Science.gov

Sample records for derived fuel markets

  1. Scrap tire derived fuel: Markets and issues

    SciTech Connect

    Serumgard, J.

    1997-12-01

    More than 250 million scrap tires are generated annually in the United States and their proper management continues to be a solid waste management concern. Sound markets for scrap tires are growing and are consuming an ever increasing percentage of annual generation, with market capacity reaching more than 75% of annual generation in 1996. Of the three major markets - fuel, civil engineering applications, and ground rubber markets - the use of tires as a fuel is by far the largest market. The major fuel users include cement kilns, pulp and paper mills, electrical generation facilities, and some industrial facilities. Current issues that may impact the tire fuel market include continued public concern over the use of tires as fuels, the new EPA PM 2.5 standard, possible additional Clean Air emissions standards, access to adequate supplies of scrap tires, quality of processed tire derived fuel, and the possibility of creating a commodity market through the development of ASTM TDF standards.

  2. Fuel cell market applications

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.C.

    1995-12-31

    This is a review of the US (and international) fuel cell development for the stationary power generation market. Besides DOE, GRI, and EPRI sponsorship, the US fuel cell program has over 40% cost-sharing from the private sector. Support is provided by user groups with over 75 utility and other end-user members. Objectives are to develop and demonstrate cost-effective fuel cell power generation which can initially be commercialized into various market applications using natural gas fuel by the year 2000. Types of fuel cells being developed include PAFC (phosphoric acid), MCFC (molten carbonate), and SOFC (solid oxide); status of each is reported. Potential international applications are reviewed also. Fuel cells are viewed as a force in dispersed power generation, distributed power, cogeneration, and deregulated industry. Specific fuel cell attributes are discussed: Fuel cells promise to be one of the most reliable power sources; they are now being used in critical uninterruptible power systems. They need hydrogen which can be generated internally from natural gas, coal gas, methanol landfill gas, or other fuels containing hydrocarbons. Finally, fuel cell development and market applications in Japan are reviewed briefly.

  3. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, Bill; Gangi, Jennifer; Curtin, Sandra; Delmont, Elizabeth

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  4. Derived enriched uranium market

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, E.

    1996-12-01

    The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived enriched uranium hexafluoride is unresolved; US legislation places constraints on its introduction into the US market.

  5. Processed engineered fuels derived from paper and plastics - techno-economic factors and regulatory issues in a competitive market

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, M.M.; Singhania, A.; Sosa, J.; Ohlsson, O.O.

    1997-12-01

    Plastics have gained a prominent position in modern society because their unique properties, cost-performance and versatility. They contribute to almost every aspect of modern life including transportation, recreation, medicine, packaging, appliances, furniture, textiles and building and construction. The diverse properties of plastics allow them to play a major role in providing solutions for technical progress as well as solutions for everyday life. Plastics also make a significant contribution to effective resource management and conservation, reducing the use of natural resources and helping to minimize waste. By choosing plastics, manufacturers, designers, distributors and retailers in every sector have been able to respond to the challenge of preventing excess use of resources and, at the same time, bring increasingly sophisticated products to the market. Resource conservation seeks to maximize efficiency and minimize waste from a product`s manufacture, use and disposal. It involves more than managing and minimizing waste, however; it also includes taking advantage of effective life-cycle resource management at local and global levels. There are many ways that plastics contribute to effective resource management. From manufacture to use, to recovery, to waste management, plastics help conserve resources. Not only are plastics energy efficient, but they often create less waste than other materials. They can be recovered, recycled and safely landfilled. This paper reviews the energy recovery option for post-use plastics. It discusses plastics` role in modern waste-to-energy systems and then reviews some recent work exploring the use of plastics as alternative fuels. The emphasis is on solid fuels, often referred to as process engineered fuel or PEF. The liquefaction and gasification of plastics offers additional opportunities for resource recovery, but this subject is only briefly discussed in this paper.

  6. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, David; Lemar, Paul

    2015-12-01

    This report estimates the potential for opportunity fuel combined heat and power (CHP) applications in the United States, and provides estimates for the technical and economic market potential compared to those included in an earlier report. An opportunity fuel is any type of fuel that is not widely used when compared to traditional fossil fuels. Opportunity fuels primarily consist of biomass fuels, industrial waste products and fossil fuel derivatives. These fuels have the potential to be an economically viable source of power generation in various CHP applications.

  7. American fuel cell market development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis, E. A.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past three decades several attempts have been made to introduce fuel cells into commercial markets. The prospective users recognized the attractive features of fuel cells, however they were unwilling to pay a premium for the features other than the easily-calculated fuel cost savings. There was no accepted method for a user to calculate and the accrue the economic value of the other features. The situation is changing. The Clean Air Act signed into law by President Bush on November 15, 1990, mandates a nation wide reduction in SO 2, NO x and ozone emissions. This law affects specific utilities for SO 2 reduction, and specific regions of the country for NO x and ozone reductions — the latter affecting the utility-, industrial- and transportation-sectors in these regions. The Act does not direct how the reductions are to be achieved; but it specifically establishes a trading market for emission allowances whereby an organization that reduces emissions below its target can sell its unused allowance to another organization. In addition to the Clean Air Act, there are other environmental issues emerging such as controls on CO 2 emissions, possible expansion of the list of controlled emissions, mandated use of alternative fuels in specific transportation districts and restrictions on electrical transmission systems. All of these so-called 'environmental externalities' are now recognized as having a real cost that can be quantified, and factored in to calculations to determine the relative economic standing of various technologies. This in turn justifies a premium price for fuel cells hence the renewed interest in the technology by the utility and transportation market segments.

  8. Alternative Fuels Market and Policy Trends (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, A. N.

    2013-09-01

    Market forces and policies are increasing opportunities for alternative fuels. There is no one-size-fits-all, catch-all, silver-bullet fuel. States play a critical role in the alternative fuel market and are taking a leading role.

  9. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report, November 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  10. Transportation Fuels Markets, PADD 5

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    This study examines supply, demand, and distribution of transportation fuels in Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) 5, a region that includes the western states of California, Arizona, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and Hawaii. For this study, transportation fuels include gasoline, diesel fuel, and jet fuel.

  11. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    DOE

    2010-06-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general business strategy and market focus, as well as, financial information for select publicly-traded companies.

  12. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, B.

    2010-06-30

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general business strategy and market focus, as well as, financial information for select publicly-traded companies.

  13. Liquid Fuels Market Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Defines the objectives of the Liquid Fuels Market Model (LFMM), describes its basic approach, and provides detail on how it works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public.

  14. Binder enhanced refuse derived fuel

    DOEpatents

    Daugherty, Kenneth E.; Venables, Barney J.; Ohlsson, Oscar O.

    1996-01-01

    A refuse derived fuel (RDF) pellet having about 11% or more particulate calcium hydroxide which is utilized in a combustionable mixture. The pellets are used in a particulate fuel bring a mixture of 10% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of the RDF pellet which contains calcium hydroxide as a binder, with 50% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of a sulphur containing coal. Combustion of the mixture is effective to produce an effluent gas from the combustion zone having a reduced SO.sub.2 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of effluent gas from similar combustion materials not containing the calcium hydroxide.

  15. Transportation Fuels Markets, Midwest and Rocky Mountain

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    A new study commissioned by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), finds that changes in North American energy markets over the past decade have strengthened the supply of transportation fuels including motor gasoline, distillates, and jet fuel in the Midwest and Rocky Mountain regions.

  16. 2007 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    McMurphy, K.

    2009-07-01

    The fuel cell industry, which has experienced continued increases in sales, is an emerging clean energy industry with the potential for significant growth in the stationary, portable, and transportation sectors. Fuel cells produce electricity in a highly efficient electrochemical process from a variety of fuels with low to zero emissions. This report describes data compiled in 2008 on trends in the fuel cell industry for 2007 with some comparison to two previous years. The report begins with a discussion of worldwide trends in units shipped and financing for the fuel cell industry for 2007. It continues by focusing on the North American and U.S. markets. After providing this industry-wide overview, the report identifies trends for each of the major fuel cell applications -- stationary power, portable power, and transportation -- including data on the range of fuel cell technologies -- polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), alkaline fuel cell (AFC), molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), and direct-methanol fuel cell (DMFC) -- used for these applications.

  17. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  18. Supply Security in Future Nuclear Fuel Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Seward, Amy M.; Wood, Thomas W.; Gitau, Ernest T.; Ford, Benjamin E.

    2013-11-18

    Previous PNNL work has shown the existing nuclear fuel markets to provide a high degree of supply security, including the ability to respond to supply disruptions that occur for technical and non-technical reasons. It is in the context of new reactor designs – that is, reactors likely to be licensed and market ready over the next several decades – that fuel supply security is most relevant. Whereas the fuel design and fabrication technology for existing reactors are well known, the construction of a new set of reactors could stress the ability of the existing market to provide adequate supply redundancy. This study shows this is unlikely to occur for at least thirty years, as most reactors likely to be built in the next three decades will be evolutions of current designs, with similar fuel designs to existing reactors.

  19. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    DOEpatents

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  20. Liquid Fuels Market Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Defines the objectives of the Liquid Fuels Market Model (LFMM), describes its basic approach, and provides detail on how it works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. This edition of the LFMM reflects changes made to the module over the past two years for the Annual Energy Outlook 2016.

  1. 2010 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report, June 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    This report summarizes 2010 data on fuel cells, including market penetration and industry trends. It also covers cost, price, and performance trends, along with policy and market drivers and the future outlook for fuel cells.

  2. Fuel Cells Today: Early Market Applications and Learning Demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-09

    This MP3 provides an overview of early market fuel cell applications including today's commercially available fuel cells and "learning demonstrations" to validate fuel cell technology in real world conditions.

  3. Clean fuel for demanding environmental markets

    SciTech Connect

    Josewicz, W.; Natschke, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Acurex Environmental Corporation is bringing Clean Fuel to the environmentally demand Krakow market, through the cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy. Clean fuel is a proprietary clean burning coal-based energy source intended for use in stoves and hand stoked boilers. Clean Fuel is a home heating fuel that is similar in form and function to raw coal, but is more environmentally friendly and lower in cost. The heating value of Clean Fuel is 24,45 kJ/kg. Extensive sets of confirmation runs were conducted in the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy in the Krakow laboratories. It demonstrated up to 54 percent reduction of particulate matter emission, up to 35 percent reduction of total hydrocarbon emissions. Most importantly, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (toxic and carcinogens compounds) emissions were reduced by up to 85 percent, depending on species measured. The above comparison was made against premium chunk coal that is currently available in Krakow for approximately $83 to 93/ton. Clean Fuel will be made available in Krakow at a price approximately 10 percent lower than that of the premium chunk coal.

  4. Market opportunities for fuel cells in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Marschoff, C.M.; Lande, J.; Espindola, S.

    1996-12-31

    Electricity in Argentina is mainly supplied through the National Interconnected System (NIS) grid, that manages the generation of all medium and large size utilities (thermal, hydro and nuclear) in the country. However, there are still large areas not linked to the NIS: electricity there either comes from utilities that mainly work with diesel groups, or is obtained by individuals from 1-5 kW generators (mostly IC powered, although some wind and solar devices also exist). Finally, in many low-income rural and semi-rural sites, there is no electric generation at all. In this context, we wish to show that there is an important market niche where fuel cells should be competitive and that this market size justifies a detailed investment analysis. Thus, we have performed economic calculations in three sites, which are representative samples of different structural situations, in which costs of fuel cell produced electricity are compared to presently existing devices. Also, calculations were carried out for use of fuel cells in Antarctica.

  5. Timber markets and fuel treatments in the western US

    Treesearch

    Karen L. Abt; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2006-01-01

    We developed a model of interrelated timber markets in the U.S. West to assess the impacts of large-scale fuel reduction programs on these markets, and concomitant effects of the market on the fuel reduction programs. The linear programming spatial equilibrium model allows interstate and international trade with western Canada and the rest of the world, while...

  6. The Northeast heating fuel market: Assessment and options

    SciTech Connect

    2000-07-01

    In response to a Presidential request, this study examines how the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sector consumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of tie energy markets in the Northeast. In addition, this report explores the potential for nonresidential users to move away from distillate fuel oil and how this might impact future prices, and discusses conversion of distillate fuel oil users to other fuels over the next 5 years. Because the President's and Secretary's request focused on converting factories and other large-volume users of mostly high-sulfur distillate fuel oil to other fuels, transportation sector use of low-sulfur distillate fuel oil is not examined here.

  7. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal Derived Liquids. Volume 1. Market Assessment for Liquid By-Products from the Great Plains Gasification Plant.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    gasifiers , must be sold to the adjoining power plant. If these fines or another inexpensive replace- ment fuel could be utilized for plant fuel, then...continue to be recycled to the top of the gasifiers in order to hold down the dust in the gas stream. Therefore, only the three streams shown in Table 1...or stove oil which have properties similar to #1 fuel oil, but with a gravity of about 43 degrees API and a rmximrun end-point of 625 OF. Kerosene is

  8. Northeast Heating Fuel Market The, Assessment and Options

    EIA Publications

    2000-01-01

    In response to the President's request, this study examines how the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sector consumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of the energy markets in the Northeast

  9. Developments in U.S. Alternative Fuel Markets

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    The alternative fueled vehicle (AFV)/alternative fuels industry experienced a number of market-related changes in the second half of the 1990s. This article describes each of the alternative transportation fuels and the AFVs in detail. It provides information on the development to date and looks at trends likely to occur in the future.

  10. Fuel cell added value for early market applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardman, Scott; Chandan, Amrit; Steinberger-Wilckens, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Fuel Cells are often considered in the market place as just power providers. Whilst fuel cells do provide power, there are additional beneficial characteristics that should be highlighted to consumers. Due to the high price premiums associated with fuel cells, added value features need to be exploited in order to make them more appealing and increase unit sales and market penetration. This paper looks at the approach taken by two companies to sell high value fuel cells to niche markets. The first, SFC Energy, has a proven track record selling fuel cell power providers. The second, Bloom Energy, is making significant progress in the US by having sold its Energy Server to more than 40 corporations including Wal-Mart, Staples, Google, eBay and Apple. Further to these current markets, two prospective added value applications for fuel cells are discussed. These are fuel cells for aircraft APUs and fuel cells for fire prevention. These two existing markets and two future markets highlight that fuel cells are not just power providers. Rather, they can be used as solutions to many needs, thus being more cost effective by replacing a number of incumbent systems at the same time.

  11. Data Analysis of Early Fuel Cell Market Demonstrations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.

    2009-11-17

    Presentation about early fuel cell markets, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Hydrogen Secure Data Center and its role in data analysis and demonstrations, and composite data products, and results reported to multiple stakeholders.

  12. The new generation of vehicles: market opportunities for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalk, Steven G.; Patil, Pandit G.; Venkateswaran, S. R.

    The Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), a historic US Government-auto industry partnership initiated in 1993, is pursuing three specific, interrelated goals, including the development of the next generation of vehicles capable of achieving up to three times the fuel efficiency of today's comparable vehicles. Fuel cells have been identified as one of three primary propulsion system candidates to meet this triple fuel efficiency goal, since they can dramatically increase automotive propulsion efficiency combined with very low to zero emissions. The US Government is working closely with industry and research institutions in pursuing a strategy of aggressive research and development (R&D) to accelerate the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles. The US Department of Energy has a major role in this fuel cell technology development effort. R&D activities are focused on overcoming the major technical, economic, and infrastructure-related hurdles. The high efficiency, very low emissions, and other favorable characteristics of fuel cells (such as fuel flexibility, low noise, and vibration) create significant market opportunities for fuel cells over the entire spectrum of transportation applications. While the focus of near-term markets for fuel cell vehicles will be urban areas having severe air-quality problems, long-term market prospects are encouraging since fuel cell vehicles can compete on an even ground with conventional vehicles in all key aspects, including vehicle range and refueling. This paper will discuss near- and long-term market opportunities for fuel cells in transportation and provide an update on driving regulatory developments in the USA at the federal and state level. The paper also provides an introduction to the PNGV (focusing on the role and prospects for fuel cells) and discusses the status of fuel cell vehicle development projects.

  13. Markets and commercialization scenarios for emerging fuel cells in evolving electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Rastler, D.M.

    1996-12-31

    Electricity markets in the United States are undergoing unprecedented structural changes as a result of the confluence of regulatory, competitive, and technological forces. This paper introduces these structural changes and forces and discuss the implications, markets and commercialization scenarios for emerging fuel cells in evolving US electricity markets.

  14. The market for utility-scale fuel cell plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Masaru; Takasu, Kazuhiko

    This paper is devoted to a survey of the current technology and future market for utility-scale fuel cell plants. The phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) is entering into the stage where it is practically available for use with natural gas. Large capacity plants such as 11, 5 and 1 MW have been installed and operated in Italy and Japan. Their efficiency ranges from 36 to 42%. The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is in the demonstrating stage, both the fuel cell and the balance-of-plant (BOP) for natural gas. Demonstration plants of 2 and 1 MW have been under construction in the USA and Japan. Their efficiency will range from 40 to 50%. The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is in the experimental stage around 100 kW for co-generation. Its conceptual system design has been conducted for both centralized and dispersed power plant in a cooperation with Westinghouse and NEDO. A market survey is now considered on the basis that future fuel cells will run for around 40 000 h in a stable manner with competitive performance. The market for fuel cells will be roughly at 2000 MW in Japan by the year 2010. Half of them will be installed for electric companies on the utility scale. The market will be shared between PAFC and MCFC by 10 and 90%, respectively. Current technologies have not reached the stage to precisely forecast when fuel cells will be entering into the market on a utility scale. At the present time, it is worthwhile to consider how the technological and economic requirements will be definitely achieved. After achieving these requirements, fuel cells will be positively introduced and socially accepted as the best energy converting option to save energy and environmental impact. Further efforts will be devoted to meeting the market from the technological and economic aspects.

  15. Environmental economics of lignin derived transport fuels.

    PubMed

    Obydenkova, Svetlana V; Kouris, Panos D; Hensen, Emiel J M; Heeres, Hero J; Boot, Michael D

    2017-11-01

    This paper explores the environmental and economic aspects of fast pyrolytic conversion of lignin, obtained from 2G ethanol plants, to transport fuels for both the marine and automotive markets. Various scenarios are explored, pertaining to aggregation of lignin from several sites, alternative energy carries to replace lignin, transport modalities, and allocation methodology. The results highlight two critical factors that ultimately determine the economic and/or environmental fuel viability. The first factor, the logistics scheme, exhibited the disadvantage of the centralized approach, owing to prohibitively expensive transportation costs of the low energy-dense lignin. Life cycle analysis (LCA) displayed the second critical factor related to alternative energy carrier selection. Natural gas (NG) chosen over additional biomass boosts well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions (WTW GHG) to a level incompatible with the reduction targets set by the U.S. renewable fuel standard (RFS). Adversely, the process' economics revealed higher profits vs. fossil energy carrier. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of Fuel Cell Markets in Japan and the US: Experience Curve Development and Cost Reduction Disaggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Max; Smith, Sarah J.; Sohn, Michael D.

    2016-07-15

    Fuel cells are both a longstanding and emerging technology for stationary and transportation applications, and their future use will likely be critical for the deep decarbonization of global energy systems. As we look into future applications, a key challenge for policy-makers and technology market forecasters who seek to track and/or accelerate their market adoption is the ability to forecast market costs of the fuel cells as technology innovations are incorporated into market products. Specifically, there is a need to estimate technology learning rates, which are rates of cost reduction versus production volume. Unfortunately, no literature exists for forecasting future learning rates for fuel cells. In this paper, we look retrospectively to estimate learning rates for two fuel cell deployment programs: (1) the micro-combined heat and power (CHP) program in Japan, and (2) the Self-Generation Incentive Program (SGIP) in California. These two examples have a relatively broad set of historical market data and thus provide an informative and international comparison of distinct fuel cell technologies and government deployment programs. We develop a generalized procedure for disaggregating experience-curve cost-reductions in order to disaggregate the Japanese fuel cell micro-CHP market into its constituent components, and we derive and present a range of learning rates that may explain observed market trends. Finally, we explore the differences in the technology development ecosystem and market conditions that may have contributed to the observed differences in cost reduction and draw policy observations for the market adoption of future fuel cell technologies. The scientific and policy contributions of this paper are the first comparative experience curve analysis of past fuel cell technologies in two distinct markets, and the first quantitative comparison of a detailed cost model of fuel cell systems with actual market data. The resulting approach is applicable to

  17. The chemical industry, a novel market NICHE for fuel cells?

    SciTech Connect

    Dijkema, G.P.J.; Grievink, J.; Luteijn, C.P.; Weijnen, M.P.C.

    1996-12-31

    The chemical industry may be seen as a market for fuel cells. Fuel cells can be applied to upgrade by-product hydrogen. Fuel cell stacks may be fully integrated in the process system design to enhance the chemical process performance. In this case the arrangement of stacks is one of the unit operations which the chemical process is composed of. Finally trigeneration systems may be designed to produce chemicals, power and heat simultaneously, as equally important commercial products. Identification of novel market opportunities in the chemical industry can be done by a three-step method. The economic feasibility largely depends on stack lifetime and stack capital cost.

  18. Nuclear fuel: a new market dynamic

    SciTech Connect

    Kee, Edward D.

    2007-12-15

    After almost 20 years of low nuclear fuel prices, buyers have come to expect that these low and stable nuclear fuel prices will continue. This conventional wisdom may not reflect the significant changes and higher prices that growing demand, and the end of secondary sources of uranium and enrichment, will bring. (author)

  19. Hydrogen Storage Needs for Early Motive Fuel Cell Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, J.; Ainscough, C.; Simpson, L.; Caton, M.

    2012-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) objective for this project is to identify performance needs for onboard energy storage of early motive fuel cell markets by working with end users, manufacturers, and experts. The performance needs analysis is combined with a hydrogen storage technology gap analysis to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Program with information about the needs and gaps that can be used to focus research and development activities that are capable of supporting market growth.

  20. Chapter 11. Fuel Economy: The Case for Market Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L; German, John; Delucchi, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of energy using durable goods, from automobiles to home air conditioners, is not only a key determinant of economy-wide energy use but also of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, climate change and energy insecurity. Energy analysts have long noted that consumers appear to have high implicit discount rates for future fuel savings when choosing among energy using durable goods (Howarth and Sanstad, 1995). In modeling consumers choices of appliances, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) has used discount rates of 30 percent for heating systems, 69 percent for choice of refrigerator and up to 111 percent for choice of water heater (U.S. DOE/EIA, 1996). Several explanations have been offered for this widespread phenomenon, including asymmetric information, bounded rationality and transaction costs. This chapter argues that uncertainty combined with loss aversion by consumers is sufficient to explain the failure to adopt cost effective energy efficiency improvements in the market for automotive fuel economy, although other market failures appear to be present as well. Understanding how markets for energy efficiency function is crucial to formulating effective energy policies (see Pizer, 2006). Fischer et al., (2004), for example, demonstrated that if consumers fully value the discounted present value of future fuel savings, fuel economy standards are largely redundant and produce small welfare losses. However, if consumers value only the first three years of fuel savings, then fuel economy standards can significantly increase consumer welfare. The nature of any market failure that might be present in the market for energy efficiency would also affect the relative efficacy of energy taxes versus regulatory standards (CBO, 2003). If markets function efficiently, energy taxes would generally be more efficient than regulatory standards in increasing energy efficiency and reducing energy use. If markets are decidedly inefficient, standards would likely be

  1. The economic characteristics of the US fuel ethanol market

    SciTech Connect

    Rask, K.N.; Rask, N.

    1993-12-31

    Ethanol has become an increasingly important fuel additive in the US over the past decade. Recent clean-air legislation has mandated the use of cleaner burning fuels in specific regions and seasons across the US. The fundamental role of fuel ethanol is changing from an octane enhancing gasoline substitute to one of a number of possible clean-air additives. In addition to these changing market conditions the institutional structure surrounding the ethanol market has changed. While there is a uniform national subsidy for ethanol use, each state has its own supplemental subsidy level which can vary from zero to $.40 per gallon. State subsidy levels have been declining. This paper uses data from 1984:1 through 1990:12 and explores the economic characteristics of the US ethanol market so that possible supply responses to new clean-air legislation can be addressed. Specific issues regarding whether we have individual state-level markets or a national market are discussed. The implications of this market structure are important for determining state and federal subsidies and their possible impact on budget deficits.

  2. Overview of Aviation Fuel Markets for Biofuels Stakeholders

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, C.; Newes, E.; Schwab, A.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2014-07-01

    This report is for biofuels stakeholders interested the U.S. aviation fuel market. Jet fuel production represents about 10% of U.S. petroleum refinery production. Exxon Mobil, Chevron, and BP top producers, and Texas, Louisiana, and California are top producing states. Distribution of fuel primarily involves transport from the Gulf Coast to other regions. Fuel is transported via pipeline (60%), barges on inland waterways (30%), tanker truck (5%), and rail (5%). Airport fuel supply chain organization and fuel sourcing may involve oil companies, airlines, airline consortia, airport owners and operators, and airport service companies. Most fuel is used for domestic, commercial, civilian flights. Energy efficiency has substantially improved due to aircraft fleet upgrades and advanced flight logistic improvements. Jet fuel prices generally track prices of crude oil and other refined petroleum products, whose prices are more volatile than crude oil price. The single largest expense for airlines is jet fuel, so its prices and persistent price volatility impact industry finances. Airlines use various strategies to manage aviation fuel price uncertainty. The aviation industry has established goals to mitigate its greenhouse gas emissions, and initial estimates of biojet life cycle greenhouse gas emissions exist. Biojet fuels from Fischer-Tropsch and hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids processes have ASTM standards. The commercial aviation industry and the U.S. Department of Defense have used aviation biofuels. Additional research is needed to assess the environmental, economic, and financial potential of biojet to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate long-term upward price trends, fuel price volatility, or both.

  3. Model documentation: Electricity Market Module, Electricity Fuel Dispatch Submodule

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-08

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System Electricity Fuel Dispatch Submodule (EFD), a submodule of the Electricity Market Module (EMM). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components.

  4. Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cells: A Market Need Provides Research Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Terry L; Brown, Gilbert M; Bogomolny, David

    2010-01-01

    It has been said that necessity is the mother of invention. Another way this can be stated is that market demands create research opportunities. Because of the increasing demand for oil (especially for fueling vehicles utilizing internal combustion engines) and the fact that oil is a depleting (not renewable) energy source, a market need for a renewable source of energy has created significant opportunities for research. This paper addresses the research opportunities associated with producing a market competitive (i.e., high performance, low cost and durable) hydrogen proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Of the many research opportunities, the primary ones to be addressed directly are: Alternative membrane materials, Alternative catalysts, Impurity effects, and Water transport. A status of Department of Energy-sponsored research in these areas will be summarized and the impact of each on the ability to develop a market-competitive hydrogen PEM fuel cell powered vehicle will be discussed. Also, activities of the International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy in areas such as advanced membranes for fuel cells and materials for storage will be summarized.

  5. Interactions of Jet Fuels with Nitrile O-Rings: Petroleum-Derived versus Synthetic Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Gormley, Robert J.; Link, Dirk D.; Baltrus, John P.; Zandhuis, Paul H.

    2009-01-01

    A transition from petroleum-derived jet fuels to blends with Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels, and ultimately fully synthetic hydro-isomerized F-T fuels has raised concern about the fate of plasticizers in nitrile-butadiene rubber a-rings that are contacted by the fuels as this transition occurs. The partitioning of plasticizers and fuel molecules between nitrile a-rings and petroleum-derived, synthetic, and additized-synthetic jet fuels has been measured. Thermal desorption of o-rings soaked in the various jet fuels followed by gas chromatographic analysis with a mass spectrometric detector showed many of the plasticizer and stabilizer compounds were removed from the o-rings regardless of the contact fuel. Fuel molecules were observed to migrate into the o-rings for the petroleum-derived fuel as did both the fuel and additive for a synthetic F-T jet fuel additized with benzyl alcohol, but less for the unadditized synthetic fuel. The specific compounds or classes of compounds involved in the partitioning were identified and a semiquantitative comparison of relative partitioning of the compounds of interest was made. The results provide another step forward in improving the confidence level of using additized, fully synthetic jet fuel in the place of petroleum-derived fuel.

  6. Interactions of Jet Fuels with Nitrile O-Rings: Petroleum-Derived versus Synthetic Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Gormley, R.J.; Link, D.D.; Baltrus, J.P.; Zandhuis, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    A transition from petroleum-derived jet fuels to blends with Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels, and ultimately fully synthetic hydro-isomerized F-T fuels has raised concern about the fate of plasticizers in nitrile-butadiene rubber o-rings that are contacted by the fuels as this transition occurs. The partitioning of plasticizers and fuel molecules between nitrile o-rings and petroleum-derived, synthetic, and additized-synthetic jet fuels has been measured. Thermal desorption of o-rings soaked in the various jet fuels followed by gas chromatographic analysis with a mass spectrometric detector showed many of the plasticizer and stabilizer compounds were removed from the o-rings regardless of the contact fuel. Fuel molecules were observed to migrate into the o-rings for the petroleum-derived fuel as did both the fuel and additive for a synthetic F-T jet fuel additized with benzyl alcohol, but less for the unadditized synthetic fuel. The specific compounds or classes of compounds involved in the partitioning were identified and a semiquantitative comparison of relative partitioning of the compounds of interest was made. The results provide another step forward in improving the confidence level of using additized, fuIly synthetic jet fuel in the place of petroleum-derived fueL

  7. An analysis of heating fuel market behavior, 1989--1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to fully assess the heating fuel crisis from a broader and longer-term perspective. Using EIA final, monthly data, in conjunction with credible information from non-government sources, the pricing phenomena exhibited by heating fuels in late December 1989 and early January 1990 are described and evaluated in more detail and more accurately than in the interim report. Additionally, data through February 1990 (and, in some cases, preliminary figures for March) make it possible to assess the market impact of movements in prices and supplies over the heating season as a whole. Finally, the longer time frame and the availability of quarterly reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission make it possible to weigh the impact of revenue gains in December and January on overall profits over the two winter quarters. Some of the major, related issues raised during the House and Senate hearings in January concerned the structure of heating fuel markets and the degree to which changes in this structure over the last decade may have influenced the behavior and financial performance of market participants. Have these markets become more concentrated Was collusion or market manipulation behind December's rising prices Did these, or other, factors permit suppliers to realize excessive profits What additional costs were incurred by consumers as a result of such forces These questions, and others, are addressed in the course of this report.

  8. A methodology for assessing the market benefits of alternative motor fuels: The Alternative Fuels Trade Model

    SciTech Connect

    Leiby, P.N.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes a modeling methodology for examining the prospective economic benefits of displacing motor gasoline use by alternative fuels. The approach is based on the Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). AFTM development was undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a longer term study of alternative fuels issues. The AFTM is intended to assist with evaluating how alternative fuels may be promoted effectively, and what the consequences of substantial alternative fuels use might be. Such an evaluation of policies and consequences of an alternative fuels program is being undertaken by DOE as required by Section 502(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Interest in alternative fuels is based on the prospective economic, environmental and energy security benefits from the substitution of these fuels for conventional transportation fuels. The transportation sector is heavily dependent on oil. Increased oil use implies increased petroleum imports, with much of the increase coming from OPEC countries. Conversely, displacement of gasoline has the potential to reduce US petroleum imports, thereby reducing reliance on OPEC oil and possibly weakening OPEC`s ability to extract monopoly profits. The magnitude of US petroleum import reduction, the attendant fuel price changes, and the resulting US benefits, depend upon the nature of oil-gas substitution and the supply and demand behavior of other world regions. The methodology applies an integrated model of fuel market interactions to characterize these effects.

  9. Production of distillate fuels from biomass-derived polyoxygenates

    DOEpatents

    Kania, John; Blommel, Paul; Woods, Elizabeth; Dally, Brice; Lyman, Warren; Cortright, Randy

    2017-03-14

    The present invention provides methods, reactor systems and catalysts for converting biomass and biomass-derived feedstocks to C.sub.8+ hydrocarbons using heterogenous catalysts. The product stream may be separated and further processed for use in chemical applications, or as a neat fuel or a blending component in jet fuel and diesel fuel, or as heavy oils for lubricant and/or fuel oil applications.

  10. Progress on coal-derived fuels for aviation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    Synthetic aviation kerosene (Syn. Jet-A), liquid methane (LCH4), and liquid hydrogen (LH2) appear to be the most promising coal-derived fuels. Liquid hydrogen aircraft configurations, their fuel systems, and their ground requirements at the airport are identified. These aircraft appear viable, particularly for long haul use, where aircraft fueled with coal derived LH2 would consume 9 percent less coal resources than would aircraft fueled with coal derived Syn. Jet-A. Distribution of hydrogen from the point of manufacture to airports may pose problems. Synthetic JET-A would appear to cause fewer concerns to the air transportation industry. Of the three candidate fuels, LCH4 is the most energy efficient to produce, and an aircraft fueled with coal derived LCH4 may provide both the most efficient utilization of coal resources and the least expensive ticket as well.

  11. Fuel additive programs at crossroads of regulation, market dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, K.

    1998-01-01

    Fuel additive manufacturers, gasoline marketers and automakers seem to be forgetting about the power of the marketplace in their efforts to use additives to help reduce emissions and improve vehicle performance. Recall that the port fuel injector (PFI) and intake valve deposit (IVD) problems of the 1980s were addressed quickly by the fuels industry. In just a few months after the PFID problem surfaced, additive makers had detergents on the market, and fuel marketers followed up with an effective advertising campaign. Formal regulations came about a decade later. The solution to the BMW IVD problem was similar. BMW provided an enticing incentive for oil companies to differentiate through better additives and many did. Contrast those developments with the command-and-control approach that has been in effect since January 1995. EPA`s additive rule is working almost to perfection - if adherence to strict rules is considered. All gasolines in the US are additized, and a wide variety of packages have been developed that meet the regulatory standards. But by the measure of real-world performance, the circumstances can look quite different. And with industry finalizing a better IVD test and conducting research into the need for a combustion chamber deposit (CCD) regulation, now may be the time to limit the regulatory approach and let refiners and additive suppliers return to creating products that target excellence instead of regulatory minimums.

  12. Jet flames of a refuse derived fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Roman; Kupka, Tomasz; Zajac, Krzysztof

    2009-04-15

    This paper is concerned with combustion of a refuse derived fuel in a small-scale flame. The objective is to provide a direct comparison of the RDF flame properties with properties of pulverized coal flames fired under similar boundary conditions. Measurements of temperature, gas composition (O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO) and burnout have demonstrated fundamental differences between the coal flames and the RDF flames. The pulverized coals ignite in the close vicinity of the burner and most of the combustion is completed within the first 300 ms. Despite the high volatile content of the RDF, its combustion extends far into the furnace and after 1.8 s residence time only a 94% burnout has been achieved. This effect has been attributed not only to the larger particle size of fluffy RDF particles but also to differences in RDF volatiles if compared to coal volatiles. Substantial amounts of oily tars have been observed in the RDF flames even though the flame temperatures exceeded 1300 C. The presence of these tars has enhanced the slagging propensity of RDF flames and rapidly growing deposits of high carbon content have been observed. (author)

  13. Describing current and potential markets for alternative-fuel vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-26

    Motor vehicles are a major source of greenhouse gases, and the rising numbers of motor vehicles and miles driven could lead to more harmful emissions that may ultimately affect the world`s climate. One approach to curtailing such emissions is to use, instead of gasoline, alternative fuels: LPG, compressed natural gas, or alcohol fuels. In addition to the greenhouse gases, pollutants can be harmful to human health: ozone, CO. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 authorized EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards to control this. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) was the first new law to emphasize strengthened energy security and decreased reliance on foreign oil since the oil shortages of the 1970`s. EPACT emphasized increasing the number of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFV`s) by mandating their incremental increase of use by Federal, state, and alternative fuel provider fleets over the new few years. Its goals are far from being met; alternative fuels` share remains trivial, about 0.3%, despite gains. This report describes current and potential markets for AFV`s; it begins by assessing the total vehicle stock, and then it focuses on current use of AFV`s in alternative fuel provider fleets and the potential for use of AFV`s in US households.

  14. Progress on coal-derived fuels for aviation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    The results of engineering studies of coal-derived aviation fuels and their potential application to the air transportation system are presented. Synthetic aviation kerosene (SYN. JET-A), liquid methane (LCH4) and liquid hydrogen (LH2) appear to be the most promising coal-derived fuels. Aircraft configurations fueled with LH2, their fuel systems, and their ground requirements at the airport are identified. Energy efficiency, transportation hazards, and costs are among the factors considered. It is indicated that LCH4 is the most energy efficient to produce, and provides the most efficient utilization of coal resources and the least expensive ticket as well.

  15. Geography of Existing and Potential Alternative Fuel Markets in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D.

    2014-11-01

    When deploying alternative fuels, it is paramount to match the right fuel with the right location, in accordance with local market conditions. We used six market indicators to evaluate the existing and potential regional market health for each of the five most commonly deployed alternative fuels: electricity (used by plug-in electric vehicles), biodiesel (blends of B20 and higher), E85 ethanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and propane. Each market indicator was mapped, combined, and evaluated by industry experts. This process revealed the weight the market indicators should be given, with the proximity of fueling stations being the most important indicator, followed by alternative fuel vehicle density, gasoline prices, state incentives, nearby resources, and finally, environmental benefit. Though markets vary among states, no state received 'weak' potential for all five fuels, indicating that all states have an opportunity to use at least one alternative fuel. California, Illinois, Indiana, Pennsylvania, and Washington appear to have the best potential markets for alternative fuels in general, with each sporting strong markets for four of the fuels. Wyoming showed the least potential, with weak markets for all alternative fuels except for CNG, for which it has a patchy market. Of all the fuels, CNG is promising in the greatest number of states--largely because freight traffic provides potential demand for many far-reaching corridor markets and because the sources of CNG are so widespread geographically.

  16. Life cycle assessment of camelina oil derived biodiesel and jet fuel in the Canadian Prairies.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Mupondwa, Edmund

    2014-05-15

    This study evaluated the environmental impact of biodiesel and hydroprocessed renewable jet fuel derived from camelina oil in terms of global warming potential, human health, ecosystem quality, and energy resource consumption. The life cycle inventory is based on production activities in the Canadian Prairies and encompasses activities ranging from agricultural production to oil extraction and fuel conversion. The system expansion method is used in this study to avoid allocation and to credit input energy to co-products associated with the products displaced in the market during camelina oil extraction and fuel processing. This is the preferred allocation method for LCA analysis in the context of most renewable and sustainable energy programs. The results show that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 1 MJ of camelina derived biodiesel ranged from 7.61 to 24.72 g CO2 equivalent and 3.06 to 31.01 kg CO2/MJ equivalent for camelina HRJ fuel. Non-renewable energy consumption for camelina biodiesel ranged from 0.40 to 0.67 MJ/MJ; HRJ fuel ranged from -0.13 to 0.52 MJ/MJ. Camelina oil as a feedstock for fuel production accounted for the highest contribution to overall environmental performance, demonstrating the importance of reducing environmental burdens during the agricultural production process. Attaining higher seed yield would dramatically lower environmental impacts associated with camelina seed, oil, and fuel production. The lower GHG emissions and energy consumption associated with camelina in comparison with other oilseed derived fuel and petroleum fuel make camelina derived fuel from Canadian Prairies environmentally attractive.

  17. A preliminary assessment of the feasibility of deriving liquid and gaseous fuels from grown and waste organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.; Reynolds, T. W.; Hsu, Y. Y.

    1976-01-01

    The anticipated depletion of our resources of natural gas and petroleum in a few decades has caused a search for renewable sources of fuel. Among the possibilities is the chemical conversion of waste and grown organic matter into gaseous or liquid fuels. The overall feasibility of such a system is considered from the technical, economic, and social viewpoints. Although there are a number of difficult problems to overcome, this preliminary study indicates that this option could provide between 4 and 10 percent of the U.S. energy needs. Estimated costs of fuels derived from grown organic material are appreciably higher than today's market price for fossil fuel. The cost of fuel derived from waste organics is competitive with fossil fuel prices. Economic and social reasons will prohibit the allocation of good food producing land to fuel crop production.

  18. The importance of vehicle costs, fuel prices, and fuel efficiency to HEV market success.

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, D. J.; Patterson, P. D.; Vyas, A. D.

    1999-12-08

    Toyota's introduction of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) named ''Prius'' in Japan and Honda's proposed introduction of an HEV in the United States have generated considerable interest in the long-term viability of such fuel-efficient vehicles. A performance and cost projection model developed entirely at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is used here to estimate costs. ANL staff developed fuel economy estimates by extending conventional vehicle (CV) modeling done primarily under the National Cooperative Highway Research Program. Together, these estimates are employed to analyze dollar costs vs. benefits of two of many possible HEV technologies. We project incremental costs and fuel savings for a Prius-type low-performance hybrid (14.3 seconds zero to 60 mph acceleration, 260 time) and a higher-performance ''mild'' hybrid vehicle, or MHV (11 seconds 260 time). Each HEV is compared to a U.S. Toyota Corolla with automatic transmission (11 seconds 260 time). The base incremental retail price range, projected a decade hence, is $3,200-$3,750, before considering battery replacement cost. Historical data are analyzed to evaluate the effect of fuel price on consumer preferences for vehicle fuel economy, performance, and size. The relationship between fuel price, the level of change in fuel price, and consumer attitude toward higher fuel efficiency is also evaluated. A recent survey on the value of higher fuel efficiency is presented and U.S. commercial viability of the hybrids is evaluated using discount rates of 2090 and 870. Our analysis, with our current HEV cost estimates and current fuel savings estimates, implies that the U.S. market for such HEVS would be quite limited.

  19. Evaluation of Biomass-Derived Distillate Fuel as Renewable Heating Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Mante, Ofei D.; Butcher, Thomas A.; Wei, George; Trojanowski, Rebecca; Sanchez, Vicente

    2015-09-18

    The utilization of advanced biofuels in stationary applications, such as home heating, is considered as an early entry point for biomass-derived fuels into the distillate fuel market sector. Two renewable fuels produced by a biomass fluidized catalytic cracking (BFCC) process, followed by hydroprocessing and fractionation, were tested. The evaluation was performed on a pure (100%) distillate fraction, 50% blend of the distillate fraction with petroleum-based heating oil, and 20% blend of a heavier gas oil fraction. Combustion experiments were carried out in a transparent quartz chamber and a typical oil-fired residential boiler. The flame stability, size, and shape produced by the fuels were examined. The flue gas was analyzed for O2, CO, NOx, and smoke. The elastomer compatibility test was performed with nitrile slabs at 43 °C for 1 month. Fuel stability was examined at 80 °C for 1 week. The results from the combustion studies suggest that the distillate fuel blends could be used as alternative fuels to No. 2 heating oil, even up to 100% without any operational issues. The distillate fuels were found to be stable. and the nitrile slab volume swell (~10%) suggests that the fuel could be compatible to legacy elastomers.

  20. Evaluation of Biomass-Derived Distillate Fuel as Renewable Heating Oil

    DOE PAGES

    Mante, Ofei D.; Butcher, Thomas A.; Wei, George; ...

    2015-09-18

    The utilization of advanced biofuels in stationary applications, such as home heating, is considered as an early entry point for biomass-derived fuels into the distillate fuel market sector. Two renewable fuels produced by a biomass fluidized catalytic cracking (BFCC) process, followed by hydroprocessing and fractionation, were tested. The evaluation was performed on a pure (100%) distillate fraction, 50% blend of the distillate fraction with petroleum-based heating oil, and 20% blend of a heavier gas oil fraction. Combustion experiments were carried out in a transparent quartz chamber and a typical oil-fired residential boiler. The flame stability, size, and shape produced bymore » the fuels were examined. The flue gas was analyzed for O2, CO, NOx, and smoke. The elastomer compatibility test was performed with nitrile slabs at 43 °C for 1 month. Fuel stability was examined at 80 °C for 1 week. The results from the combustion studies suggest that the distillate fuel blends could be used as alternative fuels to No. 2 heating oil, even up to 100% without any operational issues. The distillate fuels were found to be stable. and the nitrile slab volume swell (~10%) suggests that the fuel could be compatible to legacy elastomers.« less

  1. Development of alternative fuels from coal-derived syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-22

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to oxygenated fuels, hydrocarbon fuels, fuel intermediates, and octane enhancers, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels development Unit (AFDU). The program will initially involve a continuation of the work performed under the Liquid Phase Methanol Program but will later draw upon information and technologies generated in current and future DOE-funded contracts, as well as test commercially available catalysts. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  2. Designing the microturbine engine for waste-derived fuels.

    PubMed

    Seljak, Tine; Katrašnik, Tomaž

    2016-01-01

    Presented paper deals with adaptation procedure of a microturbine (MGT) for exploitation of refuse derived fuels (RDF). RDF often possess significantly different properties than conventional fuels and usually require at least some adaptations of internal combustion systems to obtain full functionality. With the methodology, developed in the paper it is possible to evaluate the extent of required adaptations by performing a thorough analysis of fuel combustion properties in a dedicated experimental rig suitable for testing of wide-variety of waste and biomass derived fuels. In the first part key turbine components are analyzed followed by cause and effect analysis of interaction between different fuel properties and design parameters of the components. The data are then used to build a dedicated test system where two fuels with diametric physical and chemical properties are tested - liquefied biomass waste (LW) and waste tire pyrolysis oil (TPO). The analysis suggests that exploitation of LW requires higher complexity of target MGT system as stable combustion can be achieved only with regenerative thermodynamic cycle, high fuel preheat temperatures and optimized fuel injection nozzle. Contrary, TPO requires less complex MGT design and sufficient operational stability is achieved already with simple cycle MGT and conventional fuel system. The presented approach of testing can significantly reduce the extent and cost of required adaptations of commercial system as pre-selection procedure of suitable MGT is done in developed test system. The obtained data can at the same time serve as an input for fine-tuning the processes for RDF production.

  3. Will biodiesel fuels derived from algae perform?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The issue of sufficient supply and availability of feedstock is one of the major non-technical issues affecting the widespread commercialization of biodiesel. Another aspect is the food vs. fuel issue that biofuels should not be produced from edible feedstocks. In these connections, lipid-producin...

  4. The impact of derivatives on Malaysian stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malim, M. R.; Halim, F. A.; Murad, A.; Maad, H. A.; Annuar, N. F. M.

    2017-09-01

    The essential of derivatives has been discovered by researchers over recent decade. However, the conclusions made regarding the impact of derivatives on stock market volatility remains debatable. The main objective of this study is to examine the impact of derivatives on Malaysian stock market volatility by exploring FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index Futures (BMD FKLI) using FBM KLCI as the underlying asset. Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH) (1, 1) model was employed to realize the objective. The results have shown that the introduction of futures trading has decreased the volatility of Malaysian stock market. The volatility increased vigorously during the Asian financial crisis compared to the Global financial crisis. However, the role of futures as a risk transfer is agreed as it could improve the market by decreasing the volatility in the spot market.

  5. Matched conversion sales in the nuclear fuel market

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, D.M.

    1996-02-01

    The negotiations leading up to the Suspension Agreement with Russia focused solely on uranium and SWU, leaving conversion in its traditional role as the overlooked constituent of the fuel cycle. In fact, the initial agreement did not even distinguish U{sub 3}O{sub 8} from UF{sub 6}; it effectively ignored the conversion component contained in UF{sub 6} and the possibility of matched conversion sales. After some criticism from ConverDyn and others, The US Department of Commerce issued a clarification, confirming that all three major components of the fuel cycle can be sold under matched sales agreements. However, matched conversion sales remain somewhat of an enigma as few have been done and the logistics are poorly understood. Nonetheless, in a conversion market where supply and demand are closely balanced, secondary supplies, including those from matched sales, will likely play an important role in the evolution of conversion prices.

  6. Waste fuels, refuse-derived fuels and cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.J.

    1986-04-01

    With current landfills reaching capacity and the decreasing availability of land for new landfills, the U.S. is facing a phenomenal waste disposal problem. In an effort to solve the problem many municipalities are building waste-to-energy plants for burning their garbage. Electricity and steam generated by the plants are sold to raise revenue, thus helping to stabilize or reduce the costs of refuse disposal. Most industrial analysts involved with the industry are projecting a market of $10 billion over the next 10 years for construction of waste-to-energy plants using both the mass burning and RDF technologies.

  7. Development of end-market uses for sludge derived oils

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, H.W.; Houde, J. Jr.; Mohamed, H.H. El.

    1995-11-01

    Pyrolytic processes can be utilized to convert organic materials into solid and liquid fuels. The economic viability of most of these processes will be greatly affected by the end-use market for the oil, in terms of both a guaranteed outlet for the product and the potential revenue. Since these oils are not conventional products, significant effort may be required to establish firm markets. The {open_quotes}Oil from Sludge{close_quotes} (OFS) technology developed by the Wastewater Technology Centre (WTC) has been shown to produce oil yields ranging from 10 to 30% (on a dry weight basis) from dried sewage sludge. Efforts over the last several years have focused on developing high-value, non-combustion uses for the oil, primarily in the asphalt industry. Two applications which have shown significant promise are as an asphalt antistripping agent and as an additive for recycling aged asphalt. This paper will focus on the antistripping application. This research has been a joint effort of the WTC, the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, the National Research Council of Canada and SNC-Lavalin. The program included preliminary characterization of the sludge derived oil (SDO), laboratory tests to evaluate its potential as an antistripping agent and to determine the effect of SDO on asphalt performance factors, field tests to evaluate engineering properties and a highway test trial on an operating highway. The study included that SDO is an effective antistripping agent and provides protection against moisture induced damage comparable to that achieved with commercial additives. The addition of SDO did not adversely affect the performance of asphalt concrete but did result in increased workability and compaction, and increased resistance to damage by low temperature, rutting and fatigue.

  8. Microwave plasma assisted pyrolysis of refuse derived fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khongkrapan, Parin; Thanompongchart, Patipat; Tippayawong, Nakorn; Kiatsiriroat, Tanongkiat

    2014-03-01

    This work combined plasma reactivity and pyrolysis for conversion of solid wastes. Decomposition of refuse derived fuel (RDF) and its combustible components (paper, biomass, and plastic) in an 800 W microwave plasma reactor was investigated at varying argon flow rates of 0.50 to 1.25 lpm for 3 minutes. The characteristic bright light emission of plasma was observed with calculated maximum power density of about 35 W/cm3. The RDF and its components were successfully converted into char and combustible gas. The average char yield was found to be 12-21% of the original mass, with a gross calorific value of around 39 MJ/kg. The yield of the product gas was in the range 1.0-1.7 m3/kg. The combustible gas generated from the pyrolysis of the RDF contained about 14% H2, 66% CO, and 4% CH4 of the detected gas mass, with a heating value of 11 MJ/m3. These products are potentially marketable forms of clean energy.

  9. Study of the competitive viability of minority fuel oil marketers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1981-09-30

    Previous studies on the competitive viability of the fuel oil heating market had addressed some of the unique problems facing minority fuel oil marketers (MFMs) within the total market sector (TMS). This study focused on identifying and developing quantitative information on MFMs in the TMS. The specific objective was to determine whether the business problems experienced by MFMs were directly related to their minority status or were characterstic of any firm in the TMS operating under comparable conditions. As an overall conclusion, thorough investigation of the MFMs considered to constitute the universe of minoriy firms within the TMS did not reveal any evidence of overt discrimination affecting the competitive viability of MFMs. Upon analysis, the problems reported by MFMs could not be reasonably ascribed to discrimination on the basis of their minority business status. The study, however, did point up problems unique to MFMs as the result of typical operational and financial characteristics. For example, MFMs, compared to the TMS norm, have not been in the market as long and are smaller in terms of total assets, number of employees, number of trucks, number of accounts and annual volume of oil delivered. Their primary customers are low-income families in urban areas. Financial indicators suggest that the average MFM does not have long-term financial stability. The basis for this overall conclusion, derived by analyses of information from MFMs, as well as many independent sources, is summarized in three parts: (1) MFM industry profile; (2) financial analyses; and (3) problem analyses.

  10. Test burning of tire-derived fuel in solid fuel combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, D.C.

    1994-12-31

    This study was commissioned to determine the overall viability of utilizing scrap tire chips, known as tire-derived fuel (TDF), as a supplemental fuel in conventional coal-fired boilers. The study involved actual tests at Monsanto Company`s W.G. Krummrich Plant in Sauget, Illinois, as well as general extrapolations as to the feasibility of using TDF at other sites. This report will show that TDF can be an excellent supplemental fuel supply, providing a cost-effective fuel source while helping to alleviate the dilemma of scrap tire disposal.

  11. Fuel cell commercialization — beyond the 'Notice of Market Opportunity for Fuel Cells' (NOMO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serfass, J. A.; Glenn, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Notice of Market Opportunity for Fuel Cells (NOMO) was released in Oct. 1988 by the American Public Power Association. Its goal was to identify a manufacturer for commercializing a multi-megawatt fuel cell power plant with attractive cost and performance characteristics, supported by a realistic, yet aggressive commercialization plan, leading to mid-1990s application. Energy Research Corporation's program to commercialize its 2-MW internal-reforming carbonate fuel cell was selected. The program was refined in the development of the Principles and Framework for Commercializing Direct Fuel Cell Power Plants, which defines buyer responsibilities for promotion and coordination of information development, supplier responsibilities for meeting certain milestones and for sharing the results of success in a royalty agreement, and risk management features. Twenty-three electric and gas utilities in the US and Canada have joined the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group to support the buyers' obligations in this program. The City of Santa Clara, CA; Electric Power Research Institute; Los Angeles Department of Water and Power; Southern California Gas Company; Southern California Edison; National Rural Electric Cooperative Association; and Pacific Gas & Electric, have formed the Santa Clara Demonstration Group to build the first 2-MW power plant. The preliminary design for this demonstration is nearly complete. Integrated testing of a 20-kW stack with the complete balance-of-plant, has been successfully accomplished by Pacific Gas & Electric at its test facility in San Ramon, CA.

  12. The characteristics of organic sludge/sawdust derived fuel.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing

    2011-05-01

    A fundamental study of the characteristics of a sludge refuse-derived fuel (RDF) and the combustion behaviors were done. The test data demonstrate good results for the development of energy recovery technology of organic sludge or waste. The ash deposit formation propensity has been based on pretreatment, temperature and the ratio of organic sludge to sawdust. The usage of organic sludge and waste as an alternative fuel is cost effective and has environmental benefits.

  13. Utilization of Refuse Derived Fuels by the United States Navy,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    makes the use of landfills less desirable for solid waste disposal. As such, new disposal methods that are environmentally safe and economi- cally...fuel for use in a heat recove:y system. Refuse * derived fuels (MDF) can be in the form of raw rieiuse, %leaksified riuse, puw- dered refuse, gas, or...maximum allowable as specified in 40 CFR 261.24. A URI can theoretically produce steam at a lower cost than conventional methods being used today. These

  14. THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF FERMENTATION-DERIVED OXYGENATES TO FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-01

    At present ethanol generated from renewable resources through fermentation process is the dominant biofuel. But ethanol suffers from undesirable fuel properties such as low energy density and high water solubility. The production capacity of fermentation derived oxygenates are projected to rise in near future beyond the current needs. The conversion of oxygenates to hydrocarbon compounds that are similar to gasoline, diesel and jet fuel is considered as one of the viable option. In this chapter the thermo catalytic conversion of oxygenates generated through fermentation to fuel range hydrocarbons will be discussed.

  15. Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells: Fuel the Fire.

    PubMed

    Achyut, B R; Arbab, Ali S

    2014-08-01

    Low oxygen tension, hypoxia, is a characteristic of many tumors and associated with the poor prognosis. Hypoxia invites bone marrow derived cells (BMDCs) from bone marrow to the site of tumor. These recruited CXCR4+ BMDCs provide favorable environment for the tumor growth by acquiring pro-angiogenic phenotype such as CD45+VEGFR2+ Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPC), or CD45+Tie2+ myeloid cells. CD11b+CD13+ myeloid population of the BMDCs modulate tumor progression. These myeloid populations retain immunosuppressive characteristics, for example, myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and regulates immune- suppression by inhibiting cytotoxic T cell function. In addition, MDSCs were observed at the premetastatic niche of the distant organs in other tumors. Protumorigenic and prometastatic role of the myeloid cells provides a basis for therapeutic targeting of immunosuppression and thus inhibiting tumor development and metastasis.

  16. Energetic utilisation of refuse derived fuels from landfill mining.

    PubMed

    Rotheut, Martin; Quicker, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The residence of municipal solid waste within a landfill body results in a significant change of material properties. Experiences with the energetic utilisation of the burnable fractions from formerly landfilled waste are hardly documented, the influence of refuse derived fuels (RDF) from such materials on the performance of modern waste-to-energy plants is not sufficiently described in scientific literature. Therefore this study focuses on the energetic utilisation of refuse derived fuel from landfilled waste, processed in a mechanical waste treatment facility, and the impact of the material on the operation of the incineration plant. Additionally, the possibility of direct combustion of non-pre-treated excavated landfill material has been evaluated in the same facility. First, sampling and analysis of the fuel has been carried out. Based on this, a large-scale combustion experiment was planned and conducted in an industrial waste-to-energy plant. Steam mass flow rate, concentration of harmful substances in the raw gas, as well as total emissions of the facility have been monitored in detail. Furthermore, the influence of the landfilled material on the additive consumption has been determined. The combustion residues (bottom ash) were also sampled and analysed. Based on the evaluation of operating data and analysis of both fuel and residue, suitable thermal treatment approaches for the refuse-derived fuel and the non-pre-treated excavated material have been assessed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Knudson, C.L.

    1990-06-01

    Samples of jet fuel (JP-4, JP-8, JP-8X) produced from the liquid by-products of the gasification of lignite coal from the Great Plains Gasification Plant were analyzed to determine the quantity and type of organo-oxygen compounds present. Results were compared to similar fuel samples produced from petroleum. Large quantities of oxygen compounds were found in the coal-derived liquids and were removed in the refining process. Trace quantities of organo-oxygenate compounds were suspected to be present in the refined fuels. Compounds were identified and quantified as part of an effort to determine the effect of these compounds in fuel instability. Results of the analysis showed trace levels of phenols, naphthols, benzofurans, hexanol, and hydrogenated naphthols were present in levels below 100 ppM. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. SERA Scenarios of Early Market Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Introductions: Modeling Framework, Regional Markets, and Station Clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, B.; Melaina, M.; Penev, M.; Daniel, W.

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the development and analysis of detailed temporal and spatial scenarios for early market hydrogen fueling infrastructure clustering and fuel cell electric vehicle rollout using the Scenario Evaluation, Regionalization and Analysis (SERA) model. The report provides an overview of the SERA scenario development framework and discusses the approach used to develop the nationwidescenario.

  19. Conversion of Pentose-Derived Furans into Hydrocarbon Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Moens, L.; Johnson, D. K.

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in the conversion of biomass-derived hemicellulose into hydrocarbon molecules that can be used in the formulation of 'drop-in' fuels such as gasoline (C5-12), diesel (C10-20) and jet fuel (C9-16). Our focus lies on the use of furfuryl alcohol as a starting material since that is already produced commercially from hemicellulose-derived pentoses. The steps required to convert the latter into hydrocarbons are 1) oligomerization of furfuryl alcohol to form dimers (C10) and trimers (C15), and 2) hydrotreatment of the dimers and trimers to produce a mixture of linear hydrocarbons with carbon chain lengths in the range of diesel and jet fuels. However, furfuryl alcohol readily polymerizes to form resins in the presence of an acid catalyst, and the exothermic oligomerization must be carried out under reaction control. This presentation will discuss our progress in the development of this sugar-to-hydrocarbon pathway.

  20. Informal Market Survey of Training Issues: Heavy Duty Alternative Fuel Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Doug

    The needs and opportunities in the heavy-duty alternative fuel vehicle training arena were examined in an informal marketing survey. A list of 277 potential respondents was compiled from the 220 individuals in the National Alternative Fuels Training Program database and 57 names identified from journals in the field of alternative fuels. When 2…

  1. Vegetable Oil Derived Fuels for Civil Works Diesel Engine Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    linseed, peanut, canola (low-eruec rapeseed), safflower , sesame, soybean, and sunflower. 4 Extensive research has been done to determine which...substitutes for conventional petroleum derived diesel fuels. Soybean, sunflower, safflower , and peanut oils were among the potential alternatives. Jn general

  2. FTM-West : fuel treatment market model for U.S. West

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Ince; Andrew Kramp; Henry Spelter; Ken Skog; Dennis Dykstra

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents FTM–West, a partial market equilibrium model designed to project future wood market impacts of significantly expanded fuel treatment programs that could remove trees to reduce fire hazard on forestlands in the U.S. West. FTM–West was designed to account for structural complexities in marketing and utilization that arise from unconventional size...

  3. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; economic uses fact sheet 07: markets and log prices

    Treesearch

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Markets and prices for logs vary widely across the West, fluctuating from place to place in response to regional variables and hauling costs. This fact sheet discusses those variables, locality of log markets, markets for low-value logs, and caveats to consider when using My Fuel Treatment Planner.

  4. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal-Derived Liquids. Volume 15. Thermal Stability of Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    Ronald M. Copenhaver Janice Perison Harold H. Schobert Department of Materials Science and Engineering Penn State University University Park, PA 16802...XV - Thermal Stability of Coal-Derived Jet Fuels 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) S. Eser, C. Song, R. Copenhaver , J. Perison, and H. Schobert 13a. TYPE OF

  5. Conversion of Biomass-Derived Furans into Hydrocarbon Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Moens, L.; Johnson, D. K.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most studied chemical transformations of carbohydrates is their thermocatalytic dehydration to form furans. Cellulose-derived glucose is thereby converted into 5-hydroxymethylfurfuraldehyde (5-HMF), while the hemicellulose-derived pentoses (e.g., xylose, arabinose) form furfuraldehyde. Our objective is to identify new pathways to convert furfuryl alcohol into a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons that can be used as drop-in fuels for diesel (C10-20) and jet fuel (C9-16) blends. Furfuryl alcohol is produced commercially through hydrogenation of furfuraldehyde that is derived from hemicellulose-derived pentoses via acid-catalyzed dehydration. The steps that we are currently pursuing to convert furfuryl alcohol into hydrocarbons are 1) oligomerization of furfuryl alcohol to form dimers (C10) and trimers (C15), and 2) hydrotreatment of the dimers and trimers to produce a mixture of linear hydrocarbons with carbon chain lengths in the range of diesel and jet fuels. This presentation will discuss our progress in the development of this pathway.

  6. Development of alternative fuels from coal-derived syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.M.

    1992-05-19

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to oxygenated fuels, hydrocarbon fuels, fuel intermediates, and octane enhancers; and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). BASF continues to have difficulties in scaling-up the new isobutanol synthesis catalyst developed in Air Products' laboratories. Investigations are proceeding, but the proposed operation at LaPorte in April is now postponed. DOE has accepted a proposal to demonstrate Liquid Phase Shift (LPS) chemistry at LaPorte as an alternative to isobutanol. There are two principal reasons for carrying out this run. First, following the extensive modifications at the site, operation on a relatively benign'' system is needed before we start on Fischer-Tropsch technology in July. Second, use of shift catalyst in a slurry reactor will enable DOE's program on coal-based Fischer-Tropsch to encompass commercially available cobalt catalysts-up to now they have been limited to iron-based catalysts which have varying degrees of shift activity. In addition, DOE is supportive of continued fuel testing of LaPorte methanol-tests of MIOO at Detroit Diesel have been going particularly well. LPS offers the opportunity to produce methanol as the catalyst, in the absence of steam, is active for methanol synthesis.

  7. Lubricity and Derived Cetane Number Measurements of Jet Fuels, Alternative Fuels and Fuel Blends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    ASTM conditions. The base fuels chosen were Syntroleum S-8, Jet A, JP-8, SASOL GTL and No. 2DS15. BOCLE (ASTM D5001), HFRR (ASTM D6078) and SLBOCLE...fuels used for this task are EPA certified ULSD #2, Syntroleum S-8, JP-8, SASOL GTL , and biodiesel. Cetane Index was calculated per ASTM D976 and...5. Blend-2: 50% S-8 and 50% JP-8 ...................................................................................... 2  Table 6. SASOL GTL

  8. EIA model documentation: Electricity market module - electricity fuel dispatch

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the National Energy Modeling System Electricity Fuel Dispatch Submodule (EFD), a submodule of the Electricity Market Module (EMM) as it was used for EIA`s Annual Energy Outlook 1997. It replaces previous documentation dated March 1994 and subsequent yearly update revisions. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components. This document serves four purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the model for reviewers and potential users of the EFD including energy experts at the Energy Information Administration (EIA), other Federal agencies, state energy agencies, private firms such as utilities and consulting firms, and non-profit groups such as consumer and environmental groups. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation which details model enhancements that were undertaken for AE097 and since the previous documentation. Last, because the major use of the EFD is to develop forecasts, this documentation explains the calculations, major inputs and assumptions which were used to generate the AE097.

  9. Microbial production of fatty acid-derived fuels and chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Lennen, Rebecca M; Pfleger, Brian F

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid metabolism is an attractive route to produce liquid transportation fuels and commodity oleochemicals from renewable feedstocks. Recently, genes and enzymes, which comprise metabolic pathways for producing fatty acid-derived compounds (e.g. esters, alkanes, olefins, ketones, alcohols, polyesters) have been elucidated and used in engineered microbial hosts. The resulting strains often generate products at low percentages of maximum theoretical yields, leaving significant room for metabolic engineering. Economically viable processes will require strains to approach theoretical yields, particularly for replacement of petroleum-derived fuels. This review will describe recent progress toward this goal, highlighting the scientific discoveries of each pathway, ongoing biochemical studies to understand each enzyme, and metabolic engineering strategies that are being used to improve strain performance. PMID:23541503

  10. Refuse-derived fuels still a long-term goal

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R.

    1981-11-17

    A report on the Institution of Civil Engineers' two-day international symposium held in London in November, titled ''The practical implications of the reuse of solid wastes''. Topics dealt with included: systems for mechanical separation, reclamation and re- use of secondary materials; refuse-derived fuels; use of raw refuse in land reclamation; methane recovery from landfills and direct landfill as a major disposal option.

  11. Development and evaluation of lime enhanced refuse-derived fuel (RDF) pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlsson, O.O.

    1996-12-31

    The disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) is of increasing concern for municipalities and state governments throughout the US. There are two technologies currently in use for the combustion of MSW: (1) mass burning in which unprocessed MSW is burned in a heat recovery furnace, and (2) a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) product, which consists of the organic (combustible) fraction of MSW which has been processed to produce a more homogeneous fuel product than raw MSW. The RDF is either marketed to outside users or combusted on-site in a dedicated or existing furnace. In an attempt to alleviate the problems encountered with RDF as a feedstock, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the University of North Texas (UNT) under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE) began a multi-phase research study to investigate the development of a low-cost binder that would improve the quality of RDF pellets.

  12. Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development: Task 2, Market assessment and economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    Based on the preliminary coal engine design developed, this task was conducted to identify the best opportunity(s) to enter the market with the future coal-fueled, high-speed diesel engine. The results of this market and economic feasibility assessment will be used to determine what specific heavy duty engine application(s) are most attractive for coal fuel, and also define basic economic targets for the engine to be competitive.

  13. Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development: Task 2, Market assessment and economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kakwani, R. M.; Wilson, Jr., R. P.; Winsor, R. E.

    1991-12-01

    Based on the preliminary coal engine design developed, this task was conducted to identify the best opportunity(s) to enter the market with the future coal-fueled, high-speed diesel engine. The results of this market and economic feasibility assessment will be used to determine what specific heavy duty engine application(s) are most attractive for coal fuel, and also define basic economic targets for the engine to be competitive.

  14. Market survey of fuel cells in Mexico: Niche for low power portable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Salgado, Joel; Domínguez-Aguilar, Marco A.

    This work provides an overview of the potential market in Mexico for portable electronic devices to be potentially powered by direct methanol fuel cells. An extrapolation method based on data published in Mexico and abroad served to complete this market survey. A review of electronics consumption set the basis for the future forecast and technology assimilation. The potential market for fuel cells for mobile phones in Mexico will be around 5.5 billion USD by 2013, considering a cost of 41 USD per cell in a market of 135 million mobile phones. Likewise, the market for notebook computers, PDAs and other electronic devices will likely grow in the future, with a combined consumption of fuel cell technology equivalent to 1.6 billion USD by 2014.

  15. Combustion Of Poultry-Derived Fuel in a CFBC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lufei; Anthony, Edward J.

    Poultry farming generates large quantities of waste. Current disposal practice is to spread the poultry wastes onto farmland as fertilizer. However, as the factory farms for poultry grow both in numbers and size, the amount of poultry wastes generated has increased significandy in recent years. In consequence, excessive application of poultry wastes on farmland is resulting in more and more contaminants entering the surface water. One of the options being considered is the use of poultry waste as power plant fuel. Since poultry-derived fuel (PDF) is biomass, its co-firing will have the added advantage of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from power generation. To evaluate the combustion characteristics of co-firing PDF with coal, combustion tests of mixtures of coal and PDF were conducted in CanmetENERGY's pilot-scale CFBC. The goal of the tests was to verify that PDF can be co-fired with coal and, more importantly, that emissions from the combustion process are not adversely affected by the presence of PDF in the fuel feed. The test results were very promising and support the view that co-firing in an existing coal-fired CFBC is an effective method of utilizing this potential fuel, both resolving a potential waste disposal problem and reducing the amount of CO2 released by the boiler.

  16. Transportation Fuels Markets, PADD 1 and PADD 3

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    This study examines supply, consumption, and distribution of transportation fuels in Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADDs) 1 and 3, or the U.S. East Coast and the Gulf Coast, respectively. The East Coast region includes states from Maine to Florida along the U.S. Atlantic Coast. The Gulf Coast region comprises states between New Mexico in the west to Alabama in the east along the Gulf of Mexico. For this study, transportation fuels include gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. Residual fuel oil supply is also analyzed where applicable.

  17. Transportation Fuels Markets, PADD 1 and PADD 3

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    This study examines supply, consumption, and distribution of transportation fuels in Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADDs) 1 and 3, or the U.S. East Coast and the Gulf Coast, respectively. The East Coast region includes states from Maine to Florida along the U.S. Atlantic Coast. The Gulf Coast region comprises states between New Mexico in the west to Alabama in the east along the Gulf of Mexico. For this study, transportation fuels include gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. Residual fuel oil supply is also analyzed where applicable.

  18. A fresh look at coal-derived liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, A.D.

    2009-01-15

    35% of the world's energy comes from oil, and 96% of that oil is used for transportation. The current number of vehicles globally is estimated to be 700 million; that number is expected to double overall by 2030, and to triple in developing countries. Now consider that the US has 27% of the world's supply of coal yet only 2% of the oil. Coal-to-liquids technologies could bridge the gap between US fuel supply and demand. The advantages of coal-derived liquid fuels are discussed in this article compared to the challenges of alternative feedstocks of oil sands, oil shale and renewable sources. It is argued that pollutant emissions from coal-to-liquid facilities could be minimal because sulfur compounds will be removed, contaminants need to be removed for the FT process, and technologies are available for removing solid wastes and nitrogen oxides. If CO{sub 2} emissions for coal-derived liquid plants are captured and sequestered, overall emissions of CO{sub 2} would be equal or less than those from petroleum. Although coal liquefaction requires large volumes of water, most water used can be recycled. Converting coal to liquid fuels could, at least in the near term, bring a higher level of stability to world oil prices and the global economy and could serve as insurance for the US against price hikes from oil-producing countries. 7 figs.

  19. Analysis Results for ARRA Projects: Enabling Fuel Cell Market Transformation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation discusses analysis results for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act early market fuel cell deployments and describes the objective of the project and its relevance to the Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program; NREL's analysis approach; technical accomplishments including publication of a fourth set of composite data products; and collaborations and future work.

  20. Analysis of the potential use of major refuse-derived fuels in Jordan as supplementary fuel.

    PubMed

    Alsheyab, Mohammad A T; Schingnitz, Daniel; Al-Shawabkeh, Ali F; Kusch, Sigrid

    2013-08-01

    The increasing energy demand in Jordan, compounded with the country's limited natural resources as well as its dependence on importing fuel oil from neighboring countries, makes it indispensible to search for alternative fuels. The objective of this study is to analyze the potential use of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) as a supplementary fuel in Jordan, for this purpose. Nine of the major RDFs generated in Jordan were chosen for this study: wastewater sludge, oil refinery sludge, olive oil husk, olive oil residue, chicken farm waste, sheep farm waste, used cooking oil, used oil, and waste tires. The energy content was measured for each one and the results were verified using five different empirical elemental analyses. Results of measuring and calculating the higher heating value (HHV) of the samples showed that used oil had the highest potential as an alternative fuel at 45.36 MJ/kg and the residual olive waste had the lowest heating content at 5.02 MJ/kg. Results also showed that there was a good agreement between the measured and calculated values. The calculating models showed that there was a positive correlation between the HHV and C% and negative correlation between HHV and ash%. Further research is planned to be conducted into the implementation of the concept of waste to energy in the Jordanian industrial sector. It has been necessary to measure the higher heating value (HHV) of different types of RDFs in Jordan to estimate their potential use as supplementary fuels. The amounts generated per year in Jordan are a crucial factor to make it feasible to use these. Used oil, used cooking oil, and waste tires could be the most promising supplementary fuels.

  1. Market impacts of a multiyear mechanical fuel treatment program in the U.S.

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Karen L. Abt; Robert J. Jr. Huggett

    2008-01-01

    We describe a two-stage model of global log and chip markets that evaluates the spatial and temporal economic effects of government- subsidized fire-related mechanical fuel treatment programs in the U.S.West and South. The first stage is a goal program that allocates subsidies according to fire risk and location priorities, given a budget and a feasible, market-...

  2. Market impacts of hypothetical fuel treatment thinning programs on federal lands in the western United States

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Ince; Henry Spelter; Kenneth Skog; Andrew Kramp; Dennis P. Dykstra

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the economics of forest fuel thinning programs on federal lands in the U.S. West, and presents a model of regional timber and product market impacts. The issue of economics is vital to the debate about fire management, and this paper presents market implications of two alternative silvicultural strategies, even-aged and uneven-aged...

  3. Pathways for Biomass-Derived Lignin to Hydrocarbon Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Laskar, Dhrubojyoti; Yang, Bin; Wang, Huamin; Lee, Guo-Shuh J.

    2013-09-01

    Production of hydrocarbon fuel from biomass-derived lignin sources with current version of biorefinery infrastructure would significantly improve the total carbon use in biomass and make biomass conversion more economically viable. Thus, developing specialty and commodity products from biomass derived-lignin has been an important industrial and scientific endeavor for several decades. However, deconstruction of lignin’s complex polymeric framework into low molecular weight reactive moieties amenable for deoxygenation and subsequent processing into hydrocarbons has been proven challenging. This review offers a comprehensive outlook on the existing body of work that has been devoted to catalytic processing of lignin derivatives into hydrocarbon fuels, focusing on: (1) The intrinsic complexity and characteristic structural features of biomass-derived lignin; (2) Existing processing technologies for the isolation and depolymerization of bulk lignin (including detailed mechanistic considerations); (3) Approaches aimed at significantly improving the yields of depolymerized lignin species amenable to catalytic upgrading, and; (4) Catalytic upgrading, using aqueous phase processes for transforming depolymerized lignin to hydrocarbon derivatives. Technical barriers and challenges to the valorization of lignin are highlighted throughout. The central goal of this review is to present an array of strategies that have been reported to obtain lignin, deconstruct it to reactive intermediates, and reduce its substantial oxygen content to yield hydrocarbon liquids. In this regard, reaction networks with reference to studies of lignin model compounds are exclusively surveyed. Special attention is paid to catalytic hydrodeoxygenation, hydrogenolyis and hydrogenation. Finally, this review addresses important features of lignin that are vital to economic success of hydrocarbon production.

  4. Gas turbine materials evaluation program utilizing coal derived gaseous fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. L.; Yates, C. C.; Manning, G. B.; Peterson, R. R.

    1981-03-01

    A gas turbine materials evaluation test facility under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy is described. The objective of the mobile test facility is to obtain dynamic and static test data on the erosion/corrosion characteristics of materials exposed to the hot products of the combustion of coal-derived fuels. The engine being utilized for the tests is the WR 24-7 aircraft turbojet unit reconfigurated to burn coke oven gas. Approximately 100 hours of engine operating time have been logged to date.

  5. Impact study on the use of biomass-derived fuels in gas turbines for power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, C A; Bernstein, H

    1994-01-01

    This report evaluates the properties of fuels derived from biomass, both gaseous and liquid, against the fuel requirements of gas turbine systems for gernating electrical power. The report attempts to be quantitative rather than merely qualitative to establish the significant variations in the properties of biomass fuels from those of conventional fuels. Three general categories are covered: performance, durability, and storage and handling.

  6. Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur from Coal-Derived Fuel Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Todd H.; Berry, David A.; Lyons, K. David; Beer, Stephen K.; Monahan, Michael J.

    2001-11-06

    The development of low cost, highly efficient, desulfurization technology with integrated sulfur recovery remains a principle barrier issue for Vision 21 integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation plants. In this plan, the U. S. Department of Energy will construct ultra-clean, modular, co-production IGCC power plants each with chemical products tailored to meet the demands of specific regional markets. The catalysts employed in these co-production modules, for example water-gas-shift and Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, are readily poisoned by hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), a sulfur contaminant, present in the coal-derived fuel gases. To prevent poisoning of these catalysts, the removal of H{sub 2}S down to the parts-per-billion level is necessary. Historically, research into the purification of coal-derived fuel gases has focused on dry technologies that offer the prospect of higher combined cycle efficiencies as well as improved thermal integration with co-production modules. Primarily, these concepts rely on a highly selective process separation step to remove low concentrations of H{sub 2}S present in the fuel gases and produce a concentrated stream of sulfur bearing effluent. This effluent must then undergo further processing to be converted to its final form, usually elemental sulfur. Ultimately, desulfurization of coal-derived fuel gases may cost as much as 15% of the total fixed capital investment (Chen et al., 1992). It is, therefore, desirable to develop new technology that can accomplish H{sub 2}S separation and direct conversion to elemental sulfur more efficiently and with a lower initial fixed capital investment.

  7. Utilization of refuse derived fuels by the United States Navy

    SciTech Connect

    Lehr, D.L.

    1983-07-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act are forcing those in charge of landfills to adhere to more stringent operating standards. This, along with the growing scarcity of landfill availability, makes the use of landfills less desirable for solid waste disposal. As such, new disposal methods that are environmentally safe and economically practical must be found. One alternative, that is not really new but which has gained renewed interest, is incineration. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act also requires that government agencies should direct their installations to recover as many resources as possible. Therefore if incineration is to be implemented, heat recovery should be incorporated into the system. There are several processes available to convert raw refuse into a fuel for use in a heat recovery system. Refuse derived fuels (RDF) can be in the form of raw refuse, densified refuse, powdered refuse, gas, or pyrolytic oil. The only form of RDF that is economically feasible for systems designed to process less than 200 TPD (tons per day) is raw refuse. Most Navy bases generate far less than 200 TPD of solid waste and therefore the Navy has focused most of its attention on modular heat recovery incinerator (HRI) systems that utilize raw refuse as fuel.

  8. Production, quality and quality assurance of Refuse Derived Fuels (RDFs).

    PubMed

    Sarc, R; Lorber, K E

    2013-09-01

    This contribution describes characterization, classification, production, application and quality assurance of Refuse Derived Fuels (RDFs) that are increasingly used in a wide range of co-incineration plants. It is shown in this paper, that the fuel-parameter, i.e. net calorific value [MJ/kg(OS)], particle size d(90) or d(95) [mm], impurities [w%], chlorine content [w%], sulfur content [w%], fluorine content [w%], ash content [w%], moisture [w%] and heavy metals content [mg/kg(DM)], can be preferentially used for the classification of different types of RDF applied for co-incineration and substitution of fossil-fuel in different industial sectors. Describing the external production of RDF by processing and confectioning of wastes as well as internal processing of waste at the incineration plant, a case study is reported on the application of RDF made out of different household waste fractions in a 120,000t/yr Waste to Energy (WtE) circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerator. For that purpose, delivered wastes, as well as incinerator feedstock material (i.e. after internal waste processing) are extensively investigated. Starting with elaboration of sampling plan in accordance with the relevant guidelines and standards, waste from different suppliers was sampled. Moreover, manual sorting analyses and chemical analyses were carried out. Finally, results of investigations are presented and discussed in the paper.

  9. Redundancy of Supply in the International Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Market: Are Fabrication Services Assured?

    SciTech Connect

    Seward, Amy M.; Toomey, Christopher; Ford, Benjamin E.; Wood, Thomas W.; Perkins, Casey J.

    2011-11-14

    For several years, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been assessing the reliability of nuclear fuel supply in support of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration. Three international low enriched uranium reserves, which are intended back up the existing and well-functioning nuclear fuel market, are currently moving toward implementation. These backup reserves are intended to provide countries credible assurance that of the uninterrupted supply of nuclear fuel to operate their nuclear power reactors in the event that their primary fuel supply is disrupted, whether for political or other reasons. The efficacy of these backup reserves, however, may be constrained without redundant fabrication services. This report presents the findings of a recent PNNL study that simulated outages of varying durations at specific nuclear fuel fabrication plants. The modeling specifically enabled prediction and visualization of the reactors affected and the degree of fuel delivery delay. The results thus provide insight on the extent of vulnerability to nuclear fuel supply disruption at the level of individual fabrication plants, reactors, and countries. The simulation studies demonstrate that, when a reasonable set of qualification criteria are applied, existing fabrication plants are technically qualified to provide backup fabrication services to the majority of the world's power reactors. The report concludes with an assessment of the redundancy of fuel supply in the nuclear fuel market, and a description of potential extra-market mechanisms to enhance the security of fuel supply in cases where it may be warranted. This report is an assessment of the ability of the existing market to respond to supply disruptions that occur for technical reasons. A forthcoming report will address political disruption scenarios.

  10. Fluidized bed gasification of waste-derived fuels.

    PubMed

    Arena, Umberto; Zaccariello, Lucio; Mastellone, Maria Laura

    2010-07-01

    Five alternative waste-derived fuels obtained from municipal solid waste and different post-consumer packaging were fed in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, having a maximum feeding capacity of 100 kg/h. The experimental runs utilized beds of natural olivine, quartz sand or dolomite, fluidized by air, and were carried out under various values of equivalence ratio. The process resulted technically feasible with all the materials tested. The olivine, a neo-silicate of Fe and Mg with an olive-green colour, has proven to be a good candidate to act as a bed catalyst for tar removal during gasification of polyolefin plastic wastes. Thanks to its catalytic activity it is possible to obtain very high fractions of hydrogen in the syngas (between 20% and 30%), even using air as the gasifying agent, i.e. in the most favourable economical conditions and with the simplest plant and reactor configuration. The catalytic activity of olivine was instead reduced or completely inhibited when waste-derived fuels from municipal solid wastes and aggregates of different post-consumer plastic packagings were fed. Anyhow, these materials have given acceptable performance, yielding a syngas of sufficient quality for energy applications after an adequate downstream cleaning.

  11. Fluidized bed gasification of waste-derived fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, Umberto; Zaccariello, Lucio; Mastellone, Maria Laura

    2010-07-15

    Five alternative waste-derived fuels obtained from municipal solid waste and different post-consumer packaging were fed in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, having a maximum feeding capacity of 100 kg/h. The experimental runs utilized beds of natural olivine, quartz sand or dolomite, fluidized by air, and were carried out under various values of equivalence ratio. The process resulted technically feasible with all the materials tested. The olivine, a neo-silicate of Fe and Mg with an olive-green colour, has proven to be a good candidate to act as a bed catalyst for tar removal during gasification of polyolefin plastic wastes. Thanks to its catalytic activity it is possible to obtain very high fractions of hydrogen in the syngas (between 20% and 30%), even using air as the gasifying agent, i.e. in the most favourable economical conditions and with the simplest plant and reactor configuration. The catalytic activity of olivine was instead reduced or completely inhibited when waste-derived fuels from municipal solid wastes and aggregates of different post-consumer plastic packagings were fed. Anyhow, these materials have given acceptable performance, yielding a syngas of sufficient quality for energy applications after an adequate downstream cleaning.

  12. Fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon. Phase I final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kennel, E.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Cessna, T.J.

    1999-06-30

    This project involves the simultaneous production of clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon and sulfur, along with value-added carbon nanofibers. This can be accomplished because the nanofiber production process removes carbon via a catalyzed pyrolysis reaction, which also has the effect of removing 99.9% of the sulfur, which is trapped in the nanofibers. The reaction is mildly endothermic, meaning that net energy production with real reductions in greenhouse emissions are possible. In Phase I research, the feasibility of generating clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon was demonstrated by the successful design, construction and operation of a facility capable of utilizing coal as well as natural gas as an inlet feedstock. In the case of coal, for example, reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions can be as much as 70% (normalized according to kilowatts produced), with the majority of carbon safely sequestered in the form of carbon nanofibers or coke. Both of these products are value-added commodities, indicating that low-emission coal fuel can be done at a profit rather than a loss as is the case with most clean-up schemes. The main results of this project were as follows: (1) It was shown that the nanofiber production process produces hydrogen as a byproduct. (2) The hydrogen, or hydrogen-rich hydrocarbon mixture can be consumed with net release of enthalpy. (3) The greenhouse gas emissions from both coal and natural gas are significantly reduced. Because coal consumption also creates coke, the carbon emission can be reduced by 75% per kilowatt-hour of power produced.

  13. DME: The next market breakthrough or a methanol-related fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Gradassi, M.J.; Basu, A.; Fleisch, T.H.; Masin, J.G.

    1995-12-31

    Amoco has been involved for several years in the development of technology for the synthesis of liquid fuels from remote natural gas. In a recent collaborative work with Haldor Topsoe S/A, AVL LIST GmbH and Navistar, Amoco identified Dimethyl Ether (DME) as a new, ultraclean alternative fuel for diesel engines. DME can be handled like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), itself an important alternative transportation fuel. However, unlike most other fuels, the raw exhaust of diesel engines fueled with DME satisfies California 1998 ULEV (Ultra Low Emission Vehicle) standards, now. DME`s greenhouse gas emissions, measured from cradle-to-grave, are lowest among all transportation fuel alternatives. Today, DME is manufactured from methanol and is used primarily as an aerosol propellant because of its attractive physical properties and its environmentally benign characteristics. Haldor Topsoe S/A developed a process for the direct production of DME from natural gas. The process can be used for the large scale manufacture of DME using predominantly single-train process units. When manufactured at large scale, DME can be produced and marketed at a cost comparable to conventional transportation fuels. The market driven demand for DME as a transportation fuel is envisioned to grow in three stages. Initially, DME is envisioned to be produced via methanol dehydration, followed by retrofits, and lastly by large scale dedicated plants. DME fuel demonstration fleet tests are scheduled to commence during 1996. Today`s methanol producer likely also will be tomorrow`s DME producer.

  14. Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    The University of Alabama will develop fuel-flexible, low-emissions burner technology for the metal processing industry that is capable of using biomass-derived liquid fuels, such as glycerin or fatty acids, as a substitute for natural gas. By replacing a fossil fuel with biomass fuels, this new burner will enable a reduction in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions and an increase in fuel flexibility.

  15. Market share elasticities for fuel and technology choice in home heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, D.J.; Ruderman, H.; McMahon, J.E.

    1989-05-01

    A new technique for estimating own- and cross-elasticities of market share for fuel and technology choices in home heating and cooling is presented. We simulate changes in economic conditions and estimate elasticities by calculating predicted changes in fuel and technology market shares. Elasticities are found with respect to household income, equipment capital cost, and equipment capital cost, and equipment operating cost (including fuel price). The method is applied to a revised and extended version of a study by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Data for that study are drawn primarily from the 1975--1979 Annual Housing Surveys. Results are generally similar to previous studies, although our estimates of elasticities are somewhat lower. We feel the superior formulation of consumer choice and the currency of data in EPRI's work produce reliable estimates of market share elasticities. 18 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  16. Refuse derived fuels: New technologies for successful operations

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlsson, O.O.

    1988-01-01

    The rising cost of refuse disposal, coupled with the decreasing availability of land suitable for the siting of new landfills have greatly accelerated the use of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) processing systems as a viable technology of the disposal of our municipal solid waste. The energy products produces by an RDF processing facility-electricity and/or steam, as well as the recovery of other valuable materials from the waste stream, coupled with the inherent flexibility of the RDF technology to be used in varying forms, over a wide range of combustion technologies, makes it an extremely desirable waste-to-energy system. Use of an RDF prepared fuel product can also provide a potentially beneficial reduction of air emissions, and trace metals in the ash when compared to the burning of unprocessed solid waste. This paper discusses the problems which have been encountered in the past with RDF systems; the current status of these facilities including institutional considerations and system economics; and the future potential of RDF processing systems. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Soybean-Derived Biodiesel and Renewable Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Huo, H.; Wang, M.; Bloyd, C.; Putsche, V.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we used Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model to assess the life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of four soybean-derived fuels: biodiesel fuel produced via transesterification, two renewable diesel fuels (I and II) produced from different hydrogenation processes, and renewable gasoline produced from catalytic cracking. Five approaches were employed to allocate the coproducts: a displacement approach; two allocation approaches, one based on the energy value and the other based on the market value; and two hybrid approaches that integrated the displacement and allocation methods. The relative rankings of soybean-based fuels in terms of energy and environmental impacts were different under the different approaches, and the reasons were analyzed. Results from the five allocation approaches showed that although the production and combustion of soybean-based fuels might increase total energy use, they could have significant benefits in reducing fossil energy use (>52%), petroleum use (>88%), and GHG emissions (>57%) relative to petroleum fuels. This study emphasized the importance of the methods used to deal with coproduct issues and provided a comprehensive solution for conducting a life-cycle assessment of fuel pathways with multiple coproducts.

  18. Life-cycle assessment of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of soybean-derived biodiesel and renewable fuels.

    PubMed

    Huo, Hong; Wang, Michael; Bloyd, Cary; Putsche, Vicky

    2009-02-01

    In this study, we used Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model to assess the life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of four soybean-derived fuels: biodiesel fuel produced via transesterification, two renewable diesel fuels (I and II) produced from different hydrogenation processes, and renewable gasoline produced from catalytic cracking. Five approaches were employed to allocate the coproducts: a displacement approach; two allocation approaches, one based on the energy value and the other based on the market value; and two hybrid approaches that integrated the displacement and allocation methods. The relative rankings of soybean-based fuels in terms of energy and environmental impacts were different under the different approaches, and the reasons were analyzed. Results from the five allocation approaches showed that although the production and combustion of soybean-based fuels might increase total energy use, they could have significant benefits in reducing fossil energy use (>52%), petroleum use (>88%), and GHG emissions (>57%) relative to petroleum fuels. This study emphasized the importance of the methods used to deal with coproduct issues and provided a comprehensive solution for conducting a life-cycle assessment of fuel pathways with multiple coproducts.

  19. Densified refuse derived fuel: An alternative energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlsson, O. ); Daugherty, K.E. ); Venables, B.J. )

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this research effort is to produce an environmentally acceptable, chemically/biologically stable, and storable densified refuse derived fuel (dRDF) pellet. To accomplish this, a suitable binder(s) must be used. Over 150 binders were investigated by a laboratory screening procedure. Thirteen binder/binder combinations of the initial group of 150 binders were selected for further pilot plant studies. Approximately seven tons of RDF from Ames, Iowa and Refcom, Pompano Beach, Florida were pelletized in the summer-1985 in a series of experiments at the Jacksonville, Florida Naval Air Station using these binder. The pelletized dRDF was then subjected to a battery of chemical and physical tests. Results to date and work to be accomplished during the next fiscal year will be discussed. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Densified refuse derived fuel as a power source

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, K.E.; Safa, A.; Ohlsson, O.; Venables, B.J.

    1986-04-01

    This project is aimed at producing environmentally acceptable, chemically/biologically stable, and storable densified- Refuse Derived Fuel (d-RDF) pellets which are similar to lignite coal. To accomplish this, a suitable binder (s) must be used. Over 100 binders were investigated by a laboratory screening procedure. Six binding materials were selected for pilot plant/commercial scale studies. Approximately seven tons of RDF from Ames, Iowa and Refcom, Pompano Beach, Florida were pelletized in the summer-1985 in a series of experiments at the Jacksonville, Florida Naval Air Station using these binders. The pelletized d-RDF was then subjected to a battery of chemical and physical tests. Results to date are discussed.

  1. Essays on pricing electricity and electricity derivatives in deregulated markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, Julia

    2008-10-01

    This dissertation is composed of four essays on the behavior of wholesale electricity prices and their derivatives. The first essay provides an empirical model that takes into account the spatial features of a transmission network on the electricity market. The spatial structure of the transmission grid plays a key role in determining electricity prices, but it has not been incorporated into previous empirical models. The econometric model in this essay incorporates a simple representation of the transmission system into a spatial panel data model of electricity prices, and also accounts for the effect of dynamic transmission system constraints on electricity market integration. Empirical results using PJM data confirm the existence of spatial patterns in electricity prices and show that spatial correlation diminishes as transmission lines become more congested. The second essay develops and empirically tests a model of the influence of natural gas storage inventories on the electricity forward premium. I link a model of the effect of gas storage constraints on the higher moments of the distribution of electricity prices to a model of the effect of those moments on the forward premium. Empirical results using PJM data support the model's predictions that gas storage inventories sharply reduce the electricity forward premium when demand for electricity is high and space-heating demand for gas is low. The third essay examines the efficiency of PJM electricity markets. A market is efficient if prices reflect all relevant information, so that prices follow a random walk. The hypothesis of random walk is examined using empirical tests, including the Portmanteau, Augmented Dickey-Fuller, KPSS, and multiple variance ratio tests. The results are mixed though evidence of some level of market efficiency is found. The last essay investigates the possibility that previous researchers have drawn spurious conclusions based on classical unit root tests incorrectly applied to

  2. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel. A technology, market, and economic assessment for Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  3. Stationary market applications potential of solid oxide and solid polymer fuel cell systems

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.N.; Fletcher, W.H.

    1996-12-31

    The UK DTI`s Advanced Fuel Cells Programme currently focuses on two main fuel cell technologies, namely the solid oxide and solid polymer systems (SOFC and SPFC), respectively. The provision of accurate and timely market data is regarded as an important part of the overall programme objectives, such as to assist both Government and industry in their appraisals of the technologies. The present study was therefore commissioned against this background, with a complementary study addressing transportation and mobile applications. The results reported herein relate to the stationary market applications potential of both SOFC and SPFC systems.

  4. [U.S. renewable fuel standard implementation mechanism and market tracking].

    PubMed

    Kang, Liping; Earley, Robert; An, Feng; Zhang, Yu

    2013-03-01

    U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) is a mandatory policy for promoting the utilization of biofuels in road transpiration sector in order to reduce the country's dependency on foreign oil and greenhouse gas emissions. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines the proportion of renewable fuels according to RFS annual target, and requests obligated parties such like fossil fuel refiner, blenders and importer in the U.S. to complete Renewable Volume Obligation (RVO) every year. Obligated parties prove they have achieved their RVO through a renewable fuels certification system, which generates Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs) for every gallon of qualified renewable fuels produced or imported into U.S., RINs is a key for tracking renewable fuel consumption, which in turn is a key for implementing the RFS in the U.S., separated RINs can be freely traded in market and obligated parties could fulfill their RVO through buying RINs from other stakeholders. This briefing paper highlights RFS policy implementing mechanism and marketing tracking, mainly describes importance of RINs, and the method for generating and tracking RINs by both government and fuels industry participants.

  5. Comparison of coal/solid recovered fuel (SRF) with coal/refuse derived fuel (RDF) in a fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Wagland, S T; Kilgallon, P; Coveney, R; Garg, A; Smith, R; Longhurst, P J; Pollard, S J T; Simms, N

    2011-06-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to compare the differences between municipal solid waste (MSW) derived solid recovered fuel (SRF) (complying with CEN standards) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). Both fuels were co-combusted with coal in a 50 kW fluidized bed combustor and the metal emissions were compared. Synthetic SRF was prepared in the laboratory by grinding major constituents of MSW such as paper, plastic, textile and wood. RDF was obtained from a local mechanical treatment plant. Heavy metal emissions in flue gas and ash samples from the (coal+10% SRF) fuel mixture were found to be within the acceptable range and were generally lower than that obtained for coal+10% RDF fuel mixture. The relative distribution of heavy metals in ash components and the flue gas stream shows the presence of a large fraction (up to 98%) of most of the metals in the ash (except Hg and As). Thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis of SRF constituents was performed to understand the behaviour of fuel mixtures in the absence and presence of air. The results obtained from the experimental study will enhance the confidence of fuel users towards using MSW-derived SRF as an alternative fuel.

  6. Comparison of coal/solid recovered fuel (SRF) with coal/refuse derived fuel (RDF) in a fluidised bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wagland, S.T.; Kilgallon, P.; Coveney, R.; Garg, A.; Smith, R.; Longhurst, P.J.; Pollard, S.J.T.; Simms, N.

    2011-06-15

    An experimental study was undertaken to compare the differences between municipal solid waste (MSW) derived solid recovered fuel (SRF) (complying with CEN standards) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). Both fuels were co-combusted with coal in a 50 kW fluidised bed combustor and the metal emissions were compared. Synthetic SRF was prepared in the laboratory by grinding major constituents of MSW such as paper, plastic, textile and wood. RDF was obtained from a local mechanical treatment plant. Heavy metal emissions in flue gas and ash samples from the (coal + 10% SRF) fuel mixture were found to be within the acceptable range and were generally lower than that obtained for coal + 10% RDF fuel mixture. The relative distribution of heavy metals in ash components and the flue gas stream shows the presence of a large fraction (up to 98%) of most of the metals in the ash (except Hg and As). Thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis of SRF constituents was performed to understand the behaviour of fuel mixtures in the absence and presence of air. The results obtained from the experimental study will enhance the confidence of fuel users towards using MSW-derived SRF as an alternative fuel.

  7. The RDF/SRF torrefaction: An effect of temperature on characterization of the product - Carbonized Refuse Derived Fuel.

    PubMed

    Białowiec, Andrzej; Pulka, Jakub; Stępień, Paweł; Manczarski, Piotr; Gołaszewski, Janusz

    2017-09-23

    The influence of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF)/Solid Recovery Fuel (SRF) torrefaction temperature on product characteristic was investigated. RDF/SRF thermal treatment experiment was conducted with 1-h residence time, under given temperatures: 200, 220, 240, 260, 280 and 300°C. Sawdust was used as reference material. The following parameters of torrefaction char from sawdust and Carbonized Refuse Derived Fuel (CRDF) from RDF/SRF were measured: moisture, calorific value, ash content, volatile compounds and sulfur content. Sawdust biochar was confirmed as a good quality solid fuel, due to significant fuel property increase. The study also indicated that RDF torrefaction reduced moisture significantly from 22.9% to 1.4% and therefore increased lower heating value (LHV) from 19.6 to 25.3MJ/kg. Results suggest that RDF torrefaction may be a good method for increasing attractiveness of RDF as an energy source, and it could help unify RDF properties on the market. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. CO2 emissions mitigation and fossil fuel markets: Dynamic and international aspects of climate policies

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Nico; Bosetti, Valentina; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Kitous, Alban; McCollum, David; Mejean, Aurelie; Rao, Shilpa; Turton, Hal; Paroussos, Leonidas; Ashina, Shuichi; Calvin, Katherine V.; Wada, Kenichi; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a multi-model scenario ensemble to assess the impacts of idealized and non-idealized climate change stabilization policies on fossil fuel markets. Under idealized conditions climate policies significantly reduce coal use in the short- and long-term. Reductions in oil and gas use are much smaller, particularly until 2030, but revenues decrease much more because oil and gas prices are higher and decrease with mitigation. A first deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes global emission targets until 2030, in accordance with the Copenhagen pledges and regionally-specific low-carbon technology targets. Fossil fuel markets revert back to the no-policy case: though coal use increases strongest, revenue gains are higher for oil and gas. To balance the carbon budget over the 21st century, the long-term reallocation of fossil fuels is significantly larger - twice and more - than the short-term distortion. This amplifying effect results from coal lock-in and inter-fuel substitution effects. The second deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes the global participation assumption. The result here is less clear cut across models, as we find carbon leakage effects ranging from positive to negative because leakage and substitution patterns of coal, oil, and gas differ. In summary, distortions of fossil fuel markets resulting from relaxed short-term global emission targets are more important and less uncertain than the issue of carbon leakage from early mover action.

  9. CO₂ emission mitigation and fossil fuel markets: Dynamic and international aspects of climate policies

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Nico; Bosetti, Valentina; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Kitous, Alban; McCollum, David; Mejean, Aurelie; Rao, Shilpa; Turton, Hal; Paroussos, Leonidas; Ashina, Shuichi; Calvin, Katherine; Wada, Kenichi; van Vuuren, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a multi-model scenario ensemble to assess the impacts of idealized and non-idealized climate change stabilization policies on fossil fuel markets. Under idealized conditions climate policies significantly reduce coal use in the short- and long-term. Reductions in oil and gas use are much smaller, particularly until 2030, but revenues decrease much more because oil and gas prices are higher than coal prices. A first deviation from optimal transition pathways is delayed action that relaxes global emission targets until 2030 in accordance with the Copenhagen pledges. Fossil fuel markets revert back to the no-policy case: though coal use increases strongest, revenue gains are higher for oil and gas. To balance the carbon budget over the 21st century, the long-term reallocation of fossil fuels is significantly larger—twice and more—than the short-term distortion. This amplifying effect results from coal lock-in and inter-fuel substitution effects to balance the full-century carbon budget. The second deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes the global participation assumption. The result here is less clear-cut across models, as we find carbon leakage effects ranging from positive to negative because trade and substitution patterns of coal, oil, and gas differ across models. In summary, distortions of fossil fuel markets resulting from relaxed short-term global emission targets are more important and less uncertain than the issue of carbon leakage from early mover action.

  10. Impact of alcohol fuel production on agricultural markets

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Production of alcohol from biomass feedstocks, such as corn, was given Federal and State support which resulted in alcohol production rising from 20 million gallons in 1979 to 430 million gallons in 1984. This study estimates the impacts of alcohol production from corn on selected agricultural markets. The tool of analysis was a three region (United States, the European Community and the rest of the world) econometric model of the markets for corn, soybeans, soybean meal, soybean oil, wheat and corn byproduct feeds. Three alternative growth paths for alcohol production (totalling 1.1, 2.0, and 3.0 billion gallons) were analyzed with the model in the context of three different trade environments. The results of this analysis indicate that alcohol production of 1.1 billion gallons by 1980 would have caused moderate adjustments to commodity markets while 3.0 billion gallons would have caused major adjustments. Corn prices rose sharply with increased alcohol production as did wheat prices but to a somewhat lesser extent. The substitution of corn for soybeans on the supply side was not sufficient to offset the demand depressing effects of corn byproduct feeds on soybean meal which translated into slightly lower soybean prices. A quota limiting imports of corn gluten feed into the EC to three million tons annually would cause reductions in export earnings for corn millers.

  11. Fuel cell adventures. Dynamics of a technological community in a quasi-market of technological options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, G. J.; Uyterlinde, M. A.

    In this paper some insights from a social science perspective in the dynamics of the fuel cell community will be provided. An important concept used in the analysis is that of a `quasi'-market of technological options. The strategic choices of actors for certain technological options can be regarded as analogous to choices of consumers made on a market. A scientometric research approach has been used to investigate the aggregate effects of this and other variations of strategic behaviour. These concepts and analyses are shown to be helpful in answering questions such as why fuel cells are so popular today whereas they have not always been, and why preferences for different types of fuel cells shift over time. At the end of the paper the relevance of these kind of analyses for technology forecasting and management practices is briefly discussed.

  12. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  13. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  14. Marketable transport fuels made from Julia Creek shale oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    CSR Limited and the CSIRO Division of Energy Chemistry have been working on the problem of producing refined products from the Julia Creek deposit in Queensland, Australia. Two samples of shale oil, retorted at different temperatures from Julia Creek oil shale, were found to differ markedly in aromaticity. Using conventional hydrotreating technology, high quality jet and diesel fuels could be made from the less aromatic oil. Naphtha suitable for isomerization and reforming to gasoline could be produced from both oils. This paper discusses oil properties, stabilization of topped crudes, second stage hydrotreatment, and naphtha hydrotreating. 1 figure, 4 tables.

  15. Market-driven considerations affecting the prospects of alternative road fuels.

    PubMed

    Freedman, David

    2014-01-13

    Without significant intervention, demand for crude oil could rise by a further 25% by 2035, stemming from its use for transportation, particularly road transport. Many technologies for alternative fuels and substitute transport energy carriers are being researched, but successful implementation of these technologies at scale will require attention to consumer-behavioural and policy challenges as well as adapting existing or introducing new commercial value chains. In particular, there will be new capital-intensive roles for which there are no obvious contenders as yet. The legacy of diverse urban planning and fuel taxation policies and varying degrees of consumer inertia will lead to different rates of adoption of different alternative technologies in regional markets. In the absence of technology that provides a compelling consumer proposition, substitution of crude demand in mature markets will be challenging, as will be channelling exponential growth from growing markets like China into less crude-intensive road transport solutions.

  16. Utilization of spent activated carbon to enhance the combustion efficiency of organic sludge derived fuel.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Lin, Chang-Wen; Chang, Fang-Chih; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wu, Jhong-Lin

    2012-06-01

    This study examines the heating value and combustion efficiency of organic sludge derived fuel, spent activated carbon derived fuel, and derived fuel from a mixture of organic sludge and spent activated carbon. Spent activated carbon was sampled from an air pollution control device of an incinerator and characterized by XRD, XRF, TG/DTA, and SEM. The spent activated carbon was washed with deionized water and solvent (1N sulfuric acid) and then processed by the organic sludge derived fuel manufacturing process. After washing, the salt (chloride) and sulfide content could be reduced to 99% and 97%, respectively; in addition the carbon content and heating value were increased. Different ratios of spent activated carbon have been applied to the organic sludge derived fuel to reduce the NO(x) emission of the combustion.

  17. Market projections and factors influencing the development of new products and energy derived from agricultural crops in the European Union

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, B.E.A.; Houghton, T.M.

    1995-11-01

    Following the 1992 revision of the Common Agricultural Policy in the European Union, it is projected that 25-50 million acres of arable land currently used for food production could be surplus to requirements by 2000. This strategic study was carried out in order to assess factors that will determine, over the next twenty years, the use of a range of crops for non food outlets. Analysis of published research and economic reports and interviews with legislators and opinion leaders in different Member States was carried out. Five defined market sectors were covered: (i) biomass crops for the generation of heat and electricity, (ii) oilseed and cereal crops as sources of transport fuel, (iii) products from vegetable oils, (iv) products from starch and sugar, and (v) products from fibre crops. Opportunities and constraints were ranked and maximum and minimum land use requirements forecast for each sector. Biomass for electricity is projected to need most land, up to 20 million acres by 2015, if all factors are favourable. In the shorter term, crops grown to produce liquid transport fuel are likely to show the most rapid expansion in area. Market demand for environmentally superior products will be a driving force despite, currently, poor relative economics in comparison with fossil fuel derived products. Better integration between crop production and the end markets will be essential.

  18. An environmentally benign soybean derived fuel as a blending stock or replacement for home heating oil.

    PubMed

    Mushrush, G; Beal, E J; Spencer, G; Wynne, J H; Lloyd, C L; Hughes, J M; Walls, C L; Hardy, D R

    2001-05-01

    The use of bio-derived materials both as fuels and/or as blending stocks becomes more attractive as the price of middle distillate fuels, especially home heating oil, continues to rise. Historically, many biomass and agricultural derived materials have been suggested. One of the most difficult problems encountered with home heating oil is that of storage stability. High maintenance costs associated with home heating oil are, in large part, because of this stability problem. In the present research, Soygold, a soybean derived fuel, was added in concentrations of 10%-20% to both a stable middle distillate fuel and an unstable home heating oil. Fuel instability in this article will be further related to the organo-nitrogen compounds present. The soy-fuel mixtures proved stable, and the addition of the soy liquid enhanced both the combustion properties, and dramatically improved the stability of the unstable home heating oil.

  19. Reversible solid oxide cells for bidirectional energy conversion in spot electricity and fuel markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarreal Singer, Diego

    The decarbonization of the energy system is one of the most complex and consequential challenges of the 21st century. Meeting this challenge will require the deployment of existing low carbon technologies at unprecedented scales and rates and will necessitate the development of new technologies that have the ability to transform variable renewable energy into high energy density products. Reversible Solid Oxide Cells (RSOCs) are electrochemical devices that can function both as fuel cells or electrolyzers: in fuel cell mode, RSOCs consume a chemical fuel (H2, CO, CH4, etc.) to produce electrical power, while in electrolysis mode they consume electric power and chemical inputs (H2O, CO2) to produce a chemical fuel (H2, CO, CH4, etc.). As such, RSOC systems can be thought of as flexible "energy hubs" that have unique potential to bridge the low power density renewable infrastructure with that of high energy density fuels in an efficient, dynamic, and bidirectional fashion. This dissertation explores the different operational sensitivities and design trade-offs of a methane based RSOC system, investigates the optimum operating strategies for a system that adapts to variations in the hourly spot electricity and fuel prices in Western Denmark, and provides an economic analysis of the system under a wide variety of design assumptions, operational strategies, and fuel and electricity market structures. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  20. Pricing Theory of Derivatives in Financial Engineering and the Problems on the Application to Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Tetsuya

    Recently, the wholesale electric power exchange has been founded in Japan. With the progress of the electricity market, some management schemes of electricity price risk will be necessary. In financial markets or the preceding electricity markets, various “derivatives" on assets in the markets are often used as management tools to hedge the price risk. This paper gives a short commentary on some fundamental concepts of the derivatives and the pricing theory in the financial engineering, and discusses the problems on the financial engineering approach to electricity derivatives.

  1. Implementation of direct LSC method for diesel samples on the fuel market.

    PubMed

    Krištof, Romana; Hirsch, Marko; Kožar Logar, Jasmina

    2014-11-01

    The European Union develops common EU policy and strategy on biofuels and sustainable bio-economy through several documents. The encouragement of biofuel's consumption is therefore the obligation of each EU member state. The situation in Slovenian fuel market is presented and compared with other EU countries in the frame of prescribed values from EU directives. Diesel is the most common fuel for transportation needs in Slovenia. The study was therefore performed on diesel. The sampling net was determined in accordance with the fuel consumption statistics of the country. 75 Sampling points were located on different types of roads. The quantity of bio-component in diesel samples was determined by direct LSC method through measurement of C-14 content. The measured values were in the range from 0 up to nearly 6 mass percentage of bio-component in fuel. The method has proved to be appropriate, suitable and effective for studies on the real fuel market. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The health effects of fossil fuel derived particles.

    PubMed

    Grigg, J

    2002-02-01

    Over the past 10 years there has been increasing evidence that particles generated by the combustion of fossil fuels adversely affect health. To what extent should paediatricians be concerned about particle pollution? This review assesses what we know, and what we still need to know about the health effects of fossil fuel particles.

  3. Biodiesel: The use of vegetable oils and their derivatives as alternative diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Knothe, G.; Bagby, M.O.

    1996-10-01

    Vegetable oils and their derivatives (especially methyl esters), commonly referred to as {open_quotes}biodiesel{close_quotes}, are prominent candidates as alternative diesel fuels. They have advanced from being purely experimental fuels to initial stages of commercialization. They are technically competitive with or offer technical advantages compared to conventional diesel fuel. Besides being a renewable resource, biodiesel reduces most emissions while engine performance and fuel economy are nearly identical compared to conventional fuels. Several problems, however, remain, which include economics, combustion, some emissions, lube oil contamination, and low-temperature properties. An overview on all the mentioned aspects of biodiesel will be presented.

  4. Intraday price dynamics in spot and derivatives markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun Sik; Ryu, Doojin

    2014-01-01

    This study examines intraday relationships among the spot index, index futures, and the implied volatility index based on the VAR(1)-asymmetric BEKK-MGARCH model. Analysis of a high-frequency dataset from the Korean financial market confirms that there is a strong intraday market linkage between the spot index, KOSPI200 futures, and VKOSPI and that asymmetric volatility behaviour is clearly present in the Korean market. The empirical results indicate that the futures return shock affects the spot market more severely than the spot return shock affects the futures market, though there is a bi-directional causal relationship between the spot and futures markets. Our results, based on a high-quality intraday dataset, satisfy both the positive risk-return relationship and asymmetric volatility effect, which are not reconciled in the frameworks of previous studies.

  5. Bus industry market study. Report -- Task 3.2: Fuel cell/battery powered bus system

    SciTech Connect

    Zalbowitz, M.

    1992-06-02

    In support of the commercialization of fuel cells for transportation, Georgetown University, as a part of the DOE/DOT Fuel Cell Transit Bus Program, conducted a market study to determine the inventory of passenger buses in service as of December, 1991, the number of buses delivered in 1991 and an estimate of the number of buses to be delivered in 1992. Short term and long term market projections of deliveries were also made. Data was collected according to type of bus and the field was divided into the following categories which are defined in the report: transit buses, school buses, commercial non-transit buses, and intercity buses. The findings of this study presented with various tables of data collected from identified sources as well as narrative analysis based upon interviews conducted during the survey.

  6. Agricultural waste derived fuel from oil meal and waste cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fang-Chih; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Ko, Chun-Han

    2017-05-27

    Oil meal is a by-product of the oil industry (peanut meal, sesame meal, and camellia meal). Oil is extracted from seeds, and the leftover meal is then pelletized, and this process generates a large amount of waste oil meal in Taiwan. In this study, peanut meal, sesame meal, and camellia meal derived fuels were prepared from the waste oil meal with waste cooking oil. The combustion behaviors of the oil meal derived fuels were also investigated. The characteristics of the derived fuel made from oil meal with waste cooking oil showed that the ash content is less than 10% and its calorific value reached 5000 kcal/kg. Additionally, the activation energy of the oil meal and waste cooking oil was analyzed by the Kissinger method. The results show that the fuel prepared in this work from the oil meal mixed with waste cooking oil is suitable for use as an alternative fuel and also avoids food safety issues.

  7. Parameters Affecting the Characteristics of Oil Shale-Derived Fuels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    syncrude), or refined directly into liquid fuels and petrochemicals . The gaseous products can also be used as fuels in or near the retorting plant , or... petrochemical industry in the Rocky Mountain region, but this remains to be seen. The use of shale oil as a refinery feedstock for the production of...were conducted on bench-scale equipment under carefully controlled conditions. If present or future petrochem - ical plants do not have the capability

  8. Applications study of advanced power generation systems utilizing coal-derived fuels, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    Technology readiness and development trends are discussed for three advanced power generation systems: combined cycle gas turbine, fuel cells, and magnetohydrodynamics. Power plants using these technologies are described and their performance either utilizing a medium-Btu coal derived fuel supplied by pipeline from a large central coal gasification facility or integrated with a gasification facility for supplying medium-Btu fuel gas is assessed.

  9. Market-Based and System-Wide Fuel Cycle Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Paul

    2016-06-02

    The Dynamic Resource Exchange (DRE) gives agency to consumer facilities to determine the preference of any particular trade that is offered by suppliers to satisfy its requests. This provides a natural balance of power in the relationship between consumers and suppliers. However, in situations in which suppliers have flexibility surrounding the way that they respond to individual requests, they have no mechanism to assess how different bids will be received by the consumer. Theoretically, a supplier can offer multiple bids to respond to a given request in an attempt to “cover their bases”, but this introduces more arcs into the underlying network flow problem, increasing the cost to solve the problem. In the extreme, when a supplier can continuously vary the characteristics of the bid, this can represent a large number of additional arcs and have real performance consequences. To remedy this inefficiency in the implementation of the market-level optimization, the definition of a request has been extended to include a function that can be used by the supplier to query the preference that would be assigned by a consumer for a potential bid. The supplier is then free to implement arbitrarily complex algorithms to revise/optimize its bid based on responses to this function. A supplier can chose to not invoke the function at all, mimicking the original DRE behavior, can use it to select among a small set of discrete choices, or can implement an internal algorithm to seek an optimum bid on a continuous parameter space. This capability was demonstrated with a storage facility that preferred material with a specific decay heat that was as close as possible to the maximum allowable decay heat, while requiring the specific decay heat to fall between a minimum and maximum level. This archetype was used to fill multiple storage roles in a simulation that also included a standard recipe reactor: wet storage with no maximum allowable specific decay heat, dry storage with a

  10. CO₂ emission mitigation and fossil fuel markets: Dynamic and international aspects of climate policies

    DOE PAGES

    Bauer, Nico; Bosetti, Valentina; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; ...

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a multi-model scenario ensemble to assess the impacts of idealized and non-idealized climate change stabilization policies on fossil fuel markets. Under idealized conditions climate policies significantly reduce coal use in the short- and long-term. Reductions in oil and gas use are much smaller, particularly until 2030, but revenues decrease much more because oil and gas prices are higher than coal prices. A first deviation from optimal transition pathways is delayed action that relaxes global emission targets until 2030 in accordance with the Copenhagen pledges. Fossil fuel markets revert back to the no-policy case: though coal use increasesmore » strongest, revenue gains are higher for oil and gas. To balance the carbon budget over the 21st century, the long-term reallocation of fossil fuels is significantly larger—twice and more—than the short-term distortion. This amplifying effect results from coal lock-in and inter-fuel substitution effects to balance the full-century carbon budget. The second deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes the global participation assumption. The result here is less clear-cut across models, as we find carbon leakage effects ranging from positive to negative because trade and substitution patterns of coal, oil, and gas differ across models. In summary, distortions of fossil fuel markets resulting from relaxed short-term global emission targets are more important and less uncertain than the issue of carbon leakage from early mover action.« less

  11. Western New York State coal-water fuel market and boiler-conversion study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    This report examines the feasibility of converting industrial boilers in Western New York to burn coal-water fuel (CWF) and the attractiveness of producing CWF in this region. Use of coal would increase the diversification of fuel supplies. The project began with a market study to determine the market size and estimate the potential demand for CWF. The project then evaluated the technical and economic feasibility of converting two coal-designed boilers in Western New York, currently firing oil, to CWF. A coal supplier was located and an analysis was made of the options for developing a 315,000 tpy CWF production facility. Adapting an existing site with the facilities for coal receiving, handling, storing, and pollution control, such as a steelmaking facility, would provide the least-cost fuel. Coal-water fuel could be competitive with oil and, to a lesser extent, gas; however, the estimated savings failed to provide an adequate rate of return against the costs associated with converting the industrial boilers at this time.

  12. EVALUATION OF TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR USE IN NITROGEN OXIDE REDUCTION BY REBURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tire-derived fuel (TDF) was tested in a small-scale (44 kW or 150,000 Btu/hr) combustor to determine its feasibility as a fuel for use in reburning for control of nitrogen oxide (NO). TDF was gravity-fed into upward flowing combustion gases from a primary natural gas flame doped ...

  13. Renewable high-density spiro-fuels from lignocellulose-derived cyclic ketones.

    PubMed

    Xie, Junjian; Zhang, Xiangwen; Pan, Lun; Nie, Genkuo; E, Xiu-Tian-Feng; Liu, Qing; Wang, Peng; Li, Yafei; Zou, Ji-Jun

    2017-09-14

    Renewable high-density spiro-fuels are synthesized from lignocellulose-derived cyclic ketones for the first time, which show higher density, higher neat heat of combustion and lower freezing point compared with other biofuels synthesized from the same feedstock, and thus represent a new type of renewable high-density fuel attractive for practical applications.

  14. EVALUATION OF TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR USE IN NITROGEN OXIDE REDUCTION BY REBURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tire-derived fuel (TDF) was tested in a small-scale (44 kW or 150,000 Btu/hr) combustor to determine its feasibility as a fuel for use in reburning for control of nitrogen oxide (NO). TDF was gravity-fed into upward flowing combustion gases from a primary natural gas flame doped ...

  15. Will biodiesel derived from algal oils live up to its promise? A fuel property assessment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Algae have been attracting considerable attention as a source of biodiesel recently. This attention is largely due to the claimed high production potential of algal oils while circumventing the food vs. fuel issue. However, the properties of biodiesel fuels derived from algal oils have been only spa...

  16. Airfoil cooling hole plugging by combustion gas impurities of the type found in coal derived fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    The plugging of airfoil cooling holes by typical coal-derived fuel impurities was evaluated using doped combustion gases in an atmospheric pressure burner rig. Very high specific cooling air mass flow rates reduced or eliminated plugging. The amount of flow needed was a function of the composition of the deposit. It appears that plugging of film-cooled holes may be a problem for gas turbines burning coal-derived fuels.

  17. Recapturing NERVA-Derived Fuels for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Qualls, A L; Hancock, Emily F

    2011-01-01

    The Department of Energy is working with NASA to examine fuel options for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion applications. Extensive development and testing was performed on graphite-based fuels during the Nuclear Engineer Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) and Rover programs through the early 1970s. This paper explores the possibility of recapturing the technology and the issues associated with using it for the next generation of nuclear thermal rockets. The issues discussed include a comparison of today's testing capabilities, analysis techniques and methods, and knowledge to that of previous development programs and presents a plan to recapture the technology for a flight program.

  18. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal Derived Liquids. Volume 7. GPGP Jet Fuels Production Program. Evaluation of Technical Uncertainties for Producing Jet Fuels from Liquid By-Products of the Great Plains Gasification Plant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    AFWAL-TR-87-2042 VOLUME VII PRODUCTION OF JET FUELS FROM COAL DERIVED LIQUIDS I VOLUME VII -- GPGP JET FUELS PRODUCTION PROGRAM -- EVALUATION OF o...from Coal Derived Liquids, Vol VII - GPGP Jet Fuels Production Program - Evaluation of Technical Uncertainties for Producing Jet Fuels from Liquid By...potential of jet fuel production from the liquid by-product streams produced by the gasification of lignite at the Great Plains Gasification Plant ( GPGP

  19. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Erickson

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the ninth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1, 2005-December 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in four areas. These areas are: (1) reformate purification, (2) heat transfer enhancement, (3) autothermal reforming coal-derived methanol degradation test; and (4) model development for fuel cell system integration. The project is on schedule and is now shifting towards the design of an integrated PEM fuel cell system capable of using the coal-derived product. This system includes a membrane clean up unit and a commercially available PEM fuel cell.

  20. Using case-mix information in strategic hospital marketing. Deriving market research from patient data.

    PubMed

    Little, A

    1992-01-01

    Hospital survival requires adaptation, adaptation requires understanding, and understanding requires information. These are the basic equations behind hospital strategic marketing, and one of the answers may lie in hospitals' own patient-data systems. Marketers' and administrators' enlightened application of case-mix information could become one more hospital survival tool.

  1. The use of modified tyre derived fuel for compression ignition engines.

    PubMed

    Pilusa, T J

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated physical and chemical modification of tyre-derived fuel oil (TDFO) obtained from pyrolysis of waste tyres and rubber products for application as an alternative fuel for compression ignition engines (CIE's). TDFO collected from a local waste tyre treatment facility was refined via a novel "oxidative gas-phase fractional distillation over 13× molecular sieves" to recover the light to medium fractions of the TDFO while oxidising and capturing some sulphur compounds in a gas phase. This was followed by desulphurization and chemical modification to improve cetane number, kinematic viscosity and fuel stability. The resulting fuel was tested in an ADE407T truck engine to compare its performance with petroleum diesel fuel. It was discovered that gas phase oxidative fractional distillation reduces the low boiling point sulphur compounds in TDFO such as mercaptans. Using petroleum diesel fuel as a reference, it was observed that the produced fuel has a lower cetane number, flash point and viscosity. On storage the fuel tends to form fibrous microstructures as a result of auto-oxidation of asphaltenes present in the fuel. Mixtures of alkyl nitrate, vinyl acetate, methacrylic anhydride, methyl-tert butyl ether, n-hexane and n-heptane were used to chemically modify the fuel in accordance with the minimum fuel specifications as per SANS 342. The engine performance tests results did not show any sign of engine ceasing or knocking effect. The power-torque trend was very consistent and compared well with petroleum diesel fuelled engine. The levels of total sulphur are still considerably high compared to other cleaner fuel alternatives derived from zero sulphur sources.

  2. Coal/biomass fuels and the gas turbine: Utilization of solid fuels and their derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    DeCorso, M.; Newby, R.; Anson, D.; Wenglarz, R.; Wright, I.

    1996-06-01

    This paper discusses key design and development issues in utilizing coal and other solid fuels in gas turbines. These fuels may be burned in raw form or processed to produce liquids or gases in more or less refined forms. The use of such fuels in gas turbines requires resolution of technology issues which are of little or no consequence for conventional natural gas and refined oil fuels. For coal, these issues are primarily related to the solid form in which coal is naturally found and its high ash and contaminant levels. Biomass presents another set of issues similar to those of coal. Among the key areas discussed are effects of ash and contaminant level on deposition, corrosion, and erosion of turbine hot parts, with particular emphasis on deposition effects.

  3. Analysis of the market and product costs for coal-derived high Btu gas: staff working paper

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the market and product costs for coal-derived high Btu gas. This analysis is based upon supply and demand projections that reflect the effects of natural gas deregulation, recent large oil price increases, and new or pending legislation designed to reduce oil imports. Product economics are based upon estimates developed by staff of the Office of Plans and Technology Assessment using internal DOE studies and published data. While these data are believed to be representative of the costs to produce high Btu gas from coal using advanced gasification technology that is ready for technical demonstration at commercially relevant scales, they are not based upon detailed design studies. The analysis indicates that an increasingly large market for supplemental gas is expected to open up by 1990 and that high Btu gas from advanced technology is likely to be economically superior to gas imports over a wide range of alternative assumptions. While several studies suggest that there may be a considerable market for MBG, the potential supplemental gas demand is sufficiently large that significant markets will exist for both MBG and HBG from coal. HBG from advanced technology is especially important if synthetic fuels are to be produced in the East, since there is no data available to indicate that current coal gasification technology can economically use the abundant, moderate to highly caking Eastern coals.

  4. Voluntary Truck and Bus Fuel-Economy-Program marketing plan. Final technical report, September 29, 1980-January 29, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the program is to improve the utilization of fuel by commercial trucks and buses by updating and implementing specific approaches for educating and monitoring the trucking industry on methods and means of conserving fuels. The following outlines the marketing plan projects: increase use of program logo by voluntary program members and others; solicit trade publication membership and support; brief Congressional delegations on fuel conservation efforts; increase voluntary program presence before trade groups; increase voluntary program presence at truck and trade shows; create a voluntary program display for use at trade shows and in other areas; review voluntary program graphics; increase voluntary program membership; and produce placemats carrying fuel conservation messages; produce a special edition of Fuel Economy News, emphasizing the driver's involvement in fuel conservation; produce posters carrying voluntary program fuel conservation message. Project objectives, activities, and results for each project are summarized.

  5. Highly selective condensation of biomass-derived methyl ketones as a source of aviation fuel.

    PubMed

    Sacia, Eric R; Balakrishnan, Madhesan; Deaner, Matthew H; Goulas, Konstantinos A; Toste, F Dean; Bell, Alexis T

    2015-05-22

    Aviation fuel (i.e., jet fuel) requires a mixture of C9 -C16 hydrocarbons having both a high energy density and a low freezing point. While jet fuel is currently produced from petroleum, increasing concern with the release of CO2 into the atmosphere from the combustion of petroleum-based fuels has led to policy changes mandating the inclusion of biomass-based fuels into the fuel pool. Here we report a novel way to produce a mixture of branched cyclohexane derivatives in very high yield (>94 %) that match or exceed many required properties of jet fuel. As starting materials, we use a mixture of n-alkyl methyl ketones and their derivatives obtained from biomass. These synthons are condensed into trimers via base-catalyzed aldol condensation and Michael addition. Hydrodeoxygenation of these products yields mixtures of C12 -C21 branched, cyclic alkanes. Using models for predicting the carbon number distribution obtained from a mixture of n-alkyl methyl ketones and for predicting the boiling point distribution of the final mixture of cyclic alkanes, we show that it is possible to define the mixture of synthons that will closely reproduce the distillation curve of traditional jet fuel.

  6. Life cycle assessment of fuel ethanol derived from corn grain via dry milling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E

    2008-08-01

    Life cycle analysis enables to investigate environmental performance of fuel ethanol used in an E10 fueled compact passenger vehicle. Ethanol is derived from corn grain via dry milling. This type of analysis is an important component for identifying practices that will help to ensure that a renewable fuel, such as ethanol, may be produced in a sustainable manner. Based on data from eight counties in seven Corn Belt states as corn farming sites, we show ethanol derived from corn grain as E10 fuel would reduce nonrenewable energy and greenhouse gas emissions, but would increase acidification, eutrophication and photochemical smog, compared to using gasoline as liquid fuel. The ethanol fuel systems considered in this study offer economic benefits, namely more money returned to society than the investment for producing ethanol. The environmental performance of ethanol fuel system varies significantly with corn farming sites because of different crop management practices, soil properties, and climatic conditions. The dominant factor determining most environmental impacts considered here (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, acidification, eutrophication, and photochemical smog formation) is soil related nitrogen losses (e.g., N2O, NOx, and NO3-). The sources of soil nitrogen include nitrogen fertilizer, crop residues, and air deposition. Nitrogen fertilizer is probably the primary source. Simulations using an agro-ecosystem model predict that planting winter cover crops would reduce soil nitrogen losses and increase soil organic carbon levels, thereby greatly improving the environmental performance of the ethanol fuel system.

  7. Analysis of H2 storage needs for early market non-motive fuel cell applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Moreno, Marcina; Arienti, Marco; Pratt, Joseph William; Shaw, Leo; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2012-03-01

    Hydrogen fuel cells can potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the United States dependence on foreign oil, but issues with hydrogen storage are impeding their widespread use. To help overcome these challenges, this study analyzes opportunities for their near-term deployment in five categories of non-motive equipment: portable power, construction equipment, airport ground support equipment, telecom backup power, and man-portable power and personal electronics. To this end, researchers engaged end users, equipment manufacturers, and technical experts via workshops, interviews, and electronic means, and then compiled these data into meaningful and realistic requirements for hydrogen storage in specific target applications. In addition to developing these requirements, end-user benefits (e.g., low noise and emissions, high efficiency, potentially lower maintenance costs) and concerns (e.g., capital cost, hydrogen availability) of hydrogen fuel cells in these applications were identified. Market data show potential deployments vary with application from hundreds to hundreds of thousands of units.

  8. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    E.T. Robinson; John Sirman; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Dan Corgard; John Hemmings

    2005-05-01

    This final report summarizes work accomplished in the Program from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2004. Most of the key technical objectives for this program were achieved. A breakthrough material system has lead to the development of an OTM (oxygen transport membrane) compact planar reactor design capable of producing either syngas or hydrogen. The planar reactor shows significant advantages in thermal efficiency and a step change reduction in costs compared to either autothermal reforming or steam methane reforming with CO{sub 2} recovery. Syngas derived ultra-clean transportation fuels were tested in the Nuvera fuel cell modular pressurized reactor and in International Truck and Engine single cylinder test engines. The studies compared emission and engine performance of conventional base fuels to various formulations of ultra-clean gasoline or diesel fuels. A proprietary BP oxygenate showed significant advantage in both applications for reducing emissions with minimal impact on performance. In addition, a study to evaluate new fuel formulations for an HCCI engine was completed.

  9. Modeling spot markets for electricity and pricing electricity derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Yumei

    Spot prices for electricity have been very volatile with dramatic price spikes occurring in restructured market. The task of forecasting electricity prices and managing price risk presents a new challenge for market players. The objectives of this dissertation are: (1) to develop a stochastic model of price behavior and predict price spikes; (2) to examine the effect of weather forecasts on forecasted prices; (3) to price electricity options and value generation capacity. The volatile behavior of prices can be represented by a stochastic regime-switching model. In the model, the means of the high-price and low-price regimes and the probabilities of switching from one regime to the other are specified as functions of daily peak load. The probability of switching to the high-price regime is positively related to load, but is still not high enough at the highest loads to predict price spikes accurately. An application of this model shows how the structure of the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland market changed when market-based offers were allowed, resulting in higher price spikes. An ARIMA model including temperature, seasonal, and weekly effects is estimated to forecast daily peak load. Forecasts of load under different assumptions about weather patterns are used to predict changes of price behavior given the regime-switching model of prices. Results show that the range of temperature forecasts from a normal summer to an extremely warm summer cause relatively small increases in temperature (+1.5%) and load (+3.0%). In contrast, the increases in prices are large (+20%). The conclusion is that the seasonal outlook forecasts provided by NOAA are potentially valuable for predicting prices in electricity markets. The traditional option models, based on Geometric Brownian Motion are not appropriate for electricity prices. An option model using the regime-switching framework is developed to value a European call option. The model includes volatility risk and allows changes

  10. Hydrodeoxygenation processes: advances on catalytic transformations of biomass-derived platform chemicals into hydrocarbon fuels.

    PubMed

    De, Sudipta; Saha, Basudeb; Luque, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass provides an attractive source of renewable carbon that can be sustainably converted into chemicals and fuels. Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) processes have recently received considerable attention to upgrade biomass-derived feedstocks into liquid transportation fuels. The selection and design of HDO catalysts plays an important role to determine the success of the process. This review has been aimed to emphasize recent developments on HDO catalysts in effective transformations of biomass-derived platform molecules into hydrocarbon fuels with reduced oxygen content and improved H/C ratios. Liquid hydrocarbon fuels can be obtained by combining oxygen removal processes (e.g. dehydration, hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, decarbonylation etc.) as well as by increasing the molecular weight via C-C coupling reactions (e.g. aldol condensation, ketonization, oligomerization, hydroxyalkylation etc.). Fundamentals and mechanistic aspects of the use of HDO catalysts in deoxygenation reactions will also be discussed.

  11. From a fuel supplier to an active participant: Shell's view of the opportunities offered by a changing power market

    SciTech Connect

    Nyhan, J.

    1998-07-01

    In the last 10 years, the power generation market has seen radical changes. The coming years will see yet more change. Although the pace of change may be uneven across Europe, it is clear that the old reference points for the power generation market are no longer valid. Along with other market players, Shell has re-evaluated the role it wishes to play in the power generation market. Although it has long operated large generation capacity on its own sites, Shell's role has been that of a fuel supplier to monopoly power generation and distribution organizations, which were largely state controlled . Privatization and liberalization have been followed by changing market structures tending to push risk towards the producer. This evolution presents challenges for the normal IPP structure, where market risk is transferred and offers an opportunity for the active participation of the fuel supplier in meeting these challenges. In 1996, Shell decided to embrace the changes in power generation market. Already, significant steps have been taken in markets in Asia, Latin America and in Europe. The differing requirements of each of these markets means there are no standard solutions and requires Shell to devise flexible frameworks which meet the customer's needs. Shell is bringing its significant strengths to the power generation market and looks forward to participating on a world wide scale in the industry at this exciting phase in its development.

  12. Processes for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to chemicals and liquid fuels

    DOEpatents

    Held, Andrew; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy; Gray, Matthew

    2017-05-23

    The present invention provides processes, methods, and systems for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to liquid fuels and chemicals. The method generally includes the reaction of a hydrolysate from a biomass deconstruction process with hydrogen and a catalyst to produce a reaction product comprising one of more oxygenated compounds. The process also includes reacting the reaction product with a condensation catalyst to produce C.sub.4+ compounds useful as fuels and chemicals.

  13. Processes for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to chemicals and liquid fuels

    DOEpatents

    Held, Andrew; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy; Gray, Matthew

    2016-07-05

    The present invention provides processes, methods, and systems for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to liquid fuels and chemicals. The method generally includes the reaction of a hydrolysate from a biomass deconstruction process with hydrogen and a catalyst to produce a reaction product comprising one of more oxygenated compounds. The process also includes reacting the reaction product with a condensation catalyst to produce C.sub.4+ compounds useful as fuels and chemicals.

  14. Integrated process for the catalytic conversion of biomass-derived syngas into transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, Vanessa Lebarbier; Smith, Colin; Flake, Matthew; Albrecht, Karl O.; Gray, Michel J.; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient synthesis of renewable fuels that will enable cost competitiveness with petroleum-derived fuels remains a grand challenge for U.S. scientists. In this paper, we report on an integrated catalytic approach for producing transportation fuels from biomass-derived syngas. The composition of the resulting hydrocarbon fuel can be modulated to meet specified requirements. Biomass-derived syngas is first converted over an Rh-based catalyst into a complex aqueous mixture of condensable C2+ oxygenated compounds (predominantly ethanol, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate). This multi-component aqueous mixture then is fed to a second reactor loaded with a ZnxZryOz mixed oxide catalyst, which has tailored acid-base sites, to produce an olefin mixture rich in isobutene. The olefins then are oligomerized using a solid acid catalyst (e.g., Amberlyst-36) to form condensable olefins with molecular weights that can be targeted for gasoline, jet, and/or diesel fuel applications. The product rich in long-chain olefins (C7+) is finally sent to a fourth reactor that is needed for hydrogenation of the olefins into paraffin fuels. Simulated distillation of the hydrotreated oligomerized liquid product indicates that ~75% of the hydrocarbons present are in the jet-fuel range. Process optimization for the oligomerization step could further improve yield to the jet-fuel range. All of these catalytic steps have been demonstrated in sequence, thus providing proof-of-concept for a new integrated process for the production of drop-in biofuels. This unique and flexible process does not require external hydrogen and also could be applied to non-syngas derived feedstock, such as fermentation products (e.g., ethanol, acetic acid, etc.), other oxygenates, and mixtures thereof containing alcohols, acids, aldehydes and/or esters.

  15. Effects of coal-derived trace species on performance of molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The Carbonate Fuel Cell is a very promising option for highly efficient generation of electricity from many fuels. If coal-gas is to be used, the interactions of coal-derived impurities on various fuel cell components need to be understood. Thus the effects on Carbonate Fuel Cell performance due to ten different coal-derived contaminants viz., NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, AsH{sub 3}, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Hg, have been studied at Energy Research Corporation. Both experimental and theoretical evaluations were performed, which have led to mechanistic insights and initial estimation of qualitative tolerance levels for each species individually and in combination with other species. The focus of this study was to investigate possible coal-gas contaminant effects on the anode side of the Carbonate Fuel Cell, using both out-of-cell thermogravimetric analysis by isothermal TGA, and fuel cell testing in bench-scale cells. Separate experiments detailing performance decay in these cells with high levels of ammonia contamination (1 vol %) and with trace levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn, have indicated that, on the whole, these elements do not affect carbonate fuel cell performance. However, some performance decay may result when a number of the other six species are present, singly or simultaneously, as contaminants in fuel gas. In all cases, tolerance levels have been estimated for each of the 10 species and preliminary models have been developed for six of them. At this stage the models are limited to isothermal, benchscale (300 cm{sup 2} size) single cells. The information obtained is expected to assist in the development of coal-gas cleanup systems, while the contaminant performance effects data will provide useful basic information for modeling fuel cell endurance in conjunction with integrated gasifier/fuel-cell systems (IGFC).

  16. Effects of coal-derived trace species on performance of molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The Carbonate Fuel Cell is a very promising option for highly efficient generation of electricity from many fuels. If coal-gas is to be used, the interactions of coal-derived impurities on various fuel cell components need to be understood. Thus the effects on Carbonate Fuel Cell performance due to ten different coal-derived contaminants viz., NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, AsH{sub 3}, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Hg, have been studied at Energy Research Corporation. Both experimental and theoretical evaluations were performed, which have led to mechanistic insights and initial estimation of qualitative tolerance levels for each species individually and in combination with other species. The focus of this study was to investigate possible coal-gas contaminant effects on the anode side of the Carbonate Fuel Cell, using both out-of-cell thermogravimetric analysis by isothermal TGA, and fuel cell testing in bench-scale cells. Separate experiments detailing performance decay in these cells with high levels of ammonia contamination (1 vol %) and with trace levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn, have indicated that, on the whole, these elements do not affect carbonate fuel cell performance. However, some performance decay may result when a number of the other six species are present, singly or simultaneously, as contaminants in fuel gas. In all cases, tolerance levels have been estimated for each of the 10 species and preliminary models have been developed for six of them. At this stage the models are limited to isothermal, benchscale (300 cm{sup 2} size) single cells. The information obtained is expected to assist in the development of coal-gas cleanup systems, while the contaminant performance effects data will provide useful basic information for modeling fuel cell endurance in conjunction with integrated gasifier/fuel-cell systems (IGFC).

  17. Preliminary assessment of systems for deriving liquid and gaseous fuels from waste or grown organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.; Reynolds, T. W.; Hsu, Y. Y.

    1976-01-01

    The overall feasibility of the chemical conversion of waste or grown organic matter to fuel is examined from the technical, economic, and social viewpoints. The energy contribution from a system that uses waste and grown organic feedstocks is estimated as 4 to 12 percent of our current energy consumption. Estimates of today's market prices for these fuels are included. Economic and social issues are as important as technology in determining the feasibility of such a proposal. An orderly program of development and demonstration is recommended to provide reliable data for an assessment of the viability of the proposal.

  18. An approach to determining the economic feasibility of refuse-derived fuels and materials recovery processing

    SciTech Connect

    Gershman, H.W.

    1980-06-01

    An approach for determining the economic feasibility of refuse-derived fuel production and the recovery of various materials is demonstrated, using data developed for the metropolitan Washington, D.C., area as input. The processing facility, designed to handle 650 tpd of refuse, is described. Since materials revenues can be predicted with a higher degree of certainty than refuse fuel revenues, it is necessary to determine what revenues the sale of solid waste fuel will have to generate for projected economics to be the same as an alternative disposal practice. (1 diagram, 8 references, 6 tables)

  19. Use of pyrolysis-derived fuel in a gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kasper, J.M.; Jasas, G.B.; Trauth, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Combustion of a pyrolytically derived oil has been demonstrated in a J69-T-29 gas turbine combustor rig. The fuel was derived from agricultural and forest products/wastes through a pyrolysis conversion process which yields the oil and a residual char. The char was ground to a mean size of 25 microns and mixed with the oil and JP-4 in additional combustor rig tests. Analysis of the oil and char showed that both have hydrogen/carbon ratios less than 1.0 for the combustible components. The oil has a water content of 29%, a room temperature viscosity of 250 cS, and a pH of 2.9. The combustion system of the J69 consists of an annular combustor and a centrifugal fuel injector rotating as shaft speed. The centrifugal fuel injector can use slurry fuels without clogging and provides good atomization with viscous fuels. The combustor rig was operated at pressures and temperatures lower than those of the engine, and JP-4 was used as a baseline fuel. Test results indicate that use of pyrolytic oil will result in engine combustion efficiencies of over 99%. The pyrolytic oil may also be used as a supplement to JP-4. Additional development will be necessary to use the pyrolytic char as a gas turbine fuel.

  20. Fuel areal density distributions derived from nuclear scattering signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bionta, R. M.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C. J.; Yeamans, C. B.; Gatu Johnson, M. G.

    2016-10-01

    The spatial variation of activities measured in the array of 20 Nuclear Activation Detectors mounted on the flanges around the NIF target chamber (FNADs) are correlated with asymmetries in the underlying fuel areal density of compressed ICF targets. The asymmetric areal density distributions cause variations in the neutron spectra with direction which are seen in the dsr (down scattered ratio) metric, the ratio of the number of 10-12 MeV neutrons to the number of 13-15 MeV neutrons. We show, using a simple physics based simulation of neutron scattering through an idealized non-uniform DT shell with a realistic neutron source, that for most shots an areal distribution can be found which reproduces both the FNAD activity and the dsr measurements. Furthermore, by linking the simulation to a Marquardt minimizer, we fit the areal distribution to a truncated set of spherical harmonics. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. Three Essays on Renewable Energy Policy and its Effects on Fossil Fuel Generation in Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Eric

    In this dissertation, I investigate the effectiveness of renewable policies and consider their impact on electricity markets. The common thread of this research is to understand how renewable policy incentivizes renewable generation and how the increasing share of generation from renewables affects generation from fossil fuels. This type of research is crucial for understanding whether policies to promote renewables are meeting their stated goals and what the unintended effects might be. To this end, I use econometric methods to examine how electricity markets are responding to an influx of renewable energy. My dissertation is composed of three interrelated essays. In Chapter 1, I employ recent scholarship in spatial econometrics to assess the spatial dependence of Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), a prominent state-based renewable incentive. In Chapter 2, I explore the impact of the rapid rise in renewable generation on short-run generation from fossil fuels. And in Chapter 3, I assess the impact of renewable penetration on coal plant retirement decisions.

  2. A Study on Market Efficiency of Selected Commodity Derivatives Traded on NCDEX During 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajipriya, N.

    2012-10-01

    The study aims at testing the weak form of Efficient Market Hypothesis in the context of an emerging commodity market - National Commodity Derivatives Exchange (NCDEX), which is considered as the prime commodity derivatives market in India. The study considered daily spot and futures prices of five selected commodities traded on NCDEX over 12 month period (the futures contracts originating and expiring during the period January 2011 to December 2011) The five commodities chosen are Pepper, Crude palm Oil, steel silver and Chana as they account for almost two-thirds of the value of agricultural commodity derivatives traded on NCDEX. The results of Run test indicate that both spot and futures prices are weak form efficient

  3. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for the analysis of synthetic and crude-derived jet fuels.

    PubMed

    van der Westhuizen, Rina; Ajam, Mariam; De Coning, Piet; Beens, Jan; de Villiers, André; Sandra, Pat

    2011-07-15

    Fully synthetic jet fuel (FSJF) produced via Fischer-Tropsch (FT) technology was recently approved by the international aviation fuel authorities. To receive approval, comparison of FSJF and crude-derived fuel and blends on their qualitative and quantitative hydrocarbon composition was of utmost importance. This was performed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) in the reversed phase mode. The hydrocarbon composition of synthetic and crude-derived jet fuels is very similar and all compounds detected in the synthetic product are also present in crude-derived fuels. Quantitatively, the synthetic fuel consists of a higher degree of aliphatic branching with less than half the aromatic content of the crude-derived fuel. GC×GC analyses also indicated the presence of trace levels of hetero-atomic impurities in the crude-derived product that were absent in the synthetic product. While clay-treatment removed some of the impurities and improved the fuel stability, the crude-derived product still contained traces of cyclic and aromatic S-containing compounds afterwards. Lower level of aromatics and the absence of sulphur are some of the factors that contribute to the better fuel stability and environmental properties of the synthetic fuel. GC×GC was further applied for the analysis of products during Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Testing (JFTOT), which measures deposit formation of a fuel under simulated engine conditions. JFTOT showed the synthetic fuel to be much more stable than the crude-derived fuel. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Towards Safer Rocket Fuels: Hypergolic Imidazolylidene-Borane Compounds as Replacements for Hydrazine Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shi; Qi, Xiujuan; Liu, Tianlin; Wang, Kangcai; Zhang, Wenquan; Li, Jianlin; Zhang, Qinghua

    2016-07-11

    Currently, toxic and volatile hydrazine derivatives are still the main fuel choices for liquid bipropellants, especially in some traditional rocket propulsion systems. Therefore, the search for safer hypergolic fuels as replacements for hydrazine derivatives has been one of the most challenging tasks. In this study, six imidazolylidene-borane compounds with zwitterionic structure have been synthesized and characterized, and their hypergolic reactivity has been studied. As expected, these compounds exhibited fast spontaneous combustion upon contact with white fuming nitric acid (WFNA). Among them, compound 5 showed excellent integrated properties including wide liquid operating range (-70-160 °C), superior loading density (0.99 g cm(-3) ), ultrafast ignition delay times with WFNA (15 ms), and high specific impulse (303.5 s), suggesting promising application potential as safer hypergolic fuels in liquid bipropellant formulations. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. [Control of malaria: market for artemisinin and its derivatives].

    PubMed

    Pilloy, J

    2006-12-01

    Artemisinin compounds derived from the Artemisia annua plant provide the raw material for new artemisinin based combined therapies (ACT) against malaria. The purpose of this report is to present the different steps in production of these compounds from planting to harvesting, extraction, purification, chemical transformation and final formulation. Factors affecting cost are given special focus to gain better insight into ways of holding down the purchasing price. We also describe the consequences that the April 2004 decision by several international organizations (e.g. WHO and Global Fund to fight AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria) to make ACT the reference treatment for malaria has had on the supply of ACT, i.e., shortages with a sharp price increase followed by overinvestment and surpluses with a sharp price decrease. In view of these fluctuations, we discuss whether regulation is necessary and who should intervene.

  6. Heterogeneous catalysts for the transformation of fatty acid triglycerides and their derivatives to fuel hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovlev, Vadim A.; Khromova, Sofia A.; Bukhtiyarov, Valerii I.

    2011-10-01

    The results of studies devoted to the catalysts for transformation of fatty acid triglycerides and their derivatives to fuel hydrocarbons are presented and described systematically. Various approaches to the use of heterogeneous catalysts for the production of biofuel from these raw materials are considered. The bibliography includes 134 references.

  7. QUANTIFYING HAZARDOUS SPECIES IN PARTICULATE MATTER DERIVED FROM FOSSIL-FUEL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analysis protocol that combines X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy with selective leaching has been developed to examine hazardous species in size- segregated particulate matter (PM) samples derived from the combustion of fossil fuels. The protocol has been used...

  8. Organic derivatives of hydrazine and hydroxylamine in future technology of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Koltunov, V.S.; Baranov, S.M.

    1993-12-31

    An important issue in nuclear fuel reprocessing is the reduction of salts. It is seen that this can be accomplished utilizing organic derivatives of hydrazine and hydroxylamine as reductants of Np(VI) and Pu(IV). The chemistry of this process is described.

  9. QUANTIFYING HAZARDOUS SPECIES IN PARTICULATE MATTER DERIVED FROM FOSSIL-FUEL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analysis protocol that combines X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy with selective leaching has been developed to examine hazardous species in size- segregated particulate matter (PM) samples derived from the combustion of fossil fuels. The protocol has been used...

  10. Bioconversion of coal derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, M. K.; Worden, R. M.; Grethlein, A.

    1994-07-01

    The overall objective of the project is to develop an integrated two-stage fermentation process for conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to a mixture of alcohols. This is achieved in two steps. In the first step, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum converts carbon monoxide (CO) to butyric and acetic acids. Subsequent fermentation of the acids by Clostridium acetobutylicum leads to the production of butanol and ethanol. The tasks for this quarter were: development/isolation of superior strains for fermentation of syngas; evaluation of bioreactor configuration for improved mass transfer of syngas; recovery of carbon and electrons from H2-CO2; initiation of pervaporation for recovery of solvents; and selection of solid support material for trickle-bed fermentation. Technical progress included the following: butyrate production was enhanced during H2/CO2 (50/50) batch fermentation; isolation of CO-utilizing anaerobic strains is in progress; pressure (15 psig) fermentation was evaluated as a means of increasing CO availability; polyurethane foam packing material was selected for trickle bed solid support; cell recycle fermentation on syngas operated for 3 months. Acetate was the primary product at pH 6.8; trickle bed and gas lift fermentor designs were modified after initial water testing; and pervaporation system was constructed (No alcohol selectivity was shown with the existing membranes during initial start-up).

  11. Alternative Bio-Derived JP-8 Class Fuel and JP-8 Fuel: Flame Tube Combustor Test Results Compared using a GE TAPS Injector Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Anderson, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from tests in a flame tube facility, where a bio-derived alternate fuel was compared with JP-8 for emissions and general combustion performance. A research version of General Electric Aviation (GE) TAPS injector was used for the tests. Results include combustion efficiency from gaseous emission measurements, 2D planar laser-based imaging as well as basic flow visualization of the flame. Four inlet test conditions were selected that simulate various engine power conditions relevant to NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Supersonics Project and Environmentally Responsible Aviation Program. One inlet condition was a pilot-only test point. The other three inlet conditions incorporated fuel staging via a split between the pilot and main circuits of either 10%/90% or 20%/80%. For each engine power condition, three fuel mixes were used: 100% JP-8; 100% alternative; and a blend of the two, containing 75% alternative. Results for the inlet cases that have fuel split between pilot and main, indicate that fuel from the pilot appears to be evaporated by the time it reaches the dome exit. Main circuit liquid evaporates within a downstream distance equal to annulus height, no matter the fuel. Some fuel fluorescence images for a 10%/90% fuel staging case show a distinct difference between JP-8 and bio-derived fuel. OH PLIF results indicate that OH forms in a region more centrally-located for the JP-8 case downstream of the pilot, in its central recirculation region (CRZ). For the bio-derived Hydrotreated Renewable Jet (HRJ) fuel, however, we do not see much OH in the CRZ. The OH image structure near the dome exit is similar for the two fuels, but farther downstream the OH in the CRZ is much more apparent for the JP-8 than for the alternate fuel. For all conditions, there was no discernable difference between fuel types in combustion efficiency or emissions.

  12. Bio-derived Fuel Blend Dilution of Marine Engine Oil and Imapct on Friction and Wear Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, Oyelayo O.; Lorenzo-Martin, Cinta; Fenske, George R.; Corlett, John; Murphy, Chris; Przesmitzki, Steve

    2016-04-01

    To reduce the amount of petroleum-derived fuel used in vehicles and vessels powered by internal combustion engines, the addition of bio-derived fuel extenders is a common practice. Ethanol is perhaps the most common bio-derived fuel used for blending, and butanol is being evaluated as a promising alternative. The present study determined the fuel dilution rate of three lubricating oils (E0, E10, and i-B16) in a marine engine operating in on-water conditions with a start-and-stop cycle protocol. The level of fuel dilution increased with the number of cycles for all three fuels. The most dilution was observed with i-B16 fuel, and the least with E10 fuel. In all cases, fuel dilution substantially reduced the oil viscosity. The impacts of fuel dilution and the consequent viscosity reduction on the lubricating capability of the engine oil in terms of friction, wear, and scuffing prevention were evaluated by four different tests protocols. Although the fuel dilution of the engine oil had minimal effect on friction, because the test conditions were under the boundary lubrication regime, significant effects were observed on wear in many cases. Fuel dilution also was observed to reduce the load-carrying capacity of the engine oils in terms of scuffing load reduction.

  13. Results of emissions testing while burning densified refuse derived fuel, Dordt College, Sioux Center, Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    Pacific Environmental Services, Inc. provided engineering and source testing services to the Council of Great Lake Governors to support their efforts in promoting the development and utilization of densified refuse derived fuels (d-RDF) and pelletized wastepaper fuels in small steam generating facilities. The emissions monitoring program was designed to provide a complete air emissions profile while burning various refuse derived fuels. The specific goal of this test program was to conduct air emissions tests at Dordt College located in Sioux Center, Iowa and to identify a relationship between fuel types and emission characteristics. The sampling protocol was carried out June 12 through June 20, 1989 on boiler {number sign}4. This unit had been previously modified to burn d-RDF. The boiler was not equipped with any type of air pollution control device so the emissions samples were collected from the boiler exhaust stack on the roof of the boilerhouse. The emissions that were sampled included: particulates; PM{sub 10} particulates; hydrochloric acid; dioxins; furans; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB); metals and continuous monitors for CO, CO{sub 2}O{sub 2}SO{sub x}NO{sub x} and total hydrocarbons. Grab samples of the fuels were collected, composited and analyzed for heating value, moisture content, proximate and ultimate analysis, ash fusion temperature, bulk density and elemental ash analysis. Grab samples of the boiler ash were also collected and analyzed for total hydrocarbons total dioxins, total furans, total PCBs and heavy metals. 77 figs., 20 tabs.

  14. Air emission from the co-combustion of alternative derived fuels within cement plants: Gaseous pollutants.

    PubMed

    Richards, Glen; Agranovski, Igor E

    2015-02-01

    Cement manufacturing is a resource- and energy-intensive industry, utilizing 9% of global industrial energy use while releasing more than 5% of global carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions. With an increasing demand of production set to double by 2050, so too will be its carbon footprint. However, Australian cement plants have great potential for energy savings and emission reductions through the substitution of combustion fuels with a proportion of alternative derived fuels (ADFs), namely, fuels derived from wastes. This paper presents the environmental emissions monitoring of 10 cement batching plants while under baseline and ADF operating conditions, and an assessment of parameters influencing combustion. The experiential runs included the varied substitution rates of seven waste streams and the monitoring of seven target pollutants. The co-combustion tests of waste oil, wood chips, wood chips and plastic, waste solvents, and shredded tires were shown to have the minimal influence when compared to baseline runs, or had significantly reduced the unit mass emission factor of pollutants. With an increasing ADF% substitution, monitoring identified there to be no subsequent emission effects and that key process parameters contributing to contaminant suppression include (1) precalciner and kiln fuel firing rate and residence time; (2) preheater and precalciner gas and material temperature; (3) rotary kiln flame temperature; (4) fuel-air ratio and percentage of excess oxygen; and (5) the rate of meal feed and rate of clinker produced.

  15. Potential hazards associated with combustion of bio-derived versus petroleum-derived diesel fuel.

    PubMed

    Bünger, Jürgen; Krahl, Jürgen; Schröder, Olaf; Schmidt, Lasse; Westphal, Götz A

    2012-10-01

    Fuels from renewable resources have gained worldwide interest due to limited fossil oil sources and the possible reduction of atmospheric greenhouse gas. One of these fuels is so called biodiesel produced from vegetable oil by transesterification into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). To get a first insight into changes of health hazards from diesel engine emissions (DEE) by use of biodiesel scientific studies were reviewed which compared the combustion of FAME with common diesel fuel (DF) for legally regulated and non-regulated emissions as well as for toxic effects. A total number of 62 publications on chemical analyses of DEE and 18 toxicological in vitro studies were identified meeting the criteria. In addition, a very small number of human studies and animal experiments were available. In most studies, combustion of biodiesel reduces legally regulated emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. Nitrogen oxides are regularly increased. Among the non-regulated emissions aldehydes are increased, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are lowered. Most biological in vitro assays show a stronger cytotoxicity of biodiesel exhaust and the animal experiments reveal stronger irritant effects. Both findings are possibly caused by the higher content of nitrogen oxides and aldehydes in biodiesel exhaust. The lower content of PAH is reflected by a weaker mutagenicity compared to DF exhaust. However, recent studies show a very low mutagenicity of DF exhaust as well, probably caused by elimination of sulfur in present DF qualities and the use of new technology diesel engines. Combustion of vegetable oil (VO) in common diesel engines causes a strongly enhanced mutagenicity of the exhaust despite nearly unchanged regulated emissions. The newly developed fuel "hydrotreated vegetable oil" (HVO) seems to be promising. HVO has physical and chemical advantages compared to FAME. Preliminary results show lower regulated and non-regulated emissions and a

  16. Potential hazards associated with combustion of bio-derived versus petroleum-derived diesel fuel

    PubMed Central

    Bünger, Jürgen; Krahl, Jürgen; Schröder, Olaf; Schmidt, Lasse; Westphal, Götz A.

    2012-01-01

    Fuels from renewable resources have gained worldwide interest due to limited fossil oil sources and the possible reduction of atmospheric greenhouse gas. One of these fuels is so called biodiesel produced from vegetable oil by transesterification into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). To get a first insight into changes of health hazards from diesel engine emissions (DEE) by use of biodiesel scientific studies were reviewed which compared the combustion of FAME with common diesel fuel (DF) for legally regulated and non-regulated emissions as well as for toxic effects. A total number of 62 publications on chemical analyses of DEE and 18 toxicological in vitro studies were identified meeting the criteria. In addition, a very small number of human studies and animal experiments were available. In most studies, combustion of biodiesel reduces legally regulated emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. Nitrogen oxides are regularly increased. Among the non-regulated emissions aldehydes are increased, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are lowered. Most biological in vitro assays show a stronger cytotoxicity of biodiesel exhaust and the animal experiments reveal stronger irritant effects. Both findings are possibly caused by the higher content of nitrogen oxides and aldehydes in biodiesel exhaust. The lower content of PAH is reflected by a weaker mutagenicity compared to DF exhaust. However, recent studies show a very low mutagenicity of DF exhaust as well, probably caused by elimination of sulfur in present DF qualities and the use of new technology diesel engines. Combustion of vegetable oil (VO) in common diesel engines causes a strongly enhanced mutagenicity of the exhaust despite nearly unchanged regulated emissions. The newly developed fuel “hydrotreated vegetable oil” (HVO) seems to be promising. HVO has physical and chemical advantages compared to FAME. Preliminary results show lower regulated and non-regulated emissions and a

  17. Quantification of fuel moisture effects on biomass consumed derived from fire radiative energy retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Alistair M. S.; Tinkham, Wade T.; Roy, David P.; Boschetti, Luigi; Kremens, Robert L.; Kumar, Sanath S.; Sparks, Aaron M.; Falkowski, Michael J.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite based fire radiant energy retrievals are widely applied to assess biomass consumed and emissions at regional to global scales. A known potential source of uncertainty in biomass burning estimates arises from fuel moisture but this impact has not been quantified in previous studies. Controlled fire laboratory experiments are used in this study to examine the biomass consumed and the radiant energy release (Fire Radiative Energy, FRE, (MJ)) for western white pine needle fuels burned with water content (WC, unitless) from 0.01 to 0.14. Results indicate a significant relationship: FRE per kilogram of fuel consumed = -5.32 WC + 3.025 (r2 = 0.83, n = 24, P < 0.001) and imply that not taking into account fuel moisture variations in the assumed relationship between FRE and fuel consumed can lead to systematic biases. A methodological framework to derive a revised formula that enables the estimation of biomass consumed from FRE, which explicitly takes into account fuel water content, is presented.

  18. Production of dimethylfuran for liquid fuels from biomass-derived carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Román-Leshkov, Yuriy; Barrett, Christopher J; Liu, Zhen Y; Dumesic, James A

    2007-06-21

    Diminishing fossil fuel reserves and growing concerns about global warming indicate that sustainable sources of energy are needed in the near future. For fuels to be useful in the transportation sector, they must have specific physical properties that allow for efficient distribution, storage and combustion; these properties are currently fulfilled by non-renewable petroleum-derived liquid fuels. Ethanol, the only renewable liquid fuel currently produced in large quantities, suffers from several limitations, including low energy density, high volatility, and contamination by the absorption of water from the atmosphere. Here we present a catalytic strategy for the production of 2,5-dimethylfuran from fructose (a carbohydrate obtained directly from biomass or by the isomerization of glucose) for use as a liquid transportation fuel. Compared to ethanol, 2,5-dimethylfuran has a higher energy density (by 40 per cent), a higher boiling point (by 20 K), and is not soluble in water. This catalytic strategy creates a route for transforming abundant renewable biomass resources into a liquid fuel suitable for the transportation sector, and may diminish our reliance on petroleum.

  19. Evaluation of tire-derived fuel for use in nitrogen oxide reduction by reburning.

    PubMed

    Miller, C A; Lemieux, P M; Touati, A

    1998-08-01

    Tire-derived fuel (TDF) was tested in a small-scale (44 kW or 150,000 Btu/hr) combustor to determine its feasibility as a fuel for use in reburning for control of nitrogen oxide (NO). TDF was gravity-fed into upward flowing combustion gases from a primary natural gas flame doped with ammonia to simulate a high NO combustion process. Emissions of NO, oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter were measured. The tests varied the nominal primary NO level from 600 to 1,200 ppm and the primary stoichiometry from 1.1 to 1.2, and used both natural gas and TDF as reburn fuels. The reburn injection rate was varied to achieve 8-20% of the total heat input from the reburn fuel. NO emissions reductions ranged between 20 and 63% when using TDF, depending upon the rate of TDF injection, primary NO, and primary stoichiometry. NO emission reductions when using natural gas as the reburn fuel were consistently higher than those when using TDF. While additional work remains to optimize the process and evaluate costs, TDF has been shown to have the potential to be a technically viable reburning fuel.

  20. Early Fuel Cell Market Deployments: ARRA and Combined (IAA, DLA, ARRA); Quarter 3 2012 Composite Data Products

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.; Post, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes early fuel cell market composite data products for the third quarter of 2012 for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) and combined (IAA, DLA, ARRA) deployment projects.

  1. Early Fuel Cell Market Deployments: ARRA and Combined (IAA, DLA, ARRA): Quarter 4 2013 Composite Data Products

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.

    2014-06-01

    This report includes the composite data products (CDPs) for early fuel cell market deployments in quarter 4 of 2013. Results are presented for ARRA (projects funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 [ARRA]) and Combined (projects funded by DOE Interagency Agreements [IAA], Department of Defense Defense Logistics Agency [DLA], and ARRA).

  2. Blending high sulfer coal with refuse derived fuel to make SO{sub 2} compliant slurry fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Klosky, M.; Anderson, C.

    1995-12-31

    The need for a better method of disposing of the international community`s garbage hardly needs emphasizing. In 1993, the United States alone generated approximately 207 million ton per year of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), with 62% landfilled, 220/6 recycled, and 16% combusted for energy recovery. Despite strenuous efforts to make these disposal methods meet present needs, the cost of disposal is rising dramatically. Concurrently, the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 have severely restricted the SO{sub 2} emissions from coal fired boilers. Medium and high sulfur coals will not comply with the Phase II CAAA regulation limit of 1.2 lb SO{sub 2}/MM Btu, without advanced coal cleaning technologies or flue gas desulfurization, including the majority of the North Dakota lignite reserves. Utility power plants have attempted to burn refuse derived fuel (RDF), a heterogeneous solid fuel produced from MSW, with coal in utility scale boilers (generally referred to as co-firing). Co-firing of RDF with coal has been attempted in sixteen different boilers, five commercially. While lower SO{sub 2} emissions provided the impetus, co-firing RDF with coal suffered from several disadvantages including increased solids handling, increased excess air requirements, higher HCI, CO, NO{sub x} and chlorinated organic emissions, increased slag formation in the boiler, and higher fly ash resistivity. Currently, only two of the sixteen boilers are still regularly used to co-fire RDF. The overall objective of this research program was to assess the feasibility of blending RDF with lignite coal to form SO{sub 2} Compliant slurry fuels using EnerTech`s SlurryCarb{trademark} process. In particular, the objective was to overcome the difficulties of conventional co-firing. Blended slurry fuels were produced with the Energy & Environmental Research Center`s (EERC) bench-scale autoclave and were combusted in a pressurized fluidized-bed reactor (PFBR).

  3. Final Project Closeout Report for Sprint Hydrogen Fuel Cell (HFC) Deployment Project in California, Gulf Coast and Eastern Seaboard Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, Kevin; Bradley, Dwayne

    2015-09-01

    Sprint is one of the telecommunications industry leaders in the deployment of hydrogen fuel cell (HFC) systems to provide backup power for their mission critical wireless network facilities. With several hundred fuel cells commissioned in California, states in the gulf coast region, and along the upper eastern seaboard. A strong incentive for advancing the integration of fuel cells into the Sprint network came through the award of a Department of Energy (DOE) grant focused on Market Transformation activities for project (EE0000486). This grant was funded by the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The funding provided by DOE ($7.295M) was allocated to support the installation of 260 new HFC systems, equipped with an on-site refillable Medium Pressure Hydrogen Storage Solution (MPHSS), as well as for the conversion of 21 low pressure hydrogen systems to the MPHSS, in hopes of reducing barriers to market acceptance.

  4. Enabling the Distributed Generation Market of High Temperature Fuel Cell and Absorption Chiller Systems to Support Critical and Commercial Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiMola, Ashley M.

    Buildings account for over 18% of the world's anthropogenic Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. As a result, a technology that can offset GHG emissions associated with buildings has the potential to save over 9 Giga-tons of GHG emissions per year. High temperature fuel cell and absorption chiller (HTFC/AC) technology offers a relatively low-carbon option for meeting cooling and electric loads for buildings while producing almost no criteria pollutants. GHG emissions in the state of California would decrease by 7.48 million metric tons per year if every commercial building in the State used HTFC/AC technology to meet its power and cooling requirements. In order to realize the benefits of HTFC/AC technology on a wide scale, the distributed generation market needs to be exposed to the technology and informed of its economic viability and real-world potential. This work characterizes the economics associated with HTFC/AC technology using select scenarios that are representative of realistic applications. The financial impacts of various input factors are evaluated and the HTFC/AC simulations are compared to the economics of traditional building utilities. It is shown that, in addition to the emissions reductions derived from the systems, HTFC/AC technology is financially preferable in all of the scenarios evaluated. This work also presents the design of a showcase environment, centered on a beta-test application, that presents (1) system operating data gathered using a custom data acquisition module, and (2) HTFC/AC technology in a clear and approachable manner in order to serve the target audience of market stakeholders.

  5. Commercializing fuel cells: managing risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Peter B.

    Commercialization of fuel cells, like any other product, entails both financial and technical risks. Most of the fuel cell literature has focussed upon technical risks, however, the most significant risks during commercialization may well be associated with the financial funding requirements of this process. Successful commercialization requires an integrated management of these risks. Like any developing technology, fuel cells face the typical 'Catch-22' of commercialization: "to enter the market, the production costs must come down, however, to lower these costs, the cumulative production must be greatly increased, i.e. significant market penetration must occur". Unless explicit steps are taken to address this dilemma, fuel cell commercialization will remain slow and require large subsidies for market entry. To successfully address this commercialization dilemma, it is necessary to follow a market-driven commercialization strategy that identifies high-value entry markets while minimizing the financial and technical risks of market entry. The financial and technical risks of fuel cell commercialization are minimized, both for vendors and end-users, with the initial market entry of small-scale systems into high-value stationary applications. Small-scale systems, in the order of 1-40 kW, benefit from economies of production — as opposed to economies to scale — to attain rapid cost reductions from production learning and continuous technological innovation. These capital costs reductions will accelerate their commercialization through market pull as the fuel cell systems become progressively more viable, starting with various high-value stationary and, eventually, for high-volume mobile applications. To facilitate market penetration via market pull, fuel cell systems must meet market-derived economic and technical specifications and be compatible with existing market and fuels infrastructures. Compatibility with the fuels infrastructure is facilitated by a

  6. Steam gasification of tyre waste, poplar, and refuse-derived fuel: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Galvagno, S; Casciaro, G; Casu, S; Martino, M; Mingazzini, C; Russo, A; Portofino, S

    2009-02-01

    In the field of waste management, thermal disposal is a treatment option able to recover resources from "end of life" products. Pyrolysis and gasification are emerging thermal treatments that work under less drastic conditions in comparison with classic direct combustion, providing for reduced gaseous emissions of heavy metals. Moreover, they allow better recovery efficiency since the process by-products can be used as fuels (gas, oils), for both conventional (classic engines and heaters) and high efficiency apparatus (gas turbines and fuel cells), or alternatively as chemical sources or as raw materials for other processes. This paper presents a comparative study of a steam gasification process applied to three different waste types (refuse-derived fuel, poplar wood and scrap tyres), with the aim of comparing the corresponding yields and product compositions and exploring the most valuable uses of the by-products.

  7. Thermal stability of some aircraft turbine fuels derived from oil shale and coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal stability breakpoint temperatures are shown for 32 jet fuels prepared from oil shale and coal syncrudes by various degrees of hydrogenation. Low severity hydrotreated shale oils, with nitrogen contents of 0.1 to 0.24 weight percent, had breakpoint temperatures in the 477 to 505 K (400 to 450 F) range. Higher severity treatment, lowering nitrogen levels to 0.008 to 0.017 weight percent, resulted in breakpoint temperatures in the 505 to 533 K (450 to 500 F) range. Coal derived fuels showed generally increasing breakpoint temperatures with increasing weight percent hydrogen, fuels below 13 weight percent hydrogen having breakpoints below 533 K (500 F). Comparisons are shown with similar literature data.

  8. Steam gasification of tyre waste, poplar, and refuse-derived fuel: A comparative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Galvagno, S. Casciaro, G.; Casu, S.; Martino, M.; Mingazzini, C.; Russo, A.; Portofino, S.

    2009-02-15

    In the field of waste management, thermal disposal is a treatment option able to recover resources from 'end of life' products. Pyrolysis and gasification are emerging thermal treatments that work under less drastic conditions in comparison with classic direct combustion, providing for reduced gaseous emissions of heavy metals. Moreover, they allow better recovery efficiency since the process by-products can be used as fuels (gas, oils), for both conventional (classic engines and heaters) and high efficiency apparatus (gas turbines and fuel cells), or alternatively as chemical sources or as raw materials for other processes. This paper presents a comparative study of a steam gasification process applied to three different waste types (refuse-derived fuel, poplar wood and scrap tyres), with the aim of comparing the corresponding yields and product compositions and exploring the most valuable uses of the by-products.

  9. Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Erickson

    2004-06-30

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the third report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of April 1-June 30, 2004. This quarter saw progress in five areas. These areas are: (1) External evaluation of coal based methanol and the fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design, set up and initial testing of the autothermal reactor, (3) Experiments to determine the axial and radial thermal profiles of the steam reformers, (4) Catalyst degradation studies, and (5) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  10. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Erickson

    2004-04-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the second report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1--March 31, 2004. This quarter saw progress in five areas. These areas are: (1) Internal and external evaluations of coal based methanol and the fuel cell grade baseline fuel; (2) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation; (3) Design and set up of the autothermal reactor; (4) Steam reformation of Coal Based Methanol; and (5) Initial catalyst degradation studies. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  11. Electroreduction of carbon monoxide to liquid fuel on oxide-derived nanocrystalline copper.

    PubMed

    Li, Christina W; Ciston, Jim; Kanan, Matthew W

    2014-04-24

    The electrochemical conversion of CO2 and H2O into liquid fuel is ideal for high-density renewable energy storage and could provide an incentive for CO2 capture. However, efficient electrocatalysts for reducing CO2 and its derivatives into a desirable fuel are not available at present. Although many catalysts can reduce CO2 to carbon monoxide (CO), liquid fuel synthesis requires that CO is reduced further, using H2O as a H(+) source. Copper (Cu) is the only known material with an appreciable CO electroreduction activity, but in bulk form its efficiency and selectivity for liquid fuel are far too low for practical use. In particular, H2O reduction to H2 outcompetes CO reduction on Cu electrodes unless extreme overpotentials are applied, at which point gaseous hydrocarbons are the major CO reduction products. Here we show that nanocrystalline Cu prepared from Cu2O ('oxide-derived Cu') produces multi-carbon oxygenates (ethanol, acetate and n-propanol) with up to 57% Faraday efficiency at modest potentials (-0.25 volts to -0.5 volts versus the reversible hydrogen electrode) in CO-saturated alkaline H2O. By comparison, when prepared by traditional vapour condensation, Cu nanoparticles with an average crystallite size similar to that of oxide-derived copper produce nearly exclusive H2 (96% Faraday efficiency) under identical conditions. Our results demonstrate the ability to change the intrinsic catalytic properties of Cu for this notoriously difficult reaction by growing interconnected nanocrystallites from the constrained environment of an oxide lattice. The selectivity for oxygenates, with ethanol as the major product, demonstrates the feasibility of a two-step conversion of CO2 to liquid fuel that could be powered by renewable electricity.

  12. Electroreduction of carbon monoxide to liquid fuel on oxide-derived nanocrystalline copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Christina W.; Ciston, Jim; Kanan, Matthew W.

    2014-04-01

    The electrochemical conversion of CO2 and H2O into liquid fuel is ideal for high-density renewable energy storage and could provide an incentive for CO2 capture. However, efficient electrocatalysts for reducing CO2 and its derivatives into a desirable fuel are not available at present. Although many catalysts can reduce CO2 to carbon monoxide (CO), liquid fuel synthesis requires that CO is reduced further, using H2O as a H+ source. Copper (Cu) is the only known material with an appreciable CO electroreduction activity, but in bulk form its efficiency and selectivity for liquid fuel are far too low for practical use. In particular, H2O reduction to H2 outcompetes CO reduction on Cu electrodes unless extreme overpotentials are applied, at which point gaseous hydrocarbons are the major CO reduction products. Here we show that nanocrystalline Cu prepared from Cu2O (`oxide-derived Cu') produces multi-carbon oxygenates (ethanol, acetate and n-propanol) with up to 57% Faraday efficiency at modest potentials (-0.25 volts to -0.5 volts versus the reversible hydrogen electrode) in CO-saturated alkaline H2O. By comparison, when prepared by traditional vapour condensation, Cu nanoparticles with an average crystallite size similar to that of oxide-derived copper produce nearly exclusive H2 (96% Faraday efficiency) under identical conditions. Our results demonstrate the ability to change the intrinsic catalytic properties of Cu for this notoriously difficult reaction by growing interconnected nanocrystallites from the constrained environment of an oxide lattice. The selectivity for oxygenates, with ethanol as the major product, demonstrates the feasibility of a two-step conversion of CO2 to liquid fuel that could be powered by renewable electricity.

  13. Preliminary Investigation for Engine Performance by Using Tire-Derived Pyrolysis Oil-Diesel Blended Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rofiqul, Islam M.; Haniu, Hiroyuki; Alam, Beg R.; Takai, Kazunori

    In the first phase of the present study, the pyrolysis oil derived from light automotive tire waste has been characterized including fuel properties, elemental analyses, FT-IR, 1H-NMR, GC-MS and distillation. The studies on the oil show that it can be used as liquid fuel with a gross calorific value (GCV) of 42.00 MJ/kg and empirical formula of CH1.27O0.025N0.006. In the second phase of the investigation, the performance of a diesel engine was studied blending the pyrolysis oil with diesel fuel in different ratios. The experimental results show that the bsfc of pyrolysis oil-diesel blended fuels slightly increases and hence the brake thermal efficiency decreases compared to those of neat diesel. The pyrolysis oil-diesel blends show lower carbon monoxide (CO) emission but higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions than those of neat diesel. However, NOx emissions with pyrolysis oil-diesel blended fuels reduced when EGR was applied.

  14. Combustion-derived nanoparticle exposure and household solid fuel use in Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China

    PubMed Central

    Hosgood, H. Dean; Lan, Qing; Vermeulen, Roel; Wei, Hu; Reiss, Boris; Coble, Joseph; Wei, Fusheng; Jun, Xu; Wu, Guoping; Rothman, Nat

    2014-01-01

    Combustion-derived nanoparticles (CDNPs) have not been readably measurable until recently. We conducted a pilot study to determine CDNP levels during solid fuel burning. The aggregate surface area of CDNP (μm2/cm3) was monitored continuously in 15 Chinese homes using varying fuel types (i.e. bituminous coal, anthracite coal, wood) and stove types (i.e. portable stoves, stoves with chimneys, firepits). Information on fuel burning activities was collected and PM2.5 levels were measured. Substantial exposure differences were observed during solid fuel burning (mean: 228.1 μm2/cm3) compared to times without combustion (mean: 14.0 μm2/cm3). The observed levels during burning were reduced by about four-fold in homes with a chimney (mean: 92.1 μm2/cm3; n = 9), and effects were present for all fuel types. Each home’s CDNP measurement was only moderately correlated with the respective PM2.5 measurements (r2 = 0.43; p = 0.11). Our results indicate that household coal and wood burning contributes to indoor nanoparticle levels, which are not fully reflected in PM2.5 measurements. PMID:22639822

  15. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Erickson

    2006-04-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the tenth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1-March 31, 2006. This quarter saw progress in six areas. These areas are: (1) The effect of catalyst dimension on steam reforming, (2) Transient characteristics of autothermal reforming, (3) Rich and lean autothermal reformation startup, (4) Autothermal reformation degradation with coal derived methanol, (5) Reformate purification system, and (6) Fuel cell system integration. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  16. Reduction of CO2 Emissions from Mobile Sources by Alternative Fuels Derived from Biomass.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    those goals with alcohol fuels derived from biomass produced as short-rotation woody crops. Emphasis is on the Hydrocarb process , now under evaluation...that a process such as Hydrocarb, that can leverage biomass with natural gas, should maximize petroleum displacement at least cost. Because of these...on the Hydrocarb process , now under evaluation by the EPA for production of methanol from biomass and natural gas. Factors considered in this

  17. Market-driven automotive industry compliance with fuel economy and greenhouse gas standards: Analysis based on consumer choice

    DOE PAGES

    Xie, Fei; Lin, Zhenhong

    2017-06-09

    This paper explored factors that affect market-driven compliance with both Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) standards (together called the National Program) in the United States for phase I 2012–2016 and phase II 2017–2025. We considered a consumer-choice-based simulation approach, using the MA3T model, to estimate the market acceptance of fuel efficiency (FE) technologies and alternative fuel technologies as reflected by new sales of light-duty vehicle (LDV). Because both full and extremely low FE valuations are common in the literature, we use a moderate assumption of a 10-year perceived vehicle lifetime at a 7% annual discount ratemore » in the baseline and include both extreme views (5 years and 15 years) in the sensitivity analysis. The study focuses on market-driven compliance and therefore excludes manufacturers’ cross-subsidization. The model results suggest that the LDV industry is able to comply with both standards even without cross-subsidization and with projected high technology cost, mainly thanks to the multiple credit programs and technology advancements. The compliance robustness, while encouraging, however is based on moderate market assumptions, such as Annual Energy Outlook 2016 Reference oil price projection and moderate FE consumer valuation. Finally, sensitivity analysis results reveal two significant risk factors for compliance: low oil prices and consumers’ FE undervaluation.« less

  18. Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Erickson

    2005-09-30

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the eighth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1, 2004-September 30, 2005 and includes an entire review of the progress for year 2 of the project. This year saw progress in eight areas. These areas are: (1) steam reformer transient response, (2) steam reformer catalyst degradation, (3) steam reformer degradation tests using bluff bodies, (4) optimization of bluff bodies for steam reformation, (5) heat transfer enhancement, (6) autothermal reforming of coal derived methanol, (7) autothermal catalyst degradation, and (8) autothermal reformation with bluff bodies. The project is on schedule and is now shifting towards the design of an integrated PEM fuel cell system capable of using the coal-derived product. This system includes a membrane clean up unit and a commercially available PEM fuel cell.

  19. Consumer Convenience and the Availability of Retail Stations as a Market Barrier for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M.; Bremson, J.; Solo, K.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of retail stations can be a significant barrier to the adoption of alternative fuel light-duty vehicles in household markets. This is especially the case during early market growth when retail stations are likely to be sparse and when vehicles are dedicated in the sense that they can only be fuelled with a new alternative fuel. For some bi-fuel vehicles, which can also fuel with conventional gasoline or diesel, limited availability will not necessarily limit vehicle sales but can limit fuel use. The impact of limited availability on vehicle purchase decisions is largely a function of geographic coverage and consumer perception. In this paper we review previous attempts to quantify the value of availability and present results from two studies that rely upon distinct methodologies. The first study relies upon stated preference data from a discrete choice survey and the second relies upon a station clustering algorithm and a rational actor value of time framework. Results from the two studies provide an estimate of the discrepancy between stated preference cost penalties and a lower bound on potential revealed cost penalties.

  20. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Erickson

    2005-04-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the sixth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1-March 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in four areas. These areas are: (1) Autothermal reforming of coal derived methanol, (2) Catalyst deactivation, (3) Steam reformer transient response, and (4) Catalyst degradation with bluff bodies. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  1. A preliminary evaluation of a combined tire- and refuse-derived fuel (TDF-RDF)

    SciTech Connect

    Stessel, R.I.; Amari, T.; Themelis, N.J.; Wearnick, I.K.

    1999-07-01

    In dense urban areas of the US, it is now becoming clear that waste management is far from economically-optimum. Even with the popularity of inexpensive land disposal, hauling and recycling costs are driving up the average waste bill. An historic option has been refuse-derived fuel, or RDF. Difficulties included low energy content and difficulty obtaining uniformity. Today, many resource-recovery technologies used in RDF are finding their way into materials recovery facilities (MRFs), some of which are reviving the automated processing of waste. Any MRF, automated or not, will have residue streams. Currently, one of the most significant problems is waste tires. Local options are difficult to locate in dense urban areas. As fuels, tires typically have energy contents considerably above those for which most solid-fuel combustors are designed, leading to thermal imbalances and various forms of failure. This paper suggests a new fuel that can be either co-fired with coal, or used in its own right in a combustor primarily designed for coal: TDF-RDF. A preliminary examination is undertaken of thermal and emissions characteristics, and possible costs for a few applications of the fuel. Immediately, TDF is already cleaner-burning than many coals, even in sulfur emissions. RDF has been widely-regarded as being similarly cleanly. Posited MRF residue streams should be still cleaner, and more consistent, than RDF. Overall, there is quite a potential for developing a fuel that would allow old coal powerplants in historic urban centers to be better neighbors, while helping with a few problems in municipal waste management.

  2. National markets for organic waste-derived fertilizers and soil amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, T.J.; Pierzynski, G.M.; Pepperman, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    The last decade has seen enormous growth in the U.S. in the recycling of organic waste materials like sewage sludge, manures, yard waste, solid waste and various industrial wastes. This has been prompted by real or perceived shortages of landfill capacity, state and federal regulations favoring beneficial use of organic wastes, and public support for recycling. Use of fertilizers and soil amendments derived from these wastes has been stimulated by favorable supply-side economics, a shift to organic/sustainable agriculture, and water quality concerns that favor slow-release nutrient sources. This paper summarizes the properties and beneficial use attributes of the various wastes and their derived products, markets for these materials, and constraints/strategies for market penetration.

  3. Handbook for Small-Scale Densified Biomass Fuel (Pellets) Manufacturing for Local Markets.

    SciTech Connect

    Folk, Richard L.; Govett, Robert L.

    1992-07-01

    Wood pellet manufacturing in the Intermountain West is a recently founded and rapidly expanding energy industry for small-scale producers. Within a three-year period, the total number of manufacturers in the region has increased from seven to twelve (Folk et al., 1988). Small-scale industry development is evolving because a supply of raw materials from small and some medium-sized primary and secondary wood processors that has been largely unused. For the residue producer considering pellet fuel manufacturing, the wastewood generated from primary products often carries a cost associated with residue disposal when methods at-e stockpiling, landfilling or incinerating. Regional processors use these methods for a variety of reasons, including the relatively small amounts of residue produced, residue form, mixed residue types, high transportation costs and lack of a local market, convenience and absence of regulation. Direct costs associated with residue disposal include the expenses required to own and operate residue handling equipment, costs for operating and maintaining a combustor and tipping fees charged to accept wood waste at public landfills. Economic and social costs related to environmental concerns may also be incurred to include local air and water quality degradation from open-air combustion and leachate movement into streams and drinking water.

  4. Biomass-derived Syngas Utilization for Fuels and Chemicals - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dayton, David C

    2010-03-24

    Executive Summary The growing gap between petroleum production and demand, mounting environmental concerns, and increasing fuel prices have stimulated intense interest in research and development (R&D) of alternative fuels, both synthetic and bio-derived. Currently, the most technically defined thermochemical route for producing alternative fuels from lignocellulosic biomass involves gasification/reforming of biomass to produce syngas (carbon monoxide [CO] + hydrogen [H2]), followed by syngas cleaning, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) or mixed alcohol synthesis, and some product upgrading via hydroprocessing or separation. A detailed techno-economic analysis of this type of process has recently been published [1] and it highlights the need for technical breakthroughs and technology demonstration for gas cleanup and fuel synthesis. The latter two technical barrier areas contribute 40% of the total thermochemical ethanol cost and 70% of the production cost, if feedstock costs are factored out. Developing and validating technologies that reduce the capital and operating costs of these unit operations will greatly reduce the risk for commercializing integrated biomass gasification/fuel synthesis processes for biofuel production. The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate new catalysts and catalytic processes that can efficiently convert biomass-derived syngas into diesel fuel and C2-C4 alcohols. The goal is to improve the economics of the processes by improving the catalytic activity and product selectivity, which could lead to commercialization. The project was divided into 4 tasks: Task 1: Reactor Systems: Construction of three reactor systems was a project milestone. Construction of a fixed-bed microreactor (FBR), a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), and a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) were completed to meet this milestone. Task 2: Iron Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Catalyst: An attrition resistant iron FT catalyst will be developed and tested

  5. Quantifying hazardous species in particulate matter derived from fossil-fuel combustion.

    PubMed

    Huggins, Frank E; Huffman, Gerald P; Linak, William P; Miller, C Andrew

    2004-03-15

    An analysis protocol that combines X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy with selective leaching has been developed to examine hazardous species in size-segregated particulate matter (PM) samples derived from the combustion of fossil fuels. The protocol has been used to identify and determine quantitatively the amounts of three important toxic species in combustion-derived PM: viz., nickel sulfides in residual oil fly ash (ROFA) PM, and Cr(VI) and As(III) species in coal fly ash PM. Although it has been assumed that these toxic species might exist in PM derived from fossil-fuel combustion, the results presented here constitute the first direct determination of them in combustion-derived PM and their potential bioavailability. Detailed information on the presence of these toxic species in PM samples is of significant interest to epidemiological and toxicological studies of the health effects of both source and ambient PM. Additionally, information is obtained on insoluble forms that may be useful for source attribution and on the distribution of phases between size fractions that may be related to formation mechanisms of specific toxic species during combustion.

  6. Microbial production of fatty-acid-derived fuels and chemicals from plant biomass.

    PubMed

    Steen, Eric J; Kang, Yisheng; Bokinsky, Gregory; Hu, Zhihao; Schirmer, Andreas; McClure, Amy; Del Cardayre, Stephen B; Keasling, Jay D

    2010-01-28

    Increasing energy costs and environmental concerns have emphasized the need to produce sustainable renewable fuels and chemicals. Major efforts to this end are focused on the microbial production of high-energy fuels by cost-effective 'consolidated bioprocesses'. Fatty acids are composed of long alkyl chains and represent nature's 'petroleum', being a primary metabolite used by cells for both chemical and energy storage functions. These energy-rich molecules are today isolated from plant and animal oils for a diverse set of products ranging from fuels to oleochemicals. A more scalable, controllable and economic route to this important class of chemicals would be through the microbial conversion of renewable feedstocks, such as biomass-derived carbohydrates. Here we demonstrate the engineering of Escherichia coli to produce structurally tailored fatty esters (biodiesel), fatty alcohols, and waxes directly from simple sugars. Furthermore, we show engineering of the biodiesel-producing cells to express hemicellulases, a step towards producing these compounds directly from hemicellulose, a major component of plant-derived biomass.

  7. Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Erickson

    2004-09-30

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the fourth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of July 1-Sept 30, 2004 along with a recap of progress from the start of the project on Oct 1, 2003 to Sept 30, 2004. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule. This year saw progress in several areas. These areas are: (1) External and internal evaluation of coal based methanol and a fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design set up and initial testing of three laboratory scale steam reformers, (3) Design, set up and initial testing of a laboratory scale autothermal reactor, (4) Hydrogen generation from coal-derived methanol using steam reformation, (5) Experiments to determine the axial and radial thermal profiles of the steam reformers, (6) Initial catalyst degradation studies with steam reformation and coal based methanol, and (7) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  8. Production and Optimization of Direct Coal Liquefaction derived Low Carbon-Footprint Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Markovich

    2010-06-30

    This report summarizes works conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-05NT42448. The work scope was divided into two categories - (a) experimental program to pretreat and refine a coal derived syncrude sample to meet transportation fuels requirements; (b) system analysis of a commercial scale direct coal liquefaction facility. The coal syncrude was derived from a bituminous coal by Headwaters CTL, while the refining study was carried out under a subcontract to Axens North America. The system analysis included H{sub 2} production cost via six different options, conceptual process design, utilities requirements, CO{sub 2} emission and overall plant economy. As part of the system analysis, impact of various H{sub 2} production options was evaluated. For consistence the comparison was carried out using the DOE H2A model. However, assumptions in the model were updated using Headwaters database. Results of Tier 2 jet fuel specifications evaluation by the Fuels & Energy Branch, US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RZPF) located at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio) are also discussed in this report.

  9. Behavior or Nonmetallic Materials in Shale Oil Derived Jet Fuels and in High Aromatic and High Sulfur Petroleum Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-01

    Compatibility Testing Adhesives Bladder Adhesives Aviation Turbine Fuels Fuel Tank Sealants Groove Sealants 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reveres side if...TEST RESULTS 9 1. Adhesives 9 2. Fuel Tank Sealants (Curing Type) 16 3. Fuel Cell Innerliner Materials 22 4. Bladder Repair Adhesive 28 5. Groove...ILLUSTRATIONS FIGURE PAGE 1 Sketch of Single Lap Shear and Double Lap Shear 10 Specimens 2 Typical 1800 Peel Type Specimen Used to Determine 18 Adhesion of

  10. Performance and economics of advanced energy conversion systems for coal and coal-derived fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corman, J. C.; Fox, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    The desire to establish an efficient Energy Conversion System to utilize the fossil fuel of the future - coal - has produced many candidate systems. A comparative technical/economic evaluation was performed on the seven most attractive advanced energy conversion systems. The evaluation maintains a cycle-to-cycle consistency in both performance and economic projections. The technical information base can be employed to make program decisions regarding the most attractive concept. A reference steam power plant was analyzed to the same detail and, under the same ground rules, was used as a comparison base. The power plants were all designed to utilize coal or coal-derived fuels and were targeted to meet an environmental standard. The systems evaluated were two advanced steam systems, a potassium topping cycle, a closed cycle helium system, two open cycle gas turbine combined cycles, and an open cycle MHD system.

  11. Characteristic changes in algal organic matter derived from Microcystis aeruginosa in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Lu, Lu; Liu, Dongmei; Cui, Fuyi; Wang, Peng

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate behavior of algal organic matter (AOM) during bioelectrochemical oxidation in microbial fuel cell in terms of compositions and structures. Study revealed that the AOM derived from blue-green algae Microcystis aeruginosa could be degraded more completely (82% COD removal) in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) than by anaerobic fermentation (24% COD removal) in a control reactor without closed-circuit electrode and electricity was produced simultaneously. A variety of techniques were used to characterize the changes in AOM compositions and structures during bioelectrochemical oxidation. The presence of syntrophic interactions between electrochemical active bacteria and fermentative bacteria to degrade large molecular organics into small molecular substances, which could be oxidized by electrode but not by fermentation. The dominant tryptophan protein-like substances, humic acid-like substances and Chlorophyll a in AOM were highly degraded during MFC treatment.

  12. Sample preparation for thermo-gravimetric determination and thermo-gravimetric characterization of refuse derived fuel.

    PubMed

    Robinson, T; Bronson, B; Gogolek, P; Mehrani, P

    2016-02-01

    Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) is a useful method for characterizing fuels. In the past it has been applied to the study of refuse derived fuel (RDF) and related materials. However, the heterogeneity of RDF makes the preparation of small representative samples very difficult and this difficulty has limited the effectiveness of TGA for characterization of RDF. A TGA method was applied to a variety of materials prepared from a commercially available RDF using a variety of procedures. Applicability of TGA method to the determination of the renewable content of RDF was considered. Cryogenic ball milling was found to be an effective means of preparing RDF samples for TGA. When combined with an effective sample preparation, TGA could be used as an alternative method for assessing the renewable content of RDF. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Surface treatments with perfluoropolyether derivatives for the hydrophobization of gas diffusion layers for PEM fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stampino, P. Gallo; Molina, D.; Omati, L.; Turri, S.; Levi, M.; Cristiani, C.; Dotelli, G.

    In the present work, preliminary results of different hydrophobic surface treatments for gas diffusion layer (GDL) for PEM fuel cells are presented. This hydrophobic coating consists of new perfluoropolyether (PFPE) derivatives, in comparison to standard polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) dispersions. Experimental conditions for an efficient coating of fluoropolymers onto carbon clothes were explored by wet chemical methods.The GDLs obtained were tested in a single fuel cell at the lab scale. The cell testing was run at two temperatures (60 °C and 80 °C) with a relative humidity (RH) of the feeding gases of 80/100%, hydrogen/air respectively.The new PFPE coatings measurably improve the cell performances, and this effect is more evident at 60 °C with respect to 80 °C.

  14. Performance and economics of advanced energy conversion systems for coal and coal-derived fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corman, J. C.; Fox, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    The desire to establish an efficient Energy Conversion System to utilize the fossil fuel of the future - coal - has produced many candidate systems. A comparative technical/economic evaluation was performed on the seven most attractive advanced energy conversion systems. The evaluation maintains a cycle-to-cycle consistency in both performance and economic projections. The technical information base can be employed to make program decisions regarding the most attractive concept. A reference steam power plant was analyzed to the same detail and, under the same ground rules, was used as a comparison base. The power plants were all designed to utilize coal or coal-derived fuels and were targeted to meet an environmental standard. The systems evaluated were two advanced steam systems, a potassium topping cycle, a closed cycle helium system, two open cycle gas turbine combined cycles, and an open cycle MHD system.

  15. Hot Corrosion of Nickel-Base Alloys in Biomass-Derived Fuel Simulated Atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Leyens, C.; Pint, B.A.; Wright, I.G.

    1999-02-28

    Biomass fuels are considered to be a promising renewable source of energy. However, impurities present in the fuel may cause corrosion problems with the materials used in the hot sections of gas turbines and only limited data are available so far. As part of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy, the present study provides initial data on the hot corrosion resistance of different nickel-base alloys against sodium sulfate-induced corrosion as a baseline, and against salt compositions simulating biomass-derived fuel deposits. Single crystal nickel-superalloy Rene N5, a cast NiCrAlY alloy, a NiCoCrAlY alloy representing industrially used overlay compositions, and a model {beta}NiAl+Hf alloy were tested in 1h thermal cycles at 950 C with different salt coatings deposited onto the surfaces. Whereas the NiCoCrAlY alloy exhibited reasonable resistance against pure sodium sulfate deposits, the NiCrAiY alloy and Rene N5 were attacked severely. Although considered to be an ideal alumina former in air and oxygen at higher temperatures, {beta}NiAl+Hf also suffered from rapid corrosion attack at 950 C when coated with sodium sulfate. The higher level of potassium present in biomass fuels compared with conventional fuels was addressed by testing a NiCoCrAlY alloy coated with salts of different K/Na atomic ratios. Starting at zero Na, the corrosion rate increased considerably when sodium was added to potassium sulfate. In an intermediate region the corrosion rate was initially insensitive to the K/Na ratio but accelerated when very Na-rich compositions were deposited. The key driver for corrosion of the NiCoCrAlY alloy was sodium sulfate rather than potassium sulfate, and no simple additive or synergistic effect of combining sodium and potassium was found.

  16. The influence of market proximity on national forest hazardous fuels treatments

    Treesearch

    Max Nielsen-Pincus; Susan Charnley; Cassandra. Moseley

    2013-01-01

    The US Department of Agriculture Forest Service’s focus on hazardous fuels reduction has increased since the adoption of the National Fire Plan in 2001. However, appropriations for hazardous fuels reduction still lag behind wildfire suppression spending. Offsetting fuels treatment costs through biomass utilization or by using innovative administrative mechanisms such...

  17. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2007-03-17

    hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates that the coal derived material has more trace metals related to coal than petroleum, as seen in previous runs. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. The co-coking of the runs with the new coal have begun, with the coke yield similar to previous runs, but the gas yield is lower and the liquid yield is higher. Characterization of the products continues. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking.

  18. Effects of furan derivatives and phenolic compounds on electricity generation in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catal, Tunc; Fan, Yanzhen; Li, Kaichang; Bermek, Hakan; Liu, Hong

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive fuel source for MFCs due to its renewable nature and ready availability. Furan derivatives and phenolic compounds could be potentially formed during the pre-treatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, voltage generation from these compounds and the effects of these compounds on voltage generation from glucose in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were examined. Except for 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), all the other compounds tested were unable to be utilized directly for electricity production in MFCs in the absence of other electron donors. One furan derivate, 5-HMF and two phenolic compounds, trans-cinnamic acid and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid did not affect electricity generation from glucose at a concentration up to 10 mM. Four phenolic compounds, including syringaldeyhde, vanillin, trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy, and 4-hydroxy cinnamic acids inhibited electricity generation at concentrations above 5 mM. Other compounds, including 2-furaldehyde, benzyl alcohol and acetophenone, inhibited the electricity generation even at concentrations less than 0.2 mM. This study suggests that effective electricity generation from the hydrolysates of lignocellulosic biomass in MFCs may require the employment of the hydrolysis methods with low furan derivatives and phenolic compounds production, or the removal of some strong inhibitors prior to the MFC operation, or the improvement of bacterial tolerance against these compounds through the enrichment of new bacterial cultures or genetic modification of the bacterial strains.

  19. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Preliminary economic investigations have focused on cost reduction measures in the production of syngas from coal. A spread sheet model has been developed which can determine the cost of syngas production based upon the cost of equipment and raw materials and the market value of energy and by-products. In comparison to natural gas derived syngas, coal derived syngas is much more expensive, suggesting a questionable economic status of coal derived alcohol fuels. While it is possible that use of less expensive coal or significant integration of alcohol production and electricity production may reduce the cost of coal derived syngas, it is unlikely to be less costly to produce than syngas from natural gas. Fuels evaluation is being conducted in three parts. First, standard ASTM tests are being used to analyze the blend characteristics of higher alcohols. Second, the performance characteristics of higher alcohols are being evaluated in a single-cylinder research engine. Third, the emissions characteristics of higher alcohols are being investigated. The equipment is still under construction and the measurement techniques are still being developed. Of particular interest is n-butanol, since the MoS{sub 2} catalyst produces only linear higher alcohols. There is almost no information on the combustion and emission characteristics of n-butanol, hence the importance of gathering this information in this research.

  20. Hydrogen gas generation from refuse-derived fuel (RDF) under wet conditions.

    PubMed

    Sakka, Makiko; Kimura, Tetsuya; Sakka, Kazuo; Ohmiya, Kunio

    2004-02-01

    An explosion has recently occurred at a silo containing refuse-derived fuels (RDF) in Japan. There is a possibility that microorganisms are involved in generation of combustible gas from RDF and this study was aimed at showing the presence of bacteria that can ferment RDF pellets. All RDF samples tested contained a relatively high number of viable bacterial cells, 1.4x10(5) to 3.2x10(6) viable cells/g. These bacteria in the RDF samples fermented them to generate heat and hydrogen gas.

  1. The legalization of cannabis derivatives in Spain: Hypothesis on a potential emerging market.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Arturo; Gamella, Juan F; Parra, Iván

    2016-10-07

    First, this paper estimates the dimensions of the market for cannabis in Spain using data on the extent of consumption and the main patterns of use of consumers. Then the paper reviews the hypothetical production and distribution costs of these drugs in different production regimes under different legal conditions. The review shows that current prices of cannabis in the illegal market could be notably reduced if production and distribution of cannabis were decriminalized and even more if they were performed by legal enterprises. Thirdly, we examine the relationship between prices and consumption levels by analysing the price elasticity of demand. A fall in the prices of cannabis products will likely result in an increase in the number of users and in the total amount consumed. Lastly we consider several alternatives for the taxation of cannabis derivatives to counteract the likely fall in prices, and their pros and cons.

  2. Synthesis of high density aviation fuel with cyclopentanol derived from lignocellulose.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xueru; Li, Ning; Li, Guangyi; Wang, Wentao; Yang, Jinfan; Cong, Yu; Wang, Aiqin; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Tao

    2015-03-31

    For the first time, renewable high density aviation fuels were synthesized at high overall yield (95.6%) by the Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol which can be derived from lignocellulose, followed by the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). The solvent-free Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol was carried out under the co-catalysis of solid bases and Raney metals. Among the investigated catalyst systems, the combinations of magnesium-aluminium hydrotalcite (MgAl-HT) and Raney Ni (or Raney Co) exhibited the best performances. Over them, high carbon yield (96.7%) of C10 and C15 oxygenates was achieved. The Guerbet reaction products were further hydrodeoxygenated to bi(cyclopentane) and tri(cyclopentane) over a series of Ni catalysts. These alkanes have high densities (0.86 g mL(-1) and 0.91 g mL(-1)) and can be used as high density aviation fuels or additives to bio-jet fuel. Among the investigated HDO catalysts, the 35 wt.% Ni-SiO2-DP prepared by deposition-precipitation method exhibited the highest activity.

  3. Single particle refuse-derived fuel devolatilization: Experimental measurements of reaction products

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Weichuan; Krieger-Brockett, B. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-11-01

    The authors present experimentally measured devolatilization product yields from single particles of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), a more uniform, transportable municipal solid waste. Disposal costs and environmental concerns have stimulated interest in thermochemical conversion of this material to chemicals and fuels. The composition, reaction conditions, and particle properties were systematically varied over the range found in practice to develop quantitative measures that rank the process controllables' influence on altering the product slate. Specialized regression methods and experimental designs enhanced the accuracy in view of the feed heterogeneity and offer a general method to extract real effects from experimental and sample noise''. The results have been verified successfully using actual commercial RDF and fabricated compositions that surpass those normally found in municipal waste to anticipate the influence of trends in recycling. The results show that the reaction conditions have a greater influence on altering fuel utilization and the relative yields of char, condensibles, and gases than does the composition over the range found in MSW and RDF.

  4. Microchannel Catalytic Processes for Converting Biomass-Derived Syngas to Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Chunshe; Wang, Yong; Jones, Susanne B.; Hu, Jianli; Li, Xiaohong S.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Stevens, Don J.

    2005-08-15

    Biomass gasification process provides feedstock for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis to produce liquid transportation fuels. Biomass-derived feedstock has the nature of small scale, at which conventional fossil fuel base gas-to-liquid (GTL) technologies are not cost-competitive. The use of microchannel reactor technology is potentially an enabling technology for biomass conversions to hydrocarbon fuels. In this paper, a catalytic microchannel reactor integrated with highly effecient heat exchangers was used to demonstrate the significatnly improved FT productivity by minimizing heat and mass transfer limitations in this three phase reaction system. In order to achieve high yields of naphtha and diesel range of hydrocarbons (C5-C19), we have developed a unique structured catalyst system suitable for the deployment in microchannel reactor applications. This engineered catalyst structure is based on metallic monolith supports, uniformly coated with an improved catalyst formula. Such an ordered catalyst structure also has the advantages of the high thermal conductivity and reduced mass transfer resistance. By tailoring the mass transfer limitations, we have demonstrated that this engineered catalyst produces hydrocarbons with narrower carbon distributions (mainly less than C25) than a conventional particulate catalyst at similar conversion and methane selectivity. In particular, majority of the synthesis products fall into the gasoline and diesel range. This uniquie product distribution, in turn, has positive impace on process economics since a milder or no hydrocracker will be required in downstream product processing.

  5. Synthesis of high density aviation fuel with cyclopentanol derived from lignocellulose

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Xueru; Li, Ning; Li, Guangyi; Wang, Wentao; Yang, Jinfan; Cong, Yu; Wang, Aiqin; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, renewable high density aviation fuels were synthesized at high overall yield (95.6%) by the Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol which can be derived from lignocellulose, followed by the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). The solvent-free Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol was carried out under the co-catalysis of solid bases and Raney metals. Among the investigated catalyst systems, the combinations of magnesium-aluminium hydrotalcite (MgAl-HT) and Raney Ni (or Raney Co) exhibited the best performances. Over them, high carbon yield (96.7%) of C10 and C15 oxygenates was achieved. The Guerbet reaction products were further hydrodeoxygenated to bi(cyclopentane) and tri(cyclopentane) over a series of Ni catalysts. These alkanes have high densities (0.86 g mL−1 and 0.91 g mL−1) and can be used as high density aviation fuels or additives to bio-jet fuel. Among the investigated HDO catalysts, the 35 wt.% Ni-SiO2-DP prepared by deposition-precipitation method exhibited the highest activity. PMID:25826744

  6. Carbon Nanohorn-Derived Graphene Nanotubes as a Platinum-Free Fuel Cell Cathode.

    PubMed

    Unni, Sreekuttan M; Illathvalappil, Rajith; Bhange, Siddheshwar N; Puthenpediakkal, Hasna; Kurungot, Sreekumar

    2015-11-04

    Current low-temperature fuel cell research mainly focuses on the development of efficient nonprecious electrocatalysts for the reduction of dioxygen molecule due to the reasons like exorbitant cost and scarcity of the current state-of-the-art Pt-based catalysts. As a potential alternative to such costly electrocatalysts, we report here the preparation of an efficient graphene nanotube based oxygen reduction electrocatalyst which has been derived from single walled nanohorns, comprising a thin layer of graphene nanotubes and encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles (FeGNT). FeGNT shows a surface area of 750 m(2)/g, which is the highest ever reported among the metal encapsulated nanotubes. Moreover, the graphene protected iron oxide nanoparticles assist the system to attain efficient distribution of Fe-Nx and quaternary nitrogen based active reaction centers, which provides better activity and stability toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acidic as well as alkaline conditions. Single cell performance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell by using FeGNT as the cathode catalyst delivered a maximum power density of 200 mW cm(-2) with Nafion as the proton exchange membrane at 60 °C. The facile synthesis strategy with iron oxide encapsulated graphitic carbon morphology opens up a new horizon of hope toward developing Pt-free fuel cells and metal-air batteries along with its applicability in other energy conversion and storage devices.

  7. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Erickson

    2004-04-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the first such report that will be submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1--December 31, 2003. This quarter saw progress in three areas. These areas are: (1) Evaluations of coal based methanol and the fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design and set up of the autothermal reactor, as well as (3) Set up and data collection of baseline performance using the steam reformer. All of the projects are proceeding on schedule. During this quarter one conference paper was written that will be presented at the ASME Power 2004 conference in March 2004, which outlines the research direction and basis for looking at the coal to hydrogen pathway.

  8. Separation of harmful impurities from refuse derived fuels (RDF) by a fluidized bed.

    PubMed

    Krüger, B; Mrotzek, A; Wirtz, S

    2014-02-01

    In firing systems of cement production plants and coal-fired power plants, regular fossil fuels are increasingly substituted by alternative fuels. Rising energy prices and ambitious CO2-reduction goals promote the use of alternative fuels as a significant contribution to efficient energy recovery. One possibility to protect energy resources are refuse-derived fuels (RDF), which are produced during the treatment of municipal solid, commercial and industrial waste. The waste fractions suitable for RDF have a high calorific value and are often not suitable for material recycling. With current treatment processes, RDF still contains components which impede the utilization in firing systems or limit the degree of substitution. The content of these undesired components may amount to 4 wt%. These, in most cases incombustible particles which consist of mineral, ceramic and metallic materials can cause damages in the conveying systems (e. g. rotary feeder) or result in contaminations of the products (e. g. cement, chalk). Up-to-date separation processes (sieve machine, magnet separator or air classifier) have individual weaknesses that could hamper a secure separation of these particles. This article describes a new technology for the separation of impurities from refuse derived fuels based on a rotating fluidized bed. In this concept a rotating motion of the particle bed is obtained by the tangential injection of the fluidization gas in a static geometry. The RDF-particles experience a centrifugal force which fluidized the bed radially. The technical principle allows tearing up of particle clusters to single particles. Radially inwards the vertical velocity is much lower thus particles of every description can fall down there. For the subsequent separation of the particles by form and density an additionally cone shaped plate was installed in the centre. Impurities have a higher density and a compact form compared to combustible particles and can be separated with a high

  9. Humboldt Goes to the Labour Market: How Academic Higher Education Fuels Labour Market Success in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabian, Petr; Sima, Karel; Kyncilova, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    The Czech Republic is one of the post-communist countries where the transformation from late industrial to knowledge economies and knowledge societies was complicated by the simultaneous transformations from communist centrally planned economies to democratic regimes and market economies. Furthermore, the transformation of higher education itself…

  10. Humboldt Goes to the Labour Market: How Academic Higher Education Fuels Labour Market Success in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabian, Petr; Sima, Karel; Kyncilova, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    The Czech Republic is one of the post-communist countries where the transformation from late industrial to knowledge economies and knowledge societies was complicated by the simultaneous transformations from communist centrally planned economies to democratic regimes and market economies. Furthermore, the transformation of higher education itself…

  11. Feasibility of burning refuse derived fuel in institutional size oil-fired boilers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of retrofitting existing oil-fired boilers of institutional size, approximately 3.63 to 36.3 Mg steam/h (8000 to 80,000 lbs steam/h) for co-firing with refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Relevant quantities describing mixtures of oil and RDF and combustion products for various levels of excess air are computed. Savings to be realized from the use of RDF are derived under several assumptions and allowable costs for a retrofit are estimated. An extensive survey of manufacturers of burners, boilers, and combustion systems showed that no hardware or proven design is yet available for such retrofit. Approaches with significant promises are outlined: the slagging burner, and a dry ash double vortex burner for low heat input from RDF. These two systems, and an evaluation of a small separate RDF dedicated combustor in support of the oil-fired boiler, are recommended as topics for future study.

  12. Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Erickson

    2005-06-30

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the seventh report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of April 1-June 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in these areas. These areas are: (1) Steam reformer transient response, (2) Heat transfer enhancement, (3) Catalyst degradation, (4) Catalyst degradation with bluff bodies, and (5) Autothermal reforming of coal-derived methanol. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  13. Radiocarbon-based assessment of fossil fuel-derived contaminant associations in sediments.

    PubMed

    White, Helen K; Reddy, Christopher M; Eglinton, Timothy I

    2008-08-01

    Hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) are associated with natural organic matter (OM) in the environment via mechanisms such as sorption or chemical binding. The latter interactions are difficult to quantitatively constrain, as HOCs can reside in different OM pools outside of conventional analytical windows. Here, we exploited natural abundance variations in radiocarbon (14C) to trace various fossil fuel-derived HOCs (14C-free) within chemically defined fractions of contemporary OM (modern 14C content) in 13 samples including marine and freshwater sediments and one dust and one soil sample. Samples were sequentially treated by solvent extraction followed by saponification. Radiocarbon analysis of the bulk sample and resulting residues was then performed. Fossil fuel-derived HOCs released by these treatments were quantified from an isotope mass balance approach as well as by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. For the majority of samples (n = 13), 98-100% of the total HOC pool was solvent extractable. Nonextracted HOCs are only significant (29% of total HOC pool)in one sample containing p,p-2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane and its metabolites. The infrequency of significant incorporation of HOCs into nonextracted OM residues suggests that most HOCs are mobile and bioavailable in the environment and, as such, have a greater potential to exert adverse effects.

  14. An approach to determining the economic feasibility of refuse-derived fuel and materials recovery processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershman, H. W.

    1980-06-01

    An approach for determining the economic feasibility of refuse-derived fuel production and the recovery of materials is presented. This information is based on data developed for the metropolitan Washington, D.C. area as input for the consideration of a regional resource recovery program which would eventually encompass 4000 t/day of municipal solid waste; it is designed to recover refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous and nonferrous metals, flint and color-mixed glass cullet, color-mixed glass fines, and waste newspapers. The planning process requires estimates of recovery product revenues and of process feasibility; since materials revenues can be predicted with a greater degree of certainty than RDF revenues, it becomes necessary to determine what revenues will be required from the sale of RDF so that predicted economics can be the same as the alternative disposal practice. A technique is described which will assist the decisionmaker in evaluating the economic feasibility of the proposed project by determining the RDF 'Indifference Value'.

  15. Evaluating the manufacturability and combustion behaviors of sludge-derived fuel briquettes.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Ing-Jia; Wu, I-Tsung

    2014-10-01

    Based on the physical and chemical properties as well as calorific values of pulp sludge and textile sludge, this study investigates the differences between manufacturability, relationship between extrusion pressure and formability, as well as stability and combustion behaviors of extruded sludge-derived fuel briquettes (ESBB) and cemented sludge-derived fuel blocks (CSBB). The optimum proportion and relevant usage ESBB policies are proposed as well. Experimental results indicate that a large amount of water can be saved during the ESBB manufacturing process. Additionally, energy consumption decreases during the drying process. ESBB also has a more compact structure than that of CSBB, and its mean penetration loading is approximately 18.7 times higher as well. Moreover, the flame temperature of ESBB (624-968°C) is significantly higher than that of CSBB (393-517°C). Also, the dry bulk density and moisture regain of ESBB is significantly related to the penetration loading. Furthermore, the optimum mix proportion of ESBB is co-determined by the formability of pulp sludge and the calorific values of textile sludge. While considering the specific conditions (including formability, stability and calorific values), the recommended mix proportion for ESBB is PS50TS50. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Resource recovery of organic sludge as refuse derived fuel by fry-drying process.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fang-Chih; Ko, Chun-Han; Wu, Jun-Yi; Wang, H Paul; Chen, Wei-Sheng

    2013-08-01

    The organic sludge and waste oil were collected from the industries of thin film transistor liquid crystal display and the recycled cooking oil. The mixing ratio of waste cooking oil and organic sludge, fry-drying temperatures, fry-drying time, and the characteristics of the organic sludge pellet grain were investigated. After the fry-drying process, the moisture content of the organic sludge pellet grain was lower than 5% within 25 min and waste cooking oil was absorbed on the dry solid. The fry-drying organic sludge pellet grain was easy to handle and odor free. Additionally, it had a higher calorific value than the derived fuel standards and could be processed into organic sludge derived fuels. Thus, the granulation and fry-drying processes of organic sludge with waste cooking oil not only improves the calorific value of organic sludge and becomes more valuable for energy recovery, but also achieves waste material disposal and cost reduction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Technological growth of fuel efficiency in european automobile market 1975–2015

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Kejia; Chen, Yuche

    2016-08-29

    This paper looks at the technological growth of new car fleet fuel efficiency in the European Union between 1975 and 2015. According to the analysis results, from1975 to 2006 the fuel efficiency technology improvements were largely offset by vehicles' increased weight, engine size, and consumer amenities such as acceleration capacity. After 2006, downsizing in weight and engine capacity was observed in new car fleet, while fuel consumption decreased by 32% between 2006 and 2015. We adopt a statistical method and find that from 1975 to 2015, a 1% increase in weight would result in 0.3 to 0.5% increments in fuel consumption per 100 km, and a 1% reduction in 0-100 km/h acceleration time would increase fuel consumption by about 0.3%. Impacts of other attributes on fuel consumption are also assessed. To meet the European Union's 2021 fuel consumption target, downsizing of cars, as well as at least maintaining fuel efficiency technology growth trend observed between 2005 and 2015, are needed. Lastly, government policies on controlling improvement in acceleration performance or promoting alternative fuel vehicles are also important to achieve European Union 2021 target.

  18. Technological growth of fuel efficiency in european automobile market 1975–2015

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Kejia; Chen, Yuche

    2016-08-29

    This paper looks at the technological growth of new car fleet fuel efficiency in the European Union between 1975 and 2015. According to the analysis results, from1975 to 2006 the fuel efficiency technology improvements were largely offset by vehicles' increased weight, engine size, and consumer amenities such as acceleration capacity. After 2006, downsizing in weight and engine capacity was observed in new car fleet, while fuel consumption decreased by 32% between 2006 and 2015. We adopt a statistical method and find that from 1975 to 2015, a 1% increase in weight would result in 0.3 to 0.5% increments in fuel consumption per 100 km, and a 1% reduction in 0-100 km/h acceleration time would increase fuel consumption by about 0.3%. Impacts of other attributes on fuel consumption are also assessed. To meet the European Union's 2021 fuel consumption target, downsizing of cars, as well as at least maintaining fuel efficiency technology growth trend observed between 2005 and 2015, are needed. Lastly, government policies on controlling improvement in acceleration performance or promoting alternative fuel vehicles are also important to achieve European Union 2021 target.

  19. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    E.T. Robinson; James P. Meagher; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Siv Aasland; Charles Besecker; Jack Chen Bart A. van Hassel; Olga Polevaya; Rafey Khan; Piyush Pilaniwalla

    2002-12-31

    This topical report summarizes work accomplished for the Program from November 1, 2001 to December 31, 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1: Materials Development; Task 2: Composite Development; Task 4: Reactor Design and Process Optimization; Task 8: Fuels and Engine Testing; 8.1 International Diesel Engine Program; 8.2 Nuvera Fuel Cell Program; and Task 10: Program Management. Major progress has been made towards developing high temperature, high performance, robust, oxygen transport elements. In addition, a novel reactor design has been proposed that co-produces hydrogen, lowers cost and improves system operability. Fuel and engine testing is progressing well, but was delayed somewhat due to the hiatus in program funding in 2002. The Nuvera fuel cell portion of the program was completed on schedule and delivered promising results regarding low emission fuels for transportation fuel cells. The evaluation of ultra-clean diesel fuels continues in single cylinder (SCTE) and multiple cylinder (MCTE) test rigs at International Truck and Engine. FT diesel and a BP oxygenate showed significant emissions reductions in comparison to baseline petroleum diesel fuels. Overall through the end of 2002 the program remains under budget, but behind schedule in some areas.

  20. Evaluation of unthrottled combustion system options for light duty applications with future syncrude derived fuels. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Needham, J. R.; Cooper, B. M.; Norris-Jones, S. R.

    1982-12-01

    An experimental program examining the interaction between several fuel and light duty automotive engine combinations is detailed. Combustion systems addressed covered indirect and direct injection diesel and spark ignited stratified charge. Fuels primarily covered D2, naphtha and intermediate broadcut blends. Low ignition quality diesel fuels were also evaluated. The results indicate the baseline fuel tolerance of each combustion system and enable characteristics of the systems to be compared. Performance, gaseous and particulate emissions aspects were assessed. The data obtained assists in the selection of candidate combustion systems for potential future fuels. Performance and environmental penalties as appropriate are highlighted relative to the individual candidates. Areas of further work for increased understanding are also reviewed.

  1. Technological growth of fuel efficiency in european automobile market 1975–2015

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Kejia; Chen, Yuche

    2016-08-29

    This paper looks at the technological growth of new car fleet fuel efficiency in the European Union between 1975 and 2015. According to the analysis results, from1975 to 2006 the fuel efficiency technology improvements were largely offset by vehicles' increased weight, engine size, and consumer amenities such as acceleration capacity. After 2006, downsizing in weight and engine capacity was observed in new car fleet, while fuel consumption decreased by 32% between 2006 and 2015. We adopt a statistical method and find that from 1975 to 2015, a 1% increase in weight would result in 0.3 to 0.5% increments in fuelmore » consumption per 100 km, and a 1% reduction in 0-100 km/h acceleration time would increase fuel consumption by about 0.3%. Impacts of other attributes on fuel consumption are also assessed. To meet the European Union's 2021 fuel consumption target, downsizing of cars, as well as at least maintaining fuel efficiency technology growth trend observed between 2005 and 2015, are needed. Lastly, government policies on controlling improvement in acceleration performance or promoting alternative fuel vehicles are also important to achieve European Union 2021 target.« less

  2. Novel polybenzimidazole derivatives for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Lixiang

    Recent advances have made polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) a leading alternative to internal combustion engines for both stationary and transportation applications. In particular, high temperature polymer electrolyte membranes operational above 120°C without humidification offer many advantages including fast electrode kinetics, high tolerance to fuel impurities and simple thermal and water management systems. A series of polybenzimidazole (PBI) derivatives including pyridine-based PBI (PPBI) and sulfonated PBI (SPBI) homopolymers and copolymers have been synthesized using polyphosphoric acid (PPA) as both solvent and polycondensation agent. High molecular weight PBI derivative polymers were obtained with well controlled backbone structures in terms of pyridine ring content, polymer backbone rigidity and degree of sulfonation. A novel process, termed the PPA process, has been developed to prepare phosphoric acid (PA) doped PBI membranes by direct-casting of the PPA polymerization solution without isolation or re-dissolution of the polymers. The subsequent hydrolysis of PPA to PA by moisture absorbed from the atmosphere usually induced a transition from the solution-like state to a gel-like state and produced PA doped PBI membranes with a desirable suite of physiochemical properties characterized by the PA doping levels, mechanical properties and proton conductivities. The effects of the polymer backbone structure on the polymer characteristics and membrane properties, i.e., the structure-property relationships of the PBI derivative polymers have been studied. The incorporation of additional basic nitrogen containing pyridine rings and sulfonic acid groups enhanced the polymer solubility in acid and dipolar solvents while retaining the inherently high thermal stability of the PBI heteroaromatic backbone. In particular, the degradation of the SPBI polymers with reasonable high molecular weights commenced above 450°C, notably higher than other

  3. Renewable liquid fuels from catalytic reforming of biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Christopher J.

    Diminishing fossil fuel reserves and growing concerns about global warming require the development of sustainable sources of energy. Fuels for use in the transportation sector must have specific physical properties that allow for efficient distribution, storage, and combustion; these requirements are currently fulfilled by petroleum-derived liquid fuels. The focus of this work has been the development of two new biofuels that have the potential to become widely used transportation fuels from carbohydrate intermediates. Our first biofuel has cetane numbers ranging from 63 to 97 and is comprised of C7 to C15 straight chain alkanes. These alkanes can be blended with diesel like fuels or with P-series biofuel. Production involves a solid base catalyzed aldol condensation with mixed Mg-Al-oxide between furfural or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and acetone, followed by hydrogenation over Pd/Al2O3, and finally hydrogenation/dehydration over Pt/SiO2-Al2O3. Water was the solvent for all process steps, except for the hydrogenation/dehydration stage where hexadecane was co-fed to spontaneously separate out all alkane products and eliminate the need for energy intensive distillation. A later optimization identified Pd/MgO-ZrO2 as a hydrothermally stable bifunctional catalyst to replace Pd/Al2O3 and the hydrothermally unstable Mg-Al-oxide catalysts along with optimizing process parameters, such as temperature and molar ratios of reactants to maximize yields to heavier alkanes. Our second biofuel involved creating an improved process to produce HMF through the acid-catalyzed dehydration of fructose in a biphasic reactor. Additionally, we developed a technique to further convert HMF into 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) by hydrogenolysis of C-O bonds over a copper-ruthenium catalyst. DMF has many properties that make it a superior blending agent to ethanol: it has a high research octane number at 119, a 40% higher energy density than ethanol, 20 K higher boiling point, and is insoluble in

  4. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2001-04-01

    During the period January 1, 2001-March 31, 2001, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) finalized the engineering of the Willow Island cofiring project, completed the fuel characterizations for both the Willow Island and Albright Generating Station projects, and initiated construction of both projects. Allegheny and its contractor, Foster Wheeler, selected appropriate fuel blends and issued purchase orders for all processing and mechanical equipment to be installed at both sites. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. The third quarter of the project involved completing the detailed designs for the Willow Island Designer Fuel project. It also included complete characterization of the coal and biomass fuels being burned, focusing upon the following characteristics: proximate and ultimate analysis; higher heating value; carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance testing for aromaticity, number of aromatic carbons per cluster, and the structural characteristics of oxygen in the fuel; drop tube reactor testing for high temperature devolatilization kinetics and generation of fuel chars; thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) for char oxidation kinetics; and related testing. The construction at both sites commenced during this quarter, and was largely completed at the Albright Generating Station site.

  5. Marketing.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  6. Alternative Fuels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  7. Life cycle assessment of switchgrass- and corn stover-derived ethanol-fueled automobiles.

    PubMed

    Spatari, Sabrina; Zhang, Yimin; MacLean, Heather L

    2005-12-15

    Utilizing domestically produced cellulose-derived ethanol for the light-duty vehicle fleet can potentially improve the environmental performance and sustainability of the transport and energy sectors of the economy. A life cycle assessment model was developed to examine environmental implications of the production and use of ethanol in automobiles in Ontario, Canada. The results were compared to those of low-sulfur reformulated gasoline (RFG) in a functionally equivalent automobile. Two time frames were evaluated, one near-term (2010), which examines converting a dedicated energy crop (switchgrass) and an agricultural residue (corn stover) to ethanol; and one midterm (2020), which assumes technological improvements in the switchgrass-derived ethanol life cycle. Near-term results show that, compared to a RFG automobile, life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are 57% lower for an E85-fueled automobile derived from switchgrass and 65% lower for ethanol from corn stover, on a grams of CO2 equivalent per kilometer basis. Corn stover ethanol exhibits slightly lower life cycle GHG emissions, primarily due to sharing emissions with grain production. Through projected improvements in crop and ethanol yields, results for the mid-term scenario show that GHG emissions could be 25-35% lower than those in 2010 and that, even with anticipated improvements in RFG automobiles, E85 automobiles could still achieve up to 70% lower GHG emissions across the life cycle.

  8. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (Phb) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Mohagheghi, Ali; Mittal, Ashutosh; Pilath, Heidi; Johnson, David K.

    2015-03-22

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. In recent years a great effort has been made in bacterial production of PHB, yet the production cost of the polymer is still much higher than conventional petrochemical plastics. The high cost of PHB is because the cost of the substrates can account for as much as half of the total product cost in large scale fermentation. Thus searching for cheaper and better substrates is very necessary for PHB production. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB by Cupriavidus necator from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified hydrolysate slurry from pretreated corn stover. Good cell growth was observed on slurry saccharified with advanced enzymes and 40~60% of PHB was accumulated in the cells. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by pretreatment and saccharification of biomass, will be discussed.

  9. Co-Combustion of Refuse Derived Fuel with Anthracites in a CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Won; Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Jae-Sung

    Combustion of Refuse derived fuel (RDF) is considered as a priority solution to energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW). The co-combustion characteristics of anthracite coals with RDF were determined in the commercial scale Tonghae CFB Power Plant. As the feeding ratio of the RDF to the anthracites increased to 5%, temperature and pressure were not changed in comparison with firing only anthracites. The amount of the required air was reduced due to high O2 content in RDF relative to the anthracites. The emissions of NOx, SOx, HCl and Dioxin were also measured. According to higher mixing ratio of the RDF to the anthracites, SOx, NOx emissions slightly decreased and HCl emissions increased, because RDF has relatively smaller S, N and higher CI than the anthracites. Heavy metals of the fly ash and bottom ash and the dioxin emissions were far below Korean maximum permissible concentration level at incinerator. The results showed that it is of great use and technically possible to co-combustion of RDF with the anthracites by 5% in the form of fuel recovery and energy production in commercial scale CFB boiler.

  10. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  11. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maust, Robert N.

    1985-01-01

    Although college administrators may be committed to the concept and need for institutional marketing, even a well-developed marketing plan may not work if it is not clearly organized to address special needs. This article reviews management fads, how to make jargon operational, organizational dynamics, and monitoring fads. (MSE)

  12. Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, James P.; Scahill, John W.; Chum, Helena L.; Evans, Robert J.; Rejai, Bahman; Bain, Richard L.; Overend, Ralph P.

    1996-01-01

    A process for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols.

  13. Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.; Chum, H.L.; Evans, R.J.; Rejai, B.; Bain, R.L.; Overend, R.P.

    1996-04-02

    A process is described for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols. 35 figs.

  14. Nonactivated and activated biochar derived from bananas as alternative cathode catalyst in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Haoran; Deng, Lifang; Qi, Yujie; Kobayashi, Noriyuki; Tang, Jiahuan

    2014-01-01

    Nonactivated and activated biochars have been successfully prepared by bananas at different thermotreatment temperatures. The activated biochar generated at 900°C (Biochar-act900) exhibited improved oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performances in alkaline media, in terms of the onset potential and generated current density. Rotating disk electron result shows that the average of 2.65 electrons per oxygen molecule was transferred during ORR of Biochar-act900. The highest power density of 528.2 mW/m(2) and the maximum stable voltage of 0.47 V were obtained by employing Biochar-act900 as cathode catalyst, which is comparable to the Pt/C cathode. Owning to these advantages, it is expected that the banana-derived biochar cathode can find application in microbial fuel cell systems.

  15. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Quarterly report, October - December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, W.-P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-12-01

    The objectives of this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels project were two-fold. First, the effect of S0{sub 2} on the formation of chlorine during combustion processes was examined. To simulate the conditions used in the AFBC system, experiments were conducted in a quartz tube in an electrically heated furnace. The principle analytical technique used for identification of the products from this study was GC/MS. The evolved gas was trapped by an absorbent and analyzed with a GC/MS system. The preliminary results indicate an inhibiting effect of S0{sub 2} on the Deacon Reaction. Secondly, information on the evolution of chlorine, sulfur and organic compounds from coals 95031 and 95011 were studied with the AFBC system. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Detection of hydrogen gas-producing anaerobes in refuse-derived fuel (RDF) pellets.

    PubMed

    Sakka, Makiko; Kimura, Tetsuya; Ohmiya, Kunio; Sakka, Kazuo

    2005-11-01

    Recently, we reported that refuse-derived fuel (RDF) pellets contain a relatively high number of viable bacterial cells and that these bacteria generate heat and hydrogen gas during fermentation under wet conditions. In this study we analyzed bacterial cell numbers of RDF samples manufactured with different concentrations of calcium hydroxide, which is usually added to waste materials for the prevention of rotting of food wastes and the acceleration of drying of solid wastes, and determined the amount of hydrogen gas produced by them under wet conditions. Furthermore, we analyzed microflora of the RDF samples before and during fermentation by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA followed by sequencing. We found that the RDF samples contained various kinds of clostridia capable of producing hydrogen gas.

  17. Nonactivated and Activated Biochar Derived from Bananas as Alternative Cathode Catalyst in Microbial Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Haoran; Deng, Lifang; Qi, Yujie; Kobayashi, Noriyuki; Tang, Jiahuan

    2014-01-01

    Nonactivated and activated biochars have been successfully prepared by bananas at different thermotreatment temperatures. The activated biochar generated at 900°C (Biochar-act900) exhibited improved oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performances in alkaline media, in terms of the onset potential and generated current density. Rotating disk electron result shows that the average of 2.65 electrons per oxygen molecule was transferred during ORR of Biochar-act900. The highest power density of 528.2 mW/m2 and the maximum stable voltage of 0.47 V were obtained by employing Biochar-act900 as cathode catalyst, which is comparable to the Pt/C cathode. Owning to these advantages, it is expected that the banana-derived biochar cathode can find application in microbial fuel cell systems. PMID:25243229

  18. Pyrolysis of biomass and refuse-derived fuel performance in laboratory scale batch reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluska, Jacek; Klein, Marek; Kazimierski, Paweł; Kardaś, Dariusz

    2014-03-01

    The results of pyrolysis of pine chips and refuse derived fuel fractions are presented. The experiments were carried out in a pilot pyrolysis reactor. The feedstock was analyzed by an elemental analyzer and the X-ray fluorescence spectrometer to determine the elemental composition. To find out optimum conditions for pyrolysis and mass loss as a function of temperature the thermogravimetric analysis was applied. Gases from the thermogravimetric analysis were directed to the infrared spectrometer using gas-flow cuvette to online analysis of gas composition. Chemical composition of the produced gas was measured using gas chromatography with a thermal conductivity detector and a flame ionization detector. The product analysis also took into account the mass balance of individual products.

  19. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the U.S. transportation sector. Technical report fourteen: Market potential and impacts of alternative fuel use in light-duty vehicles -- A 2000/2010 analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    In this report, estimates are provided of the potential, by 2010, to displace conventional light-duty vehicle motor fuels with alternative fuels--compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol from natural gas, ethanol from grain and from cellulosic feedstocks, and electricity--and with replacement fuels such as oxygenates added to gasoline. The 2010 estimates include the motor fuel displacement resulting both from government programs (including the Clean Air Act and EPACT) and from potential market forces. This report also provides an estimate of motor fuel displacement by replacement and alterative fuels in the year 2000. However, in contrast to the 2010 estimates, the year 2000 estimate is restricted to an accounting of the effects of existing programs and regulations. 27 figs., 108 tabs.

  20. Mathematics, Pricing, Market Risk Management and Trading Strategies for Financial Derivatives (2/3)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Market Trading and Risk Management of Vanilla FX Options - Measures of Market Risk - Implied Volatility - FX Risk Reversals, FX Strangles - Valuation and Risk Calculations - Risk Management - Market Trading Strategies

  1. Mathematics, Pricing, Market Risk Management and Trading Strategies for Financial Derivatives (2/3)

    SciTech Connect

    2009-11-04

    Market Trading and Risk Management of Vanilla FX Options - Measures of Market Risk - Implied Volatility - FX Risk Reversals, FX Strangles - Valuation and Risk Calculations - Risk Management - Market Trading Strategies

  2. Electrocatalytic processing of renewable biomass-derived compounds for production of chemicals, fuels and electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Le

    The dual problems of sustaining the fast growth of human society and preserving the environment for future generations urge us to shift our focus from exploiting fossil oils to researching and developing more affordable, reliable and clean energy sources. Human beings had a long history that depended on meeting our energy demands with plant biomass, and the modern biorefinery technologies realize the effective conversion of biomass to production of transportation fuels, bulk and fine chemicals so to alleviate our reliance on fossil fuel resources of declining supply. With the aim of replacing as much non-renewable carbon from fossil oils with renewable carbon from biomass as possible, innovative R&D activities must strive to enhance the current biorefinery process and secure our energy future. Much of my Ph.D. research effort is centered on the study of electrocatalytic conversion of biomass-derived compounds to produce value-added chemicals, biofuels and electrical energy on model electrocatalysts in AEM/PEM-based continuous flow electrolysis cell and fuel cell reactors. High electricity generation performance was obtained when glycerol or crude glycerol was employed as fuels in AEMFCs. The study on selective electrocatalytic oxidation of glycerol shows an electrode potential-regulated product distribution where tartronate and mesoxalate can be selectively produced with electrode potential switch. This finding then led to the development of AEMFCs with selective production of valuable tartronate or mesoxalate with high selectivity and yield and cogeneration of electricity. Reaction mechanisms of electrocatalytic oxidation of ethylene glycol and 1,2-propanediol were further elucidated by means of an on-line sample collection technique and DFT modeling. Besides electro-oxidation of biorenewable alcohols to chemicals and electricity, electrocatalytic reduction of keto acids (e.g. levulinic acid) was also studied for upgrading biomass-based feedstock to biofuels while

  3. Interaction of coal-derived synthesis gas impurities with solid oxide fuel cell metallic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Edwards, Danny J.; Chou, Yeong-Shyung; Cramer, Carolyn N.

    Oxidation-resistant alloys find use as interconnect materials, heat exchangers, and gas supply tubing in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems, especially when operated at temperatures below ∼800 °C. If fueled with synthesis gas derived from coal or biomass, such metallic components could be exposed to impurities contained in those fuel sources. In this study, coupons of ferritic stainless steels Crofer 22 APU and SS 441, austenitic nickel-chromium superalloy Inconel 600, and an alumina-forming high nickel alloy alumel were exposed to synthesis gas containing ≤2 ppm phosphorus, arsenic and antimony, and reaction products were tested. Crofer 22 APU coupons coated with a (Mn,Co) 3O 4 protective layer were also evaluated. Phosphorus was found to be the most reactive. On Crofer 22 APU, the (Mn,Cr) 3O 4 passivation layer reacted to form an Mn-P-O product, predicted to be manganese phosphate from thermochemical calculations, and Cr 2O 3. On SS 441, reaction of phosphorus with (Mn,Cr) 3O 4 led to the formation of manganese phosphate as well as an Fe-P product, predicted from thermochemical calculations to be Fe 3P. Minimal interactions with antimony or arsenic in synthesis gas were limited to Fe-Sb and Fe-As solid solution formation. Though not intended for use on the anode side, a (Mn,Co) 3O 4 spinel coating on Crofer 22 APU reacted with phosphorus in synthesis gas to produce products consistent with Mn 3(PO 4) 2 and Co 2P. A thin Cr 2O 3 passivation layer on Inconel 600 did not prevent the formation of nickel phosphides and arsenides and of iron phosphides and arsenides, though no reaction with Cr 2O 3 was apparent. On alumel, an Al 2O 3 passivation layer rich in Ni did not prevent the formation of nickel phosphides, arsenides, and antimonides, though no reaction with Al 2O 3 occurred. This work shows that unprotected metallic components of an SOFC stack and system can provide a sink for P, As and Sb impurities that may be present in fuel gases, and thus complicate

  4. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal-Derived Liquids. Volume 13. Evaluation of Storage and Thermal Stability of Jet Fuels Derived from Coal Liquids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    at the Great Plains Gasification Plant ( GPGP ) in Beulah, North Dakota. Funding was provided to the Department of Energy. (DOE), Pittsburgh Energy...Petroleum and Energy Research-(NIPER)>of the lIT Research Institute to study the storage and thermal stability of a JP-8 fuel produced from the GPGP liquid by...fuel produced from the GPGP liquid by-product streams. DOE/PETC was funded through Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request (MIPR) FY1455-86- N0657

  5. A preliminary assessment of the feasibility of deriving liquid and gaseous fuels from grown and waste organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.; Reynolds, T. W.; Hsu, Y.-Y.

    1976-01-01

    An estimate is obtained of the yearly supply of organic material for conversion to fuels, the energy potential is evaluated, and the fermentation and pyrolysis conversion processes are discussed. An investigation is conducted of the estimated cost of fuel from organics and the conclusions of an overall evaluation are presented. It is found that climate, land availability and economics of agricultural production and marketing, food demand, fertilizer shortage, and water availability combine to cast doubts on the feasibility of producing grown organic matter for fuel, in competition with food, feed, or fiber. Less controversial is the utilization of agricultural, industrial, and domestic waste as a conversion feedstock. The evaluation of a demonstration size system is recommended.

  6. A preliminary assessment of the feasibility of deriving liquid and gaseous fuels from grown and waste organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.; Reynolds, T. W.; Hsu, Y.-Y.

    1976-01-01

    An estimate is obtained of the yearly supply of organic material for conversion to fuels, the energy potential is evaluated, and the fermentation and pyrolysis conversion processes are discussed. An investigation is conducted of the estimated cost of fuel from organics and the conclusions of an overall evaluation are presented. It is found that climate, land availability and economics of agricultural production and marketing, food demand, fertilizer shortage, and water availability combine to cast doubts on the feasibility of producing grown organic matter for fuel, in competition with food, feed, or fiber. Less controversial is the utilization of agricultural, industrial, and domestic waste as a conversion feedstock. The evaluation of a demonstration size system is recommended.

  7. Energy and emission benefits of alternative transportation liquid fuels derived from switchgrass: a fuel life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Wu, May; Wu, Ye; Wang, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a mobility chains, or well-to-wheels (WTW), analysis to assess the energy and emission benefits of cellulosic biomass for the U.S. transportation sector in the years 2015-2030. We estimated the life-cycle energy consumption and emissions associated with biofuel production and use in light-duty vehicle (LDV) technologies by using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model. Analysis of biofuel production was based on ASPEN Plus model simulation of an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity. Our study revealed that cellulosic biofuels as E85 (mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline by volume), FTD, and DME offer substantial savings in petroleum (66-93%) and fossil energy (65-88%) consumption on a per-mile basis. Decreased fossil fuel use translates to 82-87% reductions in greenhouse gas emissions across all unblended cellulosic biofuels. In urban areas, our study shows net reductions for almost all criteria pollutants, with the exception of carbon monoxide (unchanged), for each of the biofuel production option examined. Conventional and hybrid electric vehicles, when fueled with E85, could reduce total sulfur oxide (SO(x)) emissions to 39-43% of those generated by vehicles fueled with gasoline. By using bio-FTD and bio-DME in place of diesel, SO(x) emissions are reduced to 46-58% of those generated by diesel-fueled vehicles. Six different fuel production options were compared. This study strongly suggests that integrated heat and power co-generation by means of gas turbine combined cycle is a crucial factor in the energy savings and emission reductions.

  8. Activated carbons prepared from refuse derived fuel and their gold adsorption characteristics.

    PubMed

    Buah, William K; Williams, Paul T

    2010-02-01

    Activated carbons produced from refuse derived fuel (RDF), which had been prepared from municipal solid waste have been characterized and evaluated for their potential for gold adsorption from gold chloride solution. Pyrolysis of the RDF produced a char, which was then activated via steam gasification to produce activated carbons. Steam gasification of the char at 900 degrees C for 3 h yielded 73 wt% activated carbon. The derived activated carbon had a surface area of 500 m2 g(-1) and a total pore volume of 0.19 cm3 g(-1). The gold adsorption capacity of the activated carbon was 32.1 mg Au g(-1) of carbon when contacted with an acidified gold chloride solution. The gold adsorption capacity was comparable to that of a commercial activated carbon tested under the same conditions and was well in the range of values of activated carbons used in the gold industry. Demineralization of the RDF activated carbon in a 5 M HCl solution resulted in enhancement of its textural properties but a reduction in the gold adsorption rate, indicating that the metal content of the RDF activated carbon influenced its gold adsorption rate.

  9. Advection of surface-derived organic carbon fuels microbial reduction in Bangladesh groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailloux, Brian J.; Trembath-Reichert, Elizabeth; Cheung, Jennifer; Watson, Marlena; Stute, Martin; Freyer, Greg A.; Ferguson, Andrew S.; Matin Ahmed, Kazi; Jahangir Alam, Md.; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Thomas, James; Layton, Alice C.; Zheng, Yan; Bostick, Benjamin C.; van Geen, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic (As) by drinking shallow groundwater causes widespread disease in Bangladesh and neighboring countries. The release of As naturally present in sediment to groundwater has been linked to the reductive dissolution of iron oxides coupled to the microbial respiration of organic carbon (OC). The source of OC driving this microbial reduction-carbon deposited with the sediments or exogenous carbon transported by groundwater-is still debated despite its importance in regulating aquifer redox status and groundwater As levels. Here, we used the radiocarbon (14C) signature of microbial DNA isolated from groundwater samples to determine the relative importance of surface and sediment-derived OC. Three DNA samples collected from the shallow, high-As aquifer and one sample from the underlying, low-As aquifer were consistently younger than the total sediment carbon, by as much as several thousand years. This difference and the dominance of heterotrophic microorganisms implies that younger, surface-derived OC is advected within the aquifer, albeit more slowly than groundwater, and represents a critical pool of OC for aquifer microbial communities. The vertical profile shows that downward transport of dissolved OC is occurring on anthropogenic timescales, but bomb 14C-labeled dissolved OC has not yet accumulated in DNA and is not fueling reduction. These results indicate that advected OC controls aquifer redox status and confirm that As release is a natural process that predates human perturbations to groundwater flow. Anthropogenic perturbations, however, could affect groundwater redox conditions and As levels in the future.

  10. Molecularly Engineered Azobenzene Derivatives for High Energy Density Solid-State Solar Thermal Fuels.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eugene N; Zhitomirsky, David; Han, Grace G D; Liu, Yun; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2017-03-15

    Solar thermal fuels (STFs) harvest and store solar energy in a closed cycle system through conformational change of molecules and can release the energy in the form of heat on demand. With the aim of developing tunable and optimized STFs for solid-state applications, we designed three azobenzene derivatives functionalized with bulky aromatic groups (phenyl, biphenyl, and tert-butyl phenyl groups). In contrast to pristine azobenzene, which crystallizes and makes nonuniform films, the bulky azobenzene derivatives formed uniform amorphous films that can be charged and discharged with light and heat for many cycles. Thermal stability of the films, a critical metric for thermally triggerable STFs, was greatly increased by the bulky functionalization (up to 180 °C), and we were able to achieve record high energy density of 135 J/g for solid-state STFs, over a 30% improvement compared to previous solid-state reports. Furthermore, the chargeability in the solid state was improved, up to 80% charged from 40% charged in previous solid-state reports. Our results point toward molecular engineering as an effective method to increase energy storage in STFs, improve chargeability, and improve the thermal stability of the thin film.

  11. Dependence of Fuel Properties During Blending of Iso-Paraffinic Kerosene and Petroleum-Derived Jet Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    such as algae , grasses and organic wastes are of interest due to the potential reduction in associated carbon footprint when using these feedstocks...years storage. The ―failure‖ level is based upon the previous JP-5 peroxide specification limit of 1 mequiv/kg (~800 M, assuming fuel S.G. = 0.800...found in MIL-T-5624P. The peroxide specification limit was eliminated in 1995 update to the MIL Spec. Studies were conducted using the FT fuel, JP

  12. Effect of fuel properties on performance of a single aircraft turbojet combustor. [from coal and oil-shale derived syncrudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butze, H. F.; Ehlers, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    The performance of a single-can JT8D combustor was investigated with a number of fuels exhibiting wide variations in chemical composition and volatility. Performance parameters investigated were combustion efficiency, emissions of CO, unburned hydrocarbons and NOx, as well as liner temperatures and smoke. At the simulated idle condition no significant differences in performance were observed. At cruise, liner temperatures and smoke increased sharply with decreasing hydrogen content of the fuel. No significant differences were observed in the performance of an oil-shale derived JP-5 and a petroleum-based Jet A fuel except for emissions of NOx which were higher with the oil-shale JP-5. The difference is attributed to the higher concentration of fuel-bound nitrogen in the oil-shale JP-5.

  13. High performance liquid chromatographic hydrocarbon group-type analyses of mid-distillates employing fuel-derived fractions as standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seng, G. T.; Otterson, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Two high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods have been developed for the determination of saturates, olefins and aromatics in petroleum and shale derived mid-distillate fuels. In one method the fuel to be analyzed is reacted with sulfuric acid, to remove a substantial portion of the aromatics, which provides a reacted fuel fraction for use in group type quantitation. The second involves the removal of a substantial portion of the saturates fraction from the HPLC system to permit the determination of olefin concentrations as low as 0.3 volume percent, and to improve the accuracy and precision of olefins determinations. Each method was evaluated using model compound mixtures and real fuel samples.

  14. Effect of fuel properties on performance of a single aircraft turbojet combustor. [from coal and oil-shale derived syncrudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butze, H. F.; Ehlers, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    The performance of a single-can JT8D combustor was investigated with a number of fuels exhibiting wide variations in chemical composition and volatility. Performance parameters investigated were combustion efficiency, emissions of CO, unburned hydrocarbons and NOx, as well as liner temperatures and smoke. At the simulated idle condition no significant differences in performance were observed. At cruise, liner temperatures and smoke increased sharply with decreasing hydrogen content of the fuel. No significant differences were observed in the performance of an oil-shale derived JP-5 and a petroleum-based Jet A fuel except for emissions of NOx which were higher with the oil-shale JP-5. The difference is attributed to the higher concentration of fuel-bound nitrogen in the oil-shale JP-5.

  15. Investigation on the spontaneous combustion of refuse-derived fuels during storage using a chemiluminescence technique.

    PubMed

    Matunaga, Atsushi; Yasuhara, Akio; Shimizu, Yoshitada; Wakakura, Masahide; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2008-12-01

    Refuse-derived fuel (RDF), a high-caloric material, is used by various combustion processes, such as power plants, as alternative fuel. Several explosion accidents, however, possibly initiated by the spontaneous combustion of stored RDF, have been reported in Japan. Therefore the spontaneous combustion of RDF prepared from domestic garbage was investigated using chemiluminescence. RDF samples were heated either under air or under nitrogen for 1, 2, or 4 h at 120 or 140 degrees C and then cooled by an air or nitrogen stream. All RDF samples exhibited chemiluminescence. In air-treated RDF samples (heated and cooled by air), chemiluminescence after ageing was shown to be slightly lower than before ageing, whereas in nitrogen-treated samples (both heated and cooled by nitrogen) chemiluminescence decreased significantly after ageing. When nitrogen was replaced with air during aging, however, a sudden increase of chemiluminescence was observed. On the other hand, when cooling was done with air, chemiluminescence increased. Higher chemiluminescence was also observed during high-temperature treatment. Further experiments on cellulose, one of the major components of domestic garbage, exhibited similar chemiluminescence patterns to those of RDF when treated by the same methods as those used for RDF ageing. Chemiluminescence from cellulose increased significantly when the atmospheric gas was changed from nitrogen to air, suggesting that oxygen in the air promoted the formation of hydroperoxide from cellulose. Therefore, it is hypothesized that cellulose plays an important role in the formation of chemiluminescence from RDF. The formation of chemiluminescence indicated that radicals are formed from RDF by oxidation or thermal degradation at room or atmospheric temperatures and may subsequently lead to spontaneous combustion.

  16. Feasibility study for a 10 MM GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume II. Geothermal resource, agricultural feedstock, markets and economic viability

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The issues of the geothermal resource at Brady's Hot Springs are dealt with: the prospective supply of feedstocks to the ethanol plant, the markets for the spent grain by-products of the plant, the storage, handling and transshipment requirements for the feedstocks and by-products from a rail siding facility at Fernley, the probable market for fuel ethanol in the region, and an assessment of the economic viability of the entire undertaking.

  17. One-step catalytic conversion of biomass-derived carbohydrates to liquid fuels

    DOEpatents

    Sen, Ayusman; Yang, Weiran

    2014-03-18

    The invention relates to a method for manufacture of hydrocarbon fuels and oxygenated hydrocarbon fuels such as alkyl substituted tetrahydrofurans such as 2,5-dimethyltetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, 5-methylfurfural and mixtures thereof. The method generally entails forming a mixture of reactants that includes carbonaceous material, water, a metal catalyst and an acid reacting that mixture in the presence of hydrogen. The reaction is performed at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce a furan type hydrocarbon fuel. The process may be adapted to provide continuous manufacture of hydrocarbon fuels such as a furan type fuel.

  18. Markets

    Treesearch

    David N. Wear; Jeffrey Prestemon; Robert Huggett; Douglas Carter

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsAlthough timber production in the South more than doubled from the 1960s to the late 1990s, output levels have declined over the last 10 years, signaling structural changes in timber markets.For softwood products, production declines are most clearly related to demand issues. Demand for softwood solid wood products...

  19. Comparing observations of fossil fuel-derived CO2 in California with predictions from bottom-up inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graven, H. D.; Lueker, T.; Fischer, M. L.; Guilderson, T. P.; Keeling, R. F.; Brophy, K.; Arnold, T.; Bambha, R.; Callahan, W.; Campbell, J. E.; Frankenberg, C.; Hsu, Y.; Iraci, L. T.; Jeong, S.; Kim, J.; LaFranchi, B. W.; Lehman, S.; Manning, A.; Michelsen, H. A.; Miller, J. B.; Newman, S.; Parazoo, N.; Sloop, C.; Walker, S.; Whelan, M.; Wunch, D.

    2015-12-01

    The US state of California has a progressive climate change mitigation policy, AB-32, enacted in 2006 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 15% by 2020 and then a further 80% by 2050. Bottom-up inventories indicate California's fossil fuel CO2 emissions are currently about 100 Mt C per year, but different inventories show discrepancies of ±15% in the state-wide total, and some larger discrepancies in various sub-regions of the state. We are developing a top-down framework for investigating fossil fuel and biospheric CO2 fluxes in California using atmospheric observations and models. California has a relatively dense collaborative network of greenhouse gas observations run by several universities, government laboratories and Earth Networks. Using this collaborative network, we conducted three field campaigns in 2014-15 to sample flasks at 10 tower sites across the state. Flasks were analysed for atmospheric CO2 and CO concentrations and for stable isotopes and radiocarbon in CO2. The flask observations of radiocarbon in CO2 allow patterns of fossil fuel-derived and biospheric CO2 to be distinguished at relatively high resolution across the state. We will report initial results from the observations showing regional gradients in fossil fuel-derived CO2 and fluctuations from changing weather patterns. We will compare the observations of fossil fuel-derived CO2 to predictions from several bottom-up inventories and two atmospheric models. Linking the flask data with observations from OCO-2, TCCON, aircraft flights and ground-based in situ analyzers, we will examine the variation in total CO2 and its drivers over California. Further analysis is planned to integrate the data into an inversion framework for fossil fuel and biospheric CO2 fluxes over California.

  20. Commercial nuclear fuel from U.S. and Russian surplus defense inventories: Materials, policies, and market effects

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    Nuclear materials declared by the US and Russian governments as surplus to defense programs are being converted into fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. This report presents the results of an analysis estimating the market effects that would likely result from current plans to commercialize surplus defense inventories. The analysis focuses on two key issues: (1) the extent by which traditional sources of supply, such as production from uranium mines and enrichment plants, would be displaced by the commercialization of surplus defense inventories or, conversely, would be required in the event of disruptions to planned commercialization, and (2) the future price of uranium considering the potential availability of surplus defense inventories. Finally, the report provides an estimate of the savings in uranium procurement costs that could be realized by US nuclear power generating companies with access to competitively priced uranium supplied from surplus defense inventories.

  1. Advection of surface-derived organic carbon fuels microbial reduction in Bangladesh groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Mailloux, Brian J.; Trembath-Reichert, Elizabeth; Cheung, Jennifer; Watson, Marlena; Stute, Martin; Freyer, Greg A.; Ferguson, Andrew S.; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Alam, Md. Jahangir; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Thomas, James; Layton, Alice C.; Zheng, Yan; Bostick, Benjamin C.; van Geen, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic (As) by drinking shallow groundwater causes widespread disease in Bangladesh and neighboring countries. The release of As naturally present in sediment to groundwater has been linked to the reductive dissolution of iron oxides coupled to the microbial respiration of organic carbon (OC). The source of OC driving this microbial reduction—carbon deposited with the sediments or exogenous carbon transported by groundwater—is still debated despite its importance in regulating aquifer redox status and groundwater As levels. Here, we used the radiocarbon (14C) signature of microbial DNA isolated from groundwater samples to determine the relative importance of surface and sediment-derived OC. Three DNA samples collected from the shallow, high-As aquifer and one sample from the underlying, low-As aquifer were consistently younger than the total sediment carbon, by as much as several thousand years. This difference and the dominance of heterotrophic microorganisms implies that younger, surface-derived OC is advected within the aquifer, albeit more slowly than groundwater, and represents a critical pool of OC for aquifer microbial communities. The vertical profile shows that downward transport of dissolved OC is occurring on anthropogenic timescales, but bomb 14C-labeled dissolved OC has not yet accumulated in DNA and is not fueling reduction. These results indicate that advected OC controls aquifer redox status and confirm that As release is a natural process that predates human perturbations to groundwater flow. Anthropogenic perturbations, however, could affect groundwater redox conditions and As levels in the future. PMID:23487743

  2. The U.S. as a market for RFG & alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, C.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation describes the outlook for the U.S. regarding the use of Reformulated Gasoline. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 and its impact on the federal fleet of vehicles are discussed. Target numbers for the quantity of federal fleet vehicles which are fueled by alternative energy, a breakdown of technology types used in the vehicles, and resulting annual gasoline savings are also discussed.

  3. Polyaniline-derived non-precious catalyst for the polymer electrolyte fuel cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Gang; Chen, Zhongwei; Garzon, Fernando; Zelenay, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    A novel polyaniline (PANI)-derived non-precious cathode catalyst was developed in this work, exhibiting remarkable activity (onset potential: 0.9 V, half-wave potential: 0.77 V) and selectivity (0.4 % H20 2 at 0.4 V). As a result, the generated current densities at high voltages associated with electrochemically kinetic activity can be achieved to 0.04 Acm-2 for 0.80V and 0.21 Acm-2 for 0.6 V, when air was used in fuel cell tests. MEA life test at a constant voltage of 0.4 V demonstrated a promising stability up to 450 hours, without obvious degradation. The current density during the test was measured around 0.32 A cm-2, a respectable performance for a cell with non-precious cathode, operated on air rather than oxygen. The possible active sites, related to pyridine- and pyrrole-like metal species were discussed according to presented XPS and XRD analysis.

  4. Re-evaluating neptunium in uranyl phases derived from corroded spent fuel.

    SciTech Connect

    Fortner, J. A.; Finch, R. J.; Kropf, A. J.; Cunnane, J. C.; Chemical Engineering

    2004-11-01

    Interest in mechanisms that may control radioelement release from corroded commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) has been heightened by the selection of the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as the repository for high-level nuclear waste in the United States. Neptunium is an important radionuclide in repository models owing to its relatively long half-life and its high aqueous mobility as neptunyl [Np(V)O+2]. The possibility of neptunium sequestration into uranyl alteration phases produced by corroding CSNF would suggest-a process for lowering neptunium concentration and subsequent migration from a geologic repository. However, there remains little experimental evidence that uranyl compounds will, in fact, serve as long-term host phases for the retention of neptunium under conditions expected in a deep geologic repository. To directly explore this possibility, we examined specimens of uranyl alteration phases derived from humid-air-corroded CSNF by X-ray absorption spectroscopy to better determine neptunium uptake in these phases. Although neptunium fluorescence was readily observed from as-received CSNF, it was not observed from the uranyl alteration rind. We establish upper limits for neptunium incorporation into CSNF alteration phases that are significantly below previously reported concentrations obtained by using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). We attribute the discrepancy to a plural-scattering event that creates a spurious EELS peak at the neptunium-MV energy.

  5. Re-Evaluating Neptunium in Uranyl Phases Derived from Corroded Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Fortner, Jeffrey A.; Finch, Robert J.; Kropf, A. Jeremy; Cunnane, James C.

    2004-11-15

    Interest in mechanisms that may control radioelement release from corroded commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) has been heightened by the selection of the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as the repository for high-level nuclear waste in the United States. Neptunium is an important radionuclide in repository models owing to its relatively long half-life and its high aqueous mobility as neptunyl [Np(V)O{sub 2}{sup +}]. The possibility of neptunium sequestration into uranyl alteration phases produced by corroding CSNF would suggest a process for lowering neptunium concentration and subsequent migration from a geologic repository. However, there remains little experimental evidence that uranyl compounds will, in fact, serve as long-term host phases for the retention of neptunium under conditions expected in a deep geologic repository. To directly explore this possibility, we examined specimens of uranyl alteration phases derived from humid-air-corroded CSNF by X-ray absorption spectroscopy to better determine neptunium uptake in these phases. Although neptunium fluorescence was readily observed from as-received CSNF, it was not observed from the uranyl alteration rind. We establish upper limits for neptunium incorporation into CSNF alteration phases that are significantly below previously reported concentrations obtained by using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). We attribute the discrepancy to a plural-scattering event that creates a spurious EELS peak at the neptunium-M{sub V} energy.

  6. Characterising the composition of waste-derived fuels using a novel image analysis tool.

    PubMed

    Peddireddy, S; Longhurst, P J; Wagland, S T

    2015-06-01

    An experimental study was completed using a previously developed and innovative image analysis approach, which has been applied here to shredded waste materials representative of waste-derived fuels. Waste components were collected from source-segregated recycling containers and shredded to <150 mm. These materials were then used to produce 3× samples of different composition. The samples were spread to represent materials on a conveyor belt, and multiple images of each sample were captured using 10×10 cm and 20×20 cm quadrats. The images were processed using ERDAS Imagine software to determine the area covered by each waste component. This coverage was converted into a mass using density data determined as part of this study, yielding a determined composition which was then compared with the known composition of the samples. The image analysis results indicated a strong correlation with the actual values (mean r=0.89). The area coverage of the sample (10×10 cm or 20×20 cm) contributes to the accuracy as the dot-grid approach used with the particle size within the samples may result in components not being sufficiently monitored. This manuscript presents initial results of the application of an adapted innovative image-based method, and critically assesses how the technique could be improved and developed in the future.

  7. Tracking the spectroscopic and chromatographic changes of algal derived organic matter in a microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Lee, Bo-Mi; Choi, Kwang-Soon; Min, Booki

    2014-02-01

    Changes in the characteristics of algae-derived organic matter (AOM) were examined upon the operation of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) using multiple analytical methods. Temporal variations in the UV absorption and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix of the AOM revealed that less condensed humic-like components and large-sized protein-like fluorescent compounds were preferentially decomposed over the period of electricity generation. They also showed that low UV-absorbing extracellular organic matters (EOM) were produced at the end of the operation. SEC chromatograms demonstrated that smaller-sized UV-absorbing components were initially decomposed, followed by the net production of EOM with an intermediate molecular weight. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra showed that proteins and polysaccharides were the two most dominant structures of the AOM in the MFC. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy combined with FT-IR provided additional valuable information on the sequential changes of the AOM, which occurred in the order of proteins → acidic functional groups → polysaccharides → amino acids/proteins.

  8. Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. [Butyribacterium methylotrophicum

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    The use of coal-derived synthesis gas as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals has become an increasingly attractive alternative to present petroleum-based chemicals production. However, one of the major limitations in developing such a process is the required removal of catalyst poisons such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and other trace contaminants from the synthesis gas. Purification steps necessary to remove these are energy intensive and add significantly to the production cost, particularly for coals having a high sulfur content such as Illinois coal. A two-stage, anaerobic bioconversion process requiring little or no sulfur removal is proposed, where in the first stage the carbon monoxide (CO) gas is converted to butyric and acetic acids by the CO strain of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. In the second stage, these acids along with the hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas are converted to butanol, ethanol, and acetone by an acid utilizing mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum. 18 figs., 18 tabs.

  9. Design considerations and operating experience in firing refuse derived fuel in a circulating fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Piekos, S.J.; Matuny, M.

    1997-12-31

    The worldwide demand for cleaner, more efficient methods to dispose of municipal solid waste has stimulated interest in processing solid waste to produce refuse derived fuel (RDF) for use in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. The combination of waste processing and materials recovery systems and CFB boiler technology provides the greatest recovery of useful resources from trash and uses the cleanest combustion technology available today to generate power. Foster Wheeler Power Systems along with Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation and several other Foster Wheeler sister companies designed, built, and now operates a 1600 tons per day (TPD) (1450 metric tons) municipal waste-to-energy project located in Robbins, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. This project incorporates waste processing systems to recover recyclable materials and produce RDF. It is the first project in the United States to use CFB boiler technology to combust RDF. This paper will provide an overview of the Robbins, Illinois waste-to-energy project and will examine the technical and environmental reasons for selecting RDF waste processing and CFB combustion technology. Additionally, this paper will present experience with handling and combusting RDF and review the special design features incorporated into the CFB boiler and waste processing system that make it work.

  10. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2003-01-01

    During the period October 1, 2002--December 31, 2002, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) completed the first year of testing at the Willow Island cofiring project. This included data acquisition and analysis associated with certain operating parameters and environmental results. Over 2000 hours of cofiring operation were logged at Willow Island, and about 4,000 tons of sawdust were burned along with slightly more tire-derived fuel (TDF). The results were generally favorable. During this period, also, a new grinder was ordered for the Albright Generating Station to handle oversized material rejected by the disc screen. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. It details the test results at Willow Island and summarizes the grinder program at Albright.

  11. Co-firing a pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system with coal and refuse derived fuels and/or sludges. Task 16

    SciTech Connect

    DeLallo, M.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1994-01-01

    The co-firing of waste materials with coal in utility scale power plants has emerged as an effective approach to produce energy and manage municipal waste. Leading this approach, the atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC) has demonstrated its commercial acceptance in the utility market as a reliable source of power burning a variety of waste and alternative fuels. The fluidized bed, with its stability of combustion, reduces the amount of thermochemical transients and provides for easier process control. The application of pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) technology, although relatively new, can provide significant enhancements to the efficient production of electricity while maintaining the waste management benefits of AFBC. A study was undertaken to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of co-firing a PFBC with coal and municipal and industrial wastes. Focus was placed on the production of electricity and the efficient disposal of wastes for application in central power station and distributed locations. Wastes considered for co-firing include municipal solid waste (MSW), tire-derived fuel (TDF), sewage sludge, and industrial de-inking sludge. Issues concerning waste material preparation and feed, PFBC operation, plant emissions, and regulations are addressed. This paper describes the results of this investigation, presents conclusions on the key issues, and provides recommendations for further evaluation.

  12. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Caroline Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2008-03-31

    The final report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during length of the project. The goal of this project was to integrate coal into a refinery in order to produce coal-based jet fuel, with the major goal to examine the products other than jet fuel. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal-based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. The main goal of Task 1 was the production of coal-based jet fuel and other products that would need to be utilized in other fuels or for non-fuel sources, using known refining technology. The gasoline, diesel fuel, and fuel oil were tested in other aspects of the project. Light cycle oil (LCO) and refined chemical oil (RCO) were blended, hydrotreated to removed sulfur, and hydrogenated, then fractionated in the original production of jet fuel. Two main approaches, taken during the project period, varied where the fractionation took place, in order to preserve the life of catalysts used, which includes (1) fractionation of the hydrotreated blend to remove sulfur and nitrogen, followed by a hydrogenation step of the lighter fraction, and (2) fractionation of the LCO and RCO before any hydrotreatment. Task 2 involved assessment of the impact of refinery integration of JP-900 production on gasoline and diesel fuel. Fuel properties, ignition characteristics and engine combustion of model fuels and fuel samples from pilot-scale production runs were characterized. The model fuels used to represent the coal-based fuel streams were blended into full-boiling range fuels to simulate the mixing of fuel streams within the refinery to create potential 'finished' fuels. The representative compounds of the coal-based gasoline were cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane, and for the coal-base diesel fuel they were fluorine and phenanthrene. Both the octane number (ON) of the coal-based gasoline and the cetane number (CN) of the coal-based diesel were low, relative to commercial

  13. The Effect of Functional Groups in Bio-Derived Fuel Candidates.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Rhodri W; Moore, Cameron M; Semelsberger, Troy A; Chuck, Christopher J; Gordon, John C; Sutton, Andrew D

    2016-05-10

    Interest in developing renewable fuels is continuing to grow and biomass represents a viable source of renewable carbon with which to replace fossil-based components in transportation fuels. During our own work, we noticed that chemists think in terms of functional groups whereas fuel engineers think in terms of physical fuel properties. In this Concept article, we discuss the effect of carbon and oxygen functional groups on potential fuel properties. This serves as a way of informing our own thinking and provides us with a basis with which to design and synthesize molecules from biomass that could provide useful transportation fuels. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-05-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of fuel oil indicates that the fuel is somewhere in between a No. 4 and a No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates the fuel burns similarly to these two fuels, but trace metals for the coal-based material are different than petroleum-based fuel oils. Co-coking studies using cleaned coal are highly reproducible in the pilot-scale delayed coker. Evaluation of the coke by Alcoa, Inc. indicated that while the coke produced is of very good quality, the metals content of the carbon is still high in iron and silica. Coke is being evaluated for other possible uses

  15. Progress on Fuel Efficiency and Market Adoption - SuperTruck Factsheet

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) launched the SuperTruck initiative in 2009 with the goal of developing and demonstrating a 50 percent improvement in overall freight efficiency (expressed in a ton-mile per gallon metric) for a heavy-duty Class 8 tractor-trailer. To date, the industry teams participating in the initiative have successfully met or are on track to exceed this goal, leveraging suites of technologies that hold significant potential for market success.

  16. Densified refuse-derived fuel (d-RDF) burn at Marcy Psychiatric Center. Final report Mar 80-Nov 80

    SciTech Connect

    Galson, E.

    1980-11-01

    A densified refuse derived fuel (d-RDF) product was fired for approximately 50 hours as a supplemental fuel in a coal fired spreader stoker boiler at the Marcy Psychiatric Center in Marcy, New York. Observations were made and photographs were taken of plant operation during all phases of the test project. Opacity and particulate emission tests were performed while firing d-RDF in a ratio of 1:2 with coal (by volume) and while firing 100 percent coal at high and low loads to provide comparisons with State Department of Environmental Conservation emission standards. No significant disadvantages over coal were found in burning d-RDF/coal in ratios up to 2:1 (43 percent heat input by d-RDF). Fuel handling, boiler operation, boiler efficiency, particulate emissions and opacity were similar for the coal and d-RDF/coal mixtures.

  17. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2001-01-01

    During the period October 1, 2000 - December 31, 2000, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) executed a Cooperative Agreement with the National Energy Technology Laboratory to implement a major cofiring demonstration at the Willow Island Generating Station Boiler No.2. Willow Island Boiler No.2 is a cyclone boiler. Allegheny also will demonstrate separate injection cofiring at the Albright Generating Station Boiler No.3, a tangentially fired boiler. The Allegheny team includes Foster Wheeler as its primary subcontractor. Additional subcontractors are Cofiring Alternatives and N.S. Harding and Associates. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. The second quarter of the project involved completing the designs for each location. Further, geotechnical investigations proceeded at each site. Preparations were made to perform demolition on two small buildings at the Willow Island site. Fuels strategies were initiated for each site. Test planning commenced for each site. A groundbreaking ceremony was held at the Willow Island site on October 18, with Governor C. Underwood being the featured speaker.

  18. 78 FR 62462 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... transportation fuels, including gasoline and diesel fuel, or renewable fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, as... biodiesel) that were produced for the highway diesel market but were also suitable for other markets such as...

  19. An integrated appraisal of energy recovery options in the United Kingdom using solid recovered fuel derived from municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Garg, A; Smith, R; Hill, D; Longhurst, P J; Pollard, S J T; Simms, N J

    2009-08-01

    This paper reports an integrated appraisal of options for utilising solid recovered fuels (SRF) (derived from municipal solid waste, MSW) in energy intensive industries within the United Kingdom (UK). Four potential co-combustion scenarios have been identified following discussions with industry stakeholders. These scenarios have been evaluated using (a) an existing energy and mass flow framework model, (b) a semi-quantitative risk analysis, (c) an environmental assessment and (d) a financial assessment. A summary of results from these evaluations for the four different scenarios is presented. For the given ranges of assumptions; SRF co-combustion with coal in cement kilns was found to be the optimal scenario followed by co-combustion of SRF in coal-fired power plants. The biogenic fraction in SRF (ca. 70%) reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions significantly ( approximately 2500 g CO(2) eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired cement kilns and approximately 1500 g CO(2) eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired power plants). Potential reductions in electricity or heat production occurred through using a lower calorific value (CV) fuel. This could be compensated for by savings in fuel costs (from SRF having a gate fee) and grants aimed at reducing GHG emission to encourage the use of fuels with high biomass fractions. Total revenues generated from coal-fired power plants appear to be the highest ( 95 pounds/t SRF) from the four scenarios. However overall, cement kilns appear to be the best option due to the low technological risks, environmental emissions and fuel cost. Additionally, cement kiln operators have good experience of handling waste derived fuels. The scenarios involving co-combustion of SRF with MSW and biomass were less favourable due to higher environmental risks and technical issues.

  20. Alternative Bio-Derived JP-8 Class Fuel and JP-8 Fuel: Flame Tube Combustor Test Results Compared using a GE TAPS Injector Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert; Tedder, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from tests in a NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) flame tube facility, where a bio-derived alternate fuel was compared with JP-8 for emissions and general combustion performance. A research version of General Electric Aviation (GE) TAPS injector was used for the tests. Results include 2D, planar laser-based imaging as well as basic flow visualization of the flame. Four conditions were selected that simulate various engine power conditions relevant to NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Supersonics and Environmentally Responsible Aviation Projects were tested.

  1. Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Through the mid-1980s, Air Products has brought the liquid phase approach to a number of other synthesis gas reactions where effective heat management is a key issue. In 1989, in response to DOE`s PRDA No. DE-RA22-88PC88805, Air Products proposed a research and development program entitled ``Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal Derived Syngas.`` The proposal aimed at extending the LPMEOH experience to convert coal-derived synthesis gas to other useful fuels and chemicals. The work proposed included development of a novel one-step synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas, and exploration of other liquid phase synthesis of alternative fuel directly from syngas. The one-step DME process, conceived in 1986 at Air Products as a means of increasing syngas conversion to liquid products, envisioned the concept of converting product methanol in situ to DME in a single reactor. The slurry reactor based liquid phase technology is ideally suited for such an application, since the second reaction (methanol to DME) can be accomplished by adding a second catalyst with dehydration activity to the methanol producing reactor. An area of exploration for other alternative fuels directly from syngas was single-step slurry phase synthesis of hydrocarbons via methanol and DME as intermediates. Other possibilities included the direct synthesis of mixed alcohols and mixed ethers in a slurry reactor.

  2. Development of alternative fuels from coal-derived syngas. Quarterly status report No. 6, January 1--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.M.

    1992-05-19

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to oxygenated fuels, hydrocarbon fuels, fuel intermediates, and octane enhancers; and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE`s LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). BASF continues to have difficulties in scaling-up the new isobutanol synthesis catalyst developed in Air Products` laboratories. Investigations are proceeding, but the proposed operation at LaPorte in April is now postponed. DOE has accepted a proposal to demonstrate Liquid Phase Shift (LPS) chemistry at LaPorte as an alternative to isobutanol. There are two principal reasons for carrying out this run. First, following the extensive modifications at the site, operation on a relatively ``benign`` system is needed before we start on Fischer-Tropsch technology in July. Second, use of shift catalyst in a slurry reactor will enable DOE`s program on coal-based Fischer-Tropsch to encompass commercially available cobalt catalysts-up to now they have been limited to iron-based catalysts which have varying degrees of shift activity. In addition, DOE is supportive of continued fuel testing of LaPorte methanol-tests of MIOO at Detroit Diesel have been going particularly well. LPS offers the opportunity to produce methanol as the catalyst, in the absence of steam, is active for methanol synthesis.

  3. Test and evaluation of shale derived jet fuel by the United States Air Force

    SciTech Connect

    Delaney, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    In June 1980, the United States Congress passed the Energy Security Act which provided for the formation of the United States Synthetic Fuels Corporation and amended the Defense Production Act of 1950 to provide for synthetic fuels for the Department of Defense (DOD). A subsequent law, P.L., 96-304, appropriated up to $20 billion for financial incentives to foster a national synthetic fuel industry. The initial synthetic fuel project funded under the Energy Security Act is the Unocal Parachute Creek Project in Colorado with an expected shale oil production of 10,000 bbls/day. The Defense Fuel Supply Center (DFSC) contracted with Gary Energy Refining Company, Fruita, Colorado to provide approximately 5,000 bbls/day of shale JP-4 for the United States Air Force (USAF) using crude from the Parachute Creek Project, with initial deliveries to begin in 1985.

  4. Performance, methanol tolerance and stability of Fe-aminobenzimidazole derived catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastián, David; Serov, Alexey; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Atanassov, Plamen; Aricò, Antonino S.; Baglio, Vincenzo

    2016-07-01

    Highly active and durable non-platinum group metals (non-PGM) catalyst based on iron-nitrogen-carbon (Fe-N-C) for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) derived from pyrolyzed Fe-aminobenzimidazole (Fe-ABZIM) was synthesized by sacrificial support method (SSM), and characterized by several physical-chemical techniques: scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In half-cell electrochemical configuration, the Fe-ABZIM catalyst presented a significant improvement of ORR activity with respect to a recently reported non-PGM formulation based on Fe-aminoantipyrine, with an enhancement of half-wave potential of about 85 mV in O2-saturated sulfuric acid solution. To the moment, the gap with respect to a benchmark Pt/C catalyst was about 90 mV. The Fe-ABZIM catalyst showed a remarkably high tolerance to methanol, resulting in superior ORR performance compared to Pt/C at methanol concentrations higher than 0.02 M. In direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) good performances were also obtained. A durability test (100 h) at 90 °C, feeding 5 M methanol, was carried out. A certain decrease of performance was recorded, amounting to -0.20 mW cm-2 h-1 at the very beginning of test and -0.05 mW cm-2 h-1 at the end. However, the Fe-ABZIM is more adequate than previously reported formulations in terms of both ORR activity and stability.

  5. Biomass-derived heteroatoms-doped mesoporous carbon for efficient oxygen reduction in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yu; Zhu, Nengwu; Yin, Fuhua; Yang, Tingting; Wu, Pingxiao; Dang, Zhi; Liu, Meilin; Wei, Xiaorong

    2017-12-15

    Currently, the development of less expensive, more active and more stable catalysts like heteroatom-doped carbon based non-precious metal materials are highly desired for the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Comparing with heteroatom sources from chemical reagents, biomass is notably inexpensive and abundant, containing more elements which contribute to ORR activity. Herein, we demonstrate an easy operating one-step and low-cost way to synthesize egg-derived heteroatoms-doped mesoporous carbon (EGC) catalysts utilizing egg as the biomass carbon and other elements source (sulphur, phosphorus, boron and iron), and porous g-C3N4 as both template and nitrogen source. After carbonized, such hybrid materials possess an outstanding electrocatalytic activity towards ORR comparable to the commercial Pt/C catalyst in neutral media. Electrochemical detections as cyclic voltammogram and rotating ring-disk electrode tests show that the potential of oxygen reduction peak of EGC1-10-2 is at + 0.10V, onset potential is at + 0.257V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and electron transfer number of that is 3.84-3.92, which indicate that EGC1-10-2 via a four-electron pathway. Reactor operation shows that the maximum power density of MFC-EGC1-10-2 (737.1mWm(-2)), which is slightly higher than MFC-Pt/C (20%) (704mWm(-2)). The low cost (0.049 $g(-1)), high yield (20.26%) and high performance of EGC1-10-2 provide a promising alternative to noble metal catalysts by using abundant natural biological resources, which contribute a lot to expansion and commercialization of MFCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Transformations of biomass-derived platform molecules: from high added-value chemicals to fuels via aqueous-phase processing.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Ruiz, Juan Carlos; Luque, Rafael; Sepúlveda-Escribano, Antonio

    2011-11-01

    Global warming issues and the medium-term depletion of fossil fuel reserves are stimulating researchers around the world to find alternative sources of energy and organic carbon. Biomass is considered by experts the only sustainable source of energy and organic carbon for our industrial society, and it has the potential to displace petroleum in the production of chemicals and liquid transportation fuels. However, the transition from a petroleum-based economy to one based on biomass requires new strategies since the petrochemical technologies, well-developed over the last century, are not valid to process the biomass-derived compounds. Unlike petroleum feedstocks, biomass derived platform molecules possess a high oxygen content that gives them low volatility, high solubility in water, high reactivity and low thermal stability, properties that favour the processing of these resources by catalytic aqueous-phase technologies at moderate temperatures. This tutorial review is aimed at providing a general overview of processes, technologies and challenges that lie ahead for a range of different aqueous-phase transformations of some of the key biomass-derived platform molecules into liquid fuels for the transportation sector and related high added value chemicals.

  7. Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

    2013-09-30

    This research and development efforts produced low-emission burner technology capable of operating on natural gas as well as crude glycerin and/or fatty acids generated in biodiesel plants. The research was conducted in three stages (1) Concept definition leading to the design and development of a small laboratory scale burner, (2) Scale-up to prototype burner design and development, and (3) Technology demonstration with field vefiication. The burner design relies upon the Flow Blurring (FB) fuel injection based on aerodynamically creating two-phase flow near the injector exit. The fuel tube and discharge orifice both of inside diameter D are separated by gap H. For H < 0.25D, the atomizing air bubbles into liquid fuel to create a two-phase flow near the tip of the fuel tube. Pressurized two-phase fuel-air mixture exits through the discharge orifice, which results in expansion and breakup of air bubbles yielding a spray with fine droplets. First, low-emission combustion of diesel, biodiesel and straight VO (soybean oil) was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine sprays for these fuels with significantly different physical properties. Visual images for these baseline experiments conducted with heat release rate (HRR) of about 8 kW illustrate clean blue flames indicating premixed combustion for all three fuels. Radial profiles of the product gas temperature at the combustor exit overlap each other signifying that the combustion efficiency is independent of the fuel. At the combustor exit, the NOx emissions are within the measurement uncertainties, while CO emissions are slightly higher for straight VO as compared to diesel and biodiesel. Considering the large variations in physical and chemical properties of fuels considered, the small differences observed in CO and NOx emissions show promise for fuel-flexible, clean combustion systems. FB injector has proven to be very effective in atomizing fuels with very different physical properties, and it offers a

  8. Evaluation of Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal-derived liquid as utility diesel fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heater, W.R.; Froh, T.W.; Ariga, S.; Baker, Q.A.; Piispanen, W.; Webb, P.; Trayser, D.; Keane, W.J.

    1983-10-01

    The program consisted of three phases: (I) characterization of the physical and chemical properties of EDS, (II) evaluation of EDS in a laboratory medium-speed diesel engine, and (III) evaluation of EDS in a low-speed diesel engine operating at a utility. The characteristics of high aromatic content and low cetane number that were found during Phase I made it unlikely that EDS could be used as a direct substitute for diesel fuel without engine modification to provide ignition assistance. Phase II was conducted on a 12-cylinder General Electric Company 7FDL diesel engine. Blends of up to 30% EDS and 70% 0.2 diesel fuel (DF-2) were successfully consumed. Dual fuel tests were also conducted on a single cylinder by injecting EDS through the existing engine fuel oil system and injecting DF-2 through an auxiliary nozzle as an ignition source. Acceptable operation was achieved using 5 to 10% pilot oil heat input. Phase III was conducted on a 16-cylinder Cooper-Bessemer LSV-16-GDT diesel engine at an EUC plant in Easton, Maryland. Blends of up to 66.7% EDS and 33.3% DF-2 were successfully consumed. Dual fuel tests were also conducted on a single cylinder by injecting EDS through the existing fuel oil system and using a natural-gas-fueled precombustion chamber as an ignition source. Acceptable operation was achieved using 3 to 6% pilot gas heat input. The program confirmed that it is feasible to consume significant proportions of EDS in a diesel engine, but more development is needed before EDS can be considered a viable alternative liquid fuel for diesel engines, and an industrial hygiene program is needed to assure safe handling of the fuel.

  9. Fluidized bed combustion of pelletized biomass and waste-derived fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Chirone, R.; Scala, F.; Solimene, R.; Salatino, P.; Urciuolo, M.

    2008-10-15

    The fluidized bed combustion of three pelletized biogenic fuels (sewage sludge, wood, and straw) has been investigated with a combination of experimental techniques. The fuels have been characterized from the standpoints of patterns and rates of fuel devolatilization and char burnout, extent of attrition and fragmentation, and their relevance to the fuel particle size distribution and the amount and size distribution of primary ash particles. Results highlight differences and similarities among the three fuels tested. The fuels were all characterized by limited primary fragmentation and relatively long devolatilization times, as compared with the time scale of particle dispersion away from the fuel feeding ports in practical FBC. Both features are favorable to effective lateral distribution of volatile matter across the combustor cross section. The three fuels exhibited distinctively different char conversion patterns. The high-ash pelletized sludge burned according to the shrinking core conversion pattern with negligible occurrence of secondary fragmentation. The low-ash pelletized wood burned according to the shrinking particle conversion pattern with extensive occurrence of secondary fragmentation. The medium-ash pelletized straw yielded char particles with a hollow structure, resembling big cenospheres, characterized by a coherent inorganic outer layer strong enough to prevent particle fragmentation. Inert bed particles were permanently attached to the hollow pellets as they were incorporated into ash melts. Carbon elutriation rates were very small for all the fuels tested. For pelletized sludge and straw, this was mostly due to the shielding effect of the coherent ash skeleton. For the wood pellet, carbon attrition was extensive, but was largely counterbalanced by effective afterburning due to the large intrinsic reactivity of attrited char fines. The impact of carbon attrition on combustion efficiency was negligible for all the fuels tested. The size

  10. Further investigation of the impact of the co-combustion of tire-derived fuel and petroleum coke on the petrology and chemistry of coal combustion products

    SciTech Connect

    Hower, J.C.; Robertson, J.D.; Elswick, E.R.; Roberts, J.M.; Brandsteder, K.; Trimble, A.S.; Mardon, S.M.

    2007-07-01

    A Kentucky cyclone-fired unit burns coal and tire-derived fuel, sometimes in combination with petroleum coke. A parallel pulverized combustion (pc) unit at the same plant burns the same coal, without the added fuels. The petrology, chemistry, and sulfur isotope distribution in the fuel and resulting combustion products was investigated for several configurations of the fuel blend. Zinc and Cd in the combustion products are primarily contributed from the tire-derived fuel, the V and Ni are primarily from the petroleum coke, and the As and Hg are probably largely from the coal. The sulfur isotope distribution in the cyclone unit is complicated due to the varying fuel sources. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) array in the pc unit shows a subtle trend towards heavier S isotopic ratios in the cooler end of the ESP.

  11. Alternative fuels and vehicles choice model

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the theory and implementation of a model of alternative fuel and vehicle choice (AFVC), designed for use with the US Department of Energy`s Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). The AFTM is a static equilibrium model of the world supply and demand for liquid fuels, encompassing resource production, conversion processes, transportation, and consumption. The AFTM also includes fuel-switching behavior by incorporating multinomial logit-type equations for choice of alternative fuel vehicles and alternative fuels. This allows the model to solve for market shares of vehicles and fuels, as well as for fuel prices and quantities. The AFVC model includes fuel-flexible, bi-fuel, and dedicated fuel vehicles. For multi-fuel vehicles, the choice of fuel is subsumed within the vehicle choice framework, resulting in a nested multinomial logit design. The nesting is shown to be required by the different price elasticities of fuel and vehicle choice. A unique feature of the AFVC is that its parameters are derived directly from the characteristics of alternative fuels and vehicle technologies, together with a few key assumptions about consumer behavior. This not only establishes a direct link between assumptions and model predictions, but facilitates sensitivity testing, as well. The implementation of the AFVC model as a spreadsheet is also described.

  12. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-05-18

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  13. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-04-23

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  14. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first twelve months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  15. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal Derived Liquids. Volume 6. Preliminary Analysis of Upgrading Alternatives for the Great Plains Liquid By-Production Streams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    oil contained 90 to 95 percent aromatics , the remainder being paraffins. WRI’s (I) hydrogenation data show that significant amounts of jet fuel can be... aromatics to meet Jet fuel specifications (less than 25 percent aromatics ). Water may damage hydrotreating catalysts, and the content of hydrotreated...chemicals, which can be marketed, is a concern, but profits can be generated even when oxygenated chemical sales are limited to 10 percent of the U.S

  16. Stability, Compatibility, and Related Problems of Additives in Naval Distillate Fuels Derived from Lower Quality Feedstocks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    MO 63119 St. Louis, MO 63102-1866 Mr. Perry Rochelle Mr. Theo Kriel Vice President of Sales Fuels and Specialties Nutmeg Chemical Company Oronite...Manager Fuel Additive Division Mr. Joseph Stucker Nutmeg Chemical Company 1650 East Golf Road P. 0. Box 309 Schaumburg, IL 60196 New Haven, CT 06513-0309...Petroleum Additives Division EDA-40 Nalco Chemical Co. Oilfield Services 5300 Nutmeg Chemical Co. USN-FP#3 Petrolite Industrial Chemicals Group XF-1300

  17. Energy balances in the production and end use of alcohols derived from biomass. A fuels-specific comparative analysis of alternate ethanol production cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Considerable public interest and debate have been focused on the so-called energy balance issue involved in the conversion of biomass materials into ethanol for fuel use. This report addresses questions of net gains in premium fuels that can be derived from the production and use of ethanol from biomass, and shows that for the US alcohol fuel program, energy balance need not be a concern. Three categories of fuel gain are discussed in the report: (1) Net petroleum gain; (2) Net premium fuel gain (petroleum and natural gas); and (3) Net energy gain (for all fuels). In this study the investment of energy (in the form of premium fuels) in alcohol production includes all investment from cultivating, harvesting, or gathering the feedstock and raw materials, through conversion of the feedstock to alcohol, to the delivery to the end-user. To determine the fuel gains in ethanol production, six cases, encompassing three feedstocks, five process fuels, and three process variations, have been examined. For each case, two end-uses (automotive fuel use and replacement of petrochemical feedstocks) were scrutinized. The end-uses were further divided into three variations in fuel economy and two different routes for production of ethanol from petrochemicals. Energy requirements calculated for the six process cycles accounted for fuels used directly and indirectly in all stages of alcohol production, from agriculture through distribution of product to the end-user. Energy credits were computed for byproducts according to the most appropriate current use.

  18. Recent decreases in fossil-fuel emissions of ethane and methane derived from firn air.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Murat; Verhulst, Kristal R; Saltzman, Eric S; Battle, Mark O; Montzka, Stephen A; Blake, Donald R; Tang, Qi; Prather, Michael J

    2011-08-10

    Methane and ethane are the most abundant hydrocarbons in the atmosphere and they affect both atmospheric chemistry and climate. Both gases are emitted from fossil fuels and biomass burning, whereas methane (CH(4)) alone has large sources from wetlands, agriculture, landfills and waste water. Here we use measurements in firn (perennial snowpack) air from Greenland and Antarctica to reconstruct the atmospheric variability of ethane (C(2)H(6)) during the twentieth century. Ethane levels rose from early in the century until the 1980s, when the trend reversed, with a period of decline over the next 20 years. We find that this variability was primarily driven by changes in ethane emissions from fossil fuels; these emissions peaked in the 1960s and 1970s at 14-16 teragrams per year (1 Tg = 10(12) g) and dropped to 8-10 Tg  yr(-1) by the turn of the century. The reduction in fossil-fuel sources is probably related to changes in light hydrocarbon emissions associated with petroleum production and use. The ethane-based fossil-fuel emission history is strikingly different from bottom-up estimates of methane emissions from fossil-fuel use, and implies that the fossil-fuel source of methane started to decline in the 1980s and probably caused the late twentieth century slow-down in the growth rate of atmospheric methane.

  19. Applications study of advanced power generation systems utilizing coal-derived fuels. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    The technology status of phosphoric acid and molten carbon fuel cells, combined gas and steam turbine cycles, and magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion systems was assessed and the power performance of these systems when operating with medium-Btu fuel gas whether delivered by pipeline to the power plant or in an integrated mode in which the coal gasification process and power system are closely coupled as an overall power plant was evaluated. Commercially available combined-cycle gas turbine systems can reach projected required performance levels for advanced systems using currently available technology. The phosphoric acid fuel cell appears to be the next most likely candidate for commercialization. On pipeline delivery, the systems efficiency ranges from 40.9% for the phosphoric acid fuel cell to 63% for the molten carbonate fuel cell system. The efficiencies of the integrated power plants vary from approximately 39-40% for the combined cycle to 46-47% for the molden carbonate fuel cell systems. Conventional coal-fired steam stations with flue-gas desulfurization have only 33-35% efficiency.

  20. Plasma gasification of refuse derived fuel in a single-stage system using different gasifying agents.

    PubMed

    Agon, N; Hrabovský, M; Chumak, O; Hlína, M; Kopecký, V; Masláni, A; Bosmans, A; Helsen, L; Skoblja, S; Van Oost, G; Vierendeels, J

    2016-01-01

    The renewable evolution in the energy industry and the depletion of natural resources are putting pressure on the waste industry to shift towards flexible treatment technologies with efficient materials and/or energy recovery. In this context, a thermochemical conversion method of recent interest is plasma gasification, which is capable of producing syngas from a wide variety of waste streams. The produced syngas can be valorized for both energetic (heat and/or electricity) and chemical (ammonia, hydrogen or liquid hydrocarbons) end-purposes. This paper evaluates the performance of experiments on a single-stage plasma gasification system for the treatment of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from excavated waste. A comparative analysis of the syngas characteristics and process yields was done for seven cases with different types of gasifying agents (CO2+O2, H2O, CO2+H2O and O2+H2O). The syngas compositions were compared to the thermodynamic equilibrium compositions and the performance of the single-stage plasma gasification of RDF was compared to that of similar experiments with biomass and to the performance of a two-stage plasma gasification process with RDF. The temperature range of the experiment was from 1400 to 1600 K and for all cases, a medium calorific value syngas was produced with lower heating values up to 10.9 MJ/Nm(3), low levels of tar, high levels of CO and H2 and which composition was in good agreement to the equilibrium composition. The carbon conversion efficiency ranged from 80% to 100% and maximum cold gas efficiency and mechanical gasification efficiency of respectively 56% and 95%, were registered. Overall, the treatment of RDF proved to be less performant than that of biomass in the same system. Compared to a two-stage plasma gasification system, the produced syngas from the single-stage reactor showed more favourable characteristics, while the recovery of the solid residue as a vitrified slag is an advantage of the two-stage set-up.

  1. The economic production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kugler, E.L.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Yang, R.Y.K.

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this project are to discover, (1) study and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. Specifically, alternative methods of preparing catalysts are to be investigated, and novel catalysts, including sulfur-tolerant ones, are to be pursued. (Task 1); (2) explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. (Task 1); (3) simulate by computer the most energy efficient and economically efficient process for converting coal to energy, with primary focus on converting syngas to fuel alcohols. (Task 2); (4) develop on the bench scale the best holistic combination of chemistry, catalyst, reactor and total process configuration integrated with the overall coal conversion process to achieve economic optimization for the conversion of syngas to liquid products within the framework of achieving the maximum cost effective transformation of coal to energy equivalents. (Tasks 1 and 2); and (5) evaluate the combustion, emission and performance characteristics of fuel alcohols and blends of alcohols with petroleum-based fuels. (Task 2)

  2. Study of organic compounds evolved during the co-firing of coal and refuse derived fuel using TG/MS

    SciTech Connect

    Puroshothama, Shobha; Lu, R.; Yang, Xiaodong

    1996-10-01

    The evolution of organic compounds during the combustion of carbonaceous fuel coupled with solid waste disposal and limited landfill space has been a cause for concern. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuel seems an attractive alternative technique to tackle the dual problem of controlling SO{sub x} emissions as well as those of the chlorinated organic toxins. The TG serves to emulate the conditions of the fluidized bed combustor and the MS serves as the detector for evolved gases. This versatile combination is used to study the decomposition pathway as well as predict the conditions at which various compounds are formed and may serve as a means of reducing the formation of these chlorinated organic compounds.

  3. Nanochemistry-derived Bi2WO6 nanostructures: towards production of sustainable chemicals and fuels induced by visible light.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Ciriminna, Rosaria; Pagliaro, Mario; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2014-08-07

    Low cost and easily made bismuth tungstate (Bi2WO6) could be one of the key technologies to make chemicals and fuels from biomass, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water at low cost using solar radiation as an energy source. Its narrow band gap (2.8 eV) enables ideal visible light (λ > 400 nm) absorption. Yet, it is the material's shape, namely the superstructure morphology wisely created via a nanochemistry approach, which leads to better electron-hole separation and much higher photoactivity. Recent results coupled to the versatile photochemistry of this readily available semiconductor suggest that the practical application of nanochemistry-derived Bi2WO6 nanostructures for the synthesis of value-added fine chemicals and fuel production is possible. We describe progress in this important field of chemical research from a nanochemistry viewpoint, and identify opportunities for further progress.

  4. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-11-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil are reported. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  5. 2010 Manufacturing Readiness Assessment Update to the 2008 Report for Fuel Cell Stacks and Systems for the Backup Power and Materials Handling Equipment Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, D.; Ulsh, M.

    2012-08-01

    In 2008, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), conducted a manufacturing readiness assessment (MRA) of fuel cell systems and fuel cell stacks for back-up power and material handling applications (MHE). To facilitate the MRA, manufacturing readiness levels (MRL) were defined that were based on the Technology Readiness Levels previously established by the US Department of Energy (DOE). NREL assessed the extensive existing hierarchy of MRLs developed by Department of Defense (DoD) and other Federal entities, and developed a MRL scale adapted to the needs of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program (FCTP) and to the status of the fuel cell industry. The MRL ranking of a fuel cell manufacturing facility increases as the manufacturing capability transitions from laboratory prototype development through Low Rate Initial Production to Full Rate Production. DOE can use MRLs to address the economic and institutional risks associated with a ramp-up in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell production. In 2010, NREL updated this assessment, including additional manufacturers, an assessment of market developments since the original report, and a comparison of MRLs between 2008 and 2010.

  6. REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Chin; Xiaolei Sun; George W. Roberts; Amornmart Sirijarhuphan; Sourabh Pansare; James G. Goodwin Jr; Richard W. Rice; James J. Spivey

    2005-06-01

    Hydrocarbon fuels must be reformed in a series of steps to provide hydrogen for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Preferential oxidation (PROX) is one method to reduce the CO concentration to less than 10 ppm in the presence of {approx}40% H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and steam. This will prevent CO poisoning of the PEMFC anode. Structured supports, such as ceramic monoliths, can be used for the PROX reaction. Alternatively, metal foams offer a number of advantages over the traditional ceramic monolith.

  7. Aviation fuels outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momenthy, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    Options for satisfying the future demand for commercial jet fuels are analyzed. It is concluded that the most effective means to this end are to attract more refiners to the jet fuel market and encourage development of processes to convert oil shale and coal to transportation fuels. Furthermore, changing the U.S. refineries fuel specification would not significantly alter jet fuel availability.

  8. Deriving In-Use PHEV Fuel Economy Predictions from Standardized Test Cycle Results

    SciTech Connect

    John Smart; Richard "Barney" Carlson; Jeff Gonder; Aaron Brooker

    2009-09-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have potential to reduce or eliminate the U.S. dependence on foreign oil. Quantifying the amount of petroleum each uses, however, is challenging. To estimate in-use fuel economy for conventional vehicles the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducts chassis dynamometer tests on standard historic drive cycles and then adjusts the resulting “raw” fuel economy measurements downward. Various publications, such as the forthcoming update to the SAE J1711 recommended practice for PHEV fuel economy testing, address the challenges of applying standard test procedures to PHEVs. This paper explores the issue of how to apply an adjustment method to such “raw” PHEV dynamometer test results in order to more closely estimate the in-use fuel and electricity consumption characteristics of these vehicles. The paper discusses two possible adjustment methods, and evaluates one method by applying it to dynamometer data and comparing the result to in-use fleet data (on an aftermarket conversion PHEV). The paper will also present the methodologies used to collect the data needed for this comparison.

  9. Fuel and lubricant additives from acid treated mixtures of vegetable oil derived amides and esters

    SciTech Connect

    Bonazza, B.R.; Devault, A.N.

    1981-05-26

    Vegetable oils such as corn oil, peanut oil, and soy oil are reacted with polyamines to form a mixture containing amides, imides, half esters, and glycerol with subsequent treatment with a strong acid such as sulfonic acid to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels and lubricants.

  10. Life cycle water footprint analysis for rapeseed derived jet fuel in North Dakota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rapeseed is a promising feedstock source for hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids (HEFA) jet fuel production to address energy security and climate change mitigation. However, concerns have been raised about its impact on water as large scale biofuels production may place pressure on fresh water su...

  11. Biomass-derived Lignin to Jet Fuel Range Hydrocarbons via Aqueous Phase Hydrodeoxygenation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hongliang; Ruan, Hao; Pei, Haisheng; Wang, Huamin; Chen, Xiaowen; Tucker, Melvin P.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-09-14

    A catalytic process, involving the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of the dilute alkali extracted corn stover lignin catalysed by noble metal catalyst (Ru/Al2O3) and acidic zeolite (H+-Y), to produce lignin-substructure-based hydrocarbons (C7-C18), primarily C12-C18 cyclic structure hydrocarbons in the jet fuel range, was demonstrated.

  12. A mineral magnetic investigation into fuel derived deposits from Old Scatness Broch, Shetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewar, I.; Batt, C. M.; Peters, C.

    There is increasing interest in the use of measurements of magnetic mineralogy to answer archaeological questions (e.g. R. Thompson, F. Oldfield, Environmental Magnetism, Allen & Unwin, London, 1986, p. 83; The IRM Quarterly 9(4) (2000) 2; Physics and Chemistry of the Earth (A) 25(5) (2000) 455; Archaeological Prospection 8(4) (2001) 227). The aim of the research presented here is to explain the distinctive magnetic signatures which characterise the fuel ash deposits encountered during excavation at Old Scatness Broch, Shetland, and to attempt to identify fuel sources used at the site by comparison with modern analogues. Archaeological deposits thought to contain fuel ash, from a variety of contexts and periods within the site were sampled and were supplemented by samples of modern fuel sources, including a variety of forms of peat, turf and wood. Magnetic investigations included mass specific magnetic susceptibility, high temperature variation in susceptibility, fractional conversion and laboratory imparted remanences. The archaeological deposits are shown to comprise complex mixtures of minerals with different thermal histories. Whilst most of the archaeological ash deposits were closest in magnetic characteristics to modern turf ash, some appeared to have close parallels with furnace residues obtained from reconstruction iron-smelting. The

  13. Pd/activated carbon sorbents for mid-temperature capture of mercury from coal-derived fuel gas.

    PubMed

    Li, Dekui; Han, Jieru; Han, Lina; Wang, Jiancheng; Chang, Liping

    2014-07-01

    Higher concentrations of Hg can be emitted from coal pyrolysis or gasification than from coal combustion, especially elemental Hg. Highly efficient Hg removal technology from coal-derived fuel gas is thus of great importance. Based on the very excellent Hg removal ability of Pd and the high adsorption abilities of activated carbon (AC) for H₂S and Hg, a series of Pd/AC sorbents was prepared by using pore volume impregnation, and their performance in capturing Hg and H₂S from coal-derived fuel gas was investigated using a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor. The effects of loading amount, reaction temperature and reaction atmosphere on Hg removal from coal-derived fuel gas were studied. The sorbents were characterized by N₂ adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that the efficiency of Hg removal increased with the increasing of Pd loading amount, but the effective utilization rate of the active component Pd decreased significantly at the same time. High temperature had a negative influence on the Hg removal. The efficiency of Hg removal in the N₂-H₂S-H₂-CO-Hg atmosphere (simulated coal gas) was higher than that in N₂-H₂S-Hg and N₂-Hg atmospheres, which showed that H₂ and CO, with their reducing capacity, could benefit promote the removal of Hg. The XPS results suggested that there were two different ways of capturing Hg over sorbents in N₂-H₂S-Hg and N₂-Hg atmospheres.

  14. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre' Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the second six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts and examination of carbon material, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO

  15. Index of the relative importance of fuel efficiency (IFE) in the motor vehicle market. Final report Sep 79-Jan 81

    SciTech Connect

    Hallaq, J.H.; Schaeffer, K.H.; Westenberg, D.

    1981-10-01

    The need for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to understand the importance of vehicle fuel economy in the marketplace has created the requirement for a quantitative measure of consumer attitudes toward fuel efficiency. This paper surveys the currently available measures of consumer attitudes toward fuel efficiency, concludes that they do not adequately meet NHTSA's needs, and develops the Index of the Relative Importance of Fuel Efficiency (IFE) to fill this void.

  16. An Economic Model of Future Coal/Densified Refuse-Derived Fuel Use at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    DCUMETATON PkGEREAD INSTRUCTIONS REPORT DOCUMAEHTAT1OH PAGE DE.Ri C0MsLrT1cGFoRs TBEFORE COMPLETING FORM 1. RPORTMUM--En-12. OVT CC7~j 1 3. ME ENT*S...CATA6OG NUMOER LSSR 97-81 4. TITLE (and Subeitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT a PERIOD COVIRED AN ECONOMIC MODEL OF FUTURE COAL/DENSIFIED Master’s thesis REFUSE...DERIVED FUEL USE AT WRIGHT- 6. PERFORMING OAG. REPORT NUMBER PATTERSON AFB OH 7. AUTMOR(a) U. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMGR(s) Richard G. Fedors, Captain, USAF

  17. Coal-firing sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report {number_sign}7, [April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei-Ping, Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-05-31

    The objectives for this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels project were two-fold. First, the organic compounds tentatively identified as combustion products in the previous report were confirmed by comparing retention times with pure samples. Secondly, a reduced amount of unburned carbon in the fly ash and an oxygen concentration at about 3--6% in the flue gases were achieved by the addition of removable heat exchange tubes in the AFBC system.

  18. Exploring Sustainable Rocket Fuels: [Imidazolyl-Amine-BH2](+)-Cation-Based Ionic Liquids as Replacements for Toxic Hydrazine Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shi; Qi, Xiujuan; Zhang, Wenquan; Liu, Tianlin; Zhang, Qinghua

    2015-12-01

    The application of hypergolic ionic liquids as propellant fuels is a newly emerging area in the fields of chemistry and propulsion science. Herein, a new class of [imidazolyl-amine-BH2](+)-cation-based ionic liquids, which included fuel-rich anions, such as dicyanamide (N(CN)2(-)) and cyanoborohydride (BH3CN(-)) anions, were synthesized and characterized. As expected, all of the ionic liquids exhibited spontaneous combustion upon contact with the oxidizer 100 % HNO3. The densities of these ionic liquids varied from 0.99-1.12 g cm(-3), and the heats of formation, predicted based on Gaussian 09 calculations, were between -707.7 and 241.8 kJ mol(-1). Among them, the salt of compound 5, that is, (1-allyl-1H-imidazole-3-yl)-(trimethylamine)-dihydroboronium dicyanamide, exhibited the lowest viscosity (168 MPa s), good thermal properties (Tg <-70 °C, Td >130 °C), and the shortest ignition-delay time (18 ms) with 100 % HNO3. These ionic fuels, as "green" replacements for toxic hydrazine-derivatives, may have potential applications as bipropellant formulations.

  19. 75 FR 63732 - Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations, Designated Contract Markets, and Swap...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... Review, the Division of Market Oversight (DMO), at 202-418-5569 or lgregory@cftc.gov ; Andrea Musalem... interest in connection with the conduct of business by a swap dealer or a major swap participant with a... they earn significant revenues from this line of business.\\27\\ Such entities may experience substantial...

  20. Looking to the future of new media in health marketing: deriving propositions based on traditional theories.

    PubMed

    Della, Lindsay J; Eroglu, Dogan; Bernhardt, Jay M; Edgerton, Erin; Nall, Janice

    2008-01-01

    Market trend data show that the media marketplace continues to rapidly evolve. Recent research shows that substantial portions of the U.S. media population are "new media" users. Today, more than ever before, media consumers are exposed to multiple media at the same point in time, encouraged to participate in media content generation, and challenged to learn, access, and use the new media that are continually entering the market. These media trends have strong implications for how consumers of health information access, process, and retain health-related knowledge. In this article we review traditional information processing models and theories of interpersonal and mass media access and consumption. We make several theory-based propositions for how traditional information processing and media consumption concepts will function as new media usage continues to increase. These propositions are supported by new media usage data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's entry into the new media market (e.g., podcasting, virtual events, blogging, and webinars). Based on these propositions, we conclude by presenting both opportunities and challenges that public health communicators and marketers will face in the future.

  1. Fuel cell systems program plan: Fiscal year 1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1988-05-01

    The DOE fuel cell program supports high-risk, high-payoff technology development. This provides industry with the capability to develop and apply fuel cell systems that use conventional and alternative hydrocarbon fuels. The principal DOE fuel cell program goal is to develop cost effective, efficient, and environmentally benign fuel cell systems which will operate on coal-based fuels (and dual fuels: coal and gas) in multiple end use sectors. In the near-term, and as an interim step in achieving this goal, distillate fuel and natural fuel cell system technologies will also be developed. This interim step is a logical progression to the more complex coal-fueled systems and provides a marketable gas-fueled technology. The specific near- to mid-term (mid-1990s) objectives are to develop the key fuel cell technology for phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cell systems, and to evaluate and conduct research on more advanced fuel cell concepts that would further improve technical and economic performance. Advanced fuel cell concepts may in the long-term (post 2000) offer potential for use in additional applications such as in the transportation and residential sectors. In these applications oil could be displaced by fuel cell systems using fuels derived from coal.

  2. Rapid Fuel Quality Surveillance Through Chemometric Modeling of Near-Infrared Spectra

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    blended in an F-76 diesel and a Jet JP-5 fuel, at 30%, 50%, and 70% by volume: • Gas -to- Liquid ( GTL ) derived Fischer-Tropsch (FT) syn- thetic jet fuel... liquid fuels necessitates methods to assess the quality and suitability of these fuels for their intended use. Traditionally, this is performed through a...number to NIR spectra has been the most successful with numerous octane analyzers based on this method on the market today. Capillary gas chromatography

  3. Deriving Multiple Benefits from Carbon Market-Based Savanna Fire Management: An Australian Example.

    PubMed

    Russell-Smith, Jeremy; Yates, Cameron P; Edwards, Andrew C; Whitehead, Peter J; Murphy, Brett P; Lawes, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Carbon markets afford potentially useful opportunities for supporting socially and environmentally sustainable land management programs but, to date, have been little applied in globally significant fire-prone savanna settings. While fire is intrinsic to regulating the composition, structure and dynamics of savanna systems, in north Australian savannas frequent and extensive late dry season wildfires incur significant environmental, production and social impacts. Here we assess the potential of market-based savanna burning greenhouse gas emissions abatement and allied carbon biosequestration projects to deliver compatible environmental and broader socio-economic benefits in a highly biodiverse north Australian setting. Drawing on extensive regional ecological knowledge of fire regime effects on fire-vulnerable taxa and communities, we compare three fire regime metrics (seasonal fire frequency, proportion of long-unburnt vegetation, fire patch-size distribution) over a 15-year period for three national parks with an indigenously (Aboriginal) owned and managed market-based emissions abatement enterprise. Our assessment indicates improved fire management outcomes under the emissions abatement program, and mostly little change or declining outcomes on the parks. We attribute improved outcomes and putative biodiversity benefits under the abatement program to enhanced strategic management made possible by the market-based mitigation arrangement. For these same sites we estimate quanta of carbon credits that could be delivered under realistic enhanced fire management practice, using currently available and developing accredited Australian savanna burning accounting methods. We conclude that, in appropriate situations, market-based savanna burning activities can provide transformative climate change mitigation, ecosystem health, and community benefits in northern Australia, and, despite significant challenges, potentially in other fire-prone savanna settings.

  4. Deriving Multiple Benefits from Carbon Market-Based Savanna Fire Management: An Australian Example

    PubMed Central

    Russell-Smith, Jeremy; Yates, Cameron P.; Edwards, Andrew C.; Whitehead, Peter J.; Murphy, Brett P.; Lawes, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon markets afford potentially useful opportunities for supporting socially and environmentally sustainable land management programs but, to date, have been little applied in globally significant fire-prone savanna settings. While fire is intrinsic to regulating the composition, structure and dynamics of savanna systems, in north Australian savannas frequent and extensive late dry season wildfires incur significant environmental, production and social impacts. Here we assess the potential of market-based savanna burning greenhouse gas emissions abatement and allied carbon biosequestration projects to deliver compatible environmental and broader socio-economic benefits in a highly biodiverse north Australian setting. Drawing on extensive regional ecological knowledge of fire regime effects on fire-vulnerable taxa and communities, we compare three fire regime metrics (seasonal fire frequency, proportion of long-unburnt vegetation, fire patch-size distribution) over a 15-year period for three national parks with an indigenously (Aboriginal) owned and managed market-based emissions abatement enterprise. Our assessment indicates improved fire management outcomes under the emissions abatement program, and mostly little change or declining outcomes on the parks. We attribute improved outcomes and putative biodiversity benefits under the abatement program to enhanced strategic management made possible by the market-based mitigation arrangement. For these same sites we estimate quanta of carbon credits that could be delivered under realistic enhanced fire management practice, using currently available and developing accredited Australian savanna burning accounting methods. We conclude that, in appropriate situations, market-based savanna burning activities can provide transformative climate change mitigation, ecosystem health, and community benefits in northern Australia, and, despite significant challenges, potentially in other fire-prone savanna settings. PMID:26630453

  5. Preface to the Issue: Transformations of Biomass and its Derivatives to Fuels and Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Hongfei; Biddinger, Elizabeth J.; Mukarakate, Calvin; Nimlos, Mark; Liu, Haichao

    2016-07-01

    The research activities on biofuels and bio-products have been growing steadily regardless the volatility of the crude oil price in the past decade. The major driver is the imperative need of tackling the challenge of climate change. With the low carbon footprints, fuels and chemicals produced from renewable biomass resources, as the replacement of their petroleum counterparts, can contribute significantly on carbon emission reduction.

  6. Preface to the Issue: Transformations of Biomass and its Derivatives to Fuels and Chemicals

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Hongfei; Biddinger, Elizabeth J.; Mukarakate, Calvin; ...

    2016-07-01

    The research activities on biofuels and bio-products have been growing steadily regardless the volatility of the crude oil price in the past decade. The major driver is the imperative need of tackling the challenge of climate change. With the low carbon footprints, fuels and chemicals produced from renewable biomass resources, as the replacement of their petroleum counterparts, can contribute significantly on carbon emission reduction.

  7. High-Temperature Desulfurization of Heavy Fuel-Derived Reformate Gas Streams for SOFC Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Surgenor, Angela D.

    2007-01-01

    Desulfurization of the hot reformate gas produced by catalytic partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of heavy fuels, such as JP-8 and jet fuels, is required prior to using the gas in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Development of suitable sorbent materials involves the identification of sorbents with favorable sulfidation equilibria, good kinetics, and high structural stability and regenerability at the SOFC operating temperatures (650 to 800 C). Over the last two decades, a major barrier to the development of regenerable desulfurization sorbents has been the gradual loss of sorbent performance in cyclic sulfidation and regeneration at such high temperatures. Mixed oxide compositions based on ceria were examined in this work as regenerable sorbents in simulated reformate gas mixtures and temperatures greater than 650 C. Regeneration was carried out with dilute oxygen streams. We have shown that under oxidative regeneration conditions, high regeneration space velocities (greater than 80,000 h(sup -1)) can be used to suppress sulfate formation and shorten the total time required for sorbent regeneration. A major finding of this work is that the surface of ceria and lanthanan sorbents can be sulfided and regenerated completely, independent of the underlying bulk sorbent. This is due to reversible adsorption of H2S on the surface of these sorbents even at temperatures as high as 800 C. La-rich cerium oxide formulations are excellent for application to regenerative H2S removal from reformate gas streams at 650 to 800 C. These results create new opportunities for compact sorber/regenerator reactor designs to meet the requirements of solid oxide fuel cell systems at any scale.

  8. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal-Derived Liquids. Volume 8. Heteroatom Removal by Catalytic Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    distillation profiles of JP-4, JP-8, and GPGP tar oil stream ....................................... 7 2 Autoclave system used during tar oil upgrading...Table Title Page 1 Properties of JP-4, JP-8, and JP-8X aviation turbine fuels .... 3 2 Results of the elemental analyses of the GPGP liquid by...product streams ............................................ 4 3 Proton and carbon-13 NMR data for GPGP liquid streams ......... 5 4 Results of ASTM D86

  9. Possible Effects of the Department of Defense Acting as a Buyer on the Derivatives Futures Market

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    realized surplus or deficit on 30 September, the end of the FY. These gains or losses (within reason) are absorbed by the fund each year and then passed...Information Administration FY Fiscal Year FYDP Future Year Defense Plan GAO Government Accountability Office IDIQ Indefinite Delivery...To deal with unforeseen increases, other programs within a budget tend to get reduced or cut all together to supplement the fuel expense deficit

  10. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1997-11-30

    This project was designed to evaluate the combustion performance of and emissions from a fluidized bed combustor during the combustion of mixtures of high sulfur and/or high chlorine coals and municipal solid waste (MSW). The project included four major tasks, which were as follows: (1) Selection, acquisition, and characterization of raw materials for fuels and the determination of combustion profiles of combination fuels using thermal analytical techniques; (2) Studies of the mechanisms for the formation of chlorinated organics during the combustion of MSW using a tube furnace; (3) Investigation of the effect of sulfur species on the formation of chlorinated organics; and (4) Examination of the combustion performance of combination fuels in a laboratory scale fluidized bed combustor. Several kinds of coals and the major combustible components of the MSW, including PVC, newspaper, and cellulose were tested in this project. Coals with a wide range of sulfur and chlorine contents were used. TGA/MS/FTIR analyses were performed on the raw materials and their blends. The possible mechanism for the formation of chlorinated organics during combustion was investigated by conducting a series of experiments in a tube furnace. The effect of sulfur dioxide on the formation of molecular chlorine during combustion processes was examined in this study.

  11. Characterization of char derived from various types of solid wastes from the standpoint of fuel recovery and pretreatment before landfilling.

    PubMed

    Hwang, I H; Matsuto, T; Tanaka, N; Sasaki, Y; Tanaami, K

    2007-01-01

    Carbonization is a kind of pyrolysis process to produce char from organic materials under an inert atmosphere. In this work, chars derived from various solid wastes were characterized from the standpoint of fuel recovery and pretreatment of waste before landfilling. Sixteen kinds of municipal and industrial solid wastes such as residential combustible wastes, non-combustible wastes, bulky wastes, construction and demolition wastes, auto shredder residue, and sludges were carbonized at 500 degrees C for 1h under nitrogen atmosphere. In order to evaluate the quality of char as fuel, proximate analysis and heating value were examined. The composition of raw waste had a significant influence on the quality of produced char. The higher the ratio of woody biomass in waste, the higher heating value of char produced. Moreover, an equation to estimate heating value of char was developed by using the weight fraction of fixed carbon and volatile matter in char. De-ashing and chlorine removal were performed to improve the quality of char. The pulverization and sieving method seems to be effective for separation of incombustibles such as metal rather than ash. Most char met a 0.5 wt% chlorine criterion for utilization as fuel in a shaft blast furnace after it was subjected to repeated water-washing. Carbonization could remove a considerable amount of organic matter from raw waste. In addition, the leaching of heavy metals such as chrome, cadmium, and lead appears to be significantly suppressed by carbonization regardless of the type of raw waste. From these results, carbonization could be considered as a pretreatment method for waste before landfilling, as well as for fuel recovery.

  12. Characterization of char derived from various types of solid wastes from the standpoint of fuel recovery and pretreatment before landfilling

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, I.H.; Matsuto, T. Tanaka, N.; Sasaki, Y.; Tanaami, K.

    2007-07-01

    Carbonization is a kind of pyrolysis process to produce char from organic materials under an inert atmosphere. In this work, chars derived from various solid wastes were characterized from the standpoint of fuel recovery and pretreatment of waste before landfilling. Sixteen kinds of municipal and industrial solid wastes such as residential combustible wastes, non-combustible wastes, bulky wastes, construction and demolition wastes, auto shredder residue, and sludges were carbonized at 500 deg. C for 1 h under nitrogen atmosphere. In order to evaluate the quality of char as fuel, proximate analysis and heating value were examined. The composition of raw waste had a significant influence on the quality of produced char. The higher the ratio of woody biomass in waste, the higher heating value of char produced. Moreover, an equation to estimate heating value of char was developed by using the weight fraction of fixed carbon and volatile matter in char. De-ashing and chlorine removal were performed to improve the quality of char. The pulverization and sieving method seems to be effective for separation of incombustibles such as metal rather than ash. Most char met a 0.5 wt% chlorine criterion for utilization as fuel in a shaft blast furnace after it was subjected to repeated water-washing. Carbonization could remove a considerable amount of organic matter from raw waste. In addition, the leaching of heavy metals such as chrome, cadmium, and lead appears to be significantly suppressed by carbonization regardless of the type of raw waste. From these results, carbonization could be considered as a pretreatment method for waste before landfilling, as well as for fuel recovery.

  13. Zinc isotopic composition of particulate matter generated during the combustion of coal and coal + tire-derived fuels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borrok, D.M.; Gieré, R.; Ren, M.; Landa, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric Zn emissions from the burning of coal and tire-derived fuel (TDF) for power generation can be considerable. In an effort to lay the foundation for tracking these contributions, we evaluated the Zn isotopes of coal, a mixture of 95 wt % coal + 5 wt % TDF, and the particulate matter (PM) derived from their combustion in a power-generating plant. The average Zn concentrations and δ(66)Zn were 36 mg/kg and 183 mg/kg and +0.24‰ and +0.13‰ for the coal and coal + TDF, respectively. The δ(66)Zn of the PM sequestered in the cyclone-type mechanical separator was the lightest measured, -0.48‰ for coal and -0.81‰ for coal+TDF. The δ(66)Zn of the PM from the electrostatic precipitator showed a slight enrichment in the heavier Zn isotopes relative to the starting material. PM collected from the stack had the heaviest δ(66)Zn in the system, +0.63‰ and +0.50‰ for the coal and coal + TDF, respectively. Initial fractionation during the generation of a Zn-rich vapor is followed by temperature-dependent fractionation as Zn condenses onto the PM. The isotopic changes of the two fuel types are similar, suggesting that their inherent chemical differences have only a secondary impact on the isotopic fractionation process.

  14. Zinc isotopic composition of particulate matter generated during the combustion of coal and coal + tire-derived fuels.

    PubMed

    Borrok, David M; Gieré, Reto; Ren, Minghua; Landa, Edward R

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric Zn emissions from the burning of coal and tire-derived fuel (TDF) for power generation can be considerable. In an effort to lay the foundation for tracking these contributions, we evaluated the Zn isotopes of coal, a mixture of 95 wt % coal + 5 wt % TDF, and the particulate matter (PM) derived from their combustion in a power-generating plant. The average Zn concentrations and δ(66)Zn were 36 mg/kg and 183 mg/kg and +0.24‰ and +0.13‰ for the coal and coal + TDF, respectively. The δ(66)Zn of the PM sequestered in the cyclone-type mechanical separator was the lightest measured, -0.48‰ for coal and -0.81‰ for coal+TDF. The δ(66)Zn of the PM from the electrostatic precipitator showed a slight enrichment in the heavier Zn isotopes relative to the starting material. PM collected from the stack had the heaviest δ(66)Zn in the system, +0.63‰ and +0.50‰ for the coal and coal + TDF, respectively. Initial fractionation during the generation of a Zn-rich vapor is followed by temperature-dependent fractionation as Zn condenses onto the PM. The isotopic changes of the two fuel types are similar, suggesting that their inherent chemical differences have only a secondary impact on the isotopic fractionation process.

  15. Research and evaluation of biomass resources/conversion/utilization systems (market/experimental analysis for development of a data base for a fuels from biomass model. Volume I. Biomass allocation model. Technical progress report for the period ending September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Y.K.; Chen, H.T.; Helm, R.W.; Nelson, E.T.; Shields K.J.

    1980-01-01

    A biomass allocation model has been developed to show the most profitable combination of biomass feedstocks thermochemical conversion processes, and fuel products to serve the seasonal conditions in a regional market. This optimization model provides a tool for quickly calculating the most profitable biomass missions from a large number of potential biomass missions. Other components of the system serve as a convenient storage and retrieval mechanism for biomass marketing and thermochemical conversion processing data. The system can be accessed through the use of a computer terminal, or it could be adapted to a portable micro-processor. A User's Manual for the system has been included in Appendix A of the report. The validity of any biomass allocation solution provided by the allocation model is dependent on the accuracy of the data base. The initial data base was constructed from values obtained from the literature, and, consequently, as more current thermochemical conversion processing and manufacturing costs and efficiencies become available, the data base should be revised. Biomass derived fuels included in the data base are the following: medium Btu gas low Btu gas, substitute natural gas, ammonia, methanol, electricity, gasoline, and fuel oil. The market sectors served by the fuels include: residential, electric utility, chemical (industrial), and transportation. Regional/seasonal costs and availabilities and heating values for 61 woody and non-woody biomass species are included. The study has included four regions in the United States which were selected because there was both an availability of biomass and a commercial demand for the derived fuels: Region I: NY, WV, PA; Region II: GA, AL, MS; Region III: IN, IL, IA; and Region IV: OR, WA.

  16. Alternate-Fueled Combustion-Sector Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet rapidly growing demand for fuel, as well as address environmental concerns, the aviation industry has been testing alternate fuels for performance and technical usability in commercial and military aircraft. Currently, alternate aviation fuels must satisfy MIL-DTL- 83133F(2008) (military) or ASTM D 7566- Annex(2011) (commercial) standards and are termed drop-in fuel replacements. Fuel blends of up to 50% alternative fuel blended with petroleum (JP-8), which have become a practical alternative, are individually certified on the market. In order to make alternate fuels (and blends) a viable option for aviation, the fuel must be able to perform at a similar or higher level than traditional petroleum fuel. They also attempt to curb harmful emissions, and therefore a truly effective alternate fuel would emit at or under the level of currently used fuel. This paper analyzes data from gaseous and particulate emissions of an aircraft combustor sector. The data were evaluated at various inlet conditions, including variation in pressure and temperature, fuel-to-air ratios, and percent composition of alternate fuel. Traditional JP-8+100 data were taken as a baseline, and blends of JP- 8+100 with synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene (SPK) fuel (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) were used for comparison. Gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as flame luminosity, were assessed for differences between FT composition of 0%, 50%, and 100%. The data showed that SPK fuel (a FT-derived fuel) had slightly lower harmful gaseous emissions, and smoke number information corroborated the hypothesis that SPK-FT fuels are cleaner burning fuels.

  17. Partial Oxidation Gas Turbine for Power and Hydrogen Co-Production from Coal-Derived Fuel in Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2009-06-30

    , pressures, and volumetric flows practically identical. In POGT mode, the turbine specific power (turbine net power per lb mass flow from expander exhaust) is twice the value of the onventional turbine. POGT based IGCC plant conceptual design was developed and major components have been identified. Fuel flexible fluid bed gasifier, and novel POGT unit are the key components of the 100 MW IGCC plant for co producing electricity, hydrogen and/or yngas. Plant performances were calculated for bituminous coal and oxygen blown versions. Various POGT based, natural gas fueled systems for production of electricity only, coproduction of electricity and hydrogen, and co production of electricity and syngas for gas to liquid and hemical processes were developed and evaluated. Performance calculations for several versions of these systems were conducted. 64.6 % LHV efficiency for fuel to electricity in combined cycle was achieved. Such a high efficiency arise from using of syngas from POGT exhaust s a fuel that can provide required temperature level for superheated steam generation in HRSG, as well as combustion air preheating. Studies of POGT materials and combustion instabilities in POR were conducted and results reported. Preliminary market assessment was performed, and recommendations for POGT systems applications in oil industry were defined. POGT technology is ready to proceed to the engineering prototype stage, which is recommended.

  18. Combustion studies of coal-derived solid fuels. Part IV. Correlation of ignition temperatures from thermogravimetry and free-floating experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; DeBarr, J.A.; Chen, W.T.

    1992-01-01

    The usefulness of TG as an efficient and practical method to characterize the combustion properties of fuels used in large-scale combustors is of considerable interest. Relative ignition temperatures of a lignite, an anthracite, a bituminous coal and three chars derived from this coal were measured by a free-floating technique. These temperatures were correlated with those estimated from TG burning profiles of the fuels. ?? 1992.

  19. Delta13C values of grasses as a novel indicator of pollution by fossil-fuel-derived greenhouse gas CO2 in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Lichtfouse, Eric; Lichtfouse, Michel; Jaffrézic, Anne

    2003-01-01

    A novel fossil fuel pollution indicator based on the 13C/12C isotopic composition of plants has been designed. This bioindicator is a promising tool for future mapping of the sequestration of fossil fuel CO2 into urban vegetation. Theoretically, plants growing in fossil-fuel-CO2-contaminated areas, such as major cities, industrial centers, and highway borders, should assimilate a mixture of global atmospheric CO2 of delta13C value of -8.02 per thousand and of fossil fuel CO2 of average delta13C value of -27.28 per thousand. This isotopic difference should, thus, be recorded in plant carbon. Indeed, this study reveals that grasses growing near a major highway in Paris, France, have strikingly depleted delta13C values, averaging at -35.08 per thousand, versus rural grasses that show an average delta13C value of -30.59 per thousand. A simple mixing model was used to calculate the contributions of fossil-fuel-derived CO2 to the plant tissue. Calculation based on contaminated and noncontaminated isotopic end members shows that urban grasses assimilate up to 29.1% of fossil-fuel-CO2-derived carbon in their tissues. The 13C isotopic composition of grasses thus represents a promising new tool for the study of the impact of fossil fuel CO2 in major cities.

  20. Flame blowout and pollutant emissions in vitiated combustion of conventional and bio-derived fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhupinder

    The widening gap between the demand and supply of fossil fuels has catalyzed the exploration of alternative sources of energy. Interest in the power, water extraction and refrigeration (PoWER) cycle, proposed by the University of Florida, as well as the desirability of using biofuels in distributed generation systems, has motivated the exploration of biofuel vitiated combustion. The PoWER cycle is a novel engine cycle concept that utilizes vitiation of the air stream with externally-cooled recirculated exhaust gases at an intermediate pressure in a semi-closed cycle (SCC) loop, lowering the overall temperature of combustion. It has several advantages including fuel flexibility, reduced air flow, lower flame temperature, compactness, high efficiency at full and part load, and low emissions. Since the core engine air stream is vitiated with the externally cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) stream, there is an inherent reduction in the combustion stability for a PoWER engine. The effect of EGR flow and temperature on combustion blowout stability and emissions during vitiated biofuel combustion has been characterized. The vitiated combustion performance of biofuels methyl butanoate, dimethyl ether, and ethanol have been compared with n-heptane, and varying compositions of syngas with methane fuel. In addition, at high levels of EGR a sharp reduction in the flame luminosity has been observed in our experimental tests, indicating the onset of flameless combustion. This drop in luminosity may be a result of inhibition of processes leading to the formation of radiative soot particles. One of the objectives of this study is finding the effect of EGR on soot formation, with the ultimate objective of being able to predict the boundaries of flameless combustion. Detailed chemical kinetic simulations were performed using a constant-pressure continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) network model developed using the Cantera combustion code, implemented in C++. Results have

  1. Electrochemical Coupling of Biomass-Derived Acids: New C8 Platforms for Renewable Polymers and Fuels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Linglin; Mascal, Mark; Farmer, Thomas J; Arnaud, Sacha Pérocheau; Wong Chang, Maria-Angelica

    2017-01-10

    Electrolysis of biomass-derived carbonyl compounds is an alternative to condensation chemistry for supplying products with chain length >C6 for biofuels and renewable materials production. Kolbe coupling of biomass-derived levulinic acid is used to obtain 2,7-octanedione, a new platform molecule only two low process-intensity steps removed from raw biomass. Hydrogenation to 2,7-octanediol provides a chiral secondary diol largely unknown to polymer chemistry, whereas intramolecular aldol condensation followed by hydrogenation yields branched cycloalkanes suitable for use as high-octane, cellulosic gasoline. Analogous electrolysis of an itaconic acid-derived methylsuccinic monoester yields a chiral 2,5-dimethyladipic acid diester, another underutilized monomer owing to lack of availability.

  2. Electrochemical Coupling of Biomass‐Derived Acids: New C8 Platforms for Renewable Polymers and Fuels

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Linglin; Farmer, Thomas J.; Arnaud, Sacha Pérocheau; Wong Chang, Maria‐Angelica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Electrolysis of biomass‐derived carbonyl compounds is an alternative to condensation chemistry for supplying products with chain length >C6 for biofuels and renewable materials production. Kolbe coupling of biomass‐derived levulinic acid is used to obtain 2,7‐octanedione, a new platform molecule only two low process‐intensity steps removed from raw biomass. Hydrogenation to 2,7‐octanediol provides a chiral secondary diol largely unknown to polymer chemistry, whereas intramolecular aldol condensation followed by hydrogenation yields branched cycloalkanes suitable for use as high‐octane, cellulosic gasoline. Analogous electrolysis of an itaconic acid‐derived methylsuccinic monoester yields a chiral 2,5‐dimethyladipic acid diester, another underutilized monomer owing to lack of availability. PMID:27873475

  3. DESIGNING AND OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2004-06-01

    During the period July 1, 2000-March 31, 2004, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) conducted an extensive demonstration of woody biomass cofiring at its Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. This demonstration, cofunded by USDOE and Allegheny, and supported by the Biomass Interest Group (BIG) of EPRI, evaluated the impacts of sawdust cofiring in both cyclone boilers and tangentially-fired pulverized coal boilers. The cofiring in the cyclone boiler--Willow Island Generating Station Unit No.2--evaluated the impacts of sawdust alone, and sawdust blended with tire-derived fuel. The biomass was blended with the coal on its way to the combustion system. The cofiring in the pulverized coal boiler--Albright Generating Station--evaluated the impact of cofiring on emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) when the sawdust was injected separately into the furnace. The demonstration of woody biomass cofiring involved design, construction, and testing at each site. The results addressed impacts associated with operational issues--capacity, efficiency, and operability--as well as formation and control of airborne emissions such as NO{sub x}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}2), opacity, and mercury. The results of this extensive program are detailed in this report.

  4. Effects of coal-derived trace species on the performance of carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pigeaud, A. ); Wilemski, G. )

    1992-01-01

    NH{sub 3} Cd, Hg, and Sn have no noticeable effects on carbonate fuel cell performance. Zn and Pb (the latter in the presence of Se) had minor effects, while the interactions of H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se and As are more significant. Because H{sub 2}S had already been extensively investigated earlier by various groups, the focus in this study was centered on the latter three elements. It appears that HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, and As need to be limited to sub-ppM levels in a manner similar to H{sub 2}S. These findings, of course, should be considered qualitative because they were obtained in single, isothermally operated, bench-sale cells, and are applicable for individual contaminants.

  5. Effects of coal-derived trace species on the performance of carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pigeaud, A.; Wilemski, G.

    1992-09-01

    NH{sub 3} Cd, Hg, and Sn have no noticeable effects on carbonate fuel cell performance. Zn and Pb (the latter in the presence of Se) had minor effects, while the interactions of H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se and As are more significant. Because H{sub 2}S had already been extensively investigated earlier by various groups, the focus in this study was centered on the latter three elements. It appears that HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, and As need to be limited to sub-ppM levels in a manner similar to H{sub 2}S. These findings, of course, should be considered qualitative because they were obtained in single, isothermally operated, bench-sale cells, and are applicable for individual contaminants.

  6. Advancements in rationally designed PGM-free fuel cell catalysts derived from metal–organic frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Barkholtz, Heather M.; Liu, Di -Jia

    2016-11-14

    Over the past several years, metal-organic framework (MOF)-derived platinum group metal free (PGM-free) electrocatalysts have gained considerable attention due to their high efficiency and low cost as potential replacement for platinum in catalyzing oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In this review, we summarize the recent advancements in design, synthesis and characterization of MOF-derived ORR catalysts and their performances in acidic and alkaline media. As a result, we also discuss the key challenges such as durability and activity enhancement critical in moving forward this emerging electrocatalyst science.

  7. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report No. 5, [October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1995-11-30

    Studies involving the tubular furnace are in the process of identifying the ideal experimental coal-to-refuse derived fuel(RDF) ratio for use in the AFBC system. A series of experiments with this furnace has been performed to determine the possible chemical pathway for formation of chlorinated organic compounds during the combustion of various RDF sources. Phenol and chlorine appear to be likely reactants necessary for the formation of these compounds. The main goal of these experiment is to determine the exact experimental conditions for the formation of chlorinated organic compounds, as well as methods to inhibit their development. Work on the fluidized bed combustor has involved five combustion runs, in which a combustion efficiency of greater than 96% and with a consistent CO{sub 2} concentration of approximately 13% was obtained. Modifications responsible for these improvements include the addition of the underbed fuel feed system and revision of the flue gas sampling system. New methods of determining combustion efficiency and percentage of SO{sub 2} capture using TG techniques to analyze combustion products are being developed. The current outlook using this TGA/FTIR method is very promising, since previously obscured reactions are being studied. the analysis of combustion products is revealing a more complete picture of the combustion process within the AFBC system.

  8. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.; Mittal, A.; Mohagheghi, A.; Johnson, D. K.

    2014-04-01

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. Cupriavidus necator is the microorganism that has been most extensively studied and used for PHB production on an industrial scale; However the substrates used for producing PHB are mainly fructose, glucose, sucrose, fatty acids, glycerol, etc., which are expensive. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified slurry from pretreated corn stover. The strain was first investigated in shake flasks for its ability to utilize glucose, xylose and acetate. In addition, the strain was also grown on pretreated lignocellulose hydrolyzate slurry and evaluated in terms of cell growth, sugar utilization, PHB accumulation, etc. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by the pretreatment and saccharification process of biomass, was also studied.

  9. Particulate Emissions from a Stationary Engine Fueled with Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel and Waste-Cooking-Oil-Derived Biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Betha, Raghu; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2011-10-01

    Stationary diesel engines, especially diesel generators, are increasingly being used in both developing countries and developed countries because of increased power demand. Emissions from such engines can have adverse effects on the environment and public health. In this study, particulate emissions from a domestic stationary diesel generator running on ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) and biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil were characterized for different load conditions. Results indicated a reduction in particulate matter (PM) mass and number emissions while switching diesel to biodiesel. With increase in engine load, it was observed that particle mass increased, although total particle counts decreased for all the fuels. The reduction in total number concentration at higher loads was, however, dependent on percentage of biodiesel in the diesel-biodiesel blend. For pure biodiesel (B100), the reduction in PM emissions for full load compared to idle mode was around 9%, whereas for ULSD the reduction was 26%. A large fraction of ultrafine particles (UFPs) was found in the emissions from biodiesel compared to ULSD. Nearly 90% of total particle concentration in biodiesel emissions comprised ultrafine particles. Particle peak diameter shifted from a smaller to a lower diameter with increase in biodiesel percentage in the fuel mixture. [Box: see text].

  10. Particulate emissions from a stationary engine fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel and waste-cooking-oil-derived biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Betha, Raghu; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2011-10-01

    Stationary diesel engines, especially diesel generators, are increasingly being used in both developing countries and developed countries because of increased power demand. Emissions from such engines can have adverse effects on the environment and public health. In this study, particulate emissions from a domestic stationary diesel generator running on ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) and biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil were characterized for different load conditions. Results indicated a reduction in particulate matter (PM) mass and number emissions while switching diesel to biodiesel. With increase in engine load, it was observed that particle mass increased, although total particle counts decreased for all the fuels. The reduction in total number concentration at higher loads was, however, dependent on percentage of biodiesel in the diesel-biodiesel blend. For pure biodiesel (B100), the reduction in PM emissions for full load compared to idle mode was around 9%, whereas for ULSD the reduction was 26%. A large fraction of ultrafine particles (UFPs) was found in the emissions from biodiesel compared to ULSD. Nearly 90% of total particle concentration in biodiesel emissions comprised ultrafine particles. Particle peak diameter shifted from a smaller to a lower diameter with increase in biodiesel percentage in the fuel mixture.

  11. Fuel dehazers

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Hazy fuels can be caused by the emulsification of water into the fuel during refining, blending, or transportation operations. Detergent additive packages used in gasoline tend to emulsify water into the fuel. Fuels containing water haze can cause corrosion and contamination, and support microbiological growth. This results in problems. As the result of these problems, refiners, marketers, and product pipeline companies customarily have haze specifications. The haze specification may be a specific maximum water content or simply ''bright and clear'' at a specified temperature.

  12. Chemicals derived from pyrolysis bio-oils as antioxidants in fuels and lubricants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Softwood and hardwood lignins and hardwood were pyrolyzed to produce bio-oils to produce lignin-derived bio-oils of which phenols were the major component. These bio-oils were extracted with alkali to yield a range of lignin-related phenols having molecular weights (MWs) from 110 to 344. When tested...

  13. Mathematics, Pricing, Market Risk Management and Trading Strategies for Financial Derivatives (3/3)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    IR and Long Term FX Derivatives - Stochastic Martingales for IR Curves - Implied Volatility Along the IR Curve - IR Libor Bonds - Vanilla IR Options: Caplets, Floorlets - Long Term FX Options: Interaction of Stochastic FX and Stochastic IR - $-Yen Bermudan Power Reverse Duals

  14. Mathematics, Pricing, Market Risk Management and Trading Strategies for Financial Derivatives (3/3)

    SciTech Connect

    2009-11-06

    IR and Long Term FX Derivatives - Stochastic Martingales for IR Curves - Implied Volatility Along the IR Curve - IR Libor Bonds - Vanilla IR Options: Caplets, Floorlets - Long Term FX Options: Interaction of Stochastic FX and Stochastic IR - $-Yen Bermudan Power Reverse Duals

  15. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 1: Executive summary. [using coal or coal derived fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corman, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A data base for the comparison of advanced energy conversion systems for utility applications using coal or coal-derived fuels was developed. Estimates of power plant performance (efficiency), capital cost, cost of electricity, natural resource requirements, and environmental intrusion characteristics were made for ten advanced conversion systems. Emphasis was on the energy conversion system in the context of a base loaded utility power plant. All power plant concepts were premised on meeting emission standard requirements. A steam power plant (3500 psig, 1000 F) with a conventional coal-burning furnace-boiler was analyzed as a basis for comparison. Combined cycle gas/steam turbine system results indicated competitive efficiency and a lower cost of electricity compared to the reference steam plant. The Open-Cycle MHD system results indicated the potential for significantly higher efficiency than the reference steam plant but with a higher cost of electricity.

  16. Oligomerization of Biomass-Derived Light Olefins to Liquid Fuel: Effect of Alkali Treatment of HZSM-5 Catalyst

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Xiaoxing; Hu, Xiaoyan; Song, Chunshan; ...

    2017-09-27

    As a part of a new approach to convert biomass to liquid fuels, we investigated the effects of alkali treatment on the property and performance of HZSM-5 for oligomerization of biomass-derived ethylene under atmospheric pressure. The characterization results showed that alkali treatment led to the increase in the total and mesopore volumes, but decrease in the surface area and micropore volume. Furthermore, when NaOH concentration was low (< 0.5 M), the ZSM-5 structure was largely preserved with the increase in the mesopores and acidity, while higher NaOH concentration can severely destroy the zeolite structure, resulting in a significant reduction inmore » the micropores and acidity. The ethylene oligomerization results showed that not only the ethylene conversion and the liquid yield increased, but also the catalyst stability was improved after proper NaOH treatment. Finally, we discussed the relationship between the structure and performance« less

  17. Marketable products from gypsum, a coal combustion byproduct derived from a wet flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, M.I.M.; Ghiassi, K.; Lytle, J.M.; Chou, S.J.; Banerjee, D.D.

    1998-04-01

    For two years the authors have been developing a process to produce two marketable products, ammonium sulfate fertilizer and precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC), from wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-product gypsum. Phase I of the project focused on the process for converting FGD-gypsum to ammonium sulfate fertilizer with PCC produced as a by-product during the conversion. Early cost estimates suggested that the process was economically feasible when granular size ammonium sulfate crystals were produced. However, sale of the by-product PCC for high-value commercial application could further improve the economics of the process. The results of our evaluation of the market potential of the PCC by-product are reported in this paper. The most significant attributes of carbonate fillers that determine their usefulness in industry are particle size (i.e. fineness) and shape, whiteness (brightness), and mineralogical and chemical purity. The PCC produced from the FGD gypsum obtained from the Abbott Power Plant at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign campus are pure calcite with a CaCO{sub 3} content greater than 98%, 3% higher than the minimum requirement of 95%. However, the size, shape, and brightness of the PCC particles are suitable only for certain applications. Impurities in the gypsum from Abbott power plant influence the whiteness of the PCC products. Test results suggested that, to obtain gypsum that is pure enough to produce a high whiteness PCC for high value commercial applications, limestone with minimum color impurities should be used during the FGD process. Alternatively, purification procedures to obtain the desired whiteness of the FGD-gypsum can be used. Further improvement in the overall qualities of the PCC products should lead to a product that is adequate for high-value paper applications.

  18. Marketable products from gypsum, a coal combustion byproduct derived from a wet flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, M.I.M.; Ghiassi, K.; Lytle, J.M.; Chou, S.J.; Banerjee, D.D.

    1998-07-01

    For two years the authors have been developing a process to produce two marketable products, ammonium sulfate fertilizer and precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC), from wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-product gypsum. Phase 1 of the project focused on the process for converting FGD-gypsum to ammonium sulfate fertilizer with PCC produced as a by-product during the conversion. Early cost estimates suggested that the process was economically feasible when granular size ammonium sulfate crystals were produced. However, sale of the by-product PCC for high-value commercial application could further improve the economics of the process. The results of their evaluation of the market potential of the PCC by-product are reported in this paper. The most significant attributes of carbonate fillers that determine their usefulness in industry are particle size (i.e, fineness) and shape, whiteness (brightness), and mineralogical and chemical purity. The PCC produced from the FGD dypsum obtained from the Abbott Power Plant at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign campus are pure calcite with a CaCO{sub 3} content greater than 98%, 3% higher than the minimum requirement of 95%. However, the size, shape, and brightness of the PCC particles are suitable only for certain applications. Impurities in the gypsum from Abbott power plant influence the whiteness of the PCC products. Test results suggested that, to obtain gypsum that is pure enough to produce a high whiteness PCC for high value commercial applications, limestone with minimum color impurities should be used during the FGD process. Alternatively, purification procedures to obtain the desired whiteness of the FGD-gypsum can be used. Further improvement in the overall qualities of the PCC products should lead to a product that is adequate for high-value paper applications.

  19. Self-reported Impacts of LED Lighting Technology Compared to Fuel-based Lighting on Night Market Business Prosperity in Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan; Mumbi, Maina

    2009-02-11

    The notion of"productive use" is often invoked in discussions about whether new technologies improve productivity or otherwise enhance commerce in developing-country contexts. It an elusive concept,especially when quantitative measures are sought. Improved and more energy efficient illumination systems for off-gridapplication--the focus of the Lumina Project--provide a case in which a significant productivity benefit can be imagined, given the importance of light to the successful performance of many tasks, and the very low quality of baseline illumination provided by flame-based source. This Research Note summarizes self-reported quantitative and qualitative impacts of switching to LED lighting technology on the prosperity of night-market business owners and operators. The information was gathered in the context of our 2008 market testing field work in Kenya?s Rift Valley Province, which was performed in the towns of Maai Mahiu and Karagita by Arne Jacobson, Kristen Radecsky, Peter Johnstone, Maina Mumbi, and others. Maai Mahiu is a crossroads town; provision of services to travelers and freight carriers is a primary income source for the residents. In contrast, the primary income for Karagita's residents is from work in the large, factory style flower farms on the eastern shores of Lake Naivasha that specialize in producing cut flowers for export to the European market. According to residents, both towns had populations of 6,000 to 8,000 people in June 2008. We focused on quantifying the economics of fuel-based and LED lighting technology in the context of business use by night market vendors and shop keepers. Our research activities with the business owners and operators included baseline measurement of their fuel-based lighting use, an initial survey, offering for sale data logger equipped rechargeable LED lamps, monitoring the adoption of the LED lamps, and a follow-up survey.

  20. Wood fuel preparation

    Treesearch

    L. H. Reineke

    1965-01-01

    This report gives information on the preparation of wood fuel from wood residues and other wood raw materials. Types of wood fuel discussed are cordwood, stovewood, slabwood, kindling, chips, hogged fuel, sawdust and shavings, bark, charcoal, alcohol, and briquets. Related information is given on types of machinery for preparing wood fuel and on possible markets for...

  1. Estimating the early household market for light-duty hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles and other "Mobile Energy" innovations in California: A constraints analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Brett D.; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    Facing stiff competition from conventional and gasoline-hybrid vehicles, the commercialization prospects for hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles (H 2FCVs) are uncertain. Starting from the premise that new consumer value must drive their adoption, early markets for H 2FCVs are explored in the context of a group of promising opportunities collectively called mobile energy (ME) innovation. An estimate of the initial market potential for ME-enabled vehicles is produced by applying various constraints that eliminate unlikely households from consideration for early adoption of H 2FCVs and other ME technologies (such as plug-in hybrids). Currently 5.2 million of 33.9 million Californians live in households pre-adapted to ME-enabled vehicles, 3.9 million if natural gas is required for home refueling. Several differences in demographic and other characteristics between the target market and the population as a whole are highlighted, and two issues related to the design of H 2FCVs and their supporting infrastructure are discussed: vehicle range and home hydrogen refueling. These findings argue for continued investigation of this and similar target segments-which represent more efficient research populations for subsequent study by product designers and other decision-makers wishing to understand the early market dynamics facing H 2FCVs and related ME innovations.

  2. Glass and glass-derivative seals for use in energy-efficient fuel cells and lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Misture; Arun Varshineya; Matthew Hall; Sylvia DeCarr; Steve Bancheri

    2005-07-28

    For solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), a series of 18 sealing glasses have been prepared and characterized. From the whole design space, several glasses were ''downselected'' and studied in detail to describe their behaviors in simulated fuel cell environments. One of the glasses was found to outperform all others, including the well-known G18 sealant developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The new glass composition showed lower bulk electrical conductivity, excellent sealing and wetting behavior when sealing under applied load, and qualitatively superior performance when exposed to wet hydrogen for 800 hours. Traditional melting was used to prepare all of the glasses that were studied in detail. The sol-gel approach was used to synthesize several compositions, but it was found that the glasses crystallized very rapidly during heating, precluding sealing. The glass characterization included measurements of the viscosity and thermal expansion of the glasses, as well as the thermal expansion of the partly crystalline glass ceramics. In addition, the wetting and sintering behavior of all glasses has been measured, as well as the crystallization behavior. The time and temperature at which crystalline phases form from the glasses has been determined for all of the glasses. Each glass ceramic contains at least two crystalline phases, and most of the crystalline phases have been positively identified. The body of fundamental data provides a platform for future developments for high temperature sealants, and the newly-developed glass compositions appear promising for large-scale testing. The second component of the work, focused on seals for higher-temperature discharge lighting, has focused on determining the phase relations in the yttria-alumina-silica system at various silica levels. Functional testing of one of the candidate sealants demonstrated that it performs well in current HID lighting applications. Further testing is required to evaluate its performance

  3. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical report {number_sign}4

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1995-08-03

    In order to study combustion performance under conditions similar to that in the AFBC system, the authors conducted a series of experiments at a heating rate of 100 C/min using the TGA/FTIR/MS system. Results indicate that more hydrocarbons are evolved at the faster heating rate, owing to incomplete combustion of the fuel. Chlorinated organic compounds can be formed at high heating rates. Certain oxidation products such as organic acids and alcohols are obtained at the slow heating rate. To simulate the conditions used in the atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) at Western Kentucky University, studies were also conducted using a quartz tube in a tube furnace. The temperature conditions were kept identical to those of the combustor. The products evolved from the combustion of coal, PVC, and mixtures of the two were trapped in suitable solvents at different temperatures, and analyzed using the Shimadzu GC/MS system. The detection limits and the GC/MS analytical parameters were also established. The experiments were conducted keeping in mind the broader perspective; that of studying conditions conducive to the formation of chlorinated organic compounds from the combustion of coal/MSW blends. 32 figs., 16 tabs.

  4. Interaction of coal-derived synthesis gas impurities with solid oxide fuel cell metallic components

    SciTech Connect

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Edwards, Danny J.; Chou, Y. S.; Cramer, Carolyn N.

    2010-05-28

    Chromium-containing iron-based alloys Crofer22 APU and SS 441 and nickel-based alloy Inconel600, all commonly used in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack as interconnect materials, heat exchanger and gas feeding pipes, were exposed at 700-850oC to a synthetic coal gas containing ≤2 ppm phosphine, arsine, sulfur and antimony. Samples were characterized by SEM/EDS and XRD to monitor the secondary phase formation. Exposure of ferritic stainless steels to P led to the formation of surface Cr-Mn-P-O and Fe-P-O compounds and increased temperatures accelerated the rate of interactions. Fewer interactions were observed after exposures to As and Sb. No sulfur containing compounds were found. Nickel-based alloy exhibited much stronger interactions with As and P in comparison with ferritic steels and the arsenic interactions were particularly strong. The difference between the iron- and nickel-based alloys is explained by the different chemistry and morphology of the scales grown on the alloy surfaces in coal gas. While P and As interactions with the metallic parts in the SOFC are likely to mitigate the nickel/zirconia anode poisoning, the other degradation mechanisms should be taken into consideration to avoid potential stack failures. Manganese spinels were found to be effective as phosphorus getters and could be used in coal gas cleanup.

  5. Bleaching and Hydroprocessing of Algal Biomass-Derived Lipids to Produce Renewable Diesel Fuel

    DOE PAGES

    Kruger, Jacob S.; Christensen, Earl D.; Dong, Tao; ...

    2017-08-22

    Algal lipids represent a promising feedstock for production of renewable diesel, but there is little information available regarding the integration of pretreatment, extraction, and catalytic upgrading steps. In this work, we examined oil bleaching by two methods and the effects of bleaching on oil deoxygenation over Pd/C and hydroisomerization over Pt/SAPO-11 catalysts. The raw oil was completely deoxygenated and 90% denitrogenated after dilution to 25 wt % in hexanes. The bleaching operations (using either a polar adsorbent or concentrated H3PO4) removed 85-90% of the nitrogen and led to 95-99% nitrogen removal after deoxygenation. Oil processability was also improved by bleaching.more » Here, the bulk chemistry of the deoxygenation and isomerization was not strongly affected by bleaching, as post-isomerization products with cloud points less than -10 °C and boiling ranges within or close to specification for No. 2 diesel fuel were obtained through 10 h time on stream with or without bleaching.« less

  6. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal-Derived Liquids. Volume 11. Production of Advanced Endothermic Fuel Blends from Great Plains Gasification Plant Naphtha By-Product Stream

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    of this fuel is that its molecular structure must allow a very selective, dehydrogenation (endothermic) reaction to occur. Cycloparaffins have been...step procedure to first remove the sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen contaminants and then to saturate the aromatic molecules. 2. Catalytic dehydrogenation ...endothermic fuel by subjecting them to catalytic dehydrogenation and then comparing their reac- tivity, stability, and product distributions with

  7. Comparative techno-economic analysis and process design for indirect liquefaction pathways to distillate-range fuels via biomass-derived oxygenated intermediates upgrading: Liquid Transportation Fuel Production via Biomass-derived Oxygenated Intermediates Upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Eric C. D.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Talmadge, Michael; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gray, Michel; Dagle, Robert; Padmaperuma, Asanga; Gerber, Mark; Sahir, Asad H.; Tao, Ling; Zhang, Yanan

    2016-09-27

    This paper presents a comparative techno-economic analysis (TEA) of five conversion pathways from biomass to gasoline-, jet-, and diesel-range hydrocarbons via indirect liquefaction with specific focus on pathways utilizing oxygenated intermediates. The four emerging pathways of interest are compared with one conventional pathway (Fischer-Tropsch) for the production of the hydrocarbon blendstocks. The processing steps of the four emerging pathways include: biomass to syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, conversion of syngas to alcohols/oxygenates followed by conversion of alcohols/oxygenates to hydrocarbon blendstocks via dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation. Conversion of biomass-derived syngas to oxygenated intermediates occurs via three different pathways, producing: 1) mixed alcohols over a MoS2 catalyst, 2) mixed oxygenates (a mixture of C2+ oxygenated compounds, predominantly ethanol, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate) using an Rh-based catalyst, and 3) ethanol from syngas fermentation. This is followed by the conversion of oxygenates/alcohols to fuel-range olefins in two approaches: 1) mixed alcohols/ethanol to 1-butanol rich mixture via Guerbet reaction, followed by alcohol dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation, and 2) mixed oxygenates/ethanol to isobutene rich mixture and followed by oligomerization and hydrogenation. The design features a processing capacity of 2,000 tonnes/day (2,205 short tons) of dry biomass. The minimum fuel selling prices (MFSPs) for the four developing pathways range from $3.40 to $5.04 per gasoline-gallon equivalent (GGE), in 2011 US dollars. Sensitivity studies show that MFSPs can be improved with co-product credits and are comparable to the commercial Fischer-Tropsch benchmark ($3.58/GGE). Overall, this comparative TEA study documents potential economics for the developmental biofuel pathways via mixed oxygenates.

  8. Reforming Biomass Derived Pyrolysis Bio-oil Aqueous Phase to Fuels

    DOE PAGES

    Mukarakate, Calvin; Evans, Robert J.; Deutch, Steve; ...

    2017-01-07

    Fast pyrolysis and catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of biomass produce a liquid product stream comprised of various classes of organic compounds having different molecule size and polarity. This liquid, either spontaneously in the case of catalytic fast pyrolysis or by water addition for the non-catalytic process separates into a non-polar organic-rich fraction and a highly polar water-rich fraction. The organic fraction can be used as a blendstock or feedstock for further processing in a refinery while, in the CFP process design, the aqueous phase is currently sent to wastewater treatment, which results in a loss of residual biogenic carbon presentmore » in this stream. Our work focuses on the catalytic conversion of the biogenic carbon in pyrolysis aqueous phase streams to produce hydrocarbons using a vertical micro-reactor coupled to a molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS). Furthermore, the MBMS provides real-time analysis of products while also tracking catalyst deactivation. The catalyst used in this work was HZSM-5, which upgraded the oxygenated organics in the aqueous fraction to fuels comprising small olefins and aromatic hydrocarbons. During processing the aqueous bio-oil fraction the HZSM-5 catalyst exhibited higher activity and coke resistance than those observed in similar experiments using biomass or whole bio-oils. Reduced coking is likely due to ejection of coke precursors from the catalyst pores that was enhanced by excess process water available for steam stripping. The water reacted with coke precursors to form phenol, methylated phenols, naphthol, and methylated naphthols. Conversion data shows that up to 40 wt% of the carbon in the feed stream is recovered as hydrocarbons.« less

  9. GLASS AND GLASS-DERIVATIVE SEALS FOR USE IN ENERGY-EFFICIENT FUEL CELLS AND LAMPS

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Misture; Arun Varshneya; Matthew Hall; Sylvia DeCarr; Steve Bancheri

    2004-08-15

    As the project approaches the end of the first year, the materials screening components of the work are ahead of schedule, while all other tasks are on schedule. For solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), a series of 16 sealing glasses have been prepared and characterized. Traditional melting was used to prepare all of the glasses, and the sol-gel approach has been used to prepare some of the glasses as well as other compositions that might be viable because of the low processing temperatures afforded by the sol-gel method. The glass characterization included measurements of the viscosity and thermal expansion of the glasses, as well as the thermal expansion of the partly crystalline glass ceramics. In addition, the wetting and sintering behavior of all glasses has been measured, as well as the crystallization behavior. The time and temperature at which crystalline phases form from the glasses has been determined for all of the glasses. Each glass ceramic contains at least two crystalline phases, and most of the crystalline phases have been positively identified. Room temperature leak testing has been completed for all sealants, and experiments are in progress to determine the DC electrochemical degradation and degradation in wet hydrogen. The second component of the work, focused on seals for higher-temperature discharge lighting, has focused on determining the phase relations in the yttria--alumina--silica system at various silica levels. Again, traditional melting and sol-gel synthesis have been employed, and the sol-gel method was successful for preparing new phases that were discovered during the work. High temperature diffraction and annealing studies have clarified the phase relations for the samples studies, although additional work remains. Four new phases have been identified and synthesized in pure form, from which full structure solutions were obtained as well as the anisotropic thermal expansion for each phase. Functional testing of lamps are on on-going and

  10. Industrial innovations for tomorrow: Advances in industrial energy-efficiency technologies. Commercial power plant tests blend of refuse-derived fuel and coal to generate electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    MSW can be converted to energy in two ways. One involves the direct burning of MSW to produce steam and electricity. The second converts MSW into refuse-derived fuel (RDF) by reducing the size of the MSW and separating metals, glass, and other inorganic materials. RDF can be densified or mixed with binders to form fuel pellets. As part of a program sponsored by DOE`s Office of Industrial Technologies, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory participated in a cooperative research and development agreement to examine combustion of binder-enhanced, densified refuse-derived fuel (b-d RDF) pellets with coal. Pelletized b-d RDF has been burned in coal combustors, but only in quantities of less than 3% in large utility systems. The DOE project involved the use of b-d RDF in quantities up to 20%. A major goal was to quantify the pollutants released during combustion and measure combustion performance.

  11. REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Chin; George W. Roberts; James J. Spivey

    2003-12-31

    Uses for structured catalytic supports, such as ceramic straight-channel monoliths and ceramic foams, have been established for a long time. One of the most prominent examples is the washcoated ceramic monolith as a three-way catalytic converter for gasoline-powered automobiles. A distinct alternative to the ceramic monolith is the metal foam, with potential use in fuel cell-powered automobiles. The metal foams are characterized by their pores per inch (ppi) and density ({rho}). In previous research, using 5 wt% platinum (Pt) and 0.5 wt% iron (Fe) catalysts, washcoated metal foams, 5.08 cm in length and 2.54 cm in diameter, of both varying and similar ppi and {rho} were tested for their activity (X{sub CO}) and selectivity (S{sub CO}) on a CO preferential oxidation (PROX) reaction in the presence of a H{sub 2}-rich gas stream. The variances in these metal foams' activity and selectivity were much larger than expected. Other structured supports with 5 wt% Pt, 0-1 wt% Fe weight loading were also examined. A theory for this phenomenon states that even though these structured supports have a similar nominal catalyst weight loading, only a certain percentage of the Pt/Fe catalyst is exposed on the surface as an active site for CO adsorption. We will use two techniques, pulse chemisorption and temperature programmed desorption (TPD), to characterize our structured supports. Active metal count, metal dispersion, and other calculations will help clarify the causes for the activity and selectivity variations between the supports. Results on ceramic monoliths show that a higher Fe loading yields a lower dispersion, potentially because of Fe inhibition of the Pt surface for CO adsorption. This theory is used to explain the reason for activity and selectivity differences for varying ppi and {rho} metal foams; less active and selective metal foams have a lower Fe loading, which justifies their higher metal dispersion. Data on the CO desorption temperature and average metal

  12. Organic derivatives of hydrazine and hydroxylamine and future reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Koltunov, V.S.; Baranov, S.M.

    1994-07-01

    Reductants of Pu and Np that are used in extraction suffer from a number of deficiencies such as the formation of Fe(III), Fe(II), and ammonium (hydrazine) nitrates. This increases the amount of salts in the radioactive waste solutions, the instability of U(IV) in the organic phase, and the potential explosiveness owing to the formation of azides (hydrazine) and others. Therefore, the search for and investigation of new highly efficient reductants of Pu and Np that do not form salts should become an important thrust for improving thrust extraction in the near future. Organic derivatives of hydrazine and hydroxylamine are the first step in this direction. These comparatively rapidly convert Np(VI) to Np(V) and Pu(IV) to Pu(III), thereby stabilizing the pair Pu(III)-Np(V). This is most convenient for separating Pu and Np from U by reductive back-extraction in the first extraction cycle.

  13. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION MULTIPOLLUTANT STUDY EMISSION TEST REPORT, MAINE ENERGY RECOVERY COMPANY, RE- FUSE DERIVED FUEL FACILITY, BIDDEFORD, MAINE - VOLUME I: SUMMARY OF RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an emission test of a new municipal solid waste combustor, in Biddeford, ME, that burns refuse-derived fuel and is equipped with a lime spray dryer fabric filter (SD/FF) emission control system. ontrol efficiency of the SD/FF emission control system wa...

  14. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION MULTIPOLLUTANT STUDY EMISSION TEST REPORT, MAINE ENERGY RECOVERY COMPANY, REFUSE DERIVED FUEL FACILITY, BIDDEFORD, MAINE - VOLUME II: APPENDICES A-F

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an emission test of a new municipal solid waste combustor, in Biddeford, ME, that burns refuse-derived fuel and is equipped with a lime spray dryer fabric filter (SD/FF) emission control system. Control efficiency of the SD/FF emission control system ...

  15. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION MULTIPOLLUTANT STUDY EMISSION TEST REPORT, MAINE ENERGY RECOVERY COMPANY, REFUSE DERIVED FUEL FACILITY, BIDDEFORD, MAINE - VOLUME III: APPENDICES G-N

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an emission test of a new municipal solid waste combustor, in Biddeford, ME, that burns refuse-derived fuel and is equipped with a lime spray dryer fabric filter (SD/FF) emission control system. Control efficiency of the SD/FF emission control system ...

  16. Robust synthesis of green fuels from biomass-derived ethyl esters over a hierarchically core/shell-structured ZSM-5@(Co/SiO2) catalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Darui; Wang, Bo; Ding, Yu; Yuan, Qingqing; Wu, Haihong; Guan, Yejun; Wu, Peng

    2017-09-12

    A novel bifunctional ZSM-5@(Co/SiO2) material with a hierarchical core/shell structure was successfully prepared through a simple chemoselective interaction between the crystal surface silica species of zeolite and the external Co(2+) source in basic media, which served as an excellent catalyst in the synthesis of green fuels from biomass-derived ethyl esters.

  17. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION MULTIPOLLUTANT STUDY EMISSION TEST REPORT, MAINE ENERGY RECOVERY COMPANY, RE- FUSE DERIVED FUEL FACILITY, BIDDEFORD, MAINE - VOLUME I: SUMMARY OF RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an emission test of a new municipal solid waste combustor, in Biddeford, ME, that burns refuse-derived fuel and is equipped with a lime spray dryer fabric filter (SD/FF) emission control system. ontrol efficiency of the SD/FF emission control system wa...

  18. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION MULTIPOLLUTANT STUDY EMISSION TEST REPORT, MAINE ENERGY RECOVERY COMPANY, REFUSE DERIVED FUEL FACILITY, BIDDEFORD, MAINE - VOLUME II: APPENDICES A-F

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an emission test of a new municipal solid waste combustor, in Biddeford, ME, that burns refuse-derived fuel and is equipped with a lime spray dryer fabric filter (SD/FF) emission control system. Control efficiency of the SD/FF emission control system ...

  19. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION MULTIPOLLUTANT STUDY EMISSION TEST REPORT, MAINE ENERGY RECOVERY COMPANY, REFUSE DERIVED FUEL FACILITY, BIDDEFORD, MAINE - VOLUME III: APPENDICES G-N

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an emission test of a new municipal solid waste combustor, in Biddeford, ME, that burns refuse-derived fuel and is equipped with a lime spray dryer fabric filter (SD/FF) emission control system. Control efficiency of the SD/FF emission control system ...

  20. Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatt, B.L.

    1992-09-01

    As part of the DOE-sponsored contract for the Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether (DME) and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal- Derived Syngas, the single-step, slurry phase DME synthesis process was developed. The development involved screening of catalyst systems, process variable studies, and catalyst life studies in two 300 ml stirred autoclaves. As a spin-off of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH*) process, the new process significantly improves the syngas conversion efficiency of the LPMEOH process. This improvement can be achieved by replacing a portion of methanol catalyst with a dehydration catalyst in the reactor, resulting in the product methanol being converted to DME, thus avoiding the thermodynamic equilibrium constraint of the methanol reaction. Overall, this increases syngas conversion per-pass. The selectivity and productivity of DME and methanol are affected by the catalyst system employed as well as operating conditions. A preferred catalyst system, consisting of a physical mixture of a methanol catalyst and a gamma alumina, was identified. An improvement of about 50% in methanol equivalent productivity was achieved compared to the LPMEOH process. Results from the process variable study indicate that higher pressure and CO[sub 2] removal benefit the process significantly. Limited life studies performed on the preferred catalyst system suggest somewhat higher than expected deactivation rate for the methanol catalyst. Several DME/methanol mixtures were measured for their key properties as transportation fuels. With small amounts of DME added, significant improvements in both flash points and Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) were observed over the corresponding values of methanol alone.

  1. Selection Criteria and Screening of Potential Biomass-Derived Streams as Fuel Blendstocks for Advanced Spark-Ignition Engines

    DOE PAGES

    McCormick, Robert L.; Fioroni, Gina; Fouts, Lisa; ...

    2017-03-28

    Here, we describe a study to identify potential biofuels that enable advanced spark ignition (SI) engine efficiency strategies to be pursued more aggressively. A list of potential biomass-derived blendstocks was developed. An online database of properties and characteristics of these bioblendstocks was created and populated. Fuel properties were determined by measurement, model prediction, or literature review. Screening criteria were developed to determine if a bioblendstock met the requirements for advanced SI engines. Criteria included melting point (or cloud point) < -10 degrees C and boiling point (or T90) <165 degrees C. Compounds insoluble or poorly soluble in hydrocarbon were eliminatedmore » from consideration, as were those known to cause corrosion (carboxylic acids or high acid number mixtures) and those with hazard classification as known or suspected carcinogens or reproductive toxins. Compounds predicted to be less anaerobically biodegradable than methyl-tert-butyl ether with water solubility greater than 10,000 mg/L were also eliminated. A minimum Research octane number (RON) of 98 was applied. These criteria produced a list of 40 bioblendstocks with promising properties. Additional property data, including Motor octane number (MON), heat of vaporization, and lower heating value, were acquired for these bioblendstocks. A subset of the bioblendstocks representing all functional groups were blended into gasoline or a gasoline surrogate to measure their effect on vapor pressure, distillation curve, oxidation stability, RON, and MON. For blending into a conventional or reformulated blendstock for E10 blending, ethanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, and diisobutylene have the most desirable properties for blending of a high-octane advanced SI engine fuel.« less

  2. Commercializing light-duty plug-in/plug-out hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles: "Mobile electricity" technologies, early California household markets, and innovation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Brett David

    Starting from the premise that new consumer value must drive hydrogen-fuel-cell-vehicle (H2FCV) commercialization, a group of opportunities collectively called "Mobile Electricity" (Me-) is characterized. Me- redefines H2 FCVs as innovative products able to provide home recharging and mobile power, for example for tools, mobile activities, emergencies, and electric-grid-support services. To characterize such opportunities, this study first integrates and extends previous analyses of H2FCVs, plug-in hybrids, and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power. It uses a new model to estimate zero-emission-power vs. zero-emission-driving tradeoffs, costs, and grid-support revenues for various electric-drive vehicle types and levels of infrastructure service. Next, the initial market potential for Me- enabled vehicles, such as H2FCVs and plug-in hybrids, is estimated by eliminating unlikely households from consideration for early adoption. 5.2 million of 33.9 million Californians in the 2000 Census live in households pre-adapted to Me-, 3.9 million if natural gas is required for home refueling. The possible sales base represented by this population is discussed. Several differences in demographic and other characteristics between the target market and the population as a whole are highlighted, and two issues related to the design of H2FCVs and their supporting infrastructure are discussed: vehicle range and home hydrogen refueling. These findings argue for continued investigation of this and similar target segments-which represent more efficient research populations for subsequent study by product designers and other decision-makers wishing to understand the early market dynamics facing Me- innovations. Next, Me-H2FCV commercialization issues are raised from the perspectives of innovation, product development, and strategic marketing. Starting with today's internalcombustion hybrids, this discussion suggests a way to move beyond the battery vs. fuel-cell zero-sum game and towards the

  3. The carnivorous Venus flytrap uses prey-derived amino acid carbon to fuel respiration.

    PubMed

    Fasbender, Lukas; Maurer, Daniel; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Kreuzer, Ines; Schulze, Waltraud X; Kruse, Jörg; Becker, Dirk; Alfarraj, Saleh; Hedrich, Rainer; Werner, Christiane; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2017-04-01

    The present study was performed to elucidate the fate of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) derived from protein of prey caught by carnivorous Dionaea muscipula. For this, traps were fed (13) C/(15) N-glutamine (Gln). The release of (13) CO2 was continuously monitored by isotope ratio infrared spectrometry. After 46 h, the allocation of C and N label into different organs was determined and tissues were subjected to metabolome, proteome and transcriptome analyses. Nitrogen of Gln fed was already separated from its C skeleton in the decomposing fluid secreted by the traps. Most of the Gln-C and Gln-N recovered inside plants were localized in fed traps. Among nonfed organs, traps were a stronger sink for Gln-C compared to Gln-N, and roots were a stronger sink for Gln-N compared to Gln-C. A significant amount of the Gln-C was respired as indicated by (13) C-CO2 emission, enhanced levels of metabolites of respiratory Gln degradation and increased abundance of proteins of respiratory processes. Transcription analyses revealed constitutive expression of enzymes involved in Gln metabolism in traps. It appears that prey not only provides building blocks of cellular constituents of carnivorous Dionaea muscipula, but also is used for energy generation by respiratory amino acid degradation. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Effects of subchronic inhalation exposure of rats to emissions from a diesel engine burning soybean oil-derived biodiesel fuel.

    PubMed

    Finch, G L; Hobbs, C H; Blair, L F; Barr, E B; Hahn, F F; Jaramillo, R J; Kubatko, J E; March, T H; White, R K; Krone, J R; Ménache, M G; Nikula, K J; Mauderly, J L; Van Gerpen, J; Merceica, M D; Zielinska, B; Stankowski, L; Burling, K; Howell, S

    2002-10-01

    There is increasing interest in diesel fuels derived from plant oils or animal fats ("biodiesel"), but little information on the toxicity of biodiesel emissions other than bacterial mutagenicity. F344 rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day, 5 days/wk for 13 wk to 1 of 3 dilutions of emissions from a diesel engine burning 100% soybean oil-derived fuel, or to clean air as controls. Whole emissions were diluted to nominal NO(x) concentrations of 5, 25, or 50 ppm, corresponding to approximately 0.04, 0.2, and 0.5 mg particles/m(3), respectively. Biologically significant, exposure-related effects were limited to the lung, were greater in females than in males, and were observed primarily at the highest exposure level. There was a dose-related increase in the numbers of alveolar macrophages and the numbers of particles in the macrophages, as expected from repeated exposure, but no neutrophil response even at the highest exposure level. The macrophage response was reduced 28 days after cessation of the exposure. Among the high-level females, the group mean lung weight/body weight ratio was increased, and minimal, multifocal bronchiolar metaplasia of alveolar ducts was observed in 4 of 30 rats. Lung weights were not significantly increased, and metaplasia of the alveolar ducts was not observed in males. An increase in particle-laden macrophages was the only exposure-related finding in lungs at the intermediate and low levels, with fewer macrophages and fewer particles per macrophage at the low level. Alveolar histiocytosis was observed in a few rats in both exposed and control groups. There were statistically significant, but minor and not consistently exposure-related, differences in body weight, nonpulmonary organ weights, serum chemistry, and glial fibrillary acidic protein in the brain. There were no significant exposure-related effects on survival, clinical signs, feed consumption, ocular toxicity, hematology, neurohistology, micronuclei in bone marrow, sister

  5. Post-marketing assessment of content and efficacy of preservatives in artemisinin-derived antimalarial dry suspensions for paediatric use

    PubMed Central

    Atemnkeng, Magnus A; De Cock, Katelijne; Plaizier-Vercammen, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Background Artemisinin-derivative formulations are now widely used to treat falciparum malaria. However, the dry powder suspensions developed for children are few and/or are of poor quality. In addition to the active compound, the presence of a suitable preservative in these medicines is essential. In this study, an evaluation of the preservative content and efficacy in some dry suspensions available on the Kenyan market was performed. Method UV spectrophotometry was used to identify the preservatives in each sample while HPLC-UV was used for quantification. After reconstitution of the powders in water, the dissolution of the preservatives was followed for 7 days. Antimicrobial efficacy of the preservatives was assessed by conducting a preservative efficacy test (PET) following the European pharmacopoeia standards. Results Four different preservatives were identified namely methylparahydroxybenzoate (MP), propylparahydroxybenzoate (PP), benzoic acid and sorbic acid. MP and PP were identified in Artesiane® (artemether 300 mg/100 ml), Alaxin® (dihydroartemisinin 160 mg/80 ml) andGvither ® (artemether 300 mg/100 ml) respectively. Sorbic acid was presentin Artenam® (artemether 180 mg/60 ml) while benzoic acid was identified in Santecxin® (dihydroartemisinin 160 mg/80 ml) andArtexin® (dihydroartemisinin 160 mg/80 ml) respectively. Cotecxin® (dihydroartemisinin 160 mg/80 ml) did not contain any of the above preservatives. After reconstitution in water, preservativesin 50%(3/6) of the products did not completely dissolve and the PET results revealed that only Artenam® and Gvither® met the requirements for antimicrobial efficacy. The other products did not conform. Conclusion These results show that paediatric antimalarial dry powder formulations on the market may contain ineffective or incorrect amounts of preservatives. This is a potential risk to the patient. Studies conducted on the dry powder suspensions should include the analysis of both the active

  6. Post-marketing assessment of content and efficacy of preservatives in artemisinin-derived antimalarial dry suspensions for paediatric use.

    PubMed

    Atemnkeng, Magnus A; De Cock, Katelijne; Plaizier-Vercammen, Jacqueline

    2007-01-26

    Artemisinin-derivative formulations are now widely used to treat falciparum malaria. However, the dry powder suspensions developed for children are few and/or are of poor quality. In addition to the active compound, the presence of a suitable preservative in these medicines is essential. In this study, an evaluation of the preservative content and efficacy in some dry suspensions available on the Kenyan market was performed. UV spectrophotometry was used to identify the preservatives in each sample while HPLC-UV was used for quantification. After reconstitution of the powders in water, the dissolution of the preservatives was followed for 7 days. Antimicrobial efficacy of the preservatives was assessed by conducting a preservative efficacy test (PET) following the European pharmacopoeia standards. Four different preservatives were identified namely methylparahydroxybenzoate (MP), propylparahydroxybenzoate (PP), benzoic acid and sorbic acid. MP and PP were identified in Artesiane (artemether 300 mg/100 ml), Alaxin (dihydroartemisinin 160 mg/80 ml) andGvither (artemether 300 mg/100 ml) respectively. Sorbic acid was presentin Artenam (artemether 180 mg/60 ml) while benzoic acid was identified in Santecxin (dihydroartemisinin 160 mg/80 ml) and Artexin (dihydroartemisinin 160 mg/80 ml) respectively. Cotecxin (dihydroartemisinin 160 mg/80 ml) did not contain any of the above preservatives. After reconstitution in water, preservativesin 50%(3/6) of the products did not completely dissolve and the PET results revealed that only Artenam and Gvither met the requirements for antimicrobial efficacy. The other products did not conform. These results show that paediatric antimalarial dry powder formulations on the market may contain ineffective or incorrect amounts of preservatives. This is a potential risk to the patient. Studies conducted on the dry powder suspensions should include the analysis of both the active ingredient and the preservative, including the efficacy of the

  7. Energy Smart Guide to Campus Cost Savings: Today's Trends in Project Finance, Clean Fuel Fleets, Combined Heat& Power, Emissions Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-07-01

    The Energy Smart Guide to Campus Cost Savings covers today's trends in project finance, combined heat& power, clean fuel fleets and emissions trading. The guide is directed at campus facilities and business managers and contains general guidance, contact information and case studies from colleges and universities across the country.

  8. Studies of the combustion of coal/refuse derived fuels using thermogravimetric-Fourier transform infrared-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Huagang; Li, Jigui; Lloyd, W.G.

    1995-11-01

    According to a report of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), `Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in the United States`, the total MSW produced in the U.S. increased from 179 million tons in 1988 to 195 million tons in 1990. The EPA predicted that the country would produce about 216 million tons of garbage in the year 2000. The amount of waste generated and the rapidly declining availability of sanitary landfills has forced most municipalities to evaluate alternative waste management technologies for reducing the volume of waste sent to landfills. The fraction of MSW that is processed by such technologies as separation and recycling, composting, and waste-to-energy was forecast to increase from a few percent today to 30-40% by the year 2000. Waste-to-energy conversion of MSW can appear to be attractive because of the energy recovered, the economic value of recycled materials, and the cost savings derived from reduced landfill usage. However, extra care needs to be taken in burning MSW or refuse-derived fuel (RDF) to optimize the operating conditions of a combustor so that the combustion takes place in an environmentally acceptable manner. For instance, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been found in the precipitator fly ash and flue gas of some incinerator facilities in the United States and Europe. The amount of PCDDs and PCDFs occurs only in the parts-per-billion to parts-per-trillion range, but these chlorinated organics exhibit very high toxicity (LD{sub 50} < 10 {mu}g/Kg). The compound 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin has been found to be acnegenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic. This has slowed or even stopped the construction and operation of waste-to-energy plants.

  9. Combustion-derived substances in deep basins of Puget Sound: historical inputs from fossil fuel and biomass combustion.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Li-Jung; Louchouarn, Patrick; Herbert, Bruce E; Brandenberger, Jill M; Wade, Terry L; Crecelius, Eric

    2011-04-01

    Reconstructions of 250 years historical inputs of two distinct types of black carbon (soot/graphitic black carbon (GBC) and char-BC) were conducted on sediment cores from two basins of the Puget Sound, WA. Signatures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also used to support the historical reconstructions of BC to this system. Down-core maxima in GBC and combustion-derived PAHs occurred in the 1940s in the cores from the Puget Sound Main Basin, whereas in Hood Canal such peak was observed in the 1970s, showing basin-specific differences in inputs of combustion byproducts. This system showed relatively higher inputs from softwood combustion than the northeastern U.S. The historical variations in char-BC concentrations were consistent with shifts in climate indices, suggesting an influence of climate oscillations on wildfire events. Environmental loading of combustion byproducts thus appears as a complex function of urbanization, fuel usage, combustion technology, environmental policies, and climate conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Recovery of plastic wastes from dumpsite as refuse-derived fuel and its utilization in small gasification system.

    PubMed

    Chiemchaisri, Chart; Charnnok, Boonya; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan

    2010-03-01

    An effort to utilize solid wastes at dumpsite as refuse-derived fuel (RDF) was carried out. The produced RDF briquette was then utilized in the gasification system. These wastes were initially examined for their physical composition and chemical characteristics. The wastes contained high plastic content of 24.6-44.8%, majority in polyethylene plastic bag form. The plastic wastes were purified by separating them from other components through manual separation and trommel screen after which their content increased to 82.9-89.7%. Subsequently, they were mixed with binding agent (cassava root) and transformed into RDF briquette. Maximum plastic content in RDF briquette was limit to 55% to maintain physical strength and maximum chlorine content. The RDF briquette was tested in a down-draft gasifier. The produced gas contained average energy content of 1.76 MJ/m(3), yielding cold gas efficiency of 66%. The energy production cost from this RDF process was estimated as USD0.05 perkWh.

  11. Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur in the Presence of Coal-Derived Fuel Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.W., Jr.; Gardner, T.H.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Berry, D.A.; Freed, A.D.

    2005-09-01

    A rotatable central composite design approach was utilized to examine the activity and selectivity of an activated carbon-based catalyst during partial oxidation of H2S to elemental sulfur. Tests were conducted at 400 psig with a 4000 ppmv H2S inlet concentration in the presence of coal-derived fuel gas (i.e., CO, CO2, H2, and H2O). Temperature, space velocity, and O2:H2S ratio were chosen as process variables for the study to generate response surface maps of elemental sulfur yield and longevity. Temperature was varied from 150-300°C; gas hourly space velocity varied from 1000 -15000 h-1 (STP); O2:H2S varied from 0.5-2.0. Evolution of SO2 and/or COS during some of the tests indicated the presence of side reactions. The relationship between the process variables and catalyst performance as well as the results of catalyst characterization is discussed.

  12. Catalytic upgrading of biomass-derived methyl ketones to liquid transportation fuel precursors by an organocatalytic approach.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanapillai, Shylesh; Sreekumar, Sanil; Gomes, Joseph; Grippo, Adam; Arab, George E; Head-Gordon, Martin; Toste, F Dean; Bell, Alexis T

    2015-04-07

    A highly efficient water-tolerant, solid-base catalyst for the self-condensation of biomass-derived methyl ketones to jet-diesel fuel precursors was developed by grafting site-isolated secondary amines on silica-alumina supports. It is shown that apart from the nature and density of amine groups and the spatial separation of the acidic and basic sites, the acidity of the support material plays a critical role in defining the catalytic activity. It is also found that a combination of weakly acidic silanol/aluminol with secondary amine groups can mimic proline catalysts and are more effective in catalyzing the selective dimerization reaction than the combination of amines with organic acids. In situ FTIR measurements demonstrate that acidic groups activate methyl ketones through their carbonyl groups leading to a favorable CC bond formation step involving an enamine intermediate. DFT analysis of the reaction pathway confirms that CC bond formation is the rate-limiting step. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. The effects of calcium hydroxide on hydrogen chloride emission characteristics during a simulated densified refuse-derived fuel combustion process.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kung-Yuh; Jih, Jer-Chyuan; Lin, Kae-Long

    2008-08-30

    This study investigated the effects of different calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)) addition methods on the potential for hydrogen chloride (HCl) formation in a simulated densified refuse-derived fuel (RDF-5) with single metal combustion system. These experiments were conducted at 850 degrees C with the Ca(OH)(2) spiked in the RDF-5 production or injection in the flue gas treatment system. The results indicated that the potential for HCl formation was decreased significantly by Ca(OH)(2) spiked in the RDF-5 production or injection in the flue gas treatment system. However, the Ca(OH)(2) injection method in the flue gas for HCl emission reduction was better than other method. According to the relationship between the HCl emission and amount of Ca(OH)(2) injected or spiked, it is interesting to find that when the Ca(OH)(2) injected or spiked ranged from 0% to 5%, the potential for HCl formation in the single metal combustion system decreases significantly with increasing Ca(OH)(2) injected or spiked ratio. A corresponding increase in the amount of CaCl(2) partitioned to the fly ash was observed. However, with the ratio of Ca(OH)(2) higher than 5%, the amount of HCl formation showed that no further significant variation occurred with increasing Ca(OH)(2) spiked ratio.

  14. Analysis of derived optical parameters of atmospheric particles during a biomass burning event. Comparison with fossil fuel burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, A.; Mogo, S.; Cachorro, V.; de Frutos, A.; Medeiros, M.; Martins, R.; López, J. F.; Marcos, A.; Marcos, N.; Bizarro, S.; Mano, F.

    2015-12-01

    During the day November 26, 2014, a scheduled cleanup of the woods took place around the GOA-UVa aerosol measurement station located at the campus of the University of Beira Interior (40° 16’30”N, 7°30’35”W, 704m a.s.l.), Covilhã, Portugal. This cleanup included excessive vegetation removal during the morning, using fossil fuel-burning machinery, and burning of the vegetation during the afternoon. In situ measurements of aerosol optical properties were made and this study aims the characterization of the evolution of aerosol properties during the day. The optical parameters were monitored using a 3-wavelength nephelometer and a 3-wavelength particle soot absorption photometer. Selective sampling/exclusion of the coarse particles was done each 5 minutes. The scattering and absorption Ångström exponents as well as the single scattering albedo were derived and fully analyzed. The scattering and absorption coefficients increased dramatically during the event, reaching values as high as 720.3 Mm-1 and 181.9 Mm-1, respectively, for the green wavelength and PM10 size fraction. The spectral behavior of these parameters also changed wildly along the day and an inversion of the slope from positive to negative in the case of the single scattering albedo was observed.

  15. Conversion of residual organics in corn stover-derived biorefinery stream to bioenergy via a microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Hamilton, Choo Y; Schell, Daniel J

    2013-01-02

    A biorefinery process typically uses about 4-10 times more water than the amount of biofuel generated. The wastewater produced in a biorefinery process contains residual sugars, 5-furfural, phenolics, and other pretreatment and fermentation byproducts. Treatment of the wastewater can reduce the need for fresh water and potentially add to the environmental benefits of the process. Use of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for conversion of the complete range of phenolic compounds and furan aldehyde derivatives present in a postfermentation biorefinery stream is reported here. The consortium was capable of removing the molecules simultaneously with sugars, which were present at 2 orders of magnitude higher concentrations. Organic loading in a fed-batch MFC affected Coulombic efficiency, which decreased from 40% at 0.66 g/L loading to 1.8% at 66.4 g/L loading. Power density increased with loading reaching 1180 mW/m(2) at 5.3 g/L (8% dilution), but decreased thereafter. Excessive loading leads to poor electrogenic performance; therefore, operation of an MFC at an intermediate loading using dilution and recirculation of the process stream can enable effective treatment with bioenergy recovery.

  16. Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.

    1991-12-31

    The use of coal-derived synthesis gas as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals has become an increasingly attractive alternative to present petroleum-based chemicals production. However, one of the major limitations in developing such a process is the required removal of catalyst poisons such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and other trace contaminants from the synthesis gas. Purification steps necessary to remove these are energy intensive and add significantly to the production cost, particularly for coals having a high sulfur content such as Illinois coal. A two-stage, anaerobic bioconversion process requiring little or no sulfur removal is proposed, where in the first stage the carbon monoxide (CO) gas is converted to butyric and acetic acids by the CO strain of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. In the second stage, these acids along with the hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas are converted to butanol, ethanol, and acetone by an acid utilizing mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum. 18 figs., 18 tabs.

  17. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2001-10-01

    During the period July 1, 2001--September 30, 2001, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) continued construction of the Willow Island cofiring project, completed the installation of the fuel storage facility, the fuel receiving facility, and the processing building. All mechanical equipment has been installed and electrical construction has proceeded. During this time period significant short term testing of the Albright Generating Station cofiring facility was completed, and the 100-hour test was planned for early October. The testing demonstrated that cofiring at the Albright Generating Station could contribute to a ''4P Strategy''--reduction of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, mercury, and greenhouse gas emissions. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. It details the construction activities at both sites along with the combustion modeling at the Willow Island site.

  18. Combustion studies of coal derived solid fuels by thermogravimetric analysis. III. Correlation between burnout temperature and carbon combustion efficiency

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; DeBarr, J.A.; Chen, W.T.

    1990-01-01

    Burning profiles of 35-53 ??m size fractions of an Illinois coal and three partially devolatilized coals prepared from the original coal were obtained using a thermogravimetric analyzer. The burning profile burnout temperatures were higher for lower volatile fuels and correlated well with carbon combustion efficiencies of the fuels when burned in a laboratory-scale laminar flow reactor. Fuels with higher burnout temperatures had lower carbon combustion efficiencies under various time-temperature conditions in the laboratory-scale reactor. ?? 1990.

  19. Carbon-13 and proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of shale-derived refinery products and jet fuels and of experimental referee broadened-specification jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalling, D. K.; Bailey, B. K.; Pugmire, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    A proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study was conducted of Ashland shale oil refinery products, experimental referee broadened-specification jet fuels, and of related isoprenoid model compounds. Supercritical fluid chromatography techniques using carbon dioxide were developed on a preparative scale, so that samples could be quantitatively separated into saturates and aromatic fractions for study by NMR. An optimized average parameter treatment was developed, and the NMR results were analyzed in terms of the resulting average parameters; formulation of model mixtures was demonstrated. Application of novel spectroscopic techniques to fuel samples was investigated.

  20. Bulk Fuel Pricing: DOD Needs to Reevaluate Its Approach to Better Manage the Effect of Market Fluctuations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    of the standard price that DOD sets each fiscal year— crude oil , refinement markup, and nonproduct costs, such as transportation and facilities...maintenance costs— differences in the price of crude oil accounted for most of the difference between estimated and actual fuel costs in fiscal years 2009...Fund Balance, Transfers, and Standard Prices 16 Figure 7: Differences between Brent and West Texas Intermediate Crude Oil Prices , Fiscal Years

  1. The evaluation of a coal-derived liquid as a feedstock for the production of high-density aviation turbine fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K.P.; Hunter, D.E.

    1989-08-01

    The conversion of coal-derived liquids to transportation fuels has been the subject of many studies sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the US Department of Defense. For the most part, these studies evaluated conventional petroleum processes for the production of specification-grade fuels. Recently, however, the interest of these two departments expanded to include the evaluation of alternate fossil fuels as a feedstock for the production of high-density aviation turbine fuel. In this study, we evaluated five processes for their ability to produce intermediates from a coal-derived liquid for the production of high-density turbine fuel. These processes include acid-base extraction to reduce the heteroatom content of the middle distillate and the atmospheric and vacuum gas oils, solvent dewaxing to reduce the paraffin (alkane) content of the atmospheric and vacuum gas oils, Attapulgus clay treatment to reduce the heteroatom content of the middle distillate, coking to reduce the distillate range of the vacuum gas oil, and hydrogenation to remove heteroatoms and to saturate aromatic rings in the middle distillate and atmospheric gas oil. The chemical and physical properties that the US Air Force considers critical for the development of high-denisty aviation turbine fuel are specific gravity and net heat of combustion. The target minimum values for these properties are a specific gravity of at least 0.85 and a net heat of combustion of at least 130,000 Btu/gal. In addition, the minimum hydrogen content is 13.0 wt %, the maximum freeze point is {minus}53{degrees}F ({minus}47{degrees}C), the maximum amount of aromatics is about 25 to 30 vol %, and the maximum amount of paraffins is 10 vol %. 13 refs., 20 tabs.

  2. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal Derived Liquids. Volume 10. Jet Fuels Production By-Products, Utility and Sulfur Emissions Control Integration Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    45433-6563 "I -27 NOTICE When Government drawings, specifications, or other data are used for any purpose other than in connection with a definitely ...11 6.1 By-Product Flowrate Definition .............................. 11 6.2 By-Product Sulfur and Nitrogen...Content Definition ........... 12 6.3 Process and Intermediate Stream Definition .................. 15 6.4 Replacement Fuel Requirements

  3. Proposed draft document for GSA office waste removal and procurement of densified refuse derived fuel for use as a supplemental fuel in GAS operated boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. A.

    1981-09-01

    A contract specifying waste collection and disposal from buildings managed by Government Services Administration (GSA) in the Washington, D. C. area and the production and delivery of pelletized fuel for burning with coal in one or two GSA steam generating plants is given.

  4. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ulta-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells Budget Period 3

    SciTech Connect

    E.T. Robinson; John Sirman; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Dan Corgard; Siv Aasland; Kjersti Kleveland; Ann Hooper; Leo Bonnell; John Hemmings; Jack Chen; Bart A. Van Hassel

    2004-12-31

    This topical report summarizes work accomplished for the Program from January 1, 2003 through December 31,2004 in the following task areas: Task 1--Materials Development; Task 2--Composite Development; Task 4--Reactor Design and Process Optimization; Task 8--Fuels and Engine Testing; 8.1 International Diesel Engine Program; and Task IO: Program Management. Most of the key technical objectives for this budget period were achieved. Only partial success was achieved relative to cycle testing under pressure Major improvements in material performance and element reliability have been achieved. A breakthrough material system has driven the development of a compact planar reactor design capable of producing either hydrogen or syngas. The planar reactor shows significant advantages in thermal efficiency and costs compared to either steam methane reforming with CO{sub 2} recovery or autothermal reforming. The fuel and engine testing program is complete The single cylinder test engine evaluation of UCTF fuels begun in Budget Period 2 was finished this budget period. In addition, a study to evaluate new fuel formulations for an HCCl engine was completed.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF OTM SYNGAS PROCESS AND TESTING OF SYNGAS-DERIVED ULTRA-CLEAN FUELS IN DIESEL ENGINES AND FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    E.T. Robinson; James P. Meagher; Ravi Prasad

    2001-10-31

    This topical report summarizes work accomplished for the Program from January 1 through September 15, 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1--materials development; Task 2--composite element development; Task 3--tube fabrication; Task 4--reactor design and process optimization; Task 5--catalyst development; Task 6--P-1 operation; Task 8--fuels and engine testing; and Task 10--project management. OTM benchmark material, LCM1, exceeds the commercial oxygen flux target and was determined to be sufficiently robust to carry on process development activities. Work will continue on second-generation OTM materials that will satisfy commercial life targets. Three fabrication techniques for composite elements were determined to be technically feasible. These techniques will be studied and a lead manufacturing process for both small and large-scale elements will be selected in the next Budget Period. Experiments in six P-0 reactors, the long tube tester (LTT) and the P-1 pilot plant were conducted. Significant progress in process optimization was made through both the experimental program and modeling studies of alternate reactor designs and process configurations. Three tailored catalyst candidates for use in OTM process reactors were identified. Fuels for the International diesel engine and Nuvera fuel cell tests were ordered and delivered. Fuels testing and engine development work is now underway.

  6. 1985 fuel supply seminar: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Prast, W.G.

    1986-09-01

    The major topics were utility fuel demand uncertainty (featuring uncertainty in electricity demand growth prospects), fuel forecasts and assumptions, residual fuel oil and natural gas markets, coal in environmental planning, coal market conditions and implications for procurement, and Canadian energy purchases. Individual papers are processed separately for the data bases. (PSB)

  7. Liquid-phase penetration under unsteady in-cylinder conditions: Soy- and Cuphea-derived biodiesel fuels vs. conventional diesel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accelerated dilution of engine-lubrication oil is a significant potential issue when fueling with biodiesel. Biodiesel produced from some feedstocks is less volatile than conventional diesel, which makes wall-impingement of liquid fuel more likely, a problem that could be exacerbated by advanced in...

  8. Refuse derived fuel (RDF) plasma torch gasification as a feasible route to produce low environmental impact syngas for the cement industry.

    PubMed

    López-Sabirón, Ana M; Fleiger, Kristina; Schäfer, Stefan; Antoñanzas, Javier; Irazustabarrena, Ane; Aranda-Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán A

    2015-08-01

    Plasma torch gasification (PTG) is currently researched as a technology for solid waste recovery. However, scientific studies based on evaluating its environmental implications considering the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology are lacking. Therefore, this work is focused on comparing the environmental effect of the emissions of syngas combustion produced by refuse derived fuel (RDF) and PTG as alternative fuels, with that related to fossil fuel combustion in the cement industry. To obtain real data, a semi-industrial scale pilot plant was used to perform experimental trials on RDF-PTG.The results highlight that PTG for waste to energy recovery in the cement industry is environmentally feasible considering its current state of development. A reduction in every impact category was found when a total or partial substitution of alternative fuel for conventional fuel in the calciner firing (60 % of total thermal energy input) was performed. Furthermore, the results revealed that electrical energy consumption in PTG is also an important parameter from the LCA approach.

  9. Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bloyd, Cary N.

    2010-06-30

    This summary reviews the status of alternate transportation fuels development and utilization in Thailand. An understanding of the issues and experiences associated with the introduction of alternative fuels in other countries can help the US in anticipation potential problems as it introduces new automotive fuels. Thailand is of particular interest since it introduced E20 to its commercial market in 2007 and the US is now considering introducing E20 into the US market.

  10. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of High-Octane Fuels with Various Market Shares and Ethanol Blending Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jeongwoo; Elgowainy, Amgad; Wang, Michael; Divita, Vincent

    2015-07-14

    In this study, we evaluated the impacts of producing HOF with a RON of 100, using a range of ethanol blending levels (E10, E25, and E40), vehicle efficiency gains, and HOF market penetration scenarios (3.4% to 70%), on WTW petroleum use and GHG emissions. In particular, we conducted LP modeling of petroleum refineries to examine the impacts of different HOF production scenarios on petroleum refining energy use and GHG emissions. We compared two cases of HOF vehicle fuel economy gains of 5% and 10% in terms of MPGGE to baseline regular gasoline vehicles. We incorporated three key factors in GREET — (1) refining energy intensities of gasoline components for the various ethanol blending options and market shares, (2) vehicle efficiency gains, and (3) upstream energy use and emissions associated with the production of different crude types and ethanol — to compare the WTW GHG emissions of various HOF/vehicle scenarios with the business-as-usual baseline regular gasoline (87 AKI E10) pathway.

  11. Refuse-derived fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, H.H.

    1980-10-01

    The rationale for energy recovery from municipal refuse is discussed, and planning for future installations for this purpose is cited. The composition and energy content of bulk waste, shredded refuse, and pelletized material are compared. Potential problems encountered with refuse combustion in the areas of slagging, corrosion, and stack emissions are outlined.

  12. Refuse-derived fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, H. H.

    1980-09-01

    The rationale for energy recovery from municipal refuse is discussed, and planning for future installations for this purpose is cited. The composition and energy content of bulk waste, shredded refuse, and pelletized material are compared. Potential problems encountered with refuse combustion in the areas of slagging, corrosion, and stack emissions are outlined.

  13. Regional shipping strategy assessment based on installing a refuse-derived-fuel process in a municipal incinerator.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y H; Chang, N B

    2001-12-01

    The rising prices of raw materials and the concerns of energy recovery have resulted in an increasing interest in processing the waste streams. In recent years, a number of credible surveys have shown that recycling and waste-to-energy processes appear to work well together. Compatibility exists for several reasons related to economic, environmental, political, and social aspects. However, the regional impacts of installing a centralised refused-derived fuel (RDF) process prior to waste-to-energy facilities remain unclear due to the inherent complexity of solid waste composition, generation rate, energy and material recovery goals, and the existing shipping patterns. This paper illustrates a thorough evaluation for a RDF pilot study from both quantitative and qualitative aspects. Such a process, consisting of the standard unit operations of shredding, magnetic separation, trommel screening, and air classification, might be useful for integrating the recycling and presorting efforts with a large-scale municipal incinerator in a region. A series of sampling and analyses of the waste streams were performed in Taipei County, Taiwan in order to characterise its potentials for recycling. Based on the proper estimation of solid waste generation, the goal programming modelling analysis not only focuses on an evaluation of how the waste inflows with different rates of generation, physical and chemical compositions, and heating values in the service areas can be processed by a centralised RDF facility to meet both the energy recovery and throughput requirements in different municipal incinerators but also indicates the optimal shipping pattern associated with several incinerators due to such an installation in a regional sense. A case study designed to explore the regional impacts on shipping patterns in the southwestern of Taipei County, Taiwan verifies the application potential of such a planning methodology.

  14. Determination of aflatoxins in air samples of refuse-derived fuel by thin-layer chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence spectrometric detection

    SciTech Connect

    Bicking, M.K.L.; Kniseley, R.N.; Svec, H.J.

    1983-02-01

    An analytical method is described which allows determination of aflatoxins in a complex matrix. An apparatus has been developed that quantitates fluorescent compounds on thin-layer chromatography plates. A nitrogen laser excitation source produces a detection limit of 10 pg for four aflatoxins. Aflatoxin B1 has been found at levels up to 17 ppb in solid samples collected from the air at a plant which produces refuse-derived fuel. 7 figures, 1 table.

  15. Metal-Organic-Framework-Derived Dual Metal- and Nitrogen-Doped Carbon as Efficient and Robust Oxygen Reduction Reaction Catalysts for Microbial Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Haolin; Cai, Shichang; Xie, Shilei; Wang, Zhengbang; Tong, Yexiang; Pan, Mu; Lu, Xihong

    2016-02-01

    A new class of dual metal and N doped carbon catalysts with well-defined porous structure derived from metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been developed as a high-performance electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Furthermore, the microbial fuel cell (MFC) device based on the as-prepared Ni/Co and N codoped carbon as air cathode catalyst achieves a maximum power density of 4335.6 mW m(-2) and excellent durability.

  16. Fuels and chemicals from biomass using solar thermal energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giori, G.; Leitheiser, R.; Wayman, M.

    1981-01-01

    The significant nearer term opportunities for the application of solar thermal energy to the manufacture of fuels and chemicals from biomass are summarized, with some comments on resource availability, market potential and economics. Consideration is given to the production of furfural from agricultural residues, and the role of furfural and its derivatives as a replacement for petrochemicals in the plastics industry.

  17. Fuels and chemicals from biomass using solar thermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giori, G.; Leitheiser, R.; Wayman, M.

    1981-05-01

    The significant nearer term opportunities for the application of solar thermal energy to the manufacture of fuels and chemicals from biomass are summarized, with some comments on resource availability, market potential and economics. Consideration is given to the production of furfural from agricultural residues, and the role of furfural and its derivatives as a replacement for petrochemicals in the plastics industry.

  18. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2003-04-30

    During the period January 1, 2003--March 31, 2003, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) proceeded with improvements to both the Willow Island and Albright Generating Station cofiring systems. These improvements were designed to increase the resource base for the projects, and to address issues that came up during the first year of operations. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations.

  19. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-Biomass to Liquid Jet Fuel Compared to Petroleum-Derived JP-8 Jet Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    first additive in JP-8 is a Fuel System Icing Inhibitor (FSII). The first FSII used was Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ehther (EGME) consisting of 87.3...Co Cobalt  CO2 Carbon Dioxide  DiEGME Diethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether  DOD Department of Defense  DOE Department of Energy  E.O...Executive Order  EGME Ethyl Glycol Monomethyl Ether  EIA Energy Information Administration  EIO-LCA Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment  EISA

  20. Evaluation of advanced combustion concepts for dry NO sub x suppression with coal-derived, gaseous fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beebe, K. W.; Symonds, R. A.; Notardonato, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The emissions performance of a rich lean combustor (developed for liquid fuels) was determined for combustion of simulated coal gases ranging in heating value from 167 to 244 Btu/scf (7.0 to 10.3 MJ/NCM). The 244 Btu/scf gas is typical of the product gas from an oxygen blown gasifier, while the 167 Btu/scf gas is similar to that from an air blown gasifier. NOx performance of the rich lean combustor did not meet program goals with the 244 Btu/scf gas because of high thermal NOx, similar to levels expected from conventional lean burning combustors. The NOx emissions are attributed to inadequate fuel air mixing in the rich stage resulting from the design of the large central fuel nozzle delivering 71% of the total gas flow. NOx yield from ammonia injected into the fuel gas decreased rapidly with increasing ammonia level, and is projected to be less than 10% at NH3 levels of 0.5% or higher. NOx generation from NH3 is significant at ammonia concentrations significantly less than 0.5%. These levels may occur depending on fuel gas cleanup system design. CO emissions, combustion efficiency, smoke and other operational performance parameters were satisfactory. A test was completed with a catalytic combustor concept with petroleum distillate fuel. Reactor stage NOx emissions were low (1.4g NOx/kg fuel). CO emissions and combustion efficiency were satisfactory. Airflow split instabilities occurred which eventually led to test termination.

  1. Fuel consumption and associated emissions from seagoing ships at berth derived from an on-board survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulskotte, J. H. J.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.

    2010-03-01

    A methodology is presented to estimate the emissions of ships at berth based on their actual fuel consumption and the fuel quality. Accurate estimates of emissions from ships at berth demand reliable knowledge of the fuel consumption while at berth and associated fuel characteristics. However, assured information about energy use and fuel consumption of seagoing ships at berth is scarce. Proper estimation of ship emissions at berth is crucial for understanding the impact of shipping emissions on air quality and health in harbour cities as well as for a proper evaluation of the impact of abatement measures such as shore-side electricity and/or restrictions of sulphur content for shipping fuels to be used in ports. Therefore, a survey of energy consumption and fuel use on board of 89 seagoing ships was made in close cooperation with the Port of Rotterdam. Rotterdam is the major port of Europe ensuring that the results will have relevance for the larger European domain. On board of the ships at berth, a questionnaire was filled in by the chief engineer of that particular ship, assisted by two former mechanical shipping engineers employed at our organization. Survey results as well as the emission estimations are compared to the (scarce) information that is available and expert judgements in recent studies. The compiled survey data underlie the current Dutch emission estimation methodology for emissions of ships at berth.

  2. Gas turbine demonstration of pyrolysis: derived fuels. Third technical progress report, July 1, 1979-December 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Jasas, G.; Kasper, J.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this program is to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing pyrolytic oil and char as a fuel for a combustion turbine engine. This is the first phase of an extended program with the ultimate goal of commercializing a gas turbine engine and electrical generating system which is independent of petroleum-based fuels. Maximum use of existing technology and current production engine hardware (Teledyne CAE Model J69-T-29 Turbojet Engine) is being incorporated for a sequence of test evaluations rating from isolated combustor component tests to full scale engine demonstration tests. The technical goals to be achieved during the course of this project are: pyrolytic fuel characterization in terms of its properties and constituents; pyrolytic fuel combustion technology in gas turbine application in terms of pyrolytic oil atomization, quantity of char burned, emissions, performance and associated combustion system aerothermodynamics; pyrolytic fuel (oil and char slurry) handling, mixing, and storage technology; and engine materials compatibility with the the pyrolytic fuel and its combustion products. Progress achieved during the period from July 1979 through Deember 1981 in design, analysis, an project management hardware fabrication and procurement, fuel chemistry and properties, and combustor rig tests are summarized.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: ENVIROFUELS DIESEL FUEL CATALYZER FUEL ADDITIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program has tested EnviroFuels diesel fuel additive, called the Diesel Fuel Catalyzer. EnviroFuels has stated that heavy-duty on and off road diesel engines are the intended market for the catalyzer. Preliminary tests conducted indicate...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: ENVIROFUELS DIESEL FUEL CATALYZER FUEL ADDITIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program has tested EnviroFuels diesel fuel additive, called the Diesel Fuel Catalyzer. EnviroFuels has stated that heavy-duty on and off road diesel engines are the intended market for the catalyzer. Preliminary tests conducted indicate...

  5. Fuel cells seminar

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This year`s meeting highlights the fact that fuel cells for both stationary and transportation applications have reached the dawn of commercialization. Sales of stationary fuel cells have grown steadily over the past 2 years. Phosphoric acid fuel cell buses have been demonstrated in urban areas. Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells are on the verge of revolutionizing the transportation industry. These activities and many more are discussed during this seminar, which provides a forum for people from the international fuel cell community engaged in a wide spectrum of fuel cell activities. Discussions addressing R&D of fuel cell technologies, manufacturing and marketing of fuel cells, and experiences of fuel cell users took place through oral and poster presentations. For the first time, the seminar included commercial exhibits, further evidence that commercial fuel cell technology has arrived. A total of 205 papers is included in this volume.

  6. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2004-01-01

    During the period October 1, 2003-December 31, 2003, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) continued with demonstration operations at the Willow Island Generating Station and improvements to the Albright Generating Station cofiring systems. The demonstration operations at Willow Island were designed to document integration of biomass cofiring into commercial operations, including evaluating new sources of biomass supply. The Albright improvements were designed to increase the resource base for the projects, and to address issues that came up during the first year of operations. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations.

  7. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2003-07-01

    During the period April 1, 2003--June 30, 2003, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) proceeded with demonstration operations at the Willow Island Generating Station and improvements to the Albright Generating Station cofiring systems. The demonstration operations at Willow Island were designed to document integration of biomass cofiring into commercial operations. The Albright improvements were designed to increase the resource base for the projects, and to address issues that came up during the first year of operations. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations.

  8. Technology and Manufacturing Readiness of Early Market Motive and Non-Motive Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ronnebro, Ewa

    2012-06-16

    PNNL’s objective in this report is to provide DOE with a technology and manufacturing readiness assessment to identify hydrogen storage technologies’ maturity levels for early market motive and non-motive applications and to provide a path forward toward commercialization. PNNL’s Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) is based on a combination of Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and Manufacturing Readiness Level (MRL) designations that enable evaluation of hydrogen storage technologies in varying levels of development. This approach provides a logical methodology and roadmap to enable the identification of hydrogen storage technologies, their advantages/disadvantages, gaps and R&D needs on an unbiased and transparent scale that is easily communicated to interagency partners. The TRA report documents the process used to conduct the TRA, reports the TRL and MRL for each assessed technology and provides recommendations based on the findings.

  9. Full fuel-cycle comparison of forklift propulsion systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L. L.; Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Energy Systems

    2008-11-05

    Hydrogen has received considerable attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) investigates the technical and economic feasibility of promising new technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells. A recent report for DOE identified three near-term markets for fuel cells: (1) Emergency power for state and local emergency response agencies, (2) Forklifts in warehousing and distribution centers, and (3) Airport ground support equipment markets. This report examines forklift propulsion systems and addresses the potential energy and environmental implications of substituting fuel-cell propulsion for existing technologies based on batteries and fossil fuels. Industry data and the Argonne Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model are used to estimate full fuel-cycle emissions and use of primary energy sources, back to the primary feedstocks for fuel production. Also considered are other environmental concerns at work locations. The benefits derived from using fuel-cell propulsion are determined by the sources of electricity and hydrogen. In particular, fuel-cell forklifts using hydrogen made from the reforming of natural gas had lower impacts than those using hydrogen from electrolysis.

  10. Inhalation health effects of fine particles from the co-combustion of coal and refuse derived fuel.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Art; Wendt, Jost O L; Wolski, Natacha; Hein, Klaus R G; Wang, Shengjun; Witten, Mark L

    2003-06-01

    This paper is concerned with health effects from the inhalation of particulate matter (PM) emitted from the combustion of coal, and from the co-combustion of refuse derived fuel (RDF) and pulverized coal mixtures, under both normal and low NO(x) conditions. Specific issues focus on whether the addition of RDF to coal has an effect on PM toxicity, and whether the application of staged combustion (for low NO(x)) may also be a factor in this regard. Ash particles were sampled and collected from a pilot scale combustion unit and then re-suspended and diluted to concentrations of approximately 1000 microg/m(3). These particles were inhaled by mice, which were held in a nose-only exposure configuration. Exposure tests were for 1 h per day, and involved three sets (eight mice per set) of mice. These three sets were exposed over 8, 16, and 24 consecutive days, respectively. Pathological lung damage was measured in terms of increases in lung permeability. Results show that the re-suspended coal/RDF ash appeared to cause very different effects on lung permeability than did coal ash alone. In addition, it was also shown that a "snapshot" of lung properties after a fixed number of daily 1-h exposures, can be misleading, since apparent repair mechanisms cause lung properties to change over a period of time. For the coal/RDF, the greatest lung damage (in terms of lung permeability increase) occurred at the short exposure period of 8 days, and thereafter appeared to be gradually repaired. Ash from staged (low NO(x)) combustion of coal/RDF appeared to cause greater lung injury than that from unstaged (high NO(x)) coal/RDF combustion, although the temporal behavior and (apparent) repair processes in each case were similar. In contrast to this, coal ash alone showed a slight decrease of lung permeability after 1 and 3 days, and this disappeared after 12 days. These observations are interpreted in the light of mechanisms proposed in the literature. The results all suggest that the

  11. Microstructural changes in NiFe2O4 ceramics prepared with powders derived from different fuels in sol-gel auto-combustion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Lalita; Bokolia, Renuka; Sreenivas, K.

    2016-05-01

    Structural properties of Nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) ceramics prepared from powders derived from sol gel auto-combustion method using different fuels (citric acid, glycine and Dl-alanine) are compared. Changes in the structural properties at different sintering temperatures are investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the formation of single phase material with cubic structure. Ceramics prepared using the different powders obtained from different fuels show that that there are no significant changes in lattice parameters. However increasing sintering temperatures show significant improvement in density and grain size. The DL-alanine fuel is found to be the most effective fuel for producing NIFe2O4 powders by the sol-gel auto combustion method and yields highly crystalline powders in the as-burnt stage itself at a low temperature (80 °C). Subsequent use of the powders in ceramic manufacturing produces dense NiFe2O4 ceramics with a uniform microstructure and a large grain size.

  12. Microstructural changes in NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramics prepared with powders derived from different fuels in sol-gel auto-combustion technique

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, Lalita Sreenivas, K.; Bokolia, Renuka

    2016-05-23

    Structural properties of Nickel ferrite (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) ceramics prepared from powders derived from sol gel auto-combustion method using different fuels (citric acid, glycine and Dl-alanine) are compared. Changes in the structural properties at different sintering temperatures are investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the formation of single phase material with cubic structure. Ceramics prepared using the different powders obtained from different fuels show that that there are no significant changes in lattice parameters. However increasing sintering temperatures show significant improvement in density and grain size. The DL-alanine fuel is found to be the most effective fuel for producing NIFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} powders by the sol-gel auto combustion method and yields highly crystalline powders in the as-burnt stage itself at a low temperature (80 °C). Subsequent use of the powders in ceramic manufacturing produces dense NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramics with a uniform microstructure and a large grain size.

  13. Evaluation of Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Abbott; Edward Casey; Etop Esen; Douglas Smith; Bruce Burke; Binh Nguyen; Samuel Tam; Paul Worhach; Mahabubul Alam; Juhun Song; James Szybist; Ragini Acharya; Vince Zello; David Morris; Patrick Flynn; Stephen Kirby; Krishan Bhatia; Jeff Gonder; Yun Wang; Wenpeng Liu; Hua Meng; Subramani Velu; Jian-Ping Shen, Weidong Gu; Elise Bickford; Chunshan Song; Chao-Yang Wang; Andre' Boehman

    2006-02-28

    ConocoPhillips, in conjunction with Nexant Inc., Penn State University, and Cummins Engine Co., joined with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in a cooperative agreement to perform a comprehensive study of new ultra clean fuels (UCFs) produced from remote sources of natural gas. The project study consists of three primary tasks: an environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), a Market Study, and a series of Engine Tests to evaluate the potential markets for Ultra Clean Fuels. The overall objective of DOE's Ultra Clean Transportation Fuels Initiative is to develop and deploy technologies that will produce ultra-clean burning transportation fuels for the 21st century from both petroleum and non-petroleum resources. These fuels will: (1) Enable vehicles to comply with future emission requirements; (2) Be compatible with the existing liquid fuels infrastructure; (3) Enable vehicle efficiencies to be significantly increased, with concomitantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions; (4) Be obtainable from a fossil resource, alone or in combination with other hydrocarbon materials such as refinery wastes, municipal wastes, biomass, and coal; and (5) Be competitive with current petroleum fuels. The objectives of the ConocoPhillips Ultra Clean Fuels Project are to perform a comprehensive life cycle analysis and to conduct a market study on ultra clean fuels of commercial interest produced from natural gas, and, in addition, perform engine tests for Fisher-Tropsch diesel and methanol in neat, blended or special formulations to obtain data on emissions. This resulting data will be used to optimize fuel compositions and engine operation in order to minimize the release of atmospheric pollutants resulting from the fuel combustion. Development and testing of both direct and indirect methanol fuel cells was to be conducted and the optimum properties of a suitable fuel-grade methanol was to be defined. The results of the study are also applicable

  14. Detection of the arylpropionamide-derived selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) S-4 (Andarine) in a black-market product.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Geyer, Hans; Kamber, Matthias; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2009-08-01

    Non-steroidal and tissue-selective anabolic agents such as selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) represent a promising class of therapeutics for the treatment of various diseases such as sarcopenia or cancer cachexia. Advanced compounds of SARMs are based on an arylpropionamide-derived structure and leading drug candidates have successfully completed phase-II-clinical trials. Although none of these therapeutics have been approved, their performance-enhancing qualities and the black-market availability of these products makes them a viable target for misuse in the athletic community. In 2008, SARMs were added to the Prohibited List established by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). That SARMs are the subject of misuse even without clinical approval was proved for the first time by the detection of the drug candidate Andarine (also referred to as S-4, S-3-(4-acetylamino-phenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(4-nitro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-propionamide), advertised, sold and supplied via the Internet. The oily liquids, declared as green tea extracts and face moisturizer, were assayed using state-of-the-art analytical procedures and S-4 was found at concentrations of approximately 150 mg/mL. The authenticity of the product was demonstrated in comparison to reference material by liquid chromatography, high resolution/high accuracy (tandem) mass spectrometry using positive and negative electrospray ionization, and comparison to reference material. Moreover, an impurity resulting from poor product purification was detected, accounting for approximately 10% of S-4. This consisted of 2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(4-nitro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-3-(4-nitro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenylamino)-propionamide. The ease of purchasing non-approved drug candidates that could potentially increase athletic performance demonstrates the need to operate proactively in the continued fight against doping. The early inclusion of emerging drugs into routine sports drug testing procedures is a key

  15. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  16. Organic reactions for the electrochemical and photochemical production of chemical fuels from CO2--The reduction chemistry of carboxylic acids and derivatives as bent CO2 surrogates.

    PubMed

    Luca, Oana R; Fenwick, Aidan Q

    2015-11-01

    The present review covers organic transformations involved in the reduction of CO2 to chemical fuels. In particular, we focus on reactions of CO2 with organic molecules to yield carboxylic acid derivatives as a first step in CO2 reduction reaction sequences. These biomimetic initial steps create opportunities for tandem electrochemical/chemical reductions. We draw parallels between long-standing knowledge of CO2 reactivity from organic chemistry, organocatalysis, surface science and electrocatalysis. We point out some possible non-faradaic chemical reactions that may contribute to product distributions in the production of solar fuels from CO2. These reactions may be accelerated by thermal effects such as resistive heating and illumination.

  17. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2003-10-01

    During the period July 1, 2003-September 30, 2003, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) proceeded with demonstration operations at the Willow Island Generating Station and improvements to the Albright Generating Station cofiring systems. The demonstration operations at Willow Island were designed to document integration of bio mass cofiring into commercial operations, including evaluating new sources of biomass supply. The Albright improvements were designed to increase the resource base for the projects, and to address issues that came up during the first year of operations. During this period, a major presentation summarizing the program was presented at the Pittsburgh Coal Conference. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations.

  18. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas: Case studies, design, and economics

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This project is a combination of process simulation and catalyst development aimed at identifying the most economical method for converting coal to syngas to linear higher alcohols to be used as oxygenated fuel additives. There are two tasks. The goal of Task 1 is to discover, study, and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas, and to explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. The goal of Task 2 is to simulate, by computer, energy efficient and economically efficient processes for converting coal to energy (fuel alcohols and/or power). The primary focus is to convert syngas to fuel alcohols. This report contains results from Task 2. The first step for Task 2 was to develop computer simulations of alternative coal to syngas to linear higher alcohol processes, to evaluate and compare the economics and energy efficiency of these alternative processes, and to make a preliminary determination as to the most attractive process configuration. A benefit of this approach is that simulations will be debugged and available for use when Task 1 results are available. Seven cases were developed using different gasifier technologies, different methods for altering the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the syngas to the desired 1.1/1, and with the higher alcohol fuel additives as primary products and as by-products of a power generation facility. Texaco, Shell, and Lurgi gasifier designs were used to test gasifying coal. Steam reforming of natural gas, sour gas shift conversion, or pressure swing adsorption were used to alter the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the syngas. In addition, a case using only natural gas was prepared to compare coal and natural gas as a source of syngas.

  19. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal Derived Liquids. Volume 9. Results of Bench-Scale and Pilot Plant Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    Amoco Oil Company has conducted bench- and pilot plant-scale experiments to produce jet fuels from the tar oil from the Great Plains Coal ... Gasification Plant in Beulah, North Dakota. Experiments show that the hydroprocessing conditions recommended in Task I are not severe enough to saturate the

  20. Toxicity of water-soluble fractions of biodiesel fuels derived from castor oil, palm oil, and waste cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Leite, Maria Bernadete Neiva Lemos; de Araújo, Milena Maria Sampaio; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; da Cruz, Andrea Cristina Santos; Pereira, Solange Andrade; do Nascimento, Núbia Costa

    2011-04-01

    Concerns over the sustained availability of fossil fuels and their impact on global warming and pollution have led to the search for fuels from renewable sources to address worldwide rising energy demands. Biodiesel is emerging as one of the possible solutions for the transport sector. It shows comparable engine performance to that of conventional diesel fuel, while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the toxicity of products and effluents from the biodiesel industry has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Brazil has a very high potential as a biodiesel producer, in view of its climatic conditions and vast areas for cropland, with consequent environmental risks because of possible accidental biodiesel spillages into water bodies and runoff to coastal areas. This research determined the toxicity to two marine organisms of the water-soluble fractions (WSF) of three different biodiesel fuels obtained by methanol transesterification of castor oil (CO), palm oil (PO), and waste cooking oil (WCO). Microalgae and sea urchins were used as the test organisms, respectively, for culture-growth-inhibition and early-life-stage-toxicity tests. The toxicity levels of the analyzed biodiesel WSF showed the highest toxicity for the CO, followed by WCO and the PO. Methanol was the most prominent contaminant; concentrations increased over time in WSF samples stored up to 120 d.

  1. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2002-01-01

    During the period October 1, 2001--December 31, 2001, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) completed construction of the Willow Island cofiring project. This included completion of the explosion proof electrical wiring, the control system, and the control software. Procedures for system checkout, shakedown, and initial operation were initiated during this period. During this time period the 100-hour test of the Albright Generating Station cofiring facility was completed. The testing demonstrated that cofiring at the Albright Generating Station could reliably contribute to a ''4P Strategy''--reduction of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, mercury, and greenhouse gas emissions over a significant load range. During this period of time Allegheny Energy conducted facility tours of both Albright and Willow Island for the Biomass Interest Group of the Electric Power Research Institute. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. It details the completion of construction activities at the Willow Island site along with the 100-hr test at the Albright site.

  2. The Influence of Fuel Moisture, Charge Size, Burning Rate and Air Ventilation Conditions on Emissions of PM, OC, EC, Parent PAHs, and Their Derivatives from Residential Wood Combustion

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guofeng; Xue, Miao; Wei, Siye; Chen, Yuanchen; Wang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Lv, Yan; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Wei, Wen; Zhao, Qiuyue; Li, Bin; Wu, Haisuo; TAO, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Controlled combustion experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of fuel charge size, moisture, air ventilation and burning rate on the emission factors (EFs) of carbonaceous particulate matter, parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) and their derivatives from residential wood combustion in a typical brick cooking stove. Measured EFs were found to be independent of fuel charge size, but increased with increasing fuel moisture. Pollution emissions from a normal burning under an adequate air supply condition were the lowest for most pollutants, while more pollutants were emitted when the oxygen deficient atmosphere was formed in stove chamber during fast burning. The impact of these 4 factors on particulate matter size distribution was also studied. Modified combustion efficiency and the four investigated factors explained 68, 72, and 64% of total variations in EFs of PM, organic carbon, and oxygenated PAHs, respectively, but only 36, 38 and 42% of the total variations in EFs of elemental carbon, pPAHs and nitro-PAHs, respectively. PMID:24520723

  3. Coal markets squeeze producers

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, M.

    2005-12-01

    Supply/demand fundamentals seem poised to keep prices of competing fossil fuels high, which could cushion coal prices, but increased mining and transportation costs may squeeze producer profits. Are markets ready for more volatility?

  4. Outlook for alternative transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Gushee, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a brief review of regulatory issues and Federal programs regarding alternative fuel use in automobiles. A number of U.S. DOE initiatives and studies aimed at increasing alternative fuels are outlined, and tax incentives in effect at the state and Federal levels are discussed. Data on alternative fuel consumption and alternative fuel vehicle use are also presented. Despite mandates, tax incentives, and programs, it is concluded alternative fuels will have minimal market penetration. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  5. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Two base case flow sheets have now been prepared. In the first, which was originally presented in TPR4, a Texaco gasifier is used. Natural gas is also burned in sufficient quantity to increase the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the synthesis gas to the required value of 1. 1 for alcohol synthesis. Acid gas clean up and sulfur removal are accomplished using the Rectisol process followed by the Claus and Beavon processes. About 10% of the synthesis gas is sent to a power generation unit in order to produce electric power, with the remaining 90% used for alcohol synthesis. For this process, the estimated installed cost is $474.2 mm. The estimated annual operating costs are $64.5 MM. At a price of alcohol fuels in the vicinity of $1. 00/gal, the pay back period for construction of this plant is about four years. The details of this case, called Base Case 1, are presented in Appendix 1. The second base case, called Base Case 2, also has a detailed description and explanation in Appendix 1. In Base Case 2, a Lurgi Gasifier is used. The motivation for using a Lurgi Gasifier is that it runs at a lower temperature and pressure and, therefore, produces by-products such as coal liquids which can be sold. Based upon the economics of joint production, discussed in Technical Progress Report 4, this is a necessity. Since synthesis gas from natural gas is always less expensive to produce than from coal, then alcohol fuels will always be less expensive to produce from natural gas than from coal. Therefore, the only way to make coal- derived alcohol fuels economically competitive is to decrease the cost of production of coal-derived synthesis gas. one method for accomplishing this is to sell the by-products from the gasification step. The details of this strategy are discussed in Appendix 3.

  6. INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE PROJECT 2 MW FUEL CELL DEMONSTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    FuelCell Energy

    2005-05-16

    With about 50% of power generation in the United States derived from coal and projections indicating that coal will continue to be the primary fuel for power generation in the next two decades, the Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) has been conducted since 1985 to develop innovative, environmentally friendly processes for the world energy market place. The 2 MW Fuel Cell Demonstration was part of the Kentucky Pioneer Energy (KPE) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) project selected by DOE under Round Five of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The participant in the CCTDP V Project was Kentucky Pioneer Energy for the IGCC plant. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE), under subcontract to KPE, was responsible for the design, construction and operation of the 2 MW fuel cell power plant. Duke Fluor Daniel provided engineering design and procurement support for the balance-of-plant skids. Colt Engineering Corporation provided engineering design, fabrication and procurement of the syngas processing skids. Jacobs Applied Technology provided the fabrication of the fuel cell module vessels. Wabash River Energy Ltd (WREL) provided the test site. The 2 MW fuel cell power plant utilizes FuelCell Energy's Direct Fuel Cell (DFC) technology, which is based on the internally reforming carbonate fuel cell. This plant is capable of operating on coal-derived syngas as well as natural gas. Prior testing (1992) of a subscale 20 kW carbonate fuel cell stack at the Louisiana Gasification Technology Inc. (LGTI) site using the Dow/Destec gasification plant indicated that operation on coal derived gas provided normal performance and stable operation. Duke Fluor Daniel and FuelCell Energy developed a commercial plant design for the 2 MW fuel cell. The plant was designed to be modular, factory assembled and truck shippable to the site. Five balance-of-plant skids incorporating fuel processing, anode gas oxidation, heat recovery, water

  7. Advanced fuel system technology for utilizing broadened property aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Factors which will determine the future supply and cost of aviation turbine fuels are discussed. The most significant fuel properties of volatility, fluidity, composition, and thermal stability are discussed along with the boiling ranges of gasoline, naphtha jet fuels, kerosene, and diesel oil. Tests were made to simulate the low temperature of an aircraft fuel tank to determine fuel tank temperatures for a 9100-km flight with and without fuel heating; the effect of N content in oil-shale derived fuels on the Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester breakpoint temperature was measured. Finally, compatibility of non-metallic gaskets, sealants, and coatings with increased aromatic content jet fuels was examined.

  8. PLATINUM AND FUEL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Platinum requirements for fuel cell vehicles (FCVS) have been identified as a concern and possible problem with FCV market penetration. Platinum is a necessary component of the electrodes of fuel cell engines that power the vehicles. The platinum is deposited on porous electrodes...

  9. Guide to fuel suppliers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This article is a directory of fuel suppliers to the electric power industry. The directory contains the company name, address, telephone and FAX numbers, contact person and a description of the fuels and services offered by the companies and their market areas. The directory's scope covers North America.

  10. PLATINUM AND FUEL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Platinum requirements for fuel cell vehicles (FCVS) have been identified as a concern and possible problem with FCV market penetration. Platinum is a necessary component of the electrodes of fuel cell engines that power the vehicles. The platinum is deposited on porous electrodes...

  11. Development of Detailed and Reduced Kinetics Mechanisms for Surrogates of Petroleum-Derived and Synthetic Jet Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-04

    0.05. § Two tertiary C-H sites: pathways significant production of iso-butene. • Pyrolysis at 850-1000 K and pressure of 8.0 atm. o n-Decane: 900...1000 - Pressure , atm 8.000 8.000 ±0.025 Residence time, ms 168 ±10 168 ±10 Table 4. Test conditions for n-dodecane pyrolysis , residence time 168...Modified an existing variable- pressure flow reactor for operation using liquid fuels. • Conducted experiments on the pyrolysis and oxidation of n-dodecane

  12. Release of bisphenol A and its derivatives from orthodontic adhesive systems available on the European market as a potential health risk factor.

    PubMed

    Małkiewicz, Konrad; Turło, Jadwiga; Marciniuk-Kluska, Anna; Grzech-Leśniak, Kinga; Gąsior, Magdalena; Kluska, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances requires the application of adhesive systems to enable secure fastening of brackets and retainers to the surface of tooth enamel. The orthodontic bonding systems are similar in terms of chemical composition to dental filling materials, the chemical stability of which is not satisfactory. Particularly alarming is the release of bisphenol A and its derivatives to the external environment, which has been well-documented for materials used in conservative dentistry. The aim of the study was an in vitro assessment of the release of biologically harmful bisphenol A and its derivatives from orthodontic adhesives available on the European market, as a potential health risk factor for orthodontic patients. The study assessed levels of BPA, BPA polymers and Bis-GMA resin in eluates of six commonly used orthodontic adhesives: Light Bond, Transbond XT, Resilence, Aspire, GrĕnGloo and ConTec LC, obtained after one hour, 24 hours, 7 days and 31 days of material sample storage in water. The presence and concentration of the studied chemicals in the obtained solutions were identified using the HPLC method. The highest (p≤0.05) concentration of BPA at 32.10µg/ml was observed in the Resilence material eluates. The highest concentration of poly-bisphenol A was found in solutions obtained after incubation of ConTec LC adhesive at 371.90µg/ml, whereas the highest amount of Bis-GMA resin (425.07µg/ml) was present in Aspire material eluates. 1) In conditions of the current experiment it was demonstrated that most of the assessed orthodontic adhesive resins available on the European market and released into the outside environment - biologically harmful bisphenol A or its derivatives, posing a potential threat to the patients' health. 2) Release of BPA and its derivatives into aqueous solutions is the highest in the early stages of sample incubation.

  13. Natural Mineral-Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell with Heterogeneous Nanocomposite Derived from Hematite and Rare-Earth Minerals.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chen; Cai, Yixiao; Ma, Yue; Wang, Baoyuan; Zhang, Wei; Karlsson, Mikael; Wu, Yan; Zhu, Bin

    2016-08-17

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have attracted much attention worldwide because of their potential for providing clean and reliable electric power. However, their commercialization is subject to the high operating temperatures and costs. To make SOFCs more competitive, here we report a novel and attractive nanocomposite hematite-LaCePrOx (hematite-LCP) synthesized from low-cost natural hematite and LaCePr-carbonate mineral as an electrolyte candidate. This heterogeneous composite exhibits a conductivity as high as 0.116 S cm(-1) at 600 °C with an activation energy of 0.50 eV at 400-600 °C. For the first time, a fuel cell using such a natural mineral-based composite demonstrates a maximum power density of 625 mW cm(-2) at 600 °C and notable power output of 386 mW cm(-2) at 450 °C. The extraordinary ionic conductivity and device performances are primarily attributed to the heterophasic interfacial conduction effect of the hematite-LCP composite. These superior properties, along with the merits of ultralow cost, abundant storage, and eco-friendliness, make the new composite a highly promising material for commercial SOFCs.

  14. Conversion of Biomass Derivatives to Electricity in Photo Fuel Cells using Undoped and Tungsten-doped Bismuth Vanadate Photoanodes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bingqing; Shi, Jingying; Ding, Chunmei; Chong, Ruifeng; Zhang, Bao; Wang, Zhiliang; Li, Ailong; Liang, Zhenxing; Liao, Shijun; Li, Can

    2015-12-07

    The photo fuel cell (PFC) is a promising technology for simultaneously converting solar energy and bioenergy into electricity. Here, we present a miniature air-breathing PFC that uses either BiVO4 or W-doped BiVO4 as the photoanode and a Pt/C catalyst as the air-breathing cathode. The PFC exhibited excellent performance under solar illumination and when fed with several types of biomaterial. We found the PFC performance could be significantly enhanced using W-doping into the BiVO4 photoanode. With glucose as the fuel and simulated sunlight (AM 1.5 G) as the light source, the open-circuit voltage increased from 0.74 to 0.92 V, the short-circuit current density rose from 0.46 to 1.62 mA cm(-2) , and the maximum power density was boosted from 0.05 to 0.38 mW cm(-2) , compared to a PFC using undoped BiVO4 as the anode.

  15. Grove Fuel Cell Symposium - Progress in Fuel Cell Commercialisation, 2nd, London, England, Sept. 24-27, 1991, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, A. J.; Lovering, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to American fuel cell market development, a gas utility approach to fuel cell commercialization, solid oxide fuel cell developments, proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems engineering, and high temperature fuel cell development. Electric vehicle drive systems, solid polymer fuel cell developments, the role of fuel cells in California clean air initiatives, fuel cell energy recovery from landfill gas, and fuel cells and the city of the future are also considered.

  16. Health and environmental effects of refuse derived fuel (RDF) production and RDF/coal co-firing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    O'Toole, J.J.; Wessels, T.E.; Lynch, J.F.; Fassel, V.A.; Lembke, L.L.; Kniseley, R.N.; Norton, G.A.; Junk, G.A.; Richard, J.J.; Dekalb, E.L.; Dobosy, R.J.

    1981-10-01

    Six facilities, representing the scope of different co-firing techniques with their associated RDF production systems were reviewed in detail for combustion equipment, firing modes, emission control systems, residue handling/disposal, and effluent wastewater treatment. These facilities encompass all currently operational or soon to be operational co-firing plants and associated RDF production systems. Occupational health and safety risks for these plants were evaluated on the basis of fatal and nonfatal accidents and disease arising from the respective fuel cycles, coal and RDF. Occupational risks include exposure to pathogenic organisms in the workplace. Unusual events that are life threatening in the RDF processing industry (e.g., explosions) are also discussed and remedial and safety measures reviewed. 80 refs., 4 figs., 30 tabs.

  17. Polarization loss correction derived from hydrogen local-resistance measurement in low Pt-loaded polymer-electrolyte fuel cells

    DOE PAGES

    Freiberg, Anna T. S.; Tucker, Michael C.; Weber, Adam Z.

    2017-04-12

    The reduction of platinum-loading on the cathode side of polymer-electrolyte fuel cells leads to a poorly understood increase in mass-transport resistance (MTR) at high current densities. This local resistance was measured using a facile hydrogen-pump technique with dilute active gases for membrane-electrode assemblies with catalyst layers of varying platinum-loading (0.03-0.40 mgPt/cm²). Furthermore, polarization curves in H2/air were measured and corrected for the overpotential caused by the increased MTR for low loadings on the air side due to the reduced concentration of reactant gas at the catalyst surface. The difference in performance after correction for all resistances including the MTR ismore » minor, suggesting its origin to be diffusive in nature, and proving the meaningfulness of the facile hydrogen-pump technique for the characterization of the cathode catalyst layer under defined operation conditions.« less

  18. Agricultural policies and biomass fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaim, S.; Hertzmark, D.

    The potentials for biomass energy derived from agricultural products are examined. The production of energy feedstocks from grains is discussed for the example of ethanol production from grain, with consideration given to the beverage process and the wet milling process for obtaining fuel ethanol from grains and sugars, the nonfeedstock costs and energy requirements for ethanol production, the potential net energy gain from ethanol fermentation, the effect of ethanol fuel production on supplies of protein, oils and feed and of ethanol coproducts, net ethanol costs, and alternatives to corn as an ethanol feedstock. Biomass fuel production from crop residues is then considered; the constraints of soil fertility on crop residue removal for energy production are reviewed, residue yields with conventional practices and with reduced tillage are determined, technologies for the direct conversion of cellulose to ethanol and methanol are described, and potential markets for the products of these processes are identified. Implications for agricultural policy of ethanol production from grain and fuel and chemical production from crop residues are also discussed.

  19. Characterization of coal-derived liquids and other fossil-fuel-related materials employing mass spectrometry. Final report, September 30, 1976-September 29, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Scheppele, S E

    1982-05-01

    A document was prepared which assessed the state-of-the art in the mass spectrometric characterization of fossil fuel materials and the relevance of these data to the fossil fuel industry. A Kratos DS50 SM data system was successfully interfaced to a CEC 21-110B mass spectrometer. Communications between the NOVA 3/12 computer in the data system and the OSU central computer were established. A Grant Comparator/Microdensitometer was acquired and made operational. Plans were developed and hardware acquired for interfacing the densitometer to the NOVA 3/12 computer. A quartz direct introduction probe was acquired for the CEC 21-110B. A temperature controller for the probe was acquired and interfaced to the slow speed ADC on the auxillary board in the data system/mass spectrometer interface. The combined FI/EI source was modified to operate in the FD mode and an apparatus was fabricated for conditioning FD emitters. A CSI supergrater 3 was interfaced to the PE 3920 gas chromatograph. The upgraded facility was used to develop mass spectrometric methods for the characterization of fossil fuel materials and to apply methods to the characterization of these materials. Activities included: (1) initial development of field-ionization mass spectrometry for the characterization of saturated hydrocarbons, (2) computerization of the technique of probe microdistillation/mass spectrometry, (3) initation of the development of a new method for the computer assisted assignment of formulas to ion masses, (4) characterization of neutral fractions from a hydrotreated tar-sands oil, and (5) characterization of coal-derived oils and asphaltenes.

  20. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with the anticipated impossibility to provide on a long-term basis liquid fuels derived from petroleum, an investigation has been conducted with the objective to assess the suitability of jet fuels made from oil shale and coal and to develop a data base which will allow optimization of future fuel characteristics, taking energy efficiency of manufacture and the tradeoffs in aircraft and engine design into account. The properties of future aviation fuels are examined and proposed solutions to problems of alternative fuels are discussed. Attention is given to the refining of jet fuel to current specifications, the control of fuel thermal stability, and combustor technology for use of broad specification fuels. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source.