analysis is mainly employed to graphically indicate the choice of controller parameters which result in stable operation of the feedback systems. This study reveals that the SBL curves of fractional order operators can be matched with integer order models in a limited frequency range. SBL fitting method provides straightforward solutions to obtain an integer order model approximation of fractional order operators and systems according to matching points from SBL of fractional order systems in desired frequency ranges. Thus, the proposed method can effectively deal with stability preservation problems of approximate models. Illustrative examples are given to show performance of the proposed method and results are compared with the well-known approximation methods developed for fractional order systems. The integer-order approximate modeling of fractional order PID controllers is also illustrated for control applications. PMID:26876378

  6. Bio-lubricants derived from waste cooking oil with improved oxidation stability and low-temperature properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Weimin; Wang, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) was chemically modified via epoxidation using H2O2 followed by transesterification with methanol and branched alcohols (isooctanol, isotridecanol and isooctadecanol) to produce bio-lubricants with improved oxidative stability and low temperature properties. Physicochemical properties of synthesized bio-lubricants such as pour point (PP), cloud point (CP), viscosity, viscosity index (VI), oxidative stability, and corrosion resistant property were determined according to standard methods. The synthesized bio-lubricants showed improved low temperature flow performances compared with WCO, which can be attributing to the introduction of branched chains in their molecular structures. What's more, the oxidation stability of the WCO showed more than 10 folds improvement due to the elimination of -C=C-bonds in the WCO molecule. Tribological performances of these bio-lubricants were also investigated using four-ball friction and wear tester. Experimental results showed that derivatives of WCO exhibited favorable physicochemical properties and tribological performances which making them good candidates in formulating eco-friendly lubricants.

  7. Oxidative stability and ignition quality of algae derived methyl esters containing varying levels of methyl eicosapentaenoate and methyl docosahexaenoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucy, Harrison

    Microalgae is currently receiving strong consideration as a potential biofuel feedstock to help meet the advanced biofuels mandate of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act because of its theoretically high yield (gallons/acre/year) in comparison to current terrestrial feedstocks. Additionally, microalgae also do not compete with food and can be cultivated with wastewater on non-arable land. Microalgae lipids can be converted into a variety of biofuels including fatty acid methyl esters (e.g. FAME biodiesel), renewable diesel, renewable gasoline, or jet fuel. For microalgae derived FAME, the fuel properties will be directly related to the fatty acid composition of the lipids produced by the given microalgae strain. Several microalgae species under consideration for wide scale cultivation, such as Nannochloropsis, produce lipids with fatty acid compositions containing substantially higher quantities of long chainpolyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in comparison to terrestrial feedstocks. It is expected that increased levels of LC-PUFA will be problematic in terms of meeting all of the current ASTM specifications for biodiesel. For example, it is known that oxidative stability and cetane number decrease with increasing levels of LC-PUFA. However, these same LC-PUFA fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA: C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA: C22:6) are known to have high nutritional value thereby making separation of these compounds economically attractive. Given the uncertainty in the future value of these LC-PUFA compounds and the economic viability of the separation process, the goal of this study was to examine the oxidative stability and ignition quality of algae-based FAME with varying levels of EPA and DHA removal. Oxidative stability tests were conducted at a temperature of 110°C and airflow of 10 L/h using a Metrohm 743 Rancimat with automatic induction period determination following the EN 14112 Method from the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214

  8. The influence of time dependent flight and maneuver velocities and elastic or viscoelastic flexibilities on aerodynamic and stability derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrane, Alexander P.; Merrett, Craig G.; Hilton, Harry H.

    2014-12-10

    The advent of new structural concepts employing composites in primary load carrying aerospace structures in UAVs, MAVs, Boeing 787s, Airbus A380s, etc., necessitates the inclusion of flexibility as well as viscoelasticity in static structural and aero-viscoelastic analyses. Differences and similarities between aeroelasticity and aero-viscoelasticity have been investigated in [2]. An investigation is undertaken as to the dependence and sensitivity of aerodynamic and stability derivatives to elastic and viscoelastic structural flexibility and as to time dependent flight and maneuver velocities. Longitudinal, lateral and directional stabilities are investigated. It has been a well established fact that elastic lifting surfaces are subject to loss of control effectiveness and control reversal at certain flight speeds, which depend on aerodynamic, structural and material properties [5]. Such elastic analyses are extended to linear viscoelastic materials under quasi-static, dynamic, and sudden and gradual loading conditions. In elastic wings one of the critical static parameters is the velocity at which control reversal takes place (V{sub REV}{sup E}). Since elastic formulations constitute viscoelastic initial conditions, viscoelastic reversal may occur at speeds V{sub REV<}{sup ≧}V{sub REV}{sup E}, but furthermore does so in time at 0 < t{sub REV} ≤ ∞. The influence of the twin effects of viscoelastic and elastic materials and of variable flight velocities on longitudinal, lateral, directional and spin stabilities are also investigated. It has been a well established fact that elastic lifting surfaces are subject to loss of control effectiveness and control reversal at certain flight speeds, which depend on aerodynamic, structural and material properties [5]. Such elastic analyses are here extended to linear viscoelastic materials under quasi-static, dynamic, and sudden and gradual loading conditions. In elastic wings the critical parameter is the velocity at

  9. The influence of time dependent flight and maneuver velocities and elastic or viscoelastic flexibilities on aerodynamic and stability derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, Alexander P.; Merrett, Craig G.; Hilton, Harry H.

    2014-12-01

    The advent of new structural concepts employing composites in primary load carrying aerospace structures in UAVs, MAVs, Boeing 787s, Airbus A380s, etc., necessitates the inclusion of flexibility as well as viscoelasticity in static structural and aero-viscoelastic analyses. Differences and similarities between aeroelasticity and aero-viscoelasticity have been investigated in [2]. An investigation is undertaken as to the dependence and sensitivity of aerodynamic and stability derivatives to elastic and viscoelastic structural flexibility and as to time dependent flight and maneuver velocities. Longitudinal, lateral and directional stabilities are investigated. It has been a well established fact that elastic lifting surfaces are subject to loss of control effectiveness and control reversal at certain flight speeds, which depend on aerodynamic, structural and material properties [5]. Such elastic analyses are extended to linear viscoelastic materials under quasi-static, dynamic, and sudden and gradual loading conditions. In elastic wings one of the critical static parameters is the velocity at which control reversal takes place (VREVE). Since elastic formulations constitute viscoelastic initial conditions, viscoelastic reversal may occur at speeds VREV<≧VREVE, but furthermore does so in time at 0 < tREV ≤ ∞. The influence of the twin effects of viscoelastic and elastic materials and of variable flight velocities on longitudinal, lateral, directional and spin stabilities are also investigated. It has been a well established fact that elastic lifting surfaces are subject to loss of control effectiveness and control reversal at certain flight speeds, which depend on aerodynamic, structural and material properties [5]. Such elastic analyses are here extended to linear viscoelastic materials under quasi-static, dynamic, and sudden and gradual loading conditions. In elastic wings the critical parameter is the velocity at which control reversal takes place (VREVE

  10. Foundations of Soil Organic Matter Stabilization: Tracing the Influence of Mineralogy on the Initial Sorption of Root-Derived Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neurath, R.; Nico, P. S.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Firestone, M.

    2014-12-01

    Soils are the largest terrestrial carbon (C) reservoir, storing 2,300 Gt C globally, with the largest C input allocated by plant roots. Many root-derived C inputs are low molecular weight compounds (exudates), although complex C compounds from sloughed off cells and decaying roots also contribute precursors to the soil organic matter (SOM) pool. Root-derived compounds are metabolized by microorganisms, using extracellular enzymes to degrade the more complex C compounds. Thus, products of microbial use of root C may be free in soil solution or occur as microbial cell material. Products of root decomposition are stabilized in soil when C compounds are protected from degradation by (i) chemical recalcitrance, (ii) physical protection by aggregation, or (iii) physical-chemical protection by sorption to mineral surfaces. Previous studies show that sorption of SOM to soil minerals can stabilize C compounds for up to thousands of years. We examined the influence of soil mineralogy on sorption of root-derived C. We hypothesized that differences in specific surface area (SSA) and chemical reactivity of four mineral types: goethite, kaolinite, quartz, as well as native minerals extracted from field soil, are significant controls on the rate, quantity, and composition of mineral-sorbed SOM. Soils were collected at the UC Hopland Research and Extension Center in Hopland, CA and planted in soil microcosms with the common annual grass A. barbata; seeds collected from the field site. Microcosms were incubated in a sealed chamber under 13CO2 (99 atom%) for 8 weeks. Plant photosynthesized-C is allocated to the soil via roots, and with the 13C label, allows us to trace the fate of plant-derived C in the soil. Minerals, which were isolated in 18 μm mesh to exclude roots but not microorganisms, were extracted and measured for total C and 13C atom% after a 12 week growing season of A. barbata. Preliminary FTIR and 13C-NMR analysis show differences in the chemical composition of

  11. Stabilization of Satellite derived Gravity Field Coefficients by Earth Rotation Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiker, A.; Kutterer, H.; Müller, J.

    2009-04-01

    Recent gravity field missions (e.g. GRACE) provide monthly solutions for the time-variable Earth gravity field. However, the low-degree harmonic coefficients are poorly resolved, especially those of degree 2. The Earth rotation parameters (ERP), consisting of polar motion and lod, and the gravity field coefficients (GFC) of degree 2 are linked by the Euler-Liouville Equation. Thus the consideration of ERP time series helps to improve the estimates of GFC2. Due to the covariances between the GFC of degree 2 and further low-degree gravity field coefficients (up to degree 10) the residuals of the first group of coefficients has to be propagated to the second group in order to guarantee an overall consistency. Previous work has shown a significant influence of ERP on GFC up to degree 4 with the results depending on the covariances assumed a priori. This presentation shows the result of a consistent joint analysis of GRACE derived GFC and ERP in an extended Gauss-Helmert model which includes a sophisticated variance-covariance component estimation (VCCE). As the covariances of the GRACE derived GFC are largely not known, some different variance-covariance structures are assumed and estimated with the VCCE. The results are compared and discussed.

  12. Studies on chalcone derivatives: Complex formation, thermal behavior, stability constant and antioxidant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sayed, Yusif S.; Gaber, M.

    2015-02-01

    The chalcone 3-[4‧-dimethylaminophenyl]-1-(2-pyridyl) prop-2-en-1-one (DMAPP) and 3-(4‧-diethylaminophenyl)-1-(2-pyridinyl) prop-2-en-1-one abbreviated as DEAPP have been synthesized and characterized with IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques as described previously (El-Daly et al., 2008; Gaber et al., 2009; El-Sayed, 2013). By using UV visible spectroscopy method the mole fraction ratio for copper with DMAPP and DEAPP complexes were determined and it was found to be 1:1. The stability constants of this complex have been determined by Job's method. The stability constant (Kf) of copper with DMAPP and DEAPP complexes in universal buffer pH = 3.2 was determined to be 9.9 × 104 and 5.2 × 104 respectively. The effect of Cu(II) ion on the emission spectrum of the free chalcone is also assigned. Adherence to Beer's law and Ringbom optimum concentration ranges are determined. The thermal decomposition of the metal complexes is studied by TGA technique. The kinetic parameters like activation energy, pre-exponential factor and entropy of activation are estimated. The structure of complexes was energetically optimized through molecular mechanics applying MM+ force field coupled with molecular dynamics simulation. The bond lengths and bond angles have been calculated to confirm the geometry of the ligands and their Cu(II) complexes. The mode of interaction of the chalcone to copper nanoparticles was studied. The apparent association constants of the colloidal copper nanoparticles:chalcone complexes in solution were evaluated using the spectral method and compared with the formation constant of the Cu(II) chalcone complexes. Antioxidant activity of these chalcones was evaluated by using 1,1‧-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPHrad) radicals scavenging method, which showed that the antioxidant activity of DMAPP has higher value than the DEAPP. Semi-empirical study results showed that DMAPP have higher dipole moment than DEAPP [1].

  13. An ester derivative of the drug gabapentin: pH dependent crystal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Vânia; Marques, M. Matilde; da Piedade, M. F. Minas; Duarte, M. Teresa

    2010-06-01

    Gabapentin solutions with different pHs were prepared and slow crystallization was allowed to occur. Different crystalline forms were obtained at pHs up to 7, whereas alkaline media (pH 9) gave rise to an amorphous product. A new crystal structure of an ethyl ester derivative, obtained at pH 2 under Fischer esterification conditions, is described herein. Esterification blocked the supramolecular interactions typically observed through the carboxyl group of gabapentin, which resulted in a dramatic change in the solid-state structure. As it is known, this change could have a marked influence on the physiological absorption characteristics of the drug, which supports the search for ester-based gabapentin prodrugs as a means of improving the limited bioavailability of the drug.

  14. Reliability and Stability of VLBI-Derived Sub-Daily EOP Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artz, Thomas; Boeckmann, Sarah; Jensen, Laura; Nothnagel, Axel; Steigenberger, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Recent investigations have shown significant shortcomings in the model which is proposed by the IERS to account for the variations in the Earth s rotation with periods around one day and less. To overcome this, an empirical model can be estimated more or less directly from the observations of space geodetic techniques. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the quality and reliability of such a model based on VLBI observations. Therefore, the impact of the estimation method and the analysis options as well as the temporal stability are investigated. It turned out that, in order to provide a realistic accuracy measure of the model coefficients, the formal errors should be inflated by a factor of three. This coincides with the noise floor and the repeatability of the model coefficients and it captures almost all of the differences that are caused by different estimation techniques. The impact of analysis options is small but significant when changing troposphere parameterization or including harmonic station position variations.

  15. Operational stabilities of different chemical derivatives of Novozym 435 in an alcoholysis reaction.

    PubMed

    Villalba, María; Verdasco-Martín, Carlos M; Dos Santos, Jose C S; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto; Otero, Cristina

    2016-08-01

    Industrial use of Novozym 435 in synthesis of structured lipids and biodiesel via alcoholysis is limited by mass transfer effects of the glycerides through immobilized enzymes and its low operational stability under operation conditions. To better understand this, differently modified Novozym 435 preparations, differing in their surface nature and in their interactions with reactants, have been compared in the alcoholysis of Camelina sativa oil. The three modifications performed have been carried out under conditions where all exposed groups of the enzyme have been modified. These modifications were: 2,4,6-trinitrobenzensulfonic acid (Novo-TNBS), ethylendiamine (Novo-EDA) and polyethylenimine (Novo-PEI). Changes in their operational performance are analyzed in terms of changes detected by scan electron microscopy in the support morphology. The hydrophobic nature of the TNBS accelerates the reaction rate; t-ButOH co-solvent swells the macroporous acrylic particles of Lewatit VP OC 1600 in all biocatalysts, except in the case of Novo-PEI. This co-solvent only increases the maximal conversions obtained at 24h using the modified biocatalysts. t-ButOH reduces enzyme inactivation by alcohol and water. In a co-solvent system, these four biocatalysts remain fully active after 14 consecutive reaction cycles of 24h, but only Novo-TNBS yields maximal conversion before cycle 5. Some deposits on biocatalyst particles could be appreciated during reuses, and TNBS derivatization diminishes the accumulation of product deposits on the catalyst surface. Most particles of commercial Novozym(®) 435 are broken after operation for 14 reaction cycles. The broken particles are fully active, but they cause problems of blockage in filtration operations and column reactors. The three derivatizations studied make the matrix particles more resistant to rupture.

  16. Oxidative stability of milk influenced by fatty acids, antioxidants, and copper derived from feed.

    PubMed

    Havemose, M S; Weisbjerg, M R; Bredie, W L P; Poulsen, H D; Nielsen, J H

    2006-06-01

    Differences in the oxidative stability of milk from cows fed grass-clover silage or hay were examined in relation to fatty acid composition and contents of antioxidants and copper in the milk. The oxidation processes were induced by exposing the milk to fluorescent light. Protein oxidation was measured as an accumulation of dityrosine, whereas lipid oxidation was measured as an accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides as the primary oxidation product, and as the secondary oxidation products, pentanal, hexanal, and heptanal. No differences were found in the protein oxidation of the 2 types of milk measured as accumulation of dityrosine, but there was an increased accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides and hexanal in milk from cows fed grass-clover silage, compared with milk from cows fed hay. The higher degree of lipid oxidation in milk from cows fed grass-clover silage could not be explained from the concentration of alpha-tocopherol, carotenoids, uric acid, and copper in the milk. However, it was thought to be highly influenced by the significantly higher concentration of linolenic acid present in milk from cows fed grass-clover silage. A larger part of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene was transferred from the feed to the milk when cows were fed grass-clover silage than when cows were fed hay as roughage. The significantly higher concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk from cows fed grass-clover silage may be important for the better transfer of alpha-tocopherol from the feed to the milk. Other circumstances, as the different conditions in the rumen may also play a role, due to the different types of roughages and their digestibility, or be related to the mechanisms during milk production for the higher yielding cows fed grass-clover silage. PMID:16702260

  17. Determination of diphenylamine stabilizer and its nitrated derivatives in smokeless gunpowder using a tandem MS method.

    PubMed

    Tong, Y; Wu, Z; Yang, C; Yu, J; Zhang, X; Yang, S; Deng, X; Xu, Y; Wen, Y

    2001-04-01

    A novel method for determination of diphenylamine (DPA) and its nitrated derivatives, which are considered as characteristic components in smokeless powder and gunshot residues, is described. A tandem mass spectrometric method is established and mass spectrometer parameters optimized for each compound to obtain higher sensitivity. Under optimum conditions, quantitative analysis was carried out. The linear ranges are 5.0-200.0, 2.0-200.0 and 5.0-250.0 ng ml-1 and the detection limits are 1.0, 0.5 and 2.5 ng ml-1 for diphenylamine (DPA), N-NO-diphenylamine (N-NO-DPA) and 4-NO2-diphenylamine (4-NO2-DPA), respectively. Intra-assay and inter-assay precision and accuracy of analysis of these three samples were investigated. Based on the regression lines obtained above, smokeless samples were analyzed. It was found that there are 0.952% DPA, 0.384% N-NO-DPA and 0.128% 4-NO2-DPA in smokeless powder. Recovery tests showed that using cotton swabs, 80.3 +/- 4.9% DPA, 79.6 +/- 3.1% N-NO-DPA and 83.1 +/- 5.4% 4-NO2-DPA could be recovered from human hands.

  18. A Selective G-Quadruplex DNA-Stabilizing Ligand Based on a Cyclic Naphthalene Diimide Derivative.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Monirul; Fujii, Satoshi; Sato, Shinobu; Okauchi, Tatsuo; Takenaka, Shigeori

    2015-01-01

    A cyclic naphthalene diimide (cyclic NDI, 1), carrying a benzene moiety as linker chain, was synthesized and its interaction with G-quadruplex DNAs of a-core and a-coreTT as a human telomeric DNA, c-kit and c-myc as DNA sequence at promoter region, or thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) studied based on UV-VIS and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic techniques, thermal melting temperature measurement, and FRET-melting assay. The circular dichroism spectra showed that 1 induced the formation of different types of G-quadruplex DNA structure. Compound 1 bound to these G-quadruplexes with affinities in the range of 106-107 M-1 order and a 2:1 stoichiometry. Compound 1 showed 270-fold higher selectivity for a-core than dsDNA with a preferable a-core binding than a-coreTT, c-kit, c-myc and TBA in the presence of K+, which is supported by thermal melting studies. The FRET-melting assay also showed that 1 bound preferentially to human telomeric DNA. Compound 1 showed potent inhibition against telomerase activity with an IC50 value of 0.9 μM and preferable binding to G-quadruplexes DNA than our previously published cyclic NDI derivative 3 carrying a benzene moiety as longer linker chain.

  19. A Selective G-Quadruplex DNA-Stabilizing Ligand Based on a Cyclic Naphthalene Diimide Derivative.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Monirul; Fujii, Satoshi; Sato, Shinobu; Okauchi, Tatsuo; Takenaka, Shigeori

    2015-01-01

    A cyclic naphthalene diimide (cyclic NDI, 1), carrying a benzene moiety as linker chain, was synthesized and its interaction with G-quadruplex DNAs of a-core and a-coreTT as a human telomeric DNA, c-kit and c-myc as DNA sequence at promoter region, or thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) studied based on UV-VIS and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic techniques, thermal melting temperature measurement, and FRET-melting assay. The circular dichroism spectra showed that 1 induced the formation of different types of G-quadruplex DNA structure. Compound 1 bound to these G-quadruplexes with affinities in the range of 106-107 M-1 order and a 2:1 stoichiometry. Compound 1 showed 270-fold higher selectivity for a-core than dsDNA with a preferable a-core binding than a-coreTT, c-kit, c-myc and TBA in the presence of K+, which is supported by thermal melting studies. The FRET-melting assay also showed that 1 bound preferentially to human telomeric DNA. Compound 1 showed potent inhibition against telomerase activity with an IC50 value of 0.9 μM and preferable binding to G-quadruplexes DNA than our previously published cyclic NDI derivative 3 carrying a benzene moiety as longer linker chain. PMID:26076114

  20. Stabilized rhodium(0) nanoparticles: a reusable hydrogenation catalyst for arene derivatives in a biphasic water-liquid system.

    PubMed

    Schulz, J; Roucoux, A; Patin, H

    2000-02-18

    A colloidal system based on an aqueous suspension of rhodium(o) nanoparticles proved to be an efficient catalyst for the hydrogenation of arene derivatives under biphasic conditions. The rhodium nanoparticles (2-2.5 nm) were synthesized by the reduction of RhCl3 x 3H2O with sodium borohydride and were stabilized by highly water-soluble N-alkyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ammonium salts (HEA-Cn). These surfactant molecules were characterized by measurements of the surface tension and the aqueous dispersions with rhodium were observed by transmission electron cryomicroscopy. The catalytic system is efficient under ultramild conditions, namely room temperature and 1 atm H2 pressure. The aqueous phase which contains the protected rhodium(0) colloids can be reused without significant loss of activity. The microheterogeneous behavior of this catalytic system was confirmed on a mercury poisoning experiment.

  1. Practical aspects of a maximum likelihood estimation method to extract stability and control derivatives from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, K. W.; Maine, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    A maximum likelihood estimation method was applied to flight data and procedures to facilitate the routine analysis of a large amount of flight data were described. Techniques that can be used to obtain stability and control derivatives from aircraft maneuvers that are less than ideal for this purpose are described. The techniques involve detecting and correcting the effects of dependent or nearly dependent variables, structural vibration, data drift, inadequate instrumentation, and difficulties with the data acquisition system and the mathematical model. The use of uncertainty levels and multiple maneuver analysis also proved to be useful in improving the quality of the estimated coefficients. The procedures used for editing the data and for overall analysis are also discussed.

  2. Microwave-assisted synthesis of phenanthroimidazole derivatives as stabilizer of c-myc G-quadruplex DNA.

    PubMed

    Liao, Siyan; Zhang, Zhao; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Xicheng; Mei, Wenjie

    2014-11-15

    c-myc G-quadruplex DNA, which plays a central role in tumor progression and resistance, has been extensively investigated as potential target of antitumor drugs. In this paper, a series of phenanthroimidazole derives have been synthesized under irradiation of microwave in yields of 51–80%. The antitumor activity of these compounds against various tumor cells has been evaluated, and the results show that these compounds exhibit great inhibition to MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and Hela cells, especially 5 inhibit the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 about 3.6 lM. The further studies show that 5 can bind and stabilize c-myc G4 DNA in p–p stacking mode, which confirmed by the hypochromise in the electronic spectra of 5 with the increasing of c-myc G4 DNA. When dealt with 5, the strength of CD signal attributed to c-myc G4 DNA is decreased and the FRET melting point of c-myc G4 DNA is increased. Moreover, the molecule docking calculation was conducted to show that 5 suitably stack onto the 50 G-quartet surface, and parallels to the surfaces of the G5 and G-quartet consisting of G7, G11, G16, and G20. As a result, the replication of c-myc oligomers is blocked by 5. In a word, this type of phenanthroimidazole derives can act as potential inhibitor against breast cancer cells by binding and stabilizing c-myc G4 DNA through p–p stacking.

  3. Prebiotically plausible mechanisms increase compositional diversity of nucleic acid sequences

    PubMed Central

    Derr, Julien; Manapat, Michael L.; Rajamani, Sudha; Leu, Kevin; Xulvi-Brunet, Ramon; Joseph, Isaac; Nowak, Martin A.; Chen, Irene A.

    2012-01-01

    During the origin of life, the biological information of nucleic acid polymers must have increased to encode functional molecules (the RNA world). Ribozymes tend to be compositionally unbiased, as is the vast majority of possible sequence space. However, ribonucleotides vary greatly in synthetic yield, reactivity and degradation rate, and their non-enzymatic polymerization results in compositionally biased sequences. While natural selection could lead to complex sequences, molecules with some activity are required to begin this process. Was the emergence of compositionally diverse sequences a matter of chance, or could prebiotically plausible reactions counter chemical biases to increase the probability of finding a ribozyme? Our in silico simulations using a two-letter alphabet show that template-directed ligation and high concatenation rates counter compositional bias and shift the pool toward longer sequences, permitting greater exploration of sequence space and stable folding. We verified experimentally that unbiased DNA sequences are more efficient templates for ligation, thus increasing the compositional diversity of the pool. Our work suggests that prebiotically plausible chemical mechanisms of nucleic acid polymerization and ligation could predispose toward a diverse pool of longer, potentially structured molecules. Such mechanisms could have set the stage for the appearance of functional activity very early in the emergence of life. PMID:22319215

  4. Advances in assessing geomorphic plausibility in statistical susceptibility modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steger, Stefan; Brenning, Alexander; Bell, Rainer; Petschko, Helene; Glade, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    ). The error estimation was conducted by applying (non-spatial) holdout and spatial cross-validation. Geomorphic plausibility was estimated by subjectively assessing the geomorphic situation shown in a high resolution hillshade and comparing this evaluation with the ranking of the final susceptibility maps. For instance, high geomorphic plausibility was assigned when our evaluation converged with the expression shown in the susceptibility map and vice versa. The results demonstrate that a high geomorphic plausibility was assessed for maps generated using the ALS-based inventory whereas low qualitative maps were produced by using the BGR-inventory. In contrast, holdout validation results revealed that all models exhibit a high quantitative quality. High AUROC values could be observed for maps with apparent low practical usability. Spatial cross-validation was able to detect the spatially differing completeness of the BGR-Inventory (resulting in lower AUROC values). Generally higher (in some cases much higher) AUROC values were observed for models generated with land cover as an explanatory variable. The subsequent geomorphic plausibility check demonstrated that maps generated without land cover exhibit more realistic susceptibility values. Finally, we conclude that the explanatory power of statistical performance measures highly depends on the quality of the inventory used to calculate this statistics. Thus, it is required to additionally assess the geomorphic plausibility of susceptibility maps and not to rely solely on statistical performance measures.

  5. The bornavirus-derived human protein EBLN1 promotes efficient cell cycle transit, microtubule organisation and genome stability

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Katie N.; Barone, Giancarlo; Ganesh, Anil; Staples, Christopher J.; Howard, Anna E.; Beveridge, Ryan D.; Maslen, Sarah; Skehel, J. Mark; Collis, Spencer J.

    2016-01-01

    It was recently discovered that vertebrate genomes contain multiple endogenised nucleotide sequences derived from the non-retroviral RNA bornavirus. Strikingly, some of these elements have been evolutionary maintained as open reading frames in host genomes for over 40 million years, suggesting that some endogenised bornavirus-derived elements (EBL) might encode functional proteins. EBLN1 is one such element established through endogenisation of the bornavirus N gene (BDV N). Here, we functionally characterise human EBLN1 as a novel regulator of genome stability. Cells depleted of human EBLN1 accumulate DNA damage both under non-stressed conditions and following exogenously induced DNA damage. EBLN1-depleted cells also exhibit cell cycle abnormalities and defects in microtubule organisation as well as premature centrosome splitting, which we attribute in part, to improper localisation of the nuclear envelope protein TPR. Our data therefore reveal that human EBLN1 possesses important cellular functions within human cells, and suggest that other EBLs present within vertebrate genomes may also possess important cellular functions. PMID:27739501

  6. Determination of the stability and control derivatives of the NASA F/A-18 HARV using flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Napolitano, Marcello R.; Spagnuolo, Joelle M.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents the research conducted for the NASA-Ames Cooperative Agreement No. NCC 2-759 with West Virginia University. A complete set of the stability and control derivatives for varying angles of attack from 10 deg to 60 deg were estimated from flight data of the NASA F/A-18 HARV. The data were analyzed with the use of the pEst software which implements the output-error method of parameter estimation. Discussions of the aircraft equations of motion, parameter estimation process, design of flight test maneuvers, and formulation of the mathematical model are presented. The added effects of the thrust vectoring and single surface excitation systems are also addressed. The results of the longitudinal and lateral directional derivative estimates at varying angles of attack are presented and compared to results from previous analyses. The results indicate a significant improvement due to the independent control surface deflections induced by the single surface excitation system, and at the same time, a need for additional flight data especially at higher angles of attack.

  7. Adipose-derived stem cells from diabetic mice show impaired vascular stabilization in a murine model of diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Cronk, Stephen M; Kelly-Goss, Molly R; Ray, H Clifton; Mendel, Thomas A; Hoehn, Kyle L; Bruce, Anthony C; Dey, Bijan K; Guendel, Alexander M; Tavakol, Daniel N; Herman, Ira M; Peirce, Shayn M; Yates, Paul A

    2015-05-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by progressive vascular dropout with subsequent vision loss. We have recently shown that an intravitreal injection of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can stabilize the retinal microvasculature, enabling repair and regeneration of damaged capillary beds in vivo. Because an understanding of ASC status from healthy versus diseased donors will be important as autologous cellular therapies are developed for unmet clinical needs, we took advantage of the hyperglycemic Akimba mouse as a preclinical in vivo model of diabetic retinopathy in an effort aimed at evaluating therapeutic efficacy of adipose-derived stem cells (mASCs) derived either from healthy, nondiabetic or from diabetic mice. To these ends, Akimba mice received intravitreal injections of media conditioned by mASCs or mASCs themselves, subsequent to development of substantial retinal capillary dropout. mASCs from healthy mice were more effective than diabetic mASCs in protecting the diabetic retina from further vascular dropout. Engrafted ASCs were found to preferentially associate with the retinal vasculature. Conditioned medium was unable to recapitulate the vasoprotection seen with injected ASCs. In vitro diabetic ASCs showed decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis compared with healthy mASCs. Diabetic ASCs also secreted less vasoprotective factors than healthy mASCs, as determined by high-throughput enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our findings suggest that diabetic ASCs are functionally impaired compared with healthy ASCs and support the utility of an allogeneic injection of ASCs versus autologous or conditioned media approaches in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy.

  8. Neural networks, nativism, and the plausibility of constructivism.

    PubMed

    Quartz, S R

    1993-09-01

    Recent interest in PDP (parallel distributed processing) models is due in part to the widely held belief that they challenge many of the assumptions of classical cognitive science. In the domain of language acquisition, for example, there has been much interest in the claim that PDP models might undermine nativism. Related arguments based on PDP learning have also been given against Fodor's anti-constructivist position--a position that has contributed to the widespread dismissal of constructivism. A limitation of many of the claims regarding PDP learning, however, is that the principles underlying this learning have not been rigorously characterized. In this paper, I examine PDP models from within the framework of Valiant's PAC (probably approximately correct) model of learning, now the dominant model in machine learning, and which applies naturally to neural network learning. From this perspective, I evaluate the implications of PDP models for nativism and Fodor's influential anti-constructivist position. In particular, I demonstrate that, contrary to a number of claims, PDP models are nativist in a robust sense. I also demonstrate that PDP models actually serve as a good illustration of Fodor's anti-constructivist position. While these results may at first suggest that neural network models in general are incapable of the sort of concept acquisition that is required to refute Fodor's anti-constructivist position, I suggest that there is an alternative form of neural network learning that demonstrates the plausibility of constructivism. This alternative form of learning is a natural interpretation of the constructivist position in terms of neural network learning, as it employs learning algorithms that incorporate the addition of structure in addition to weight modification schemes. By demonstrating that there is a natural and plausible interpretation of constructivism in terms of neural network learning, the position that nativism is the only plausible model of

  9. The plausibility of visual information for hand ownership modulates multisensory synchrony perception.

    PubMed

    Zopf, Regine; Friedman, Jason; Williams, Mark A

    2015-08-01

    We are frequently changing the position of our bodies and body parts within complex environments. How does the brain keep track of one's own body? Current models of body ownership state that visual body ownership cues such as viewed object form and orientation are combined with multisensory information to correctly identify one's own body, estimate its current location and evoke an experience of body ownership. Within this framework, it may be possible that the brain relies on a separate perceptual analysis of body ownership cues (e.g. form, orientation, multisensory synchrony). Alternatively, these cues may interact in earlier stages of perceptual processing-visually derived body form and orientation cues may, for example, directly modulate temporal synchrony perception. The aim of the present study was to distinguish between these two alternatives. We employed a virtual hand set-up and psychophysical methods. In a two-interval force-choice task, participants were asked to detect temporal delays between executed index finger movements and observed movements. We found that body-specifying cues interact in perceptual processing. Specifically, we show that plausible visual information (both form and orientation) for one's own body led to significantly better detection performance for small multisensory asynchronies compared to implausible visual information. We suggest that this perceptual modulation when visual information plausible for one's own body is present is a consequence of body-specific sensory predictions. PMID:25980691

  10. On the biological plausibility of Wind Turbine Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Robert V

    2015-01-01

    An emerging environmental health issue relates to potential ill-effects of wind turbine noise. There have been numerous suggestions that the low-frequency acoustic components in wind turbine signals can cause symptoms associated with vestibular system disorders, namely vertigo, nausea, and nystagmus. This constellation of symptoms has been labeled as Wind Turbine Syndrome, and has been identified in case studies of individuals living close to wind farms. This review discusses whether it is biologically plausible for the turbine noise to stimulate the vestibular parts of the inner ear and, by extension, cause Wind Turbine Syndrome. We consider the sound levels that can activate the semicircular canals or otolith end organs in normal subjects, as well as in those with preexisting conditions known to lower vestibular threshold to sound stimulation. PMID:25295915

  11. On the biological plausibility of Wind Turbine Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Robert V

    2015-01-01

    An emerging environmental health issue relates to potential ill-effects of wind turbine noise. There have been numerous suggestions that the low-frequency acoustic components in wind turbine signals can cause symptoms associated with vestibular system disorders, namely vertigo, nausea, and nystagmus. This constellation of symptoms has been labeled as Wind Turbine Syndrome, and has been identified in case studies of individuals living close to wind farms. This review discusses whether it is biologically plausible for the turbine noise to stimulate the vestibular parts of the inner ear and, by extension, cause Wind Turbine Syndrome. We consider the sound levels that can activate the semicircular canals or otolith end organs in normal subjects, as well as in those with preexisting conditions known to lower vestibular threshold to sound stimulation.

  12. Alkaloids from Pandanus amaryllifolius: Isolation and Their Plausible Biosynthetic Formation.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu-Chi; Yu, Meng-Lun; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Beerhues, Ludger; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Chen, Lei-Chin; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Chen, Hui-Fen; Chung, Yu-Ming; Hou, Ming-Feng; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2015-10-23

    Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. (Pandanaceae) is used as a flavor and in folk medicine in Southeast Asia. The ethanolic crude extract of the aerial parts of P. amaryllifolius exhibited antioxidant, antibiofilm, and anti-inflammatory activities in previous studies. In the current investigation, the purification of the ethanolic extract yielded nine new compounds, including N-acetylnorpandamarilactonines A (1) and B (2); pandalizines A (3) and B (4); pandanmenyamine (5); pandamarilactones 2 (6) and 3 (7), and 5(E)-pandamarilactonine-32 (8); and pandalactonine (9). The isolated alkaloids, with either a γ-alkylidene-α,β-unsaturated-γ-lactone or γ-alkylidene-α,β-unsaturated-γ-lactam system, can be classified into five skeletons including norpandamarilactonine, indolizinone, pandanamine, pandamarilactone, and pandamarilactonine. A plausible biosynthetic route toward 1-5, 7, and 9 is proposed. PMID:26461164

  13. How Physicists Made Stable Lévy Processes Physically Plausible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schinckus, Christophe

    2013-08-01

    Stable Lévy processes have very interesting properties for describing the complex behaviour of non-equilibrium dissipative systems such as turbulence, anomalous diffusion or financial markets. However, although these processes better fit the empirical data, some of their statistical properties can raise several theoretical problems in empirical applications because they generate infinite variables. Econophysicists have developed statistical solutions to make these processes physically plausible. This paper presents a review of these analytical solutions (truncations) for stable Lévy processes and how econophysicists transformed them into data-driven processes. The evolution of these analytical solutions is presented as a progressive research programme provided by (econo)physicists for theoretical problems encountered in financial economics in the 1960s and the 1970s.

  14. Linking dioxins to diabetes: epidemiology and biologic plausibility.

    PubMed Central

    Remillard, Rene B J; Bunce, Nigel J

    2002-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies suggest a possible association between dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) and diabetes in human populations, although experimental links between DLCs and diabetes are lacking. The public health significance of such an association is that all populations are exposed to small but measurable levels of DLCs, chronic low-dose exposure to which may hasten the onset of adult-onset diabetes in susceptible individuals. In this article, we review the epidemiologic studies and propose biologically plausible connections between dioxins and diabetes. Specifically, we suggest that aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor functions may antagonize peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) functions, and hence that the Ah receptor may promote diabetogenesis through a mechanism of PPAR antagonism. PMID:12204817

  15. A computer program for calculating symmetrical aerodynamic characteristics and lateral-directional stability derivatives of wing-body combinations with blowing jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. E.; Mehrotra, S. C.; Fox, C. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The necessary information for using a computer program to calculate the aerodynamic characteristics under symmetrical flight conditions and the lateral-directional stability derivatives of wing-body combinations with upper-surface-blowing (USB) or over-wing-blowing (OWB) jets are described. The following new features were added to the program: (1) a fuselage of arbitrary body of revolution has been included. The effect of wing-body interference can now be investigated, and (2) all nine lateral-directional stability derivatives can be calculated. The program is written in FORTRAN language and runs on CDC Cyber 175 and Honeywell 66/60 computers.

  16. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR DOE STANDARD 3013 EQUIVALENCY SUPPORTING REDUCED TEMPERATURE STABILIZATION OF OXALATE-DERIVED PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE PRODUCED BY THE HB-LINE FACILITY AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, J. M.; Livingston, R. R.; Berg, J. M.; Veirs, D. K.

    2013-02-06

    This report documents the technical basis for determining that stabilizing highpurity PuO{sub 2} derived from oxalate precipitation at the SRS HB-Line facility at a minimum of 625 {degree}C for at least four hours in an oxidizing atmosphere is equivalent to stabilizing at a minimum of 950 {degree}C for at least two hours as regards meeting the objectives of stabilization defined by DOE-STD-3013 if the material is handled in a way to prevent excessive absorption of water.

  17. The application of parameter estimation to flight measurements to obtain lateral-directional stability derivatives of an augmented jet-flap STOL airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    Flight experiments with an augmented jet flap STOL aircraft provided data from which the lateral directional stability and control derivatives were calculated by applying a linear regression parameter estimation procedure. The tests, which were conducted with the jet flaps set at a 65 deg deflection, covered a large range of angles of attack and engine power settings. The effect of changing the angle of the jet thrust vector was also investigated. Test results are compared with stability derivatives that had been predicted. The roll damping derived from the tests was significantly larger than had been predicted, whereas the other derivatives were generally in agreement with the predictions. Results obtained using a maximum likelihood estimation procedure are compared with those from the linear regression solutions.

  18. Radar-derived asteroid shapes point to a 'zone of stability' for topography slopes and surface erosion rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, J.; Graves, K.; Bowling, T.

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies of the combined effects of asteroid shape, spin, and self-gravity have focused primarily upon the failure limits for bodies with a variety of standard shapes, friction, and cohesion values [1,2,3]. In this study, we look in the opposite direction and utilize 22 asteroid shape-models derived from radar inversion [4] and 7 small body shape-models derived from spacecraft observations [5] to investigate the region in shape/spin space [1,2] wherein self-gravity and rotation combine to produce a stable minimum state with respect to surface potential differences, dynamic topography, slope magnitudes, and erosion rates. This erosional minimum state is self-correcting, such that changes in the body's rotation rate, either up or down, will increase slope magnitudes across the body, thereby driving up erosion rates non-linearly until the body has once again reached a stable, minimized surface state [5]. We investigated this phenomenon in a systematic fashion using a series of synthesized, increasingly prolate spheroid shape models. Adjusting the rotation rate of each synthetic shape to minimize surface potential differences, dynamic topography, and slope magnitudes results in the magenta curve of the figure (right side), defining the zone of maximum surface stability (MSS). This MSS zone is invariant both with respect to body size (gravitational potential and rotational potential scale together with radius), and density when the scaled-spin of [2] is used. Within our sample of observationally derived small-body shape models, slow rotators (Group A: blue points), that are not in the maximum surface stability (MSS) zone and where gravity dominates the slopes, will generally experience moderate erosion rates (left plot) and will tend to move up and to the right in shape/spin space as the body evolves (right plot). Fast rotators (Group C: red points), that are not in the MSS zone and where spin dominates the slopes, will generally experience high erosion rates

  19. Synthesis of polysubstituted β-amino cyclohexane carboxylic acids via Diels-Alder reaction using Ni(II)-complex stabilized β-alanine derived dienes.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiao; Wang, Hengshuai; Wang, Jiang; Wang, Sinan; Lin, Daizong; Lv, Li; Zhou, Yu; Luo, Xiaomin; Jiang, Hualiang; Aceña, José Luis; Soloshonok, Vadim A; Liu, Hong

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes the design and synthesis of a new class of β-alanine derived dienes stabilized by Ni(II)-complex. Preliminary study of their Diels-Alder cycloaddition reactions with several types of dienophiles demonstrates their significant synthetic potential for the preparation of various polyfunctional β-aminocyclohexane carboxylic acids.

  20. Plausible inference: A multi-valued logic for problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, L.

    1979-01-01

    A new logic is developed which permits continuously variable strength of belief in the truth of assertions. Four inference rules result, with formal logic as a limiting case. Quantification of belief is defined. Propagation of belief to linked assertions results from dependency-based techniques of truth maintenance so that local consistency is achieved or contradiction discovered in problem solving. Rules for combining, confirming, or disconfirming beliefs are given, and several heuristics are suggested that apply to revising already formed beliefs in the light of new evidence. The strength of belief that results in such revisions based on conflicting evidence are a highly subjective phenomenon. Certain quantification rules appear to reflect an orderliness in the subjectivity. Several examples of reasoning by plausible inference are given, including a legal example and one from robot learning. Propagation of belief takes place in directions forbidden in formal logic and this results in conclusions becoming possible for a given set of assertions that are not reachable by formal logic.

  1. A perspective on SIDS pathogenesis. the hypotheses: plausibility and evidence.

    PubMed

    Goldwater, Paul N

    2011-01-01

    Several theories of the underlying mechanisms of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) have been proposed. These theories have born relatively narrow beach-head research programs attracting generous research funding sustained for many years at expense to the public purse. This perspective endeavors to critically examine the evidence and bases of these theories and determine their plausibility; and questions whether or not a safe and reasoned hypothesis lies at their foundation. The Opinion sets specific criteria by asking the following questions: 1. Does the hypothesis take into account the key pathological findings in SIDS? 2. Is the hypothesis congruent with the key epidemiological risk factors? 3. Does it link 1 and 2? Falling short of any one of these answers, by inference, would imply insufficient grounds for a sustainable hypothesis. Some of the hypotheses overlap, for instance, notional respiratory failure may encompass apnea, prone sleep position, and asphyxia which may be seen to be linked to co-sleeping. For the purposes of this paper, each element will be assessed on the above criteria. PMID:21619576

  2. Plausible explanation for the Δ5/2+(2000) puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ju-Jun; Martínez Torres, A.; Oset, E.; González, P.

    2011-05-01

    From a Faddeev calculation for the π-(Δρ)N5/2-(1675) system we show the plausible existence of three dynamically generated I(JP)=3/2(5/2+) baryon states below 2.3 GeV, whereas only two resonances, Δ5/2+(1905)(****) and Δ5/2+(2000)(**), are cataloged in the Particle Data Book Review. Our results give theoretical support to data analyses extracting two distinctive resonances, Δ5/2+(~1740) and Δ5/2+(~2200), from which the mass of Δ5/2+(2000)(**) is estimated. We propose that these two resonances should be cataloged instead of Δ5/2+(2000). This proposal gets further support from the possible assignment of the other baryon states found in the approach in the I=1/2,3/2 with JP=1/2+,3/2+,5/2+ sectors to known baryonic resonances. In particular, Δ1/2+(1750)(*) is naturally interpreted as a πN1/2-(1650) bound state.

  3. Experimental Determination of Effects of Frequency and Amplitude on the Lateral Stability Derivatives for a Delta, a Swept, and Unswept Wing Oscillating in Yaw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Lewis R

    1958-01-01

    Three wing models were oscillated in yaw about their vertical axes to determine the effects of systematic variations of frequency and amplitude of oscillation on the in-phase and out-of-phase combination lateral stability derivatives resulting from this motion. The tests were made at low speeds for a 60 degree delta wing, a 45 degree swept wing, and an unswept wing; the swept and unswept wings had aspect ratios of 4. The results indicate that large changes in the magnitude of the stability derivatives due to the variation of frequency occur at high angles of attack, particularly for the delta wing. The greatest variations of the derivatives with frequency take place for the lowest frequencies of oscillation; at the higher frequencies, the effects of frequency are smaller and the derivatives become more linear with angle of attack. Effects of amplitude of oscillation on the stability derivatives for delta wings were evident for certain high angles of attack and for the lowest frequencies of oscillation. As the frequency became high, the amplitude effects tended to disappear.

  4. From ether to acid: A plausible degradation pathway of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Lei; Birgel, Daniel; Elling, Felix J.; Sutton, Paul A.; Lipp, Julius S.; Zhu, Rong; Zhang, Chuanlun; Könneke, Martin; Peckmann, Jörn; Rowland, Steven J.; Summons, Roger E.; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2016-06-01

    Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are ubiquitous microbial lipids with extensive demonstrated and potential roles as paleoenvironmental proxies. Despite the great attention they receive, comparatively little is known regarding their diagenetic fate. Putative degradation products of GDGTs, identified as hydroxyl and carboxyl derivatives, were detected in lipid extracts of marine sediment, seep carbonate, hot spring sediment and cells of the marine thaumarchaeon Nitrosopumilus maritimus. The distribution of GDGT degradation products in environmental samples suggests that both biotic and abiotic processes act as sinks for GDGTs. More than a hundred newly recognized degradation products afford a view of the stepwise degradation of GDGT via (1) ether bond hydrolysis yielding hydroxyl isoprenoids, namely, GDGTol (glycerol dialkyl glycerol triether alcohol), GMGD (glycerol monobiphytanyl glycerol diether), GDD (glycerol dibiphytanol diether), GMM (glycerol monobiphytanol monoether) and bpdiol (biphytanic diol); (2) oxidation of isoprenoidal alcohols into corresponding carboxyl derivatives and (3) chain shortening to yield C39 and smaller isoprenoids. This plausible GDGT degradation pathway from glycerol ethers to isoprenoidal fatty acids provides the link to commonly detected head-to-head linked long chain isoprenoidal hydrocarbons in petroleum and sediment samples. The problematic C80 to C82 tetraacids that cause naphthenate deposits in some oil production facilities can be generated from H-shaped glycerol monoalkyl glycerol tetraethers (GMGTs) following the same process, as indicated by the distribution of related derivatives in hydrothermally influenced sediments.

  5. A biologically plausible learning rule for the Infomax on recurrent neural networks.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Takashi; Kaneko, Takeshi; Aoyagi, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental issue in neuroscience is to understand how neuronal circuits in the cerebral cortex play their functional roles through their characteristic firing activity. Several characteristics of spontaneous and sensory-evoked cortical activity have been reproduced by Infomax learning of neural networks in computational studies. There are, however, still few models of the underlying learning mechanisms that allow cortical circuits to maximize information and produce the characteristics of spontaneous and sensory-evoked cortical activity. In the present article, we derive a biologically plausible learning rule for the maximization of information retained through time in dynamics of simple recurrent neural networks. Applying the derived learning rule in a numerical simulation, we reproduce the characteristics of spontaneous and sensory-evoked cortical activity: cell-assembly-like repeats of precise firing sequences, neuronal avalanches, spontaneous replays of learned firing sequences and orientation selectivity observed in the primary visual cortex. We further discuss the similarity between the derived learning rule and the spike timing-dependent plasticity of cortical neurons. PMID:25505404

  6. A biologically plausible learning rule for the Infomax on recurrent neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Takashi; Kaneko, Takeshi; Aoyagi, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental issue in neuroscience is to understand how neuronal circuits in the cerebral cortex play their functional roles through their characteristic firing activity. Several characteristics of spontaneous and sensory-evoked cortical activity have been reproduced by Infomax learning of neural networks in computational studies. There are, however, still few models of the underlying learning mechanisms that allow cortical circuits to maximize information and produce the characteristics of spontaneous and sensory-evoked cortical activity. In the present article, we derive a biologically plausible learning rule for the maximization of information retained through time in dynamics of simple recurrent neural networks. Applying the derived learning rule in a numerical simulation, we reproduce the characteristics of spontaneous and sensory-evoked cortical activity: cell-assembly-like repeats of precise firing sequences, neuronal avalanches, spontaneous replays of learned firing sequences and orientation selectivity observed in the primary visual cortex. We further discuss the similarity between the derived learning rule and the spike timing-dependent plasticity of cortical neurons. PMID:25505404

  7. N-Substituted Derivatives of the Azadithiolate Cofactor from the [FeFe] Hydrogenases: Stability and Complexation

    PubMed Central

    Angamuthu, Raja; Chen, Chi-Shian; Cochrane, Tyler R.; Gray, Danielle L.; Schilter, David; Ulloa, Olbelina A.; Rauchfuss, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments are described that probe the stability of N-substituted derivatives of the azadithiolate cofactor recently confirmed in the [FeFe] hydrogenases (Berggren, G., et al. Nature 2013, 499, 66). Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of bis(thioester) BnN(CH2SAc)2 gives [BnNCH2SCH2]2 rather than azadithiol BnN(CH2SH)2. Treatment of BnN(CH2SAc)2 with NaOtBu generates BnN(CH2SNa)2, which was trapped with NiCl2(diphos) (diphos = 1,2-C2H4(PR2)2; R = Ph (dppe) and Cy (dcpe)) to give fully characterized complexes Ni[(SCH2)2NBn](diphos). The related N-aryl derivative Ni[(SCH2)2NC6H4Cl](diphos) was prepared analogously from 4-ClC6H4N(CH2SAc)2, NaOtBu, and NiCl2(dppe). Crystallographic analysis confirmed that these rare nonbridging [adtR]2− complexes feature distorted square planar Ni centers. The analogue Pd[(SCH2)2NBn](dppe) was also prepared. 31P NMR analysis indicates that Ni[(SCH2)2NBn](dppe) has basicity comparable to typical amines. As shown by cyclic voltammetry, the couple [M[(SCH2)2NBn](dppe)]+/0 is reversible near −2.0 V versus Fc+/0. The wave shifts to −1.78 V upon N-protonation. In the presence of CF3CO2H, Ni[(SCH2)2NBn](dppe) catalyzes hydrogen evolution at rate of 22 s−1 in the acid-independent regime, at room temperature in CH2Cl2 solution. In contrast to the instability of RN(CH2SH)2 (R = alkyl, aryl), the dithiol of tosylamide TsN(CH2SH)2 proved sufficiently stable to allow full characterization. This dithiol reacts with Fe3(CO)12 and, in the presence of base, NiCl2(dppe) to give Fe2[(SCH2)2NTs](CO)6 and Ni[(SCH2)2NTs](dppe), respectively. PMID:26000618

  8. Synthesis, molecular structure, and stability of a zirconocene derivative with α-Keggin mono-aluminum-substituted polyoxotungstate.

    PubMed

    Kato, Chika Nozaki; Makino, Yuki; Unno, Wataru; Uno, Hidemitsu

    2013-01-28

    The synthesis and crystal structure of a zirconocene derivative with α-Keggin mono-aluminum-substituted polyoxotungstate, [α-PW(11)Al(OH)O(39)ZrCp(2)](2)(6-) (Cp = C(5)H(5)(-)) (1), which was obtained by the reaction of α-Keggin mono-aluminum-substituted polyoxotungstate with a biscyclopentadienylzirconium(IV) complex, is described herein. Analytically pure, homogeneous, yellow crystals of the tetra-n-butylammonium salt of polyoxoanion 1, [(n-C(4)H(9))(4)N](6)[α-PW(11)Al(OH)O(39)ZrCp(2)](2) (TBA-1), were obtained from the ca. 1 : 1 reaction of [(n-C(4)H(9))(4)N](4)[α-PW(11){Al(OH(2))}O(39)] with Cp(2)Zr(OTf)(2)·THF (OTf = O(3)SCF(3)(-)) in acetonitrile solution under an argon atmosphere, followed by precipitation from water and crystallization from acetonitrile. TBA-1 was characterized based on X-ray structure analysis, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and solution ((31)P, (27)Al, (19)F, (1)H, and (13)C) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Single-crystal X-ray structure analysis revealed that the two {PW(11)AlO(40)} units are bridged by two "bent sandwich" Cp(2)Zr(2+) fragments with C(2) symmetry. Each zirconium center was bound to a terminal oxygen atom of the aluminum and tungsten sites and an edge-sharing oxygen atom at the Al-O-W linkage. Further, the stability towards water was investigated by NMR ((31)P, (1)H, and (13)C) and FTIR spectroscopy. The η(5)-cyclopentadienylzirconium fragments were not eliminated from the surface of [α-PW(11){Al(OH(2))}O(39)](4-) even after 24 h exposure to 50 equiv. of water.

  9. Preparation, characterization and in vitro evaluation of sterically stabilized liposome containing a naphthalenediimide derivative as anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Parise, Amelia; Milelli, Andrea; Tumiatti, Vincenzo; Minarini, Anna; Neviani, Paolo; Zuccari, Guendalina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to incorporate a new naphthalenediimide derivative (AN169) with a promising anticancer activity into pegylated liposomes to an extent that allows its in vitro and in vivo testing without use of toxic solvent. AN169-loaded liposomes were prepared using the thin-film hydration method and characterized for size, polydispersity index, drug content and drug release. We examined their lyophilization ability in the presence of cryoprotectants (trehalose, sucrose and lysine) and the long-term stability of the lyophilized products stored at 4 °C for 3 and 6 months by particle size changes and drug leakage. AN169 was successfully loaded into liposomes with an entrapment efficiency of 87.3 ± 2.5%. The hydrodynamic diameter of these liposomes after sonication was ∼ 145 nm with a high degree of monodispersity. Trehalose was found to be superior to the other lyoprotectants. In particular, trehalose 1:10 lipid:cryoprotectant molar ratio may provide stable lyophilized liposomes with the conservation of physicochemical properties upon freeze-drying and long-term storage conditions. We also assessed their in vitro antitumor activity in human cancer cell lines (HTLA-230 neuroblastoma, Mel 3.0 melanoma, OVCAR-3 ovarian carcinoma and SV620 prostate cancer cells). However, only after 72 h incubation, loaded liposomes showed almost the same IC50 as free AN169. In conclusion, we developed a stable lyophilized liposomal formulation for intravenous administration of AN169 as anticancer drug, with the advantage of avoiding the use of potentially toxic solubilizing agents for future in vivo experiments. PMID:24286206

  10. A biologically plausible embodied model of action discovery.

    PubMed

    Bolado-Gomez, Rufino; Gurney, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    During development, animals can spontaneously discover action-outcome pairings enabling subsequent achievement of their goals. We present a biologically plausible embodied model addressing key aspects of this process. The biomimetic model core comprises the basal ganglia and its loops through cortex and thalamus. We incorporate reinforcement learning (RL) with phasic dopamine supplying a sensory prediction error, signalling "surprising" outcomes. Phasic dopamine is used in a cortico-striatal learning rule which is consistent with recent data. We also hypothesized that objects associated with surprising outcomes acquire "novelty salience" contingent on the predicability of the outcome. To test this idea we used a simple model of prediction governing the dynamics of novelty salience and phasic dopamine. The task of the virtual robotic agent mimicked an in vivo counterpart (Gancarz et al., 2011) and involved interaction with a target object which caused a light flash, or a control object which did not. Learning took place according to two schedules. In one, the phasic outcome was delivered after interaction with the target in an unpredictable way which emulated the in vivo protocol. Without novelty salience, the model was unable to account for the experimental data. In the other schedule, the phasic outcome was reliably delivered and the agent showed a rapid increase in the number of interactions with the target which then decreased over subsequent sessions. We argue this is precisely the kind of change in behavior required to repeatedly present representations of context, action and outcome, to neural networks responsible for learning action-outcome contingency. The model also showed cortico-striatal plasticity consistent with learning a new action in basal ganglia. We conclude that action learning is underpinned by a complex interplay of plasticity and stimulus salience, and that our model contains many of the elements for biological action discovery to take place.

  11. A biologically plausible embodied model of action discovery

    PubMed Central

    Bolado-Gomez, Rufino; Gurney, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    During development, animals can spontaneously discover action-outcome pairings enabling subsequent achievement of their goals. We present a biologically plausible embodied model addressing key aspects of this process. The biomimetic model core comprises the basal ganglia and its loops through cortex and thalamus. We incorporate reinforcement learning (RL) with phasic dopamine supplying a sensory prediction error, signalling “surprising” outcomes. Phasic dopamine is used in a cortico-striatal learning rule which is consistent with recent data. We also hypothesized that objects associated with surprising outcomes acquire “novelty salience” contingent on the predicability of the outcome. To test this idea we used a simple model of prediction governing the dynamics of novelty salience and phasic dopamine. The task of the virtual robotic agent mimicked an in vivo counterpart (Gancarz et al., 2011) and involved interaction with a target object which caused a light flash, or a control object which did not. Learning took place according to two schedules. In one, the phasic outcome was delivered after interaction with the target in an unpredictable way which emulated the in vivo protocol. Without novelty salience, the model was unable to account for the experimental data. In the other schedule, the phasic outcome was reliably delivered and the agent showed a rapid increase in the number of interactions with the target which then decreased over subsequent sessions. We argue this is precisely the kind of change in behavior required to repeatedly present representations of context, action and outcome, to neural networks responsible for learning action-outcome contingency. The model also showed cortico-striatal plasticity consistent with learning a new action in basal ganglia. We conclude that action learning is underpinned by a complex interplay of plasticity and stimulus salience, and that our model contains many of the elements for biological action discovery to take

  12. A plausible mechanism for auxin patterning along the developing root

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In plant roots, auxin is critical for patterning and morphogenesis. It regulates cell elongation and division, the development and maintenance of root apical meristems, and other processes. In Arabidopsis, auxin distribution along the central root axis has several maxima: in the root tip, in the basal meristem and at the shoot/root junction. The distal maximum in the root tip maintains the stem cell niche. Proximal maxima may trigger lateral or adventitious root initiation. Results We propose a reflected flow mechanism for the formation of the auxin maximum in the root apical meristem. The mechanism is based on auxin's known activation and inhibition of expressed PIN family auxin carriers at low and high auxin levels, respectively. Simulations showed that these regulatory interactions are sufficient for self-organization of the auxin distribution pattern along the central root axis under varying conditions. The mathematical model was extended with rules for discontinuous cell dynamics so that cell divisions were also governed by auxin, and by another morphogen Division Factor which combines the actions of cytokinin and ethylene on cell division in the root. The positional information specified by the gradients of these two morphogens is able to explain root patterning along the central root axis. Conclusion We present here a plausible mechanism for auxin patterning along the developing root, that may provide for self-organization of the distal auxin maximum when the reverse fountain has not yet been formed or has been disrupted. In addition, the proximal maxima are formed under the reflected flow mechanism in response to periods of increasing auxin flow from the growing shoot. These events may predetermine lateral root initiation in a rhyzotactic pattern. Another outcome of the reflected flow mechanism - the predominance of lateral or adventitious roots in different plant species - may be based on the different efficiencies with which auxin inhibits its

  13. Urey prize lecture: On the diversity of plausible planetary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    Models of planet formation and of the orbital stability of planetary systems are used to predict the variety of planetary and satellite systems that may be present within our galaxy. A new approximate global criterion for orbital stability of planetary systems based on an extension of the local resonance overlap criterion is proposed. This criterion implies that at least some of Uranus' small inner moons are significantly less massive than predicted by estimates based on Voyager volumes and densities assumed to equal that of Miranda. Simple calculations (neglecting planetary gravity) suggest that giant planets which acrete substantial amounts of gas while their envelopes are extremely distended ultimately rotate rapidly in the prgrade direction.

  14. Binding stability of peptides derived from 1ALA residue and 7GLY residues to sites near active center of fluctuating papain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Katsuhiko

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the binding stability of peptides derived from 1ALA residue and 7GLY residues to sites near active center of fluctuating papain via molecular dynamics and docking simulations. Replacing GLY residue in 8GLY with ALA residue had a positive effect on binding stability to the sites in some cases although the replacing had a negative effect on it in other cases. Furthermore the replacing had a negative effect on the chance of binding to the sites. Residue in peptide should be replaced on the basis of systematic exploration of its position.

  15. Flight-determined aerodynamic stability and control derivatives of the M2-F2 lifting body vehicle at subsonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, R. W.; Thompson, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    Aerodynamic derivatives were obtained for the M2-F2 lifting body flight vehicle in the subsonic flight region between Mach numbers of 0.41 and 0.64 and altitudes of 7000 feet to 45,000 feet. The derivatives were determined by a flight time history curve-fitting process utilizing a hybrid computer. The flight-determined derivatives are compared with wind-tunnel and predicted values. Modal-response characteristics, calculated from the flight derivatives, are presented.

  16. First-derivative spectrophotometric and LC determination of nifedipine in Brij 96 based oil/water/oil multiple microemulsions on stability studies.

    PubMed

    Castro, D; Moreno, M A; Lastres, J L

    2001-11-01

    A first-derivative spectrophotometric (1D(387)) method was developed for the determination of nifedipine in oil/water/oil (O/W/O) multiple microemulsions during stability studies. The UV first-derivative spectra were recorded over the wavelength range 200-600 nm (Delta lambda=16). The derivative procedure was based on the linear relationship between nifedipine concentration and the first-derivative amplitude at 387 nm. This method was validated and compared with a liquid chromatography (LC) procedure used for the quantitative analysis of the drug. Both methods showed excellent precision and accuracy with values of 2.09 and 1.82%, respectively, for the LC method and of 1.53 and 1.64%, respectively, for the 1D(387) method. The established linearity range was 5-30 microg ml(-1) with r(2) values of 0.9980 and 0.9988 for LC and first-derivative procedures, respectively. Nifedipine recoveries from spiked placebos were >95% for both methods over the linear range analysed. These methods have been successfully used for determining of nifedipine content of multiple microemulsions during stability studies, since there was no interference with its decomposition products.

  17. Conventional and first derivative synchronous fluorometric determination of ethamsylate in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids. Application to stability studies.

    PubMed

    Belal, Fathalla; El-Brashy, Amina; El-Enany, Nahed; Tolba, Manar

    2011-07-01

    Two simple, accurate and highly sensitive spectrofluorometric methods were developed for the determination of ethamsylate (ETM). Method I is based on measuring the native fluorescence of ethamsylate in water at 354 nm after excitation at 302 nm. The calibration plot was rectilinear over the range of 0.05-1 μg/mL for ETM with limits of detection and quantitation of 7.9 and 26 ng/mL, respectively. Method II involved synchronous and first derivative synchronous fluorometric methods for the simultaneous determination of ethamsylate (ETM) and hydroquinone (HQ) which is considered as an impurity and/or acidic degradation product. The synchronous fluorescence of both the drug and its impurity were measured in methanol at Δ λ of 40 nm. The peak amplitudes ((1)D) were estimated at 293.85 or 334.17 nm for ETM and at 309.05 nm for HQ. Good linearity was obtained for ETM over the ranges 0.1-1.4 μg/mL and 0.1-1.0 μg/mL at 293.85 and 334.17 nm, respectively. For HQ, the calibration plot was rectilinear over the range of 0.01-0.14 μg/mL at 309.05 nm. Limits of detection were 20, 2.01 ng/mL and limits of quantitation were 60, 6.7 ng/mL for ETM and HQ by method II, respectively. Both methods were successfully applied to commercial ampoules and tablets. The results were in good agreement with those obtained by the reference method. Method I was utilized to study the stability of ETM and its degradation kinetics using peroxide. The apparent first-order rate constant, half-life times and activation energy of the degradation process were calculated. Method I was further extended to the in-vitro and in-vivo determination of ETM in spiked and real plasma samples. The mean% recoveries were 99.57 ± 3.85 and 89.39 ± 5.93 for spiked and real human plasma, respectively.

  18. Plausibility Reappraisals and Shifts in Middle School Students' Climate Change Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Doug; Sinatra, Gale M.; Nussbaum, E. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Plausibility is a central but under-examined topic in conceptual change research. Climate change is an important socio-scientific topic; however, many view human-induced climate change as implausible. When learning about climate change, students need to make plausibility judgments but they may not be sufficiently critical or reflective. The…

  19. Making More Plausible What is Hard To Believe: Historical Justifications and Illustrations of Newton's Third Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauld, Colin

    1998-01-01

    Reports that many students do not believe Newton's law of action and reaction and suggests ways in which its plausibility might be enhanced. Reviews how this law has been made more plausible over time by Newton and those who succeeded him. Contains 25 references. (DDR)

  20. Plausible molecular and crystal structures of chitosan/HI type II salt.

    PubMed

    Lertworasirikul, Amornrat; Noguchi, Keiichi; Ogawa, Kozo; Okuyama, Kenji

    2004-03-15

    Chitosan/HI type II salt prepared from crab tendon was investigated by X-ray fiber diffraction. Two polymer chains and 16 iodide ions (I(-)) crystallized in a tetragonal unit cell with lattice parameters of a = b = 10.68(3), c (fiber axis) = 40.77(13) A, and a space group P4(1). Chitosan forms a fourfold helix with a 40.77 A fiber period having a disaccharide as the helical asymmetric unit. One of the O-3... O-5 intramolecular hydrogen bonds at the glycosidic linkage is weakened by interacting with iodide ions, which seems to cause the polymer to take the 4/1-helical symmetry rather than the extended 2/1-helix. The plausible orientations of two O-6 atoms in the helical asymmetric unit were found to be gt and gg. Two chains are running through at the corner and the center of the unit cell along the c-axis. They are linked by hydrogen bonds between N-21 and O-61 atoms. Two out of four independent iodide ions are packed between the corner chains while the other two are packed between the corner and center chains when viewing through the ab-plane. The crystal structure of the salt is stabilized by hydrogen bonds between these iodide ions and N-21, N-22, O-32, O-61, O-62 of the polymer chains.

  1. Photoinduced catalytic synthesis of biologically important metabolites from formaldehyde and ammonia under plausible "prebiotic" conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delidovich, I. V.; Taran, O. P.; Simonov, A. N.; Matvienko, L. G.; Parmon, V. N.

    2011-08-01

    The article analyzes new and previously reported data on several catalytic and photochemical processes yielding biologically important molecules. UV-irradiation of formaldehyde aqueous solution yields acetaldehyde, glyoxal, glycolaldehyde and glyceraldehyde, which can serve as precursors of more complex biochemically relevant compounds. Photolysis of aqueous solution of acetaldehyde and ammonium nitrate results in formation of alanine and pyruvic acid. Dehydration of glyceraldehyde catalyzed by zeolite HZSM-5-17 yields pyruvaldehyde. Monosaccharides are formed in the course of the phosphate-catalyzed aldol condensation reactions of glycolaldehyde, glyceraldehyde and formaldehyde. The possibility of the direct synthesis of tetroses, keto- and aldo-pentoses from pure formaldehyde due to the combination of the photochemical production of glycolahyde and phosphate-catalyzed carbohydrate chain growth is demonstrated. Erythrulose and 3-pentulose are the main products of such combined synthesis with selectivity up to 10%. Biologically relevant aldotetroses, aldo- and ketopentoses are more resistant to the photochemical destruction owing to the stabilization in hemiacetal cyclic forms. They are formed as products of isomerization of erythrulose and 3-pentulose. The conjugation of the concerned reactions results in a plausible route to the formation of sugars, amino and organic acids from formaldehyde and ammonia under presumed 'prebiotic' conditions.

  2. Developing a Diastereoselective Intramolecular [4 + 3] Cycloaddition of Nitrogen-Stabilized Oxyallyl Cations Derived from N-Sulfonyl-Substituted Allenamides

    PubMed Central

    Lohse, Andrew G.; Hsung, Richard P.; Leider, Mitchell D.; Ghosh, Sunil K.

    2011-01-01

    Efforts toward achieving a practical and diastereoselective intramolecular [4 + 3] cycloaddition of nitrogen-stabilized oxyallyl cations with tethered dienes are described. Epoxidation of N-sulfonyl substituted allenamides with dimethyldioxirane (DMDO) generates nitrogen-stabilized oxyallyl cations that would readily undergo stereoselective [4 + 3] cycloaddition with dienes. Selectivity is found to depend on the tethering length as well as the stability of the oxyallyl cation intermediate, whether generated from N-carbamoyl- or N-sulfonyl-substituted allenamides. The use of chiral N-sulfonyl-substituted allenamide provided minimal diastereoselectivity in the cycloaddition, while high diastereoselectivity can be achieved with a stereocenter present on the tether. These studies provide further support for the synthetic utility of allenamides. PMID:21449577

  3. High-internal-phase emulsions stabilized by metal-organic frameworks and derivation of ultralight metal-organic aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bingxing; Zhang, Jianling; Liu, Chengcheng; Peng, Li; Sang, Xinxin; Han, Buxing; Ma, Xue; Luo, Tian; Tan, Xiuniang; Yang, Guanying

    2016-01-01

    To design high-internal-phase emulsion (HIPE) systems is of great interest from the viewpoints of both fundamental researches and practical applications. Here we demonstrate for the first time the utilization of metal-organic framework (MOF) for HIPE formation. By stirring the mixture of water, oil and MOF at room temperature, the HIPE stabilized by the assembly of MOF nanocrystals at oil-water interface could be formed. The MOF-stabilized HIPE provides a novel route to produce highly porous metal-organic aerogel (MOA) monolith. After removing the liquids from the MOF-stabilized HIPE, the ultralight MOA with density as low as 0.01 g·cm(-3) was obtained. The HIPE approach for MOA formation has unique advantages and is versatile in producing different kinds of ultralight MOAs with tunable porosities and structures. PMID:26892258

  4. High-internal-phase emulsions stabilized by metal-organic frameworks and derivation of ultralight metal-organic aerogels

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bingxing; Zhang, Jianling; Liu, Chengcheng; Peng, Li; Sang, Xinxin; Han, Buxing; Ma, Xue; Luo, Tian; Tan, Xiuniang; Yang, Guanying

    2016-01-01

    To design high-internal-phase emulsion (HIPE) systems is of great interest from the viewpoints of both fundamental researches and practical applications. Here we demonstrate for the first time the utilization of metal-organic framework (MOF) for HIPE formation. By stirring the mixture of water, oil and MOF at room temperature, the HIPE stabilized by the assembly of MOF nanocrystals at oil-water interface could be formed. The MOF-stabilized HIPE provides a novel route to produce highly porous metal-organic aerogel (MOA) monolith. After removing the liquids from the MOF-stabilized HIPE, the ultralight MOA with density as low as 0.01 g·cm−3 was obtained. The HIPE approach for MOA formation has unique advantages and is versatile in producing different kinds of ultralight MOAs with tunable porosities and structures. PMID:26892258

  5. Stability and maturity of biowaste composts derived by small municipalities: Correlation among physical, chemical and biological indices.

    PubMed

    Oviedo-Ocaña, E R; Torres-Lozada, P; Marmolejo-Rebellon, L F; Hoyos, L V; Gonzales, S; Barrena, R; Komilis, D; Sanchez, A

    2015-10-01

    Stability and maturity are important criteria to guarantee the quality of a compost that is applied to agriculture or used as amendment in degraded soils. Although different techniques exist to evaluate stability and maturity, the application of laboratory tests in municipalities in developing countries can be limited due to cost and application complexities. In the composting facilities of such places, some classical low cost on-site tests to monitor the composting process are usually implemented; however, such tests do not necessarily clearly identify conditions of stability and maturity. In this article, we have applied and compared results of stability and maturity tests that can be easily employed on site (i.e. temperature, pH, moisture, electrical conductivity [EC], odor and color), and of tests that require more complex laboratory techniques (volatile solids, C/N ratio, self-heating, respirometric index, germination index [GI]). The evaluation of the above was performed in the field scale using 2 piles of biowaste applied compost. The monitoring period was from day 70 to day 190 of the process. Results showed that the low-cost tests traditionally employed to monitor the composting process on-site, such as temperature, color and moisture, do not provide consistent determinations with the more complex laboratory tests used to assess stability (e.g. respiration index, self-heating, volatile solids). In the case of maturity tests (GI, pH, EC), both the on-site tests (pH, EC) and the laboratory test (GI) provided consistent results. Although, stability was indicated for most of the samples, the maturity tests indicated that products were consistently immature. Thus, a stable product is not necessarily mature. Conclusively, the decision on the quality of the compost in the installations located in developing countries requires the simultaneous use of a combination of tests that are performed both in the laboratory and on-site.

  6. Stability and maturity of biowaste composts derived by small municipalities: Correlation among physical, chemical and biological indices.

    PubMed

    Oviedo-Ocaña, E R; Torres-Lozada, P; Marmolejo-Rebellon, L F; Hoyos, L V; Gonzales, S; Barrena, R; Komilis, D; Sanchez, A

    2015-10-01

    Stability and maturity are important criteria to guarantee the quality of a compost that is applied to agriculture or used as amendment in degraded soils. Although different techniques exist to evaluate stability and maturity, the application of laboratory tests in municipalities in developing countries can be limited due to cost and application complexities. In the composting facilities of such places, some classical low cost on-site tests to monitor the composting process are usually implemented; however, such tests do not necessarily clearly identify conditions of stability and maturity. In this article, we have applied and compared results of stability and maturity tests that can be easily employed on site (i.e. temperature, pH, moisture, electrical conductivity [EC], odor and color), and of tests that require more complex laboratory techniques (volatile solids, C/N ratio, self-heating, respirometric index, germination index [GI]). The evaluation of the above was performed in the field scale using 2 piles of biowaste applied compost. The monitoring period was from day 70 to day 190 of the process. Results showed that the low-cost tests traditionally employed to monitor the composting process on-site, such as temperature, color and moisture, do not provide consistent determinations with the more complex laboratory tests used to assess stability (e.g. respiration index, self-heating, volatile solids). In the case of maturity tests (GI, pH, EC), both the on-site tests (pH, EC) and the laboratory test (GI) provided consistent results. Although, stability was indicated for most of the samples, the maturity tests indicated that products were consistently immature. Thus, a stable product is not necessarily mature. Conclusively, the decision on the quality of the compost in the installations located in developing countries requires the simultaneous use of a combination of tests that are performed both in the laboratory and on-site. PMID:26216503

  7. Effect of different substituents on the water-solubility and stability properties of 1 : 2 [60]fullerene derivative·gamma-cyclodextrin complexes.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Atsushi; Hirata, Akiko; Ishikawa, Michiko; Kikuchi, Jun-ichi; Mieda, Shunsuke; Shinoda, Wataru

    2013-12-01

    We have demonstrated that C60 derivatives bearing a pyrrolidine moiety as well as a variety of other substituents can form 1 : 2 complexes with γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CDx) using a mechanochemical high-speed vibration milling apparatus. When the influence of the steric hindrance of the substituents on the formation of the complexes was negligible, the water-solubilities of the complexes were shown experimentally to be completely dependent on the hydrophobic properties of the substituent. Furthermore, the stabilities of the γ-CDx-complexes of several different C60 derivatives were found to be similar to or slightly higher than that of the C60·γ-CDx complex, with the solubilities of the complexes showing no correlation to the stabilities. Based on the results of a series of theoretical investigations, we have shown that the stabilities of the γ-CDx-complexes can be affected not only by steric effects but also by the polarities of the substituent groups, which exist in the vicinity of the upper rim of γ-CDx, because the water bound to the polar group can assist in the stabilisation of the complexes. PMID:24061283

  8. Flight-Determined, Subsonic, Lateral-Directional Stability and Control Derivatives of the Thrust-Vectoring F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV), and Comparisons to the Basic F-18 and Predicted Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles

    1999-01-01

    The subsonic, lateral-directional, stability and control derivatives of the thrust-vectoring F-1 8 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) are extracted from flight data using a maximum likelihood parameter identification technique. State noise is accounted for in the identification formulation and is used to model the uncommanded forcing functions caused by unsteady aerodynamics. Preprogrammed maneuvers provided independent control surface inputs, eliminating problems of identifiability related to correlations between the aircraft controls and states. The HARV derivatives are plotted as functions of angles of attack between 10deg and 70deg and compared to flight estimates from the basic F-18 aircraft and to predictions from ground and wind tunnel tests. Unlike maneuvers of the basic F-18 aircraft, the HARV maneuvers were very precise and repeatable, resulting in tightly clustered estimates with small uncertainty levels. Significant differences were found between flight and prediction; however, some of these differences may be attributed to differences in the range of sideslip or input amplitude over which a given derivative was evaluated, and to differences between the HARV external configuration and that of the basic F-18 aircraft, upon which most of the prediction was based. Some HARV derivative fairings have been adjusted using basic F-18 derivatives (with low uncertainties) to help account for differences in variable ranges and the lack of HARV maneuvers at certain angles of attack.

  9. Spectral Mixing in Nervous Systems: Experimental Evidenceand Biologically Plausible Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinfeld, D.; Mehta, S. B.

    The ability to compute the difference frequency for two periodic signals depends on a nonlinear operation that mixes those signals. Behavioral and psychophysical evidence suggest that such mixing is likely to occur in the vertebrate nervous system as a means to compare rhythmic sensory signals, such as occurs in human audition, and as a means to lock an intrinsic rhythm to a sensory input. Electrophysiological data from electroreceptors in the immobilized electric fish and somatosensory cortex in the anesthetized rat yield direct evidence for such mixing, providing a neurological substrate for the modulation and demodulation of rhythmic neuronal signals. We consider an analytical model of spectral mixing that makes use of the threshold characteristics of neuronal firing and which has features consistent with the experimental observations. This model serves as a guide for constructing circuits that isolate given mixture components. In particular, such circuits can generate nearly pure difference tones from sinusoidal inputs without the use of band-pass filters, in analogy to an image-reject mixer in communications engineering. We speculate that such computations may play a role in coding of sensory input and feedback stabilization of motor output in nervous systems.

  10. Familiarity and Plausibility in Conceptual Combination: Reply to Gagné and Spalding (2006)

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewski, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    Wisniewski and Murphy (2005) suggested that the apparent effects of relation frequency in Gagné and Shoben's (1997) conceptual combination experiments could be explained by differences between the familiarity and plausibility of their stimuli (noun-noun phrases). However, Gagné and Spalding (2006) argued that our measures of plausibility and frequency are both sensitive to relation frequency. They also suggested that the stimuli were mostly novel such that differences in familiarity could not explain the Gagné and Shoben findings. We focus on the theoretical rationale for the plausibility and familiarity variables, arguing that the original interpretation of our findings is correct. PMID:17087595

  11. Properties of cationic monosubstituted tetraalkylammonium cyclodextrin derivatives – their stability, complexation ability in solution or when deposited on solid anionic surface

    PubMed Central

    Popr, Martin; Filippov, Sergey K; Matushkin, Nikolai; Dian, Juraj

    2015-01-01

    Summary The thermal stability of the monosubstituted cationic cyclodextrin (CD) derivatives PEMEDA-β-CD and PEMPDA-β-CD, which differ in their substituent linker length (ethylene and propylene, respectively), was studied via 1H NMR experiments. PEMPDA-β-CD exhibited higher resistance towards the Hofmann degradation and was chosen as a more suitable host molecule for further studies. Inclusion properties of PEMPDA-β-CD in solution with a series of simple aromatic guests (salicylic acid, p-methoxyphenol and p-nitroaniline) were determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and compared to the native β-CD. Permanently charged cationic CD derivatives were successfully deposited on the anionic solid surface of polymeric Nafion® 117 membrane via electrostatic interactions. Deposition kinetics and coverage of the surface were determined by ELSD. Finally, the ability of the CD derivatives bound to the solid surface to encapsulate aromatic compounds from aqueous solution was measured by UV–vis spectroscopy. The obtained results are promising for future industrial applications of the monosubstituted β-CD derivatives, because the preparation of cationic CD derivatives is applicable in large scale, without the need of chromatographic purification. Their ionic deposition on a solid surface is simple, yet robust and a straightforward process as well. PMID:25815069

  12. Study of CO2 cyclic absorption stability of CaO-based sorbents derived from lime mud purified by sucrose method.

    PubMed

    Ma, AiHua; Jia, QingMing; Su, HongYing; Zhi, YunFei; Tian, Na; Wu, Jing; Shan, ShaoYun

    2016-02-01

    Using lime mud (LM) purified by sucrose method, derived from paper-making industry, as calcium precursor, and using mineral rejects-bauxite-tailings (BTs) from aluminum production as dopant, the CaO-based sorbents for high-temperature CO2 capture were prepared. Effects of BTs content, precalcining time, and temperature on CO2 cyclic absorption stability were illustrated. The cyclic carbonation behavior was investigated in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Phase composition and morphologies were analyzed by XRD and SEM. The results reflected that the as-synthesized CaO-based sorbent doped with 10 wt% BTs showed a superior CO2 cyclic absorption-desorption conversion during multiple cycles, with conversion being >38 % after 50 cycles. Occurrence of Ca12Al14O33 phase during precalcination was probably responsible for the excellent CO2 cyclic stability.

  13. Determination of genetic stability in long-term somatic embryogenic cultures and derived plantlets of cork oak using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Tina; Pinto, Glória; Loureiro, João; Costa, Armando; Santos, Conceição

    2006-09-01

    Microsatellites were used to test genetic stability in somatic embryos (SE) of Quercus suber L. The SE were obtained by a simple somatic embryogenesis protocol: leaf explants from two adult plants (QsG0, QsG5) and from two juvenile plants (QsGM1, QsGM2) were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and zeatin. Calluses with primary embryogenic structures were transferred to MSWH (MS medium without growth regulators) and SE proliferated by secondary somatic embryogenesis. High morphological heterogeneity was found among cotyledonary SE. However, converted plants looked morphologically normal with well-developed rooting systems and shoots. The genetic stability of the plant material during the somatic embryogenesis process was evaluated by using six to eight nuclear microsatellites transferred from Q. myrsinifolia Blume, Q. petraea (Matts.) Liebl. and Q. robur L. Five of eight microsatellites distinguished among the genotypes analyzed, and for QsG0, QsGM1 and QsGM2, uniform microsatellite patterns were generally observed within and between SE and the respective donor genotypes. For genotype QsG5, the same pattern was observed in all samples analyzed except one, where the mutation percentage was 2.5%. We conclude that microsatellite markers can be used to assess genetic stability of clonal materials and to determine genetic stability throughout the process of somatic embryogenesis. The simple somatic embryogenesis protocol described has potential for the commercial propagation of Q. suber because it results in a low percentage of mutations.

  14. Plausibility effects when reading one- and two-character words in Chinese: evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinmian; Staub, Adrian; Li, Nan; Wang, Suiping; Rayner, Keith

    2012-11-01

    Eye movements of Chinese readers were monitored as they read sentences containing a critical character that was either a 1-character word or the initial character of a 2-character word. Due to manipulation of the verb prior to the target word, the 1-character target word (or the first character of the 2-character target word) was either plausible or implausible, as an independent word, at the point at which it appeared, whereas the 2-character word was always plausible. The eye movement data showed that the plausibility manipulation did not exert an influence on the reading of the 2-character word or its component characters. However, plausibility significantly influenced reading of the 1-character target word. These results suggest that processes of semantic integration in reading Chinese are performed at a word level, instead of a character level, and that word segmentation must take place very early in the course of processing.

  15. The Stability of Rankings Derived from Composite Indicators: Analysis of the "IL Sole 24 Ore" Quality of Life Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lun, G.; Holzer, D.; Tappeiner, G.; Tappeiner, U.

    2006-01-01

    The calculation of composite indicators and the derivation of respective rankings is a common method used to benchmark countries or regions. However, although the statistical robustness of these rankings is often criticised, they often still spark off heated political debate. Here, we assess the sensitivity of the province ranking published by the…

  16. The Utility of Cognitive Plausibility in Language Acquisition Modeling: Evidence From Word Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Lawrence; Pearl, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    The informativity of a computational model of language acquisition is directly related to how closely it approximates the actual acquisition task, sometimes referred to as the model's cognitive plausibility. We suggest that though every computational model necessarily idealizes the modeled task, an informative language acquisition model can aim to be cognitively plausible in multiple ways. We discuss these cognitive plausibility checkpoints generally and then apply them to a case study in word segmentation, investigating a promising Bayesian segmentation strategy. We incorporate cognitive plausibility by using an age-appropriate unit of perceptual representation, evaluating the model output in terms of its utility, and incorporating cognitive constraints into the inference process. Our more cognitively plausible model shows a beneficial effect of cognitive constraints on segmentation performance. One interpretation of this effect is as a synergy between the naive theories of language structure that infants may have and the cognitive constraints that limit the fidelity of their inference processes, where less accurate inference approximations are better when the underlying assumptions about how words are generated are less accurate. More generally, these results highlight the utility of incorporating cognitive plausibility more fully into computational models of language acquisition.

  17. Chemical derivation to enhance the chemical/oxidative stability of resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin

    SciTech Connect

    Hubler, T.L.; Shaw, W.J.; Brown, G.N.; Linehan, J.C.; Franz, J.A.; Hart, T.R.; Hogan, M.O.

    1996-09-01

    Tank wastes at Hanford and SRS contain highly alkaline supernate solutions of conc. Na, K nitrates with large amounts of {sup 137}Cs. It is desirable to remove and concentrate the highly radioactive fraction for vitrification. One candidate ion exchange material for removing the radiocesium is R-F resin. This report summarizes studies into synthesis and characterization of 4-derivatized R-F resins prepared in pursuit of more chemically/oxidatively robust resin. 85% 4-fluororesorcinol/15% phenol formaldehyde resin appears to have good stability in alkaline solution, although there may be some nucleophilic displacement reaction during synthesis; further studies are needed.

  18. Prediction of Overall In Vitro Microsomal Stability of Drug Candidates Based on Molecular Modeling and Support Vector Machines. Case Study of Novel Arylpiperazines Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Ulenberg, Szymon; Belka, Mariusz; Król, Marek; Herold, Franciszek; Hewelt-Belka, Weronika; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Bączek, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Other than efficacy of interaction with the molecular target, metabolic stability is the primary factor responsible for the failure or success of a compound in the drug development pipeline. The ideal drug candidate should be stable enough to reach its therapeutic site of action. Despite many recent excellent achievements in the field of computational methods supporting drug metabolism studies, a well-recognized procedure to model and predict metabolic stability quantitatively is still lacking. This study proposes a workflow for developing quantitative metabolic stability-structure relationships, taking a set of 30 arylpiperazine derivatives as an example. The metabolic stability of the compounds was assessed in in vitro incubations in the presence of human liver microsomes and NADPH and subsequently quantified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to obtain 30 models of the molecules, and Dragon software served as a source of structure-based molecular descriptors. For modeling structure-metabolic stability relationships, Support Vector Machines (SVM), a non-linear machine learning technique, were found to be more effective than a regression technique, based on the validation parameters obtained. Moreover, for the first time, general sites of metabolism for arylpiperazines bearing the 4-aryl-2H-pyrido[1,2-c]pyrimidine-1,3-dione system were defined by analysis of Q-TOF-MS/MS spectra. The results indicated that the application of one of the most advanced chemometric techniques combined with a simple and quick in vitro procedure and LC-MS analysis provides a novel and valuable tool for predicting metabolic half-life values. Given the reduced time and simplicity of analysis, together with the accuracy of the predictions obtained, this is a valid approach for predicting metabolic stability using structural data. The approach presented provides a novel, comprehensive and reliable tool for investigating

  19. Prediction of overall in vitro microsomal stability of drug candidates based on molecular modeling and support vector machines. Case study of novel arylpiperazines derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ulenberg, Szymon; Belka, Mariusz; Król, Marek; Herold, Franciszek; Hewelt-Belka, Weronika; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Bączek, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Other than efficacy of interaction with the molecular target, metabolic stability is the primary factor responsible for the failure or success of a compound in the drug development pipeline. The ideal drug candidate should be stable enough to reach its therapeutic site of action. Despite many recent excellent achievements in the field of computational methods supporting drug metabolism studies, a well-recognized procedure to model and predict metabolic stability quantitatively is still lacking. This study proposes a workflow for developing quantitative metabolic stability-structure relationships, taking a set of 30 arylpiperazine derivatives as an example. The metabolic stability of the compounds was assessed in in vitro incubations in the presence of human liver microsomes and NADPH and subsequently quantified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to obtain 30 models of the molecules, and Dragon software served as a source of structure-based molecular descriptors. For modeling structure-metabolic stability relationships, Support Vector Machines (SVM), a non-linear machine learning technique, were found to be more effective than a regression technique, based on the validation parameters obtained. Moreover, for the first time, general sites of metabolism for arylpiperazines bearing the 4-aryl-2H-pyrido[1,2-c]pyrimidine-1,3-dione system were defined by analysis of Q-TOF-MS/MS spectra. The results indicated that the application of one of the most advanced chemometric techniques combined with a simple and quick in vitro procedure and LC-MS analysis provides a novel and valuable tool for predicting metabolic half-life values. Given the reduced time and simplicity of analysis, together with the accuracy of the predictions obtained, this is a valid approach for predicting metabolic stability using structural data. The approach presented provides a novel, comprehensive and reliable tool for investigating

  20. Physicochemical properties of peanut oil-based diacylglycerol and their derived oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by sodium caseinate.

    PubMed

    Long, Zhao; Zhao, Mouming; Liu, Ning; Liu, Daolin; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Zhao, Qiangzhong

    2015-10-01

    High purity peanut oil-based diacylglycerol (PO-DAG) (94.95 wt%) was prepared via enzymatic glycerolysis from peanut oil (PO). The resulting dominance of DAGs was proven to greatly influence the properties of corresponding fresh or frozen-thawed emulsions. Stable fresh oil-in-water emulsions were produced using either PO-DAG or PO, with stability enhanced by increased concentrations of Na-CN. The lower equilibrium interfacial tension along with greater negative ζ-potential of PO revealed that Na-CN was preferentially adsorbed to the PO interface. Adding 0.05 mol/L NaCl to the PO emulsions minimized depletion flocculation caused by the unadsorbed Na-CN, but further NaCl addition increased oil droplet size and concomitant coalescence. For the PO-DAG emulsions, adding 0.2 mol/L NaCl did not significantly (p>0.05) affect their ζ-potential but adding 0.05 or 0.1 mol/L NaCl lowered ζ-potential, although NaCl at these concentrations increased oil droplet size and coalescence. Freezing-thawing process considerably weakened the stability of PO-DAG emulsions.

  1. Flight-Determined Subsonic Longitudinal Stability and Control Derivatives of the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) with Thrust Vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles

    1997-01-01

    The subsonic longitudinal stability and control derivatives of the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) are extracted from dynamic flight data using a maximum likelihood parameter identification technique. The technique uses the linearized aircraft equations of motion in their continuous/discrete form and accounts for state and measurement noise as well as thrust-vectoring effects. State noise is used to model the uncommanded forcing function caused by unsteady aerodynamics over the aircraft, particularly at high angles of attack. Thrust vectoring was implemented using electrohydraulically-actuated nozzle postexit vanes and a specialized research flight control system. During maneuvers, a control system feature provided independent aerodynamic control surface inputs and independent thrust-vectoring vane inputs, thereby eliminating correlations between the aircraft states and controls. Substantial variations in control excitation and dynamic response were exhibited for maneuvers conducted at different angles of attack. Opposing vane interactions caused most thrust-vectoring inputs to experience some exhaust plume interference and thus reduced effectiveness. The estimated stability and control derivatives are plotted, and a discussion relates them to predicted values and maneuver quality.

  2. Quantitation of various indolinyl caged glutamates as their o-phthalaldehyde derivatives by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem spectroscopic detections: derivatization, stoichiometry and stability studies.

    PubMed

    Vasanits-Zsigrai, A; Majercsik, O; Tóth, G; Csámpai, A; Haveland-Lukács, Cs; Pálfi, D; Szadai, Z; Rózsa, B; Molnár-Perl, I

    2015-05-15

    Quantification, stability and unique spectroscopic properties of indolinyl-caged glutamates (ICGs), with the o-phthalaldehyde-3-mercaptopropionic acid (OPA-MPA) reagent, were described, at first. As new principle to the field, reactivity and stoichiometry of variously substituted OPA-MPA derivatized ICGs, such as 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl-(MNI-Glu), 4-methoxy-5,7-dinitroindolinyl-(DNI-Glu), 2-dimethylamino-propoxy and dimethylamino-isobutoxy alternatives (2DMA-1PO-DNI-Glu, 1DMA-2P-DNI-Glu and 3DMA-1iBU-DNI-Glu), was demonstrated. Derivatives' stability was determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) applying simultaneous photodiode array (DAD) and fluorescence (Fl) detections, while their structural identity was confirmed by HPLC-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF-MS). The SH-additive of the reagents was also varied. ICGs react unequivocally, with one OPA-SH-group molecule, in the molar ratios of ([OPA-SH-additive]/[ICG]=1/1, resulting in species with the characteristic isoindole spectral property (EEx/EEm=337/454nm; λmax=337nm). ICGs' isoindole derivatives, due to their sandwich structure, are manifesting the π-π-stacking phenomenon: they fail to show fluorescence. ICGs' stability decreased in the order of MNI-Glu, 2DMA-1PO/1DMA-2PO, 3DMA-1iBU and DNI-Glu, correspondingly, resulting in increasing order of free glutamic acid (GA), as their decomposition product. GA and ICGs were determined as their OPA/MPA derivatives while uncaged species (MNI, DNI and its substituted alternatives) in their initial forms. The practical utility of the method was confirmed analyzing ICGs and their decomposition products, simultaneously. Quantifications' reliability and reproducibility were characterized with the relative standard deviation percentages of responses (RSDs%): for GA 0.41-12 RSD% for ICGs 0.057-7.0 RSD% were obtained. Stability properties of variously substituted, recently introduced ICGs, prepared in laboratories of Institute of

  3. Using critical evaluation to reappraise plausibility judgments: A critical cognitive component of conceptual change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardi, D.

    2011-12-01

    Plausibility judgments-although well represented in conceptual change theories (see, for example, Chi, 2005; diSessa, 1993; Dole & Sinatra, 1998; Posner et al., 1982)-have received little empirical attention until our recent work investigating teachers' and students' understanding of and perceptions about human-induced climate change (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010, 2011). In our first study with undergraduate students, we found that greater plausibility perceptions of human-induced climate accounted for significantly greater understanding of weather and climate distinctions after instruction, even after accounting for students' prior knowledge (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010). In a follow-up study with inservice science and preservice elementary teachers, we showed that anger about the topic of climate change and teaching about climate change was significantly related to implausible perceptions about human-induced climate change (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2011). Results from our recent studies helped to inform our development of a model of the role of plausibility judgments in conceptual change situations. The model applies to situations involving cognitive dissonance, where background knowledge conflicts with an incoming message. In such situations, we define plausibility as a judgment on the relative potential truthfulness of incoming information compared to one's existing mental representations (Rescher, 1976). Students may not consciously think when making plausibility judgments, expending only minimal mental effort in what is referred to as an automatic cognitive process (Stanovich, 2009). However, well-designed instruction could facilitate students' reappraisal of plausibility judgments in more effortful and conscious cognitive processing. Critical evaluation specifically may be one effective method to promote plausibility reappraisal in a classroom setting (Lombardi & Sinatra, in progress). In science education, critical evaluation involves the analysis of how evidentiary

  4. Formation and stabilization of the telomeric antiparallel G-quadruplex and inhibition of telomerase by novel benzothioxanthene derivatives with anti-tumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen; Chen, Min; Ling Wu, Yan; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Juan Ji, Yan; Lin Zhang, Su; He Wei, Chuan; Xu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    G-quadruplexes formed in telomeric DNA sequences at human chromosome ends can be a novel target for the development of therapeutics for the treatment of cancer patients. Herein, we examined the ability of six novel benzothioxanthene derivatives S1–S6 to induce the formation of and stabilize an antiparallel G-quadruplex by EMSA, UV-melting and CD techniques and the influence of S1–S6 on A549 and SGC7901 cells through real-time cell analysis, wound healing, trap assay methods. Results show that six compounds could differentially induce 26 nt G-rich oligonucleotides to form the G-quadruplex with high selectivity vs C-rich DNA, mutated DNA and double-stranded DNA, stabilize it with high affinity, promote apoptosis and inhibit mobility and telomerase activity of A549 cells and SGC7901 cells. Especially, S1, S3, S4 displayed stronger abilities, of which S3 was the most optimal with the maximum ΔTm value being up to 29.8 °C for G-quadruplex, the minimum IC50 value being 0.53 μM and the maximum cell inhibitory rate being up to 97.2%. This study suggests that this type of compounds that induce the formation of and stabilize the telomeric antiparallel G-quadruplex, and consequently inhibit telomerase activity, leading to cell apoptosis, can be screened for the discovery of novel antitumor therapeutics. PMID:26329134

  5. The Influence of Arginine on the Response of Enamel Matrix Derivative (EMD) Proteins to Thermal Stress: Towards Improving the Stability of EMD-Based Products.

    PubMed

    Apicella, Alessandra; Heunemann, Peggy; Bolisetty, Sreenath; Marascio, Matteo; Gemperli Graf, Anja; Garamszegi, Laszlo; Mezzenga, Raffaele; Fischer, Peter; Plummer, Christopher J; Månson, Jan-Anders

    2015-01-01

    In a current procedure for periodontal tissue regeneration, enamel matrix derivative (EMD), which is the active component, is mixed with a propylene glycol alginate (PGA) gel carrier and applied directly to the periodontal defect. Exposure of EMD to physiological conditions then causes it to precipitate. However, environmental changes during manufacture and storage may result in modifications to the conformation of the EMD proteins, and eventually premature phase separation of the gel and a loss in therapeutic effectiveness. The present work relates to efforts to improve the stability of EMD-based formulations such as Emdogain™ through the incorporation of arginine, a well-known protein stabilizer, but one that to our knowledge has not so far been considered for this purpose. Representative EMD-buffer solutions with and without arginine were analyzed by 3D-dynamic light scattering, UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy at different acidic pH and temperatures, T, in order to simulate the effect of pH variations and thermal stress during manufacture and storage. The results provided evidence that arginine may indeed stabilize EMD against irreversible aggregation with respect to variations in pH and T under these conditions. Moreover, stopped-flow transmittance measurements indicated arginine addition not to suppress precipitation of EMD from either the buffers or the PGA gel carrier when the pH was raised to 7, a fundamental requirement for dental applications. PMID:26670810

  6. Formation and stabilization of the telomeric antiparallel G-quadruplex and inhibition of telomerase by novel benzothioxanthene derivatives with anti-tumor activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Chen, Min; Ling Wu, Yan; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Juan Ji, Yan; Lin Zhang, Su; He Wei, Chuan; Xu, Yan

    2015-09-02

    G-quadruplexes formed in telomeric DNA sequences at human chromosome ends can be a novel target for the development of therapeutics for the treatment of cancer patients. Herein, we examined the ability of six novel benzothioxanthene derivatives S1-S6 to induce the formation of and stabilize an antiparallel G-quadruplex by EMSA, UV-melting and CD techniques and the influence of S1-S6 on A549 and SGC7901 cells through real-time cell analysis, wound healing, trap assay methods. Results show that six compounds could differentially induce 26 nt G-rich oligonucleotides to form the G-quadruplex with high selectivity vs C-rich DNA, mutated DNA and double-stranded DNA, stabilize it with high affinity, promote apoptosis and inhibit mobility and telomerase activity of A549 cells and SGC7901 cells. Especially, S1, S3, S4 displayed stronger abilities, of which S3 was the most optimal with the maximum ΔTm value being up to 29.8 °C for G-quadruplex, the minimum IC50 value being 0.53 μM and the maximum cell inhibitory rate being up to 97.2%. This study suggests that this type of compounds that induce the formation of and stabilize the telomeric antiparallel G-quadruplex, and consequently inhibit telomerase activity, leading to cell apoptosis, can be screened for the discovery of novel antitumor therapeutics.

  7. Stability, nutrient availability and hydrophobicity of biochars derived from manure, crop residues, and municipal solid waste for their use as soil amendments.

    PubMed

    Zornoza, R; Moreno-Barriga, F; Acosta, J A; Muñoz, M A; Faz, A

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to study the influence of feedstock properties, pyrolysis temperature and holding time on stability, nutrient contents and hydrophobicity of biochars derived from pig manure, crop residues and municipal solid waste. Biochars were prepared at 300 °C, 400 °C, 500 °C and 700 °C for 1 h, 2 h, 4 h and 5 h. All properties were influenced by feedstock except for pH and hydrophobicity. Temperature influenced all properties, whereas no effect of holding time was observed except for hydrophobicity and thermal stability. Increasing temperature increased aromatization and stability. Low temperatures provided higher cation exchange capacity and available nutrients, and lower salinity and alkalinity. Precipitation of phosphates and carbonates occurred with charring, explaining the decrease of available nutrients. Biochars produced at 300 °C showed high hydrophobity, which disappeared over 500 °C owing to the loss of labile aliphatic compounds. The high pH and carbonates contents at >500 °C resulted in suitable biochars for soil liming and decreasing soil metals availability. PMID:26347934

  8. Formation and stabilization of the telomeric antiparallel G-quadruplex and inhibition of telomerase by novel benzothioxanthene derivatives with anti-tumor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen; Chen, Min; Ling Wu, Yan; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Juan Ji, Yan; Lin Zhang, Su; He Wei, Chuan; Xu, Yan

    2015-09-01

    G-quadruplexes formed in telomeric DNA sequences at human chromosome ends can be a novel target for the development of therapeutics for the treatment of cancer patients. Herein, we examined the ability of six novel benzothioxanthene derivatives S1-S6 to induce the formation of and stabilize an antiparallel G-quadruplex by EMSA, UV-melting and CD techniques and the influence of S1-S6 on A549 and SGC7901 cells through real-time cell analysis, wound healing, trap assay methods. Results show that six compounds could differentially induce 26 nt G-rich oligonucleotides to form the G-quadruplex with high selectivity vs C-rich DNA, mutated DNA and double-stranded DNA, stabilize it with high affinity, promote apoptosis and inhibit mobility and telomerase activity of A549 cells and SGC7901 cells. Especially, S1, S3, S4 displayed stronger abilities, of which S3 was the most optimal with the maximum ΔTm value being up to 29.8 °C for G-quadruplex, the minimum IC50 value being 0.53 μM and the maximum cell inhibitory rate being up to 97.2%. This study suggests that this type of compounds that induce the formation of and stabilize the telomeric antiparallel G-quadruplex, and consequently inhibit telomerase activity, leading to cell apoptosis, can be screened for the discovery of novel antitumor therapeutics.

  9. Transfection of BmCPV genomic dsRNA in silkmoth-derived Bm5 cells: stability and interactions with the core RNAi machinery.

    PubMed

    Swevers, Luc; Kolliopoulou, Anna; Li, Zheng; Daskalaki, Maria; Verret, Frederic; Kalantidis, Kriton; Smagghe, Guy; Sun, Jingchen

    2014-05-01

    While several studies have been conducted to investigate the stability of dsRNA in the extracellular medium (hemolymph, gut content, saliva), little is known regarding the persistence of dsRNA once it has been introduced into the cell. Here, we investigate the stability of Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) genomic dsRNA fragments after transfection into Bombyx-derived Bm5 cells. Using RT-PCR as a detection method, we found that dsRNA could persist for long periods (up to 8 days) in the intracellular environment. While the BmCPV genomic dsRNA was processed by the RNAi machinery, its presence had no effects on other RNAi processes, such as the silencing of a luciferase reporter by dsLuc. We also found that transfection of BmCPV genomic dsRNA could not establish a viral infection in the Bm5 cells, even when co-transfections were carried out with dsRNAs targeting Dicer and Argonaute genes, suggesting that the neutralization by RNAi does not play a role in the establishment of an in vitro culture system. The mechanism of the dsRNA stability in Bm5 cells is discussed, as well as the implications for the establishment for an in vitro culture system for BmCPV. PMID:24636911

  10. The Influence of Arginine on the Response of Enamel Matrix Derivative (EMD) Proteins to Thermal Stress: Towards Improving the Stability of EMD-Based Products

    PubMed Central

    Bolisetty, Sreenath; Marascio, Matteo; Gemperli Graf, Anja; Garamszegi, Laszlo; Mezzenga, Raffaele; Fischer, Peter; Månson, Jan-Anders

    2015-01-01

    In a current procedure for periodontal tissue regeneration, enamel matrix derivative (EMD), which is the active component, is mixed with a propylene glycol alginate (PGA) gel carrier and applied directly to the periodontal defect. Exposure of EMD to physiological conditions then causes it to precipitate. However, environmental changes during manufacture and storage may result in modifications to the conformation of the EMD proteins, and eventually premature phase separation of the gel and a loss in therapeutic effectiveness. The present work relates to efforts to improve the stability of EMD-based formulations such as Emdogain™ through the incorporation of arginine, a well-known protein stabilizer, but one that to our knowledge has not so far been considered for this purpose. Representative EMD-buffer solutions with and without arginine were analyzed by 3D-dynamic light scattering, UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy at different acidic pH and temperatures, T, in order to simulate the effect of pH variations and thermal stress during manufacture and storage. The results provided evidence that arginine may indeed stabilize EMD against irreversible aggregation with respect to variations in pH and T under these conditions. Moreover, stopped-flow transmittance measurements indicated arginine addition not to suppress precipitation of EMD from either the buffers or the PGA gel carrier when the pH was raised to 7, a fundamental requirement for dental applications. PMID:26670810

  11. Plausible antioxidant biomechanics and anticonvulsant pharmacological activity of brain-targeted β-carotene nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, Mohammad; Khan, Riaz A; Khan, Maria; Ahmed, Bahar

    2012-01-01

    increased in P-80-BCNP to 231.0 ± 16.30 seconds, as compared to PTZ (120.10 ± 4.50 seconds) and placebo control (120.30 ± 7.4 seconds). The results of this study demonstrate a plausible novel anticonvulsant activity of β-carotene at a low dose of 2 mg/kg, with brain-targeted nanodelivery, thus increasing its bioavailability and stability. PMID:22915852

  12. Plausible antioxidant biomechanics and anticonvulsant pharmacological activity of brain-targeted β-carotene nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Mohammad; Khan, Riaz A; Khan, Maria; Ahmed, Bahar

    2012-01-01

    increased in P-80-BCNP to 231.0 ± 16.30 seconds, as compared to PTZ (120.10 ± 4.50 seconds) and placebo control (120.30 ± 7.4 seconds). The results of this study demonstrate a plausible novel anticonvulsant activity of β-carotene at a low dose of 2 mg/kg, with brain-targeted nanodelivery, thus increasing its bioavailability and stability.

  13. Interactions between visual and motor areas during the recognition of plausible actions as revealed by magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Pavlidou, Anastasia; Schnitzler, Alfons; Lange, Joachim

    2014-02-01

    Several studies have shown activation of the mirror neuron system (MNS), comprising the temporal, posterior parietal, and sensorimotor areas when observing plausible actions, but far less is known on how these cortical areas interact during the recognition of a plausible action. Here, we recorded neural activity with magnetoencephalography while subjects viewed point-light displays of biologically plausible and scrambled versions of actions. We were interested in modulations of oscillatory activity and, specifically, in coupling of oscillatory activity between visual and motor areas. Both plausible and scrambled actions elicited modulations of θ (5-7 Hz), α (7-13 Hz), β (13-35 Hz), and γ (55-100 Hz) power within visual and motor areas. When comparing between the two actions, we observed sequential and spatially distinct increases of γ (∼65 Hz), β (∼25 Hz), and α (∼11 Hz) power between 0.5 and 1.3 s in parieto-occipital, sensorimotor, and left temporal areas. In addition, significant clusters of γ (∼65 Hz) and α/β (∼15 Hz) power decrease were observed in right temporal and parieto-occipital areas between 1.3 and 2.0 s. We found β-power in sensorimotor areas to be positively correlated on a trial-by-trial basis with parieto-occipital γ and left temporal α-power for the plausible but not for the scrambled condition. These results provide new insights in the neuronal oscillatory activity of the areas involved in the recognition of plausible action movements and their interaction. The power correlations between specific areas underscore the importance of interactions between visual and motor areas of the MNS during the recognition of a plausible action.

  14. Inter-microcarrier transfer and phenotypic stability of stem cell-derived Schwann cells in stirred suspension bioreactor culture.

    PubMed

    Shakhbazau, Antos; Mirfeizi, Leila; Walsh, Tylor; Wobma, Holly M; Kumar, Ranjan; Singh, Bhagat; Kallos, Michael S; Midha, Rajiv

    2016-02-01

    Emerging bioreactor technologies offer an effective way for scaled-up production of large numbers of cells for cell therapy applications. One of the clinical paradigms where cell therapy can be an asset is restorative neurosciences. Nerve repair can benefit from the injections of stem cells and/or Schwann cells, acting as a source for axon myelination, myelin debris clearance, and trophic support. We have adapted microcarrier-based suspension bioreactor culture for Schwann cells (SCs) differentiated from a new stem cell source - skin-derived precursors (SKPs). SKP-derived SCs attach and grow on different types of microcarriers in both static and stirred culture, with Cytodex 3 and CultiSpher-S found most effective. Inter-microcarrier migration of SKP-SCs represents a key mechanism for rapid expansion and colonization in stirred suspension culture. We have shown that microcarrier-expanded SKP-SCs cells express Schwann cell markers p75-NTR, GFAP and S100 and retain their key ability to myelinate axons both in vitro and in vivo. Scaled-up microcarrier-based production of SKP-SCs in suspension bioreactors appears feasible for timely generation of sufficient cell numbers for nerve repair strategies.

  15. On the derivation of a tensor to calculate six degree-of-freedom, musculotendon joint stiffness: implications for stability and impedance analyses.

    PubMed

    Cashaback, Joshua G A; Potvin, Jim R; Pierrynowski, Michael R

    2013-10-18

    Major joints, such as the knee, shoulder, and spine, can buckle along the translational degrees-of-freedom (DoF), causing injury to ligaments and other passive tissues. Despite this, stability and impedance analyses have focused primarily on the rotational DoF. As such, mathematical models quantifying musculotendon translational stiffnesses remain limited and, to our knowledge, there are no published works that explicitly describes the interactions between DoF. Using an energy approach, we derived a six DoF stiffness tensor and provided the necessary equations needed to quantify the musculotendon stiffness of any joint. Using a knee model, we then compared the derived stiffness tensor against two commonly used measures: one that excludes translational DoF and another that excludes interactions between DoF. We found that both of these measures had large over-estimations of stiffness, particularly for the rotational DoF, compared to our derived tensor. These findings indicate that previous analyses may have found rotational DoF to be stable when they were unstable.

  16. Stereotyping to infer group membership creates plausible deniability for prejudice-based aggression.

    PubMed

    Cox, William T L; Devine, Patricia G

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, participants administered painful electric shocks to an unseen male opponent who was either explicitly labeled as gay or stereotypically implied to be gay. Identifying the opponent with a gay-stereotypic attribute produced a situation in which the target's group status was privately inferred but plausibly deniable to others. To test the plausible deniability hypothesis, we examined aggression levels as a function of internal (personal) and external (social) motivation to respond without prejudice. Whether plausible deniability was present or absent, participants high in internal motivation aggressed at low levels, and participants low in both internal and external motivation aggressed at high levels. The behavior of participants low in internal and high in external motivation, however, depended on experimental condition. They aggressed at low levels when observers could plausibly attribute their behavior to prejudice and aggressed at high levels when the situation granted plausible deniability. This work has implications for both obstacles to and potential avenues for prejudice-reduction efforts.

  17. Full enzymatic hydrolysis of commercial sucrose laurate by immobilized-stabilized derivatives of lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosa.

    PubMed

    Marciello, Marzia; Mateo, Cesar; Guisan, Jose Manuel

    2011-06-01

    Sucrose laurate is a detergent that is useful for various biochemical applications because it is a green compound and is easily degradable after hydrolysis with a lipase or esterase. One problem observed in the process of sucrose laurate degradation is that most commercial detergent preparations are impure, necessitating the hydrolysis of all of the sucrose esters present in the preparation, all of them with detergent properties. In this article, a highly active catalyst, which is able to perform the hydrolysis of commercial sucrose laurate, is presented. The use of glyoxyl agarose preparations of a previously aminated Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase (TLL) enabled complete hydrolysis, in less than 30 min, of all of the compounds that comprise the mixture. In addition, this derivative is stable in the presence of 20% ethanol, which is necessary to prevent microbial contamination.

  18. Convenient Preparation and Detailed Analysis of a Series of NHC-Stabilized Phosphorus(I) Dyes and Their Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Charles L B; Binder, Justin F; Swidan, Ala'aeddeen; Nguyen, Jennifer H; Kosnik, Stephanie C; Ellis, Bobby D

    2016-07-18

    A safe, convenient, and P-atom-efficient synthesis of N-heterocyclic-carbene- (NHC-) stabilized phosphorus(I) bromide salts is reported that involves P(+) transfer from an easily prepared triphosphenium precursor. The resulting family of phosphamethine cyanine dyes featuring N,N'-dialkyl-substituted 4,5-dimethylimidazole-2-ylidenes ((R)NHC(Me)) and benzimidazole-2-ylidenes ((R)NHC(B)) (R = Me, Et, iPr) have been fully characterized. We found that increasing N-alkyl group size causes increased twisting of the carbene fragments from the C-P-C plane, which decreases the magnitude of hyperconjugation between the π-type lone pair on phosphorus and the carbene fragments. This decrease is manifested as changes in the (31)P NMR chemical shifts, magnitudes of the P-C coupling constants, and electronic spectra of the cations. The reactivities of these ions toward various oxidants are reported: Oxidation by sulfur generates dithiophosphinium salts, protonation or methylation gives dicationic phosphines, and coordination to 1 or 2 equiv of gold(I) chloride results in mono or bimetallic complexes, respectively. PMID:27355235

  19. A Novel Phytase Derived from an Acidic Peat-Soil Microbiome Showing High Stability under Acidic Plus Pepsin Conditions.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hao; Wu, Xiang; Xie, Liyuan; Huang, Zhongqian; Peng, Weihong; Gan, Bingcheng

    2016-01-01

    Four novel phytases of the histidine acid phosphatase family were identified in two publicly available metagenomic datasets of an acidic peat-soil microbiome in northeastern Bavaria, Germany. These enzymes have low similarity to all the reported phytases. They were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Catalytic efficacy in simulated gastric fluid was measured and compared among the four candidates. The phytase named rPhyPt4 was selected for its high activity. It is the first phytase identified from unculturable Acidobacteria. The phytase showed a longer half-life than all the gastric-stable phytases that have been reported to date, suggesting a strong resistance to low pH and pepsin. A wide pH profile was observed between pH 1.5 and 5.0. At the optimum pH (2.5) the activity was 2,790 μmol/min/mg at the physiological temperature of 37°C and 3,989 μmol/min/mg at the optimum temperature of 60°C. Due to the competent activity level as well as the high gastric stability, the phytase could be a potential candidate for practical use in livestock and poultry feeding. PMID:27336313

  20. A Novel Phytase Derived from an Acidic Peat-Soil Microbiome Showing High Stability under Acidic Plus Pepsin Conditions.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hao; Wu, Xiang; Xie, Liyuan; Huang, Zhongqian; Peng, Weihong; Gan, Bingcheng

    2016-01-01

    Four novel phytases of the histidine acid phosphatase family were identified in two publicly available metagenomic datasets of an acidic peat-soil microbiome in northeastern Bavaria, Germany. These enzymes have low similarity to all the reported phytases. They were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Catalytic efficacy in simulated gastric fluid was measured and compared among the four candidates. The phytase named rPhyPt4 was selected for its high activity. It is the first phytase identified from unculturable Acidobacteria. The phytase showed a longer half-life than all the gastric-stable phytases that have been reported to date, suggesting a strong resistance to low pH and pepsin. A wide pH profile was observed between pH 1.5 and 5.0. At the optimum pH (2.5) the activity was 2,790 μmol/min/mg at the physiological temperature of 37°C and 3,989 μmol/min/mg at the optimum temperature of 60°C. Due to the competent activity level as well as the high gastric stability, the phytase could be a potential candidate for practical use in livestock and poultry feeding.

  1. Visual saliency: a biologically plausible contourlet-like frequency domain approach

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Peng

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose a fast frequency domain saliency detection method that is also biologically plausible, referred to as frequency domain divisive normalization (FDN). We show that the initial feature extraction stage, common to all spatial domain approaches, can be simplified to a Fourier transform with a contourlet-like grouping of coefficients, and saliency detection can be achieved in frequency domain. Specifically, we show that divisive normalization, a model of cortical surround inhibition, can be conducted in frequency domain. Since Fourier coefficients are global in space, we extend to this model by conducting piecewise FDN (PFDN) using overlapping local patches to provide better biological plausibility. Not only do FDN and PFDN outperform current state-of-the-art methods in eye fixation prediction, they are also faster. Speed and simplicity are advantages of our frequency domain approach, and its biological plausibility is the main contribution of our paper. PMID:21886671

  2. Virucidal Properties of Bioceramic Derived from Chicken Feces pH 13 and its Stability in Harsh Environments.

    PubMed

    Thammakarn, Chanathip; Sangsriratanakul, Natthanan; Ishida, Yuki; Suguro, Atsushi; Yamada, Masashi; Toyofuku, Chiharu; Nakajima, Katsuhiro; Kitazawa, Minori; Ota, Mari; Hakim, Hakimullah; Alam, Md Shahin; Shoham, Dany; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2016-09-01

    Bioceramic derived from chicken feces (BCX) is a material produced by a sintering process for the purpose of use in animal farms to control livestock infectious diseases. In the present study, BCX at pH 13 was evaluated for the durability of its virucidal activity in simulated field conditions. First it was shown that BCX had activity toward Newcastle disease virus, infectious bursal disease virus, and goose parvovirus within 3 min and toward avian influenza virus (AIV) within 1 hr. BCX was further tested by keeping it under simulated harsh environmental conditions with sunlight for several weeks as well as by repeatedly soaking it with water and drying under sunlight many times. After sampling every 2 consecutive weeks and every 2 (of 9) consecutive resuspensions, BCX was evaluated for its efficacy against AIV. Evaluation under the harsh conditions illustrated that BCX could retain its satisfactory efficacy toward AIV throughout 7 wk and through 9 resuspensions. It is hence concluded that BCX is an excellent material for applying in livestock farming as a trapping disinfectant, due to its efficacy to inactivate various viruses, and that this efficacy is prolonged even under harsh environmental conditions. PMID:27610720

  3. Long-term culture and cryopreservation does not affect the stability and functionality of human embryonic stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Arundhati; Raju, Sheena; Viswanathan, Chandra

    2016-02-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are predicted to be an unlimited source of hepatocytes which can pave the way for applications such as cell replacement therapies or as a model of human development or even to predict the hepatotoxicity of drug compounds. We have optimized a 23-d differentiation protocol to generate hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) from hESCs, obtaining a relatively pure population which expresses the major hepatic markers and is functional and mature. The stability of the HLCs in terms of hepato-specific marker expression and functionality was found to be intact even after an extended period of in vitro culture and cryopreservation. The hESC-derived HLCs have shown the capability to display sensitivity and an alteration in the level of CYP enzyme upon drug induction. This illustrates the potential of such assays in predicting the hepatotoxicity of a drug compound leading to advancement of pharmacology.

  4. Sintering Effects on Morphology, Thermal Stability and Surface Area of Sol-Gel Derived Nano-Hydroxyapatite Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapoor, Seema; Batra, Uma; Kohli, Suchita

    2011-12-01

    TEM showed that the nanopowder sintered at 600 °C is composed of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (26.0-45.6 nm), which is well in agreement with the crystallite size calculated using XRD data. TGA study showed the thermal stability of the synthesized nano-HAP powder. The BET surface area decreased with increase in sintering temperature.

  5. Sintering Effects on Morphology, Thermal Stability and Surface Area of Sol-Gel Derived Nano-Hydroxyapatite Powder

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, Seema; Batra, Uma; Kohli, Suchita

    2011-12-12

    at 1200 deg. C. Photomicrograph of TEM showed that the nanopowder sintered at 600 deg. C is composed of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (26.0-45.6 nm), which is well in agreement with the crystallite size calculated using XRD data. TGA study showed the thermal stability of the synthesized nano-HAP powder. The BET surface area decreased with increase in sintering temperature.

  6. Re-exploring the N-phenylpicolinamide derivatives to develop mGlu4 ligands with improved affinity and in vitro microsomal stability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaoda; Kil, Kun-Eek; Poutiainen, Pekka; Choi, Ji-Kyung; Kang, Hye-Jin; Huang, Xi-Ping; Roth, Bryan L; Brownell, Anna-Liisa

    2015-09-15

    In recent years, mGlu4 has received great attention and research effort because of the potential benefits of mGlu4 activation in treating numerous brain disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Many positive allosteric modulators of mGlu4 have been developed. To better understand the role of mGlu4 in healthy and disease conditions, we are interested in developing an mGlu4 selective radioligand for in vivo studies. Thus, we had synthesized and studied [(11)C]2 as a PET tracer for mGlu4, which demonstrated some promising features as a PET radioligand as well as the limitation need to be improved. In order to develop an mGlu4 ligand with enhanced affinity and improved metabolic stability, we have modified, synthesized and evaluated a series of new N-phenylpicolinamide derivatives. The SAR study has discovered a number of compounds with low nM affinity to mGlu4. The dideuteriumfluoromethoxy modified compound 24 is identified as a very promising mGlu4 ligand, which has demonstrated enhanced affinity, improved in vitro microsomal stability, good selectivity and good permeability. PMID:26231155

  7. Monitoring the biology stability of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells during long-term culture in serum-free medium.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gecai; Yue, Aihuan; Ruan, Zhongbao; Yin, Yigang; Wang, Ruzhu; Ren, Yin; Zhu, Li

    2014-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells that have an immunosuppressive effect. The biological stability of MSCs in serum-free medium during long-term culture in vitro has not been elucidated clearly. The morphology, immunophenotype and multi-lineage potential were analyzed at passages 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 (P3, P5, P10, P15, P20, and P25, respectively). The cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, and karyotype of human umbilical cord-derived (hUC)-MSCs were analyzed at P3, P5, P10, P15, P20, and P25. From P3 to P25, the three defining biological properties of hUC-MSCs [adherence to plastic, specific surface antigen expression, multipotent differentiation potential] met the standards proposed by the International Society for Cellular Therapy for definition of MSCs. The cell cycle distribution analysis at the P25 showed that the percentage of cells at G0/G1 was increased, compared with the cells at P3 (P < 0.05). Cells at P25 displayed an increase in the apoptosis rate (to 183 %), compared to those at P3 (P < 0.01). Within subculture generations 3-20 (P3-P20), the differences between the cell apoptotic rates were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). There were no detectable chromosome eliminations, displacements, or chromosomal imbalances, as assessed by the karyotyping guidelines of the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (ISCN, 2009). Long-term culture affects the biological stability of MSCs in serum-free MesenCult-XF medium. MSCs can be expanded up to the 25th passage without chromosomal changes by G-band. The best biological activity period and stability appeared between the third to 20th generations.

  8. Structure, activity, and stability of metagenome-derived glycoside hydrolase family 9 endoglucanase with an N-terminal Ig-like domain.

    PubMed

    Okano, Hiroyuki; Kanaya, Eiko; Ozaki, Masashi; Angkawidjaja, Clement; Kanaya, Shigenori

    2015-03-01

    A metagenome-derived glycoside hydrolase family 9 enzyme with an N-terminal immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) domain, leaf-branch compost (LC)-CelG, was characterized and its crystal structure was determined. LC-CelG did not hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl cellobioside but hydrolyzed CM-cellulose, indicating that it is endoglucanase. LC-CelG exhibited the highest activity at 70°C and >80% of the maximal activity at a broad pH range of 5-9. Its denaturation temperature was 81.4°C, indicating that LC-CelG is a thermostable enzyme. The structure of LC-CelG resembles those of CelD from Clostridium thermocellum (CtCelD), Cel9A from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius (AaCel9A), and cellobiohydrolase CbhA from C. thermocellum (CtCbhA), which show relatively low (29-31%) amino acid sequence identities to LC-CelG. Three acidic active site residues are conserved as Asp194, Asp197, and Glu558 in LC-CelG. Ten of the thirteen residues that form the substrate binding pocket of AaCel9A are conserved in LC-CelG. Removal of the Ig-like domain reduced the activity and stability of LC-CelG by 100-fold and 6.3°C, respectively. Removal of the Gln40- and Asp99-mediated interactions between the Ig-like and catalytic domains destabilized LC-CelG by 5.0°C without significantly affecting its activity. These results suggest that the Ig-like domain contributes to the stabilization of LC-CelG mainly due to the Gln40- and Asp99-mediated interactions. Because the LC-CelG derivative lacking the Ig-like domain accumulated in Escherichia coli cells mostly in an insoluble form and this derivative accumulated in a soluble form exhibited very weak activity, the Ig-like domain may be required to make the conformation of the active site functional and prevent aggregation of the catalytic domain. PMID:25545469

  9. Structure, activity, and stability of metagenome-derived glycoside hydrolase family 9 endoglucanase with an N-terminal Ig-like domain

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Hiroyuki; Kanaya, Eiko; Ozaki, Masashi; Angkawidjaja, Clement; Kanaya, Shigenori

    2015-01-01

    A metagenome-derived glycoside hydrolase family 9 enzyme with an N-terminal immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) domain, leaf-branch compost (LC)-CelG, was characterized and its crystal structure was determined. LC-CelG did not hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl cellobioside but hydrolyzed CM-cellulose, indicating that it is endoglucanase. LC-CelG exhibited the highest activity at 70°C and >80% of the maximal activity at a broad pH range of 5–9. Its denaturation temperature was 81.4°C, indicating that LC-CelG is a thermostable enzyme. The structure of LC-CelG resembles those of CelD from Clostridium thermocellum (CtCelD), Cel9A from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius (AaCel9A), and cellobiohydrolase CbhA from C. thermocellum (CtCbhA), which show relatively low (29–31%) amino acid sequence identities to LC-CelG. Three acidic active site residues are conserved as Asp194, Asp197, and Glu558 in LC-CelG. Ten of the thirteen residues that form the substrate binding pocket of AaCel9A are conserved in LC-CelG. Removal of the Ig-like domain reduced the activity and stability of LC-CelG by 100-fold and 6.3°C, respectively. Removal of the Gln40- and Asp99-mediated interactions between the Ig-like and catalytic domains destabilized LC-CelG by 5.0°C without significantly affecting its activity. These results suggest that the Ig-like domain contributes to the stabilization of LC-CelG mainly due to the Gln40- and Asp99-mediated interactions. Because the LC-CelG derivative lacking the Ig-like domain accumulated in Escherichia coli cells mostly in an insoluble form and this derivative accumulated in a soluble form exhibited very weak activity, the Ig-like domain may be required to make the conformation of the active site functional and prevent aggregation of the catalytic domain. PMID:25545469

  10. Familiarity and Plausibility in Conceptual Combination: Reply to Gagne and Spalding (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Gregory L.; Wisniewski, Edward J.

    2006-01-01

    E. J. Wisniewski and G. L. Murphy (see record EJ689195) suggested that the apparent effects of relation frequency in C. L. Gagne and E. J. Shoben's (1997) conceptual combination experiments could be explained by differences between the familiarity and plausibility of their stimuli (noun-noun phrases). However, C. L. Gagne and T. L. Spalding argued…

  11. Preview Effects of Plausibility and Character Order in Reading Chinese Transposed Words: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jinmian

    2013-01-01

    The current paper examined the role of plausibility information in the parafovea for Chinese readers by using two-character transposed words (in which the order of the component characters is reversed but are still words). In two eye-tracking experiments, readers received a preview of a target word that was (1) identical to the target word, (2) a…

  12. The Plausibility of a New Self: Self-Esteem from a Sociology of Knowledge Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Terry D.

    1990-01-01

    Explores significance of new reference groups for maintenance of self-esteem from standpoint of Berger's sociology of knowledge. Argues from Berger's perspective that even extremely powerful experiences of self-acceptance are in desperate need of ongoing "plausibility structure" to reinforce new sense of self. Describes implications for mental…

  13. The Utility of Cognitive Plausibility in Language Acquisition Modeling: Evidence from Word Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Lawrence; Pearl, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The informativity of a computational model of language acquisition is directly related to how closely it approximates the actual acquisition task, sometimes referred to as the model's "cognitive plausibility." We suggest that though every computational model necessarily idealizes the modeled task, an informative language acquisition…

  14. Native and Non-Native Processing of English "Wh-"Questions: Parsing Strategies and Plausibility Constraints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John N.; Mobius, Peter; Kim, Choonkyong

    2001-01-01

    Investigated processing of English wh-questions by native speakers of English and advanced Chinese, German, and Korean learners of English as a Second Language. Performance was evaluated in relation to parsing strategies and sensitivity to plausibility constraints. Results suggest native and nonnative speakers employ similar strategies in…

  15. Plausibility check of a redesigned rain-on-snow simulator (RASA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rössler, Ole; Probst, Sabine; Weingartner, Rolf

    2016-04-01

    Rain-on-snow events are fascinating but still not completely understood processes. Although, several studies and equations have been published since decades that describe past events and theoretical descriptions, empirical data of what is happening in the snow cover is far less available. A way to fill this gap of empirical data, rain-on-snow-simulators might be of help. In 2013, Juras et al. published their inspiring idea of a portable rain-on-snow simulator. The huge advantage of this devise - in contrast to other purely field-based experiments - are their fixed, and mostly standardized conditions and the possibility to measure all required data to monitor the water fluxes and melting processes at a time. Mounted in a convenient location, a large number of experiments are relatively easy conductible. We applied and further developed the original device and plausified the results of this redesigned version, called RASA. The principal design was borrowed from the original version being a frame with a sprinkler on top and a snow sample in a box at the bottom, from which the outflow is measured with a tipping gauge. We added a moving sprinkling plate to ensure a uniform distribution of raindrops on the snow, and - most importantly - we suspended the watered snow sampled on weighting cells. The latter enables to continuous measurement of the snow sample throughout the experiment and thus the indirect quantification of liquid water saturation, water holding capacity, and snowmelt amount via balance equations. As it is remains unclear if this device is capable to reproduce known processes, a hypothesis based plausibility check was accomplished. Thus, eight hypothesizes were derived from literature and tested in 28 experiments with the RASA mounted at 2000 m elevation. In general, we were able to reproduce most of the hypotheses. The RASA proved to be a very valuable device that can generate suitable results and has the potential to extend the empirical-experimental data

  16. Transmembrane Photoredox in Model Protocellular Systems. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as Plausible Light-harvesting/Electron Transfer Catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cape, J. L.; Monnard, P.-A.; Ziock, H.-J.; Boncella, J. M.

    2010-04-01

    Mechanistic studies of transmembrane photoredox in a model protocell system indicate a plausible role for membrane solublized PAH species as primitive ‘photosynthetic' energy transduction catalysts.

  17. Stability of a double inverted pendulum model during human quiet stance with continuous delay feedback control.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Nomura, Taishin; Morasso, Pietro

    2011-01-01

    Recent debate about neural mechanisms for stabilizing human upright quiet stance focuses on whether the active and time delay neural feedback control generating muscle torque is continuous or intermittent. A single inverted pendulum controlled by the active torque actuating the ankle joint has often been used for the debate on the presumption of well-known ankle strategy hypothesis claiming that the upright quiet stance can be stabilized mostly by the ankle torque. However, detailed measurements are showing that the hip joint angle exhibits amount of fluctuations comparable with the ankle joint angle during natural postural sway. Here we analyze a double inverted pendulum model during human quiet stance to demonstrate that the conventional proportional and derivative delay feedback control, i.e., the continuous delay PD control with gains in the physiologically plausible range is far from adequate as the neural mechanism for stabilizing human upright quiet stance. PMID:22256061

  18. Mass Spectrometry Based Identification of Geometric Isomers during Metabolic Stability Study of a New Cytotoxic Sulfonamide Derivatives Supported by Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Belka, Mariusz; Hewelt-Belka, Weronika; Sławiński, Jarosław; Bączek, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    A set of 15 new sulphonamide derivatives, presenting antitumor activity have been subjected to a metabolic stability study. The results showed that besides products of biotransformation, some additional peaks occurred in chromatograms. Tandem mass spectrometry revealed the same mass and fragmentation pathway, suggesting that geometric isomerization occurred. Thus, to support this hypothesis, quantitative structure-retention relationships were applied. Human liver microsomes were used as an in vitro model of metabolism. The biotransformation reactions were tracked by liquid chromatography assay and additionally, fragmentation mass spectra were recorded. In silico molecular modeling at a semi-empirical level was conducted as a starting point for molecular descriptor calculations. A quantitative structure-retention relationship model was built applying multiple linear regression based on selected three-dimensional descriptors. The studied compounds revealed high metabolic stability, with a tendency to form hydroxylated biotransformation products. However, significant chemical instability in conditions simulating human body fluids was noticed. According to literature and MS data geometrical isomerization was suggested. The developed in sillico model was able to describe the relationship between the geometry of isomer pairs and their chromatographic retention properties, thus it supported the hypothesis that the observed pairs of peaks are most likely geometric isomers. However, extensive structural investigations are needed to fully identify isomers’ geometry. An effort to describe MS fragmentation pathways of novel chemical structures is often not enough to propose structures of potent metabolites and products of other chemical reactions that can be observed in compound solutions at early drug discovery studies. The results indicate that the relatively non-expensive and not time- and labor-consuming in sillico approach could be a good supportive tool assisting the

  19. On the Electronic Spectroscopy of Closed Shell Cations Derived from Resonance Stabilized Radicals: Insights from Theory and Franck-Condon Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troy, Tyler P.; Kable, Scott H.; Schmidt, Timothy W.; Reid, Scott A.

    2012-06-01

    Recent attention has been directed on closed shell aromatic cations as potential carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands. The spectra of mass-selected, matrix-isolated benzylium and tropylium cations were recently reported [Nagy, A., Fulara, J., Garkusha, I. and Maier, J. P. (2011), Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 50: 3022-3025]. The benzylium spectrum shows an extended progression in a low frequency (510 cm-1) ring distortion mode. Modeling of the benzylium spectrum using (TD)DFT and MCSCF-PT2 methods in concert with multidimensional Franck-Condon (FC) analysis is found to yield excellent agreement with the experimental spectrum. We extended this analysis to larger (2 and 3 ring) PAH cations derived from resonance stabilized radicals, which are predicted to show strong S0 → Sn transitions in the visible region. The FC progression is significantly quenched in the larger species, and our results for 1-napthylmethylium are in excellent agreement with very recent experiments [Nagy, A., Fulara, J., and Maier, J. P. (2011), J. Am. Chem. Soc., 133, 19796]. Since carriers of the DIBs should exhibit spectra dominated by a single vibronic transition, our results demonstrate that closed-shell cations may present spectra with the required properties. Furthermore, the calculated ionization energies of a range of CSCs were found to be in the 13-14 eV range, consistent with variations in behaviour of the DIB carriers with respect to various astrophysical environments.

  20. Theoretical study of stability and charge-transport properties of coronene molecule and some of its halogenated derivatives: A path to ambipolar organic-based materials?

    SciTech Connect

    Sancho-García, J. C. Pérez-Jiménez, A. J.

    2014-10-07

    We have carefully investigated the structural and electronic properties of coronene and some of its fluorinated and chlorinated derivatives, including full periphery substitution, as well as the preferred orientation of the non-covalent dimer structures subsequently formed. We have paid particular attention to a set of methodological details, to first obtain single-molecule magnitudes as accurately as possible, including next the use of modern dispersion-corrected methods to tackle the corresponding non-covalently bound dimers. Generally speaking, this class of compounds is expected to self-assembly in neighboring π-stacks with dimer stabilization energies ranging from –20 to –30 kcal mol{sup −1} at close distances around 3.0–3.3 Å. Then, in a further step, we have also calculated hole and electron transfer rates of some suitable candidates for ambipolar materials, and corresponding charge mobility values, which are known to critically depend on the supramolecular organization of the samples. For coronene and per-fluorinated coronene, we have found high values for their hopping rates, although slightly smaller for the latter due to an increase (decrease) of the reorganization energies (electronic couplings)

  1. Bacteria-Derived Compatible Solutes Ectoine and 5α-Hydroxyectoine Act as Intestinal Barrier Stabilizers to Ameliorate Experimental Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aziz, Heba; Wadie, Walaa; Scherner, Olaf; Efferth, Thomas; Khayyal, Mohamed T

    2015-06-26

    Earlier studies showed that the compatible solute ectoine (1) given prophylactically before induction of colitis by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats prevented histological changes induced in the colon and the associated rise in inflammatory mediators. This study was therefore conducted to investigate whether ectoine (1) and its 5α-hydroxy derivative (2) would also be effective in treating an already established condition. Two days after inducing colitis in rats by instilling TNBS/alcohol in the colon, animals were treated orally once daily for 1 week with either 1 or 2 (50, 100, 300 mg/kg). Twenty-four hours after the last drug administration rats were sacrificed. Ulcerative lesions and colon mass indices were reduced by 1 and 2 in a bell-shaped manner. Best results were obtained with 100 mg/kg ectoine (1) and 50 mg/kg 5α-hydroxyectoine (2). The solutes normalized the rise in myeloperoxidase, TNFα, and IL-1β induced by TNBS but did not affect levels of reduced glutathione or ICAM-1, while reducing the level of fecal calprotectin, an established marker for inflammatory bowel disease. The findings indicate that the naturally occurring compatible solutes ectoine (1) and 5α-hydroxyectoine (2) possess an optimum concentration that affords maximal intestinal barrier stabilization and could therefore prove useful for better management of human inflammatory bowel disease.

  2. Theoretical study of stability and charge-transport properties of coronene molecule and some of its halogenated derivatives: a path to ambipolar organic-based materials?

    PubMed

    Sancho-García, J C; Pérez-Jiménez, A J

    2014-10-01

    We have carefully investigated the structural and electronic properties of coronene and some of its fluorinated and chlorinated derivatives, including full periphery substitution, as well as the preferred orientation of the non-covalent dimer structures subsequently formed. We have paid particular attention to a set of methodological details, to first obtain single-molecule magnitudes as accurately as possible, including next the use of modern dispersion-corrected methods to tackle the corresponding non-covalently bound dimers. Generally speaking, this class of compounds is expected to self-assembly in neighboring π-stacks with dimer stabilization energies ranging from -20 to -30 kcal mol(-1) at close distances around 3.0-3.3 Å. Then, in a further step, we have also calculated hole and electron transfer rates of some suitable candidates for ambipolar materials, and corresponding charge mobility values, which are known to critically depend on the supramolecular organization of the samples. For coronene and per-fluorinated coronene, we have found high values for their hopping rates, although slightly smaller for the latter due to an increase (decrease) of the reorganization energies (electronic couplings). PMID:25296829

  3. Of paradox and plausibility: the dynamic of change in medical law.

    PubMed

    Harrington, John

    2014-01-01

    This article develops a model of change in medical law. Drawing on systems theory, it argues that medical law participates in a dynamic of 'deparadoxification' and 'reparadoxification' whereby the underlying contingency of the law is variously concealed through plausible argumentation, or revealed by critical challenge. Medical law is, thus, thoroughly rhetorical. An examination of the development of the law on abortion and on the sterilization of incompetent adults shows that plausibility is achieved through the deployment of substantive common sense and formal stylistic devices. It is undermined where these elements are shown to be arbitrary and constructed. In conclusion, it is argued that the politics of medical law are constituted by this antagonistic process of establishing and challenging provisionally stable normative regimes.

  4. Neurobiological plausibility of prenatal nutritional deprivation as a risk factor for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Brown, A S; Susser, E S; Butler, P D; Richardson Andrews, R; Kaufmann, C A; Gorman, J M

    1996-02-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that schizophrenia may in some cases be a neurodevelopmental disorder, resulting in part from the effects of prenatal exposures. Studies by our group have focused attention on the potential role of prenatal nutritional deficiency as a potential etiological factor. Therefore, we sought to examine the biological plausibility of prenatal nutritional deprivation in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia. We conducted a review of the pertinent literature. Four lines of evidence support prenatal nutritional deficiencies as a plausible set of risk factors for schizophrenia: a) their effects are not incompatible with the epidemiology of schizophrenia; b) they have adverse effects on brain development; c) general malnutrition results in neuropathological anomalies of brain regions implicated in schizophrenia; and d) prenatal malnutrition affects maternal systems critical to the developing fetal nervous system. There is sufficient evidence to warrant further studies of prenatal nutritional deficits as risk factors for schizophrenia. A strategy for testing these hypotheses is outlined. PMID:8596115

  5. Spelling in oral deaf and hearing dyslexic children: A comparison of phonologically plausible errors.

    PubMed

    Roy, P; Shergold, Z; Kyle, F E; Herman, R

    2014-11-01

    A written single word spelling to dictation test and a single word reading test were given to 68 severe-profoundly oral deaf 10-11-year-old children and 20 hearing children with a diagnosis of dyslexia. The literacy scores of the deaf children and the hearing children with dyslexia were lower than expected for children of their age and did not differ from each other. Three quarters of the spelling errors of hearing children with dyslexia compared with just over half the errors of the oral deaf group were phonologically plausible. Expressive vocabulary and speech intelligibility predicted the percentage of phonologically plausible errors in the deaf group only. Implications of findings for the phonological decoding self-teaching model and for supporting literacy development are discussed. PMID:25462488

  6. Individual differences in syntactic ambiguity resolution: Readers vary in their use of plausibility information

    PubMed Central

    Long, Debra L.; Prat, Chantel S.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the relation between individual differences in working memory capacity and differences in the efficiency of syntactic processing. In one experiment, readers comprehended sentences containing main-verb/reduced-relative ambiguities that all resolved to the reduced-relative interpretation. High-span (but not low-span) readers processed sentences more slowly when the sentences were biased to the preferred, main-verb interpretation than when they were biased to the reduced-relative interpretation. Moreover, high-span (but not low-span) readers used information about the plausibility of the different interpretations even though low-span readers appeared to possess the requisite knowledge. In Experiment 2, readers received intensive exposure to sentences with main-verb/reduced-relative ambiguities. Exposure enhanced low-span readers’ use of plausibility information. Moreover, the effect of exposure generalized to sentences that were not included in the training materials. PMID:18426067

  7. Effective Teacher Practice on the Plausibility of Human-Induced Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niepold, F.; Sinatra, G. M.; Lombardi, D.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change education programs in the United States seek to promote a deeper understanding of the science of climate change, behavior change and stewardship, and support informed decision making by individuals, organizations, and institutions--all of which are summarized under the term 'climate literacy.' The ultimate goal of climate literacy is to enable actors to address climate change, both in terms of stabilizing and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, but also an increased capacity to prepare for the consequences and opportunities of climate change. However, the long-term nature of climate change and the required societal response involve the changing students' ideas about controversial scientific issues which presents unique challenges for educators (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010; Sinatra & Mason, 2008). This session will explore how the United States educational efforts focus on three distinct, but related, areas: the science of climate change, the human-climate interaction, and using climate education to promote informed decision making. Each of these approaches are represented in the Atlas of Science Literacy (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2007) and in the conceptual framework for science education developed at the National Research Council (NRC) in 2012. Instruction to develop these fundamental thinking skills (e.g., critical evaluation and plausibility reappraisal) has been called for by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) (Achieve, 2013), an innovative and research based way to address climate change education within the decentralized U.S. education system. However, the promise of the NGSS is that students will have more time to build mastery on the subjects, but the form of that instructional practice has been show to be critical. Research has show that effective instructional activities that promote evaluation of evidence improve students' understanding and acceptance toward the scientifically accepted model of human

  8. Why there was a useful plausible analogy between geodesic domes and spherical viruses.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Gregory J

    2006-01-01

    In 1962, Donald Caspar and Aaron Klug published their classic theory of virus structure. They developed their theory with an explicit analogy between spherical viruses and Buckminster Fuller's geodesic domes. In this paper, I use the spherical virus-geodesic dome case to develop an account of analogy and deductive analogical inference based on the notion of an isomorphism. I also consider under what conditions there is a good reason to claim an experimentally untested analogy is plausible. PMID:17702504

  9. What happened (and what didn’t): Discourse constraints on encoding of plausible alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Fraundorf, Scott H.; Benjamin, Aaron S.; Watson, Duane G.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments investigated how font emphasis influences reading and remembering discourse. Although past work suggests that contrastive pitch contours benefit memory by promoting encoding of salient alternatives, it is unclear both whether this effect generalizes to other forms of linguistic prominence and how the set of alternatives is constrained. Participants read discourses in which some true propositions had salient alternatives (e.g., British scientists found the endangered monkey when the discourse also mentioned French scientists) and completed a recognition memory test. In Experiments 1 and 2, font emphasis in the initial presentation increased participants’ ability to later reject false statements about salient alternatives but not about unmentioned items (e.g., Portuguese scientists). In Experiment 3, font emphasis helped reject false statements about plausible alternatives, but not about less plausible alternatives that were nevertheless established in the discourse. These results suggest readers encode a narrow set of only those alternatives plausible in the particular discourse. They also indicate that multiple manipulations of linguistic prominence, not just prosody, can lead to consideration of alternatives. PMID:24014934

  10. What happened (and what didn't): Discourse constraints on encoding of plausible alternatives.

    PubMed

    Fraundorf, Scott H; Benjamin, Aaron S; Watson, Duane G

    2013-10-01

    Three experiments investigated how font emphasis influences reading and remembering discourse. Although past work suggests that contrastive pitch contours benefit memory by promoting encoding of salient alternatives, it is unclear both whether this effect generalizes to other forms of linguistic prominence and how the set of alternatives is constrained. Participants read discourses in which some true propositions had salient alternatives (e.g., British scientists found the endangered monkey when the discourse also mentioned French scientists) and completed a recognition memory test. In Experiments 1 and 2, font emphasis in the initial presentation increased participants' ability to later reject false statements about salient alternatives but not about unmentioned items (e.g., Portuguese scientists). In Experiment 3, font emphasis helped reject false statements about plausible alternatives, but not about less plausible alternatives that were nevertheless established in the discourse. These results suggest readers encode a narrow set of only those alternatives plausible in the particular discourse. They also indicate that multiple manipulations of linguistic prominence, not just prosody, can lead to consideration of alternatives.

  11. Families of Plausible Solutions to the Puzzle of Boyajian’s Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Jason T.; Sigurdsson, Steinn

    2016-09-01

    Good explanations for the unusual light curve of Boyajian's Star have been hard to find. Recent results by Montet & Simon lend strength and plausibility to the conclusion of Schaefer that in addition to short-term dimmings, the star also experiences large, secular decreases in brightness on decadal timescales. This, combined with a lack of long-wavelength excess in the star's spectral energy distribution, strongly constrains scenarios involving circumstellar material, including hypotheses invoking a spherical cloud of artifacts. We show that the timings of the deepest dimmings appear consistent with being randomly distributed, and that the star's reddening and narrow sodium absorption is consistent with the total, long-term dimming observed. Following Montet & Simon's encouragement to generate alternative hypotheses, we attempt to circumscribe the space of possible explanations with a range of plausibilities, including: a cloud in the outer solar system, structure in the interstellar medium (ISM), natural and artificial material orbiting Boyajian's Star, an intervening object with a large disk, and variations in Boyajian's Star itself. We find the ISM and intervening disk models more plausible than the other natural models.

  12. Predictability, plausibility, and two late ERP positivities during written sentence comprehension

    PubMed Central

    DeLong, Katherine A.; Quante, Laura; Kutas, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Van Petten & Luka’s (2012) literature survey of late positive ERP components elicited by more or less predictable words during sentence processing led them to propose two topographically and functionally distinct positivities: a parietal one associated with semantically incongruent words related to semantic reanalysis and a frontal one with unknown significance associated with congruent but lexically unpredicted words. With the goal of testing this hypothesis within a single set of experimental materials and participants, we report results from two ERP studies: Experiment 1, a post hoc analysis of a dataset that varied on dimensions of both cloze probability (predictability) and plausibility, and Experiment 2, a follow-up study in which these factors were manipulated in a controlled fashion. In both studies, we observed distinct post-N400 positivities: a more anterior one to plausible, but not anomalous, low cloze probability sentence medial words, and a more posterior one to semantically anomalous sentence continuations. Taken together with an observed canonical cloze-modulated N400, these dual positivities indicate a dissociation between brain processes relating to written words’ sentential predictability versus plausibility, clearly an important distinction for any viable neural or psycholinguistic model of written sentence processing. PMID:24953958

  13. Predictability, plausibility, and two late ERP positivities during written sentence comprehension.

    PubMed

    DeLong, Katherine A; Quante, Laura; Kutas, Marta

    2014-08-01

    Van Petten and Luka's (2012, International Journal of Psychophysiology, 83(2), 176-190) literature survey of late positive ERP components elicited by more or less predictable words during sentence processing led them to propose two topographically and functionally distinct positivities: a parietal one associated with semantically incongruent words related to semantic reanalysis and a frontal one with unknown significance associated with congruent but lexically unpredicted words. With the goal of testing this hypothesis within a single set of experimental materials and participants, we report results from two ERP studies: Experiment 1, a post-hoc analysis of a dataset that varied on dimensions of both cloze probability (predictability) and plausibility, and Experiment 2, a follow-up study in which these factors were manipulated in a controlled fashion. In both studies, we observed distinct post-N400 positivities: a more anterior one to plausible, but not anomalous, low cloze probability sentence medial words, and a more posterior one to semantically anomalous sentence continuations. Taken together with an observed canonical cloze-modulated N400, these dual positivities indicate a dissociation between brain processes relating to written words׳ sentential predictability versus plausibility, clearly an important distinction for any viable neural or psycholinguistic model of written sentence processing.

  14. The Time Course of Plausibility Effects on Eye Movements in Reading: Evidence from Noun-Noun Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, Adrian; Rayner, Keith; Pollatsek, Alexander; Hyona, Jukka; Majewski, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Readers' eye movements were monitored as they read sentences containing noun-noun compounds that varied in frequency (e.g., elevator mechanic, mountain lion). The left constituent of the compound was either plausible or implausible as a head noun at the point at which it appeared, whereas the compound as a whole was always plausible. When the head…

  15. Stochastic Dynamics Underlying Cognitive Stability and Flexibility.

    PubMed

    Ueltzhöffer, Kai; Armbruster-Genç, Diana J N; Fiebach, Christian J

    2015-06-01

    Cognitive stability and flexibility are core functions in the successful pursuit of behavioral goals. While there is evidence for a common frontoparietal network underlying both functions and for a key role of dopamine in the modulation of flexible versus stable behavior, the exact neurocomputational mechanisms underlying those executive functions and their adaptation to environmental demands are still unclear. In this work we study the neurocomputational mechanisms underlying cue based task switching (flexibility) and distractor inhibition (stability) in a paradigm specifically designed to probe both functions. We develop a physiologically plausible, explicit model of neural networks that maintain the currently active task rule in working memory and implement the decision process. We simplify the four-choice decision network to a nonlinear drift-diffusion process that we canonically derive from a generic winner-take-all network model. By fitting our model to the behavioral data of individual subjects, we can reproduce their full behavior in terms of decisions and reaction time distributions in baseline as well as distractor inhibition and switch conditions. Furthermore, we predict the individual hemodynamic response timecourse of the rule-representing network and localize it to a frontoparietal network including the inferior frontal junction area and the intraparietal sulcus, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. This refines the understanding of task-switch-related frontoparietal brain activity as reflecting attractor-like working memory representations of task rules. Finally, we estimate the subject-specific stability of the rule-representing attractor states in terms of the minimal action associated with a transition between different rule states in the phase-space of the fitted models. This stability measure correlates with switching-specific thalamocorticostriatal activation, i.e., with a system associated with flexible working memory updating and

  16. Stochastic Dynamics Underlying Cognitive Stability and Flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Ueltzhöffer, Kai; Armbruster-Genç, Diana J. N.; Fiebach, Christian J.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive stability and flexibility are core functions in the successful pursuit of behavioral goals. While there is evidence for a common frontoparietal network underlying both functions and for a key role of dopamine in the modulation of flexible versus stable behavior, the exact neurocomputational mechanisms underlying those executive functions and their adaptation to environmental demands are still unclear. In this work we study the neurocomputational mechanisms underlying cue based task switching (flexibility) and distractor inhibition (stability) in a paradigm specifically designed to probe both functions. We develop a physiologically plausible, explicit model of neural networks that maintain the currently active task rule in working memory and implement the decision process. We simplify the four-choice decision network to a nonlinear drift-diffusion process that we canonically derive from a generic winner-take-all network model. By fitting our model to the behavioral data of individual subjects, we can reproduce their full behavior in terms of decisions and reaction time distributions in baseline as well as distractor inhibition and switch conditions. Furthermore, we predict the individual hemodynamic response timecourse of the rule-representing network and localize it to a frontoparietal network including the inferior frontal junction area and the intraparietal sulcus, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. This refines the understanding of task-switch-related frontoparietal brain activity as reflecting attractor-like working memory representations of task rules. Finally, we estimate the subject-specific stability of the rule-representing attractor states in terms of the minimal action associated with a transition between different rule states in the phase-space of the fitted models. This stability measure correlates with switching-specific thalamocorticostriatal activation, i.e., with a system associated with flexible working memory updating and

  17. Temporal distribution of mantle-derived potassic rocks and carbonatites linked to stabilization of mantle lithosphere and redox states during subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    Mantle-derived potassic igneous rocks and carbonatites first appear in the geological record in the late Archean, coinciding with major crust-forming events on most continents. The compositions of potassic rocks require sources including discrete ultramafic rocks with phlogopite and pyroxenes, whereas carbonatites and ultramafic lamprophyres (carbonate-rich potassic rocks) require oxidizing conditions in which carbonate is stable. The presence of these source rocks from this time is probably related to the stabilization of mantle lithosphere. If mantle lithosphere had not been stable for considerable periods of time, then melting would be restricted to peridotite, which is not a viable option for strongly potassic rocks. The phlogopite-rich source-rock assemblages that are necessary precursors for potassic melts could be introduced into the lithosphere by either subduction processes or by multiple stages of low-degree melting. Many modern examples involve subducted sedimentary material, which concentrates potassium by the stabilization of micas in subduction metamorphism. Subduction involves a great variety of redox states, but the bulk effect is the return of oxidized material from the surface into the mantle. However, we cannot apply uniformitarianism unthinkingly, because subduction processes at and before 2.7 Ga may have had different redox states. Before the Great Oxidation Event the distribution and abundances of geological formations such as banded iron formations, red beds, and uraninites indicate that geological reservoirs became gradually oxidized, preventing an earlier increase in atmospheric oxygen. This means that the function of the subduction process to oxidize the upper mantle by the return of oxidized rocks from the surface was much weaker in the early Earth. Early continental mantle lithosphere was, therefore, likely to accumulate carbon in reduced form, which would be more easily remobilized in melts through low-temperature redox melting much

  18. iPSC-derived neurons as a higher-throughput readout for autism: Promises and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Prilutsky, Daria; Palmer, Nathan P.; Smedemark-Margulies, Niklas; Schlaeger, Thorsten M.; Margulies, David M.; Kohane, Isaac S.

    2014-01-01

    The elucidation of disease etiologies and establishment of robust, scalable, high-throughput screening assays for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been impeded by both inaccessibility of disease-relevant neuronal tissue and the genetic heterogeneity of the disorder. Neuronal cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from autism patients may circumvent these obstacles and serve as relevant cell models. To date, derived cells are characterized and screened by assessing their neuronal phenotypes. These characterizations are often etiology-specific or lack reproducibility and stability. In this manuscript, we present an overview of efforts to study iPSC-derived neurons as a model for autism, and we explore the plausibility of gene expression profiling as a reproducible and stable disease marker. PMID:24374161

  19. iPSC-derived neurons as a higher-throughput readout for autism: promises and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Prilutsky, Daria; Palmer, Nathan P; Smedemark-Margulies, Niklas; Schlaeger, Thorsten M; Margulies, David M; Kohane, Isaac S

    2014-02-01

    The elucidation of disease etiologies and establishment of robust, scalable, high-throughput screening assays for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been impeded by both inaccessibility of disease-relevant neuronal tissue and the genetic heterogeneity of the disorder. Neuronal cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from autism patients may circumvent these obstacles and serve as relevant cell models. To date, derived cells are characterized and screened by assessing their neuronal phenotypes. These characterizations are often etiology-specific or lack reproducibility and stability. In this review, we present an overview of efforts to study iPSC-derived neurons as a model for autism, and we explore the plausibility of gene expression profiling as a reproducible and stable disease marker. PMID:24374161

  20. Optimized Blanching Reduces the Host Cell Protein Content and Substantially Enhances the Recovery and Stability of Two Plant-Derived Malaria Vaccine Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Stephan; Holland, Tanja; Boes, Alexander; Spiegel, Holger; Bolzenius, Johanna; Fischer, Rainer; Buyel, Johannes F.

    2016-01-01

    Plants provide an advantageous expression platform for biopharmaceutical proteins because of their low pathogen burden and potential for inexpensive, large-scale production. However, the purification of target proteins can be challenging due to issues with extraction, the removal of host cell proteins (HCPs), and low expression levels. The heat treatment of crude extracts can reduce the quantity of HCPs by precipitation thus increasing the purity of the target protein and streamlining downstream purification. In the overall context of downstream process (DSP) development for plant-derived malaria vaccine candidates, we applied a design-of-experiments approach to enhance HCP precipitation from Nicotiana benthamiana extracts generated after transient expression, using temperatures in the 20–80°C range, pH values of 3.0–8.0 and incubation times of 0–60 min. We also investigated the recovery of two protein-based malaria vaccine candidates under these conditions and determined their stability in the heat-treated extract while it was maintained at room temperature for 24 h. The heat precipitation of HCPs was also carried out by blanching intact plants in water or buffer prior to extraction in a blender. Our data show that all the heat precipitation methods reduced the amount of HCP in the crude plant extracts by more than 80%, simplifying the subsequent DSP steps. Furthermore, when the heat treatment was performed at 80°C rather than 65°C, both malaria vaccine candidates were more stable after extraction and the recovery of both proteins increased by more than 30%. PMID:26925077

  1. Optimized Blanching Reduces the Host Cell Protein Content and Substantially Enhances the Recovery and Stability of Two Plant-Derived Malaria Vaccine Candidates.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Stephan; Holland, Tanja; Boes, Alexander; Spiegel, Holger; Bolzenius, Johanna; Fischer, Rainer; Buyel, Johannes F

    2016-01-01

    Plants provide an advantageous expression platform for biopharmaceutical proteins because of their low pathogen burden and potential for inexpensive, large-scale production. However, the purification of target proteins can be challenging due to issues with extraction, the removal of host cell proteins (HCPs), and low expression levels. The heat treatment of crude extracts can reduce the quantity of HCPs by precipitation thus increasing the purity of the target protein and streamlining downstream purification. In the overall context of downstream process (DSP) development for plant-derived malaria vaccine candidates, we applied a design-of-experiments approach to enhance HCP precipitation from Nicotiana benthamiana extracts generated after transient expression, using temperatures in the 20-80°C range, pH values of 3.0-8.0 and incubation times of 0-60 min. We also investigated the recovery of two protein-based malaria vaccine candidates under these conditions and determined their stability in the heat-treated extract while it was maintained at room temperature for 24 h. The heat precipitation of HCPs was also carried out by blanching intact plants in water or buffer prior to extraction in a blender. Our data show that all the heat precipitation methods reduced the amount of HCP in the crude plant extracts by more than 80%, simplifying the subsequent DSP steps. Furthermore, when the heat treatment was performed at 80°C rather than 65°C, both malaria vaccine candidates were more stable after extraction and the recovery of both proteins increased by more than 30%.

  2. Understanding Karma Police: The Perceived Plausibility of Noun Compounds as Predicted by Distributional Models of Semantic Representation

    PubMed Central

    Günther, Fritz; Marelli, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Noun compounds, consisting of two nouns (the head and the modifier) that are combined into a single concept, differ in terms of their plausibility: school bus is a more plausible compound than saddle olive. The present study investigates which factors influence the plausibility of attested and novel noun compounds. Distributional Semantic Models (DSMs) are used to obtain formal (vector) representations of word meanings, and compositional methods in DSMs are employed to obtain such representations for noun compounds. From these representations, different plausibility measures are computed. Three of those measures contribute in predicting the plausibility of noun compounds: The relatedness between the meaning of the head noun and the compound (Head Proximity), the relatedness between the meaning of modifier noun and the compound (Modifier Proximity), and the similarity between the head noun and the modifier noun (Constituent Similarity). We find non-linear interactions between Head Proximity and Modifier Proximity, as well as between Modifier Proximity and Constituent Similarity. Furthermore, Constituent Similarity interacts non-linearly with the familiarity with the compound. These results suggest that a compound is perceived as more plausible if it can be categorized as an instance of the category denoted by the head noun, if the contribution of the modifier to the compound meaning is clear but not redundant, and if the constituents are sufficiently similar in cases where this contribution is not clear. Furthermore, compounds are perceived to be more plausible if they are more familiar, but mostly for cases where the relation between the constituents is less clear. PMID:27732599

  3. Plausibility and the Theoreticians' Regress: Constructing the evolutionary fate of stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipe, Alex Ike

    2002-10-01

    This project presents a case-study of a scientific controversy that occurred in theoretical astrophysics nearly seventy years ago following the conceptual discovery of a novel phenomenon relating to the evolution and structure of stellar matter, known as the limiting mass. The ensuing debate between the author of the finding, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar and his primary critic, Arthur Stanley Eddington, witnessed both scientists trying to convince one another, as well as the astrophysical community, that their respective positions on the issue was the correct one. Since there was no independent criterion—that is, no observational evidence—at the time of the dispute that could have been drawn upon to test the validity of the limiting mass concept, a logical, objective resolution to the controversy was not possible. In this respect, I argue that the dynamics of the Chandrasekhar-Eddington debate succinctly resonates with Kennefick's notion of the Theoreticians' Regress. However, whereas this model predicts that such a regress can be broken if both parties in a dispute come to agree on who was in error and collaborate on a calculation whose technical foundation can be agreed to, I argue that a more pragmatic path by which the Theoreticians' Regress is broken is when one side in a dispute is able to construct its argument as being more plausible than that of its opponent, and is so successful in doing so, that its opposition is subsequently forced to withdraw from the debate. In order to adequately deal with the construction of plausibility in the context of scientific controversies, I draw upon Harvey's Plausibility Model as well as Pickering's work on the role socio-cultural factors play in the resolution of intellectual disputes. It is believed that the ideas embedded in these social- relativist-constructivist perspectives provide the most parsimonious explanation as to the reasons for the genesis and ultimate closure of this particular scientific controversy.

  4. A BIOMASS-BASED MODEL TO ESTIMATE THE PLAUSIBILITY OF EXOPLANET BIOSIGNATURE GASES

    SciTech Connect

    Seager, S.; Bains, W.; Hu, R.

    2013-10-01

    Biosignature gas detection is one of the ultimate future goals for exoplanet atmosphere studies. We have created a framework for linking biosignature gas detectability to biomass estimates, including atmospheric photochemistry and biological thermodynamics. The new framework is intended to liberate predictive atmosphere models from requiring fixed, Earth-like biosignature gas source fluxes. New biosignature gases can be considered with a check that the biomass estimate is physically plausible. We have validated the models on terrestrial production of NO, H{sub 2}S, CH{sub 4}, CH{sub 3}Cl, and DMS. We have applied the models to propose NH{sub 3} as a biosignature gas on a 'cold Haber World', a planet with a N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} atmosphere, and to demonstrate why gases such as CH{sub 3}Cl must have too large of a biomass to be a plausible biosignature gas on planets with Earth or early-Earth-like atmospheres orbiting a Sun-like star. To construct the biomass models, we developed a functional classification of biosignature gases, and found that gases (such as CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}S, and N{sub 2}O) produced from life that extracts energy from chemical potential energy gradients will always have false positives because geochemistry has the same gases to work with as life does, and gases (such as DMS and CH{sub 3}Cl) produced for secondary metabolic reasons are far less likely to have false positives but because of their highly specialized origin are more likely to be produced in small quantities. The biomass model estimates are valid to one or two orders of magnitude; the goal is an independent approach to testing whether a biosignature gas is plausible rather than a precise quantification of atmospheric biosignature gases and their corresponding biomasses.

  5. [The reliable and plausible conclusions in the decisions of the forensic medical experts].

    PubMed

    Kovalev, A V; Shmarov, L A; Ten'kov, A A

    2016-01-01

    The authors characterize in brief the conclusions drawn by the forensic medical experts in the course of their professional activities with special reference to their reliability and plausibility. The most common errors creeping into the conclusions are discussed together with the approaches to their prevention and/or correction. This article continues a series of publications of the same authors concerning the main logical errors encountered in the conclusions of the forensic medical experts. The results of a deeper analysis of such errors will be published elsewhere. PMID:27030098

  6. Exploring discrepancies between quantitative validation results and the geomorphic plausibility of statistical landslide susceptibility maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steger, Stefan; Brenning, Alexander; Bell, Rainer; Petschko, Helene; Glade, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Empirical models are frequently applied to produce landslide susceptibility maps for large areas. Subsequent quantitative validation results are routinely used as the primary criteria to infer the validity and applicability of the final maps or to select one of several models. This study hypothesizes that such direct deductions can be misleading. The main objective was to explore discrepancies between the predictive performance of a landslide susceptibility model and the geomorphic plausibility of subsequent landslide susceptibility maps while a particular emphasis was placed on the influence of incomplete landslide inventories on modelling and validation results. The study was conducted within the Flysch Zone of Lower Austria (1,354 km2) which is known to be highly susceptible to landslides of the slide-type movement. Sixteen susceptibility models were generated by applying two statistical classifiers (logistic regression and generalized additive model) and two machine learning techniques (random forest and support vector machine) separately for two landslide inventories of differing completeness and two predictor sets. The results were validated quantitatively by estimating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) with single holdout and spatial cross-validation technique. The heuristic evaluation of the geomorphic plausibility of the final results was supported by findings of an exploratory data analysis, an estimation of odds ratios and an evaluation of the spatial structure of the final maps. The results showed that maps generated by different inventories, classifiers and predictors appeared differently while holdout validation revealed similar high predictive performances. Spatial cross-validation proved useful to expose spatially varying inconsistencies of the modelling results while additionally providing evidence for slightly overfitted machine learning-based models. However, the highest predictive performances were obtained for

  7. A biological plausible Generalized Leaky Integrate-and-Fire neuron model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenzhong; Guo, Lilin; Adjouadi, Malek

    2014-01-01

    This study introduces a new Generalized Leaky Integrate-and-Fire (GLIF) neuron model. Unlike Normal Leaky Integrate-and-Fire (NLIF) models, the leaking resistor in the GLIF model equation is assumed to be variable, and an additional term would have the bias current added to the model equation in order to improve the accuracy. Adjusting the parameters defined for the leaking resistor and bias current, a GLIF model could be accurately matched to any Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model and be able to reproduce plausible biological neuron behaviors. PMID:25571560

  8. Higher Data Quality by Online Data-Entry and Automated Plausibility Checks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietragalla, Barbara; Sigg, Christian; Güsewell, Sabine; Clot, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    Long-term phenological observations are now recognized as important indicators for climate change impact studies. With the increased need for phenological data, there is also an increased need for higher data quality. Since 1951 MeteoSwiss has been operating a national phenological observation network. Currently the network consists of about 150 active stations observing up to 69 different phenophases. An important aim of a running three years project at MeteoSwiss is a further increase of the quality of the collected data. The higher data quality will be achieved by an automated procedure performing plausibility checks on the data and by online data-entry. Further measures such as intensified observer instructions and collection of more detailed metadata also contribute to a high data quality standard. The plausibility checks include the natural order of the phenophases within a species and also between different species (with regard to possible natural deviation). Additionally it will be checked if the observed date differs by less than two standard deviations from the average for this phenophase at the altitude of the station. A value outside of these limits is not necessarily a false value, since occurrences of extreme values will be beyond these limits. Therefore, within this check of the limits, the timing of the season of the respective year will also be taken into account. In case of an implausible value a comparison with other stations of the same region and sea level is proposed. A further possibility of data quality control could be to model the different phenophases statistically and to use this model for estimating the likelihood of observed values. An overall exploratory data analysis is currently performed providing a solid basis to implement the best possible methods for the plausibility checks. Important advantages of online data-entry are the near real-time availability of the data as well as the avoidance of various kinds of typical mistakes

  9. Theoretical and Analog Studies of the Effects of Nonlinear Stability Derivatives on the Longitudinal Motions of an Aircraft in Response to Step Control Deflections and to the Influence of Proportional Automatic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curfman, Howard J , Jr

    1955-01-01

    Through theoretical and analog results the effects of two nonlinear stability derivatives on the longitudinal motions of an aircraft have been investigated. Nonlinear functions of pitching-moment and lift coefficients with angle of attack were considered. Analog results of aircraft motions in response to step elevator deflections and to the action of the proportional control systems are presented. The occurrence of continuous hunting oscillations was predicted and demonstrated for the attitude stabilization system with proportional control for certain nonlinear pitching-moment variations and autopilot adjustments.

  10. Self-Assembly of Phosphate Amphiphiles in Mixtures of Prebiotically Plausible Surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Albertsen, A.N.; Duffy, C.D.; Sutherland, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The spontaneous formation of closed bilayer structures from prebiotically plausible amphiphiles is an essential requirement for the emergence of early cells on prebiotic Earth. The sources of amphiphiles could have been both endo- and exogenous (accretion of meteorite carbonaceous material or interstellar dust particles). Among all prebiotic possible amphiphile candidates, those containing phosphate are the least investigated species because their self-assembly occurs in a seemingly too narrow range of conditions. The self-assembly of simple phosphate amphiphiles should, however, be of great interest, as contemporary membranes predominantly contain phospholipids. In contrast to common expectations, we show that these amphiphiles can be easily synthesized under prebiotically plausible environmental conditions and can efficiently form bilayer structures in the presence of various co-surfactants across a large range of pH values. Vesiculation was even observed in crude reaction mixtures that contained 1-decanol as the amphiphile precursor. The two best co-surfactants promoted vesicle formation over the entire pH range in aqueous solutions. Expanding the pH range where bilayer membranes self-assemble and remain intact is a prerequisite for the emergence of early cell-like compartments and their preservation under fluctuating environmental conditions. These mixed bilayers also retained small charged solutes, such as dyes. These results demonstrate that alkyl phosphate amphiphiles might have played a significant role as early compartment building blocks. Key Words: Vesicles—Alkyl phosphate—Prebiotic synthesis—Amphiphile mixtures. Astrobiology 14, 462–472. PMID:24885934

  11. Morality Principles for Risk Modelling: Needs and Links with the Origins of Plausible Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solana-Ortega, Alberto; Solana, Vicente

    2009-12-01

    In comparison with the foundations of probability calculus, the inescapable and controversial issue of how to assign probabilities has only recently become a matter of formal study. The introduction of information as a technical concept was a milestone, but the most promising entropic assignment methods still face unsolved difficulties, manifesting the incompleteness of plausible inference theory. In this paper we examine the situation faced by risk analysts in the critical field of extreme events modelling, where the former difficulties are especially visible, due to scarcity of observational data, the large impact of these phenomena and the obligation to assume professional responsibilities. To respond to the claim for a sound framework to deal with extremes, we propose a metafoundational approach to inference, based on a canon of extramathematical requirements. We highlight their strong moral content, and show how this emphasis in morality, far from being new, is connected with the historic origins of plausible inference. Special attention is paid to the contributions of Caramuel, a contemporary of Pascal, unfortunately ignored in the usual mathematical accounts of probability.

  12. The Sarrazin effect: the presence of absurd statements in conspiracy theories makes canonical information less plausible.

    PubMed

    Raab, Marius Hans; Auer, Nikolas; Ortlieb, Stefan A; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2013-01-01

    Reptile prime ministers and flying Nazi saucers-extreme and sometimes off-wall conclusion are typical ingredients of conspiracy theories. While individual differences are a common research topic concerning conspiracy theories, the role of extreme statements in the process of acquiring and passing on conspiratorial stories has not been regarded in an experimental design so far. We identified six morphological components of conspiracy theories empirically. On the basis of these content categories a set of narrative elements for a 9/11 story was compiled. These elements varied systematically in terms of conspiratorial allegation, i.e., they contained official statements concerning the events of 9/11, statements alleging to a conspiracy limited in time and space as well as extreme statements indicating an all-encompassing cover-up. Using the method of narrative construction, 30 people were given a set of cards with these statements and asked to construct the course of events of 9/11 they deem most plausible. When extreme statements were present in the set, the resulting stories were more conspiratorial; the number of official statements included in the narrative dropped significantly, whereas the self-assessment of the story's plausibility did not differ between conditions. This indicates that blatant statements in a pool of information foster the synthesis of conspiracy theories on an individual level. By relating these findings to one of Germany's most successful (and controversial) non-fiction books, we refer to the real-world dangers of this effect. PMID:23882250

  13. Particulate air pollution and increased mortality: Biological plausibility for causal relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.F.

    1995-02-01

    Recently, a number of epidemiological studies have concluded that ambient particulate exposure is associated with increased mortality and morbidity at PM concentrations well below those previously thought to affect human health. These studies have been conducted in several different geographical locations and have involved a range of populations. While the consistency of the findings and the presence of an apparent concentration response relationship provide a strong argument for causality, epidemiological studies can only conclude this based upon inference from statistical associations. The biological plausibility of a causal relationship between low concentrations of PM and daily mortality and morbidity rates is neither intuitively obvious nor expected based on past experimental studies on the toxicity of inhaled particles. Chronic toxicity from inhaled, poorly soluble particles has been observed based on the slow accumulation of large lung burdens of particles, not on small daily fluctuations in PM levels. Acute toxicity from inhaled particles is associated mainly with acidic particles and is observed at much higher concentrations than those observed in the epidemiology studies reporting an association between PM concentrations and morbidity/mortality. To approach the difficult problem of determining if the association between PM concentrations and daily morbidity and mortality is biologically plausible and causal, one must consider (1) the chemical and physical characteristics of the particles in the inhaled atmospheres, (2) the characteristics of the morbidity/mortality observed and the people who are affected, and (3) potential mechanisms that might link the two.

  14. The Sarrazin effect: the presence of absurd statements in conspiracy theories makes canonical information less plausible.

    PubMed

    Raab, Marius Hans; Auer, Nikolas; Ortlieb, Stefan A; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2013-01-01

    Reptile prime ministers and flying Nazi saucers-extreme and sometimes off-wall conclusion are typical ingredients of conspiracy theories. While individual differences are a common research topic concerning conspiracy theories, the role of extreme statements in the process of acquiring and passing on conspiratorial stories has not been regarded in an experimental design so far. We identified six morphological components of conspiracy theories empirically. On the basis of these content categories a set of narrative elements for a 9/11 story was compiled. These elements varied systematically in terms of conspiratorial allegation, i.e., they contained official statements concerning the events of 9/11, statements alleging to a conspiracy limited in time and space as well as extreme statements indicating an all-encompassing cover-up. Using the method of narrative construction, 30 people were given a set of cards with these statements and asked to construct the course of events of 9/11 they deem most plausible. When extreme statements were present in the set, the resulting stories were more conspiratorial; the number of official statements included in the narrative dropped significantly, whereas the self-assessment of the story's plausibility did not differ between conditions. This indicates that blatant statements in a pool of information foster the synthesis of conspiracy theories on an individual level. By relating these findings to one of Germany's most successful (and controversial) non-fiction books, we refer to the real-world dangers of this effect.

  15. The Sarrazin effect: the presence of absurd statements in conspiracy theories makes canonical information less plausible

    PubMed Central

    Raab, Marius Hans; Auer, Nikolas; Ortlieb, Stefan A.; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2013-01-01

    Reptile prime ministers and flying Nazi saucers—extreme and sometimes off-wall conclusion are typical ingredients of conspiracy theories. While individual differences are a common research topic concerning conspiracy theories, the role of extreme statements in the process of acquiring and passing on conspiratorial stories has not been regarded in an experimental design so far. We identified six morphological components of conspiracy theories empirically. On the basis of these content categories a set of narrative elements for a 9/11 story was compiled. These elements varied systematically in terms of conspiratorial allegation, i.e., they contained official statements concerning the events of 9/11, statements alleging to a conspiracy limited in time and space as well as extreme statements indicating an all-encompassing cover-up. Using the method of narrative construction, 30 people were given a set of cards with these statements and asked to construct the course of events of 9/11 they deem most plausible. When extreme statements were present in the set, the resulting stories were more conspiratorial; the number of official statements included in the narrative dropped significantly, whereas the self-assessment of the story's plausibility did not differ between conditions. This indicates that blatant statements in a pool of information foster the synthesis of conspiracy theories on an individual level. By relating these findings to one of Germany's most successful (and controversial) non-fiction books, we refer to the real-world dangers of this effect. PMID:23882250

  16. Self-assembly of phosphate amphiphiles in mixtures of prebiotically plausible surfactants.

    PubMed

    Albertsen, A N; Duffy, C D; Sutherland, J D; Monnard, P-A

    2014-06-01

    The spontaneous formation of closed bilayer structures from prebiotically plausible amphiphiles is an essential requirement for the emergence of early cells on prebiotic Earth. The sources of amphiphiles could have been both endo- and exogenous (accretion of meteorite carbonaceous material or interstellar dust particles). Among all prebiotic possible amphiphile candidates, those containing phosphate are the least investigated species because their self-assembly occurs in a seemingly too narrow range of conditions. The self-assembly of simple phosphate amphiphiles should, however, be of great interest, as contemporary membranes predominantly contain phospholipids. In contrast to common expectations, we show that these amphiphiles can be easily synthesized under prebiotically plausible environmental conditions and can efficiently form bilayer structures in the presence of various co-surfactants across a large range of pH values. Vesiculation was even observed in crude reaction mixtures that contained 1-decanol as the amphiphile precursor. The two best co-surfactants promoted vesicle formation over the entire pH range in aqueous solutions. Expanding the pH range where bilayer membranes self-assemble and remain intact is a prerequisite for the emergence of early cell-like compartments and their preservation under fluctuating environmental conditions. These mixed bilayers also retained small charged solutes, such as dyes. These results demonstrate that alkyl phosphate amphiphiles might have played a significant role as early compartment building blocks. PMID:24885934

  17. Neural correlates of early-closure garden-path processing: Effects of prosody and plausibility.

    PubMed

    den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Dickey, Michael Walsh; Anderson, Catherine; Christianson, Kiel

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate neural correlates of early-closure garden-path sentence processing and use of extrasyntactic information to resolve temporary syntactic ambiguities. Sixteen participants performed an auditory picture verification task on sentences presented with natural versus flat intonation. Stimuli included sentences in which the garden-path interpretation was plausible, implausible because of a late pragmatic cue, or implausible because of a semantic mismatch between an optionally transitive verb and the following noun. Natural sentence intonation was correlated with left-hemisphere temporal activation, but also with activation that suggests the allocation of more resources to interpretation when natural prosody is provided. Garden-path processing was associated with upregulation in bilateral inferior parietal and right-hemisphere dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior frontal cortex, while differences between the strength and type of plausibility cues were also reflected in activation patterns. Region of interest (ROI) analyses in regions associated with complex syntactic processing are consistent with a role for posterior temporal cortex supporting access to verb argument structure. Furthermore, ROI analyses within left-hemisphere inferior frontal gyrus suggest a division of labour, with the anterior-ventral part primarily involved in syntactic-semantic mismatch detection, the central part supporting structural reanalysis, and the posterior-dorsal part showing a general structural complexity effect. PMID:25801097

  18. A swarm intelligence framework for reconstructing gene networks: searching for biologically plausible architectures.

    PubMed

    Kentzoglanakis, Kyriakos; Poole, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of reverse engineering the topology of gene regulatory networks from temporal gene expression data. We adopt a computational intelligence approach comprising swarm intelligence techniques, namely particle swarm optimization (PSO) and ant colony optimization (ACO). In addition, the recurrent neural network (RNN) formalism is employed for modeling the dynamical behavior of gene regulatory systems. More specifically, ACO is used for searching the discrete space of network architectures and PSO for searching the corresponding continuous space of RNN model parameters. We propose a novel solution construction process in the context of ACO for generating biologically plausible candidate architectures. The objective is to concentrate the search effort into areas of the structure space that contain architectures which are feasible in terms of their topological resemblance to real-world networks. The proposed framework is initially applied to the reconstruction of a small artificial network that has previously been studied in the context of gene network reverse engineering. Subsequently, we consider an artificial data set with added noise for reconstructing a subnetwork of the genetic interaction network of S. cerevisiae (yeast). Finally, the framework is applied to a real-world data set for reverse engineering the SOS response system of the bacterium Escherichia coli. Results demonstrate the relative advantage of utilizing problem-specific knowledge regarding biologically plausible structural properties of gene networks over conducting a problem-agnostic search in the vast space of network architectures. PMID:21576756

  19. Neural correlates of early-closure garden-path processing: Effects of prosody and plausibility.

    PubMed

    den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Dickey, Michael Walsh; Anderson, Catherine; Christianson, Kiel

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate neural correlates of early-closure garden-path sentence processing and use of extrasyntactic information to resolve temporary syntactic ambiguities. Sixteen participants performed an auditory picture verification task on sentences presented with natural versus flat intonation. Stimuli included sentences in which the garden-path interpretation was plausible, implausible because of a late pragmatic cue, or implausible because of a semantic mismatch between an optionally transitive verb and the following noun. Natural sentence intonation was correlated with left-hemisphere temporal activation, but also with activation that suggests the allocation of more resources to interpretation when natural prosody is provided. Garden-path processing was associated with upregulation in bilateral inferior parietal and right-hemisphere dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior frontal cortex, while differences between the strength and type of plausibility cues were also reflected in activation patterns. Region of interest (ROI) analyses in regions associated with complex syntactic processing are consistent with a role for posterior temporal cortex supporting access to verb argument structure. Furthermore, ROI analyses within left-hemisphere inferior frontal gyrus suggest a division of labour, with the anterior-ventral part primarily involved in syntactic-semantic mismatch detection, the central part supporting structural reanalysis, and the posterior-dorsal part showing a general structural complexity effect.

  20. Plasmalogen enrichment in exosomes secreted by a nematode parasite versus those derived from its mouse host: implications for exosome stability and biology.

    PubMed

    Simbari, Fabio; McCaskill, Jana; Coakley, Gillian; Millar, Marissa; Maizels, Rick M; Fabriás, Gemma; Casas, Josefina; Buck, Amy H

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate communication between cells and organisms across all 3 kingdoms of life. Several reports have demonstrated that EVs can transfer molecules between phylogenetically diverse species and can be used by parasites to alter the properties of the host environment. Whilst the concept of vesicle secretion and uptake is broad reaching, the molecular composition of these complexes is expected to be diverse based on the physiology and environmental niche of different organisms. Exosomes are one class of EVs originally defined based on their endocytic origin, as these derive from multivesicular bodies that then fuse with the plasma membrane releasing them into the extracellular environment. The term exosome has also been used to describe any small EVs recovered by high-speed ultracentrifugation, irrespective of origin since this is not always well characterized. Here, we use comparative global lipidomic analysis to examine the composition of EVs, which we term exosomes, that are secreted by the gastrointestinal nematode, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, in relation to exosomes secreted by cells of its murine host. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) analysis reveals a 9- to 62-fold enrichment of plasmalogens, as well as other classes of ether glycerophospholipids, along with a relative lack of cholesterol and sphingomyelin (SM) in the nematode exosomes compared with those secreted by murine cells. Biophysical analyses of the membrane dynamics of these exosomes demonstrate increased rigidity in those from the nematode, and parallel studies with synthetic vesicles support a role of plasmalogens in stabilizing the membrane structure. These results suggest that nematodes can maintain exosome membrane structure and integrity through increased plasmalogens, compensating for diminished levels of other lipids, including cholesterol and SM. This work also illuminates the prevalence of plasmalogens in some EVs

  1. Plasmalogen enrichment in exosomes secreted by a nematode parasite versus those derived from its mouse host: implications for exosome stability and biology

    PubMed Central

    Simbari, Fabio; McCaskill, Jana; Coakley, Gillian; Millar, Marissa; Maizels, Rick M.; Fabriás, Gemma; Casas, Josefina; Buck, Amy H.

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate communication between cells and organisms across all 3 kingdoms of life. Several reports have demonstrated that EVs can transfer molecules between phylogenetically diverse species and can be used by parasites to alter the properties of the host environment. Whilst the concept of vesicle secretion and uptake is broad reaching, the molecular composition of these complexes is expected to be diverse based on the physiology and environmental niche of different organisms. Exosomes are one class of EVs originally defined based on their endocytic origin, as these derive from multivesicular bodies that then fuse with the plasma membrane releasing them into the extracellular environment. The term exosome has also been used to describe any small EVs recovered by high-speed ultracentrifugation, irrespective of origin since this is not always well characterized. Here, we use comparative global lipidomic analysis to examine the composition of EVs, which we term exosomes, that are secreted by the gastrointestinal nematode, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, in relation to exosomes secreted by cells of its murine host. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) analysis reveals a 9- to 62-fold enrichment of plasmalogens, as well as other classes of ether glycerophospholipids, along with a relative lack of cholesterol and sphingomyelin (SM) in the nematode exosomes compared with those secreted by murine cells. Biophysical analyses of the membrane dynamics of these exosomes demonstrate increased rigidity in those from the nematode, and parallel studies with synthetic vesicles support a role of plasmalogens in stabilizing the membrane structure. These results suggest that nematodes can maintain exosome membrane structure and integrity through increased plasmalogens, compensating for diminished levels of other lipids, including cholesterol and SM. This work also illuminates the prevalence of plasmalogens in some EVs

  2. Biochemical stability of organic matter in soils amended with organic slow N-release fertilizer derived from charred plant residues and ammonoxidized lignin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knicker, Heike; de la Rosa, José Maria; López Martín, María; Clemente Barragan, Reyes; Liebner, Falk

    2013-04-01

    As an important plant nutrient, N that has been removed from the soil by plant growth is replaced mainly by the use of synthetic fertilizers. Although this practice has dramatically increased food production, the unintended costs to the environment and human health due to surplus and inefficient application have also been substantial. Major losses of N to the environment can be minimized if "sustainable" agricultural practices are combined with reasonable fertilization. The latter can be achieved by applying slow N-release fertilizers. Here, the N is incorporated into an organic matrix, which after its amendment to soils, slowly decompose, allowing the liberation of the nutrient. Deriving from organic waste, such an amendment helps to efficiently recycle resources and increases the C sequestration potential of soils. However, in order to turn this approach into a successful strategy, the material has to be bioavailable but still sufficiently recalcitrant to ensure slow and controlled N-release. In the present study, we tested potential slow N-release fertilizers recycled from organic waste for their biochemical stability in soils. They comprised N-rich charred grass residues and N-lignin derived from waste of the pulp and paper industry and enriched in N by ammonoxidation. The substrates were mixed with soil of an Histic Humaquept and subsequently subjected to microbial degradation at 28°C in a Respicond IV Apparatus for 10 weeks. Additionally, soil material without organic amendment and soils mixed with lignin or charcoal both with and without KNO3 were included into the experiment. During the degradation experiment the CO2 production was determined on an hourly base. The degradation rate constants and the mean residence times were calculated using a double exponential decay model (pools with fast and slow turnover). Alterations of the chemical composition of the organic matter during degradation were studied by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy. First results

  3. In Silico Structure Prediction of Human Fatty Acid Synthase–Dehydratase: A Plausible Model for Understanding Active Site Interactions

    PubMed Central

    John, Arun; Umashankar, Vetrivel; Samdani, A.; Sangeetha, Manoharan; Krishnakumar, Subramanian; Deepa, Perinkulam Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN, UniProt ID: P49327) is a multienzyme dimer complex that plays a critical role in lipogenesis. Consequently, this lipogenic enzyme has gained tremendous biomedical importance. The role of FASN and its inhibition is being extensively researched in several clinical conditions, such as cancers, obesity, and diabetes. X-ray crystallographic structures of some of its domains, such as β-ketoacyl synthase, acetyl transacylase, malonyl transacylase, enoyl reductase, β-ketoacyl reductase, and thioesterase, (TE) are already reported. Here, we have attempted an in silico elucidation of the uncrystallized dehydratase (DH) catalytic domain of human FASN. This theoretical model for DH domain was predicted using comparative modeling methods. Different stand-alone tools and servers were used to validate and check the reliability of the predicted models, which suggested it to be a highly plausible model. The stereochemical analysis showed 92.0% residues in favorable region of Ramachandran plot. The initial physiological substrate β-hydroxybutyryl group was docked into active site of DH domain using Glide. The molecular dynamics simulations carried out for 20 ns in apo and holo states indicated the stability and accuracy of the predicted structure in solvated condition. The predicted model provided useful biochemical insights into the substrate–active site binding mechanisms. This model was then used for identifying potential FASN inhibitors using high-throughput virtual screening of the National Cancer Institute database of chemical ligands. The inhibitory efficacy of the top hit ligands was validated by performing molecular dynamics simulation for 20 ns, where in the ligand NSC71039 exhibited good enzyme inhibition characteristics and exhibited dose-dependent anticancer cytotoxicity in retinoblastoma cancer cells in vitro. PMID:27559295

  4. In Silico Structure Prediction of Human Fatty Acid Synthase-Dehydratase: A Plausible Model for Understanding Active Site Interactions.

    PubMed

    John, Arun; Umashankar, Vetrivel; Samdani, A; Sangeetha, Manoharan; Krishnakumar, Subramanian; Deepa, Perinkulam Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN, UniProt ID: P49327) is a multienzyme dimer complex that plays a critical role in lipogenesis. Consequently, this lipogenic enzyme has gained tremendous biomedical importance. The role of FASN and its inhibition is being extensively researched in several clinical conditions, such as cancers, obesity, and diabetes. X-ray crystallographic structures of some of its domains, such as β-ketoacyl synthase, acetyl transacylase, malonyl transacylase, enoyl reductase, β-ketoacyl reductase, and thioesterase, (TE) are already reported. Here, we have attempted an in silico elucidation of the uncrystallized dehydratase (DH) catalytic domain of human FASN. This theoretical model for DH domain was predicted using comparative modeling methods. Different stand-alone tools and servers were used to validate and check the reliability of the predicted models, which suggested it to be a highly plausible model. The stereochemical analysis showed 92.0% residues in favorable region of Ramachandran plot. The initial physiological substrate β-hydroxybutyryl group was docked into active site of DH domain using Glide. The molecular dynamics simulations carried out for 20 ns in apo and holo states indicated the stability and accuracy of the predicted structure in solvated condition. The predicted model provided useful biochemical insights into the substrate-active site binding mechanisms. This model was then used for identifying potential FASN inhibitors using high-throughput virtual screening of the National Cancer Institute database of chemical ligands. The inhibitory efficacy of the top hit ligands was validated by performing molecular dynamics simulation for 20 ns, where in the ligand NSC71039 exhibited good enzyme inhibition characteristics and exhibited dose-dependent anticancer cytotoxicity in retinoblastoma cancer cells in vitro. PMID:27559295

  5. Wind-Tunnel Investigation at Subsonic and Supersonic Speeds of the Static and Dynamic Stability Derivatives of an Airplane Model with an Unswept Wing and a High Horizontal Tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lessing, Henry C.; Butler, James K.

    1959-01-01

    Results are presented of a wind-tunnel investigation to evaluate the static and dynamic stability derivatives of a model with a low-aspect-ratio unswept wing and a high horizontal tail. In addition to results for the complete model, results were also obtained of the body alone, body and wing, and body and tail. Data were obtained in the Mach number range from 0.65 to 2.2, at a Reynolds number of 2 million based on the wing mean aerodynamic chord. The angle-of-attack range for most of the data was -11.5 deg to 18 deg. A limited amount of data was obtained with fixed transition. A correspondence between the damping in pitch and the static stability, previously noted in other investigations, was also observed in the present results. The effect observed was that a decrease (or increase) in the static stability was accompanied by an increase (or decrease) in the damping in pitch. A similar correspondence was observed between the damping in yaw and the static-directional stability. Results from similar tests of the same model configuration in two other facilities over different speed ranges are presented for comparison. It was found that most of the results from the three investigations correlated reasonably well. Estimates of the rotary derivatives were made using available procedures. Comparison with the experimental results indicates the need for development of more precise estimation procedures.

  6. Spontaneous formation and base pairing of plausible prebiotic nucleotides in water

    PubMed Central

    Cafferty, Brian J.; Fialho, David M.; Khanam, Jaheda; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayanan; Hud, Nicholas V.

    2016-01-01

    The RNA World hypothesis presupposes that abiotic reactions originally produced nucleotides, the monomers of RNA and universal constituents of metabolism. However, compatible prebiotic reactions for the synthesis of complementary (that is, base pairing) nucleotides and mechanisms for their mutual selection within a complex chemical environment have not been reported. Here we show that two plausible prebiotic heterocycles, melamine and barbituric acid, form glycosidic linkages with ribose and ribose-5-phosphate in water to produce nucleosides and nucleotides in good yields. Even without purification, these nucleotides base pair in aqueous solution to create linear supramolecular assemblies containing thousands of ordered nucleotides. Nucleotide anomerization and supramolecular assemblies favour the biologically relevant β-anomer form of these ribonucleotides, revealing abiotic mechanisms by which nucleotide structure and configuration could have been originally favoured. These findings indicate that nucleotide formation and selection may have been robust processes on the prebiotic Earth, if other nucleobases preceded those of extant life. PMID:27108699

  7. Quantum theory as plausible reasoning applied to data obtained by robust experiments.

    PubMed

    De Raedt, H; Katsnelson, M I; Michielsen, K

    2016-05-28

    We review recent work that employs the framework of logical inference to establish a bridge between data gathered through experiments and their objective description in terms of human-made concepts. It is shown that logical inference applied to experiments for which the observed events are independent and for which the frequency distribution of these events is robust with respect to small changes of the conditions under which the experiments are carried out yields, without introducing any concept of quantum theory, the quantum theoretical description in terms of the Schrödinger or the Pauli equation, the Stern-Gerlach or Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments. The extraordinary descriptive power of quantum theory then follows from the fact that it is plausible reasoning, that is common sense, applied to reproducible and robust experimental data. PMID:27091169

  8. Reciprocity-based reasons for benefiting research participants: most fail, the most plausible is problematic.

    PubMed

    Sofaer, Neema

    2014-11-01

    A common reason for giving research participants post-trial access (PTA) to the trial intervention appeals to reciprocity, the principle, stated most generally, that if one person benefits a second, the second should reciprocate: benefit the first in return. Many authors consider it obvious that reciprocity supports PTA. Yet their reciprocity principles differ, with many authors apparently unaware of alternative versions. This article is the first to gather the range of reciprocity principles. It finds that: (1) most are false. (2) The most plausible principle, which is also problematic, applies only when participants experience significant net risks or burdens. (3) Seldom does reciprocity support PTA for participants or give researchers stronger reason to benefit participants than equally needy non-participants. (4) Reciprocity fails to explain the common view that it is bad when participants in a successful trial have benefited from the trial intervention but lack PTA to it.

  9. A plausible mechanism for the antimalarial activity of artemisinin: A computational approach

    PubMed Central

    Shandilya, Ashutosh; Chacko, Sajeev; Jayaram, B.; Ghosh, Indira

    2013-01-01

    Artemisinin constitutes the frontline treatment to aid rapid clearance of parasitaemia and quick resolution of malarial symptoms. However, the widespread promiscuity about its mechanism of action is baffling. There is no consensus about the biochemical target of artemisinin but recent studies implicate haem and PfATP6 (a calcium pump). We investigated the role of iron and artemisinin on PfATP6, in search of a plausible mechanism of action, via density functional theory calculations, docking and molecular dynamics simulations. Results suggest that artemisinin gets activated by iron which in turn inhibits PfATP6 by closing the phosphorylation, nucleotide binding and actuator domains leading to loss of function of PfATP6 of the parasite and its death. The mechanism elucidated here should help in the design of novel antimalarials. PMID:23985481

  10. A plausible simultaneous synthesis of amino acids and simple peptides on the primordial Earth.

    PubMed

    Parker, Eric T; Zhou, Manshui; Burton, Aaron S; Glavin, Daniel P; Dworkin, Jason P; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayanan; Fernández, Facundo M; Bada, Jeffrey L

    2014-07-28

    Following his seminal work in 1953, Stanley Miller conducted an experiment in 1958 to study the polymerization of amino acids under simulated early Earth conditions. In the experiment, Miller sparked a gas mixture of CH4, NH3, and H2O, while intermittently adding the plausible prebiotic condensing reagent cyanamide. For unknown reasons, an analysis of the samples was not reported. We analyzed the archived samples for amino acids, dipeptides, and diketopiperazines by liquid chromatography, ion mobility spectrometry, and mass spectrometry. A dozen amino acids, 10 glycine-containing dipeptides, and 3 glycine-containing diketopiperazines were detected. Miller's experiment was repeated and similar polymerization products were observed. Aqueous heating experiments indicate that Strecker synthesis intermediates play a key role in facilitating polymerization. These results highlight the potential importance of condensing reagents in generating diversity within the prebiotic chemical inventory.

  11. A neurophysiologically plausible population code model for feature integration explains visual crowding.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Ronald; Roerdink, Jos B T M; Cornelissen, Frans W

    2010-01-22

    An object in the peripheral visual field is more difficult to recognize when surrounded by other objects. This phenomenon is called "crowding". Crowding places a fundamental constraint on human vision that limits performance on numerous tasks. It has been suggested that crowding results from spatial feature integration necessary for object recognition. However, in the absence of convincing models, this theory has remained controversial. Here, we present a quantitative and physiologically plausible model for spatial integration of orientation signals, based on the principles of population coding. Using simulations, we demonstrate that this model coherently accounts for fundamental properties of crowding, including critical spacing, "compulsory averaging", and a foveal-peripheral anisotropy. Moreover, we show that the model predicts increased responses to correlated visual stimuli. Altogether, these results suggest that crowding has little immediate bearing on object recognition but is a by-product of a general, elementary integration mechanism in early vision aimed at improving signal quality.

  12. Quantum theory as plausible reasoning applied to data obtained by robust experiments.

    PubMed

    De Raedt, H; Katsnelson, M I; Michielsen, K

    2016-05-28

    We review recent work that employs the framework of logical inference to establish a bridge between data gathered through experiments and their objective description in terms of human-made concepts. It is shown that logical inference applied to experiments for which the observed events are independent and for which the frequency distribution of these events is robust with respect to small changes of the conditions under which the experiments are carried out yields, without introducing any concept of quantum theory, the quantum theoretical description in terms of the Schrödinger or the Pauli equation, the Stern-Gerlach or Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments. The extraordinary descriptive power of quantum theory then follows from the fact that it is plausible reasoning, that is common sense, applied to reproducible and robust experimental data.

  13. Reciprocity-Based Reasons for Benefiting Research Participants: Most Fail, the Most Plausible is Problematic

    PubMed Central

    Sofaer, Neema

    2014-01-01

    A common reason for giving research participants post-trial access (PTA) to the trial intervention appeals to reciprocity, the principle, stated most generally, that if one person benefits a second, the second should reciprocate: benefit the first in return. Many authors consider it obvious that reciprocity supports PTA. Yet their reciprocity principles differ, with many authors apparently unaware of alternative versions. This article is the first to gather the range of reciprocity principles. It finds that: (1) most are false. (2) The most plausible principle, which is also problematic, applies only when participants experience significant net risks or burdens. (3) Seldom does reciprocity support PTA for participants or give researchers stronger reason to benefit participants than equally needy non-participants. (4) Reciprocity fails to explain the common view that it is bad when participants in a successful trial have benefited from the trial intervention but lack PTA to it. PMID:24602060

  14. Spontaneous formation and base pairing of plausible prebiotic nucleotides in water.

    PubMed

    Cafferty, Brian J; Fialho, David M; Khanam, Jaheda; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayanan; Hud, Nicholas V

    2016-01-01

    The RNA World hypothesis presupposes that abiotic reactions originally produced nucleotides, the monomers of RNA and universal constituents of metabolism. However, compatible prebiotic reactions for the synthesis of complementary (that is, base pairing) nucleotides and mechanisms for their mutual selection within a complex chemical environment have not been reported. Here we show that two plausible prebiotic heterocycles, melamine and barbituric acid, form glycosidic linkages with ribose and ribose-5-phosphate in water to produce nucleosides and nucleotides in good yields. Even without purification, these nucleotides base pair in aqueous solution to create linear supramolecular assemblies containing thousands of ordered nucleotides. Nucleotide anomerization and supramolecular assemblies favour the biologically relevant β-anomer form of these ribonucleotides, revealing abiotic mechanisms by which nucleotide structure and configuration could have been originally favoured. These findings indicate that nucleotide formation and selection may have been robust processes on the prebiotic Earth, if other nucleobases preceded those of extant life. PMID:27108699

  15. CD25 signaling regulates the function and stability of peripheral Foxp3+ regulatory T cells derived from the spleen and lymph nodes of mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kunpeng; Gu, Jian; Ni, Xuhao; Ding, Zheng; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Haoming; Zheng, SongGuo; Li, Bin; Lu, Ling

    2016-08-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in sustaining immune tolerance and maintaining immune balance to alloantigen after transplatation. However, the functions of peripheral Tregs in different organs have not been fully characterized. Here, we showed that spleen-derived Tregs exhibited higher expression of Foxp3, greater suppressive capacity, and lower levels of IL-17A secretion than lymph node-derived Tregs in vitro in the presence or absence of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6. We found a higher percentage of CD25(bright) Tregs among spleen-derived Tregs than among lymph node-derived Tregs. Additionally, in vivo experiments demonstrated that adoptive transfer of spleen-derived Tregs, but not lymph node-derived Tregs, alleviated ischemia-reperfusion injury. These results reveal novel functions of Tregs derived from peripheral organs. In particular, spleen-derived Tregs, primarily consisting of CD25(bright) cells, may provide a more significant contribution to the suppression of immune-mediated autoimmune and inflammatory disease. PMID:27344615

  16. Conformational and thermal stability improvements for the large-scale production of yeast-derived rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus-like particles as multipurpose vaccine.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Erlinda; Toledo, Jorge R; Méndez, Lídice; González, Nemecio; Parra, Francisco; Martín-Alonso, José M; Limonta, Miladys; Sánchez, Kosara; Cabrales, Ania; Estrada, Mario P; Rodríguez-Mallón, Alina; Farnós, Omar

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant virus-like particles (VLP) antigenically similar to rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) were recently expressed at high levels inside Pichia pastoris cells. Based on the potential of RHDV VLP as platform for diverse vaccination purposes we undertook the design, development and scale-up of a production process. Conformational and stability issues were addressed to improve process control and optimization. Analyses on the structure, morphology and antigenicity of these multimers were carried out at different pH values during cell disruption and purification by size-exclusion chromatography. Process steps and environmental stresses in which aggregation or conformational instability can be detected were included. These analyses revealed higher stability and recoveries of properly assembled high-purity capsids at acidic and neutral pH in phosphate buffer. The use of stabilizers during long-term storage in solution showed that sucrose, sorbitol, trehalose and glycerol acted as useful aggregation-reducing agents. The VLP emulsified in an oil-based adjuvant were subjected to accelerated thermal stress treatments. None to slight variations were detected in the stability of formulations and in the structure of recovered capsids. A comprehensive analysis on scale-up strategies was accomplished and a nine steps large-scale production process was established. VLP produced after chromatographic separation protected rabbits against a lethal challenge. The minimum protective dose was identified. Stabilized particles were ultimately assayed as carriers of a foreign viral epitope from another pathogen affecting a larger animal species. For that purpose, a linear protective B-cell epitope from Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) E2 envelope protein was chemically coupled to RHDV VLP. Conjugates were able to present the E2 peptide fragment for immune recognition and significantly enhanced the peptide-specific antibody response in vaccinated pigs. Overall these results

  17. Effect of Taper Ratio on the Low-speed Rolling Stability Derivatives of Swept and Unswept Wings of Aspect Ratio 2.61

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jack D; Fisher, Lewis R

    1951-01-01

    Results of tests conducted in the 6-foot-diameter rolling-flow test section of the Langley stability tunnel to determine the effects of varying taper ratio on the rolling and static stability characteristics of a swept wing are presented; results are also given for the effects of varying taper ratio on an unswept wing and for the effects of sweep on a tapered wing. All the models were of aspect ratio 2.61 and had NACA 0012 sections normal to the quarter-chord line. Taper ratios of 1.00, 0.50, and 0.25 and sweep angles of 0 degrees and 45 degrees were investigated.

  18. Solute-derived thermal stability of nanocrystalline aluminum and processing factor influence on the formation of Al6Mn quasicrystals in melt-spinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Andrew H.

    Thermal stability of nanograined metals can be difficult to attain due to the large driving force for grain growth that arises from the significant boundary area constituted by the nanostructure. Kinetic approaches for stabilization of the nanostructure effective at low homologous temperatures often fail at higher homologous temperatures. Thermodynamic approaches for thermal stabilization may offer higher temperature stability. In this research, modest alloying of aluminum with solute (1 at.% Sc, Yb, or Sr) was examined as a means to thermodynamically stabilize a bulk nanostructure at elevated temperatures. After using melt-spinning and ball-milling to create an extended solid-solution and nanostructure with average grain size on the order of 30-45 nm, 1 h annealing treatments at 673 K (0.72 Tm) , 773 K (0.83 Tm) , and 873 K (0.94 Tm) were applied. The alloys remain nanocrystalline (<100 nm) as measured by Warren-Averbach Fourier analysis of x-ray diffraction peaks and direct observation of TEM dark field micrographs, with the efficacy of stabilization: Sr>Yb>Sc. Disappearance of intermetallic phases in the Sr and Yb alloys in the x-ray diffraction spectra are observed to occur coincident with the stabilization after annealing, suggesting that precipitates dissolve and the boundaries are enriched with solute. Melt-spinning has also been shown to be an effective process to produce a class of ordered, but non-periodic crystals called quasicrystals. However, many of the factors related to the creation of the quasicrystals through melt-spinning are not optimized for specific chemistries and alloy systems. In a related but separate aspect of this research, melt-spinning was utilized to create metastable quasicrystalline Al6Mn in an alpha-Al matrix through rapid solidification of Al-8Mn (by mol) and Al-10Mn (by mol) alloys. Wheel speed of the melt-spinning wheel and orifice diameter of the tube reservoir were varied to determine their effect on the resulting volume

  19. Why a high statistical performance cannot be equated with a high plausibility of landslide susceptibility maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steger, Stefan; Brenning, Alexander; Bell, Rainer; Petschko, Helene; Glade, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Statistical landslide susceptibility maps express a relative estimate of where landslides are more likely to occur in the future due to a set of geo-environmental conditions. Their predictive capability is regularly deduced by interpreting threshold independent performance measures like the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). These quantitative estimates frequently serve as a decision tool to favour a certain classifier over another and/or to select a suitable combination of predictors. Literature exposes that many authors consider their final maps as a valuable instrument for spatial planners and decision makers. However, most often the susceptibility maps are selected by solely interpreting such quantitative estimates. We assume that a high statistical quality is necessary but not sufficient in order to produce plausible landslide susceptibility maps. This assumption was tested by quantitatively and qualitatively validating 16 susceptibility models for a study area (1354 km²) located in Lower Austria. The models were generated by applying two statistical and two machine learning classifiers separately for two landslide inventories and two sets of predictors. Quantitative validation was conducted by estimating the AUROC with non spatial hold-out validation and a repeated spatial cross validation technique. The spatial differentiation of the final maps was evaluated at different scales by interpreting semivariograms. Maps of the location of major variations illustrate the spatial structure of the final susceptibility maps and allowed to deduce the most influential predictors and predictor classes. According to the hold-out validation, all 16 susceptibility models performed similarly well. However, spatial cross validation revealed considerable differences between models generated by different landslide inventories. Semivariograms exposed that the predicted landslide susceptibility pattern differs substantially between maps generated by

  20. Mindfulness and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: State of the Evidence, Plausible Mechanisms, and Theoretical Framework.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Eric B; Schuman-Olivier, Zev; Britton, Willoughby B; Fresco, David M; Desbordes, Gaelle; Brewer, Judson A; Fulwiler, Carl

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide (1) a synopsis on relations of mindfulness with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major CVD risk factors, and (2) an initial consensus-based overview of mechanisms and theoretical framework by which mindfulness might influence CVD. Initial evidence, often of limited methodological quality, suggests possible impacts of mindfulness on CVD risk factors including physical activity, smoking, diet, obesity, blood pressure, and diabetes regulation. Plausible mechanisms include (1) improved attention control (e.g., ability to hold attention on experiences related to CVD risk, such as smoking, diet, physical activity, and medication adherence), (2) emotion regulation (e.g., improved stress response, self-efficacy, and skills to manage craving for cigarettes, palatable foods, and sedentary activities), and (3) self-awareness (e.g., self-referential processing and awareness of physical sensations due to CVD risk factors). Understanding mechanisms and theoretical framework should improve etiologic knowledge, providing customized mindfulness intervention targets that could enable greater mindfulness intervention efficacy.

  1. Solvent effects on the photochemistry of 4-aminoimidazole-5-carbonitrile, a prebiotically plausible precursor of purines.

    PubMed

    Szabla, Rafał; Sponer, Judit E; Sponer, Jiří; Sobolewski, Andrzej L; Góra, Robert W

    2014-09-01

    4-Aminoimidazole-5-carbonitrile (AICN) was suggested as a prebiotically plausible precursor of purine nucleobases and nucleotides. Although it can be formed in a sequence of photoreactions, AICN is immune to further irradiation with UV-light. We present state-of-the-art multi-reference quantum-chemical calculations of potential energy surface cuts and conical intersection optimizations to explain the molecular mechanisms underlying the photostability of this compound. We have identified the N-H bond stretching and ring-puckering mechanisms that should be responsible for the photochemistry of AICN in the gas phase. We have further considered the photochemistry of AICN-water clusters, while including up to six explicit water molecules. The calculations reveal charge transfer to solvent followed by formation of an H3O(+) cation, both of which occur on the (1)πσ* hypersurface. Interestingly, a second proton transfer to an adjacent water molecule leads to a (1)πσ*/S0 conical intersection. We suggest that this electron-driven proton relay might be characteristic of low-lying (1)πσ* states in chromophore-water clusters. Owing to its nature, this mechanism might also be responsible for the photostability of analogous organic molecules in bulk water.

  2. Biologic plausibility, cellular effects, and molecular mechanisms of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Borow, Kenneth M; Nelson, John R; Mason, R Preston

    2015-09-01

    Residual cardiovascular (CV) risk remains in dyslipidemic patients despite intensive statin therapy, underscoring the need for additional intervention. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is incorporated into membrane phospholipids and atherosclerotic plaques and exerts beneficial effects on the pathophysiologic cascade from onset of plaque formation through rupture. Specific salutary actions have been reported relating to endothelial function, oxidative stress, foam cell formation, inflammation, plaque formation/progression, platelet aggregation, thrombus formation, and plaque rupture. EPA also improves atherogenic dyslipidemia characterized by reduction of triglycerides without raising low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Other beneficial effects of EPA include vasodilation, resulting in blood pressure reductions, as well as improved membrane fluidity. EPA's effects are at least additive to those of statins when given as adjunctive therapy. In this review, we present data supporting the biologic plausibility of EPA as an anti-atherosclerotic agent with potential clinical benefit for prevention of CV events, as well as its cellular effects and molecular mechanisms of action. REDUCE-IT is an ongoing, randomized, controlled study evaluating whether the high-purity ethyl ester of EPA (icosapent ethyl) at 4 g/day combined with statin therapy is superior to statin therapy alone for reducing CV events in high-risk patients with mixed dyslipidemia. The results from this study are expected to clarify the role of EPA as adjunctive therapy to a statin for reduction of residual CV risk.

  3. A methodology for examining the plausibility of accelerated aging protocols for UHMWPE components.

    PubMed

    Lewis, G; Nyman, J S; Trieu, H H

    1998-01-01

    In light of the time-intensive nature of using real-time shelf-aged specimens in research into property changes of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), accelerated thermal diffusion oxidative aging (usually referred to as accelerated aging) is frequently resorted to. A number of such aging protocols have been reported in the literature, with various claims for their producing changes in the properties of the polymer being the same as or similar to those seen in real-time shelf-aged samples. The thrust of the present work is the presentation of a methodology for examining such claims. The methodology is applied to six properties (% crystallinity, melting temperature, oxidation index, ultimate tensile strength, ultimate tensile elongation, and tensile toughness) of 4150HP UHMWPE grade, sterilized using six different methods, prior to and following the use of a specific accelerated aging protocol (oxygen gas at 70 degrees C and 507 kPa pressure; 14 d.). These six properties have been identified in the literature as being strongly correlated with the clinical wear of UHMWPE articular components. It is shown that the claim for the protocol used in the present work (in terms of the simulated equivalent shelf aging time) is plausible. It needs to be emphasized, however, that this conclusion is tentative given the paucity of the relevant literature results that are currently available and which are vital to the application of the methodology.

  4. One plausible reason for the change in ENSO characteristics in the 2000s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, V. N.

    2013-07-01

    It is well known that El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) causes floods, droughts and the collapse of fisheries, therefore forecasting of ENSO is an important task in climate researches. Variations in the equatorial warm water volume of the tropical Pacific and wind variability in the western equatorial Pacific has been considered to be a good ENSO predictor. However, in the 2000s, the interrelationship between these two characteristics and ENSO onsets became weak. This article attempts to find some plausible explanation for this. The results presented here demonstrate a possible link between the variability of atmospheric conditions over the Southern Ocean and their impact on the ocean circulation leading to the amplifying/triggering of ENSO events. It is shown that the variability of the atmospheric conditions upstream of Drake Passage can strongly influence ENSO events. The interrelationship between ENSO and variability in the equatorial warm water volume of the equatorial Pacific, together with wind variability in the western equatorial Pacific has recently weakened. It can be explained by the fact that the process occurred in the Southern Ocean recently became a major contributor amplifying ENSO events (in comparison with the processes of interaction between the atmosphere and the ocean in the tropics of the Pacific). Likely it is due to a warmer ocean state observed from the end of the 1990s that led to smaller atmospheric variability in the tropics and insignificant their changes in the Southern Ocean.

  5. One plausible reason for the change in ENSO characteristics in the 2000s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, V. N.

    2014-03-01

    It is well known that El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) causes floods, droughts in different regions of the Earth and the collapse of fisheries in the tropical Pacific, therefore forecasting of ENSO is an important task in climate researches. Variations in the equatorial warm water volume of the tropical Pacific and wind variability in the western equatorial Pacific has been considered to be a good ENSO predictor. However, in the 2000s, the interrelationship between these two characteristics and ENSO onsets became weak. This article attempts to find some plausible explanation for this. The results presented here demonstrate a possible link between the variability of atmospheric conditions over the Southern Ocean and their impact on the ocean circulation leading to the amplifying of ENSO events. It is shown that the variability of the atmospheric conditions upstream of Drake Passage can strongly influence ENSO events. The interrelationship between ENSO and variability in the equatorial warm water volume of the equatorial Pacific, together with wind variability in the western equatorial Pacific has recently weakened. It can be explained by the fact that the process occurred in the Southern Ocean recently became a major contributor amplifying ENSO events (in comparison with the processes of interaction between the atmosphere and the ocean in the tropics of the Pacific). Likely it is due to a warmer ocean state observed from the end of the 1990s that led to smaller atmospheric variability in the tropics and insignificant their changes in the Southern Ocean.

  6. Estimation of Alert and Change Limits of Haematological Quantities and its Application in the Plausibility Control

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Castro, María José; Dot-Bach, Dolors; Fuentes-Arderiu, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction In the process of quality assurance of the measured values of the clinical laboratory, one of the purposes is to perform the validation of patients’ measured values in the most objective way. This validation process is called plausibility control which may be defined as the set of procedures used to decide if a patient’s measured value is valid according to established clinical and biological criteria. The aim of this study is to propose a model to estimate alert and change limits of measured values of the blood cell count, to be applied to detect doubtful patients’ measured values. Methods Some alert and change limits were estimated from the emergency laboratory database of the year 2010 using different percentiles. A verification of the suitability of the proposed model was also performed. Results Most of the fractions of the measured values excluded by the alert and change limits were according to the theoretical expected. The overall fraction of the number of doubtful clinical laboratory reports ranged between 0.6 and 47.6 %. Conclusions The proposed model helps, improves and standardizes the process of detection of doubtful measured values since they are produced objectively. These limits can also be configured in a laboratory information system letting the clinical laboratory professional staff to save time and efforts.

  7. Mindfulness and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: State of the Evidence, Plausible Mechanisms, and Theoretical Framework.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Eric B; Schuman-Olivier, Zev; Britton, Willoughby B; Fresco, David M; Desbordes, Gaelle; Brewer, Judson A; Fulwiler, Carl

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide (1) a synopsis on relations of mindfulness with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major CVD risk factors, and (2) an initial consensus-based overview of mechanisms and theoretical framework by which mindfulness might influence CVD. Initial evidence, often of limited methodological quality, suggests possible impacts of mindfulness on CVD risk factors including physical activity, smoking, diet, obesity, blood pressure, and diabetes regulation. Plausible mechanisms include (1) improved attention control (e.g., ability to hold attention on experiences related to CVD risk, such as smoking, diet, physical activity, and medication adherence), (2) emotion regulation (e.g., improved stress response, self-efficacy, and skills to manage craving for cigarettes, palatable foods, and sedentary activities), and (3) self-awareness (e.g., self-referential processing and awareness of physical sensations due to CVD risk factors). Understanding mechanisms and theoretical framework should improve etiologic knowledge, providing customized mindfulness intervention targets that could enable greater mindfulness intervention efficacy. PMID:26482755

  8. Plausible explanation for the {Delta}{sub 5/2}{sup +}(2000) puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Jujun; Martinez Torres, A.; Oset, E.; Gonzalez, P.

    2011-05-15

    From a Faddeev calculation for the {pi}-({Delta}{rho}){sub N{sub 5/2}{sup -}{sub (1675)}} system we show the plausible existence of three dynamically generated I(J{sup P})=3/2(5/2{sup +}) baryon states below 2.3 GeV, whereas only two resonances, {Delta}{sub 5/2{sup +}}(1905)(****) and {Delta}{sub 5/2{sup +}}(2000)(**), are cataloged in the Particle Data Book Review. Our results give theoretical support to data analyses extracting two distinctive resonances, {Delta}{sub 5/2{sup +}}({approx}1740) and {Delta}{sub 5/2{sup +}}({approx}2200), from which the mass of {Delta}{sub 5/2{sup +}}(2000)(**) is estimated. We propose that these two resonances should be cataloged instead of {Delta}{sub 5/2{sup +}}(2000). This proposal gets further support from the possible assignment of the other baryon states found in the approach in the I=1/2,3/2 with J{sup P}=1/2{sup +},3/2{sup +},5/2{sup +} sectors to known baryonic resonances. In particular, {Delta}{sub 1/2{sup +}}(1750)(*) is naturally interpreted as a {pi}N{sub 1/2{sup -}}(1650) bound state.

  9. Event-based Plausibility Immediately Influences On-line Language Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Matsuki, Kazunaga; Chow, Tracy; Hare, Mary; Elman, Jeffrey L.; Scheepers, Christoph; McRae, Ken

    2011-01-01

    In some theories of sentence comprehension, linguistically-relevant lexical knowledge such as selectional restrictions is privileged in terms of the time-course of its access and influence. We examined whether event knowledge computed by combining multiple concepts can rapidly influence language understanding even in the absence of selectional restriction violations. Specifically, we investigated whether instruments can combine with actions to influence comprehension of ensuing patients. Instrument-verb-patient triplets were created in a norming study designed to tap directly into event knowledge. In self-paced reading (Experiment 1), participants were faster to read patient nouns such as hair when they were typical of the instrument-action pair (Donna used the shampoo to wash vs. the hose to wash). Experiment 2 showed that these results were not due to direct instrument-patient relations. Experiment 3 replicated Experiment 1 using eyetracking, with effects of event typicality observed in first fixation and gaze durations on the patient noun. This research demonstrates that conceptual event-based expectations are computed and used rapidly and dynamically during on-line language comprehension. We discuss relationships among plausibility and predictability, as well as their implications. We conclude that selectional restrictions may be best considered as event-based conceptual knowledge, rather than lexical-grammatical knowledge. PMID:21517222

  10. Long-term rice cultivation stabilizes soil organic carbon and promotes soil microbial activity in a salt marsh derived soil chronosequence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Yalong; Li, Lianqing; Cheng, Kun; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Joseph, Stephen; Pan, Genxing

    2015-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration with enhanced stable carbon storage has been widely accepted as a very important ecosystem property. Yet, the link between carbon stability and bio-activity for ecosystem functioning with OC accumulation in field soils has not been characterized. We assessed the changes in microbial activity versus carbon stability along a paddy soil chronosequence shifting from salt marsh in East China. We used mean weight diameter, normalized enzyme activity (NEA) and carbon gain from straw amendment for addressing soil aggregation, microbial biochemical activity and potential C sequestration, respectively. In addition, a response ratio was employed to infer the changes in all analyzed parameters with prolonged rice cultivation. While stable carbon pools varied with total SOC accumulation, soil respiration and both bacterial and fungal diversity were relatively constant in the rice soils. Bacterial abundance and NEA were positively but highly correlated to total SOC accumulation, indicating an enhanced bio-activity with carbon stabilization. This could be linked to an enhancement of particulate organic carbon pool due to physical protection with enhanced soil aggregation in the rice soils under long-term rice cultivation. However, the mechanism underpinning these changes should be explored in future studies in rice soils where dynamic redox conditions exist. PMID:26503629

  11. Long-term rice cultivation stabilizes soil organic carbon and promotes soil microbial activity in a salt marsh derived soil chronosequence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Yalong; Li, Lianqing; Cheng, Kun; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Joseph, Stephen; Pan, Genxing

    2015-10-27

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration with enhanced stable carbon storage has been widely accepted as a very important ecosystem property. Yet, the link between carbon stability and bio-activity for ecosystem functioning with OC accumulation in field soils has not been characterized. We assessed the changes in microbial activity versus carbon stability along a paddy soil chronosequence shifting from salt marsh in East China. We used mean weight diameter, normalized enzyme activity (NEA) and carbon gain from straw amendment for addressing soil aggregation, microbial biochemical activity and potential C sequestration, respectively. In addition, a response ratio was employed to infer the changes in all analyzed parameters with prolonged rice cultivation. While stable carbon pools varied with total SOC accumulation, soil respiration and both bacterial and fungal diversity were relatively constant in the rice soils. Bacterial abundance and NEA were positively but highly correlated to total SOC accumulation, indicating an enhanced bio-activity with carbon stabilization. This could be linked to an enhancement of particulate organic carbon pool due to physical protection with enhanced soil aggregation in the rice soils under long-term rice cultivation. However, the mechanism underpinning these changes should be explored in future studies in rice soils where dynamic redox conditions exist.

  12. Silver Ions in Non-canonical DNA Base Pairs: Metal-Mediated Mismatch Stabilization of 2'-Deoxyadenosine and 7-Deazapurine Derivatives with 2'-Deoxycytidine and 2'-Deoxyguanosine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haozhe; Seela, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Novel silver-mediated dA-dC, dA*-dC, and dA*-dG base pairs were formed in a natural DNA double helix environment (dA* denotes 7-deaza-dA, 7-deaza-7-iodo-dA, and 7-cyclopropyl-7-deaza-dA). 7-Deazapurine nucleosides enforce silver ion binding and direct metal-mediated base pair formation to their Watson-Crick face. New phosphoramidites were prepared from 7-deaza-dA, 7-deaza-7-iodo-dA, and 7-cyclopropyl-7-deaza-dA, which contain labile isobutyryl protecting groups. Solid-phase synthesis furnished oligonucleotides that contain mismatches in near central positions. Increased thermal stabilities (higher Tm values) were observed for oligonucleotide duplexes with non-canonical dA*-dC and dA-dC pairs in the presence of silver ions. The stability of the silver-mediated base pairs was pH dependent. Silver ion binding was not observed for the dA-dG mismatch but took place when mismatches were formed between 7-deazaadenine and guanine. The specific binding of silver ions was confirmed by stoichiometric UV titration experiments, which proved that one silver ion is captured by one mismatch. The stability increase of canonical DNA mismatches might have an impact on cellular DNA repair. PMID:27492501

  13. Long-term rice cultivation stabilizes soil organic carbon and promotes soil microbial activity in a salt marsh derived soil chronosequence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Yalong; Li, Lianqing; Cheng, Kun; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Joseph, Stephen; Pan, Genxing

    2015-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration with enhanced stable carbon storage has been widely accepted as a very important ecosystem property. Yet, the link between carbon stability and bio-activity for ecosystem functioning with OC accumulation in field soils has not been characterized. We assessed the changes in microbial activity versus carbon stability along a paddy soil chronosequence shifting from salt marsh in East China. We used mean weight diameter, normalized enzyme activity (NEA) and carbon gain from straw amendment for addressing soil aggregation, microbial biochemical activity and potential C sequestration, respectively. In addition, a response ratio was employed to infer the changes in all analyzed parameters with prolonged rice cultivation. While stable carbon pools varied with total SOC accumulation, soil respiration and both bacterial and fungal diversity were relatively constant in the rice soils. Bacterial abundance and NEA were positively but highly correlated to total SOC accumulation, indicating an enhanced bio-activity with carbon stabilization. This could be linked to an enhancement of particulate organic carbon pool due to physical protection with enhanced soil aggregation in the rice soils under long-term rice cultivation. However, the mechanism underpinning these changes should be explored in future studies in rice soils where dynamic redox conditions exist. PMID:26503629

  14. Long-term rice cultivation stabilizes soil organic carbon and promotes soil microbial activity in a salt marsh derived soil chronosequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Yalong; Li, Lianqing; Cheng, Kun; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Joseph, Stephen; Pan, Genxing

    2015-10-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration with enhanced stable carbon storage has been widely accepted as a very important ecosystem property. Yet, the link between carbon stability and bio-activity for ecosystem functioning with OC accumulation in field soils has not been characterized. We assessed the changes in microbial activity versus carbon stability along a paddy soil chronosequence shifting from salt marsh in East China. We used mean weight diameter, normalized enzyme activity (NEA) and carbon gain from straw amendment for addressing soil aggregation, microbial biochemical activity and potential C sequestration, respectively. In addition, a response ratio was employed to infer the changes in all analyzed parameters with prolonged rice cultivation. While stable carbon pools varied with total SOC accumulation, soil respiration and both bacterial and fungal diversity were relatively constant in the rice soils. Bacterial abundance and NEA were positively but highly correlated to total SOC accumulation, indicating an enhanced bio-activity with carbon stabilization. This could be linked to an enhancement of particulate organic carbon pool due to physical protection with enhanced soil aggregation in the rice soils under long-term rice cultivation. However, the mechanism underpinning these changes should be explored in future studies in rice soils where dynamic redox conditions exist.

  15. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR DOE STANDARD 3013 EQUIVALENCY SUPPORTING REDUCED TEMPERATURE STABILIZATION OF OXALATE-DERIVED PLUTONIUM OXIDE PRODUCED BY THE HB-LINE FACILITY AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.; Berg, J.; Veirs, D.

    2012-07-02

    The HB-Line (HBL) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is designed to produce high-purity plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) which is suitable for future use in production of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. The MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) requires PuO{sub 2} feed to be packaged per the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Standard 3013 (DOE-STD-3013) to comply with the facility's safety basis. The stabilization conditions imposed by DOE-STD-3013 for PuO{sub 2} (i.e., 950 C for 2 hours) preclude use of the HBL PuO{sub 2} in direct fuel fabrication and reduce the value of the HBL product as MFFF feedstock. Consequently, HBL initiated a technical evaluation to define acceptable operating conditions for production of high-purity PuO{sub 2} that fulfills the DOE-STD-3013 criteria for safe storage. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate that within the defined operating conditions, the HBL process will be equivalent for meeting the requirements of the DOE-STD-3013 stabilization process for plutonium-bearing materials from the DOE complex. The proposed 3013 equivalency reduces the prescribed stabilization temperature for high-purity PuO{sub 2} from oxalate precipitation processes from 950 C to 640 C and places a limit of 60% on the relative humidity (RH) at the lowest material temperature. The equivalency is limited to material produced using the HBL established flow sheet, for example, nitric acid anion exchange and Pu(IV) direct strike oxalate precipitation with stabilization at a minimum temperature of 640 C for four hours (h). The product purity must meet the MFFF acceptance criteria of 23,600 {micro}g/g Pu (i.e., 2.1 wt %) total impurities and chloride content less than 250 {micro}g/g of Pu. All other stabilization and packaging criteria identified by DOE-STD-3013-2012 or earlier revisions of the standard apply. Based on the evaluation of test data discussed in this document, the expert judgment of the authors supports packaging the HBL product under a 3013

  16. Cultural group selection is plausible, but the predictions of its hypotheses should be tested with real-world data.

    PubMed

    Turchin, Peter; Currie, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    The evidence compiled in the target article demonstrates that the assumptions of cultural group selection (CGS) theory are often met, and it is therefore a useful framework for generating plausible hypotheses. However, more can be said about how we can test the predictions of CGS hypotheses against competing explanations using historical, archaeological, and anthropological data. PMID:27561229

  17. Effects of Reading Span and Plausibility in the Reanalysis of "Wh"-Gaps by Chinese-English Second Language Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dussias, Paola E.; Pinar, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    This study utilizes a moving window technique to investigate how individual cognitive resources (operationalized in terms of reading span scores) might modulate the extent to which native English speakers and Chinese second language (L2) learners of English utilize plausibility information to recover from an initial misparse in the processing of…

  18. Coordinated motor activity in simulated spinal networks emerges from simple biologically plausible rules of connectivity.

    PubMed

    Dale, Nicholas

    2003-01-01

    The spinal motor circuits of the Xenopus embryo have been simulated in a 400-neuron network. To explore the consequences of differing patterns of synaptic connectivity within the network for the generation of the motor rhythm, a system of biologically plausible rules was devised to control synapse formation by three parameters. Each neuron had an intrinsic probability of synapse formation (P(soma), specified by a space constant lambda) that was a monotonically decreasing function of its soma location in the rostro-caudal axis of the simulated network. The neurons had rostral and caudal going axons of specified length (L(axon)) associated with a probability of synapse formation (P(axon)). The final probability of synapse formation was the product of P(soma) and P(axon). Realistic coordinated activity only occurred when L(axon) and the probabilities of interconnection were sufficiently high. Increasing the values of the three network parameters reduced the burst duration, cycle period, and rostro-caudal delay and increased the reliability with which the network functioned as measured by the coefficient of variance of these parameters. Whereas both L(axon) and P(axon) had powerful and consistent effects on network output, the effects of lambda on burst duration and rostro-caudal delay were more variable and depended on the values of the other two parameters. This network model can reproduce the rostro-caudal coordination of swimming without using coupled oscillator theory. The changes in network connectivity and resulting changes in activity explored by the model mimic the development of the motor pattern for swimming in the real embryo.

  19. Identifying plausible adverse drug reactions using knowledge extracted from the literature

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Ning; Xu, Hua; Rindflesch, Thomas C.; Cohen, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance involves continually monitoring drug safety after drugs are put to market. To aid this process; algorithms for the identification of strongly correlated drug/adverse drug reaction (ADR) pairs from data sources such as adverse event reporting systems or Electronic Health Records have been developed. These methods are generally statistical in nature, and do not draw upon the large volumes of knowledge embedded in the biomedical literature. In this paper, we investigate the ability of scalable Literature Based Discovery (LBD) methods to identify side effects of pharmaceutical agents. The advantage of LBD methods is that they can provide evidence from the literature to support the plausibility of a drug/ ADR association, thereby assisting human review to validate the signal, which is an essential component of pharmacovigilance. To do so, we draw upon vast repositories of knowledge that has been extracted from the biomedical literature by two Natural Language Processing tools, MetaMap and SemRep. We evaluate two LBD methods that scale comfortably to the volume of knowledge available in these repositories. Specifically, we evaluate Reflective Random Indexing (RRI), a model based on concept-level co-occurrence, and Predication-based Semantic Indexing (PSI), a model that encodes the nature of the relationship between concepts to support reasoning analogically about drug-effect relationships. An evaluation set was constructed from the Side Effect Resource 2 (SIDER2), which contains known drug/ADR relations, and models were evaluated for their ability to “rediscover” these relations. In this paper, we demonstrate that both RRI and PSI can recover known drug-adverse event associations. However, PSI performed better overall, and has the additional advantage of being able to recover the literature underlying the reasoning pathways it used to make its predictions. PMID:25046831

  20. Evaporative water loss is a plausible explanation for mortality of bats from white-nose syndrome.

    PubMed

    Willis, Craig K R; Menzies, Allyson K; Boyles, Justin G; Wojciechowski, Michal S

    2011-09-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) has caused alarming declines of North American bat populations in the 5 years since its discovery. Affected bats appear to starve during hibernation, possibly because of disruption of normal cycles of torpor and arousal. The importance of hydration state and evaporative water loss (EWL) for influencing the duration of torpor bouts in hibernating mammals recently led to "the dehydration hypothesis," that cutaneous infection of the wing membranes of bats with the fungus Geomyces destructans causes dehydration which in turn, increases arousal frequency during hibernation. This hypothesis predicts that uninfected individuals of species most susceptible to WNS, like little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), exhibit high rates of EWL compared to less susceptible species. We tested the feasibility of this prediction using data from the literature and new data quantifying EWL in Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri), a species that is, like other European bats, sympatric with G. destructans but does not appear to suffer significant mortality from WNS. We found that little brown bats exhibited significantly higher rates of normothermic EWL than did other bat species for which comparable EWL data are available. We also found that Natterer's bats exhibited significantly lower rates of EWL, in both wet and dry air, compared with values predicted for little brown bats exposed to identical relative humidity (RH). We used a population model to show that the increase in EWL required to cause the pattern of mortality observed for WNS-affected little brown bats was small, equivalent to a solitary bat hibernating exposed to RH of ∼95%, or clusters hibernating in ∼87% RH, as opposed to typical near-saturation conditions. Both of these results suggest the dehydration hypothesis is plausible and worth pursuing as a possible explanation for mortality of bats from WNS. PMID:21742778

  1. Microtubule-stabilizing properties of the avocado-derived toxins (+)-(R)-persin and (+)-(R)-tetrahydropersin in cancer cells and activity of related synthetic analogs.

    PubMed

    Field, Jessica J; Kanakkanthara, Arun; Brooke, Darby G; Sinha, Saptarshi; Pillai, Sushila D; Denny, William A; Butt, Alison J; Miller, John H

    2016-06-01

    The avocado toxin (+)-R-persin (persin) is active at low micromolar concentrations against breast cancer cells and synergizes with the estrogen receptor modulator 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Previous studies in the estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cell line MCF-7 indicate that persin acts as a microtubule-stabilizing agent. In the present study, we further characterize the properties of persin and several new synthetic analogues in human ovarian cancer cells. Persin and tetrahydropersin cause G2M cell cycle arrest and increase intracellular microtubule polymerization. One analog (4-nitrophenyl)-deshydroxypersin prevents cell proliferation and blocks cells in G1 of the cell cycle rather than G2M, suggesting an additional mode of action of these compounds independent of microtubules. Persin can synergize with other microtubule-stabilizing agents, and is active against cancer cells that overexpress the P-glycoprotein drug efflux pump. Evidence from Flutax-1 competition experiments suggests that while the persin binding site on β-tubulin overlaps the classical taxoid site where paclitaxel and epothilone bind, persin retains activity in cell lines with single amino acid mutations that affect these other taxoid site ligands. This implies the existence of a unique binding location for persin at the taxoid site. PMID:26968704

  2. Multiple Solutions to the Same Problem: Utilization of Plausibility and Syntax in Sentence Comprehension by Older Adults with Impaired Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Amichetti, Nicole M.; White, Alison G.; Wingfield, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental question in psycholinguistic theory is whether equivalent success in sentence comprehension may come about by different underlying operations. Of special interest is whether adult aging, especially when accompanied by reduced hearing acuity, may shift the balance of reliance on formal syntax vs. plausibility in determining sentence meaning. In two experiments participants were asked to identify the thematic roles in grammatical sentences that contained either plausible or implausible semantic relations. Comprehension of sentence meanings was indexed by the ability to correctly name the agent or the recipient of an action represented in the sentence. In Experiment 1 young and older adults’ comprehension was tested for plausible and implausible sentences with the meaning expressed with either an active-declarative or a passive syntactic form. In Experiment 2 comprehension performance was examined for young adults with age-normal hearing, older adults with good hearing acuity, and age-matched older adults with mild-to-moderate hearing loss for plausible or implausible sentences with meaning expressed with either a subject-relative (SR) or an object-relative (OR) syntactic structure. Experiment 1 showed that the likelihood of interpreting a sentence according to its literal meaning was reduced when that meaning expressed an implausible relationship. Experiment 2 showed that this likelihood was further decreased for OR as compared to SR sentences, and especially so for older adults whose hearing impairment added to the perceptual challenge. Experiment 2 also showed that working memory capacity as measured with a letter-number sequencing task contributed to the likelihood that listeners would base their comprehension responses on the literal syntax even when this processing scheme yielded an implausible meaning. Taken together, the results of both experiments support the postulate that listeners may use more than a single uniform processing strategy for

  3. Ternary inclusion complex formation and stabilization of limaprost, a prostaglandin E1 derivative, in the presence of α- and β-cyclodextrins in the solid state.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yasuo; Iohara, Daisuke; Sekiya, Noboru; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Sakiyama, Yoko; Hirayama, Fumitoshi; Arima, Hidetoshi; Uekama, Kaneto

    2016-07-25

    Limaprost/α-cyclodextrin (CD)/β-CD ternary inclusion complex was prepared by freeze-drying a solution containing all three components. Under humid conditions, limaprost was more stable in the ternary α-/β-CD inclusion complex than in the binary α- or β-CD complex. Specifically, during storage at 30°C/75% relative humidity (R.H.) for 4 weeks, about 19% of limaprost degraded into 17S,20-dimethyl-trans-Δ(2)-prostaglandin A1 (referred as 11-deoxy-Δ(10)) in the β-CD complex, 8.1% degraded in the α-CD complex, and only 2.2% degraded in the α-/β-CD complex. The mechanism of limaprost stabilization in the presence of both CDs was investigated by Raman and solid-state NMR spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffractometry. The fast degradation of limaprost to 11-deoxy-Δ(10) in the β-CD complex was due to the rapid crystallization of β-CD from the complex, liberating the free amorphous drug, which is susceptible to degradation. The dissociation and crystallization of β-CD from the inclusion complex were suppressed by freeze-drying limaprost in the presence of both α- and β-CDs. In addition, the interaction between limaprost and the two CDs was reinforced by inclusion of different moieties of limaprost: α-CD predominantly included the alkyl ω-chain, whereas β-CD included the five-membered ring. Thus, a stable ternary inclusion complex was formed that included limaprost, maintaining the amorphous state of the complex and dramatically stabilizing the drug under humid conditions. PMID:27286633

  4. Ternary inclusion complex formation and stabilization of limaprost, a prostaglandin E1 derivative, in the presence of α- and β-cyclodextrins in the solid state.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yasuo; Iohara, Daisuke; Sekiya, Noboru; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Sakiyama, Yoko; Hirayama, Fumitoshi; Arima, Hidetoshi; Uekama, Kaneto

    2016-07-25

    Limaprost/α-cyclodextrin (CD)/β-CD ternary inclusion complex was prepared by freeze-drying a solution containing all three components. Under humid conditions, limaprost was more stable in the ternary α-/β-CD inclusion complex than in the binary α- or β-CD complex. Specifically, during storage at 30°C/75% relative humidity (R.H.) for 4 weeks, about 19% of limaprost degraded into 17S,20-dimethyl-trans-Δ(2)-prostaglandin A1 (referred as 11-deoxy-Δ(10)) in the β-CD complex, 8.1% degraded in the α-CD complex, and only 2.2% degraded in the α-/β-CD complex. The mechanism of limaprost stabilization in the presence of both CDs was investigated by Raman and solid-state NMR spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffractometry. The fast degradation of limaprost to 11-deoxy-Δ(10) in the β-CD complex was due to the rapid crystallization of β-CD from the complex, liberating the free amorphous drug, which is susceptible to degradation. The dissociation and crystallization of β-CD from the inclusion complex were suppressed by freeze-drying limaprost in the presence of both α- and β-CDs. In addition, the interaction between limaprost and the two CDs was reinforced by inclusion of different moieties of limaprost: α-CD predominantly included the alkyl ω-chain, whereas β-CD included the five-membered ring. Thus, a stable ternary inclusion complex was formed that included limaprost, maintaining the amorphous state of the complex and dramatically stabilizing the drug under humid conditions.

  5. High genetic and epigenetic stability in Coffea arabica plants derived from embryogenic suspensions and secondary embryogenesis as revealed by AFLP, MSAP and the phenotypic variation rate.

    PubMed

    Bobadilla Landey, Roberto; Cenci, Alberto; Georget, Frédéric; Bertrand, Benoît; Camayo, Gloria; Dechamp, Eveline; Herrera, Juan Carlos; Santoni, Sylvain; Lashermes, Philippe; Simpson, June; Etienne, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Embryogenic suspensions that involve extensive cell division are risky in respect to genome and epigenome instability. Elevated frequencies of somaclonal variation in embryogenic suspension-derived plants were reported in many species, including coffee. This problem could be overcome by using culture conditions that allow moderate cell proliferation. In view of true-to-type large-scale propagation of C. arabica hybrids, suspension protocols based on low 2,4-D concentrations and short proliferation periods were developed. As mechanisms leading to somaclonal variation are often complex, the phenotypic, genetic and epigenetic changes were jointly assessed so as to accurately evaluate the conformity of suspension-derived plants. The effects of embryogenic suspensions and secondary embryogenesis, used as proliferation systems, on the genetic conformity of somatic embryogenesis-derived plants (emblings) were assessed in two hybrids. When applied over a 6 month period, both systems ensured very low somaclonal variation rates, as observed through massive phenotypic observations in field plots (0.74% from 200,000 plant). Molecular AFLP and MSAP analyses performed on 145 three year-old emblings showed that polymorphism between mother plants and emblings was extremely low, i.e. ranges of 0-0.003% and 0.07-0.18% respectively, with no significant difference between the proliferation systems for the two hybrids. No embling was found to cumulate more than three methylation polymorphisms. No relation was established between the variant phenotype (27 variants studied) and a particular MSAP pattern. Chromosome counting showed that 7 of the 11 variant emblings analyzed were characterized by the loss of 1-3 chromosomes. This work showed that both embryogenic suspensions and secondary embryogenesis are reliable for true-to-type propagation of elite material. Molecular analyses revealed that genetic and epigenetic alterations are particularly limited during coffee somatic embryogenesis

  6. High Genetic and Epigenetic Stability in Coffea arabica Plants Derived from Embryogenic Suspensions and Secondary Embryogenesis as Revealed by AFLP, MSAP and the Phenotypic Variation Rate

    PubMed Central

    Bobadilla Landey, Roberto; Cenci, Alberto; Georget, Frédéric; Bertrand, Benoît; Camayo, Gloria; Dechamp, Eveline; Herrera, Juan Carlos; Santoni, Sylvain; Lashermes, Philippe; Simpson, June; Etienne, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Embryogenic suspensions that involve extensive cell division are risky in respect to genome and epigenome instability. Elevated frequencies of somaclonal variation in embryogenic suspension-derived plants were reported in many species, including coffee. This problem could be overcome by using culture conditions that allow moderate cell proliferation. In view of true-to-type large-scale propagation of C. arabica hybrids, suspension protocols based on low 2,4-D concentrations and short proliferation periods were developed. As mechanisms leading to somaclonal variation are often complex, the phenotypic, genetic and epigenetic changes were jointly assessed so as to accurately evaluate the conformity of suspension-derived plants. The effects of embryogenic suspensions and secondary embryogenesis, used as proliferation systems, on the genetic conformity of somatic embryogenesis-derived plants (emblings) were assessed in two hybrids. When applied over a 6 month period, both systems ensured very low somaclonal variation rates, as observed through massive phenotypic observations in field plots (0.74% from 200 000 plant). Molecular AFLP and MSAP analyses performed on 145 three year-old emblings showed that polymorphism between mother plants and emblings was extremely low, i.e. ranges of 0–0.003% and 0.07–0.18% respectively, with no significant difference between the proliferation systems for the two hybrids. No embling was found to cumulate more than three methylation polymorphisms. No relation was established between the variant phenotype (27 variants studied) and a particular MSAP pattern. Chromosome counting showed that 7 of the 11 variant emblings analyzed were characterized by the loss of 1–3 chromosomes. This work showed that both embryogenic suspensions and secondary embryogenesis are reliable for true-to-type propagation of elite material. Molecular analyses revealed that genetic and epigenetic alterations are particularly limited during coffee somatic

  7. Determination of stability and control derivatives from the NASA F/A-18 HARV from flight data using the maximum likelihood method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Napolitano, Marcello R.

    1995-01-01

    This report is a compilation of PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) results for both longitudinal and lateral directional analysis that was completed during Fall 1994. It had earlier established that the maneuvers available for PID containing independent control surface inputs from OBES were not well suited for extracting the cross-coupling static (i.e., C(sub N beta)) or dynamic (i.e., C(sub Npf)) derivatives. This was due to the fact that these maneuvers were designed with the goal of minimizing any lateral directional motion during longitudinal maneuvers and vice-versa. This allows for greater simplification in the aerodynamic model as far as coupling between longitudinal and lateral directions is concerned. As a result, efforts were made to reanalyze this data and extract static and dynamic derivatives for the F/A-18 HARV (High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle) without the inclusion of the cross-coupling terms such that more accurate estimates of classical model terms could be acquired. Four longitudinal flights containing static PID maneuvers were examined. The classical state equations already available in pEst for alphadot, qdot and thetadot were used. Three lateral directional flights of PID static maneuvers were also examined. The classical state equations already available in pEst for betadot, p dot, rdot and phi dot were used. Enclosed with this document are the full set of longitudinal and lateral directional parameter estimate plots showing coefficient estimates along with Cramer-Rao bounds. In addition, a representative time history match for each type of meneuver tested at each angle of attack is also enclosed.

  8. Epithelial cell-derived periostin functions as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer through stabilizing p53 and E-cadherin proteins via the Rb/E2F1/p14ARF/Mdm2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hongjun; Liu, Rui; Fu, Jiao; Yang, Qi; Shi, Jing; Chen, Pu; Ji, Meiju; Shi, Bingyin; Hou, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Periostin is usually considered as an oncogene in diverse human cancers, including breast, prostate, colon, esophagus, and pancreas cancers, whereas it acts as a tumor suppressor in bladder cancer. In gastric cancer, it has been demonstrated that periglandular periostin expression is decreased whereas stromal periostin expression is significantly increased as compared with normal gastric tissues. Moreover, periostin produced by stromal myofibroblasts markedly promotes gastric cancer cell growth. These observations suggest that periostin derived from different types of cells may play distinct biological roles in gastric tumorigenesis. The aim of this study was to explore the biological functions and related molecular mechanisms of epithelial cell-derived periostin in gastric cancer. Our data showed that periglandular periostin was significantly down-regulated in gastric cancer tissues as compared with matched normal gastric mucosa. In addition, its expression in metastatic lymph nodes was significantly lower than that in their primary cancer tissues. Our data also demonstrated that periglandular periostin expression was negatively associated with tumor stage. More importantly, restoration of periostin expression in gastric cancer cells dramatically suppressed cell growth and invasiveness. Elucidation of the mechanisms involved revealed that periostin restoration enhanced Rb phosphorylation and sequentially activated the transcription of E2F1 target gene p14(ARF), leading to Mdm2 inactivation and the stabilization of p53 and E-cadherin proteins. Strikingly, these effects of periostin were abolished upon Rb deletion. Collectively, we have for the first time demonstrated that epithelial cell-derived periostin exerts tumor-suppressor activities in gastric cancer through stabilizing p53 and E-cadherin proteins via the Rb/E2F1/p14(ARF)/Mdm2 signaling pathway. PMID:25486483

  9. Robustness and adaptation reveal plausible cell cycle controlling subnetwork in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiun-Yan; Huang, Chi-Wei; Kao, Kuo-Ching; Lai, Pik-Yin

    2013-04-10

    signal stimulus entries of check points into the cell cycle, which are consistent with experimental findings. This evolution strategy method can be applied adequately to extract the plausible yeast cell cycle subnetworks from the whole network. Connections between modules in the obtained cell cycle subnetworks reveal significant cell cycle control mechanisms. This method can also be useful when applied to other biological systems at various temporal and spatial scales for example, the gene transcription networks, and biological systems from mesoscopic scale, e.g cortical network in brain, to subcellular molecular networks.

  10. Thermal stability of water ice in Ceres' crater Oxo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formisano, Michelangelo; Federico, Costanzo; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Frigeri, Alessandro; Magni, Gianfranco; Tosi, Federico

    2016-10-01

    Dwarf planet Ceres, target of the NASA Dawn mission, exhibits evidences of ammoniated phyllosilicates on its surface [1], compatible with a likely outer Solar System origin. Considerable amounts of water ice have recently been detected in some craters by the Visible InfraRed mapping spectrometer (VIR) onboard Dawn in some small fresh crater, such as Oxo, located at about 40° N. The exposure mechanism of water ice is unknown: cryovolcanism, cometary type sublimation/recondensation [2]or impacts with other bodies are likely mechanisms. The evaluation of the time stability of the water ice is crucial to understand the plausible mechanism for its existence. For this purpose, we developed a 3D finite-elements model (FEM) by using the topography given by the shape model of Ceres derived on the basis of images acquired by the Framing Camera in the Survey mission phase. The illumination conditions are provided by the SPICE toolkit. We performed several simulations by analyzing the effect of thermal inertia and albedo on the temperature and rate of ice sublimation. The results of the simulations about the stability of water ice will be presented.[1] De Sanctis et al. NATURE, doi:10.1038/nature16172[2] Formisano et al. MNRAS, doi: 10.1093/mnras/stv2344

  11. The Reference Ability Neural Network Study: Life-time stability of reference-ability neural networks derived from task maps of young adults.

    PubMed

    Habeck, C; Gazes, Y; Razlighi, Q; Steffener, J; Brickman, A; Barulli, D; Salthouse, T; Stern, Y

    2016-01-15

    Analyses of large test batteries administered to individuals ranging from young to old have consistently yielded a set of latent variables representing reference abilities (RAs) that capture the majority of the variance in age-related cognitive change: Episodic Memory, Fluid Reasoning, Perceptual Processing Speed, and Vocabulary. In a previous paper (Stern et al., 2014), we introduced the Reference Ability Neural Network Study, which administers 12 cognitive neuroimaging tasks (3 for each RA) to healthy adults age 20-80 in order to derive unique neural networks underlying these 4 RAs and investigate how these networks may be affected by aging. We used a multivariate approach, linear indicator regression, to derive a unique covariance pattern or Reference Ability Neural Network (RANN) for each of the 4 RAs. The RANNs were derived from the neural task data of 64 younger adults of age 30 and below. We then prospectively applied the RANNs to fMRI data from the remaining sample of 227 adults of age 31 and above in order to classify each subject-task map into one of the 4 possible reference domains. Overall classification accuracy across subjects in the sample age 31 and above was 0.80±0.18. Classification accuracy by RA domain was also good, but variable; memory: 0.72±0.32; reasoning: 0.75±0.35; speed: 0.79±0.31; vocabulary: 0.94±0.16. Classification accuracy was not associated with cross-sectional age, suggesting that these networks, and their specificity to the respective reference domain, might remain intact throughout the age range. Higher mean brain volume was correlated with increased overall classification accuracy; better overall performance on the tasks in the scanner was also associated with classification accuracy. For the RANN network scores, we observed for each RANN that a higher score was associated with a higher corresponding classification accuracy for that reference ability. Despite the absence of behavioral performance information in the

  12. Protein Dynamics and Stability: The Distribution of Atomic Fluctuations in Thermophilic and Mesophilic Dihydrofolate Reductase Derived Using Elastic Incoherent Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, Lars; Clement, David; Tehei, M; Daniel, R. M.; Finney, J.L.; Smith, Jeremy C

    2008-11-01

    The temperature dependence of the dynamics of mesophilic and thermophilic dihydrofolate reductase is examined using elastic incoherent neutron scattering. It is demonstrated that the distribution of atomic displacement amplitudes can be derived from the elastic scattering data by assuming a (Weibull) functional form that resembles distributions seen in molecular dynamics simulations. The thermophilic enzyme has a significantly broader distribution than its mesophilic counterpart. Furthermore, although the rate of increase with temperature of the atomic mean-square displacements extracted from the dynamic structure factor is found to be comparable for both enzymes, the amplitudes are found to be slightly larger for the thermophilic enzyme. Therefore, these results imply that the thermophilic enzyme is the more flexible of the two.

  13. Stabilization/solidification of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash via co-sintering with waste-derived vitrified amorphous slag.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhikun; Li, Aimin; Wang, Xuexue; Zhang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash (FA) is classified as hazardous waste and requires special treatment prior to landfilling due to its high levels of alkali chlorides and heavy metals. In this paper we presented and discussed a novel method of converting FA into an inert and non-hazardous material, by using the metastable state of vitrified amorphous slag (VAS). XRD results showed that VAS remained in the amorphous state when sintered at 700 and 800°C and were in the crystalline state at 900 and 1000°C. Heavy metals- and Cl-containing phases appeared during phase transformation process. The residual rates of heavy metals and Cl increased with the decrease of FA:VAS ratios. The prolonged leaching test and potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals showed that the heavy metals were well immobilized into the sintered samples and presented no immediate threat to the environment. The results indicated that the immobilization of heavy metals was due to the reaction with silicate or aluminosilicate matrices within VAS and/or the incorporation into the new generated crystals. The proposed method can be considered as a potential promising technique for the stabilization/solidification of MSWI fly ash with high Cl content.

  14. Increases thermal stability and cellulose-binding capacity of Cryptococcus sp. S-2 lipase by fusion of cellulose binding domain derived from Trichoderma reesei

    SciTech Connect

    Thongekkaew, Jantaporn; Ikeda, Hiroko; Iefuji, Haruyuki

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CSLP and fusion enzyme were successfully expressed in the Pichia pastoris. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion enzyme was stable at 80 Degree-Sign C for 120-min. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion enzyme was responsible for cellulose-binding capacity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion enzyme has an attractive applicant for enzyme immobilization. -- Abstract: To improve the thermal stability and cellulose-binding capacity of Cryptococcus sp. S-2 lipase (CSLP), the cellulose-binding domain originates from Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I was engineered into C-terminal region of the CSLP (CSLP-CBD). The CSLP and CSLP-CBD were successfully expressed in the Pichia pastoris using the strong methanol inducible alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter and the secretion signal sequence from Saccharomyces cerevisiae ({alpha} factor). The recombinant CSLP and CSLP-CBD were secreted into culture medium and estimated by SDS-PAGE to be 22 and 27 kDa, respectively. The fusion enzyme was stable at 80 Degree-Sign C and retained more than 80% of its activity after 120-min incubation at this temperature. Our results also found that the fusion of fungal exoglucanase cellulose-binding domain to CSLP is responsible for cellulose-binding capacity. This attribute should make it an attractive applicant for enzyme immobilization.

  15. Interactive Effects of Climate Change and Decomposer Communities on the Stabilization of Wood-Derived Carbon Pools: Catalyst for a New Study

    SciTech Connect

    Resh, Sigrid C.

    2014-11-17

    Globally, forest soils store ~two-thirds as much carbon (C) as the atmosphere. Although wood makes up the majority of forest biomass, the importance of wood contributions to soil C pools is unknown. Even with recent advances in the mechanistic understanding of soil processes, integrative studies tracing C input pathways and biological fluxes within and from soils are lacking. Therefore, our research objectives were to assess the impact of different fungal decay pathways (i.e., white-rot versus brown-rot)—in interaction with wood quality, soil temperature, wood location (i.e., soil surface and buried in mineral soil), and soil texture—on the transformation of woody material into soil CO2 efflux, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and soil C pools. The use of 13C-depleted woody biomass harvested from the Rhinelander, WI free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (Aspen-FACE) experiment affords the unique opportunity to distinguish the wood-derived C from other soil C fluxes and pools. We established 168 treatment plots across six field sites (three sand and three loam textured soil). Treatment plots consisted of full-factorial design with the following treatments: 1. Wood chips from elevated CO2, elevated CO2 + O3, or ambient atmosphere AspenFACE treatments; 2. Inoculated with white rot (Bjerkandera adusta) or brown rot (Gloeophyllum sepiarium) pure fungal cultures, or the original suite of endemic microbial community on the logs; and 3. Buried (15cm in soil as a proxy for coarse roots) or surface applied wood chips. We also created a warming treatment using open-topped, passive warming chambers on a subset of the above treatments. Control plots with no added wood (“no chip control”) were incorporated into the research design. Soils were sampled for initial δ13C values, CN concentrations, and bulk density. A subset of plots were instrumented with lysimeters for sampling soil water and temperature data

  16. Coming to grips with the past: Effect of repeated simulation on the perceived plausibility of episodic counterfactual thoughts

    PubMed Central

    De Brigard, Felipe; Szpunar, Karl K.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    When people revisit previous experiences they often engage in episodic counterfactual thinking: mental simulations of alternative ways in which personal past events could have occurred. The present study employs a novel experimental paradigm to examine the influence of repeated simulation on the perceived plausibility of upward, downward and neutral episodic counterfactual thoughts. Participants were asked to remember negative, positive, and neutral autobiographical memories. One week later, they re-simulated self-generated upward, downward, and neutral counterfactual alternatives to those memories either once or four times. The results indicate that repeated simulation of upward, downward and neutral episodic counterfactual events decreases their perceived plausibility while increasing ratings of ease, detail, and valence. This finding suggests differences between episodic counterfactual thoughts and other kinds of self-referential simulations. Possible implications of this finding for pathological and non-pathological anxiety are discussed. PMID:23673994

  17. High-temperature stability and saturation magnetization of superparamagnetic nickel nanoparticles in microporous polysilazane-derived ceramics and their gas permeation properties.

    PubMed

    Seifollahi Bazarjani, Mahdi; Müller, Mathis M; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim; Jüttke, Yvonne; Voigt, Ingolf; Baghaie Yazdi, Mehrdad; Alff, Lambert; Riedel, Ralf; Gurlo, Aleksander

    2014-08-13

    Superparamagnetic Ni nanoparticles with diameters of about 3 nm are formed in situ at room temperature in a polysilazane matrix, forming Ni/polysilazane nanocomposite, in the reaction between a polysilazane and trans-bis(aceto-kO)bis(2-aminoethanol-k(2)N,O)nickel(II). The thermolysis of the Ni/polysilazane nanocomposite at 700 °C in an argon atmosphere results in a microporous superparamagnetic Ni/silicon oxycarbonitride (Ni/SiCNO) ceramic nanocomposite. The growth of Ni nanoparticles in Ni/SiCNO ceramic nanocomposite is totally suppressed even after thermolysis at 700 °C, as confirmed by HRTEM and SQUID characterizations. The analysis of saturation magnetization of Ni nanoparticles in Ni/polysilazane and Ni/SiCNO nanocomposites indicates that the saturation magnetization of Ni nanoparticles is higher than expected values and infers that the surfaces of Ni nanoparticles are not oxidized. The microporous superparamagnetic Ni/SiCNO nanocomposite is shaped as a free-standing monolith and foam. In addition, Ni/SiCNO membranes are fabricated by the dip-coating of a tubular alumina substrate in a dispersion of Ni/polysilazane in THF followed by a thermolysis at 700 °C under an argon atmosphere. The gas separation performance of Ni/SiCNO membranes at 25 and 300 °C is assessed by the single gas permeance (pressure rise technique) using He, H2, CO2, N2, CH4, n-propene, n-propane, n-butene, n-butane, and SF6 as probe molecules. After hydrothermal treatment, the higher increase in the hydrogen permeance compared to the permeance of other gases as a function of temperature indicates that the hydrogen affinity of Ni nanoparticles influences the transport of hydrogen in the Ni/SiCNO membrane and Ni nanoparticles stabilize the structure against hydrothermal corrosion. PMID:25014337

  18. Activity, stability, and structure of metagenome-derived LC11-RNase H1, a homolog of Sulfolobus tokodaii RNase H1

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tri-Nhan; Angkawidjaja, Clement; Kanaya, Eiko; Koga, Yuichi; Takano, Kazufumi; Kanaya, Shigenori

    2012-01-01

    Metagenome-derived LC11-RNase H1 is a homolog of Sulfolobus tokodaii RNase H1 (Sto-RNase H1). It lacks a C-terminal tail, which is responsible for hyperstabilization of Sto-RNase H1. Sto-RNase H1 is characterized by its ability to cleave not only an RNA/DNA hybrid but also a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). To examine whether LC11-RNase H1 also exhibits both RNase H and dsRNase activities, LC11-RNase H1 was overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. LC11-RNase H1 exhibited RNase H activity with similar metal ion preference, optimum pH, and cleavage mode of substrate with those of Sto-RNase H1. However, LC11-RNase H1 did not exhibit dsRNase activity at any condition examined. LC11-RNase H1 was less stable than Sto-RNases H1 and its derivative lacking the C-terminal tail (Sto-RNase H1ΔC6) by 37 and 13°C in Tm, respectively. To understand the structural bases for these differences, the crystal structure of LC11-RNase H1 was determined at 1.4 Å resolution. The LC11-RNase H1 structure is highly similar to the Sto-RNase H1 structure. However, LC11-RNase H1 has two grooves on protein surface, one containing the active site and the other containing DNA-phosphate binding pocket, while Sto-RNase H1 has one groove containing the active site. In addition, LC11-RNase H1 contains more cavities and buried charged residues than Sto-RNase H1. We propose that LC11-RNase H1 does not exhibit dsRNase activity because dsRNA cannot fit to the two grooves on protein surface and that LC11-RNase H1 is less stable than Sto-RNase H1ΔC6 because of the increase in cavity volume and number of buried charged residues. PMID:22389131

  19. Expression of domains for protein-protein interaction of nucleotide excision repair proteins modifies cancer cell sensitivity to platinum derivatives and genomic stability.

    PubMed

    Jordheim, Lars Petter; Cros-Perrial, Emeline; Matera, Eva-Laure; Bouledrak, Karima; Dumontet, Charles

    2014-10-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is involved in the repair of DNA damage caused by platinum derivatives and has been shown to decrease the cytotoxic activity of these drugs. Because protein-protein interactions are essential for NER activity, we transfected human cancer cell lines (A549 and HCT116) with plasmids coding the amino acid sequences corresponding to the interacting domains between excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) and xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group A (XPA), as well as ERCC1 and xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group F (XPF), all NER proteins. Using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2 thiazoyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and annexin V staining, we showed that transfected A549 cells were sensitized 1.2-2.2-fold to carboplatin and that transfected HCT116 cells were sensitized 1.4-5.4-fold to oxaliplatin in vitro. In addition, transfected cells exhibited modified in vivo sensitivity to the same drugs. Finally, in particular cell models of the interaction between ERCC1 and XPF, DNA repair was decreased, as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of the histone 2AX after exposure to mitomycin C, and genomic instability was increased, as determined by comparative genomic hybridization studies. The results indicate that the interacting peptides act as dominant negatives and decrease NER activity through inhibition of protein-protein interactions.

  20. Differentiation and stability of T helper 1 and 2 cells derived from naive human neonatal CD4+ T cells, analyzed at the single-cell level

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The development of CD4+ T helper (Th) type 1 and 2 cells is essential for the eradication of pathogens, but can also be responsible for various pathological disorders. Therefore, modulation of Th cell differentiation may have clinical utility in the treatment of human disease. Here, we show that interleukin (IL) 12 and IL-4 directly induce human neonatal CD4- T cells, activated via CD3 and CD28, to differentiate into Th1 and Th2 subsets. In contrast, IL-13, which shares many biological activities with IL-4, failed to induce T cell differentiation, consistent with the observation that human T cells do not express IL-13 receptors. Both the IL-12-induced Th1 subset and the IL-4-induced Th2 subset produce large quantities of IL-10, confirming that human IL-10 is not a typical human Th2 cytokine. Interestingly, IL- 4-driven Th2 cell differentiation was completely prevented by an IL-4 mutant protein (IL-4.Y124D), indicating that this molecule acts as a strong IL-4 receptor antagonist. Analysis of single T cells producing interferon gamma or IL-4 revealed that induction of Th1 cell differentiation occurred rapidly and required only 4 d of priming of the neonatal CD4+ T cells in the presence of IL-12. The IL-12-induced Th1 cell phenotype was stable and was not significantly affected when repeatedly stimulated in the presence of recombinant IL-4. In contrast, the differentiation of Th2 cells occurred slowly and required not only 6 d of priming, but also additional restimulation of the primed CD4+ T cells in the presence of IL-4. Moreover, IL-4-induced Th2 cell phenotypes were not stable and could rapidly be reverted into a population predominantly containing Th0 and Th1 cells, after a single restimulation in the presence of IL-12. The observed differences in stability of IL-12- and IL-4-induced human Th1 and Th2 subsets, respectively, may have implications for cytokine-based therapies of chronic disease. PMID:8760801

  1. Impact of soybean stover- and pine needle-derived biochars on Pb and As mobility, microbial community, and carbon stability in a contaminated agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mahtab; Ok, Yong Sik; Kim, Byung-Yong; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Young Han; Zhang, Ming; Moon, Deok Hyun; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Lee, Sang Soo

    2016-01-15

    Biochar is gaining attention as a potential soil amendment to remediate and revitalize the contaminated soils. Simultaneous effects of biochar on metals mobility, microbial abundance, bacterial diversity and carbon storage in soil are scarcely addressed. This study assessed the effect of biochars on metal mobility, microbial abundance, bacterial community, and carbon storage in an agricultural soil contaminated with heavy metals. Biochars derived from soybean stover at 300 and 700 °C (S-BC300 and S-BC700, respectively) and pine needles at the same temperatures (P-BC300 and P-BC700, respectively) were used. A maximum reduction of Pb mobility by 95% was observed from a soil treated with S-BC700, associated with precipitation of chloropyromorphite and hydroxylpyromorphite. In contrast, As was desorbed from soil particles because of P competition. The abundance of Gram-positive and negative bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increased in the soils treated with biochar produced at 300 °C, possibly due to the high dissolved organic and active organic carbons. Microbial abundance in the soils treated with S-BC700 and P-BC700 was constant due to the existence of fixed or non-labile carbon. Changes to bacterial communities in the biochar-treated soils depended on feedstock type and pyrolysis temperature. Actinobacteria substantially increased whereas Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi decreased in the biochar-treated soils. The non-labile carbon fraction was ∼25 fold higher in the biochar-treated soil than the control soil, indicating long-term carbon storage. PMID:26496843

  2. Impact of soybean stover- and pine needle-derived biochars on Pb and As mobility, microbial community, and carbon stability in a contaminated agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mahtab; Ok, Yong Sik; Kim, Byung-Yong; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Young Han; Zhang, Ming; Moon, Deok Hyun; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Lee, Sang Soo

    2016-01-15

    Biochar is gaining attention as a potential soil amendment to remediate and revitalize the contaminated soils. Simultaneous effects of biochar on metals mobility, microbial abundance, bacterial diversity and carbon storage in soil are scarcely addressed. This study assessed the effect of biochars on metal mobility, microbial abundance, bacterial community, and carbon storage in an agricultural soil contaminated with heavy metals. Biochars derived from soybean stover at 300 and 700 °C (S-BC300 and S-BC700, respectively) and pine needles at the same temperatures (P-BC300 and P-BC700, respectively) were used. A maximum reduction of Pb mobility by 95% was observed from a soil treated with S-BC700, associated with precipitation of chloropyromorphite and hydroxylpyromorphite. In contrast, As was desorbed from soil particles because of P competition. The abundance of Gram-positive and negative bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increased in the soils treated with biochar produced at 300 °C, possibly due to the high dissolved organic and active organic carbons. Microbial abundance in the soils treated with S-BC700 and P-BC700 was constant due to the existence of fixed or non-labile carbon. Changes to bacterial communities in the biochar-treated soils depended on feedstock type and pyrolysis temperature. Actinobacteria substantially increased whereas Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi decreased in the biochar-treated soils. The non-labile carbon fraction was ∼25 fold higher in the biochar-treated soil than the control soil, indicating long-term carbon storage.

  3. Endothelin-converting enzyme is a plausible target gene for hypoxia-inducible factor.

    PubMed

    Khamaisi, Mogher; Toukan, Hala; Axelrod, Jonathan H; Rosenberger, Christian; Skarzinski, Galia; Shina, Ahuva; Meidan, Rina; Koesters, Robert; Rosen, Seymour; Walkinshaw, Gail; Mimura, Imari; Nangaku, Masaomi; Heyman, Samuel N

    2015-04-01

    Renal endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE)-1 is induced in experimental diabetes and following radiocontrast administration, conditions characterized by renal hypoxia, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilization, and enhanced endothelin synthesis. Here we tested whether ECE-1 might be a HIF-target gene in vitro and in vivo. ECE-1 transcription and expression increased in cultured vascular endothelial and proximal tubular cell lines, subject to hypoxia, to mimosine or cobalt chloride. These interventions are known to stabilize HIF signaling by inhibition of HIF-prolyl hydroxylases. In rats, HIF-prolyl-hydroxylase inhibition by mimosine or FG-4497 increased HIF-1α immunostaining in renal tubules, principally in distal nephron segments. This was associated with markedly enhanced ECE-1 protein expression, predominantly in the renal medulla. A progressive and dramatic increase in ECE-1 immunostaining over time, in parallel with enhanced HIF expression, was also noted in conditional von Hippel-Lindau knockout mice. Since HIF and STAT3 are cross-stimulated, we triggered HIF expression by STAT3 activation in mice, transfected by or injected with a chimeric IL-6/IL-6-receptor protein, and found a similar pattern of enhanced ECE-1 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequence (ChIP-seq) and PCR analysis in hypoxic endothelial cells identified HIF binding at the ECE-1 promoter and intron regions. Thus, our findings suggest that ECE-1 may be a novel HIF-target gene.

  4. A new simple /spl infin/OH neuron model as a biologically plausible principal component analyzer.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, M V

    2003-01-01

    A new approach to unsupervised learning in a single-layer neural network is discussed. An algorithm for unsupervised learning based upon the Hebbian learning rule is presented. A simple neuron model is analyzed. A dynamic neural model, which contains both feed-forward and feedback connections between the input and the output, has been adopted. The, proposed learning algorithm could be more correctly named self-supervised rather than unsupervised. The solution proposed here is a modified Hebbian rule, in which the modification of the synaptic strength is proportional not to pre- and postsynaptic activity, but instead to the presynaptic and averaged value of postsynaptic activity. It is shown that the model neuron tends to extract the principal component from a stationary input vector sequence. Usually accepted additional decaying terms for the stabilization of the original Hebbian rule are avoided. Implementation of the basic Hebbian scheme would not lead to unrealistic growth of the synaptic strengths, thanks to the adopted network structure.

  5. Preparation of α1- and α2-isomers of mono-Ru-substituted Dawson-type phosphotungstates with an aqua ligand and comparison of their redox potentials, catalytic activities, and thermal stabilities with Keggin-type derivatives.

    PubMed

    Nishiki, Kensuke; Umehara, Naoya; Kadota, Yusuke; López, Xavier; Poblet, Josep M; Mezui, Charyle Ayingone; Teillout, Anne-Lucie; Mbomekalle, Israël M; de Oliveira, Pedro; Miyamoto, Mayumi; Sano, Tsuneji; Sadakane, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    Both the α1- and the α2-isomers of mono-ruthenium (Ru)-substituted Dawson-type phosphotungstates with terminal aqua ligands, [α1-P2W17O61Ru(III)(H2O)](7-) (α1-RuH2O) and [α2-P2W17O61Ru(III)(H2O)](7-) (α2-RuH2O), were prepared in pure form by cleavage of the Ru-S bond of the corresponding DMSO derivatives, [α1-P2W17O61Ru(DMSO)](8-) (α1-RuDMSO) and [α2-P2W17O61Ru(DMSO)](8-) (α2-RuDMSO), respectively. Redox studies indicated that α1-RuH2O and α2-RuH2O show proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET), and the Ru(III)(H2O) species was reversibly reduced to Ru(II)(H2O) species and oxidized to Ru(IV)([double bond, length as m-dash]O) species and further to Ru(V)([double bond, length as m-dash]O) species in aqueous solution depending on the pH. Their redox potentials and thermal stabilities were compared with those of the corresponding α-Keggin-type derivatives ([α-XW11O39Ru(H2O)](n-); X = Si(4+) (n = 5), Ge(4+) (n = 5), or P(5+) (n = 4)). The basic electronic and redox features of Ru(L)-substituted Keggin- and Dawson-type heteropolytungstates (with L = H2O or O(2-)) were analyzed by means of density functional calculations. Similar to the corresponding α-Keggin-type derivatives, both α1-RuH2O and α2-RuH2O show catalytic activity for water oxidation. PMID:26672976

  6. Homocysteine in renovascular complications: hydrogen sulfide is a modulator and plausible anaerobic ATP generator

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Utpal; Pushpakumar, Sathnur B.; Amin, Matthew A.; Tyagi, Suresh C.

    2014-01-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) is a non-protein amino acid derived from dietary methionine. High levels of Hcy, known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is known to cause vascular complications. In the mammalian tissue, Hcy is metabolized by transsulfuration enzymes to produce hydrogen sulfide (H2S). H2S, a pungent smelling gas was previously known for its toxic effects in the central nervous system, recent studies however has revealed protective effects in a variety of diseases including hypertension, diabetes, inflammation, atherosclerosis, and renal disease progression and failure. Interestingly, under stress conditions including hypoxia, H2S can reduce metabolic demand and also act as a substrate for ATP production. This review highlights some of the recent advances in H2S research as a potential therapeutic agent targeting renovascular diseases associated with HHcy. PMID:24963795

  7. On the Plausibility of Pseudosugar Formation in Cometary Ices and Oxygen-rich Tholins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavado, Nieves; Ávalos, Martín; Babiano, Reyes; Cintas, Pedro; Light, Mark E.; Jiménez, José Luis; Palacios, Juan C.

    2016-03-01

    We revisit herein the formation and structure of dihydroxy dioxanes, which can be obtained from prebiotically available precursors and can be regarded as primeval sugar surrogates. Previous studies dealing with the heterogeneous composition of interstellar bodies point to the existence of significant amounts of small polyalcohols along with oxygen-containing oligomers. Even though such derivatives did not give rise to nucleosides and oligonucleotides, nor they were incorporated into subsequent metabolic routes, molecular chimeras based on sugar-like species could be opportunistic scaffolds in pre-evolutionary scenarios. We could figure out that pseudosugars, assembled by hemiacetalic bonds from available precursors in both interstellar and terrestrial scenarios, were presumably more abundant than thought. Moreover, these species share some key features with naturally-occurring sugar rings, such as anomeric preferences, coordinating ability, and the prevalent occurrence of racemic compounds.

  8. On the Plausibility of Pseudosugar Formation in Cometary Ices and Oxygen-rich Tholins.

    PubMed

    Lavado, Nieves; Ávalos, Martín; Babiano, Reyes; Cintas, Pedro; Light, Mark E; Jiménez, José Luis; Palacios, Juan C

    2016-03-01

    We revisit herein the formation and structure of dihydroxy dioxanes, which can be obtained from prebiotically available precursors and can be regarded as primeval sugar surrogates. Previous studies dealing with the heterogeneous composition of interstellar bodies point to the existence of significant amounts of small polyalcohols along with oxygen-containing oligomers. Even though such derivatives did not give rise to nucleosides and oligonucleotides, nor they were incorporated into subsequent metabolic routes, molecular chimeras based on sugar-like species could be opportunistic scaffolds in pre-evolutionary scenarios. We could figure out that pseudosugars, assembled by hemiacetalic bonds from available precursors in both interstellar and terrestrial scenarios, were presumably more abundant than thought. Moreover, these species share some key features with naturally-occurring sugar rings, such as anomeric preferences, coordinating ability, and the prevalent occurrence of racemic compounds. PMID:26428515

  9. Homocysteine in renovascular complications: hydrogen sulfide is a modulator and plausible anaerobic ATP generator.

    PubMed

    Sen, Utpal; Pushpakumar, Sathnur B; Amin, Matthew A; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2014-09-15

    Homocysteine (Hcy) is a non-protein amino acid derived from dietary methionine. High levels of Hcy, known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is known to cause vascular complications. In the mammalian tissue, Hcy is metabolized by transsulfuration enzymes to produce hydrogen sulfide (H2S). H2S, a pungent smelling gas was previously known for its toxic effects in the central nervous system, recent studies however has revealed protective effects in a variety of diseases including hypertension, diabetes, inflammation, atherosclerosis, and renal disease progression and failure. Interestingly, under stress conditions including hypoxia, H2S can reduce metabolic demand and also act as a substrate for ATP production. This review highlights some of the recent advances in H2S research as a potential therapeutic agent targeting renovascular diseases associated with HHcy.

  10. On the Plausibility of Pseudosugar Formation in Cometary Ices and Oxygen-rich Tholins.

    PubMed

    Lavado, Nieves; Ávalos, Martín; Babiano, Reyes; Cintas, Pedro; Light, Mark E; Jiménez, José Luis; Palacios, Juan C

    2016-03-01

    We revisit herein the formation and structure of dihydroxy dioxanes, which can be obtained from prebiotically available precursors and can be regarded as primeval sugar surrogates. Previous studies dealing with the heterogeneous composition of interstellar bodies point to the existence of significant amounts of small polyalcohols along with oxygen-containing oligomers. Even though such derivatives did not give rise to nucleosides and oligonucleotides, nor they were incorporated into subsequent metabolic routes, molecular chimeras based on sugar-like species could be opportunistic scaffolds in pre-evolutionary scenarios. We could figure out that pseudosugars, assembled by hemiacetalic bonds from available precursors in both interstellar and terrestrial scenarios, were presumably more abundant than thought. Moreover, these species share some key features with naturally-occurring sugar rings, such as anomeric preferences, coordinating ability, and the prevalent occurrence of racemic compounds.

  11. A new simple /spl infin/OH neuron model as a biologically plausible principal component analyzer.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, M V

    2003-01-01

    A new approach to unsupervised learning in a single-layer neural network is discussed. An algorithm for unsupervised learning based upon the Hebbian learning rule is presented. A simple neuron model is analyzed. A dynamic neural model, which contains both feed-forward and feedback connections between the input and the output, has been adopted. The, proposed learning algorithm could be more correctly named self-supervised rather than unsupervised. The solution proposed here is a modified Hebbian rule, in which the modification of the synaptic strength is proportional not to pre- and postsynaptic activity, but instead to the presynaptic and averaged value of postsynaptic activity. It is shown that the model neuron tends to extract the principal component from a stationary input vector sequence. Usually accepted additional decaying terms for the stabilization of the original Hebbian rule are avoided. Implementation of the basic Hebbian scheme would not lead to unrealistic growth of the synaptic strengths, thanks to the adopted network structure. PMID:18238065

  12. Non-enzymatic glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway-like reactions in a plausible Archean ocean.

    PubMed

    Keller, Markus A; Turchyn, Alexandra V; Ralser, Markus

    2014-04-25

    The reaction sequences of central metabolism, glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway provide essential precursors for nucleic acids, amino acids and lipids. However, their evolutionary origins are not yet understood. Here, we provide evidence that their structure could have been fundamentally shaped by the general chemical environments in earth's earliest oceans. We reconstructed potential scenarios for oceans of the prebiotic Archean based on the composition of early sediments. We report that the resultant reaction milieu catalyses the interconversion of metabolites that in modern organisms constitute glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway. The 29 observed reactions include the formation and/or interconversion of glucose, pyruvate, the nucleic acid precursor ribose-5-phosphate and the amino acid precursor erythrose-4-phosphate, antedating reactions sequences similar to that used by the metabolic pathways. Moreover, the Archean ocean mimetic increased the stability of the phosphorylated intermediates and accelerated the rate of intermediate reactions and pyruvate production. The catalytic capacity of the reconstructed ocean milieu was attributable to its metal content. The reactions were particularly sensitive to ferrous iron Fe(II), which is understood to have had high concentrations in the Archean oceans. These observations reveal that reaction sequences that constitute central carbon metabolism could have been constrained by the iron-rich oceanic environment of the early Archean. The origin of metabolism could thus date back to the prebiotic world.

  13. A Complex of Cas Proteins 5, 6, and 7 Is Required for the Biogenesis and Stability of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-derived RNAs (crRNAs) in Haloferax volcanii*

    PubMed Central

    Brendel, Jutta; Stoll, Britta; Lange, Sita J.; Sharma, Kundan; Lenz, Christof; Stachler, Aris-Edda; Maier, Lisa-Katharina; Richter, Hagen; Nickel, Lisa; Schmitz, Ruth A.; Randau, Lennart; Allers, Thorsten; Urlaub, Henning; Backofen, Rolf; Marchfelder, Anita

    2014-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated (CRISPR-Cas) system is a prokaryotic defense mechanism against foreign genetic elements. A plethora of CRISPR-Cas versions exist, with more than 40 different Cas protein families and several different molecular approaches to fight the invading DNA. One of the key players in the system is the CRISPR-derived RNA (crRNA), which directs the invader-degrading Cas protein complex to the invader. The CRISPR-Cas types I and III use the Cas6 protein to generate mature crRNAs. Here, we show that the Cas6 protein is necessary for crRNA production but that additional Cas proteins that form a CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense (Cascade)-like complex are needed for crRNA stability in the CRISPR-Cas type I-B system in Haloferax volcanii in vivo. Deletion of the cas6 gene results in the loss of mature crRNAs and interference. However, cells that have the complete cas gene cluster (cas1–8b) removed and are transformed with the cas6 gene are not able to produce and stably maintain mature crRNAs. crRNA production and stability is rescued only if cas5, -6, and -7 are present. Mutational analysis of the cas6 gene reveals three amino acids (His-41, Gly-256, and Gly-258) that are essential for pre-crRNA cleavage, whereas the mutation of two amino acids (Ser-115 and Ser-224) leads to an increase of crRNA amounts. This is the first systematic in vivo analysis of Cas6 protein variants. In addition, we show that the H. volcanii I-B system contains a Cascade-like complex with a Cas7, Cas5, and Cas6 core that protects the crRNA. PMID:24459147

  14. A complex of Cas proteins 5, 6, and 7 is required for the biogenesis and stability of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (crispr)-derived rnas (crrnas) in Haloferax volcanii.

    PubMed

    Brendel, Jutta; Stoll, Britta; Lange, Sita J; Sharma, Kundan; Lenz, Christof; Stachler, Aris-Edda; Maier, Lisa-Katharina; Richter, Hagen; Nickel, Lisa; Schmitz, Ruth A; Randau, Lennart; Allers, Thorsten; Urlaub, Henning; Backofen, Rolf; Marchfelder, Anita

    2014-03-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated (CRISPR-Cas) system is a prokaryotic defense mechanism against foreign genetic elements. A plethora of CRISPR-Cas versions exist, with more than 40 different Cas protein families and several different molecular approaches to fight the invading DNA. One of the key players in the system is the CRISPR-derived RNA (crRNA), which directs the invader-degrading Cas protein complex to the invader. The CRISPR-Cas types I and III use the Cas6 protein to generate mature crRNAs. Here, we show that the Cas6 protein is necessary for crRNA production but that additional Cas proteins that form a CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense (Cascade)-like complex are needed for crRNA stability in the CRISPR-Cas type I-B system in Haloferax volcanii in vivo. Deletion of the cas6 gene results in the loss of mature crRNAs and interference. However, cells that have the complete cas gene cluster (cas1-8b) removed and are transformed with the cas6 gene are not able to produce and stably maintain mature crRNAs. crRNA production and stability is rescued only if cas5, -6, and -7 are present. Mutational analysis of the cas6 gene reveals three amino acids (His-41, Gly-256, and Gly-258) that are essential for pre-crRNA cleavage, whereas the mutation of two amino acids (Ser-115 and Ser-224) leads to an increase of crRNA amounts. This is the first systematic in vivo analysis of Cas6 protein variants. In addition, we show that the H. volcanii I-B system contains a Cascade-like complex with a Cas7, Cas5, and Cas6 core that protects the crRNA.

  15. Infliximab is a plausible alternative for neurologic complications of Behçet disease

    PubMed Central

    Zeydan, Burcu; Uygunoglu, Ugur; Saip, Sabahattin; Demirci, Onat N.; Seyahi, Emire; Ugurlu, Serdal; Hamuryudan, Vedat; Siva, Aksel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the effectiveness of infliximab in patients with neuro-Behçet syndrome for whom other immunosuppressive medications had failed. Methods: Patients whose common immunosuppressive medications fail in recurrent neuro-Behçet syndrome need an alternative. We report our experience with the tumor necrosis factor α blocker infliximab for long-term treatment of neuro-Behçet syndrome. We recruited patients within a multidisciplinary referral practice of Behçet disease and prospectively followed everyone with a neurologic symptom(s). Patients (n = 16) with ≥2 neurologic bouts (excluding purely progressive disease) while on another immunosuppressive treatment were switched to and successfully sustained on infliximab (5 mg/kg in weeks 0, 2, and 6, then once every 8 weeks; minimum follow-up duration ≥12 months). Infliximab was stopped within 2 months after initiation in one patient because of pulmonary and CNS tuberculosis. Results: Patients had stepwise worsening due to relapses in the Expanded Disability Status Scale modified for neuro-Behçet syndrome before switching to infliximab (median score of 5.0, range 2.0–7.0; median neuro-Behçet syndrome duration 29.1 months, range 5.0–180.7). Median duration of preinfliximab immunosuppressive medication use was 20.0 months (range 3.0–180.7). In all 15 patients, during infliximab treatment (median score 4.0, range 2.0–7.0; median duration 39.0 months, range 16.0–104.9 months), neurologic relapses were completely aborted and there was no further disability accumulation. Conclusion: We observed a significant beneficial effect of infliximab in neuro-Behçet syndrome. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that for patients with neuro-Behçet syndrome whose other immunosuppressive medications failed, infliximab prevents further relapses and stabilizes disability. PMID:27458602

  16. A plausible radiobiological model of cardiovascular disease at low or fractionated doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Mark; Vandoolaeghe, Wendy; Gola, Anna; Tzoulaki, Ioanna

    Atherosclerosis is the main cause of coronary heart disease and stroke, the two major causes of death in developed society. There is emerging evidence of excess risk of cardiovascular disease at low radiation doses in various occupationally-exposed groups receiving small daily radia-tion doses. Assuming that they are causal, the mechanisms for effects of chronic fractionated radiation exposures on cardiovascular disease are unclear. We outline a spatial reaction-diffusion model for atherosclerosis, and perform stability analysis, based wherever possible on human data. We show that a predicted consequence of multiple small radiation doses is to cause mean chemo-attractant (MCP-1) concentration to increase linearly with cumulative dose. The main driver for the increase in MCP-1 is monocyte death, and consequent reduction in MCP-1 degradation. The radiation-induced risks predicted by the model are quantitatively consistent with those observed in a number of occupationally-exposed groups. The changes in equilibrium MCP-1 concentrations with low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration are also consistent with experimental and epidemiologic data. This proposed mechanism would be experimentally testable. If true, it also has substantive implications for radiological protection, which at present does not take cardiovascular disease into account. The Japanese A-bomb survivor data implies that cardiovascular disease and can-cer mortality contribute similarly to radiogenic risk. The major uncertainty in assessing the low-dose risk of cardiovascular disease is the shape of the dose response relationship, which is unclear in the Japanese data. The analysis of the present paper suggests that linear extrapo-lation would be appropriate for this endpoint.

  17. MOF-derived, N-doped, hierarchically porous carbon sponges as immobilizers to confine selenium as cathodes for Li-Se batteries with superior storage capacity and perfect cycling stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhaoqiang; Yin, Longwei

    2015-05-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon sponges (NCS) composed of hierarchical microporous carbon layers are derived from metal organic frameworks (MOFs) via carbonization at high temperatures under Ar and NH3 flow. Se is impregnated into 0.4-0.55 nm micropores by melting-diffusion and infiltration methods. The confinement of Se within small-sized micropores of NCS efficiently prevents Se loss, and mesopores between carbon layers absorb a sufficient amount of electrolyte, as well as serve as cushion spaces for large volume changes during delithiation-lithiation processes. Nitrogen doping improves the electrical conductivity of carbon matrix and facilitates rapid charge transfer, making the carbon sponge a highway for charges involved in redox reactions. When serving as cathode materials for Li-Se batteries, the NCS/Se-50 composite with 50 wt% Se exhibits excellent cycling stability, superior rate capability and high coulombic efficiency. The cathode can exhibit 443.2 mA h g-1 at the 200th cycle with a coulombic efficiency of up to 99.9% at 0.5C (C = 675 mA h g-1), which leads to 0.031% capacity loss per cycle from 5th to 200th cycles. Even at a high rate of 5C, it can still retain 286.6 mA h g-1. The unique, large surface rod-like MOF-derived, N-doped carbon sponges with hierarchical porosity could be potential candidates in the related energy-storage systems.Nitrogen-doped carbon sponges (NCS) composed of hierarchical microporous carbon layers are derived from metal organic frameworks (MOFs) via carbonization at high temperatures under Ar and NH3 flow. Se is impregnated into 0.4-0.55 nm micropores by melting-diffusion and infiltration methods. The confinement of Se within small-sized micropores of NCS efficiently prevents Se loss, and mesopores between carbon layers absorb a sufficient amount of electrolyte, as well as serve as cushion spaces for large volume changes during delithiation-lithiation processes. Nitrogen doping improves the electrical conductivity of carbon matrix and

  18. Ionic liquid pretreatment of biomass for sugars production: Driving factors with a plausible mechanism for higher enzymatic digestibility.

    PubMed

    Raj, Tirath; Gaur, Ruchi; Dixit, Pooja; Gupta, Ravi P; Kagdiyal, V; Kumar, Ravindra; Tuli, Deepak K

    2016-09-20

    In this study, five ionic liquids (ILs) have been explored for biomass pretreatment for the production of fermentable sugar. We also investigated the driving factors responsible for improved enzymatic digestibility of various ILs treated biomass along with postulating the plausible mechanism thereof. Post pretreatment, mainly two factors impacted the enzymatic digestibility (i) structural deformation (cellulose I to II) along with xylan/lignin removal and (ii) properties of ILs; wherein, K-T parameters, viscosity and surface tension had a direct influence on pretreatment. A systematic investigation of these parameters and their impact on enzymatic digestibility is drawn. [C2mim][OAc] with β-value 1.32 resulted 97.7% of glucose yield using 10 FPU/g of biomass. A closer insight into the cellulose structural transformation has prompted a plausible mechanism explaining the better digestibility. The impact of these parameters on the digestibility can pave the way to customize the process to make biomass vulnerable to enzymatic attack. PMID:27261761

  19. Antimicrobial drug use in Austrian pig farms: plausibility check of electronic on-farm records and estimation of consumption

    PubMed Central

    Trauffler, M.; Griesbacher, A.; Fuchs, K.; Köfer, J.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic drug application records from farmers from 75 conventional pig farms were revised and checked for their plausibility. The registered drug amounts were verified by comparing the farmers' records with veterinarians' dispensary records. The antimicrobial consumption was evaluated from 2008 to 2011 and expressed in weight of active substance(s), number of used daily doses (nUDD), number of animal daily doses (nADD) and number of product-related daily doses (nPrDD). All results were referred to one year and animal bodyweight (kg biomass). The data plausibility proof revealed about 14 per cent of unrealistic drug amount entries in the farmers' records. The annual antimicrobial consumption was 33.9 mg/kg/year, 4.9 UDDkg/kg/year, 1.9 ADDkg/kg/year and 2.5 PrDDkg/kg/year (average). Most of the antimicrobials were applied orally (86 per cent) and at group-level. Main therapy indications were metaphylactic/prophylactic measures (farrow-to-finish and fattening farms) or digestive tract diseases (breeding farms). The proportion of the ‘highest priority critically important antimicrobials’ was low (12 per cent). After determination of a threshold value, farms with a high antimicrobial use could be detected. Statistical tests showed that the veterinarian had an influence on the dosage, the therapy indication and the active substance. Orally administered antimicrobials were mostly underdosed, parenterally administered antimicrobials rather correctly or overdosed. PMID:25053268

  20. Forces stabilizing proteins.

    PubMed

    Nick Pace, C; Scholtz, J Martin; Grimsley, Gerald R

    2014-06-27

    The goal of this article is to summarize what has been learned about the major forces stabilizing proteins since the late 1980s when site-directed mutagenesis became possible. The following conclusions are derived from experimental studies of hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding variants. (1) Based on studies of 138 hydrophobic interaction variants in 11 proteins, burying a -CH2- group on folding contributes 1.1±0.5 kcal/mol to protein stability. (2) The burial of non-polar side chains contributes to protein stability in two ways: first, a term that depends on the removal of the side chains from water and, more importantly, the enhanced London dispersion forces that result from the tight packing in the protein interior. (3) Based on studies of 151 hydrogen bonding variants in 15 proteins, forming a hydrogen bond on folding contributes 1.1±0.8 kcal/mol to protein stability. (4) The contribution of hydrogen bonds to protein stability is strongly context dependent. (5) Hydrogen bonds by side chains and peptide groups make similar contributions to protein stability. (6) Polar group burial can make a favorable contribution to protein stability even if the polar group is not hydrogen bonded. (7) Hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds both make large contributions to protein stability.

  1. Forces Stabilizing Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pace, C. Nick; Scholtz, J. Martin; Grimsley, Gerald R.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this article is to summarize what has been learned about the major forces stabilizing proteins since the late 1980s when site-directed mutagenesis became possible. The following conclusions are derived from experimental studies of hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding variants. 1. Based on studies of 138 hydrophobic interaction variants in 11 proteins, burying a –CH2– group on folding contributes 1.1 ± 0.5 kcal/mol to protein stability. 2. The burial of nonpolar side chains contributes to protein stability in two ways: first, a term that depends on the removal of the side chains from water and, more importantly, the enhanced London dispersion forces that result from the tight packing in the protein interior. 3. Based on studies of 151 hydrogen bonding variants in 15 proteins, forming a hydrogen bond on folding contributes 1.1 ± 0.8 kcal/mol to protein stability. 4. The contribution of hydrogen bonds to protein stability is strongly context dependent. 5. Hydrogen bonds by side chains and peptide groups make similar contributions to protein stability. 6. Polar group burial can make a favorable contribution to protein stability even if the polar group is not hydrogen bonded. 7. Hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds both make large contributions to protein stability. PMID:24846139

  2. Stabilizing a spinning Skylab.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seltzer, S. M.; Justice, D. W.; Schweitzer, G.; Patel, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of the dynamics of a spinning Skylab space station. The stability of motion of several simplified models with flexible appendages was investigated. A digital simulation model that more accurately portrays the complex Skylab vehicle is described, and simulation results are compared with analytically derived results.

  3. Stabilizing a spinning Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seltzer, S. M.; Patel, J. S.; Justice, D. W.; Schweitzer, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of the dynamics of a spinning Skylab space station. The stability of motion of several simplified models with flexible appendages was investigated. A digital simulation model that more accurately portrays the complex Skylab vehicle is described, and simulation results are compared with analytically derived results.

  4. Insolubilization process increases enzyme stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J.; Lyn, J.

    1971-01-01

    Enzymes complexed with polymeric matrices contain properties suggesting application to enzyme-controlled reactions. Stability of insolubilized enzyme derivatives is markedly greater than that of soluble enzymes and physical form of insolubilized enzymes is useful in column and batch processes.

  5. Slope stability and stabilization methods

    SciTech Connect

    Abramson, L.W.; Lee, T.S.; Boyce, G.M.; Sharma, S.S.

    1995-12-01

    Slope stability can be a major problem during the construction of surface facilities. Cutting into existing ground disturbs the mechanics of the surrounding area, which can result in landslides and rock falls. This practical reference gives you the comprehensive information you need for slope stability analysis, suitable methods of analysis with and without the use of computers, and examples of common stability problems and stabilization methods for cuts and fills. It includes detailed discussions of methods used in slope stability analysis, including the Ordinary Method of Slices, Simplified Janbu Method, Simplified Bishop Method, Spencer`s Method, other limit equilibrium methods, numerical methods, total stress analysis, effective stress analysis, and the use of computer programs to solve problems. Chapters include: General Slope Stability Concepts; Engineering Geology Principles; Groundwater Conditions; Geologic Site Exploration; Laboratory Testing Interpretation; Slope Stability Concepts; Slope Stabilization Methods; and Design, Construction and Maintenance.

  6. The Role of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Cardiovascular Disease Risk: a Review with Emphasis on Plausible Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shaoyong; Jimenez, Marcia P.; Roberts, Cole T. F.; Loucks, Eric B.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood adversity, characterized by abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction, is a problem that exerts a significant impact on individuals, families, and society. Growing evidence suggests that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with health decline in adulthood, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the current review, we first provide an overview of the association between ACEs and CVD risk, with updates on the latest epidemiological evidence. Second, we briefly review plausible pathways by which ACEs could influence CVD risk, including traditional risk factors and novel mechanisms. Finally, we highlight the potential implications of ACEs in clinical and public health. Information gleaned from this review should help physicians and researchers in better understanding potential long-term consequences of ACEs and considering adapting current strategies in treatment or intervention for patients with ACEs. PMID:26289252

  7. Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture and Food Security in 2050 under a Range of Plausible Socioeconomic and Emissions Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, K.; Lotze-Campen, H.; Bodirsky, B.; Kavallari, A.; Mason-d'Croz, D.; van der Mensbrugghe, D.; Robinson, S.; Sands, R.; Tabeau, A.; Willenbockel, D.; Islam, S.; van Meijl, H.; Mueller, C.; Robertson, R.

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have combined climate, crop and economic models to examine the impact of climate change on agricultural production and food security, but results have varied widely due to differences in models, scenarios and data. Recent work has examined (and narrowed) these differences through systematic model intercomparison using a high-emissions pathway to highlight the differences. New work extends that analysis to cover a range of plausible socioeconomic scenarios and emission pathways. Results from three general circulation models are combined with one crop model and five global economic models to examine the global and regional impacts of climate change on yields, area, production, prices and trade for coarse grains, rice, wheat, oilseeds and sugar to 2050. Results show that yield impacts vary with changes in population, income and technology as well as emissions, but are reduced in all cases by endogenous changes in prices and other variables.

  8. Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium (NAIC). Volume 14. Knowledge-base retrieval using plausible inference. Final report, Sep 84-Dec 89

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, W.B.; Cohen, P.R.

    1990-12-01

    The Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium (NAIC) was created by the Air Force Systems Command, Rome Air Development Center, and the Office of Scientific Research. Its purpose was conduct pertinent research artificial intelligence and to perform activities to this research. This report describes progress during the existence of the NAIC on the technical research tasks undertaken at the member universities. The topics covered in general are: versatile expert system for equipment maintenance, distributed AI for communications system control, automatic photointerpretation, time-oriented problem solving, speech understanding systems, knowledge base maintenance, hardware architectures for very large systems, knowledge-based reasoning and planning, and a knowledge acquisition, assistance, and explanation system. The specific topic for this volume is plausible inference as an effective computational framework for the retrieval of complex objects.

  9. Stability in hovering ornithopter flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietl, John M.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2008-03-01

    The quasi-steady aerodynamics model is coupled to a dynamic model of ornithopter flight. Previously, the combined model has been used to calculate forward flight trajectories, each a limit cycle in the vehicle's states. The limit cycle results from the periodic wing beat, producing a periodic force while on the cycle's trajectory. This was accomplished using a multiple shooting algorithm and numerical integration in MATLAB. An analysis of hover, a crucial element to vertical takeoff and landing in adverse conditions, follows. A method to calculate plausible wing flapping motions and control surface deflections for hover is developed, employing the above flight dynamics model. Once a hovering limit cycle trajectory is found, it can be linearized in discrete time and analyzed for stability (by calculating the trajectory's Floquet multipliers a type of discrete-time eigenvalue) are calculated. The dynamic mode shapes are discussed.

  10. Plausible double inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Richard; Kolb, Edward W.; Vadas, Sharon L.; Wang, Yun

    1991-01-01

    It is likely that extended inflation is followed by an epoch of slowroll inflation. Such a sequence of events may lead to a very interesting perturbation spectrum with significant power on the scale of the transition between the extended and slowroll phase, superimposed upon a power-law spectrum with deviations from the Harrison-Zeldovich slope. Normalization of the spectra above and below the transition scale is expected to differ.

  11. Membrane stabilizer

    DOEpatents

    Mingenbach, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material.

  12. Stabilization strategies for unstable dynamics.

    PubMed

    Morasso, Pietro; Casadio, Maura; De Santis, Dalia; Nomura, Taishin; Rea, Francesco; Zenzeri, Jacopo

    2014-12-01

    The stabilization of the human standing posture was originally attributed to the stiffness of the ankle muscles but direct measurements of the ankle stiffness ruled out this hypothesis, leaving open the possibility for a feedback stabilization strategy driven by proprioceptive signals. This solution, however, could be implemented with two different kinds of control mechanisms, namely continuous or intermittent feedback. The debate is now settled and the latter solution seems to be the most plausible one. Moreover, stabilization of unstable dynamics is not limited to bipedal standing. Indeed many manipulation tasks can be described in the same framework and thus a very general protocol for addressing this kind of problems is the use of haptic virtual reality where instability is generated by some kind of divergent or saddle-like force field. Several studies demonstrated that human subjects can choose to adopt a stiffness or feedback strategy as a combination of biomechanical and task constraints and can learn to switch from one strategy to the other if it is feasible or to use one or the other is infeasible. Understanding such mechanisms is relevant, for example, for the design of novel ergonomic man-machine interfaces in difficult, unstable tasks. PMID:25453479

  13. Automatic stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haus, FR

    1936-01-01

    This report concerns the study of automatic stabilizers and extends it to include the control of the three-control system of the airplane instead of just altitude control. Some of the topics discussed include lateral disturbed motion, static stability, the mathematical theory of lateral motion, and large angles of incidence. Various mechanisms and stabilizers are also discussed. The feeding of Diesel engines by injection pumps actuated by engine compression, achieves the required high speeds of injection readily and permits rigorous control of the combustible charge introduced into each cylinder and of the peak pressure in the resultant cycle.

  14. Jet Fuel Thermal Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, W. F. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of the thermal stability problem associated with the use of broadened-specification and nonpetroleum-derived turbine fuels are addressed. The state of the art is reviewed and the status of the research being conducted at various laboratories is presented. Discussions among representatives from universities, refineries, engine and airframe manufacturers, airlines, the Government, and others are presented along with conclusions and both broad and specific recommendations for future stability research and development. It is concluded that significant additional effort is required to cope with the fuel stability problems which will be associated with the potentially poorer quality fuels of the future such as broadened specification petroleum fuels or fuels produced from synthetic sources.

  15. Near-infrared spectroscopy of 3:1 Kirkwood Gap asteroids II: Probable and plausible parent bodies; primitive and differentiated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fieber-Beyer, Sherry K.; Gaffey, Michael J.

    2014-02-01

    The 3:1 Kirkwood Gap asteroids are a mineralogically diverse set of asteroids located in a region that delivers meteoroids into Earth-crossing orbits. Mineralogical characterizations of asteroids in/near the 3:1 Kirkwood Gap can be used as a tool to “map” conditions and processes in the early Solar System. The chronological studies of the meteorite types provide a “clock” for the relative timing of those events and processes. By identifying the source asteroids of particular meteorite types, the “map” and “clock” can be combined to provide a much more sophisticated understanding of the history and evolution of the late solar nebula and the early Solar System. A mineralogical assessment of twelve 3:1 Kirkwood Gap asteroids has been carried out using near-infrared spectral data obtained from 2010 to 2011 combined with visible spectral data (when available) to cover the spectral interval of 0.4-2.5 μm. Eight of these asteroids have surfaces with basaltic-type silicate assemblages, indicating at least partial melting within their parent bodies. Although HED-like mineralogies are present these objects exhibit subdued features indicating the presence of an additional phase (e.g., NiFe metal) or process (e.g., space weathering). Four of these asteroids appear to be ordinary chondrite assemblages. Three of these are plausibly linked to the probable H-chondrite parent body, (6) Hebe.

  16. Factors Influencing the Decisions and Actions of Pilots and Air Traffic Controllers in Three Plausible NextGen Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Strybel, Thomas Z.; Battiste, Vernol; Johnson, Walter

    2011-01-01

    In the current air traffic management (ATM) system, pilots and air traffic controllers have well-established roles and responsibilities: pilots fly aircraft and are concerned with energy management, fuel efficiency, and passenger comfort; controllers separate aircraft and are concerned with safety and management of traffic flows. Despite having different goals and obligations, both groups must be able to effectively communicate and interact with each other for the ATM system to work. This interaction will become even more challenging as traffic volume increases dramatically in the near future. To accommodate this increase, by 2025 the national air transportation system in the U.S. will go through a transformation that will modernize the ATM system and make it safer, more effective, and more efficient. This new system, NextGen, will change how pilots and controllers perform their tasks by incorporating advanced technologies and employing new procedures. It will also distribute responsibility between pilots, controllers and automation over such tasks as maintaining aircraft separation. The present chapter describes three plausible concepts of operations that allocate different ATM responsibilities to these groups. We describe how each concept changes the role of each operator and the types of decisions and actions performed by them.

  17. Removal of hazardous organics from water using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs): plausible mechanisms for selective adsorptions.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Zubair; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Provision of clean water is one of the most important issues worldwide because of continuing economic development and the steady increase in the global population. However, clean water resources are decreasing everyday, because of contamination with various pollutants including organic chemicals. Pharmaceutical and personal care products, herbicides/pesticides, dyes, phenolics, and aromatics (from sources such as spilled oil) are typical organics that should be removed from water. Because of their huge porosities, designable pore structures, and facile modification, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are used in various adsorption, separation, storage, and delivery applications. In this review, the adsorptive purifications of contaminated water with MOFs are discussed, in order to understand possible applications of MOFs in clean water provision. More importantly, plausible adsorption or interaction mechanisms and selective adsorptions are summarized. The mechanisms of interactions such as electrostatic interaction, acid-base interaction, hydrogen bonding, π-π stacking/interaction, and hydrophobic interaction are discussed for the selective adsorption of organics over MOFs. The adsorption mechanisms will be very helpful not only for understanding adsorptions but also for applications of adsorptions in selective removal, storage, delivery and so on.

  18. Plausible Drug Targets in the Streptococcus mutans Quorum Sensing Pathways to Combat Dental Biofilms and Associated Risks.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurmeet; Rajesh, Shrinidhi; Princy, S Adline

    2015-12-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a Gram positive facultative anaerobe, is one among the approximately seven hundred bacterial species to exist in human buccal cavity and cause dental caries. Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-density dependent communication process that respond to the inter/intra-species signals and elicit responses to show behavioral changes in the bacteria to an aggressive forms. In accordance to this phenomenon, the S. mutans also harbors a Competing Stimulating Peptide (CSP)-mediated quorum sensing, ComCDE (Two-component regulatory system) to regulate several virulence-associated traits that includes the formation of the oral biofilm (dental plaque), genetic competence and acidogenicity. The QS-mediated response of S. mutans adherence on tooth surface (dental plaque) imparts antibiotic resistance to the bacterium and further progresses to lead a chronic state, known as periodontitis. In recent years, the oral streptococci, S. mutans are not only recognized for its cariogenic potential but also well known to worsen the infective endocarditis due to its inherent ability to colonize and form biofilm on heart valves. The review significantly appreciate the increasing complexity of the CSP-mediated quorum-sensing pathway with a special emphasis to identify the plausible drug targets within the system for the development of anti-quorum drugs to control biofilm formation and associated risks.

  19. Food Fortification Stability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdulmalik, T. O.; Cooper, M. R.; Douglas, G. L.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has established the goal of traveling beyond low-Earth orbit and extending manned exploration to Mars. The extended length of a Mars mission, along with the lack of resupply missions increases the importance of nutritional content in the food system. The purpose of this research is to assess the stability of vitamin supplementation in traditionally processed spaceflight foods. It is expected that commercially available fortificants will remain stable through long-duration missions if proper formulation, processing, and storage temperatures are all achieved. Five vitamins (vitamin E, vitamin K, pantothenic acid, folic acid, and thiamin) were blended into a vitamin premix (DSM, Freeport, TX); premixes were formulated to be compatible with current processing techniques (retort or freeze-dried), varied water activities (high or low), and packaging material. The overall goal of this process is to provide 25% of the recommended daily intake of each vitamin (per serving), following processing and two years of ambient storage. Four freeze-dried foods (Scrambled Eggs, Italian Vegetables, Potatoes Au Gratin, Noodles and Chicken) and four thermostabilized foods (Curry Sauce with Vegetables, Chicken Noodle Soup, Grilled Pork Chop, Rice with Butter) were produced (with and without the vitamin premix), to assess the impact of the added fortificant on color and taste, and to determine the stability of supplemental vitamins in spaceflight foods. The use of fortification in spaceflight foods appears to be a plausible mitigation step to inadequate nutrition. This is due to the ease of vitamin addition as well as the sustainability of the premixes through initial processing steps. Postprocessing analysis indicated that vitamin fortification with this premix did not immediately impact organoleptic properties of the food. At this stage, the largest hurdle to fortification is the preciseness to which vitamins can be added; the total amount of vitamins required for production is 10

  20. Membrane stabilizer

    DOEpatents

    Mingenbach, W.A.

    1988-02-09

    A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material. 10 figs.

  1. On Matrix Sampling and Imputation of Context Questionnaires with Implications for the Generation of Plausible Values in Large-Scale Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David; Su, Dan

    2016-01-01

    This article presents findings on the consequences of matrix sampling of context questionnaires for the generation of plausible values in large-scale assessments. Three studies are conducted. Study 1 uses data from PISA 2012 to examine several different forms of missing data imputation within the chained equations framework: predictive mean…

  2. Categorization and decision-making in a neurobiologically plausible spiking network using a STDP-like learning rule.

    PubMed

    Beyeler, Michael; Dutt, Nikil D; Krichmar, Jeffrey L

    2013-12-01

    Understanding how the human brain is able to efficiently perceive and understand a visual scene is still a field of ongoing research. Although many studies have focused on the design and optimization of neural networks to solve visual recognition tasks, most of them either lack neurobiologically plausible learning rules or decision-making processes. Here we present a large-scale model of a hierarchical spiking neural network (SNN) that integrates a low-level memory encoding mechanism with a higher-level decision process to perform a visual classification task in real-time. The model consists of Izhikevich neurons and conductance-based synapses for realistic approximation of neuronal dynamics, a spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) synaptic learning rule with additional synaptic dynamics for memory encoding, and an accumulator model for memory retrieval and categorization. The full network, which comprised 71,026 neurons and approximately 133 million synapses, ran in real-time on a single off-the-shelf graphics processing unit (GPU). The network was constructed on a publicly available SNN simulator that supports general-purpose neuromorphic computer chips. The network achieved 92% correct classifications on MNIST in 100 rounds of random sub-sampling, which is comparable to other SNN approaches and provides a conservative and reliable performance metric. Additionally, the model correctly predicted reaction times from psychophysical experiments. Because of the scalability of the approach and its neurobiological fidelity, the current model can be extended to an efficient neuromorphic implementation that supports more generalized object recognition and decision-making architectures found in the brain. PMID:23994510

  3. Categorization and decision-making in a neurobiologically plausible spiking network using a STDP-like learning rule.

    PubMed

    Beyeler, Michael; Dutt, Nikil D; Krichmar, Jeffrey L

    2013-12-01

    Understanding how the human brain is able to efficiently perceive and understand a visual scene is still a field of ongoing research. Although many studies have focused on the design and optimization of neural networks to solve visual recognition tasks, most of them either lack neurobiologically plausible learning rules or decision-making processes. Here we present a large-scale model of a hierarchical spiking neural network (SNN) that integrates a low-level memory encoding mechanism with a higher-level decision process to perform a visual classification task in real-time. The model consists of Izhikevich neurons and conductance-based synapses for realistic approximation of neuronal dynamics, a spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) synaptic learning rule with additional synaptic dynamics for memory encoding, and an accumulator model for memory retrieval and categorization. The full network, which comprised 71,026 neurons and approximately 133 million synapses, ran in real-time on a single off-the-shelf graphics processing unit (GPU). The network was constructed on a publicly available SNN simulator that supports general-purpose neuromorphic computer chips. The network achieved 92% correct classifications on MNIST in 100 rounds of random sub-sampling, which is comparable to other SNN approaches and provides a conservative and reliable performance metric. Additionally, the model correctly predicted reaction times from psychophysical experiments. Because of the scalability of the approach and its neurobiological fidelity, the current model can be extended to an efficient neuromorphic implementation that supports more generalized object recognition and decision-making architectures found in the brain.

  4. X-Ray Investigation of the Diffuse Emission around Plausible γ-Ray Emitting Pulsar Wind Nebulae in Kookaburra Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Bamba, Aya; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2012-05-01

    We report on the results from Suzaku X-ray observations of the radio complex region called Kookaburra, which includes two adjacent TeV γ-ray sources HESS J1418-609 and HESS J1420-607. The Suzaku observation revealed X-ray diffuse emission around a middle-aged pulsar PSR J1420-6048 and a plausible pulsar wind nebula (PWN) Rabbit with elongated sizes of σX = 1farcm66 and σX = 1farcm49, respectively. The peaks of the diffuse X-ray emission are located within the γ-ray excess maps obtained by H.E.S.S. and the offsets from the γ-ray peaks are 2farcm8 for PSR J1420-6048 and 4farcm5 for Rabbit. The X-ray spectra of the two sources were well reproduced by absorbed power-law models with Γ = 1.7-2.3. The spectral shapes tend to become softer according to the distance from the X-ray peaks. Assuming the one-zone electron emission model as the first-order approximation, the ambient magnetic field strengths of HESS J1420-607 and HESS J1418-609 can be estimated as 3 μG and 2.5 μG, respectively. The X-ray spectral and spatial properties strongly support that both TeV sources are PWNe, in which electrons and positrons accelerated at termination shocks of the pulsar winds are losing their energies via the synchrotron radiation and inverse Compton scattering as they are transported outward.

  5. Oscillation and coding in a formal neural network considered as a guide for plausible simulations of the insect olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Horcholle-Bossavit, Ginette; Quenet, Brigitte; Foucart, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    For the analysis of coding mechanisms in the insect olfactory system, a fully connected network of synchronously updated McCulloch and Pitts neurons (MC-P type) was developed [Quenet, B., Horn, D., 2003. The dynamic neural filter: a binary model of spatio-temporal coding. Neural Comput. 15 (2), 309-329]. Considering the update time as an intrinsic clock, this "Dynamic Neural Filter" (DNF), which maps regions of input space into spatio-temporal sequences of neuronal activity, is able to produce exact binary codes extracted from the synchronized activities recorded at the level of projection neurons (PN) in the locust antennal lobe (AL) in response to different odors [Wehr, M., Laurent, G., 1996. Odor encoding by temporal sequences of firing in oscillating neural assemblies. Nature 384, 162-166]. Here, in a first step, we separate the populations of PN and local inhibitory neurons (LN) and use the DNF as a guide for simulations based on biological plausible neurons (Hodgkin-Huxley: H-H type). We show that a parsimonious network of 10 H-H neurons generates action potentials whose timing represents the required codes. In a second step, we construct a new type of DNF in order to study the population dynamics when different delays are taken into account. We find synaptic matrices which lead to both the emergence of robust oscillations and spatio-temporal patterns, using a formal criterion, based on a Normalized Euclidian Distance (NED), in order to measure the use of the temporal dimension as a coding dimension by the DNF. Similarly to biological PN, the activity of excitatory neurons in the model can be both phase-locked to different cycles of oscillations which remind local field potential (LFP), and nevertheless exhibit dynamic behavior complex enough to be the basis of spatio-temporal codes.

  6. Developing spatially explicit footprints of plausible land-use scenarios in the Santa Cruz Watershed, Arizona and Sonora

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Laura M.; Feller, Mark; Villarreal, Miguel L.

    2012-01-01

    The SLEUTH urban growth model is applied to a binational dryland watershed to envision and evaluate plausible future scenarios of land use change into the year 2050. Our objective was to create a suite of geospatial footprints portraying potential land use change that can be used to aid binational decision-makers in assessing the impacts relative to sustainability of natural resources and potential socio-ecological consequences of proposed land-use management. Three alternatives are designed to simulate different conditions: (i) a Current Trends Scenario of unmanaged exponential growth, (ii) a Conservation Scenario with managed growth to protect the environment, and (iii) a Megalopolis Scenario in which growth is accentuated around a defined international trade corridor. The model was calibrated with historical data extracted from a time series of satellite images. Model materials, methodology, and results are presented. Our Current Trends Scenario predicts the footprint of urban growth to approximately triple from 2009 to 2050, which is corroborated by local population estimates. The Conservation Scenario results in protecting 46% more of the Evergreen class (more than 150,000 acres) than the Current Trends Scenario and approximately 95,000 acres of Barren Land, Crops, Deciduous Forest (Mesquite Bosque), Grassland/Herbaceous, Urban/Recreational Grasses, and Wetlands classes combined. The Megalopolis Scenario results also depict the preservation of some of these land-use classes compared to the Current Trends Scenario, most notably in the environmentally important headwaters region. Connectivity and areal extent of land cover types that provide wildlife habitat were preserved under the alternative scenarios when compared to Current Trends.

  7. Singular perturbation of absolute stability.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.

    1972-01-01

    It was previously shown (author, 1969) that the regions of absolute stability in the parameter space can be determined when the parameters appear on the right-hand side of the system equations, i.e., the regular case. Here, the effect on absolute stability of a small parameter attached to higher derivatives in the equations (the singular case) is studied. The Lur'e-Postnikov class of nonlinear systems is considered.

  8. NASP derived vehicles - Not just to space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Donald B.; Espinosa, Angel M.; Althuis, Jeffrey S.

    1992-12-01

    NASP-derived vehicles (NDVs) are presently noted to include not only exoatmospheric launch vehicles but also hypersonic cruisers. A conceptual development status evaluation is presented for such hypersonic aircraft, with a view to their likely military and civilian missions and the technical issues that remain to be solved for their implementation. Attention is given to plausible NDV configurations, propulsion systems, and performance goals for Mach 4.0 fighter-bomber, Mach 5.0 commercial/military transport, Mach 10.0 long-range cruiser, and SSTO launch vehicle.

  9. Dynamic stability of detached solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazuruk, K.; Volz, M. P.

    2016-06-01

    A dynamic stability analysis model is developed for meniscus-defined crystal growth processes. The Young-Laplace equation is used to analyze the response of a growing crystal to perturbations to its radius and a thermal transport model is used to analyze the effect of perturbations on the evolution of the crystal-melt interface. A linearized differential equation is used to analyze radius perturbations but a linear integro-differential equation is required for the height perturbations. The stability model is applied to detached solidification under zero-gravity and terrestrial conditions. A numerical analysis is supplemented with an approximate analytical analysis, valid in the limit of small Bond numbers. For terrestrial conditions, a singularity is found to exist in the capillary stability coefficients where, at a critical value of the pressure differential across the meniscus, there is a transition from stability to instability. For the zero-gravity condition, exact formulas for the capillary stability coefficients are derived.

  10. The Ghana essential health interventions program: a plausibility trial of the impact of health systems strengthening on maternal & child survival

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During the 1990s, researchers at the Navrongo Health Research Centre in northern Ghana developed a highly successful community health program. The keystone of the Navrongo approach was the deployment of nurses termed community health officers to village locations. A trial showed that, compared to areas relying on existing services alone, the approach reduced child mortality by half, maternal mortality by 40%, and fertility by nearly a birth — from a total fertility rate of 5.5 in only five years. In 2000, the government of Ghana launched a national program called Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) to scale up the Navrongo model. However, CHPS scale-up has been slow in districts located outside of the Upper East Region, where the “Navrongo Experiment” was first carried out. This paper describes the Ghana Essential Health Intervention Project (GEHIP), a plausibility trial of strategies for strengthening CHPS, especially in the areas of maternal and newborn health, and generating the political will to scale up the program with strategies that are faithful to the original design. Description of the intervention GEHIP improves the CHPS model by 1) extending the range and quality of services for newborns; 2) training community volunteers to conduct the World Health Organization service regimen known as integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI); 3) simplifying the collection of health management information and ensuring its use for decision making; 4) enabling community health nurses to manage emergencies, particularly obstetric complications and refer cases without delay; 5) adding $0.85 per capita annually to district budgets and marshalling grassroots political commitment to financing CHPS implementation; and 6) strengthening CHPS leadership at all levels of the system. Evaluation design GEHIP impact is assessed by conducting baseline and endline survey research and computing the Heckman “difference in difference” test for

  11. Parathyroid hormone is a plausible mediator for the metabolic syndrome in the morbidly obese: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    indicate that for women PTH is a plausible mediator in the association between MS and a range of explanatory variables, including vit D, magnesium and phosphate. PMID:21306649

  12. Stabilization of polyaniline solutions through additives

    DOEpatents

    Wrobleski, Debra A.; Benicewicz, Brian C.

    1996-01-01

    A stabilized non-conductive polyaniline solution comprising from about 1 to bout 10 percent by weight polyaniline or a polyaniline derivative, from about 90 to about 99 percent by weight N-methylpyrrolidone, and from about 0.5 percent by weight to about 15 percent by weight of a solution stabilizing additive selected from the group consisting of hindered amine light stabilizers, polymeric amines, and dialkylamines, percent by weight of additive based on the total weight of polyaniline or polyaniline derivative is provided together with a method for stabilizing a polyaniline solution.

  13. Stabilization of polyaniline solutions through additives

    SciTech Connect

    Wrobleski, D.A.; Benicewicz, B.C.

    1996-12-10

    A stabilized non-conductive polyaniline solution comprising from about 1 to about 10 percent by weight polyaniline or a polyaniline derivative, from about 90 to about 99 percent by weight N-methylpyrrolidone, and from about 0.5 percent by weight to about 15 percent by weight of a solution stabilizing additive selected from the group consisting of hindered amine light stabilizers, polymeric amines, and dialkylamines, percent by weight of additive based on the total weight of polyaniline or polyaniline derivative is provided together with a method for stabilizing a polyaniline solution. 4 figs.

  14. On the adiabatic stability of solitons and the matching of conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lochak, Pierre

    1984-08-01

    We derive a series of identities which generalize and simplify the results obtained for adiabatically modulated solitons in the case of perturbed specific integrable equations. It stresses the importance of the variational properties of the solitons, which make an adiabatic theorem plausible. A precise conjecture is made and its validity discussed from different points of view.

  15. Introduction of a thermophile-sourced ion pair network in the fourth beta/alpha unit of a psychophile-derived triosephosphate isomerase from Methanococcoides burtonii significantly increases its kinetic thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Dhaunta, Neeraj; Arora, Kanika; Chandrayan, Sanjeev K; Guptasarma, Purnananda

    2013-06-01

    Hyperthermophile proteins commonly have higher numbers of surface ionic interactions than homologous proteins from other domains of life. PfuTIM, a triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) from the hyperthermophile archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus, contains an intricate network of 4 ion pairs in its 4th beta/alpha unit, (β/α)4, whereas MbuTIM, a triosephosphate isomerase from a psychrophile archaeon, Methanococcoides burtonii, lacks this network. Notably, (β/α)4 is the first element of the structure formed during folding of certain TIM-type (beta/alpha)8 barrel proteins. Previously, we have shown that elimination of PfuTIM's ion pair network in PfuTIM significantly decreases its kinetic structural stability. Here, we describe the reciprocal experiment in which this ion pair network is introduced into MbuTIM, to produce MutMbuTIM. Recombinant MbuTIM displays multi-state unfolding with apparent Tm values of autonomous structural elements approaching, or above, 70°C, when a temperature scanning rate of 90°C/h is used. The protein displays significant intrinsic kinetic stability, i.e., there is a marked temperature scan rate-dependence of the Tm values associated with unfolding transitions. The Tm values drop by as much as ~10°C when the temperature scanning rate is lowered to 5°C/h. MutMbuTIM, incorporating PfuTIM's ion pair network, shows significantly higher apparent Tm values (raised by 4-6°C over those displayed by MbuTIM). MutMbuTIM also displays significantly higher kinetic thermal stability. Thus, it appears that the thermal stability of triosephosphate isomerase can be increased, or decreased, by either enhancing, or reducing, the strength of ion pair interactions stabilizing (β/α)4, presumably through reduced cooperativity (and increased autonomy) in unfolding transitions.

  16. Nighttime thermospheric meridional winds as inferred from ionosonde parameters over Indian region and their plausible effects on plasma irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreekumar, Sreeba; Sripathi, S.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present nighttime thermospheric meridional winds at Indian low latitude station namely Hyderabad during March-May 2013 derived using (a) h'F method and (b) hpF2 method based on ionosondes. The estimation of meridional winds using h'F method employs the basic principle that the vertical drift at magnetic equator is purely due to ExB drift, while for a station slightly away from magnetic equator, meridional wind also contributes for the vertical drift in addition to diffusion along the field lines. Assuming the EXB drifts are the same at both the locations, the vertical drift contribution is subtracted from the equatorial vertical drifts and then meridional winds are derived, whereas in hpF2 method, winds are derived using the SERVO theory. The winds so derived are compared with HWM07 wind model. The comparison suggests that magnitude of winds derived using h'F method are in better agreement with HWM07 model than hpF2 derived winds where their polarities are better comparable to HWM07 model than hpF2 method. The poor agreement of hpF2 method could be due to uncertainties involved in estimating various ionospheric parameters. Also the winds derived using h'F method showed signatures of the well known phenomenon of Midnight Temperature Maximum (MTM). Based on these results, we suggest that h'F method is better suited for meridional wind estimates over low latitudes than hpF2 method. Accordingly, we further investigated the role of thermospheric meridional winds in equatorial spread F (ESF) occurrence. Our results suggest that equatorward winds along with post sunset height increase could enhance the Rayleigh Taylor (RT) instability growth rate and thereby leading to the generation of ESF/scintillations. The Superposed Epoch Analysis (SEA) technique has been applied to understand the general trend of h'F and meridional winds around the ESF onset time. The study showed reduction in poleward winds, half an hour prior to the onset of ESF. Hence indicating

  17. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: Improving Resilience for California from a Plausible M9 Earthquake near the Alaska Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, S.; Jones, L.; Wilson, R. I.; Bahng, B.; Barberopoulou, A.; Borrero, J. C.; Brosnan, D.; Bwarie, J.; Geist, E. L.; Johnson, L.; Kirby, S. H.; Knight, W.; Long, K.; Lynett, P. J.; Miller, K.; Mortensen, C. E.; Nicolsky, D.; Oglesby, D. D.; Perry, S. C.; Plumlee, G. S.; Porter, K. A.; Real, C. R.; Ryan, K. J.; Suleimani, E.; Thio, H. K.; Titov, V.; Wein, A. M.; Whitmore, P.; Wood, N. J.

    2013-12-01

    The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario models a hypothetical but plausible tsunami, created by an Mw9.1 earthquake occurring offshore from the Alaskan peninsula, and its impacts on the California coast. We present the likely inundation areas, current velocities in key ports and harbors, physical damage and repair costs, economic consequences, environmental impacts, social vulnerability, emergency management, and policy implications for California associated with the tsunami scenario. The intended users are those who must make mitigation decisions before and rapid decisions during future tsunamis. Around a half million people would be present in the scenario's inundation area in residences, businesses, public venues, parks and beaches. Evacuation would likely be ordered for the State of California's maximum mapped tsunami inundation zone, evacuating an additional quarter million people from residences and businesses. Some island and peninsula communities would face particular evacuation challenges because of limited access options and short warning time, caused by the distance between Alaska and California. Evacuations may also be a challenge for certain dependent-care populations. One third of the boats in California's marinas could be damaged or sunk, costing at least 700 million in repairs to boats and docks, and potentially much more to address serious issues due to sediment transport and environmental contamination. Fires would likely start at many sites where fuel and petrochemicals are stored in ports and marinas. Tsunami surges and bores may travel several miles inland up coastal rivers. Debris clean-up and recovery of inundated and damaged areas will take days, months, or years depending on the severity of impacts and the available resources for recovery. The Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach (POLA/LB) would be shut down for a miniμm of two days due to strong currents. Inundation of dry land in the ports would result in 100 million damages to cargo and additional

  18. Bipolar-pulses observed by the LRS/WFC-L onboard KAGUYA - Plausible evidence of lunar dust impact -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, Yoshiya; Horie, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Kozo; Omura, Yoshiharu; Goto, Yoshitaka; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Ono, Takayuki; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Lrs/Wfc Team; Map/Lmag Team

    2010-05-01

    same) and thus most of bipolar-pulses which can be detected in MONO mode are cancelled in DIFF mode. This fact suggests that these bipolar pulses are not a kind of natural wave but these are caused by instantaneous potential changes of the KAGUYA spacecraft. Discussion: Similar type of bipolar-pulses has been observed by the monopole antenna measurements using Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) instruments on-board Cassini around Saturn [4]. They demonstrated that these bipolar pulses are caused by impacts of dusts floating around the Saturn. It is well-known that lunar dusts are widely dis-tributed in higher altitude range around the moon and it is plausible that these bipolar pulses are caused by the lunar dust impacts. In the presentation, we show the detailed charac-teristics of bipolar pulses detected by the WFC-L onboard KAGUYA. References: [1] Y. Kasahara et al., Earth, Planets and Space, 60(4), 341-351, 2008. [2] T. Ono et al., Earth, Planets and Space, 60(4), 321-332, 2008. [3] K. Hashimoto et al., The 4th SELENE (KAGUYA) Science Working Team Meeting, (this issue), 2010. [4] W.S. Kurth et al, Planetary and Space Science, 54(9-10), 988-998, 2006.

  19. Summation by parts, projections, and stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsson, Pelle

    1993-01-01

    We have derived stability results for high-order finite difference approximations of mixed hyperbolic-parabolic initial-boundary value problems (IBVP). The results are obtained using summation by parts and a new way of representing general linear boundary conditions as an orthogonal projection. By slightly rearranging the analytic equations, we can prove strict stability for hyperbolic-parabolic IBVP. Furthermore, we generalize our technique so as to yield strict stability on curvilinear non-smooth domains in two space dimensions. Finally, we show how to incorporate inhomogeneous boundary data while retaining strict stability. Using the same procedure one can prove strict stability in higher dimensions as well.

  20. Stabilizing Pentacene By Cyclopentannulation.

    PubMed

    Bheemireddy, Sambasiva R; Ubaldo, Pamela C; Rose, Peter W; Finke, Aaron D; Zhuang, Junpeng; Wang, Lichang; Plunkett, Kyle N

    2015-12-21

    A new class of stabilized pentacene derivatives with externally fused five-membered rings are prepared by means of a key palladium-catalyzed cyclopentannulation step. The target compounds are synthesized by chemical manipulation of a partially saturated 6,13-dibromopentacene precursor that can be fully aromatized in a final step through a DDQ-mediated dehydrogenation reaction (DDQ=2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone). The new 1,2,8,9-tetraaryldicyclopenta[fg,qr]pentacene derivatives have narrow energy gaps of circa 1.2 eV and behave as strong electron acceptors with lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies between -3.81 and -3.90 eV. Photodegradation studies reveal the new compounds are more photostable than 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene). PMID:26768696

  1. On structural and lattice dynamic stability of LaF3 under high pressure: A first principle study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, B. D.; Joshi, K. D.; Gupta, Satish C.

    2015-06-01

    Structural and lattice dynamical stability of the LaF3 has been analyzed as a function of hydrostatic compression through first principle electronic band structure calculations. The comparison of enthalpies of various plausible structures calculated at various pressures suggests a phase transition from ambient condition tysonite structure (space group P-3c1) to a primitive orthorhombic structure (space group Pmmn) at a pressure of ˜19.5 GPa, in line with the experimental value of 16 GPa. Further, it is predicted that this phase will remain stable up to 100 GPa (the maximum pressure up to which calculations have been performed in the present work). The theoretically determined equation of state displays a good agreement with experimental data. Various physical quantities such as zero pressure equilibrium volume, bulk modulus, and pressure derivative of bulk modulus have been derived from the theoretically determined equation of state and compared with the available experimental data. Our lattice dynamic calculations correctly demonstrate that at zero pressure the tysonite structure is lattice dynamically stable whereas the Pmmn structure is unstable lattice dynamically. Further, at transition pressure the theoretically calculated phonon spectra clearly show that the Pmmn phase emerges as lattice dynamically stable phase whereas the tysonite structure becomes unstable dynamically, supporting our static lattice calculations.

  2. On structural and lattice dynamic stability of LaF{sub 3} under high pressure: A first principle study

    SciTech Connect

    Sahoo, B. D. Joshi, K. D.; Gupta, Satish C.

    2015-06-24

    Structural and lattice dynamical stability of the LaF3 has been analyzed as a function of hydrostatic compression through first principle electronic band structure calculations. The comparison of enthalpies of various plausible structures calculated at various pressures suggests a phase transition from ambient condition tysonite structure (space group P-3c1) to a primitive orthorhombic structure (space group Pmmn) at a pressure of ∼19.5 GPa, in line with the experimental value of 16 GPa. Further, it is predicted that this phase will remain stable up to 100 GPa (the maximum pressure up to which calculations have been performed in the present work). The theoretically determined equation of state displays a good agreement with experimental data. Various physical quantities such as zero pressure equilibrium volume, bulk modulus, and pressure derivative of bulk modulus have been derived from the theoretically determined equation of state and compared with the available experimental data. Our lattice dynamic calculations correctly demonstrate that at zero pressure the tysonite structure is lattice dynamically stable whereas the Pmmn structure is unstable lattice dynamically. Further, at transition pressure the theoretically calculated phonon spectra clearly show that the Pmmn phase emerges as lattice dynamically stable phase whereas the tysonite structure becomes unstable dynamically, supporting our static lattice calculations.

  3. Derivative chameleons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noller, Johannes

    2012-07-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field phi, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂μphi∂μphi,squphi,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(phi,∂μphi∂μphi). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for phi → phi+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type.

  4. Derivative chameleons

    SciTech Connect

    Noller, Johannes

    2012-07-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field φ, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂{sub μ}φ∂{sup μ}φ,□φ,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(φ,∂{sub μ}φ∂{sup μ}φ). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for φ → φ+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type.

  5. Phase stabilization of spatiotemporally multiplexed ultrafast amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Mueller, M; Kienel, M; Klenke, A; Eidam, T; Limpert, J; Tünnermann, A

    2016-04-18

    Actively stabilized, simultaneous spatial and temporal coherent beam combination is a promising power-scaling technique for ultrafast laser systems. For a temporal combination based on optical delay lines, multiple stable states of operation arise for common stabilization techniques. A time resolved Jones' calculus is applied to investigate the issue. A mitigation strategy based on a temporally gated error signal acquisition is derived and demonstrated, enabling to stabilize laser systems with arbitrary numbers of amplifier channels and optical delay lines. PMID:27137231

  6. Vibrational stability of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yangfan; Wang, Biao

    2013-05-01

    The mechanical stability of graphene as temperature rises is analyzed based on three different self-consistent phonon (SCP) models. Compared with three-dimensional (3-D) materials, the critical temperature Ti at which instability occurs for graphene is much closer to its melting temperature Tm obtained from Monte Carlo simulation (Ti ≃ 2Tm, K. V. Zakharchenko, A. Fasolino, J. H. Los, and M. I. Katsnelson, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23, 202202). This suggests that thermal vibration plays a significant role in melting of graphene while melting for 3-D materials is often dominated by topologic defects. This peculiar property of graphene derives from its high structural anisotropy, which is characterized by the vibrational anisotropic coefficient (VAC), defined upon its Lindermann ratios in different directions. For any carbon based material with a graphene-like structure, the VAC value must be smaller than 5.4 to maintain its stability. It is also found that the high VAC value of graphene is responsible for its negative thermal expansion coefficient at low temperature range. We believe that the VAC can be regarded as a new criterion concerning the vibrational stability of any low-dimensional (low-D) materials.

  7. Complex derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

  8. STABILIZED OSCILLATOR

    DOEpatents

    Jessen, P.L.; Price, H.J.

    1958-03-18

    This patent relates to sine-wave generators and in particular describes a generator with a novel feedback circuit resulting in improved frequency stability. The generator comprises two triodes having a common cathode circuit connected to oscillate at a frequency and amplitude at which the loop galn of the circutt ls unity, and another pair of triodes having a common cathode circuit arranged as a conventional amplifier. A signal is conducted from the osciliator through a frequency selective network to the amplifier and fed back to the osciliator. The unique feature of the feedback circuit is the amplifier operates in the nonlinear portion of its tube characteristics thereby providing a relatively constant feedback voltage to the oscillator irrespective of the amplitude of its input signal.

  9. Stabilizing brokerage

    PubMed Central

    Stovel, Katherine; Golub, Benjamin; Milgrom, Eva M. Meyersson

    2011-01-01

    A variety of social and economic arrangements exist to facilitate the exchange of goods, services, and information over gaps in social structure. Each of these arrangements bears some relationship to the idea of brokerage, but this brokerage is rarely like the pure and formal economic intermediation seen in some modern markets. Indeed, for reasons illuminated by existing sociological and economic models, brokerage is a fragile relationship. In this paper, we review the causes of instability in brokerage and identify three social mechanisms that can stabilize fragile brokerage relationships: social isolation, broker capture, and organizational grafting. Each of these mechanisms rests on the emergence or existence of supporting institutions. We suggest that organizational grafting may be the most stable and effective resolution to the tensions inherent in brokerage, but it is also the most institutionally demanding. PMID:22198763

  10. Stabilizing brokerage.

    PubMed

    Stovel, Katherine; Golub, Benjamin; Milgrom, Eva M Meyersson

    2011-12-27

    A variety of social and economic arrangements exist to facilitate the exchange of goods, services, and information over gaps in social structure. Each of these arrangements bears some relationship to the idea of brokerage, but this brokerage is rarely like the pure and formal economic intermediation seen in some modern markets. Indeed, for reasons illuminated by existing sociological and economic models, brokerage is a fragile relationship. In this paper, we review the causes of instability in brokerage and identify three social mechanisms that can stabilize fragile brokerage relationships: social isolation, broker capture, and organizational grafting. Each of these mechanisms rests on the emergence or existence of supporting institutions. We suggest that organizational grafting may be the most stable and effective resolution to the tensions inherent in brokerage, but it is also the most institutionally demanding.

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of NS5B gene of classical swine fever virus isolates indicates plausible Chinese origin of Indian subgroup 2.2 viruses.

    PubMed

    Patil, S S; Hemadri, D; Veeresh, H; Sreekala, K; Gajendragad, M R; Prabhudas, K

    2012-02-01

    Twenty-three CSFV isolates recovered from field outbreaks in various parts of India during 2006-2009 were used for genetic analysis in the NS5B region (409 nts). Seventeen of these were studied earlier [16] in the 5'UTR region. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the continued dominance of subgroup 1.1 strains in the country. Detailed analysis of a subgroup 2.2 virus indicated the plausible Chinese origin of this subgroup in India and provided indirect evidence of routes of CSFV movement within South East Asia region.

  12. Linear and nonlinear stability in resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Tasso, H.

    1994-09-01

    A sufficient stability condition with respect to purely growing modes is derived for resistive magnetohydrodynamics. Its {open_quotes}nearness{close_quotes} to necessity is analysed. It is found that for physically reasonable approximations the condition is in some sense necessary and sufficient for stability against all modes. This, together with hermiticity makes its analytical and numerical evaluation worthwhile for the optimization of magnetic configurations. Physically motivated test functions are introduced. This leads to simplified versions of the stability functional, which makes its evaluation and minimization more tractable. In the case of special force-free fields the simplified functional reduces to a good approximation of the exact stability functional derived by other means. It turns out that in this case the condition is also sufficient for nonlinear stability. Nonlinear stability in hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics is discussed especially in connection with {open_quotes}unconditional{close_quotes} stability and with severe limitations on the Reynolds number. Two examples in magnetohydrodynamics show that the limitations on the Reynolds numbers can be removed but unconditional stability is preserved. Practical stability needs to be treated for limited levels of perturbations or for conditional stability. This implies some knowledge of the basin of attraction of the unperturbed solution, which is a very difficult problem. Finally, a special inertia-caused Hopf bifurcation is identified and the nature of the resulting attractors is discussed. 23 refs.

  13. Diurnal variation of atmospheric stability and turbulence during different seasons in the troposphere and lower stratosphere derived from simultaneous radiosonde observations at two tropical stations, in the Indian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhsin, M.; Sunilkumar, S. V.; Ratnam, M. Venkat; Parameswaran, K.; Murthy, B. V. Krishna; Ramkumar, Geetha; Rajeev, K.

    2016-11-01

    Diurnal variability of atmospheric stability as well as the occurrence and strength of turbulence in the troposphere and lower stratosphere at two tropical stations, Trivandrum (8.5°N, 76.9°E) and Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E), situated in the Indian Peninsula is studied. For the analysis three years of GPS-radiosonde data, collected as a part of the Tropical Tropopause Dynamics (TTD) Experiment under the CAWSES-India program, has been used. Thorpe method is adopted to estimate the turbulent parameters from radiosonde observations. This study shows that in the atmospheric boundary layer, both stability and turbulence parameters depict a pronounced diurnal variation. Over Trivandrum, the occurrence of turbulence as well as its strength peaks during night and falls off during the day, while at Gadanki it shows an opposite pattern. At both the stations, in the 3-10 km altitude layer, the occurrence and strength of turbulence are relatively high during night compared to day. Although the turbulence strength in the 10-15 km altitude layer is rather weak at both the stations, the occurrence of turbulence shows a clear diurnal pattern (high during the day), especially over Trivandrum. In the 3-15 km altitude layer, while the occurrence of convective instability is fairly the same at both the stations, the wind shear is significantly large at Trivandrum compared to Gadanki, with high values during night compared to the day. This shows that in this altitude region, while convective instability is mainly responsible for the generation of turbulence at Gadanki, wind shear induced dynamic instability is also responsible for the generation of turbulence at Trivandrum especially during night. Above 15 km, where wind shear driven instability leads the convective instability, turbulence at both the stations does not show any significant diurnal variability.

  14. A parametric study of planform and aeroelastic effects on aerodynamic center, alpha- and q- stability derivatives. Appendix C: Method for computing the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix of nonplanar wing-body-tail configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.

    1972-01-01

    Expressions are derived for computing the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix for nonplanar wing-body-tail configurations. An aerodynamic influence coefficient is defined as the load in lbs. induced on a panel as a result of a unit angle of attack on another panel. Fuselage, wing and tail thickness are assumed to be small with the result that the thickness effect on the flow-field is negligible. The method for determining the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix is based on the lifting solution to the small perturbation, steady potential flow equation.

  15. Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) neutralization by innate immunity host-defense peptides. Peptide properties and plausible modes of action.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Yosef; Papo, Niv; Shai, Yechiel

    2006-01-20

    Binding of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to macrophages results in proinflammatory cytokine secretion. In extreme cases it leads to endotoxic shock. A few innate immunity antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) neutralize LPS activity. However, the underlying mechanism and properties of the peptides are not yet clear. Toward meeting this goal we investigated four AMPs and their fluorescently labeled analogs. These AMPs varied in composition, length, structure, and selectivity toward cells. The list included human LL-37 (37-mer), magainin (24-mer), a 15-mer amphipathic alpha-helix, and its D,L-amino acid structurally altered analog. The peptides were investigated for their ability to inhibit LPS-mediated cytokine release from RAW264.7 and bone marrow-derived primary macrophages, to bind LPS in solution, and when LPS is already bound to macrophages (fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal microscopy), to compete with LPS for its binding site on the CD14 receptor (flow cytometry) and affect LPS oligomerization. We conclude that a strong binding of a peptide to LPS aggregates accompanied by aggregate dissociation prevents LPS from binding to the carrier protein lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, or alternatively to its receptor, and hence inhibits cytokine secretion.

  16. Quench propagation velocity for highly stabilized conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, R.G. |; Ogitsu, T. |; Devred, A.

    1995-05-01

    Quench propagation velocity in conductors having a large amount of stabilizer outside the multifilamentary area is considered. It is shown that the current redistribution process between the multifilamentary area and the stabilizer can strongly effect the quench propagation. A criterion is derived determining the conditions under which the current redistribution process becomes significant, and a model of effective stabilizer area is suggested to describe its influence on the quench propagation velocity. As an illustration, the model is applied to calculate the adiabatic quench propagation velocity for a conductor geometry with a multifilamentary area embedded inside the stabilizer.

  17. Two stability problems related to resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Tasso, H. )

    1994-09-01

    Two general problems related to resistive magnetohydrodynamic stability are addressed in this paper. First, a general stability condition previously derived by the author for a class of real systems, occurring especially in plasma physics, is proved to persist to second order, despite the addition of several antisymmetric operators of first order in the linearized stability equation. Second, for a special but representative choice of the stability operators, a nonperturbative analysis demonstrates the existence of a critical density for the appearance of an overstability and the connected Hopf bifurcation, as suggested in a previous paper [Phys. Lett. A [bold 180], 257 (1993)].

  18. Analysis of multi-domain hypothetical proteins containing iron-sulphur clusters and fad ligands reveal rieske dioxygenase activity suggesting their plausible roles in bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanarayanan, Nitish; Nagendra, Holenarasipur Gundurao

    2012-01-01

    ‘Conserved hypothetical’ proteins pose a challenge not just for functional genomics, but also to biology in general. As long as there are hundreds of conserved proteins with unknown function in model organisms such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis or Saccharomyces cerevisiae, any discussion towards a ‘complete’ understanding of these biological systems will remain a wishful thinking. Insilico approaches exhibit great promise towards attempts that enable appreciating the plausible roles of these hypothetical proteins. Among the majority of genomic proteins, two-thirds in unicellular organisms and more than 80% in metazoa, are multi-domain proteins, created as a result of gene duplication events. Aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases, also called Rieske dioxygenases (RDOs), are class of multi-domain proteins that catalyze the initial step in microbial aerobic degradation of many aromatic compounds. Investigations here address the computational characterization of hypothetical proteins containing Ferredoxin and Flavodoxin signatures. Consensus sequence of each class of oxidoreductase was obtained by a phylogenetic analysis, involving clustering methods based on evolutionary relationship. A synthetic sequence was developed by combining the consensus, which was used as the basis to search for their homologs via BLAST. The exercise yielded 129 multidomain hypothetical proteins containing both 2Fe-2S (Ferredoxin) and FNR (Flavodoxin) domains. In the current study, 40 proteins with N-terminus 2Fe-2S domain and C-terminus FNR domain are characterized, through homology modelling and docking exercises which suggest dioxygenase activity indicating their plausible roles in degradation of aromatic moieties. PMID:23275712

  19. A reexamination of the factor structure of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: is a one-factor model plausible?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Michael C; Cheavens, Jennifer S; Heiy, Jane E; Cukrowicz, Kelly C

    2010-09-01

    The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is one of the most widely used measures of depressive symptoms in research today. The original psychometric work in support of the CES-D (Radloff, 1977) described a 4-factor model underlying the 20 items on the scale. Despite a long history of evidence supporting this structure, researchers routinely report single-number summaries from the CES-D. The research described in this article examines the plausibility of 1-factor model using an initial sample of 595 subjects and a cross-validation sample of 661. After comparing a series of models found in the literature or suggested by analyses, we determined that the good fit of the 4-factor model is mostly due to its ability to model excess covariance associated with the 4 reverse-scored items. A 2-factor model that included a general depression factor and a positive wording method factor loading only on those 4 items had fit that was nearly as good as the original 4-factor model. We conclude that although a 1-factor model may not be the best model for the full 20-item CES-D, it is at least plausible. If a unidimensional set of items is required (e.g., for a unidimensional item response theory analysis), by dropping 5 items, we were able to find a 1-factor model that had very similar fit to the 4-factor model with the original 20 items. PMID:20822284

  20. Derivatives of Matching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrnstein, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The matching law for reinforced behavior solves a differential equation relating infinitesimal changes in behavior to infinitesimal changes in reinforcement. The equation expresses plausible conceptions of behavior and reinforcement, yields a simple nonlinear operator model for acquisition, and suggests a alternative to the economic law of…

  1. Androctonin, a hydrophilic disulphide-bridged non-haemolytic anti-microbial peptide: a plausible mode of action.

    PubMed Central

    Hetru, C; Letellier, L; Oren, Z; Hoffmann, J A; Shai, Y

    2000-01-01

    Androctonin is a 25-residue non-haemolytic anti-microbial peptide isolated from the scorpion Androctonus australis and contains two disulphide bridges. Androctonin is different from known native anti-microbial peptides, being a relatively hydrophilic and non-amphipathic molecule. This raises the possibility that the target of androctonin might not be the bacterial membrane, shown to be a target for most amphipathic lytic peptides. To shed light on its mode of action on bacteria and its non-haemolytic activity, we synthesized androctonin, its fluorescent derivatives and its all-D-amino acid enantiomer. The enantiomer preserved high activity, suggesting a lipid-peptide interaction between androctonin and bacterial membranes. In Gram-positive and (at higher concentrations) Gram-negative bacteria, androctonin induced an immediate perturbation of the permeability properties of the cytoplasmic membrane of the bacterial energetic state, concomitant with perturbation of the morphology of the cell envelope as revealed by electron microscopy. Androctonin binds only to negatively charged lipid vesicles and induces the leakage of markers at high concentrations and with a slow kinetics, in contrast with amphipathic alpha-helical anti-microbial peptides that bind and permeate negatively charged vesicles, and to a smaller extent also zwitterionic ones. This might explain the selective lytic activity of androctonin towards bacteria but not red blood cells. Polarized attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that androctonin adopts a beta-sheet structure in membranes and did not affect the lipid acyl chain order, which supports a detergent-like effect. The small size of androctonin, its hydrophilic character and its physicochemical properties are favourable features for its potential application as a replacement for commercially available antibiotics to which bacteria have developed resistance. PMID:10642525

  2. Stability analysis for n-component Bose-Einstein condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, David C.; Ueda, Masahito

    2006-05-15

    We derive the dynamic and thermodynamic stability conditions for dilute multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). These stability conditions, generalized for n-component BECs, are found to be equivalent and are shown to be consistent with the phase diagrams of two- and three-component condensates that are derived from energetic arguments.

  3. Density Functional Theory-Derived Group Additivity and Linear Scaling Methods for Prediction of Oxygenate Stability on Metal Catalysts. Adsorption of Open-Ring Alcohol and Polyol Dehydrogenation Intermediates on Pt-Based Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Salciccioli, Michael; Chen, Ying; Vlachos, Dion G.

    2010-11-09

    Semiempirical methods for prediction of thermochemical properties of adsorbed oxygenates are developed. Periodic density functional theory calculations are used to study the relative stability of ethanol, ethylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, and glycerol dehydrogenation intermediates on Pt(111). For ethylene glycol dehydrogenation intermediates, it is found that the thermodynamically favored intermediates at each level of dehydrogenation are as follows: HOCH2CHOH, HOCHCHOH, HOCHCOH, HOCCOH ≈ HOCHCO, HOCCO, OCCO. Structural and energetic patterns emerge from these C2HxO2 adsorption calculations that lead to the formation of group additive properties for thermochemical property prediction of oxygenates on Pt(111). Finally, linear scaling relationships of atomic binding energy are used to predict the binding energy of the C2HxO2 species on the Ni(111) surface and Ni-Pt-Pt(111) bimetallic surface. It is shown that the linear scaling relationships can accurately predict the binding energy of larger oxygenates as well as of oxygenates on bimetallic catalysts. Corrections for ring strain and weak oxygen-metal and hydrogen-bonding interactions are added to increase the accuracy of group additivity and linear scaling relationships.

  4. New stability and stabilization criteria for fuzzy neural networks with various activation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathiyalagan, K.; Sakthivel, R.; Anthoni, S. Marshal

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, the stability analysis and control design of Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy neural networks with various activation functions and continuously distributed time delays are addressed. By implementing the delay-fractioning technique together with the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach , a new set of sufficient conditions is derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities, which ensure the stability of the considered fuzzy neural networks. Further, based on the above-mentioned techniques, a control law with an appropriate gain control matrix is derived to achieve stabilization of the fuzzy neural networks. In addition, the results are extended to the study of the stability and stabilization results for TS fuzzy uncertain neural networks with parameter uncertainties. The stabilization criteria are obtained in terms LMIs and hence the gain control matrix can be easily determined by the MATLAB LMI control toolbox. Two numerical examples with simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained result.

  5. On Ideal Stability of Cylindrical Localized Interchange Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Umansky, M V

    2007-05-15

    Stability of cylindrical localized ideal pressure-driven interchange plasma modes is revisited. Converting the underlying eigenvalue problem into the form of the Schroedinger equation gives a new simple way of deriving the Suydam stability criterion and calculating the growth rates of unstable modes. Near the marginal stability limit the growth rate is exponentially small and the mode has a double-peak structure.

  6. Motion-related artefacts in EEG predict neuronally plausible patterns of activation in fMRI data

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Marije; White, Thomas P.; Mullinger, Karen J.; Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Gowland, Penny A.; Francis, Susan T.; Bowtell, Richard; Liddle, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    The simultaneous acquisition and subsequent analysis of EEG and fMRI data is challenging owing to increased noise levels in the EEG data. A common method to integrate data from these two modalities is to use aspects of the EEG data, such as the amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERP) or oscillatory EEG activity, to predict fluctuations in the fMRI data. However, this relies on the acquisition of high quality datasets to ensure that only the correlates of neuronal activity are being studied. In this study, we investigate the effects of head-motion-related artefacts in the EEG signal on the predicted T2*-weighted signal variation. We apply our analyses to two independent datasets: 1) four participants were asked to move their feet in the scanner to generate small head movements, and 2) four participants performed an episodic memory task. We created T2*-weighted signal predictors from indicators of abrupt head motion using derivatives of the realignment parameters, from visually detected artefacts in the EEG as well as from three EEG frequency bands (theta, alpha and beta). In both datasets, we found little correlation between the T2*-weighted signal and EEG predictors that were not convolved with the canonical haemodynamic response function (cHRF). However, all convolved EEG predictors strongly correlated with the T2*-weighted signal variation in various regions including the bilateral superior temporal cortex, supplementary motor area, medial parietal cortex and cerebellum. The finding that movement onset spikes in the EEG predict T2*-weighted signal intensity only when the time course of movements is convolved with the cHRF, suggests that the correlated signal might reflect a BOLD response to neural activity associated with head movement. Furthermore, the observation that broad-spectral EEG spikes tend to occur at the same time as abrupt head movements, together with the finding that abrupt movements and EEG spikes show similar correlations with the T2

  7. Composite stabilizer unit

    DOEpatents

    Ebaugh, Larry R.; Sadler, Collin P.; Carter, Gary D.

    1992-01-01

    An improved fin stabilized projectile including multiple stabilizer fins upon a stabilizer unit situated at the aft end of the projectile is provided, the improvement wherein the stabilizer fins are joined into the stabillizer unit by an injection molded engineering grade polymer.

  8. Plasma stabilization experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sziklas, E. A.; Fader, W. J.; Jong, R. A.; Stufflebeam, J. H.

    1980-07-01

    The plasma stabilization experiment is an effort to enhance stability in a mirror-confined plasma by trapping cold ions with rf fields applied near the mirror throats. Nagoya Type 3 antennas, coupled to a 60 kW rf power supply are mounted in the throats of the UTRC baseball magnet. An external washer gun provides a source of plasma for both streaming and confined plasma tests. Results show a strong stoppering effect on streaming plasmas and a marginal effect on confined plasmas. Theoretical calculations provide an explanation for the experimental observations. The field generates a ponderomotive force acting on the electrons. The resultant improvement in electron confinement changes the ambipolar potential and inhibits the flow of ions through the mirror throat. Criteria are derived for the validity of this trapping concept. The requisite field strengths are significantly lower than those required to trap ions directly. Scaling laws are developed for application of cold ion trapping to large mirror devices containing dense plasmas. The use of slow-wave antenna structures operated at frequencies above the lower hybrid frequency is recommended for these applications.

  9. Stabilization of betalains: A review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Imtiyaj

    2016-04-15

    Betalains are vacuolar pigments composed of a nitrogenous core structure, betalamic acid [4-(2-oxoethylidene)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid]. This compound consists of a chromophore substructure 1,7-diazaheptamethin. Betalamic acid condenses with imino compounds (cyclo-DOPA or its glucosyl derivatives), or amines and/or their derivatives to form a variety of betacyanins (violet) and betaxanthins (yellow), respectively. These pigments exhibit absorption maxima in between 532-550 nm and 457-485 nm, respectively. These colors are currently in use as food additives as they are bioactive and completely safe to consume. However, owing to poor stability, their potential application in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics is severely compromised. There is a lack of scientific reports highlighting their superior tinctorial strength including fluorescence, and their excellent water solubility. For widening the color spectrum and their usage, various betalain-rich extracts have been reviewed here, focusing on their matrix effects on stability vis-a-vis purified pigments of different structural make-up. This review also encompasses work carried out in the past related to stability/stabilization of betalains and future research direction for the same.

  10. 17 CFR 40.10 - Special certification procedures for submission of rules by systemically important derivatives...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... procedures for submission of rules by systemically important derivatives clearing organizations. 40.10... important derivatives clearing organizations. (a) Advance notice. A registered derivatives clearing organization that has been designated by the Financial Stability Oversight Council as a systemically...

  11. 17 CFR 40.10 - Special certification procedures for submission of rules by systemically important derivatives...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... procedures for submission of rules by systemically important derivatives clearing organizations. 40.10... important derivatives clearing organizations. (a) Advance notice. A registered derivatives clearing organization that has been designated by the Financial Stability Oversight Council as a systemically...

  12. The extraordinary ability of guanidinate derivatives to stabilize higher oxidation numbers in dimetal units by modification of redox potentials: structures of Mo(2)(5+) and Mo(2)(6+) compounds.

    PubMed

    Cotton, F Albert; Daniels, Lee M; Murillo, Carlos A; Timmons, Daren J; Wilkinson, Chad C

    2002-08-01

    Full characterization of the first homologous series of dimolybdenum paddlewheel compounds having electronic configurations of the types sigma(2)pi(4)delta(x), x = 2, 1, 0, and Mo-Mo bond orders of 4, 3.5, and 3, respectively, has been accomplished with the guanidinate-type ligand hpp (hpp = the anion of 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-2H-pyrimido[1,2-a]pyrimidine). Essentially quantitative oxidation of Mo(2)(hpp)(4), 1, by CH(2)Cl(2) gives Mo(2)(hpp)(4)Cl, 2. The halide in 2 can be replaced by reaction with TlBF(4) to produce Mo(2)(hpp)(4)(BF(4)), 3. Further oxidation of 2 by AgBF(4) produces Mo(2)(hpp)(4)ClBF(4), 4. The change from bond order 4 (in 1) to 3.5 in Mo(2)(hpp)(4)Cl is accompanied by an increase in the Mo-Mo bond length of 0.061 to 2.1280(4) A. A further increase of 0.044 A in the Mo-Mo distance to 2.172(1) A is observed as the bond order decreases to 3 in 4. At the same time, the Mo-N distances decrease smoothly as the oxidation state of the Mo atoms increases. Electrochemical studies have shown two chemically reversible processes at very negative potentials, E(1)(1/2)= -0.444 V and E(2)(1/2)= -1.271 V versus Ag/AgCl. These correspond to the processes Mo(2)(6+/5+) and Mo(2)(5+/4+), respectively. The latter potential is displaced by over 1.5 V relative to those of the Mo(2)(formamidinate)(4) compounds and the first one has never been observed in such complexes. Thus, in surprising contrast to previously observed behavior of the dimolybdenum unit, when it is surrounded by the very basic guanidinate ligand hpp, there is an extraordinary stabilization of the higher oxidation numbers of the molybdenum atoms.

  13. Transient Dynamics of Electric Power Systems: Direct Stability Assessment and Chaotic Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Chia-Chi

    outlined. More recently, unexpected behaviors have been observed in many power systems suggesting that some important system dynamics are not yet well-understood. Chaotic motions provide a plausible theoretical basis to interpret such unexpected behaviors. A synchronous machine with saliency and a nonlinear damping effect is analyzed. Based on the Melnikov theorem, a criterion for detecting chaotic motions is derived. Finally, multi-swing instability problems are discussed. Multi-swing trajectories refer to those trajectories which will oscillate several cycles and then become unbounded after the fault is cleared. In order to characterize such irregular behaviors, we develop three different mechanisms to demonstrate the existence of such multi-swing behaviors. Theoretical explorations have strongly indicated a close relationship between multi-swing instability problems and chaotic motions.

  14. Is the Framework of Cohn's 'Tritope Model' for How T Cell Receptors Recognize Peptide/Self-MHC Complexes and Allo-MHC Plausible?

    PubMed

    Bretscher, Peter A

    2016-05-01

    Cohn has developed the tritope model to describe how distinct domains of the T cell receptor (TcR) recognize peptide/self-MHC complexes and allo-MHC. He has over the years employed this model as a framework for considering how the TcR might mediate various signals [1-5]. In a recent publication [5], Cohn employs the Tritope Model to propose a detailed mechanism for the T cell receptor's involvement in positive thymic selection [5]. During a review of this proposal, I became uneasy over the plausibility of the underlying framework of the Tritope Model. I outline here the evolutionary considerations making me question this framework. I also suggest that the proposed framework underlying the Tritope Model makes strong predictions whose validity can most probably be assessed by considering observations reported in the literature.

  15. Treating an artificial catchment as ungauged: Increasing the plausibility of an uncalibrated, process-based SVAT scheme by using additional soft and hard data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, H.

    The 1-D process-based model SIMULAT was applied to the 6 ha large artificial catchment “Chicken Creek” in Lausatia, Germany. Within the framework of a model intercomparison study, data availability was improved step by step, starting from sparse data conditions. Initially, the model was parameterised based on transfer functions (e.g., soil hydraulic properties were estimated from pedotransfer functions) and literature (e.g., plant parameters, boundary conditions), only. Then parameterisation was revised based on field inspection and additional quantitative data (e.g., from point measurements). Finally, soil moisture data were used for validation and calibration purposes. During this parameterisation process, model results became increasingly plausible although calibration and validation against observed discharge were not feasible because discharge data were not available to the modellers. Simulated discharge dynamics changed from an initially base flow-dominated and continuous flow regime to a system in which different flow components contribute similarly to the event-based total discharge, better conforming to the hydrological process understanding with respect to the development of a gully network. Qualitative information (=soft data) gained from a field visit particularly contributed to this improvement in process understanding towards a flow regime dominated by surface runoff, while additional quantitative information on system characteristics rather served the purpose of verifying (or revising) of model parameterisation and defining appropriate initial conditions. An evaluation of simulated surface runoff rates based on event-based discharge information for a subcatchment revealed that the model overestimated the surface runoff generation for all advanced modelling steps. A final validation of model results is not yet feasible as continuous discharge data at the catchment outlet are not available so far. However, the model application indicated that

  16. Lyapunov stability of flowing magnetohydrodynamic plasmas surrounded by resistive walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasso, H.; Throumoulopoulos, G. N.

    2011-07-01

    A general stability condition for plasma-vacuum systems with resistive walls is derived by using the Frieman Rotenberg Lagrangian stability formulation [Rev. Mod. Phys. 32, 898 (1960)]. It is shown that the Lyapunov stability limit for external modes does not depend upon the gyroscopic term but upon the sign of the perturbed potential energy only. In the absence of dissipation in the plasma such as viscosity, it is expected that the flow cannot stabilize the system.

  17. Stability and control of maneuvering high-performance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, R. F.; Berry, P. W.

    1977-01-01

    The stability and control of a high-performance aircraft was analyzed, and a design methodology for a departure prevention stability augmentation system (DPSAS) was developed. A general linear aircraft model was derived which includes maneuvering flight effects and trim calculation procedures for investigating highly dynamic trajectories. The stability and control analysis systematically explored the effects of flight condition and angular motion, as well as the stability of typical air combat trajectories. The effects of configuration variation also were examined.

  18. Plutonium inventories for stabilization and stabilized materials

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.K.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of the breakout session was to identify characteristics of materials containing plutonium, the need to stabilize these materials for storage, and plans to accomplish the stabilization activities. All current stabilization activities are driven by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94-1 (May 26, 1994) and by the recently completed Plutonium ES&H Vulnerability Assessment (DOE-EH-0415). The Implementation Plan for accomplishing stabilization of plutonium-bearing residues in response to the Recommendation and the Assessment was published by DOE on February 28, 1995. This Implementation Plan (IP) commits to stabilizing problem materials within 3 years, and stabilizing all other materials within 8 years. The IP identifies approximately 20 metric tons of plutonium requiring stabilization and/or repackaging. A further breakdown shows this material to consist of 8.5 metric tons of plutonium metal and alloys, 5.5 metric tons of plutonium as oxide, and 6 metric tons of plutonium as residues. Stabilization of the metal and oxide categories containing greater than 50 weight percent plutonium is covered by DOE Standard {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides{close_quotes} December, 1994 (DOE-STD-3013-94). This standard establishes criteria for safe storage of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides for up to 50 years. Each of the DOE sites and contractors with large plutonium inventories has either started or is preparing to start stabilization activities to meet these criteria.

  19. Stability and metastability of bromine clathrate polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Andrew H; Molinero, Valeria

    2013-05-23

    Clathrate hydrates are crystals in which water forms a network of fully hydrogen-bonded polyhedral cages that contain small guests. Clathrate hydrates occur mostly in two cubic crystal polymorphs, sI and sII. Bromine is one of two guests that yield a hydrate with the tetragonal structure (TS), the topological dual of the Frank-Kasper σ phase. There has been a long-standing disagreement on whether bromine hydrate also forms metastable sI and sII crystals. To date there are no data on the thermodynamic range of stability (e.g., the melting temperatures) of the metastable polymorphs. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations with the coarse-grained model of water mW to (i) investigate the thermodynamic stability of the empty and guest-filled the sI, sII, TS, and HS-I hydrate polymorphs, (ii) develop a coarse-grained model of bromine compatible with mW water, and (iii) evaluate the stability of the bromine hydrate polymorphs. The mW model predicts the same relative energy of the empty clathrate polymorphs and the same phase diagram as a function of water-guest interaction than the fully atomistic TIP4P water model. There is a narrow region in water-guest parameter space for which TS is marginally more stable than sI or sII. We parametrize a coarse-grained model of bromine compatible with mW water and use it to determine the order of stability of the bromine hydrate polymorphs. The melting temperatures of the bromine hydrate polymorphs predicted by the coarse-grained model are 281 ± 1 K for TS, 279 ± 1 K for sII, and 276 ± 1 K for sI. The closeness of the melting temperatures supports the plausibility of formation of metastable sII and sI bromine hydrates.

  20. The AIROscope pointing and stabilization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J. P.; Lorell, K. R.

    1974-01-01

    The AIROscope pointing and stabilization system is described. The system is configured with three gimbal axes and rate integrating gyro stabilization to provide a stable platform for infrared astronomy. Error signals for on and off-axis pointing are derived from a video sensor which also drives a ground station display. Other features of the system include direct drive torque motors and electronic suspension damping. Results of analysis and simulations used to design the control loops, and a pointing error analysis are presented.

  1. Plausible Mechanisms of Cadmium Carcinogenesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cadmium is a transition metal and an ubiquitous environmental and industrial pollutant. Laboratory animal studies and epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to cadmium is associated with various organ toxicities and carcinogenic effects. Several national and internation...

  2. Towards a more plausible dragon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efthimiou, Costas

    2014-08-01

    Wizards, mermaids, dragons and aliens. Walking, running, flying and space travel. A hi-tech elevator, a computer, a propulsion engine and a black hole. What do all of these things have in common? This might seem like a really hard brainteaser but the answer is simple: they all obey the fundamental laws of our universe.

  3. Stability of a liquid bridge under vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benilov, E. S.

    2016-06-01

    We examine the stability of a vertical liquid bridge between two vertically vibrating, coaxial disks. Assuming that the vibration amplitude and period are much smaller than the mean distance between the disks and the global timescale, respectively, we employ the method of multiple scales to derive a set of asymptotic equations. The set is then used to examine the stability of a bridge of an almost cylindrical shape. It is shown that, if acting alone, gravity is a destabilizing influence, whereas vibration can weaken it or even eliminate altogether. Thus, counter-intuitively, vibration can stabilize an otherwise unstable capillary structure.

  4. Stability of a liquid bridge under vibration.

    PubMed

    Benilov, E S

    2016-06-01

    We examine the stability of a vertical liquid bridge between two vertically vibrating, coaxial disks. Assuming that the vibration amplitude and period are much smaller than the mean distance between the disks and the global timescale, respectively, we employ the method of multiple scales to derive a set of asymptotic equations. The set is then used to examine the stability of a bridge of an almost cylindrical shape. It is shown that, if acting alone, gravity is a destabilizing influence, whereas vibration can weaken it or even eliminate altogether. Thus, counter-intuitively, vibration can stabilize an otherwise unstable capillary structure.

  5. Thermodynamical stability of the Bardeen black hole

    SciTech Connect

    Bretón, Nora; Perez Bergliaffa, Santiago E.

    2014-01-14

    We analyze the stability of the regular magnetic Bardeen black hole both thermodynamically and dynamically. For the thermodynamical analysis we consider a microcanonical ensemble and apply the turning point method. This method allows to decide a change in stability (or instability) of a system, requiring only the assumption of smoothness of the area functional. The dynamical stability is asserted using criteria based on the signs of the Lagrangian and its derivatives. It turns out from our analysis that the Bardeen black hole is both thermodynamically and dynamically stable.

  6. Volvalerine A, an unprecedented N-containing sesquiterpenoid dimer derivative from Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhou, Jun; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Zhao, You-Xing

    2016-03-01

    Volvalerine A (1), a novel N-containing bisesquiterpenoid derivative with a dihydroisoxazole ring, and its possible biosynthetic precursor, 1-hydroxy-1,11,11-trimethyldecahydrocyclopropane azulene-10-one (2), were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and relative configurations were identified using spectroscopic data and X-ray crystallography. A plausible biosynthetic pathway for 1 is also presented. PMID:26779941

  7. Observational evidence for the plausible linkage of Equatorial Electrojet (EEJ) electric field variations with the post sunset F-region electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreeja, V.; Devasia, C. V.; Ravindran, Sudha; Pant, Tarun Kumar

    2009-11-01

    The paper is based on a detailed observational study of the Equatorial Spread F (ESF) events on geomagnetically quiet (Ap≤20) days of the solar maximum (2001), moderate (2004) and minimum (2006) years using the ionograms and magnetograms from the magnetic equatorial location of Trivandrum (8.5° N; 77° E; dip lat ~0.5° N) in India. The study brings out some interesting aspects of the daytime Equatorial Electrojet (EEJ) related electric field variations and the post sunset F-region electrodynamics governing the nature of seasonal characteristics of the ESF phenomena during these years. The observed results seem to indicate a plausible linkage of daytime EEJ related electric field variations with pre-reversal enhancement which in turn is related to the occurrence of ESF. These electric field variations are shown to be better represented through a parameter, termed as "E", in the context of possible coupling between the E- and F-regions of the ionosphere. The observed similarities in the gross features of the variations in the parameter "E" and the F-region vertical drift (Vz) point towards the potential usage of the EEJ related parameter "E" as an useful index for the assessment of Vz prior to the occurrence of ESF.

  8. Electrical anisotropy and a plausible explanation for dielectric anomaly of Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.K.; Miyayama, Masaru; Yanagida, Hiroaki

    1996-01-01

    The electrical anisotropy of layer-structured bismuth titanate (Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}) has been investigated by measurements of Seebeck coefficient, dielectric permittivity, DC conductivity, and complex impedance on single- and polycrystalline samples, and a plausible explanation for the origin of dielectric anomaly below Curie temperature has been suggested. A large anisotropy in the dielectric permittivity, DC conductivity and activation energy for charge transport was observed between the parallel/perpendicular direction to the bismuth oxide layer (Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}){sup 2+} layer. Complex impedance and modulus spectroscopy on single crystals in the direction perpendicular to the bismuth oxide layer below the Curie temperature confirmed that there are large differences in the electrical resistivity and, in particular, capacitance between the parallel/perpendicular direction to the bismuth oxide layer, which is assumed to be due to the difference in the electrical nature of the bismuth oxide layer and the pseudo-perovskite block. The dielectric anomaly below the Curie temperature is though to originate from the space charge due to the thermally agitated polarization fluctuation.

  9. Copper-TEMPO-catalyzed synthesis of α-ketoamides via tandem sp(3)C-H aerobic oxidation and amination of phenethyl alcohol derivatives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengkou; Yang, Zhao; Guo, Shiyu; Zeng, Yu; Zhu, Ning; Li, Xin; Fang, Zheng; Guo, Kai

    2016-09-28

    An efficient copper-TEMPO-catalyzed one-pot synthesis of α-ketoamides from phenethyl alcohol derivatives was developed firstly. Moreover, molecular oxygen in open air was employed as the oxidant with a broad substrate scope, which makes this methodology more practical. Based on some control experiments, a plausible mechanism was proposed. PMID:27548362

  10. Economic Stabilization Policies. Economic Topic Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Wilfred

    This pamphlet was derived from a discussion paper prepared for a Joint Council conference. It was specifically revised for this series to bring an important subject to the attention of students and concerned citizens. Part One defines the problem of economic stabilization and explains the fiscal and monetary measures used to help control the…

  11. Amphiphiles for protein solubilization and stabilization

    DOEpatents

    Gellman, Samuel Helmer; Chae, Pil Seok; Laible, Philip D.; Wander, Marc J.

    2012-09-11

    The invention provides amphiphiles for manipulating membrane proteins. The amphiphiles can feature carbohydrate-derived hydrophilic groups and branchpoints in the hydrophilic moiety and/or in a lipophilic moiety. Such amphiphiles are useful as detergents for solubilization and stabilization of membrane proteins, including photosynthetic protein superassemblies obtained from bacterial membranes.

  12. Amphiphiles for protein solubilization and stabilization

    DOEpatents

    Gellman, Samuel Helmer; Chae, Pil Seok; Laible, Phillip D; Wander, Marc J

    2014-11-04

    The invention provides amphiphiles for manipulating membrane proteins. The amphiphiles can feature carbohydrate-derived hydrophilic groups and branchpoints in the hydrophilic moiety and/or in a lipophilic moiety. Such amphiphiles are useful as detergents for solubilization and stabilization of membrane proteins, including photosynthetic protein superassemblies obtained from bacterial membranes.

  13. Limits to Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottey, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The author reflects briefly on what limited degree of global ecological stability and human cultural stability may be achieved, provided that humanity retains hope and does not give way to despair or hide in denial. These thoughts were triggered by a recent conference on International Stability and Systems Engineering. (Contains 5 notes.)

  14. Automatic Stability of Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haus, FR

    1932-01-01

    It is endeavored in this report to give a full outline of the problem of airplane stability and to classify the proposed solutions systematically. Longitudinal stability, which can be studied separately, is considered first. The combination of lateral and directional stabilities, which cannot be separated, will be dealt with later.

  15. Stability analysis of automobile driver steering control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    In steering an automobile, the driver must basically control the direction of the car's trajectory (heading angle) and the lateral deviation of the car relative to a delineated pathway. A previously published linear control model of driver steering behavior which is analyzed from a stability point of view is considered. A simple approximate expression for a stability parameter, phase margin, is derived in terms of various driver and vehicle control parameters, and boundaries for stability are discussed. A field test study is reviewed that includes the measurement of driver steering control parameters. Phase margins derived for a range of vehicle characteristics are found to be generally consistent with known adaptive properties of the human operator. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of driver adaptive behavior.

  16. Orbital Stability of High Mass Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Sarah J.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.

    2016-05-01

    In light of the observation of systems like HR 8799 that contain several planets with planet-star mass ratios larger than Jupiter's, we explore the relationships between planet separation, mass, and stability timescale for high mass multi-planet systems detectable via direct imaging. We discuss the role of overlap between 1st and sometimes 2nd order mean motion resonances, and show how trends in stability time vary from previous studies of lower mass multi-planet systems. We show that extrapolating empirically derived relationships between planet mass, separation, and stability timescale derived from lower mass planetary systems misestimate the stability timescales for higher mass planetary systems by more than an order of magnitude at separations near the Hill stability limit. We also address what metrics of planet separation are most useful for estimating a system's dynamical stability. We apply these results to young, gapped, debris disk systems of the ScoCen association in order to place limits on the maximum mass and number of planets that could persist for the lifetimes of the disks. These efforts will provide useful constraints for on-going direct imaging surveys. By setting upper limits on the most easily detectable systems, we can better interpret both new discoveries and non-dectections.

  17. Effects of asymmetry on the dynamic stability of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fantino, R. E.; Parsons, E. K.; Powell, J. D.; Shevell, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    The oblique wing concept for transonic aircraft was proposed to reduce drag. The dynamic stability of the aircraft was investigated by analytically determining the stability derivatives at angles of skew ranging from 0 and 45 deg and using these stability derivatives in a linear analysis of the coupled aircraft behavior. The stability derivatives were obtained using a lifting line aerodynamic theory and found to give reasonable agreement with derivatives developed in a previous study for the same aircraft. In the dynamic analysis, no instability or large changes occurred in the root locations for skew angles varying from 0 to 45 deg with the exception of roll convergence. The damping in roll, however, decreased by an order of magnitude. Rolling was a prominent feature of all the oscillatory mode shapes at high skew angles.

  18. Feedback stabilization initiative

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes.

  19. Parafermion stabilizer codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güngördü, Utkan; Nepal, Rabindra; Kovalev, Alexey A.

    2014-10-01

    We define and study parafermion stabilizer codes, which can be viewed as generalizations of Kitaev's one-dimensional (1D) model of unpaired Majorana fermions. Parafermion stabilizer codes can protect against low-weight errors acting on a small subset of parafermion modes in analogy to qudit stabilizer codes. Examples of several smallest parafermion stabilizer codes are given. A locality-preserving embedding of qudit operators into parafermion operators is established that allows one to map known qudit stabilizer codes to parafermion codes. We also present a local 2D parafermion construction that combines topological protection of Kitaev's toric code with additional protection relying on parity conservation.

  20. Relating the current science of ion-defect behavior in ice to a plausible mechanism for directional charge transfer during ice particle collisions.

    PubMed

    Devlin, J Paul

    2011-11-28

    A melding of modern experimental results descriptive of fundamental ion defect properties of ice is presented as a logical basis of a mechanism for the preferential transfer of positive charge from large to small colliding ice particles. The result may relate to the electrification of storm clouds. It is broadly agreed that such localized charge transfer during collision of small upwardly mobile ice particles with falling ice granules (i.e., graupel/hail) can lead to macroscopic charge separation capable of initiating lightning strikes during the expansion stage of a storm cell. Though the larger particles are thought to become negatively charged during the collisions neither a generally favored charge-exchange agent nor a preferred mechanism for the directional particle-to-particle charge transfer exists. Nevertheless, should ionic point defects of ice play a key role, the fundamental properties of ice defects considered here must apply. They include: (1) above 140 K protons move readily within and on the surface of ice while hydroxide ions are orders-of-magnitude less mobile, (2) whether generated by dissociation of HCl buried in ice, during neat ice particle growth, or at platinum-ice interfaces, interior protons move to and apparently collect at the ice-vacuum interface, and (3) proton activity and populations are orders-of-magnitude greater at the surface of ice films and free-standing ice particles than in the interior. From these fundamentals an untested argument is developed that within an ensemble of free floating ice particles the proton density at the surface is greater for larger particles. This implies a plausible proton-based mechanism that is consistent with current concepts of ice particle charging through collisions.

  1. Century-scale relative sea-level changes in West Greenland — A plausibility study to assess contributions from the cryosphere and the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wake, L. M.; Milne, G. A.; Long, A. J.; Woodroffe, S. A.; Simpson, M. J. R.; Huybrechts, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper interprets high resolution relative sea-level (RSL) reconstructions obtained from recently deposited salt-marsh sediments in Greenland. The primary aim of this study is to determine the relative contribution to the RSL observations from local to regional ice mass changes as well as density-related (steric) variations in the adjacent ocean. At sites in west Greenland, RSL rise slows from ~ 3 mm/yr to ~ 0 mm/yr at 400 years BP and is stable thereafter. In south Greenland, a similar RSL slowdown is also observed but this occurs approximately 200 yrs later. Substantial contributions from oceanographic changes are ruled out as dominant drivers of the RSL slowdown in western Greenland but could be more important at Nanortalik. Model sensitivity tests indicate that the RSL data are not compatible with a dominant dynamic ice loss via the Jakobshavn Isbrae outlet glacier as the region of ice loss and the resulting sea-level trends are too localised. Regional changes in ice thickness related to surface mass balance changes can explain the observed RSL signals but only if there is dominant mass loss during the period 400 years BP to present. This conclusion is unaffected even when uncertainties in Earth viscosity structure are taken into account. However, it is plausible that some of the RSL fall may be due to reduced ice growth at the onset of the Little Ice Age. A high resolution mass balance history of the Greenland Ice Sheet over the past few millennia and the influence of lateral Earth structure on predictions of RSL change are identified as priority areas of study in order to confidently separate local, 'transient' (e.g. elastic and gravitational) RSL changes from the long-term viscous contribution associated primarily with deglacial changes.

  2. In situ bioremediation of naphthenic acids contaminated tailing pond waters in the athabasca oil sands region--demonstrated field studies and plausible options: a review.

    PubMed

    Quagraine, E K; Peterson, H G; Headley, J V

    2005-01-01

    Currently, there are three industrial plants that recover oil from the lower Athabasca oil sands area, and there are plans in the future for several additional mines. The extraction procedures produce large volumes of slurry wastes contaminated with naphthenic acids (NAs). Because of a "zero discharge" policy the oil sands companies do not release any extraction wastes from their leases. The process-affected waters and fluid tailings contaminated with NAs are contained on-site primarily in large settling ponds. These fluid wastes from the tailing ponds can be acutely and chronically toxic to aquatic organisms, and NAs have been associated with this toxicity. The huge tailings containment area must ultimately be reclaimed, and this is of major concern to the oil sands industry. Some reclamation options have been investigated by both pioneering industries (Syncrude Energy Inc. and Suncor Inc.) with mixed results. The bioremediation techniques have limited success to date in biodegrading NAs to levels below 19 mg/L. Some tailing pond waters have been stored for more than 10 years, and it appears that the remaining high molecular weight NAs are refractory to the natural biodegradation process in the ponds. Some plausible options to further degrade the NAs in the tailings pond water include: bioaugmentation with bacteria selected to degrade the more refractory classes of NAs; the use of attachment materials such as clays to concentrate both the NA and the NA-degrading bacteria in their surfaces and/or pores; synergistic association between algae and bacteria consortia to promote efficient aerobic degradation; and biostimulation with nutrients to promote the growth and activity of the microorganisms. PMID:15756978

  3. From provocative narrative scenarios to quantitative biophysical model results: Simulating plausible futures to 2070 in an urbanizing agricultural watershed in Wisconsin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, E.; Chen, X.; Motew, M.; Qiu, J.; Zipper, S. C.; Carpenter, S. R.; Kucharik, C. J.; Steven, L. I.

    2015-12-01

    Scenario analysis is a powerful tool for envisioning future social-ecological change and its consequences on human well-being. Scenarios that integrate qualitative storylines and quantitative biophysical models can create a vivid picture of these potential futures but the integration process is not straightforward. We present - using the Yahara Watershed in southern Wisconsin (USA) as a case study - a method for developing quantitative inputs (climate, land use/cover, and land management) to drive a biophysical modeling suite based on four provocative and contrasting narrative scenarios that describe plausible futures of the watershed to 2070. The modeling suite consists of an agroecosystem model (AgroIBIS-VSF), hydrologic routing model (THMB), and empirical lake water quality model and estimates several biophysical indicators to evaluate the watershed system under each scenario. These indicators include water supply, lake flooding, agricultural production, and lake water quality. Climate (daily precipitation and air temperature) for each scenario was determined using statistics from 210 different downscaled future climate projections for two 20-year time periods (2046-2065 and 2081-2100) and modified using a stochastic weather generator to allow flexibility for matching specific climate events within the scenario narratives. Land use/cover for each scenario was determined first by quantifying changes in areal extent every decade for 15 categories at the watershed scale to be consistent with the storyline events and theme. Next, these changes were spatially distributed using a rule-based framework based on land suitability metrics that determine transition probabilities. Finally, agricultural inputs including manure and fertilizer application rates were determined for each scenario based on the prevalence of livestock, water quality regulations, and technological innovations. Each scenario is compared using model inputs (maps and time-series of land use/cover and

  4. Stable Hemiaminals: 2-Aminopyrimidine Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kwiecień, Anna; Ciunik, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Stable hemiaminals can be obtained in the one-pot reaction between 2-aminopyrimidine and nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives. Ten new hemiaminals have been obtained, six of them in crystal state. The molecular stability of these intermediates results from the presence of both electron-withdrawing nitro groups as substituents on the phenyl ring and pyrimidine ring, so no further stabilisation by intramolecular interaction is required. Hemiaminal molecules possess a tetrahedral carbon atom constituting a stereogenic centre. As the result of crystallisation in centrosymmetric space groups both enantiomers are present in the crystal structure. PMID:26258772

  5. Dynamic stability and phase resetting during biped gait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Taishin; Kawa, Kazuyoshi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Nakanishi, Masao; Yamasaki, Taiga

    2009-06-01

    Dynamic stability during periodic biped gait in humans and in a humanoid robot is considered. Here gait systems of human neuromusculoskeletal system and a humanoid are simply modeled while keeping their mechanical properties plausible. We prescribe periodic gait trajectories in terms of joint angles of the models as a function of time. The equations of motion of the models are then constrained by one of the prescribed gait trajectories to obtain types of periodically forced nonlinear dynamical systems. Simulated gait of the models may or may not fall down during gait, since the constraints are made only for joint angles of limbs but not for the motion of the body trunk. The equations of motion can exhibit a limit cycle solution (or an oscillatory solution that can be considered as a limit cycle practically) for each selected gait trajectory, if an initial condition is set appropriately. We analyze the stability of the limit cycle in terms of Poincaré maps and the basin of attraction of the limit cycle in order to examine how the stability depends on the prescribed trajectory. Moreover, the phase resetting of gait rhythm in response to external force perturbation is modeled. Since we always prescribe a gait trajectory in this study, reacting gait trajectories during the phase resetting are also prescribed. We show that an optimally prescribed reacting gait trajectory with an appropriate amount of the phase resetting can increase the gait stability. Neural mechanisms for generation and modulation of the gait trajectories are discussed.

  6. Climate Change and Sounder Radiometric Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Manning, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Satellite instrument radiometric stability is critical for climate studies. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) radiances are of sufficient stability and accuracy to serve as a climate data record as evidenced by comparisons with the global network of buoys. In this paper we examine the sensitivity of derived geophysical products to potential instrument radiometric stability issues due to diurnal, orbital and seasonal variations. Our method is to perturb the AIRS radiances and examine the impact to retrieved parameters. Results show that instability in retrieved temperature products will be on the same order of the brightness temperature error in the radiances and follow the same time dependences. AIRS excellent stability makes it ideal for examining impacts of instabilities of future systems on geophysical parameter performance.

  7. High temperature jet fuel stabilizers

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, E.M.; Selvaraj, L.; Stallman, J.B.

    1996-10-01

    We have previously discussed the rationale for development of jet fuels with enhanced thermal stability at temperatures above 400{degrees}C. At these temperatures we are encroaching into the so-called pyrolysis regime, where the cleavage of carbon-carbon bonds into free radicals is facile and leads to the rapid degradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons. Notwithstanding, we established that the formation of carbonaceous materials is significantly retarded in hydrocarbon mixtures containing molecules such as benzyl alcohol (BzOH). It was ascertained that BzOH acts as a hydrogen donor capping aliphatic radicals formed at temperatures > 400{degrees}C while transforming into relatively stable products. These results suggested is superior high temperature thermal stabilizers might be found among the more conventional hydrogen donors that find application in coal liquefaction and similar hydrogenation processes. Here we present the results of {open_quotes}screening{close_quotes} and kinetic studies of traditional hydrogen donors, such as tetralin, tetrahydroquinoline and the like, together with simple derivatives designed to test the importance of specific factors in the thermal stabilization of jet fuels.

  8. Nonlinear stability of hybrid control

    SciTech Connect

    Doulgeri, Z.; Fahantidis, N.; Paul, R.P.

    1998-07-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation on the stability properties of the hybrid control scheme was performed using Lyapunov`s theory for both the original scheme, which uses the Jacobian inverse for mapping Cartesian errors to joint errors, and a scheme using the Jacobian pseudoinverse. Both schemes result in position and force controllers that are statically coupled in the task space. Stability analysis shows that the pseudoinverse scheme is asymptotically stable, whereas the inverse scheme may become unstable depending on the manipulator attitude and the environmental stiffness. In the manipulator workspace, where kinematic instabilities have been reported to exist even away from kinematic singularities, the Jacobian inverse affects negatively the Lyapunov function`s positive definiteness and the negative sign of its derivative; this effect may become dominant when the environmental stiffness is zero or very low. Experimental results for a 2- and 3-degrees-of-freedom planar manipulator using a PUMA 560 were performed both in free space where stiffness is zero and in contact with a stiff surface. Experimental results in fee space have confirmed the stability properties of the two schemes as predicted by the theoretical analysis and are in agreement with previously reported simulation and experimental results. Experimental results in contact with a stiff wall gave stable results for both schemes.

  9. Process for stabilization of coal liquid fractions

    DOEpatents

    Davies, Geoffrey; El-Toukhy, Ahmed

    1987-01-01

    Coal liquid fractions to be used as fuels are stabilized against gum formation and viscosity increases during storage, permitting the fuel to be burned as is, without further expensive treatments to remove gums or gum-forming materials. Stabilization is accomplished by addition of cyclohexanol or other simple inexpensive secondary and tertiary alcohols, secondary and tertiary amines, and ketones to such coal liquids at levels of 5-25% by weight with respect to the coal liquid being treated. Cyclohexanol is a particularly effective and cost-efficient stabilizer. Other stabilizers are isopropanol, diphenylmethanol, tertiary butanol, dipropylamine, triethylamine, diphenylamine, ethylmethylketone, cyclohexanone, methylphenylketone, and benzophenone. Experimental data indicate that stabilization is achieved by breaking hydrogen bonds between phenols in the coal liquid, thereby preventing or retarding oxidative coupling. In addition, it has been found that coal liquid fractions stabilized according to the invention can be mixed with petroleum-derived liquid fuels to produce mixtures in which gum deposition is prevented or reduced relative to similar mixtures not containing stabilizer.

  10. Stability of holographic superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro

    2010-10-15

    We study the dynamical stability of holographic superconductors. We first classify perturbations around black hole background solutions into vector and scalar sectors by means of a 2-dimensional rotational symmetry. We prove the stability of the vector sector by explicitly constructing the positive definite Hamiltonian. To reveal a mechanism for the stabilization of a superconducting phase, we construct a quadratic action for the scalar sector. From the action, we see the stability of black holes near a critical point is determined by the equation of motion for a charged scalar field. We show the effective mass of the charged scalar field in hairy black holes is always above the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound near the critical point due to the backreaction of a gauge field. It implies the stability of the superconducting phase. We also argue that the stability continues away from the critical point.

  11. Thermal stability of naphthodiazoquinone sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, Wayne M.

    1997-07-01

    1,2-Napthoquinone diazides function as both photoactive dissolution inhibitors (PAC) for i-line positive resists and as photoacid generators (PAG) for chemically amplified resists. Traditionally, the 5-sulfonyl esters of 1,2- napthodiazoquinones (DQ) are used as PACS and recently the 4- sulfonyl (DQ) esters function as both PACS or PAGS. Knowledge of the thermal stability of the DQ is important for defining process conditions that stabilize the films prior to exposure or in post-treatments involving specific thermally induced reactions of PAC and resin. The thermal decomposition and photochemical decomposition of 1,2-napthodiazoquinones (DQ) follows similar pathways with the expulsion of nitrogen followed by formation of a reactive ketene. In absence of water (to form the indene carboxylic acid) many participatory bimolecular pathways involving reactant, products and resins are possible. Studies of the rate of decomposition of esters indicate that of 1-naptho-2-diazoquinone-4-sulfonyl derivatives are more thermally stable than the 5-sulfonyl counterparts and afford longer solution shelf life and higher thermal decomposition temperatures of 130 - 150 C. In addition, the 4-sulfonyl substituted DQ can form sulfonic acids upon thermolysis and hydrolysis. In solution, the napthodiazoquinones decompose at faster rates with lower activation energy (20 - 30 Kcal/mole) than in the solid state with higher activation energies of 40 - 50 Kcal/mole. When the DQ dissolution inhibitors are dispersed in resins, the interaction of the resin and DQ can influence the stability of the PAC. DQ mixed with novolak are more thermally stable than when blended with polyhydroxystyrene. The higher thermal stability of the 4-sulfonyl DQ esters is attributed to the electron resonance deactivation of diazo group by the sulfone subsituent.

  12. Biological plausibility as a tool to associate analytical data for micropollutants and effect potentials in wastewater, surface water, and sediments with effects in fishes.

    PubMed

    Maier, Diana; Blaha, Ludek; Giesy, John P; Henneberg, Anja; Köhler, Heinz-R; Kuch, Bertram; Osterauer, Raphaela; Peschke, Katharina; Richter, Doreen; Scheurer, Marco; Triebskorn, Rita

    2015-04-01

    of micronuclei in erythrocytes of chub from the river. Chemicals potentially responsible for effects on DNA were identified. Embryotoxic effects on zebrafish (Danio rerio), investigated in the laboratory, were associated with embryotoxic effects in trout exposed in streamwater bypass systems at the two rivers. In general, responses at all levels of organization were more pronounced in samples from the Schussen than in those from the Argen. These results are consistent with the magnitudes of chemical pollution in these two streams. Plausibility chains to establish causality between exposures and effects and to predict effects in biota in the river from studies in the laboratory are discussed.

  13. Biological plausibility as a tool to associate analytical data for micropollutants and effect potentials in wastewater, surface water, and sediments with effects in fishes.

    PubMed

    Maier, Diana; Blaha, Ludek; Giesy, John P; Henneberg, Anja; Köhler, Heinz-R; Kuch, Bertram; Osterauer, Raphaela; Peschke, Katharina; Richter, Doreen; Scheurer, Marco; Triebskorn, Rita

    2015-04-01

    of micronuclei in erythrocytes of chub from the river. Chemicals potentially responsible for effects on DNA were identified. Embryotoxic effects on zebrafish (Danio rerio), investigated in the laboratory, were associated with embryotoxic effects in trout exposed in streamwater bypass systems at the two rivers. In general, responses at all levels of organization were more pronounced in samples from the Schussen than in those from the Argen. These results are consistent with the magnitudes of chemical pollution in these two streams. Plausibility chains to establish causality between exposures and effects and to predict effects in biota in the river from studies in the laboratory are discussed. PMID:25260601

  14. Plausibility of a subglacial lake under Amundsenisen Icefield (Svalbard): spatially variable water content and sensitivity to thermal effect of snow and firn layers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucchignani, Edoardo; Mansutti, Daniela; Navarro, Francisco J.; Otero, Jaime; Glowacki, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    Within our study of the plausibility of a subglacial lake under the Amundsenisen Icefield in Southern Spitzbergen (Svalbard achipelago) (Glowacki et al., 2007), here we focus on the sensitivity of the system to the thermal effect of the firn and snow layers. Rough heat balance analysis shows that the firn layer plays an important role by driving the heat release to the atmosphere, so that its influence on the ice-water phase transition cannot be neglected (Bucchignani et al., 2012). We support our investigation with simulation via an in-house numerical code based on a thermomechanical transient model with dynamics given by a full Stokes system for the icefield and Large Eddy Simulation formulation for the water basin. Ice rheology is represented by Glen's law (n=3) with flow rate factor depending both on water content and temperature according to Breuer et al. (2006), for similar environments, and water content obtained from water mass balance (Greve & Blatter, 2009). Firn and snow thermal profiles are assumed to be steady. Their numerical values are partly (firn) available from Zagorodnov et al. (1985) and completed by matching the annual average air temperature at the surface. The ice-water phase interface is defined via the Stephan equation and the momentum and heat exchange between ice and water are regulated by corresponding interface jump conditions. We compare simulations performed with and without firn and snow layers. REFERENCES: P. Glowacki, A. Glazovsky, Y. Macheret, E. Vasilenko, J. Moore, J. O. Hagen, D. Puczko, M. Grabiec, J. Jania, F. Navarro, Dynamics and mass budget of Amundsenisen, Svalbard: interpretation of surface elevation and radar data, IUGG-2007, Perugia, 2007. E. Bucchignani, D. Mansutti, F.J. Navarro, J. Otero, P. Glowacki, Arguments from modelling about the existence of a subglacial lake at Amundsenisen Icefield (Svalbard), IGS-NB Meeting, 25-27 October, Stockholm, 2012. B. Breuer, M.A. Lange, N. Blindow, Sensitivity studies on model

  15. Internet Addiction: Stability and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined five indices of stability and change in Internet addiction: structural stability, mean-level stability, differential stability, individual-level stability, and ipsative stability. The study sample was 351 undergraduate students from end of freshman year to end of junior year. Convergent findings revealed stability…

  16. Stability and skill in driving.

    PubMed

    Treffner, Paul; Barrett, Rod; Petersen, Andrew

    2002-12-01

    Two experiments addressed the relation between postural stability, perceptual sensitivity, and stability of driving performance. A vehicle was fitted with differential GPS for measuring position and speed, position sensors for measuring brake and accelerator depression, force transducers for measuring door, console and footrest bracing forces, and an accelerometer for measuring the 3D accelerations of the vehicle. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether the initiation of deceleration and the control of braking might be due to sensitivity to the perceptual variable tau, which specifies time-to-contact (TTC), and in particular, whether its first derivative, tau-dot, is used to maintain a constant deceleration profile. Using both untrained experienced drivers (EDs) and trained driving instructors from the Holden Performance Driving Centre (HPDC), results confirmed that, regardless of skill level, tau-dot was maintained at a value close to 0.5 and, as predicted by Lee [Perception 5 (1976) 437], braking was initiated when TTC approximately 5 s. In Experiment 2, we wished to quantify the purported differences in driving behaviour between EDs and HPDC instructors during a variety of everyday manoeuvres. Results indicated that instructors utilised a different cornering trajectory, a different emergency braking strategy, and were able to perform a high-speed swerve and recovery task more effectively than the EDs. In general, the instructors applied greater bracing forces using the door and console compared with EDs. The instructors also applied greater footrest forces during emergency braking than did the EDs. The greater use of bracing by instructor drivers to resist g-forces represents a strategy of active stabilisation that enhances both postural stability, as well as overall stability and consistency of driving performance. Results are discussed with regard to the dynamics of perceptual-motor coordination, and how increased stability might improve sensitivity to

  17. Stabilizing Grout Compatibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    HARBOUR, JOHNR.

    2004-05-19

    This report provides data that will be used to formulate the stabilizing grout and includes experimental results for Tc-99 stabilization by two reagents, (1) ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and (2) surface treated hydroxyapatite (HA). One or both of these reagents are being considered by CH2M HILL for incorporation in the binder portion (matrix portion without sand) of the stabilizing grout. The technical basis for identifying the grout ingredient(s) for stabilizing technetium (Tc-99) will be provided by researchers at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) in a subsequent report.

  18. Wavelet Filtering to Reduce Conservatism in Aeroservoelastic Robust Stability Margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Marty; Lind, Rick

    1998-01-01

    Wavelet analysis for filtering and system identification was used to improve the estimation of aeroservoelastic stability margins. The conservatism of the robust stability margins was reduced with parametric and nonparametric time-frequency analysis of flight data in the model validation process. Nonparametric wavelet processing of data was used to reduce the effects of external desirableness and unmodeled dynamics. Parametric estimates of modal stability were also extracted using the wavelet transform. Computation of robust stability margins for stability boundary prediction depends on uncertainty descriptions derived from the data for model validation. F-18 high Alpha Research Vehicle aeroservoelastic flight test data demonstrated improved robust stability prediction by extension of the stability boundary beyond the flight regime.

  19. On-Line Robust Modal Stability Prediction using Wavelet Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Martin J.; Lind, Rick

    1998-01-01

    Wavelet analysis for filtering and system identification has been used to improve the estimation of aeroservoelastic stability margins. The conservatism of the robust stability margins is reduced with parametric and nonparametric time- frequency analysis of flight data in the model validation process. Nonparametric wavelet processing of data is used to reduce the effects of external disturbances and unmodeled dynamics. Parametric estimates of modal stability are also extracted using the wavelet transform. Computation of robust stability margins for stability boundary prediction depends on uncertainty descriptions derived from the data for model validation. The F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle aeroservoelastic flight test data demonstrates improved robust stability prediction by extension of the stability boundary beyond the flight regime. Guidelines and computation times are presented to show the efficiency and practical aspects of these procedures for on-line implementation. Feasibility of the method is shown for processing flight data from time- varying nonstationary test points.

  20. Circuit design and exponential stabilization of memristive neural networks.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shiping; Huang, Tingwen; Zeng, Zhigang; Chen, Yiran; Li, Peng

    2015-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of circuit design and global exponential stabilization of memristive neural networks with time-varying delays and general activation functions. Based on the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional method and free weighting matrix technique, a delay-dependent criteria for the global exponential stability and stabilization of memristive neural networks are derived in form of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Two numerical examples are elaborated to illustrate the characteristics of the results. It is noteworthy that the traditional assumptions on the boundness of the derivative of the time-varying delays are removed.

  1. Remote Stabilization of Copper Paddlewheel Based Molecular Building Blocks in Metal-Organic Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Wen-Yang; Cai, Rong; Pham, Tony; Forrest, Katherine A.; Hogan, Adam; Nugent, Patrick; Williams, Kia; Wojtas, Lukasz; Luebke, Ryan; Weseliinski, Lukasz J.; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Space, Brian; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Shi, Xiaodong; Ma, Shengqian

    2015-08-21

    Copper paddlewheel based molecular building blocks (MBBs) are ubiquitous and have been widely employed for the construction of highly porous metal–organic frameworks (MOFs). However, most copper paddlewheel based MOFs fail to retain their structural integrity in the presence of water. This instability is directly correlated to the plausible displacement of coordinating carboxylates in the copper paddlewheel MBB, [Cu₂(O₂C-)₄], by the strongly coordinating water molecules. In this comprehensive study, we illustrate the chemical stability control in the rht-MOF platform via strengthening the coordinating bonds within the triangular inorganic MBB, [Cu₃O(N4–x(CH)xC-)₃] (x = 0, 1, or 2). Remotely, the chemical stabilization propagated into the paddlewheel MBB to afford isoreticular rht-MOFs with remarkably enhanced water/chemical stabilities compared to the prototypal rht-MOF-1.

  2. Search for a common mechanism of mood stabilizers.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Adrian J; Agam, Galila

    2003-07-15

    Manic-depression, or bipolar affective disorder, is a prevalent mental disorder with a global impact. Mood stabilizers have acute and long-term effects and at a minimum are prophylactic for manic or depressive poles without detriment to the other. Lithium has significant effects on mania and depression, but may be augmented or substituted by some antiepileptic drugs. The biochemical basis for mood stabilizer therapies or the molecular origins of bipolar disorder is unknown. One approach to this problem is to seek a common target of all mood stabilizers. Lithium directly inhibits two evolutionarily conserved signal transduction pathways. It both suppresses inositol signaling through depletion of intracellular inositol and inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), a multifunctional protein kinase. A number of GSK-3 substrates are involved in neuronal function and organization, and therefore present plausible targets for therapy. Valproic acid (VPA) is an antiepileptic drug with mood-stabilizing properties. It may indirectly reduce GSK-3 activity, and can up-regulate gene expression through inhibition of histone deacetylase. These effects, however, are not conserved between different cell types. VPA also inhibits inositol signaling through an inositol-depletion mechanism. There is no evidence for GSK-3 inhibition by carbamazepine, a second antiepileptic mood stabilizer. In contrast, this drug alters neuronal morphology through an inositol-depletion mechanism as seen with lithium and VPA. Studies on the enzyme prolyl oligopeptidase and the sodium myo-inositol transporter support an inositol-depletion mechanism for mood stabilizer action. Despite these intriguing observations, it remains unclear how changes in inositol signaling underlie the origins of bipolar disorder. PMID:12826261

  3. Stabilization of enzymes through encapsulation in liposomes.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Phospholipid vesicle (liposome) offers an aqueous compartment surrounded by lipid bilayer membranes. Various enzyme molecules were reported to be encapsulated in liposomes. The liposomal enzyme shows peculiar catalytic activity and selectivity to the substrate in the bulk liquid, which are predominantly derived from the substrate permeation resistance through the membrane. We reported that the quaternary structure of bovine liver catalase and alcohol dehydrogenase was stabilized in liposomes through their interaction with lipid membranes. The method and condition for preparing the enzyme-containing liposomes with well-defined size, lipid composition, and enzyme content are of particular importance, because these properties dominate the catalytic performance and stability of the liposomal enzymes. PMID:20865384

  4. Partial stability and stabilisation of Boolean networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hong-Wei; Sun, Liang-Jie; Liu, Yang

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the stability of Boolean networks and the stabilisation of Boolean control networks with respect to part of the system's states. First, an algebraic expression of the Boolean (control) network is derived by the semi-tensor product of matrices. Then, some necessary and sufficient conditions for partial stability of Boolean networks are given. Finally, the stabilisation of Boolean control networks by a free control sequence and a state-feedback control is investigated and the respective necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained. Examples are provided to illustrate the efficiency of the obtained results.

  5. Synthetic Bioluminescent Coelenterazine Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Ryo; Citterio, Daniel; Suzuki, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The development of coelenterazine (CTZ) derivatives resulting in superior optical characteristics is an efficient method to extend the range of its possible applications. Here, we describe the synthesis of three C-6 substituted CTZ derivatives retaining the recognition by Renilla luciferase (RLuc) and its derivatives. The novel derivatives are useful as bright blue-shifted CTZ derivatives, which can be used as an alternative to hitherto reported compound DeepBlueC™. PMID:27424892

  6. Constraints on mechanisms for the growth of gully alcoves in Gasa crater, Mars, from two-dimensional stability assessments of rock slopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Okubo, C.H.; Tornabene, L.L.; Lanza, N.L.

    2011-01-01

    The value of slope stability analyses for gaining insight into the geologic conditions that would facilitate the growth of gully alcoves on Mars is demonstrated in Gasa crater. Two-dimensional limit equilibrium methods are used in conjunction with high-resolution topography derived from stereo High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) imagery. These analyses reveal three conditions that may produce observed alcove morphologies through slope failure: (1) a ca >10m thick surface layer that is either saturated with H2O ground ice or contains no groundwater/ice at all, above a zone of melting H2O ice or groundwater and under dynamic loading (i.e., seismicity), (2) a 1-10m thick surface layer that is saturated with either melting H2O ice or groundwater and under dynamic loading, or (3) a >100m thick surface layer that is saturated with either melting H2O ice or groundwater and under static loading. This finding of three plausible scenarios for slope failure demonstrates how the triggering mechanisms and characteristics of future alcove growth would be affected by prevailing environmental conditions. HiRISE images also reveal normal faults and other fractures tangential to the crowns of some gully alcoves that are interpreted to be the result of slope instability, which may facilitate future slope movement. Stability analyses show that the most failure-prone slopes in this area are found in alcoves that are adjacent to crown fractures. Accordingly, crown fractures appear to be a useful indicator of those alcoves that should be monitored for future landslide activity. ?? 2010.

  7. Four New Chloro-Eremophilane Sesquiterpenes from an Antarctic Deep-Sea Derived Fungus, Penicillium sp. PR19N-1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guangwei; Lin, Aiqun; Gu, Qianqun; Zhu, Tianjiao; Li, Dehai

    2013-01-01

    A new chloro-trinoreremophilane sesquiterpene 1, three new chlorinated eremophilane sesquiterpenes 2–4, together with a known compound, eremofortine C (5), were isolated from an Antarctic deep-sea derived fungus, Penicillium sp. PR19N-1. Structures were established using IR, HRMS, 1D and 2D NMR techniques. In addition, the plausible metabolic network of these isolated products is proposed. Compound 1 showed moderate cytotoxic activity against HL-60 and A549 cancer cell lines. PMID:23612371

  8. Laboratory Study of Magnetorotational Instability and Hydrodynamic Stability at Large Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ji, H.; Burin, M.; Schartman, E.; Goodman, J.; Liu, W.

    2006-01-01

    Two plausible mechanisms have been proposed to explain rapid angular momentum transport during accretion processes in astrophysical disks: nonlinear hydrodynamic instabilities and magnetorotational instability (MRI). A laboratory experiment in a short Taylor-Couette flow geometry has been constructed in Princeton to study both mechanisms, with novel features for better controls of the boundary-driven secondary flows (Ekman circulation). Initial results on hydrodynamic stability have shown negligible angular momentum transport in Keplerian-like flows with Reynolds numbers approaching one million, casting strong doubt on the viability of nonlinear hydrodynamic instability as a source for accretion disk turbulence.

  9. Ornithopter flight stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietl, John M.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2007-04-01

    The quasi-steady aerodynamics model and the vehicle dynamics model of ornithopter flight are explained, and numerical methods are described to capture limit cycle behavior in ornithopter flight. The Floquet method is used to determine stability in forward flight, and a linear discrete-time state-space model is developed. This is used to calculate stabilizing and disturbance-rejecting controllers.

  10. Homological stabilizer codes

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Jonas T.

    2013-03-15

    In this paper we define homological stabilizer codes on qubits which encompass codes such as Kitaev's toric code and the topological color codes. These codes are defined solely by the graphs they reside on. This feature allows us to use properties of topological graph theory to determine the graphs which are suitable as homological stabilizer codes. We then show that all toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. We show that the topological color codes and toric codes correspond to two distinct classes of graphs. We define the notion of label set equivalencies and show that under a small set of constraints the only homological stabilizer codes without local logical operators are equivalent to Kitaev's toric code or to the topological color codes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that Kitaev's toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that toric codes and color codes correspond to homological stabilizer codes on distinct graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find and classify all 2D homological stabilizer codes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find optimal codes among the homological stabilizer codes.

  11. Stabilized radio frequency quadrupole

    DOEpatents

    Lancaster, H.D.; Fugitt, J.A.; Howard, D.R.

    1984-12-25

    Disclosed is a long-vane stabilized radio frequency resonator for accelerating charged particles and including means defining a radio frequency resonator cavity, a plurality of long vanes mounted in the defining means for dividing the cavity into sections, and means interconnecting opposing ones of the plurality of vanes for stabilizing the resonator. 5 figs.

  12. Stabilized radio frequency quadrupole

    DOEpatents

    Lancaster, Henry D.; Fugitt, Jock A.; Howard, Donald R.

    1984-01-01

    A long-vane stabilized radio frequency resonator for accelerating charged particles and including means defining a radio frequency resonator cavity, a plurality of long vanes mounted in the defining means for dividing the cavity into sections, and means interconnecting opposing ones of the plurality of vanes for stabilizing the resonator.

  13. Stabilization of Kepler's problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, A.

    1977-01-01

    A regularization of Kepler's problem due to Moser (1970) is used to stabilize the equations of motion. In other words, a particular solution of Kepler's problem is imbedded in a Liapunov stable system. Perturbations can be introduced into the stabilized equations.

  14. Parafermion stabilizer codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gungordu, Utkan; Nepal, Rabindra; Kovalev, Alexey

    2015-03-01

    We define and study parafermion stabilizer codes [Phys. Rev. A 90, 042326 (2014)] which can be viewed as generalizations of Kitaev's one dimensional model of unpaired Majorana fermions. Parafermion stabilizer codes can protect against low-weight errors acting on a small subset of parafermion modes in analogy to qudit stabilizer codes. Examples of several smallest parafermion stabilizer codes are given. Our results show that parafermions can achieve a better encoding rate than Majorana fermions. A locality preserving embedding of qudit operators into parafermion operators is established which allows one to map known qudit stabilizer codes to parafermion codes. We also present a local 2D parafermion construction that combines topological protection of Kitaev's toric code with additional protection relying on parity conservation. This work was supported in part by the NSF under Grants No. Phy-1415600 and No. NSF-EPSCoR 1004094.

  15. Rotorcraft aeroelastic stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormiston, Robert A.; Warmbrodt, William G.; Hodges, Dewey H.; Peters, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental developments in the aeroelastic and aeromechanical stability of helicopters and tilt-rotor aircraft are addressed. Included are the underlying nonlinear structural mechanics of slender rotating beams, necessary for accurate modeling of elastic cantilever rotor blades, and the development of dynamic inflow, an unsteady aerodynamic theory for low-frequency aeroelastic stability applications. Analytical treatment of isolated rotor stability in hover and forward flight, coupled rotor-fuselage stability in hover and forward flight, and analysis of tilt-rotor dynamic stability are considered. Results of parametric investigations of system behavior are presented, and correlation between theoretical results and experimental data from small and large scale wind tunnel and flight testing are discussed.

  16. Hydrodynamic stability of three-dimensional homogeneous flow topologies.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Aashwin A; Girimaji, Sharath S

    2015-11-01

    This article examines the hydrodynamic stability of various homogeneous three-dimensional flow topologies. The influence of inertial and pressure effects on the stability of flows undergoing strain, rotation, convergence, divergence, and swirl are isolated. In marked contrast to two-dimensional topologies, for three-dimensional flows the inertial effects are always destabilizing, whereas pressure effects are always stabilizing. In streamline topologies with a negative velocity-gradient third invariant, inertial effects prevail leading to instability. Vortex-stretching is identified as the underlying instability mechanism. In flows with positive velocity-gradient third derivative, pressure overcomes inertial effects to stabilize the flow. PMID:26651773

  17. A Hebbian/Anti-Hebbian Neural Network for Linear Subspace Learning: A Derivation from Multidimensional Scaling of Streaming Data.

    PubMed

    Pehlevan, Cengiz; Hu, Tao; Chklovskii, Dmitri B

    2015-07-01

    Neural network models of early sensory processing typically reduce the dimensionality of streaming input data. Such networks learn the principal subspace, in the sense of principal component analysis, by adjusting synaptic weights according to activity-dependent learning rules. When derived from a principled cost function, these rules are nonlocal and hence biologically implausible. At the same time, biologically plausible local rules have been postulated rather than derived from a principled cost function. Here, to bridge this gap, we derive a biologically plausible network for subspace learning on streaming data by minimizing a principled cost function. In a departure from previous work, where cost was quantified by the representation, or reconstruction, error, we adopt a multidimensional scaling cost function for streaming data. The resulting algorithm relies only on biologically plausible Hebbian and anti-Hebbian local learning rules. In a stochastic setting, synaptic weights converge to a stationary state, which projects the input data onto the principal subspace. If the data are generated by a nonstationary distribution, the network can track the principal subspace. Thus, our result makes a step toward an algorithmic theory of neural computation.

  18. Stability of Rigidly Rotating Supermassive Stars against Gravitational Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Masaru; Uchida, Haruki; Sekiguchi, Yu-ichiro

    2016-02-01

    We revisit secular stability against quasi-radial collapse for rigidly rotating supermassive stars (SMSs) in general relativity. We suppose that the SMSs are in a nuclear-burning phase and can be modeled by polytropic equations of state with the polytropic index np slightly smaller than 3. The stability is determined in terms of the turning point method. We find a fitting formula of the stability condition for the plausible range of np (2.95≲ {n}{{p}}≲ 3) for SMSs. This condition reconfirms that while non-rotating SMSs with a mass of ˜ {10}5{M}⊙ -{10}6{M}⊙ may undergo a general relativistically induced quasi-radial collapse, rigidly rotating SMSs with a ratio of rotational to gravitational potential energy (β) of ˜ {10}-2 are likely to be stable against collapse unless they are able to accrete ˜5 times more mass during the (relatively brief) hydrogen-burning phase of their evolution. We discuss the implications of our results.

  19. Stability of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leubner, I. H.

    2008-12-01

    It is a well established myth that the solar system is stable. The argument is generally based on the fact that the rate of the radiative plus solar wind mass loss of the Sun has a relatively small value of 8.81E-05 (1/Byr = 1/Ma) (radiative: 6.63E-05 (1/By)). Experimental results, e.g., that the Earth is separating from the Sun (10m/100year)(1), put the concept of stability of solar planetary orbits into doubt. An understanding of the stability of the solar system is a critical step towards the understanding of the stability of galaxies and the Universe.(2,3) The stability of planetary orbits, which is the other factor determining the stability of the solar system, has until recently not been modeled.(4) A model is presented which shows that the planetary orbits are weakly bound relative to orbital separation, ranging from 0.6 percent for Mercury to 0.006 for Pluto, and 0.0011 percent for CR105, the furthest reported planetesimal. These values are in the order of solar mass/gravity loss, and as a consequence, the model predicts that the solar system is expanding since its formation. The present separation rate of Earth is calculated to 3.0 m/year. Eventually orbital separation of planets will occur, e.g., at 133.8, 1.30, and 0.23 Billion years for Mercury, Pluto, Cr105, respectively under current conditions. The model shows that Mars was previously closer to the Sun and exposed to higher radiation, and that the transition from water to ice on its surface occurred 3.6 Billion years ago.(4) Predictions of the model are reported for all planets and dwarf planets. References: 1. C. Laemmerzahl, 2006, 70th Annual Meeting, German Physical Society, (DPG); Note: indirect measurements, quote: The cause for the drifting apart of Sun and Earth cannot be explained by present knowledge and methods of gravitation physics' 2. I. H. Leubner, 2003, 'The Formation of the universe (Big Bang) as a Crystallization Process', Rochester Academy of Science, 30th Fall Paper Session

  20. Stability of the pumpkin balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baginski, Frank

    A large axisymmetric balloon with positive differential pressure, e.g., a sphere, leads to high film stresses. These can be significantly reduced by using a lobed pumpkin-like shape re-enforced with tendons. A number of schemes have been proposed to achieve a cyclically symmetric pumpkin-shape at full inflation, including the constant bulge angle (CBA) design and the constant bulge radius (CBR) design. The authors and others have carried out stability studies of CBA and CBR designs and found instabilities under various conditions. While stability seems to be a good indicator of deployment problems for large balloons under normal ascent conditions, one cannot conclude that a stable design will deploy reliably. Nevertheless, stability analysis allows one to quantify certain deployment characteristics. Ongoing research by NASA's Balloon Program Office utilizes a new design approach developed by Rodger Farley, NASA/GSFC, that takes into account film and tendon strain. We refer to such a balloon as a constant stress (CS) pumpkin design. In June 2006, the Flight 555-NT balloon (based on a hybrid CBR/CBA design) developed an S-cleft and did not deploy. In order to understand the S-cleft phenomena and study a number of aspects related to the CS-design, a series of inflation tests were conducted at TCOM, Elizabeth City, NC in 2007. The test vehicles were 27 meter diameter pumpkins distinguished by their respective equatorial bulge angles (BA). For example, BA98 indicates an equatorial bulge angle of 98° . BA90, BA55, and BA00 are similarly defined. BA98 was essentially a one-third scale version of of the Flight 555 balloon (i.e., 12 micron film instead of 38.1 micron, mini-tendons, etc.). BA90 and BA55 were Farley CS-designs. BA00 was derived from the BA55 design so that a flat chord spanned adjacent tendons. In this paper, we will carry out stability studies of BA98, BA90, BA55, and BA00. We discuss the deployment problem of pumpkin balloons in light of 2007 inflation