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Sample records for dermal burn case

  1. Significant chemical burns associated with dermal exposure to laundry pod detergent.

    PubMed

    Russell, Jason L; Wiles, Devin A; Kenney, Brian; Spiller, Henry A

    2014-09-01

    Concentrated laundry pods have been reported to cause significant clinical effects including oropharyngeal burns and respiratory distress requiring intubation. Dermal burns have been reported, but no incidents of serious isolated dermal injury have been published. We report a case of significant, isolated dermal injury as a result of dermal exposure to a concentrated laundry detergent pod. Total body surface area partial thickness burns in this case were estimated at approximately 2 % with an additional 4-5 % of total body surface area (TBSA) displaying superficial burns/chemical dermatitis. Health-care providers should be aware of this complication and should perform thorough dermal decontamination in the event of an exposure. Parents should be educated regarding the dangers associated with dermal exposure to laundry pod compounds and the need to secure these items away from children as well as proper decontamination techniques should an exposure occur.

  2. The Use of Fetal Bovine Dermal Scaffold (PriMatrix) in the Management of Full-Thickness Hand Burns

    PubMed Central

    Karcich, Jenika; Granick, Mark S.; Marano, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Management of full-thickness burn wounds represents a challenge when reconstructive options are not applicable. Fetal bovine dermal matrix is a bioactive collagen scaffold that assimilates into wounds and stimulates vascularization and dermal regeneration. Methods: We present the use of fetal bovine dermal scaffold PriMatrix in the treatment of a patient who sustained scald-immersion full-thickness burns of her bilateral hands that failed conventional wound therapy. Results: A 71-year-old woman with advanced Parkinson's disease sustained self-induced 5% mixed second- and third-degree scald-immersion burns of her bilateral hands and fingers. The patient underwent extensive debridement that resulted in partially avascular wounds measuring 66 cm2 and 72 cm2 with exposed extensor tendons and no evidence of bleeding. Meshed homograft was applied, but her hands remained partly avascular. PriMatrix fetal bovine dermal scaffold was applied to provide tissue remodeling over the bones, which allowed successful skin grafting and complete wound healing. Conclusions: Our experience shows fetal bovine dermal scaffold to be an effective method in management of complicated burn wounds in selected cases. Further studies need to be implemented to confer this conclusion. PMID:25328569

  3. A novel dermal matrix generated from burned skin as a promising substitute for deep-degree burns therapy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guanying; Ye, Lan; Tan, Wei; Zhu, Xuguo; Li, Yaonan; Jiang, Duyin

    2016-03-01

    The extensive skin defects induced by severe burns are dangerous and can be fatal. Currently, the most common therapy is tangential excision to remove the necrotic or denatured areas of skin, followed by skin grafting. Xenogeneic dermal substitutes, such as porcine acellular dermal matrix (ADM), are typically used to cover the burn wounds, and may accelerate wound healing. It is assumed that burned skin that still maintains partial biological activity may be recycled to construct an autologous acellular dermal matrix, termed 'deep‑degree burned dermal matrix (DDBDM)'. In theory, DDBDM may avoid the histoincompatibility issues associated with foreign or xenogeneic dermal matrices, and reduce therapy costs by making full use of discarded skin. In the present study, the collagens within prepared DDBDM were thickened, disorganized and partially fractured, however, they still maintained their reticular structure and tensile strength (P<0.01). Through microarray analysis of the cytokines present in ADM and DDBDM, it was determined that the DDBDM did not produce excessive levels of harmful burn toxins. Following 4 weeks of subcutaneous implantation, ADM and DDBDM were incompletely degraded and maintained good integrity. No significant inflammatory reaction or rejection were observed, which indicated that ADM and DDBDM have good histocompatibility. Therefore, DDBDM may be a useful material for the treatment of deep‑degree burns. PMID:26846279

  4. A novel dermal matrix generated from burned skin as a promising substitute for deep-degree burns therapy

    PubMed Central

    YU, GUANYING; YE, LAN; TAN, WEI; ZHU, XUGUO; LI, YAONAN; JIANG, DUYIN

    2016-01-01

    The extensive skin defects induced by severe burns are dangerous and can be fatal. Currently, the most common therapy is tangential excision to remove the necrotic or denatured areas of skin, followed by skin grafting. Xenogeneic dermal substitutes, such as porcine acellular dermal matrix (ADM), are typically used to cover the burn wounds, and may accelerate wound healing. It is assumed that burned skin that still maintains partial biological activity may be recycled to construct an autologous acellular dermal matrix, termed 'deep-degree burned dermal matrix (DDBDM)'. In theory, DDBDM may avoid the histoincompatibility issues associated with foreign or xenogeneic dermal matrices, and reduce therapy costs by making full use of discarded skin. In the present study, the collagens within prepared DDBDM were thickened, disorganized and partially fractured, however, they still maintained their reticular structure and tensile strength (P<0.01). Through microarray analysis of the cytokines present in ADM and DDBDM, it was determined that the DDBDM did not produce excessive levels of harmful burn toxins. Following 4 weeks of subcutaneous implantation, ADM and DDBDM were incompletely degraded and maintained good integrity. No significant inflammatory reaction or rejection were observed, which indicated that ADM and DDBDM have good histocompatibility. Therefore, DDBDM may be a useful material for the treatment of deep-degree burns. PMID:26846279

  5. Focal dermal hypoplasia: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Sahana M; Hiremagalore, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome) is a rare genetic multisystem disorder primarily involving the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. We report the case of an eight-month-old female child who presented with multiple hypopigmented atrophic macules along the lines of blaschko, skeletal anomalies, umbilical hernia, developmental delay, hypoplastic nails, syndactyly, and lobster claw deformity characteristic of Goltz syndrome. PMID:25657436

  6. A novel device to create consistent deep dermal burns in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Seema; Chan, Queenie; Bertinetti, Monique; Harvey, John G; Hei, Erik R La; Holland, Andrew JA

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this study to evaluate a novel device to create a consistent and reproducible deep partial thickness burn in a porcine model. A thermostatically controlled, heated aluminium disc device was fashioned by the Biomedical Department of our institution. Contact burns were made on the flank of two Great White pigs by applying the device heated to 92°C at intervals of 5, 10, 15 and 20 seconds to four separate test areas area of skin. Biopsies for histological analysis of burn depth were taken on day 0 at 10 minutes post burn and on day 8. Biopsies taken at day 0 revealed superficial to mid-dermal burns, with minimal dermal edema and necrosis. Those from day 8 showed mid to deep dermal edema and necrosis in all four test areas following a 20 second contact duration burn. The new contact burn device was able to create a consistent deep dermal burn after 20 seconds of contact. We anticipate that this new device could be used to investigate the development of hypertrophic scarring in a porcine model. PMID:27335694

  7. The use of fucosphere in the treatment of dermal burns in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sezer, A D; Cevher, E; Hatipoğlu, F; Oğurtan, Z; Baş, A L; Akbuğa, J

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare a new microsphere (fucosphere) system based on polyion complexation of fucoidan with chitosan, and to evaluate its treatment efficiency on dermal burns. The physicochemical properties such as mean particle size and distribution, zeta potential and bioadhesive properties of the microspheres were investigated. The formulation which had the high surface charge, narrow size distribution and the highest bioadhesive property was selected and applied on seven male New Zealand white rabbits with dermal burns. Biopsy samples were taken on day 7, 14 and 21. Each burn site was evaluated macroscopically and histopathologically and the findings were compared with controls of fucoidan solution and chitosan microspheres. The microspheres between the size ranges of 367 and 1017 nm were obtained. The work of bioadhesion of microspheres, with the surface charges +6.1 to +26.3 mV, changed between 0.081 and 0.191 mJ cm(-2). Macroscopically and histopathological observations indicated that the fastest healing of the burns was obtained in group treated with fucosphere after 21 days of treatment (P<0.05). Rete peg formation values and nuclear organize regions (NORs) were higher with treated fucospheres than the other groups on day 14. In conclusion, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of fucospheres indicated that the new microsphere system shortened the treatment period of burns and provided fast and effective healing by improving regeneration and re-epithelization. Hence fucosphere may find application in the treatment of dermal burns.

  8. Case report: pseudotail with dermal sinus tract and tethered cord.

    PubMed

    Clark, Paul; Davidson, Laurence

    2016-09-01

    A pseudotail is a very rare, dermal appendage arising from the lumbosacral region with an association with spinal dysraphism. We report a case of a pseudotail in a healthy newborn female with sonographic imaging of a tethered cord and dermal sinus tract with MRI and surgical correlation. PMID:27635168

  9. In vivo visualization of dermal collagen fiber in skin burn by collagen-sensitive second-harmonic-generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Ryosuke; Fukushima, Shu-ichiro; Sasaki, Kunihiko; Tanaka, Yuji; Murota, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Araki, Tsutomu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2013-06-01

    Optical assessment of skin burns is possible with second-harmonic-generation (SHG) microscopy due to its high sensitivity to thermal denaturation of collagen molecules. In contrast to previous studies that were performed using excised tissue specimens ex vivo, in vivo observation of dermal collagen fibers in living rat burn models with SHG microscopy is demonstrated. Changes in signal vanishing patterns in the SHG images are confirmed to be dependent on the burn degree. Comparison of the SHG images with Masson's trichrome-stained images indicated that the observed patterns were caused by the coexistence of molten and fibrous structures of dermal collagen fibers. Furthermore, a quantitative parameter for burn assessment based on the depth profile of the mean SHG intensity across the entire SHG image is proposed. These results and discussions imply a potential of SHG microscopy as a minimally invasive, highly quantitative tool for skin burn assessment.

  10. In vivo imaging of dermal collagen in skin burn by collagen-sensitive second-harmonic-generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Takeshi; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Hase, Eiji; Fukushima, Shu-ichiro; Araki, Tsutomu

    2013-02-01

    Optical assessment of skin burns is possible with second-harmonic-generation (SHG) microscopy due to its high sensitivity to thermal denaturation of collagen molecules. In contrast to previous studies that were performed using excised tissue specimens ex vivo, in this study, we demonstrated in vivo observation of dermal collagen fibers in living rat burn models with SHG microscopy. We confirmed that changes in SHG vanishing patterns in the SHG images depended on the burn degree. The results imply that SHG microscopy can be used as a low-invasiveness, highly quantitative tool for skin burn assessment.

  11. [Occipital dermal sinus associated to a cerebellar abscess. Case].

    PubMed

    Costa, J M; de Reina, L; Guillén, A; Claramunt, E

    2004-10-01

    Congenital dermal sinuses are tubular tracts which communicate the skin with deeper structures. It is a manifestation of defective separation of the ectoderm and neuroderm. The incidence is 1/2500-3000 births alive. Almost 10 % of congenital dermal sinuses are localized in the occipitocervical region. They are usually asymptomatic, unless an infectious process is concurrent (meningitis, abscess). We are presenting the case of a 12 months girl with unnoticed cutaneous stigmata in the occipital region, who was admitted with a meningeal syndrome and secondary neurological impairment. She had a cerebellar abscess and was treated with decompression by puncture of the abscess and antibiotics. When infection was resolved, congenital dermal sinus was excised. Process solves without morbidity. We reviewed the clinical and therapeutic features in cases reported previously in the literature.

  12. Spinal dorsal dermal sinus tract: An experience of 21 cases

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ishwar; Rohilla, Seema; Kumar, Prashant; Sharma, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spinal dorsal dermal sinus is a rare entity, which usually comes to clinical attention by cutaneous abnormalities, neurologic deficit, and/or infection. The present study was undertaken to know the clinical profile of these patients, to study associated anomalies and to assess the results of surgical intervention. Methods: Medical records of 21 patients treated for spinal dorsal dermal sinus from September 2007 to December 2013 were reviewed. Results: We had 21 patients with male: female ratio of 13:8. Only 2 patients were below 1-year of age, and most cases (15) were between 2 and 15 years (mean age = 8.2 years). Lumbar region (11 cases) was most frequently involved, followed by thoracic (4 cases), lumbosacral, and cervical region in 3 patients each. All of our patients presented with neurological deficits. Three patients were admitted with acute meningitis with acute onset paraplegia and had intraspinal abscess. The motor, sensory, and autonomic deficits were seen in 14, 6, and 8 patients, respectively. Scoliosis and congenital talipes equinovarus were the common associated anomalies. All patients underwent surgical exploration and repair of dysraphic state and excision of the sinus. Overall, 20 patients improved or neurological status stabilized and only 1 patient deteriorated. Postoperative wound infection was seen in 2 cases. Conclusions: All patients with spinal dorsal dermal sinuses should be offered aggressive surgical treatment in the form of total excision of sinus tract and correction of spinal malformation, as soon as diagnosed. PMID:26539316

  13. Clinical application of cultured epithelial autografts on acellular dermal matrices in the treatment of extended burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Fang, Taolin; Lineaweaver, William C; Sailes, Frederick C; Kisner, Carson; Zhang, Feng

    2014-11-01

    Achieving permanent replacement of skin in extensive full-thickness and deep partial-thickness burn injuries and chronic wounds remains one of the fundamental surgical problems. Presently, split-thickness skin grafts are still considered the best material for surgical repair of an excised burn wound. However, in burns that affect greater than 50% of total body surface area, the patient has insufficient areas of unaffected skin from which split-thickness skin grafts can be harvested. The use of cultured epithelial (or epidermal) autografts (CEAs) has achieved satisfactory results. But the take rate of CEAs is poor in full-thickness bed or in chronically infected area. Providing temporary cover with allograft skin, or a more permanent allodermis, may increase clinical take. This review aims to (1) describe the use of CEAs in the regeneration of the epidermis, (2) introduce the application of the acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) in the clinics, and (3) enhance understanding of the CEAs applied with ADM as an appropriate strategy to treat the extended burn injuries. The current evidence regarding the cultured epithelial cell or keratinocyte autograft and dermal grafts applied in the treatment of burn injuries was investigated with an extensive electronic and manual search (MEDLINE and EMBASE). The included literature (N=136 publications) was critically evaluated focusing on the efficacy and safety of this technique in improving the healing of the deep dermal and full-thickness burn injuries. This review concluded that the use of ADM with CEAs is becoming increasingly routine, particularly as a life-saving tool after acute thermal trauma.

  14. Always read the label: a case report of a penile burn.

    PubMed

    King, Ian; Lipede, Christina; Varma, Sanjay

    2013-08-01

    A 32-year-old man presented with chemical burns to his penis following accidental application of depilatory cream to the area. The gentleman consequently sustained deep dermal burns to his penis, experiencing genital swelling and dysuria. This injury was managed conservatively in our burns unit and the patient was discharged shortly after. We present this unusual case of penile burns which has not previously been described in the literature despite depilatory creams being inexpensive and relatively easy to use, and subsequently popular choice amongst available hair removal options. PMID:22715965

  15. Electrospun Gelatin Fibers with a Multiple Release of Antibiotics Accelerate Dermal Regeneration in Infected Deep Burns.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianmei; Liu, Zongguang; Chen, Maohua; Zhang, Hong; Li, Xiaohong

    2016-09-01

    Electrospun fibers of hydrophilic polymers meet challenges in a rapid degradation of fiber matrices and discharge of antibiotics to comply with requirements of infection control as a dermal regeneration template. In the current study, a pH conversion process is initially developed to ensure fluent electrospinning, an efficient in situ cross-linking of electrospun gelatin fibers with oxidized alginate and simultaneous loading of gentamicin sulfate (GS) and hydrophobic ciprofloxacin into fibers. The dual drug-loaded fibers indicate a complete release of GS during 6 d and a sustained release of ciprofloxacin for over three weeks, and the antibiotics release indicates significant growth inhibitions on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The wound healing efficacy is evaluated on a deep burn model infected with 10(8) CFU of P. aeruginosa. Compared with fibers with loaded individual drugs, the concomitant release of GS and ciprofloxacin significantly reduces the bacteria numbers in wound and livers, at around 2.30 × 10(5) and 1.25 × 10(3) CFU after 3 d, respectively. The wound re-epithelization, blood vessel formation, collagen deposition, and tissue remodeling process are accelerated with a complete healing observed after 21 d. This study provides a feasible strategy to design cross-linked hydrophilic fibers with an extended drug release for biomedical applications. PMID:27276339

  16. Treatment of hypergranulation tissue in burn wounds with topical steroid dressings: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Marie; Harats, Moti; Kornhaber, Rachel; Aviv, Uri; Zerach, Amir; Haik, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Hypergranulation tissue (or also known as overgranulation) may negatively influence burn wound healing time and contribute to recurrence of contractures in burn wounds and grafts. Subsequently, the treatment of hypergranulation tissue remains controversial and problematic. In this case series, we aimed to examine the feasibility and document the use of topical hydrocortisone in the treatment of hypergranulation tissue formation resulting from burn wounds. We report five cases where hypergranulation tissue developed following deep dermal/full-thickness burns. Initial burn wound treatment included necrotic tissue debridement, wound cleansing, and Flaminal®. All five cases underwent surgical debridement and split-skin grafting. Upon identification of hypergranulation tissue, hydrocortisone acetate 0.25% was applied topically as usual care for the treatment of hypergranulation tissue. All five patients had deep dermal/full-thickness burns with a total body surface area ranging from 22% to 61% and were aged from 3–41 years. All five cases developed hypergranulation tissue during their admission after debridement and split-thickness skin grafts. All patients showed an improvement in the treated areas with a complete regression of hypergranulation tissue and closure of the burn wounds. No clinically apparent local or systemic side effects of the treatment were observed. Topical hydrocortisone can be utilized as an effective, inexpensive, and noninvasive practical option in the treatment of hypergranulation tissue resulting from burn wounds. PMID:27570466

  17. Treatment of hypergranulation tissue in burn wounds with topical steroid dressings: a case series.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Marie; Harats, Moti; Kornhaber, Rachel; Aviv, Uri; Zerach, Amir; Haik, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Hypergranulation tissue (or also known as overgranulation) may negatively influence burn wound healing time and contribute to recurrence of contractures in burn wounds and grafts. Subsequently, the treatment of hypergranulation tissue remains controversial and problematic. In this case series, we aimed to examine the feasibility and document the use of topical hydrocortisone in the treatment of hypergranulation tissue formation resulting from burn wounds. We report five cases where hypergranulation tissue developed following deep dermal/full-thickness burns. Initial burn wound treatment included necrotic tissue debridement, wound cleansing, and Flaminal(®). All five cases underwent surgical debridement and split-skin grafting. Upon identification of hypergranulation tissue, hydrocortisone acetate 0.25% was applied topically as usual care for the treatment of hypergranulation tissue. All five patients had deep dermal/full-thickness burns with a total body surface area ranging from 22% to 61% and were aged from 3-41 years. All five cases developed hypergranulation tissue during their admission after debridement and split-thickness skin grafts. All patients showed an improvement in the treated areas with a complete regression of hypergranulation tissue and closure of the burn wounds. No clinically apparent local or systemic side effects of the treatment were observed. Topical hydrocortisone can be utilized as an effective, inexpensive, and noninvasive practical option in the treatment of hypergranulation tissue resulting from burn wounds. PMID:27570466

  18. Bubble bath burns: an unusual case

    PubMed Central

    Nizamoglu, Metin; Tan, Alethea; El-Muttardi, Naguib

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We present an unusual case of flash burn injury in an adolescent following accidental combination of foaming bath bubbles and tea light candle flame. There has not been any reported similar case described before. This serves as a learning point for public prevention and clinicians managing burn injuries. PMID:27583271

  19. Bubble bath burns: an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Nizamoglu, Metin; Tan, Alethea; El-Muttardi, Naguib

    2016-01-01

    We present an unusual case of flash burn injury in an adolescent following accidental combination of foaming bath bubbles and tea light candle flame. There has not been any reported similar case described before. This serves as a learning point for public prevention and clinicians managing burn injuries. PMID:27583271

  20. Exploratory breath analyses for assessing toxic dermal exposures of firefighters during suppression of structural burns.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Fent, Kenneth W

    2014-09-01

    Firefighters wear fireproof clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during rescue and fire suppression activities to protect against acute effects from heat and toxic chemicals. Fire services are also concerned about long-term health outcomes from chemical exposures over a working lifetime, in particular about low-level exposures that might serve as initiating events for adverse outcome pathways (AOP) leading to cancer. As part of a larger US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) study of dermal exposure protection from safety gear used by the City of Chicago firefighters, we collected pre- and post-fire fighting breath samples and analyzed for single-ring and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as bioindicators of occupational exposure to gas-phase toxicants. Under the assumption that SCBA protects completely against inhalation exposures, any changes in the exhaled profile of combustion products were attributed to dermal exposures from gas and particle penetration through the protective clothing. Two separate rounds of firefighting activity were performed each with 15 firefighters per round. Exhaled breath samples were collected onto adsorbent tubes and analyzed with gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a targeted approach using selective ion monitoring. We found that single ring aromatics and some PAHs were statistically elevated in post-firefighting samples of some individuals, suggesting that fire protective gear may allow for dermal exposures to airborne contaminants. However, in comparison to a previous occupational study of Air Force maintenance personnel where similar compounds were measured, these exposures are much lower suggesting that firefighters' gear is very effective. This study suggests that exhaled breath sampling and analysis for specific targeted compounds is a suitable method for assessing systemic dermal exposure in a simple and non-invasive manner.

  1. Exploratory breath analyses for assessing toxic dermal exposures of firefighters during suppression of structural burns.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Fent, Kenneth W

    2014-09-01

    Firefighters wear fireproof clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during rescue and fire suppression activities to protect against acute effects from heat and toxic chemicals. Fire services are also concerned about long-term health outcomes from chemical exposures over a working lifetime, in particular about low-level exposures that might serve as initiating events for adverse outcome pathways (AOP) leading to cancer. As part of a larger US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) study of dermal exposure protection from safety gear used by the City of Chicago firefighters, we collected pre- and post-fire fighting breath samples and analyzed for single-ring and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as bioindicators of occupational exposure to gas-phase toxicants. Under the assumption that SCBA protects completely against inhalation exposures, any changes in the exhaled profile of combustion products were attributed to dermal exposures from gas and particle penetration through the protective clothing. Two separate rounds of firefighting activity were performed each with 15 firefighters per round. Exhaled breath samples were collected onto adsorbent tubes and analyzed with gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a targeted approach using selective ion monitoring. We found that single ring aromatics and some PAHs were statistically elevated in post-firefighting samples of some individuals, suggesting that fire protective gear may allow for dermal exposures to airborne contaminants. However, in comparison to a previous occupational study of Air Force maintenance personnel where similar compounds were measured, these exposures are much lower suggesting that firefighters' gear is very effective. This study suggests that exhaled breath sampling and analysis for specific targeted compounds is a suitable method for assessing systemic dermal exposure in a simple and non-invasive manner. PMID:25190461

  2. The pig as an experimental model for mid-dermal burns research.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Shi-Yuan; Wang, Wen-Ling; Fu, Yuan-Tsung; Lin, Sheng-Chuan; Lei, Yi-Chih; Liao, Jeng-Hao; Tang, Nou-Ying; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Yao, Chun-Hsu

    2014-12-01

    This was a novel, prospective and interventional animal study designed to develop and evaluate a new infliction device for the experimental burn model. Four paired sets of contact burns measuring 36mm diameter were inflicted on the dorsum of an anesthetized pig using a stainless steel round bar heated up to 80-110°C. The bar was applied using a push-pull force gauge designed to control 1kgf mechanical force applied to the skin for a period of 20s. The left dorsum was used for macroscopic observation and the right dorsum was used for histopathological evaluation. A total of eight burns were covered with moist saline dressings and given daily treatments of xylocaine (lidocaine HCl) gel. This procedure was followed for a period of 24 days. Full-thickness biopsies were obtained for histologic analysis to determine the extent of injury. Statistical analysis showed a high correlation between the exposure temperature and histopathological assessment. The results found the depth of injury to the collagen (Seg1) correlated with the temperature (Ti) at which the burns was inflicted, Seg1=0.038Ti-2.57 (r=0.973, P<0.05). Also, the histological studies show a high correlation between the depth of collagen denaturation in wounds and the exposure temperature, Seg1=0.0268Ti-0.165 (r=0.991, P<0.05). This model is useful to assess more closely the therapeutic agents used for wound healing in experimental burn wounds.

  3. Filigree burn of lightning: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virendra

    2007-04-01

    Lightning is a powerful natural electrostatic discharge produced during a thunderstorm. The electric current passing through the discharge channels is direct with a potential of 1000 million volts or more. Lightning can kill or injure a person by a direct strike, a side-flash, or conduction through another object. Lightning can cause a variety of injuries in the skin and the cardiovascular, neurological and ophthalmic systems. Filigree burn of lightning is a superficial burn and very rare. Two cases of death from lightning which have this rare finding are reported and discussed. PMID:17520964

  4. Filigree burn of lightning: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virendra

    2007-04-01

    Lightning is a powerful natural electrostatic discharge produced during a thunderstorm. The electric current passing through the discharge channels is direct with a potential of 1000 million volts or more. Lightning can kill or injure a person by a direct strike, a side-flash, or conduction through another object. Lightning can cause a variety of injuries in the skin and the cardiovascular, neurological and ophthalmic systems. Filigree burn of lightning is a superficial burn and very rare. Two cases of death from lightning which have this rare finding are reported and discussed.

  5. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... are burns treated? In many cases, topical antibiotics (skin creams or ointments) are used to prevent infection. For third-degree burns and some second-degree ones, immediate blood transfusion and/or extra fluids ... is skin grafting? There are two types of skin grafts. ...

  6. Differential response of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, dermal fibroblasts, and keratinocytes to burn wound exudates: potential role of skin-specific chemokine CCL27.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Lenie J; Kroeze, Kim L; Waaijman, Taco; Breetveld, Melanie; Sampat-Sardjoepersad, Shakun C; Niessen, Frank B; Middelkoop, Esther; Scheper, Rik J; Gibbs, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Many cell-based regenerative medicine strategies toward tissue-engineered constructs are currently being explored. Cell-cell interactions and interactions with different biomaterials are extensively investigated, whereas very few studies address how cultured cells will interact with soluble wound-healing mediators that are present within the wound bed after transplantation. The aim of this study was to determine how adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC), dermal fibroblasts, and keratinocytes will react when they come in contact with the deep cutaneous burn wound bed. Burn wound exudates isolated from deep burn wounds were found to contain many cytokines, including chemokines and growth factors related to inflammation and wound healing. Seventeen mediators were identified by ELISA (concentration range 0.0006-9 ng/mg total protein), including the skin-specific chemokine CCL27. Burn wound exudates activated both ASC and dermal fibroblasts, but not keratinocytes, to increase secretion of CXCL1, CXCL8, CCL2, and CCL20. Notably, ASC but not fibroblasts or keratinocytes showed significant increased secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (5-fold) and interleukin-6 (253-fold), although when the cells were incorporated in bi-layered skin substitute (SS) these differences were less pronounced. A similar discrepancy between ASC and dermal fibroblast mono-cultures was observed when recombinant human-CCL27 was used instead of burn wound exudates. Although CCL27 did not stimulate the secretion of any of the wound-healing mediators by keratinocytes, these cells, in contrast to ASC or dermal fibroblasts, showed increased proliferation and migration. Taken together, these results indicate that on transplantation, keratinocytes are primarily activated to promote wound closure. In contrast, dermal fibroblasts and, in particular, ASC respond vigorously to factors present in the wound bed, leading to increased secretion of angiogenesis/granulation tissue formation

  7. "Burn catatonia": a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Davin Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Thermal injuries have been recognized to cause significant neuropsychiatric symptoms and disability in their sufferers since the middle of the 20th century, when Drs. Stanley Cobb and Erich Lindemann of the Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston, MA) studied survivors of the Cocoanut Grove nightclub fire in Boston. Although "burn encephalopathy" or burn-induced delirium is a common occurrence in the acute phase, catatonia in burn patients is not often reported. This report describes a case of malignant catatonia occurring in a 51-year-old male patient acutely suffering from burns acquired in a chemical explosion, effectively treated with reinstitution of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. The literature on burn encephalopathy and catatonia in burns is reviewed. Few examples of burn catatonia exist. Burn encephalopathy is common, and may occur in patients with low TBSA burns such as described in the case above. Descriptions of burn encephalopathy are numerous, but have not included catatonia as a possible etiology. Catatonia in burn patients as an etiology of burn encephalopathy is likely underrecognized. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of catatonia when a patient's confusional state after a burn does not respond to usual care.

  8. Treatment of tar burns: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Karadas, Sevdegul; Gönüllü, Hayriye; Oncü, Mehmet Resit; Kara, Hatice; Baltacioglu, Hüseyin

    2014-08-01

    Hot tar burns are still a challenging clinical form because the removal of tar is very difficult for the emergency physician and there is no specified appropriate agent for the removal of tar. In this study, two patients with hot tar burns who were treated with diesel, sunflower oil and mayonnaise are presented.

  9. "Understanding burns": research project BurnCase 3D--overcome the limits of existing methods in burns documentation.

    PubMed

    Haller, H L; Dirnberger, J; Giretzlehner, M; Rodemund, C; Kamolz, L

    2009-05-01

    Understanding burns means knowing what is necessary for the successful treatment of burns. Nobody in science, economics, or quality control can comprehend this issue's complexity without thorough documentation of the work involved. BurnCase 3D is a non-profit research project whose aim, achieved through software of the same name, is a thorough and accurate burn-treatment documentation schema, facilitated by three-dimensional digital models tracked over time. Adapting these models on the basis of gender, height, weight, and body shape avoids systemic errors. Superimposing photos of the burned areas on the model prevents individual error and can be combined with methods of burn-depth evaluation. The program includes automatic encoding of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Model resolution is 1cm(2) and finer, so that even small scars' locations and extents can be documented, thus enabling registration of long-term results. The program's status as a multilingual data-collection tool brings together multiple international efforts in data collection, and makes it suitable for e-medicine and disaster relief. In its basic form, it provides essential functions in burn documentation, photo documentation, and reporting. The four-dimensional database allows registration of interactions over time and can demonstrate the influence of location, timing, and intervention on outcome.

  10. Salivary monomorphic adenomas of dermal analogue type: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, S A; Frost, F A

    1993-01-01

    Two cases of monomorphic adenoma, dermal analogue type, are presented illustrating fine-needle aspiration cytology and subsequent histopathology. Aspiration findings were similar in both cases, demonstrating aggregates of mildly disorganised small regular epithelial cells bordered by a thick rim of basement membrane material. In the first case seen, there was a prominent lymphoid component which gave rise to the false suspicion that the lesion was lymphoepithelial in nature. The cytological features of this tumour are characteristic, however, and their recognition is important to enable distinction from malignancy (e.g., adenoid cystic carcinoma), other benign neoplasms (e.g., plemorphic adenoma), and non-neoplastic conditions.

  11. DermACELL: Human Acellular Dermal Matrix Allograft A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Cole, Windy E

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes often causes ulcers on the feet of diabetic patients. A 56-year-old, insulin-dependent, diabetic woman presented to the wound care center with a Wagner grade 3 ulcer of the right heel. She reported a 3-week history of ulceration with moderate drainage and odor and had a history of ulceration and osteomyelitis in the contralateral limb. Rigorous wound care, including hospitalization; surgical incision and drainage; intravenous antibiotic drug therapy; vacuum-assisted therapy; and a new room temperature, sterile, human acellular dermal matrix graft were used to heal the wound, save her limb, and restore her activities of daily living. This case presentation involves alternative treatment of a diabetic foot ulcer with this new acellular dermal matrix, DermACELL. PMID:27031550

  12. Evidence that 1 per cent Meshushit ointment prevents progressive dermal ischaemia of experimental deep partial skin thickness burns: a preliminary, quantitative controlled study.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, T; Ullman, Y

    1989-02-01

    This study quantitatively assessed the topical effects of Meshushit, a new herbal compound, on the healing process of experimental deep partial skin thickness burns over 27 days. To symmetrical circular burns were inflicted on the back of 15 animals by aluminium templates. The Meshushit and its control vehicle containing 0.1 per cent gentamycin or the control vehicle plus antibiotic alone, were applied topically to randomly selected burns at equal time intervals. Epithelialization and contraction were assessed on postburn days 6, 10, 15, 18, 22 and 27 using a computerized planimeter. The newly formed granulation tissue was assessed histologically on postburn day 27, while the hair follicles were counted in the same sections. Student's t test was used to differentiate the rates of contraction and epithelialization; hair follicle counts and the thickness of the newly formed granulation tissue. None of the animals died during the experiment. The epithelialization and contraction rates did not differ significantly between the test groups. The Meshushit-treated wounds showed a significantly thicker granulation tissue layer as compared to its control (828.72 +/- 46.39 microns vs. 540.78 +/- 37.81 microns, P less than 0.01). The count of hair follicles was significantly higher in the Meshushit-treated burns (23.38 +/- 1.84 vs. 3.76 +/- 0.35, P less than 0.001). It is concluded that the herbal Meshushit ointment enhanced the newly formed granulation tissue and preserved better the hair follicles in the present burn wound model. It is suggested that these findings are due to the preservation of the dermal microcirculation.

  13. Car radiator burns: a report on 72 cases.

    PubMed

    al-Baker, A A; Attalla, M F; el-Ekiabi, S A; al Ghoul, A

    1989-08-01

    Seventy-two cases of car radiator burns (CRB) were treated in the Burns Unit, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar, over a 6-year period (1982-87). All the patients were males and most were between 20 and 40 years old. Chest wall, face and right upper limb were the commonest sites involved. Most of the patients suffered from relatively minor scalds. The scenario of the accidents as well as the topography of the burned areas were characteristic to this particular type of injury. The exceptionally high temperatures in the summer months were significantly related to the incidence of this type of burn.

  14. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... doing so puts you in danger as well. Chemical and Electrical Burns For chemical and electrical burns, call 911 or your local ... the power source has been turned off. For chemical burns: Dry chemicals should be brushed off the ...

  15. Florid pustular dermatitis of breast: A case report on a unusual complication from acellular dermal matrix use

    PubMed Central

    James, Justin; Jackson, Lee; Saunders, Christobel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Idiopathic erythematous reaction of the breast (Red breast syndrome) is a known complication following breast reconstruction with acellular dermal matrix. However pustular dermatitis like presentation is not previously known. Presentation of case We present a 42-year-old lady who developed bilateral pustular dermatitis like appearance following breast reconstruction with acellular dermal matrix slings. Though surgical washout was done, both expanders and flex HD could be preserved. Discussion Acellular dermal matrix use is the only possible explanation for such a presentation and this can be considered a variant of red breast syndrome. Conclusion Pustular dermatitis like presentation can be associated with acelluar dermal matrix use and should be considered in similar clinical presentations, since this can avoid unnecessary surgical procedures. PMID:27058152

  16. Toxicity of tetramethylammonium hydroxide: review of two fatal cases of dermal exposure and development of an animal model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chung-Hsun; Wang, Chao-Ling; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Chai, Chee-Yin; Hong, Ming-Yuan; Ho, Chi-Kung

    2011-07-01

    To document two cases of patients who were fatally exposed to tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) on the skin and to establish a rat model to investigate the effects of dermal exposure to TMAH. The charts of two workers who died from occupational accidental exposure to TMAH were reviewed. The 4-hour lethal dose (LD₅₀) of TMAH was determined by applying solutions mimicking the two most common industrially used concentrations (2.38% and 25%) of TMAH to the skin of Sprague-Dawley rats. Exposure of the rat's skin to 2.38% or 25% TMAH generated LD₅₀ values of 85.9 mg/kg and 28.7 mg/kg, respectively. Application of either concentration of TMAH to the skin produced a rapid, significant increase in the rate of respiration. The serum concentrations of tetramethylammonium (TMA) also changed significantly with time of exposure to both concentrations of TMAH. The level of blood urea nitrogen decreased significantly in rats exposed to the 2.38% TMAH, and rats exposed to the 25% solution had a significant decrease in the serum concentration of sodium. Injection of atropine after 5 minutes of exposure did not significantly overcome any of the toxic effects observed with either solution of TMAH. The preliminary results in the rat model indicated that the lethality of TMAH cannot be fully explained by the severity of the patients' chemical burns, and the physiologic effects on respiratory and kidney functions were probably involved.

  17. In situ visualization of dermal collagen dynamics during skin burn healing using second-harmonic-generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Takeshi; Hase, Eiji; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Fukushima, Shu-ichiro; Araki, Tsutomu

    2015-06-01

    Burn healing is a process to repair thermally damaged tissues. Although burn healing has many aspects, it is common for dynamics of collagen fiber, such as decomposition, production, or growth, to be closely related with burn healing. If such healing process can be visualized from the viewpoint of the collagen dynamics, one may obtain new findings regarding biological repairing mechanisms in the healing process. To this end, second-harmonic-generation (SHG) light will be an effective optical probe because of high selectivity and good image contrast to collagen molecules as well as high spatial resolution, optical three-dimensional (3D) sectioning, minimal invasiveness, deep penetration, the absence of interference from background light, and in situ measurement without additional staining. Furthermore, since SHG light arises from a non-centrosymmetric triple helix of three polypeptide chains in the collagen molecule, its intensity decreases and finally disappears when thermal denaturation caused by the skin burn changes the structure of this molecule to a centrosymmetric random coil. Therefore, optical assessment of skin burn has been investigated by SHG microscopy. In this paper, we applied SHG microscopy for in situ imaging of the healing process in animal skin burn and successfully visualized the decomposition, production, and growth of renewal collagen fibers as a series of time-lapse images in the same subject.

  18. A Case of Superwarfarin Poisoning Due to Repetitive Occupational Dermal Rodenticide Exposure in a Worker.

    PubMed

    Narlı Özdemir, Zehra; Şahin, Uğur; Merter, Mustafa; Gündüz, Mehmet; Ateşağaoğlu, Berna; Beksaç, Meral

    2016-09-01

    Superwarfarin poisoning is usually due to chronic occult small-dose exposures and can easily be misdiagnosed and may lead to serious complications. The diagnosis can be confirmed by a concordant history and analyses of blood and urine specimens with the liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique. Several months of continuous treatment with high doses of daily oral vitamin K, as well as other supportive measures, are warranted, especially when repeated laboratory measurements to help predict the treatment period are not available. In this paper, a case of superwarfarin poisoning due to chronic repetitive occupational dermal exposure to commercial rodenticides is presented. PMID:27093901

  19. Burns and epilepsy--review and case report.

    PubMed

    Gragnani, Alfredo; Müller, Bruno Rafael; Oliveira, Andrea Fernandes; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-03-01

    Decompensation of epilepsy in burned patients may be caused by several factors. Burn is a classic etiology of systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and evolves into two physiological phases. The first 48h after injury corresponds to the first phase involving severe hypovolemic shock. The second phase corresponds to the hypermetabolic response to burns. Altered pharmacokinetics of anticonvulsant drugs is observed. Albumin and other plasma proteins are reduced, leading to increased free fraction of phenytoin, resulting in greater clearance and a lower total drug concentration. Associated with metabolic changes of burned patient, this fact predisposes to seizures in epileptic burned patients. The authors present the case of an epileptic 36-year-old-woman who developed recurrent seizures after a thermal injury, despite using the same medications and doses of anticonvulsant drugs of last 12 years, with controlled epilepsy.

  20. Administration of adipose-derived stem cells enhances vascularity, induces collagen deposition, and dermal adipogenesis in burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Bliley, Jacqueline M; Argenta, Anne; Satish, Latha; McLaughlin, Meghan M; Dees, Aaron; Tompkins-Rhoades, Casey; Marra, Kacey G; Rubin, J Peter

    2016-09-01

    Current treatment options for severe burn wounds are often insufficient in reconstructing skin and soft tissue defects. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), a readily available source of multipotent stem cells, represent a promising therapy for the treatment of full-thickness burn wounds. Full-thickness burn wounds were created on the paraspinal region of athymic mice. A one-time, sub-eschar injection of 6.8×10(6) ASCs in PBS or PBS alone was administered at 24-h postoperatively. Time to healing was quantified using Image J analysis. At days 4, 7, 14, and 21, mice were sacrificed and tissues were excised for molecular and histological analysis. ASCs were able to survive in burn wounds as determined by the presence of PKH labeling and human PPARγ expression within the wounds. CD-31 staining demonstrated increased vascularity in ASC-treated wounds at POD 4 (p<0.05). Molecular studies showed enhanced adipogenesis, as well as type III and type I collagen deposition in the ASC treated group (p<0.05). An increase in the mRNA expression ratio of type III to type I collagen was also observed following ASC treatment (p<0.05). By enhancing vascularity, collagen deposition, and adipogenesis, ASCs show promise as an adjunctive therapy for the current treatment of full thickness burn wounds.

  1. Blaschko Linear Enamel Defects – A Marker for Focal Dermal Hypoplasia: Case Report of Focal Dermal Hypoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gysin, Stefan; Itin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is a rare genetic skin disorder. The inheritance of FDH or Goltz-Gorlin syndrome is X-linked dominant and the disease is associated with a PORCN gene mutation. This gene plays a key role in the Wnt pathway, which has an impact on embryonic development. Every tissue derived from meso- and ectoderm can be affected. Patients suffer from cutaneous, ocular, osseous, oral and dental defects. The skin and dental alterations manifest along the Blaschko lines. We present a woman (born in 1962) suffering from FDH with congenital skin changes and Blaschko linear enamel defects. Typical symptoms (e.g. fat herniations, scoliosis, syndactyly, microphthalmia, caries and alopecia) plus vertical grooving of all teeth gave a first indication. Molecular genetic testing confirmed the definitive diagnosis of FDH. We hypothesize that, in the context of typical skin changes, visible Blaschko lines on the teeth in the form of vertical grooves are almost pathognomonic for FDH. PMID:26078738

  2. Electrical burns in sports fishing: a case report.

    PubMed

    Valença-Filipe, R; Egipto, P; Horta, R; Braga, J M; Costa, J; Silva, A

    2014-11-01

    Electrical burns are among the most devastating types of burns, with wide-ranging injuries. They can sometimes occur in the context of fishing, usually involving high voltages. The authors present the case of a 59-year-old-man who suffered a sports accident during a fishing competition, with the formation of an electrical arc due to proximity of the fishing rod and high voltage cables. He presented burns affecting 3% of TBSA, third degree deep burns on trunk and left hand; no signs of cardiac injury. He was admitted to our Burn Unit for monitoring, care dressing and surgical treatment; complete wound healing was achieved after 24 days. Due to its relatively small share among burns, published data on electrical injuries and fishing remain scarce, and differ in patient collectives due to infrastructural or environmental differences. The authors are not aware of published specific reports on electrical burns in sports fishing practice, like the case here presented. The authors want to alert for potential medical, social and economic consequences of this type of sports accidents that could be entirely avoidable with some preventive measures. PMID:24704363

  3. [A case of chemical burn of the penis].

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Suguru; Kinjo, Takanori; Oida, Takeshi; Takezawa, Kentaro; Nomura, Hironori; Tei, Norihide; Takada, Shingo; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Shiroyama, Yoshimi

    2012-11-01

    A chemical burn is not so common in the urological field. In addition, a chemical burn of the penis is quite rare. We experienced a case of chemical burn of the penis caused by resin for making fiber-glass reinforced plastics (FRP). He was a 41-year-old man and was referred to our hospital complaining of genital pain. He had sustained an injury to his penis induced by FRP at his workplace and had developed phimosis by the severe edematous foreskin. He underwent dorsal incision immediately and his postoperative course was favorable. PMID:23254789

  4. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur by direct or indirect contact with heat, electric current, radiation, or chemical agents. Burns can lead to ... is. The burn is caused by chemicals or electricity. The person shows signs of shock . The person ...

  5. A case of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage associated with hyaluronic acid dermal fillers

    PubMed Central

    Basora, Jose F.; Fernandez, Ricardo; Gonzalez, Modesto; Adorno, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 25 Final Diagnosis: Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage Symptoms: Cough dry • short of breath Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: — Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Hyaluronic acid is a substance that is naturally present in the human body, especially in joints and eyes. Hyaluronic acid injectable gels have been available for the general market since 2003 as cosmetic dermal fillers and skin boosters. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is an acute event that threatens the life of the patient and can lead to pulmonary fibrosis. Alveolar hemorrhage associated with hyaluronic acid dermal fillers is an entity that to the best of our knowledge has never been described in the medical literature. Case Report: We describe a patient who presented with dyspnea and cough after a subcutaneous injection of hyaluronic acid, with radiographic abnormalities including ground glass opacities and consolidation. The patient underwent flexible bronchoscopy and was diagnosed with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Conclusions: This case emphasizes that this life threatening condition may occur with the use of this medication and physicians must be aware of this disorder, as early recognition and management can reduce morbidity. PMID:24826208

  6. An Atypical Cause of Alkali Chemical Burn: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Boutefnouchet, T.; Moiemen, N.; Papini, R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary It has already been reported that wet ash turns into a strong alkali agent, which can cause full-thickness skin burns. A case is presented which has the particularity of sustained, self-inflicted contact with wet ash. The coal used was the self-igniting type normally used for burning scented weed or for smoking the hubbly bubbly or shisha pipe. PMID:21991229

  7. An unusual case of extensive self-inflicted cement burn.

    PubMed

    Catalano, F; Mariano, F; Maina, G; Bianco, C; Nuzzo, J; Stella, M

    2013-03-31

    Cement is a fine powder used to bind sand and stones into a matrix of concrete, making up the world's most frequently used building material in the construction industry. First described by Ramazzini in his book "De Morbis Artificia Diatriba" in 1700, the effect of cement on the skin was presumed to be due to contact dermatitis. The first cement burns case was published by Rowe and Williams in 1963. Cement handling has been found to be responsible for many cases of occupational burns (generally full-thickness) usually affecting a limited TBSA, rarely greater than 5%, with localization especially in the lower limbs. We describe an unusual case of a self-inflicted cement burn involving 75% TBSA. A 28-yr-old building worker attempted suicide by jumping into a cement mixer in a truck. Upon arrival at our burn centre, clinical examination revealed extensive burn (75% TBSA - 40% full-thickness) involving face, back, abdomen, upper limbs and circumferentially lower limbs, sparing the hands and feet. The patient was sedated, mechanically ventilated, and subjected to escharotomy of the lower limbs in the emergency room. The following day, the deep burns in the lower limbs were excised down to the fascia and covered with meshed allografts. Owing to probable intestinal and skin absorption of cement, metal toxicity was suspected and dialysis and forced diuresis were therefore initiated on day 3. The patient's clinical conditions gradually worsened and he died on day 13 from the multi-organ failure syndrome. PMID:23966898

  8. Alkali-related ocular burns: a case series and review.

    PubMed

    Bunker, Daniel J L; George, Robert J; Kleinschmidt, Andrew; Kumar, Rohit J; Maitz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alkali burns are known to possess high pathological potential because of their inherent ability to lyse cell membranes and penetrate intraocular structures with devastating results. The authors aimed to evaluate the most common cause of this presentation, the current treatment approaches to injury, and eventual outcome as related to severity. The authors performed a retrospective review of all patients who sustained chemical-related ocular injuries seen at the Concord Hospital Burns Unit, Australia between January 2005 and March 2012. Management was based on cooperation between ophthalmic staff and the burns unit, with emphasis on early aggressive intervention and rigorous follow-up. The records of 39 patients who presented with chemical-related injury were assessed, 12 of whom had confirmed alkali burns involving the cornea. The most commonly implicated agent was sodium hydroxide, usually in the context of otherwise trivial domestic accidents. Acute medical management included copious irrigation and the use of analgesics, cycloplegics, and topical antibiotics. In half the cases, steroid drops and oral vitamin C were also used. Ten of the 12 patients (83%) had return to premorbid visual acuity. Complications included cicatrical ectropion (n = 1), pseudoexfoliative syndrome (n = 1), and symblepharon (n = 1). Surgical correction was needed in the one patient with cicatrical ectropion. This case series shows that appropriate acute management minimizes the potentially devastating sequelae of ocular alkali burns. Emphasis should be placed on prevention of domestic and workplace injuries when using alkaline products.

  9. Theories of Burning: A Case Study Using a Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Allan

    1997-01-01

    Uses the overthrow of the phlogiston theory to provide students with insight into the nature of science and changes in theory. Presents a case study of lessons on theories of burning using a historical theme. Argues that an appreciation of how science makes progress can be combined with an understanding of modern day theory to encourage…

  10. New Deep Dermal ADM Incorporates Well in Case Series of Complex Breast Reconstruction Patients.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Henry Benjamin

    2015-05-01

    Breast cancer patients with significant comorbidities present reconstructive challenges due to a predictably high complication rate. During expander-based breast reconstruction, human acellular dermal matrix (ADM) is often used to prevent pectoralis muscle retraction, facilitate early expansion, and improve cosmetic outcome. Device infection and chronic seroma have been correlated to the addition of the graft by some large database reports but not others. This study describes the first reported experience with a new deep dermal ADM, FlexHD® Pliable™ (MTF, Edison, NJ). Sixteen breasts in 10 consecutive patients identified retrospectively and followed prospectively had immediate expander-based breast reconstruction utilizing the new ADM. Patient comorbidities were catalogued, complications were recorded, and overall reconstructive success was assessed. At implant exchange, the ADM was examined for tissue ingrowth and biopsied for histologic examination. All 16 breasts had successful reconstructions. Two breasts (12.5%) developed device infection, requiring removal and later replacement of the expander. One breast (6.7%) developed chronic seroma, also requiring expander removal and later replacement. All the complicated patients had significant comorbidities, including obesity in all 3. At expander removal, the FlexHD Pliable showed near-complete visual tissue incorporation in 14 of 16 breasts (88%). This case series demonstrates significant reconstructive success in challenging patients utilizing a novel ADM. Visual and histologic assessment of tissue ingrowth into the graft suggests the high rate of complication may be due to patient comorbidities rather than addition of ADM. Additional experience is needed to confirm and the study is ongoing. PMID:26020380

  11. Infrared dermal thermography on diabetic feet soles to predict ulcerations: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chanjuan; van der Heijden, Ferdi; Klein, Marvin E.; van Baal, Jeff G.; Bus, Sicco A.; van Netten, Jaap J.

    2013-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a major complication for patients with diabetes mellitus. If not adequately treated, these ulcers may lead to foot infection, and ultimately to lower extremity amputation, which imposes a major burden to society and great loss in health-related quality of life for patients. Early identification and subsequent preventive treatment have proven useful to limit the incidence of foot ulcers and lower extremity amputation. Thus, the development of new diagnosis tools has become an attractive option. The ultimate objective of our project is to develop an intelligent telemedicine monitoring system for frequent examination on patients' feet, to timely detect pre-signs of ulceration. Inflammation in diabetic feet can be an early and predictive warning sign for ulceration, and temperature has been proven to be a vicarious marker for inflammation. Studies have indicated that infrared dermal thermography of foot soles can be one of the important parameters for assessing the risk of diabetic foot ulceration. This paper covers the feasibility study of using an infrared camera, FLIR SC305, in our setup, to acquire the spatial thermal distribution on the feet soles. With the obtained thermal images, automated detection through image analysis was performed to identify the abnormal increased/decreased temperature and assess the risk for ulceration. The thermography for feet soles of patients with diagnosed diabetic foot complications were acquired before the ordinary foot examinations. Assessment from clinicians and thermography were compared and follow-up measurements were performed to investigate the prediction. A preliminary case study will be presented, indicating that dermal thermography in our proposed setup can be a screening modality to timely detect pre-signs of ulceration.

  12. Pediatric scalp burns: hair today, gone tomorrow?

    PubMed

    Menon, Seema; Jacques, Madeleine; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-01-01

    Scalp burns in the pediatric population appear relatively uncommon, with most reported cases occurring in adults secondary to electrical burns. We reviewed our experience with the management of these injuries in children. A retrospective review was conducted at our institution from March 2004 to July 2011. Scalp burns were defined as any burn crossing over the hairline into the scalp region. During the 7-year 4-month study, there were 107 scalp burns, representing 1.8% of the 6074 burns treated at our institution during that time. The cause was scald in 97, contact in 4, flame in 3, friction in 2, and chemical in 1. The majority (n = 93, 87%) appeared superficial to mid-dermal, with an average time to complete healing of 10.3 days. The remaining 14 cases (13%) were mid-dermal to full thickness, with an average time to complete healing of 50.8 days. Grafting was required in 12 cases (11%). The mean time to grafting was 4 weeks (range, 2 weeks to 2.5 months). The main complication of scalp burns was alopecia, which occurred in all grafted sites as well as in 4 patients treated conservatively. There were no other complications after grafting and no cases of graft loss. In our pediatric series, scalp burns were most commonly caused by scald injuries and were superficial to mid-dermal in depth. These generally healed rapidly but occasionally resulted in alopecia. The management of deep dermal and full-thickness scalp burns remains challenging in children, with the decision to graft often delayed.

  13. DNA adduct formation in mice following dermal application of smoke condensates from cigarettes that burn or heat tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.K.; Brown, B.G.; Reed, E.A.; Mosberg, A.T.; Doolittle, D.J.; Hayes, A.W. ); Hejtmancik, M. )

    1992-01-01

    A prototype cigarette that heats tobacco (test cigarette), developed by R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, has yielded consistently negative results in several in vivo and in vitro genetic toxicology tests. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) from the test cigarette to induce DNA adducts in mouse tissues and compare the results with those obtained with CSC from a reference tobacco-burning cigarette (1R4F). CD-1 mice were skin-painted with CSF from reference and test cigarettes three times a week for 4 weeks. The highest mass of CSC applied was 180 mg tar per week per animal for both reference and test cigarette. DNA adducts were analyzed in skin and lung tissues using the [sup 32]P-postlabeling method with the P[sub 1] nuclease modification. Distinct diagonal radioactive zones (DRZ) were observed in the DNA from both skin and lung tissues of animals dosed with reference CSC, whereas no corresponding DRZ were observed from the DNA of animals dosed with either test CSC or acetone (solvent control). The relative adduct labeling (RAL) values of skin and lung DNA from reference CSC-treated animals were significantly greater than those of the test CSC-treated animals. The RAL values of the test CSC-treated animals were no greater than those of solvent controls. The negative results in DNA adduct assays with test CSC are consistent with all previous results of in vivo and in vitro genetic toxicology testing on this cigarette and provide additional evidence that smoke condensate from the test cigarette is not genotoxic. 31 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Reflectance Confocal Microscopy Features of Focal Dermal Mucinosis Differ from Those Described for Basal Cell Carcinoma: Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Fraga-Braghiroli, Naiara Abreu; Merati, Miesha; Rabinovitz, Harold; Swanson, David; Scope, Alon

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) features of focal dermal mucinosis (FDM). The entity clinically and dermatoscopically mimics other diagnostic entities, most notably nonpigmented basal cell carcinoma. We describe two cases that highlight the dermatoscopic, RCM and histopathological attributes of FDM. RCM features such as dermal foci of dense collagen bundles oriented in the same direction, foci of haphazardly oriented thin collagen fibers separated by dark structureless areas and the absence of dark silhouettes and tumor islands are clues for FDM diagnosis. The FDM cases described here present consistent and particular RCM findings that appear to correlate well with the histopathological features of FDM. Therefore, RCM is a promising technology in diagnosing skin lesions and it use can avoid invasive procedures. PMID:26302951

  15. Study of fatal burns cases in Kanpur (India).

    PubMed

    Gupta, R K; Srivastava, A K

    1988-04-01

    Epidemiological and medicolegal, including forensic pathological, aspects of 180 cases of fatal burns were studied in Kanpur (India) during the period of one year (October 1985 to September 1986). These constituted 10.79% of the total medicolegal deaths autopsied. Majority of the victims were young Hindu housewives burnt within 5 years of their marriage. The most common source of fire was cooking apparatus like chulha, coalfire, stove or cooking gas. In a substantial number of cases, kerosene oil was poured over the victims and fired with a match stick. About half of the burn cases were accidental, in which cooking on open unguarded flames and loose highly inflammable synthetic sarees of the victims can be blamed. Among the others who died in suspicious circumstances, i.e., burnt alive or forced to commit suicide by fire, dowry and family quarrels and marital disharmony were the two important predisposing factors. Illiteracy, arranged and child marriages, joint family structure, oedipal dominance of mother-in-laws, unemployment and economic dependence of the husband on the parents, near complete dependence of women on their husbands and inlaws, and lack of social security amongst Hindu females were other contributory factors affecting the incidence in some way. Male burn deaths were few and usually accidental.

  16. Case of Pleomorphic Dermal Sarcoma of the Eyelid Treated with Micrographic Surgery and Secondary Intention Healing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-In; Choi, Young-Jun; Seo, Hyun-Min; Kim, Han-Saem; Lim, Jae Yun; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Chae, Seoung Wan; Lee, Ga-Young

    2016-01-01

    Pleomorphic dermal sarcoma (PDS) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm sharing histopathological features with atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), but has additional features of deep invasion of the superficial subcutis, tumor necrosis and vascular/perineural invasion. It is not well documented in the literature because of its rarity, and its clinical course has been debated due to the lack of homogenous criteria. We describe here the case of a 91-year-old female with a 6-month history of a solitary, asymptomatic, well-defined, 3.4-cm-sized, reddish, hard, protruding mass on the lateral aspect of the right upper eyelid. On the basis of initial punch biopsy results, storiform cellular infiltrate of pleomorphic spindle and polygonal cells with frequent atypical mitoses, the lesion was identified as AFX. Following the initial biopsy, micrographic surgery was performed and a tumor-free margin was confirmed. Considering the conservation of the periocular function and the advanced age of the patient, we planned secondary intention healing rather than primary suturing. After surgery, skeletal muscle infiltration was found and the diagnosis was revised to PDS by a pathologist based on the currently accepted criteria for PDS. There has been no evidence of recurrence or periocular functional defects during a 2-year follow-up without adjuvant therapy. Although the PDS is highly malignant, complete excision under micrographic surgery can prevent recurrence without adjuvant therapy. Also, the secondary intention healing is an effective method for closure of large defects on the face. PMID:27746645

  17. Ophthalmologic manifestations of focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome): A case series of 18 patients.

    PubMed

    Gisseman, Jordan D; Herce, Honey H

    2016-03-01

    Focal Dermal Hypoplasia (FDH) or Goltz syndrome is a rare multi-system disorder with cutaneous, ocular, dental, and skeletal anomalies due to dysplasia of mesoectodermal derived tissues. It is an X-linked inheritance syndrome caused by mutations in the PORCN gene. This study is aimed to investigate the ocular findings in patients with Goltz syndrome. To date, there have been a limited number of case reports on the ocular manifestations of FDH. This is a prospective, non-consecutive, observational case series. Prospective ophthalmologic evaluation was performed on 18 patients with confirmed genetic testing for FDH, Goltz Syndrome, as a component of a larger multi-subspecialty study to better characterize the findings of this condition. Special attention was placed on evaluating the incidence of anophthalmia, microphthalmia, colobomas (iris, optic nerve, and/or retinal), cataracts, nystagmus, and strabismus. A complete ophthalmologic exam was done on all the patients. The mean patient age was 12.8 years (1-55 years). Eighty-nine percent were female and 77% (14/18) of patients had some form of an ophthalmologic manifestation of the condition. Ophthalmological findings included chorioretinal colobomas (61%), iris colobomas (50%), microphthalmia (44%), anophthalmia (11%), cataracts (11%), and conjunctival and eyelid papillomas (5%). Nystagmus was present in 33% and strabismus in 22% of the patients. Visual acuity ranged from 20/20 to no light perception. This study demonstrates a higher incidence of ophthalmologic manifestations as previously reported (77% vs. 40%). To our knowledge, this is the largest case series reported in the literature with 18 patients. PMID:27001926

  18. Deep digital burns treated with 2 abdominal flaps: case report.

    PubMed

    Wu, Choulang; Zhou, Lichun; Zhu, Lili; Zheng, Jinman

    2013-11-01

    We present the case of a 22-year-old man with third- to fourth-degree flame burns to all fingers of the right hand. After removing the necrotic tissues and amputating the carbonized distal segments of each finger, we covered the injured thumb with a paraumbilical tubular flap and covered the other fingers with an abdominal wall marsupial flap. Fifty days after injury, all the wounds healed, and the remaining fingers were salvaged. Four months after injury, the grip strength and the first web span of the right hand was 23.6 kg and 53°, and the patient could fulfill almost all the activities of daily living.

  19. A case of deep burns, while diving The Lusitania.

    PubMed

    Curran, John N; McGuigan, Kevin G; O'Broin, Eoin

    2010-07-01

    We present the first documented case of severe burns, sustained by a diver as a result of auto-ignition of air-activated heat packs at high partial pressure of oxygen and high ambient pressure. Our patient was diving the shipwreck of The Lusitania off the south coast of Ireland. This is a significant wreck, lying 90 metres down on the seabed. Torpedoed by a German U-boat in 1915, its loss prompted American involvement in WW1. Several unlikely events combined in this case to bring about serious and life threatening injuries. Herein we discuss the case and explore some of the physical and chemical processes that lead to these injuries.

  20. Dermal peels.

    PubMed

    Coleman, W P

    2001-07-01

    Dermal chemical peeling is a very satisfying procedure for patients and physicians alike. Although not providing the ablation of deep wrinkles and scars that dermabrasion and laser procedures may accomplish, trichloroacetic acid peels usually result in few complications and rapid recovery. Patients can usually expect photographic improvement in their skin. The results are usually long lasting, and most patients do not need to repeat dermal peels for at least 2 years. Of all resurfacing procedures, dermal peeling provides the best benefit-to-risk ratio. PMID:11599397

  1. [Severe ocular burns by calcium carbide in a speleologist: a case report].

    PubMed

    Testud, F; Voegtlé, R; Nordmann, J P; Descotes, J

    2002-03-01

    A case of severe ocular burns in an amateur speleologist is reported. The explosion of his acetylene lamp caused the projection of calcium carbide particles, which induced burning of the cornea and conjunctiva in both eyes. He slowly recovered in several months. The pathophysiology of the burns, linked to the in situ production of lime, and their management are discussed.

  2. A case of bacillary angiomatosis developed at a burn site.

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Ayse; Albayrak, Yavuz; Unal, Deniz; Atasoy, Mustafa; Uyanik, Muhammet H

    2012-01-01

    Bacillary Angiomatosis (BA) is frequently seen in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced immunodeficiency. Our patient was a case that developed granuloma-like lesions in the area of a burn, 8 days after being burnt on the upper right arm by scalding water. No indication of immune deficiency was observed and no history of direct contact with cats was evident. By the sixth day of the patient's admission to our clinic, some of the lesions had reached a diameter of 2.5 cm. An excision biopsy was carried out from the lesions present on the patient. Electron microscopy revealed solitary bacilli located close to the capillary wall. Oral erythromycin treatment was implemented at 250 mg, 4 times a day for 2.5 months. Within this period of treatment, the lesions regressed completely, and a complete cure was achieved. This case demonstrates that BA must be considered in the differential diagnosis of both HIV-infected and immunocompetent patients.

  3. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... is damage to your body's tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight, or radiation. Scalds from hot ... cause swelling, blistering, scarring and, in serious cases, shock and even death. They also can lead to ...

  4. Fetal Bovine Collagen Matrix in the Treatment of a Full Thickness Burn Wound: A Case Report With Long-Term Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Strong, Amy L.; Bennett, Danielle K.; Spreen, Elizabeth B.; Adhvaryu, Dhaval V.; Littleton, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of full thickness skin wounds commonly associated with large burns continues to represent a challenging clinical entity. The current treatment for large TBSA burns is split thickness autologous skin grafting; however, this treatment often results in poor textural durability, hypertrophic scarring, and fibrotic contractures. In this case report, we describe our experience and long-term follow-up results after the application of fetal bovine collagen (FBC) matrix (PriMatrix, TEI Biosciences, Boston, MA) to burn wounds clinically assessed as full thickness that healed without the need for subsequent skin grafting. The patient presented with 25% TBSA burns and was debrided and covered with FBC on postburn day 7. By postoperative day 12, the patient had large areas of reepithelialization distributed throughout the wound bed. By postoperative day 26, the patient had significantly more areas of wound closure and was discharged. Reepithelialization and repigmentation continued, and long-term follow-up after 26 months demonstrated complete reepithelialization and nearly complete repigmentation, without the appearance of contractures or hypertrophic scarring. This case report highlights the use of FBC as a scaffold capable of dermal regeneration and spontaneous reepithelialization with an excellent long-term functional and cosmetic outcome. PMID:25494213

  5. Efficacy of topical phenol decontamination strategies on severity of acute phenol chemical burns and dermal absorption: in vitro and in vivo studies in pig skin.

    PubMed

    Monteiro-Riviere, N A; Inman, A O; Jackson, H; Dunn, B; Dimond, S

    2001-05-01

    Pure phenol is colorless and used in the manufacture of phenolic resins, plastics, explosives, fertilizers, paints, rubber, textiles, adhesives, pharmaceuticals, paper, soap, and wood preservatives. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of several phenol decontamination strategies following dermal exposure using the pig as a model for human exposure, and then assess the effect of the two best treatments on phenol absorption in the isolated perfused porcine skin flap (IPPSF). Six anesthetized Yorkshire pigs were exposed to 89% aqueous phenol for 1 min using Hilltop chambers (10 skin sites/pig; 400 microl/site). Exposure to phenol was followed by one of 10 different decontamination procedures: 1-, 5-, 15-, and 30-min water wash; Ivory soap solution; polyethylene glycol (PEG 400); PEG 400/industrial methylated spirits (IMS); PEG 400/ethanol (EtOH); polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP)/70% isopropanol (IPA); and 70% IPA. For each of the last five strategies, 1-min treatment washes were repeatedly alternated with 1-min water washes for a total of 15 min. Evaluation was based on scoring of erythema, edema, and histological parameters such as intracellular and intercellular epidermal edema, papillary dermal edema, perivascular infiltrates, pyknotic stratum basale cells, and epidermal-dermal separation. It was concluded that PEG 400 and 70% IPA were superior to the other treatments investigated and equally efficacious in the reduction of phenol-induced skin damage. In addition, phenol absorption was assessed utilizing the two most effective in vivo treatments in the IPPSF. The assessment of percutaneous absorption of phenol found the PEG 400, 70% IPA, and 15-min water treatments significantly (P < 0.05) reduced phenol absorption relative to no treatment.

  6. Lightning burns.

    PubMed

    Russell, Katie W; Cochran, Amalia L; Mehta, Sagar T; Morris, Stephen E; McDevitt, Marion C

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a lightning-strike victim. This case illustrates the importance of in-field care, appropriate referral to a burn center, and the tendency of lightning burns to progress to full-thickness injury.

  7. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    PubMed

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated.

  8. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    PubMed

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated. PMID:27189091

  9. Accidental burns during surgery.

    PubMed

    Demir, Erhan; O'Dey, Dan Mon; Pallua, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to increase awareness of intraoperative burns during standard procedures, to discuss their possible causes and warning signs and to provide recommendations for prevention and procedures to follow after their occurrence. A total of 19 patients associated with intraoperative burn accidents were treated surgically and analyzed after a mean follow-up of 5 +/- 3.5 months. Review included retrospective patient chart analysis, clinical examination, and technical device and equipment testing. A total of 15 patients recently underwent cardiac surgery, and 4 pediatric patients recovered after standard surgical procedures. A total of 15 patients had superficial and 4 presented with deep dermal or full-thickness burns. The average injured TBSA was 2.1 +/- 1% (range, 0.5-4%). Delay between primary surgery and consultation of plastic surgeons was 4.5 +/- 3.4 days. A total of 44% required surgery, including débridment, skin grafting or musculocutaneous gluteus maximus flaps, and the remaining patients were treated conservatively. Successful durable soft-tissue coverage of the burn region was achieved in 18 patients, and 1 patient died after a course of pneumonia. Technical analysis demonstrated one malfunctioning electrosurgical device, one incorrect positioned neutral electrode, three incidents occurred after moisture under the negative electrode, eight burns occurred during surgery while fluid or blood created alternate current pathways, five accidents were chemical burns after skin preparation with Betadine solution, and in one case, the cause was not clear. The surgical team should pay more attention to the probability of burns during surgery. Early patient examination and immediate involvement of plastic and burn surgeons may prevent further complications or ease handling after the occurrence.

  10. Use of human and porcine dermal-derived bioprostheses in complex abdominal wall reconstructions: a literature review and case report.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Daniel R; Stawicki, S Peter; Eustance, Nicole; Warsaw, David; Desai, Darius

    2007-05-01

    The goal of abdominal wall reconstruction is to restore and maintain abdominal domain. A PubMed(R) review of the literature (including "old" MEDLINE through February 2007) suggests that bioprosthetic materials are increasingly used to facilitate complex abdominal wall reconstruction. Reported results (eight case reports/series involving 137 patients) are encouraging. The most commonly reported complications are wound seroma (18 patients, 13%), skin dehiscence with graft exposure without herniation (six, 4.4%), superficial and deep wound infections (five, 3.6%), hernia recurrence (four, 2.9%), graft failure with dehiscence (two), hematoma (two), enterocutaneous fistula (one), and flap necrosis (one). Two recent cases are reported herein. In one, a 46-year-old woman required open abdominal management after gastric remnant perforation following a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure. Porcine dermal collagen combined with cutaneous flaps was used for definitive abdominal wall reconstruction. The patient's condition improved postoperatively and she was well 5 months after discharge from the hospital. In the second, a 54-year-old woman underwent repair of an abdominal wall defect following resection of a large leiomyosarcoma. Human acellular dermis combined with myocutaneous flaps was used to reconstruct the abdominal wall defect. The patient's recovery was uncomplicated and 20 weeks following surgery she was doing well with no evidence of recurrence or hernia. The results reported to date and the outcomes presented here suggest that bioprosthetic materials are safe and effective for repair of large abdominal wall defects. Prospective, randomized, controlled studies are needed to compare the safety and efficacy of other reconstructive techniques as well as human and porcine dermal-derived bioprostheses.

  11. Burns from a stove burst: analysis of 34 cases.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, M; Hussain, S S; Malik, S A

    2007-12-31

    Burns continue to be a major environmental factor responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries and, in particular, burns due to stove bursts are a major problem. Two types of stoves are available in Pakistan: gas stoves and kerosene stoves. The state is considered of patients burned by stove bursts in general, and also with specific reference to 34 adult patients admitted with stove burns to our hospital in Pakistan. Various treatment options were used, and the patients' treatment and outcome are reported. The continued commercialization of such stoves, and especially of the gas stove, is is a cause of serious and permanent consequences that represent a danger for the population. Proper care should be observed when handling them because, as always, prevention is better than cure.

  12. Iatrogenic surgical microscope skin burns: A systematic review of the literature and case report.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Joseph; Soni, Ashwin; Calva, Daniel; Susarla, Srinivas M; Jallo, George I; Redett, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Cutaneous burns associated with microscope-use are perceived to be uncommon adverse events in microsurgery. Currently, it is unknown what factors are associated with these iatrogenic events. In this report, we describe the case of a 1-year-old patient who suffered a full thickness skin burn from a surgical microscope after a L4-S1 laminectomy. Additionally, we present a systematic review of the literature that assessed the preoperative risk, outcome, and management of iatrogenic microscope skin burns. Lastly, a summary of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database of voluntary adverse events was reviewed and analyzed for clinical cases of microscope thermal injuries. The systematic literature review identified only seven articles related to microsurgery-related cutaneous burns. From these seven studies, 15 clinical cases of iatrogenic skin burns were extracted for analysis. The systematic review of the FDA MAUDE database revealed only 60 cases of cutaneous burns associated with surgical microscopes since 2004. Few cases of microscope burns have been described in the literature; this report is, to our knowledge, one of the first comprehensive reports of this iatrogenic event in the literature.

  13. Histomorphometric analysis of early epithelialization and dermal changes in mid-partial-thickness burn wounds in humans treated with porcine small intestinal submucosa and silver-containing hydrofiber.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Rosa M; Bravo, Leonardo; García, Mario; Melchor, Juan M; Krötzsch, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the healing rates of mid-partial-thickness burns treated with a porcine intestinal submucosa (SIS) vs. silver-containing cellulose hydrofiber (AgH) dressings. This was done by comparing healing response of burn wounds treated with SIS vs that of burns treated with AgH dressings. Five patients with mid-partial-thickness burns ≤10% of body surface were treated simultaneously, but in different areas, with SIS and AgH dressings; full-thickness biopsies were taken at days 0 and 7. Tissues treated with SIS presented higher epithelial maturation index (6.2 ± 0.84 vs. 3.2 ± 3.28; [mean ± standard deviation], P = .029), better orientation and differentiation of epithelial cells, as well as an appropriate basal lamina structure, collagen deposition, and higher transforming growth factor-β3 expression (7.4 ± 8.1 vs. 2.1 ± 2.6; P = .055) than tissues treated with AgH dressings. Importantly, after the treatment SIS was not integrated in healed tissues. After 3 months of treatment, SIS produced a lower score according to Vancouver Scar Scale (3.6 ± 2.6 vs. 7.2 ± 2.5, P = .025).The submucosa dressing does not simply act as scaffolding for the wound, it provides stimulation in the healing area, probably via growth factors initially present in SIS or matrikines derived from its digestion in the wound site. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that biological matrices favor the wound-healing process.

  14. Treatment of nasal burns: analysis of 150 cases.

    PubMed

    Prousskaia, E; El-Muttardi, N; Philp, B; Dziewulski, P; Shelley, O P

    2015-06-30

    Nasal burns present a challenge for the plastic surgeon in terms of immediate management, choice of primary treatment and secondary reconstruction with the goals of good aesthetic and functional outcome. We present a retrospective analysis of the management of 150 patients with nasal burns treated in our center between July 2005 and July 2011. We rationalized our conservative and all surgical treatments of this subset of burns patients and organized them in a simple and structured way. The reconstructive options for most complex full thickness nasal injury is determined by the integrity of adjacent facial tissues which would always be preferred when available. Microsurgical free tissue transfer is dependent upon the fitness of the patient and the availability of unburned skin at the donor site. Secondary nasal reconstruction is based on an assessment of the residual functional and cosmetic problems. Airways narrowing from scar contracture or loss of support are managed using standard plastic surgical and rhinoplasty principles. Cosmetic refinements range from flap debulking to the importation of new tissue on to the nose. Our experience with this challenging group of patients has led us to develop a simple treatment algorithm for the management of nasal burns.

  15. Treatment of nasal burns: analysis of 150 cases

    PubMed Central

    Prousskaia, E.; El-Muttardi, N.; Philp, B.; Dziewulski, P.; Shelley, O.P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Nasal burns present a challenge for the plastic surgeon in terms of immediate management, choice of primary treatment and secondary reconstruction with the goals of good aesthetic and functional outcome. We present a retrospective analysis of the management of 150 patients with nasal burns treated in our center between July 2005 and July 2011. We rationalized our conservative and all surgical treatments of this subset of burns patients and organized them in a simple and structured way. The reconstructive options for most complex full thickness nasal injury is determined by the integrity of adjacent facial tissues which would always be preferred when available. Microsurgical free tissue transfer is dependent upon the fitness of the patient and the availability of unburned skin at the donor site. Secondary nasal reconstruction is based on an assessment of the residual functional and cosmetic problems. Airways narrowing from scar contracture or loss of support are managed using standard plastic surgical and rhinoplasty principles. Cosmetic refinements range from flap debulking to the importation of new tissue on to the nose. Our experience with this challenging group of patients has led us to develop a simple treatment algorithm for the management of nasal burns. PMID:27252610

  16. Two cases of burns caused by misuse of coagulation unit and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Rolly, G

    1978-01-01

    Two cases of severe burns with monitoring apparatus are described. In a female patient of 45 years, a severe third degree burn occurred by misuse of coagulation apparatus (inversion of the poles of an older Bovie apparatus), in the presence of a non-floating ECG monitoring device. A high intensity current was established from the coagulation unit, via the earth plate under the buttocks, to the indifferent electrode placed on the chest, where burns occurred. In an 8 month female baby, having laparotomy for a neuroblastoma, a third degree burn of 5 cm diameter occurred with a non-floating ECG monitor. A twin-wired disposable earth plate was placed just beneath the indifferent ECG electrode on the leg. A burning current was established between the Bovie coagulation unit and the monitor.

  17. Post-kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis with Mucosal Involvement: An Unusual Case Presentation including Successful Treatment with Miltefosine

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Muhammad A.; Nabi, Shah G.; Bhaskar, Khondaker R.H.; Mondal, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a dermatologic manifestation that usually occurs after visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani. It is characterized by hypopigmented patches, a macular or maculopapular rash and nodular skin lesions on the body surface. Involvement of the mucosae is very rare and unusual in PKDL. We report a case of PKDL that presented with polymorphic skin lesions, along with involvement of peri-oral mucosa and tongue from an endemic area for kala-azar in Bangladesh. In the absence of a definite past history of kala-azar, a clinical suspicion for PKDL was confirmed by positive rapid serological tests against two recombinant (rK39 and rK28) leishmanial antigens, demonstration of Leishmania donovani (LD) body in the slit skin smear, and isolation of promastigotes by culture from a nodular lesion. The patient was treated with oral Miltefosine for three consecutive months and showed significant clinical improvement as demonstrated by a negative slit skin smear at two months after initiation of therapy. We report this case as an unusual presentation of mucosal involvement in PKDL and subsequent treatment success with Miltefosine. PMID:23930349

  18. Feet sunk in molten aluminium: The burn and its prevention.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Peña, David; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Valero-Gasalla, Javier Luis; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Campillo-Campaña, Ramón; Alonso-Peña, Javier; González-Santos, Jose María; Fernández-Díaz, Alaska Leonor; Arnáiz, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, despite improvements in safety rules and inspections in the metal industry, foundry workers are not free from burn accidents. Injuries caused by molten metals include burns secondary to molten iron, aluminium, zinc, copper, brass, bronze, manganese, lead and steel. Molten aluminium is one of the most common causative agents of burns (60%); however, only a few publications exist concerning injuries from molten aluminium. The main mechanisms of lesion from molten aluminium include direct contact of the molten metal with the skin or through safety apparel, or when the metal splash burns through the pants and rolls downward along the leg. Herein, we report three cases of deep dermal burns after 'soaking' the foot in liquid aluminium and its evolutive features. This paper aims to show our experience in the management of burns due to molten aluminium. We describe the current management principles and the key features of injury prevention.

  19. An unusual circumstance of internal chemical burn injury - a case report.

    PubMed

    Shetty, B Suresh Kumar; Shetty, Mahabalesh; Raj Kumar, K; Shrinidhi; Ullal, Harshavardhan

    2008-10-01

    Chemical burn injuries including nitric acid injuries are rarely seen in routine clinical practice. In this article, we describe a case of chemical burns due to ingestion of nitric acid in which the history was not of an accidental but of a suicidal nature. Spillage of nitric acid (vitriolage) is frequently reported especially in the third-world countries, but an ingestion injury like this is uncommon and rarely reported.

  20. Domestic incense burning and nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case-control study in Hong Kong Chinese.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shao-Hua; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun; Tse, Lap Ah; Au, Joseph Siu Kie; Wang, Feng; Lau, June Sze Man; Zhang, Bo

    2014-12-01

    Incense burning is a powerful producer of carcinogens and has been considered as a risk factor for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We conducted a case-control study and case-only analyses to investigate the effect of incense burning and its interaction with genetic background on NPC risk among Hong Kong Chinese. Between June 2010 and December 2012, we recruited 352 incident cases of NPC and 410 controls. We collected information on lifelong practice of domestic incense burning via interviews and genotyped 80 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA repair genes. We observed an increased NPC risk associated with daily burning in women [Adjusted OR = 2.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33, 4.66] but not in men. The adjusted OR for daily burning with poor ventilation was 2.08 (95% CI: 1.02, 4.24), while that with good ventilation was 1.35 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.98). Interactions between 2 SNPs (rs2074517 and rs4771436) and incense burning were significantly associated with NPC risk and tended to have a SNP exposure-response effect. Evidence for gene-environment interactions supported the knowledge that NPC is a multi-factorial disease resulting from the joint effects of environmental exposures and inherited susceptibility.

  1. Burn injuries resulting from hot water bottle use: a retrospective review of cases presenting to a regional burns unit in the United kingdom.

    PubMed

    Jabir, Shehab; Frew, Quentin; El-Muttardi, Naguib; Dziewulski, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Hot water bottles are commonly used to relieve pain and for warmth during the colder months of the year. However, they pose a risk of serious burn injuries. The aim of this study is to retrospectively review all burn injuries caused by hot water bottles presenting to our regional burns unit. Methods. Patients with burns injuries resulting from hot water bottle use were identified from our burns database between the periods of January 2004 and March 2013 and their cases notes reviewed retrospectively. Results. Identified cases involved 39 children (aged 17 years or younger) and 46 adults (aged 18 years or older). The majority of burns were scald injuries. The mean %TBSA was 3.07% (SD ± 3.40). Seven patients (8.24%) required debridement and skin grafting while 3 (3.60%) required debridement and application of Biobrane. One patient (1.18%) required local flap reconstruction. Spontaneous rupture accounted for 48.20% of injuries while accidental spilling and contact accounted for 33% and 18.80% of injuries, respectively. The mean time to heal was 28.87 days (SD ± 21.60). Conclusions. This study highlights the typical distribution of hot water bottle burns and the high rate of spontaneous rupture of hot water bottles, which have the potential for significant burn injuries.

  2. Assessment of dermal hazard from acid burns with fire retardant garments in a full-size simulation of an engulfment flash fire.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Christopher E; Vivanco, Stephanie N; Yeboah, George; Vercellone, Jeff

    2016-09-01

    There have been concerns that fire-derived acid gases could aggravate thermal burns for individuals wearing synthetic flame retardant garments. A comparative risk assessment was performed on three commercial flame retardant materials with regard to relative hazards associated with acidic combustion gases to skin during a full engulfment flash fire event. The tests were performed in accordance with ASTM F1930 and ISO 13506: Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Flame Resistant Clothing for Protection against Fire Simulations Using an Instrumented Manikin. Three fire retardant textiles were tested: an FR treated cotton/nylon blend, a low Protex(®) modacrylic blend, and a medium Protex(®) modacrylic blend. The materials, in the form of whole body coveralls, were subjected to propane-fired flash conditions of 84kW/m(2) in a full sized simulator for a duration of either 3 or 4s. Ion traps consisting of wetted sodium carbonate-impregnated cellulose in Teflon holders were placed on the chest and back both above and under the standard undergarments. The ion traps remained in position from the time of ignition until 5min post ignition. Results indicated that acid deposition did increase with modacrylic content from 0.9μmol/cm(2) for the cotton/nylon, to 12μmol/cm(2) for the medium modacrylic blend. The source of the acidity was dominated by hydrogen chloride. Discoloration was inversely proportional to the amount of acid collected on the traps. A risk assessment was performed on the potential adverse impact of acid gases on both the skin and open wounds. The results indicated that the deposition and dissolution of the acid gases in surficial fluid media (perspiration and blood plasma) resulted in an increase in acidity, but not sufficient to induce irritation/skin corrosion or to cause necrosis in open third degree burns.

  3. Assessment of dermal hazard from acid burns with fire retardant garments in a full-size simulation of an engulfment flash fire.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Christopher E; Vivanco, Stephanie N; Yeboah, George; Vercellone, Jeff

    2016-09-01

    There have been concerns that fire-derived acid gases could aggravate thermal burns for individuals wearing synthetic flame retardant garments. A comparative risk assessment was performed on three commercial flame retardant materials with regard to relative hazards associated with acidic combustion gases to skin during a full engulfment flash fire event. The tests were performed in accordance with ASTM F1930 and ISO 13506: Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Flame Resistant Clothing for Protection against Fire Simulations Using an Instrumented Manikin. Three fire retardant textiles were tested: an FR treated cotton/nylon blend, a low Protex(®) modacrylic blend, and a medium Protex(®) modacrylic blend. The materials, in the form of whole body coveralls, were subjected to propane-fired flash conditions of 84kW/m(2) in a full sized simulator for a duration of either 3 or 4s. Ion traps consisting of wetted sodium carbonate-impregnated cellulose in Teflon holders were placed on the chest and back both above and under the standard undergarments. The ion traps remained in position from the time of ignition until 5min post ignition. Results indicated that acid deposition did increase with modacrylic content from 0.9μmol/cm(2) for the cotton/nylon, to 12μmol/cm(2) for the medium modacrylic blend. The source of the acidity was dominated by hydrogen chloride. Discoloration was inversely proportional to the amount of acid collected on the traps. A risk assessment was performed on the potential adverse impact of acid gases on both the skin and open wounds. The results indicated that the deposition and dissolution of the acid gases in surficial fluid media (perspiration and blood plasma) resulted in an increase in acidity, but not sufficient to induce irritation/skin corrosion or to cause necrosis in open third degree burns. PMID:27325216

  4. Human Acellular Dermal Matrix Paired With Silver-zinc Coupled Electroceutical Dressing Results in Rapid Healing of Complicated Diabetic Wounds of Mixed Etiology: A Novel Case Series.

    PubMed

    Cole, Windy

    2016-07-01

    Patients with diabetes are well known for having difficult-to-close wounds. When additional factors are added, such as gouty tophi or tumors, the difficulty is compounded and conventional care often fails to heal the wound. In this case series, an innovative wound modality that combined a human acellular dermal matrix with a silver-zinc coupled electroceutical wound dressing was used in 3 particularly difficult and complex cases. In all 3 cases, this alternative treatment provided full healing within 6 weeks in wounds that conventional care had been unable to close in up to 2 years. PMID:27428719

  5. Burns from ECG leads in an MRI scanner: Case series and discussion of mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rehim, S; Bagirathan, S; Al-Benna, S; O'Boyle, C

    2014-12-31

    Iatrogenic burns are rare and preventable. The authors present two cases of burns from ECG leads, sustained during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Common features included a long duration spinal MR scan (120 and 60 minutes) and high patient body mass index (BMI >30). Both patients were discharged within 24 hours of admission, but required a period of outpatient burn care. The causation of these injuries remains unclear but there are several possible mechanisms including: electromagnetic induction heating, antenna effects and closed-loop current induction. The authors provide a description of the injuries, discuss possible mechanisms that may lead to burn injury in the MRI environment and suggest ways to reduce the risks of such injuries. PMID:26336370

  6. Burns from ECG leads in an MRI scanner: Case series and discussion of mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Rehim, S.; Bagirathan, S.; Al-Benna, S.; O’Boyle, C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Iatrogenic burns are rare and preventable. The authors present two cases of burns from ECG leads, sustained during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Common features included a long duration spinal MR scan (120 and 60 minutes) and high patient body mass index (BMI >30). Both patients were discharged within 24 hours of admission, but required a period of outpatient burn care. The causation of these injuries remains unclear but there are several possible mechanisms including: electromagnetic induction heating, antenna effects and closed-loop current induction. The authors provide a description of the injuries, discuss possible mechanisms that may lead to burn injury in the MRI environment and suggest ways to reduce the risks of such injuries. PMID:26336370

  7. The challenges of dysphagia management and rehabilitation after extensive thermal burn injury: a complex case.

    PubMed

    Rumbach, Anna F; Ward, Elizabeth C; Cornwell, Petrea L; Bassett, Lynell V; Muller, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    The role of the speech pathologist in the burns population is still emerging, with detailed discussion of the assessment and management of dysphagia limited to date. This report describes the case of a 60-year-old man who developed severe contractures of the head and neck and oropharyngeal dysphagia after sustaining 53.5% deep partial- and full-thickness burns. Although some aspects of rehabilitation were confounded by a preexisting mild intellectual disability, the patient was able to participate in an intensive regimen of active and passive exercise to rehabilitate his oropharyngeal dysphagia. Significant oral contractures remained; however, the patient was discharged without tracheostomy and consuming a texture-modified diet with no signs of aspiration. To our knowledge, this is one of a small handful of reports that document speech pathology management of the burns population, and a first that identifies and outlines specific characteristics of, and rehabilitation strategies for, dysphagia in a burned individual.

  8. Severe complications after negative pressure wound therapy in burned wounds: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Haitao; Li, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    We present two typical cases of severe complications (sepsis and hemorrhage) after negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in burned patients. Necrotic tissues in some deep burn wounds are difficult to judge correctly and remove thoroughly. An electrically burned blood vessel looks “intact” but can easily break. Necrotic tissue or injured blood vessels when using NPWT are dangerous, both for causing sepsis and hemorrhage. This is the first article that reports the severe complications of NPWT in burned patients. It is imperative to heed indications and avoid contraindications. Proper preparation of wound beds, close observation, and sufficient irrigation are also crucial to avoid these severe complications, and there is an urgent need to substitute the central vacuum system with the low-pressure system. PMID:25061310

  9. Thrombocytopenia induces multiple intracranial hemorrhages in patients with severe burns: A review of 16 cases

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, JIANDA; LIU, JINYAN; LUO, CHENGQUN; HU, FENG; LIU, RUI; CHEN, ZIZI; CHEN, YAO; XIONG, WU; XIE, JIANFEI; HE, QUANYONG; YIN, CHAOQI; WANG, SHAOHUA; ZHANG, YANWEN; ZENG, SAINAN

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the etiology and diagnosis of multiple intracranial hemorrhages (ICHs) following severe burns, with a retrospective review of 16 cases of severe burns further complicated by multiple ICHs. Using cranial CT scans of the brains, we identified that all patients presented with low platelet counts and coagulation abnormalities prior to intracranial hemorrhaging. Following conventional treatment and various supporting treatments, five cases succumbed following a progressive reduction in blood platelet levels and the ICHs were cured in 11 cases following the restoration of normal platelet levels. We conclude that low platelet counts and coagulation abnormalities may cause multiple ICHs following severe burns and early diagnosis and treatment is the key to successful treatment. PMID:23935750

  10. Healing of burn wounds by topical treatment: A randomized controlled comparison between silver sulfadiazine and nano-crystalline silver

    PubMed Central

    Adhya, Abhishek; Bain, Jayanta; Ray, Oindri; Hazra, Avijit; Adhikari, Souvik; Dutta, Gouranga; Ray, Sudhin; Majumdar, Bijay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Silver sulfadiazine (SSD) has been the standard topical antimicrobial for burn wounds for decades. Recently, nanometer-sized silver particles are available which have high surface to volume ratio and remain effective even at a very low concentration and minimizes the chance for tissue toxicity due to silver. Hence, we conducted a randomized controlled trial to compare the effectiveness of topical SSD and nano-crystalline silver (AgNP) hydrogel in burn wounds management. Materials and Methods: Study was conducted in the Burn Unit of IPGME&R & SSKM Hospital Calcutta, from January 2011 to August 2012. Patients with 2° burn injury were randomly allocated to SSD and AgNP treatment group. Clinical assessments of burn wound were done on every week till 4th week and on completion of treatment. Results: Data for evaluation were obtained for 54 patients on SSD (2° deep-dermal cases 27) and 52 (2° deep-dermal cases 31) on AgNP treatment. Healing status of 2° deep-dermal burns was more satisfactory for AgNP group than SSD treatment at 4 weeks. Among patients receiving AgNP, 80.6% showed at least 50% healing of 2° deep-dermal wounds compared to 48.1% on SSD at 4 weeks (P = 0.001). The figures for complete healing at 4 weeks were, respectively, 4% and 0% (P = 0.116). Conclusions: AgNP can be an effective and superior alternative to SSD for burn wounds, particularly 2° deep-dermal burns. Healing can be expected, in general, in 6 to 8 weeks time, depending upon the extent of body surface involvement. PMID:25538469

  11. Thigh burns from exploding e-cigarette lithium ion batteries: First case series.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, K J; Rose, A M; Khan, M A A; Quaba, O; Lowrie, A G

    2016-06-01

    E-cigarette (EC) use has risen meteorically over the last decade. The majority of these devices are powered by re-chargeable lithium ion batteries, which can represent a fire hazard if damaged, over-heated, over-charged or stored inappropriately. There are currently no reports in the medical literature of lithium ion battery burns related to EC use and no guidance on the appropriate management of lithium ion battery associated injuries. We report two individual cases of burn resulting from explosion of EC re-chargeable lithium ion batteries. Both patients required in-patient surgical management. We provide evidence that lithium ion battery explosions can be associated with mixed thermal and alkali chemical burns, resulting from the significant discharge of thermal energy and the dispersal of corrosive lithium ion compounds. We would recommend, as with other elemental metal exposures, caution in exposing lithium ion battery burns to water irrigation. Early and thorough cleaning and debridement of such burns, to remove residual lithium contamination, may limit the risk of burn wound extension and potentially improve outcomes. PMID:27118069

  12. Thigh burns from exploding e-cigarette lithium ion batteries: First case series.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, K J; Rose, A M; Khan, M A A; Quaba, O; Lowrie, A G

    2016-06-01

    E-cigarette (EC) use has risen meteorically over the last decade. The majority of these devices are powered by re-chargeable lithium ion batteries, which can represent a fire hazard if damaged, over-heated, over-charged or stored inappropriately. There are currently no reports in the medical literature of lithium ion battery burns related to EC use and no guidance on the appropriate management of lithium ion battery associated injuries. We report two individual cases of burn resulting from explosion of EC re-chargeable lithium ion batteries. Both patients required in-patient surgical management. We provide evidence that lithium ion battery explosions can be associated with mixed thermal and alkali chemical burns, resulting from the significant discharge of thermal energy and the dispersal of corrosive lithium ion compounds. We would recommend, as with other elemental metal exposures, caution in exposing lithium ion battery burns to water irrigation. Early and thorough cleaning and debridement of such burns, to remove residual lithium contamination, may limit the risk of burn wound extension and potentially improve outcomes.

  13. Chronic Wounds in Burn Injury: A Case Report on Importance of Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Gallardo, Guillermo

    2016-05-01

    According to the National Institutes of Health and the Center for Disease and Prevention, it is estimated that 65 to 80 percent of the human infectious are caused by biofilms. Antibiotics and drainage of purulent discharge are the main treatment measures. But in chronic infections sometimes these findings are not easy to recognize. Biofilm is an extracellular polymeric conglomeration generally composed of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides, which help bacteria to survive into the host. The following case is the example of chronic wound in burn patient, where biofilm gets involved and special attention is given to the relationship biofilm-chronic wound injury in a burn patient. PMID:27579274

  14. Chronic Wounds in Burn Injury: A Case Report on Importance of Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Gallardo, Guillermo

    2016-05-01

    According to the National Institutes of Health and the Center for Disease and Prevention, it is estimated that 65 to 80 percent of the human infectious are caused by biofilms. Antibiotics and drainage of purulent discharge are the main treatment measures. But in chronic infections sometimes these findings are not easy to recognize. Biofilm is an extracellular polymeric conglomeration generally composed of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides, which help bacteria to survive into the host. The following case is the example of chronic wound in burn patient, where biofilm gets involved and special attention is given to the relationship biofilm-chronic wound injury in a burn patient.

  15. Chronic Wounds in Burn Injury: A Case Report on Importance of Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Gallardo, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    According to the National Institutes of Health and the Center for Disease and Prevention, it is estimated that 65 to 80 percent of the human infectious are caused by biofilms. Antibiotics and drainage of purulent discharge are the main treatment measures. But in chronic infections sometimes these findings are not easy to recognize. Biofilm is an extracellular polymeric conglomeration generally composed of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides, which help bacteria to survive into the host. The following case is the example of chronic wound in burn patient, where biofilm gets involved and special attention is given to the relationship biofilm–chronic wound injury in a burn patient. PMID:27579274

  16. Sudden Death in Sauna Due to Fatal Burns: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lindroos, Katarina; Keltanen, Terhi

    2016-03-01

    Sudden death during or after sauna bathing is a rare event. When occurring accidentally, it is often caused or contributed by consumption of ethanol. To accidentally burn to death because of hot air is highly uncommon without some contributing factor that lowers the person's consciousness. Hot air burns have been reported to develop in 20 to 60 minutes. We present a case of sudden death of a healthy man with rare and extensive hot air burns that developed in less than 10 minutes in the sauna. Ethanol was not a contributing factor. Substantial injuries were found at the autopsy, both external and internal, for instance, small hemorrhages in the stomach mucosa, indicating a heavy antemortem stress reaction. The most probable reason for the extensive scalds was concluded to be, apart from the high temperature, the high degree of relative humidity in the sauna.

  17. [Combination of a universal antidote and temporary skin substitute for chemical burns: Extended case report].

    PubMed

    Liodaki, E; Schopp, B E; Lindert, J; Krämer, R; Kisch, T; Mailänder, P; Stang, F

    2015-09-01

    In this article we describe our experiences in the treatment of chemical burns with Diphoterine(®) solution and Suprathel(®) as a temporary skin substitute material, a treatment which in the past was not commonly used for this pattern of injuries. In the study period from October 2012 to December 2013 we treated five patients (four male and one female including two children and three adults) with chemical burns by decontamination with Diphoterine(®) and wound covering with Suprathel(®). The control group included five patients with similar injury patterns who were treated with Diphoterine(®) and occlusive wound dressings. No wound infections occurred in any of the five cases and no interactions were observed between Suprathel(®) and the chemical substance involved. In four cases the skin areas with IIa-IIb degree damage showed good wound healing and only slight scarring in the follow-up after 3 months and one of the five patients had to be treated surgically. Suprathel(®) can be used as a temporary skin substitute for the treatment of skin burns and is also available for the treatment of chemical burns.

  18. Clinicopathological and Immunological Changes in Indian Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) Cases in relation to Treatment: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bimal, Sanjiv; Das, Vidya Nand Rabi; Pandey, Krishna; Singh, Dharmendra; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Sinha, Prabhat Kumar; Das, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is an important factor in kala-azar transmission; hence its early detection and assessment of effective treatment is very important for disease control. In present study on 60 PKDL cases presented with macular, mixed papulonodular, or erythematous lesions, Leishmania parasites were demonstrated microscopically in 91% of papulonodular and 40% of macular lesions. Cellular infiltrates in skin biopsy imprint smears from lesions were mononuclear cells, 25–300/OIF (oil immersion field), predominantly histiocytes with vacuolation, many lymphocytes, some plasma cells, and Leishmania amastigotes 0–20/OIF. Cases with no demonstrable parasites were diagnosed on the basis of past history of VL, lesion's distribution, cytopathological changes, and positive DAT (86.83%). Following antileishmanial treatment with SAG, papulonodular forms of PKDL lesions disappeared clinically but microscopically the mononuclear cells (20–200/OIF) persisted in the dermal lesions. Response observed in macular PKDL lesions was poor which persisted both clinically and cytopathologically. Follow-up of PKDL will assess the effectivity of treatment as either disappearance of lesions or any relapse. Studies on involvement of immunological factors, that is, certain cytokines (IL-10, TGF-β, etc.) and chemokines (macrophage inflammatory protein, MIP 1-α, etc.) in PKDL, may provide insight for any role in the treatment response. PMID:26090441

  19. CAD tool for burn diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Acha, Begoña; Serrano, Carmen; Acha, José I; Roa, Laura M

    2003-07-01

    In this paper a new system for burn diagnosis is proposed. The aim of the system is to separate burn wounds from healthy skin, and the different types of burns (burn depths) from each other, identifying each one. The system is based on the colour and texture information, as these are the characteristics observed by physicians in order to give a diagnosis. We use a perceptually uniform colour space (L*u*v*), since Euclidean distances calculated in this space correspond to perceptually colour differences. After the burn is segmented, some colour and texture descriptors are calculated and they are the inputs to a Fuzzy-ARTMAP neural network. The neural network classifies them into three types of bums: superficial dermal, deep dermal and full thickness. Clinical effectiveness of the method was demonstrated on 62 clinical burn wound images obtained from digital colour photographs, yielding an average classification success rate of 82% compared to expert classified images.

  20. CAD tool for burn diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Acha, Begoña; Serrano, Carmen; Acha, José I; Roa, Laura M

    2003-07-01

    In this paper a new system for burn diagnosis is proposed. The aim of the system is to separate burn wounds from healthy skin, and the different types of burns (burn depths) from each other, identifying each one. The system is based on the colour and texture information, as these are the characteristics observed by physicians in order to give a diagnosis. We use a perceptually uniform colour space (L*u*v*), since Euclidean distances calculated in this space correspond to perceptually colour differences. After the burn is segmented, some colour and texture descriptors are calculated and they are the inputs to a Fuzzy-ARTMAP neural network. The neural network classifies them into three types of bums: superficial dermal, deep dermal and full thickness. Clinical effectiveness of the method was demonstrated on 62 clinical burn wound images obtained from digital colour photographs, yielding an average classification success rate of 82% compared to expert classified images. PMID:15344466

  1. Thymosin β4 Promotes Dermal Healing.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, H K; Sosne, G

    2016-01-01

    No agent has been identified that significantly accelerates the repair of chronic dermal wounds in humans. Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) is a small, abundant, naturally occurring regenerative protein that is found in body fluids and inside cells. It was found to have angiogenic and antiinflammatory activity and to be high in platelets that aggregate at the wound site. Thus we used Tβ4 initially in dermal healing. It has since been shown to have many activities important in tissue protection, repair, and regeneration. Tβ4 increases the rate of dermal healing in various preclinical animal models, including diabetic and aged animals, and is active for burns as well. Tβ4 also accelerated the rate of repair in phase 2 trials with patients having pressure ulcers, stasis ulcers, and epidermolysis bullosa wounds. It is safe and well tolerated and will likely have additional uses in the skin and in injured organs for tissue repair and regeneration. PMID:27450738

  2. Percutaneous pigtail catheter in the treatment of pneumothorax in major burns: the best alternative? Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Raul; Ghanem, Omar; Diroma, Frank; Milner, Stephen M; Gerold, Kevin B; Price, Leigh A

    2015-05-01

    Multiple factors place burn patients at a high risk of pneumothorax development. Currently, no specific recommendations for the management of pneumothorax in large total body surface area (TBSA) burn patients exist. We present a case of a major burn patient who developed pneumothorax after central line insertion. After the traditional large bore (24 Fr) chest tube failed to resolve the pneumothorax, the pneumothorax was ultimately managed by a percutaneous placed pigtail catheter thoracostomy placement and resulted in its complete resolution. We will review the current recommendations of pneumothorax treatment and will highlight on the use of pigtail catheters in pneumothorax management in burn patients.

  3. Pulmonary embolism in burns, is there an evidence based prophylactic recommendation? Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Raul; Ghanem, Omar; DiRoma, Frank; Milner, Stephen M; Price, Leigh A

    2015-03-01

    Burn patients exhibit an acquired hypercoagulable state with increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Currently, no randomized control study assessing the efficacy of chemical venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in burn patients has been performed. We present a case of a morbidly (body mass index>54kg/m(2)) obese patient with 18% total body surface area (TBSA) burn who developed a VTE and a non-fatal submassive pulmonary embolus (PE). We will be reviewing the current consensus of venous thrombosis prophylaxis in burn patients and briefly discuss the treatment of PE in this population.

  4. Composite split cord malformation associated with a dermal sinus tract, dermoid cyst, and epidural abscess: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Saad; Azeem, Abdul; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad; Tahir, Muhammad Zubair

    2016-01-01

    Background: Split cord malformation (SCM) is typically present at a single level but rarely, may be present at multiple levels in the spinal cord and can be associated with a wide array of lesions such as myelomeningoceles, lipomas, teratomas, and dermal sinus tracts (DSTs). Case Description: We describe a case of a 15-month-old female child who presented with high-grade fever and progressive motor weakness in the lower limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of SCM along with an epidural abscess, DST, and dermoid cyst. The child underwent surgery for excision of DST along with removal of the dermoid cyst and drainage of epidural abscess. The postoperative course was uneventful. Elective repair of the SCM was performed 4 weeks later. The postoperative course was uneventful again. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, the combination of a composite SCM with a DST and dermoid cyst with associated epidural abscess has rarely been reported in literature. PMID:27168946

  5. Combined periodontal and restorative approach to the treatment of gingival recessions with noncarious cervical lesions: a case treated with acellular dermal matrix allograft and compomer restorations.

    PubMed

    Efeoğlu, Ahmet; Hanzade, Mete; Sari, Esra; Alpay, Hande; Karakaş, Ozan; Koray, Fatma

    2012-08-01

    Treatment of gingival recessions has become one of the most challenging procedures in periodontal plastic surgery. Various surgical options with predictable outcomes are available, but in cases with cervical lesions or restorations, optimal functional and esthetic results may require the combination of periodontal and restorative procedures. In this case report, one patient treated with acellular dermal matrix allograft and a coronally positioned flap in combination with compomer cervical restorations is presented. Clinical parameters were recorded immediately prior to surgery and after 12 months. Postoperatively, significant root coverage, reductions in probing depths, and gains in clinical attachment were observed. The final clinical results, esthetics, color match, and tissue contours were acceptable to both the patient and clinicians. PMID:22577650

  6. Forensic diagnosis of ante- and postmortem burn based on aquaporin-3 gene expression in the skin.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Hidemichi; Hayashi, Takahito; Ago, Kazutoshi; Ago, Mihoko; Kanekura, Takuro; Ogata, Mamoru

    2014-05-01

    In order to diagnose death associated with fire, it is essential to show that the person was exposed to heat while still alive. We investigated both AQP1 and AQP3 expression in the skin of an experimental burn model, as well as in forensic autopsy cases, and discuss its role in the differential diagnosis of ante- and postmortem burns. In animal experiments, there was no difference in AQP1 gene expression among four groups (n=4): antemortem burn, postmortem burn, mechanical wound, and control. However, AQP3 expression in the antemortem burn was increased significantly compared with that of the other groups even at 5min after burn. Water content of the skin was decreased significantly by the burn procedure. Consistent with animal experiments, AQP3 gene expression in the skin of antemortem burn cases was increased significantly compared with postmortem burns, mechanical wounds, and controls (n=12 in each group). These observations suggest that dermal AQP3 gene expression was increased to maintain water homeostasis in response to dehydration from burn. Finally, our results suggest that AQP3 gene expression may be useful for forensic molecular diagnosis of antemortem burn.

  7. Fig leaf tanning lotion and sun-related burns: case reports.

    PubMed

    Bollero, D; Stella, M; Rivolin, A; Cassano, P; Risso, D; Vanzetti, M

    2001-11-01

    A sun tan is considered a symbol of well-being in our society, but incorrect methods of sun exposure can create serious problems. We present two cases of severe sun-related burns caused by fig leaf decoction used as home-made tanning lotion. Twenty four-thirty six hours after application and sun exposure, patients developed a phytophotodermatitis characterised by erythema, and blister formation involving all the photoexposed areas (45-70% BSA). Their general conditions became rapidly critical and they were admitted to our Burn Centre. The patients were discharged after 11 and 26 days, respectively. Haemolytic anaemia and retinal haemorrhages presented as systemic complications due to the furocoumarins present in the fig leaf decoction.

  8. Hypnosis delivered through immersive virtual reality for burn pain: A clinical case series.

    PubMed

    Patterson, David R; Wiechman, Shelley A; Jensen, Mark; Sharar, Sam R

    2006-04-01

    This study is the first to use virtual-reality technology on a series of clinical patients to make hypnotic analgesia less effortful for patients and to increase the efficiency of hypnosis by eliminating the need for the presence of a trained clinician. This technologically based hypnotic induction was used to deliver hypnotic analgesia to burn-injury patients undergoing painful wound-care procedures. Pre- and postprocedure measures were collected on 13 patients with burn injuries across 3 days. In an uncontrolled series of cases, there was a decrease in reported pain and anxiety, and the need for opioid medication was cut in half. The results support additional research on the utility and efficacy of hypnotic analgesia provided by virtual reality hypnosis. PMID:16581687

  9. Open flap debridement in combination with acellular dermal matrix allograft for the prevention of postsurgical gingival recession: a case series.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Ramesh Sundersing; Bhongade, Manohar Laxman; Tiwari, Ishan Ramakant; Jaiswal, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Open flap debridement with flap repositioning may result in significant gingival recession. Patients with chronic periodontitis were treated with open flap debridement followed by placement of an acellular dermal matrix allograft (ADMA) underneath the flap to minimize the occurrence of postsurgical gingival recession. Ten patients (total, 60 teeth) with periodontal pockets in the anterior dentition underwent open flap debridement combined with ADMA. Probing pocket depth, relative attachment level, and relative gingival margin level were recorded at baseline and 6 months postsurgery. The mean probing pocket depth at baseline and 6 months was 4.4 and 1.7 mm, respectively (P < .05); the mean relative attachment level at baseline and 6 months was 12.9 and 10.7 mm, respectively (P < .05); and the mean relative gingival margin level at baseline and 6 months was 8.4 and 9.0 mm, respectively. ADMA underneath the flap when combined with open flap debridement effectively minimizes postsurgical gingival recession.

  10. Gunpowder-related burns.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Monzonis, A; Benito-Ruiz, J; Baena-Montilla, P; Mena-Yago, A; de la Cruz-Ferrer, L I

    1992-04-01

    Gunpowder misuse is a frequent cause of burn injury in our area. The injuries are mostly minor lesions which may be treated on an outpatient basis, the more serious injuries need surgical treatment. Experience of the management of these burns is reported by reviewing 123 clinical charts of patients admitted between 1983 and 1990. The most frequent victims are teenage males who are involved mainly in accidents in the street. The most serious burns followed work-related accidents, with a fatal outcome in 47 per cent of the patients. The serious burns are usually deep dermal or full skin thickness. A common pattern affects groins, genitalia, hypogastrium and hands, and are produced when fireworks ignite in the pockets of the patient's trousers. The management of these lesions does not differ from burns caused by other agents, although attention should be paid to the presence of associated lesions, chiefly to eyes, ears and hands, due to the shockwave and shrapnel. PMID:1590935

  11. Gunpowder-related burns.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Monzonis, A; Benito-Ruiz, J; Baena-Montilla, P; Mena-Yago, A; de la Cruz-Ferrer, L I

    1992-04-01

    Gunpowder misuse is a frequent cause of burn injury in our area. The injuries are mostly minor lesions which may be treated on an outpatient basis, the more serious injuries need surgical treatment. Experience of the management of these burns is reported by reviewing 123 clinical charts of patients admitted between 1983 and 1990. The most frequent victims are teenage males who are involved mainly in accidents in the street. The most serious burns followed work-related accidents, with a fatal outcome in 47 per cent of the patients. The serious burns are usually deep dermal or full skin thickness. A common pattern affects groins, genitalia, hypogastrium and hands, and are produced when fireworks ignite in the pockets of the patient's trousers. The management of these lesions does not differ from burns caused by other agents, although attention should be paid to the presence of associated lesions, chiefly to eyes, ears and hands, due to the shockwave and shrapnel.

  12. Estrogen treatment of acetic acid burns to the vagina, cervix, and perineum: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ching, Jessica A; Kuykendall, Lauren V; Troy, Jared S; Smith, David J

    2014-01-01

    In colposcopic evaluation of the cervix, acetic acid of 3 to 5% is commonly used for identification of preneoplastic and neoplastic cells. Acetic acid is a known caustic substance and has the potential to cause irritation and chemical burns when there is sufficient concentration or duration of contact. The authors present a unique case of a woman who inadvertently received undiluted acetic acid during a routine colposcopy, resulting in significant chemical burns of the vagina, cervix, and perineum. Her burns were treated with topical estrogen cream of 1 g twice daily applied directly to the wounds. The burn wounds were fully healed within 8 weeks without complication or additional treatment. At 6 months after the injury, the patient was allowed to engage in sexual activity, and vaginal dilation and pelvic floor therapy were initiated. At 12 months postinjury, her only symptomatic scarring at the left vaginal wall continues to improve. Thus, topical estrogen treatment of 1 g applied twice daily should be continued until burn scar maturation is complete and treatment improvement plateaus in cases of burns to the vagina, cervix, and perineum. This case is further clinical evidence of estrogen's positive effect on wound healing and its potential role in burn treatment.

  13. Thoracic Duct Chylous Fistula Following Severe Electric Injury Combined with Sulfuric Acid Burns: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Fei; Cheng, Dasheng; Qian, Mingyuan; Lu, Wei; Li, Huatao; Tang, Hongtai; Xia, Zhaofan

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 32 Final Diagnosis: Thoracic duct chylous fistula Symptoms: Fistula Medication: — Clinical Procedure: A boneless muscle flap transplantatio Specialty: — Objective: Rare disease Background: As patients with thoracic duct injuries often suffer from severe local soft tissue defects, integrated surgical treatment is needed to achieve damage repair and wound closure. However, thoracic duct chylous fistula is rare in burn patients, although it typically involves severe soft tissue damage in the neck or chest. Case Report: A 32-year-old male patient fell after accidentally contacting an electric current (380 V) and knocked over a barrel of sulfuric acid. The sulfuric acid continuously poured onto his left neck and chest, causing combined electrical and sulfuric acid burn injuries to his anterior and posterior torso, and various parts of his limbs (25% of his total body surface area). During treatment, chylous fistula developed in the left clavicular region, which we diagnosed as thoracic duct chylous fistula. We used diet control, intravenous nutritional support, and continuous somatostatin to reduce the chylous fistula output, and hydrophilic silver ion-containing dressings for wound coverage. A boneless muscle flap was used to seal the left clavicular cavity, and, integrated, these led to resolution of the chylous fistula. Conclusions: Patients with severe electric or chemical burns in the neck or chest may be complicated with thoracic duct injuries. Although conservative treatment can control chylous fistula, wound cavity filling using a muscle flap is an effective approach for wound healing. PMID:27725628

  14. [Cutaneous myxoma (focal dermal mucinosis)].

    PubMed

    Senff, H; Kuhlwein, A; Jänner, M; Schäfer, R

    1988-09-01

    Two cases of cutaneous myxoma are presented. In case 1 the cutaneous myxoma was localized on the left thumb and clinically resembled a pyogenic granuloma. In case 2 it was found at the left nipple. The benign cutaneous tumor may herald a cardiac myxoma and other conditions. Thus, a cutaneous myxoma should be accepted as an indication for thorough investigation of the whole body at regular intervals. As there are neither clinically nor histologically adequate criteria for differentiation, cutaneous myxoma and focal dermal mucinosis can be considered as variants of a single entity.

  15. Burning Tongue as Initial Presentation of Celiac Disease in an Elderly Woman: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Andrea; Zamulko, Alla

    2016-06-01

    There are few reports in the literature where celiac disease presents with tongue manifestations, although atypical presentations of celiac disease are not uncommon. This case report highlights an atypical presentation of celiac disease in an elderly female. Our patient presented to clinic with complaints of a burning tongue for the past two years as well as occasional loose stools and fatigue. Work-up revealed iron deficiency anemia, zinc deficiency and an abnormal celiac panel. Complete symptom improvement was noted by 10 weeks into the initiation of a gluten free diet. Celiac disease can present at any age and should be considered as a differential in findings of malabsorption and gastrointestinal symptoms.

  16. Infantile multiple large pyogenic granuloma on burned skin. Case report and review of literature*

    PubMed Central

    Dastgheib, Ladan; Maghami, Zohreh; Aslani, Fatemeh Sari

    2016-01-01

    Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is a benign vascular lesion of the skin and mucous membranes, presenting as a solitary, red, pedunculated papule that bleeds easily and which appears to be a reactive vascular proliferation to minor injury. These lesions are more common in children and are mostly seen in exposed sites. Multiple disseminated PG is a rare condition. This report describes an infant with multiple, disseminated, pyogenic granulomas following burns from boiling milk. We reviewed literature published in English and found 9 cases. Six cases were provoked by hot milk, 2 by hot water, while the cause of the other case is unknown. Angiogiogenetic activity in milk may explain PG development in these patients. PMID:27192522

  17. The clinical features of burns resulting from two aerial devices set off in a public fireworks display: 149 case reports.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaosheng; Sun, Dongjie; Zhong, Xiaochun; Liu, Maolin; Ni, Youdi

    2014-12-01

    We report the clinical features of 149 cases with aerial devices burns in a public fireworks display. The characteristic features included sudden onset, masses of terrified burn victims, small and deep wounds, mild disease conditions, and favorable prognosis. Unlike in home or illegal fireworks displays, the body areas most often involved were the extremity, chest, abdomen, and back, and most of the victims were adults in these public fireworks displays.

  18. The clinical features of burns resulting from two aerial devices set off in a public fireworks display: 149 case reports.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaosheng; Sun, Dongjie; Zhong, Xiaochun; Liu, Maolin; Ni, Youdi

    2014-12-01

    We report the clinical features of 149 cases with aerial devices burns in a public fireworks display. The characteristic features included sudden onset, masses of terrified burn victims, small and deep wounds, mild disease conditions, and favorable prognosis. Unlike in home or illegal fireworks displays, the body areas most often involved were the extremity, chest, abdomen, and back, and most of the victims were adults in these public fireworks displays. PMID:24957358

  19. Natural flexible dermal armor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Ritchie, Robert O; Meyers, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Fish, reptiles, and mammals can possess flexible dermal armor for protection. Here we seek to find the means by which Nature derives its protection by examining the scales from several fish (Atractosteus spatula, Arapaima gigas, Polypterus senegalus, Morone saxatilis, Cyprinius carpio), and osteoderms from armadillos, alligators, and leatherback turtles. Dermal armor has clearly been developed by convergent evolution in these different species. In general, it has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining more rigid units (scales or osteoderms), thereby increasing flexibility without significantly sacrificing strength, in contrast to rigid monolithic mineral composites. These dermal structures are also multifunctional, with hydrodynamic drag (in fish), coloration for camouflage or intraspecies recognition, temperature and fluid regulation being other important functions. The understanding of such flexible dermal armor is important as it may provide a basis for new synthetic, yet bioinspired, armor materials. PMID:23161399

  20. Miracle in the desert. Cardiac case at remote burning man event presents challenges.

    PubMed

    Westin, Jeff; Songer, Pat; Buchanan, Kelly; Gorosh, Loren; Hodnick, Ryan; Bledsoe, Bryan E

    2012-05-01

    This was a miraculous case that illustrates the importance of seamless interaction between field EMS crews and physicians. First, this case occurred in one of the most austere and hostile environments imaginable. Next, it included a patient who was resuscitated from pulseless v tach with a precordial thump performed by a paramedic crew. The patient was subsequently evaluated and diagnosed with a thoracic aorta dissection by medical staff in a tent (with a diagnosis made by plain chest X-ray) and emergently transported 150 miles to a hospital where successful surgery was carried out. It truly was a "perfect storm," or perhaps, it was the general goodwill and spirit of Burning Man. Or maybe those crystals that were everywhere actually worked. PMID:22830125

  1. Characterization of long-range transported Canadian biomass burning over Central Europe - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Silke; Geiss, Alexander; Heimerl, Katharina; Gasteiger, Josef; Freudenthaler, Volker; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Wiegner, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Aerosols are a major component of the Earth's atmosphere and have substantial impact on the Earth's radiation budget and on the hydrological cycle. Biomass burning smoke is one important component with respect of global climate warming as it is an important source of black carbon, which is a key player in atmospheric heating. As biomass burning smoke layers are often transported over long distances they cannot be considered as local events only but have a global effect. During transport the smoke particles are affected by aging and mixing processes. Thus their microphysical and optical properties change and, as a consequence their effect on the Earth's radiation budget. However, the influence of aging and mixing processes on the particle microphysical and optical properties is still only poorly understood. To improve our knowledge, studies of transport conditions together with measurements of the horizontal and vertical distribution the smoke layers as well as of their microphysical and optical properties are crucial. We present a case study of long-range transported Canadian biomass burning smoke to Central Europe in summer 2013. The smoke layer is characterized by multi-wavelength lidar measurements over Maisach and by continuous Ceilometer measurements over Munich, Germany. Multi-wavelength lidar measurements are an important tool for the characterization of aerosols, as they provide vertically resolved information of their optical properties which serve as input parameters for the determination of microphysical properties of the aerosol layers. Additionally, airborne in-situ measurements of size distribution and black carbon mass concentration onboard the DLR research aircraft Falcon are presented. The source regions and transport conditions are studied using a combination of satellite measurements and model simulations.

  2. The importance of immediate cooling--a case series of childhood burns in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nhu Lam; Gun, Richard T; Sparnon, Anthony L; Ryan, Philip

    2002-03-01

    Numerous experimental studies have shown several benefits of treating burns by the immediate application of cool water. In this study of 695 children with burns, treated in the National Burn Institute (NBI), Hanoi, Vietnam, patients were assessed on admission according to first aid measures at the time of injury, i.e. the removal of the cause and immediate cooling with cold water. A total of 33% of the children who had had immediate cooling of the burn with water had deep burns, compared with 49% of the children who had not had immediate cooling. The prevalence ratio of deep burns was thus 0.68 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55-0.85); that is, there was an estimated reduction of 32% in the need for skin grafting, a reduction which was statistically significant. After adjusting for the effect of cooling the burn, removal of the causal agent reduced the odds of requiring skin grafting, but the reduction was not statistically significant. It is concluded that early cooling will prevent a significant percentage of superficial burns from progressing to deep burns. This will not only reduce the probability that skin grafting and expensive treatment will be required, but will reduce the risk of other consequences of deep burns, which may be fatal. Public health programs to promote immediate cooling of burns with cool water are at least as important as subsequent medical and surgical treatment in determining the outcome of burns in children.

  3. Burning Tongue as Initial Presentation of Celiac Disease in an Elderly Woman: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Andrea; Zamulko, Alla

    2016-06-01

    There are few reports in the literature where celiac disease presents with tongue manifestations, although atypical presentations of celiac disease are not uncommon. This case report highlights an atypical presentation of celiac disease in an elderly female. Our patient presented to clinic with complaints of a burning tongue for the past two years as well as occasional loose stools and fatigue. Work-up revealed iron deficiency anemia, zinc deficiency and an abnormal celiac panel. Complete symptom improvement was noted by 10 weeks into the initiation of a gluten free diet. Celiac disease can present at any age and should be considered as a differential in findings of malabsorption and gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:27443108

  4. Molten metal-related ocular thermal burn: report on two cases.

    PubMed

    Arici, Ceyhun; Iskeleli, Guzin; Atalay, Eray; Mangan, Mehmet Serhat; Kilic, Belgin

    2015-01-01

    We report two cases of severe thermal burns on the ocular surface and its adnexal appendages that developed secondary to exposure to molten heavy metal with a melting temperature of near-thousand degree Celsius. Despite aggressive intervention and strict monitoring, the profound inflammation caused significant damage to the ocular surface, ending up in an intractable infection with an unfavorable outcome. The heat of the molten metal at impact, the heat-retaining capacity of the heavy metal, the total area of the ocular surface exposed to the molten metal, and the duration of exposure determined the severity of the injury. The unfavorable outcome, despite an intensive treatment, in terms of visual acuity and cosmetic appearance, should be explicitly explained to the patient, and a psychiatrist consultation should be considered if necessary. PMID:26677043

  5. Flap revascularization in patients following immediate reconstruction using an autologous free dermal fat graft for breast cancer: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Shima, Hiroaki; Kutomi, Goro; Kyuno, Takuro; Satomi, Fukino; Uno, Satoko; Maeda, Hideki; Kameshima, Hidekazu; Omura, Tosei; Kimura, Yasutoshi; Mizuguchi, Toru; Hirata, Koichi; Takemasa, Ichiro

    2016-12-01

    It has been reported that use of the free dermal fat graft (FDFG) technique produces a good cosmetic outcome for breast cancer. An FDFG is harvested from the lower abdomen as a columnar-shaped specimen and implanted into the defect of the breast after a partial mastectomy as a volume replacement technique. In this report, two patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery with immediate reconstruction using an autologous FDFG are described in order to show the difference in status between one case with and one without blood flow in the graft. To assess the benefit of this technique using FDFGs, their cosmetic satisfaction was evaluated using a questionnaire, graft shrinkage was measured by CT, and blood flow was assessed using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). Both patients scored 10 of 12 points on the questionnaire. After 2 years, shrinkage of the grafts was 21.6 and 25.2 %, respectively. Although one patient had no blood flow in the center of the graft, the other had blood flow from the pectoralis major muscle to the center of the graft. While satisfaction and graft shrinkage were similar in the two patients, one case showed blood flow and had a somewhat softer graft than the other. The graft status was maintained with a good cosmetic outcome for 3 years after breast-conserving surgery with immediate reconstruction using an autologous FDFG, despite mild shrinkage and hardness of the graft. It is notable that blood flow was observed into the graft on CEUS, and more distinct perfusion was seen in the softer graft case after more than 3 years.

  6. THIRD-DEGREE BURN IN THE REGION OF THE ELECTROSURGICAL PAD DURING SHOULDER ARTHROSCOPY: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Gomide, Leandro Cardoso; Santos, Celso Eduardo Ribeiro Gonçalves; Pereira, Cleber Jesus; Carvalho, Luiz Cláudio Coelho; Queiroz, Sérgio Antônio Souza; Luciano, Roberto da Cunha; Pereira, Daniel Barros; Leocádio, Lélia Pereira

    2015-01-01

    The number of shoulder arthroscopy procedures is increasing and, because of this, the frequency of related complications is also increasing. This report presents a case of third-degree burn from an electrosurgical pad during this procedure and serves as an alert regarding the possible causes and how to try to prevent this rare, but possible complication. PMID:27026993

  7. A case of chemical scalp burns after hair highlights: experimental evidence of oxidative injuries.

    PubMed

    Bertani, Roberta; Sgarbossa, Paolo; Pendolino, Flavio; Facchin, Giangiacomo; Snenghi, Rossella

    2016-12-01

    Hair highlights are quite common procedures carried out in hair salons by using a mixture of a lightening powder containing persulfates with a suspension containing hydrogen peroxide: a representative case of chemical scalp burns is described as a consequence of this treatment. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate the strict relationship between the scalp damage and the commercial products used in a case of hair highlighting. The results of some chemical analyses have been reported, showing, in particular, that the chemical reactivity of the mixture changes in the time, thus strongly suggesting that the procedure for the application of the mixture is critical for the occurrence of possible accidents. The presence in the powder of chemical compounds bearing aliphatic chains as surfactants explains the appearance of dramatic symptoms after days due to a slow dissolution of the oxidant compounds in the stratum corneum of skin with no effect in reducing injury of palliative treatments. Safety suggestions and recommendations for producers and workers are also included.

  8. Facial granulomas secondary to Dermalive microimplants: Report of a case with histopathologic differential diagnosis among the granulomas secondary to different injectable permanent filler materials.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Machuca, Inmaculada; González-Guerra, Elena; Angulo, Jorge; del Carmen Fariña, María; Martín, Lucia; Requena, Luis

    2006-04-01

    Wrinkle reduction and the correction of skin defects using injectable aesthetic microimplants are now widely performed by dermatologists and plastic surgeons. In recent years, dermal filler substances containing polymer particle suspensions such as Bioplastique, Artecoll, and Dermalive are the most commonly used materials. These microimplants are permanent, non-biodegradable, and generally well tolerated, although various adverse reactions are still possible. We describe here a patient with facial granulomas secondary to Dermalive injections for correction of naso-labial folds and wrinkles. The particular shape of the injected particles allows for correct identification of the implanted material. Therefore, histopathologic examination is the best means to obtain the correct diagnosis of foreign body granuloma and to identify the type of filler particles. We discuss the histopathologic differential diagnosis among the granulomas secondary to the most commonly used aesthetic permanent filler materials.

  9. Deep dermal fibroblast profibrotic characteristics are enhanced by bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jie; Ma, Zengshuan; Shankowsky, Heather A; Medina, Abelardo; Tredget, Edward E

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars are a significant fibroproliferative disorder complicating deep injuries to the skin. We hypothesize that activated deep dermal fibroblasts are subject to regulation by bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), which leads to the development of excessive fibrosis following deep dermal injury. We found that the expression of fibrotic factors was higher in deep burn wounds compared with superficial burn wounds collected from burn patients with varying depth of skin injury. We characterized deep and superficial dermal fibroblasts, which were cultured from the deep and superficial dermal layers of normal uninjured skin obtained from abdominoplasty patients, and examined the paracrine effects of BM-MSCs on the fibrotic activities of the cells. In vitro, deep dermal fibroblasts were found higher in the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of type 1 collagen, alpha smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor beta, stromal cell-derived factor 1, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, an inhibitor of collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase 1). As well, deep dermal fibroblasts had low matrix metalloproteinase 1 mRNA, produced more collagen, and contracted collagen lattices significantly greater than superficial fibroblasts. By co-culturing layered fibroblasts with BM-MSCs in a transwell insert system, BM-MSCs enhanced the fibrotic behavior of deep dermal fibroblasts, which suggests a possible involvement of BM-MSCs in the pathogenesis of hypertrophic scarring.

  10. Epidemiology of outpatient burns in Tehran: an analysis of 4813 cases.

    PubMed

    Taghavi, Morteza; Rasouli, Mohammad R; Boddouhi, Nosratollah; Zarei, Mohammad Reza; Khaji, Ali; Abdollahi, Morteza

    2010-02-01

    This study aims to demonstrate the epidemiologic characteristics of outpatient burn injuries in Tehran. This cross-sectional study was performed over a 1-year period in a referral burn centre in Tehran and included all outpatient burns. The required data were recorded by two trained physicians. Of the 4813 studied patients, including 293 infants, 2901 patients (60%) were male (P<0.001). The mean age of the adult patients was 31.3+/-18.3 years, while for infants it was 10.68+/-2.27 months. In all age groups and both genders, scalding was the most common aetiology. Majority of the burns were non-intentional (n=4808) and 70.5% of the injuries occurred at home. Housewives consisted of 24% of the burn patients. With respect to the site of burn, multiple injuries were the most frequent (53%) followed by upper extremities (37%). Most of the burns (96%) were partial thickness. Significant association was present between the aetiology and depth of burn (P<0.001). The mean affected total body surface area (TBSA) was 3.16+/-2.92% and there was significant association between burnt TBSA and the mechanism of injury (P<0.001). In conclusion, it seems that women aged 21-30 years and children younger than 10 years are at greater risk of these injuries and therefore should be the target for preventive strategies.

  11. Retinal burns caused by exposure to MIG-welding arcs: report of two cases.

    PubMed Central

    Brittain, G P

    1988-01-01

    A new generation of arc welder has recently become widely available at a price which is within reach of most amateurs and part-time mechanics, known as the MIG welder (metal-arc inert gas welder). In MIG welding the arc is ensheathed in a stream of inert gas which prevents the molten metal from oxidising. The stream of gas changes the character of the emitted radiation, and it is possible that this type of welder poses a greater threat to sight than previously recognised. Radiation in the ultraviolet range emitted by arc welders is absorbed by the unprotected cornea and lens, giving rise to a keratoconjunctivitis, or 'arc-eye,' which, though intensely painful, is not considered a threat to sight. Radiation in the visible and near infrared spectrum, however, penetrates the eye to be absorbed by the retina and may cause thermal or photochemical damage which may be permanent and sight-threatening. Retinal injuries resulting from exposure to ordinary electric welding arcs have been reported, but such injuries are uncommon. Two cases of retinal burns resulting from exposure to MIG welder emissions which presented on consecutive days to the Leicester Royal Infirmary are presented. This is the first report of such injuries relating specifically to MIG welding. Images PMID:3415950

  12. Retinal burns caused by exposure to MIG-welding arcs: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Brittain, G P

    1988-08-01

    A new generation of arc welder has recently become widely available at a price which is within reach of most amateurs and part-time mechanics, known as the MIG welder (metal-arc inert gas welder). In MIG welding the arc is ensheathed in a stream of inert gas which prevents the molten metal from oxidising. The stream of gas changes the character of the emitted radiation, and it is possible that this type of welder poses a greater threat to sight than previously recognised. Radiation in the ultraviolet range emitted by arc welders is absorbed by the unprotected cornea and lens, giving rise to a keratoconjunctivitis, or 'arc-eye,' which, though intensely painful, is not considered a threat to sight. Radiation in the visible and near infrared spectrum, however, penetrates the eye to be absorbed by the retina and may cause thermal or photochemical damage which may be permanent and sight-threatening. Retinal injuries resulting from exposure to ordinary electric welding arcs have been reported, but such injuries are uncommon. Two cases of retinal burns resulting from exposure to MIG welder emissions which presented on consecutive days to the Leicester Royal Infirmary are presented. This is the first report of such injuries relating specifically to MIG welding.

  13. Stacking of a dermal regeneration template for reconstruction of a soft-tissue defect after tumor excision from the palm of the hand: a case report.

    PubMed

    Carothers, Joshua T; Brigman, Brian E; Lawson, Richard D; Rizzo, Marco

    2005-11-01

    Excision of tumors from the hand often leaves tissue defects with exposed tendons or neurovascular structures that require coverage. Various types of free and pedicled grafts have been described for use in these situations. We present a patient who had a tumor excision in the hand followed by wound coverage with a stacked dermal regeneration template. A 50-year-old man presented with a mass over the palm of the hand. He had an incisional biopsy procedure, the results of which suggested malignancy. He then had wide excision with planned temporary skin coverage with a dermal regeneration template. The dermal template incorporated nicely. With adequate skin coverage the palmar defect still was substantial in terms of depth. This was raised with layering or stacking of the template followed by a split-thickness skin graft. Excellent wound healing and coverage of the defect ultimately were achieved. Additionally the patient went on to obtain full range of motion. Stacking of a dermal regeneration template coupled with split-thickness skin grafting was used to fill a soft-tissue defect over the median and nerve and flexor tendons after wide tumor excision.

  14. Burning Issue: Handling Household Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... hot objects or liquid, fire, friction, the sun, electricity, or certain chemicals. Each year, about a half- ... infant or elderly. the burn was caused by electricity, which can lead to “invisible” burns. Burns Burns ...

  15. Epidemiology and outcome analysis of hand burns: A 5-year retrospective review of 378 cases in a burn center in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kang-an; Sun, Yu; Wu, Guo-sheng; Wang, Yi-ru; Xia, Zhao-fan

    2015-11-01

    Hands are frequent sites of burn but few related studies were reported in China. The aim of this study was to examine the impacts of gender, age, seasons, place, etiology, total body surface area (TBSA), depth, infection and comorbidities on prognosis following injury in a cohort of hand burn inpatients. This is a retrospective study of total 378 inpatients admitted to the burn center of Changhai hospital from January 2009 to December 2013. The present research showed the male inpatients were predominant and most of the inpatients aged from 20 to 49. Flame (37.04%) and electricity (25.40%) were the major causes of hand burns. Hand burns happened more commonly in work place (60.85%). The study preliminarily pointed out that male, flame and depth were the most significant factors impacting surgery. The main factors relevant to amputation were identified including the electrical burns and other etiology of burns. In addition, depth of hand burns was proved to have a higher impact on length of hospital stay (LOS) than other factors. The results of this study not only provide the necessary information of hand burns in Eastern China but also give the suggestions for the prevention of hand burns.

  16. [Burn injuries due to fireworks during New Year holiday. A 10-year case load].

    PubMed

    Udesen, A; Ovesen, O C

    1991-04-15

    Minor burns due to fireworks which are treated in the Casualty Department have remained constant during the past ten years. The injured patients are boys and young men between 7-19 years. Boys are injured ten times as frequently as girls. The commonest sites of injuries are the upper limbs, the head and neck. The number of patients admitted to hospital on account of serious burns has increased. These are most frequently caused by clothes catching fire from fireworks which have been hidden under outer clothes or in trouser pockets. In order to avoid the serious burns caused by burning clothes, it is recommended that fireworks should not be concealed under clothes but carried away from the body possibly in a container made of non-inflammable material.

  17. Extra corporeal shockwave lithotripsy resulting in skin burns--a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sandhya R; Ballesteros, Natalia; Short, Kerry L; Gathani, Krishna K; Ankem, Murali K

    2014-01-01

    Severe skin injury after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is rare. We describe two patients who suffered full thickness skin burns following ESWL for renal calculi. One patient was treated conservatively and the other underwent debridement with skin grafting. We speculate that failure of the thermostatic mechanism of the lithotripter, leading to overheating of the water-filled cushion, resulted in this very rare adverse event. Proper preoperative patient counseling regarding the risk of serious burn injuries will help to avoid potential litigation.

  18. Species Typing in Dermal Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Dujardin, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Leishmania is an infectious protozoan parasite related to African and American trypanosomes. All Leishmania species that are pathogenic to humans can cause dermal disease. When one is confronted with cutaneous leishmaniasis, identification of the causative species is relevant in both clinical and epidemiological studies, case management, and control. This review gives an overview of the currently existing and most used assays for species discrimination, with a critical appraisal of the limitations of each technique. The consensus taxonomy for the genus is outlined, including debatable species designations. Finally, a numerical literature analysis is presented that describes which methods are most used in various countries and regions in the world, and for which purposes. PMID:25672782

  19. Flexible Dermal Armor in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H.; Mckittrick, Joanna; Meyers, Marc A.

    2012-04-01

    Many animals possess dermal armor, which acts primarily as protection against predators. We illustrate this through examples from both our research and the literature: alligator, fish (alligator gar, arapaima, and Senegal bichir), armadillo, leatherback turtle, and a lizard, the Gila monster. The dermal armor in these animals is flexible and has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining mineralized units (scales, tiles, or plates). This combination significantly increases the strength and flexibility in comparison with a simple monolithic mineral composite or rigid dermal armor. This dermal armor is being studied for future bioinspired armor applications providing increased mobility.

  20. Malignant dermal cylindroma in a patient with multiple dermal cylindromas, trichoepitheliomas, and bilateral dermal analogue tumors of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Rockerbie, N; Solomon, A R; Woo, T Y; Beals, T F; Ellis, C N

    1989-08-01

    A malignant dermal cylindroma of the scalp arose from one of multiple long-standing dermal cylindromas in a 76-year-old man with coexisting trichoepitheliomas and bilateral dermal analogue tumors of the parotid gland. The histologic transition from a benign dermal cylindroma to an anaplastic keratinocytic neoplasm was readily apparent. The malignant dermal cylindroma is a rare neoplasm. To our knowledge, the constellation of benign and malignant dermal cylindromas, multiple trichoepitheliomas, and salivary gland neoplasms has not been previously reported.

  1. Hyperspectral Imaging for Burn Depth Assessment in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Michael S.; Babchenko, Oksana; Lujan-Hernandez, Jorge; Nobel, Lisa; Ignotz, Ronald; Lalikos, Janice F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Differentiating between superficial and deep-dermal (DD) burns remains challenging. Superficial-dermal burns heal with conservative treatment; DD burns often require excision and skin grafting. Decision of surgical treatment is often delayed until burn depth is definitively identified. This study’s aim is to assess the ability of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) to differentiate burn depth. Methods: Thermal injury of graded severity was generated on the dorsum of hairless mice with a heated brass rod. Perfusion and oxygenation parameters of injured skin were measured with HSI, a noninvasive method of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, at 2 minutes, 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours after wounding. Burn depth was measured histologically in 12 mice from each burn group (n = 72) at 72 hours. Results: Three levels of burn depth were verified histologically: intermediate-dermal (ID), DD, and full-thickness. At 24 hours post injury, total hemoglobin (tHb) increased by 67% and 16% in ID and DD burns, respectively. In contrast, tHb decreased to 36% of its original levels in full-thickness burns. Differences in deoxygenated and tHb among all groups were significant (P < 0.001) at 24 hours post injury. Conclusions: HSI was able to differentiate among 3 discrete levels of burn injury. This is likely because of its correlation with skin perfusion: superficial burn injury causes an inflammatory response and increased perfusion to the burn site, whereas deeper burns destroy the dermal microvasculature and a decrease in perfusion follows. This study supports further investigation of HSI in early burn depth assessment. PMID:26894016

  2. Phototherapy on the Treatment of Burning Mouth Syndrome: A Prospective Analysis of 20 Cases.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Lúcia de Fátima C; de Andrade, Samantha C; Nogueira, Gessé E C; Leão, Jair C; de Freitas, Patrícia M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report the effect of laser phototherapy (LPT) on the treatment of burning mouth syndrome (BMS). This prospective clinical study reports on preliminary outcomes of twenty volunteers diagnosed with BMS who have undergone the conventional treatment prior to laser phototherapy. LPT consisted of weekly sessions of LPT (660 nm), for a period of 10 weeks. The laser protocol consisted of the following parameters: 40 mW, 10 J cm(2) and 0.4 J per point, irradiation time of 10 s. In all sessions, the burning intensity was evaluated with a 10 cm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The burning intensity evaluation by VAS was performed immediately before and after each LPT session. Nonparametric test of Wilcoxon was used for statistical analysis, considering a significance level of 5%. All volunteers reported reduced burning intensity in all sessions when compared to the previous one and reduction in VAS scores by up to 49% in the last clinical session when compared to the first session. When only the VAS baseline of the first session was compared with the consecutive sessions, there was a statistically significant reduction in VAS scores in almost all sessions. The LPT may be an alternative treatment for the relief of oral burning symptoms in patients with BMS. PMID:26138316

  3. Dermal exposure to environmental contaminants in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed Central

    Moody, R P; Chu, I

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature to determine the importance of the dermal route of exposure for swimmers and bathers using Great Lakes waters and summarizes the chemical water contaminants of concern in the Great Lakes along with relevant dermal absorption data. We detail in vivo and in vitro methods of quantifying the degree of dermal absorption and discuss a preference for infinite dose data as opposed to finite dose data. The basic mechanisms of the dermal absorption process, routes of chemical entry, and the environmental and physiological factors affecting this process are also reviewed, and we discuss the concepts of surface slick exposure to lipophilic compounds and the adsorption of contaminants to water sediment. After presenting mathematical constructs for calculating the degree of exposure, we present in vitro data concerning skin absorption of polyaromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed to Great Lakes water sediment to show that in a worst-case scenario exposure via the dermal route can be equally important to the oral route. We have concluded that prolonged exposure of the skin, especially under conditions that may enhance dermal absorption (e.g., sunburn) may result in toxicologically significant amounts of certain water contaminants being absorbed. It is recommended that swimming should be confined to public beaches, people should refrain from swimming if they are sunburned, and skin should be washed with soap as soon as possible following exposure. Future studies should be conducted to investigate the importance of the dermal exposure route to swimmers and bathers. PMID:8635434

  4. Workplace-related burns.

    PubMed

    Mian, M A H; Mullins, R F; Alam, B; Brandigi, C; Friedman, B C; Shaver, J R; Hassan, Z

    2011-06-30

    Introduction. The key element of a safe workplace for employees is the maintenance of fire safety. Thermal, chemical, and electrical burns are common types of burns at the workplace. This study assessed the epidemiology of work-related burn injuries on the basis of the workers treated in a regional burn centre. Methods. Two years' retrospective data (2005-2006) from the Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons of the Joseph M. Still Burn Center at Doctors Hospital in Augusta, Georgia, were collected and analysed. Results. During the time period studied, 2510 adult patients with acute burns were admitted; 384 cases (15%) were work-related. The average age of the patients was 37 yr (range, 15-72 yr). Males constituted the majority (90%) of workrelated burn injury admissions. The racial distribution was in accordance with the Centre's admission census. Industrial plant explosions accounted for the highest number of work-related burns and, relatively, a significant number of patients had chemical burns. The average length of hospital stay was 5.54 days. Only three patients did not have health insurance and four patients (1%) died. Conclusion. Burn injuries at the workplace predominantly occur among young male workers, and the study has shown that chemical burns are relatively frequent. This study functions as the basis for the evaluation of work-related burns and identification of the causes of these injuries to formulate adequate safety measures, especially for young, male employees working with chemicals.

  5. Burn injuries caused by a hair-dryer--an unusual case of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Darok, M; Reischle, S

    2001-01-01

    About 1.4-26% burn injuries in children appear to be abusive in origin. A 2.5-year-old girl was referred to our institute because of suspected child abuse. Clinical examination and later interrogation of the mother revealed non-recent deep second degree burn injuries on both gluteal regions, caused by the partner of the mother by pressing a hand-held hair-dryer against the skin. The authors present the findings of this unusual method of child abuse.

  6. Time dependent mixing in He-burning cores: The case of NGC 1866

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, P.; Castellani, M.

    2005-02-01

    We examine the helium burning phase of the convective core of intermediate mass stars, and investigate the role of the coupling of nuclear burning and mixing on the extension and duration of the blue loop phase. We compare the theoretical scenario with the distribution of stars in the colour-magnitude (CM) diagram of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) cluster NGC 1866, whose densely populated clump of He-burning stars is equally populated on the blue and red side. We compare the distributions expected by adopting either a diffusive scheme within the instability regions, in which nuclear burning and mixing are self-consistently coupled, or the traditional instantaneous mixing approximation. We analyze with particular care the sensitivity of the results to: a) the e-folding distance with which the velocity of convective eddies decays outside the formal border of the convective regions fixed by the Schwarzschild criterion; b) the convective model adopted to evaluate the temperature gradient; c) the rate of reaction 12C+α -> 16O. Models not including convective overshoot are also commented.

  7. Multispectral Imaging Of Burn Wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afromowitz, Martin A.; Callis, James B.; Heimbach, David M.; DeSoto, Larry A.; Norton, Mary K.

    1988-06-01

    This research program successfully developed a real-time video imaging system (the Imaging Burn Depth Indicator, or IBDI) which can discriminate areas of burn wounds expected to heal in three weeks or less from the day of injury from those areas not expected to heal in that time period. The analysis can be performed on or about the third day post-burn on debrided burn wounds. Early evaluation of burn healing probability is a crucial factor in the decision to tangentially excise the burn wound. The IBDI measures the reflectivity of the burn wound in the red, green, and near infrared wavelength bands, which data correlate with burn healing probability. The instrument uses an algorithm established in an earlier study to translate the optical data into burn healing probabilities. The IBDI produces two types of images: a true-color image of the burn and a false-color image of the burn. The false-color image consists of up to four colors, each of which indicates a distinct range of probability that the area of the burn so colored will heal within 21 days. Over 100 burn wound sites were studied. Burn sites were evaluated on day three post-burn by our instrument and by the attending physician. Of 55 sites considered to be of intermediate depth, the IBDI predicted the healing outcome accurately in 84% of the cases. By comparison, the predictions of burn surgeons supervising the care of these patients were accurate in 62% of the cases.

  8. Too hot to trot (barefoot)… A study of burns in children caused by sun heated surfaces in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Asquith, Catherine; Kimble, Roy; Stockton, Kellie

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify and describe the characteristics of burns in children caused by sun heated surfaces. Children presenting between January 2013 and February 2014 with a burn due to sun heated surfaces were included in the study. Fifteen children were identified representing 1.7% of new burns. The mean age was 18.3 months. All burns occurred during the warmer months between 11a.m. and 4p.m. and the feet were commonly involved. Most cases occurred in the child's home garden but six cases occurred in public play areas. Metal was the most common surface involved. Most burns were superficial partial thickness with two burns deep dermal partial thickness and one child needed a skin graft. Burns due to sun heated surfaces are relatively frequent. Parents need to be aware that in summer surfaces can become hot enough to cause burns to bare feet in young children. Play areas need to be shaded or covered in surfaces that do not become hot enough to cause burns and metal objects should not be left in the sun in children's play areas.

  9. Epidemiology and outcome analysis of severe extensive burns: a 12-year summary of 103 cases in a burn center in China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bing; Xiao, Shi-Chu; Peng, Xu-Dong; Zhu, Shi-Hui; Lv, Kai-Yang; Li, Heng-Yu; Xia, Zhao-Fan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to improve the treatment of severe extensive burns (SEB) patients by summarizing treatment experience in recent 12 years in China and analyzing the follow-up quality of life (QOL) in these patients. Clinical data and rescue measures of 103 SEB patients (≥70% TBSA) admitted in a burn center in Shanghai between 1997 and 2009 were reviewed, and QOL and hand function of those who survived more than 2 years were assessed by Brief Version of Burn Specific Health scale-B and Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire. Of these, 76.7% were caused by flames and 15.5% caused by scald. The median burn area was 87.5% (interquartile range, 77.0-95.0%) TBSA, of which third-degree burns accounted for 56.5% (interquartile range, 25.8-80.0%) TBSA; 71.8% were complicated by inhalation injury. The occurrence of in-hospital complications was 75.7%, with the respiratory system complications predominating (49.5%). The fatality rate was 28.2%, mainly due to sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Work, body image, and heat sensitivity got the lowest Brief Version of Burn Specific Health scale-B scores in all nine domains, and Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire scores were also relatively poor. Flame burns remain to be the main cause of SEB in China in recent 12 years. Treatment is still challenged because of the depth and extensive burn area and high occurrence of multiple system complications. How to ameliorate QOL of SEB patients, intensify the functional rehabilitation, and improve their physical appearance in particular remain to be a crux.

  10. Tattoo-induced skin "burn" during magnetic resonance imaging in a professional football player: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ross, James R; Matava, Matthew J

    2011-09-01

    The authors present the case of a professional football player with an immediate and sustained cutaneous reaction ("burn") at the site of lower extremity tattoos that occurred during magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis. The burn was attributed to an electromagnetic reaction due to the ferromagnetic metallic compounds found in tattoo pigments, especially iron oxide-a reaction that has the potential to distort the field of image. These compounds can theoretically create an electric current that increases the local skin temperature, enough to cause a cutaneous burn. "At risk" tattoos are those with black pigment or any other pigments containing iron oxide, as well as those with a design that displays loops, large circular objects, or multiple adjacent points. Patients who develop this reaction may be treated prophylactically or symptomatically with a cold compress to assist with completion of the examination. Alternatively, a towel or cloth may be placed between the cutaneous body parts in those patients who experience the typical reaction resulting from an electrical arc between 2 separate cutaneous tattoos. This is likely an underreported issue that merits mention in the sports medicine literature given the frequent occurrence of cosmetic tattoos in athletes requiring magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose a musculoskeletal injury. As in the present patient, no permanent sequelae have been noted in the literature. Therefore, patients who develop this reaction should be reassured that the reaction is only temporary. PMID:23016039

  11. Herpes simplex virus infection in burned patients: epidemiology of 11 cases.

    PubMed

    Bourdarias, B; Perro, G; Cutillas, M; Castede, J C; Lafon, M E; Sanchez, R

    1996-06-01

    Burned patients suffer significant immunosuppression during the first 3 or 4 weeks after hospitalization. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are commonly seen in immunosuppressed patients and may account for considerable morbidity and some mortality. We studied retrospectively 11 patients with severe burn injury who became infected with HSV. We determined the prevalence of viral infection in this group of patients. Serological testing and viral culture was used to diagnose HSV infection. No general complications appeared in these 11 patients in association with HSV but two patients died of multiorgan failure. Locally, areas of active epidermal regeneration were most commonly affected. Acyclovir therapy was not used and the duration of hospitalization was normal in these 11 patients.

  12. Herpes simplex virus infection in burned patients: epidemiology of 11 cases.

    PubMed

    Bourdarias, B; Perro, G; Cutillas, M; Castede, J C; Lafon, M E; Sanchez, R

    1996-06-01

    Burned patients suffer significant immunosuppression during the first 3 or 4 weeks after hospitalization. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are commonly seen in immunosuppressed patients and may account for considerable morbidity and some mortality. We studied retrospectively 11 patients with severe burn injury who became infected with HSV. We determined the prevalence of viral infection in this group of patients. Serological testing and viral culture was used to diagnose HSV infection. No general complications appeared in these 11 patients in association with HSV but two patients died of multiorgan failure. Locally, areas of active epidermal regeneration were most commonly affected. Acyclovir therapy was not used and the duration of hospitalization was normal in these 11 patients. PMID:8781721

  13. [Burns in an aeronautic environment].

    PubMed

    Rigotti, G

    1979-10-27

    Following an examination of the aetiology of burns in aeronautic environments, the physiopathology, classification and general and local treatment of the burn case is discussed. Special mention is then made of aircraft as an extremely useful means of transport.

  14. Iliofemoral venous thrombosis following fascial excision of a deep burn of the lower extremity: case report.

    PubMed

    Gibran, N S; Heimbach, D M; Nicholls, S C

    1992-12-01

    Burned patients with deep venous thrombosis present a particularly perplexing challenge. They frequently require central venous catheters. Their altered skin integrity does not permit correlation with the typical changes described by the classic terminology for thrombophlebitis or its most severe forms, phlegmasia cerulea dolens or phlegmasia alba dolens. They are at risk of exsanguination or massive graft loss with lytic therapy or anticoagulation. Venous thrombectomy may be a necessary limb-saving surgical option.

  15. Treatment of Burn Wound Infection Using Ultraviolet Light: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Aleem, Numra Abdul; Aslam, Moaz; Zahid, Mohammad Faizan; Rahman, Arshalooz Jamila; Rehman, Fazl Ur

    2014-01-01

    A 9 year old girl presented to us with complaints of fever and pain in burn wounds with deteriorating health for one month. According to Lund and Broder's chart, burns spanned the posterior trunk (13%), right arm (1.5%), left arm (1.5%), and buttocks (2.5%). The wounds showed improper healing. She had previously underwent split-thickness skin grafting, using skin harvests from thighs and antimicrobial therapy with vancomycin, fluconazole and colomycin with limited clinical improvement. Analgesia was administered. Blood cultures and tissue cultures from the burns indicated polymicrobial wound infection and sepsis, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Despite broad-spectrum antibiotics, fever persisted and condition deteriorated. Antifungals were also administered with no clinical improvement. Eventually another split-thickness skin grafting was done to provide fresh grafts. In due course, ultraviolet light exposure, of wavelength 32–40 nm/W/cm2, was considered for treatment. In prone position, the wounds were exposed to ultraviolet phototherapy 6–8 h daily for 8 days. Eventually, wound healing and sepsis improved. Antibiotics were optimized and high protein diet was started. Eventually the wounds showed fresh margins and visible signs of healing. With remarkable clinical improvement and no further fever spikes, the patient was eventually discharged. She was advised to shower regularly, apply bandages with acetic acid. On her last outpatient follow up, 2 weeks after discharge, she was doing well, with no complaints of pain or fever. Examination of burns showed clean wounds, with clear margins and good graft uptake. She did not require any further grafting or surgical procedures thereafter. PMID:26199885

  16. A chemical burn from a garlic poultice applied to the face to treat toothache: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sisson, D; Balmer, C

    2014-02-01

    This case report is of a significant chemical burn to the face resulting from the use of an external garlic poultice for toothache. The patient used internet search engines to seek a toothache remedy and did not identify any reports of this complication. This report aims to inform all dentists of the risks of raw garlic application to the skin and also to ensure that in the future any patient using the internet for a toothache remedy will be made aware of the potential risk and how to avoid it. PMID:25198327

  17. Case Study of Water-Soluble Metal Containing Organic Constituents of Biomass Burning Aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Chang-Graham, Alexandra L.; Profeta, Luisa T. M.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia

    2011-02-15

    Natural and prescribed biomass fires are a major source of aerosols that may persist in the atmosphere for several weeks. Biomass burning aerosols (BBA) can be associated with long-range transport of water-soluble N-, S-, P-, and metal-containing species. In this study, BBA samples were collected using a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) from laboratory burns of vegetation collected on military bases in the southeastern and southwestern United States. The samples were then analyzed using high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/HR-MS) that enabled accurate mass measurements for hundreds of species with m/z values between 70 and 1000 and assignment of elemental formulas. Mg, Al, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Ba-containing organometallic species were identified. The results suggest that the biomass may have accumulated metal-containing species that were re-emitted during biomass burning. Finally, further research into the sources, dispersion, and persistence of metal-containing aerosols, as well as their environmental effects, is needed.

  18. Successful treatment of a case of extensive radiation burns with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Li, Yeyang; Wang, Jinlun; Li, Gang; Lin, Weihua; Li, Xiaojian; Tong, Renlian

    2013-01-01

    A patient sustained acute third-degree radiation burns over 41% of his body surface. The burns were due to occupational injury caused by an electron accelerator. Most of his wounds appeared and spread gradually during the 10th week after the radiation burn. Subsequently, severe wound infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, severe pneumonia, respiratory failure, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, nephropathy, and hypoproteinemia had developed 3 months after the radiation injury. Most of the skin grafts could neither survive nor spread on the fresh wound after removing the necrotic tissue. This phenomenon resulted in many more wounds after operations, increasing the risk of wound infection. Parenteral nutrition, respiratory support with a ventilator, antibiotics for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, steroid therapeutics for nephropathy, deeper debridement for wounds, and skin grafting were applied for treatment of this patient. The patient recovered gradually and was discharged from the hospital in good condition after 18 months. The authors suggest that deeper excision of necrotic tissue and skin grafting as well as appropriate antibiotics are principal measures to counteract systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Sufficient albumen by vein and steroid should be administered for treatment against nephropathy and for control of infection. Functions of organs should be carefully monitored to fine-tune the therapeutic programs and to minimize complications of organs.

  19. Dermal vacuoles in two biopsies of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Ayva, Sebnem; Erkek, Emel; Atasoy, Pinar

    2008-11-01

    Two patients presented with cutaneous lesions clinically typical of psoriasis. The first case was a 38-year-old man and the second was a 51-year-old woman. To confirm the diagnosis, 4-mm punch biopsy samples were obtained from both patients from the lesions on the knees. Histology in both cases was in favour of psoriasis and also revealed empty vacuoles in the papillary dermis, concentrated at sites of intense lymphocyte infiltration. The empty vacuoles resembled true fat cells or fat globules. They did not reveal positive immunostaining with CD34 antigen, suggesting that they were not lined by endothelial cells. Final histological diagnosis was psoriasis associated with dermal vacuolization.

  20. Chemical, physical, and optical evolution of biomass burning aerosols: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, G.; Flores, J. M.; Abo Riziq, A.; Borrmann, S.; Rudich, Y.

    2011-02-01

    In-situ chemical composition measurements of ambient aerosols have been used for characterizing the evolution of submicron aerosols from a large anthropogenic biomass burning (BB) event in Israel. A high resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-RES-TOF-AMS) was used to follow the chemical evolution of BB aerosols during a night-long, extensive nationwide wood burning event and during the following day. While these types of extensive BB events are not common in this region, burning of agricultural waste is a common practice. The aging process of the BB aerosols was followed through their chemical, physical and optical properties. Mass spectrometric analysis of the aerosol organic component showed that aerosol aging is characterized by shifting from less oxidized fresh BB aerosols to more oxidized aerosols. Evidence for aerosol aging during the day following the BB event was indicated by an increase in the organic mass, its oxidation state, the total aerosol concentration, and a shift in the modal particle diameter. The effective broadband refractive index (EBRI) was derived using a white light optical particle counter (WELAS). The average EBRI for a mixed population of aerosols dominated by open fires was m = 1.53(±0.03) + 0.07i(±0.03), during the smoldering phase of the fires we found the EBRI to be m = 1.54(±0.01) + 0.04i(±0.01) compared to m = 1.49(±0.01) + 0.02i(±0.01) of the aged aerosols during the following day. This change indicates a decrease in the overall aerosol absorption and scattering. Elevated levels of particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected during the entire event, which suggest possible implications for human health during such extensive event.

  1. Validating long-term satellite-derived disturbance products: the case of burned areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    The potential research, policy and management applications of satellite products place a high priority on providing statements about their accuracy. A number of NASA, ESA and EU funded global and continental burned area products have been developed using coarse spatial resolution satellite data, and have the potential to become part of a long-term fire Climate Data Record. These products have usually been validated by comparison with reference burned area maps derived by visual interpretation of Landsat or similar spatial resolution data selected on an ad hoc basis. More optimally, a design-based validation method should be adopted that is characterized by the selection of reference data via a probability sampling that can subsequently be used to compute accuracy metrics, taking into account the sampling probability. Design based techniques have been used for annual land cover and land cover change product validation, but have not been widely used for burned area products, or for the validation of global products that are highly variable in time and space (e.g. snow, floods or other non-permanent phenomena). This has been due to the challenge of designing an appropriate sampling strategy, and to the cost of collecting independent reference data. We propose a tri-dimensional sampling grid that allows for probability sampling of Landsat data in time and in space. To sample the globe in the spatial domain with non-overlapping sampling units, the Thiessen Scene Area (TSA) tessellation of the Landsat WRS path/rows is used. The TSA grid is then combined with the 16-day Landsat acquisition calendar to provide tri-dimensonal elements (voxels). This allows the implementation of a sampling design where not only the location but also the time interval of the reference data is explicitly drawn by probability sampling. The proposed sampling design is a stratified random sampling, with two-level stratification of the voxels based on biomes and fire activity (Figure 1). The novel

  2. Noninvasive determination of burn depth in children by digital infrared thermal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina-Preciado, Jose David; Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar Samuel; Velez-Gomez, Ezequiel; Miranda-Altamirano, Ariel; González, Francisco Javier

    2013-06-01

    Digital infrared thermal imaging is used to assess noninvasively the severity of burn wounds in 13 pediatric patients. A delta-T (ΔT) parameter obtained by subtracting the temperature of a healthy contralateral region from the temperature of the burn wound is compared with the burn depth measured histopathologically. Thermal imaging results show that superficial dermal burns (IIa) show increased temperature compared with their contralateral healthy region, while deep dermal burns (IIb) show a lower temperature than their contralateral healthy region. This difference in temperature is statistically significant (p<0.0001) and provides a way of distinguishing deep dermal from superficial dermal burns. These results show that digital infrared thermal imaging could be used as a noninvasive procedure to assess burn wounds. An additional advantage of using thermal imaging, which can image a large skin surface area, is that it can be used to identify regions with different burn depths and estimate the size of the grafts needed for deep dermal burns.

  3. Noninvasive determination of burn depth in children by digital infrared thermal imaging.

    PubMed

    Medina-Preciado, Jose David; Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar Samuel; Velez-Gomez, Ezequiel; Miranda-Altamirano, Ariel; González, Francisco Javier

    2013-06-01

    Digital infrared thermal imaging is used to assess noninvasively the severity of burn wounds in 13 pediatric patients. A delta-T (ΔT) parameter obtained by subtracting the temperature of a healthy contralateral region from the temperature of the burn wound is compared with the burn depth measured histopathologically. Thermal imaging results show that superficial dermal burns (IIa) show increased temperature compared with their contralateral healthy region, while deep dermal burns (IIb) show a lower temperature than their contralateral healthy region. This difference in temperature is statistically significant (p<0.0001) and provides a way of distinguishing deep dermal from superficial dermal burns. These results show that digital infrared thermal imaging could be used as a noninvasive procedure to assess burn wounds. An additional advantage of using thermal imaging, which can image a large skin surface area, is that it can be used to identify regions with different burn depths and estimate the size of the grafts needed for deep dermal burns.

  4. Effects of low level laser therapy on the prognosis of split-thickness skin graft in type 3 burn of diabetic patients: a case series.

    PubMed

    Dahmardehei, Mostafa; Kazemikhoo, Nooshafarin; Vaghardoost, Reza; Mokmeli, Soheila; Momeni, Mahnoush; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Ansari, Fereshteh; Amirkhani, Amir

    2016-04-01

    Significant populations in burn centers are diabetic burn patients. Healing process in these patients is more difficult due to diabetes complications. The gold standard treatment for patients with grade 3 burn ulcer is split-thickness skin grafting (STSG), but in the diabetic patients, the rate of graft failure and amputation is high due to impaired tissue perfusion. The technique of low level laser therapy (LLLT) improves tissue perfusion and fibroblast proliferation, increases collagen synthesis, and accelerates wound healing. The purpose of this case report is introducing a new therapeutic method for accelerating healing with better prognosis in these patients. The protocols and informed consent were reviewed according to the Medical Ethics, Board of Shahid Beheshti Medical Sciences (IR.SBMU.RAM.REC.13940.363). Diabetic type 2 patients with 13 grade 3 burn ulcers, candidate for amputation, were enrolled in the study. We used a 650-nm red laser light, 2 J/Cm for the bed of the ulcer and an 810-nm infrared laser light 6 J/Cm(2) for the margins along with intravenous laser therapy with a 660-nm red light, before and after STSG for treating grade 3 burn ulcers in 13 diabetic ulcers. The results of this study showed complete healing in the last 8 weeks for all patients who were candidates for amputation. In this case series, we present 13 cases of diabetic ulcer with type 3 burn wound, candidate for amputation, who healed completely using LLLT and STSG. This is the first time that these two techniques are combined for treatment of burn ulcer in diabetic patients. Using LLLT with STSG might be a promising treatment for burn victims especially diabetic patients.

  5. Emissions generated by sugarcane burning promote genotoxicity in rural workers: a case study in Barretos, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the possible genotoxic effect of exposure to the smoke generated by biomass burning on workers involved in manual sugar cane harvesting. Methods The frequency of micronuclei in exfoliated buccal cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes was determined in sugarcane workers in the Barretos region of Brazil, during the harvest season and compared to a control population, comprised of administrative employees of Barretos Cancer Hospital. Results The frequency of micronuclei was higher in the sugar cane workers. The mean frequency in blood lymphocytes (micronuclei/1000 cells) in the test group was 8.22 versus 1.27 in the control group. The same effect was observed when exfoliated buccal cells were considered (22.75 and 9.70 micronuclei/1000 cells for sugar cane workers and controls, respectively). Conclusion Exposure to emissions produced by the burning of sugar cane during harvesting induces genomic instability in workers, indicating the necessity of adopting more advanced techniques of harvesting sugar cane to preserve human health. PMID:24112819

  6. [Findings in the detection of fibronectin in skin burns].

    PubMed

    Dao, T Q; Hirt, M; Zelený, M; Pexa, T

    2001-11-01

    Occurrence of fibronectin was detected in paraffin sections of burn skin samples, excised from surviving patients, as well as skin samples removed from the death persons, who succumbed burn wounds. The other groups of samples, used for comparison with the previous one, consisted of the intact skin excisions and skin samples post-mortem exposed to thermic changes. Indirect immunoperoxidase reaction was the immunohistochemical method used in all examinations. In post-mortem burn skin samples there was a loss of fibronectin activity in the epidermo-dermal junction area as well as in the papillary dermis. In burn skin samples, excised from patients who only survived for very short time their (serious skin) burns, no evidence of any fibronectin activity was seen. Also in two other cases, when patients--due to their severe burns--survived for several hours only, there were no conspicuous differences in the intensity of fibronectin activity seen in comparison with features found in the intact skin samples. Fibronectin activity was, however, increased in all other burn skin samples, where the survival time of patients was from 30 minutes to 5 weeks and there were following differences in its intensity and also in its pattern of distribution. In the 1st-degree and in a superficial 2nd-degree skin burn wounds, fibronectin was also present in the epidermis. In the papillary dermis, fibronectin was distributed rather diffusely or in a spot-like pattern while in the reticular dermis, there was a tendency to form net-like structures among collagen fibers. In deeper 2nd-degree and in the 3rd-degree burn wounds, fibronectin was deposited in vicinity of blood vessels and skin appendages in a fibrillar pattern. In 6 out of 11 samples, where the survival time ranged from 7 to 21 days, fibroblasts were arranged among fine collagen fibers and some of these cells exhibited positive fibronectin activity on their surface. Numerous fibroblasts with finely scattered fibronectin spots and

  7. [Dermal and inhalation poisoning. Rare guests in our intensive care units?].

    PubMed

    Sagoschen, I

    2013-09-01

    Patients with dermal and inhalation poisoning are uncommon in intensive care treatment. We describe the diagnostics and specific toxicological treatment of patients with hydrofluoric acid burns. For inhalation poisoning, we focus on smoke inhalation, especially the management of cyanide and carbon monoxide poisoning. Special attention is given to the use of hyperbaric oxygenation for the treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning.

  8. Burns (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... degree burns damage the outer layer of skin (epidermis) and cause pain, redness and swelling (erythema). Second degree burns damage the epidermis and the inner layer, the dermis, causing erythema ...

  9. Sensitivity of simulated tropospheric CO to subgrid physics parameterization: A case study of Indonesian biomass burning emissions in 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Robert D.; Luo, Ming; Kim, Daehyun; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Worden, John

    2015-11-01

    Recent cumulus and turbulence parameterization changes to the NASA GISS ModelE2 have improved representation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation and low cloud distribution, but their effect on composition-related quantities is not known. In this study, we simulate the vertical transport of carbon monoxide (CO) from uncontrolled biomass burning in Indonesia in late 2006, during which uniquely high CO was detected in the upper troposphere. Two configurations of ModelE2, one without the changes (AR5) and one with the changes (AR5'), are used for an ensemble simulation of the transport of CO from the biomass burning. The simulation results are evaluated against new CO profiles retrieved jointly from the Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer and the Microwave Limb Sounder. Modeled upper tropospheric CO using the AR5 physics was unrealistically high. The AR5' physics suppress deep convection that reaches near the tropopause, reducing vertical transport of CO to the upper troposphere and bringing the model into better agreement with satellite CO. In this regard, the most important changes were related to the strength of entrainment of environmental air into the convective column, the strength of re-evaporation above cloud base, and a negative plume buoyancy threshold based on density temperature. This study illustrates how individual, noncomposition model changes can lead to significantly different modeled composition, which in this case improved agreement with satellite retrievals. This study also illuminates the potential usefulness of CO satellite observations in constraining unobservable processes in general circulation models.

  10. Seventy per cent hydrofluoric acid burns: delayed decontamination with hexafluorine® and treatment with calcium gluconate.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Carlos Alberto; Mathieu, Laurence; Hall, Alan H; Monteiro, Mário G Kool; de Almeida, Décio Moreira

    2011-01-01

    This is a case report of decontamination and treatment of a 70% hydrofluoric acid (HF) dermal splash injury. A worker was splashed with 70% HF, sustaining approximately 10% TBSA first- to third-degree chemical skin burns of the face, trunk, and left thigh and leg. Initial decontamination involved water rinsing, removal of contaminated clothing, more water rinsing, topical application of magnesium oxide, and administration of intravenous narcotics for management of severe pain. After a delay of approximately 3 hours, active skin washing with Hexafluorine®, 5 L, was performed, followed by intravenous, intradermal perilesional, and topical inunction administration of calcium gluconate. Pain relief and a cooling sensation were quite prompt after Hexafluorine® decontamination. Surgical debridement and skin grafting of the more severe burns were required. No significant systemic toxicity developed, although this has occurred in previously reported similar concentrated HF dermal splash exposure cases, some of which resulted in fatality. While burns did develop, the patient was released from the intensive care service after 2 days and, after skin grafting, had a good outcome at 90-day follow-up. Even after a long delay, decontamination with Hexafluorine® appeared to be beneficial in this case.

  11. Visceral kala-azar associated with post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Singh, N K; Agrawal, S K; Jha, T K

    1989-02-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis associated with post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is very rare. We are reporting one such case which incidentally is the seventh case so far reported from Indian sub-continent. PMID:2808294

  12. Assessing differences in phenology patterns between burned and non burned areas using MODIS and Landsat time series satellite images. A case study in Peloponnisos (Greece) and Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsias, Nikos; Bajocco, Sofia

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation phenology is an important element of vegetation characteristics that can be useful in vegetation monitoring especially when satellite remote sensing observations are used. In that sense temporal profiles extracted from spectral signal of time series satellite images can be used to characterize vegetation phenology and thus can be helpful for assessing, for example, phenology patterns between burned and non-burned areas. The aim of this study is to define phenological patterns for the fire ignition points in two Mediterranean study areas located in Italy (Sardinia) and Greece (Peloponnisos) and compare them with control points created after random sampling techniques restricted to certain buffer zones. Remotely sensed data from MODIS (2000-2015) and LANDSAT (1984-2015) satellites were acquired and processed to extract the temporal profiles of the spectral signal of fire ignition points and of control points. Apart of the use of the original spectral data, we used vegetation indices commonly found in vegetation studies as well as in burned area mapping studies. Different metrics linked to key phenological events have been derived and used to assess vegetation phenology in the fire-affected areas.

  13. Segmentation and classification of burn images by color and texture information.

    PubMed

    Acha, Begoña; Serrano, Carmen; Acha, José I; Roa, Laura M

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a burn color image segmentation and classification system is proposed. The aim of the system is to separate burn wounds from healthy skin, and to distinguish among the different types of burns (burn depths). Digital color photographs are used as inputs to the system. The system is based on color and texture information, since these are the characteristics observed by physicians in order to form a diagnosis. A perceptually uniform color space (L*u*v*) was used, since Euclidean distances calculated in this space correspond to perceptual color differences. After the burn is segmented, a set of color and texture features is calculated that serves as the input to a Fuzzy-ARTMAP neural network. The neural network classifies burns into three types of burn depths: superficial dermal, deep dermal, and full thickness. Clinical effectiveness of the method was demonstrated on 62 clinical burn wound images, yielding an average classification success rate of 82%.

  14. Segmentation and classification of burn images by color and texture information.

    PubMed

    Acha, Begoña; Serrano, Carmen; Acha, José I; Roa, Laura M

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a burn color image segmentation and classification system is proposed. The aim of the system is to separate burn wounds from healthy skin, and to distinguish among the different types of burns (burn depths). Digital color photographs are used as inputs to the system. The system is based on color and texture information, since these are the characteristics observed by physicians in order to form a diagnosis. A perceptually uniform color space (L*u*v*) was used, since Euclidean distances calculated in this space correspond to perceptual color differences. After the burn is segmented, a set of color and texture features is calculated that serves as the input to a Fuzzy-ARTMAP neural network. The neural network classifies burns into three types of burn depths: superficial dermal, deep dermal, and full thickness. Clinical effectiveness of the method was demonstrated on 62 clinical burn wound images, yielding an average classification success rate of 82%. PMID:16229658

  15. [Immunology and sepsis syndrome in burn trauma].

    PubMed

    Ipaktchi, K; Vogt, P M

    2009-05-01

    Despite significant advances in burn surgery and critical care, severe burn trauma defined as injuries covering more than 25% of the total body surface area, is still associated with high mortality and morbidity. Burn trauma is a whole body injury where peripheral dermal injury rapidly results in systemic inflammation and inflammatory core organ damage. The severe disturbance of internal homeostasis involves all vital organ systems and obligates early referral to specialized burn centers. Treatment of severely burned patients is a multifaceted challenge directed by pathophysiologic events which progress from local skin destruction, disruption of physicochemical and microvascular barriers to breakdown of peripheral and central circulation, organ failure and ultimately death. While early intensive care focuses on maintenance of tissue oxygenation and perfusion, surgical treatment deals with management of the burn wounds as a source of inflammation and infection. Here wound debridement and coverage is essential to abrogate systemic effects of inflammation and limit pathogen invasion. While control of early burn stages minimizes mortality due to burn shock, subsequent burn sepsis continues to be a formidable challenge for physicians and the main cause of burn mortality.

  16. Relation of people-centered public health and person-centered healthcare management: a case study to reduce burn-out

    PubMed Central

    Stoyanov, Drozdstoj S.; Cloninger, C. Robert

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare management is one practical tool for mediation and implementation of public health into clinical healthcare outcomes and is taken in our case study as an exemplar arena to demonstrate the vital importance of the person-centered approach. Healthcare personnel are frequently at risk for the ‘burn-out’ syndrome. However, modern measures of burn-out recognize burn-out only at a late stage when it is fully developed. There are no available methods to assess the risk for vulnerability to burnout in healthcare systems. Our aim was therefore to design a complex person-centered model for detection of high risk for burn-out at an early stage, that has been termed ‘flame-out’. We accept the observation that decreased personal performance is one crucial expression of burn-out. Low personal performance and negative emotions are strongly related to low self-directedness as measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). At the same time, burn-out is characterized by decreased interest and positive emotions from work. Decreased positive emotion is directly related to low self-transcendence as measured by the TCI. Burn-out is also frequently associated with feelings of social alienation or inadequacy of support, which is in turn related to low TCI Cooperativeness. However, high Persistence and Harm Avoidance are predisposing traits for burn-out in healthcare professionals who are often overly perfectionistic and compulsive, predisposing them to anxiety, depression, suicide and burn-out. Hence, people at risk for future burn-out are often highly conscientious over-achievers with intense mixtures of positive and negative emotions. The high demand for perfection comes from both intrinsic characteristics and from features of the social milieu in their psychological climate. Letting go of the unfulfillable desire to be perfect by increasing self-transcendence allows acceptance of the imperfection of the human condition, thereby preventing burn-out and

  17. Case 229: Burn-related Global Ankylosis of Interphalangeal Joints with Associated Acroosteolysis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Derik L; Resnik, Charles S

    2016-05-01

    History A 50-year-old woman presented with a 6-month history of polyarthralgia involving the left and right hands, wrists, elbows, ankles, and knees. Her pain was not associated with morning stiffness but did worsen over the course of the day. She denied experiencing fevers, chills, or mouth ulcers. She did not report paresthesias or blue discoloration of her fingers when they were exposed to cold. Her family history was remarkable for an aunt who died of systemic lupus erythematosus and for a brother with arthritis. Her medical history was remarkable for vitamin D deficiency, hypertension, and rehabilitation for burns. At clinical examination, she had mild tenderness to palpation of her joints, without associated erythema, swelling, or crepitus. Healed skin grafts were also noted. Blood chemistry tests revealed a rheumatoid factor of 8.5 IU/mL (normal range, 0-13.9 IU/mL), an erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 2 mm/hr (normal range, 0-40 mm/hr), and a C-reactive protein value of 0.4 mg/L (3.8 nmol/L) (normal range, 0-4.9 mg/L [0-46.7 nmol/L]). Antinuclear antibodies test results were negative. Radiography of the right and left hands was performed. PMID:27089192

  18. Burn injury in children.

    PubMed

    Zámecníková, I; Stĕtinský, J; Tymonová, J; Kadlcík, M

    2005-01-01

    The authors have analyzed the data files of 580 child patients up to 15 years of age who were hospitalized at the Burn Center of the FNsP Hospital in Ostrava in the years 1999 - 2003. The authors focused on mechanisms of burn injury in relation to the age of a child as well as extent, depth, localization, and local treatment of the injury. The data file was divided to four age groups: up to two years of age, 2 - 5 years of age, 5 - 10 years of age, and 10 - 15 years of age. As regards the mechanisms of injury, the authors have analyzed scalding by hot liquids, burns due to contact with a hot object, burns due to electric current, explosion, and injury caused by burning clothing. Injury by scalding prevails to a very significant degree in the youngest children. In the second age group the incidence of burn following contact with hot objects increases, as does the percentage of children injured by burning of clothing in children aged 5 - 10. The older children have increased prevalence of injuries caused by explosions. The greatest average extent of an injury is from burning of clothing. Most of the areas are burned deeply, localized in more areas of the body, and almost half of the cases required surgical intervention. Scalding comes second in terms of average extent of an injury. More than half of the injured areas are superficial, and areas of injury are different in the individual age groups. We addressed about a fifth of the cases surgically. The explosion of combustible materials caused a smaller extent of injury, on average, taking third place. The injuries were predominantly superficial, most commonly involving the head, trunk, and upper extremities. In none of the cases it was necessary for us to operate. Burn injuries caused by contact with hot objects are of a smaller extent. More than half of the burned areas are deep, localized most commonly in the upper extremities. Surgical intervention was necessary in more than half the cases. In terms of average

  19. Burn injuries and soft tissue traumas complicated by mucormycosis infection: a report of six cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kyriopoulos, E.J.; Kyriakopoulos, A.; Karonidis, A.; Gravvanis, A.; Gamatsi, I.; Tsironis, C.; Tsoutsos, D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mucor fungus infection is a rare opportunistic infection, rapidly progressive and often fatal in immunocompromised patients, or in patients with chronic debilitating diseases. We report six cases of trauma patients with mucormycosis. Three had severe thermal burns, one of them with a medical history of diabetes mellitus. The other three patients suffered from severe soft tissue injuries caused by traffic accidents. In all cases there had been spontaneous exposure and contact of the wounds with soil. During hospitalization, fungi cultures and/or biopsies of all wounds were performed and all resulted positive. The patients were treated with Amphotericin B (AmB) and surgical debridement. Two of them died and the other four were fully healed and discharged. Mucormycosis should be considered in any case of aggressive skin tissue necrosis with a history of soiled wounds. We suggest that mucormycosis is treated by intravenous and local administration of AmB, extensive and repeated debridement and cautious coverage of the wound. The plastic surgeon must wait for negative swab cultures and biopsies before covering the defects with skin grafts or flaps. Reconstruction may be challenging, depending on the extent, depth, location and special indications of the affected site and the donor site availability. PMID:27777549

  20. DISPOSITION OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE IN HUMANS FOLLOWING ORAL AND DERMAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    DISPOSITION OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE IN HUMANS FOLLOWING ORAL AND DERMAL EXPOSURE. TL Leavens1, MW Case1, RA Pegram1, BC Blount2, DM DeMarini1, MC Madden1, and JL Valentine3. 1NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA; 2CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3RTI, RTP, NC, USA.
    The disinfection byproduct ...

  1. Optical characteristics of biomass burning and desert dust over the Western Mediterranean during summer: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basart, Sara; Sicart, Michaël; María Baldasano, José; Lane, Diego; Comerón, Adolfo

    2013-04-01

    The present contribution reports on the aerosol vertical distributions in Barcelona (Spain) which were obtained when very high aerosol concentrations were observed on summer 2012. An EARLINET lidar system and AERONET sunphotometer located in Barcelona performed intensive measurements in the framework of the ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network) project. The data that were collected allow the characterization of the optical properties of the aerosols in this region, benefiting from the synergy of various remote sensing instruments. Due to its location in the Mediterranean basin, Barcelona metropolitan area is influenced by two major aerosol source regions: Europe and the Western Mediterranean Basin, as a major source of anthropogenic pollutants, and North Africa, as a principal source of natural dust. As a result, the composition of atmospheric aerosols in Barcelona station is a mixing of aerosols. During the period between 1 - 2 July, AOD reached high values (~ 0.5). In addition to anthropogenic local contributions, other aerosols long-range transported were also detected. Between 1 - 3 July, strong forest fires occurred in Alicante where advected to Barcelona area. On the other hand, between 28th June and 1st July, the northeastern Iberian Peninsula was affected by the intrusion of Saharan dust. The presence of Saharan dust was successfully forecasted by the BSC-DREAM8b dust regional model. MODIS and AERONET data, as well as air-mass backward trajectories confirmed the existence of biomass burning and desert dust in the case examined. Desert dust was detected between 2 and 4 km (above sea level, a.s.l) with maximum dust concentrations at ~ 4 km a.s.l on 1st June. On the other hand, favourable meteorological conditions made possible that biomass burning from Alicante was southern advected to Barcelona during the study period.

  2. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in visceral leishmaniasis-endemic communities in Bihar, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rudra Pratap; Picado, Albert; Alam, Shahnawaz; Hasker, Epco; Singh, Shri Prakash; Ostyn, Bart; Chappuis, François; Sundar, Shyam; Boelaert, Marleen

    2012-11-01

    We assessed the prevalence of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), a late cutaneous manifestation of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), in 16 VL-endemic communities in Bihar, India. The prevalence of confirmed PKDL cases was 4.4 per 10 000 individuals and 7.8 if probable cases were also considered. The clinical history and treatment of the post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis cases are discussed.

  3. Profile of Kidney Histopathology in Cases of Burns - Particular Emphasis on Acridine Orange Fluorescence Study and to Explore its Forensic Utility

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Nandini J.; Gupta, B.D.; Patel, Pratik N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The major cause of death in the burn patients includes multiple organ failure and infection but, sometimes the exact cause of death in many fatally burned patients is difficult to detect. Many times in medico-legal post-mortem examinations in cases of burns, histopathological examination of organs is requested. Aim The aim was to study various histopathological changes in kidneys in the post-mortem cases of burns, by using routine Haematoxylin and Eosin stain (H&E stain), special Periodic and Schiff’s Stain (PAS) stain, to study the role of acridine orange fluorescence study, to explore the forensic utility of this microscopic study and to find out the relationship between duration of survival and histopathological changes observed. Materials and Methods An experimental longitudinal prospective study from October 2010 to September 2012. Total 32 cases of death due to burns were autopsied at mortuary, the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology in our hospital. Bilateral kidneys were removed and preserved in 10% formalin solution. These were forwarded to Department of Pathology for histopathological examination. Routine microscopic examination by H&E stain as well as PAS stain and fluorescence study by acridine orange stain were done in all cases. Results It was observed that in 21 (65.63%) cases gross findings in kidneys were normal, in 06 (18.75%) were grossly pale and in 05 (15.62%) heavy & congested. Sections taken from kidneys and studied by H&E stain showed overlapping histopathological changes in all cases. In 26 (81.25%) cases, changes of Acute Tubular Necrosis (ATN) while in remaining 06 (18.75%), changes of cloudy swelling were observed. The sections stained by acridine orange and observed under fluorescent microscope were lightly positive in 15 (46.88%), brightly positive in 08 (25.00%) whereas, negative in 09 (28.12%). Conclusion Microscopy by various methods helps in getting specific lesions in kidney due to burns. However, it does

  4. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances.

    PubMed

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount importance. The extent and significance of dermal absorption of eight petroleum substances, representing different classes of hydrocarbons, was evaluated. Literature data on the steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of these substances were evaluated and compared to those predicted by mathematical models. Reported results spanned over 5-6 orders of magnitude and were largely dependent on experimental conditions in particular on the type of the vehicle used. In general, aromatic hydrocarbons showed higher dermal absorption than more lipophilic aliphatics with similar molecular weight. The results showed high variation and were largely influenced by experimental conditions emphasizing the need of performing the experiments under "in use" scenario. The predictive models overestimated experimental absorption. The overall conclusion is that, based on the observed percutaneous penetration data, dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even of aromatics with highest dermal absorption is limited and highly unlikely to be associated with health risks under real use scenarios.

  5. Assessment of biomass burning emissions and their impacts on urban and regional PM2.5: a Georgia case study.

    PubMed

    Tian, Di; Hu, Yongtao; Wang, Yuhang; Boylan, James W; Zheng, Mei; Russell, Armistead G

    2009-01-15

    Biomass burning is a major and growing contributor to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5). Such impacts (especially individual impacts from each burning source) are quantified using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model, a chemical transport model (CTM). Given the sensitivity of CTM results to uncertain emission inputs, simulations were conducted using three biomass burning inventories. Shortcomings in the burning emissions were also evaluated by comparing simulations with observations and results from a receptor model. Model performance improved significantly with the updated emissions and speciation profiles based on recent measurements for biomass burning: mean fractional bias is reduced from 22% to 4% for elemental carbon and from 18% to 12% for organic matter; mean fractional error is reduced from 59% to 50% for elemental carbon and from 55% to 49% for organic matter. Quantified impacts of biomass burning on PM2.5 during January, March, May, and July 2002 are 3.0, 5.1, 0.8, and 0.3 microg m(-3) domainwide on average, with more than 80% of such impacts being from primary emissions. Impacts of prescribed burning dominate biomass burning impacts, contributing about 55% and 80% of PM2.5 in January and March, respectively, followed by land clearing and agriculture field burning. Significant impacts of wildfires in May and residential wood combustion in fireplaces and woodstoves in January are also found.

  6. Integra™ in burns reconstruction: Our experience and report of an unusual immunological reaction.

    PubMed

    Lohana, P; Hassan, S; Watson, S B

    2014-03-31

    Limited availability of autologous donor sites poses significant challenges for soft-tissue reconstruction in severe and complex burns. Integra™ is a bi-layered dermal regeneration template (DRT) which has played a significant role in soft tissue reconstruction since its initial use for full-thickness burn defects. The purpose of this study is to report our institutional experience of Integra™ in burns management over a 4-year period and highlight an unusual reaction to its second application. Twenty-four cases underwent Integra™ resurfacing for burn management from September 2007 to August 2011. Data on patient demographics, including co-morbidities, indications, operative data, complications, secondary reconstruction and outcomes were recorded. Integra™ was used in 24 patients on 37 anatomical sites. One patient died 3 weeks after injury and first stage of Integra™ application, and was therefore excluded from the study. Split-thickness skin grafting was performed within an average of 23 days (with a range of 7-55 days) and mean graft take was 87% (with a range of 75-100%). Five cases of local infection at the graft site were recorded. The average length of hospital stay was 47 days (with a range of 1-162 days). The mean follow-up time was 17 months (with a range of 9-34 months). Overall, our experience with DRT was mixed, that is to say we found it satisfactory with acute burns resurfacing but very good with secondary reconstruction. The main advantage of Integra™ is its immediate availability in unlimited quantities for soft-tissue reconstruction in major and complex burns. The main drawbacks are financial implications, twostage procedure, complex wound care and risk of infection. We believe that Integra™ can be considered as a promising modality in burns management.

  7. Burn depth assessments by photoacoustic imaging and laser Doppler imaging.

    PubMed

    Ida, Taiichiro; Iwazaki, Hideaki; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Ohkura, Tsuyako; Iwaya, Keiichi; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Sato, Shunichi; Iwai, Toshiaki

    2016-03-01

    Diagnosis of burn depths is crucial to determine the treatment plan for severe burn patients. However, an objective method for burn depth assessment has yet to be established, although a commercial laser Doppler imaging (LDI) system is used limitedly. We previously proposed burn depth assessment based on photoacoustic imaging (PAI), in which thermoelastic waves originating from blood under the burned tissue are detected, and we showed the validity of the method by experiments using rat models with three different burn depths: superficial dermal burn, deep dermal burn and deep burn. On the basis of those results, we recently developed a real-time PAI system for clinical burn diagnosis. Before starting a clinical trial, however, there is a need to reveal more detailed diagnostic characteristics, such as linearity and error, of the PAI system as well as to compare its characteristics with those of an LDI system. In this study, we prepared rat models with burns induced at six different temperatures from 70 to 98 °C, which showed a linear dependence of injury depth on the temperature. Using these models, we examined correlations of signals obtained by PAI and LDI with histologically determined injury depths and burn induction temperatures at 48 hours postburn. We found that the burn depths indicated by PAI were highly correlative with histologically determined injury depths (depths of viable vessels) as well as with burn induction temperatures. Perfusion values measured by LDI were less correlative with these parameters, especially for burns induced at higher temperatures, being attributable to the limited detectable depth for light involving a Doppler shift in tissue. In addition, the measurement errors in PAI were smaller than those in LDI. On the basis of these results, we will be able to start clinical studies using the present PAI system.

  8. The Viennese culture method: cultured human epithelium obtained on a dermal matrix based on fibroblast containing fibrin glue gels.

    PubMed

    Kamolz, L P; Luegmair, M; Wick, N; Eisenbock, B; Burjak, S; Koller, R; Meissl, G; Frey, M

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new keratinocyte culture system on a dermal equivalent suitable for skin wound closure. Our dermal matrix is based on a fibrin glue gel containing live human fibroblast (from human foreskin). Keratinocytes obtained from primary culture according to the Rheinwald and Green method, were seeded on to the gel. In all cases, the keratinocytes plated on the dermal equivalent grew to confluence and stratified epithelium was obtained. After 10 days an irregular multilayer could be observed. The cells showed active interaction with the fibrin support, presenting as cell formations projecting into the matrix. After 15 days a regular epithelial sheet consisting of three to four layers of cells was formed. A limiting membrane demarcating the keratinocytes from the fibrin matrix was discernible. Squamous differentiation similar to Strata reticulare and corneum found in vivo could be observed. Nuclei of basal cells were regularly spaced from each other and the chromatin was of homogeneous appearance without prominent nucleoli. The last time point (20 days) showed signs of disintegration of the epithelial sheet. A basement membrane-like structure could not be seen any more. Detachment of the basal cells was associated with subepithelial vacuoles. Basal cells contained irregular nuclei. Therefore, we conclude that 15 days of culture were optimal for the generation of a keratinocyte layers with signs of differentiation; this new culture system could be an important step forward in covering severely burned patients due to a number of advantages, as for example a large expansion factor, the shortening of the optimal culture time to 15 days, the usage of commercially available fibrin glue gels and the versatile manipulation of composite cultures.

  9. Novel PORCN mutations in focal dermal hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Froyen, G; Govaerts, K; Van Esch, H; Verbeeck, J; Tuomi, M-L; Heikkilä, H; Torniainen, S; Devriendt, K; Fryns, J-P; Marynen, P; Järvelä, I; Ala-Mello, S

    2009-12-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH), Goltz or Goltz-Gorlin syndrome, is an X-linked dominant multisystem disorder characterized primarily by involvement of the skin, skeletal system and eyes. We screened for mutations in the PORCN gene in eight patients of Belgian and Finnish origin with firm clinical suspicion of FDH. First, we performed quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis to define the copy number at this locus. Next, we sequenced the coding regions and flanking intronic sequences of the PORCN gene. Three de novo mutations were identified in our patients with FDH: a 150-kb deletion removing six genes including PORCN, as defined by qPCR and X-array-CGH, and two heterozygous missense mutations; c.992T>G (p.L331R) in exon 11 and c.1094G>A (p.R365Q) in exon 13 of the gene. Both point mutations changed highly conserved amino acids and were not found in 300 control X chromosomes. The three patients in whom mutations were identified all present with characteristic dermal findings together with limb manifestations, which were not seen in our mutation-negative patients. The clinical characteristics of our patients with PORCN mutations were compared with the previously reported mutation-positive cases. In this report, we summarize the literature on PORCN mutations and associated phenotypes.

  10. Burn epidemiology and cost of medication in paediatric burn patients.

    PubMed

    Koç, Zeliha; Sağlam, Zeynep

    2012-09-01

    Burns are common injuries that cause problems to societies throughout the world. In order to reduce the cost of burn treatment in children, it is extremely important to determine the burn epidemiology and the cost of medicines used in burn treatment. The present study used a retrospective design, with data collected from medical records of 140 paediatric patients admitted to a burn centre between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2009. Medical records were examined to determine burn epidemiology, medication administered, dosage, and duration of use. Descriptive statistical analysis was completed for all variables; chi-square was used to examine the relationship between certain variables. It was found that 62.7% of paediatric burns occur in the kitchen, with 70.7% involving boiling water; 55.7% of cases resulted in third-degree burns, 19.3% required grafting, and mean duration of hospital stay was 27.5 ± 1.2 days. Medication costs varied between $1.38 US dollars (USD) and $14,159.09, total drug cost was $46,148.03 and average cost per patient was $329.63. In this study, the medication cost for burn patients was found to be relatively high, with antibiotics comprising the vast majority of medication expenditure. Most paediatric burns are preventable, so it is vital to educate families about potential household hazards that can be addressed to reduce the risk of a burn. Programmes are also recommended to reduce costs and the inappropriate prescribing of medication.

  11. New approach for dose reconstruction: application to one case of localized irradiation with radiological burns.

    PubMed

    Bottollier-Depois, J F; Gaillard-Lecanu, E; Roux, A; Chau, Q; Trompier, F; Voisin, P; Gourmelon, P

    2000-09-01

    When localized accidental irradiation occurs, it is necessary to determine the extent to which tissues and vital organs have been damaged, mainly in the vicinity of the source. At present, biological markers cannot be used to estimate the heterogeneity of the dose distribution. An alternative is to map the absorbed dose in the different regions of the body. Using a Monte Carlo calculation code, it is possible to simulate the accident while taking into account the specific morphology of the irradiated individual and his environment, as well as the source characteristics. The calculated values are matched to the clinical signs of the lesion, particularly around the rim of the radiation-induced necrosis. This technique was applied successfully on two patients who presented very severe lesions due to acute localized irradiation after an accident that occurred at Lilo (Georgia) in 1996-1997; only the most demonstrative case is presented here.

  12. Effect of biomass burning on surface ozone: A case study in 2010 over Northern Sub-Saharan Africa (NSSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damoah, R.; Ichuku, C.; Ellison, L.

    2015-12-01

    One of the major sources of tropospheric ozone (O3) precursors such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxides (CO), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) is biomass burning. The emissions from the burning do not only affect air quality and climate locally, but also on a continental to hemispheric scales through long-range transport. We have used NASA's Global Modeling Initiative Chemistry and Transport Model (GMI-CTM), to quantify the changes in surface ozone over Northern Sub-Saharan Africa (NSSA: 0 - 20N, 20W - 55E), as triggered by biomass burning from different regions. During the winter months (e.g. January), most of the burning is concentrated in the NSSA region while in summer it shifts southward outside the NSSA region. Our analysis reveals that out of the total contribution to surface ozone from biomass burning emissions in the NSSA region, 92 % is due to NSSA biomass burning while the remaining 8 % is from outside the NSSA. In fact, most (~75 %) of the 8 % comes from outside the African continent because little to no biomass burning occurs in Africa outside of the NSSA region during this time of year. However, during the summer months (e.g. July), most of the contribution to NSSA surface ozone (96 %) is due to burning from outside NSSA. Only 10 % of the 96 % comes from outside the African continent because during this time most of the burning is from outside the NSSA but within the African continent. In spring (e.g. April) approximately equal percentages of contributions come from within and outside the NSSA region.

  13. [Ocular burns].

    PubMed

    Merle, H; Gérard, M; Schrage, N

    2008-09-01

    Ocular or thermal burns account for 7.7%-18% of ocular trauma. The majority of victims are young. The burns occur in the setting of accidents at work or in the home, or during a physical attack. Chemical burns by strong acids or bases are responsible for the most serious injuries. Associated with the destruction of limbal stem cells, they present as recurrent epithelial ulcerations, chronic stromal ulcers, deep stromal revascularization, conjunctival overlap, or even corneal perforation. The initial clinical exam is sometimes difficult to perform in the presence of burning symptoms. Nevertheless, it enables the physician to classify the injury, establish a prognosis, and most importantly, guide the therapeutic management. The Roper-Hall modification of the Hughes classification system is the most widely utilized, broken down into stages based on the size of the stromal opacity and the extent of possible limbal ischemia. This classification is now favorably supplemented by those proposed by Dua and Wagoner, which are based on the extent of the limbal stem cell deficiency. The prognosis of the more serious forms of ocular burns has markedly improved over the last decade because of a better understanding of the physiology of the corneal epithelium. Surgical techniques aimed at restoring the destroyed limbal stem cells have altered the prognosis of severe corneal burns. In order to decrease the incidence of burns, prevention, particularly in industry, is essential. PMID:18971859

  14. Management of burn injuries in the horse.

    PubMed

    Hanson, R Reid

    2005-04-01

    Extensive thermal injuries in horses can be difficult to manage. The large surface of the burn dramatically increases the potential for loss of fluids,electrolytes, and calories. Burns are classified by the depth of injury: first-degree burns involve only the most superficial layers of the epidermis;second-degree burns involve the entire epidermis and can be superficial or deep; third-degree burns are characterized by loss of the epidermal and dermal components; and fourth-degree burns involve all the skin and underlying muscle, bone, and ligaments. Burns cause local and systemic effects. Routine use of systemic antibiotics is not recommended in burn patients. Topical medications should be water based, be easily applied and removed, not interfere with wound healing, and be readily excreted or metabolized. Weight loss of 10% to 15% during the course of illness is indicative of inadequate nutritional intake. Gradually increasing the grain,adding fat in the form of vegetable oil, and offering free-choice alfalfa hay increase caloric intake.

  15. Cooling of burns: Mechanisms and models.

    PubMed

    Wright, E H; Harris, A L; Furniss, D

    2015-08-01

    The role of cooling in the acute management of burns is widely accepted in clinical practice, and is a cornerstone of basic first aid in burns. This has been underlined in a number of animal models. The mechanism by which it delivers its benefit is poorly understood, but there is a reduction in burns progression over the first 48 h, reduced healing time, and some subjective improvements in scarring when cooling is administered after burning. Intradermal temperature normalises within a matter of seconds to a few minutes, yet the benefits of even delayed cooling persist, implying it is not simply the removal of thermal energy from the damaged tissues. Animal models have used oedema formation, preservation of dermal perfusion, healing time and hair retention as indicators of burns severity, and have shown cooling to improve these indices, but pharmacological or immunological blockade of humoural and cellular mediators of inflammation did not reproduce the benefit of cooling. More recently, some studies of tissue from human and animal burns have shown consistent, reproducible, temporal changes in gene expression in burned tissues. Here, we review the experimental evidence of the role and mechanism of cooling in burns management, and suggest future research directions that may eventually lead to improved treatment outcomes.

  16. Genital burns and vaginal delivery.

    PubMed

    Pant, R; Manandhar, V; Wittgenstein, F; Fortney, J A; Fukushima, C

    1995-07-01

    Obstetric complications may result from burn scarring in the genital area. Women in developing countries typically squat around cooking fires, and burns are common. This recent case in Nepal describes obstructed labor in a young woman whose genital area had extensive scarring from a cooking fire injury. Proper antenatal assessment by health care providers can reduce the risk to mothers and infants of the consequences of a birth canal damaged or obstructed by burn scarring.

  17. Neostigmine to Relieve a Suspected Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction in a Burn Patient: A Case-Based Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gebre-Giorgis, Abel A.; Roderique, Ensign Joseph D.; Stewart, Dane; Feldman, Michael J.; Pozez, Andrea L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neostigmine is one of the treatment options for colonic pseudo-obstruction in the medical patient. However, experience in using neostigmine for this indication in burn patients has not been reported in the literature. We will present a case of a woman who developed colonic pseudo-obstruction during her hospital stay. When conservative management failed, neostigmine was administered with no adverse effects and resolution of the pseudo-obstruction. We will review the literature regarding the pathophysiology and treatment options for acute colonic pseudo-obstruction in burn patients. Methods: A 27-year-old woman with 35% total body surface area deep-partial and full-thickness flame burns. On hospital day 17, she developed a nonobstructive ileus. She failed conservative medical therapy. After consultation with colleagues in trauma surgery and a review of the literature (MeSH/PubMed/NLM), the decision was made to try neostigmine therapy rather than a surgical/procedural option such as colonoscopy. Results: The patient was moved to the intensive care unit and 2 mg of neostigmine was administered intravenously over 4 minutes. After 30 minutes, all abdominal examination findings had returned to baseline. No significant adverse effects were noted, and she did not redevelop abdominal distension afterward. Conclusion: This case report provides an alternative treatment modality in which neostigmine was used successfully in a burn patient after conservative medical treatment had failed. The authors believe that neostigmine may be a viable alternative to decompressive colonoscopy in burn patients for whom mechanical obstruction is properly excluded. PMID:23359843

  18. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 cream improves burn-wound healing and attenuates burn-gastric lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    Mikus, D; Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Petricevic, A; Aralica, G; Druzijancic, N; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Pigac, B; Perovic, D; Kolombo, M; Kokic, N; Mikus, S; Duplancic, B; Fattorini, I; Turkovic, B; Rotkvic, I; Mise, S; Prkacin, I; Konjevoda, P; Stambuk, N; Anic, T

    2001-12-01

    The effects of the gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 were investigated when administered topically or systemically in burned mice. This agent is known to have a beneficial effect in a variety of models of gastrointestinal lesions, as well as on wound or fracture healing. Deep partial skin thickness burns (1.5x1.5 cm) covering 20% of total body area, were induced under anesthesia on the back of mice by controlled burning and gastric lesions were assessed 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days following injury. The first application of BPC 157 was immediately following burning, and thereafter, once daily, until 24 h before sacrifice. In the initial experiments, exposure to direct flame for 5 s, the BPC 157 was applied at 10 microg or 10 ng/kg b.w. intraperitoneally (i.p.) by injection or alternatively, topically, at the burn, as a thin layer of cream (50 microg of BPC 157 dissolved in 2 ml of distilled water was mixed with 50 g of commercial neutral cream (also used as local vehicle-control)), while silver sulfadiazine 1% cream was a standard agent acting locally. Others received no local medication: they were treated i.p. by injection of distilled water (distilled water-control) or left without any medication (control). In subsequent experiments involving deeper burns (direct flame for 7 s), BPC 157 creams (50 microg, 5 microg, 500 ng, 50 ng or 5 ng of BPC 157 dissolved in 2 ml of distilled water was mixed with 50 g of commercial neutral cream), or vehicle as a thin layer of cream, were applied topically, at the burn. Compared with untreated controls, in both experiments, in the BPC 157 cream-treated mice all parameters of burn healing were improved throughout the experiment: less edema was observed and inflammatory cell numbers decreased. Less necrosis was seen with an increased number of capillaries along with an advanced formation of dermal reticulin and collagen fibers. An increased number of preserved follicles were observed. Two weeks after injury, BPC 157 cream

  19. Analysis of wax burn cases presenting to an Emergency Department in Hong Kong during the Chinese Mid-Autumn festival.

    PubMed

    Tam, Michael Man-kit; Cheung, Wai lun

    2003-06-01

    Records of patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) of the Prince of Wales Hospital with wax burns during Mid-Autumn festival from 1998 to 2001 were retrieved and analyzed. There were 26 patients in total (21 males, 5 females). Annual attendances from 1998 to 2001 were 11, 7, 4 and 4, respectively. Age ranged from 1 to 33 years (median age: 11.5). Most patients were injured by molten wax (n=23, 88.5%), the rest were burnt by flame (n=3, 11.5%). Partial thickness burn (superficial and deep) was the most common (n=23, 88.4%). Superficial burn accounted for the rest (n=3, 11.5%). No patient had full thickness burn. All patients had <5% of body surface area (BSA) burnt, with the majority only involving <1% BSA (n=16, 61.5%). The commonest sites of injury were the lower limbs (n=15, 57.7%), the upper limbs (n=8, 30.8%) and face (n=7, 26.9%). Three patients (11.5%) had multiple sites burnt. Only eight patients (30.8%) required burns surgeon's consultation, out of which seven (26.9%) required in-patient treatment. Most burns caused by or related to boiling wax were minor. The declining incidence is the combined result of legislation, product modification, education and publicity. PMID:12781614

  20. The contributions of biomass burning to primary and secondary organics: A case study in Pearl River Delta (PRD), China.

    PubMed

    Wang, BaoLin; Liu, Ying; Shao, Min; Lu, SiHua; Wang, Ming; Yuan, Bin; Gong, ZhaoHeng; He, LingYan; Zeng, LiMin; Hu, Min; Zhang, YuanHang

    2016-11-01

    Synchronized online measurements of gas- and particle- phase organics including non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) and submicron organic matters (OM) were conducted in November 2010 at Heshan, Guangdong provincial supersite, China. Several biomass burning events were identified by using acetonitrile as a tracer, and enhancement ratios (EnRs) of organics to carbon monoxide (CO) obtained from this work generally agree with those from rice straw burning in previous studies. The influences of biomass burning on NMHCs, OVOCs and OM were explored by comparing biomass burning impacted plumes (BB plumes) and non-biomass burning plumes (non-BB plumes). A photochemical age-based parameterization method was used to characterize primary emission and chemical behavior of those three organic groups. The emission ratios (EmRs) of NMHCs, OVOCs and OM to CO increased by 27-71%, 34-55% and 67% in BB plumes, respectively, in comparison with non-BB plumes. The estimated formation rate of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in BB plumes was found to be 24% faster than non-BB plumes. By applying the above emission ratios to the whole PRD, the annual emissions of VOCs and OM from open burning of crop residues would be 56.4 and 3.8Gg in 2010 in PRD, respectively.

  1. The contributions of biomass burning to primary and secondary organics: A case study in Pearl River Delta (PRD), China.

    PubMed

    Wang, BaoLin; Liu, Ying; Shao, Min; Lu, SiHua; Wang, Ming; Yuan, Bin; Gong, ZhaoHeng; He, LingYan; Zeng, LiMin; Hu, Min; Zhang, YuanHang

    2016-11-01

    Synchronized online measurements of gas- and particle- phase organics including non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) and submicron organic matters (OM) were conducted in November 2010 at Heshan, Guangdong provincial supersite, China. Several biomass burning events were identified by using acetonitrile as a tracer, and enhancement ratios (EnRs) of organics to carbon monoxide (CO) obtained from this work generally agree with those from rice straw burning in previous studies. The influences of biomass burning on NMHCs, OVOCs and OM were explored by comparing biomass burning impacted plumes (BB plumes) and non-biomass burning plumes (non-BB plumes). A photochemical age-based parameterization method was used to characterize primary emission and chemical behavior of those three organic groups. The emission ratios (EmRs) of NMHCs, OVOCs and OM to CO increased by 27-71%, 34-55% and 67% in BB plumes, respectively, in comparison with non-BB plumes. The estimated formation rate of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in BB plumes was found to be 24% faster than non-BB plumes. By applying the above emission ratios to the whole PRD, the annual emissions of VOCs and OM from open burning of crop residues would be 56.4 and 3.8Gg in 2010 in PRD, respectively. PMID:27371770

  2. Analysis of wax burn cases presenting to an Emergency Department in Hong Kong during the Chinese Mid-Autumn festival.

    PubMed

    Tam, Michael Man-kit; Cheung, Wai lun

    2003-06-01

    Records of patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) of the Prince of Wales Hospital with wax burns during Mid-Autumn festival from 1998 to 2001 were retrieved and analyzed. There were 26 patients in total (21 males, 5 females). Annual attendances from 1998 to 2001 were 11, 7, 4 and 4, respectively. Age ranged from 1 to 33 years (median age: 11.5). Most patients were injured by molten wax (n=23, 88.5%), the rest were burnt by flame (n=3, 11.5%). Partial thickness burn (superficial and deep) was the most common (n=23, 88.4%). Superficial burn accounted for the rest (n=3, 11.5%). No patient had full thickness burn. All patients had <5% of body surface area (BSA) burnt, with the majority only involving <1% BSA (n=16, 61.5%). The commonest sites of injury were the lower limbs (n=15, 57.7%), the upper limbs (n=8, 30.8%) and face (n=7, 26.9%). Three patients (11.5%) had multiple sites burnt. Only eight patients (30.8%) required burns surgeon's consultation, out of which seven (26.9%) required in-patient treatment. Most burns caused by or related to boiling wax were minor. The declining incidence is the combined result of legislation, product modification, education and publicity.

  3. Biomass Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pinto, Joseph P.

    1993-01-01

    Biomass burning may be the overwhelming regional or continental-scale source of methane (CH4) as in tropical Africa and a significant global source of CH4. Our best estimate of present methane emissions from biomass burning is about 51.9 Tg/yr, or 10% of the annual methane emissions to the atmosphere. Increased frequency of fires that may result as the Earth warms up may result in increases in this source of atmospheric methane.

  4. Seizure caused by dermal application of over-the-counter eucalyptus oil head lice preparation.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Neil

    2011-10-01

    Natural plant oils such as eucalyptus are common worldwide in non-prescription natural health products. Oral ingestion of eucalyptus oil is well known to produce neurological symptoms and seizures; however, its dermal use is presumed to be safe. We describe a brief, self-limited, tonic-clonic seizure in a healthy 4-year-old girl following dermal exposure to eucalyptus oil as directed for treatment of head lice. Initial symptoms were vomiting, lethargy, and ataxia followed by a grand mal seizure. Recovery occurred rapidly after the skin was washed. Health care providers should be aware that eucalyptus oil toxicity may occur with dermal exposure and should report additional cases.

  5. Ball lightning burn.

    PubMed

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Monstrey, Stan; von Heimburg, Dennis; Hamdi, Mustapha; Van Landuyt, Koen; Blondeel, Phillip

    2003-05-01

    Ball lightning is a rare physical phenomenon, which is not yet completely explained. It is similar to lightning but with different, peculiar characteristics. It can be considered a mix of fire and electricity, concentrated in a fireball with a diameter of 20-cm that most commonly appears suddenly, even in indoor conditions, during a thunderstorm. It moves quickly for several meters, can change direction, and ultimately disappears. During a great storm, a 28-year-old man and his 5-year-old daughter sustained burn wounds after ball lightning came from the outdoors through a chimney. These two patients demonstrated signs of fire and electrical injuries. The father, who lost consciousness, sustained superficial second-degree burn wounds bilaterally on the zygomatic area and deep second-degree burn wounds on his right hand (total body surface area, 4%). His daughter demonstrated superficial second-degree burn wounds on the left part of the face and deep second-degree and third-degree burn wounds (total body surface area, 30%) on the left neck, both upper arms, and the back. In this article, the authors report the first two cases of burn injuries resulting from ball lightning contact indoors. The literature on this rare phenomenon is reviewed to elucidate the nature of ball lightning. Emphasis is placed on the nature of injuries after ball lightning contact, the therapy used, and the long-term complications.

  6. Ball lightning burn.

    PubMed

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Monstrey, Stan; von Heimburg, Dennis; Hamdi, Mustapha; Van Landuyt, Koen; Blondeel, Phillip

    2003-05-01

    Ball lightning is a rare physical phenomenon, which is not yet completely explained. It is similar to lightning but with different, peculiar characteristics. It can be considered a mix of fire and electricity, concentrated in a fireball with a diameter of 20-cm that most commonly appears suddenly, even in indoor conditions, during a thunderstorm. It moves quickly for several meters, can change direction, and ultimately disappears. During a great storm, a 28-year-old man and his 5-year-old daughter sustained burn wounds after ball lightning came from the outdoors through a chimney. These two patients demonstrated signs of fire and electrical injuries. The father, who lost consciousness, sustained superficial second-degree burn wounds bilaterally on the zygomatic area and deep second-degree burn wounds on his right hand (total body surface area, 4%). His daughter demonstrated superficial second-degree burn wounds on the left part of the face and deep second-degree and third-degree burn wounds (total body surface area, 30%) on the left neck, both upper arms, and the back. In this article, the authors report the first two cases of burn injuries resulting from ball lightning contact indoors. The literature on this rare phenomenon is reviewed to elucidate the nature of ball lightning. Emphasis is placed on the nature of injuries after ball lightning contact, the therapy used, and the long-term complications. PMID:12792547

  7. Use of a pediatric oxygenator integrated in a veno-venous hemofiltration circuit to remove CO2: a case report in a severe burn patient with refractory hypercapnia.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Anne-Françoise; Damas, Pierre; Renwart, Ludovic; Amand, Théo; Erpicum, Marie; Morimont, Philippe; Dubois, Bernard; Massion, Paul B

    2014-11-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome management is currently based on lung protective ventilation. Such strategy may lead to hypercapnic acidosis. We report a case of refractory hypercapnia in a severe burn adult, treated with simplified veno-venous extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal technique. We integrated a pediatric oxygenator in a continuous veno-venous hemofiltration circuit. This technique, used during at least 96h, was feasible, sure and efficient with carbon dioxide removal rate up to 32%.

  8. Dermal and Ophthalmic Findings in Pseudohypoaldosteronism

    PubMed Central

    Korkut, Sabriye; Gökalp, Emir; Özdemir, Ahmet; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Demirtaş, Şafak; Gül, Ülkü; Baştuğ, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA) is defined as a state of resistance to aldosterone, a hormone crucial for electrolyte equilibrium. The genetically transmitted type of PHA is primary hypoaldosteronism. Secondary hypoaldosteronism develops as a result of hydronephrosis or hydroureter. PHA patients suffer from severe hyponatremia and a severe clinical condition due to severe loss of salt can be encountered in the neonatal period. Dermal findings in the form of miliaria rubra can also develop in these patients. With the loss of salt, abnormal accumulation of sebum in the eye due to a defect in the sodium channels can also occur. In this paper, a case of PHA in a newborn showing typical dermatological and ophthalmological findings is presented. PMID:26316441

  9. Phenol burns and intoxications.

    PubMed

    Horch, R; Spilker, G; Stark, G B

    1994-02-01

    Phenol burns and intoxications are life-threatening injuries. Roughly 50 per cent of all reported cases have a fatal outcome. Only a small number of cases have been reported with high serum concentrations after phenol burns who survived. In our own experience a patient with 20.5 per cent total body surface area deep partial skin thickness phenol burns and serum concentrations of 17,400 micrograms/litre survived after immediate and repeated treatment of the scalds with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and silver sulphadiazine. A literature review of experiences with phenol intoxications reveals the advantages of PEG application. Questions on the need for enforced diuresis and haemodialysis as well as the initial treatment procedures are discussed. Advantages of different solutions for local therapy are reported.

  10. [Burns caused by paint thinner].

    PubMed

    Benbrahim, A; Jerrah, H; Diouri, M; Bahechar, N; Boukind, E H

    2009-12-31

    Flame deriving from paint thinner is not a rare cause of burns in Morocco and we thus considered it useful to conduct an epidemiological survey of paint thinner flame burns (PTFB) in the National Burns Centre (NBC) in the Ibn-Rochd University Hospital Centre in Casablanca, Morocco. The research covered the 10-month period from September 2007 to June 2008.The aim of our work was to present the characteristic features of such burns in order to prevent them by increasing public knowledge regarding the risks involved in using paint thinner, i.e. burns in particular. During the period in question, we colligated 17 cases of PTFB out of a total number of 356 patients admitted to the NBC for acute burns of all aetiologies. The patients' average was 32 yr and they were nearly all male (16 men/1 woman), with past histories of drug addiction and/or delinquency. They were all of low-level socioeconomic class and lived mainly in shanty towns. The burn was often secondary to street violence (92% of the cases).The mean burn surface area was 23% and the burns were often deep and located mainly in the upper limbs and the trunk. PMID:21991179

  11. Dermal fillers: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Dermal fillers have been used for decades in soft tissue augmentation. Currently, filler implementation is among the most common minimally invasive procedures for rejuvenation and body sculpturing. There is a broad variety of filler materials and products. Despite immense experience, a number of controversies in this topic exist. Some of these controversies are addressed in this review, for example, who should perform filler injections, the difference between permanent and nonpermanent fillers, the off-label use of liquid silicone, and the role of pain reduction. Implementation of guidelines and restriction of filler use by trained physicians can improve safety for patients.

  12. Fast burn booster technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Jimmy; McCain, J. W.

    1992-05-01

    Advances in solid rocket booster motors in the Solid Propellant Booster Development (SPBD) Program are addressed. The technologies discussed include cheaper nondetonable versatile burn rate propellant, advanced performance tapered composite case, lower-cost lighter-weight nozzles, laser ignition, and improved combustion modelling and performance. The demonstration of these technologies in a series of motor static tests is reviewed.

  13. Patient safety considerations regarding dermal filler injections.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jill K

    2006-01-01

    Today's population is seeking procedures that enhance or improve its appearance, that require little or no downtime, and that provide immediate results. Dermal filler injections are among the top five procedures performed for this purpose. Patient safety must remain the ultimate goal of any practitioner delivering such procedures. This column will examine pertinent safety considerations in relation to the delivery of dermal filler injections.

  14. Long-term complications associated with permanent dermal fillers.

    PubMed

    Kunjur, Jayanth; Witherow, Helen

    2013-12-01

    We report a case series of patients with serious long-term complications associated with the injection of permanent dermal fillers. Although such complications are relatively rare, the consequences are potentially life-long, and the psychological and medical effects can often have a profound impact on the patient. The continued routine offering of these treatments will require doctors to communicate effectively with patients about the nature of the complications and the probability of risk compared with alternative treatments. PMID:23962591

  15. Long-term complications associated with permanent dermal fillers.

    PubMed

    Kunjur, Jayanth; Witherow, Helen

    2013-12-01

    We report a case series of patients with serious long-term complications associated with the injection of permanent dermal fillers. Although such complications are relatively rare, the consequences are potentially life-long, and the psychological and medical effects can often have a profound impact on the patient. The continued routine offering of these treatments will require doctors to communicate effectively with patients about the nature of the complications and the probability of risk compared with alternative treatments.

  16. Isolated mucosal fenestration with localized gingival recession: Closure with an acellular dermal graft. A rare case report with two years' follow-up.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, SaravanaKarthikeyan; Singh, Vishal; Bhat, G Subraya; Acharya, Shashi Rashmi; Nidambur Ballal, Vasudev; Saraswathi, Vidya; Vinayachanan, Divya

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal fenestrations are rarely encountered in clinical practice, and as such their management is not often reported. Their treatment might be further complicated due to a communication with the oral environment, making them more susceptible to accumulation of debris, plaque, and calculus, thereby reducing the probability of mucosal renewal. The aim of the present case report is to highlight one such rare clinical scenario and its apt and effective management. Surgical management of an uncommon presentation of concomitant gingival recession with an isolated mucosal fenestration in an atypical location, with an allograft matrix is presented here with 2 years' follow-up. A review of the literature reveals no previous application of AlloDerm graft for the management of a similar situation. PMID:26824083

  17. Burning Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2006-01-01

    Former Baltimore cop and teacher Ed Burns isn't a masochist. The writer-producer for "The Wire," a critically applauded HBO series about life and death on the streets of Baltimore, is just feverishly trying to save public schools. He thinks American education is hopelessly screwed up, but that it's also the country's only hope. So it makes sense…

  18. A review of hydrofluoric acid burn management.

    PubMed

    McKee, Daniel; Thoma, Achilleas; Bailey, Kristy; Fish, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes a unique chemical burn. Much of the current treatment knowledge of HF burns is derived from case reports, small case series, animal studies and anecdotal evidence. The management can be challenging because clinical presentation and severity of these burns vary widely. Plastic surgeons managing burn patients must have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology, the range of severity in presentation and the current treatment options available for HF burns. The present article reviews the current understanding of the pathophysiology and systemic effects associated with severe HF burns. Furthermore, it distinguishes between minor and life-threatening HF burns and describes several of the basic techniques that are available to treat patients with HF burns.

  19. A review of hydrofluoric acid burn management.

    PubMed

    McKee, Daniel; Thoma, Achilleas; Bailey, Kristy; Fish, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes a unique chemical burn. Much of the current treatment knowledge of HF burns is derived from case reports, small case series, animal studies and anecdotal evidence. The management can be challenging because clinical presentation and severity of these burns vary widely. Plastic surgeons managing burn patients must have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology, the range of severity in presentation and the current treatment options available for HF burns. The present article reviews the current understanding of the pathophysiology and systemic effects associated with severe HF burns. Furthermore, it distinguishes between minor and life-threatening HF burns and describes several of the basic techniques that are available to treat patients with HF burns. PMID:25114621

  20. Hair dryer burns in children.

    PubMed

    Prescott, P R

    1990-11-01

    Three children with burn injuries caused by home hair dryers are described. In one patient the injury was believed to be accidental, and in the other two cases the injuries were deliberately caused by a caretaker. The lack of prior experience with hair dryer burns initially led to suspicion of other causes. The characteristics of each case aided in the final determination of accidental vs nonaccidental injury. These cases prompted testing of home hair dryers to determine their heat output. At the highest heat settings, the dryers rapidly generated temperatures in excess of 110 degrees C. After the dryers were turned off, the protective grills maintained sufficient temperatures to cause full-thickness burns for up to 2 minutes. These cases and the results of testing demonstrate that hair dryers must be added to the list of known causes of accidental and nonaccidental burns in children.

  1. Release of severe post-burn contracture of the first web space using the reverse posterior interosseous flap: Our experience with 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Kai, Shi; Zhao, Jingchun; Jin, Zhenghua; Wu, Weiwei; Yang, Ming; Wang, Yan; Xie, Chunhui; Yu, Jiaao

    2013-09-01

    We retrospectively assessed outcomes after treating severe contractures of the first web space from burns with the reverse posterior interosseous flaps (RPIF). Twelve consecutive patients (ages 18-58 years) with burns from 10% to 70% (mean, 30.1%) total body surface area and severe contractures of the first web space of the hand (initial thumb to index angles from 10° to 35° [mean, 23°]) underwent contracture release using the RPIF. Seventeen RPIFs were used, with sizes from 9cm×6cm to 14cm×10cm (mean area, 83.6cm(2)). The patients were followed for 5-26 months. All flaps survived completely, rapidly adapted to the recipient beds, and achieved good color and texture harmony. No early complications occurred. Fifteen donor sites were closed with skin grafts. Two donor sites were closed by direct suture. No paralysis of the posterior interosseous nerve was observed in these cases. At last follow-up the mean thumb to index angle was 78°, increasing the web length 260%. All patients regained fundamental hand functions. The RPIF is reliable and safe for releasing severe contractures of the first web space of the hand after burn, with distinct advantages over currently used alternative methods. PMID:23523223

  2. Release of severe post-burn contracture of the first web space using the reverse posterior interosseous flap: Our experience with 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Kai, Shi; Zhao, Jingchun; Jin, Zhenghua; Wu, Weiwei; Yang, Ming; Wang, Yan; Xie, Chunhui; Yu, Jiaao

    2013-09-01

    We retrospectively assessed outcomes after treating severe contractures of the first web space from burns with the reverse posterior interosseous flaps (RPIF). Twelve consecutive patients (ages 18-58 years) with burns from 10% to 70% (mean, 30.1%) total body surface area and severe contractures of the first web space of the hand (initial thumb to index angles from 10° to 35° [mean, 23°]) underwent contracture release using the RPIF. Seventeen RPIFs were used, with sizes from 9cm×6cm to 14cm×10cm (mean area, 83.6cm(2)). The patients were followed for 5-26 months. All flaps survived completely, rapidly adapted to the recipient beds, and achieved good color and texture harmony. No early complications occurred. Fifteen donor sites were closed with skin grafts. Two donor sites were closed by direct suture. No paralysis of the posterior interosseous nerve was observed in these cases. At last follow-up the mean thumb to index angle was 78°, increasing the web length 260%. All patients regained fundamental hand functions. The RPIF is reliable and safe for releasing severe contractures of the first web space of the hand after burn, with distinct advantages over currently used alternative methods.

  3. Hair bleaching and skin burning.

    PubMed

    Forster, K; Lingitz, R; Prattes, G; Schneider, G; Sutter, S; Schintler, M; Trop, M

    2012-12-31

    Hairdressing-related burns are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted area resulted in subsequent scar formation.

  4. Cell therapy for full-thickness wounds: are fetal dermal cells a potential source?

    PubMed

    Akershoek, J J; Vlig, M; Talhout, W; Boekema, B K H L; Richters, C D; Beelen, R H J; Brouwer, K M; Middelkoop, E; Ulrich, M M W

    2016-04-01

    The application of autologous dermal fibroblasts has been shown to improve burn wound healing. However, a major hurdle is the availability of sufficient healthy skin as a cell source. We investigated fetal dermal cells as an alternative source for cell-based therapy for skin regeneration. Human (hFF), porcine fetal (pFF) or autologous dermal fibroblasts (AF) were seeded in a collagen-elastin substitute (Novomaix, NVM), which was applied in combination with an autologous split thickness skin graft (STSG) to evaluate the effects of these cells on wound healing in a porcine excisional wound model. Transplantation of wounds with NVM+hFF showed an increased influx of inflammatory cells (e.g., neutrophils, macrophages, CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes) compared to STSG, acellular NVM (Acell-NVM) and NVM+AF at post-surgery days 7 and/or 14. Wounds treated with NVM+pFF presented only an increase in CD8(+) lymphocyte influx. Furthermore, reduced alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) expression in wound areas and reduced contraction of the wounds was observed with NVM+AF compared to Acell-NVM. Xenogeneic transplantation of NVM+hFF increased αSMA expression in wounds compared to NVM+AF. An improved scar quality was observed for wounds treated with NVM+AF compared to Acell-NVM, NVM+hFF and NVM+pFF at day 56. In conclusion, application of autologous fibroblasts improved the overall outcome of wound healing in comparison to fetal dermal cells and Acell-NVM, whereas application of fetal dermal fibroblasts in NVM did not improve wound healing of full-thickness wounds in a porcine model. Although human fetal dermal cells demonstrated an increased immune response, this did not seem to affect scar quality.

  5. Joint Use of Sentinel-1 and Landsat-8 data for Burned Areas Mapping: the Case of the Sardinia Island, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe, Antonio; Azar, Ramin; Calò, Fabiana; Stroppiana, Daniela; Brivio, Pietro Alessandro; Imperatore, Pasquale

    2016-04-01

    Fires widely affect Mediterranean regions, causing severe threats to human lives and damages to natural environments. The socio-economic impacts of fires on the affected local communities are significant, indeed, the activation of prevention measures and the extinguishment of fires and reclamation of the pre-fire conditions are very expensive. Moreover, fires have also global impacts: they affect global warming and climate changes due to gas and aerosol emissions to atmosphere. In such a context, fire scars mapping and monitoring are fundamental tasks for a sustainable management of natural resources and for the prevention/mitigation of fire risk. With this respect, remotely sensed data offer the opportunity for a regional-up-to-global scale monitoring of areas prone to fires, on a cost-effective and regular basis. In this work, the potential of a joint use of Sentinel-1A (C-band) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data for detecting burned areas is investigated. The experimental analyses are conducted by focusing on Sardinia Island, which is one of the Italian regions most affected by fire events during summer. Our analysis shows that the capability of monitoring burned areas in the Mediterranean environment can be improved by exploiting information embedded in OLI multispectral bands in conjunction with multi-temporal dual-polarized SAR data. Indeed, limitations experienced in analyses based on the use of only optical data (e.g., cloud cover, spectral overlap/confusion of burned areas with dark soils, water surfaces and shaded regions) may be overcome by using SAR data, owing to the insensitiveness to sunlight-illumination conditions and the cloud-penetrating capability of microwave radiation. Results prove the effectiveness of an integrated approach based on the combination of optical and microwave imagery for the monitoring and mapping of burned areas in vegetated regions.

  6. Enhancing dermal and bone regeneration in calvarial defect surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zanotti, Bruno; Zingaretti, Nicola; Almesberger, Daria; Verlicchi, Angela; Stefini, Roberto; Ragonese, Mauro; Guarneri, Gianni Franco; Parodi, Pier Camillo

    2014-01-01

    between the implant and skull appeared to show more rapid integration of the implant than untreated areas. Results were stable at 1-year and remain so to date in cases where follow-up is still ongoing. Conclusions: Bone remodeling time could be reduced by platelet gel application during cranioplasty with porous hydroxyapatite implants. Likewise, layering dermal matrix over such implants appears to promote dermal tissue regeneration and the oshtemo mimetic process. Both of these strategies may, therefore, reduce the likelihood of postsurgical fracture by promoting mechanical resistance. PMID:25593416

  7. Micronucleus frequency in children exposed to biomass burning in the Brazilian Legal Amazon region: a control case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Amazon represents an area of 61% of Brazilian territory and is undergoing major changes resulting from disorderly economic development, especially the advance of agribusiness. Composition of the atmosphere is controlled by several natural and anthropogenic processes, and emission from biomass burning is one with the major impact on human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxic potential of air pollutants generated by biomass burning through micronucleus assay in exfoliated buccal cells of schoolchildren in the Brazilian Amazon region. Methods The study was conducted during the dry seasons in two regions of the Brazilian Amazon. The assay was carried out on buccal epithelial cells of 574 schoolchildren between 6-16 years old. Results The results show a significant difference between micronucleus frequencies in children exposed to biomass burning compared to those in a control area. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that in situ biomonitoring using a sensitive and low cost assay (buccal micronucleus assay) may be an important tool for monitoring air quality in remote regions. It is difficult to attribute the increase in micronuclei frequency observed in our study to any specific toxic element integrated in the particulate matters. However, the contribution of the present study lies in the evidence that increased exposure to fine particulate matter generates an increased micronuclei frequency in oral epithelial cells of schoolchildren. PMID:22400801

  8. Analyzing small data sets using Bayesian estimation: the case of posttraumatic stress symptoms following mechanical ventilation in burn survivors

    PubMed Central

    van de Schoot, Rens; Broere, Joris J.; Perryck, Koen H.; Zondervan-Zwijnenburg, Mariëlle; van Loey, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The analysis of small data sets in longitudinal studies can lead to power issues and often suffers from biased parameter values. These issues can be solved by using Bayesian estimation in conjunction with informative prior distributions. By means of a simulation study and an empirical example concerning posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) following mechanical ventilation in burn survivors, we demonstrate the advantages and potential pitfalls of using Bayesian estimation. Methods First, we show how to specify prior distributions and by means of a sensitivity analysis we demonstrate how to check the exact influence of the prior (mis-) specification. Thereafter, we show by means of a simulation the situations in which the Bayesian approach outperforms the default, maximum likelihood and approach. Finally, we re-analyze empirical data on burn survivors which provided preliminary evidence of an aversive influence of a period of mechanical ventilation on the course of PTSS following burns. Results Not suprisingly, maximum likelihood estimation showed insufficient coverage as well as power with very small samples. Only when Bayesian analysis, in conjunction with informative priors, was used power increased to acceptable levels. As expected, we showed that the smaller the sample size the more the results rely on the prior specification. Conclusion We show that two issues often encountered during analysis of small samples, power and biased parameters, can be solved by including prior information into Bayesian analysis. We argue that the use of informative priors should always be reported together with a sensitivity analysis. PMID:25765534

  9. Trace gas constraints on vertical transport in models: a case study of Indonesian biomass burning emissions in 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, R. D.; Luo, M.; Worden, J.; Kim, D.; Del Genio, A. D.; Voulgarakis, A.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the use of joint Aura TES and MLS CO retrievals in constraining vertical transport in the NASA GISS ModelE2 composition-climate model. We examine September to November 2006 over the tropics. El Nino-induced dry conditions over western Indonesia led to extensive biomass burning and persistent CO greater than 200 ppb in the upper troposphere. This was one of the highest CO episodes over the MLS period since 2004. We show how improvements in the vertical resolution of trace gas retrievals can help to distinguish between errors in parameterized vertical transport and biases in bottom-up emissions estimates. We simulate the episode using the NASA GISS ModelE2 coupled composition-climate model with different subgrid physics for small ensembles of experiments with perturbed initial conditions. The starting point is the CMIP5 version of the model, in which there was a pronounced vertical CO dipole over the Maritime Continent, but with a CO peak 100 ppb higher than Aura CO in the upper troposphere. With modified cumulus and boundary layer parameterizations, but the same prescribed biomass burning emissions estimates, the upper tropospheric CO bias is significantly reduced. Concurrently, precipitation over the emissions source region is reduced relative to observational estimates, leading to better consistency with the dry conditions under which the burning occurred. We discuss the effects of the physics changes on the roles of convective frequency and depth in reducing the bias.

  10. [Scalp burns due to hair bleach].

    PubMed

    Wagenblast, Lene

    2011-02-28

    We present two cases of scalp burn or possible chemical reaction due to use of hair highlight products. One case was treated with serial excision of the scarred bald area after the burn, and the other case was treated with implantation of expanders and subsequent excision of the bald area.

  11. [Scalp burns due to hair bleach].

    PubMed

    Wagenblast, Lene

    2011-02-28

    We present two cases of scalp burn or possible chemical reaction due to use of hair highlight products. One case was treated with serial excision of the scarred bald area after the burn, and the other case was treated with implantation of expanders and subsequent excision of the bald area. PMID:21362396

  12. Epidemiology of U.K. military burns.

    PubMed

    Foster, Mark Anthony; Moledina, Jamil; Jeffery, Steve L A

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the etiology of U.K. military burns in light of increasing hybrid warfare. Analysis of the nature of these injured personnel will provide commanders with the evidence to plan for on-going and future operations. Case notes of all U.K. Armed Forces burn injured patients who were evacuated to the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine were reviewed. Demographics, burn severity, pattern, and mortality details were included. There were 134 U.K. military personnel with burns requiring return to the United Kingdom during 2001-2007. The median age was 27 (20-62) years. Overall, 60% of burns seen were "accidental." Burning waste, misuse or disrespect of fuel, and scalds were the most prevalent noncombat burns. Areas commonly burned were the face, legs, and hands. During 2006-2007 in the two major conflicts, more than 59% (n = 36) of the burned patients evacuated to the United Kingdom were injured during combat. Burns sustained in combat represent 5.8% of all combat casualties and were commonly associated with other injuries. Improvised explosive device, minestrike, and rocket-propelled grenade were common causes. The mean TBSA affected for both groups was 5% (1-70). The majority of combat burn injuries have been small in size. Greater provision of flame retardant equipment and clothing may reduce the extent and number of combat burns in the future. The numbers of noncombat burns are being reduced by good military discipline. PMID:21422938

  13. Infection in the Nasal Tip Caused by Acellular Dermal Matrix.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kun Hee

    2015-12-01

    A 19-year-old female patient visited our clinic for rhinoplasty. She complained about her low take-off point, which was apparent in profile view, and wanted slight tip projection. She refused additional cartilage harvesting from ears or ribs but consented to the use of homologous tissue, including acellular dermal matrix, for her dorsum and tip. Septoturbinoplasty was performed, and only a very small amount of septal cartilage could be harvested. It was used as both the columellar strut and the alar rim graft. Nasal dorsum and tip were augmented with acellular dermal matrix. Three months postoperatively, she experienced a few episodes of edema and redness on her nasal tip, followed by pus exudation from the nasal skin. Six months postoperatively, she underwent revision rhinoplasty for removal of inflamed grafts, and onlay tip graft with homologous rib cartilage was performed. Nasal dorsum or tip grafts are an integral part of Asian rhinoplasty. Autogenous tissue is the gold standard for grafting materials. However, the limited availability of autogenous tissue and the preference of patients and surgeons for artificial surgical implants make Asian rhinoplasty challenging. Unavailability of autogenous cartilage and patient refusal of artificial implants led to the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in the nasal dorsum and tip for this case. This is the first report of postoperative complication because of infection rather than absorption after ADM use.

  14. Infection in the Nasal Tip Caused by Acellular Dermal Matrix.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kun Hee

    2015-12-01

    A 19-year-old female patient visited our clinic for rhinoplasty. She complained about her low take-off point, which was apparent in profile view, and wanted slight tip projection. She refused additional cartilage harvesting from ears or ribs but consented to the use of homologous tissue, including acellular dermal matrix, for her dorsum and tip. Septoturbinoplasty was performed, and only a very small amount of septal cartilage could be harvested. It was used as both the columellar strut and the alar rim graft. Nasal dorsum and tip were augmented with acellular dermal matrix. Three months postoperatively, she experienced a few episodes of edema and redness on her nasal tip, followed by pus exudation from the nasal skin. Six months postoperatively, she underwent revision rhinoplasty for removal of inflamed grafts, and onlay tip graft with homologous rib cartilage was performed. Nasal dorsum or tip grafts are an integral part of Asian rhinoplasty. Autogenous tissue is the gold standard for grafting materials. However, the limited availability of autogenous tissue and the preference of patients and surgeons for artificial surgical implants make Asian rhinoplasty challenging. Unavailability of autogenous cartilage and patient refusal of artificial implants led to the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in the nasal dorsum and tip for this case. This is the first report of postoperative complication because of infection rather than absorption after ADM use. PMID:26894006

  15. Dermal fillers for facial soft tissue augmentation.

    PubMed

    Dastoor, Sarosh F; Misch, Carl E; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, patients are demanding not only enhancement to their dental (micro) esthetics, but also their overall facial (macro) esthetics. Soft tissue augmentation via dermal filling agents may be used to correct facial defects such as wrinkles caused by age, gravity, and trauma; thin lips; asymmetrical facial appearances; buccal fold depressions; and others. This article will review the pathogenesis of facial wrinkles, history, techniques, materials, complications, and clinical controversies regarding dermal fillers for soft tissue augmentation.

  16. Chronic dermal sinuses as a manifestation of histiocytosis X.

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, S H; Hall, I; Ragge, N; Pritchard, J

    1986-01-01

    Two young patients presented with generalised lymphadenopathy, otorrhoea, otitis, and rash. Over the next few years chronically discharging sinuses began to form over enlarged nodes and histological appearances were typical of histiocytosis X. In neither case were micro-organisms isolated from the lesions, and in both patients healing occurred with immunosuppressive agents. Chronic dermal sinus formation secondary to lymph node disease has never before been recorded as a manifestation of histiocytosis X. Histiocytosis X should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of "suppurative" lymphadenopathy so that appropriate treatment may be given without delay. Images Case 1 PMID:3084014

  17. Estimation of in vivo dose of dermally applied chemicals leading to estrogen/androgen receptor-mediated toxicity from in vitro data--Illustration with four reproductive toxicants.

    PubMed

    Dancik, Yuri; Troutman, John A; Jaworska, Joanna

    2015-08-01

    We present a quantitative in vitro-in vivo extrapolation framework enabling the estimation of the external dermal exposure dose from in vitro experimental data relevant to a toxicity pathway of interest. The framework adapts elements of the biological pathway altering dose (BPAD) method [Judson et al. Chem Res Toxicol 2011;24:451] to the case of dermal exposure. Dermal doses of four toxicants equivalent to concentrations characterizing their effect on estrogen receptor α or androgen receptor activity in chemical-activated luciferase expression (CALUX) assays are estimated. The analysis shows that dermal BPADs, calculated from one in vitro concentration, can differ by up to a factor of 55, due to the impact applied dose and dermal exposure scenarios can have on skin permeation kinetics. These features should therefore be taken into account in risk assessment of dermally applied chemicals.

  18. Vesicant burns.

    PubMed

    Mellor, S G; Rice, P; Cooper, G J

    1991-01-01

    (1) Of the 120,000 victims of sulphur mustard gas in World War I there were only 2-3% fatalities, and few long term effects. (2) The interactions of sulphur mustard with the skin are complete within a few minutes of exposure. Once the victim has been decontaminated there is no risk to the attendant and there is no active agent in the blister fluid. (3) The rate of wound healing is slow for sulphur mustard burns, but in general the wounds heal satisfactorily. (4) There is no specific therapy for poisoning by sulphur mustard.

  19. Ultrasonic technique for characterizing skin burns

    DOEpatents

    Goans, Ronald E.; Cantrell, Jr., John H.; Meyers, F. Bradford; Stambaugh, Harry D.

    1978-01-01

    This invention, a method for ultrasonically determining the depth of a skin burn, is based on the finding that the acoustical impedance of burned tissue differs sufficiently from that of live tissue to permit ultrasonic detection of the interface between the burn and the underlying unburned tissue. The method is simple, rapid, and accurate. As compared with conventional practice, it provides the important advantage of permitting much earlier determination of whether a burn is of the first, second, or third degree. In the case of severe burns, the usual two - to three-week delay before surgery may be reduced to about 3 days or less.

  20. Own Experience From The Use Of A Substitute Of An Allogeneic Acellular Dermal Matrix Revitalized With In Vitro Cultured Skin Cells In Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Łabuś, Wojciech; Kawecki, Marek; Glik, Justyna; Maj, Mariusz; Kitala, Diana; Misiuga, Marcelina; Klama-Baryła, Agnieszka; Kraut, Małgorzata; Nowak, Mariusz

    2015-10-01

    As a result of the removal of cells from human allogeneic dermis, a collagen scaffold is obtained, which can be populated de novo with autologous/allogeneic skin cells and transplanted onto the area of skin loss. The optimal method for production of acellular dermal matrices (ADM) has been selected. Three female patients (a mean age of 54 years) were subjected to the transplantation of either autologous or allogeneic keratinocytes and fibroblasts into the holes of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) mesh graft. The method for burn wound treatment based on the use of a viable dermal-epidermal skin substitute (based on ADM and in vitro cultured fibroblasts and keratinocytes) may be the optimal method of burn treatment. PMID:26812752

  1. Own Experience From The Use Of A Substitute Of An Allogeneic Acellular Dermal Matrix Revitalized With In Vitro Cultured Skin Cells In Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Łabuś, Wojciech; Kawecki, Marek; Glik, Justyna; Maj, Mariusz; Kitala, Diana; Misiuga, Marcelina; Klama-Baryła, Agnieszka; Kraut, Małgorzata; Nowak, Mariusz

    2015-10-01

    As a result of the removal of cells from human allogeneic dermis, a collagen scaffold is obtained, which can be populated de novo with autologous/allogeneic skin cells and transplanted onto the area of skin loss. The optimal method for production of acellular dermal matrices (ADM) has been selected. Three female patients (a mean age of 54 years) were subjected to the transplantation of either autologous or allogeneic keratinocytes and fibroblasts into the holes of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) mesh graft. The method for burn wound treatment based on the use of a viable dermal-epidermal skin substitute (based on ADM and in vitro cultured fibroblasts and keratinocytes) may be the optimal method of burn treatment.

  2. Use of Suprathel® for partial thickness burns in children.

    PubMed

    Highton, Lyndsey; Wallace, Christopher; Shah, Mamta

    2013-02-01

    We evaluated the use of Suprathel(®), a synthetic skin substitute, for partial thickness burns in children. Thirty-three children (20 females, 13 males; mean age 29 months, range 5 months to 11 years) with burns were treated with Suprathel(®). The burns were superficial partial thickness (n=24) or mid-dermal (n=19); the median %TBSA was 4% (range 1-13%). Suprathel(®) was applied after debridement, followed by Vaseline gauze, dry gauze and crepe bandage. The outer dressings were changed every 5-10 days unless clinical problems dictated otherwise. Median healing time was 16 days (range 9-38 days). Ten patients took longer than 21 days to heal, of whom four developed hypertrophic scarring, which was strongly associated with wound infection (p<0.05). Healing time of superficial partial thickness and mid-dermal burns was not significantly different (p=0.494). Suprathel(®) is an effective skin substitute for the treatment of partial thickness burns in children. The majority of burns in children are mixed depth, and Suprathel(®) has the advantage that it may also be used to treat mid-dermal burns. It behaves like a biological dressing but is not animal derived, so is acceptable to all religious and ethnic groups. Further studies to evaluate the efficacy and cost effectiveness of Suprathel(®) compared to other dressings in children are warranted.

  3. Chemical burns: pathophysiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Palao, R; Monge, I; Ruiz, M; Barret, J P

    2010-05-01

    Chemical burns continue to pose a variety of dilemmas to the clinician managing such cases. Assessment of burn depth is often difficult and the decision whether to excise the wound early is not always clear-cut. In this updated review, common agents are classified and the basic principles of management and specific recommendations are examined. The complications arising from exposure to these chemicals and the supportive measures needed during treatment are also described.

  4. Biomass burning influences on atmospheric composition: A case study to assess the impact of aerosol data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keslake, Tim; Chipperfield, Martyn; Mann, Graham; Flemming, Johannes; Remy, Sam; Dhomse, Sandip; Morgan, Will

    2016-04-01

    The C-IFS (Composition Integrated Forecast System) developed under the MACC series of projects and to be continued under the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring System, provides global operational forecasts and re-analyses of atmospheric composition at high spatial resolution (T255, ~80km). Currently there are 2 aerosol schemes implemented within C-IFS, a mass-based scheme with externally mixed particle types and an aerosol microphysics scheme (GLOMAP-mode). The simpler mass-based scheme is the current operational system, also used in the existing system to assimilate satellite measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) for improved forecast capability. The microphysical GLOMAP scheme has now been implemented and evaluated in the latest C-IFS cycle alongside the mass-based scheme. The upgrade to the microphysical scheme provides for higher fidelity aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions, accounting for global variations in size distribution and mixing state, and additional aerosol properties such as cloud condensation nuclei concentrations. The new scheme will also provide increased aerosol information when used as lateral boundary conditions for regional air quality models. Here we present a series of experiments highlighting the influence and accuracy of the two different aerosol schemes and the impact of MODIS AOD assimilation. In particular, we focus on the influence of biomass burning emissions on aerosol properties in the Amazon, comparing to ground-based and aircraft observations from the 2012 SAMBBA campaign. Biomass burning can affect regional air quality, human health, regional weather and the local energy budget. Tropical biomass burning generates particles primarily composed of particulate organic matter (POM) and black carbon (BC), the local ratio of these two different constituents often determining the properties and subsequent impacts of the aerosol particles. Therefore, the model's ability to capture the concentrations of these two

  5. Comparison of the results of operative and conservative treatment of deep dermal partial-thickness scalds in children.

    PubMed

    Kaźmierski, M; Mańkowski, P; Jankowski, A; Harasymczuk, J

    2007-10-01

    Deep dermal partial-thickness scalds remain one of the most common types of injuries in childhood. Local treatment of those wounds, alternatively described as IIb degree, is still very controversial. Some authors advise conservative treatment of such wounds, pointing to their ability to self-reepithelialise, which is possible but significantly prolonged. Other investigators postulate operative treatment, i.e., tangential necrectomy and split-thickness autologous skin grafting, which may shorten the time of wound healing. Arguments call for contra-arguments, and the problem still seems to be unresolved. There is indeed a lack of acceptable standardisation of the local treatment for deep dermal partial-thickness scalds in the paediatric population. The results of both conservative and operative treatment of 114 children aged between 3 months and 17 years, treated for deep dermal partial-thickness scalds from 1997 to 2004 are presented. The treatment of five groups of patients, divided into groups based on the extent of their burn wounds, is evaluated. The patients were treated by tangential necrectomy and skin grafting, mechanical dermabrasion, Granuflex(R) (Convatec) hydrocolloid dressings, Iruxol Mono(R) (Knoll) enzymatic dressings, or Aquacel Ag(R) (Convatec) hydrofibre dressings with silver ions. A number of parameters of wound healing were analysed. The results of this paper encouraged us to present and discuss a proposition for the standardisation of local treatment of deep dermal partial-thickness burn wounds in the paediatric population, according to the extent of injury.

  6. Mesenchymal stem cells combined with an artificial dermal substitute improve repair in full-thickness skin wounds.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Dilmar; Oberdoerfer, Daniel; Fernandes, Marilda C; Meurer, Rosalva T; Pereira-Filho, Gustavo A; Cruz, Paloma; Vargas, Marcelo; Chem, Roberto C; Camassola, Melissa; Nardi, Nance B

    2012-12-01

    Autografts represent the gold standard for the treatment of full thickness burns. Factors such as lack of suitable donor sites and poor skin quality, however, have led to the development of artificial dermal substitutes. The investigation of mechanisms leading to enhanced functionality of these skin substitutes has been attracting great attention. This study aimed to investigate the effect of autologous stem cells on the integration and vascularization of a dermal substitute in full-thickness skin wounds, in a murine model. Two cell populations were compared, whole bone marrow cells and cultivated mesenchymal stem cells, isolated from mice transgenic for the enhanced green fluorescent protein, which allowed tracking of the transplanted cells. The number of cells colonizing the dermal substitute, as well as vascular density, were higher in mice receiving total bone marrow and particularly mesenchymal stem cells, than in control animals. The effect was more pronounced in animals treated with mesenchymal stem cells, which located primarily in the wound bed, suggesting a paracrine therapeutic mechanism. These results indicate that combining mesenchymal stem cells with artificial dermal substitutes may represent an important potential modality for treating full thickness burns, even in allogeneic combinations due to the immunoregulatory property of these cells.

  7. Anaesthetic management of post-burn contractures, a recurrent challenge from oil pipeline vandalization in Nigeria: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Abiodun Oyinpreye

    2009-12-03

    A 13 year- old girl presented to the department with sternomental contractures as a result of facial burns from kerosene explosion. Difficult airway was envisaged. Over the period of time she developed sub-mental contracture with keloids; and was scheduled for release of contractures and flap closure.Anaesthesia was induced with halothane and 100% oxygen. A size 3 laryngeal mask airway (LMA) was inserted and anaesthesia maintained with oxygen/nitrous oxide/halothane/muscle relaxant technique. The successful placement of LMA at 2(nd )attempt was aided by a surgical incision on the submental contracture. Blood loss was 600 mls and a unit of packed red blood cells was transfused. She made full recovery and was discharged home after 1 month.

  8. Spatio-Temporal Trends of Fire in Slash and Burn Agriculture Landscape: A Case Study from Nagaland, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padalia, H.; Mondal, P. P.

    2014-11-01

    Increasing incidences of fire from land conversion and residue burning in tropics is the major concern in global warming. Spatial and temporal monitoring of trends of fire incidences is, therefore, significant in order to determine contribution of carbon emissions from slash and burn agriculture. In this study, we analyzed time-series Terra / Aqua MODIS satellite hotspot products from 2001 to 2013 to derive intra- and inter-annual trends in fire incidences in Nagaland state, located in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. Time-series regression was applied to MODIS fire products at variable spatial scales in GIS. Significance of change in fire frequency at each grid level was tested using t statistic. Spatial clustering of higher or lower fire incidences across study area was determined using Getis-OrdGi statistic. Maximum fire incidences were encountered in moist mixed deciduous forests (46%) followed by secondary moist bamboo brakes (30%). In most parts of the study area fire incidences peaked during March while in warmer parts (e.g. Mon district dominated by indigenous people) fire activity starts as early as during November and peaks in January. Regression trend analysis captured noticeable areas with statistically significant positive (e.g. Mokokchung, Wokha, Mon, Tuensang and Kiphire districts) and negative (e.g. Kohima and north-western part of Mokokchung district) inter-annual fire frequency trends based on area-based aggregation of fire occurrences at different grid sizes. Localization of spatial clusters of high fire incidences was observed in Mokokchung, Wokha, Mon,Tuensang and Kiphire districts.

  9. A case study of aerosol depletion in a biomass burning plume over Eastern Canada during the 2011 BORTAS field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, J. E.; Drummond, J. R.; Griffin, D.; Pierce, J. R.; Waugh, D. L.; Palmer, P. I.; Parrington, M.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Rickard, A. R.; Taylor, J. W.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Walker, K. A.; Chisholm, L.; Duck, T. J.; Hopper, J. T.; Blanchard, Y.; Gibson, M. D.; Curry, K. R.; Sakamoto, K. M.; Lesins, G.; Dan, L.; Kliever, J.; Saha, A.

    2014-02-01

    We present measurements of a long range smoke transport event recorded on 20-21 July 2011 over Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, during the Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS-B) campaign. Ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers and photometers detected air masses associated with large wildland fires burning in eastern Manitoba and western Ontario. We investigate a plume with high trace gas amounts but low amounts of particles that preceded and overlapped at the Halifax site with a second plume with high trace gas loadings and significant amounts of particulate material. We show that the first plume experienced a meteorological scavenging event but the second plume had not been similarly scavenged. This points to the necessity to account carefully for the plume history when considering long range transport since simultaneous or near-simultaneous times of arrival are not necessarily indicative of either similar trajectories or meteorological history. We investigate the origin of the scavenged plume, and the possibility of an aerosol wet deposition event occurring in the plume ~24 h prior to the measurements over Halifax. The region of lofting and scavenging is only monitored on an intermittent basis by the present observing network, and thus we must consider many different pieces of evidence in an effort to understand the early dynamics of the plume. Through this discussion we also demonstrate the value of having many simultaneous remote-sensing measurements in order to understand the physical and chemical behaviour of biomass burning plumes.

  10. A case study of aerosol scavenging in a biomass burning plume over eastern Canada during the 2011 BORTAS field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, J. E.; Drummond, J. R.; Griffin, D.; Pierce, J. R.; Waugh, D. L.; Palmer, P. I.; Parrington, M.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Rickard, A. R.; Taylor, J. W.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Walker, K. A.; Chisholm, L.; Duck, T. J.; Hopper, J. T.; Blanchard, Y.; Gibson, M. D.; Curry, K. R.; Sakamoto, K. M.; Lesins, G.; Dan, L.; Kliever, J.; Saha, A.

    2014-08-01

    We present measurements of a long-range smoke transport event recorded on 20-21 July 2011 over Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, during the Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS-B) campaign. Ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers and photometers detected air masses associated with large wildland fires burning in eastern Manitoba and western Ontario. We investigate a plume with high trace gas amounts but low amounts of particles that preceded and overlapped at the Halifax site with a second plume with high trace gas loadings and significant amounts of particulate material. We show that the first plume experienced a meteorological scavenging event, but the second plume had not been similarly scavenged. This points to the necessity to account carefully for the plume history when considering long-range transport since simultaneous or near-simultaneous times of arrival are not necessarily indicative of either similar trajectories or meteorological history. We investigate the origin of the scavenged plume, and the possibility of an aerosol wet deposition event occurring in the plume ~ 24 h prior to the measurements over Halifax. The region of lofting and scavenging is only monitored on an intermittent basis by the present observing network, and thus we must consider many different pieces of evidence in an effort to understand the early dynamics of the plume. Through this discussion we also demonstrate the value of having many simultaneous remote-sensing measurements in order to understand the physical and chemical behaviour of biomass burning plumes.

  11. Surgical management of a dermal lymphatic malformation of the lower extremity

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Lisa F; Chen, Constance M; Zurada, Joanna M; Walther, Robert; Grant, Robert T

    2008-01-01

    Dermal lymphatic malformations are rare congenital hamartomas of superficial lymphatics characterized by high recurrence rates after excision. The standard therapy for a single lesion is surgical excision with wide margins, which reduces recurrence but can have a potentially unacceptable aesthetic outcome. A case of a 24-year-old woman with a 6 cm × 5 cm dermal lymphatic malformation on her right thigh, diagnosed by clinical history, physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging and pathological findings, is reported. The patient underwent wide local excision with split-thickness skin grafting. After pathological examination revealed negative margins, the patient underwent tissue expander placement and excision of the skin graft with primary closure. The lesion did not recur, and the patient achieved a satisfactory aesthetic result. The present case represents the first report of the use of tissue expanders to treat dermal lymphatic malformations in the lower extremity and demonstrates a safe, staged approach to successful treatment. PMID:19949506

  12. MicroRNA 181b regulates decorin production by dermal fibroblasts and may be a potential therapy for hypertrophic scar.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Peter; Ding, Jie; Tredget, Edward E

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic scarring is a frequent fibroproliferative complication following deep dermal burns leading to impaired function and lifelong disfigurement. Decorin reduces fibrosis and induces regeneration in many tissues, and is significantly downregulated in hypertrophic scar and normal deep dermal fibroblasts. It was hypothesized that microRNAs in these fibroblasts downregulate decorin and blocking them would increase decorin and may prevent hypertrophic scarring. Lower decorin levels were found in hypertrophic scar as compared to normal skin, and in deep as compared to superficial dermis. A decorin 3' un-translated region reporter assay demonstrated microRNA decreased decorin in deep dermal fibroblasts, and microRNA screening predicted miR- 24, 181b, 421, 526b, or 543 as candidates. After finding increased levels of mir-181b in deep dermal fibroblasts, it was demonstrated that TGF-β1 stimulation decreased miR-24 but increased miR-181b and that hypertrophic scar and deep dermis contained increased levels of miR-181b. By blocking miR-181b with an antagomiR, it was possible to increase decorin protein expression in dermal fibroblasts. This suggests miR-181b is involved in the differential expression of decorin in skin and wound healing. Furthermore, blocking miR-181b reversed TGF-β1 induced decorin downregulation and myofibroblast differentiation in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts, suggesting a potential therapy for hypertrophic scar.

  13. Hair follicle dermal stem cells regenerate the dermal sheath, repopulate the dermal papilla, and modulate hair type.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Waleed; Abbasi, Sepideh; Hagner, Andrew; Raharjo, Eko; Kumar, Ranjan; Hotta, Akitsu; Magness, Scott; Metzger, Daniel; Biernaskie, Jeff

    2014-12-01

    The dermal papilla (DP) provide instructive signals required to activate epithelial progenitors and initiate hair follicle regeneration. DP cell numbers fluctuate over the hair cycle, and hair loss is associated with gradual depletion/atrophy of DP cells. How DP cell numbers are maintained in healthy follicles remains unclear. We performed in vivo fate mapping of adult hair follicle dermal sheath (DS) cells to determine their lineage relationship with DP and found that a subset of DS cells are retained following each hair cycle, exhibit self-renewal, and repopulate the DS and the DP with new cells. Ablating these hair follicle dermal stem cells and their progeny retarded hair regrowth and altered hair type specification, suggesting that they function to modulate normal DP function. This work identifies a bipotent stem cell within the adult hair follicle mesenchyme and has important implications toward restoration of hair growth after injury, disease, and aging.

  14. Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO) is a Department of Defense experiment that observes shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System engine burns for the purpose of improving plume models. On STS-107 the appropriate sensors will observe selected rendezvous and orbit adjust burns.

  15. Viscoelastic, physical, and bio-degradable properties of dermal scaffolds and related cell behaviour.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vaibhav; Patel, Nimesha; Kohli, Nupur; Ravindran, Nivedita; Hook, Lilian; Mason, Chris; García-Gareta, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Dermal scaffolds promote healing of debilitating skin injuries caused by burns and chronic skin conditions. Currently available products present disadvantages and therefore, there is still a clinical need for developing new dermal substitutes. This study aimed at comparing the viscoelastic, physical and bio-degradable properties of two dermal scaffolds, the collagen-based and clinically well established Integra(®) and a novel fibrin-based dermal scaffold developed at our laboratory called Smart Matrix(®), to further evaluate our previous published findings that suggested a higher influx of cells, reduced wound contraction and less scarring for Smart Matrix(®) when used in vivo. Rheological results showed that Integra(®) (G'  =  313.74 kPa) is mechanically stronger than Smart Matrix(®) (G'  =  8.26 kPa), due to the presence of the silicone backing layer in Integra(®). Micro-pores were observed on both dermal scaffolds, although nano-pores as well as densely packed nano-fibres were only observed for Smart Matrix(®). Average surface roughness was higher for Smart Matrix(®) (Sa  =  114.776 nm) than for Integra(®) (Sa  =  75.565 nm). Both scaffolds possess a highly porous structure (80-90%) and display a range of pore micro-sizes that represent the actual in vivo scenario. In vitro proteolytic bio-degradation suggested that Smart Matrix(®) would degrade faster upon implantation in vivo than Integra(®). For both scaffolds, the enzymatic digestion occurs via bulk degradation. These observed differences could affect cell behaviour on both scaffolds. Our results suggest that fine-tuning of scaffolds' viscoelastic, physical and bio-degradable properties can maximise cell behaviour in terms of attachment, proliferation and infiltration, which are essential for tissue repair. PMID:27586397

  16. Pre-hospital care in burn injury

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Prabhat; Goel, Arun

    2010-01-01

    The care provided to the victims of burn injury immediately after sustaining burns can largely affect the extent and depth of the wound. Although standard guidelines have been formulated by various burn associations, they are still not well known to public at large in our country. In burn injuries, most often, the bystanders are the first care providers. The swift implementation of the measures described in this article for first aid in thermal, chemical, electrical and inhalational injuries in the practical setting, within minutes of sustaining the burn, plays a vital role and can effectively reduce the morbidity and mortality to a great extent. In case of burn disasters, triage needs to be carried out promptly as per the defined protocols. Proper communication and transport from the scene of the accident to the primary care centre and onto the burn care facility greatly influences the execution of the management plans PMID:21321651

  17. Polarized Microscopy in Lesions With Altered Dermal Collagen.

    PubMed

    Elbendary, Amira; Valdebran, Manuel; Parikh, Kruti; Elston, Dirk M

    2016-08-01

    Alterations in dermal collagen are noted in dermatofibroma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, morphea, lichen sclerosus et atrophicus, hypertrophic scars, and keloids. The authors sought to determine whether variations in birefringence of collagen by polarized microscopy could be of help in diagnosing such conditions. Representative hematoxylin and eosin sections of 400 cases, including dermatofibroma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, hypertrophic scars, keloid, morphea, and lichen sclerosus, were examined under polarized microscopy. Distinct patterns of birefringence of collagen for each disease were noted under polarized microscopy. This study highlights the use of polarized microscopy as adjunctive tool in differentiating different diseases with collagen alteration. PMID:26959692

  18. Site-specific rectocele repair with dermal graft augmentation: comparison of porcine dermal xenograft (Pelvicol) and human dermal allograft.

    PubMed

    Biehl, Roger C; Moore, Robert D; Miklos, John R; Kohli, Neeraj; Anand, Indu S; Mattox, T Fleming

    2008-01-01

    This study is a retrospective chart review comparing 195 women who underwent rectocele repair with either a porcine dermal xenograft or human allogenic cadaveric dermal graft augmentation over a two year period. A site-specific defect repair was completed prior to augmentation with the graft. Examinations were performed preoperatively and postoperatively using the pelvic organ prolapse quantification system. Questionnaires were used to assess constipation and dyspareunia. De novo dyspareunia and cure rates for constipation and dyspareunia were not statistically different between the two groups. Site-specific fascial rectocele repairs with xenograft or allograft augmentation were found to have similar complication rates as well as objective and subjective cure rates.

  19. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    PubMed

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome. PMID:27209717

  20. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    PubMed

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome.

  1. Observations about chemical composition of aerosols in the Brazilian Amazon region - Case study: Biomass burning in the subequatorial Amazon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioda, A.; Monteiro, I. L.; Almeida, A. C.; Hacon, S. S.; Dallacort, R.; Ignotti, E.; Godoy, J. M.; Loureiro, A. L.; Morais, F.; Artaxo, P.

    2012-04-01

    The study was carried out in two cities in the Brazilian Amazon region, Tangará da Serra (14 ° 37'10 "S, 57 ° 29'09" W, 427 m asl), located in a transition area between the Amazon biome and the Cerrado and has the characteristics of urban area in Amazon region; and Alta Floresta (9 ° 52 '32 "S, 56 ° 5' 10" W, 283 m asl) situated in the extreme north of the state of Mato Grosso (MT), both in the subequatorial Amazon region. Tangara da Serra has the largest production of sugar cane in the subequatorial Amazon region. They are located 800 km from each other. These two regions are inserted in a region with typical cycles of drought and rain that alter air pollution levels, and lies in the dispersion path of the pollution plume resulting from burnings in the Brazilian Amazon and pollution emanating from neighboring countries. Both cities have wet tropical climate with two well defined seasons: rainy summer (November to May) and dry winter (June to October). During the dry winter, biomass burnings are frequent in these regions. In 2008, the Department of the Environment has banned fires in the period from July 15 to September 15 throughout the State. In this study chemical characterization was performed for approximately 100 aerosol samples collected in each site during 2008. Fine and coarse aerosol samples collected in SFUs were analyzed by ion chromatography for determination of cations (Na+, K+, NH3+, Ca2+ and Mg2+), anions (SO42-, Cl- and NO3-) and organic acids (acetate and formiate) and also measures of black carbon (BC) (Aethalometer). The results showed that for both sites the average concentrations were quite similar for PM2.5 (16 µg/m3), PM10 (11 and 13 µg/m3) and black carbon (1.4 µg/m3 for PM2.5 and 1.6 µg/m3 for PM10). Sulfate was the predominant species in fine (45%) and coarse (26%) particles in both sites. The sulfate concentrations ranged from 0.01-1.92 µg/m3 in PM2.5 and 0.01-1.66 µg/m3 in PM10 in Tangará da Serra and 0.01-2.93 µg/m3 in PM2

  2. Case Study: Videogame Distraction Reduces Behavioral Distress in a Preschool-Aged Child Undergoing Repeated Burn Dressing Changes: A Single-Subject Design

    PubMed Central

    Sil, Soumitri; Burns, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This single-subject design study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of passive and interactive videogame distraction on behavioral distress for a preschool-aged child receiving repeated burn dressing changes. Method A 4-year-old girl underwent 3 baseline and 10 videogame distraction sessions (5 passive and 5 interactive) using a restricted alternating treatments design. Observed behavioral distress was coded, and parents and nurses rated the child’s distress and cooperative behavior. Results Relative to baseline, behavioral distress decreased and cooperative behavior increased immediately after the onset of videogame distraction. Single Case Randomization Tests revealed significantly lower behavioral distress and greater cooperation during interactive videogame distraction relative to passive videogame distraction. Conclusions Interactive videogame distraction appears to be a feasible and effective pain management strategy for a preschool-aged child undergoing repeated painful medical procedures. PMID:23248343

  3. Estimating terrestrial amphibian pesticide body burden through dermal exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dermal exposure presents a potentially significant but understudied route for pesticide uptake in terrestrial amphibians. Our study measured dermal uptake of pesticides of varying hydrophobicity (logKow) in frogs. Amphibians were indirectly exposed to one of five pesticide active...

  4. Chemical Debridement of Burns

    PubMed Central

    Levenson, Stanley M.; Kan, Dorinne; Gruber, Charles; Crowley, Leo V.; Lent, Richard; Watford, Alvin; Seifter, Eli

    1974-01-01

    The development of effective, non-toxic (local and systemic) methods for the rapid chemical (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) debridement of third degree burns would dramatically reduce the morbidity and mortality of severely burned patients. Sepsis is still the major cause of death of patients with extensive deep burns. The removal of the devitalized tissue, without damage to unburned skin or skin only partially injured by burning, and in ways which would permit immediate (or very prompt) skin grafting, would lessen substantially the problems of sepsis, speed convalescence and the return of these individuals to society as effective human beings, and would decrease deaths. The usefulness and limitations of surgical excision for patients with extensive third degree burns are discussed. Chemical debridement lends itself to complementary use with surgical excision and has the potential advantage over surgical excision in not requiring anesthesia or a formal surgical operation. The authors' work with the chemical debridement of burns, in particular the use of Bromelain, indicates that this approach will likely achieve clinical usefulness. The experimental studies indicate that rapid controlled debridement, with minimal local and systemic toxicity, is possible, and that effective chemotherapeutic agents may be combined with the Bromelain without either interfering with the actions of the other. The authors believe that rapid (hours) debridement accomplished by the combined use of chemical debriding and chemotherapeutic agents will obviate the possibility of any increase in infection, caused by the use of chemical agents for debridement, as reported for Paraenzyme21 and Travase.39,48 It is possible that the short term use of systemic antibiotics begun just before and continued during, and for a short time after, the rapid chemical debridement may prove useful for the prevention of infection, as appears to be the case for abdominal operations of the clean-contaminated and

  5. Assault by burning in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Das, Kishore Kumar; Khondokar, M Sazzad; Quamruzzaman, M; Ahmed, Syed Shamsuddin; Peck, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Assault by burning in Dhaka, Bangladesh, occurs in a variety of forms, resulting from various causes and motives. A total of 311 cases of intentional burns from the Burn Unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital from April 2004 to May 2011 (6 years) were studied by retrospective and prospective observational review. The majority of victims (68%) were female. Concentrated sulphuric acid was the most commonly used chemical for attack. Disfigurement was the principal complication (mortality, 4%). Dowry-related issues, divorce and other marital quarrels were frequent backgrounds for assault by burning. Kerosene oil was used to ignite 78 girls or young women, most often related to conflicts over dowry (mortality 97%). A total of 102 victims (32%) in all burn groups were attacked because of dowry-related issues. Intentional contact burns were often inflicted on domestic servants. Although physical morbidity and mortality were not reported in contact and other types of burns, psychological disturbances were reported in all victims. A few victims had been assaulted prior to receiving burns, and fractures and deformities were also present on examination at the time of presentation for burn treatment. Ophthalmic injury, with frequent visual impairment, was very common in cases of chemical attack. Legal and social support for victims and their families are frequently inadequate to compensate for losses. Clearly, more attention in our community should be focussed on the prevention of burn assaults, adequate compensation and medical care for victims, as well as speedy retribution for perpetrators.

  6. One world one burn rehabilitation standard.

    PubMed

    Serghiou, M A; Niszczak, J; Parry, I; Li-Tsang, C W P; Van den Kerckhove, E; Smailes, S; Edgar, D

    2016-08-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) burns are a huge global health problem resulting in death and devastation to those who survive large burns as they are faced with significant functional limitations that prevent purposeful and productive living. Members of the International Society for Burn Injuries (ISBI) Rehabilitation Committee conducted a needs assessment survey in order to characterize how burn rehabilitation is implemented worldwide and how the international burn rehabilitation community can help improve burn rehabilitation in identified geographic locations which need assistance in rehabilitating burn survivors successfully. The results of this survey indicated that poor and in some cases resource limited environments (RLEs) around the world seem to lack the financial, educational and material resources to conduct burn rehabilitation successfully. It appears that there are vast discrepancies in the areas of education, training and capacity to conduct research to improve the care of burn survivors as evidenced by the variation in responses between the RLEs and developed countries around the globe. In some cases, the problem is not knowledge, skill and ability to practice burn rehabilitation, but rather having the resources to do so due to financial difficulties. PMID:27161089

  7. Dermal injection of immunocytes induces psoriasis.

    PubMed Central

    Wrone-Smith, T; Nickoloff, B J

    1996-01-01

    Establishing direct and causal relationships among the confederacy of activated cell types present in psoriasis has been hampered by lack of an animal model. Within psoriatic plaques there are hyperplastic keratinocytes, infiltrating immunocytes, and activated endothelial cells. The purpose of this study was to determine if psoriasis is primarily a disorder of keratinocytes or the immune system. Using a newly developed experimental system in which full-thickness human skin is orthotopically transferred onto severe combined immunodeficient mice, autologous immunocytes were injected into dermis, and the resultant phenotype characterized by clinical, histologic, and immunophenotypic analyses. Engraftment of samples included both uninvolved/ symptomless (PN) skin removed from patients with psoriasis elsewhere, or from healthy individuals with no skin disease (NN skin). In 10 different experiments involving 6 different psoriasis patients, every PN skin was converted to a full-fledged psoriatic plaque skin by injection of autologous blood-derived immunocytes. In all but one psoriatic patient, the immunocytes required preactivation with IL-2 and superantigens to convert PN skin into psoriatic plaque skin. In every case, resultant plaques were characterized by visible presence of flaking and thickened skin, loss of the granular cell layer, prominent elongation of rete pegs with a dermal angiogenic tissue reaction, and infiltration within the epidermis by T cells. Lesional skin displayed 20 different antigenic determinants of the psoriatic phenotype. None of the four NN skin samples injected with autologous immunocytes converted to psoriatic plaques. We conclude that psoriasis is caused primarily by the ability of pathogenetic blood-derived immunocytes to induce secondary activation and disordered growth of endogenous cutaneous cells including keratinocytes and vascular endothelium. PMID:8878440

  8. [Pediatric Patient with anaerobic Bacterial Meningitis Who was Infected through a Spinal Congenital Dermal Sinus Route].

    PubMed

    Okui, Hideyuki; Fukasawa, Chie; Tokutake, Shoko; Takei, Haruka; Sato, Junichi; Hoshino, Tadashi

    2016-05-01

    We report the case of a pediatric patient in whom a spinal congenital dermal sinus was detected after the onset of anaerobic bacterial meningitis. The patient was a 4-month-old boy. He had a recurrent fever for 2 weeks before admission. On admission, he presented with a convulsive status and a bulging anterior fontanel. The previously consulted physician had made a diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Spinal fluid cultures tested positive for Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a spinal subdural abscess and cranial subdural hydrops; therefore, the patient was transported to our hospital for surgical treatment. A sacral dimple was noted on his lower back, and an MRI showed a spinal congenital dermal sinus. Antimicrobial therapy, cranial subdural aspiration, dermal sinus excision, and drainage were performed. He was discharged on the 60th hospital day. When pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli, Proteus sp. or anaerobic bacteria invade through a dermal sinus, it can result in meningitis. Involvement of a dermal sinus should be suspected when meningitis is caused by these pathogens or when recurrent meningitis occurs. PMID:27529968

  9. Coal ash poultice: an unusual cause of a chemical burn.

    PubMed

    Morritt, Andrew N; Bache, Sarah E; Ralston, David; Stephenson, A J

    2009-01-01

    Burns from seemingly innocuous substances are rare, probably underrecognized and typically present late. We describe a case of a child who sustained a full-thickness burn after an application of a coal ash poultice for ankle pain. This case report highlights a rare cause of a chemical burn that may become more common with increasing use of traditional remedies worldwide.

  10. Orion Burn Management, Nominal and Response to Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, Ryan; Goodman, John L.; Barrett, Charles P.; Pohlkamp, Kara; Robinson, Shane

    2016-01-01

    An approach for managing Orion on-orbit burn execution is described for nominal and failure response scenarios. The burn management strategy for Orion takes into account per-burn variations in targeting, timing, and execution; crew and ground operator intervention and overrides; defined burn failure triggers and responses; and corresponding on-board software sequencing functionality. Burn-to- burn variations are managed through the identification of specific parameters that may be updated for each progressive burn. Failure triggers and automatic responses during the burn timeframe are defined to provide safety for the crew in the case of vehicle failures, along with override capabilities to ensure operational control of the vehicle. On-board sequencing software provides the timeline coordination for performing the required activities related to targeting, burn execution, and responding to burn failures.

  11. Characterization and evolution of dermal filaments from patients with Morgellons disease.

    PubMed

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Mayne, Peter J; Kahn, Douglas G; Stricker, Raphael B

    2013-01-01

    Morgellons disease is an emerging skin disease characterized by formation of dermal filaments associated with multisystemic symptoms and tick-borne illness. Some clinicians hypothesize that these often colorful dermal filaments are textile fibers, either self-implanted by patients or accidentally adhering to lesions, and conclude that patients with this disease have delusions of infestation. We present histological observations and electron microscopic imaging from representative Morgellons disease samples revealing that dermal filaments in these cases are keratin and collagen in composition and result from proliferation and activation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the epidermis. Spirochetes were detected in the dermatological specimens from our study patients, providing evidence that Morgellons disease is associated with an infectious process. PMID:23326202

  12. Seizure caused by dermal application of over-the-counter eucalyptus oil head lice preparation.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Neil

    2011-10-01

    Natural plant oils such as eucalyptus are common worldwide in non-prescription natural health products. Oral ingestion of eucalyptus oil is well known to produce neurological symptoms and seizures; however, its dermal use is presumed to be safe. We describe a brief, self-limited, tonic-clonic seizure in a healthy 4-year-old girl following dermal exposure to eucalyptus oil as directed for treatment of head lice. Initial symptoms were vomiting, lethargy, and ataxia followed by a grand mal seizure. Recovery occurred rapidly after the skin was washed. Health care providers should be aware that eucalyptus oil toxicity may occur with dermal exposure and should report additional cases. PMID:21867365

  13. Characterization and evolution of dermal filaments from patients with Morgellons disease.

    PubMed

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Mayne, Peter J; Kahn, Douglas G; Stricker, Raphael B

    2013-01-01

    Morgellons disease is an emerging skin disease characterized by formation of dermal filaments associated with multisystemic symptoms and tick-borne illness. Some clinicians hypothesize that these often colorful dermal filaments are textile fibers, either self-implanted by patients or accidentally adhering to lesions, and conclude that patients with this disease have delusions of infestation. We present histological observations and electron microscopic imaging from representative Morgellons disease samples revealing that dermal filaments in these cases are keratin and collagen in composition and result from proliferation and activation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the epidermis. Spirochetes were detected in the dermatological specimens from our study patients, providing evidence that Morgellons disease is associated with an infectious process.

  14. Characterization and evolution of dermal filaments from patients with Morgellons disease

    PubMed Central

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Mayne, Peter J; Kahn, Douglas G; Stricker, Raphael B

    2013-01-01

    Morgellons disease is an emerging skin disease characterized by formation of dermal filaments associated with multisystemic symptoms and tick-borne illness. Some clinicians hypothesize that these often colorful dermal filaments are textile fibers, either self-implanted by patients or accidentally adhering to lesions, and conclude that patients with this disease have delusions of infestation. We present histological observations and electron microscopic imaging from representative Morgellons disease samples revealing that dermal filaments in these cases are keratin and collagen in composition and result from proliferation and activation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the epidermis. Spirochetes were detected in the dermatological specimens from our study patients, providing evidence that Morgellons disease is associated with an infectious process. PMID:23326202

  15. Impact of crop field burning and mountains on heavy haze in the North China Plain: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Xin; Tie, Xuexi; Cao, Junji; Huang, Rujin; Feng, Tian; Li, Nan; Zhao, Suyu; Tian, Jie; Li, Guohui; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    With the provincial statistical data and crop field burning (CFB) activities captured by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), we extracted a detailed CFB emission inventory in the North China Plain (NCP). The WRF-CHEM model was applied to investigate the impact of CFB on air pollution during the period from 6 to 12 October 2014, corresponding to a heavy haze incident with high concentrations of PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm). The WRF-CHEM model generally performed well in simulating the surface species concentrations of PM2.5, O3 and NO2 compared to the observations; in addition, it reasonably reproduced the observed temporal variations of wind speed, wind direction and planetary boundary layer height (PBLH). It was found that the CFB that occurred in southern NCP (SNCP) had a significant effect on PM2.5 concentrations locally, causing a maximum of 34 % PM2.5 increase. Under continuous southerly wind conditions, the CFB pollution plume went through a long-range transport to northern NCP (NNCP; with several mega cities, including Beijing, the capital city of China), where few CFBs occurred, resulting in a maximum of 32 % PM2.5 increase. As a result, the heavy haze in Beijing was enhanced by the CFB, which occurred in SNCP. Mountains also play significant roles in enhancing the PM2.5 pollution in NNCP through the blocking effect. The mountains blocked and redirected the airflows, causing the pollutant accumulations along the foothills of mountains. This study suggests that the prohibition of CFB should be strict not only in or around Beijing, but also on the ulterior crop growth areas of SNCP. PM2.5 emissions in SNCP should be significantly limited in order to reduce the occurrences of heavy haze events in the NNCP region.

  16. Repair of a Gingival Fenestration Using an Acellular Dermal Matrix Allograft.

    PubMed

    Breault, Lawrence G; Brentson, Raquel C; Fowler, Edward B; Bisch, Frederick C

    2016-01-01

    A case report illustrating the successful treatment of a gingival fenestration with an acellular dermal matrix (ADM) allograft. After 2½ months of healing, the ADM was completely integrated into the soft tissues of the mandibular anterior gingiva with complete resolution of the gingival fenestration, resulting in excellent gingival esthetics. PMID:26874103

  17. Multiple dermal lipomas in farmed striped seabream Lithognathus mormyrus on the Spanish Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Serafín

    2009-05-27

    Two cases of multiple dermal lipomas were found in cultured striped seabream Lithognathus mormyrus (L.) from the southeast coast of Spain. A histopathological study suggests that pigmented cells may correspond to melanomacrophage aggregates. The presence of these aggregations is likely related to the occurrence of a pathological process of tumoral nature.

  18. LINKING DERMAL MODELING AND LOADING DATA TO PREDICT LONG-TERM DOSES FROM INTERMITTENT DERMAL CONTACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper we assess dermal exposure and dose resulting from intermittent contact with residue-contaminated surfaces. These estimates require an understanding of (1) the quantitative relationship between exposure and absorbed dose; (2) the impact of intermittent exposure on ...

  19. Work-related burns in Washington State, 1994 to 1998.

    PubMed

    Baggs, James; Curwick, Christy; Silverstein, Barbara

    2002-07-01

    This article describes an investigation of work-related burns in Washington State during 1994-1998. Workers' compensation data were used to describe the general characteristics of burn injuries, estimate industrial claims rates, and compare nonhospitalized and hospitalized burn cases. The completeness of workers' compensation data as a source for surveillance was evaluated. During 1994-1998, a total of 20,213 burn claims were accepted by the workers' compensation system. Hospitalized burn cases represented only 1.5% of burn claims but incurred 55% of the costs. In addition, workers' compensation data underestimated the frequency and rate of burns. Although workers' compensation claims rates decreased during 1994-1998, work-related burns remain a problem in Washington State. Several industries (e.g., roofing, foundries, and aluminum smelting) were identified as priorities for prevention of burn hospitalizations, which incur the greater cost and time loss.

  20. 40 CFR 798.2250 - Dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... susceptible tissues. (c) Principle of the test method. The test substance is applied daily to the skin in... the vehicle on toxicity of and penetration of the skin by the test substance should be taken into... a life span. (2) Dose in a dermal test is the amount of test substance applied to the skin...

  1. 40 CFR 798.2250 - Dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... susceptible tissues. (c) Principle of the test method. The test substance is applied daily to the skin in... the vehicle on toxicity of and penetration of the skin by the test substance should be taken into... a life span. (2) Dose in a dermal test is the amount of test substance applied to the skin...

  2. Dermal exudate macrophages. Induction in dermal chambers and response to lymphokines.

    PubMed Central

    Goihman-Yahr, M; Ulrich, M; Noya-León, A; Rojas, A; Convit, J

    1975-01-01

    Chambers were implanted in the dorsum of guinea-pigs at the dermal-subcutaneous junction. Exudates were induced and harvested. Macrophages obtained were able to migrate in vitro. If procured from sensitized donors, macrophage migration was inhibited by the corresponding antigen. Dermal exudate macrophages are therefore subject to the effect of lymphokines. The chamber model may be useful for in vivo studies of cell to cell and cell-parasite interactions. PMID:1212821

  3. A Prospective Study Assessing Complication Rates and Patient-Reported Outcomes in Breast Reconstructions Using a Novel, Deep Dermal Human Acellular Dermal Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Michael M.; De Oliveira, Gildasio S.; Mayer, Kristen E.; Blough, Jordan T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The value proposition of an acellular dermal matrix (ADM) taken from the deep dermis is that the allograft may be more porous, allowing for enhanced integration and revascularization. In turn, this characteristic may attenuate complications related to foreign body reactions, seromas, and infection. However, this is juxtaposed against the potential loss of allograft structural integrity, with subsequent risk of malposition and extrusion. Despite the active use of novel, deep dermal ADMs, the clinical outcomes of this new technology has not been well studied. Methods: This is a prospective study to evaluate surgical and patient-reported outcomes using a deep dermal ADM, FlexHD Pliable. Surgical outcomes and BREAST-Q patient-reported outcomes were evaluated postoperatively at 2- and 6-month time points. Results: Seventy-two breasts (41 patients) underwent reconstruction. Complication rate was 12.5%, including 2 hematomas and 7 flap necroses. One case of flap necrosis led to reconstructive failure. Notably, there were no cases of infection, seroma, or implant extrusion or malposition. Average BREAST-Q scores were satisfaction with outcome (70.13 ± 23.87), satisfaction with breasts (58.53 ± 20.00), psychosocial well being (67.97 ± 20.93), sexual well being (54.11 ± 27.72), and physical well being (70.45 ± 15.44). Two-month postoperative BREAST-Q scores decreased compared with baseline and returned to baseline by 6 months. Postoperative radiation therapy had a negative effect on satisfaction with breasts (P = 0.004) and sexual well being (P = 0.006). Conclusions: Deep dermal ADM is a novel modification of traditional allograft technology. Use of the deep dermal ADM yielded acceptably low complication rates and satisfactory patient-reported outcomes. PMID:26894010

  4. 'Sabbath' electric plate burn: a ritual hazard.

    PubMed

    Benmeir, P; Sagi, A; Rosenberg, L; Picard, E; Ben Yakar, Y

    1989-02-01

    This report describes the burns caused by an electric hot plate which is used by orthodox Jews for keeping food and liquids warm during the Sabbath (Saturday). An illustrative case is presented and the preventable aspects of this particular burn are discussed.

  5. Burn injuries following explosion of car heaters.

    PubMed

    Alonso, D; Valero-Gasalla, J; Arnaiz, M; Martelo, F

    1998-09-01

    We report four cases of burn injuries inflicted by hot coolant after the explosion of the heating unit in four motor-vehicles of the same make and version, in similar circumstances while the patients were driving their cars. Burns of this type can cause considerable morbidity with an accompanying high risk of a traffic accident. PMID:9776101

  6. Development of Marjolin's ulcer within one month of burn injury with synchronous primary lung squamous cell carcinoma in an elderly patient: report of a case with allelotyping.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, Adam N; Griesser, Michael J; Scharschmidt, Thomas; Iwenofu, O Hans

    2011-12-01

    Marjolin's ulcer defines the occurrence of malignancy, usually squamous cell carcinoma, in the setting of a post-traumatic scar often following thermal injury. The latency period from the time of injury to the onset of malignant transformation averages 30 years with the earliest documented incidence occurring 6 weeks after injury. In addition, the occurrence of multiple primary malignancies is a rare event. To our knowledge, we report the first case in the literature of a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma developing within 1 month of thermal injury to an elderly patient's right index finger with an incidental synchronous primary lung moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma that was morphologically and genetically different as confirmed by allelotyping. There is scant precedent literature on acute Marjolin's ulcers, and the most acute cases have arisen 6 weeks post-burn. There is also little published literature on the incidence of multiple primary malignancies. The quoted incidence of this event is <1%. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of malignant transformation at the site of prior thermal injury. Biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosis for Marjolin's ulcer. MRI is the most important diagnostic imaging tool because it will demonstrate the margins and extent of the lesion. Due to the aggressive nature of Marjolin's ulcer, treatment is usually surgical and dependent upon grading. When multiple lesions are detected after staging of a presumed neoplasm, the possibility of multiple primary maligancies should be considered. Allelotyping is a process that can be utilized to determine if multiple masses are related.

  7. Management of acid burns: experience from Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Das, Kishore Kumar; Olga, Loren; Peck, Michael; Morselli, Paolo G; Salek, A J M

    2015-05-01

    Acid burn injuries in Bangladesh primarily occur as a result of intentional attacks although there are incidences of accidental acid burns in industry, on the street, and at home. A total of 126 patients with acid burns, 95 from attacks and 31 from accidents, were studied from July 2004 to December 2012. A diagnosis of acid burn was made from history, physical examination and in some cases from chemical analysis of the patients' clothing. Alkali burns were excluded from the study. In the burn unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital, we applied a slightly different protocol for management of acid burns, beginning with plain water irrigation of the wound, which effectively reduced burn depth and the requirement of surgical treatment. Application of hydrocolloid dressing for 48-72 h helped with the assessment of depth and the course of treatment. Early excision and grafting gives good results but resultant acid trickling creates a marble cake-like appearance of the wound separated by the vital skin. Excision with a scalpel and direct stitching of the wounds are often a good option. Observation of patients on follow-up revealed that wounds showed a tendency for hypertrophy. Application of pressure garments and other scar treatments were given in all cases unless the burn was highly superficial.

  8. Management of acid burns: experience from Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Das, Kishore Kumar; Olga, Loren; Peck, Michael; Morselli, Paolo G; Salek, A J M

    2015-05-01

    Acid burn injuries in Bangladesh primarily occur as a result of intentional attacks although there are incidences of accidental acid burns in industry, on the street, and at home. A total of 126 patients with acid burns, 95 from attacks and 31 from accidents, were studied from July 2004 to December 2012. A diagnosis of acid burn was made from history, physical examination and in some cases from chemical analysis of the patients' clothing. Alkali burns were excluded from the study. In the burn unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital, we applied a slightly different protocol for management of acid burns, beginning with plain water irrigation of the wound, which effectively reduced burn depth and the requirement of surgical treatment. Application of hydrocolloid dressing for 48-72 h helped with the assessment of depth and the course of treatment. Early excision and grafting gives good results but resultant acid trickling creates a marble cake-like appearance of the wound separated by the vital skin. Excision with a scalpel and direct stitching of the wounds are often a good option. Observation of patients on follow-up revealed that wounds showed a tendency for hypertrophy. Application of pressure garments and other scar treatments were given in all cases unless the burn was highly superficial. PMID:25440856

  9. Propolis and amnion reepithelialise second-degree burns in rats.

    PubMed

    Pessolato, Alicia Greyce Turatti; Martins, Daniele dos Santos; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo; Mançanares, Celina Almeida Furlanetto; de Carvalho, Ana Flávia

    2011-11-01

    Burns are serious consequences of trauma in terms of both imminent mortality and prolonged periods of morbidity. They are often accompanied by unsatisfactory cosmetic as well as functional and psychological outcomes. These complications emphasise the need for stronger efforts in achieving greater diversity and effectiveness in the treatment of skin burns. This study aimed to verify the effectiveness of gross and microscopic epidermal and dermal responses in the process of regenerative repair or healing of burns in rats that were treated either daily with 5% propolis ointment or by autologous amnion graft. Second-degree burns were inflicted in the neck region of female rats by contact with a hot metal (at 130 °C) for 5 s. Propolis treatment accelerated the process of tissue repair and led to decreased local inflammation, which indicates that treatment with propolis was successful in the initial period (7 days) and stimulated the production of collagen fibre (assessed by morphometry) in all the periods evaluated (14 and 21 days). Amnion treatment inhibited local inflammation (assessed macroscopically), stimulated local epithelial regeneration (assessed microscopically) and stimulated the production of collagen fibre (assessed by morphometry) in the days following burn. These treatments offer new therapeutic strategies for treating severe skin burns; these strategies may allow the minimisation of scar formation, a more rapid return of function and, ultimately, a better quality of life for burn patients.

  10. Clinical forensic evidence in burns: rescuer burns.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pramod; Gopal, Kirun; Ramnani, Sunil

    2006-12-01

    In the literature no systematic study is available on rescuer burn for victims of burn injury. This is a retrospective study of nine patients (five admitted and four outpatients) were treated in this hospital as rescuer burns in 3.5 years. All nine patients were males. Average age of the patient treated on outpatient basis was 47 years (ranging between 44 and 52) and total burn area ranged for 1-4%. Average age of the five patients treated on inpatient basis was 32.6 years (ranging between 30 and 34). The total burn area ranged from 14.5 to 38%. During the period of study, in addition to nine rescuer burns, one patient sustained burn before the rescue attempt due to the victim hugging the rescuer. Based on the study of patterns of burn, these patients were found to have three grades of burn injury: Grade 1--upper extremity involvement only. (A) only one upper extremity involvement, (B) both upper extremities involvement, Grade 2--upper extremity/extremities and face involvement, Grade 3--upper extremity/extremities, face-neck, adjacent chest and lower extremity involvement. PMID:17011132

  11. Tangential excision of scalp burns: experience from the Bradford fire disaster.

    PubMed

    Dickson, W A; Sharpe, D T; Roberts, A H

    1988-04-01

    Tangential excision of deep dermal scalp burns does not appear to be widely practised. During the Bradford Football fire victims sustained mixed depth scalp burns. These were mainly as a result of radiant heat, although falling molten bitumen was the cause of injury in a few patients. Deep dermal or full thickness burns of the scalp were tangentially excised and skin grafted. One patient did not have a graft applied after tangential excision. The early results of graft take were satisfactory. Subsequently, however, 56 per cent required further grafting; the reasons for this are discussed. Ten months after the incident there is no difference in appearance between areas of primary grafting and areas of secondary healing.

  12. [A Case of a Severely Burned Patient with Suspected Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Who Underwent Immediate Excision and Skin Grafting under General Anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Mika; Oota, Takako; Kato, Takeshi; Imanishi, Toshihiro

    2015-04-01

    An 88-year-old woman was severely burned on her thigh, leg, arm, buttocks, chest and abdomen in the bathroom and was emergently admitted to our hospital. The burn index was 10.8 and the prognostic burn index (PBI) was 99. The reports of echocardiography, cardiac biomarkers and electrocardiogram showed left ventricular dysfunction with apical akinesis, which was suspected as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. To avoid poor prognosis because of severe PBI, immediate excision and skin grafting were performed under general anesthesia 23 hours after the burn onset. More infusion and transfusion than the expected amounts were needed during anesthesia and the postoperative 4 days because of cardiac failure and septic shock, which were overcome 14 days after the surgery. The complete early excision was impossible due to cardiac failure, and that the unexcised burn scar exacerbated infection and prevented her from survival. PMID:26419106

  13. Prevention-oriented epidemiology of burns in Ardabil provincial burn centre, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi Bazargani, H; Arshi, S; Ekman, R; Mohammadi, R

    2011-05-01

    In preventing burns, it is essential to know how they occur and which population groups, environments and heating appliances can be targeted for prevention work. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of burns leading to hospitalisation in the northwest of Iran with a focus on the pre-event phase of injury. Between 2007 and 2008, 237 burn victims hospitalised in Ardabil provincial burn centre were enrolled into a descriptive study. A questionnaire was filled in during hospital stay for all patients, with a focus on obtaining information necessary for prevention purposes. Males constituted 56% of victims. Mean age was 22 years. The most severe burns occurred between the ages of 18 and 32 years, and were mainly flame related. Both in case of flame and non-flame burns, women suffered more severe burns and mortality than men. However, with respect to non-flame burns of which most were scalds, the majority of the severe cases involved children under the age of 5 years. More than 80% of burns occurred at home. The kitchen was the main place of injury in 47% of cases, followed by living rooms in 28%. Nearly 45% of burns were scalds and 47% were flame burns. The main container was the samovar in 37%, followed by kettles in 32% and pots in 22%. The overturning of a container was the major mechanism of contact with hot liquids in 86%. Bumping into a container was the main scenario of a scald injury, constituting nearly 70% of the cases. The difference between flame and non-flame burns in the distribution of burns in extremities was not statistically significant, but head and neck burns were 3.7 times more likely to be caused by flame. The two most important injury patterns, more common among women, were getting burned while using a camping gas stove or while refilling the chamber of kerosene-burning appliances without first extinguishing them. Domestic burns among children and young women are a priority in injury-prevention programmes

  14. New experimental data on the human dermal absorption of Simazine and Carbendazim help to refine the assessment of human exposure.

    PubMed

    Bányiová, Katarína; Nečasová, Anežka; Kohoutek, Jiří; Justan, Ivan; Čupr, Pavel

    2016-02-01

    Due to their widespread usage, people are exposed to pesticides on a daily basis. Although these compounds may have adverse effects on their health, there is a gap in the data and the methodology needed to reliably quantify the risks of non-occupational human dermal exposure to pesticides. We used Franz cells and human skin in order to measure the dermal absorption kinetics (steady-state flux, lag time and permeability coefficient) of Carbendazim and Simazine. These parameters were then used to refine the dermal exposure model and a probabilistic simulation was used to quantify risks resulting from exposure to pesticide-polluted waters. The experimentally derived permeability coefficient was 0.0034 cm h(-1) for Carbendazim and 0.0047 cm h(-1) for Simazine. Two scenarios (varying exposure duration and concentration, i.e. environmentally relevant and maximum solubility) were used to quantify the human health risks (hazard quotients) for Carbendazim and Simazine. While no risks were determined in the case of either scenario, the permeability coefficient, which is concentration independent and donor, formulation, compound and membrane specific, may be used in other scenarios and exposure models to quantify more precisely the dermally absorbed dose during exposure to polluted water. To the best of our knowledge, the dermal absorption kinetics parameters defined here are being published for the first time. The usage of experimental permeability parameters in combination with probabilistic risk assessment thus provides a new tool for quantifying the risks of human dermal exposure to pesticides. PMID:26688251

  15. Fatality after a single dermal application of lindane lotion.

    PubMed

    Sudakin, Daniel L

    2007-01-01

    Lindane lotion, approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of scabies and lice, poses risks of serious adverse effects on the nervous system. In 2003, the FDA issued a public health advisory for lindane products, emphasizing the importance of compliance with labeling instructions. The author presents a case in which a fatal outcome followed a single dermal application of lindane. The product was not applied according to the labeling instructions, and the 66-year-old man rapidly developed hypoxemia, seizures, respiratory acidosis, and hypotension. The final diagnosis at autopsy was hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy from lindane. This case is consistent with other reports of severe neurological outcomes from pharmaceutical use of lindane. These factors suggest a need for the FDA to reassess whether the risks of lindane have been effectively communicated to healthcare providers.

  16. Fatal rhabdomyolysis in a flame burn patient.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, D; Hudson, D A

    1997-08-01

    Rhabdomyolysis due to flame burns is not well described. A case of fatal rhabdomyolysis in an epileptic patient who sustained 65 per cent body surface area, very deep, flame burns is described. It appears as if the sustained muscle compression from the restrictive, circumferential eschar was the major factor in the aetiology of the rhabdomyolysis. Despite aggressive fluid management, the patient died of acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome. We have subsequently identified three other cases of pigmenturia occurring following burns. It would seem as if rhabdomyolysis following extensive full thickness burns may be more common than previously suggested. Fluid requirements are in excess of those proposed by traditional protocols. Rhabdomyolysis in flame burn patients indicates a poor prognosis. PMID:9426917

  17. Microvessel networks [corrected] pre-formed in artificial clinical grade dermal substitutes in vitro using cells from haematopoietic tissues.

    PubMed

    Athanassopoulos, Athanassios; Tsaknakis, Grigorios; Newey, Sarah E; Harris, Adrian L; Kean, Jennifer; Tyler, Michael P; Watt, Suzanne M

    2012-08-01

    Forming a microcirculation is critical for vascularisation of artificial skin substitutes. One strategy to improve speed of grafting is to pre-form microvascular networks in the substitute before applying to a wound. For clinical application, this requires sufficient functional endothelial cell numbers. In vitro endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) derived cells were expanded from cord and adult blood donations and co-cultured with human dermal fibroblasts or bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells to form microvascular networks in the presence or absence of dermal substitutes which are in clinical use. The number of endothelial cells generated ranged from 1.03×10(9) to 2.18×10(11) from 10 adult blood donations and 1×10(12) to 1.76×10(13) from 6 cord blood units after 50 days in culture. Two adult donations failed to generate ECFCs. Both cord and adult blood cells formed 2D microvascular networks in vitro, although there was a significant difference in the functional capacity of adult and cord blood ECFCs. While co-culture of the latter within dermal substitutes Matriderm or Integra demonstrated the formation of 3D microvascular networks penetrating 100μm, enhanced expansion, while maintaining functional capacity, of adult blood cells is required for fully pre-vascularising the clinical grade acellular dermal substitutes used here prior to applying these to burns.

  18. A clinico-epidemiological study of rescuer burns.

    PubMed

    Basra, Baljeet Kumar; Suri, Manav P; Patil, Nilesh; Atha, Ravish; Patel, Natvar; Sachde, Jayesh P; Shaikh, M F

    2014-08-01

    Rescuer burn is a relatively newer terminology introduced to define the burns sustained by a person attempting to rescue a primary burn victim. Few studies have been published thus far on this peculiar type of burns. Due to the general neglect of the rescuer burns victim and discontinuation of treatment in most cases, once the primary victim dies, the rescuer often ends up in badly infected wounds and has a delayed return to work. A prospective study was conducted at the B J Medical College and Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad from January 2009 to December 2012 on the rescuer burns patients treated in its burns and plastic surgery department. 3074 patients of burns received treatment during the period of study. Of these, 48 patients gave the history of sustaining burns while trying to rescue a burns victim. Male to female ratio of rescuers was approximately 7:1. It was significantly higher as compared to the ratio of 1:0.8 of females to male burn victims observed at our centre (p≤0.01). Average age of the rescuers was higher in males as compared to females but the difference was not significant (p≥0.05). Of the 45 cases of female primary burns victims, male rescuer was husband of the primary victim in 41/45 cases (91.1%), mother was rescuer in three cases (6.6% cases) and sister was rescuer in one case. Though multiple people came to rescue a burns victim, in all cases, it was seen that it was the first rescuer who sustained burns himself or herself. None of the rescuers had any knowledge of the techniques and precautions to be taken while performing a rescue operation irrespective of their education status, indirectly pointing to the lack of any teaching on burns rescue in the school education curriculum.

  19. A method for measuring dermal exposure to solvents and fumigants

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.S.M.

    1988-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a method for evaluating dermal exposure to deposits of volatile liquids. Telone II, a fumigant containing 1,3-dichloropropene (DCP), was used as an example. The approach included direct monitoring of dermal deposits and estimating the dermal absorbed dose. Charcoal cloth dermal dosimeters were developed for retaining the volatile deposits. Estimates are given for the retention efficiencies to be expected in various field conditions. The dermally absorbed dose is affected by the evaporation rate from the skin and by the percutaneous absorption rate (flux). Both factors were studied by the dermal dosing of ras with Telone, and monitoring evaporation and urine metabolites of cis-DCP. While relatively high flux values were calculated for rat and estimated for man, due to fast evaporation, the estimated absorbed fraction from a localized dermal deposit was less than 0.2%. Charcoal cloth dermal dosimeters and charcoal tubes were used in ten studies to monitor dermal and respiratory exposure of field applicators to Telone. The charcoal cloth dosimeter method is applicable for monitoring dermal exposure to other volatile chemicals also. However, evaluation of the exposure could be associated with relatively large variability, rendering the method semiquantitative.

  20. Vertical distribution of agriculture crop residue burning aerosol observed by space-borne lidar CALIOP - A case study over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, A. K.; Shibata, T.

    2011-12-01

    Agriculture crop residue burning is one of the important sources of trace gas emissions and aerosol loading over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB). It is also one of the main causes for dense atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) formation over South Asian region. Present study deals with spatial and vertical variability of aerosol optical and microphysical properties during the crop residue burning season (October and November) over the IGB. MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) fire location data and MODIS AOD data confirms the crop residue burning activities over irrigated cropland of the IGB during October and November, 2009. Large values (> 0.7) of MODIS AOD (aerosol optical depth) and CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) backscatter (>0.006 km-1 sr-1 below 1.0 km altitude) are suggesting enhanced atmospheric pollution associated with agriculture crop residue burning. The increase in tropospheric columnar NO2 and surface CO concentration during October and November also emphasized the significant contribution of crop residue burning activities in enhanced anthropogenic pollution over the IGB. Vertical distribution of backscatter coefficients showed trapping of biomass (crop residues) burning aerosol within boundary layer. Spatial variation of aerosol backscatter and AOD showed large value above north-west part of IGB, major area of crop residue burning activities. The results of this study will be very useful in quantification of optical properties of atmospheric brown clouds and its effect on climate.

  1. The importance of illumination in a non-contact photoplethysmography imaging system for burn wound assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Weirong; Mohan, Rachit; Li, Weizhi; Zhang, Xu; Sellke, Eric W.; Fan, Wensheng; DiMaio, J. Michael; Thatcher, Jeffery E.

    2015-02-01

    We present a non-contact, reflective photoplethysmogram (PPG) imaging method and a prototype system for identifying the presence of dermal burn wounds during a burn debridement surgery. This system aims to provide assistance to clinicians and surgeons in the process of dermal wound management and wound triage decisions. We examined the system variables of illumination uniformity and intensity and present our findings. An LED array, a tungsten light source, and eventually high-power LED emitters were studied as illumination methods for our PPG imaging device. These three different illumination sources were tested in a controlled tissue phantom model and an animal burn model. We found that the low heat and even illumination pattern using high power LED emitters provided a substantial improvement to the collected PPG signal in our animal burn model. These improvements allow the PPG signal from different pixels to be comparable in both time-domain and frequency-domain, simplify the illumination subsystem complexity, and remove the necessity of using high dynamic range cameras. Through the burn model output comparison, such as the blood volume in animal burn data and controlled tissue phantom model, our optical improvements have led to more clinically applicable images to aid in burn assessment.

  2. Burning Rate Emulator

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Burning Rate Emulator is a gas fuel investigation attempting to emulate the burning of solids to improve our understanding of materials''flammability over a wide range of conditions. The approa...

  3. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... You can get burned by heat, fire, radiation, sunlight, electricity, chemicals or hot or boiling water. There ... skin. The burned area will be sensitive to sunlight for up to one year, so you should ...

  4. Burns and Fire Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... common among older children. 5 6 7 8 • Tap water burns most often occur in the bathroom and ... Feldman KW, Schaller RT, Feldman JA, McMillon M. Tap water scald burns in children. Pediatrics. 1978; 62(1): ...

  5. American Burn Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Activities Educational Resources Prevention Posters Awards FAQs Burn Awareness Week About IAC Accomplishments IAC Members IAC ... About Verification Verification Step by Step ACS Resources Burn Chapter Verification Criteria - Effective 1/1/2017 New! ...

  6. Dermal mass aspirate from a Persian cat.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Feldman, Bernard; Robertson, John; Herring, Erin S; Manning, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    A 1-year-old spayed female Persian cat with alopecia and weight loss had numerous variably ulcerated dermal nodules. Cytologic examination of an aspirate of one of the nodules revealed pyogranulomatous inflammation along with septate hyphae and basophilic round bodies, 0.5-1.0 microm in diameter, surrounded by a thin clear halo (arthrospores). The cytologic diagnosis was dermatophytic pseudomycetoma. Histologically, there were dermal granulomas containing poorly staining, septate hyphae with bulbous spores embedded within abundant amorphous eosinophilic material (Splendore-Hoeppli reaction), and the histologic diagnosis was pseudomycetoma-associated chronic multifocal severe granulomatous dermatitis with lymphocytic perifolliculitis and furunculosis. Microsporum canis was cultured from the lesion. Pseudomycetomas are distinguished from fungal mycetomas, or eumycotic mycetomas, by the findings of multiple lesions, lack of a history of skin trauma, an association with dermatophytes, most commonly Microsporum canis, and, histologically, lack of true cement material and a more abundant Splendore-Hoeppli reaction in pseudomycetomas. Additionally, pseudomycetomas differ from dermatophytosis, in which lesions are restricted to epidermal structures. Persian cats have a high incidence of pseudomycetoma formation, suggesting a heritable predisposition. The prognosis is fair with systemic antifungal therapy. When examining cytologic specimens from Persian cats with single or multiple dermal nodules, especially if pyogranulomatous inflammation is present, a diagnosis of pseudomycetoma should be suspected and is warranted if arthrospores and refractile septate hyphae are present.

  7. Conceptual model for assessment of dermal exposure

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, T.; Vermeulen, R.; Brouwer, D. H.; Cherrie, J. W.; Kromhout, H.; Fogh, C. L.

    1999-01-01

    Dermal exposure, primarily to pesticides, has been measured for almost half a century. Compared with exposure by inhalation, limited progress has been made towards standardisation of methods of measurement and development of biologically relevant exposure measures. It is suggested that the absence of a consistent terminology and a theoretical model has been an important cause of this lack of progress. Therefore, a consistent terminology based on a multicompartment model for assessment of dermal exposure is proposed that describes the transport of contaminant mass from the source of the hazardous substance to the surface of the skin. Six compartments and two barriers together with eight mass transport processes are described. With the model structure, examples are given of what some existing methods actually measure and where there are limited, or no, methods for measuring the relevant mass in a compartment or transport of mass. The importance of measuring the concentration of contaminant and not mass per area in the skin contaminant layer is stressed, as it is the concentration difference between the skin contamination layer and the perfused tissue that drives uptake. Methods for measuring uptake are currently not available. Measurement of mass, concentration, and the transport processes must be based on a theoretical model. Standardisation of methods of measurement of dermal exposure is strongly recommended.   PMID:10658563

  8. Congenital cystic eye with multiple dermal appendages and intracranial congenital anomalies.

    PubMed

    Tsitouridis, Ioannis; Michaelides, Michael; Tsantiridis, Christos; Spyridi, Styliani; Arvanity, Mary; Efstratiou, Ioannis

    2010-06-01

    Congenital cystic eye (anophthalmia with cyst) is an extremely rare anomaly discovered at birth with few reported cases in the literature, resulting from partial or complete failure during invagination of the primary optic vesicle during fetal development. Herein we present the radiographic, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging findings of a unique case of congenital cystic eye associated with dermal appendages and advanced intracranial congenital anomalies in a 3-month-old boy.

  9. Pediatric Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Tina L

    2016-10-01

    Children have unique physiologic, physical, psychological, and social needs compared with adults. Although adhering to the basic tenets of burn resuscitation, resuscitation of the burned child should be modified based on the child's age, physiology, and response to injury. This article outlines the unique characteristics of burned children and describes the fundamental principles of pediatric burn resuscitation in terms of airway, circulatory, neurologic, and cutaneous injury management. PMID:27600126

  10. Evaluation of electric arc furnace-processed steel slag for dermal corrosion, irritation, and sensitization from dermal contact.

    PubMed

    Suh, Mina; Troese, Matthew J; Hall, Debra A; Yasso, Blair; Yzenas, John J; Proctor, Debora M

    2014-12-01

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag is alkaline (pH of ~11-12) and contains metals, most notably chromium and nickel, and thus has potential to cause dermal irritation and sensitization at sufficient dose. Dermal contact with EAF slag occurs in many occupational and environmental settings because it is used widely in construction and other industrial sectors for various applications including asphaltic paving, road bases, construction fill, and as feed for cement kilns construction. However, no published study has characterized the potential for dermal effects associated with EAF slag. To assess dermal irritation, corrosion and sensitizing potential of EAF slag, in vitro and in vivo dermal toxicity assays were conducted based on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. In vitro dermal corrosion and irritation testing (OECD 431 and 439) of EAF slag was conducted using the reconstructed human epidermal (RHE) tissue model. In vivo dermal toxicity and delayed contact sensitization testing (OECD 404 and 406) were conducted in rabbits and guinea pigs, respectively. EAF slag was not corrosive and not irritating in any tests. The results of the delayed contact dermal sensitization test indicate that EAF slag is not a dermal sensitizer. These findings are supported by the observation that metals in EAF slag occur as oxides of low solubility with leachates that are well below toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) limits. Based on these results and in accordance to the OECD guidelines, EAF slag is not considered a dermal sensitizer, corrosive or irritant.

  11. Learn Not To Burn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Nancy; Hendricks, Charlotte M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the "Learn Not to Burn Preschool Program," a low-cost fire safety awareness and burn prevention curriculum for young children. The program promotes eight burn prevention methods--including practicing an escape plan--using developmentally appropriate learning objectives to increase children's fire safety knowledge, skill, and…

  12. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  13. Chemical burn or reaction

    MedlinePlus

    Burn from chemicals ... in contact with the toxic substance Rash , blisters , burns on the skin Unconsciousness or other states of ... Make sure the cause of the burn has been removed. Try not to come ... yourself. If the chemical is dry, brush off any excess. Avoid ...

  14. [Integration of burn treatment and rehabilitation for a child with extremely severe burn].

    PubMed

    Li, Hongming; Zhang, Jiaping; Chen, Jian; Song, Huapei; Liu, Qiushi; Fan, Xin; Peng, Yizhi; Wu, Jun

    2015-04-01

    This article reports the successful experience of integration of burn treatment and rehabilitation for a child suffering from 91% TBSA flame burn injury (with 60% TBSA full-thickness injury, 30% TBSA deep partial-thickness injury, and 1% TBSA superficial partial-thickness injury), severe inhalation injury, severe burn shock, stress ulcer, gastrointestinal bleeding and atelectasis of the right upper lung. The patient was given effective fluid infusion against shock, treatment for gastrointestinal bleeding, and other effective supportive treatment for functions of various organs after being admitted to our burn ward. When vital signs became stable at 30 hours post injury, bedside rehabilitation was begun. On post injury day (PID) 4, escharectomy was performed for both lower limbs, followed by microskin grafting and allogeneic skin covering. On PID 10, invasive infection of multi-drug resistant bacteria was found with accompanied high fever, and at the same time allograft began to disintegrate, with dissolution of large area of eschar, leading to a raw surface reaching 86% TBSA. Following debridement, dressing, application of compound polymyxin B ointment, temporary covering of wounds with porcine acellular dermal matrix, adjustment of antibiotics, patient's condition was finally stabilized. From PID 28 on, split-thickness skin grafting was conducted 7 times, and the raw surface of 75% TBSA involving the upper and lower limbs and trunk was successfully covered. At the same time, our rehabilitation team launched comprehensive rehabilitation measures comprising active exercise, occupational therapy, prevention of scar formation, organ function training and psychological intervention. Finally, the patient was able to walk unaided and fed herself when the wounds were almost entirely healed in 3 months after injury. Oriented forwards functional rehabilitation, strong cooperation between team members, and synchronous effective implementation of burn treatment and

  15. Evaluation of potential dermal exposure of pesticide spray operators in greenhouses by use of visible tracers.

    PubMed

    Machera, Kyriaki; Kapetanakis, Evangelos; Charistou, Agathi; Goumenaki, Eleni; Glass, Richard Christer

    2002-03-01

    In the present study, the potential dermal and inhalation exposure of the operator was measured, following simulation of insecticide application with the dye tracer Sunset Yellow in greenhouse cucumbers and tomatoes. For the monitoring of operator exposure, the whole body technique was used. The potential inhalation exposure was measured with a personal air sampler equipped with a glass fiber filter. The potential dermal operator exposure ranged from 84.4 to 526.7 ml of spray solution (s.s.)/h for the whole body and from 18.5 to 62.5 ml s.s./h for hands in the case of greenhouse cucumbers. The respective inhalation exposure was between 0.17 and 1.0 ml s.s./h. For greenhouse tomatoes, the potential body exposure was in the range of 22.4 to 62.1 ml s.s./h. The hand exposure varied from 5.5 to 6.1 ml s.s./h. The potential inhalation exposure was in the range of 0.33 to 0.43 ml s.s./h. The potential dermal operator exposure is a highly variable parameter, with a variation factor higher than 100% in many cases. One of the most critical factors for the determination of both potential dermal and inhalation exposure is the application pressure. Other field and operational conditions, including unpredictable factors, are also important for the determination of operator exposure levels. The measured potential dermal operator exposure values were above the levels of exposure estimated with mathematical models. PMID:11990365

  16. Primary cutaneous dermal mucinosis on herpes zoster scars.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Diana; Feltes, Federico; Machán, Salma; Pielasinski, Úrsula; Fariña, María C; Gavin, Eduardo; Requena, Luis

    2016-07-01

    The term isotopic response refers to the appearance of a new skin disease at the site of another unrelated and already healed skin disorder. Often, the first disease is herpes zoster (HZ). Several cutaneous reactions have been described in a dermatome recently affected by HZ. We present the case of a 33-year-old man who developed whitish papules with a zosteriform distribution on HZ scars. Histopathologic study with hematoxylin and eosin and Alcian blue (pH 2.5) staining demonstrated abundant deposits of mucin interstitially arranged between collagen bundles of the papillary dermis. Cutaneous dermal mucinosis as a postherpetic isotopic response is rare, but it should be added to the list of cutaneous reactions arising in HZ scars. PMID:27529717

  17. Nanoemulsion Therapy for Burn Wounds Is Effective as a Topical Antimicrobial Against Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dolgachev, Vladislav A; Ciotti, Susan M; Eisma, Rone; Gracon, Stephen; Wilkinson, J Erby; Baker, James R; Hemmila, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of two different nanoemulsion (NE) formulations against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in an in vivo rodent scald burn model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and received a partial-thickness scald burn. Eight hours after burn injury, the wound was inoculated with 1 × 10(8) colony-forming units of Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus. Treatment groups consisted of two different NE formulations (NB-201 and NB-402), NE vehicle, or saline. Topical application of the treatment was performed at 16 and 24 hours after burn injury. Animals were killed 32 hours after burn injury, and skin samples were obtained for quantitative wound culture and determination of dermal inflammation markers. In a separate set of experiments, burn wound progression was measured histologically after 72 hours of treatment. Both NE formulations (NB-201 and NB-402) significantly reduced burn wound infections with either P. aeruginosa or S. aureus and decreased median bacterial counts at least three logs when compared with animals with saline applications (p < .0001). NB-201 and NB-402 also decreased dermal neutrophil recruitment and sequestration into the wound as measured by myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay and histopathology (p < .05). In addition, there was a decrease in the proinflammatory dermal cytokines (interleukin 1-beta [IL-1β], IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]) and the neutrophil chemoattractants CXCL1 and CXCL2. Using histologic examination, it was found that both NB-201 and NB-402 appeared to suppress burn wound progression 72 hours after injury. Topically applied NB-201 and NB-402 are effective in decreasing Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria growth in burn wounds, reducing inflammation, and abrogating burn wound progression.

  18. A COMPARATIVE INVESTIGATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF DERMAL APPENDAGES (HAIR FOLLICLES) ON THE PERCUTANEOUS ABSORPTION OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS (OP) INSECTICIDES USING QSAR AND PBPK/PD MODELS FOR HUMAN RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The successful use of the Exposure Related Dose Estimating Model (ERDEM) for assessment of dermal exposure of humans to OP pesticides requires the input of representative and comparable input parameters. In the specific case of dermal exposure, regional anatomical variation in...

  19. Pre-burn centre management of the airway in patients with face burns

    PubMed Central

    Costa Santos, D.; Barros, F.; Frazão, M.; Maia, M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Face burns expose patients to a higher respiratory risk, and early prophylactic intubation before they enter the burn unit might be life-saving. However, unnecessary intubation may compromise their clinical evolution. Hence, the decision to perform pre-burn centre endotracheal intubation remains a clinical challenge. A retrospective study was developed to characterize the experience of the tertiary burn unit of the Hospital da Prelada with face burn patients arriving endotracheally-intubated between January 2009 and September 2013. Specific goals included assessment of whether these intubations were clinically appropriate and if these procedures determined significant changes in clinical course and outcome. A total of 136 patients were admitted to our burn centre with facial burns. 38.2% (n=52) of them arrived endotracheally-intubated, with 75% (n=39) intubated at the scene of the burn injury and 25% (n=13) in the emergency room because of the suspicion of smoke inhalation injury. In only 23% of the cases (n=12) was the lesion confirmed by bronchoscopy. The overall mortality rate was 12.5% (n=17): 3.6% (n=3) were patients who had not been subjected to pre-burn centre intubation, and 27% (n=14) were in the group of patients arriving intubated. A face burn is a warning sign of a possible upper airway injury, and pre-burn centre prophylactic intubation might be life-saving. However, unnecessary intubation may impair clinical evolution. Therefore, it is imperative that updated practice guidelines for pre-burn centre airway management are adhered to, and that these guidelines are subject to revision in order to improve airway management in burn patients. PMID:27777546

  20. Evaluation of lymphangiogenesis in acellular dermal matrix

    PubMed Central

    Cherubino, Mario; Pellegatta, Igor; Tamborini, Federico; Cerati, Michele; Sessa, Fausto; Valdatta, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Much attention has been directed towards understanding the phenomena of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in wound healing. Thanks to the manifold dermal substitute available nowadays, wound treatment has improved greatly. Many studies have been published about angiogenesis and cell invasion in INTEGRA®. On the other hand, the development of the lymphatic network in acellular dermal matrix (ADM) is a more obscure matter. In this article, we aim to characterize the different phases of host cell invasion in ADM. Special attention was given to lymphangiogenic aspects. Materials and Methods: Among 57 rats selected to analyse the role of ADM in lymphangiogenesis, we created four groups. We performed an excision procedure on both thighs of these rats: On the left one we did not perform any action except repairing the borders of the wound; while on the right one we used INTEGRA® implant. The excision biopsy was performed at four different times: First group after 7 days, second after 14 days, third after 21 days and fourth after 28 days. For our microscopic evaluation, we used the classical staining technique of haematoxylin and eosin and a semi-quantitative method in order to evaluate cellularity counts. To assess angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis development we employed PROX-1 Ab and CD31/PECAM for immunohistochemical analysis. Results: We found remarkable wound contraction in defects that healed by secondary intention while minor wound contraction was observed in defects treated with ADM. At day 7, optical microscopy revealed a more plentiful cellularity in the granulation tissue compared with the dermal regeneration matrix. The immunohistochemical process highlighted vascular and lymphatic cells in both groups. After 14 days a high grade of fibrosis was noticeable in the non-treated group. At day 21, both lymphatic and vascular endothelial cells were better developed in the group with a dermal matrix application. At day 28, lymphatic endothelial

  1. Acellular dermal matrix in abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Ronald P

    2011-09-01

    Abdominal wall reconstruction is a complex and challenging surgical undertaking. While permanent prosthetic mesh is considered the gold standard for minimizing hernia recurrence, placement of synthetic mesh is sometimes imprudent due to contamination or risk of infection. Acellular dermal matrices (ADM) offer an exciting biologic alternative. This article provides a historical perspective on the evolution of complex ventral hernia repair leading up to and including the placement of ADM, an explanation of the biology of ADM as it relates to ventral hernia repair, and a description of the current indications, techniques, benefits, and shortcomings of its use in the abdominal wall.

  2. Repair of Postoperative Abdominal Hernia in a Child with Congenital Omphalocele Using Porcine Dermal Matrix.

    PubMed

    Lambropoulos, V; Mylona, E; Mouravas, V; Tsakalidis, C; Spyridakis, I; Mitsiakos, G; Karagianni, P

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Incisional hernias are a common complication appearing after abdominal wall defects reconstruction, with omphalocele and gastroschisis being the most common etiologies in children. Abdominal closure of these defects represents a real challenge for pediatric surgeons with many surgical techniques and various prosthetic materials being used for this purpose. Case Report. We present a case of repair of a postoperative ventral hernia occurring after congenital omphalocele reconstruction in a three-and-a-half-year-old child using an acellular, sterile, porcine dermal mesh. Conclusion. Non-cross-linked acellular porcine dermal matrix is an appropriate mesh used for the reconstruction of abdominal wall defects and their postoperative complications like large ventral hernias with success and preventing their recurrence. PMID:27110247

  3. Repair of Postoperative Abdominal Hernia in a Child with Congenital Omphalocele Using Porcine Dermal Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Mylona, E.; Tsakalidis, C.; Spyridakis, I.; Mitsiakos, G.; Karagianni, P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Incisional hernias are a common complication appearing after abdominal wall defects reconstruction, with omphalocele and gastroschisis being the most common etiologies in children. Abdominal closure of these defects represents a real challenge for pediatric surgeons with many surgical techniques and various prosthetic materials being used for this purpose. Case Report. We present a case of repair of a postoperative ventral hernia occurring after congenital omphalocele reconstruction in a three-and-a-half-year-old child using an acellular, sterile, porcine dermal mesh. Conclusion. Non-cross-linked acellular porcine dermal matrix is an appropriate mesh used for the reconstruction of abdominal wall defects and their postoperative complications like large ventral hernias with success and preventing their recurrence. PMID:27110247

  4. Pioneering technique using Acellular Dermal Matrix in the rescue of a radiation ulcer

    PubMed Central

    NASEEM, S.; PATEL, A.D.; DEVALIA, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy as an adjuvant to mastectomy is integral to the treatment of breast cancer, but can result in skin ulceration. Skin ulceration following radiotherapy is traditionally managed by removing the implant and allowing the skin to heal by secondary intention. Case report A 42-year-old woman underwent radiotherapy following a breast reconstruction. She developed a 2 x 3cm radiation ulcer. The ulcer was managed by removing the implant and performing capsulectomy. A Beckers 50 expander was placed and reinforced with acellular dermal matrix inferolaterally. At follow-up the patient had a good cosmetic outcome. Conclusion Post-radiation skin ulcers present a challenge to treat with no current standardised management. The use of acellular dermal matrix may present a new technique to promote healing in these testing cases. PMID:27142826

  5. Pediatric cutaneous bleach burns.

    PubMed

    Lang, Cathleen; Cox, Matthew

    2013-07-01

    Bleach is a common household product which can cause caustic injuries. Its effects on mucosal tissues and the eye have been well-described in the literature. However, there is little information published regarding the appearance and effect of bleach on a child's skin. We report three children who sustained chemical burns after contact with bleach. All three children sustained accidental bleach burns while at home, and each child had a distinct brown discoloration to the skin from the injury. All three children had treatment and follow-up for their burns. Two of the children sustained more severe burns, which were extensive and required more time to heal. There was also long-term scarring associated with the severe burns. Like most burns, pain control is required until the injury heals.

  6. Burns and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Berrocal, M

    1997-01-01

    This is a report of the first descriptive analytic study of a group of 183 burn patients, treated in the Burn Unit at the University Hospital of Cartagena, Colombia during the period since January 1985 until December 1990. There is presented experience with the selected group of 24 patients in whom the diagnosis of burn was associated with epilepsy. There is also analysed and described the gravity of the scars sequels, neurological disorders, the complication of the burn and an impact of this problem on the patient, his (her) family and the community. It is very important to report that there was found Neurocisticercosis in 66.6% of the group of burn patients with epilepsy, and it is probably the first risk factor of burn in this group.

  7. Pediatric cutaneous bleach burns.

    PubMed

    Lang, Cathleen; Cox, Matthew

    2013-07-01

    Bleach is a common household product which can cause caustic injuries. Its effects on mucosal tissues and the eye have been well-described in the literature. However, there is little information published regarding the appearance and effect of bleach on a child's skin. We report three children who sustained chemical burns after contact with bleach. All three children sustained accidental bleach burns while at home, and each child had a distinct brown discoloration to the skin from the injury. All three children had treatment and follow-up for their burns. Two of the children sustained more severe burns, which were extensive and required more time to heal. There was also long-term scarring associated with the severe burns. Like most burns, pain control is required until the injury heals. PMID:23545350

  8. Mesenchymal stem cells induce dermal fibroblast responses to injury

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Andria N.; Willis, Elise; Chan, Vincent T.; Muffley, Lara A.; Isik, F. Frank; Gibran, Nicole S.; Hocking, Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    Although bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to promote repair when applied to cutaneous wounds, the mechanism for this response remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of paracrine signaling from mesenchymal stem cells on dermal fibroblast responses to injury including proliferation, migration and expression of genes important in wound repair. Dermal fibroblasts were co-cultured with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells grown in inserts, which allowed for paracrine interactions without direct cell contact. In this co-culture model, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells regulate dermal fibroblast proliferation, migration and gene expression. When co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cells, dermal fibroblasts show increased proliferation and accelerated migration in a scratch assay. A chemotaxis assay also demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts migrate towards bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. A PCR array was used to analyze the effect of mesenchymal stem cells on dermal fibroblast gene expression. In response to mesenchymal stem cells, dermal fibroblasts up-regulate integrin alpha 7 expression and down-regulate expression of ICAM1, VCAM1 and MMP11. These observations suggest that mesenchymal stem cells may provide an important early signal for dermal fibroblast responses to cutaneous injury.

  9. Spectrum of PORCN mutations in Focal Dermal Hypoplasia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Focal Dermal Hypoplasia (FDH), also known as Goltz syndrome (OMIM 305600), is a genetic disorder that affects multiple organ systems early in development. Features of FDH include skin abnormalities, (hypoplasia, atrophy, linear pigmentation, and herniation of fat through dermal defects); papillomas...

  10. IN VITRO DERMAL ABSORPTION OF FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    The use of flame retardant chemicals in furniture fabric could pose a potential health risk to consumers from dermal absorption of these compounds. The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro dermal absorption of two flame retardant chemicals, [14C]-d...

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells induce dermal fibroblast responses to injury.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andria N; Willis, Elise; Chan, Vincent T; Muffley, Lara A; Isik, F Frank; Gibran, Nicole S; Hocking, Anne M

    2010-01-01

    Although bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to promote repair when applied to cutaneous wounds, the mechanism for this response remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of paracrine signaling from mesenchymal stem cells on dermal fibroblast responses to injury including proliferation, migration and expression of genes important in wound repair. Dermal fibroblasts were co-cultured with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells grown in inserts, which allowed for paracrine interactions without direct cell contact. In this co-culture model, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells regulate dermal fibroblast proliferation, migration and gene expression. When co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cells, dermal fibroblasts show increased proliferation and accelerated migration in a scratch assay. A chemotaxis assay also demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts migrate towards bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. A PCR array was used to analyze the effect of mesenchymal stem cells on dermal fibroblast gene expression. In response to mesenchymal stem cells, dermal fibroblasts up-regulate integrin alpha 7 expression and down-regulate expression of ICAM1, VCAM1 and MMP11. These observations suggest that mesenchymal stem cells may provide an important early signal for dermal fibroblast responses to cutaneous injury.

  12. Spontaneous dermal abscesses and ulcers as a result of Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Friedman, N Deborah; Peterson, Neeraja B; Sumner, William T; Alexander, Barbara D

    2003-08-01

    Serratia sp have only rarely been reported as isolates from leg ulcers. We describe the case of a middle-aged man with a medical history significant for alcohol-induced cirrhosis who presented with rapidly progressive skin ulcers initially starting as purple nodules. These skin ulcers and underlying dermal abscesses were found to be a result of S marcescens, with the presumed portal of entry being a toe-web infection.

  13. A case series of thermal scald injuries in dogs exposed to hot water from garden hoses (garden hose scalding syndrome).

    PubMed

    Quist, Erin M; Tanabe, Mika; Mansell, Joanne E K L; Edwards, Jeffrey L

    2012-04-01

    In this report, we present a series of cases of thermal burns (scalds) in dogs resulting from exposure to hot water from a garden hose that had been lying in the sun. These dogs typically inhabited the southern and western regions of the USA, where the recorded high temperatures often exceed 32°C (90°F) during the warm summer months. Dogs with thermal scald injury in these cases presented with linear thermal burns along the dorsum, in addition to a variety of other macroscopic lesions that were dependent upon the degree of burn exposure and ranged from local erythema to ulcerated, necrotic and sloughing skin. Chronic, healed wounds were often alopecic, with markedly thickened skin and characteristically smooth and glassy scar tissue formation. Histologically, the lesions of thermal scald injury in these dogs were indistinguishable from any other second or third degree burn, and consisted of full-thickness dermal and epidermal necrosis with occasional fibrinoid necrosis of vessel walls, vasculitis and intravascular thrombosis. Here, we closely examine 10 cases of dogs with dorsal thermal burns collected from Texas, Arizona, California, Utah, Nevada, Indiana, Michigan and North Carolina and propose the term 'garden hose scalding syndrome (GHS)' to describe this unique type of scald injury.

  14. Clinical Performance of a Dermal Filler Containing Natural Glycolic Acid and a Polylactic Acid Polymer

    PubMed Central

    Macchetto, Pedro Cervantes; Durán Páramo, Rosa Margarita

    2010-01-01

    Lipoatrophy is a condition that affects certain individuals, most commonly those who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.1–3 Injectable fillers are used for the treatment of these dermal contour deformities to smooth dermal depressions formed by the loss of volume. These dermal fillers (also known as soft tissue augmentation devices) can correct contour deformities caused by lipoatrophy in patients who are human immunodeficiency virus positive or negative. The product used in this study is a patented, second-generation, injectable, dermal collagen stimulator that combines glycolic acid and polylactic acid. The glycolic acid used is not a polymer, but rather an acid derived from sugar cane. Its chemical structure corresponds to that of an alpha-hydroxy acid. Glycolic acid is a well-characterized agent that is present in a number of cosmetic products. Polylactic acid is a synthetic, biocompatible, biodegradable, inert, synthetic polymer from the poly a-hydroxy-acid family that is believed to stimulate fibroblasts to produce more collagen, thus increasing facial volume. Together, polylactic acid and glycolic acid act in concert to 1) stimulate collagen production and 2) hydrate the outer layers of the skin. A multicenter, clinical investigation authorized by the Mexican Secretariat of Health was conducted between September 20, 2002, and September 19, 2004. This clinical study was conducted in male patients between 32 and 60 years of age with lipoatrophy as a result of highly active antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus infection. The study objective was to measure the improvement of contour deformities after the injection of a dermal collagen stimulator containing glycolic acid and polylactic acid. In addition to safety, this dermal filler was assessed when used to correct volume deformities caused by lipoatrophy in subjects who are human immunodeficiency virus positive. Thirty male subjects participated and were treated as follows

  15. 'Therapeutic' burns (Maqua).

    PubMed

    Baruchin, A M

    1984-12-01

    Cauterization of the skin by a red-hot iron, a pinch of hot cinder or a burning coal, is a form of 'treatment' used by lay healers in some parts of Africa and the Middle East. The burns are limited to small circular areas, and are usually full-thickness skin loss. Most frequently, the patients do not seek medical treatment and the burns heal by secondary intention. Sometimes, however, disastrous complications such as infectious osteomyelitis, septicaemia and death may occur.

  16. Lipid nanoparticles for dermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Kakadia, Pratibha G; Conway, Barbara R

    2015-01-01

    Lipid based drug delivery systems have been widely studied and reported over the past decade and offer a useful alternative to other colloidal drug delivery systems. Skin is a popular route of drug delivery for locally and systemically acting drugs and nanoparticles are reported as a potential formulation strategy for dermal delivery. Although the skin acts as a natural physical barrier against penetration of foreign materials, including particulates, opportunities exist for the delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles, especially in diseased and damaged skin and via appendageal routes such as the openings of hair follicles. The extent and ability of nanoparticles to penetrate into the underlying viable tissue is still the subject of debate although recent studies have identified the follicular route as the most likely route of entry; this influences the potential applications of these dosage forms as a drug delivery strategy. This paper reviews present state of art of lipid-based nanocarriers focussing on solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers and nanoemulsions, their production methods, potential advantages and applications in dermal drug delivery. PMID:25925115

  17. Severe burn on 81% of body surface after sun tanning.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Marcos; Andjelkov, Katarina; Zaccheddu, Renato

    2013-07-01

    We report herein the case of a 42-year-old woman who presented to the Burns Unit with 81% of her body surface severely burned following sun bathing, after applying fig leaf tea as a tanning agent. The patient was hospitalized for 13 days in a Burns Intensive Care Unit, and was discharged for an ambulatory follow-up. The treatment of such burns does not differ from any conventional treatment for heat- induced second-degree burns. The physiopathology of the phytophotodermatitis induced by such homemade tanning solutions rich in psoralen is discussed in detail.

  18. Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Church, Deirdre; Elsayed, Sameer; Reid, Owen; Winston, Brent; Lindsay, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Burns are one of the most common and devastating forms of trauma. Patients with serious thermal injury require immediate specialized care in order to minimize morbidity and mortality. Significant thermal injuries induce a state of immunosuppression that predisposes burn patients to infectious complications. A current summary of the classifications of burn wound infections, including their diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, is given. Early excision of the eschar has substantially decreased the incidence of invasive burn wound infection and secondary sepsis, but most deaths in severely burn-injured patients are still due to burn wound sepsis or complications due to inhalation injury. Burn patients are also at risk for developing sepsis secondary to pneumonia, catheter-related infections, and suppurative thrombophlebitis. The introduction of silver-impregnated devices (e.g., central lines and Foley urinary catheters) may reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections due to prolonged placement of these devices. Improved outcomes for severely burned patients have been attributed to medical advances in fluid resuscitation, nutritional support, pulmonary and burn wound care, and infection control practices. PMID:16614255

  19. Pediatric facial burns.

    PubMed

    Kung, Theodore A; Gosain, Arun K

    2008-07-01

    Despite major advances in the area of burn management, burn injury continues to be a leading cause of pediatric mortality and morbidity. Facial burns in particular are devastating to the affected child and result in numerous physical and psychosocial sequelae. Although many of the principles of adult burn management can be applied to a pediatric patient with facial burns, the surgeon must be cognizant of several important differences. Facial burns and subsequent scar formation can drastically affect the growth potential of a child's face. Structures such as the nose and teeth may become deformed due to abnormal external forces caused by contractures. Serious complications such as occlusion amblyopia and microstomia must be anticipated and urgently addressed to avert permanent consequences, whereas other reconstructive procedures can be delayed until scar maturation occurs. Furthermore, because young children are actively developing the concept of self, severe facial burns can alter a child's sense of identity and place the child at high risk for future emotional and psychologic disturbances. Surgical reconstruction of burn wounds should proceed only after thorough planning and may involve a variety of skin graft, flap, and tissue expansion techniques. The most favorable outcome is achieved when facial resurfacing is performed with respect to the aesthetic units of the face. Children with facial burns remain a considerable challenge to their caregivers, and these patients require long-term care by a multidisciplinary team of physicians and therapists to optimize functional, cosmetic, and psychosocial outcomes. PMID:18650717

  20. The combination of inferior pedicle method and dermal suspension sling technique: one new efficient method for breast reduction

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hao; Wang, Benzhong; Gu, Yufang; Zhao, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore a method of breast reduction which ensures well nipple and areola lactation function, adequate blood supply and good medial fullness and projection. At the same time, this study could evaluate the advantages of the combination of inferior pedicle method and dermal suspension sling technique for breast reduction. Methods: From 2011.11 to 2013.8, 13 women have undergone breast reduction using utilizing inferior pedicle combined with the dermal suspension sling technique. The inferior pedicle was designed with medial and lateral triangular flaps in the areas where normally be excised. These triangular flaps were deepithelialized and defatted. The flaps were attached to the chest wall above the inferior pedicle to create a dermal “cage”. Results: After operation, Sensation of nipple and areola complex, breast projection and shape were sustained during follow-up, of which the median interval was 12 months. No patient had poor projection and bottoming out. Conclusion: Dermal suspension and horizontal dermal placation provides a structural foundation to the inferior pedicle. It is an effective method of treatment for breast reduction, in that the sensation and lactation function of nipple and areola complex get further guaranteed, have nice breast projection and shape, and can be applied to all cases of breast reduction. PMID:26131293

  1. Application of physiologically-based toxicokinetic modelling in oral-to-dermal extrapolation of threshold doses of cosmetic ingredients.

    PubMed

    Gajewska, M; Worth, A; Urani, C; Briesen, H; Schramm, K-W

    2014-06-16

    The application of physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) modelling in route-to-route (RtR) extrapolation of three cosmetic ingredients: coumarin, hydroquinone and caffeine is shown in this study. In particular, the oral no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) doses of these chemicals are extrapolated to their corresponding dermal values by comparing the internal concentrations resulting from oral and dermal exposure scenarios. The PBTK model structure has been constructed to give a good simulation performance of biochemical processes within the human body. The model parameters are calibrated based on oral and dermal experimental data for the Caucasian population available in the literature. Particular attention is given to modelling the absorption stage (skin and gastrointestinal tract) in the form of several sub-compartments. This gives better model prediction results when compared to those of a PBTK model with a simpler structure of the absorption barrier. In addition, the role of quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPRs) in predicting skin penetration is evaluated for the three substances with a view to incorporating QSPR-predicted penetration parameters in the PBTK model when experimental values are lacking. Finally, PBTK modelling is used, first to extrapolate oral NOAEL doses derived from rat studies to humans, and then to simulate internal systemic/liver concentrations - Area Under Curve (AUC) and peak concentration - resulting from specified dermal and oral exposure conditions. Based on these simulations, AUC-based dermal thresholds for the three case study compounds are derived and compared with the experimentally obtained oral threshold (NOAEL) values.

  2. Ritual burns--the Buddhist tradition.

    PubMed

    Budny, P G; Regan, P J; Riley, P; Roberts, A H

    1991-08-01

    The mystical significance of fire is common to many cultures and religions. For the Buddhist community acts of self-mutilation by burning reflect a tradition for which the direct precedent is set in the ancient scriptures of the Lotus Sutra. Burns are produced by contact with incense and treated with oil and vegetable dressings. Two cases are presented and discussed with reference to early Buddhist beliefs.

  3. Topical Nanoemulsion Therapy Reduces Bacterial Wound Infection and Inflammation Following Burn Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hemmila, Mark R.; Mattar, Aladdein; Taddonio, Michael A.; Arbabi, Saman; Hamouda, Tarek; Ward, Peter A.; Wang, Stewart C.; Baker, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Nanoemulsions are broadly antimicrobial oil-in-water emulsions containing nanometer-sized droplets stabilized with surfactants. We hypothesize that topical application of a nanoemulsion compound (NB-201) can attenuate burn wound infection. In addition to reducing infection, nanoemulsion therapy may modulate dermal inflammatory signaling and thereby lessen inflammation following thermal injury. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a 20% total body surface area (TBSA) scald burn to create a partial thickness burn injury. Animals were resuscitated with Ringer’s lactate and the wound covered with an occlusive dressing. Eight hours after injury, the burn wound was inoculated with 1×106 CFU of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. NB-201, NB-201 placebo, 5% mafenide acetate solution or 0.9% saline (control) was applied onto the wound at 16 and 24 hrs following burn injury. Skin was harvested 32 hrs post-burn for quantitative wound culture and determination of inflammatory mediators in tissue homogenates. Results NB-201 reduced mean bacterial growth in the burn wound by a thousand fold, with only 11% animals having P. aeruginosa counts greater than 105 CFU/g tissue versus 91% in the control group (p<0.0001). Treatment with NB-201 attenuated neutrophil sequestration in the treatment group as measured by myeloperoxidase assay and by histology. It also, significantly reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and IL-6) and the degree of hair follicle cell apoptosis in skin when compared to saline-treated controls. Conclusions Topical NB-201 substantially reduced bacterial growth in a partial thickness burn model. This reduction in the level of wound infection was associated with an attenuation of the local dermal inflammatory response and diminished neutrophil sequestration. NB-201 represents a novel potent antimicrobial and antiinflammatory treatment for use in burn wounds. PMID:20189619

  4. Burns and military clothing.

    PubMed

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  5. Wound healing properties of ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera in normal human dermal fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Gothai, Sivapragasam; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Tan, Woan Sean; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Wounds are the outcome of injuries to the skin that interrupt the soft tissue. Healing of a wound is a complex and long-drawn-out process of tissue repair and remodeling in response to injury. A large number of plants are used by folklore traditions for the treatment of cuts, wounds and burns. Moringa oleifera (MO) is an herb used as a traditional folk medicine for the treatment of various skin wounds and associated diseases. The underlying mechanisms of wound healing activity of ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves extract are completely unknown. Materials and Methods: In the current study, ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves was investigated for its efficacy on cell viability, proliferation and migration (wound closure rate) in human normal dermal fibroblast cells. Results: Results revealed that lower concentration (12.5 µg/ml, 25 µg/ml, and 50 µg/ml) of ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves showed remarkable proliferative and migratory effect on normal human dermal fibroblasts. Conclusion: This study suggested that ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves might be a potential therapeutic agent for skin wound healing by promoting fibroblast proliferation and migration through increasing the wound closure rate corroborating its traditional use. PMID:27069722

  6. [Ischemic cholangiopathy induced by extended burns].

    PubMed

    Cohen, Laurence; Angot, Emilie; Goria, Odile; Koning, Edith; François, Arnaud; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe

    2013-04-01

    Ischemic cholangiopathy is a recently described entity occurring mainly after hepatic grafts. Very few cases after intensive care unit (ICU) for extended burn injury were reported. We report the case of a 73-year-old woman consulting in an hepatology unit, for a jaundice appearing during a hospitalisation in an intensive care unit and increasing from her leaving from ICU, where she was treated for an extended burn injury. She had no pre-existing biological features of biliary disease. Biological tests were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging acquisitions of biliary tracts pointed out severe stenosing lesions of diffuse cholangiopathy concerning intrahepatic biliary tract, mainly peri-hilar. Biopsie from the liver confirmed the diagnosis, showing a biliary cirrhosis with bile infarcts. This case is the fourth case of ischemic cholangiopathy after extended burn injury, concerning a patient without a prior history of hepatic or biliary illness and appearing after hospitalisation in intensive care unit.

  7. Solid fuel burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Good, L.D.

    1982-07-13

    A solid fuel burning stove includes a firebox having an insulated bottom chamber in which fuel is burned. The bottom chamber includes an insulated bottom surface and walls which provides for heat retention when fuel is burn therein thereby creating high temperatures. The bottom chamber of the firebox is divided from a top chamber by a horizontally extending baffle which directs flow of exhaust gases from the bottom to the top of the firebox. The exhaust gases are burned in the top portion of the firebox by means of the heat generated within the lower chamber and the introduction of fresh combustion air. This fresh combustion air is drawn in through an orificed pipe extending along the length of the firebox. After the gases are burned in the top portion of the stove, they are communicated to a heat saver including an inverted v-shaped flow diverter which reduces the velocity of the exiting gases and provides for greater recovery of heat therefrom. The stove in accordance with the invention provides for a two-stage burning process wherein solid fuel is burned in the first stage and the volatile gases released by the fuel are burned in the second stage. In this way, the fuel is consumed in a most efficient manner.

  8. Assessment of family physicians' knowledge as an indicator of burn management knowledge among non-burn practitioners in Ismialia, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Moghazy, A M; Kamel, M H; Farghaly, R M

    2014-03-31

    The management of burns within the first hours of injury has a significant impact on mortality and morbidity. In case of burns disasters, most patients are managed by non-burn practitioners. The knowledge held by our local family physicians is thought to be representative of that of non-burn practitioners, as they had not partaken in any courses or training on burn management beyond graduation. With regard to emergency burn management, the knowledge required is: assessment of burn extent and depth, associated injuries, indications of escharotomy, fluid therapy and airway management, as well as safe transportation. The aim of this study therefore was to assess the knowledge of family physicians - as an indicator of that of non-burn practitioners - on emergency burn management, and design accordingly an appropriate burn educational program. An interview questionnaire was distributed to all physicians working in Family Medicine Centers in Ismailia, Egypt, who did not possess a post-graduate degree. A total of twenty-four family physicians (100%) participated in this study. The questionnaire findings showed that, out of a possible score of 25 correct answers, the highest result was 12; achieved by 6 physicians (25%). The highest frequency score was 8 correct responses; obtained by 10 physicians (29.2%). This demonstrated a knowledge deficit among Ismailia's family physicians, and subsequently non-burn practitioners, with regard to burns management, due to gaps in undergraduate teaching. PMID:25249845

  9. Burn injuries caused by air bag deployment.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, D; Noah, E M; Fuchs, P; Pallua, N

    2001-03-01

    Automobile air bags have gained acceptance as an effective measure to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with motor vehicle accidents. As more cars have become equipped with them, new problems have been encountered that are directly attributable to the deployment of the bag itself. An increasing variety of associated injuries has been reported, including minor burns. We present two automobile drivers who were involved in front-impact crashes with air bag inflation. They sustained superficial and partial-thickness burns related to the deployment. The evaluation of these cases shows mechanisms involved in burn injuries caused by the air bag system. Most of the burns are chemical and usually attributed to sodium hydroxide in the aerosol created during deployment. Also direct thermal burns from high-temperature gases or indirect injuries due to the melting of clothing, as well as friction burns from physical contact are possible. However, the inherent risks of air bag-related burns are still outweighed by the benefits of preventing potentially life-threatening injuries. PMID:11226663

  10. Critical issues in burn care.

    PubMed

    Holmes, James H

    2008-01-01

    Burn care, especially for serious burn injuries, represents a considerable challenge for the healthcare system. The American Burn Association has established a number of strategies for the management of burn patients and dedicates its efforts and resources to promoting and supporting burn-related research, education, care, rehabilitation, and prevention, often in collaboration with other organizations. The American Burn Association has recommended that patients with serious burns be referred to a designated burn center, ie, a hospital outfitted with specialized personnel and equipment dedicated to burn care. Burn centers have been operational for over 50 years, but the complexity and costs of providing specialized burn care have given rise to a number of critical administrative and political issues. These include logistical limitations imposed by the uneven national distribution of burn centers and a potential shortage of burn beds, both during everyday conditions and in the event of a mass disaster. Burn surgeon shortages have also been identified, stemming, in part, from a lack of specialized burn care training opportunities. There is currently a lack of quality outcome data to support evidence-based recommendations for burn care, and burn care centers are compromised by problems obtaining reimbursement for the care of uninsured and publicly insured out-of-state burn patients. Initiatives are underway to maintain efficient burn care facilities that are fully funded, easily accessible, and most importantly, provide optimal, evidence-based care on a daily basis, and are well-equipped to handle a surge of patients during a disaster situation.

  11. Critical issues in burn care.

    PubMed

    Holmes, James H

    2008-01-01

    Burn care, especially for serious burn injuries, represents a considerable challenge for the healthcare system. The American Burn Association has established a number of strategies for the management of burn patients and dedicates its efforts and resources to promoting and supporting burn-related research, education, care, rehabilitation, and prevention, often in collaboration with other organizations. The American Burn Association has recommended that patients with serious burns be referred to a designated burn center, ie, a hospital outfitted with specialized personnel and equipment dedicated to burn care. Burn centers have been operational for over 50 years, but the complexity and costs of providing specialized burn care have given rise to a number of critical administrative and political issues. These include logistical limitations imposed by the uneven national distribution of burn centers and a potential shortage of burn beds, both during everyday conditions and in the event of a mass disaster. Burn surgeon shortages have also been identified, stemming, in part, from a lack of specialized burn care training opportunities. There is currently a lack of quality outcome data to support evidence-based recommendations for burn care, and burn care centers are compromised by problems obtaining reimbursement for the care of uninsured and publicly insured out-of-state burn patients. Initiatives are underway to maintain efficient burn care facilities that are fully funded, easily accessible, and most importantly, provide optimal, evidence-based care on a daily basis, and are well-equipped to handle a surge of patients during a disaster situation. PMID:18997561

  12. RGTA OTR4120, a heparan sulfate mimetic, is a possible long-term active agent to heal burned skin.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Filipe, S; Barbier-Chassefiere, V; Alexakis, C; Huet, E; Ledoux, D; Kerros, M E; Petit, E; Barritault, D; Caruelle, J P; Kern, P

    2007-01-01

    Burn-related skin fibrosis leads to loss of tissue function and hypertrophic scar formation with damaging consequences for the patient. There is therefore a great need for an efficient agent to treat burned skin. We report that ReGeneraTing Agent (RGTA) reduces burn-induced skin alteration. The tissue-regenerating effect of RGTA OTR4120 was evaluated after 1-6 days and after 10 months in a rat skin burn model. This effect was also examined in vitro using fibroblasts isolated from control and 6-day-old burned skins. We measured production of dermal collagen I, III, and V and activities of metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9). Ratio of collagen III over collagen I production increased 6 days after the burn, because of a decrease in collagen I production. After 10 months, ratio of collagen III over collagen I in burn sites was still increased compared with control skin, because of an increase in collagen III production. Both abnormalities were corrected by OTR4120. OTR4120 increased pro- and active MMP-2 and MMP-9, compared with healthy and burned controls and therefore accelerated remodeling. Similar data were obtained with cultured fibroblasts from healthy and burned skins. OTR4120 enhanced healing in short- and long-term after burns, reducing the formation of fibrotic tissue, and then represents a potential agent to improve burned skin healing.

  13. [Case of continuous trans-arterial calcium gluconate infusion using a direct arterial sphygmomanometry line that exhibited dramatic improvement of chemical burns on the fingers caused by hydrofluoric acid].

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Kazuyuki; Shimizu, Makiko; Tanaka, Kotaro; Minemura, Atsuko; Tamatsukuri, Tatsuro; Miyake, Yasufumi; Aruga, Tohru

    2014-12-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HFA) is commonly used and many injuries occur on the upper extremities following exposure to HFA. The use of calcium gluconate (CG) -containing gel or local injections of CG are widely used for the initial treatment of HFA exposure. However, severe pain continues in some cases despite the treatment. There was a report that trans-arterial CG infusion could improve HFA burns, however, such treatment is not an established clinical procedure. A 30-year-old male presented at our hospital with severe pain in his left thumb. He had been cleaning tiles with an HFA-containing detergent. We diagnosed him with a chemical burn due to HFA exposure. Local CG injections were tried several times, but his terrible pain continued. Therefore, a direct arterial sphygmomanometry line was inserted from the left radial artery, and continuous transarterial CG injection was performed. His terrible pain dramatically improved. Direct arterial sphygmomanometry systems are widely used in the critical care field to monitor the hemodynamics and ICU staffs are used to dealing with it. Moreover, continuous saline infusion prevents the tube obstruction. Continuous CG infusion from a direct arterial sphygmomanometry line is simple and safe way to administer CG in HFA burns.

  14. Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kamala, K A; Sankethguddad, S; Sujith, S G; Tantradi, Praveena

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS. PMID:26962284

  15. Hand chemical burns.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Elliot P; Chhabra, A Bobby

    2015-03-01

    There is a vast and ever-expanding variety of potentially harmful chemicals in the military, industrial, and domestic landscape. Chemical burns make up a small proportion of all skin burns, yet they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the hand and upper extremity are the most frequently involved parts of the body in chemical burns, and therefore these injuries may lead to severe temporary or permanent loss of function. Despite this fact, discussion of the care of these injuries is sparse in the hand surgery literature. Although most chemical burns require only first response and wound care, some require the attention of a specialist for surgical debridement and, occasionally, skin coverage and reconstruction. Exposure to certain chemicals carries the risk of substantial systemic toxicity and even mortality. Understanding the difference between thermal and chemical burns, as well as special considerations for specific compounds, will improve patient treatment outcomes.

  16. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kamala, KA; Sankethguddad, S; Sujith, SG; Tantradi, Praveena

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS. PMID:26962284

  17. Evaluation of burn injuries related to liquefied petroleum gas.

    PubMed

    Tarim, Mehmet Akin

    2014-01-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is a fuel that is widely used for domestic, agricultural, and industrial purposes. LPG is also commonly used in restaurants, industries, and cars; however, the home continues to be the main site for accidents. In Turkey, the increased usage of LPG as a cooking or heating fuel has resulted in many burn injuries from LPG mishaps. Between January 2000 and June 2011, 56 LPG-burned patients were compared with 112 flame-burned patients. There were no significant differences with respect to the mean age, sex, hospitalization time, and mortality in both groups. In the LPG-caused burn cases, 41 burns (73.2%) occurred at home, seven (12.5) were work-related mishaps, and eight (14.3) were associated with car accidents. The majority of the LPG burns (82%, 46 patients) resulted from a gas leak, and 18% of them were related to the failure to close LPG tubes in the patients' kitchens (10 patients). Burns to the face and neck (82 vs 67%, P = .039) and upper (62 vs 23%, P = .000) and lower (70 vs 45%, P = .002) extremities were significantly higher in LPG-caused burn cases than flame-burned cases. General awareness regarding the risk of LPG and first aid for burns appears to be lacking. The LPG delivery system should be standardized throughout countries that widely use LPG.

  18. Dermal Exposure Assessment to Pesticides in Farming Systems in Developing Countries: Comparison of Models

    PubMed Central

    Lesmes Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R.

    2015-01-01

    In the field of occupational hygiene, researchers have been working on developing appropriate methods to estimate human exposure to pesticides in order to assess the risk and therefore to take the due decisions to improve the pesticide management process and reduce the health risks. This paper evaluates dermal exposure models to find the most appropriate. Eight models (i.e., COSHH, DERM, DREAM, EASE, PHED, RISKOFDERM, STOFFENMANAGER and PFAM) were evaluated according to a multi-criteria analysis and from these results five models (i.e., DERM, DREAM, PHED, RISKOFDERM and PFAM) were selected for the assessment of dermal exposure in the case study of the potato farming system in the Andean highlands of Vereda La Hoya, Colombia. The results show that the models provide different dermal exposure estimations which are not comparable. However, because of the simplicity of the algorithm and the specificity of the determinants, the DERM, DREAM and PFAM models were found to be the most appropriate although their estimations might be more accurate if specific determinants are included for the case studies in developing countries. PMID:25938911

  19. DREAM: a method for semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Van-Wendel-de-Joode, Berna; Brouwer, Derk H; Vermeulen, Roel; Van Hemmen, Joop J; Heederik, Dick; Kromhout, Hans

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new method (DREAM) for structured, semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment for chemical or biological agents that can be used in occupational hygiene or epidemiology. It is anticipated that DREAM could serve as an initial assessment of dermal exposure, amongst others, resulting in a ranking of tasks and subsequently jobs. DREAM consists of an inventory and evaluation part. Two examples of dermal exposure of workers of a car-construction company show that DREAM characterizes tasks and gives insight into exposure mechanisms, forming a basis for systematic exposure reduction. DREAM supplies estimates for exposure levels on the outside clothing layer as well as on skin, and provides insight into the distribution of dermal exposure over the body. Together with the ranking of tasks and people, this provides information for measurement strategies and helps to determine who, where and what to measure. In addition to dermal exposure assessment, the systematic description of dermal exposure pathways helps to prioritize and determine most adequate measurement strategies and methods. DREAM could be a promising approach for structured, semi-quantitative, dermal exposure assessment. PMID:12505908

  20. Evaluation of systemic and dermal toxicity and dermal photoprotection by sour cherry kernels.

    PubMed

    Bak, Istvan; Czompa, Attila; Csepanyi, Evelin; Juhasz, Bela; Kalantari, Heibatullah; Najm, Khadija; Aghel, Nasreen; Varga, Balazs; Haines, David D; Tosaki, Arpad

    2011-11-01

    The present report describes outcomes of animal studies conducted to determine the systemic and dermal toxicity of Prunus cerasus (sour cherry) seed kernel contents; and a separate evaluation of the photoprotective capacity of the kernel oil fraction. B6 mice and Hartley guinea-pigs were used for these experiments. Dosage groups of 6-8 animals were administered whole kernel meal in a dose range of 0-3000 mg/kg by gavage for 8 days, following which they were killed. The liver and kidney weights were recorded and histological examination performed on sections of these organs. Kidney function was assessed as blood urea nitrogen and creatinine and liver function by measurement of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. Dermal toxicity was evaluated in a Hartley guinea-pig model by comparing UVB-irradiated shaved skin to which the kernel oil had been applied with distilled water controls. In conclusion, no evidence of toxicity was observed to result from the consumption or dermal application of sour cherry seed kernel in the dose range at which it is likely to be used in foods or healthcare. Moreover, it was shown to have a powerful capacity to protect skin from UV damage. These results suggest it will prove to be a highly safe and effective addition to a wide range of products for general use. PMID:21751269

  1. [Complications after dermal fillers and their treatment].

    PubMed

    Lemperle, G; Gauthier-Hazan, N; Wolters, M

    2006-12-01

    All dermal fillers are associated with the risk of both early and late complications. Early side effects such as swelling, redness, and bruising occur after intradermal or subdermal injections. The patient has to be aware of these risks and be prepared to accept them. Adverse events that last longer than 2 weeks can be attributable to technical shortcomings (e.g., the implantation of a long-lasting filler substance was too superficial). Such adverse events can be treated with intradermal 5-fluorouracil and steroid injections, vascular lasers, or intense pulsed light, and later with dermabrasion or shaving. Late adverse events also include immunological phenomena such as late-onset allergy and non-allergic foreign body granulomas. Both react well to intralesional steroid injections, which often have to be repeated to establish the right dose. Surgical excisions should remain the last option and are indicated for hard lumps in the lips and visible hard nodules or hard granulomas in the subcutaneous fat.

  2. [Burns in children: child abuse or another cause?].

    PubMed

    van Ewijk, Roelof; op de Coul, Moniek E; Teeuw, A H Rian; Wolf, Bart H M

    2012-01-01

    Burns are common in children but it is not always clear whether the burn is accidental or not. Child abuse should always be considered. We present two children in which the diagnosis only became clear after admission and further investigation. Patient A, a 15-month-old boy, had a burn on his left shoulder. The burn was assumed suspect in view of the unclear history given by the parents and a possible delay in their seeking help. The patient was ultimately diagnosed with impetigo bullosa and successfully treated with antibiotics. Patient B, a 24-month-old girl, had burns on both feet and her right hand, which were infected as a result of the delay in seeking help. The burns were identified as abuse-related. The child was removed from her mother's care and sent to a foster home. A well-defined work-up should be followed in case of burns in children. PMID:23171561

  3. [Generalized granuloma annulare or diffuse dermal histiocytosis?].

    PubMed

    Kretzschmar, L; Biel, K; Luger, T A; Goerdt, S

    1995-08-01

    Generalized granuloma annulare is a rare variant of granuloma annulare affecting the trunk and extremities with a multitude of lesions. In contrast to localized granuloma annulare, generalized granuloma annulare occurs in older patients, shows a stronger association with diabetes, and is characteristically chronic. Like our 55-year-old patient, most patients present with papules and annular plaques; less often, macular or non-annular lesions may be encountered. Histology often fails to show necrobiotic or necrotic connective tissue changes demarcated by a palisading granuloma. Instead, there are diffuse dermal, band-like or nodular aggregations of histiocytes intermingled with some multinucleated giant cells and a predominantly lymphocytic infiltrate in the periphery. Because of its special characteristics, it has been suggested that generalized granuloma annulare might constitute a separate disease entity and that it should be classed among the primary cutaneous histiocytoses as a diffuse dermal histiocytosis. Using immunohistochemistry to determine the macrophage phenotype of the lesional histiocytes, we have shown that generalized granuloma annulare is not a cutaneous histiocytosis. Neither MS-1 high-molecular-weight protein, a new specific marker for cutaneous non-Langerhans cell histiocytoses, nor CD1a, the well-known marker for Langerhans cells and Langerhans cell histiocytoses, is expressed by the lesional histiocytes of our patient. In contrast, the antigen expression pattern was diagnostic for non-infectious granulomas and was highly similar to that in localized granuloma annulare. In contrast to the successful treatment of localized granuloma annulare reported with intralesional interferon beta-1, systemic treatment with interferon alpha-2b (9 x 10(6) units three times a week) was ineffective.

  4. Responses of dermal mast cells to injury.

    PubMed Central

    el Sayed, S O; Dyson, M

    1993-01-01

    The effect on dermal mast cell numbers and degranulation of making a partial thickness skin wound on the right flank of Wistar rats was studied immediately after operation and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 72 h postoperatively. An equivalent area of intact dermis on the left flank was used as a control. In the injured dermis the mean number of detectable mast cells in the experimental group immediately after making the partial thickness wound was not significantly different from the control side (P > 0.25) but it later decreased, reaching its lowest value after 2 h and increasing from 16 h to 72 h postoperatively when the final assessment was made. The possibility that the reduction in mast cell number per unit area might be an artefact resulting from increased tissue volume due to oedema was investigated and disproved. The total number of dermal mast cells in equivalent areas of the intact left flank remained unchanged throughout this period. The percentage of degranulating mast cells started rising 0.5 h postoperatively, increased gradually to reach its highest value after 2 h, remained high up to 8 h postoperatively and then decreased to reach its lowest value after 72 h. The percentage of degranulating mast cells of the intact dermis of the left flank did not alter during this period. The lack of a significant change in the control groups shows either the absence of any systemic effect or that the technique used was not sensitive enough to detect it. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8226292

  5. Are paediatric burns more common in asylum seekers? An analysis of paediatric burn admissions.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, M P; Orr, D J A

    2006-03-01

    The number of asylum seekers in Ireland has increased dramatically over the last 10 years. Based on our impression that the number of children admitted to our burn unit was disproportionately represented by children of asylum seekers we performed an audit to establish (1) what proportion of admissions are from this subgroup and (2) the characteristics of their burns. All paediatric burn admissions from May 2003 to April 2004 were reviewed. Data collected from a retrospective chart review included patient demographics and details of the burn injuries. The National Census of 2002 and the Office of the Refugee Applications Commissioner were consulted for population statistics. Total burn admissions for the period were 126: Irish nationals (n=107), non-national residents (n=2), asylum seekers (n=14) and patients of unknown asylum status (n=3, excluded from study). In the asylum seeker group, the median age was 18.6 months (range 10 months-5.3 years) with the majority less than 2 years (n=11). All burns occurred in the domestic setting. Scalds accounted for 13 cases, one contact burn occurred from a hot grill. The median total body surface area burned was 5.7% (range 1.5-26%). The National Census of 2002 recorded a population of 3,917,203. With less than 12,000 asylum seekers in the country, they comprise only approximately 0.3% of the population yet they account for 11.4% of the burn patients admitted to our unit, p<0.0001. Children of asylum seekers are over-represented in our series of paediatric admissions for burns and are more likely than Irish children to sustain a burn at a younger age and in the domestic setting. This may indicate an increased risk of injury and warrants further investigation. PMID:16448770

  6. [Analysis on the dermal irritation caused by imported cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Xing, S; Yuan, L; Song, R; Xu, F

    2001-11-01

    Dermal irritation tests on 902 kinds of cosmetics were conducted. The acute dermal irritation/corrosion tests for 175 samples showed no irritation in 65.1% of them, and 34.9% of them were considered as slight irritation. The chronic dermal irritation/corrosion tests for another 727 samples showed no irritation for 32.2% of them, and 67.8% of them were considered as slight irritation, most of which are lipsticks, eye shadows, fluid powder foundations and powder foundations.

  7. Brain abscess as a manifestation of spinal dermal sinus

    PubMed Central

    Emami-Naeini, Parisa; Mahdavi, Ali; Ahmadi, Hamed; Baradaran, Nima; Nejat, Farideh

    2008-01-01

    Dermal sinuses have been associated with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to drainage of purulent material from the sinus tract, inclusion tumors, meningitis, and spinal abscess. To date, there has been no documented report of brain abscess as a complication of spinal dermal sinus. Here, we report an 8-month-old girl who was presented initially with a brain abscess at early infancy but lumbar dermal sinus and associated spinal abscess were discovered afterwards. The probable mechanisms of this rare association have been discussed. PMID:19209295

  8. The influence of vapor pressure of chemicals on dermal penetration.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Dermal exposure is an important route of entry for chemicals in occupational and consumer settings. Key to this exposure is the penetration of the skin's barrier, and key to this penetration is a chemical's vapor pressure. Until now, vapor pressure and its effects on the skin have yet to be widely studied. This review aims to provide some historical background on early work on dermal penetration for volatile materials, which has helped form later research into the effects of vapor pressure on chemical risk assessment for dermal exposures. This review should be the start of an investigation into more in-depth coverage of vapor pressure and current prediction models.

  9. New type of sauna-related burn: conductive contact burn.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seung Jun; Yoo, Heon; Park, Myong Chul

    2013-01-01

    A 70-year-old woman visited a Korean-style hot dry sauna room. The patient had a medical history of hypertension and hyperlipidemia. During the sauna, the patient slept for 30 minutes. During the sleep, the right medial thigh was covered with a fully wet towel. The patient sustained a second-degree burn on the right medial thigh area with multiple bullas. On physical examination, erythema, heating sensation, and swelling around the bullas were noted. The patient was admitted and received intravenous antibiotics for 7 days. A dressing with Silmazine 1% cream (sulfadiazine) was applied twice a day for prevention of local infection. The patient was discharged on day 14 without complication. In this case, the mechanism of the burn was different. Hot air has much thermal energy but is not conducted to the skin directly. A wet towel will have a relatively higher thermal capacity or heat capacity than a dry or damp towel, and the sodden water might be a medium for the conduction of thermal energy. Owing to the global popularity of sauna bathing, it is important to recognize all sources of sauna-related burns.

  10. Burned area, active fires and biomass burning - approaches to account for emissions from fires in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruecker, Gernot; Hoffmann, Anja; Leimbach, David; Tiemann, Joachim; Ng'atigwa, Charles

    2013-04-01

    Eleven years of data from the globally available MODIS burned area and the MODS Active Fire Product have been analysed for Tanzania in conjunction with GIS data on land use and cover to provide a baseline for fire activity in this East African country. The total radiated energy (FRE) emitted by fires that were picked up by the burned area and active fire product is estimated based on a spatio-temporal clustering algorithm over the burned areas, and integration of the fire radiative power from the MODIS Active Fires product over the time of burning and the area of each burned area cluster. Resulting biomass combusted by unit area based on Woosteŕs scaling factor for FRE to biomass combusted is compared to values found in the literature, and to values found in the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED). Pyrogenic emissions are then estimated using emission factors. According to our analysis, an average of 11 million ha burn annually (ranging between 8.5 and 12.9 million ha) in Tanzania corresponding to between 10 and 14 % of Tanzaniás land area. Most burned area is recorded in the months from May to October. The land cover types most affected are woodland and shrubland cover types: they comprise almost 70 % of Tanzania's average annual burned area or 6.8 million ha. Most burning occurs in gazetted land, with an annual average of 3.7 million ha in forest reserves, 3.3 million ha in game reserves and 1.46 million ha in national parks, totalling close to 8.5 million ha or 77 % of the annual average burned area of Tanzania. Annual variability of burned area is moderate for most of the analysed classes, and in most cases there is no clear trend to be detected in burned area, except for the Lindi region were annual burned area appears to be increasing. Preliminary results regarding emissions from fires show that for larger fires that burn over a longer time, biomass burned derived through the FRP method compares well to literature values, while the integration over

  11. Epidemiology and outcome of burns: early experience at the country's first national burns centre.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Tariq; Saaiq, Muhammad; Ali, Zahid

    2013-03-01

    This study aims to document the epidemiologic pattern and outcome of burn injuries in the country's first national burn centre. This case series study was conducted over a 2-year period at Burns Care Centre (BCC), Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad. The study included all burn injury patients who primarily presented to and were managed at the centre. Those patients who presented more than 24 h after injury or those who were initially managed at some other hospital were excluded from the study. Initial assessment and diagnosis was made by thorough history, physical examination and necessary investigations. Patients with major burns, high voltage electric burns and those needing any surgical interventions were admitted for indoor management. Patients with minor burns were discharged home after necessary emergency management, home medication and follow-up advice. The sociodemographic profile of the patients, site of sustaining burn injury, type and extent (total body surface area (TBSA), skin thickness involved and associated inhalational injury) of burn and outcome in terms of survival or mortality, etc., were all recorded on a proforma. The data were subjected to statistical analysis. Out of a total of 13,295 patients, there were 7503 (56.43%) males and 5792 (43.56%) females. The mean age for adults was 33.63±10.76 years and for children it was 6.71±3.47 years. The household environment constituted the commonest site of burns (68%). Among all age groups and both genders, scalds were the commonest burns (42.48%), followed by flame burns (39%) and electrical burns (9.96%). The affected mean TBSA was 10.64±11.45% overall, while for the hospitalised subset of patients the mean TBSA was 38.04±15.18%. Most of the burns were partial thickness (67%). Inhalation injury was found among 149 (1.12%) patients. Most of the burns were non-intentional and only 96 (0.72%) were intentional. A total of 1405 patients (10.58%) were admitted while the remainder

  12. Dermal reflectivity determined by optical coherence tomography is an indicator of epidermal hyperplasia and dermal edema within inflamed skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Kevin G.; Wang, Yun; Levitz, David; Choudhury, Niloy; Swanzey, Emily; Lagowski, James; Kulesz-Martin, Molly; Jacques, Steven L.

    2011-04-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease resulting from genetic and environmental alterations of cutaneous immune responses. While numerous therapeutic targets involved in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis have been identified, the in vivo dynamics of inflammation in psoriasis remain unclear. We undertook in vivo time course focus-tracked optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to noninvasively document cutaneous alterations in mouse skin treated topically with Imiquimod (IMQ), an established model of a psoriasis-like disease. Quantitative appraisal of dermal architectural changes was achieved through a two parameter fit of OCT axial scans in the dermis of the form A(x, y, z) = ρ(x, y)exp [ - μ(x, y)z]. Ensemble averaging over 2000 axial scans per mouse in each treatment arm revealed no significant changes in the average dermal attenuation rate, <μ>, however the average local dermal reflectivity <ρ>, decreased significantly following 1, 3, and 6 days of IMQ treatment (p < 0.001) in comparison to vehicle-treated control mice. In contrast, epidermal and dermal thickness changes were only significant when comparing controls and 6-day IMQ treated mice. This suggests that dermal alterations, attributed to collagen fiber bundle enlargement, occur prior to epidermal thickness changes due to hyperplasia and dermal thickness changes due to edema. Dermal reflectivity positively correlated with epidermal hyperplasia (repi2 = 0.78) and dermal edema (rderm2 = 0.86). Our results suggest that dermal reflectivity as measured by OCT can be utilized to quantify a psoriasis-like disease in mice, and thus has the potential to aid in the quantitative assessment of psoriasis in humans.

  13. Burn wound management.

    PubMed

    Davies, M R; Rode, H; Cywes, S; van der Riet, R L

    1981-01-01

    In this chapter the local therapy for burns is discussed. Between 400 and 500 children with burns are treated every year at the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in Cape Town, but in only 10% of them do the burns affect over 20% of the body surface. These latter patients are treated in special rooms equipped for intensive therapy. Open and closed methods of treatment for burns used in addition to early excision are compared. The first aim is early skin cover for areas with skin loss preserving as much function as possible and achieving the best possible cosmetic result. Local therapy must be atraumatic to prevent extension of the skin lesion. Bacterial contamination must be prevented as far as possible by keeping the wound clean. Emergency treatment and the course of wound healing up to the third week after the injury using the appropriate dressings are described. Early excision until the fifth day after the accident should be used mainly for burns of the hand, deep second degree burns of up to 10% of the body surface, deep second degree burns over the joints and deep second degree burns of the neck. It must be admitted that the depth of the burn can only be definitely estimated between the seventh and tenth day after the accident. If no autografts are available homografts or grafts from animals are used. The age of the patient, associated injuries, associated diseases and the extent of the burn all play a role in determining the prognosis. Furthermore endogenous bacterial infections, absorption of local therapeutic agents and the state of the surrounding skin do also influence the healing process. Finally the various local therapeutic agents like sulphamylon, silver sulphadiazine and betadine are discussed. A 0.05% solution of silver nitrate is also active against gram-negative infections. Skin transplants are disinfected with a solution containing one third 0.25% acetic acid, one third 3% cent hydrogen peroxide and one third saline. Hydrogen peroxide

  14. Exploratory breath analyses for assessing toxic dermal exposure of firefighters during suppression of structural burns

    EPA Science Inventory

    Firefighters wear fireproof clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during rescue and fire suppression activities to protect against acute effects from heat and toxic chemicals. Fire services are also concerned about long-term health outcomes from chemical exposure...

  15. Does pyrogenicity protect burning plants?

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Paul R; Passmore, Heather A; Platt, William J; Myers, Jonathan A; Paine, C E Timothy; Harms, Kyle E

    2010-12-01

    Pyrogenic plants dominate many fire-prone ecosystems. Their prevalence suggests some advantage to their enhanced flammability, but researchers have had difficulty tying pyrogenicity to individual-level advantages. Based on our review, we propose that enhanced flammability in fire-prone ecosystems should protect the belowground organs and nearby propagules of certain individual plants during fires. We base this hypothesis on five points: (1) organs and propagules by which many fire-adapted plants survive fires are vulnerable to elevated soil temperatures during fires; (2) the degree to which burning plant fuels heat the soil depends mainly on residence times of fires and on fuel location relative to the soil; (3) fires and fire effects are locally heterogeneous, meaning that individual plants can affect local soil heating via their fuels; (4) how a plant burns can thus affect its fitness; and (5) in many cases, natural selection in fire-prone habitats should therefore favor plants that burn rapidly and retain fuels off the ground. We predict an advantage of enhanced flammability for plants whose fuels influence local fire characteristics and whose regenerative tissues or propagules are affected by local variation in fires. Our "pyrogenicity as protection" hypothesis has the potential to apply to a range of life histories. We discuss implications for ecological and evolutionary theory and suggest considerations for testing the hypothesis.

  16. Malignant Melanoma on a Thermal Burn Scar with an Interval of More Than 70 Years

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Shusuke; Oiso, Naoki; Shiga, Kuriko; Narita, Tomohiko; Kawada, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Cases of malignant melanoma on thermal burn scars have occasionally been reported. We report a 78-year-old Japanese female with malignant melanoma on a thermal burn scar with an interval of more than 70 years. Our case reemphasizes the importance of regular examinations in persons with thermal burn scars. PMID:27721752

  17. Burning mouth syndrome due to herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Maria A; Choe, Alexander; Traktinskiy, Igor; Gilden, Don

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is characterised by chronic orofacial burning pain. No dental or medical cause has been found. We present a case of burning mouth syndrome of 6 months duration in a healthy 65-year-old woman, which was associated with high copy numbers of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA in the saliva. Her pain resolved completely after antiviral treatment with a corresponding absence of salivary HSV-1 DNA 4 weeks and 6 months later. PMID:25833911

  18. Aerodigestive tract burn from ingestion of microwaved food.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Michael; Jeanmonod, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Aerodigestive tract burns represent a rare but potentially devastating injury pattern throughout the world. Although the majority of these injuries do not require intervention, these burns have the potential for poor outcomes. Traditionally this disease has been caused by superheated gases found in explosions or fire-related injury. However, as technology advances, it brings novel methods for injury that require physician awareness of potential hazards. We describe a case of laryngeal and esophageal thermal burn caused by a microwave heated food bolus.

  19. Infrared imaging of burn wounds to determine burn depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargroder, Andrew G.; Davidson, James E., Sr.; Luther, Donald G.; Head, Jonathan F.

    1999-07-01

    Determination of burn wound depth is at present left to the surgeons visual examination. Many burn wounds are obviously, by visual inspection, superficial 2 degree burns or true 3 degree burns. However, those burn wounds that fall between the obvious depth burns are difficult to assess visually, and therefore wound depth determination often requires waiting 5 to 7 days postburn. Initially, 10 burn patients underwent IR imaging at various times during the evaluation of their burn wounds. These patients were followed to either healing or skin grafting. The IR images were then reviewed to determine their accuracy in determining the depth of the wound. IR imaging of burn wounds with focal plane staring array midrange IR systems appears promising in determination of burn depth one to two days postburn. This will allow clinical decision regarding operative or nonoperative intervention to be made earlier, thus decreasing hospital stays and time to healing.

  20. Photoacoustic diagnosis of edema in rat burned skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Ken; Sato, Shunichi; Hatanaka, Kosuke; Saitoh, Daizoh; Ashida, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Toshihisa; Obara, Minoru

    2010-02-01

    Diagnosis of edema, abnormal accumulation of water in tissue, is important for managing various traumatic injuries and diseases. However, there is no established method for real-time, noninvasive monitoring of edema. In severe extensive burn injuries, edema develops both topically and systemically due to the increased permeability of blood vessels. In this study, we examined photoacoustic (PA) monitoring of edema formed in rat burn models. Deep dermal burn with a 20% total body surface area was made in the dorsal skin of rats. Burn and its adjacent nonburn tissues were irradiated with 6-ns light pulses at 1430 nm, which is one of the absorption peak wavelengths of water in the near infrared. The PA signal amplitude increased until 12 - 24 hr postburn, and thereafter it gradually decreased to its initial level; the latter phase (after 24 hr postburn) coincided with a diuretic phase in the rats. There was a significant correlation between the PA signal amplitudes and water contents in the tissue measured by wet/dry weight method. These findings demonstrate the validity of PA measurement for real-time, noninvasive monitoring of edema.

  1. Management of complex abdominal wall defects using acellular porcine dermal collagen.

    PubMed

    Chavarriaga, Luis Felipe; Lin, Edward; Losken, Albert; Cook, Michael W; Jeansonne, Louis O; White, Brent C; Sweeney, John F; Galloway, John R; Davis, S Scott

    2010-01-01

    Multiple techniques have been used for the repair of complex abdominal wall defects after recurrent incisional hernias with varying rates of success. Primary repair has been associated with high recurrence rates, and prosthetic mesh placement is contraindicated in contaminated surgical fields. The development of biologic prostheses has changed the approach to these difficult problems. This study evaluates the management of complex abdominal wall defects using acellular porcine dermal collagen. Between August 2006 and May 2007, 18 patients underwent abdominal wall reconstruction for complex defects with acellular porcine dermal collagen (CollaMend; Bard Inc., Warwick, RI). Patient demographics, preoperative risk factors, previous herniorrhaphy attempts, postoperative complications, recurrences, and long-term results were retrospectively reviewed. Records were reviewed at a mean follow up of 7.3 months; the recurrence rate was 44.4 per cent. A total of 38.9 per cent (seven of 18) developed a postoperative wound complications, including infection in 22.2 per cent (four of 18). All of the patients with infection required prosthesis removal as a result of encapsulation rather than incorporation of the biologic prosthesis. Acellular porcine dermal collagen has the potential for reconstruction of abdominal wall defects with postoperative wound occurrences comparable with other biologic materials. Encapsulation of the material was a major problem in cases with wound infection that required graft removal rather than local wound measures. Hernia recurrence and dehiscence of the graft were problems in noncompromised surgical fields.

  2. New Fashioned Book Burning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Reports on results of a teacher's experiment in book burning as a lesson accompanying the teaching of Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451." Discusses student reactions and the purpose of or justification for the experimental lesson. (TB)

  3. Management of burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin; Trop, Marija; Neuhaus, Kathrin

    2013-10-01

    Small and moderate scalds in toddlers are still the most frequent thermal injuries the pediatric surgeons have to face today. Over the last years, surgical treatment of these patients has changed in many aspects. Due to new dressing materials and new surgical treatment strategies that are particularly suitable for children, today, far better functional and aesthetic long-term results are possible. While small and moderate thermal injuries can be treated in most European pediatric surgical departments, the severely burned child must be transferred to a specialized, ideally pediatric, burn center, where a well-trained multidisciplinary team under the leadership of a (ideally pediatric) burn surgeon cares for these highly demanding patients. In future, tissue engineered full thickness skin analogues will most likely play an important role, in pediatric burn as well as postburn reconstructive surgery.

  4. Burns (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... you drowsy, or in bed. Don't use fireworks or sparklers. Bathroom Set the thermostat on your ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Fireworks Safety First Aid: Burns First Aid: Sunburn Sun ...

  5. Minor burns - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... put a thin layer of ointment, such as petroleum jelly or aloe vera, on the burn. The ... is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation ...

  6. Dermal exposure and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene among asphalt roofing workers

    SciTech Connect

    McClean, M.D.; Rinehart, R.D.; Sapkota, A.; Cavallari, J.M.; Herrick, R.F.

    2007-07-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify significant determinants of dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) among asphalt roofing workers and use urinary 1-hydroxyprene (1-OHP) measurements to evaluate the effect of dermal exposure on total absorbed dose. The study population included 26 asphalt roofing workers who performed three primary tasks: tearing off old roofs, putting down new roofs, and operating the kettle at ground level. During multiple consecutive work shifts, dermal patch samples were collected from the underside of each worker's wrists and were analyzed for PACs, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene (BAP). During the same work week, urine samples were collected at pre-shift, post-shift, and bedtime each day and were analyzed for 1-OHP (205 urine samples). Linear mixed effects models were used to evaluate the dermal measurements for the purpose of identifying important determinants of exposure, and to evaluate urinary 1-OHP measurements for the purpose of identifying important determinants of total absorbed dose. Dermal exposures to PAC, pyrene, and BAP were found to vary significantly by roofing task and by the presence of an old coal tar pitch roof. For each of the three analytes, the adjusted mean dermal exposures associated with tear-off were approximately four times higher than exposures associated with operating the kettle. Exposure to coal tar pitch was associated with a 6-fold increase in PAC exposure, an 8-fold increase in pyrene exposure and a 35-fold increase in BAP exposure. The presence of coal tar pitch was the primary determinant of dermal exposure, particularly for exposure to BAP. However, the task-based differences that were observed while controlling for pitch suggest that exposure to asphalt also contributes to dermal exposures.

  7. Volume correction in the aging hand: role of dermal fillers

    PubMed Central

    Rivkin, Alexander Z

    2016-01-01

    The hands, just like the face, are highly visible parts of the body. They age at a similar rate and demonstrate comparable changes with time, sun damage, and smoking. Loss of volume in the hands exposes underlying tendons, veins, and bony prominences. Rejuvenation of the hands with dermal fillers is a procedure with high patient satisfaction and relatively low risk for complications. This study will review relevant anatomy, injection technique, clinical safety, and efficacy of dermal filler volumization of the aging hand.

  8. Morphological and physiological characteristics of dermal photoreceptors in Lymnaea stagnalis

    PubMed Central

    Takigami, Satoshi; Sunada, Hiroshi; Horikoshi, Tetsuro; Sakakibara, Manabu

    2014-01-01

    Dermal photoreceptors located in the mantle of Lymnaea stagnalis were histologically and physiologically characterized. Our previous study demonstrated that the shadow response from dermal photoreceptors induces the whole-body withdrawal response. Through the interneuron, RPeD11, we detected that the light-off response indirectly originated from a dermal photoreceptor. Previous observations, based on behavioral pharmacology, revealed that cyclic guanosine monophosphate acts as a second messenger in the dermal photoreceptor. Furthermore, gastropods possess dermal photoreceptors containing rhodopsin, as a photopigment, and another photo-sensitive protein, arrestin, responsible for terminating the light response. Thus, we chose three antibodies, anti-cGMP, anti-rhodopsin, and anti-β-arrestin, to identify the dermal photoreceptor molecules in Lymnaea mantle. Extracellular recording, using a suction electrode on the mantle, revealed a light off-response from the right parietal nerve. Overlapping structures, positive against each of the antibodies, were also observed. Numerous round, granular particles of 3–47 μm in diameter with one nucleus were distributed around pneumostome and/or inside the mantle. The cells surrounding the pneumostome area, located 10 μm beneath the surface, tended to have smaller cell soma ranging from 3 to 25 μm in diameter, while cells located in other areas were distributed uniformly inside the mantle, with a larger diameter ranging from 12 to 47 μm. The histological examination using back-filing Lucifer Yellow staining of the right parietal nerve with the three dermal photoreceptor antibodies confirmed that these overlapping-stained structures were dermal photoreceptors in Lymnaea. PMID:27493502

  9. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the companyused technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications.

  10. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the company used technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications

  11. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the company used technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications.

  12. Under-dermal emulator of vascular identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landa, Joseph; Blake, Robert; Rich, Alex; Szu, Harold

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this paper and research effort is to develop a simple and clear apparatus and approach to quantify the effectiveness of sensor systems as it relates to their ability to penetrate camouflage and resolve skin depth. Over the last decade, several attempts have been made to leverage advances in Infrared (IR) imaging, made by the military, into medical sensing [1]. Several promising technologies have been evaluated and thus far determined to be lacking when compared to the current standards of care based on x-ray imaging [2]. While progress has been made this general class of technology has not generated wide spread interest from the medical community. This lack of interest is discouraging, especially when considering the great potential for good that would result in successfully demonstrating a truly passive tumor detection system based on thermal signatures. Recently, this team participated as part of a larger group in the development and testing of a novel class of algorithms using images from two separate IR spectra. This area of spectral fusing algorithms is called the Single Pixel-Blind Source Separation (SP-BSS). While the goal of experiment is not new, our results showed this approach provided potential improvements over more traditional thermography, particularly in the area of overcoming environmental noise. These promising results have motivated us to develop a method for running controlled experiments so that the equipment and algorithms can be optimized and the significant engineering challenges of frame registration, data standardization, and sensor optimization for wellness screening can be accomplished. Conducting these efforts using data from human subjects is both impractical and unwarranted at this time. We have developed a physics-physiological under-dermal model of internal vascular circulation that approximates not only a healthy human body (angiogenesis effect) but also a human body developing a tumor (neo-angiogenesis effect). This

  13. Dermal sensitization quantitative risk assessment (QRA) for fragrance ingredients.

    PubMed

    Api, Anne Marie; Basketter, David A; Cadby, Peter A; Cano, Marie-France; Ellis, Graham; Gerberick, G Frank; Griem, Peter; McNamee, Pauline M; Ryan, Cindy A; Safford, Robert

    2008-10-01

    Based on chemical, cellular, and molecular understanding of dermal sensitization, an exposure-based quantitative risk assessment (QRA) can be conducted to determine safe use levels of fragrance ingredients in different consumer product types. The key steps are: (1) determination of benchmarks (no expected sensitization induction level (NESIL)); (2) application of sensitization assessment factors (SAF); and (3) consumer exposure (CEL) calculation through product use. Using these parameters, an acceptable exposure level (AEL) can be calculated and compared with the CEL. The ratio of AEL to CEL must be favorable to support safe use of the potential skin sensitizer. This ratio must be calculated for the fragrance ingredient in each product type. Based on the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc. (RIFM) Expert Panel's recommendation, RIFM and the International Fragrance Association (IFRA) have adopted the dermal sensitization QRA approach described in this review for fragrance ingredients identified as potential dermal sensitizers. This now forms the fragrance industry's core strategy for primary prevention of dermal sensitization to these materials in consumer products. This methodology is used to determine global fragrance industry product management practices (IFRA Standards) for fragrance ingredients that are potential dermal sensitizers. This paper describes the principles of the recommended approach, provides detailed review of all the information used in the dermal sensitization QRA approach for fragrance ingredients and presents key conclusions for its use now and refinement in the future.

  14. PBXN-110 Burn Rate Estimate

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, E

    2008-08-11

    It is estimated that PBXN-110 will burn laminarly with a burn function of B = (0.6-1.3)*P{sup 1.0} (B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is pressure in MPa). This paper provides a brief discussion of how this burn behavior was estimated.

  15. Assessment of Electrosurgery Burns in Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jalali, Seyyed Mehdi; Moradi, Mohammad; Khalaj, Alireza; Pazouki, Alireza; Tamannaie, Zeinab; Ghanbari, Sajjad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Monopolar surgery is applied mostly in major operations, while bipolar is used in delicate ones. Attention must be paid in electrosurgery application to avoid electrical burns. Objectives: We aimed to assess factors associated with electrosurgery burns in cardiac surgery operating rooms. Patients and Methods: This was a case-control study in which two groups of 150 patients undergoing cardiac surgery in Imam Khomeini Hospital were recruited. Several factors like gender, age, operation duration, smoking, diseases, infection, atopia, , immunosuppressive drugs use, hepatic cirrhosis, and pulmonary diseases were compared between the two groups. Patients were observed for 24 hours for development of any burn related to the operation. Data was analyzed using SPSS v.11.5, by Chi square and T-test. Results: Patients in the two groups were similar except for two factors. DM and pulmonary diseases which showed significant differences (P = 0.005 and P = 0.002 respectively). Seventy-five patients from controls and 35 from the study group developed burns, which was significant (P ˂ 0.0001). Conclusions: None of the factors were significantly related to developing burns. The differences between the two groups highlights the importance of systems modifications to lessen the incidence of burns. PMID:26839854

  16. Epilepsy and Full-Thickness Burns

    PubMed Central

    Botan, A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary This paper presents various aspects of severe burns involving epileptic patients, who may suffer dramatic accidents during seizure attacks. Epileptics may fall onto an open fire or hot surface (e.g. a kitchen range) and they may upset containers full of boiling liquids, suffering deep burns and scalds. In our experience in this field, the most commonly affected body areas are the face and hands, the trunk, and the lower limbs. All such injuries are full-thickness burns, owing to the very long contact of the skin surface with the lesional agent. Three cases are presented of epileptics with severe burns who were admitted to the Burn Unit of Targu Mures Teaching Hospital, Romania, where they were hospitalized; conservative debridement using polyurethanefoam (PUR-foam) dressings was the standard procedure, which all the patients received. Split-thickness skin grafting was the final method for closing the granulating bed resulting from the conservative debridement. We have found that conservative debridement using PUR-foam dressings is a cheaper and more reliable alternative than sharp debridement (which may remove healthy tissue at the same time as burn eschars). PMID:21991200

  17. The media glorifying burns: a hindrance to burn prevention.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2003-01-01

    The media have a profound influence on the actions of children and adults. Burns and burn prevention tend to be ignored or even mocked. The purpose of this presentation is to reveal the callousness of the media in its dealings with burns and burn prevention. Printed materials with a relationship to burns, risk of burning, or disrespect for the consequences of burns were collected. The materials were tabulated into four categories: comics, advertisements (ads), articles that made light of burns, and television shows that portrayed behavior that would risk burn injury. Most burn-related materials were found in comics or advertisements. Several comics made light of high-risk behavior with flames, scald injury, contact injury, or burns. In addition, several advertisements showed people on fire or actions that could easily lead to burns. Several articles and televisions shows portrayed high-risk behavior that, in some instances, led to copycat injuries. Flames are frequently used to sell items that target adolescent boys or young men. The high incidence injuries that frequent this population parallel the high-risk behaviors portrayed by the media. The media portrays flames and high-risk behavior for burn injury as being cool, funny, and without consequence. The use of flames on clothing and recreational equipment (skateboards, hot rods) particularly targets the high-risk adolescent male. The burn community should make the media aware of the harm it causes with its callous depiction and glorification of burns.

  18. [PIECETIME BURNS. SOURCES OF DANGER].

    PubMed

    Sokolov, V A; Efimenko, N A; Admakin, A L; Petrachkov, S A; Stepanchenko, A A

    2015-01-01

    We analysed 54 foreign publications concerning sources of danger of thermal injuries inflicted in pieacetime. The negative effect of alcohol consumption is emphasised. Special attention is given to the necessity of safety measures when makingfire by people engaging in leisure activities and to the cases of chemical burns resulting from aggressive attacks of third persons. Certain authors report marked cicatrical deformities developing after skin restoration. A variety of sources of danger necessitates the development and introduction of effective of socio-legislative normatives designed to reduce the occurrence of thermal injuries.

  19. Dermal absorption of inorganic germanium in rats.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Katsuhiko; Kawaai, Takae; Konomi, Aki; Uchida, Yuka

    2008-11-01

    So-called germanium 'health' products including dietary supplements, cosmetics, accessories, and warm bath service containing germanium compounds and metalloid are popular in Japan. Subchronic and chronic oral exposure of germanium dioxide (GeO(2)), popular chemical form of inorganic germanium causes severe germanium toxicosis including death and kidney dysfunction in humans and experimental animals. Intestinal absorption of neutralized GeO(2) or germanate is almost complete in humans and animals. However, it is not known whether germanium is cutaneously absorbed. We tested dermal absorption of neutralized GeO(2) or germanate using male F344/N rats. Three groups of rats were treated with a 3-h topical application of hydrophilic ointment containing graded level of neutralized GeO(2) (pH 7.4): 0, 0.21 and 0.42 mg GeO(2)/g. Germanium concentration in blood and tissues sampled from rats after topical application of inorganic germanium was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Animals topically applied 0.42 mg GeO(2)/g ointment had significantly higher germanium concentrations in plasma, liver, and kidney than those of rats that received no topical germanium. The results indicate that skin is permeable to inorganic germanium ion or germanate and recurrent exposure of germanium compounds may pose a potential health hazard.

  20. Acellular Dermal Matrix in Rotator Cuff Surgery.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Joseph; Mirzayan, Raffy

    2016-01-01

    The success of rotator cuff repair (RCR) surgery can be measured clinically (validated outcome scores, range of motion) as well as structurally (re-tear rates using imaging studies). Regardless of repair type or technique, most studies have shown that patients do well clinically. However, multiple studies have also shown that structurally, the failure rate can be very high. A variety of factors, including poor tendon quality, age over 63 years, smoking, advanced fatty infiltration into the muscle, and the inability of the tendon to heal to bone, have been implicated as the cause of the high re-tear rate in RCRs. The suture-tendon interface is felt to be the weakest link in the RCR construct, and suture pullout through the tendon is believed to be the most common method of failure. This review of the published literature seeks to determine if there is support for augmentation of RCR with acellular dermal matrices to strengthen the suture-tendon interface and reduce the re-tear rate. PMID:27552454

  1. [Complications after dermal fillers and their treatment].

    PubMed

    Lemperle, G; Gauthier-Hazan, N; Wolters, M

    2006-12-01

    All dermal fillers are associated with the risk of both early and late complications. Early side effects such as swelling, redness, and bruising occur after intradermal or subdermal injections. The patient has to be aware of these risks and be prepared to accept them. Adverse events that last longer than 2 weeks can be attributable to technical shortcomings (e.g., the implantation of a long-lasting filler substance was too superficial). Such adverse events can be treated with intradermal 5-fluorouracil and steroid injections, vascular lasers, or intense pulsed light, and later with dermabrasion or shaving. Late adverse events also include immunological phenomena such as late-onset allergy and non-allergic foreign body granulomas. Both react well to intralesional steroid injections, which often have to be repeated to establish the right dose. Surgical excisions should remain the last option and are indicated for hard lumps in the lips and visible hard nodules or hard granulomas in the subcutaneous fat. PMID:17219319

  2. Dextran hydrogel scaffolds enhance angiogenic responses and promote complete skin regeneration during burn wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guoming; Zhang, Xianjie; Shen, Yu-I; Sebastian, Raul; Dickinson, Laura E.; Fox-Talbot, Karen; Reinblatt, Maura; Steenbergen, Charles; Harmon, John W.; Gerecht, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Neovascularization is a critical determinant of wound-healing outcomes for deep burn injuries. We hypothesize that dextran-based hydrogels can serve as instructive scaffolds to promote neovascularization and skin regeneration in third-degree burn wounds. Dextran hydrogels are soft and pliable, offering opportunities to improve the management of burn wound treatment. We first developed a procedure to treat burn wounds on mice with dextran hydrogels. In this procedure, we followed clinical practice of wound excision to remove full-thickness burned skin, and then covered the wound with the dextran hydrogel and a dressing layer. Our procedure allows the hydrogel to remain intact and securely in place during the entire healing period, thus offering opportunities to simplify the management of burn wound treatment. A 3-week comparative study indicated that dextran hydrogel promoted dermal regeneration with complete skin appendages. The hydrogel scaffold facilitated early inflammatory cell infiltration that led to its rapid degradation, promoting the infiltration of angiogenic cells into the healing wounds. Endothelial cells homed into the hydrogel scaffolds to enable neovascularization by day 7, resulting in an increased blood flow significantly greater than treated and untreated controls. By day 21, burn wounds treated with hydrogel developed a mature epithelial structure with hair follicles and sebaceous glands. After 5 weeks of treatment, the hydrogel scaffolds promoted new hair growth and epidermal morphology and thickness similar to normal mouse skin. Collectively, our evidence shows that customized dextran-based hydrogel alone, with no additional growth factors, cytokines, or cells, promoted remarkable neovascularization and skin regeneration and may lead to novel treatments for dermal wounds. PMID:22171002

  3. Dextran hydrogel scaffolds enhance angiogenic responses and promote complete skin regeneration during burn wound healing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guoming; Zhang, Xianjie; Shen, Yu-I; Sebastian, Raul; Dickinson, Laura E; Fox-Talbot, Karen; Reinblatt, Maura; Steenbergen, Charles; Harmon, John W; Gerecht, Sharon

    2011-12-27

    Neovascularization is a critical determinant of wound-healing outcomes for deep burn injuries. We hypothesize that dextran-based hydrogels can serve as instructive scaffolds to promote neovascularization and skin regeneration in third-degree burn wounds. Dextran hydrogels are soft and pliable, offering opportunities to improve the management of burn wound treatment. We first developed a procedure to treat burn wounds on mice with dextran hydrogels. In this procedure, we followed clinical practice of wound excision to remove full-thickness burned skin, and then covered the wound with the dextran hydrogel and a dressing layer. Our procedure allows the hydrogel to remain intact and securely in place during the entire healing period, thus offering opportunities to simplify the management of burn wound treatment. A 3-week comparative study indicated that dextran hydrogel promoted dermal regeneration with complete skin appendages. The hydrogel scaffold facilitated early inflammatory cell infiltration that led to its rapid degradation, promoting the infiltration of angiogenic cells into the healing wounds. Endothelial cells homed into the hydrogel scaffolds to enable neovascularization by day 7, resulting in an increased blood flow significantly greater than treated and untreated controls. By day 21, burn wounds treated with hydrogel developed a mature epithelial structure with hair follicles and sebaceous glands. After 5 weeks of treatment, the hydrogel scaffolds promoted new hair growth and epidermal morphology and thickness similar to normal mouse skin. Collectively, our evidence shows that customized dextran-based hydrogel alone, with no additional growth factors, cytokines, or cells, promoted remarkable neovascularization and skin regeneration and may lead to novel treatments for dermal wounds. PMID:22171002

  4. Chemical composition and sources of ambient aerosol in an urban environment over Athens, Greece: Case study on the role of wintertime biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodosi, Christina

    2016-04-01

    This study examines the chemical composition of aerosols over the Greater Athens Area (GAA). To achieve this, particulate matter sampling has been conducted on a 6h-24h basis and more than 700 aerosol samples were collected at downtown Athens, in Thissio from January 2013 to December 2015. All samples, after mass quantification, were analyzed for major anions (Cl^-, Br^-, NO{_3^-}, SO{_4-2}, PO{_4-3}, C_2O{_4-2}), cations (NH{_4^+}, K^+, Na^+, Mg+2, Ca+2), trace elements (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, V, Zn, Mn, Ni, Pb, P, S, Sb), organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). Aerosol chemical mass closure calculations indicated that carbonaceous aerosol constitutes a major component, along with nitrate and sulfate anions, dust, cations and EC. Moreover, during the winter periods of December 2012-January 2013 and December 2013-January 2014, air pollution due to excessive use of biomass for domestic heating has been reported as a major environmental problem in the area. To assess the importance of biomass burning as a source of air pollution over the GAA three main sugars specific biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan) and Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also analyzed during the winter period. Acknowledgments This work was supported by the State Scholarship Foundation ("IKY Fellowships of Excellence for Postgraduate Studies in Greece - Siemens Programme") in the framework of the Hellenic Republic-Siemens Settlement Agreement.

  5. Incidence of flap procedures in the management of burn patients.

    PubMed

    Lineaweaver, William C; Craft-Coffman, Beretta; Oswald, Tanya M

    2015-03-01

    Increased survival of burn patients presents opportunities for reconstructive strategies to improve outcomes in management of acute and secondary burn injuries. To assess one such strategy, namely flap reconstruction, we reviewed cases performed during the first 4.5 years of the JMS Burn and Reconstruction Center. We found that flap procedures accounted for 0.8% of acute cases (23 of 2723 procedures) and 33% of secondary cases (260 of 790 procedures). This initial finding shows that in this practice flap procedures are applied to a small number of acute problems while flap procedures comprise 33% of secondary procedures. Reconstructive flap surgery plays a measurable role in burn treatment at this center. Further study of outcomes and timing could lead to better understanding of optimal strategies for flap reconstruction in burns.

  6. Management of chemical burns of the canine cornea

    PubMed Central

    Christmas, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Significant clinical signs and general principles of treatment for chemical burns of the canine cornea are presented using three typical case studies for illustration. Alkali burns are more common in dogs than acid burns. The sources of alkali in this study were soap, cement, and mortar dust. Common signs of chemical burns are ocular pain, corneal ulceration, tear film inadequacy, corneal edema, and marked corneal neovascularity. Successful treatment requires thorough ocular lavage, treatment for corneal ulceration, and adequate anti-inflammatory therapy when the corneal epithelium becomes intact. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:17423874

  7. Management of chemical burns of the canine cornea.

    PubMed

    Christmas, R

    1991-10-01

    Significant clinical signs and general principles of treatment for chemical burns of the canine cornea are presented using three typical case studies for illustration. Alkali burns are more common in dogs than acid burns. The sources of alkali in this study were soap, cement, and mortar dust. Common signs of chemical burns are ocular pain, corneal ulceration, tear film inadequacy, corneal edema, and marked corneal neovascularity. Successful treatment requires thorough ocular lavage, treatment for corneal ulceration, and adequate anti-inflammatory therapy when the corneal epithelium becomes intact.

  8. Deep gluteal grounding pad burn after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Sapienza, Paolo; Venturini, Luigi; Cigna, Emanuele; Sterpetti, Antonio V; Biacchi, Daniele; di Marzo, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Although skin burns at the site of grounding pad are a known risk of surgery, their exact incidence is unknown. We first report the case of a patient who presented a deep gluteal burn at the site of the grounding pad after an abdominal aortic aneurism repair, the etiology and the challenging treatment required to overcome this complication. PMID:26099000

  9. The devastating effects a fire burn in a child.

    PubMed

    Istek, Şeref

    2015-06-08

    Burn injuries are a serious global public health concern with significant worldwide mortality and morbidity rates. Burns are among the most devastating of all injuries, with outcomes ranging from physical impairment and disability to emotional and mental consequences. Paediatric burns requiring treatment often incur significant health and opportunity costs, and frequently result in death or long-term disability. A recent systemic review showed that almost 50% of patients hospitalised with severe burns in Europe were younger than 16 years of age, and nearly 60% were male. This report discusses the case of a 2-year-old boy with second and third-degree skin burns over almost 45% of his body, including his head and arms, who presented to the eye clinic at the State Hospital in Hakkari 1 month after a fire burn accident. Both eyes had been burnt and the bilateral anterior chambers had been injured so badly that the patient was left blind.

  10. Resolvin D2 prevents secondary thrombosis and necrosis in a mouse burn wound model.

    PubMed

    Bohr, Stefan; Patel, Suraj J; Sarin, Dhruv; Irimia, Daniel; Yarmush, Martin L; Berthiaume, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Deep partial thickness burns are subject to delayed necrosis of initially viable tissues surrounding the primary zone of thermally induced coagulation, which results in an expansion of the burn wound, both in area and depth, within 48 hours postburn. Neutrophil sequestration and activation leading to microvascular damage is thought to mediate this secondary tissue damage. Resolvins, a class of endogenous mediators derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been shown to regulate the resolution of inflammation. We hypothesized that exogenous resolvins could mitigate the deleterious impact of the inflammatory response in burn wounds. Using two different mouse burn injury models involving significant partial thickness injuries, we found that a systemically administered single dose of resolvin D2 (RvD2) as low as 25 pg/g bw given within an interval of up to 4 hours postburn effectively prevented thrombosis of the deep dermal vascular network and subsequent dermal necrosis. By preserving the microvascular network, RvD2 enhanced neutrophil access to the dermis, but prevented neutrophil-mediated damage through other anti-inflammatory actions, including inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and neutrophil platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1. In a clinical context, RvD2 may be therapeutically useful by reducing the need for surgical debridement and the area requiring skin grafting. PMID:23110665

  11. Resolvin D2 prevents secondary thrombosis and necrosis in a mouse burn wound model.

    PubMed

    Bohr, Stefan; Patel, Suraj J; Sarin, Dhruv; Irimia, Daniel; Yarmush, Martin L; Berthiaume, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Deep partial thickness burns are subject to delayed necrosis of initially viable tissues surrounding the primary zone of thermally induced coagulation, which results in an expansion of the burn wound, both in area and depth, within 48 hours postburn. Neutrophil sequestration and activation leading to microvascular damage is thought to mediate this secondary tissue damage. Resolvins, a class of endogenous mediators derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been shown to regulate the resolution of inflammation. We hypothesized that exogenous resolvins could mitigate the deleterious impact of the inflammatory response in burn wounds. Using two different mouse burn injury models involving significant partial thickness injuries, we found that a systemically administered single dose of resolvin D2 (RvD2) as low as 25 pg/g bw given within an interval of up to 4 hours postburn effectively prevented thrombosis of the deep dermal vascular network and subsequent dermal necrosis. By preserving the microvascular network, RvD2 enhanced neutrophil access to the dermis, but prevented neutrophil-mediated damage through other anti-inflammatory actions, including inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and neutrophil platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1. In a clinical context, RvD2 may be therapeutically useful by reducing the need for surgical debridement and the area requiring skin grafting.

  12. Human Dermal Stem/Progenitor Cell-Derived Conditioned Medium Improves Senescent Human Dermal Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji-Yong; Shim, Joong Hyun; Choi, Hyun; Lee, Tae Ryong; Shin, Dong Wook

    2015-08-13

    Adult skin stem cells are recognized as potential therapeutics to rejuvenate aged skin. We previously demonstrated that human dermal stem/progenitor cells (hDSPCs) with multipotent capacity could be enriched from human dermal fibroblasts using collagen type IV. However, the effects of hDSPCs on cellular senescence remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated whether conditioned medium (CM) collected from hDSPC cultures (hDSPC-CM) exhibits beneficial effects on senescent fibroblasts. We found that hDSPC-CM promoted proliferation and decreased the expression level of senescence-associated β-galactosidase in senescent fibroblasts. In addition, p53 phosphorylation and p21 expression were significantly reduced in senescent fibroblasts treated with hDSPC-CM. hDSPC-CM restored the expression levels of collagen type I, collagen type III, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase, and antagonized the increase of matrix metalloproteinase 1 expression. Finally, we demonstrated that hDSPC-CM significantly reduced reactive oxygen species levels by specifically up-regulating the expression level of superoxide dismutase 2. Taken together, these data suggest that hDSPC-CM can be applied as a potential therapeutic agent for improving human aged skin.

  13. Iron burns: a problem in adults as well as children.

    PubMed

    Chipp, E; Pape, S

    2013-12-31

    Burns from domestic irons are potentially preventable injuries which can result in significant morbidity. Several studies have reported these injuries in children but there are no reports to date in adults. Epidemiology, management and outcome of these injuries is described, and possible preventative strategies are discussed. We present a retrospective case note review of 50 adult and paediatric patients with electric iron burns. Cases were identified from data collected for a national burns database. Information regarding demographics, burn characteristics, treatment and long term outcome was gathered from the medical records. 42 children and 8 adults sustained a burn from an iron during the 4-year study period. The majority of paediatric patients were under 4 years of age. Most burns were small (< 1% TBSA) but despite this 30 (60%) patients were admitted to hospital and 13 (26%) required at least one surgical procedure. In children, most burns occurred at home and were commonly due to pulling the flex or knocking the iron from its surface. In adults, 50% of injuries were associated with epilepsy. Burns from domestic irons are relatively common and cause significant morbidity despite their small size. A bimodal presentation is seen with injuries occurring either before the age of 4 years or during adulthood, when they are typically associated with an underlying medical condition. Education campaigns and design features such as a retractable cord may further reduce the incidence of this type of burn.

  14. Controlling Transistor Temperature During Burn-In

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, B. C.

    1986-01-01

    Boiling refrigerant provides simple temperature control for newly manufactured power transistors. Heat-transfer liquid is Fluorinert FC-77 (or equivalent). Liquid boils at 100 degrees C, which is specified temperature at which transistor cases should be maintained during burn-in with this technique.

  15. Burning trees and bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1990-01-01

    Most burning of biomass is the result of human activity, and on a global scale it is increasing. Tropospheric concentrations of CO2, CO, CH4, non-methane hydrocarbons, and ozone are all increasing with time; global biomass burning may make an important contribution to this increase and thus to potential global climate change. The nitrogen cycle also can have important climatic effects. Nitrous oxide put into the atmosphere by biomass burning is a greenhouse gas 250 times more powerful (molecule for molecule) than carbon dioxide. Nitric oxide, as well as being a photochemical precursor of ozone, a major pollutant in the troposphere, produces nitric acid, the fastest-growing component of acid rain. Hence, the new bridge in the nitrogen cycle is of more than mere technical interest.

  16. Characterization of Ovine Dermal Papilla Cell Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Sari, Agnes Rosarina Prita; Rufaut, Nicholas Wolfgang; Jones, Leslie Norman; Sinclair, Rodney Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Context: The dermal papilla (DP) is a condensation of mesenchymal cells at the proximal end of the hair follicle, which determines hair shaft size and regulates matrix cell proliferation and differentiation. DP cells have the ability to regenerate new hair follicles. These cells tend to aggregate both in vitro and in vivo. This tendency is associated with the ability of papilla cells to induce hair growth. However, human papilla cells lose their hair-inducing activity in later passage number. Ovine DP cells are different from human DP cells since they do not lose their aggregative behavior or hair-inducing activity in culture. Nonetheless, our understanding of ovine DP cells is still limited. Aim: The aim of this study was to observe the expression of established DP markers in ovine cells and their association with aggregation. Subjects and Methods: Ovine DP cells from three different sheep were compared. Histochemistry, immunoflourescence, and polymerase chain reaction experiments were done to analyze the DP markers. Results: We found that ovine DP aggregates expressed all the 16 markers evaluated, including alkaline phosphatase and versican. Expression of the versican V0 and V3 isoforms, neural cell adhesion molecule, and corin was increased significantly with aggregation, while hey-1 expression was significantly decreased. Conclusions: Overall, the stable expression of numerous markers suggests that aggregating ovine DP cells have a similar phenotype to papillae in vivo. The stability of their molecular phenotype is consistent with their robust aggregative behavior and retained follicle-inducing activity after prolonged culture. Their phenotypic stability in culture contrasts with DP cells from other species, and suggests that a better understanding of ovine DP cells might provide opportunities to improve the hair-inducing activity and therapeutic potential of human cells. PMID:27625564

  17. Characterization of Ovine Dermal Papilla Cell Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Sari, Agnes Rosarina Prita; Rufaut, Nicholas Wolfgang; Jones, Leslie Norman; Sinclair, Rodney Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Context: The dermal papilla (DP) is a condensation of mesenchymal cells at the proximal end of the hair follicle, which determines hair shaft size and regulates matrix cell proliferation and differentiation. DP cells have the ability to regenerate new hair follicles. These cells tend to aggregate both in vitro and in vivo. This tendency is associated with the ability of papilla cells to induce hair growth. However, human papilla cells lose their hair-inducing activity in later passage number. Ovine DP cells are different from human DP cells since they do not lose their aggregative behavior or hair-inducing activity in culture. Nonetheless, our understanding of ovine DP cells is still limited. Aim: The aim of this study was to observe the expression of established DP markers in ovine cells and their association with aggregation. Subjects and Methods: Ovine DP cells from three different sheep were compared. Histochemistry, immunoflourescence, and polymerase chain reaction experiments were done to analyze the DP markers. Results: We found that ovine DP aggregates expressed all the 16 markers evaluated, including alkaline phosphatase and versican. Expression of the versican V0 and V3 isoforms, neural cell adhesion molecule, and corin was increased significantly with aggregation, while hey-1 expression was significantly decreased. Conclusions: Overall, the stable expression of numerous markers suggests that aggregating ovine DP cells have a similar phenotype to papillae in vivo. The stability of their molecular phenotype is consistent with their robust aggregative behavior and retained follicle-inducing activity after prolonged culture. Their phenotypic stability in culture contrasts with DP cells from other species, and suggests that a better understanding of ovine DP cells might provide opportunities to improve the hair-inducing activity and therapeutic potential of human cells.

  18. Total intravenous anesthesia for major burn surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Cuenca, Phillip B; Walker, Stephen C; Shepherd, John M

    2013-01-01

    Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) is frequently used for major operations requiring general anesthesia in critically ill burn patients. We reviewed our experience with this approach. Methods: During a 22-month period, 547 major burn surgeries were performed in this center’s operating room and were staffed by full-time burn anesthesiologists. The records of all 123 TIVA cases were reviewed; 112 records were complete and were included. For comparison, 75 cases were selected at random from a total of 414 non-TIVA general anesthetics. Some patients had more than one operation during the study: as appropriate for the analysis in question, each operation or each patient was entered as an individual case. For inter-patient analysis, exposure to 1 or more TIVAs was used to categorize a patient as member of the TIVA group. Results: Excision and grafting comprised 78.2% of the operations. 14 TIVA regimens were used, employing combinations of 4 i.v. drugs: ketamine (K, 91 cases); i.v. methadone (M, 62); fentanyl (F, 58); and propofol (P, 21). The most common regimens were KM (34 cases); KF (26); KMF (16); and K alone (8). Doses used often exceeded those used in non-burn patients. TIVA was preferred for those patients who were more critically ill prior to surgery, with a higher ASA score (3.87 vs. 3.11). Consistent with this, inhalation injury (26.7 vs. 1.6%), burn size (TBSA, 36.3 vs. 15.8%), and full-thickness burn size (FULL, 19.8 vs. 6.5%) were higher in TIVA than in non-TIVA patients. Despite this, intraoperative pressor use was as common in TIVA as in non-TIVA cases (23.9 vs. 22.7%). Conclusions: TIVA was used in patients whose inhalation injury rate and TBSA were greater than those of non-TIVA patients. TIVA cases were not associated with increased hemodynamic instability. TIVA is a viable approach to general anesthesia in critically ill burn patients. PMID:23638329

  19. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jimson, Sudha; Rajesh, E; Krupaa, R Jayasri; Kasthuri, M

    2015-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or burning sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required for better control of the symptoms. In addition, psychotherapy and behavioral feedback may also help eliminate the BMS symptoms. PMID:26015707

  20. Rocket plume burn hazard.

    PubMed

    Stoll, A M; Piergallini, J R; Chianta, M A

    1980-05-01

    By use of miniature rocket engines, the burn hazard posed by exposure to ejection seat rocket plume flames was determined in the anaesthetized rat. A reference chart is provided for predicting equivalent effects in human skin based on extrapolation of earlier direct measurements of heat input for rat and human burns. The chart is intended to be used in conjunction with thermocouple temperature measurements of the plume environment for design and modification of escape seat system to avoid thermal injury on ejection from multiplace aircraft. PMID:7387571

  1. Wood burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, R.F.; Byrd, W.W.

    1980-01-08

    This is a stove primarily for the burning of wood, but also capable of burning other combustible materials. The stove is characterized by a unique combustion chamber, together with a recirculating combustion chamber and baffle for more perfect combustion and characterized by a heat radiating chamber which may be closed so as to be used as an oven, and by a unique damper placement in combination with the exhaust flue pipe so adapted as to automatically activate in order to cool the flue pipe in the event it should exceed safe heat limits.

  2. Genistein protects dermal fibrosis in bleomycin-induced experimental scleroderma

    PubMed Central

    Koca, Süleyman Serdar; Dağlı, Adile Ferda; Yolbaş, Servet; Gözel, Nevzat; Işık, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Objective Genistein, a phytoestrogen, has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-angiogenic properties. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of genistein in bleomycin (BLM)-induced dermal fibrosis. Material and Methods This study involved four groups of Balb/c mice (n=10 per group). Mice in three groups were administered BLM [100 μg/day in 100 μL phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)] subcutaneously for 4 weeks; the remaining (control) group received only 100 μL/day of PBS subcutaneously. PBS or BLM was injected into the shaved upper back. Two of the BLM-treated groups also received genistein (1 or 3 mg/kg/day, subcutaneously, to the dorsal front of neck). At the end of the fourth week, all mice were sacrificed and blood and tissue samples were obtained. Results The BLM applications increased the dermal thicknesses, tissue hydroxyproline contents, α-smooth muscle actin-positive cell counts, and led to histopathologically prominent dermal fibrosis. The genistein treatments decreased the tissue hydroxyproline contents and dermal thicknesses, in the BLM-injected mice. Conclusion Genistein has antifibrotic potential in BLM-induced dermal fibrosis model. However, its therapeutic potentials on human scleroderma require evaluation in future studies.

  3. Crosslinked hyaluronic acid dermal fillers: a comparison of rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Samuel J; Berg, Richard A

    2008-10-01

    Temporary dermal fillers composed of crosslinked hyaluronic acid (XLHA) are space filling gels that are readily available in the United States and Europe. Several families of dermal fillers based on XLHA are now available and here we compare the physical and rheological properties of these fillers to the clinical effectiveness. The XLHA fillers are prepared with different crosslinkers, using HA isolated from different sources, have different particle sizes, and differ substantially in rheological properties. For these fillers, the magnitude of the complex viscosity, |eta*|, varies by a factor of 20, the magnitude of the complex rigidity modulus, |G*|, and the magnitude of the complex compliance, |J*| vary by a factor of 10, the percent elasticity varies from 58% to 89.9%, and the tan delta varies from 0.11 to 0.70. The available clinical data cannot be correlated with either the oscillatory dynamic or steady flow rotational rheological properties of the various fillers. However, the clinical data appear to correlate strongly with the total concentration of XLHA in the products and to a lesser extent with percent elasticity. Hence, our data suggest the following correlation: dermal filler persistence = [polymer] x [% elasticity] and the clinical persistence of a dermal filler composed of XLHA is dominated by the mass and elasticity of the material implanted. This work predicts that the development of future XLHA dermal filler formulations should focus on increasing the polymer concentration and elasticity to improve the clinical persistence.

  4. Methylisothiazolinone: dermal and respiratory immune responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Devos, Fien C; Pollaris, Lore; Van Den Broucke, Sofie; Seys, Sven; Goossens, An; Nemery, Benoit; Hoet, Peter H M; Vanoirbeek, Jeroen A J

    2015-06-15

    Methylisothiazolinone (MI), a widely used chemical preservative in industrial and household products, and cosmetics, has been associated with allergic contact dermatitis. However, the asthmogenic capacity of MI is currently unknown. In this study, we investigated the capacity of MI to elicit asthma-like responses in a validated mouse model. On days 1 and 8, mice (C57Bl/6 and BALB/c) were dermally treated with MI or vehicle on each ear. On day 15, mice received a single intranasal challenge with MI or vehicle. Immediately after the challenge, the early ventilatory response was measured using a double chamber plethysmograph. One day later, airway hyperreactivity, pulmonary inflammation and immune-related parameters were assessed. Dermal treatment with MI in both C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice induced increased T- and B-cell proliferation in the auricular lymph nodes, along with IFN-γ production and limited increases in total serum IgE, confirming dermal sensitization. An airway challenge with MI led to an early ventilatory response (decreased breathing frequency), indicative for acute sensory irritation. However, 24h later no allergic respiratory response (no airway hyperreactivity (AHR) nor pulmonary inflammation) was found in either mouse strains. Our study indicates that MI can be classified as a strong dermal sensitizer and irritant, but not an asthmogen after initial dermal sensitization, followed by an airway challenge. PMID:25907379

  5. Ciprofloxacin Improves the Stemness of Human Dermal Papilla Cells.

    PubMed

    Kiratipaiboon, Chayanin; Tengamnuay, Parkpoom; Chanvorachote, Pithi

    2016-01-01

    Improvement in the expansion method of adult stem cells may augment their use in regenerative therapy. Using human dermal papilla cell line as well as primary dermal papilla cells as model systems, the present study demonstrated that ciprofloxacin treatment could prevent the loss of stemness during culture. Clonogenicity and stem cell markers of dermal papilla cells were shown to gradually decrease in the culture in a time-dependent manner. Treatment of the cells with nontoxic concentrations of ciprofloxacin could maintain both stem cell morphology and clonogenicity, as well as all stem cells markers. We found that ciprofloxacin exerted its effect through ATP-dependent tyrosine kinase/glycogen synthase kinase3β dependent mechanism which in turn upregulated β-catenin. Besides, ciprofloxacin was shown to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition in DPCs as the transcription factors ZEB1 and Snail were significantly increased. Furthermore, the self-renewal proteins of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, namely, Nanog and Oct-4 were significantly upregulated in the ciprofloxacin-treated cells. The effects of ciprofloxacin in preserving stem cell features were confirmed in the primary dermal papilla cells directly obtained from human hair follicles. Together, these results revealed a novel application of ciprofloxacin for stem cell maintenance and provided the underlying mechanisms that are responsible for the stemness in dermal papilla cells.

  6. Alteration of Skin Properties with Autologous Dermal Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Thangapazham, Rajesh L.; Darling, Thomas N.; Meyerle, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Dermal fibroblasts are mesenchymal cells found between the skin epidermis and subcutaneous tissue. They are primarily responsible for synthesizing collagen and glycosaminoglycans; components of extracellular matrix supporting the structural integrity of the skin. Dermal fibroblasts play a pivotal role in cutaneous wound healing and skin repair. Preclinical studies suggest wider applications of dermal fibroblasts ranging from skin based indications to non-skin tissue regeneration in tendon repair. One clinical application for autologous dermal fibroblasts has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) while others are in preclinical development or various stages of regulatory approval. In this context, we outline the role of fibroblasts in wound healing and discuss recent advances and the current development pipeline for cellular therapies using autologous dermal fibroblasts. The microanatomic and phenotypic differences of fibroblasts occupying particular locations within the skin are reviewed, emphasizing the therapeutic relevance of attributes exhibited by subpopulations of fibroblasts. Special focus is provided to fibroblast characteristics that define regional differences in skin, including the thick and hairless skin of the palms and soles as compared to hair-bearing skin. This regional specificity and functional identity of fibroblasts provides another platform for developing regional skin applications such as the induction of hair follicles in bald scalp or alteration of the phenotype of stump skin in amputees to better support their prosthetic devices. PMID:24828202

  7. Addition agents effects on hydrocarbon fuels burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, V. M.; Mitrofanov, G. A.; Sakhovskii, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Literature review on addition agents effects on hydrocarbon fuels burning has been conducted. The impact results in flame pattern and burning velocity change, energy efficiency increase, environmentally harmful NOx and CO emission reduction and damping of self-oscillations in flow. An assumption about water molecules dissociation phenomenon existing in a number of practical applications and being neglected in most explanations for physical- chemical processes taking place in case of injection of water/steam into combustion zone has been noted. The hypothesis about necessity of water dissociation account has been proposed. It can be useful for low temperature combustion process control and NOx emission reduction.

  8. Management of acute burns and burn shock resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Faldmo, L; Kravitz, M

    1993-05-01

    Initial management of minor and moderate, uncomplicated burn injury focuses on wound management and patient comfort. Initial management of patients with major burn injury requires airway support, fluid resuscitation for burn shock, treatment for associated trauma and preexisting medical conditions, management of adynamic ileus, and initial wound treatment. Fluid resuscitation, based on assessment of the extent and depth of burn injury, requires administration of intravenous fluids using resuscitation formula guidelines for the initial 24 hours after injury. Inhalation injury complicates flame burns and increases morbidity and mortality. Electrical injury places patients at risk for cardiac arrest, metabolic acidosis, and myoglobinuria. Circumferential full-thickness burns to extremities compromise circulation and require escharotomy or fasciotomy. Circumferential torso burns compromise air exchange and cardiac return. Loss of skin function places patients at risk for hypothermia, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and systemic sepsis. The first 24 hours after burn injury require aggressive medical management to assure survival and minimize complications. PMID:8489882

  9. Paralytic rabies following cat scratch and intra-dermal anti-rabies vaccination.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Vykuntaraju K; Basavaraja, G V; Reddy, Hamsa; Ramaswamy, Premalatha

    2014-05-01

    Only few reports of failure of intradermal postexposure prophylaxis for rabies following cat scratch exist in the published literature. We are reporting such a case in a 15-year-old girl. The child had category III cat scratch on her face. She presented with progressive paralysis, finally developing quadriplegia and respiratory paralysis. Typical hydrophobia and aerophobia were absent. She received intra-dermal anti-rabies cell culture vaccine. She did not receive anti-rabies immunoglobulin. The girl succumbed on the 10(th) day of weakness. Diagnosis of rabies was confirmed by isolation of rabies virus RNA in cerebrospinal fluid and skin biopsy sample by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

  10. Chlorhexidine burns after shoulder arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Thomas H; Hawken, Samuel M

    2012-04-01

    Chlorhexidine is an antiseptic and disinfectant commonly used for surgical site preparation and cleansing. It is active against a broad spectrum of bacteria, viruses, mycobacteria, and fungi. We report 3 cases of patients with superficial partial thickness burns immediately following shoulder arthroscopic surgery with the use of a Chloraprep 26 mL applicator (2% chlorhexidine gluconate and 70% isopropyl alcohol; CareFusion, Leawood, Kansas). All 3 patients reported pain as the anesthetic waned at a localized area on the anterior arm near the axilla. Erythema and blistering were noticeable. These areas were immediately treated with irrigation and local application of ice, and subsequently with topical triple-antibiotic ointment. All 3 cases were resolved within 3 months of surgery, but noticeable scars remained. We believe a combination of chlorhexidine skin preparation, local swelling inherent to shoulder arthroscopy, and traction contributed to these postoperative complications.

  11. Fat burn X: burning more than fat.

    PubMed

    Hannabass, Kyle; Olsen, Kevin Robert

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of bilateral lower extremity cramping and dark urine. The patient was found to have a creatine phosphokinase (CPK) elevated of up to 2306 U/L, a serum uric acid of 9.7 mg/dL and 101 red blood cell's per high-powered field on urinalysis. On questioning, the patient endorsed daily exercise with free weights. There were no changes in his regular exercise and medication regimen, no muscle trauma, no recent drug use and no illness. The patient did mention using a new fat burner known as 'Fat Burn X', which he had begun taking 2 days prior to the onset of his muscle cramps. The patient was given normal saline intravenous fluid resuscitation for 48 h with resultant normalisation of his CPK and creatinine, and was discharged with primary care follow-up.

  12. Rehabilitation of hand burn injuries: current updates.

    PubMed

    Cowan, April C; Stegink-Jansen, Caroline W

    2013-03-01

    The improved short and long term survival rate of individuals with large burn injuries has made rehabilitation for optimal recovery of the patient increasingly important. Burn injury to the hands worsens the prospect of functional recovery and good quality of life in single events, especially when included in larger burns. The purpose of this paper is to present a narrative review of examination strategies used for children with burn injuries to the hands in the acute, intermediate and long term stages of rehabilitation, and apply these concepts to selected treatments, using a case that is representative of this complex patient population. The model of health described by the World Health Organisation provided the framework for the review, to structure the review in the domains of body structures and body functions, functional activities and participation in life roles. The lack of consensus in the burn literature regarding the most appropriate outcome measures and interventions necessitates futures research and long term outcome studies to identify, predict and prevent the difficulties patients may face over their lifespan.

  13. Accumulative eschar after burn.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fushun

    2016-02-01

    Eschar formation is a potential sequela of burn injuries. Definitive management may include escharectomy and eschar debridement. After eschar removal, the wound can be covered with a skin graft or reepithelialization. For prolonged refractory eschar on the fingertips, topical use of rb-bFGF after debridement can achieve an optimal outcome.

  14. Burning Your Own CDs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the use of CDs (Compact Disks) for backing up data as an alternative to using floppy disks and explains how to burn, or record, a CD. Topics include differences between CD-R (CD-Recordable) and CD-RW (CD-Rewritable); advantages of CD-R and CD-RW; selecting a CD burner; technology trends; and care of CDs. (LRW)

  15. The Burn Wound Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Lloyd F.; Chan, Rodney K.

    2016-01-01

    Significance: While the survival rate of the severely burned patient has improved significantly, relatively little progress has been made in treatment or prevention of burn-induced long-term sequelae, such as contraction and fibrosis. Recent Advances: Our knowledge of the molecular pathways involved in burn wounds has increased dramatically, and technological advances now allow large-scale genomic studies, providing a global view of wound healing processes. Critical Issues: Translating findings from a large number of in vitro and preclinical animal studies into clinical practice represents a gap in our understanding, and the failures of a number of clinical trials suggest that targeting single pathways or cytokines may not be the best approach. Significant opportunities for improvement exist. Future Directions: Study of the underlying molecular influences of burn wound healing progression will undoubtedly continue as an active research focus. Increasing our knowledge of these processes will identify additional therapeutic targets, supporting informed clinical studies that translate into clinical relevance and practice. PMID:26989577

  16. The Earth Could Burn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarrow, Ruth

    1982-01-01

    Environmental educators are worried about the ultimate ecological threat--nuclear war, which could burn thousands of square miles, sterilize the soil, destroy 70 percent of the ozone layer letting in lethal ultraviolet rays, and cause severe radiation sickness. Educators must inform themselves, teach others, contact government representatives, and…

  17. Log-burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Choate, J.R.

    1982-11-23

    A log-burning stove having a stove door with an angled plate element secured thereto, the top portion of the plate element deflecting combustion gases inwardly to the combustion chamber, and the lower portion deflecting draft air inwardly and downwardly into the combustion chamber, the plate element also forming a log-support and log-sliding surface.

  18. TIRES, OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

  19. Dose Titration of Walleye Dermal Sarcoma (WDS) Tumor Filtrate.

    PubMed

    Getchell, R G; Wooster, G A; Sutton, C A; Casey, J W; Bowser, P R

    2006-12-01

    Walleyes Stizostedion vitreum were challenged with a topical application of a dilution series of cell-free dermal sarcoma tumor filtrates to determine the minimum dose of virus needed to induce these walleye tumors. A series of six 10-fold dilutions of the filtrate were applied to the side of the fish, which were allowed to develop grossly visible tumors at 15°C for 20 weeks. Quantification of the virus in the filtrates was accomplished by quantitative (real-time) reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. We determined that there are approximately 10(10) viral RNA copies in 100 μL of walleye dermal sarcoma inoculum. The minimum dose of walleye dermal sarcoma virus that could induce tumors by the topical challenge method was the 1,000-fold dilution of this 10(10) inoculum, or approximately 10(7) viral RNA copies.

  20. Juvéderm: a hyaluronic acid dermal filler.

    PubMed

    Monheit, Gary D; Prather, Chad L

    2007-11-01

    Over the past decade, the use of nonsurgical products and devices to correct facial contour defects and signs of skin aging has exploded with new lasers, toxins for muscle relaxation, and dermal fillers revolutionizing aesthetic medicine. Of all the nonsurgical modalities employed during this period, the dermal filler industry has seen the most growth in demand. In 2006, the worldwide market for dermal fillers increased by 19%; and the US market is expected to increase a further 20% to 25%. This is due in large part to new products, particularly the hyaluronic acids such as Juvéderm, which now promise greater longevity, fewer side effects, a more natural appearance, and easier administration.

  1. Molecular characterization of free tropospheric aerosol collected at the Pico Mountain Observatory: a case study with long range transported biomass burning plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzepina, K.; Mazzoleni, C.; Fialho, P.; China, S.; Zhang, B.; Owen, R. C.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Kumar, S.; Perlinger, J. A.; Kramer, L.; Dziobak, M. P.; Ampadu, M. T.; Olsen, S.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Mazzoleni, L. R.

    2014-09-01

    Free tropospheric aerosol was sampled at the Pico Mountain Observatory located at 2225 m a.m.s.l. on Pico Island of the Azores archipelago in the North Atlantic. The observatory (38°28'15'' N; 28°24'14'' W) is located ∼3900 km east and downwind of North America, which enables studies of free tropospheric air transported over long distances, mainly from North America. Aerosol samples collected on filters from June to October 2012 were analyzed to characterize organic carbon, elemental carbon and inorganic ion species. The average ambient concentration of aerosol was 0.9 μg m-3; on average organic aerosol contributes the majority of mass (57%), followed by sulfate (21%) and nitrate (17%). Filter-collected aerosol measurements were positively correlated (with an r2 ≥ 0.80) with continuous aerosol measurements of black carbon, aerosol light scattering and number concentration. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) species extracted from two aerosol samples (9/24 and 9/25) collected consecutively during a pollution event were analyzed using ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. FLEXPART retroplume analysis shows the sampled air masses were very aged (average plume age > 12 days). Approximately 4000 molecular formulas were assigned to each of the mass spectra in the range of m/z 100-1000. The majority of the assigned molecular formulas have unsaturated structures with CHO and CHNO elemental compositions. These aged WSOC compounds have an average O / C ratio of ∼0.45, which is relatively low compared to O / C ratios of other aged aerosol and might be the result of evaporation and increased fragmentation during long-range transport. The increase in aerosol loading during the measurement period of 9/24 was linked to biomass burning emissions from North America by FLEXPART retroplume analysis and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire counts. This was confirmed with biomass burning markers detected in

  2. Iatrogenic lip and facial burns caused by an overheated surgical instrument.

    PubMed

    Zadik, Yehuda

    2008-09-01

    An unusual case of an iatrogenic superficial burn of the lip and face during third molar surgery is presented. The burn was caused by a heated surgical instrument after sterilization. Although completely healed within three weeks, the burn had a negative influence on the patient-doctor trust. The surgical team must avoid using recently sterilized instruments in an unsafe manner. PMID:18856171

  3. [Burn injuries and mental health].

    PubMed

    Palmu, Raimo; Vuola, Jyrki

    2016-01-01

    Currently a large proportion of patients with severe burn injuries survive. This gives increasing challenges also for psychological recovery after the trauma. More than half of burn patients have mental disorders already before the burn injury but also patients who previously had no mental disorders may suffer from them. Some of the hospitalize burn patients have injuries due to suicidal attempts. Only a small proportion of burn patients receive appropriate psychiatric care although psychosocial interventions specifically planned for burn victims exist. More frequent screening of symtoms of mental disorders and psychiatric consultation, also after acute care in hospital, could lead to better management of post-burn psychiatric care as well as better management of the burn treatment and rehabilitation itself. PMID:27089616

  4. Amputation Following Hand Escharotomy in Patients with Burn Injury

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Scott M.; Choo, Joshua; Cooney, Damon; Moore, Alyssa L.; Sebens, Matt; Neumeister, Michael W.; Wilhelmi, Bradon J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hand burns are commonly seen in patients with burn injury. In the past, focus was on lifesaving measures, but with advances in burn care during the last century, the paradigm shifted to digital salvage and eventually to functional digital salvage. Good outcomes are heavily dependent on the care that is rendered during the initial management of the burn. Methods: A retrospective medical record review was conducted through the Central Illinois Regional Burn Center Patient Registry. Patients with burn injury treated with upper extremity and hand escharotomy between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2005, were included in the study. Results: We identified a total of 34 patients with 57 burned hands. Six hands required delayed amputation of digits despite recognition of neurovascular compromise and escharotomy, yielding a 10% amputation rate. No correlation could be drawn with regard to total body surface area, age, or sex. Conclusion: Important principles in the acute phase include early splinting, recognition of the need for escharotomy and complete escharotomy when necessary, early excision and grafting, and involvement of occupational therapy for splinting and to guide both active and passive exercises. Although uncommon, some extremity burns may require subsequent amputation despite prompt attention and optimal treatment. In our case series, the need for amputation after successful escharotomies of salvageable digits was associated with full-thickness and electrical burns. PMID:26977219

  5. SKPs derive from hair follicle precursors and exhibit properties of adult dermal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Biernaskie, Jeffrey; Paris, Maryline; Morozova, Olena; Fagan, B Matthew; Marra, Marco; Pevny, Larysa; Miller, Freda D

    2009-12-01

    Despite the remarkable regenerative capacity of mammalian skin, an adult dermal stem cell has not yet been identified. Here, we investigated whether skin-derived precursors (SKPs) might fulfill such a role. We show that SKPs derive from Sox2(+) hair follicle dermal cells and that these two cell populations are similar with regard to their transcriptome and functional properties. Both clonal SKPs and endogenous Sox2(+) cells induce hair morphogenesis, differentiate into dermal cell types, and home to a hair follicle niche upon transplantation. Moreover, hair follicle-derived SKPs self-renew, maintain their multipotency, and serially reconstitute hair follicles. Finally, grafting experiments show that follicle-associated dermal cells move out of their niche to contribute cells for dermal maintenance and wound-healing. Thus, SKPs derive from Sox2(+) follicle-associated dermal precursors and display functional properties predicted of a dermal stem cell, contributing to dermal maintenance, wound-healing, and hair follicle morphogenesis.

  6. Accuracy of a semiquantitative method for Dermal Exposure Assessment (DREAM)

    PubMed Central

    van Wendel, de Joo... B; Vermeulen, R; van Hemmen, J J; Fransman, W; Kromhout, H

    2005-01-01

    Background: The authors recently developed a Dermal Exposure Assessment Method (DREAM), an observational semiquantitative method to assess dermal exposures by systematically evaluating exposure determinants using pre-assigned default values. Aim: To explore the accuracy of the DREAM method by comparing its estimates with quantitative dermal exposure measurements in several occupational settings. Methods: Occupational hygienists observed workers performing a certain task, whose exposure to chemical agents on skin or clothing was measured quantitatively simultaneously, and filled in the DREAM questionnaire. DREAM estimates were compared with measurement data by estimating Spearman correlation coefficients for each task and for individual observations. In addition, mixed linear regression models were used to study the effect of DREAM estimates on the variability in measured exposures between tasks, between workers, and from day to day. Results: For skin exposures, spearman correlation coefficients for individual observations ranged from 0.19 to 0.82. DREAM estimates for exposure levels on hands and forearms showed a fixed effect between and within surveys, explaining mainly between-task variance. In general, exposure levels on clothing layer were only predicted in a meaningful way by detailed DREAM estimates, which comprised detailed information on the concentration of the agent in the formulation to which exposure occurred. Conclusions: The authors expect that the DREAM method can be successfully applied for semiquantitative dermal exposure assessment in epidemiological and occupational hygiene surveys of groups of workers with considerable contrast in dermal exposure levels (variability between groups >1.0). For surveys with less contrasting exposure levels, quantitative dermal exposure measurements are preferable. PMID:16109819

  7. Dermal absorption of mucopolysaccharide polysulfate (heparinoid) in human and minipig.

    PubMed

    Kumokawa, Tadao; Hirata, Kazumasa; Sato, Keiichi; Kano, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Dermal absorption of mucopolysaccharide polysulfate (MPS, the active ingredient of Hirudoid") in human and minipig was investigated by using 14C-labeled MPS. Three types of human and minipig skin samples were used: intact, dried and tape-stripped. At 24 h after application of 14C-MPS to intact human skin on a Franz cell in vitro, the radioactivity was detected in 0.98, 1.34, and 0.08% of the applied dose in stratum corneum, epidermal-dermal skin, and receptor fluid, respectively. In dried human skin, the amount of radioactivity detected was similar to that in intact human skin. By contrast, in tape-stripped human skin, higher radioactivity was detected in epidermal-dermal skin and receptor fluid (2.85 and 0.33% of the applied dose, respectively) than in intact or dried skin. Minipig skin showed 1.5 to 4.5 times greater dermal absorption of 14C-MPS, as compared with human skin. In an in vivo study with minipig, radioactivity was detected at the dosing skin site after dermal administration of 14C-MPS. The stability of 14C-MPS in human skin after dermal application was evaluated by agarose gel electrophoresis and ion-exchange chromatography. It was suggested that 14C-MPS absorbed into human skin would be stable because the chromatogram behaviors of the radioactivity on the two types of method were not shifted. Microautoradiography of human and minipig skins after 14C-MPS dosing showed that radioactivity was widely distributed in the epidermis in the area near hair follicles. The present results clearly demonstrate that MPS is stable and that a small fraction of it is percutaneously absorbed by human and minipig skin.

  8. Carbofuran occupational dermal toxicity, exposure and risk assessment†

    PubMed Central

    Gammon, Derek W; Liu, Zhiwei; Becker, John M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Carbofuran is a carbamate insecticide that inhibits AChE. Although toxic by ingestion in mammals, it has low dermal toxicity, with relatively few confirmed worker illnesses. This risk assessment describes its time of onset, time to peak effect and time to recovery in rats using brain AChE inhibition in acute and 21 day dermal studies; in vitro rat/human relative dermal absorption for granular (5G) and liquid (4F) formulations; occupational exposure estimates using the Pesticide Handlers' Exposure Database and Agricultural Handlers' Exposure Database (PHED/AHED). RESULTS The point of departure for acute risk calculation (BMDL10) was 6.7 mg kg−1 day−1 for brain AChE inhibition after 6 h exposure. In a 21 day study, the BMDL10 was 6.8 mg kg−1 day−1, indicating reversibility. At 75 mg kg−1 day−1, time of onset was ≤30 min and time to peak effect was 6–12 h. Rat skin had ca tenfold greater dermal absorption of carbofuran (Furadan® 5G or 4F) than human skin. Exposure estimates for 5G in rice and 4F in ten crops had adequate margins of exposure (>100). CONCLUSION Rat dermal carbofuran toxicity was assessed in terms of dose and time-related inhibition of AChE. Comparative dermal absorption in rats was greater than in humans. Worker exposure estimates indicated acceptable risk for granular and liquid formulations of carbofuran. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry PMID:21834090

  9. Severe pyoderma gangrenosum in association with a flame burn

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Kaho; Okamoto, Osamu; Sato, Seiichi; Gamachi, Ayako; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We herein report a severe case of pyoderma gangrenosum occurring in a burn patient and discuss the possibility of occult complications of this pathological state in daily treatment. PMID:27583260

  10. Volume correction in the aging hand: role of dermal fillers.

    PubMed

    Rivkin, Alexander Z

    2016-01-01

    The hands, just like the face, are highly visible parts of the body. They age at a similar rate and demonstrate comparable changes with time, sun damage, and smoking. Loss of volume in the hands exposes underlying tendons, veins, and bony prominences. Rejuvenation of the hands with dermal fillers is a procedure with high patient satisfaction and relatively low risk for complications. This study will review relevant anatomy, injection technique, clinical safety, and efficacy of dermal filler volumization of the aging hand. PMID:27621659

  11. Volume correction in the aging hand: role of dermal fillers

    PubMed Central

    Rivkin, Alexander Z

    2016-01-01

    The hands, just like the face, are highly visible parts of the body. They age at a similar rate and demonstrate comparable changes with time, sun damage, and smoking. Loss of volume in the hands exposes underlying tendons, veins, and bony prominences. Rejuvenation of the hands with dermal fillers is a procedure with high patient satisfaction and relatively low risk for complications. This study will review relevant anatomy, injection technique, clinical safety, and efficacy of dermal filler volumization of the aging hand. PMID:27621659

  12. Burns in mobile home fires--descriptive study at a regional burn center.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Robert F; Alarm, Badrul; Huq Mian, Mohammad Anwarul; Samples, Jancie M; Friedman, Bruce C; Shaver, Joseph R; Brandigi, Claus; Hassan, Zaheed

    2009-01-01

    Death from fires and burns are the sixth most common cause of unintentional injury death in the United States. More than (3/4) of burn deaths occurring in the United States are in the home. Mobile home fires carry twice the death rate as other dwellings. The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of deaths and injuries in mobile home fire admitted in a regional Burn Center and to identify possible risk factors. A cross-sectional retrospective study was carried out among all burn patients admitted to a regional Burn Center between January 2002 and December 2004 (3469 patients). The study included patients who suffered a burn injury from a mobile home fire. The demographic characteristics of the patients, location of mobile home, associated inhalation injury, source of fire, comorbidity of the victims, employment status, insurance status, family history of burns, and outcomes of the treatment were incorporated in a data collection record. There were 65 burn patients in mobile home fires admitted to the Burn Center during the studied period. The average age of the patients was 39 years (ranging from 2 to 81 years, SD=16.06), 77% were male, 67% were white, and 79% were the residents in the suburban areas of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Florida. The average TBSA of burns was about 21% (ranging from 1 to 63%, SD=17.66), 63% of the patients had associated inhalation, three inhalation injury only, and 69% patients required ventilator support. The average length of stay per TBSA percentage of burn was 1.01 days (P=0.00), controlling for age, preexisting medical comorbidities, and inhalation injury. About 88% of the patients had preexisting medical comorbid conditions, 74% were smokers, 64% reported as alcoholic, and 72% had at least some form of health insurance coverage. In 40% of the cases, the cause of the fire was unknown, 31% were caused by accidental explosions, such as electric, gasoline, or kerosene appliances, and 29% were due to other

  13. Biomass Burning Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-04-21

    Biomass Burning Data and Information This data set represents ... geographical and temporal distribution of total amount of biomass burned. These data may be used in general circulation models (GCMs) and ... models of the atmosphere. Project Title:  Biomass Burning Discipline:  Tropospheric Chemistry ...

  14. The overall patterns of burns

    PubMed Central

    Almoghrabi, A.; Abu Shaban, N.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Burn patterns differ across the whole world and not only in relation to lack of education, overcrowding, and poverty. Cultures, habits, traditions, psychiatric illness, and epilepsy are strongly correlated to burn patterns. However, burns may also occur because of specific religious beliefs and activities, social events and festivals, traditional medical practices, occupational activities, and war. PMID:22639565

  15. PGN Prescribed Burn Research Summary

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 1997, we have been studying the effects of prescribed burns conducted during late winter on shortgrass steppe on the Pawnee National Grassland. During 1997 – 2002, we studied burns on the western (Crow Valley) portion of the Pawnee by comparing plant growth on burns conducted by the Forest Ser...

  16. The immunology of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL).

    PubMed

    Zijlstra, Eduard E

    2016-01-01

    Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a common complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani. Because of its possible role in transmission it is considered a public health problem in VL endemic areas. The clinical features include a skin rash consisting of macules, papules or nodules in an otherwise healthy individual; this presentation is determined by the immune response towards parasites in the skin that probably persisted from the previous VL episode. The immune response in VL, cured VL and PKDL is the result of changes in the cytokine profile that only in part can be captured under the Th1 and Th2 dichotomy. Regulatory T cells and Th 17 cells also play a role. VL is characterized by an absent immune response to Leishmania with a predominantly Th2 type of response with high levels of IL-10; after successful treatment the patient will be immune with in vitro features of a Th1 type of response and in vivo a positive leishmanin skin test. PKDL takes an intermediate position with a dissociation of the immune response between the skin and the viscera, with a Th2 and Th1 type of response, respectively. It is likely that immune responses determine the different epidemiological and clinical characteristics of PKDL in Asia and Africa; various risk factors for PKDL may influence this, such as incomplete and inadequate treatment of VL, parasite resistance and genetic factors. It should be noted that PKDL is a heterogeneous and dynamic condition and patients differ with regard to time of onset after visceral leishmaniasis (VL), chronicity, extent and appearance of the rash including related immune responses, all of which may vary over time. Better understanding of these immune responses may offer opportunities for manipulation including combined chemotherapy and immunotherapy for VL to prevent PKDL from occurring and similarly in the treatment of chronic or treatment resistant PKDL cases. PMID:27553063

  17. Is the Target of 1 Day of Stay per 1% Total Body Surface Area Burned Achieved in Chemical Burns?

    PubMed

    Tan, Teresa; Wong, David S Y

    2016-02-01

    The length of hospital stay (LOS) is a standard parameter used to reflect quality and evaluate outcomes in acute burn care. This study aims to assess whether the target of 1 day of stay per 1% total body surface area (TBSA) burned was achieved in acute chemical burns management and factors affecting the LOS. A retrospective analysis of the records of patients who suffered from chemical burn injuries admitted to a university burn center over a continuous 14-year period was performed.A total of 118 patients were admitted over the period for chemical burns. Only 14% of cases achieved the target stated. Factors associated with lengthening of the hospital stay included TBSA, ocular involvement, the cause of injury, and the need for surgery during the same admission.The LOS in chemical burns frequently exceeds 1 day of stay per 1% TBSA burned. Many factors can contribute to a patient's LOS and are worth exploring in order to see if the impact of these factors could be minimized. Early surgical intervention should help to reduce the LOS if reliable methods of burn wound depth assessment are available.

  18. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a)...

  19. Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, Donovan S.; Morgan, Penelope; Kolden, Crystal A.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Smith, Alistair M. S.

    2014-05-01

    The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily areas burned from which we calculated the proportions of each of three burn severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized burn ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. We found that the proportion of high burn severity was weakly correlated (Kendall τ = 0.299) with size of daily area burned (DAB). Burn severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and area burned in a day.

  20. Toll-like receptors expressed by dermal fibroblasts contribute to hypertrophic scarring.

    PubMed

    Wang, JianFei; Hori, Keijiro; Ding, Jie; Huang, Yue; Kwan, Peter; Ladak, Adil; Tredget, Edward E

    2011-05-01

    Hypertrophic scar (HTS), a fibroproliferative disorder (FPD), complicates burn wound healing. Although the pathogenesis is not understood, prolonged inflammation is a known contributing factor. Emerging evidence suggests that fibroblasts regulate immune/inflammatory responses through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) through adaptor molecules, leading to nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells and mitogen-activated protein kinases activation, cytokine gene transcription and co-stimulatory molecule expression resulting in inflammation. This study explored the possible role of TLR4 in HTS formation. Paired normal and HTS tissue from burn patients was collected and dermal fibroblasts isolated and cultured. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissues demonstrated increased TLR4 staining in HTS tissue. Quantitative RT-PCR of three pairs of fibroblasts demonstrated mRNA levels for TLR4 and its legend myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in HTS fibroblasts were increased significantly compared with normal fibroblasts. Flow cytometry showed increased TLR4 expression in HTS fibroblasts compared with normal. ELISA demonstrated protein levels for prostaglandin E2, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly increased in HTS fibroblasts compared to normal. When paired normal and HTS fibroblasts were stimulated with LPS, significant increases in mRNA and protein levels for MyD88, IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 were detected. However, when transfected with MyD88 small interfering RNA (siRNA), then stimulated with LPS, a significant decrease in mRNA and protein levels for these molecules compared to only LPS-stimulated fibroblasts was detected. In comparison, a scramble siRNA transfection did not affect mRNA or protein levels for these molecules. Results demonstrate LPS stimulates proinflammatory cytokine expression in dermal fibroblasts and MyD88 siRNA eliminates the expression. Therefore

  1. Skin tissue engineering advances in severe burns: review and therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Chua, Alvin Wen Choong; Khoo, Yik Cheong; Tan, Bien Keem; Tan, Kok Chai; Foo, Chee Liam; Chong, Si Jack

    2016-01-01

    Current advances in basic stem cell research and tissue engineering augur well for the development of improved cultured skin tissue substitutes: a class of products that is still fraught with limitations for clinical use. Although the ability to grow autologous keratinocytes in-vitro from a small skin biopsy into sheets of stratified epithelium (within 3 to 4 weeks) helped alleviate the problem of insufficient donor site for extensive burn, many burn units still have to grapple with insufficient skin allografts which are used as intermediate wound coverage after burn excision. Alternatives offered by tissue-engineered skin dermal replacements to meet emergency demand have been used fairly successfully. Despite the availability of these commercial products, they all suffer from the same problems of extremely high cost, sub-normal skin microstructure and inconsistent engraftment, especially in full thickness burns. Clinical practice for severe burn treatment has since evolved to incorporate these tissue-engineered skin substitutes, usually as an adjunct to speed up epithelization for wound closure and/or to improve quality of life by improving the functional and cosmetic results long-term. This review seeks to bring the reader through the beginnings of skin tissue engineering, the utilization of some of the key products developed for the treatment of severe burns and the hope of harnessing stem cells to improve on current practice. PMID:27574673

  2. Local Burn-Up Effects in the NBSR Fuel Element

    SciTech Connect

    Brown N. R.; Hanson A.; Diamond, D.

    2013-01-31

    This study addresses the over-prediction of local power when the burn-up distribution in each half-element of the NBSR is assumed to be uniform. A single-element model was utilized to quantify the impact of axial and plate-wise burn-up on the power distribution within the NBSR fuel elements for both high-enriched uranium (HEU) and low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. To validate this approach, key parameters in the single-element model were compared to parameters from an equilibrium core model, including neutron energy spectrum, power distribution, and integral U-235 vector. The power distribution changes significantly when incorporating local burn-up effects and has lower power peaking relative to the uniform burn-up case. In the uniform burn-up case, the axial relative power peaking is over-predicted by as much as 59% in the HEU single-element and 46% in the LEU single-element with uniform burn-up. In the uniform burn-up case, the plate-wise power peaking is over-predicted by as much as 23% in the HEU single-element and 18% in the LEU single-element. The degree of over-prediction increases as a function of burn-up cycle, with the greatest over-prediction at the end of Cycle 8. The thermal flux peak is always in the mid-plane gap; this causes the local cumulative burn-up near the mid-plane gap to be significantly higher than the fuel element average. Uniform burn-up distribution throughout a half-element also causes a bias in fuel element reactivity worth, due primarily to the neutronic importance of the fissile inventory in the mid-plane gap region.

  3. Dermal γδ T-Cells Can Be Activated by Mitochondrial Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Schwacha, Martin G.; Rani, Meenakshi; Nicholson, Susannah E.; Lewis, Aaron M.; Holloway, Travis L.; Sordo, Salvador; Cap, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Gamma delta T-cells have been shown to be important to the early immunoinflammatory response to injury, independent of infection. This unique T-cell population acts to regulate cell trafficking and the release of cytokines and growth factors. We propose this sterile inflammatory response is in part associated with damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) generated by major injury, such as burn, and mediated via toll-like receptors (TLRs). It is unknown whether DAMPs can activate resident γδ T-cells that reside in skin. Methods Gamma delta T-cells were isolated from the skin of male C57BL/6 mice by enzymatic digestion. Mitochondrial DAMPs (MTDs) were generated from mitochondria isolated from mouse livers by sonication and centrifugation. Dermal γδ T-cells were incubated with MTDs (0–500 μg/ml) for 24 hr and cells and supernatants were collected for analysis. Results MTDs activated dermal γδ T-cells, as evidenced by increased TLR2 and TLR4 expression following in vitro exposure. MTDs also induced the production of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6), and growth factors (PDGF and VEGF) by γδ T-cells. Conclusions These findings herein support the concept that MTDs released after tissue/cellular injury are capable of activating dermal γδ T-cells. We propose that the activation of this unique T-cell population is central in the initiation of sterile inflammation and also contributes to the subsequent healing processes. PMID:27403524

  4. Face Allotransplantation and Burns: a Review

    PubMed Central

    A, Arno; JP, Barret; RA, Harrison; MG, Jeschke

    2012-01-01

    Burns may represent one of the main indications for face allotransplantation. Severely disfigured faces featuring a devastating appearance and great functional impairments are not only seen as burn sequelae, but also occur as a result of other traumatic injuries, oncological surgical resections, benign tumors (e.g., neurofibromatosis), and major congenital malformations. To date, sixteen human face composite tissue allotransplantations have been performed with success. Despite the initial scepticism about its applicability, due mainly to ethical and technical reasons, the previous worldwide cases and their associated positive outcomes –including acceptable immunosuppressive regimens, excellent aesthetic and functional results, and good psychological acceptance by the recipient- , enable the conclusion that face composite tissue allotransplantation has become another therapeutic strategy in the reconstructive surgical armamentarium, which bears special consideration when dealing with severely disfigured burned patients. The aim of this review is to describe the basics of face composite tissue allotransplantation and give an overview of some of the cases performed until now, with special attention paid to debating the pros and cons of its applicability in burn patients. PMID:22274632

  5. Wood and coal burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Barsness, G. H.; Kleine, R. A.

    1985-12-03

    A stove for burning wood, coal and other fuels comprised of flammable solids that among other things produce one or more flammable gases when heating or burning. The preferred form of the stove has three modes of operation-a rapid burning mode, a normal or medium burning mode and a banked mode. The user makes a preliminary decision as to whether the stove is to be operated in its normal mode or banked mode. Thereafter, controlled by temperature responsive means, the stove moves itself fully automatically back and forth from the rapid burning mode to whichever one of the other two modes of operation has been preselected by the user.

  6. Molecular characterization of free tropospheric aerosol collected at the Pico Mountain Observatory: a case study with a long-range transported biomass burning plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzepina, K.; Mazzoleni, C.; Fialho, P.; China, S.; Zhang, B.; Owen, R. C.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Kumar, S.; Perlinger, J. A.; Kramer, L. J.; Dziobak, M. P.; Ampadu, M. T.; Olsen, S.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Mazzoleni, L. R.

    2015-05-01

    Free tropospheric aerosol was sampled at the Pico Mountain Observatory located at 2225 m above mean sea level on Pico Island of the Azores archipelago in the North Atlantic. The observatory is located ~ 3900 km east and downwind of North America, which enables studies of free tropospheric air transported over long distances. Aerosol samples collected on filters from June to October 2012 were analyzed to characterize organic carbon, elemental carbon, and inorganic ions. The average ambient concentration of aerosol was 0.9 ± 0.7 μg m-3. On average, organic aerosol components represent the largest mass fraction of the total measured aerosol (60 ± 51%), followed by sulfate (23 ± 28%), nitrate (13 ± 10%), chloride (2 ± 3%), and elemental carbon (2 ± 2%). Water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) extracted from two aerosol samples (9/24 and 9/25) collected consecutively during a pollution event were analyzed using ultrahigh-resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Approximately 4000 molecular formulas were assigned to each of the mass spectra in the range of m/z 100-1000. The majority of the assigned molecular formulas had unsaturated structures with CHO and CHNO elemental compositions. FLEXPART retroplume analyses showed the sampled air masses were very aged (average plume age > 12 days). These aged aerosol WSOM compounds had an average O/C ratio of ~ 0.45, which is relatively low compared to O/C ratios of other aged aerosol. The increase in aerosol loading during the measurement period of 9/24 was linked to biomass burning emissions from North America by FLEXPART retroplume analysis and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire counts. This was confirmed with biomass burning markers detected in the WSOM and with the morphology and mixing state of particles as determined by scanning electron microscopy. The presence of markers characteristic of aqueous-phase reactions of phenolic species suggests

  7. Dermal Lipogenesis Inhibits Adiponectin Production in Human Dermal Fibroblasts while Exogenous Adiponectin Administration Prevents against UVA-Induced Dermal Matrix Degradation in Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Chien-Liang; Huang, Ling-Hung; Tsai, Hung-Yueh; Chang, Hsin-I

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin is one of the most abundant adipokines from the subcutaneous fat, and regulates multiple activities through endocrine, paracrine, or autocrine mechanisms. However, its expression in adipogenic induced fibroblasts, and the potential role in photoaging has not been determined. Here, human dermal fibroblasts, Hs68, were presented as a cell model of dermal lipogenesis through stimulation of adipogenic differentiation medium (ADM). Similar to other studies in murine pre-adipocyte models (i.e., 3T3-L1), Hs68 fibroblasts showed a tendency to lipogenesis based on lipid accumulation, triglyceride formation, and the expressions of PPAR-γ, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and FABP4 mRNA. As expected, ADM-treated fibroblasts displayed a reduction on adiponectin expression. Next, we emphasized the photoprotective effects of adiponectin against UVA-induced damage in Hs68 fibroblasts. UVA radiation can downregulate cell adhesion strength and elastic modulus of Hs68 fibroblasts. Moreover, UVA radiation could induce the mRNA expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), MMP-3, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), but downregulate the mRNA expressions of type I and type III collagen. On the other hand, post-treatment of adiponectin can partially overcome UVA-induced reduction in the cell adhesion strength of Hs68 fibroblasts through the activation of AdipoR1 and the suppression of EGF-R. In addition, post-treatment of adiponectin indicated the increase of type III collagen and elastin mRNA expression and the decrease of MMP-1 and MMP-3 mRNA expression, but a limited degree of recovery of elastic modulus on UVA-irradiated Hs68 fibroblasts. Overall, these results suggest that dermal lipogenesis may inhibit the expression of adiponectin while exogenous adiponectin administration prevents against UVA-induced dermal matrix degradation in Hs68 fibroblasts. PMID:27428951

  8. Dermal Lipogenesis Inhibits Adiponectin Production in Human Dermal Fibroblasts while Exogenous Adiponectin Administration Prevents against UVA-Induced Dermal Matrix Degradation in Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chien-Liang; Huang, Ling-Hung; Tsai, Hung-Yueh; Chang, Hsin-I

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin is one of the most abundant adipokines from the subcutaneous fat, and regulates multiple activities through endocrine, paracrine, or autocrine mechanisms. However, its expression in adipogenic induced fibroblasts, and the potential role in photoaging has not been determined. Here, human dermal fibroblasts, Hs68, were presented as a cell model of dermal lipogenesis through stimulation of adipogenic differentiation medium (ADM). Similar to other studies in murine pre-adipocyte models (i.e., 3T3-L1), Hs68 fibroblasts showed a tendency to lipogenesis based on lipid accumulation, triglyceride formation, and the expressions of PPAR-γ, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and FABP4 mRNA. As expected, ADM-treated fibroblasts displayed a reduction on adiponectin expression. Next, we emphasized the photoprotective effects of adiponectin against UVA-induced damage in Hs68 fibroblasts. UVA radiation can downregulate cell adhesion strength and elastic modulus of Hs68 fibroblasts. Moreover, UVA radiation could induce the mRNA expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), MMP-3, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), but downregulate the mRNA expressions of type I and type III collagen. On the other hand, post-treatment of adiponectin can partially overcome UVA-induced reduction in the cell adhesion strength of Hs68 fibroblasts through the activation of AdipoR1 and the suppression of EGF-R. In addition, post-treatment of adiponectin indicated the increase of type III collagen and elastin mRNA expression and the decrease of MMP-1 and MMP-3 mRNA expression, but a limited degree of recovery of elastic modulus on UVA-irradiated Hs68 fibroblasts. Overall, these results suggest that dermal lipogenesis may inhibit the expression of adiponectin while exogenous adiponectin administration prevents against UVA-induced dermal matrix degradation in Hs68 fibroblasts. PMID:27428951

  9. 'Burns Cliff' Color Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for 'Burns Cliff' Color Panorama (QTVR)

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity captured this view of 'Burns Cliff' after driving right to the base of this southeastern portion of the inner wall of 'Endurance Crater.' The view combines frames taken by Opportunity's panoramic camera between the rover's 287th and 294th martian days (Nov. 13 to 20, 2004).

    This is a composite of 46 different images, each acquired in seven different Pancam filters. It is an approximately true-color rendering generated from the panoramic camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters. The mosaic spans more than 180 degrees side to side. Because of this wide-angle view, the cliff walls appear to bulge out toward the camera. In reality the walls form a gently curving, continuous surface.

  10. Wood burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Allaire, R.A.; Vandewoestine, R.V.

    1982-08-24

    Disclosed herein is an improved wood burning stove employing a combustion chamber and a flue in communication therewith for removal of exhaust from the chamber with a catalytic converter means being movably mounted in the flue whereby the impedance presented to the exhaust by the converter may be selectively varied so as to minimize the impedance presented by the converter means when additional fuel is added to the stove.

  11. Fungal infections in burns: Diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Capoor, Malini R.; Sarabahi, Sujata; Tiwari, Vinay Kumar; Narayanan, Ravi Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Burn wound infection (BWI) is a major public health problem and the most devastating form of trauma worldwide. Fungi cause BWI as part of monomicrobial or polymicrobial infection, fungaemia, rare aggressive soft tissue infection and as opportunistic infections. The risk factors for acquiring fungal infection in burns include age of burns, total burn size, body surface area (BSA) (30–60%), full thickness burns, inhalational injury, prolonged hospital stay, late surgical excision, open dressing, artificial dermis, central venous catheters, antibiotics, steroid treatment, long-term artificial ventilation, fungal wound colonisation (FWC), hyperglycaemic episodes and other immunosuppressive disorders. Most of the fungal infections are missed owing to lack of clinical awareness and similar presentation as bacterial infection coupled with paucity of mycology laboratories. Expedient diagnosis and treatment of these mycoses can be life-saving as the mortality is otherwise very high. Emergence of resistance in non-albicans Candida spp., unusual yeasts and moulds in fungal BWI, leaves very few fungi susceptible to antifungal drugs, leaving many patients susceptible. There is a need to speciate fungi as far as the topical and systemic antifungal is concerned. Deep tissue biopsy and other relevant samples are processed by standard mycological procedures using direct microscopy, culture and histopathological examination. Patients with FWC should be treated by aggressive surgical debridement and, in the case of fungal wound infection (FWI), in addition to surgical debridement, an intravenous antifungal drug, most commonly amphotericin B or caspofungin, is prescribed followed by de-escalating with voriconazole or itraconazole, or fluconazole depending upon the species or antifungal susceptibility, if available. The propensity for fungal infection increases, the longer the wound is present. Therefore, the development of products to close the wound more rapidly, improvement in

  12. PULMONARY HYPERRESPONSIVENESS FOLLOWING DERMAL EXPOSURE TO SELECTED DIISOCYANATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    PULMONARY HYPERRESPONSIVENESS FOLLOWING DERMAL EXPOSURE TO SELECTED DIISOCYANATES

    M.J.K. Selgrade, E.H. Boykin, N.H. Coates, D.L. Doerfler, S.H. Gavett
    Experimental Toxicology Div., National Health and Environmental Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Developmen...

  13. CONTROLLED, SHORT-TERM DERMAL AND INHALATION EXPOSURE TO CHLOROFORM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were conducted to determine the uptake by humans of chloroform as a result of controlled short-term dermal and inhalation exposures. The approach used continuous real-time breath analysis to determine exhaled-breath profiles and evaluate chloroform kinetics in the huma...

  14. Dermal grafts to bony defects in irradiated and nonirradiated tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, P.M.; Patel, M.; Gutman, E.; Campana, H.A.

    1984-10-01

    Coverage of intraoral ablative defects presents many different problems. Free dermal grafts have been used to cover exposed mandibular bone in dogs. Grafts were placed in animals both before and after irradiation. Grafts were uniformly successful in animals not previously irradiated but failed when placed after irradiation.

  15. DERMAL EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT: A SUMMARY OF EPA APPROACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This final report presents a concise description and evaluation of the approaches used in the Agency for dermal exposure assessment including a discussion about harmonization and research needs in this area. The report is intended to be used by EPA program offices in their effort...

  16. Nanosized particulate systems for dermal and transdermal delivery.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Amany O Kamel; Elshafeey, Ahmed H

    2010-12-01

    Nanosized particles have received much attention in industry, biology, and medicine. Today nanotechnology is finding growing applications in pharmaceutical formulation for skin delivery. This review surveys some of the approaches in the field of nanosized particulate systems for both dermal and transdermal delivery, highlighting the nanosized microemulsion, vesicular systems, solid lipid nanoaprticles (SLN), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and polymeric nanoparticles. PMID:21361126

  17. Autologous cell therapy: will it replace dermal fillers?

    PubMed

    Weiss, Robert A

    2013-05-01

    This article discusses autologous cell therapy for wrinkles in the face. Autologous fibroblast therapy is compared with dermal fillers. Study outcomes of LaViv are detailed, including a summary of adverse events. The technique for injection of autologous cells is described in addition to the duration of effect of treatment.

  18. 40 CFR 795.228 - Oral/dermal pharmacokinetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... addition to the reporting requirements as specified in 40 CFR part 792, the following specific information... radioactivity following oral or dermal administration and total excretion following intravenous administration... repeated dosing study, shall be terminated at 7 days or after at least 90 percent of the radioactivity...

  19. 40 CFR 795.228 - Oral/dermal pharmacokinetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... addition to the reporting requirements as specified in 40 CFR part 792, the following specific information... radioactivity following oral or dermal administration and total excretion following intravenous administration... repeated dosing study, shall be terminated at 7 days or after at least 90 percent of the radioactivity...

  20. IN VIVO DERMAL ABSORPTION OF PYRETHROID PESTICIDES IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential for exposure to pyrethroid pesticides has risen recently because of their increased agricultural and residential use. The objective of this study was to examine the in vivo dermal absorption of bifenthrin, deltamethrin and cis-permethrin in the rat. Hair on...

  1. 40 CFR 795.228 - Oral/dermal pharmacokinetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... addition to the reporting requirements as specified in 40 CFR part 792, the following specific information... radioactivity following oral or dermal administration and total excretion following intravenous administration... repeated dosing study, shall be terminated at 7 days or after at least 90 percent of the radioactivity...

  2. 40 CFR 795.228 - Oral/dermal pharmacokinetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... addition to the reporting requirements as specified in 40 CFR part 792, the following specific information... radioactivity following oral or dermal administration and total excretion following intravenous administration... repeated dosing study, shall be terminated at 7 days or after at least 90 percent of the radioactivity...

  3. In vivo dermal absorption of pyrethroid pesticides in the rat.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential for exposure to pyrethroid pesticides has risen recently because of their increased use. The objective of this study was to examine the in vivo dermal absorption of bifenthrin, deltamethrin and permethrin in the rat. Hair on the dorsal side of anesthetized adult m...

  4. 40 CFR 795.228 - Oral/dermal pharmacokinetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... addition to the reporting requirements as specified in 40 CFR part 792, the following specific information... radioactivity following oral or dermal administration and total excretion following intravenous administration... repeated dosing study, shall be terminated at 7 days or after at least 90 percent of the radioactivity...

  5. IN VITRO DERMAL ABSORPTION OF FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    IN VITRO DERMAL ABSORPTION OF FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS. M F Hughes1, B C Edwards1, C T Mitchell1, and B Bhooshan2. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC; 2US CPSC, LSC, Rockville, MD.
    Two flame retardant chemicals that are candidates for treating furniture fabrics were evaluated for ...

  6. Burns (minor thermal)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Superficial burns that affect the epidermis and upper dermis only are characterised by redness of the skin that blanches on pressure, pain, and hypersensitivity. The skin blisters within hours and usually heals with minimal scarring within 2 to 3 weeks if no infection is present. Most minor burns occur in the home, with less than 5% requiring hospital treatment. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for minor thermal burns? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found eight systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: alginate dressing; antibiotics; chlorhexidine-impregnated paraffin gauze dressing; foam dressing; hydrocolloid dressing; hydrogel dressing; paraffin gauze dressing; polyurethane film; silicone-coated nylon dressing; and silver sulfadiazine cream. PMID:21718576

  7. A novel subpopulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells presents in major burn patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbin; Ding, Jie; Ma, Zengshuan; Zhu, Zhenshen; Shankowsky, Heather A; Tredget, Edward E

    2015-08-01

    Hypertrophic scars (HTS) are generally believed to result from proliferation and activation of resident connective tissue fibroblasts after burns. To demonstrate a potential role of blood-borne cells, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and the effect of PBMCs on dermal fibroblast behavior was investigated. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the surface and intracellular protein expression of PBMCs and fibroblasts. Transwell migration assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to assess fibroblast functions. We identified a novel subpopulation of PBMCs in burn patients in vivo that appears at an early stage following major thermal injuries, which primarily express procollagen 1, leukocyte specific protein 1, CD204, toll-like receptor 4 and stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) receptor CXCR4. In vitro, the conditioned media from burn patient PBMCs up-regulated the expression of fibrotic growth factors and extracellular matrix molecules, down-regulated antifibrotic factor decorin, enhanced cell chemotaxis and promoted cell differentiation into contractile myofibroblasts in dermal fibroblasts. After thermal injury, this novel subpopulation of PBMCs is systemically triggered and attracted to the wounds under SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling where they appear to modulate the functions of resident connective tissue cells and thus contribute to the development of HTS. PMID:25683215

  8. Enhanced dermal delivery of acyclovir using solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sanyog; Mistry, Meghal A; Swarnakar, Nitin K

    2011-10-01

    The present investigation was enthused by the possibility to develop solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of hydrophilic drug acyclovir (ACV) and evaluate their potential as the carrier for dermal delivery. ACV-loaded SLNs (ACV-SLNs) were prepared by the optimized double emulsion process using Compritol 888 ATO as solid lipid. The prepared SLNs were smooth and spherical in shape with average diameter, polydispersity index, and entrapment efficiency of 262 ± 13 nm, 0.280 ± 0.01, and 40.08 ± 4.39% at 10% (w/w) theoretical drug loading with respect to Compritol 888 ATO content. Differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction pattern revealed that ACV was present in the amorphous state inside the SLNs. In vitro skin permeation studies on human cadaver and Sprague-Dawley rat skin revealed 17.65 and 15.17 times higher accumulation of ACV-SLNs in the dermal tissues in comparison to commercially available ACV cream after 24 h. Mechanism of topical permeation and dermal distribution was studied qualitatively using confocal laser scanning microscopy. While free dye (calcein) failed to penetrate skin barrier, the same encapsulated in SLNs penetrated deeply into the dermal tissue suggesting that pilosebaceous route was followed by SLNs for skin penetration. Histological examination and transdermal epidermal water loss measurement suggested that no major morphological changes occurred on rat skin surface due to the application of SLNs. Overall, it was concluded that ACV-loaded SLNs might be beneficial in improving dermal delivery of antiviral agent(s) for the treatment of topical herpes simplex infection.

  9. Calcium pantothenate modulates gene expression in proliferating human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Wiederholt, Tonio; Heise, Ruth; Skazik, Claudia; Marquardt, Yvonne; Joussen, Sylvia; Erdmann, Kati; Schröder, Henning; Merk, Hans F; Baron, Jens Malte

    2009-11-01

    Topical application of pantothenate is widely used in clinical practice for wound healing. Previous studies identified a positive effect of pantothenate on migration and proliferation of cultured fibroblasts. However, these studies were mainly descriptive with no molecular data supporting a possible model of its action. In this study, we first established conditions for an in vitro model of pantothenate wound healing and then analysed the molecular effects of pantothenate. To test the functional effect of pantothenate on dermal fibroblasts, cells were cultured and in vitro proliferation tests were performed using a standardized scratch test procedure. For all three donors analysed, a strong stimulatory effect of pantothenate at a concentration of 20 microg/ml on the proliferation of cultivated dermal fibroblasts was observed. To study the molecular mechanisms resulting in the proliferative effect of pantothenate, gene expression was analysed in dermal fibroblasts cultivated with 20 microg/ml of pantothenate compared with untreated cells using the GeneChip Human Exon 1.0 ST Array. A number of significantly regulated genes were identified including genes coding for interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, Id1, HMOX-1, HspB7, CYP1B1 and MARCH-II. Regulation of these genes was subsequently verified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Induction of HMOX-1 expression by pantothenol and pantothenic acid in dermal cells was confirmed on the protein level using immunoblots. Functional studies revealed the enhanced suppression of free radical formation in skin fibroblasts cultured with panthenol. In conclusion, these studies provided new insight in the molecular mechanisms linked to the stimulatory effect of pantothenate and panthenol on the proliferation of dermal fibroblasts. PMID:19397697

  10. Injectable poly-L: -lactic acid: a novel sculpting agent for the treatment of dermal fat atrophy after severe acne.

    PubMed

    Sadove, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Acne vulgaris affects up to 80% of people 11 to 30 years of age, and scarring can occur for up to 95% of these patients. Scarring may be pitted or hypertrophic in nature, although in most cases it is atrophic. Atrophic acne scarring follows dermal collagen and fat loss after moderate to severe acne infection. Injectable poly-L-acid (PLLA) is a biocompatible, biodegradable, synthetic polymer device that is hypothesized to enhance dermal volume via the endogenous production of fibroblasts and, subsequently, collagen. The gradual improvements in cutaneous volume observed after treatment with injectable PLLA have been noted to last up to 2 years. The case studies presented describe the use of injectable PLLA to correct dermal fat loss in macular atrophic acne scarring of the cheeks. Two female patients underwent three treatment sessions with injectable PLLA over a 12-week period. At each treatment session, the reconstituted product was injected into the deep dermis under the depressed portion of the scar. Both patients were extremely pleased with their results at, respectively, 1- and 4-year follow-up evaluations. Patients experienced minimal swelling and redness after injection and no product-related adverse events such as papule and/or nodule formation. The author believes these data suggest that injectable PLLA is a good treatment option for the correction of macular atropic scarring with thin dermis (off-label use), particularly compared with other injectable fillers currently used for this indication that have shorter durations of effect. PMID:18923863

  11. Bushfire disaster burn casualty management: the Australian "Black Saturday" bushfire experience.

    PubMed

    Seifman, Marc; Ek, Edmund W; Menezes, Hana; Rozen, Warren M; Whitaker, Iain S; Cleland, Heather J

    2011-11-01

    Mass burn disasters are among the most difficult disasters to manage, with major burns requiring complex management in a multidisciplinary setting and specialist burns services having limited capacity to deal with large numbers of complex patients. There is a paucity of literature addressing health system responses to mass burn disasters resulting from wildfires, with the events of the "Black Saturday" disaster in the state of Victoria, Australia, able to provide a unique opportunity to draw lessons and increase awareness of key management issues arising in mass burn casualty disasters. The event comprised the worst natural disaster in the state's history and one of the worst wildfire disasters in world history, claiming 173 lives and costing more than AUD 4 billion. This article draws on the national burns disaster plan instituted, Australian Mass Casualty Burn Disaster Plan (AUSBURNPLAN), and details the management of mass burn cases through a systems-based perspective. PMID:22001422

  12. An Inexpensive Bismuth-Petrolatum Dressing for Treatment of Burns

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Arhana; Chang, Kathleen; Nguyen, Khoa; Galvez, Michael G.; Legrand, Anais; Davis, Christopher; McGoldrick, Rory; Long, Chao; Pham, Hung

    2016-01-01

    Background: Xeroform remains the current standard for treating superficial partial-thickness burns but can be prohibitively expensive in developing countries with prevalent burn injuries. This study (1) describes the production of an alternative low-cost dressing and (2) compares the alternative dressing and Xeroform using the metrics of cost-effectiveness, antimicrobial activity, and biocompatibility in vitro, and wound healing in vivo. Methods: To produce the alternative dressing, 3% bismuth tribromophenate powder was combined with petroleum jelly by hand and applied to Kerlix gauze. To assess cost-effectiveness, the unit costs of Xeroform and components of the alternative dressing were compared. To assess antimicrobial properties, the dressings were placed on agar plated with Escherichia coli and the Kirby-Bauer assay performed. To assess biocompatibility, the dressings were incubated with human dermal fibroblasts and cells stained with methylene blue. To assess in vivo wound healing, dressings were applied to excisional wounds on rats and the rate of re-epithelialization calculated. Results: The alternative dressing costs 34% of the least expensive brand of Xeroform. Antimicrobial assays showed that both dressings had similar bacteriostatic effects. Biocompatibility assays showed that there was no statistical difference (P < 0.05) in the cytotoxicity of Xeroform, alternative dressing, and Kerlix gauze. Finally, the in vivo healing model showed no statistical difference (P < 0.05) in mean re-epithelialization time between Xeroform (13.0 ± 1.6 days) and alternative dressing (13.5 ± 1.0 days). Conclusions: Xeroform is biocompatible, reduces infection, and enhances healing of burn wounds by preventing desiccation and mechanical trauma. Handmade petrolatum gauze may be a low-cost replacement for Xeroform. Future studies will focus on clinical trials in burn units. PMID:27482485

  13. The hair color-highlighting burn: a unique burn injury.

    PubMed

    Peters, W

    2000-01-01

    A unique, preventable, 2.8 x 3.7-cm, full-thickness scalp burn resulted after a woman underwent a professional color-highlighting procedure at a hair salon. The burn appeared to result from scalp contact with aluminum foil that had been overheated by a hair dryer during the procedure. The wound required debridement and skin grafting and 3 subsequent serial excisions to eliminate the resulting area of burn scar alopecia. The preventive aspects of this injury are discussed.

  14. Butane Hash Oil Burns Associated with Marijuana Liberalization in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Bell, Cameron; Slim, Jessica; Flaten, Hanna K; Lindberg, Gordon; Arek, Wiktor; Monte, Andrew A

    2015-12-01

    Butane hash oil (BHO), also known as "amber," "dab," "glass," "honey," "shatter," or "wax," is a potent marijuana concentrate, containing up to 90 % tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). BHO is easily manufactured using highly volatile butane as a solvent. Our objective was to characterize hydrocarbon burns associated with BHO manufacture in Colorado. This was a cross-sectional study utilizing the National Burn Repository to capture all hydrocarbon burns reported to the local burn center from January 1st, 2008, through August 31st, 2014. We abstracted demographic and clinical variables from medical records for patients admitted for hydrocarbon burns associated with butane hash oil extraction. Twenty-nine cases of BHO burns were admitted to the local burn center during the study period. Zero cases presented prior to medical liberalization, 19 (61.3 %) during medical liberalization (Oct 2009-Dec 2013), and 12 (38.7 %) in 2014 since legalization. The majority of cases were Caucasian (72.4 %) males (89.7 %). Median age was 26 (range 15-58). The median total-body-surface-area (TBSA) burn size was 10 % (TBSA range 1-90 %). Median length of hospital admission was 10 days. Six required intubation for airway protection (21 %). Nineteen required skin grafting, eight wound care only, one required surgical fracture repair, and one required surgical debridement. Hydrocarbon burns associated with hash oil production have increased since the liberalization of marijuana policy in Colorado. A combination of public health messaging, standardization of manufacturing processes, and worker safety regulations are needed to decrease the risks associated with BHO production.

  15. Butane Hash Oil Burns Associated with Marijuana Liberalization in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Bell, Cameron; Slim, Jessica; Flaten, Hanna K; Lindberg, Gordon; Arek, Wiktor; Monte, Andrew A

    2015-12-01

    Butane hash oil (BHO), also known as "amber," "dab," "glass," "honey," "shatter," or "wax," is a potent marijuana concentrate, containing up to 90 % tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). BHO is easily manufactured using highly volatile butane as a solvent. Our objective was to characterize hydrocarbon burns associated with BHO manufacture in Colorado. This was a cross-sectional study utilizing the National Burn Repository to capture all hydrocarbon burns reported to the local burn center from January 1st, 2008, through August 31st, 2014. We abstracted demographic and clinical variables from medical records for patients admitted for hydrocarbon burns associated with butane hash oil extraction. Twenty-nine cases of BHO burns were admitted to the local burn center during the study period. Zero cases presented prior to medical liberalization, 19 (61.3 %) during medical liberalization (Oct 2009-Dec 2013), and 12 (38.7 %) in 2014 since legalization. The majority of cases were Caucasian (72.4 %) males (89.7 %). Median age was 26 (range 15-58). The median total-body-surface-area (TBSA) burn size was 10 % (TBSA range 1-90 %). Median length of hospital admission was 10 days. Six required intubation for airway protection (21 %). Nineteen required skin grafting, eight wound care only, one required surgical fracture repair, and one required surgical debridement. Hydrocarbon burns associated with hash oil production have increased since the liberalization of marijuana policy in Colorado. A combination of public health messaging, standardization of manufacturing processes, and worker safety regulations are needed to decrease the risks associated with BHO production. PMID:26289652

  16. Age-related disruption of autophagy in dermal fibroblasts modulates extracellular matrix components

    SciTech Connect

    Tashiro, Kanae; Shishido, Mayumi; Fujimoto, Keiko; Hirota, Yuko; Yo, Kazuyuki; Gomi, Takamasa; Tanaka, Yoshitaka

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Autophagosomes accumulate in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagic degradation is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagy disruption affects extracellular matrix components in dermal fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular degradative system that is believed to be involved in the aging process. The contribution of autophagy to age-related changes in the human skin is unclear. In this study, we examined the relationship between autophagy and skin aging. Transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses of skin tissue and cultured dermal fibroblasts derived from women of different ages revealed an increase in the number of nascent double-membrane autophagosomes with age. Western blot analysis showed that the amount of LC3-II, a form associated with autophagic vacuolar membranes, was significantly increased in aged dermal fibroblasts compared with that in young dermal fibroblasts. Aged dermal fibroblasts were minimally affected by inhibition of autophagic activity. Although lipofuscin autofluorescence was elevated in aged dermal fibroblasts, the expression of Beclin-1 and Atg5—genes essential for autophagosome formation—was similar between young and aged dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that the increase of autophagosomes in aged dermal fibroblasts was due to impaired autophagic flux rather than an increase in autophagosome formation. Treatment of young dermal fibroblasts with lysosomal protease inhibitors, which mimic the condition of aged dermal fibroblasts with reduced autophagic activity, altered the fibroblast content of type I procollagen, hyaluronan and elastin, and caused a breakdown of collagen fibrils. Collectively, these findings suggest that the autophagy pathway is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts, which leads to deterioration of dermal integrity and skin fragility.

  17. Steam press hand burns: a serious burn injury.

    PubMed

    Woods, J A; Cobb, A T; Drake, D B; Edlich, R F

    1996-01-01

    Steam presses cause full-thickness burns when the operator's extremity is caught between the buck and the head of the steam press. Patients with serious steam press burns should be referred to a regional burn center for excision of the full-thickness burn and coverage by either a split-thickness skin graft or a flap. The safety features in steam presses that could prevent this serious injury include: (1) emergency safety releases, (2) peripheral safety bars, and (3) two-hand operator control.

  18. Body protective compound-157 enhances alkali-burn wound healing in vivo and promotes proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tonglie; Zhang, Kuo; Sun, Lijuan; Xue, Xiaochang; Zhang, Cun; Shu, Zhen; Mu, Nan; Gu, Jintao; Zhang, Wangqian; Wang, Yukun; Zhang, Yingqi; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Chemical burns take up a high proportion of burns admissions and can penetrate deep into tissues. Various reagents have been applied in the treatment of skin chemical burns; however, no optimal reagent for skin chemical burns currently exists. The present study investigated the effect of topical body protective compound (BPC)-157 treatment on skin wound healing, using an alkali burn rat model. Topical treatment with BPC-157 was shown to accelerate wound closure following an alkali burn. Histological examination of skin sections with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson staining showed better granulation tissue formation, reepithelialization, dermal remodeling, and a higher extent of collagen deposition when compared to the model control group on the 18th day postwounding. BPC-157 could promote vascular endothelial growth factor expression in wounded skin tissues. Furthermore, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and cell cycle analysis demonstrated that BPC-157 enhanced the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Transwell assay and wound healing assay showed that BPC-157 significantly promoted migration of HUVECs. We also observed that BPC-157 upregulated the expression of VEGF-a and accelerated vascular tube formation in vitro. Moreover, further studies suggested that BPC-157 regulated the phosphorylation level of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) as well as its downstream targets, including c-Fos, c-Jun, and Egr-1, which are key molecules involved in cell growth, migration, and angiogenesis. Altogether, our results indicated that BPC-157 treatment may accelerate wound healing in a model of alkali burn-induced skin injury. The therapeutic mechanism may be associated with accelerated granulation tissue formation, reepithelialization, dermal remodeling, and collagen deposition through ERK1/2 signaling pathway. PMID:25995620

  19. Body protective compound-157 enhances alkali-burn wound healing in vivo and promotes proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tonglie; Zhang, Kuo; Sun, Lijuan; Xue, Xiaochang; Zhang, Cun; Shu, Zhen; Mu, Nan; Gu, Jintao; Zhang, Wangqian; Wang, Yukun; Zhang, Yingqi; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Chemical burns take up a high proportion of burns admissions and can penetrate deep into tissues. Various reagents have been applied in the treatment of skin chemical burns; however, no optimal reagent for skin chemical burns currently exists. The present study investigated the effect of topical body protective compound (BPC)-157 treatment on skin wound healing, using an alkali burn rat model. Topical treatment with BPC-157 was shown to accelerate wound closure following an alkali burn. Histological examination of skin sections with hematoxylin–eosin and Masson staining showed better granulation tissue formation, reepithelialization, dermal remodeling, and a higher extent of collagen deposition when compared to the model control group on the 18th day postwounding. BPC-157 could promote vascular endothelial growth factor expression in wounded skin tissues. Furthermore, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and cell cycle analysis demonstrated that BPC-157 enhanced the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Transwell assay and wound healing assay showed that BPC-157 significantly promoted migration of HUVECs. We also observed that BPC-157 upregulated the expression of VEGF-a and accelerated vascular tube formation in vitro. Moreover, further studies suggested that BPC-157 regulated the phosphorylation level of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) as well as its downstream targets, including c-Fos, c-Jun, and Egr-1, which are key molecules involved in cell growth, migration, and angiogenesis. Altogether, our results indicated that BPC-157 treatment may accelerate wound healing in a model of alkali burn-induced skin injury. The therapeutic mechanism may be associated with accelerated granulation tissue formation, reepithelialization, dermal remodeling, and collagen deposition through ERK1/2 signaling pathway. PMID:25995620

  20. White phosphorus burns and arsenic inhalation: a toxic combination.

    PubMed

    Berndtson, Allison E; Fagin, Alice; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2014-01-01

    White phosphorus is a common industrial and military compound, which can cause severe thermal and chemical burns beyond what would be predicted from body surface area alone. The authors present a rare case of a 45-year-old male patient who suffered white phosphorus burns combined with arsenic inhalation because of an industrial accident. The presented case is used to review the history and the toxicities of these chemicals as well as current methods of treatment. A literature review was performed to summarize the current knowledge of white phosphorus burns, as well as arsenic poisoning, and no similar case reports of the two combined were found. The patient ultimately recovered and was discharged, though with significant chronic complications. This case highlights the risk of burns and inhalation injury present in industrial manufacturing jobs, as well as the potential severity of these conditions. The systemic effects of chemicals absorbed across burned skin and via inhalation were the main contributors to our patient's severe illness, and required more intensive treatment than the burns themselves. Arsenic toxicity is rare and could easily have been missed without the appropriate patient history.