Babapour, R; Leach, J; Levy, H
Dermatosis papulosa nigra was diagnosed in a 3-year-old black boy. This follicular nevoid condition, which is common in adult blacks, is seldom diagnosed in prepubescent children. The diagnosis was confirmed by the biopsy specimen that showed features of epidermal acanthosis and papillomatosis, similar to seborrheic keratosis.
Bhat, Ramesh M; Patrao, Ninon; Monteiro, Rochelle; Sukumar, D
Dermatosis papulosa nigra (DPN) is a benign cutaneous condition which commonly occurs in dark-skinned people, especially Asians and African Americans. Owing to its benign nature and rarity, very few studies have been conducted to date, and dermoscopic studies are practically nonexistent. To study the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with dermatosis papulosa nigra (DPN) and to correlate the clinical findings with dermoscopic and histopathological findings in DPN. A total of 100 patients attending the Dermatology outpatient department at Father Muller Medical College, Mangalore, India, with clinically diagnosed dermatosis papulosa nigra were included in the study. Histopathology and dermoscopic evaluation of the lesions were done, and the characteristics seen were noted. Earlier onset of lesions was noted in our study, i.e. onset in the 4th decade as compared to the 6th decade in most other studies. A female preponderance, positive family history, history of sun exposure, and involvement of the head and neck were other significant associations. Histopathology revealed an acanthotic variant in all the lesions that were biopsied. The predominant dermoscopic finding was fissures and ridges of the cerebriform pattern followed by comedo-like openings. Dermatosis papulosa nigra is a benign unaesthetic condition seen in Fitzpatrick skin types IV-VI. The diagnosis is mainly clinical; however, in a few cases histopathology and dermoscopy aid in differentiating it from other benign and malignant tumors. Dermoscopy, in particular, being a noninvasive investigative moiety is a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.
Calcaterra, Roberta; Franco, Gennaro; Valenzano, Mariacarla; Fazio, Raffaella; Morrone, Aldo
Dermatosis papulosa nigra (DPN) is a benign epithelial tumor that is common in dark-skinned people. Although the diagnosis is easily made on medical examination, DPN is characterized by a chronic and worsening course. Therefore, even if DPN is a benign disease, the lesions are unaesthetic and the therapeutic options are quite inefficient. A prospective study was carried out during a period of 24 months (January 2006 to December 2007) at the Department for Preventive Medicine for Migration, Tourism and Tropical Dermatology of San Gallicano Dermatological Institute in Rome. Among 58 patients, 41 (71%) were women and 17 (29%) were men. The mean age was 33.5 years (range, 8-45 years). One pediatric patient was observed. This study is the first in Italy that, in recent years, has observed an important growth of the migration. The classic female predominance, family predisposition, and photodistribution of the lesion were found. DPN is frequently associated with patient discomfort, therefore the education of patients to reduce self-treatment is important.
Ali, Faisal R; Bakkour, Waseem; Ferguson, Janice E; Madan, Vishal
Dermatosis papulosa nigra (DPN) is a common condition of pigmented skin. Whilst lesions are benign, they may be symptomatic or cosmetically disfiguring. Ablative lasers have previously been reported as a useful therapeutic modality in DPN. We report the largest case series to date of patients with DPN ablated with the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser. A retrospective case note review was conducted of all patients with DPN treated in our laser clinic in the last five years, and a post-treatment telephone survey was undertaken to assess patient satisfaction. Forty-five patients were identified, with a median age of 41 years (range 25-74 years), of whom 37 (82%) were female. The median number of treatments undertaken was three (range 1-10). Of the 18 respondents to the telephone survey, when asked to grade their satisfaction with the procedure out of 10, median response was 9.5 (range 6-10) with nine patients citing the maximum score of 10. All patients replied that their confidence had improved following the procedure and that they would recommend the treatment to other patients. Five respondents (28%) reported recurrence of a few lesions following CO2 laser ablation; the remaining 13 respondents (72%) reported no recurrence of DPN. No respondents reported any other post-procedural complications (including scarring, hypopigmentation and hyperpigmentation). We advocate use of the CO2 laser as a safe, convenient means of treating DPN, with a high degree of patient satisfaction, low recurrence rate and few complications.
Cestari, Tania Ferreira; Dantas, Lia Pinheiro; Boza, Juliana Catucci
Cutaneous hyperpigmentations are frequent complaints, motivating around 8.5% of all dermatological consultations in our country. They can be congenital, with different patterns of inheritance, or acquired in consequence of skin problems, systemic diseases or secondary to environmental factors. The vast majority of them are linked to alterations on the pigment melanin, induced by different mechanisms. This review will focus on the major acquired hyperpigmentations associated with increased melanin, reviewing their mechanisms of action and possible preventive measures. Particularly prominent aspects of diagnosis and therapy will be emphasized, with focus on melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, phytophotodermatoses, flagellate dermatosis, erythema dyschromicum perstans, cervical poikiloderma (Poikiloderma of Civatte), acanthosis nigricans, cutaneous amyloidosis and reticulated confluent dermatitis PMID:24626644
Soares, J. C. A. C. R.; Canellas, C. G. L.; Anjos, M. J.; Lopes, R. T.
Using synchrotron radiation total X-ray fluorescence (SRTXRF) technique, the concentrations of trace elements were measured in four skin lesions: seborrheic keratosis, fibroepithelial polyp, cherry angioma and dermatosis papulosa nigra. The concentrations of P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb were evaluated in 62 pairs of lesions and healthy samples, each one having been collected from the same patient. The results revealed significant differences of P, Ca, K, Fe and Cu levels as well as a common trend in their variations between lesion and control samples among the skin diseases. This study revealed a powerful tool that can be useful for skin disorders research. The measurements were conducted at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS).
Veasey, John Verrinder; Avila, Ricardo Bertozzi de; Ferreira, Marcus Antônio Maia de Olivas; Lazzarini, Rosana
Tinea nigra is a superficial mycosis whose diagnosis is confirmed by isolating the infectious agent Hortae werneckii through mycological examinations. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy, initially used in melanocytic dermatosis, has been used with skin infectious diseases to identify the parasite at the cellular level. We report, for the first time in the scientific literature, the use of reflectance confocal microscopy in a case of tinea nigra and compare its findings to dermoscopy and mycological examination results.
Veasey, John Verrinder; de Avila, Ricardo Bertozzi; Ferreira, Marcus Antônio Maia de Olivas; Lazzarini, Rosana
Tinea nigra is a superficial mycosis whose diagnosis is confirmed by isolating the infectious agent Hortae werneckii through mycological examinations. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy, initially used in melanocytic dermatosis, has been used with skin infectious diseases to identify the parasite at the cellular level. We report, for the first time in the scientific literature, the use of reflectance confocal microscopy in a case of tinea nigra and compare its findings to dermoscopy and mycological examination results. PMID:28954116
Sasaya, Elisa Mayumi Kubo; Ghislandi, Carolina; Trevisan, Flávia; Ribeiro, Talita Beithum; Mulinari-Brenner, Fabiane; Gaiewski, Caroline Balvedi
Dermatosis neglecta is the name of a skin condition characterized by papules and polygonal plaques, which are sometimes warty, brownish and hyperpigmented, adherent and symmetric, though removable with ethyl or isopropyl alcohol. It occurs due to inadequate skin cleansing causing accumulation of sebum, sweat, keratin and impurities. Its occurrence, though little reported, is frequent. The main differential diagnosis is the Terra firma-forme dermatosis. The treatment is simple, with exfoliation, moisturizing and even rubbing of alcohol. Causes of negligence on the patient's side, which can range from hygiene carelessness to psychiatric disorders, local hypersensitivity, limbs negligence or motor paralysis, should be investigated. We illustrate the case of dermatosis neglecta in a 45-years old patient admitted with pulmonary sepsis.
Schreiber, D; Stücker, M; Hoffmann, K; Bacharach-Buhles, M; Altmeyer, P
Patient with extensive keratosis palmoplantaris maculosa seu papulosa (Davies-Colley) presented with multiple cutaneous horns. The clinical picture, the histology, the electro microscopic examination, the negative tumor screening and the viral classification in the tissue allowed the differentiation from other palmoplantar keratoses. The patient was treated successfully using a combination of acitretin with physical and chemical measures.
Lucas-Truyols, S; Rodrigo-Nicolás, B; Lloret-Ruiz, C; Quecedo-Estébanez, E
Dermatosis characterized by tissue eosinophilia arising in the context of hematologic disease is known as eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy. The most commonly associated malignancy is chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy is a rare condition with a wide variety of clinical presentations, ranging from papules, erythematous nodules, or blisters that simulate arthropod bites, to the formation of true plaques of differing sizes. Histology reveals the presence of abundant eosinophils. We present 4 new cases seen in Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Valencia, during the past 7 years. Three of these cases were associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and 1 with mycosis fungoides. It is important to recognize this dermatosis as it can indicate progression of the underlying disease, as was the case in 3 of our patients. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Ozkaya, Dilek Biyik; Emiroglu, Nazan; Su, Ozlem; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Bahali, Anil Gulsel; Yildiz, Pelin; Demirkesen, Cuyan; Onsun, Nahide
Pigmented purpuric dermatosis is a chronic skin disorder of unknown aetiology characterised by symmetrical petechial and pigmented macules, often confined to the lower limbs. The aetiology of pigmented purpuric dermatosis is unknown. Dermatoscopy is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that allows the visualisation of morphological features invisible to the naked eye; it combines a method that renders the corneal layer of the skin translucent with an optical system that magnifies the image projected onto the retina. The aim of this study is to investigate the dermatoscopic findings of pigmented purpuric dermatosis. This study enrolled patients diagnosed histopathologically with pigmented purpuric dermatosis who had dermatoscopic records. We reviewed the dermatoscopic images of PPD patients who attended the outpatient clinic in the Istanbul Dermatovenereology Department at the Bezmialem Vakıf University Medical Faculty. Dermatoscopy showed: coppery-red pigmentation (97%, n = 31) in the background, a brown network (34%, n = 11), linear vessels (22%, n = 7), round to oval red dots, globules, and patches (69%, n = 22; 75%, n = 24; 34%, n = 11; respectively), brown globules (26%, n = 8) and dots (53%, n = 17), linear brown lines (22%, n = 7), and follicular openings (13%, n = 4). To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the dermatoscopy of pigmented purpuric dermatosis. In our opinion, dermatoscopy can be useful in the diagnosis of pigmented purpuric dermatosis.
Mansura, Adva; Maly, Alexander; Ramot, Yuval; Zlotogorski, Abraham
Acantholytic dermatosis of the vulva is a rare condition, presenting with papular eruption in the genital area without history of Darier disease or Hailey-Hailey disease. We report a case with a papular pruritic eruption in the region of the vulva, coalescing into plaques. Biopsy specimen showed irregular acanthosis with an area of split-like bullous formation in the deeper part of the epidermis, as well as acantholytic cells, marked hypergranulosis and hyperkeratosis, compatible with the rare diagnosis of acantholytic dermatosis of the vulva. We review the clinical and histological characteristics of this uncommon disease.
Berk, David R
Terra firma-forme dermatosis is an idiopathic condition characterized by acquired, dirtlike plaques despite normal hygiene. A diagnosis can be reached by removing lesions with gentle alcohol swabbing. Although Terra firma-forme dermatosis was first described more than 20 years ago and is thought to be not uncommon in clinical practice, it has never been systematically studied. There are few publications about this condition, including no case series of more than six patients. In particular, little is known about the incidence, peak age groups, and most common locations of Terra firma-forme dermatosis. A retrospective review was conducted to identify cases of Terra firma-forme dermatosis in a single-provider practice consisting of 55% pediatric and 45% adult patients. Thirty-one patients with Terra firma-forme dermatosis were identified, including 10 who presented with Terra firma-forme dermatosis as their primary concern. Only two patients were older than 17 years. The median duration of lesions was 4 months. The most common lesion locations were the neck, ankles, and face. Before presenting to the dermatology clinic, three patients had undergone endocrine evaluations, and four had been prescribed topical corticosteroids. Terra firma-forme dermatosis is relatively common and most often occurs in children on the neck or posterior malleolus. This series exemplifies the importance of recognizing Terra firma-forme dermatosis so as to provide rapid relief for patients and avoid unnecessary tests and treatments. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lewis, E J; Prawer, S E; Crutchfield, C E
We describe a previously unreported occupational dermatosis occurring in a worker employed in drywall installation and finishing. This 50-year-old man presented with bilaterally symmetrical, parallel, linear crusted erosions on his anteromedial legs after wearing drywall stilts. The pathophysiology of this condition is considered.
Croci-Torti, A; Guillot, B; Rigau, V; Bessis, D
Chronic recurrent annular neutrophilic dermatosis (CRAND) is a rare form of neutrophilic dermatosis characterised by chronic annular progression, histological impairment similar to that seen in Sweet's syndrome and the absence of association with generalised signs, abnormal laboratory values or underlying systemic disease. Herein we report two new cases. Case n o 1. A 41-year-old woman had presented with four annular lesions on the forearms and neckline which she had had for one year. Examination revealed a 5-cm annular lesion on the right forearm and four similar adjacent lesions. The condition spontaneously resolved after 4 weeks. Treatment with hydroxychloroquine 400mg per day for three months proved ineffective in preventing a further episode. However, following treatment with colchicine at a daily dose of 1mg for two months, no further relapses in the rash occurred over a 10-year observation period. Case n o 2. A 38-year-old woman consulted for recurrent annular erythema confined to the legs. Examination showed the presence of a red papular annular lesion on the right leg, encircling a yellowish macule with a central ring of fine scale; the lesion had been present for three weeks. Treatment with colchicine was initiated but the patient was lost to follow-up. In both cases, histological examination was evocative of Sweet's syndrome but no inflammatory or neutrophilic syndrome and no underlying systemic disease were demonstrated. CRAND presents as a stereotypical and benign form of neutrophilic dermatosis. A diagnosis of chronic recurrent annular dermatosis with gyrate progression should be considered in the absence of general signs, neutrophilia or underlying systemic disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Hruza, L L; Mallory, S B; Fitzgibbons, J; Mallory, G B
A newborn black boy had two facial blisters at birth that progressed to bullous lesions over the trunk, genitals, extremities, and oral and tracheal mucosa. A biopsy specimen demonstrated a subepidermal bulla with mixed eosinophilic and neutrophilic, inflammatory infiltrate. Direct immunofluorescence showed linear IgA, IgG, and C3 depositions along the basement membrane zone, consistent with a diagnosis of childhood linear IgA bullous dermatosis (chronic bullous dermatosis of childhood). The skin disease was controlled with combined prednisone and dapsone. This is the youngest reported patient with the disease. Linear IgA bullous dermatosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of blistering diseases of the newborn, and immunofluorescence should be performed on a skin biopsy specimen.
Frigui, M; Masmoudi, A; Kaddour, N; Jlidi, R; Turki, H; Bahloul, Z
We report the case of a female patient who developed polymorphic expressions of neutrophilic dermatosis associated with p-ANCA while receiving benzylthiouracil for hyperthyroidism. A 41-year-old-woman was treated with benzylthiouracil for Basedow's disease. After 21 months of therapy, she developed fever with different expressions of neutrophilic dermatosis: pyoderma gangrenosum of feet, Sweet's syndrome of the forearms and the face. Biopsies confirmed the diagnosis of neutrophilic dermatosis. The histological examination of a skin specimen taken from the developing border of a foot lesion showed polynuclear neutrophilic infiltration with leucocytoclastic vasculitis and the presence of anti-myeloperoxydase p-ANCA. Abdominal ultrasound showed multiple splenic microabscesses. The myelogram, gastroscopy and colonoscopy findings were normal. Benzylthiouracil was stopped and systemic corticosteroid therapy resulted in regression of the skin lesions and splenic microabscesses. Different types of neutrophilic dermatosis were described in our case, confirming the notion of neutrophilic dermatosis continuum. The occurrence of neutrophilic dermatosis and p-ANCA after benzylthiouracil therapy suggests the involvement of polynuclear neutrophils in a common pathogenic mechanism. However, to date there have been no other reports analogous to ours, and inclusion of neutrophilic dermatosis as a benzylthiouracil-induced adverse effect would require confirmation by other instances of such associations.
Cheng, Hui Mei; Chuah, Sai Yee; Gan, Emily Yiping; Jhingan, Anjali; Thng, Steven Tien Guan
Controversy persists as to whether lichen planus pigmentosus and ashy dermatosis are separate clinical entities. This study was conducted to examine the clinicopathological features and treatment outcome of the two conditions. A retrospective medical chart review of all patients who were diagnosed with lichen planus pigmentosus or ashy dermatosis was conducted. The information collected included the participants' age at onset, site of onset, duration of disease, presence of precipitating factors, distribution of disease, pigmentation and presence of symptoms. In patients from whom a biopsy was taken the histopathological reports were included. Altogether 26 patients with ashy dermatosis and 29 with lichen planus pigmentosus were included in the study. Compared with ashy dermatosis, lichen planus pigmentosus had a more localised distribution with a preponderance for facial involvement, compared with the truncal preponderance in ashy dermatosis. Ashy dermatosis tended to have a more stable clinical course than lichen planus pigmentosus, which was more likely to wax and wane. The utility of histopathology in differentiating between the two conditions is low. Ashy dermatosis and lichen planus pigmentosus, as defined in this study, appear to be two separate clinical entities with distinguishable clinical features and natural histories. © 2018 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.
Bohm, Nicole M; Wong, Jeffrey G
Cutaneous side effects related to vancomycin therapy have been reported including histamine-related reactions, linear IgA bullous dermatosis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, maculopapular rash and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms. In all instances, these reports were due to the systemic administration of vancomycin and subsequent immunological reactions to the medication. Drug extravasation into soft tissues can result in a variety of clinical outcomes usually related to physiochemical properties of the drug extravasated and its diluents or pharmacologic effects on the vasculature and tissue. The authors report a patient who experienced vancomycin extravasation that resulted in a localized bullous eruption resembling linear IgA bullous dermatosis, a phenomenon not previously described in the literature.
dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva
Dermatosis caused by plants is relatively common and may occur by various pathogenic mechanisms. Dermatitis due to physical trauma, pharmacological action, irritation, sensitization, mediated by IgE and induced by light are described. Pseudophytodermatosis caused by plant-delivered elements is also described in the introduction to this work.
Oh, Choon Chiat; Oon, Hazel H; Ng, See Ket; Tee, Shang Ian; Jhingan, Anjali; Chong, Wei-Sheng
The term terra firma-forme dermatosis arises from the Latin phrase terra firma , meaning dry land (dirt), thus implying dirt-like dermatosis. The authors highlight five cases of patients with terra firma-forme dermatosis presenting to our dermatology center between 2012 and 2013. All patients presented to the dermatologist for persistent reticulated brown patches on the skin. These patients ranged in age from 6 to 22 years. All patients had tried various cleansing soaps and agents but were unable to remove the patches. The condition was cosmetically unacceptable to the patients and parents. Clinically, these patients had reticulated brown patches. Rubbing 70% isopropyl alcohol wipes on the affected areas demonstrated clearance of the brown pigmented patches in all cases. The diagnosis of terra firma-forme dermatosis (TFFD) was confirmed by forceful rubbing with a gauze pad immersed in 70% isopropyl alcohol or ethyl alcohol. Patients should be reassured about the benign nature of TFFD and educated about the cleaning procedure. Recognition of this condition can assist physicians in making a diagnosis and therapy with a simple alcohol wipe, preventing further unnecessary tests for patients.
Liu, Han-Nan; Wang, Wen-Jen; Chen, Chih-Chiang; Lee, Ding-Dar; Chang, Yun-Ting
Senile gluteal dermatosis (SGD) is a common genital dermatosis but has gained little attention before. A large-scale clinical study of this disease is lacking. We examined 162 consecutive outpatients with gluteal skin diseases of different causes. Fourteen skin biopsies were performed. Patient's age, gender, body mass index (BMI), way of sitting or lying, treatment response, and underlying systemic diseases were recorded. About 137 (85%) patients could be defined as SGD. These patients, with a mean age of 79.4 ± 40.7 years and a mean BMI of 21.7 ± 10.8, presented with either partial (n = 43, 31%) or full-blown (n = 94, 69%) SGD lesions characterized by the sign of so-called "three corners of a triangle": brownish plaques on the gluteal cleft and each side of the buttocks. Male/female ratio was 130/7. Itching or pain of varying intensity was reported by 50 patients (36%) and 14 patients (10%), respectively. Eighty-six patients (53%) presented with horizontal hyperkeratotic ridges, a characteristic sign of SGD. Most patients spent most of the day sitting but reported no special way of sitting or lying. More than half of patients with SGD claimed no response to topical steroids and/or keratolytics. In comparison with patients with SGD, SGD-free patients were younger (61.3 ± 36 years, P = 0.0005) and heavier (BMI 26.2 ± 15.6, P < 0.0001) but showed no significant difference in the frequency of underlying systemic diseases. SGD is a common dermatosis, mostly affecting the thinner elderly. Friction, pressures and long hours sitting seemed to be important factors to trigger this dermatosis. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.
Emanuel, Patrick O; Paul, Sharad P
Follicular urate-like crystals were first described in Necrotizing Infundibular Crystalline Folliculitis (NICF), a rare cutaneous disorder with multiple waxy folliculocentric papules. Similar crystal accumulation may be seen within follicular infundibulae as an incidental finding. We describe a case showing identical crystals occurring within the horn-like crusts of a patient with erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp (EPDS), a condition which due to its presentation can often be mistaken for nonmelanoma skin cancer. A brief overview of erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp (EPDS) is presented in this paper.
Heise, H; Kühne, G; Kröger, D
Irritant dermatosis is a non-specific reactive change on the skin. In most cases it represents the summated effects induced by various agents. Not only the shortened recovery phases of the skin but also a dispositional factor are important. Such changes, which are relatively common in some vocations but are usually only slight, cannot, as a rule, be regarded as signs of illness. Nevertheless, attention should be drawn to the necessity of intensive skin care and observation of the recovery phases because the frequency of irritant dermatosis can increase with increasing length of employment.
Maltos, André Luiz; Portari, Guilherme Vannucchi; Moraes, Giselle Vanessa; Monteiro, Marina Casteli Rodrigues; Vannucchi, Helio; da Cunha, Daniel Ferreira
Flaky paint dermatosis, characterized by extensive, often bilateral areas of flaking and pigmentation, mostly in sun unexposed areas is considered a feature of kwashiorkor in both children and adults, and must be differentiated from other dermatosis, including chapped and xerotica skin, and pellagra. In this case series we provide evidence that malnourished patients with flaky paint dermatosis and infection/inflammation shown laboratory data suggestive of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activation, besides decreased urinary excretion of N1-methylnicotinamide (N1 MN), a marker of pellagra. We study nine adult patients showing flaky paint dermatosis and clinical features of infection or inflammation, and increased serum C-reactive protein, characteristic of the presence of acute phase response syndrome. As a group, they had low or deficient urinary N1 MN excretion (0.52 ± 0.39 mg/g creatinine) compatible with pellagra. They also showed low serum tryptophan levels (<29 μmol/L) and a serum kynurenine/tryptophan ratio higher than 0.04, suggesting increased IDO expression and increase in the tryptophan oxidation. Findings suggest that some patients with flaky paint dermatosis showed laboratory data suggestive of IDO activation, besides decreased N1 MN urinary excretion. Taken together, the data support the idea that flaky paint dermatosis could be a skin manifestation of niacin deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nair, Pragya A.
Menopause is defined as permanent irreversible cessation of menses brought by decline in ovarian follicular activity. Hormonal alteration results in various physical, psychological, and sexual changes in menopausal women. Associated dermatological problems can be classified as physiological changes, age-related changes, changes due to estrogen deficiency and due to hormone replacement therapy. Dermatosis seen due to estrogen deficiency includes Atrophic Vulvovaginitis, Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus, Dyaesthetic Vulvodynia, Hirsutism, Alopecia, Menopausal Flushing, Keratoderma Climactericum, Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. Dermatologists and gynecologists need to be familiar with the problems of menopausal women, as with increase in life expectancy, women passing through this phase is rising. PMID:25540566
Bardagí, M; Lloret, A; Fondati, A; Ferrer, L
This report describes a case of neutrophilic dermatosis in a dog, with a number of clinical and pathological similarities to human pyoderma gangrenosum. A seven-year-old, female German shepherd dog with a history of non-erosive idiopathic polyarthritis was presented with severe facial swelling, bilateral erosivoulcerative lesions on the muzzle and multiple, eroded, dermal-subcutaneous nodules on the cranial trunk. Histopathological examination of skin biopsies revealed a necrotising neutrophilic dermatitis. No infectious agents could be detected using specific stains, immunohistochemistry, serology and bacterial aerobic, anaerobic or fungal cultures. A sterile neutrophilic dermatosis resembling human pyoderma gangrenosum was presumptively diagnosed, and the patient showed an excellent response to treatment with prednisone and ciclosporin.
Prieto-Barrios, M; Velasco-Tamariz, V; Tous-Romero, F; Burillo-Martinez, S; Zarco-Olivo, C; Rodriguez-Peralto, J L; Ortiz-Romero, P L
A 65-year-old pluripathological woman attended our hospital with a cutaneous eruption of sudden appearance after vancomycin treatment. She presented targetoid lesions affecting approximately 25-30% of her body surface, large erosions with mucosal lesions and positive Nikolsky sign. Under the initial clinical suspicion of toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), and considering the recent literature of successful use of etanercept in these cases, she was treated with a single dose of this antitumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agent. Subsequently, the exanthema progression stopped and resolution of the lesions happened in a few days. Later on, histopathology revealed a subepidermal blister with dense neutrophilic infiltrate and linear deposits of immunoglobulin A (IgA) on the dermoepidermal junction, allowing us to establish the diagnosis of drug-induced linear IgA dermatosis mimicking TEN. Linear IgA dermatosis can have severe clinical manifestations, even mimicking TEN, and can have high mortality, especially in drug-induced cases. We have not found any other report of linear IgA dermatosis treated with etanercept in the English literature. Anti-TNF medications could represent useful therapeutic alternatives in this dermatosis. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.
Martires, Kathryn; Callahan, Shields; Terushkin, Vitaly; Brinster, Nooshin; Leger, Marie; Soter, Nicholas A
We report a 68-year-old woman with chroniclymphocytic leukemia, who developed numerous,pruritic, edematous, and vesicobullous skin lesionsof the face and extremities over the course of severalmonths. The diagnosis of eosinophilic dermatosis ofhematologic malignancy (EDHM) was made basedon the clinical history and histopathologic features.Owing to the possible link between EDHM and amore aggressive underlying CLL, she was startedagain on chemotherapy. This case serves as areminder that, although the precise pathogenesis ofEDHM remains unclear, the paraneoplastic disorderis the result of immune dysregulation. Patientswho develop EDHM should undergo prompthematologic/oncologic evaluation.
Hashimoto, T; Teye, K; Ishii, N
Intercellular IgA dermatosis (IAD) is a subset of autoimmune bullous disease exclusively with IgA antikeratinocyte cell-surface antibodies. The classification and pathogenesis of this condition are still obscure. To classify IAD and study its pathogenesis. From our cohort of 5402 cases of autoimmune bullous disease, we selected 49 cases of various types of intercellular IgA dermatosis (IAD) and 13 cases of classical subcorneal pustular dermatosis (SPD), for which sera and information were available. We studied these cases clinically and immunologically. There were 17 SPD-type IAD, 12 intraepidermal neutrophilic IgA dermatosis (IEN)-type IAD, two IgA-pemphigus vegetans, four IgA-pemphigus foliaceus, six IgA-pemphigus vulgaris and eight unclassified IAD cases. There was no sex predominance, and the average age at disease onset was 45·9 years. Clinically, bullous and pustular skin lesions developed on various sites, particularly intertriginous areas. Histopathology showed intraepidermal blisters or pustules at the upper epidermis in the SPD-type and at the midepidermis in the IEN-type. Immunological studies revealed that direct immunofluorescence, indirect immunofluorescence of normal human skin and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) of recombinant proteins of desmogleins and desmocollins frequently showed positive results, although no antigens were detected in many cases. All cases of classical SPD, which showed no positive immunological results, were indistinguishable clinically and histopathologically from SPD-type IAD. The present study of the largest cohort of cases of IAD showed that the major subtypes are SPD and IEN, and that the combination of indirect immunofluorescence and ELISAs of desmogleins and desmocollins, in addition to direct immunofluorescence, was useful for the diagnosis of IAD and its subtypes. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.
Clin, Benedicte; Stosse-Guevel, Catherine; Marquignon, Marie-France; Verneuil, Laurence; Letourneux, Marc
Eczema associated with bryozoans is a form of occupational dermatosis caused by a living animal, involving contact eczema, occasionally associated with photosensitivity and concerning fishermen on a quasi-elective basis. This affection can prove to be extremely disabling, frequently generating disastrous social consequences, since the eviction of the responsible allergen is very often synonymous to occupational reclassification, a measure which fishermen, highly attached to their profession, have great difficulty in accepting. Based on the description of three cases of photosensitive eczema associated with contact with the bryozoan, Alcyonidium gelatinosum, identified in fishermen from the English Channel coastline, we describe the characteristics and the specificities of this occupational dermatosis, then approach the issue of its prevention, which, unfortunately, remains limited.
Vargas, Thiago Jeunon de Sousa; Fialho, Mônica; Santos, Luiza Tavares dos; Rodrigues, Palmira Assis de Jesus Barreto; Vargas, Ana Luisa Bittencourt Sampaio Jeunon; Sousa, Maria Auxiliadora Jeunon
Linear IgA dermatosis has been increasingly associated with inflammatory bowel diseases, particularly ulcerative colitis. A 13-year-old male patient with an 11-month history of ulcerative colitis developed vesicles, pustules and erosions on the skin of the face, trunk and buttocks and in the oral mucosa. The work-up revealed a neutrophil-rich sub-epidermal bullous disease and linear deposition of IgA along the dermoepidermal junction, establishing the diagnosis of linear IgA dermatosis. The patient experienced unsatisfactory partial control of skin and intestinal symptoms despite the use of adalimumab, mesalazine, prednisone and dapsone for some months. After total colectomy, he presented complete remission of skin lesions, with no need of medications during two years of follow-up. A review of previously reported cases of the association is provided here and the role of ulcerative colitis in triggering linear IgA dermatosis is discussed.
Zahdi, Mariana Ribas; Seidel, Gabriela Bestani; Soares, Vanessa Cristina; de Freitas, Camila Fernanda Novak Pinheiro; Mulinari-Brenner, Fabiane Andrade
Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp is a rare inflammatory disorder of the scalp, affecting elderly patients after local trauma and leading to scarring or cicatricial alopecia. Case Report: An elderly female patient complained of painful pustules on the parietal region bilaterally with progressive enlargement and ulceration. A biopsy suggested erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp and the patient was treated with prednisone 40 mg/day and 0.1% topical tacrolimus. After 10 weeks complete closure of the eroded areas was observed and a stable scarring alopecia developed. PMID:24173187
Saeb-Lima, Marcela; Charli-Joseph, Yann; Rodríguez-Acosta, Elva Dalia; Domínguez-Cherit, Judith
Neutrophilic dermatoses have long been known to be associated with autoinmune systemic diseases. Recently, a small number of cases of a disorder distinct from Sweet syndrome or bullous lupus erythematosus (LE) have been described as specifically related to systemic LE under diverse terms, including nonbullous neutrophilic dermatosis, nonbullous neutrophilic LE, and Sweet-like neutrophilic dermatosis. We describe 7 patients that developed urticarial lesions in the context of a known or concurrently diagnosed autoimmune connective tissue disease. Of a total of 7 patients, 6 were afflicted by systemic LE and 1 by rheumatoid arthritis and secondary Sjögren syndrome. Histological findings in all patients included an interstitial and perivascular neutrophilic infiltrate with leukocytoclasia, vacuolar alteration along the dermal-edidermal junction, and no vasculitis. Most patients had active systemic disease at the time of the cutaneous eruption. Skin lesions resolved rapidly after the administration of immunomodulating agents. In conclusion, we provide additional evidence of the existence of a recently defined nonbullous neutrophilic dermatosis in the context of autoimmune connective tissue diseases and propose the term autoimmunity-related neutrophilic dermatosis as an appropriate designation. Furthermore, we believe that this entity should prompt physicians to screen the presence of an active systemic disorder in afflicted patients.
Larson, Allison R; Granter, Scott R
Neutrophilic dermatoses are an uncommon manifestation of lupus. We describe the clinical and histopathologic features of 14 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and neutrophilic dermatoses, 2 of whom had no prior history of SLE. Thirteen patients were female, ranging in age from 27 to 62 years (mean age, 42.8 years). One patient was a 20-year-old man. Most lesions were described as erythematous papules and plaques and showed annular morphology in 6 patients and a photodistribution in 2 patients. Histopathologic examination in all cases showed an interstitial neutrophilic infiltrate with leukocytoclasis that ranged from sparse in 5 cases and moderate to dense in 9 cases. With one exception, those cases with moderate to dense infiltrates resembled Sweet's syndrome at scanning magnification. Two cases resembled bullous SLE, and 1 case showed overlapping features of bullous SLE and Sweet's syndrome. Interface changes were seen in 8 patients, which were subtle and vacuolar in 7. One case was associated with a florid interface tissue reaction. Dermal mucin was seen in 4 cases and was a prominent feature in only one of these. One case showed a minute discrete focus resembling palisaded neutrophilic and granulomatous dermatitis. It is important to consider SLE-associated neutrophilic dermatosis in the differential diagnosis of neutrophilic tissue reactions particularly because some patients will have no prior history of lupus. It is also important to be aware of the broad histologic spectrum that may be encountered in SLE-associated neutrophilic dermatosis, ranging from subtle paucicellular lesions to florid Sweet's-like lesions associated with a dense neutrophilic infiltrate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hashimoto, Takashi; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Yasukochi, Atsushi; Imanishi, Hisayoshi; Sekine, Hideharu; Fujita, Teizo; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Gi, Min; Kárpáti, Sarolta; Sitaru, Cassian; Zone, John J; Endo, Daisuke; Abe, Shinichi; Nishino, Tomoya; Koji, Takehiko; Ishii, Norito
There has been no previous systematic study of bullous skin diseases with granular basement membrane zone deposition exclusively of C3. In this study we collected 20 such patients, none of whom showed cutaneous vasculitis histopathologically. Oral dapsone and topical steroids were effective. Various serological tests detected no autoantibodies or autoantigens. Direct immunofluorescence for various complement components revealed deposition only of C3 and C5-C9, indicating that no known complement pathways were involved. Studies of in situ hybridization and micro-dissection with quantitative RT-PCR revealed a slight reduction in expression of C3 in patient epidermis. These patients may represent a new disease entity, for which we propose the term "granular C3 dermatosis". The mechanism for granular C3 deposition in these patients is unknown, but it is possible that the condition is caused by autoantibodies to skin or aberrant C3 expression in epidermal keratinocytes.
Mihályi, Lilla; Kiss, Mária; Dobozy, Attila; Kemény, Lajos; Husz, Sándor
The authors present their experience related to the diagnosis, treatment, and followup of 431 patients with bullous pemphigoid, 14 patients with juvenile bullous pemphigoid, and 273 patients with pemphigus. The detection of autoantibodies plays an outstanding role in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Paraneoplastic pemphigoid is suggested to be a distinct entity from the group of bullous pemphigoid in view of the linear C3 deposits along the basement membrane of the perilesional skin and the “ladder” configuration of autoantibodies demonstrated by western blot analysis. It is proposed that IgA pemphigoid should be differentiated from the linear IgA dermatoses. Immunosuppressive therapy is recommended in which the maintenance dose of corticosteroid is administered every second day, thereby reducing the side effects of the corticosteroids. Following the detection of IgA antibodies (IgA pemphigoid, linear IgA bullous dermatosis, and IgA pemphigus), diamino diphenyl sulfone (dapsone) therapy is preferred alone or in combination. The clinical relevance of autoantibodies in patients with autoimmune bullous dermatosis is stressed. PMID:23320017
Turrentine, Jake E; Blalock, Travis W; Davis, Loretta S
An 18-year-old black woman with cerebral palsy was admitted for evaluation of an intrathecal baclofen pump site infection. The dermatology service was consulted for treatment suggestions of a presumed diagnosis of chronic tinea capitis. Three courses of oral griseofulvin during the past 2 years failed to resolve the patient's chronic scalp dermatosis. Scalp lesions first began about 2 years earlier after hospitalization for placement of an intrathecal baclofen pump. The patient was unable to care for her scalp due to her cerebral palsy, and her mother interpreted the scalp condition as infectious. No routine shampoo care, scalp care, or topical treatment was performed for more than 1 1/2 years. The mother felt that touching the patient's scalp might cause pain and noted that the majority of her time was spent concentrating on more critical medical issues. Physical examination revealed coalescing hyperkeratotic plaques extending dorsally from the anterior hairline to the occipital scalp with small flecks of keratinous debris throughout the remaining hair (Figure 1). The plate-like plaques were devoid of hair, except at a few fissures where a few tufts of hair emerged. No cervical lymph nodes were appreciated on palpation. Treatment was initiated with compresses consisting of large warm water-soaked towels 4 times daily. Three times a day, a nursing staff applied 5% salicylic acid in olive oil to the scalp under a shower cap for approximately 1 hour. Over the following 2 days, a significant reduction in keratinous debris was appreciated. Within 2 weeks, the bulk of the plaques had been removed (Figure 2). At 6-week follow-up, the underlying scalp showed areas of fibrosis and possible scarring with a few emerging tufts of hair. On the basis of history and response to treatment with salicylic acid and routine scalp care, the patient was diagnosed with an unusually severe case of dermatosis neglecta.
Yiasemides, Eleni; Thom, Graham
We report a case of a 46-year-old man with ulcerative colitis being treated with oral prednisolone and azathioprine. Two weeks after the initiation of azathioprine he presented with fever, fatigue, myalgias and arthralgias and a painful cutaneous eruption that was most marked in a sun-exposed distribution. This was accompanied by loose, non-bloody diarrhoea. Histopathological assessment of a skin biopsy supported a diagnosis of a neutrophilic dermatosis. The azathioprine was temporarily withheld and oral prednisolone was increased as it was thought that the neutrophilic dermatosis was associated with the underlying ulcerative colitis. The patient's symptoms and cutaneous eruption resolved quickly and azathioprine was re-introduced. Within 24 h, systemic symptoms returned along with a florid recrudescence of his cutaneous eruption. This rapidly improved upon withdrawal of azathioprine.
Guttuso, T; Bergsland, N; Hagemeier, J; Lichter, D G; Pasternak, O; Zivadinov, R
Free water in the posterior substantia nigra obtained from a bi-tensor diffusion MR imaging model has been shown to significantly increase over 1- and 4-year periods in patients with early-stage idiopathic Parkinson disease compared with healthy controls, which suggests that posterior substantia nigra free water may be an idiopathic Parkinson disease progression biomarker. Due to the known temporal posterior-to-anterior substantia nigra degeneration in idiopathic Parkinson disease, we assessed longitudinal changes in free water in both the posterior and anterior substantia nigra in patients with later-stage idiopathic Parkinson disease and age-matched healthy controls for comparison. Nineteen subjects with idiopathic Parkinson disease and 19 age-matched healthy control subjects were assessed on the same 3T MR imaging scanner at baseline and after approximately 3 years. Baseline mean idiopathic Parkinson disease duration was 7.1 years. Both anterior and posterior substantia nigra free water showed significant intergroup differences at baseline ( P < .001 and P = .014, respectively, idiopathic Parkinson disease versus healthy controls); however, only anterior substantia nigra free water showed significant longitudinal group × time interaction increases ( P = .021, idiopathic Parkinson disease versus healthy controls). There were no significant longitudinal group × time interaction differences found for conventional diffusion tensor imaging or free water-corrected DTI assessments in either the anterior or posterior substantia nigra. Results from this study provide further evidence supporting substantia nigra free water as a promising disease-progression biomarker in idiopathic Parkinson disease that may help to identify disease-modifying therapies if used in future clinical trials. Our novel finding of longitudinal increases in anterior but not posterior substantia nigra free water is potentially a result of the much longer disease duration of our cohort compared
Guarenti, Isabelle Maffei; Almeida, Hiram Larangeira de; Leitão, Aline Hatzenberger; Rocha, Nara Moreira; Silva, Ricardo Marques E
Tinea nigra is a rare superficial mycosis caused by Hortaea werneckii. This infection presents as asymptomatic brown to black maculae mostly in palmo-plantar regions. We performed scanning electron microscopy of a superficial shaving of a tinea nigra lesion. The examination of the outer surface of the sample showed the epidermis with corneocytes and hyphae and elimination of fungal filaments. The inner surface of the sample showed important aggregation of hyphae among keratinocytes, which formed small fungal colonies. The ultrastructural findings correlated with those of dermoscopic examination - the small fungal aggregations may be the dark spicules seen on dermoscopy - and also allowed to document the mode of dissemination of tinea nigra, showing how hyphae are eliminated on the surface of the lesion.
Guarenti, Isabelle Maffei; de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Leitão, Aline Hatzenberger; Rocha, Nara Moreira; Silva, Ricardo Marques e
Tinea nigra is a rare superficial mycosis caused by Hortaea werneckii. This infection presents as asymptomatic brown to black maculae mostly in palmo-plantar regions. We performed scanning electron microscopy of a superficial shaving of a tinea nigra lesion. The examination of the outer surface of the sample showed the epidermis with corneocytes and hyphae and elimination of fungal filaments. The inner surface of the sample showed important aggregation of hyphae among keratinocytes, which formed small fungal colonies. The ultrastructural findings correlated with those of dermoscopic examination - the small fungal aggregations may be the dark spicules seen on dermoscopy - and also allowed to document the mode of dissemination of tinea nigra, showing how hyphae are eliminated on the surface of the lesion. PMID:24770516
Shinmura, Akiko; Abe, Koichiro; Baba, Shingo; Isoda, Takuro; Maruoka, Yasuhiro; Yasukawa, Fumiko; Kiryu, Hiromaro; Sasaki, Masayuki; Furue, Masutaka; Honda, Hiroshi
Acquired perforating dermatosis (APD) is an uncommon cutaneous perforating disorder. We report a patient on hemodialysis who developed skin eruption and jaundice. He underwent FDG PET/CT under suspicion of biliary malignancies. PET/CT showed no significant abnormal uptake except of multiple FDG-avid nodules in the skin. The eruption he had was histopathologically diagnosed as APD by skin biopsy. His case suggests that APD should be considered as a differential diagnosis when multiple cutaneous FDG accumulations are found in a patient on hemodialysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing the FDG PET/CT findings of APD.
Regis B. Miller; Michael C. Wiemann
The wood anatomical characteristics of Dalbergia nigra and Dalbergia spruceana are too similar to permit reliable species separation, which is sometimes important because D. nigra is a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species-protected species whereas D. spruceana is not. However, the density, water fluorescence, and ethanol fluorescence of heartwood...
A case of an extensive chronic roentgen-ray dermatosis on the face of a 68 year old man is reported which developed approximately thirty years after x- ray treatment for sycosis barbae and eczema on the hands. Both fore-arms were amputated six and fourteen years after radiation therapy because of severe destructive lesions. Within the area of this late chronic roentgen-ray dermatosis on the face (forehead, nose, eyelids) gradually eight malignant tumors developed, i.e., four spinocellulars carcinomas, three basalcell carcinomas, and one polymorphocellular sarcoma. All of the tumors, including polymorphocellulars sarcoma, were sparingly excised with optimum therapeutic and cosmetic results andmore » the patient has now for more than two years shown no signs of relapse. There is only an atypic flat spinocellular lesion on the right ala nasi which is uncertain. (auth)« less
Vikramaditya; Sharma, K N
Under the present paper, authors have reposted finding of Sambucus nigra L. as new introduction in medicinal plans in the flora of "Valley of flowers'. Sambucus nigra L. Originally is an European plant and is very important for its medicinal potential, being used in various systems of medicine to cure number of ailments. In natural order Sambucus nigra L. belongs to family caprifoliaceae.
Shih, J.; Tseng, H.; Huang, K.
A preliminary report is presented on the application of radioisotope Sr/ sup 90/ in the treatment of 10 types of dermatosis including 58 case histories. Sr/sup 90/ was recommended for the treatment of shallow dermatosis as it is incapable of producing alpha rays after beta decay to injure the inner tissues. The low energy beta rays of Sr/sup 90/ are filtered while the beta rays of Y/sup 90/ are utilized to eliminate epidermic absorption. Sr/sup 90/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ was used in experimental therapy, Dosage determination was based on the P/sup 32/ formula derived by a Soviet expert. Varying dosages rangingmore » from 4 to 27 treatments were given to 30 cases of neurergic dermatitis. In most cases, 10 to 12 treatments were administered twice a week at 18 to 186 rep. Sr/sup 90/ showed therapeutic effect after 2 to 3 treatments. At a total dosage of 800 to 1000 rep itches began to disappear and eruptions subsided in a majority of cases. Clinical results revealed that 23 cases were cured, 4 showed improvement, and 3 were progressing, None failed to respond. Therapeutic responses also showed in other cases such as erythema multiform, cutaneous ulcers, external piles, eczema, grog blossom, and tinea in the hands and feet. Sr/sup 90/ treatment was found superior to the P/sup 32/ x-ray therapy and Chinese herb treatment. The activity mechanism of Sr/sup 90/ in treatment of dermatosis is attributed to the direct function of beta rays on the receptors of skin nerves. This results in the temporary inhibition of nervous impulse conduction, the disappearance of clinical symptoms, and curing of the diseases. Lead, aluminum, and rubber were used in the experimental protection. Results showed that rubber is satisfactory. (OTS)« less
Vikramaditya; Sharma, Kedar Nath
Under the present paper, authors have reposted finding of Sambucus nigra L. as new introduction in medicinal plans in the flora of “Valley of flowers’. Sambucus nigra L. Originally is an European plant and is very important for its medicinal potential, being used in various systems of medicine to cure number of ailments. In natural order Sambucus nigra L. belongs to family caprifoliaceae. PMID:22556907
González-Lara, L; Gómez-Bernal, S; Vázquez-López, F; Vivanco-Allende, B
Acquired perforating dermatosis (APD) is an uncommon disease characterized by lesions exhibiting transepidermal elimination of collagen or elastic fibers. APD affects adults and is associated with systemic diseases, mainly diabetes mellitus and renal failure. We present 8 cases of APD. Seven patients had concomitant diabetes mellitus with or without chronic renal failure, and 1 had alcoholic cirrhosis. In the patients with chronic renal failure, the onset of APD coincided with transient worsening of renal function. The mean increase in creatinine concentrations above baseline was 1.14mg/dL. Acute deterioration of renal function may be involved in APD. Further studies are needed to investigate this association. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y AEDV. All rights reserved.
Steć, Anna; Paluch-Oleś, Jolanta; Korolczuk, Agnieszka; Magdalena Grzebalska, Agnieszka; Kozioł-Montewka, Maria; Książek, Andrzej
Acquired perforating dermatosis (APD) represents a heterogenous group of skin disorders characterized histopathologically by transepithelial elimination (TEE) of dermal structures. APD is manifested clinically as multi-localized, papulo-nodular skin lesions accompanied by a refractory pruritus. APD typically coexists with long-term disorders, most often diabetic kidney disease (DKD). The paper presents a case of a 56-year-old male patient with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and concomitant acquired reactive perforating collagenosis (ARPC), which is a subtype of APD. Etiological theories of ARPC as well as current diagnostic and treatment principles in dermatosis were described. On the basis of the presented case report and the literature review attention was paid to diagnostic difficulties associated with APD. The assumption was made that APD can be an underdiagnosed disease and thus it is not treated correctly. According to the authors’ opinion, this is an important circumstance to popularize the knowledge about APD.
de Brito, Fernanda Freitas; Martelli, Antonio Carlos Ceribelli; Cavalcante, Maria Lopes Lamenha Lins; Pinto, Ana Cecília Versiani Duarte; Itimura, Gabriela; Soares, Cleverson Teixeira
Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (EPF) or Ofuji disease is a rare dermatosis, prone to recurrence and chronicity. The peak incidence occurs in the third decade of life and its exact etiology remains unknown. Evidence suggests that the expression of adhesion molecules and the production of cytokines activate the follicular unit, but the stimulus that triggers these changes remains unclear. The three clinical variants reported in the literature include classic EPF, immunosuppression-associated EPF, and infancy-associated EPF. We report a case of eosinophilic pustular folliculitis with peculiar epidemiological characteristics, which represents a challenging therapeutic scenario. PMID:27828641
DeFilippis, Ersilia M; Magro, Cynthia; Jorizzo, Joseph L
Bowel-associated dermatosis - arthritis syndrome (BADAS) is a neutrophilic dermatosis characterized by cutaneous lesions that begin as erythematous macules and progress to vesiculopustular eruptions. It has been described in patients with inflammatory bowel disease as well as those who have undergone various intestinal surgeries. Pathologically, the lesions show features of vasculitis without fibrinoid necrosis. In a patient with diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease, these neutrophilic dermatoses should be viewed as external signals of bowel inflammation. Management requires long-term treatment of the underlying disease. We report a case of BADAS in a patient with ulcerative colitis in which the skin lesions were associated with increased colonic inflammation.
Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Delgado, Lívia; Pereira, Gustavo Alonso
Dermoscopy has being used over the past twenty years as a noninvasive aid in the diagnosis of innumerable skin conditions, including infectious diseases and infestations (Entodermoscopy).Tinea nigra is a superficial phaeohyfomycosis that affects mainly the glabrous skin of palms and soles. We describe a 14 year-old girl with a three-month history of an enlarging brown patch of her hand diagnosed as Tinea Nigra following clinical and dermoscopy examination.These images emphasize the importance of dermoscopy as a diagnostic tool in the daily routine of dermatologists. PMID:23539019
Ellingford, J M; Black, G C M; Clayton, T H; Judge, M; Griffiths, C E M; Warren, R B
Chronic pustular dermatoses are severe and debilitating autoinflammatory conditions that can have a monogenic basis. Their clinical features are, however, complex with considerable overlap. Null and missense mutations in the genes encoding interleukin (IL)-1 family (IL-1 and IL-36) anti-inflammatory receptor antagonist (Ra) cytokines can underlie the development of severe pustular dermatoses. We present a clinical and genetic study of four children of Pakistani descent with similar clinical presentations and treatment course, each of whom suffers from a severe pustular dermatosis, initially described as a pustular variant of psoriasis. We use DNA sequencing to refine the diagnosis of two of the children studied. Bidirectional Sanger sequencing was performed on the coding regions of the IL-1Ra and IL-36Ra genes (IL1RN and IL36RN, respectively), for the four affected children and their parents. We identified a novel homozygous missense mutation in IL36RN in two siblings, and showed the molecular basis of the condition to be both distinct from psoriasis and distinct between the two families studied. We describe a novel mutation which underpins the diagnosis of childhood pustular dermatosis. Molecular diagnostics can be used to aid the clinical diagnosis and potential treatment of autoinflammatory conditions. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Singh, Saurabh; Khandpur, Sujay; Verma, Parul; Singh, Manoj
Dowling Degos disease is a rare, reticulate pigmentary disorder with variable phenotypic expression that manifests as hyperpigmented macules and reticulate pigmentary anomaly of the flexures. Many variants of this condition and its overlap with other reticulate pigmentary disorders have been reported in the literature. We present here two cases of DDD with follicular localization, both clinically and histologically. It was associated with ichthyosis vulgaris in one case. Follicular DDD is an uncommon variant of this evolving dermatosis. Our report supports the possible role for disordered follicular keratinisation in its pathogenesis.
Piliouras, Peter; Allison, Scott; Rosendahl, Cliff; Buettner, Petra G; Weedon, David
Tinea nigra is a relatively uncommon dematiaceous fungal infection of the palms and soles, which clinically may mimic a melanocytic lesion. We sought to ascertain how frequently misdiagnosis of this infection occurred and whether the use of dermoscopy helped in its diagnosis. Fifty consecutive cases of tinea nigra diagnosed at a dermatopathology laboratory were examined with regard to the clinical diagnosis, use of dermoscopy and the mode of management. Of the 50 cases, 21 (42.0%) were treated by shave or surgical excision. The clinical diagnosis of tinea nigra was made in five cases (10.0%) and suggested along with other diagnoses in a further two cases (4.0%). The dermatologists (n = 9) gave the correct diagnosis in four patients (44.4%), the general practitioners (n = 38) gave the correct diagnosis in one patient (2.6%) and the three surgeons involved did not give the correct diagnosis. When dermoscopy was used, in seven of 13 (53.8%) cases tinea nigra was suggested as a probable diagnosis but when dermoscopy was not used (n = 37) tinea nigra was not clinically diagnosed (P < 0.001). The diagnosis of tinea nigra is significantly improved by dermoscopy, the disease should be considered as a cause of palmar or plantar pigmentation. © 2011 The Authors; Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2011 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.
Todd, Gabrielle; Noyes, Carolyn; Flavel, Stanley C.; Della Vedova, Chris B.; Spyropoulos, Peter; Chatterton, Barry; Berg, Daniela; White, Jason M.
Use of illicit stimulants such as methamphetamine, cocaine, and ecstasy is an increasing health problem. Chronic use can cause neurotoxicity in animals and humans but the long-term consequences are not well understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the long-term effect of stimulant use on the morphology of the human substantia nigra. We hypothesised that history of illicit stimulant use is associated with an abnormally bright and enlarged substantia nigra (termed ‘hyperechogenicity’) when viewed with transcranial sonography. Substantia nigra morphology was assessed in abstinent stimulant users (n = 36; 31±9 yrs) and in two groups of control subjects: non-drug users (n = 29; 24±5 yrs) and cannabis users (n = 12; 25±7 yrs). Substantia nigra morphology was viewed with transcranial sonography and the area of echogenicity at the anatomical site of the substantia nigra was measured at its greatest extent. The area of substantia nigra echogenicity was significantly larger in the stimulant group (0.273±0.078 cm2) than in the control (0.201±0.054 cm2; P<0.001) and cannabis (0.202±0.045 cm2; P<0.007) groups. 53% of stimulant users exhibited echogenicity that exceeded the 90th percentile for the control group. The results of the current study suggest that individuals with a history of illicit stimulant use exhibit abnormal substantia nigra morphology. Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity is a strong risk factor for developing Parkinson's disease later in life and further research is required to determine if the observed abnormality in stimulant users is associated with a functional deficit of the nigro-striatal system. PMID:23418568
Larry D. Cribben; Dina D. Scacchetti
Quantitative data were obtained for arboreal species within 50 lowland forests in southeastern Ohio. Thirty-seven communities were dominated by Betula nigra L. and 13 were dominated by Acer saccharinum L. The acidic soils collected from B. nigra communities contained toxic concentrations of exchangeable aluminum...
Salkov, V N; Khudoerkov, R M; Voronkov, D N; Sobolev, V B; Kutukova, K A
to clarify the features of morphochemical changes in the substantia nigra cellular structures in Parkinson's disease. The structural characteristics of the substantia nigra were studied microscopically and quantified using computer morphometric methods at brain autopsies of individuals with Parkinson's disease who had died from intercurrent diseases and those who had no evidence of neurological disorders in their history (a control group). This investigation could clarify the features of morphochemical changes in both the neural network structures and the glial populations of the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease. The number of neurons containing tyrosine hydroxylase (a marker of dopamine neurons) in the compact part of the substantia nigra (a ventral region) was smaller and the density distribution of Lewy bodies was higher in the patients with Parkinson's disease than in the control group. The accumulation of iron (II) compounds in the cellular elements and neuropile and the increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in Parkinson's disease were more pronounced than those in the controls. Postmortem diagnosis in Parkinson's disease should be based on a full description of a set of neuronal and glial morphochemical and structural changes in the substantia nigra rather than on the identification of cellular markers for the neurodegenerative process.
Fernandes, Karen de Almeida Pinto; Lima, Lourenço de Azevedo; Guedes, Juliana Chaves Ruiz; Lima, Ricardo Barbosa; D'Acri, Antônio Macedo; Martins, Carlos José
Perforating dermatoses are a group of skin diseases characterized by transepidermal elimination of dermal material. The disease is divided into two groups: the primary group and the secondary group. The classical or primary perforating dermatoses are subdivided into four types according to the eliminated dermal materials: Kyrle disease, perforating reactive collagenosis, elastosis perforans serpiginosa, and perforating folliculitis. The secondary form is known as acquired perforating dermatosis. The term was proposed in 1989 by Rapini to designate the perforating dermatoses affecting adult patients with systemic disease, regardless of the dermal materials eliminated. This report describes a case of the disease with elimination of collagen and elastic fibers in a patient with chronic renal failure.
Manriquez, Juan; Giesen, Laura; Puerto, Constanza Del; Gonzalez, Sergio
A 54 year-old woman with a 3-year history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) consulted us because of weight loss, fever and skin eruption. On physical examination, erythematous plaques with a pseudo-vesicular appearance were seen on the back of both shoulders. Histological examination was consistent with rheumatoid neutrophilic dermatosis (RND). After 3 days of prednisone treatment, the skin eruption resolved. RND is a rare cutaneous manifestation of seropositive RA, characterized by asymptomatic, symmetrical erythematous plaques with a pseudo-vesicular appearance. Histology characteristically reveals a dense, neutrophilic infiltrate with leucocitoclasis but without other signs of vasculitis. Lesions may resolve spontaneously or with RA treatment. This case illustrates an uncommon skin manifestation of active rheumatoid arthritis.
Jun Hyung Lee; Paula M. Pijut
Black ash (Fraxinus nigra) is an endangered hardwood tree species under threat of extirpation by the emerald ash borer (EAB), an aggressive exotic phloemfeeding beetle. We have developed an efficient regeneration system through adventitious shoot organogenesis in F. nigra using in vitro-derived leaf explants. Two types of leaf...
Zeni, Ana Lúcia B; Moreira, Tatianne D; Dalmagro, Ana Paula; Camargo, Anderson; Bini, Larissa A; Simionatto, Edésio L; Scharf, Dilamara R
Morus nigra L. (Moraceae) is a tree known as black mulberry and the leaves are used in folk medicine in the treatment of diabetes, high cholesterol and menopause symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the M. nigra leaves phytochemical profile in different extractions and the hypolipidemic effect of the infusion comparing to the fenofibrate. Morus nigra infusion (MN) showed higher amounts of phenolics and flavonoids (83.85 mg/g and 79.96 µg/g, respectively), as well as antioxidant activity (83.85%) than decoction or hydromethanolic extracts. Although, decoction showed the best result for ascorbic acid (4.35 mg/100 g) than hydromethanolic or infusion (2.51 or 2.13 mg/100 g, respectively). The phenolic acids gallic, chlorogenic and caffeic and the flavonoids quercetin, rutin and catechin were found in the M. nigra extracts. Hyperlipidemic rats treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg of MN decreased serum cholesterol, triglycerides and normalized lipoproteins. Furthermore, MN inhibited lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney and brain of hyperlipidemic rats. This study provides evidence that M. nigra leaves extracts are rich in polyphenols, mainly chlorogenic acid, which normalized hyperlipidemic disturbance. The results suggest a potential therapeutic effect of the M. nigra leaves infusion on dislipidemic condition and related oxidative stress.
Cevirgen Cemil, Bengu; Keseroglu, Havva Ozge; Kaya Akis, Havva
Many advances in dermatology have been made in recent years. In the present review article, newly described disorders from the last six years are presented in detail. We divided these reports into different sections, including syndromes, autoinflammatory diseases, tumors, and unclassified disease. Syndromes included are “circumferential skin creases Kunze type” and “unusual type of pachyonychia congenita or a new syndrome”; autoinflammatory diseases include “chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE) syndrome,” “pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PASH) syndrome,” and “pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PAPASH) syndrome”; tumors include “acquired reactive digital fibroma,” “onychocytic matricoma and onychocytic carcinoma,” “infundibulocystic nail bed squamous cell carcinoma,” and “acral histiocytic nodules”; unclassified disorders include “saurian papulosis,” “symmetrical acrokeratoderma,” “confetti-like macular atrophy,” and “skin spicules,” “erythema papulosa semicircularis recidivans.” PMID:25243162
Zecca, L; Tampellini, D; Gerlach, M; Riederer, P; Fariello, R G; Sulzer, D
The pigmented neurones of the substantia nigra are typically lost in Parkinson's disease; however, the possible relation between neuronal vulnerability and the presence of neuromelanin has not been elucidated. Early histological studies revealed the presence of increasing amounts of neuromelanin in the substantia nigra with aging in higher mammals, showed that the neuromelanin granules are surrounded by a membrane, and comparatively evaluated the pigmentation of the substantia nigra in different animal species. Histochemical studies showed the association of neuromelanin with lipofuscins. However, systematic investigations of the structure, synthesis, and molecular interactions of neuromelanin have been undertaken only during the past decade. In these later studies, neuromelanin was identified as a genuine melanin with a strong chelating ability for iron and an affinity for compounds such as lipids, pesticides, and MPP+. The affinity of neuromelanin for a variety of inorganic and organic toxins is consistent with a postulated protective function for neuromelanin. Moreover, the neuronal accumulation of neuromelanin during aging and the link between its synthesis and a high cytosolic concentration of catechols suggest a protective role. However, its putative neuroprotective effects could be quenched in conditions of toxin overload. PMID:11724917
Kite, Geoffrey C; Green, Paul W C; Veitch, Nigel C; Groves, Madeleine C; Gasson, Peter E; Simmonds, Monique S J
International trade in Brazilian rosewood, Dalbergia nigra (Vell.) Allemão ex Benth., is regulated by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). One problem in enforcing these regulations is the difficulty in distinguishing the wood of D. nigra from that of a closely-related but unregulated species, Dalbergia spruceana Benth. Using LC-MS to analyse methanol extracts of xylaria specimens, we identified a chemical marker for D. nigra heartwood, and determined its structure as the neoflavonoid 6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one (4'-O-methylmelanettin; dalnigrin), using spectroscopic techniques. Dalnigrin was present in all nine available heartwood specimens of D. nigra, but it was not detected in extracts of 59 other heartwood samples representing 15 species of Dalbergia, including D. spruceana. Five other phenolic compounds were also isolated from D. nigra heartwood and similarly identified as the neoflavonoids 3'-hydroxymelanettin, melanettin, melannein and dalbergin, and the isoflavone caviunin. In extracts of D. spruceana heartwood, pseudobaptigenin was identified by LC-MS to be a major phenolic component that was not detected in wood extracts of D. nigra. We conclude that chemical analysis, in combination with anatomical investigation, can provide persuasive evidence to support the positive identification of untreated heartwood of D. nigra. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rossi, Mark A.; Fan, David; Barter, Joseph W.; Yin, Henry H.
A major output nucleus of the basal ganglia is the substantia nigra pars reticulata, which sends GABAergic projections to brainstem and thalamic nuclei. The GABAergic (GABA) neurons are reciprocally connected with nearby dopaminergic neurons, which project mainly to the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical nuclei critical for goal-directed behaviors. Here we examined the impact of motivational states on the activity of GABA neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata and the neighboring dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the pars compacta. Both types of neurons show short-latency bursts to a cue predicting a food reward. As mice became sated by repeated consumption of food pellets, one class of neurons reduced cue-elicited firing, whereas another class of neurons progressively increased firing. Extinction or pre-feeding just before the test session dramatically reduced the phasic responses and their motivational modulation. These results suggest that signals related to the current motivational state bidirectionally modulate behavior and the magnitude of phasic response of both DA and GABA neurons in the substantia nigra. PMID:23936522
Fistarol, Susanna K; Itin, Peter H
Acquired perforating dermatosis (APD) is characterized by umbilicated 1- to 10-mm-measuring papulonodules with a central adherent oystershell-like keratotic plug, typically on the dorsa of the hands, forearms and over the knees. APD is associated with systemic diseases, especially diabetes mellitus and/or renal failure. Histologically the lesions show transepidermal elimination of altered dermal components into a cup-shaped epidermal depression. We present a 69-year-old man with coexisting APD and Poland syndrome (PS), an association not yet described. PS (OMIM 173800) is a rare congenital anomaly consisting of unilateral partial or total absence of the greater pectoralis muscle and ipsilateral symbrachydactyly. Most cases of PS are sporadic as it was in our case. Our patient had, in addition, an untreated diabetic condition, hyperuricaemia, dilated cardiomyopathy and a very recent pulmonary embolism. He responded to therapy with allopurinol. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel
Almeida, Michael F; Silva, Carolliny M; Chaves, Rodrigo S; Lima, Nathan C R; Almeida, Renato S; Melo, Karla P; Demasi, Marilene; Fernandes, Tiago; Oliveira, Edilamar M; Netto, Luis E S; Cardoso, Sandra M; Ferrari, Merari F R
Moderate physical exercise acts at molecular and behavioural levels, such as interfering in neuroplasticity, cell death, neurogenesis, cognition and motor functions. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyse the cellular effects of moderate treadmill running upon substantia nigra during early neurodegeneration. Aged male Lewis rats (9-month-old) were exposed to rotenone 1mg/kg/day (8 weeks) and 6 weeks of moderate treadmill running, beginning 4 weeks after rotenone exposure. Substantia nigra was extracted and submitted to proteasome and antioxidant enzymes activities, hydrogen peroxide levels and Western blot to evaluate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), alpha-synuclein, Tom-20, PINK1, TrkB, SLP1, CRMP-2, Rab-27b, LC3II and Beclin-1 level. It was demonstrated that moderate treadmill running, practiced during early neurodegeneration, prevented the increase of alpha-synuclein and maintained the levels of TH unaltered in substantia nigra of aged rats. Physical exercise also stimulated autophagy and prevented impairment of mitophagy, but decreased proteasome activity in rotenone-exposed aged rats. Physical activity also prevented H 2 O 2 increase during early neurodegeneration, although the involved mechanism remains to be elucidated. TrkB levels and its anterograde trafficking seem not to be influenced by moderate treadmill running. In conclusion, moderate physical training could prevent early neurodegeneration in substantia nigra through the improvement of autophagy and mitophagy.
Aounallah, A; Zerriaa, S; Ksiaa, M; Jaziri, H; Boussofara, L; Ghariani, N; Mokni, S; Saidi, W; Sriha, B; Belajouza, C; Denguezli, M; Nouira, R
Bowel-associated dermatosis-arthritis syndrome (BADAS) is characterized by combined pustular skin eruption and arthralgia. It may be associated with inflammatory bowel disease or bowel bypass surgery. We report a case of BADAS in a patient with ulcerative colitis. A 39-year-old woman was being treated for a severe flare-up of ulcerative colitis present over the preceding 2 months and treated with prednisone, azathioprine and cyclosporine. She was also presenting a cutaneous eruption and arthralgia that had begun three days earlier. Dermatological examination revealed profuse vesicular and pustular lesions. Biopsy specimens showed mature neutrophilic infiltrate within the dermis. A diagnosis of BADAS was made and the same treatment was maintained. Systemic symptoms were resolved but the vesicular lesions were superseded by hypertrophic scars. Bowel-associated dermatosis-arthritis syndrome consists of a vesiculopustular eruption associated with arthralgia and/or arthritis and fever, as was the case in our patient. The histological picture is characterized by abundant neutrophilic infiltrate in the superficial dermis. The clinical and histological features and the course of BADAS allow this entity to be classified within the spectrum of neutrophilic dermatoses. Treatment chiefly involves systemic corticosteroids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Michael J. Bosela; Gurpreet S. Smagh; Charles H. Michler
Disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains with binary vectors carrying transgenes for kanamycin resistance (npt II) and β-glucuronidase (GUS, uidA) were used for the genetic transformation of Eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra) somatic embryos. In total, explants from 16 embryo lines...
Popovic-Milenkovic, Marija T; Tomovic, Marina T; Brankovic, Snezana R; Ljujic, Biljana T; Jankovic, Slobodan M
Hawthorn has been present for a long time in traditional medicine as antihypertensive, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, antimicrobial agent. Hawthorn can be used for the cure of stress, nervousness but there is no published paper about actions of Crataegus nigra Wald. et Kit. fruits. The present study was carried out to test free-radical-scavenging and anxiolytic activity of C. nigra fruits. DPPH (alpha,alpha-diphenyl-beta-picrylhydrazyl) assay was used to measure antioxidant activity. BHT, BHA, PG, quercetin and rutin were used as standards. The total amount of phenolic compounds, procyanidins, and flavonoids in the extracts, was determined spectrophotometrically. Results were expressed as equivalents of gallic acid, cyanidin chloride and quercetin equivalents, respectively. LC-MS/MS was used for identification and quantification of phenolic composition. The anxiety effect, expressed as the difference in time spent in the open and closed arms, was measured and compared between groups. Phenolic compound content of Crataegus nigra fruits was 72.7 mg/g. Yield of total flavonoid aglycones was 0.115 mg/g. Procyanidins were 5.6 mg/g. DPPH radical-scavenging capacity of the extracts showed linear concentration dependency, IC50 value were 27.33 microg/mL. Anxiolytic effect was observed. Species Crataegus nigra fruits hydroalcoholic extract showed antioxidant and anxiolytic activity.
Background Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a pathogenic chicken coronavirus. Currently, vaccination against IBV is only partially protective; therefore, better preventions and treatments are needed. Plants produce antimicrobial secondary compounds, which may be a source for novel anti-viral drugs. Non-cytotoxic, crude ethanol extracts of Rhodiola rosea roots, Nigella sativa seeds, and Sambucus nigra fruit were tested for anti-IBV activity, since these safe, widely used plant tissues contain polyphenol derivatives that inhibit other viruses. Results Dose–response cytotoxicity curves on Vero cells using trypan blue staining determined the highest non-cytotoxic concentrations of each plant extract. To screen for IBV inhibition, cells and virus were pretreated with extracts, followed by infection in the presence of extract. Viral cytopathic effect was assessed visually following an additional 24 h incubation with extract. Cells and supernatants were harvested separately and virus titers were quantified by plaque assay. Variations of this screening protocol determined the effects of a number of shortened S. nigra extract treatments. Finally, S. nigra extract-treated virions were visualized by transmission electron microscopy with negative staining. Virus titers from infected cells treated with R. rosea and N. sativa extracts were not substantially different from infected cells treated with solvent alone. However, treatment with S. nigra extracts reduced virus titers by four orders of magnitude at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1 in a dose-responsive manner. Infection at a low MOI reduced viral titers by six orders of magnitude and pretreatment of virus was necessary, but not sufficient, for full virus inhibition. Electron microscopy of virions treated with S. nigra extract showed compromised envelopes and the presence of membrane vesicles, which suggested a mechanism of action. Conclusions These results demonstrate that S. nigra extract can inhibit IBV at
Seol, Young-Joo; Kim, Kyunghee; Kang, Sang-Ho; Perumal, Sampath; Lee, Jonghoon; Kim, Chang-Kug
The two Brassica species, Brassica nigra and Brassica oleracea, are important agronomic crops. The chloroplast genome sequences were generated by de novo assembly using whole genome next-generation sequences. The chloroplast genomes of B. nigra and B. oleracea were 153 633 bp and 153 366 bp in size, respectively, and showed conserved typical chloroplast structure. The both chloroplast genomes contained a total of 114 genes including 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes, and 4 rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that B. oleracea is closely related to B. rapa and B. napus but B. nigra is more diverse than the neighbor species Raphanus sativus.
Kapila, R; Negi, M S; This, P; Delseny, M; Srivastava, P S; Lakshmikumaran, M
The 459-bp HindIII (pBN-4) and the 1732-bp Eco RI (pBNE8) fragments from the Brassica nigra genome were cloned and shown to be members of a dispersed repeat family. Of the three major diploid Brassica species, the repeat pBN-4 was found to be highly specific for the B. nigra genome. The family also hybridized to Sinapis arvensis showing that B. nigra had a closer relationship with the S. arvensis genome than with B. oleracea or B. campestris. The clone pBNE8 showed homology to a number of tRNA species indicating that this family of repeats may have originated from a tRNA sequence. The species-specific 459-bp repeat pBN-4 was localized on the B. nigra chromosomes using monosomic addition lines. In addition to the localization of pBN-4, the chromosomal distribution of two other species-specific repeats, pBN34 and pBNBH35 (reported earlier), was studied. The dispersed repeats pBN-4 and pBNBH35 were found to be present on all of the chromosomes, whereas the tandem repeat pBN34 was localized on two chromosomes.
Brian J. Palik; Michael E. Ostry; Robert C. Venette; Ebrahim Abdela
Extensive tree dieback is a recurrent issue in many regions. Crown dieback of Fraxinus nigra Marsh. (black ash; brown ash) in the northeastern and north central United States is an example. F. nigra is a widely distributed hardwood that is often the dominant species in wetland forests from Manitoba to Newfoundland and West...
Mahamed, Safraaz; Garrison, Tiffany J.; Shires, Joel
In the absence of sensory information, we rely on past experience or memories to guide our actions. Because previous experimental and clinical reports implicate basal ganglia nuclei in the generation of movement in the absence of sensory stimuli, we ask here whether one output nucleus of the basal ganglia, the substantia nigra pars reticulata (nigra), influences the specification of an eye movement in the absence of sensory information to guide the movement. We manipulated the level of activity of neurons in the nigra by introducing electrical stimulation to the nigra at different time intervals while monkeys made saccades to different locations in two conditions: one in which the target location remained visible and a second in which the target location appeared only briefly, requiring information stored in memory to specify the movement. Electrical manipulation of the nigra occurring during the delay period of the task, when information about the target was maintained in memory, altered the direction and the occurrence of subsequent saccades. Stimulation during other intervals of the memory task or during the delay period of the visually guided saccade task had less effect on eye movements. On stimulated trials, and only when the visual stimulus was absent, monkeys occasionally (∼20% of the time) failed to make saccades. When monkeys made saccades in the absence of a visual stimulus, stimulation of the nigra resulted in a rotation of the endpoints ipsilaterally (∼2°) and increased the reaction time of contralaterally directed saccades. When the visual stimulus was present, stimulation of the nigra resulted in no significant rotation and decreased the reaction time of contralaterally directed saccades slightly. Based on these measurements, stimulation during the delay period of the memory-guided saccade task influenced the metrics of saccades much more than did stimulation during the same period of the visually guided saccade task. Because these effects
Rochelle R. Beasley; Paula M. Pijut
Fraxinus nigra Marsh. (black ash) is a native ash species occurring in Newfoundland west to Manitoba and south to Iowa, Illinois, West Virginia, and Virginia. Although it is not a commercially important species, it has significant ethnobotanical importance to Native American tribes of the eastern United States.
Oduor, Ayub M. O.; Stift, Marc; van Kleunen, Mark
The evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis predicts that escape from intense herbivore damage may enable invasive plants to evolve higher competitive ability in the invasive range. Below-ground root herbivory can have a strong impact on plant performance, and invasive plants often compete with multiple species simultaneously, but experimental approaches in which EICA predictions are tested with root herbivores and in a community setting are rare. Here, we used Brassica nigra plants from eight invasive- and seven native-range populations to test whether the invasive-range plants have evolved increased competitive ability when competing with Achillea millefolium and with a community (both with and without A. millefolium). Further, we tested whether competitive interactions depend on root herbivory on B. nigra by the specialist Delia radicum. Without the community, competition with A. millefolium reduced biomass of invasive- but not of native-range B. nigra. With the community, invasive-range B. nigra suffered less than native-range B. nigra. Although the overall effect of root herbivory was not significant, it reduced the negative effect of the presence of the community. The community produced significantly less biomass when competing with B. nigra, irrespective of the range of origin, and independent of the presence of A. millefolium. Taken together, these results offer no clear support for the EICA hypothesis. While native-range B. nigra plants appear to be better in dealing with a single competitor, the invasive-range plants appear to be better in dealing with a more realistic multi-species community. Possibly, this ability of tolerating multiple competitors simultaneously has contributed to the invasion success of B. nigra in North America. PMID:26517125
Garant, D S; Gale, K
Microinfusion of morphine sulfate (50 nmol), [d-Ala2]-Met-enkephalin (35 nmol) or dynorphin A 1-13 (1 nmol) bilaterally into the substantia nigra significantly attenuated seizures induced by maximal electroshock in rats. This action was accompanied by stereotyped behavioral hyperactivity. These anticonvulsant and behavioral effects were antagonized by systemic naloxone administration; neither effect was observed after intranigral microinjection of dynorphin A 1-17 amide (1 nmol). These results are consistent with a mu opiate receptor-mediated inhibition of substantia nigra efferent neurons, and with the proposal that bilateral inhibition of nigral efferents attenuates seizure propagation. However, intranigral morphine failed to alter the severity of i.v. bicuculline seizures, indicating that opiate-mediated inhibition in substantia nigra is distinct from that produced by gamma-aminobutyric acid.
Rossetto, André Luiz; Cruz, Rosana Cé Bella; Haddad, Vidal Junior
A 7-year-old Caucasian female resident of the southern coast of Brazil presented dark spots on the left palm that converged to a unique macule with speckled pattern at about 1 month. The mycological exam and the fungi culture were typical of Hortaea werneckii, the agent of the superficial mycosis Tinea nigra. The patient received butenafine hydrochloride 1% for 30 days, resulting in a complete remission of the lesion. At a follow-up visit 12 months after treatment, there was no lesion recurrence. We describe a form of rare geographical Tinea nigra with a speckled pattern. The "salt and pepper" aspect should be taken into consideration when the mycosis was suspected. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Tieppo Francio, Vinicius; Towery, Chris; Davani, Saeid; Allen, Travis; Brown, Tony L
This is the case of a 25-year-old African American woman with a 3-week history of itching with burning, blistering lesions on her torso and extremities. Medical history was unremarkable. Medical treatments included three visits to urgent care, where she was treated with antivirals, oral and topical steroids, antibiotics and antifungals unsuccessfully. We performed a skin biopsy, and immunoflorescent studies revealed a linear deposition of IgA antigen at the basement membrane. The clinical diagnosis of linear IgA dermatosis (LAD) was established, with no eliciting cause, other than potential occupational exposure to Chlamydophila psittaci via her employment in a pet store. This is the first case to our knowledge to report such an association. However, confirmation of the exposure would only establish correlation, not causality. Resolution of symptoms and blisters was achieved with dapsone treatment. Accordingly, we highlight the crucial importance of reviewing exposures, along with the potential aetiology of LAD. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Wargo, Jeffrey J; Adams, Megan; Trevino, Julian
A man aged 56 years with a history of ulcerative colitis (UC) status postsubtotal colectomy was hospitalised with fevers, dry cough, eye redness and a new bloody, mucoid rectal discharge. 2 months prior to admission, the dermatologist had started him on dapsone for subcorneal pustular dermatosis but did not recognise that he had recently self-discontinued mesalamine enemas, inducing a flare of his UC. After a thorough inpatient evaluation, including flexible sigmoidoscopy, active UC involving the rectal stump was determined to be driving his dermatological and ophthalmological findings. By reinstituting mesalamine enemas, control of his UC was achieved and the extraintestinal manifestations of his inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) resolved. This case illustrates the importance of careful history taking and of early recognition of extraintestinal manifestations of IBD in order to appropriately target treatment and prevent unnecessary morbidity. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Campbell, Gregory A; Crow, Dennis
A litter of 3-month-old Pharaoh Hound puppies presented to the referring veterinarian with severe generalized erythematous-crusted papules with pruritus, accompanied by exfoliation and erythema of footpads, inappetence, lethargy, and retarded growth. Three of 5 puppies (2 male and 1 female) were affected. Representative areas were biopsied from 1 affected male puppy and were routinely processed. Histologically, there was marked epidermal hyperplasia with a disorganized appearance of the epidermis and massive parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, compatible with zinc-responsive dermatosis. Low serum zinc concentrations were documented, and the affected animals partially responded to intravenous zinc supplementation but did not respond to oral supplementation. One male puppy died as a result of unrelated causes and was necropsied. The remaining 4 puppies were followed over 2 years. Growth was stunted, and enamel hypoplasia of permanent dentition developed compared with unaffected littermates. Intravenous zinc supplementation at 3-4 week intervals was required to prevent further skin lesion development. One dog died at 3 years of age of renal failure.
Toback, A C; Korson, R; Krusinski, P A
We report a previously unrecognized hand dermatosis, pulling boat hands (PBH), occurring in thirteen participants at the Outward Bound School on Hurricane Island, Maine. Painful and pruritic macules, plaques, and vesicles developed exclusively while subjects lived aboard a pulling boat, the school's open rowing/sailing craft. Nine of those affected were women and eight had Raynaud's phenomenon or vasospasm. These subjects experienced thirty episodes of PBH during May through October, 1978 to 1982. Histopathology revealed a superficial and deep lymphohistiocytic perivascular infiltrate, subepidermal blister formation, red blood cell extravasation, and dermal capillary thrombosis compatible with cold injury to the skin. All patients experienced prolonged percussion to their hands while rowing as well as a continuous environmental exposure to cold air, wind, humidity, ocean spume, and precipitation. These clinical, histopathologic, and environmental findings suggest a unique syndrome that combines the vascular effects of mechanical trauma from rowing with those of nonfreezing cold injury.
Tan, Chen; Cui, Cheng; Xiang, Yi; Ge, Xianhong; Li, Zaiyun
We report the development and characterization of Brassica oleracea - nigra monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) to dissect the Brassica B genome. Brassica nigra (2n = 16, BB) represents the diploid Brassica B genome which carries many useful genes and traits for breeding but received limited studies. To dissect the B genome from B. nigra, the triploid F 1 hybrid (2n = 26, CCB) obtained previously from the cross B. oleracea var. alboglabra (2n = 18, CC) × B. nigra was used as the maternal parent and backcrossed successively to parental B. oleracea. The progenies in BC 1 to BC 3 generations were analyzed by the methods of FISH and SSR markers to screen the monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) with each of eight different B-genome chromosomes added to C genome (2n = 19, CC + 1B 1-8 ), and seven different MAALs were established, except for the one with chromosome B2 which existed in one triple addition. Most of these MAALs were distinguishable morphologically from each other, as they expressed the characters from B. nigra differently and at variable extents. The alien chromosome remained unpaired as a univalent in 86.24% pollen mother cells at diakinesis or metaphase I, and formed a trivalent with two C-genome chromosomes in 13.76% cells. Transmission frequency of all the added chromosomes was far higher through the ovules (averagely 14.40%) than the pollen (2.64%). The B1, B4 and B5 chromosomes were transmitted by female at much higher rates (22.38-30.00%) than the other four (B3, B6, B7, B8) (5.04-8.42%). The MAALs should be valuable for exploiting the genome structure and evolution of B. nigra.
Rossetto, André Luiz; Cruz, Rosana Cé Bella
The authors report a case of Tinea nigra in an 8-year-old child, male, from Itajaí, SC, Brazil, with lesions of the macular hyperchromic type, unique, asymptomatic, localized in the right palmar area. The lesion was treated with the topical antifungal butenafine, with remission of symptoms and without recurrence at follow-up for two years. PMID:23197223
Lindefors, N; Brené, S; Persson, H
In situ hybridization histochemistry and RNA blots were used to study expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) mRNA in rat caudate-nucleus and substantia nigra. In situ hybridization combined with computerized image analysis revealed that in the intact substantia nigra reticulata the cross-section area of GAD mRNA positive neurons were 25% larger in the dorsolateral part as compared with the ventromedial part. A unilateral ibotenic acid injection in caudate-putamen lesioned neurons, some of which project to the ipsilateral substantia nigra. An increased level of GAD mRNA was observed in substantia nigra ipsilateral to the lesion. Computerized image analysis of sections from in situ hybridization revealed an increase in the number of silver grains over GAD mRNA positive neurons in the dorsolateral substantia nigra reticulata ipsilateral to the lesion. However, no change was observed in the ventromedial part suggesting that GAD mRNA expression in this part of the nigra is less sensitive to inhibition by caudate-putamen afferents. In agreement with in situ experiments, RNA blots showed a 2-fold increased level of GAD mRNA in substantia nigra ipsilateral to the lesion. The increased GAD mRNA expression in the deafferented substantia nigra suggests a disinhibition of nigral GABA neurons, resulting in an increased utilization of GABA in these substantia nigra neurons.
Sabanis, Nikos; Paschou, Eleni; Gavriilaki, Eleni; Kalaitzoglou, Asterios; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Vasileiou, Sotiris; Amplianitis, Ioannis
Hemodialysis patients present with a broad spectrum of specific and nonspecific skin disorders, which rarely coexist. We report an exceptional case of a hemodialysis patient that developed acquired reactive perforating collagenosis and pseudoporphyric bullous dermatosis on the basis of common skin disorders which include hyperpigmentation, pruritus, xerosis cutis, and Linsday's nails. Interestingly, our patient presented with two unusual but distinctive cutaneous dermopathies on the background of other commonly seen skin alterations. The patient was successfully treated with allopurinol and N-acetylcysteine. Avoidance of potentially triggering factors such as alcohol, sunlight exposure and certain medication was recommended. Thus, increasing clinical awareness, assiduous investigation and early treatment of skin disorders are required to improve the prognosis and quality of life in this patient population. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.
Rossetto, André Luiz; Cruz, Rosana Cé Bella; Junior, Vidal Haddad
A 7-year-old Caucasian female resident of the southern coast of Brazil presented dark spots on the left palm that converged to a unique macule with speckled pattern at about 1 month. The mycological exam and the fungi culture were typical of Hortaea werneckii, the agent of the superficial mycosis Tinea nigra. The patient received butenafine hydrochloride 1% for 30 days, resulting in a complete remission of the lesion. At a follow-up visit 12 months after treatment, there was no lesion recurrence. We describe a form of rare geographical Tinea nigra with a speckled pattern. The “salt and pepper” aspect should be taken into consideration when the mycosis was suspected. PMID:24898980
Rochelle R. Beasley; Paula M. Pijut
Fraxinus nigra Marsh. (black ash) is a native North American hardwood tree species that is ecologically important and has ethnobotanical significance to American Indian communities of the eastern United States. Black ash has immature embryos at seed set, combined with complex stratification requirements, making natural regeneration difficult. This,...
Todd, Gabrielle; Pearson-Dennett, Verity; Wilcox, Robert A; Chau, Minh T; Thoirs, Kerry; Thewlis, Dominic; Vogel, Adam P; White, Jason M
The sonographic appearance of the substantia nigra is abnormally bright and enlarged (hyperechogenic) in young adults with a history of illicit stimulant use. The abnormality is a risk factor for Parkinson's disease. The aim of the current study was to identify the type of illicit stimulant drug associated with substantia nigra hyperechogenicity and to determine if individuals with a history of illicit stimulant use exhibit clinical signs of parkinsonism. We hypothesised that use of amphetamines (primarily methamphetamine) is associated with substantia nigra hyperechogenicity and clinical signs of parkinsonism. The area of echogenic signal in the substantia nigra was measured in abstinent human amphetamine users (n = 27; 33 ± 8 years) and in three control groups comprising a) 'ecstasy' users (n = 19; 23 ± 3 years), b) cannabis users (n = 30; 26 ± 8 years), and c) non-drug users (n = 37; 25 ± 7 years). A subset of subjects (n = 55) also underwent a neurological examination comprising the third and fifth part of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. Area of substantia nigra echogenicity was significantly larger in the amphetamine group (0.276 ± 0.080 cm(2)) than in the control groups (0.200 ± 0.075, 0.190 ± 0.049, 0.191 ± 0.055 cm(2), respectively; P < 0.002). The score on the clinical rating scale was also significantly higher in the amphetamine group (8.4 ± 8.1) than in pooled controls (3.3 ± 2.8; P = 0.002). Illicit use of amphetamines is associated with abnormal substantia nigra morphology and subtle clinical signs of parkinsonism. The results support epidemiological findings linking use of amphetamines, particularly methamphetamine, with increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease later in life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Montenote, Michelly Cristina; Wajsman, Vithor Zuccaro; Konno, Yoichi Takaki; Ferreira, Paulo César; Silva, Regildo Márcio Gonçalves; Therezo, Altino Luiz Silva; Silva, Luciana Pereira; Martins, Luciamáre Perinetti Alves
Considering the widespread popular use of Morus nigra and the amount of scientific information on its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, the effectiveness of this phytotherapeutic compound in the parasitemia progression during the acute phase of Chagas disease and its role in the development of the inflammatory process as well as its effects on the oxidative damage in the chronic phase of infection were evaluated. Thus, 96 male Swiss mice were randomly divided into eight groups, four groups were uninfected controls, and four groups were intraperitoneally infected with 5.0 x 104 blood trypomastigotes forms of T. cruzi QM2 strain. Four batches composed of one uninfected and one infected group were respectively treated with 70% alcohol solution and 25 μL, 50 μL and 75 μL of the phytotherapeutic compound. Levels of antioxidant elements (TBARS, FRAP, GSH and Sulfhydryl groups) were measured in plasma samples. The phytotherapeutic compound's antioxidant activity was measured by polyphenol and total flavonoid quantification, DPPH, NO, and FRAP method. Our results showed that the vehicle influenced some of the results that may have physiological relevance in Chagas disease. However, an important action of M. nigra tincture was observed in the progression of Chagas disease, since our results demonstrated a reduction in parasitemia of treated groups when compared to controls, especially in the group receiving 25 µL. However, in the chronic phase, the 50-µL dosage presented a better activity on some antioxidant defenses and minimized the tissue inflammatory process. Results indicated an important action of M. nigra tincture on the Chagas disease progression.
Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Terachi, Toru
Crop species of Brassica (Brassicaceae) consist of three monogenomic species and three amphidiploid species resulting from interspecific hybridizations among them. Until now, mitochondrial genome sequences were available for only five of these species. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the sixth species, Brassica nigra (nuclear genome constitution BB), and compared it with those of Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC). The genome was assembled into a 232 145 bp circular sequence that is slightly larger than that of B. oleracea (219 952 bp). The genome of B. nigra contained 33 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA genes, and 17 tRNA genes. The cox2-2 gene present in B. oleracea was absent in B. nigra. Although the nucleotide sequences of 52 genes were identical between B. nigra and B. carinata, the second exon of rps3 showed differences including an insertion/deletion (indel) and nucleotide substitutions. A PCR test to detect the indel revealed intraspecific variation in rps3, and in one line of B. nigra it amplified a DNA fragment of the size expected for B. carinata. In addition, the B. carinata lines tested here produced DNA fragments of the size expected for B. nigra. The results indicate that at least two mitotypes of B. nigra were present in the maternal parents of B. carinata.
Soriano, M A; Justicia, C; Ferrer, I; Rodríguez-Farré, E; Planas, A M
Dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta were examined in the rat brain following striatal infarction subsequent to transient focal cerebral ischemia. Rats had the middle cerebral artery occluded for 2 h or were sham-operated, and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity was evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry at different times ranging from 1 to 60 days after ischemia. The number of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta was counted under the light microscope and compared to that in the contralateral side and controls. No changes of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity were detected in the ipsilateral versus the contralateral substantia nigra of sham-operated rats or 1 day after ischemia. However, a statistically significant reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells became apparent in the ipsilateral compared with the contralateral substantia nigra at 7 and 14 days after ischemia. This reduction showed a clear recovery at 30 days after ischemia, and no signs of difference between the ipsilateral and the contralateral side were apparent by 60 days. Therefore, the reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the ipsilateral substantia nigra was only transiently seen from 1 to 2 weeks following ischemia. The observed loss of tyrosine hydroxylase was not accompanied by signs of cell death or gliosis in the ipsilateral pars compacta. The present results show a transitory reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the ipsilateral substantia nigra pars compacta after focal ischemia and suggest that striatal infarction causes a transient deficit of dopaminergic function.
Gasson, Peter; Miller, Regis; Stekel, Dov J; Whinder, Frances; Zieminska, Kasia
Dalbergia nigra is one of the most valuable timber species of its genus, having been traded for over 300 years. Due to over-exploitation it is facing extinction and trade has been banned under CITES Appendix I since 1992. Current methods, primarily comparative wood anatomy, are inadequate for conclusive species identification. This study aims to find a set of anatomical characters that distinguish the wood of D. nigra from other commercially important species of Dalbergia from Latin America. Qualitative and quantitative wood anatomy, principal components analysis and naïve Bayes classification were conducted on 43 specimens of Dalbergia, eight D. nigra and 35 from six other Latin American species. Dalbergia cearensis and D. miscolobium can be distinguished from D. nigra on the basis of vessel frequency for the former, and ray frequency for the latter. Principal components analysis was unable to provide any further basis for separating the species. Naïve Bayes classification using the four characters: minimum vessel diameter; frequency of solitary vessels; mean ray width; and frequency of axially fused rays, classified all eight D. nigra correctly with no false negatives, but there was a false positive rate of 36.36 %. Wood anatomy alone cannot distinguish D. nigra from all other commercially important Dalbergia species likely to be encountered by customs officials, but can be used to reduce the number of specimens that would need further study.
Erin R. Victory; Jeffrey C. Glaubitz; Olin E., Jr. Rhodes; Keith E. Woeste
Broad-scale studies of genetic structure and diversity are indicative of the recent evolutionary history of a species and are relevant to conservation efforts. We have estimated current levels of genetic diversity and population structure for black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), a highly valuable timber species, in the central hardwood region of the...
Sarac, Zorica; Bojović, Srdjan; Nikolić, Biljana; Tešević, Vele; Ethorđević, Iris; Marin, Petar D
The essential-oil variability in seven native populations belonging to different infraspecific taxa of Pinus nigra (ssp. nigra, var. gocensis, ssp. pallasiana, and var. banatica) growing wild in Serbia was analyzed. In the needles of 195 trees from seven populations, 58 essential-oil components were identified. The major components were α-pinene (43.6%) and germacrene D (29.8%), comprising together 73.4% of the total oil composition. Based on the average chemical profile of the main terpene components (with contents >5%), the studied populations were found to be the most similar to populations from central Italy and Greece (ssp. nigra). Cluster analysis showed the division of the populations into three principal groups: the first group consisted of Populations I, II, III, IV, and V (considered as ssp. nigra group), the second of Population VI (ssp. pallasiana group), and the third of Population VII, which had the most distinct oil composition (ssp. banatica group). The taxonomic implications of the essential-oil profiles of the investigated taxa of this very complex species are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.
Kathleen Ward; Michael Ostry; Robert Venette; Brian Palik; Mark Hansen; Mark Hatfield
Black ash (Fraxinus nigra) is an important component of wetland forests throughout the Upper Midwest and northeastern United States and is highly valued for paneling, furniture, and basketry. Decline of black ash has been noted with increasing frequency, although no detailed studies of the pattern of decline across the region have been done. From...
Free radical scavenging, bactericidal and bitting deterrent properties of Alpinia nigra essential oils (EOs) were investigated in the present study. Chemical composition of the EOs were analyzed using GC-MS/GC-FID which revealed the presence of 63 constituents including ß-caryophyllene as major comp...
Mejía-Garibay, Beatriz; Palou, Enrique; López-Malo, Aurelio
In this study, we characterized the essential oil (EO) of black mustard (Brassica nigra) and quantified its antimicrobial activity, when applied by direct contact into the liquid medium or by exposure in the vapor phase (in laboratory media or in a bread-type product), against the growth of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus, or Penicillium citrinum. Allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC) was identified as the major component of B. nigra EO with a concentration of 378.35 mg/ml. When B. nigra EO was applied by direct contact into the liquid medium, it inhibited the growth of A. ochraceus and P. citrinum when the concentration was 2 μl/ml of liquid medium (MIC), while for A. niger, a MIC of B. nigra EO was 4 μl/ml of liquid medium. Exposure of molds to B. nigra EO in vapor phase showed that 41.1 μl of B. nigra EO per liter of air delayed the growth of P. citrinum and A. niger by 10 days, while A. ochraceus growth was delayed for 20 days. Exposure to concentrations ≥ 47 μl of B. nigra EO per liter of air (MIC) inhibited the growth of tested molds by 30 days, and they were not able to recover after further incubation into an environment free of EO (fungicidal effect). Adsorbed AITC was quantified by exposing potato dextrose agar to B. nigra EO in a vapor phase, exhibiting that AITC was retained at least 5 days when testing EO at its MIC or with higher concentrations. Mustard EO MIC was also effective against the evaluated molds inhibiting their growth for 30 days in a bread-type product when exposed to EO by vapor contact, demonstrating its antifungal activity.
Azuma, M; Hirai, T; Yamada, K; Yamashita, S; Ando, Y; Tateishi, M; Iryo, Y; Yoneda, T; Kitajima, M; Wang, Y; Yamashita, Y
Quantitative susceptibility mapping is useful for assessing iron deposition in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson disease. We aimed to determine whether quantitative susceptibility mapping is useful for assessing the lateral asymmetry and spatial difference in iron deposits in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson disease. Our study population comprised 24 patients with Parkinson disease and 24 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. They underwent 3T MR imaging by using a 3D multiecho gradient-echo sequence. On reconstructed quantitative susceptibility mapping, we measured the susceptibility values in the anterior, middle, and posterior parts of the substantia nigra, the whole substantia nigra, and other deep gray matter structures in both hemibrains. To identify the more and less affected hemibrains in patients with Parkinson disease, we assessed the severity of movement symptoms for each hemibrain by using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. In the posterior substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson disease, the mean susceptibility value was significantly higher in the more than the less affected hemibrain substantia nigra (P < .05). This value was significantly higher in both the more and less affected hemibrains of patients with Parkinson disease than in controls (P < .05). Asymmetry of the mean susceptibility values was significantly greater for patients than controls (P < .05). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that quantitative susceptibility mapping of the posterior substantia nigra in the more affected hemibrain provided the highest power for discriminating patients with Parkinson disease from the controls. Quantitative susceptibility mapping is useful for assessing the lateral asymmetry and spatial difference of iron deposition in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson disease. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.
Cheyuo, Cletus; Grand, Walter; Balos, Lucia L
Cytoarchitectural neuroimaging remains critical for diagnosis of many brain diseases. Fluorescent dye-enhanced, near-infrared confocal in situ cellular imaging of the brain has been reported. However, impermeability of the blood-brain barrier to most fluorescent dyes limits clinical utility of this modality. The differential degree of reflectance from brain tissue with unenhanced near-infrared imaging may represent an alternative technique for in situ cytoarchitectural neuroimaging. We assessed the utility of unenhanced near-infrared confocal laser reflectance imaging of the cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum and substantia nigra in 2 fresh human cadaver brains using a confocal near-infrared laser probe. Cellular images based on near-infrared differential reflectance were captured at depths of 20-180 μm from the brain surface. Parts of the cerebellum and substantia nigra imaged using the probe were subsequently excised and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic correlation. Near-infrared reflectance imaging revealed the 3-layered cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum, with Purkinje cells appearing hyperreflectant. In the substantia nigra, neurons appeared hyporeflectant with hyperreflectant neuromelanin cytoplasmic inclusions. Cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum and substantia nigra revealed on near-infrared imaging closely correlated with the histology on hematoxylin-eosin staining. We showed that unenhanced near-infrared reflectance imaging of fresh human cadaver brain can reliably identify and distinguish neurons and detailed cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum and substantia nigra. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ullah, Najeeb; Ahmad, Ijaz; Ayaz, Sultan
The study was done to assess the phytochemicals (flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, tannin, alkaloids, and phenol) in different parts (root, stem, and leaves) of Ballota nigra and correlated it to inhibition of microbes (bacteria and fungi), protozoan (Leishmania), and heavy metals toxicity evaluation. In root and stem flavonoids, terpenes and phenols were present in ethanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate soluble fraction; these were found to be the most active inhibiting fractions against all the tested strains of bacteria, fungi, and leishmania. While in leaves flavonoids, terpenes, and phenols were present in ethanol, chloroform, and n-butanol fractions which were the most active fractions against both types of microbes and protozoan (leishmania) in in vitro study. Ethanol and chloroform fractions show maximum inhibition against Escherichia coli (17 mm). The phytochemical and biological screenings were correlated with the presence of heavy metals in selected plant Ballota nigra. Cr was found above permissible value (above 1.5 mg/kg) in all parts of the plant. Ni was above WHO limit in B. nigra root and leaves (3.35 ± 1.20 mg/kg and 5.09 ± 0.47 mg/kg, respectively). Fe was above permissible value in all parts of B. nigra (above 20 mg/kg). Cd was above permissible value in all parts of the plant (above 0.3 mg/kg). Pb was above WHO limit (above 2 mg/kg) in all parts of Ballota nigra.
Ullah, Najeeb; Ahmad, Ijaz; Ayaz, Sultan
The study was done to assess the phytochemicals (flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, tannin, alkaloids, and phenol) in different parts (root, stem, and leaves) of Ballota nigra and correlated it to inhibition of microbes (bacteria and fungi), protozoan (Leishmania), and heavy metals toxicity evaluation. In root and stem flavonoids, terpenes and phenols were present in ethanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate soluble fraction; these were found to be the most active inhibiting fractions against all the tested strains of bacteria, fungi, and leishmania. While in leaves flavonoids, terpenes, and phenols were present in ethanol, chloroform, and n-butanol fractions which were the most active fractions against both types of microbes and protozoan (leishmania) in in vitro study. Ethanol and chloroform fractions show maximum inhibition against Escherichia coli (17 mm). The phytochemical and biological screenings were correlated with the presence of heavy metals in selected plant Ballota nigra. Cr was found above permissible value (above 1.5 mg/kg) in all parts of the plant. Ni was above WHO limit in B. nigra root and leaves (3.35 ± 1.20 mg/kg and 5.09 ± 0.47 mg/kg, respectively). Fe was above permissible value in all parts of B. nigra (above 20 mg/kg). Cd was above permissible value in all parts of the plant (above 0.3 mg/kg). Pb was above WHO limit (above 2 mg/kg) in all parts of Ballota nigra. PMID:25054139
Falcão, Eduardo Mastrangelo Marinho; Trope, Beatriz Moritz; Martins, Natália Regina Pinto Guedes; Barreiros, Maria da Glória Carvalho; Ramos-E-Silva, Marcia
Tinea nigra is a superficial fungal infection caused by Hortaea werneckii. It typically affects young individuals as an asymptomatic unilateral macule, from light brown to black on the palms and soles, mainly in tropical and subtropical regions. In 1997, Gupta et al. [Br J Dermatol 1997;137:483-484] described the dermoscopic characteristics of tinea nigra. Topical antifungals with or without keratolytic agents can be used for the treatment. The authors report a case of a 47-year-old man with asymptomatic light brown macules bilaterally on the plantar regions. Dermoscopic examination revealed brownish spicules consistent with the pattern described in the literature. Treatment with isoconazole cream was effective with complete resolution.
Martig, Adria K.; Mizumori, Sheri J. Y.
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) may provide modulatory signals that, respectively, influence hippocampal (HPC)- and striatal-dependent memory. Electrophysiological studies investigating neural correlates of learning and memory of dopamine (DA) neurons during classical conditioning tasks have found DA…
Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Wang, Hui-Ling; Morales, Marisela
Dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra compacta (SNC), ventral tegmental area (VTA) and retrorubral field (RRF) play a role in reward, motivation, learning, memory, and movement. These neurons are intermingled with GABAergic neurons. Recent evidence shows that the VTA contains glutamatergic neurons expressing vesicular glutamate transporter type 2 (VGluT2); some of them co-express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Here, we used a combination of radioactive in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to explore whether any of the vesicular glutamate transporters [vesicular glutamate transporter type 1 (VGluT1), VGluT2, or vesicular glutamate transporter type 3 (VGluT3)] were encoded by neurons in the SNC or RRF. We found expression of VGluT2 mRNA, but not of VGluT1 or VGluT3, in the SNC and RRF. These VGluT2 neurons rarely showed TH immunoreactivity. Within the SNC, the VGluT2 neurons were infrequently found at the rostral level, but were often seen at the medial and caudal levels intercalated in the mediolateral portion of the dorsal tier, at a ratio of one VGluT2 neuron per 4.4 TH neurons. At this level, VGluT2 neurons were also found in the adjacent substantia nigra reticulata and substantia nigra pars lateralis. Within the RRF, the VGluT2 neurons showed an increasing rostrocaudal gradient of distribution. The RRF proportion of VGluT2 neurons in relation to TH neurons was constant throughout the rostrocaudal levels, showing an average ratio of one VGluT2 neuron per 1.7 TH neurons. In summary, we provide evidence indicating that the SNC and RRF, which are traditionally considered to be dopaminergic areas, have neurons with the ability to participate in glutamate signaling. PMID:24102658
Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Wang, Hui-Ling; Morales, Marisela
Dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra compacta (SNC), ventral tegmental area (VTA) and retrorubral field (RRF) play a role in reward, motivation, learning, memory, and movement. These neurons are intermingled with GABAergic neurons. Recent evidence shows that the VTA contains glutamatergic neurons expressing vesicular glutamate transporter type 2 (VGluT2); some of them co-express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Here, we used a combination of radioactive in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry to explore whether any of the vesicular glutamate transporters [vesicular glutamate transporter type 1 (VGluT1), VGluT2, or vesicular glutamate transporter type 3 (VGluT3)] were encoded by neurons in the SNC or RRF. We found expression of VGluT2 mRNA, but not of VGluT1 or VGluT3, in the SNC and RRF. These VGluT2 neurons rarely showed TH immunoreactivity. Within the SNC, the VGluT2 neurons were infrequently found at the rostral level, but were often seen at the medial and caudal levels intercalated in the mediolateral portion of the dorsal tier, at a ratio of one VGluT2 neuron per 4.4 TH neurons. At this level, VGluT2 neurons were also found in the adjacent substantia nigra reticulata and substantia nigra pars lateralis. Within the RRF, the VGluT2 neurons showed an increasing rostrocaudal gradient of distribution. The RRF proportion of VGluT2 neurons in relation to TH neurons was constant throughout the rostrocaudal levels, showing an average ratio of one VGluT2 neuron per 1.7 TH neurons. In summary, we provide evidence indicating that the SNC and RRF, which are traditionally considered to be dopaminergic areas, have neurons with the ability to participate in glutamate signaling. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gasson, Peter; Miller, Regis; Stekel, Dov J.; Whinder, Frances; Ziemińska, Kasia
Background and Aims Dalbergia nigra is one of the most valuable timber species of its genus, having been traded for over 300 years. Due to over-exploitation it is facing extinction and trade has been banned under CITES Appendix I since 1992. Current methods, primarily comparative wood anatomy, are inadequate for conclusive species identification. This study aims to find a set of anatomical characters that distinguish the wood of D. nigra from other commercially important species of Dalbergia from Latin America. Methods Qualitative and quantitative wood anatomy, principal components analysis and naïve Bayes classification were conducted on 43 specimens of Dalbergia, eight D. nigra and 35 from six other Latin American species. Key Results Dalbergia cearensis and D. miscolobium can be distinguished from D. nigra on the basis of vessel frequency for the former, and ray frequency for the latter. Principal components analysis was unable to provide any further basis for separating the species. Naïve Bayes classification using the four characters: minimum vessel diameter; frequency of solitary vessels; mean ray width; and frequency of axially fused rays, classified all eight D. nigra correctly with no false negatives, but there was a false positive rate of 36·36 %. Conclusions Wood anatomy alone cannot distinguish D. nigra from all other commercially important Dalbergia species likely to be encountered by customs officials, but can be used to reduce the number of specimens that would need further study. PMID:19884155
Campos, Carla; Parameswaran, Neeraja; William Langston, J.; Michael McIntosh, J.; Yeluashvili, Michael
Our previous work had shown that long-term nicotine administration improved dopaminergic markers and nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) in the striatum of monkeys with nigrostriatal damage. The present experiments were done to determine whether nicotine treatment also led to changes in the substantia nigra, the region containing dopaminergic cell bodies. Monkeys were chronically treated with nicotine in the drinking water for 6 months after which they were injected with low dose MPTP for a further 6-month period. Nicotine was administered until the monkeys were euthanized 2 months after the last MPTP injection. Nicotine treatment did not affect the dopamine transporter or the number of tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells in the substantia nigra of lesioned monkeys. However, nicotine administration did lead to a greater increase in α3/α6β2* and α4β2* nAChRs in lesioned monkeys compared to controls. Nicotine also significantly elevated microglia and reduced the number of extracellular neuromelanin deposits in the substantia nigra of MPTP-lesioned monkeys. These findings indicate that long-term nicotine treatment modulates expression of several molecular measures in monkey substantia nigra that may result in an improvement in nigral integrity and/or function. These observations may have therapeutic implications for Parkinson’s disease. PMID:19685015
Lipoff, Jules B; Mudgil, Adarsh V; Young, Saryna; Chu, Paul; Cohen, Steven R
We describe a patient with acantholytic dermatosis of the crural folds (ADCF) that was misdiagnosed and treated as condyloma acuminata for 13 years. After many skin biopsies consistently showed epidermal acantholysis and negative human papillomavirus serotyping excluded condyloma acuminata, a diagnosis of ADCF was considered most likely. Acitretin effectively suppressed the symptomatic hyperkeratosis. Subsequent genetic testing revealed a deletion in the ATP2C1 gene that led us to conclude that this case of ADCF is probably a variant of familial benign chronic pemphigus (Hailey-Hailey disease).
Yang, Lu; Jia, Guijuan; Li, Baomin; Lei, Gefei; Sun, Ruopeng
Encephalitis lethargica is an encephalitic illness with multiple nervous system symptoms. Lesions only involving substantia nigra on magnetic resonance imaging are uncommon, especially in children. A second encephalitis illness after encephalitis lethargica has never been reported before. We describe a 7-year-old boy with humoral immunity deficiency who developed encephalitis lethargica associated with bilateral substantia nigra lesions on magnetic resonance imaging. After a nearly complete recovery, he developed encephalitis once again. He was diagnosed with encephalitis lethargica with somnolence, akinetic mutism, and ophthalmoplegia after intermittent fever. Cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis and positive oligoclonal bands were documented. Symmetrical substantia nigra lesions on high-intensity magnetic resonance imaging gradually evolved into a liquid signal. He had almost recovered when he developed fatigue and hypersomnia and was diagnosed with encephalitis again, supported by mild pleocytosis in cerebrospinal fluid and subcortical white matter lesions in the frontal lobes. His symptoms resolved following administration of corticosteroids and immunoglobulins. This is the first report of an immune-deficient child to develop encephalitis lethargica with isolated substantia nigra lesions on magnetic resonance imaging and a second encephalitis illness after recovery from encephalitis lethargica. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Badescu, Magda; Badulescu, Oana; Badescu, Laurentiu; Ciocoiu, Manuela
The fruits of Aronia melanocarpa Elliot (Rosaceae), (black chokeberry), and Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae), elderberries are rich in anthocyanins. Many studies have reported that anthocyanins are beneficial in diabetes due to their capacity to stimulate insulin secretion and reduce oxidative stress. The purpose of this study is to prove the biologically active properties of polyphenols extracted from S. nigra and A. melanocarpa fruit. The study also details the influence of plant polyphenols on immune system imbalances within diabetes mellitus. Polyphenolic extract was administered to Wistar rats 0.040 g/kg body every 2 d for 16 weeks. The absorbencies of all the solutions were determined using a V-550 Able Jasco UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The immunomodulatory capacity of vegetal extracts was assessed by studying cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ through the ELISA method and fibrinogen values. At 48 h, the anti-inflammatory effects of S. nigra and A. melanocarpa substances have been revealed by an increase of the TNF-α and IFN-γ levels in the diabetic group protected by these extracts. Seventy-two hours post-administration of both substances in the diabetic groups, the TNF-α level returns to the values read 24 h after substance administration. The vegetal extracts limit the production of fibrinogen in the diabetic rats under polyphenolic protection, the values being highly significant compared with the diabetic group. Natural polyphenols extracted from S. nigra and A. melanocarpa modulate specific and non-specific immune defenses in insulin-deficiency diabetes and reduce the inflammatory status and self-sustained pancreatic insulitis.
Bonifaz, A; Badali, H; de Hoog, G S; Cruz, M; Araiza, J; Cruz, M A; Fierro, L; Ponce, R M
Tinea nigra is a superficial mycosis caused by Hortaea werneckii. It is an infrequent asymptomatic infection that affects human palms and soles, and is mostly observed in tropical countries. We evaluate retrospectively twenty-two confirmed cases of tinea nigra from a total of eleven yr (1997-2007) and discuss the epidemiology, clinical features and treatment of this disease. In twelve cases, adults were involved, in 10, children. In nineteen cases the disorder was located on palms of hands and in three on soles of feet. In all cases, the obtained isolates were morphologically identified as Hortaea werneckii and the identification of ten isolates was retrospectively confirmed with the help of sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions of the ribosomal DNA. The patients received topical treatment with Whitfield ointment, ketoconazole, bifonazole, or terbinafine. Treatment with keratolytic agents and topical antifungals was effective.
Christopher E. Looney; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik; Robert A. Slesak
Fraxinus nigra Marsh. (black ash), a dominant tree species of wetland forests in northern Minnesota, USA, is imperiled by the invasive insect emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888). Regeneration of associated tree species is generally low in F. nigra forests and could be impacted...
Rieger, Gudrun; Müller, Maria; Guttenberger, Helmut; Bucar, Franz
This study deals with the effect of altitudinal variation on the content of phenolic compounds in three traditional herbal plants, which are also consumed as food in Central Europe. Herbs of Calluna vulgaris (L.) HULL, flowers and fruits of Sambucus nigra L., and berries of Vaccinium myrtillus L. collected in the Naturpark Solktaler (Austria) were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). Identification and quantification of the constituents in the polar extracts (methanol 80%, v/v) were achieved by means of RP-HPLC-PDA and/or LC-PDA-MS analysis with external standards. 3,5- O-Dicaffeoylquinic acid was identified in flowers of S. nigra for the first time. Rising concentrations of flavonoids and especially flavonol-3- O-glycosides with adjacent hydroxyl groups in ring B in C. vulgaris and S. nigra with increasing altitude were observed. Anthocyanins from the berries of both S. nigra and V. myrtillus occurred in decreasing amounts with rising altitude. C. vulgaris showed the best radical scavenging capacity based on the DPPH assay.
Bonifaz, A.; Badali, H.; de Hoog, G.S.; Cruz, M.; Araiza, J.; Cruz, M.A.; Fierro, L.; Ponce, R.M.
Tinea nigra is a superficial mycosis caused by Hortaea werneckii. It is an infrequent asymptomatic infection that affects human palms and soles, and is mostly observed in tropical countries. We evaluate retrospectively twenty-two confirmed cases of tinea nigra from a total of eleven yr (1997–2007) and discuss the epidemiology, clinical features and treatment of this disease. In twelve cases, adults were involved, in 10, children. In nineteen cases the disorder was located on palms of hands and in three on soles of feet. In all cases, the obtained isolates were morphologically identified as Hortaea werneckii and the identification of ten isolates was retrospectively confirmed with the help of sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions of the ribosomal DNA. The patients received topical treatment with Whitfield ointment, ketoconazole, bifonazole, or terbinafine. Treatment with keratolytic agents and topical antifungals was effective. PMID:19287529
Rolland, Anne-Sophie; Karachi, Carine; Muriel, Marie-Paule; Hirsch, Etienne C; François, Chantal
The locomotor area has recently emerged as a target for deep brain stimulation to lessen gait disturbances in advanced parkinsonian patients. An important step in choosing this target is to define anatomical limits of its 2 components, the pedunculopontine nucleus and the cuneiform nucleus, their connections with the basal ganglia, and their output descending pathway. Based on the hypothesis that pedunculopontine nucleus controls locomotion whereas cuneiform nucleus controls axial posture, we analyzed whether both nuclei receive inputs from the internal pallidum and substantia nigra using anterograde and retrograde tract tracing in monkeys. We also examined whether these nuclei convey descending projections to the reticulospinal pathway. Pallidal terminals were densely distributed and restricted to the pedunculopontine nucleus, whereas nigral terminals were diffusely observed in the whole extent of both the pedunculopontine nucleus and the cuneiform nucleus. Moreover, nigral terminals formed symmetric synapses with pedunculopontine nucleus and cuneiform nucleus dendrites. Retrograde tracing experiments confirmed these results because labeled cell bodies were observed in both the internal pallidum and substantia nigra after pedunculopontine nucleus injection, but only in the substantia nigra after cuneiform nucleus injection. Furthermore, anterograde tracing experiments revealed that the pedunculopontine nucleus and cuneiform nucleus project to large portions of the pontomedullary reticular formation. This is the first anatomical evidence that the internal pallidum and the substantia nigra control different parts of the brain stem and can modulate the descending reticulospinal pathway in primates. These findings support the functional hypothesis that the nigro-cuneiform nucleus pathway could control axial posture whereas the pallido-pedunculopontine nucleus pathway could modulate locomotion. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.
Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M; Micheletta, Jérôme
Facial displays (or expressions) are a primary means of visual communication among conspecifics in many mammalian orders. Macaques are an ideal model among primates for investigating the co-evolution of facial musculature, facial displays, and social group size/behavior under the umbrella of "ecomorphology". While all macaque species share some social behaviors, dietary, and ecological parameters, they display a range of social dominance styles from despotic to tolerant. A previous study found a larger repertoire of facial displays in tolerant macaque species relative to despotic species. The present study was designed to further explore this finding by comparing the gross morphological features of mimetic muscles between the Sulawesi macaque (Macaca nigra), a tolerant species, and the rhesus macaque (M. mulatta), a despotic species. Five adult M. nigra heads were dissected and mimetic musculature was compared to those from M. mulatta. Results showed that there was general similarity in muscle presence/absence between the species as well as muscle form except for musculature around the external ear. M. mulatta had more musculature around the external ear than M. nigra. In addition, M. nigra lacked a zygomaticus minor while M. mulatta is reported to have one. These morphological differences match behavioral observations documenting a limited range of ear movements used by M. nigra during facial displays. Future studies focusing on a wider phylogenetic range of macaques with varying dominance styles may further elucidate the roles of phylogeny, ecology, and social variables in the evolution of mimetic muscles within Macaca Anat Rec, 299:1317-1324, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Micah E. Stevens; Paula M. Pijut
Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) has long been prized for its timber, leading to commercial cultivation and significant breeding efforts for improving marketable traits. Vegetative and in vitro black walnut propagation techniques, however, are variable and highly genotype dependent. Optimizing plant growth regulator type and...
Werner, Cornelius J; Heyny-von Haussen, Roland; Mall, Gerhard; Wolf, Sabine
Background Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder involving the motor system. Although not being the only region involved in PD, affection of the substantia nigra and its projections is responsible for some of the most debilitating features of the disease. To further advance a comprehensive understanding of nigral pathology, we conducted a tissue based comparative proteome study of healthy and diseased human substantia nigra. Results The gross number of differentially regulated proteins in PD was 221. In total, we identified 37 proteins, of which 16 were differentially expressed. Identified differential proteins comprised elements of iron metabolism (H-ferritin) and glutathione-related redox metabolism (GST M3, GST P1, GST O1), including novel redox proteins (SH3BGRL). Additionally, many glial or related proteins were found to be differentially regulated in PD (GFAP, GMFB, galectin-1, sorcin), as well as proteins belonging to metabolic pathways sparsely described in PD, such as adenosyl homocysteinase (methylation), aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 and cellular retinol-binding protein 1 (aldehyde metabolism). Further differentially regulated proteins included annexin V, beta-tubulin cofactor A, coactosin-like protein and V-type ATPase subunit 1. Proteins that were similarly expressed in healthy or diseased substantia nigra comprised housekeeping proteins such as COX5A, Rho GDI alpha, actin gamma 1, creatin-kinase B, lactate dehydrogenase B, disulfide isomerase ER-60, Rab GDI beta, methyl glyoxalase 1 (AGE metabolism) and glutamine synthetase. Interestingly, also DJ-1 and UCH-L1 were expressed similarly. Furthermore, proteins believed to serve as internal standards were found to be expressed in a constant manner, such as 14-3-3 epsilon and hCRMP-2, thus lending further validity to our results. Conclusion Using an approach encompassing high sensitivity and high resolution, we show that alterations of SN in PD include many more proteins than
Oblin, A; Danse, M J; Zivkovic, B
The hydrolysis of substance P by membrane peptidases prepared from the rat substantia nigra was studied in the presence of selective inhibitors. Substance P degradation by synaptic and mitochondrial membranes was completely inhibited by 1,10-phenanthroline (1 mM), a non-specific metallopeptidase inhibitor. Captopril and bestatine, selective inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme and aminopeptidases respectively, were without effects. However, phosphoramidon (1 microM), a putative 'enkephalinase' inhibitor, selectively inhibited substance P degradation by synaptic membranes. These results suggest that a phosphoramidon-sensitive endopeptidase may be the principal enzyme responsible for substance P degradation in substantia nigra.
Floor, E; Wetzel, M G
The dopaminergic phenotype of neurons in human substantia nigra deteriorates during normal aging, and loss of these neurons is prominent in Parkinson's disease. These degenerative processes are hypothesized to involve oxidative stress. To compare oxidative stress in the nigra and related regions, we measured carbonyl modifications of soluble proteins in postmortem samples of substantia nigra, basal ganglia, and prefrontal cortex from neurologically normal subjects, using an improved 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine assay. The protein carbonyl content was found to be about twofold higher in substantia nigra pars compacta than in the other regions. To further analyze this oxidative damage, the distribution of carbonyl groups on soluble proteins was determined by western immunoblot analysis. This method revealed that carbonyl content of the major proteins in each region was linearly dependent on molecular weight. This distribution raises the possibility that protein carbonyl content is controlled by a size-dependent mechanism in vivo. Our results suggest that oxidative stress is elevated in human substantia nigra pars compacta in comparison with other regions and that oxidative damage is higher within the dopaminergic neurons. Elevated oxidative damage may contribute to the degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons in aging and in Parkinson's disease.
Brian J. Palik; Michael E. Ostry; Robert C. Venette; Kathleen T. Ward
Black ash (Fraxinus nigra) is present throughout the upper Midwest and Northeastern United States and is often found in lowland hardwood forests. Black ash seed is an important food for birds and small mammals, and its twigs and foliage are used by ungulates. Black ash wood is valued for paneling and furniture as well as for Native American basketry...
William Zielinski; M. J. Mazurek
Little is known about the ecology and life history of the federally endangered Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra). The distribution of this primitive burrowing rodent is disjunct from the balance of the speciesâ range and occurs in a unique maritime environment of coastal grasslands and forests. Fundamental to protecting this taxon...
Jin, Xin; Sun, Xiaomei; Gao, Tianxiang; Chen, Xiaomei; She, Yimin; Jiang, Tingbo; Chen, Sixue; Dai, Shaojun
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is one of the most abundant reactive oxygen species (ROS), which plays dual roles as a toxic byproduct of cell metabolism and a regulatory signal molecule in plant development and stress response. Populus simonii × Populus nigra is an important cultivated forest species with resistance to cold, drought, insect and disease, and also a key model plant for forest genetic engineering. In this study, H2O2 response in P. simonii × P. nigra leaves was investigated using physiological and proteomics approaches. The seedlings of 50-day-old P. simonii × P. nigra under H2O2 stress exhibited stressful phenotypes, such as increase of in vivo H2O2 content, decrease of photosynthetic rate, elevated osmolytes, antioxidant accumulation, as well as increased activities of several ROS scavenging enzymes. Besides, 81 H2O2-responsive proteins were identified in the poplar leaves. The diverse abundant patterns of these proteins highlight the H2O2-responsive pathways in leaves, including 14-3-3 protein and nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK)-mediated signaling, modulation of thylakoid membrane structure, enhancement of various ROS scavenging pathways, decrease of photosynthesis, dynamics of proteins conformation, and changes in carbohydrate and other metabolisms. This study provides valuable information for understanding H2O2-responsive mechanisms in leaves of P. simonii × P. nigra. PMID:28974034
Haghparast, Elham; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Sheibani, Vahid
Although Parkinson's disease (PD) is well known with its motor deficits, the patients often suffer from cognitive dysfunction. Apelin, as the endogenous ligand of the APJ receptor, is found in several brain regions such as substantia nigra and mesolimbic pathway. However, the role of apelin in cognition and cognitive disorders has not been fully clarified. In this study the effects of apelin-13 were investigated on cognitive disorders in rat Parkinsonism experimental model. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was administrated into the substantia nigra. Apelin-13 (1, 2 and 3μg/rat) was administered into the substantia nigra one week after the 6-OHDA injection. Morris water maze (MWM), object location and novel object recognition tests were performed one month after the apelin injection. 6-OHDA-treated animals showed a significant impairment in cognitive functions which was revealed by the increased in the escape latency and traveled distance in MWM test and decreased in the exploration index in novel object recognition and object location tasks. Apelin-13 (3μg/rat) significantly attenuates the mentioned cognitive impairments in 6-OHDA-treated animals. In conclusion, the data support the pro-cognitive property of apelin-13 in 6-OHDA-induced cognitive deficit and provided a new pharmacological aspect of the neuropeptide apelin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Flores-Martinez, Yazmin M; Fernandez-Parrilla, Manuel A; Ayala-Davila, Jose; Reyes-Corona, David; Blanco-Alvarez, Victor M; Soto-Rojas, Luis O; Luna-Herrera, Claudia; Gonzalez-Barrios, Juan A; Leon-Chavez, Bertha A; Gutierrez-Castillo, Maria E; Martínez-Dávila, Irma A; Martinez-Fong, Daniel
Models of Parkinson's disease with neurotoxins have shown that microglial activation does not evoke a typical inflammatory response in the substantia nigra, questioning whether neuroinflammation leads to neurodegeneration. To address this issue, the archetypal inflammatory stimulus, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), was injected into the rat substantia nigra. LPS induced fever, sickness behavior, and microglial activation (OX42 immunoreactivity), followed by astrocyte activation and leukocyte infiltration (GFAP and CD45 immunoreactivities). During the acute phase of neuroinflammation, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (TNF- α , IL-1 β , IL-6, IL-4, and IL-10) responded differentially at mRNA and protein level. Increased NO production and lipid peroxidation occurred at 168 h after LPS injection. At this time, evidence of neurodegeneration could be seen, entailing decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity, irregular body contour, and prolongation discontinuity of TH + cells, as well as apparent phagocytosis of TH + cells by OX42 + cells. Altogether, these results show that LPS evokes a typical inflammatory response in the substantia nigra that is followed by dopaminergic neurodegeneration.
Gonzalez-Barrios, Juan A.; Gutierrez-Castillo, Maria E.
Models of Parkinson's disease with neurotoxins have shown that microglial activation does not evoke a typical inflammatory response in the substantia nigra, questioning whether neuroinflammation leads to neurodegeneration. To address this issue, the archetypal inflammatory stimulus, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), was injected into the rat substantia nigra. LPS induced fever, sickness behavior, and microglial activation (OX42 immunoreactivity), followed by astrocyte activation and leukocyte infiltration (GFAP and CD45 immunoreactivities). During the acute phase of neuroinflammation, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-4, and IL-10) responded differentially at mRNA and protein level. Increased NO production and lipid peroxidation occurred at 168 h after LPS injection. At this time, evidence of neurodegeneration could be seen, entailing decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity, irregular body contour, and prolongation discontinuity of TH+ cells, as well as apparent phagocytosis of TH+ cells by OX42+ cells. Altogether, these results show that LPS evokes a typical inflammatory response in the substantia nigra that is followed by dopaminergic neurodegeneration. PMID:29854828
Kessler, Robert M; Woodward, Neil D; Riccardi, Patrizia; Li, Rui; Ansari, M Sib; Anderson, Sharlett; Dawant, Benoit; Zald, David; Meltzer, Herbert Y
Studies in schizophrenic patients have reported dopaminergic abnormalities in striatum, substantia nigra, thalamus, anterior cingulate, hippocampus, and cortex that have been related to positive symptoms and cognitive impairments. [(18)F]fallypride positron emission tomography studies were performed in off-medication or never-medicated schizophrenic subjects (n = 11, 6 men, 5 women; mean age of 30.5 +/- 8.0 [SD] years; 4 drug-naive) and age-matched healthy subjects (n = 11, 5 men, 6 women, mean age of 31.6 +/- 9.2 [SD]) to examine dopamine D(2) receptor (DA D(2)r) levels in the caudate, putamen, ventral striatum, medial thalamus, posterior thalamus, substantia nigra, amygdala, temporal cortex, anterior cingulate, and hippocampus. In schizophrenic subjects, increased DA D(2)r levels were seen in the substantia nigra bilaterally; decreased levels were seen in the left medial thalamus. Correlations of symptoms with ROI data demonstrated a significant correlation of disorganized thinking/nonparanoid delusions with the right temporal cortex ROI (r = .94, p = .0001), which remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons (p < .03). Correlations of symptoms with parametric images of DA D(2)r levels revealed no significant clusters of correlations with negative symptoms but significant clusters of positive correlations of total positive symptoms, delusions and bizarre behavior with the lateral and anterior temporal cortex, and hallucinations with the left ventral striatum. The results of this study demonstrate abnormal DA D(2)r-mediated neurotransmission in the substantia nigra consistent with nigral dysfunction in schizophrenia and suggest that both temporal cortical and ventral striatal DA D(2)r mediate positive symptoms.
Gupta, V; Lakshmisita, G; Shaila, M S; Jagannathan, V; Lakshmikumaran, M S
The construction and characterization of two genome-specific recombinant DNA clones from B. nigra are described. Southern analysis showed that the two clones belong to a dispersed repeat family. They differ from each other in their length, distribution and sequence, though the average GC content is nearly the same (45%). These B genome-specific repeats have been used to analyse the phylogenetic relationships between cultivated and wild species of the family Brassicaceae.
Rivas-Arancibia, Selva; Zimbrón, Luis Fernando Hernández; Rodríguez-Martínez, Erika; Maldonado, Perla D; Borgonio Pérez, Gabino; Sepúlveda-Parada, María
Parkinson's disease has been associated with the selective loss of neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a major role. The resulting increase in reactive oxygen species triggers a sequence of events that leads to cell damage, activation of microglia cells and neuroinflammatory responses. Our objective was to study whether chronic exposure to low doses of ozone, which produces oxidative stress itself, induces progressive cell death in conjunction with glial alterations in the substantia nigra. Animals were exposed to an ozone-free air stream (control) or to low doses of ozone for 7, 15, 30, 60, or 90 days. Each group underwent (1) spectrophotometric analysis for protein oxidation; (2) western blot testing for microglia reactivity and nuclear factor kappa B expression levels; and (3) immunohistochemistry for cytochrome c, GFAP, Iba-1, NFkB, and COX-2. Our results indicate that ozone induces an increase in protein oxidation levels, changes in activated astrocytes and microglia, and cell death. NFkB and cytochrome c showed an increase until 30 days of exposure, while cyclooxygenase 2 in the substantia nigra increased from 7 days up to 90 days of repetitive ozone exposure. These results suggest that oxidative stress caused by ozone exposure induces changes in inflammatory responses and progressive cell death in the substantia nigra in rats, which could also be occurring in Parkinson's disease.
Rivas-Arancibia, Selva; Zimbrón, Luis Fernando Hernández; Rodríguez-Martínez, Erika; Maldonado, Perla D.; Borgonio Pérez, Gabino; Sepúlveda-Parada, María
Parkinson's disease has been associated with the selective loss of neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a major role. The resulting increase in reactive oxygen species triggers a sequence of events that leads to cell damage, activation of microglia cells and neuroinflammatory responses. Our objective was to study whether chronic exposure to low doses of ozone, which produces oxidative stress itself, induces progressive cell death in conjunction with glial alterations in the substantia nigra. Animals were exposed to an ozone-free air stream (control) or to low doses of ozone for 7, 15, 30, 60, or 90 days. Each group underwent (1) spectrophotometric analysis for protein oxidation; (2) western blot testing for microglia reactivity and nuclear factor kappa B expression levels; and (3) immunohistochemistry for cytochrome c, GFAP, Iba-1, NFkB, and COX-2. Our results indicate that ozone induces an increase in protein oxidation levels, changes in activated astrocytes and microglia, and cell death. NFkB and cytochrome c showed an increase until 30 days of exposure, while cyclooxygenase 2 in the substantia nigra increased from 7 days up to 90 days of repetitive ozone exposure. These results suggest that oxidative stress caused by ozone exposure induces changes in inflammatory responses and progressive cell death in the substantia nigra in rats, which could also be occurring in Parkinson's disease. PMID:25999851
Pulgar, J; Lagos, P; Maturana, D; Valdés, M; Aldana, M; Pulgar, V M
The effect of UV radiation on habitat use of two species of intertidal fishes that inhabit the same pools but exhibit different activity levels and diets was measured: the highly active omnivorous Girella laevifrons and the cryptic carnivorous Graus nigra. Individuals of each species were acclimated to a tank divided in three sections with different illumination; no light (NL), ultraviolet light (UV) and white light (WL), and the time spent and number of visits to each section were recorded. Although both species preferred the NL section, G. laevifrons spent more time in UV and less time in WL compared with G. nigra; G. laevifrons also displayed higher number of visits to UV, suggesting a different tendency in space use in response to UV exposure in intertidal fishes. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Stewart, G.J.; Savioz, A.; Davies, R.W.
The use of subtracted, region-specific cDNA libraries combined with single-pass cDNA sequencing allows the discovery of novel genes and facilitates molecular description of the tissue or region involved. We report the sequence of 497 mouse expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from two subtracted libraries enriched for cDNAs expressed in the substantia nigra, a brain region with important roles in movement control and Parkinson disease. Of these, 238 ESTs give no database matches and therefore derive from novel genes. A further 115 ESTs show sequence similarity to ESTs from other organisms, which themselves do not yield any significant database matches to genesmore » of known function. Fifty-six ESTs show sequence similarity to previously identified genes whose mouse homologues have not been reported. The total number of ESTs reported that are new for the mouse is 407, which, together with the 90 ESTs corresponding to known mouse genes or cDNAs, contributes to the molecular description of the substantia nigra. 21 refs., 4 tabs.« less
Barua, N U; Bienemann, A S; Woolley, M; Wyatt, M J; Johnson, D; Lewis, O; Irving, C; Pritchard, G; Gill, S
Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is a 20kDa human protein which has both neuroprotective and neurorestorative activity on dopaminergic neurons and therefore may have application for the treatment of Parkinson's Disease. The aims of this study were to determine the translational potential of convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of MANF for the treatment of PD by studying its distribution in porcine putamen and substantia nigra and to correlate histological distribution with co-infused gadolinium-DTPA using real-time magnetic resonance imaging. We describe the distribution of MANF in porcine putamen and substantia nigra using an implantable CED catheter system using co-infused gadolinium-DTPA to allow real-time MRI tracking of infusate distribution. The distribution of gadolinium-DTPA on MRI correlated well with immunohistochemical analysis of MANF distribution. Volumetric analysis of MANF IHC staining indicated a volume of infusion (Vi) to volume of distribution (Vd) ratio of 3 in putamen and 2 in substantia nigra. This study confirms the translational potential of CED of MANF as a novel treatment strategy in PD and also supports the co-infusion of gadolinium as a proxy measure of MANF distribution in future clinical studies. Further study is required to determine the optimum infusion regime, flow rate and frequency of infusions in human trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kessler, Robert M; Woodward, Neil D; Riccardi, Patrizia; Li, Rui; Ansari, M Sib; Anderson, Sharlett; Dawant, Benoit; Zald, David; Meltzer, Herbert Y
Background Studies in schizophrenics have reported dopaminergic abnormalities in striatum, substantia nigra, thalamus, anterior cingulate, hippocampus and cortex which have been related to positive symptoms and cognitive impairments. Methods [18F]fallypride PET studies were performed in off medication or never medicated schizophrenic subjects [N = 11, 6 M, 5 F; mean age of 30.5 ± 8.0 (S.D.); 4 drug naive] and age matched healthy subjects [N = 11, 5M, 6F, mean age of 31.6 ± 9.2 (S.D.)] to examine dopamine D2 receptor (DA D2r) levels in the caudate, putamen, ventral striatum, medial thalamus, posterior thalamus, substantia nigra, amygdala, temporal cortex, anterior cingulate, and hippocampus. Results In schizophrenic subjects increased DA D2r levels were seen in the substantia nigra bilaterally; decreased levels were seen in the left medial thalamus. Correlations of symptoms with region of interest data demonstrated a significant correlation of disorganized thinking/nonparanoid delusions with the right temporal cortex region of interest (r = 0.94, P = 0.0001) which remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons (P<0.03). Correlations of symptoms with parametric images of DA D2r levels revealed no significant clusters of correlations with negative symptoms, but significant clusters of positive correlations of total positive symptoms, delusions and bizarre behavior with the lateral and anterior temporal cortex, and hallucinations with the left ventral striatum. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate abnormal DA D2r mediated neurotransmission in the substantia nigra consistent with nigral dysfunction in schizophrenia and suggest that both temporal cortical and ventral striatal DA D2r mediate positive symptoms. PMID:19251247
Meier, Thomas; Auras, Michael; Fehr, Moritz; Köhn, Daniel
Ultrasonic measurements along profiles at the surface of an object are well suited to characterize non-destructively weathering of natural stone near the surface. Ultrasonic waveforms of surface measurements in the frequency range between 10 kHz and 300 kHz are often dominated by the Rayleigh wave - a surface wave that is mainly sensitive to the velocity and attenuation of S-waves in the upper 0.3 cm to 3 cm. The frequency dependence of the Rayleigh wave velocity may be used to analyze variations of the material properties with depth. Applications of ultrasonic surface measurements are shown for two buildings: the Roman Porta Nigra in Trier from the 3rd century AD and the Neptungrotte at Park Sanssouci in Potsdam designed by von Knobelsdorff in the 18th century. Both buildings belong to the world cultural heritage and restorations are planned for the near future. It is interesting to compare measurements at these two buildings because they show the applicability of ultrasonic surface measurements to different natural stones. The Porta Nigra is made of local sandstones whereas the facades of the Neptungrotte are made of Carrara and Kauffunger marble. 71 and 46 surface measurements have been carried out, respectively. At both buildings, Rayleigh-wave group velocities show huge variations. At the Porta Nigra they vary between ca. 0.4 km/s and 1.8 km/s and at the Neptungrotte between ca. 0.7 km/s and 3.0 km/s pointing to alterations in the Rayleigh- and S-wave velocities of more than 50 % due to weathering. Note that velocities of elastic waves may increase e.g. because of the formation of black crusts like at the Porta Nigra or they may be strongly reduced due to weathering. The accuracy of the ultrasonic surface measurements, its reproducibility, and the influence of varying water saturation are discussed. Options for the analysis of ultrasonic waveforms are presented ranging from dispersion analysis to full waveform inversions for one-dimensional and two
López Hernández, N; García Escrivá, A; Shalabi Benavent, M
Hyposmia and substantia nigra hyperechogenicity (SN+) are characteristic markers of Parkinson's disease (PD), although their diagnostic value in isolation may be limited. We evaluated the combined prevalence of both disorders in patients diagnosed with PD and assessed their diagnostic yield compared to a sample with essential tremor (ET) and another group of healthy subjects. Patients diagnosed with PD and ET and treated in our outpatient clinic were enrolled. Olfaction was assessed using the "Sniffin' Sticks" odour identification test (SS-12) and hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN+) was assessed by transcranial duplex ultrasound. A total of 98 subjects were analysed, comprising 30 with PD, 21 with ET, and 47 controls. The respective prevalence rates of hyposmia (SS-12 < 8) and SN+ (area > .24cm(2)) were 70% and 83.3% in PD, 33.3% and 9.5% in ET, and 17% and 10.6% in controls. Both markers were present in 63% of patients with PD, none of the patients with ET, and only 2 of the controls. Combined use of substantia nigra sonography and olfactory testing with SS-12, two rapid, safe, and accessible tests, was more specific than each isolated marker for distinguishing patients with PD from patients with ET and control subjects. Since both markers have been described in very early phases of PD, combined use may be helpful in providing early diagnosis of PD. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Rees, Rainer; Robinson, Brett H; Menon, Manoj; Lehmann, Eberhard; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S; Schulin, Rainer
Poplars accumulate high B concentrations and are thus used for the phytomanagement of B contaminated soils. Here, we performed pot experiments in which Populus nigra × euramericana were grown on a substrate with B concentrations ranging from 13 to 280 mg kg(-1) as H(3)BO(3). Salix viminalis, Brassica juncea, and Lupinus albus were grown under some growing conditions for comparison. Poplar growth was unaffected at soil B treatment levels up to 93 mg kg(-1). Growth was progressively reduced at levels of 168 and 280 mg kg(-1). None of the other species survived at these substrate B levels. At leaf B concentrations <900 mg kg(-1) only <10% of the poplar leaf area showed signs of toxicity. Neutron radiography revealed that chlorotic leaf tissues had B concentrations of 1000-2000 mg kg(-1), while necrotic tissues had >2000 mg kg(-1). Average B concentrations of up to 3500 mg kg(-1) were found in leaves, while spots within leaves had concentrations >7000 mg kg(-1), showing that B accumulation in leaf tissue continued even after the onset of necrosis. The B accumulation ability of P. nigra × euramericana is associated with B hypertolerance in the living tissue and storage of B in dead leaf tissue.
Bhatia, S; Singh Negi, M; Lakshmikumaran, M
EcoRI restriction of the B. nigra rDNA recombinants, isolated from a lambda genomic library, showed that the 3.9-kb fragment corresponded to the Intergenic Spacer (IGS), which was sequenced and found to be 3,928 bp in size. Sequence and dot-matrix analyses showed that the organization of the B. nigra rDNA IGS was typical of most rDNA spacers, consisting of a central repetitive region and flanking unique sequences on either side. The repetitive region was composed of two repeat families-RF 'A' and RF 'B.' The B. nigra RF 'A' consisted of a tandem array of three full-length copies of a 106-bp sequence element. RF 'B' was composed of 66 tandemly repeated elements. Each 'B' element was only 21-bp in size and this is the smallest repeat unit identified in plant rDNA to date. The putative transcription initiation site (TIS) was identified as nucleotide position 3,110. Based on the sequence analysis it was suggested that the present organization of the repeat families was generated by successive cycles of deletions and amplifications and was being maintained by homogenization processes such as gene conversion and crossing-over.A detailed comparison of the rDNA IGS sequences of the three diploid Brassica species-namely, B. nigra, B. campestris, and B. oleracea-was carried out. First, comparisons revealed that B. campestris and B. oleracea were close to each other as the repeat families in both showed high sequence homology between each other. Second, the repeat elements in both the species were organized in an interspersed manner. Third, a 52-bp sequence, present just downstream of the repeats in B. campestris, was found to be identical to the B. oleracea repeats, thereby suggesting a common progenitor. On the other hand, in B. nigra no interspersion pattern of organization of repeats was observed. Further, the B. nigra RF 'A' was identified as distinct from the repeat families of B. campestris and B. oleracea. Based on this analysis, it was suggested that during
Bonifaz, Alexandro; Gómez-Daza, Fernando; Paredes, Vanessa; Ponce, Rosa María
Superficial mycoses are fungal infections limited to the stratum corneum and its adnexal structures. The most frequent types are dermatophytoses or tineas. Tinea versicolor involves the skin in the form of hypochromic or hyperchromic plaques, and tinea nigra affects the skin of the palms with dark plaques. White piedra and black piedra are parasitic infections of scalp hairs in the form of concretions caused by fungal growth. Diagnosis of these mycoses is made from mycologic studies, direct examination, stains, and isolation, and identification of the fungi. Treatment includes systemic antifungals, topical antifungals, and keratolytics. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gupta, Aditya K; Chaudhry, Maria; Elewski, Boni
Tinea infections are among the most common dermatologic conditions throughout the world. To avoid a misdiagnosis, identification of dermatophyte infections requires both a fungal culture on Sabouraud's agar media, and a light microscopic mycologic examination from skin scrapings. Topical antifungals may be sufficient for treatment of tinea corporis and cruris and tinea nigra, and the shaving of hair infected by piedra may also be beneficial. Systemic therapy, however, may be required when the infected areas are large, macerated with a secondary infection, or in immunocompromised individuals. Preventative measures of tinea infections include practicing good personal hygiene; keeping the skin dry and cool at all times; and avoiding sharing towels, clothing, or hair accessories with infected individuals.
Dudek, Marlena; Matławska, Irena; Szkudlarek, Maurycy
Distribution of phenolic acids in the flowers of Althaea rosea var. nigra has been studied by 2D-TLC and HPLC methods. The phenolic acids occurring in these fractions have been identified as ferulic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic and caffeic acids. By means of the HPLC methods the contents of major phenolic acids were estimated. From among the phenolic acids analyzed the syringic, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acids are dominant. Total content of phenolic acids was determined by the Arnov's method.
Dawson, T.M.; Dawson, V.L.; Gage, F.H.
Interruption of the ascending dopamine neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway, by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion in rats, produced a significant loss of the dopamine transport complexes labeled with the phencyclidine derivative (3H)BTCP. This loss of dopamine innervation in the striatum was present at least 12 to 14 months after lesioning and was functionally manifested by ipsilateral rotation of the animals in response to amphetamine. In these same animals, in comparison to controls, there was a significant increase in the number (Bmax) of (3H)SCH 23390-labeled D-1 receptors in the striatum (36.7%) and the substantia nigra (35.1%) and a 54.4% increase in themore » number (Bmax) of (3H)sulpiride-labeled striatal D-2 receptors without an apparent change in affinity (Kd). Ten to twelve months after the transplantation of homologous fetal substantia nigra into the denervated striatum, there was a significant decrease in amphetamine-induced turning behavior. In these animals, there was an ingrowth of dopamine nerve terminals in the striatum as demonstrated by a return of (3H)BTCP binding. Accompanying this reinnervation was the normalization of D-1 and D-2 receptors to control values in the striatum as well as the return of D-1 receptors to prelesion densities in the substantia nigra. In a subgroup of transplanted rats, amphetamine continued to induce ipsilateral turning. In these animals both D-1 and D-2 receptors remained supersensitive. These results support the hypothesis that the functional recovery of transplanted animals is due, in part, to reinnervation of the striatum. In addition, long-term alterations in receptor density may be related to the behavioral deficits that are associated with the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat.« less
Adler, N R; McLean, C A; Aung, A K; Goh, M S Y
Linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD) is a subepidermal autoimmune bullous disease characterized by linear IgA deposition at the basement membrane zone, which is visualized by direct immunofluorescence. Patients with LABD typically present with widespread vesicles and bullae; however, this is not necessarily the case, as the clinical presentation of this disease is heterogeneous. LABD clinically presenting as Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is an infrequent, yet well-described phenomenon. Most cases of LABD are idiopathic, but some cases are drug-induced. Multiple drugs have been implicated in the development of LABD. We report a case of piperacillin-tazobactam-induced LABD presenting clinically as SJS/TEN overlap. This is the first reported case of a strong causal association between piperacillin-tazobactam and the development of LABD. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.
Brian J. Palik; Michael E. Ostry; Robert C. Venette; Ebrahim. Abdela
Crown dieback and mortality of black ash (Fraxinus nigra) has been noted across the range of the species in North America for several decades. Causes of dieback and mortality are not definitive, but may be related to spring drought or excessive moisture. Where black ash is the dominant tree species in the forest, continued dieback and mortality may...
Brandão, Euzeli da Silva; Santos, Iraci Dos; Lanzillotti, Regina Serrão; Ferreira, Adriano Menis; Gamba, Mônica Antar; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna
identify nursing diagnoses in patients with immune-bullous dermatosis. a quantitative and descriptive research, carried out in three institutions located in Rio de Janeiro and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, using the Client Assessment Protocol in Dermatology during a nursing consultation. Simple descriptive statistics was used for data analysis. 14 subjects participated in the study, nine with a diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigus two and three of bullous pemphigoid. The age ranged between 27 and 82 years, predominantly females (11). 14 nursing diagnoses were discussed and identified from a clinical rationale in all study participants, representing the most common human responses in this sample. The application of the Assessment Protocol in Dermatology facilitated the comprehensive assessment, in addition to providing the identification of diagnostics according to the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association International. the nursing diagnoses presented confirm the necessity of interdisciplinary work during the care for this clientele. For better description of the phenomena related to the client in question, it is suggested the inclusion of two risk factors related in three diagnoses of this taxonomy. It is worth noting the contribution of the findings for the care, education and research in nursing in dermatology. identificar diagnósticos de enfermagem em clientes com dermatoses imunobolhosas. pesquisa quantitativa e descritiva, realizada em três instituições localizadas no Rio de Janeiro e no Mato Grosso do Sul-Brasil, aplicando o Protocolo de Avaliação do Cliente em Dermatologia, durante consulta de enfermagem. Utilizou-se a estatística descritiva simples para análise dos dados. participaram do estudo 14 sujeitos, nove com diagnóstico médico de pênfigo vulgar, dois de foliáceo e três de penfigoide bolhoso. A idade variou entre 27 e 82 anos, predominando 11 pessoas do sexo feminino. Foram discutidos 14 diagnósticos de enfermagem
Vrchotová, Naděžda; Dadáková, Eva; Matějíček, Aleš; Tříska, Jan; Kaplan, Jiří
The inflorescence of common elder (Sambucus nigra L., Adoxaceae) is known to be rich in phenolic compounds. The content of five selected phenolic compounds (rutin, chlorogenic acid, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin-3-O- rutinoside and dicaffeoylquinic acid) was determined in methanolic extracts from flowers and floral stems by HPLC in samples obtained from 20 varieties of S. nigra cultivated in Czech Republic. In all samples, there were determined rutin (11-54 mg/g), chlorogenic acid (23-46 mg/g), isoquercitrin (0.6-18 mg/g), isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (3-10 mg/g), calculated on air-dried material. The content of dicaffeoylquinic acid was 0-13 mg/g of air-dried material. The amount of the analysed compounds in floral stems was lower than the flowers. The results are a unique set of information on the content of main phenolics in the inflorescence of cultured elderberry varieties.
Bian, Xiuyan; Liu, Mengran; Sun, Yanshuang; Jiang, Jing; Wang, Fuwei; Li, Shuchun; Cui, Yonghong; Liu, Guifeng; Yang, Chuanping
To evaluate differences among poplar clones of various ploidies, 12 hybrid poplar clones (P. simonii × P. nigra) × (P. nigra × P. simonii) with different ploidies were used to study phenotypic variation in growth traits and photosynthetic characteristics. Analysis of variance showed remarkable differences for each of the investigated traits among these clones (P < 0.01). Coefficients of phenotypic variation (PCV) ranged from 2.38% to 56.71%, and repeatability ranged from 0.656 to 0.987. The Pn (photosynthetic rate) photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) curves of the 12 clones were S-shaped, but the Pn-ambient CO2 (Ca) curves were shaped like an inverted “V”. The stomatal conductance (Gs)-PPFD and transpiration rate (Tr)-PPFD curves had an upward tendency; however, with increasing PFFD, the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci)-PPFD curves had a downward tendency in all of the clones. The Pn-PPFD and Pn-Ca curves followed the pattern of a quadratic equation. The average light saturation point and light compensation point of the triploid clones were the highest and lowest, respectively, among the three types of clones. For Pn-Ca curves, diploid clones had a higher average CO2 saturation point and average CO2 compensation point compared with triploid and tetraploid clones. Correlation analyses indicated that all investigated traits were strongly correlated with each other. In future studies, molecular methods should be used to analyze poplar clones of different ploidies to improve our understanding of the growth and development mechanisms of polyploidy. PMID:25867100
Rossetto, André Luiz; Corrêa, Patricia Rossetto; Cruz, Rosana Cé Bella; Pereira, Eduardo Figueiredo; Haddad Filho, Vidal
We report a case of Tinea nigra in an adolescent living in Itapema, Santa Catarina, Brazil, who presented a hyperchromic macule on the palm of the left hand, close to another erythematous macule caused by a rabbit bite. The patient received guidance on accidents and animal bites and evolved well treated with topical butenafine for the dermatomycosis. The authors also highlight the efficacy of the dermoscopic exam in diagnosing Tinea nigra with animal bite lesions and other traumas.
William J. Zielinski; John E. Hunter; Robin Hamlin; Keith M. Slauson; M. J. Mazurek
The Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra) is a federally listed endangered species, but has been the subject of few studies. Mountain beavers use burrows that include a single subterranean den. Foremost among the information needs for this subspecies is a description of the above-ground habitat features associated with dens. Using...
Khanlou, Negar; Moore, David J.; Chana, Gursharan; Cherner, Mariana; Lazzaretto, Deborah; Dawes, Sharron; Grant, Igor; Masliah, Eliezer; Everall, Ian P.
The frequency of neurodegenerative markers among long surviving HIV infected individuals is unknown, therefore, the present study investigated the frequency of α-synuclein, β-amyloid and HIV-associated brain pathology in the brains of older HIV infected individuals. We examined the substantia nigra of 73 clinically well-characterized HIV infected individuals aged 50 to 76 years from the National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium. We also examined the frontal and temporal cortical regions of a subset of 36 individuals. The brain regions were examined for the presence of α-synuclein, β-amyloid and HIV-associated brain pathology. Neuritic α-synuclein expression was found in 16% (12/73) of the substantia nigra of the HIV+ cases and none of the older control cases (0/18). β-amyloid deposits were prevalent and found in nearly all of the HIV+ cases (35/36). Despite these increases of degenerative pathology, HIV-associated brain pathology was present in only 10% of cases. Among older HIV+ adults HIV-associated brain pathology does not appear elevated; however, the frequency of both α-synuclein and β-amyloid is higher than that found in older healthy persons. The increased prevalence of α-synuclein and β-amyloid in the brains of older HIV-infected individuals may predict an increased risk of developing neurodegenerative disease. PMID:19115126
Selvin, Joseph; Gandhimathi, R.; Kiran, G. Seghal; Priya, S. Shanmugha; Ravji, T. Rajeetha; Hema, T. A.
Culturable heterotrophic bacterial composition of marine sponge Dendrilla nigra was analysed using different enrichments. Five media compositions including without enrichment (control), enriched with sponge extract, with growth regulator (antibiotics), with autoinducers, and complete enrichment containing sponge extract, antibiotics, and autoinducers were developed. DNA hybridization assay was performed to explore host specific bacteria and ecotypes of culturable sponge-associated bacteria. Enrichment with selective inducers (AHLs and sponge extract) and regulators (antibiotics) considerably enhanced the cultivation potential of sponge-associated bacteria. It was found that Marinobacter (MSI032), Micromonospora (MSI033), Streptomyces (MSI051), and Pseudomonas (MSI057) were sponge-associated obligate symbionts. The present findings envisaged that “ Micromonospora-Saccharomonospora-Streptomyces” group was the major culturable actinobacteria in the marine sponge D. nigra. The DNA hybridization assay was a reliable method for the analysis of culturable bacterial community in marine sponges. Based on the culturable community structure, the sponge-associated bacteria can be grouped (ecotypes) as general symbionts, specific symbionts, habitat flora, and antagonists.
Salah, Zein; Weise, David; Preim, Bernhard; Classen, Joseph; Rose, Georg
Transcranial sonography (TCS) is a well-established neuroimaging technique that allows for visualizing several brainstem structures, including the substantia nigra, and helps for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of various movement disorders, especially in Parkinsonian syndromes. However, proximate brainstem anatomy can hardly be recognized due to the limited image quality of B-scans. In this paper, a visualization system for the diagnosis of the substantia nigra is presented, which utilizes neuronavigated TCS to reconstruct tomographical slices from registered MRI datasets and visualizes them simultaneously with corresponding TCS planes in realtime. To generate MRI tomographical slices, the tracking data of the calibrated ultrasound probe are passed to an optimized slicing algorithm, which computes cross sections at arbitrary positions and orientations from the registered MRI dataset. The extracted MRI cross sections are finally fused with the region of interest from the ultrasound image. The system allows for the computation and visualization of slices at a near real-time rate. Primary tests of the system show an added value to the pure sonographic imaging. The system also allows for reconstructing volumetric (3D) ultrasonic data of the region of interest, and thus contributes to enhancing the diagnostic yield of midbrain sonography.
Rossetto, André Luiz; Corrêa, Patricia Rossetto; Cruz, Rosana Cé Bella; Pereira, Eduardo Figueiredo; Haddad Junior, Vidal
We report a case of Tinea nigra in an adolescent living in Itapema, Santa Catarina, Brazil, who presented a hyperchromic macule on the palm of the left hand, close to another erythematous macule caused by a rabbit bite. The patient received guidance on accidents and animal bites and evolved well treated with topical butenafine for the dermatomycosis. The authors also highlight the efficacy of the dermoscopic exam in diagnosing Tinea nigra with animal bite lesions and other traumas. PMID:24626667
Vitali, Alberto; Giardina, Bruno; Delle Monache, Giuliano; Rocca, Filippo; Silvestrini, Andrea; Tafi, Andrea; Botta, Bruno
A new prenyltransferase (PT) enzyme derived from the microsomal fractions of cell cultures of Morus nigra was shown to be able to prenylate exclusively chalcones with a 2',4'-dihydroxy substitution and the isoflavone genistein. Computational studies were performed to shed some light on the relationship between the structure of the substrate and the enzymatic activity. PT requires divalent cations, particularly Mg(2+), to be effective. The apparent K(m) values for gamma,gamma-dimethylallyldiphosphate and 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone were 63 and 142 microM, respectively. The maximum activity of the enzyme was expressed during the first 10 days of cell growth.
Abdul Jaffar Ali, H; Tamilselvi, M; Akram, A Soban; Kaleem Arshan, M L; Sivakumar, V
Ascidians belonging to the sub-phylum Uro-chordata are used as potential model organisms in various parts of the world for biosorption of metals. The sedentary nature, filter feeding habits, presence of vanadocytes and the absence of kidneys cause them to accumulate metals. The present study was aimed to compare biosorption of metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, mercury and vanadium in test and mantle body of solitary ascidian Phallusia nigra between two ecologically significant stations such as Thoothukudi (Station 1) and Vizhinjam (Station 2) ports of India. Monthly samplings of water and P. nigra were done for a period of one year from September 2010 to August 2011 and subjected to analysis of metal accumulation. The average metal concentrations except mercury in the Thoothukudi water were found to be higher of comparable magnitudes than the Vizhinjam water. One-way ANOVA showed significant differences between the stations. A comparison of average metal concentrations in the test and mantle body of P. nigra between two stations showed that the enrichment of V, Cd, Pb, Cu and Hg in the Thoothukudi samples may be due to high bioaccumulation factors of these elements as compared to other species of ascidians. The bioaccumulation factors were in the order of V>Pb>Cd>Cu> Hg for the test and mantle body in stations 1 and 2. Application of one-way ANOVA for the concentration of these metals between test and mantle body showed significant differences in both stations. Similarly, ANOVA for biosorption of these trace metals by P. nigra showed significant difference between stations. Metal concentrations recorded in this ascidian could effectively be used as good reference material for monitoring metal contamination in Indian sea waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Costa, L V; Malpezzi, E L; Matsui, D H; Machado-Santelli, G M; Freitas, J C
Tunicates have been reported to be a rich source of biologically active compounds. In this study, we demonstrate the presence of cytotoxic substances in Phallusia nigra, a common tunicate from Brazilian coastal waters. An extract of tunicate tissue was obtained by homogenizing the visceral organs from 50 specimens in methanol, followed by filtration and concentration in a rotary vacuum evaporator. Finally, the concentrate was partitioned with chloroform to remove lipids. The resulting extract possessed antimitotic and hemolytic activity. The former was demonstrated as a delay in the development of sea urchin eggs by partially inhibiting the process of cleavage (first cleavage, EC50 +/- SEM = 3.44 +/- 0.84 mg/ml). The < 500 molecular fraction of the extract obtained by ultrafiltration also inhibited cell proliferation (the number of viable cells was decreased by 68% with 500 micrograms/ml) and DNA synthesis of T47D cells derived from human breast carcinoma as measured by [3H]-thymidine incorporation (66% of the control value after 24-h incubation with 100 micrograms/ml). Dose-dependent hemolysis obtained with P. nigra extract on mouse erythrocytes had an EC50 +/- SEM = 1.12 +/- 0.02 mg/ml for a 0.5% erythrocyte suspension. Hemolysis could be reduced by pre-incubating the cells with choline-containing phospholipid. Sphingomyelin (40 micrograms/ml) increased the EC50 by two-fold to 2.86 +/- 0.04 mg/ml, but phosphatidylcholine (80 micrograms/ml) did not modify hemolysis.
Yagi, Shigeru; Iwanaga, Takeshi; Kojima, Hiroshi; Shoji, Yoshio; Suzuki, Seiji; Seno, Kunihiro; Mori, Hisayoshi; Tokura, Yoshiki; Takigawa, Masahiro; Moriwaki, Shin-Ichi
We have developed a UV monitor with polycrystalline (poly-) gallium nitride (GaN) UV sensors and evaluated its performance from the viewpoint of its effectiveness for use with photosensitive dermatosis patients. The poly-GaN UV sensor is sensitive to UV light from 280 to 410 nm even without optical filters. The UV monitor is a portable self-data-acquisition instrument with a minimum detection level (defined as average UV intensity over 290 to 400 nm) of 2 microW/cm2 and can store UV dose data for 128 days. It allows easy measurement of four orders of magnitude of ambient UV intensity and dose from indoor light to direct solar radiation in summer. Trial use of the UV monitor by five xeroderma pigmentosum patients started in June 2000 and was carried out for 1 year. It was demonstrated that the UV monitor was useful in improving their quality of life.
Kristine L. Pilgrim; William J. Zielinski; Mary J. Mazurek; Frederick V. Schlexer; Michael K. Schwartz
The Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra) is an endangered subspecies. Efforts to recover this sub-species will be aided by advances in molecular genetics, specifically the ability to estimate population size using noninvasive genetic sampling. Here we report on the development of nine polymorphic loci for the Point Arena mountain...
Roqueiro, Gonzalo; Facorro, Graciela B.; Huarte, Mónica G.; Rubín de Celis, Emilio; García, Fernando; Maldonado, Sara; Maroder, Horacio
Background and Aims Salix nigra seeds are desiccation-tolerant, as are orthodox seeds, although in contrast to other orthodox seeds they lose viability in a few weeks at room temperature. They also differ in that the chloroplasts of the embryo tissues conserve their chlorophyll and endomembranes. The aim of this paper was to investigate the role of chlorophyll in seed deterioration. Methods Seeds were aged at different light intensities and atmospheric conditions. Mean germination time and normal and total germination were evaluated. The formation of free radicals was assessed using electronic spin resonance spectroscopy, and changes in the fatty acid composition from phospholipids, galactolipids and triglycerides using gas–liquid chromatography. Membrane integrity was studied with electronic spin resonance spin probe techniques, electrolyte leakage and transmission electron microscopy. Key Results Light and oxygen played an important role in free-radical generation, causing a decrease in normal germination and an increase in mean germination time. Both indices were associated with a decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from membrane lipids as phospholipids and galactolipids. The detection of damage in thylakoid membranes and an increase in plasmalemma permeability were consistent with the decrease in both types of lipids. Triglycerides remained unchanged. Light-induced damage began in outermost tissues and spread inwards, decreasing normal germination. Conclusions Salix nigra seeds were very susceptible to photooxidation. The thylakoid membranes appeared to be the first target of the photooxidative process since there were large decreases in galactolipids and both these lipids and the activated chlorophyll are contiguous in the structure of that membrane. Changes in normal germination and mean germination time could be explained by the deteriorative effects of oxidation. PMID:20338949
Rosa C. Goodman; Douglass F. Jacobs; Kent G. Apostol; Barrett C. Wilson; Emile S. Gardiner
Water oak (Quercus nigra L.) is a tardily deciduous species commonly planted in afforestation projects in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, USA. Field performance is often marked by low survival rates and top dieback, which may be associated with poor physiological quality of planting stock.
Aristoteli, Lina Panayiota; Willcox, Mark D P
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogen gaining prevalence in contact lens-related corneal ulcers. Tear outflow protects the ocular surface, where high molecular weight tear glycoproteins bind bacteria for removal from the eye. The purpose of the present study was to identify glycoproteins in human tears involved in the adhesion of ocular P. aeruginosa isolates. Basal human tears were applied to a bacterial adhesion assay involving electrophoretic separation of tear components, transfer to nitrocellulose and incubation with biotin-labelled bacteria. Glycoproteins were further characterised using lectin profiling. The results showed large-dimension agarose gels were imperative for the detection of at least four glycoproteins with a migration >200 kDa, including species not previously identified. P. aeruginosa 6294 preferentially bound to a well-defined glycoprotein near the origin of the gel that, unlike other glycoproteins >200 kDa, reacted with Sambucus nigra lectin (sialic acid alpha2-6) but not WGA lectin (N-acetylglucosamine, sialic acid alpha2-3). Adhesion did not involve free biotin label or hydrophobic interactions. Also, the pre-incubation of separated tear glycoproteins with S. nigra lectin increased subsequent adhesion of 6294 to this tear glycoprotein. The less virulent Paer1 strain showed diffuse adhesion in the S. nigra-reactive region at the gel origin. In conclusion, an overlay adhesion assay was developed that identified slow-migrating sialylated glycoprotein species in human tears preferentially bound by P. aeruginosa ocular strains, and S. nigra lectin seemed to enhance the interaction. The study provides a basis for direct investigation of bacterial adhesion to glycoproteins with an apparent migration >200 kDa in tear fluid.
Cervera, M T; Storme, V; Ivens, B; Gusmão, J; Liu, B H; Hostyn, V; Van Slycken, J; Van Montagu, M; Boerjan, W
Populus deltoides, P. nigra, and P. trichocarpa are the most important species for poplar breeding programs worldwide. In addition, Populus has become a model for fundamental research on trees. Linkage maps were constructed for these three species by analyzing progeny of two controlled crosses sharing the same female parent, Populus deltoides cv. S9-2 x P. nigra cv. Ghoy and P. deltoides cv. S9-2 x P. trichocarpa cv. V24. The two-way pseudotestcross mapping strategy was used to construct the maps. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers that segregated 1:1 were used to form the four parental maps. Microsatellites and sequence-tagged sites were used to align homoeologous groups between the maps and to merge linkage groups within the individual maps. Linkage analysis and alignment of the homoeologous groups resulted in 566 markers distributed over 19 groups for P. deltoides covering 86% of the genome, 339 markers distributed over 19 groups for P. trichocarpa covering 73%, and 369 markers distributed over 28 groups for P. nigra covering 61%. Several tests for randomness showed that the AFLP markers were randomly distributed over the genome.
Cervera, M T; Storme, V; Ivens, B; Gusmão, J; Liu, B H; Hostyn, V; Van Slycken, J; Van Montagu, M; Boerjan, W
Populus deltoides, P. nigra, and P. trichocarpa are the most important species for poplar breeding programs worldwide. In addition, Populus has become a model for fundamental research on trees. Linkage maps were constructed for these three species by analyzing progeny of two controlled crosses sharing the same female parent, Populus deltoides cv. S9-2 x P. nigra cv. Ghoy and P. deltoides cv. S9-2 x P. trichocarpa cv. V24. The two-way pseudotestcross mapping strategy was used to construct the maps. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers that segregated 1:1 were used to form the four parental maps. Microsatellites and sequence-tagged sites were used to align homoeologous groups between the maps and to merge linkage groups within the individual maps. Linkage analysis and alignment of the homoeologous groups resulted in 566 markers distributed over 19 groups for P. deltoides covering 86% of the genome, 339 markers distributed over 19 groups for P. trichocarpa covering 73%, and 369 markers distributed over 28 groups for P. nigra covering 61%. Several tests for randomness showed that the AFLP markers were randomly distributed over the genome. PMID:11404342
Đorđević, Aleksandra S; Jovanović, Olga P; Zlatković, Bojan K; Stojanović, Gordana S
The essential oils isolated from fresh aerial parts of Ballota macedonica (two populations) and Ballota nigra ssp. foetida were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Eighty five components were identified in total; 60 components in B. macedonica oil (population from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia), 34 components in B. macedonica oil (population from the Republic of Serbia), and 33 components in the oil of B. nigra ssp. foetida accounting for 93.9%, 98.4%, and 95.8% of the total oils, respectively. The most abundant components in B. macedonica oils were carotol (13.7 - 52.1%), germacrene D (8.6 - 24.6%), and (E)-caryophyllene (6.5 - 16.5%), while B. nigra ssp. foetida oil was dominated by (E)-phytol (56.9%), germacrene D (10.0%), and (E)-caryophyllene (4.7%). Multivariate statistical analyses (agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis) were used to compare and discuss relationships among Ballota species examined so far based on their volatile profiles. The chemical compositions of B. macedonica essential oils are reported for the first time. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.
Kejia Pang; Keith Woeste; Charles Michler
A set of eight microsatellite markers was used to genotype 25 black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) clones within the Purdue University germplasm repository. The identities of 212 ramets were verified using the same eight microsatellite markers. Some trees were mislabeled and corrected as to clone using analysis of microsatellite markers. A genetic...
Jennifer Juzwik; M. McDermott-Kubeczko; T. J. Stewart; M. D. Ginzel
Eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra) is a highly-valued species for timber and nut production in the eastern United States. Thousand cankers disease (TCD), caused by the interaction of the walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis) and the canker fungus Geosmithia morbida (Tisserat et al. 2009), was first...
Ozen, Sukran Akkus; Yaman, Mehmet
In this study, HPLC-MS and ICP-MS methods were used for the determination of histidine and nickel in Morus L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., and Populus nigra L. leaves taken from industrial areas including Gaziantep and Bursa cities. In the determination of histidine by HPLC-MS, all of the system parameters such as flow rate of mobile phase, fragmentor potential, injection volume and column temperature were optimized and found to be 0.2 mL min(-1), 70 V, 15 µL, and 20°C, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, histidine was extracted from plant sample by distilled water at 90°C for 30 min. Concentrations of histidine as mg kg(-1) were found to be between 2-9 for Morus L., 6-13 for Robinia pseudoacacia L., and 2-10 for Populus nigra L. Concentrations of nickel were in the ranges of 5-10 mg kg(-1) for Morus L., 3-10 mg kg(-1) for Robinia pseudoacacia L., and 0.6-4 mg kg(-1) for Populus nigra L. A significant linear correlation (r = 0.78) between histidine and Ni was observed for Populus nigra L., whereas insignificant linear correlation for Robinia pseudoacacia L. (r = 0.22) were seen. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) were found to be 0.025 mg Ni L(-1) and 0.075 mg Ni L(-1), respectively.
Hayat Topcu; Nergiz Coban; Keith Woeste; Mehmet Sutyemez; Salih Kafkas
We attempted to develop new polymorphic SSR primer pairs in walnut using sequences derived from Juglans nigra L. genomic enriched library with GA repeat. The designed 94 SSR primer pairs were subjected to gradient PCR in 12 walnut cultivars to determine their optimum annealing temperatures and to determine whether they produce bands. Then, the...
Júnior, Ivanildo I. da S.; Barbosa, Humberto de Moura; Carvalho, Débora C. R.; Barros, Ruideglan de Alencar; Albuquerque, Flávia Peixoto; da Silva, Dionísio Henrique Amaral; Souza, Grasielly R.; Souza, Nathália A. C.; Silva, Flaviane M. M.; Duarte, Glória I. B. P.; de Oliveira Júnior, Flávio Monteiro; Gomes, Dayane A.
Morus nigra has been used popularly for several proposes, including diabetic. In an attempt to support medicinal value, the acute hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects of the ethanolic extract of Morus nigra (EEMn 200 or 400 mg/kg b.w.) were evaluated in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic treated for 14 days. Serum biochemical and antioxidant analysis were performed at the end of experiment. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed at 10th and 15th days. Chromatographic analysis by HPLC-DAD of EEMn was performed. Insulin was used as positive control to glycemic metabolism as well as fenofibrate to lipid metabolism. EEMn (400 mg/kg/day) reduced fasting and postprandial glycaemia, improved oral glucose tolerance, and reduced lipolysis and proteolysis in diabetic rats. EEMn decreased the blood levels of total cholesterol and increased HDL level when compared to the diabetic control rats. At higher levels, EEMn reduced triglycerides and VLDL levels in diabetic rats. Also, EEMn reduced malondialdehyde and increased the reduced glutathione levels in liver of diabetic rats. Chromatographic analysis identified the presence of the flavonoids rutin, isoquercetin, and kaempferitrin. Acute EEMn treatment reduced hyperglycemia, improved oral glucose tolerance, and minimized dyslipidemia and oxidative stress leading to a reduction in atherogenic index in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. PMID:28567440
Kite, Geoffrey C; Larsson, Sonny; Veitch, Nigel C; Porter, Elaine A; Ding, Ning; Simmonds, Monique S J
LC-UV-MS analyses of inflorescence extracts of Sambucus nigra L. (elder, Adoxaceae) revealed the presence of numerous acyl spermidines, with isomers of N,N-diferuloylspermidine and N-acetyl-N,N-diferuloylspermidine being most abundant. Pollen was the main source of the acyl spermidines in the inflorescence. Three of the major acyl spermidines were isolated and their structures determined by NMR spectroscopy as N⁵,N¹⁰-di-(E,E)-feruloylspermidine and the new compounds N¹-acetyl-N⁵,N¹⁰-di-(Z,E)-feruloylspermidine and N¹-acetyl-N⁵,N¹⁰-di-(E,E)-feruloylspermidine. An isomer of N,N,N-triferuloylspermidine was also obtained and identified as N¹,N⁵,N¹⁰-tri-(E,E,E)-feruloylspermidine. In addition to stereoisomers of the isolated acyl spermidines, other acyl spermidines detected by the positive ion LC-UV-MS were isomers of N-caffeoyl-N,N-diferuloylspermidine, N-coumaroyl-N,N-diferuloylspermidine, N-caffeoyl-N-feruloylspermidine, N-coumaroyl-N-feruloylspermidine, N-acetyl-N-caffeoyl-N-feruloylspermidine, and N-acetyl-N-coumaroyl-N-feruloylspermidine. Analysis of commercial elderflower drinks showed that acyl spermidines were persistent in these processed elderflower products. Examination of inflorescence extracts from Sambucus canadensis L. (American elder) revealed the presence of acyl spermidines that were different from those of S. nigra.
Joshua C. Davis; Joseph P. Shannon; Nicholas W. Bolton; Randall K. Kolka; Thomas G. Pypker
The invasive emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)) is a significant threat to biodiversity and ecosystem processes in North American forests. Of particular concern is the fate of Fraxinus nigra (black ash), which is frequently a dominant canopy species across much of its range. To...
de Hoog, G S; Gerrits van den Ende, A H
The life cycle of Hortaea werneckii includes yeast-like, hyphal and meristematic growth. The preponderance of each form of propagation can be influenced by environmental conditions. The clinical entity 'tinea nigra' is explained by ecological similarities between supposed natural niches and human hyperhydrotic skin. The species is recognizable by assimilation of lactose, nitrate and nitrite, no or little growth with L-lysine, cadaverine, creatine and creatinine, and tolerance of 10% NaCl. It generally does not grow at 36 degrees C.
Yalaltdinova, Albina; Baranovskaya, Natalya; Rikhvanov, Leonid; Matveenko, Irina
The article deals with the content of 28 chemical elements in the leaves ash of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) growing in Ust-Kamenogorsk city area. It is the major industrial center of Kazakhstan Republic on the territory where the industrial giants of non-ferrous metallurgy and nuclear energy are situated. Comparative analysis with the similar data obtained from leaves ash of Populus nigra L. in Tomsk, Ekibastuz, and Pavlodar cities has revealed that in comparison with other urban areas, leaves ash of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) from Ust-Kamenogorsk city is characterized by elevated concentration rates of Ta, U, Zn, Ag, As, Sb, Br, Sr and Na. Within the city, the sites and areas with abnormal contents of typomorphic pollutants have been revealed. In the central part of the city, in the vicinity of lead-zinc plant and Ulba metallurgical plant, the highest concentrations of Ta, U, Zn, Ag, Au, As, Sb, Cr and Fe were marked. In the northeast, where the titanium-magnesium plant is located, elevated concentrations of Br and Sr were stated. Thus, the impact of major city enterprises which are the main sources of heavy metals is reflected in the element composition. Zn, As, Sb, Ag and Au comes from lead-zinc plant and its refinery plants, while Ulba metallurgical plant can be considered source of Ta and U in the environment, producing tantalum and fuel pellets for nuclear power plants. These companies, due to the current objective circumstances, are located in the central part of the city, have a significant negative effect on the environment and form the risk factors for human health.
Michael C. Wiemann; Edgard O. Espinoza
To evade endangered timber species laws, unscrupulous importers sometimes attempt to pass protected Dalbergia nigra as look-alike but unprotected, Dalbergia Spruceana. Wood density and fluorescence properties are sometimes used to identify the species. Although these properties are useful and do not require special equipment,...
Jarzycka, Anna; Lewińska, Agnieszka; Gancarz, Roman; Wilk, Kazimiera A
The aim of our study was to investigate the photoprotective activity and photostability efficacy of sunscreen formulations containing Helichrysum arenarium, Sambucus nigra, Crataegus monogyna extracts and their combination. UV transmission of the emulsion films was performed by using diffuse transmittance measurements coupling to an integrating sphere. In vitro photoprotection and photostability efficacy were evaluated according to the following parameters: sun protection factor (SPF), UVA protection factor (PF-UVA), UVA/UVB ratio and critical wavelength (λc) before and after UV irradiation. The results obtained show that the formulations containing polyphenols fulfill the official requirements for sunscreen products due to their broad spectrum of UV protection combined with their high photostability and remarkable antioxidant properties. Therefore H. arenarium, S. nigra, C. monogyna extracts represent useful additives for cosmetic formulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ramayya, Ashwin G.; Misra, Amrit
Animal studies have shown that substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic (DA) neurons strengthen action–reward associations during reinforcement learning, but their role in human learning is not known. Here, we applied microstimulation in the SN of 11 patients undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery for the treatment of Parkinson's disease as they performed a two-alternative probability learning task in which rewards were contingent on stimuli, rather than actions. Subjects demonstrated decreased learning from reward trials that were accompanied by phasic SN microstimulation compared with reward trials without stimulation. Subjects who showed large decreases in learning also showed an increased bias toward repeating actions after stimulation trials; therefore, stimulation may have decreased learning by strengthening action–reward associations rather than stimulus–reward associations. Our findings build on previous studies implicating SN DA neurons in preferentially strengthening action–reward associations during reinforcement learning. PMID:24828643
Kolivras, Athanassios; Theunis, Anne; Ferster, Aline; Lipsker, Dan; Sass, Ursula; Dussart, Anneliese; André, Josette
A female newborn presented with a congenital urticarial rash that consisted of fluctuating well-demarcated pink or pale reddish macules or slightly raised papules and plaques. In addition, purulent cerebrospinal fluid was present in the absence of evidence of congenital infection. Skin biopsy revealed a sparse infiltrate throughout the entire dermis, including the eccrine adventitia. The infiltrate was composed mostly of neutrophils, but rarely lymphocytes and eosinophils could also be seen. No vasculitis was present. Because of the presenting attributes, a diagnosis of cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) was considered and the neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disorder (NOMID) that represents the most severe expression of the CAPS clinical spectrum was favored. Diagnosis was confirmed by identification of a mutation in the cold-induced autoinflammatory syndrome-1 gene and by an observed response to treatment with the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist anakinra. Both the clinical and histopathological findings of the presented case may represent a distinct entity within the spectrum of aseptic neutrophilic dermatitis. We refer to this spectrum as neutrophilic urticarial dermatosis (NUD), which may serve as a cutaneous marker of autoinflammation. NUD with perieccrine involvement should prompt consideration of CAPS, especially NOMID, in the context of neonatal multisystem disease. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Scopel, Marina; Mentz, Lílian Auler; Henriques, Amélia Teresinha
This work was designed to develop a simple, effective, and reliable LC system to identify a chemical marker and compare Sambucus nigra L. and Sambucus australis Cham. et Schltdl. flower extracts (American and European elder). Rutin was the main constituent of both species. The developed method showed a linear response in the range of 10 to 45 microg x mL(-1) for rutin and 1.75 to 3.25 microg x mL(-1) for samples of the Sambucus species. Precision was determined and the relative standard deviations were 1.75 % for HSN and 1.28 % for HSA for intraday precision and 1.28 % and 1.51 % for inter-day precision, respectively, while accuracy was 97.9 % for HSN and 99.41 % for HSA. Quantification and detection limits as well as robustness were determined, presenting adequate results. The LC method showed an adequate performance for the separation of flavonoid glycosides in S. nigra and S. australis extracts, since the presence of interference had been previously evaluated. The analysis of thirty different samples of S. NIGRA and S. australis of different origins did not show significant variability among them. An accelerated stability study revealed a significant decrease in the first 30 days reaching 57 % in 90 days for S. australis samples and a total decrease of 25 % in 90 days for S. nigra samples, considering rutin as the chemical marker. These results will contribute to quality control analysis routines of these raw materials in pharmaceutical production facilities. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.
Crossman, A. R.; Walker, R. J.; Woodruff, G. N.
Neurones in the substantia nigra of the rat, anaesthetized with urethane, are inhibited both by electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral caudate nucleus and by iontophoretically applied γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Iontophoretically applied picrotoxin reversibly blocks both of these inhibitory responses. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that GABA is the transmitter released by the inhibitory striato-nigral pathway. PMID:4362811
Junairiah, Zuraidassanaaz, Nabilah Istighfari; Izdihar, Fairuz Nabil; Manuhara, Yosephine Sri Wulan
The purpose of this research was to determine the combination of plant growth regulators IAA, BAP and kinetin towards callus induction and growth of leaf explants Piper betle L. VarNigra. Explants from leaf of Piper betle L. VarNigra was cultured on MS medium with 24 treatment combinations of plant growth regulators IAA and BAP and 24 treatment combinations of plant growth regulators IAA and kinetin with 0.0;0.5;1.0;1.5;2.0 mg/L concentration respectively, the observed variable were the length of time the formation of callus, callus morphology, fresh and dry weight of callus. The results of this research showed that the combination of growth regulators IAA with BAP and kinetin had effects on leaf growth of Piper betle L. VarNigra. During 8 weeks observation, it indicated that the combination of concentration IAA 0.5 mg/L and BAP 2.0 mg/L showed fastest callus formation at 8.5 days. Combination of concentration IAA 1.0 mg/L and BAP 1.5 mg/L showed the highest of fresh weight at 0.6596 grams, and the highest dry weight was obtained from the combination of concentration IAA 0.5 mg/L and BAP 0.5 mg/L at 0.0727 grams. Combination of concentration IAA 1.0 mg/L and kinetin 1.5 mg/L had the highest of fresh weight at 0.2972 grams and the highest dry weight at 0.1660 grams. Callus of Piper betle L. VarNigra had two textures, that were compact and friable, and also showed various kind of colors, like white, greenish white, yellowish white, tanned white, brown and black. Based on this research, that concentration IAA 1.0 mg/L and 1.5 mg/L kinetin was the best combination for induction of callus from leaf of Piper betle L. Var Nigra.
Cosottini, M; Frosini, D; Pesaresi, I; Donatelli, G; Cecchi, P; Costagli, M; Biagi, L; Ceravolo, R; Bonuccelli, U; Tosetti, M
Standard neuroimaging fails in defining the anatomy of the substantia nigra and has a marginal role in the diagnosis of Parkinson disease. Recently 7T MR target imaging of the substantia nigra has been useful in diagnosing Parkinson disease. We performed a comparative study to evaluate whether susceptibility-weighted angiography can diagnose Parkinson disease with a 3T scanner. Fourteen patients with Parkinson disease and 13 healthy subjects underwent MR imaging examination at 3T and 7T by using susceptibility-weighted angiography. Two expert blinded observers and 1 neuroradiology fellow evaluated the 3T and 7T images of the sample to identify substantia nigra abnormalities indicative of Parkinson disease. Diagnostic accuracy and intra- and interobserver agreement were calculated separately for 3T and 7T acquisitions. Susceptibility-weighted angiography 7T MR imaging can diagnose Parkinson disease with a mean sensitivity of 93%, specificity of 100%, and diagnostic accuracy of 96%. 3T MR imaging diagnosed Parkinson disease with a mean sensitivity of 79%, specificity of 94%, and diagnostic accuracy of 86%. Intraobserver and interobserver agreement was excellent at 7T. At 3T, intraobserver agreement was excellent for experts, and interobserver agreement ranged between good and excellent. The less expert reader obtained a diagnostic accuracy of 89% at 3T. Susceptibility-weighted angiography images obtained at 3T and 7T differentiate controls from patients with Parkinson disease with a higher diagnostic accuracy at 7T. The capability of 3T in diagnosing Parkinson disease might encourage its use in clinical practice. The use of the more accurate 7T should be supported by a dedicated cost-effectiveness study. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.
Stránsky, K; Valterová, I; Fiedler, P
Pollen of the elder (Sambucus nigra L.) was extracted with chloroform-methanol. The extract was separated by column chromatography into the following groups of compounds: hydrocarbons (8.7%). polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (0.2%), complex esters (5.2%), triglycerides (18.7%), hydroxy esters (27.9%), free fatty acids and alcohols (16.8%), free sterols (6.8%), and triterpenic alcohols (4.0%). The nonsaponifiable components (hydrocarbons, fatty acids, alcohols, and sterols) were examined in detail using spectroscopic and chromatographic methods (IR spectroscopy, GC, and GC-MS). The identified compounds were characterized by their mass spectra and Kováts retention indices. The double bond positions and their configurations in unsaturated compounds are also reported.
Wang, Gui-xiang; Tang, Yu; Yan, Hong; Sheng, Xiao-guang; Hao, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Li; Lu, Kun; Liu, Fan
Somatic hybridization is a potential method for gene transfer from wild relatives to cultivated crops that can overcome sexual incompatibilities of two distantly related species. In this study, interspecific asymmetric somatic hybrids of Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (cauliflower) and Brassica nigra (black mustard) were obtained by protoplast fusion and their backcrossed (BC(3)) and selfed (S(3)) offspring were analyzed. Cytological analysis showed that the B. nigra chromosomes were successively eliminated in the backcrosses with cauliflower. The fertility of the hybrid progenies was quite different due to the asynchronous and abnormal chromosome behavior of pollen mother cells (PMC) during meiosis. Analysis of sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) showed that all of these hybrids mainly had the DNA banding pattern from the two parents with some alterations. Genetically, the selfed generations were closer to B. nigra, while the backcrossed generations were closer to the cauliflower parent. Analysis of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) showed that all somatic hybrids in this study contained chloroplast (cp) DNA of the donor parent black mustard, while mitochondrial (mt) DNA showed evidence of recombination and variations in the regions analyzed. Furthermore, three BC(3) plants (originated from somatic hybrids 3, 4, 10) with 2-8 B. nigra-derived chromosomes shown by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) displayed a more cauliflower-like morphology and high resistance to black-rot. These plants were obtained as bridge materials for further analysis and breeding.
William J. Zielinski; Fredrick V. Schlexer; Jeffrey R. Dunk; Matthew J. Lau; James J. Graham
The mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa) is notably the most primitive North American rodent with a restricted distribution in the Pacific Northwest based on its physiological limits to heat stress and water needs. The Point Arena subspecies (A. r. nigra) is federally listed as endangered and is 1 of 2 subspecies that have extremely...
Ulbricht, Catherine; Basch, Ethan; Cheung, Lisa; Goldberg, Harley; Hammerness, Paul; Isaac, Richard; Khalsa, Karta Purkh Singh; Romm, Aviva; Rychlik, Idalia; Varghese, Minney; Weissner, Wendy; Windsor, Regina C; Wortley, Jayme
An evidence-based systematic review of elderberry and elderflower (Sambucus nigra) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration consolidates the safety and efficacy data available in the scientific literature using a validated, reproducible grading rationale. This article includes written and statistical analysis of clinical trials, plus a compilation of expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing.
Saulino, Luigi; Pasquino, Vittorio; Todaro, Luigi; Rita, Angelo; Villani, Paolo; Battista Chirico, Giovanni; Saracino, Antonio
This work focuses on the morphological and biomechanical traits developed by the European black poplar (Populus nigra) to cope with the hydraulic force and prolonged submersion periods during floods. Two riverine environments of the Cilento sub-region (Southern Italy) have been selected for this experimental study. The two sites have the same climatic and hydrological regimes. The first site is located along the Ripiti stream, characterized by a braided channel with longitudinal and transverse bars and eroding banks. The second site is located along the Badolato stream, an entrenched meandering riffle/pool channel, with low gradients and high width/depth. P. nigra mixed with Salix alba and along the Badolato stream also Platanus orientalis, is the dominant wooden riparian vegetation in both sites. Cuttings from adult P. nigra trees originated by seeds were collected and planted in the 'Azienda Sperimentale Regionale Improsta' (Eboli-Salerno, Campania region). The experimental plantation was managed according to a multi-stem short rotation coppice with low external energy input and high disturbance regime generated by a 3 years rotation coppicing. The two sample stool sets exhibit statistically similar morphological traits, but different values of Young elasticity module of the shoots. A functional evaluation of the biomechanical differences was performed by measuring the bending of the individual stems under the hypothesis of complete submergence within a flow of different mean velocities, using a numerical model that predicts the bending of woody vegetation beams allowing for large deflections. The results suggest that plants with the same gene pool but coming from morphologically different riverine environments, may reflect different dominant biomechanical properties, which might be relevant for designing local sustainable management and restoration plans of rivers and riparian systems.
Ramayya, Ashwin G; Misra, Amrit; Baltuch, Gordon H; Kahana, Michael J
Animal studies have shown that substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic (DA) neurons strengthen action-reward associations during reinforcement learning, but their role in human learning is not known. Here, we applied microstimulation in the SN of 11 patients undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery for the treatment of Parkinson's disease as they performed a two-alternative probability learning task in which rewards were contingent on stimuli, rather than actions. Subjects demonstrated decreased learning from reward trials that were accompanied by phasic SN microstimulation compared with reward trials without stimulation. Subjects who showed large decreases in learning also showed an increased bias toward repeating actions after stimulation trials; therefore, stimulation may have decreased learning by strengthening action-reward associations rather than stimulus-reward associations. Our findings build on previous studies implicating SN DA neurons in preferentially strengthening action-reward associations during reinforcement learning. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/346887-09$15.00/0.
William J. Zielinski; Fredrick V. Schlexer; Sean A. Parks; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Michael K. Schwartz
The landscape genetics framework is typically applied to broad regions that occupy only small portions of a species' range. Rarely is the entire range of a taxon the subject of study. We examined the landscape genetic structure of the endangered Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra), whose isolated geographic range is found in a...
Veasey, John Verrinder; Avila, Ricardo Bertozzi de; Miguel, Barbara Arruda Fraletti; Muramatu, Laura Hitomi
Superficial mycoses are fungal infections restricted to the stratum corneum and to the hair shafts, with no penetration in the epidermis; they are: white piedra, black piedra, tinea versicolor, and tinea nigra. This study presents images of mycological tests performed in the laboratory, as well as exams performed at the authors office, in order to improve the dermatologist's knowledge about the diagnosis of these dermatoses, which are common in many countries.
de la Cruz, C. P.; Revilla, E.; Steffen, V.; Rodríguez-Gómez, J. A.; Cano, J.; Machado, A.
1. We have studied the effect of (-)-deprenyl on the oxidative damage that the rat substantia nigra suffers during aging. 2. (-)-Deprenyl (2 mg kg-1, three times a week) administered for two months, beginning at 22 months of age, produced a significant increase in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity (2.67 +/- 0.40 and 3.64 +/- 0.38 nmol mg-1 protein h-1 in untreated aged rats and treated aged rats respectively, P < 0.05) and in TH amount (0.072 +/- 0.012 and 0.128 +/- 0.38 absorbance 405 nm in untreated aged and treated aged rats respectively, P < 0.05). 3. The proteins of aged rat substantia nigra showed a significant decrease of carbonyl groups in treated animals compared with saline-injected control rats (136.2 +/- 21.8 and 71.5 +/- 13.2 c.p.m. microgram-1 protein in untreated aged and treated aged rats respectively, P < 0.05). 4. The carbonyl groups measured in TH enzyme showed a statistically significant decrease (42.3%) after (-)-deprenyl treatment (471.4 +/- 73.0 and 271.9 +/- 50.00 c.p.m. in untreated aged and treated aged rats respectively, P < 0.001). 5. All these results suggest that oxidative damage produced during aging is prevented by (-)-deprenyl treatment and could explain the effect of this drug in Parkinson's disease (PD) and other degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:8732287
Iakimovskiĭ, A F
Bilateral injection of 45 mcg of GABA into substantia nigra pars compacta produced in dogs a manifested improvement of parameters of the conditioned differentiation inhibition but failed to influence the positive Pavlovian alimentary conditioned reflex. Injection of GABA synaptic antagonist--picrotoxin impaired conditioned alimentary behaviour. Numerous injections of the GABAergic pharmacological agents resulted in motor disturbance--rotatory movements--and skin trophic deviations. The data obtained and literature references give ground for discussion of the role of striato-nigral and internal GABAergic substantia nigra systems in the positive modulation of adaptive alimentary behaviour and conditioned stimuli differentiation.
Karpova, I S; Korets'ka, N V; Pal'chykovs'ka, L H; Nehruts'ka, V V
Isolation of lectins from extracts of the Sambucus nigra inflorescences and of pollen material have been performed using isoelectric focusing without carrier ampholytes (autofocusing). Fractions active in agglutination tests with different carbohydrate specificity were subjected to SDS-PAGE. The major lectin found in whole inflores-cences was GalNAc specific and is proposed to be a heterotetramer with subunits of about 30 and 33 kDa. It was called SNAflu-I. At least two other lectins were present in the pollen material and supposed to consist of identical subunits. Major positively charged lectin was Glc/Man specific with subunit of 26 kDa and called SNApol-I. Other pollen component (SNApol-II) was Gal specific with subunit of about 20 kDa. In order to elucidate cell targets sensitive for the S. nigra lectin's activity the combined effects of the lectins and transcriptional of phenazine origin on B. subtilis cells growth have been studied. Only SNApol-I demonstrated the antagonistic activity against these inhibitors in vivo. This lectin but not the SNAflu-I can also inhibit transcription in vitro. It is supposed that lectins from the same source may act in different directions on cell metabolism. Particularly one of the common targets may be the DNA-dependent synthesis of RNA.
Veasey, John Verrinder; de Avila, Ricardo Bertozzi; Miguel, Barbara Arruda Fraletti; Muramatu, Laura Hitomi
Superficial mycoses are fungal infections restricted to the stratum corneum and to the hair shafts, with no penetration in the epidermis; they are: white piedra, black piedra, tinea versicolor, and tinea nigra. This study presents images of mycological tests performed in the laboratory, as well as exams performed at the authors office, in order to improve the dermatologist's knowledge about the diagnosis of these dermatoses, which are common in many countries. PMID:29186263
Fontes, Pedro Ribeiro; Souza, Paula Monteiro; William Fagg, Christopher; Neves Silva Guerra, Eliete; de Medeiros Nóbrega, Yanna Karla; Silveira, Damaris; Fonseca-Bazzo, Yris; Simeoni, Luiz Alberto; Homem-de-Mello, Maurício; Oliveira Magalhães, Pérola
Melanogenesis is a process responsible for melanin production, which is stored in melanocytes containing tyrosinase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a target in the cosmetics industry, since it controls undesirable skin conditions such as hyperpigmentation due to the overproduction of melanin. Species of the Morus genus are known for the beneficial uses offered in different parts of its plants, including tyrosinase inhibition. Thus, this project aimed to study the inhibitory activity of tyrosinase by extracts from Morus nigra leaves as well as the characterization of its chromatographic profile and cytotoxicity in order to become a new therapeutic option from a natural source. M. nigra leaves were collected, pulverized, equally divided into five batches and the standardized extract was obtained by passive maceration. There was no significant difference between batches for total solids content, yield and moisture content, which shows good reproducibility of the extraction process. Tyrosinase enzymatic activity was determined for each batch, providing the percentage of enzyme inhibition and IC50 values obtained by constructing dose-response curves and compared to kojic acid, a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor. High inhibition of tyrosinase activity was observed (above 90% at 15.625 μg/mL). The obtained IC50 values ranged from 5.00 μg/mL ± 0.23 to 8.49 μg/mL ± 0.59 and were compared to kojic acid (3.37 μg/mL ± 0.65). High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis revealed the presence of chlorogenic acid, rutin and, its major compound, isoquercitrin. The chromatographic method employed was validated according to ICH guidelines and the extract was standardized using these polyphenols as markers. Cytotoxicity, assessed by MTT assay, was not observed on murine melanomas, human keratinocytes and mouse fibroblasts in tyrosinase IC50 values. This study demonstrated the potential of M. nigra leaf extract as a promising whitening agent of natural source against skin
Micah E. Stevens; Paula M. Pijut
High-quality black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) logs are of great economic value and are used in the manufacture of high-end products. Indigenous to the central hardwood region, black walnut has been commercially cultivated for many years, and genetic improvement and selections have resulted in superior timber genotypes. The recalcitrance of black...
De Pablos, Rocío M; Herrera, Antonio J; Villarán, Ruth F; Cano, Josefina; Machado, Alberto
Intranigral injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent inductor of inflammation, induces degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, along with an inflammatory process that features activation of microglial cells and loss of astrocytes. To test the involvement of dopamine (DA) in this degeneration induced by LPS, we treated albino Wistar rats with different concentrations of alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (alpha-MPT), an inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity. Results showed that alpha-MPT prevented LPS-induced loss of TH immunostaining and expression of mRNA for TH and DA transporter; it also prevented substantial activation of microglial cells. Loss of the astroglial population, a marker of damage in our model, was also prevented. This protective effect resulted from inhibition of TH and the consequent decrease in DA concentration, because treatment with L-DOPA/benserazide, which bypasses TH inhibition induced by alpha-MPT, reversed the protective effect produced by this drug. These results point out the important contribution of DA to the vulnerability and degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. Knowledge about the involvement of DA in this process may lead to the possibility of new protection strategies against this important degenerative process.
Muluye, Abrham Belachew; Melese, Eshetie; Adinew, Getnet Mequanint
Resistances to currently available drugs and insecticides, significant drug toxicities and costs and lack of vaccines currently complicated the treatment of malaria. A continued search for safe, effective and affordable plant-based antimalarial agents thus becomes crucial and vital in the face of these difficulties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimalarial activity of 80 % methanolic extract of the seeds of Brassica nigra against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice. Chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei (ANKA strain) was used to test the antimalarial activity of the extract. In suppressive and prophylactic models, Swiss albino male mice were randomly grouped into five groups of five mice each. Group I mice were treated with the vehicle, group II, III and IV were treated with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract, respectively and the last group (V) mice were treated with chloroquine (10 mg/kg). The level of parasitemia, survival time and variation in weight of mice were used to determine the antimalarial activity of the extract. Chemosuppressive activities produced by the extract of the seeds of Brassica nigra were 21.88, 50.00 (P < 0.01) and 53.13 % (P < 0.01), while the chemoprophylactic activities were 17.42, 21.21 and 53.79 % (P < 0.05) at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract, respectively as compared to the negative control. Mice treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg extract were significantly (P < 0.05) lived longer and gained weight as compared to negative control in 4-day suppressive test. From this study, it can be concluded that the seed extract of Brassica nigra showed good chemosuppressive and moderate chemoprophylactic activities and the plant may contain biologically active principles which are relevant in the treatment and prophylaxis of malaria, thus supporting further studies of the plant for its active components.
Melcher, Peter J.; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.
The goal of this study was to assess the effect of induced embolism with air injection treatments on the function of xylem in Acer rubrum L. and Salix nigra Marsh. Measurements made on mature trees of A. rubrum showed that pneumatic pressurization treatments that created a pressure gradient of 5.5 MPa across pit membranes (ΔPpit) had no effect on stomatal conductance or on branch-level sap flow. The same air injection treatments made on 3-year-old potted A. rubrum plants also had no effect on whole plant transpiration. A separate study made on mature A. rubrum trees showed that 3.0 and 5.5 MPa of ΔPpit values resulted in an immediate 100% loss in hydraulic conductance (PLC) in petioles. However, the observed change in PLC was short lived, and significant hydraulic recovery occurred within 5–10 min post air-pressurization treatments. Similar experiments conducted on S. nigra plants exposed to ΔPpit of 3 MPa resulted in a rapid decline in whole plant transpiration followed by leaf wilting and eventual plant death, showing that this species lacks the ability to recover from induced embolism. A survey that measured the effect of air-pressurization treatments on seven other species showed that some species are very sensitive to induction of embolism resulting in leaf wilting and branch death while others show minimal to no effect despite that in each case, the applied ΔPpit of 5.5 MPa significantly exceeded any native stress that these plants would experience naturally. PMID:24069025
Melcher, Peter J; Zwieniecki, Maciej A
The goal of this study was to assess the effect of induced embolism with air injection treatments on the function of xylem in Acer rubrum L. and Salix nigra Marsh. Measurements made on mature trees of A. rubrum showed that pneumatic pressurization treatments that created a pressure gradient of 5.5 MPa across pit membranes (ΔP pit) had no effect on stomatal conductance or on branch-level sap flow. The same air injection treatments made on 3-year-old potted A. rubrum plants also had no effect on whole plant transpiration. A separate study made on mature A. rubrum trees showed that 3.0 and 5.5 MPa of ΔP pit values resulted in an immediate 100% loss in hydraulic conductance (PLC) in petioles. However, the observed change in PLC was short lived, and significant hydraulic recovery occurred within 5-10 min post air-pressurization treatments. Similar experiments conducted on S. nigra plants exposed to ΔP pit of 3 MPa resulted in a rapid decline in whole plant transpiration followed by leaf wilting and eventual plant death, showing that this species lacks the ability to recover from induced embolism. A survey that measured the effect of air-pressurization treatments on seven other species showed that some species are very sensitive to induction of embolism resulting in leaf wilting and branch death while others show minimal to no effect despite that in each case, the applied ΔP pit of 5.5 MPa significantly exceeded any native stress that these plants would experience naturally.
Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Adam H. Wiese; Edmund O. Bauer; Don E. Riemenschneider
Poplars are ideal for phytoremediation because of their high water usage, fast growth, and deep root systems. We measured in 2002 and 2003 the sapflow of hybrid poplars (Populus nigra L. x P. maximowiczii A. Henry 'NM6') planted in 1999 for phytoremediation of a landfill in Rhinelander, WI, USA (45.6?N, 89.4?W).
Louis Iverson; Kathleen S. Knight; Anantha Prasad; Daniel A. Herms; Stephen Matthews; Matthew Peters; Annemarie Smith; Diane M. Hartzler; Robert Long; John Almendinger
The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis; EAB) is causing widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) and climate change is altering habitats of tree species throughout large portions of North America. Black ash (F. nigra), a moist-soil species common in the Northwoods of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and...
Kyes, Randall C; Iskandar, Entang; Onibala, Jane; Paputungan, Umar; Laatung, Sylvia; Huettmann, Falk
The Sulawesi black macaque (Macaca nigra) population at Tangkoko Nature Reserve in North Sulawesi, Indonesia has been the focus of periodic study for over 30 years. The population has shown considerable decline during much of that time. Here we present the results of a long-term population survey of the Tangkoko M. nigra, conducted over the past decade, to provide updated information and on-going assessment of the population. Line-transect sampling was conducted annually from 1999 to 2002 and 2005 to 2011 along the same transect during a 2- to 3-week survey period. Although further decline in the population was observed at the outset of the survey, over the subsequent 12-year period we have seen stability in the population parameters with evidence of modest increases in both group and population density. During the 1999-2002 survey periods, there was a mean group density of 3.6 groups/km(2) and a mean population density of 39.8 individuals/km(2) . During 2005-2011, mean group density increased to 3.8 groups/km(2) and mean population density was 51.4 individuals/km(2) . The 2011 survey data indicated an estimated group density of 4.3 groups/km(2) and a population density of 61.5 individuals/km(2) . Given that our transect was located in the core of the Tangkoko reserve, our density estimates should be limited to that area of the reserve. One explanation for the apparent stabilization of the population may be tied to the increasing and sustained number of training and research programs being conducted at the reserve. This collective effort by local and international groups may be helping to reduce illegal activity in the reserve (i.e., hunting and habitat destruction) and generate greater awareness of this critically endangered species. Without the continued vigilance afforded by the existing research and training programs and the support and involvement of the local people, the M. nigra at the Tangkoko Nature Reserve will likely face further decline. © 2012 Wiley
Nsimba-Lubaki, Makuta; Peumans, Willy J.
Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) agglutinins, which are abundantly present in the bark of both species, display seasonal fluctuations with regard to their content in this tissue. These seasonal changes result apparently from a circa-annual rhythm of lectin accumulation and depletion during autumn and spring, respectively. Because the bark of trees can be considered as a type of vegetative storage tissue, the results suggest that bark lectins behave as typical storage proteins. Images Fig. 4 PMID:16664696
Background The Brassica B genome is known to carry several important traits, yet there has been limited analyses of its underlying genome structure, especially in comparison to the closely related A and C genomes. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of Brassica nigra was developed and screened with 17 genes from a 222 kb region of A. thaliana that had been well characterised in both the Brassica A and C genomes. Results Fingerprinting of 483 apparently non-redundant clones defined physical contigs for the corresponding regions in B. nigra. The target region is duplicated in A. thaliana and six homologous contigs were found in B. nigra resulting from the whole genome triplication event shared by the Brassiceae tribe. BACs representative of each region were sequenced to elucidate the level of microscale rearrangements across the Brassica species divide. Conclusions Although the B genome species separated from the A/C lineage some 6 Mya, comparisons between the three paleopolyploid Brassica genomes revealed extensive conservation of gene content and sequence identity. The level of fractionation or gene loss varied across genomes and genomic regions; however, the greatest loss of genes was observed to be common to all three genomes. One large-scale chromosomal rearrangement differentiated the B genome suggesting such events could contribute to the lack of recombination observed between B genome species and those of the closely related A/C lineage. PMID:23586706
Espinosa, J; Madrigal, J; De La Cruz, A C; Guijarro, M; Jimenez, E; Hernando, C
Fire severity, defined as the magnitude of fire effects in an ecosystem, is a key factor to consider in planning management strategies for protecting forests against fire. Although prescribed burning has been used as a fuel reduction tool in forest ecosystems, it is quite limited in the Mediterranean region. Furthermore, little is known about how tree crowns are affected by prescribed underburning aimed at reducing fire severity in conifer stands. As part of an ongoing study to assess the effects of prescribed burning on the tree canopy, litterfall is currently being monitored in a network of experimental plots located in mixed (Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster) and pure (P. nigra) conifer stands in the Cuenca Mountains (Castilla La Mancha, Spain). A total of 12 study plots (30m×30m) were established in a completely randomized experimental design to determine the effect of burning, with 2 treatments: no burning (control) and burning (i.e. with three replicate plots for each treatment and site). Burning was conducted in May 2016. In each plot, 8 litterfall collectors were installed at regular intervals, according to international protocols (ICP Forests), and all biomass falling into the collectors is being monitored monthly. The specific objective of this study is to assess how prescribed burning affects the rate of generation of foliar and non-foliar litterfall biomass due to the fire. In addition, the Leaf Area Index was estimated before burning and one year later to verify possible changes in the structure of the stands. This information could be used to help minimize the negative impacts of prescribed underburning on litterfall. To our knowledge, this study represents the first attempt to evaluate the effect of prescribed burning on litterfall biomass in Europe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Neumann, Christof; Agil, Muhammad; Widdig, Anja; Engelhardt, Antje
Animal personalities, i.e. consistent differences in behavior across time and/or context, have received increased attention of behavioral biologists over the last years. Recent research shows that personalities represent traits on which natural and sexual selection work and which can have substantial fitness consequences. The aim of this study is to establish the personality structure of crested macaque (Macaca nigra) males as foundation for future studies on its adaptive value. We collected behavioral data through focal animal sampling and additionally conducted two sets of playback experiments. Results of a factor analysis on the behavioral data revealed a four factor structure with components we labeled Anxiety, Sociability, Connectedness and Aggressiveness. Results from the experiments revealed an additional and independent Boldness factor but the absence of Neophilia. Overall, this structure resembles other macaque and animal species with the exception of Connectedness, which might be a consequence of the species' tolerant social style. Our results thus not only form the basis for future studies on the adaptive value of personality in crested macaques but also contribute an important data point for investigating the evolution of personality structure from a comparative perspective by refining, for example, which personality factors characterized the last common ancestor of hominids and macaques. PMID:23940517
Kristine L. Pilgrim; William J. Zielinski; Fredrick V. Schlexer; Michael K. Schwartz
The mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa) is a primitive species of rodent, often considered a living fossil. The Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra) is an endangered subspecies that occurs in a very restricted range in northern California. Efforts to recover this taxon have been limited by the lack of knowledge on their demography, particularly sex and age...
Christopher E. Looney; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik; Robert A. Slesak
Fraxinus nigra Marsh. (black ash) wetland forests in northern Minnesota, USA, are threatened by the invasive insect, emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (EAB)). A potential management option is promoting regeneration of tree species that are not EAB hosts to maintain ecosystem functions. Using an operational-scale...
Jang, Jin Young; Jang, Miae; Kim, Shin Hye; Um, Ki Bum; Kang, Yun Kyung; Kim, Hyun Jin; Chung, Sungkwon; Park, Myoung Kyu
Dopamine (DA) receptors generate many cellular signals and play various roles in locomotion, motivation, hormone production, and drug abuse. According to the location and expression types of the receptors in the brain, DA signals act in either stimulatory or inhibitory manners. Although DA autoreceptors in the substantia nigra pars compacta are known to regulate firing activity, the exact expression patterns and roles of DA autoreceptor types on the firing activity are highly debated. Therefore, we performed individual correlation studies between firing activity and receptor expression patterns using acutely isolated rat substantia nigra pars compacta DA neurons. When we performed single-cell RT-PCR experiments, D(1), D(2)S, D(2)L, D(3), and D(5) receptor mRNA were heterogeneously expressed in the order of D(2)L > D(2)S > D(3) > D(5) > D(1). Stimulation of D(2) receptors with quinpirole suppressed spontaneous firing similarly among all neurons expressing mRNA solely for D(2)S, D(2)L, or D(3) receptors. However, quinpirole most strongly suppressed spontaneous firing in the neurons expressing mRNA for both D(2) and D(3) receptors. These data suggest that D(2) S, D(2)L, and D(3) receptors are able to equally suppress firing activity, but that D(2) and D(3) receptors synergistically suppress firing. This diversity in DA autoreceptors could explain the various actions of DA in the brain. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.
Whyte, Michael P; Griffith, Malachi; Trani, Lee; Mumm, Steven; Gottesman, Gary S; McAlister, William H; Krysiak, Kilannin; Lesurf, Robert; Skidmore, Zachary L; Campbell, Katie M; Rosman, Ilana S; Bayliss, Susan; Bijanki, Vinieth N; Nenninger, Angela; Van Tine, Brian A; Griffith, Obi L; Mardis, Elaine R
Melorheostosis (MEL) is the rare sporadic dysostosis characterized by monostotic or polyostotic osteosclerosis and hyperostosis often distributed in a sclerotomal pattern. The prevailing hypothesis for MEL invokes postzygotic mosaicism. Sometimes scleroderma-like skin changes, considered a representation of the pathogenetic process of MEL, overlie the bony changes, and sometimes MEL becomes malignant. Osteopoikilosis (OPK) is the autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia that features symmetrically distributed punctate osteosclerosis due to heterozygous loss-of-function mutation within LEMD3. Rarely, radiographic findings of MEL occur in OPK. However, germline mutation of LEMD3 does not explain sporadic MEL. To explore if mosaicism underlies MEL, we studied a boy with polyostotic MEL and characteristic overlying scleroderma-like skin, a few bony lesions consistent with OPK, and a large epidermal nevus known to usually harbor a HRAS, FGFR3, or PIK3CA gene mutation. Exome sequencing was performed to ~100× average read depth for his two dermatoses, two areas of normal skin, and peripheral blood leukocytes. As expected for non-malignant tissues, the patient's mutation burden in his normal skin and leukocytes was low. He, his mother, and his maternal grandfather carried a heterozygous, germline, in-frame, 24-base-pair deletion in LEMD3. Radiographs of the patient and his mother revealed bony foci consistent with OPK, but she showed no MEL. For the patient, somatic variant analysis, using four algorithms to compare all 20 possible pairwise combinations of his five DNA samples, identified only one high-confidence mutation, heterozygous KRAS Q61H (NM_033360.3:c.183A>C, NP_203524.1:p.Gln61His), in both his dermatoses but absent in his normal skin and blood. Thus, sparing our patient biopsy of his MEL bone, we identified a heterozygous somatic KRAS mutation in his scleroderma-like dermatosis considered a surrogate for MEL. This implicates postzygotic mosaicism of mutated KRAS
Viger, Maud; Smith, Hazel K.; Cohen, David; Dewoody, Jennifer; Trewin, Harriet; Steenackers, Marijke; Bastien, Catherine; Taylor, Gail
Summer droughts are likely to increase in frequency and intensity across Europe, yet long-lived trees may have a limited ability to tolerate drought. It is therefore critical that we improve our understanding of phenotypic plasticity to drought in natural populations for ecologically and economically important trees such as Populus nigra L. A common garden experiment was conducted using ∼500 wild P. nigra trees, collected from 11 river populations across Europe. Phenotypic variation was found across the collection, with southern genotypes from Spain and France characterized by small leaves and limited biomass production. To examine the relationship between phenotypic variation and drought tolerance, six genotypes with contrasting leaf morphologies were subjected to a water deficit experiment. ‘North eastern’ genotypes were collected at wet sites and responded to water deficit with reduced biomass growth, slow stomatal closure and reduced water use efficiency (WUE) assessed by Δ13C. In contrast, ‘southern’ genotypes originating from arid sites showed rapid stomatal closure, improved WUE and limited leaf loss. Transcriptome analyses of a genotype from Spain (Sp2, originating from an arid site) and another from northern Italy (Ita, originating from a wet site) revealed dramatic differences in gene expression response to water deficit. Transcripts controlling leaf development and stomatal patterning, including SPCH, ANT, ER, AS1, AS2, PHB, CLV1, ERL1–3 and TMM, were down-regulated in Ita but not in Sp2 in response to drought. PMID:27174702
Zone, J J; Taylor, T B; Kadunce, D P; Meyer, L J
Linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD) is a rare blistering skin disease characterized by basement membrane zone deposition of IgA. This study identifies a tissue antigen detected by patient serum and then isolates the autoantibody using epidermis and protein bands blotted on nitrocellulose as immunoabsorbents. Sera from 10 patients (9 with cutaneous disease and 1 with cicatrizing conjunctivitis) were evaluated. Indirect immunofluorescence revealed an IgA anti-basement membrane antibody in 6 of 10 sera with monkey esophagus substrate and 9 of 10 sera with human epidermal substrate. Immunoblotting was performed on epidermal and dermal extracts prepared from skin separated at the basement membrane zone with either sodium chloride or EDTA. Saline-separated skin expressed a 97-kD band in dermal extract alone that was recognized by 4 of 10 sera. EDTA-separated skin expressed the 97-kD band in both epidermal (4 of 10 sera) and dermal (6 of 10 sera) extract. Immunoabsorption of positive sera with epidermis purified an IgA antibody that reacted uniquely with the 97-kD band. In addition, IgA antibody bound to nitrocellulose was eluted from the 97-kD band and found to uniquely bind basement membrane zone. It is likely that the 97-kD protein identified by these techniques is responsible for basement membrane binding of IgA in LABD. Images PMID:2107211
Kask, Kaia; Kännaste, Astrid; Talts, Eero; Copolovici, Lucian; Niinemets, Ülo
Brassicales release volatile glucosinolate breakdown products upon tissue mechanical damage, but it is unclear how the release of glucosinolate volatiles responds to abiotic stresses such as heat stress. We used three different heat treatments, simulating different dynamic temperature conditions in the field to gain insight into stress-dependent changes in volatile blends and photosynthetic characteristics in the annual herb Brassica nigra (L.) Koch. Heat stress was applied by either heating leaves through temperature response curve measurements from 20 to 40 °C (mild stress), exposing plants for 4 h to temperatures 25-44 °C (long-term stress) or shock-heating leaves to 45-50 °C. Photosynthetic reduction through temperature response curves was associated with decreased stomatal conductance, while the reduction due to long-term stress and collapse of photosynthetic activity after heat shock stress were associated with non-stomatal processes. Mild stress decreased constitutive monoterpene emissions, while long-term stress and shock stress resulted in emissions of the lipoxygenase pathway and glucosinolate volatiles. Glucosinolate volatile release was more strongly elicited by long-term stress and lipoxygenase product released by heat shock. These results demonstrate that glucosinolate volatiles constitute a major part of emission blend in heat-stressed B. nigra plants, especially upon chronic stress that leads to induction responses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zelová, Hana; Hanáková, Zuzana; Čermáková, Zuzana; Šmejkal, Karel; Dalĺ Acqua, Stefano; Babula, Petr; Cvačka, Josef; Hošek, Jan
Chromatographic separation of root extracts of Morus alba and M. nigra led to the identification of the 2-arylbenzofurans moracin C (1), mulberrofuran Y (2), and mulberrofuran H (3), and the prenylated flavonoids kuwanon E (4), kuwanon C (5), sanggenon H (6), cudraflavone B (7), and morusinol (8), and the Diels-Alder adducts soroceal (9), and sanggenon E (10). The cytotoxicity and their antiphlogistic activity, determined as the attenuation of the secretion of TNF-α and IL-1β and the inhibition of NF-κB nuclear translocation in LPS-stimulated macrophages, were evaluated for compounds 1-10.
Ghosh, Sudipta; Rangan, Latha
Current approach against type 2 diabetes involves α-glucosidase inhibitors like acarbose associated with many side effects. Therefore, as an alternative to the existing drug, many natural products mainly from plant sources have been investigated which inhibit α-glucosidase. Here, we have selected medicinally important Alpinia nigra to explore its α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Organic extracts of seeds and two purified natural diterpenes I: (E)-labda-8(17), 12-diene-15, 16-dial and II: (E)-8β, 17-epoxylabd-12-ene-15, 16-dial from A. nigra were investigated towards inhibition of α-glucosidase activity. Dose-dependent inhibition pattern were observed for seed extracts and both the compounds. Further, inhibition kinetics studies of the diterpenes indicated a non-competitive type of inhibition against α-glucosidase. Docking studies were carried out which revealed that both the diterpenes interacted within the active site of N-terminal and C-terminal domain of human maltase-glucoamylase enzyme, respectively. This is the first report of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of these isolated diterpenes and their higher inhibitory potential than any terpenoids studied till date against α-glucosidase.
Zhonglian Huang; Priyanka Surana; Daisuke Kihara; Richard Meilan; Keith Woeste
The economic value of a black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) tree is strongly determined by the quality and quantity of darkly colored heartwood in its stem. To understand the regulation of heartwood formation, we analyzed the region of heartwood formation in walnut stems (i.e., the transition zone, TZ) for the expression of 80 ESTs. Semi-quantitative...
KaDonna Randolph; Anita Rose; Christopher Oswalt; Mark Brown
Juglans nigra (black walnut) is widely distributed throughout the US eastern forest, with high concentrations occurring in Missouri and the Ohio and Tennessee River basins. It is an extremely desirable tree for wildlife forage and timber production on forest land, and for shade, aesthetics, and wildlife forage in urban areas. Current (2009â2010)...
McBain, M C; Warland, J S; McBride, R A; Wagner-Riddle, C
The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not young hybrid poplar (Populus deltoides x Populus nigra) could transport landfill biogas internally from the root zone to the atmosphere, thereby acting as conduits for landfill gas release. Fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from the seedlings to the atmosphere were measured under controlled conditions using dynamic flux chambers and a tunable diode laser trace gas analyser (TDLTGA). Nitrous oxide was emitted from the seedlings, but only when extremely high soil N2O concentrations were applied to the root zone. In contrast, no detectable emissions of CH4 were measured in a similar experimental trial. Visible plant morphological responses, characteristic of flood-tolerant trees attempting to cope with the negative effects of soil hypoxia, were observed during the CH4 experiments. Leaf chlorosis, leaf abscission and adventitious roots were all visible plant responses. In addition, seedling survival was observed to be highest in the biogas 'hot spot' areas of a local municipal solid waste landfill involved in this study. Based on the available literature, these observations suggest that CH4 can be transported internally by Populus deltoides x Populus nigra seedlings in trace amounts, although future research is required to fully test this hypothesis.
K.F. Connor; F.T. Bonner; J.A Vozzo
Investigations into the nature of desiccation-sensitive, or recalcitrant, seed behavior have as yet failed to identify exact causes of this phenomenon. Experiments with Quercus nigra L. and Quercus alba L. were conducted to examine physiological and biochemical changes brought about by seed desiccation and to determine if there...
Ghanbari, Ahmad Ali; Shabani, Kobra; Mohammad Nejad, Daryoush
Introduction: Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can influence the biological system by the formation of free radicals in cells. The EMFs are able to deteriorate defense system against free radicals that leads to oxidative stress (OS). Lipid peroxidation process (LPO) is an index of oxidative stress, and the Malandialdehyde (MDA) is the final product of LPO. Vitamin E is the most important antioxidant which inhibits the LPO process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 3MT EMF exposure on oxidative stress parameters in substantia nigra and the role of vitamin E in reducing oxidative stress and preventing of LPO process. Methods: 40 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: 1) Control group: received standard food without exposure to EMF and without consumption of vitamin E, 2) Experimental group 1: was exposed to EMF (3MT) 4 h/day for 50 days, 3) The experimental group 2: received 200 mg/kg vitamin E with gavage every day and also was exposed to EMF (3MT) 4 h/day for 50 days, 4) Sham group: received water with gavage for 50 days. Results: A significant increase in MDA levels and Glutation peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity of the substantia nigra following 50 days exposure to EMF was detected, but the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was decreased. Exposure did not change total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels in plasma. Vitamin E treatment significantly prevented the increase of the MDA levels and GSHPx activity and also prevented the decrease of SOD activity in tissue but did not alter TAC levels. The GSH-Px activity increased because the duration and intensity of exposure were not enough to decrease it. Conclusion: We demonstrated two important findings; that 50 days exposure to 3 MT electromagnetic field caused oxidative stress by increasing the levels of MDA, and decreasing SOD activity in the substantia nigra; and that treatment with the vitamin E significantly prevented the oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. PMID:27872692
Ghanbari, Ahmad Ali; Shabani, Kobra; Mohammad Nejad, Daryoush
Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can influence the biological system by the formation of free radicals in cells. The EMFs are able to deteriorate defense system against free radicals that leads to oxidative stress (OS). Lipid peroxidation process (LPO) is an index of oxidative stress, and the Malandialdehyde (MDA) is the final product of LPO. Vitamin E is the most important antioxidant which inhibits the LPO process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 3MT EMF exposure on oxidative stress parameters in substantia nigra and the role of vitamin E in reducing oxidative stress and preventing of LPO process. 40 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: 1) Control group: received standard food without exposure to EMF and without consumption of vitamin E, 2) Experimental group 1: was exposed to EMF (3MT) 4 h/day for 50 days, 3) The experimental group 2: received 200 mg/kg vitamin E with gavage every day and also was exposed to EMF (3MT) 4 h/day for 50 days, 4) Sham group: received water with gavage for 50 days. A significant increase in MDA levels and Glutation peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity of the substantia nigra following 50 days exposure to EMF was detected, but the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was decreased. Exposure did not change total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels in plasma. Vitamin E treatment significantly prevented the increase of the MDA levels and GSHPx activity and also prevented the decrease of SOD activity in tissue but did not alter TAC levels. The GSH-Px activity increased because the duration and intensity of exposure were not enough to decrease it. We demonstrated two important findings; that 50 days exposure to 3 MT electromagnetic field caused oxidative stress by increasing the levels of MDA, and decreasing SOD activity in the substantia nigra; and that treatment with the vitamin E significantly prevented the oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation.
Zhou, F C; Chiang, Y H; Wang, Y
The physical repair and restoration of a completely damaged pathway in the brain has not been achieved previously. In a previous study, using excitatory amino acid bridging and fetal neural transplantation, we demonstrated that a bridged mesencephalic transplant in the substantia nigra generated an artificial nerve pathway that reinnervated the striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats. In the current study, we report that a bridged mesencephalic transplant can anatomically, neurochemically, and functionally reinstate the 6-OHDA-eradicated nigro-striatal pathway. An excitatory amino acid, kainic acid, laid down in a track during the transplant generated a trophic environment that effectively guided the robust growth of transplanted neuronal fibers in a bundle to innervate the distal striatum. Growth occurred at the remarkable speed of approximately 200 microm/d. Two separate and distinct types of dopamine (DA) innervation from the transplant have been achieved for the first time: (1) DA innervation of the striatum, and (2) DA innervation of the pars reticularis of the substantia nigra. In addition, neuronal tracing revealed that reciprocal connections were achieved. The grafted DA neurons in the SNr innervated the host's striatum, whereas the host's striatal neurons, in turn, innervated the graft within 3-8 weeks. Electrochemical volt- ammetry recording revealed the restoration of DA release and clearance in a broad striatal area associated with the DA reinnervation. Furthermore, the amphetamine-induced rotation was attenuated, which indicates that the artificial pathways were motor functional. This study provides additional evidences that our bridged transplantation technique is a potential means for the repair of a completely damaged neuronal pathway.
Roy, A; Mondal, S; Kordower, J H; Pahan, K
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Despite intense investigations, little is known about its pathological mediators. Here, we report the marked upregulation of RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) and eotaxin, chemokines that are involved in T cell trafficking, in the serum of hemiparkinsonian monkeys. Interestingly, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), a Parkinsonian toxin, increased the expression of RANTES and eotaxin in mouse microglial cells. The presence of NF-κB binding sites in promoters of RANTES and eotaxin and down-regulation of these genes by NEMO-binding domain (NBD) peptide, selective inhibitor of induced NF-κB activation, in MPP(+)-stimulated microglial cells suggest that the activation of NF-κB plays an important role in the upregulation of these two chemokines. Consistently, serum enzyme-linked immuno assay (ELISA) and nigral immunohistochemistry further confirmed that these chemokines were strongly upregulated in MPTP-induced hemiparkinsonian monkeys and that treatment with NBD peptides effectively inhibited the level of these chemokines. Furthermore, the microglial upregulation of RANTES in the nigra of hemiparkinsonian monkeys could be involved in the altered adaptive immune response in the brain as we observed greater infiltration of CD8(+) T cells around the perivascular niche and deep brain parenchyma of hemiparkinsonian monkeys as compared to control. The treatment of hemiparkinsonian monkeys with NBD peptides decreased the microglial expression of RANTES and attenuated the infiltration of CD8(+) T cells in nigra. These results indicate the possible involvement of chemokine-dependent adaptive immune response in Parkinsonism. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kryzhanovskiĭ, G N; Shandra, A A; Godlevskiĭ, L S; Mazarati, A M; Nguyen, T T
It was shown in the experiments on rats that the repeated picrotoxin administration resulted in the kindling of generalized seizures. Generalized convulsions were followed by the development of either postictal depression or explosiveness. The injection of mu-opiate agonist met-enkephalin into hippocampus of kindled rats resulted in the increase in the severity of seizure reactions which were induced by picrotoxin and also in the increase in the number of animals with postictal explosiveness. The injection of dynorphin-A-1-13 (kappa-opiate agonist) into substantia nigra reticulata induced the locomotor depression which was like one in postictal period and resulted in the decrease of picrotoxin-induced seizures severity. It was concluded that mu-opiate system of hippocampus took part in the formation of generator of pathologically enhanced excitation in the structure during kindling and the development of seizure syndrome, providing also the postictal explosiveness. Kappa-opiate system of substantia nigra plays an important role in the activation of the antiepileptic system, limitation of seizures and the development of postictal depression.
Rosenthal, D; LeBoit, P E; Klumpp, L; Berger, T G
We studied 13 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and a chronic pruritic folliculitis that was unresponsive to systemic treatment with bactericidal anti-staphylococcal antibiotics. The skin eruption was characterized by multiple urticarial follicular papules scattered on the trunk (100%), the head and neck (85%), and the proximal aspect of the extremities (62%). Absolute peripheral eosinophil counts were increased in six of 13 patients; a relative peripheral eosinophilia was present in 10 of 13 patients. Serum IgE levels were elevated in all seven patients tested (range, 88 to 9050 IU). Histopathologic features included a folliculitis with eosinophils. Pathogenic bacteria were not consistently found by routine bacterial skin cultures, cultures of skin biopsy specimens, or histopathologic evaluation. CD4 counts were decreased in all of the 12 patients tested (less than 300 cells per cubic millimeter) and were below 250 cells per cubic millimeter in 10 patients. A clinical response was noted to astemizole, to ultraviolet light in the B range, and to topical clobetasol propionate. These observations demonstrate that HIV-associated eosinophilic folliculitis is a unique HIV-related cutaneous disorder that is characterized by a culture-negative, chronic, pruritic folliculitis and a characteristic histopathologic picture. Of special importance, because it is associated with CD4 counts of less than 250 to 300 cells per cubic millimeter, eosinophilic folliculitis appears to be an important clinical marker of HIV infection and, particularly, of patients at increased risk of developing opportunistic infections. We suggest that the term eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (Ofuji's disease), previously used to describe this dermatosis in HIV-infected patients, should be discarded.
Gottlieb, J; Ingen-Housz-Oro, S; Alexandre, M; Grootenboer-Mignot, S; Aucouturier, F; Sbidian, E; Tancrede, E; Schneider, P; Regnier, E; Picard-Dahan, C; Begon, E; Pauwels, C; Cury, K; Hüe, S; Bernardeschi, C; Ortonne, N; Caux, F; Wolkenstein, P; Chosidow, O; Prost-Squarcioni, C
Linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD) is a clinically and immunologically heterogeneous, subepidermal, autoimmune bullous disease (AIBD), for which the long-term evolution is poorly described. To investigate the clinical and immunological characteristics, follow-up and prognostic factors of adult idiopathic LABD. This retrospective study, conducted in our AIBD referral centre, included adults, diagnosed between 1995 and 2012, with idiopathic LABD, defined as pure or predominant IgA deposits by direct immunofluorescence. Clinical, histological and immunological findings were collected from charts. Standard histology was systematically reviewed, and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on salt-split skin (SSS) and immunoblots (IBs) on amniotic membrane extracts using anti-IgA secondary antibodies were performed, when biopsies and sera obtained at diagnosis were available. Prognostic factors for complete remission (CR) were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 72 patients included (median age 54 years), 60% had mucous membrane (MM) involvement. IgA IIF on SSS was positive for 21 of 35 patients tested; 15 had epidermal and dermal labellings. Immunoelectron microscopy performed on the biopsies of 31 patients labelled lamina lucida (LL) (26%), lamina densa (23%), anchoring-fibril zone (AFz) (19%) and LL+AFz (23%). Of the 34 IgA IBs, 22 were positive, mostly for LAD-1/LABD97 (44%) and full-length BP180 (33%). The median follow-up was 39 months. Overall, 24 patients (36%) achieved sustained CR, 19 (29%) relapsed and 35% had chronic disease. CR was significantly associated with age > 70 years or no MM involvement. No prognostic immunological factor was identified. Patients with LABD who are < 70 years old and have MM involvement are at risk for chronic evolution. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.
Legionnet; Muranty; Lefevre
Partial resistance of Populus nigra L. to three races of the foliar rust Melampsora larici-populina Kleb. was studied in a field trial and in laboratory tests, using a collection of P. nigra originating from different places throughout France. No total resistance was found. The partial resistance was split into epidemiological components, which proved to be under genetic control. Various patterns of association of epidemiological components values were found. Principal components analysis revealed their relationships. Only 24% of the variance of the field susceptibility could be explained by the variation of the epidemiological components of susceptibility. This variable was significantly correlated with susceptibility to the most ancient and widespread race of the pathogen, and with the variables related to the size of the lesions of the different races. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in susceptibility between regions and between stands within one region. Up to 20% of variation was between regions, and up to 22% between stands, so that these genetic factors appeared to be more differentiated than the neutral diversity (up to 3.5% Legionnet & Lefevre, 1996). However, no clear pattern of geographical distribution of diversity was detected.
Guet, Justine; Fabbrini, Francesco; Fichot, Régis; Sabatti, Maurizio; Bastien, Catherine; Brignolas, Franck
To buffer against the high spatial and temporal heterogeneity of the riparian habitat, riparian tree species, such as black poplar (Populus nigra L.), may display a high level of genetic variation and phenotypic plasticity for functional traits. Using a multisite common garden experiment, we estimated the relative contribution of genetic and environmental effects on the phenotypic variation expressed for individual leaf area, leaf shape, leaf structure and leaf carbon isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C) in natural populations of black poplar. Twenty-four to 62 genotypes were sampled in nine metapopulations covering a latitudinal range from 48 °N to 42 °N in France and in Italy and grown in two common gardens at Orléans (ORL) and at Savigliano (SAV). In the two common gardens, substantial genetic variation was expressed for leaf traits within all metapopulations, but its expression was modulated by the environment, as attested by the genotype × environment (G × E) interaction variance being comparable to or even greater than genetic effects. For LA, G × E interactions were explained by both changes in genotype ranking between common gardens and increased variation in SAV, while these interactions were mainly attributed to changes in genotype ranking for Δ(13)C. The nine P. nigra metapopulations were highly differentiated for LA, as attested by the high coefficient of genetic differentiation (QST = 0.50 at ORL and 0.51 at SAV), and the pattern of metapopulation differentiation was highly conserved between the two common gardens. In contrast, they were moderately differentiated for Δ(13)C (QST = 0.24 at ORL and 0.25 at SAV) and the metapopulation clustering changed significantly between common gardens. Our results evidenced that the nine P. nigra metapopulations present substantial genetic variation and phenotypic plasticity for leaf traits, which both represent potentially significant determinants of populations' capacities to respond, on a short-term basis and
Allaire K. Diamond; Marla R. Emery
Fraxinus nigra Marsh. is a small, relatively uncommon tree with large social significance. Known as black ash or brown ash, it rarely exceeds 18 meters (60 feet) in height or 30-50 centimeters (12-20 inches) in diameter. In the U.S. states where the species occurs, its percentage of forest composition ranges from 0.01% in Kentucky to 6.00% in...
Zhang, Yu; Larcher, Kevin Michel-Herve; Misic, Bratislav
We investigated the anatomical and functional organization of the human substantia nigra (SN) using diffusion and functional MRI data from the Human Connectome Project. We identified a tripartite connectivity-based parcellation of SN with a limbic, cognitive, motor arrangement. The medial SN connects with limbic striatal and cortical regions and encodes value (greater response to monetary wins than losses during fMRI), while the ventral SN connects with associative regions of cortex and striatum and encodes salience (equal response to wins and losses). The lateral SN connects with somatomotor regions of striatum and cortex and also encodes salience. Behavioral measures from delay discounting and flanker tasks supported a role for the value-coding medial SN network in decisional impulsivity, while the salience-coding ventral SN network was associated with motor impulsivity. In sum, there is anatomical and functional heterogeneity of human SN, which underpins value versus salience coding, and impulsive choice versus impulsive action. PMID:28826495
Topographic and functional neuroanatomical study of GABAergic disinhibitory striatum-nigral inputs and inhibitory nigrocollicular pathways: neural hodology recruiting the substantia nigra, pars reticulata, for the modulation of the neural activity in the inferior colliculus involved with panic-like emotions.
Castellan-Baldan, Lissandra; da Costa Kawasaki, Mateus; Ribeiro, Sandro José; Calvo, Fabrício; Corrêa, Vani Maria Alves; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne
Considering the influence of the substantia nigra on mesencephalic neurons involved with fear-induced reactions organized in rostral aspects of the dorsal midbrain, the present work investigated the topographical and functional neuroanatomy of similar influence on caudal division of the corpora quadrigemina, addressing: (a) the neural hodology connecting the neostriatum, the substantia nigra, periaqueductal gray matter and inferior colliculus (IC) neural networks; (b) the influence of the inhibitory neostriatonigral-nigrocollicular GABAergic links on the control of the defensive behavior organized in the IC. The effects of the increase or decrease of activity of nigrocollicular inputs on defensive responses elicited by either electrical or chemical stimulation of the IC were also determined. Electrolytic or chemical lesions of the substantia nigra, pars reticulata (SNpr), decreased the freezing and escape behaviors thresholds elicited by electrical stimulation of the IC, and increased the behavioral responses evoked by the GABAA blockade in the same sites of the mesencephalic tectum (MT) electrically stimulated. These findings were corroborated by similar effects caused by microinjections of the GABAA-receptor agonist muscimol in the SNpr, followed by electrical and chemical stimulations of the IC. The GABAA blockade in the SNpr caused a significant increase in the defensive behavior thresholds elicited by electrical stimulation of the IC and a decrease in the mean incidence of panic-like responses induced by microinjections of bicuculline in the mesencephalic tectum (inferior colliculus). These findings suggest that the substantia nigra receives GABAergic inputs that modulate local and also inhibitory GABAergic outputs toward the IC. In fact, neurotracing experiments with fast blue and iontophoretic microinjections of biotinylated dextran amine either into the inferior colliculus or in the reticular division of the substantia nigra demonstrated a neural link
Figueredo, Kassia Caroline; Guex, Camille Gaube; Reginato, Fernanda Ziegler; Haas da Silva, Andreia Regina; Cassanego, Gabriela Buzatti; Lhamas, Cibele Lima; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Lopes, Gilberti Helena Hübscher; de Freitas Bauermann, Liliane
Morus nigra L. is a plant native to Asia, and well adapted to the Brazilian climate. It is popularly known as "amoreira preta", and is part of the National List of Plants of Interest to the Brazilian Unified Health System. It is used in folk medicine mainly to soften the effects of menopause, as anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and antihypertensive. However, information on safe doses and use is still precarious. To identify the chemical composition of the ethanolic extract of Morus nigra L. leaves (EEMN), as well as perform a toxicological study in male and female rats. The chemical composition of the extract was performed by HPLC/DAD. In the acute study, the dose administered was 2000 mg/kg, and signs of toxicity and mortality was observed. In the sub-acute study, the extract was administered at doses of 500, 750 and 1000mg/kg for 28 days. Behavioral changes, object recognition test, renal and hepatic tissue assessments, biochemical and hematological parameters were determined. The extract was administered orally to male and female rats in both studies. Quercetin and caffeic acid showed as major compounds in the extract. In the acute treatment, the extract was classified as safe (category 5), according to the protocol. In the subacute study, there was a decrease in AST in males (750 and 1000mg/kg) and females (1000mg/kg), reduction of total cholesterol in females (750 and 1000mg/kg), and increase in renal and hepatic change the LPO levels. The present investigation showed that EEMN did not present significant toxic effects when administered orally. Moreover, presented a potentially protective action of organs and possesses hypocholesterolemic activity, thus, it is shown as a promising natural source to be used in pharmacology. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Khaliq, Binish; Falke, Sven; Negm, Amr; Buck, Friedrich; Munawar, Aisha; Saqib, Maria; Mahmood, Seema; Ahmad, Malik Shoaib; Betzel, Christian; Akrem, Ahmed
Oilseeds of the plant family Brassicaceae are important for providing both lipid and protein contents to human nutrition. Cruciferins (12S globulins) are seed storage proteins, which are getting attention due to their allergenic and pathogenicity related nature. This study describes the purification and characterization of a trimeric (∼190 kDa) cruciferin protein from the seeds of Brassica nigra (L.). Cruciferin was first partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation (30% saturation constant) and further purified by size exclusion chromatography. The N-terminal amino-acid sequence analysis showed 82% sequence homology with cruciferin from Arabidopsis thaliana. The 50-55 kDa monomeric cruciferin produced multiple bands of two major molecular weight ranges (α-polypeptides of 28-32 kDa and β-polypeptides of 17-20 kDa) under reduced conditions of SDS-PAGE. The 2D gel electrophoretic analysis showed the further separation of the bands into their isoforms with major pI ranges between 5.7 and 8.0 (α-polypeptides) and 5.5-8.5 (β-polypeptides). The Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) showed the monodisperse nature of the cruciferin with hydrodynamic radius of 5.8 ± 0.1 nm confirming the trimeric nature of the protein. The Circular Dichroism (CD) spectra showed both α-helices and β-sheets in the native conformation of the trimeric protein. The pure cruciferin protein (40 mg/ml) was successfully crystallized; however, the crystals diffracted only to low resolution data (8 Å). Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) was applied to gain insights into the three-dimensional structure in solution. SAXS showed that the radius of gyration is 4.24 ± 0.25 nm and confirmed the nearly globular shape. The SAXS based ab initio dummy model of B. nigra cruciferin was compared with 11S globulins.
Pietta, P; Bruno, A; Mauri, P; Rava, A
Calendula officinalis and Sambucus nigra flowers were analysed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC). RP-HPLC was performed on C8 Aquapore RP 300 columns with eluents containing 2-propanol and tetrahydrofuran. MECC was carried out on a 72-cm fused-silica capillary using sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium borate (pH 8.3) as the running buffer. The results obtained by these techniques are compared.
Su, Lichao; Zhang, Baolin; Huang, Yinping; Zhang, Hao; Xu, Qin; Tan, Jie
The subcellular distributions of nanoparticles in the brain are important for their biological application. We synthesized and characterized the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) modified with poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) and polyethylenimine (PEI) (PEG/PEI-SPIONs), and with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) (DMPC-SPIONs). The nanoparticles were unilaterally injected into the left substantia nigra of rat brains. The distributions of the nanoparticles in the left brains of the rats were examined by ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) at 24h after the injection. Iron was found in the olfactory bulb, temporal lobe, frontal cortex, thalamus and brain stem at 24h after the injection of DMPC-SPIONs and PEG/PEI-SPIONs. In the rat substantia nigra, most DMPC-SPIONs were distributed in and on the myelin sheath around axons or on cell membranes, some were in cells. As a comparison, less iron was found in the rat brains at 24h after the injection of PEG/PEI-SPIONs. Our experiments suggest DMPC modification on SPIONs be a safe and effective method for increasing SPIONs distribution on the cell membranes. This work is encouraging for further study on using DMPC-SPIONs for efficient drug delivery or for deep brain stimulation of neurons in a magnetic field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Candel-Perez, David; Lucas-Borja, Manuel E; Tiscar, Pedro A; Viñegla, Benjamin; Linares, Juan C; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes; Ahrazem, Oussama
Eight Pinus nigra Arn. populations from Southern Spain and Northern Morocco were examined using inter-simple sequence repeat markers to characterize the genetic variability amongst populations. Pair-wise population genetic distance ranged from 0.031 to 0.283, with a mean of 0.150 between populations. The highest inter-population average distance was between PaCU from Cuenca and YeCA from Cazorla, while the lowest distance was between TaMO from Morocco and MA Sierra Mágina populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and Nei's genetic diversity analyses revealed higher genetic variation within the same population than among different populations. Genetic differentiation (Gst) was 0.233. Cuenca showed the highest Nei's genetic diversity followed by the Moroccan region, Sierra Mágina, and Cazorla region. However, clustering of populations was not in accordance with their geographical locations. Principal component analysis showed the presence of two major groups-Group 1 contained all populations from Cuenca while Group 2 contained populations from Cazorla, Sierra Mágina and Morocco-while Bayesian analysis revealed the presence of three clusters. The low genetic diversity observed in PaCU and YeCA is probably a consequence of inappropriate management since no estimation of genetic variability was performed before the silvicultural treatments. Data indicates that the inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) method is sufficiently informative and powerful to assess genetic variability among populations of P. nigra.
Farmer, Kyle; Smith, Catherine A.; Hayley, Shawn; Smith, Jeffrey
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting the nigrostriatal pathway, where patients do not manifest motor symptoms until >50% of neurons are lost. Thus, it is of great importance to determine early neuronal changes that may contribute to disease progression. Recent attention has focused on lipids and their role in pro- and anti-apoptotic processes. However, information regarding the lipid alterations in animal models of PD is lacking. In this study, we utilized high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) and novel HPLC solvent methodology to profile phosphatidylcholines and sphingolipids within the substantia nigra. The ipsilateral substantia nigra pars compacta was collected from rats 21 days after an infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), or vehicle into the anterior dorsal striatum. We identified 115 lipid species from their mass/charge ratio using the LMAPS Lipid MS Predict Database. Of these, 19 lipid species (from phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphotidylcholine lipid classes) were significantly altered by 6-OHDA, with most being down-regulated. The two lipid species that were up-regulated were LPC (16:0) and LPC (18:1), which are important for neuroinflammatory signalling. These findings provide a first step in the characterization of lipid changes in early stages of PD-like pathology and could provide novel targets for early interventions in PD. PMID:26274953
Piqué, Míriam; Domènech, Rut
Fuel treatments can mitigate present and future impacts of climate change by reducing fire intensity and severity. In recent years, Pinus nigra forests in the Mediterranean basin have been dramatically affected by the new risk of highly intense and extreme fires and its distribution area has been reduced. New tools are necessary for assessing the management of these forests so they can adapt to the challenges to come. Our main goal was to evaluate the effects of different fuel treatments on Mediterranean Pinus nigra forests. We assessed the forest response, in terms of forest structure and fire behavior, to different intensities of low thinning treatments followed by different slash prescriptions (resulting in: light thinning and lop and scatter; light thinning and burn; heavy thinning and lop and scatter; heavy thinning and burn; and, untreated control). Treatments that used fire to decrease the resulting slash were the most effective for reducing active crown fires decreasing the rate of spread and flame length more than 89%. Low thinning had an effect on torching potential, but there was no difference between intensities of thinning. Only an outcoming crown fire could spread actively if it was sustained by a high-enough constant wind speed and enough surface fuel load. Overall, treatments reduce fire intensity and treated areas have a more homogenous fire behavior response than untreated areas. This provides opportunities to extinguish the fire and reduce the probability of trees dying from the fire. It would be helpful to include ecological principles and fire behavior criteria in silvicultural treatment guidelines in order to perform more efficient management techniques in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Álvarez, Claudio Andrés; Barriga, Andrés; Albericio, Fernando; Romero, María Soledad; Guzmán, Fanny
The elder ( Sambucus spp.) tree has a number of uses in traditional medicine. Previous studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial properties of elderberry liquid extract against human pathogenic bacteria and also influenza viruses. These properties have been mainly attributed to phenolic compounds. However, other plant defense molecules, such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), may be present. Here, we studied peptide extracts from flowers of Sambucus nigra L. The mass spectrometry analyses determined peptides of 3 to 3.6 kDa, among them, cysteine-rich peptides were identified with antimicrobial activity against various Gram-negative bacteria, including recurrent pathogens of Chilean aquaculture. In addition, membrane blebbing on the bacterial surface after exposure to the cyclotide was visualized by SEM microscopy and SYTOX Green permeabilization assay showed the ability to disrupt the bacterial membrane. We postulate that these peptides exert their action by destroying the bacterial membrane.
Mendez, Ivar; Sanchez-Pernaute, Rosario; Cooper, Oliver; Viñuela, Angel; Ferrari, Daniela; Björklund, Lars; Dagher, Alain; Isacson, Ole
We report the first post-mortem analysis of two patients with Parkinson’s disease who received fetal midbrain transplants as a cell suspension in the striatum, and in one case also in the substantia nigra. These patients had a favourable clinical evolution and positive 18F-fluorodopa PET scans and did not develop motor complications. The surviving transplanted dopamine neurons were positively identified with phenotypic markers of normal control human substantia nigra (n = 3), such as tyrosine hydroxylase, G-protein-coupled inward rectifying current potassium channel type 2 (Girk2) and calbindin. The grafts restored the cell type that provides specific dopaminergic innervation to the most affected striatal regions in the parkinsonian brain. Such transplants were able to densely reinnervate the host putamen with new dopamine fibres. The patients received only 6 months of standard immune suppression, yet by post-mortem analysis 3–4 years after surgery the transplants appeared only mildly immunogenic to the host brain, by analysis of microglial CD45 and CD68 markers. This study demonstrates that, using these methods, dopamine neuronal replacement cell therapy can be beneficial for patients with advanced disease, and that changing technical approaches could have a favourable impact on efficacy and adverse events following neural transplantation. PMID:15872020
Hack, Nawaz; Jicha, Gregory A; Abell, Annalisa; Dean, Dawson; Vitek, Jerrold L; Berger, Joseph R
Parkinsonism has occasionally been reported as a consequence of infectious diseases. The present study examines the clinical and pathological correlates of parkinsonism across birth cohorts in relation to critical exposure to the encephalitis lethargica epidemic in the early 1900s. The study population consisted of 678 participants in the Nun Study, of whom 432 died and came to autopsy. Qualitative indices of substantia nigra (SN) depigmentation were verified in a subset of 40 randomly selected subjects using quantitative stereological techniques. SN depigmentation, detected neuropathologically, was correlated with clinical parameters of Parkinson disease, age, and birth cohort. SN depigmentation was detected in 57 (13.2%) of the cohort. Although qualitative SN depigmentation correlated modestly with age (p = 0.02), it correlated best with birth cohort (p = 0.009) for women born in the years 1895-1899. Quantitative measures of SN depigmentation were increased in this birth cohort compared to age matched subjects from flanking birth cohorts 1890-1894 and 1900-1904 (p < 0.001). SN depigmentation correlated with speed of 6- and 50-foot walk (p < 0.0001), up and go test (p < 0.0001), and hand coordination (p < 0.0001). Subjects in the birth cohort 1895-1899 would have been in their late teens and 20s at the onset and during the peak of the encephalitis lethargica epidemic. These were precisely the age ranges of persons who were most often affected by the illness. These data suggest the possibility that the coexistence of parkinsonism and SN depigmentation in this birth cohort may have resulted from the yet undetermined infectious agent responsible for encephalitis lethargica. Copyright © 2012 American Neurological Association.
Kumar, Manoj; Sharma, Sunil; Vasudeva, Neeru
This study was made to investigate the antihyperglycemic and antioxidant potential of oil of seeds of Brassica nigra (BNO) in streptozotocin -nicotinamide (STZ) induced type 2 diabetic rats. BNO was orally administered to diabetic rats to study its effect in both acute and chronic antihyperglycemic study. The body weight, oral glucose tolerance test and biochemical parameters viz. glucose level, insulin level, liver glycogen content, glycosylated hemoglobin and antioxidant parameters were estimated for all treated groups and compared against diabetic control group. Administration of BNO at a dose 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg body weight p.o. to STZ diabetic rats showed reduction in blood glucose level from 335 mg/dl to 280 mg/dl at 4th h and from 330 mg/dl to 265 mg/dl respectively which was found significant (p<0.01) as compared with diabetic control. BNO (500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg) and glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg) in respective groups of diabetic animals administered for 28 days reduced the blood glucose level in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. There was significant increase in body weight, liver glycogen content, plasma insulin level and decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin in test groups as compared to control group. In vivo antioxidant studies on STZ-nicotinamide induced diabetic rat's revealed decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased reduced glutathione (GSH). Thus the results showed that the oil of seeds of Brassica nigra has significant antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity.
Andringa, G; van Oosten, R V; Unger, W; Hafmans, T G; Veening, J; Stoof, J C; Cools, A R
The ability of CGP 3466B to attenuate the behavioural and morphological consequences of experimentally induced cell death was investigated in a recently updated animal model of Parkinson's disease. 6-Hydroxydopamine was infused bilaterally into the substantia nigra pars compacta of rats that were pretreated with desimipramine. Treatment with CGP 3466B (0.0014-1.4 mg/kg, injected subcutaneously) or its solvent was begun 2 h after the 6-OHDA injection, and maintained twice daily for 14 days. After a washout period of 14 days, changes in motor behaviour were evaluated, using the open field test (analysis of normal and abnormal stepping, e.g.) and the paw test (analysis of retraction time of limbs). Changes in learning and memory were evaluated with the help of the Morris water maze task. Following immunocytochemical staining of tyrosine hydroxylase, the extent of the lesion was quantified using a computerized system. CGP 3466B prevented all deficits produced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), though at different doses. It prevented: abnormal stepping (0.0014-0.014 mg/kg); increased forelimb and hindlimb retraction time (0.014-0.14 mg/kg and 0.0014-0.14 mg/kg, respectively); delayed learning (1.4 mg/kg); and reduced tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra (0.0014-0.014 mg/kg). CGP 3466B (0.0014-0.14 mg/kg) induced no deficits in sham-treated rats. CGP 3466B (1.4 mg/kg), however, did not show any benefit on motor deficits in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, and induced abnormal movements and decreased the tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra pars compacta and the ventral tegmental area of sham-lesioned animals. It is concluded that CGP 3466B prevents all 6-OHDA-induced behavioural and immunocytochemical deficits, though at different doses. CGP 3466B is suggested to be a valuable agent for inhibiting the dopaminergic degeneration in patients with Parkinson's disease.
Sánchez-Salcedo, Eva M; Sendra, Esther; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Martínez, Juan José; Hernández, Francisca
This research has determined qualitatively and quantitatively the fatty acids composition of white (Morus alba) and black (Morus nigra) fruits grown in Spain, in 2013 and 2014. Four clones of each species were studied. Fourteen fatty acids were identified and quantified in mulberry fruits. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic (C18:2), palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), and stearic (C18:0) acids in both species. The main fatty acid in all clones was linoleic (C18:2), that ranged from 69.66% (MN2) to 78.02% (MA1) of the total fatty acid content; consequently Spanish mulberry fruits were found to be rich in linoleic acid, which is an essential fatty acid. The fatty acid composition of mulberries highlights the nutritional and health benefits of their consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chowdhury, Rumana; Lambert, Christian; Dolan, Raymond J.; Düzel, Emrah
Substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA) subregions, defined by dopaminergic projections to the striatum, are differentially affected by health (e.g. normal aging) and disease (e.g. Parkinson's disease). This may have an impact on reward processing which relies on dopaminergic regions and circuits. We acquired diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with probabilistic tractography in 30 healthy older adults to determine whether subregions of the SN/VTA could be delineated based on anatomical connectivity to the striatum. We found that a dorsomedial region of the SN/VTA preferentially connected to the ventral striatum whereas a more ventrolateral region connected to the dorsal striatum. These SN/VTA subregions could be characterised by differences in quantitative structural imaging parameters, suggesting different underlying tissue properties. We also observed that these connectivity patterns differentially mapped onto reward dependence personality trait. We show that tractography can be used to parcellate the SN/VTA into anatomically plausible and behaviourally meaningful compartments, an approach that may help future studies to provide a more fine-grained synopsis of pathological changes in the dopaminergic midbrain and their functional impact. PMID:23684858
Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Candel-Perez, David; Lucas-Borja, Manuel E.; Tiscar, Pedro A.; Viñegla, Benjamin; Linares, Juan C.; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes; Ahrazem, Oussama
Eight Pinus nigra Arn. populations from Southern Spain and Northern Morocco were examined using inter-simple sequence repeat markers to characterize the genetic variability amongst populations. Pair-wise population genetic distance ranged from 0.031 to 0.283, with a mean of 0.150 between populations. The highest inter-population average distance was between PaCU from Cuenca and YeCA from Cazorla, while the lowest distance was between TaMO from Morocco and MA Sierra Mágina populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and Nei’s genetic diversity analyses revealed higher genetic variation within the same population than among different populations. Genetic differentiation (Gst) was 0.233. Cuenca showed the highest Nei’s genetic diversity followed by the Moroccan region, Sierra Mágina, and Cazorla region. However, clustering of populations was not in accordance with their geographical locations. Principal component analysis showed the presence of two major groups—Group 1 contained all populations from Cuenca while Group 2 contained populations from Cazorla, Sierra Mágina and Morocco—while Bayesian analysis revealed the presence of three clusters. The low genetic diversity observed in PaCU and YeCA is probably a consequence of inappropriate management since no estimation of genetic variability was performed before the silvicultural treatments. Data indicates that the inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) method is sufficiently informative and powerful to assess genetic variability among populations of P. nigra. PMID:22754321
Abbott, Robert D; Ross, G Webster; Petrovitch, Helen; Masaki, Kamal H; Launer, Lenore J; Nelson, James S; White, Lon R; Tanner, Caroline M
To examine the relationship between midlife milk intake and Parkinson disease (PD) incidence through associations with substantia nigra (SN) neuron density and organochlorine pesticide exposure in decedent brains from the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. Milk intake data were collected from 1965 to 1968 in 449 men aged 45-68 years with postmortem examinations from 1992 to 2004. Neuron density (count/mm(2)) was measured in quadrants from a transverse section of the SN. Additional measures included brain residues of heptachlor epoxide, an organochlorine pesticide found at excessively high levels in the milk supply in Hawaii in the early 1980s. Neuron density was lowest in nonsmoking decedents who consumed high amounts of milk (>16 oz/d). After removing cases of PD and dementia with Lewy bodies, adjusted neuron density in all but the dorsomedial quadrant was 41.5% lower for milk intake >16 oz/d vs intake that was less (95% confidence interval 22.7%-55.7%, p < 0.001). Among those who drank the most milk, residues of heptachlor epoxide were found in 9 of 10 brains as compared to 63.4% (26/41) for those who consumed no milk (p = 0.017). For those who were ever smokers, an association between milk intake and neuron density was absent. Milk intake is associated with SN neuron loss in decedent brains unaffected by PD. Whether contamination of milk with organochlorine pesticides has a role in SN neurodegeneration warrants further study. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
Khaling, Eliezer; Papazian, Stefano; Poelman, Erik H; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Albrectsen, Benedicte R; Blande, James D
When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under elevated ozone conditions. The direct and indirect effects of ozone on the plant-herbivore system were studied. In both cases ozone exposure had a negative effect on P. brassicae development. However, in dual-choice tests larvae preferentially consumed plant material previously fumigated with the highest concentration tested, showing a lack of correlation between larval preference and performance on ozone exposed plants. Metabolomic analysis of leaf material subjected to combinations of ozone and herbivore-feeding, and focussing on known defence metabolites, indicated that P. brassicae behaviour and performance were associated with ozone-induced alterations to glucosinolate and phenolic pools. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wilson, Charles J.
Neurons in substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) are synaptically coupled by local axon collaterals, providing a potential mechanism for local signal processing. Because SNr neurons fire spontaneously, these synapses are constantly active. To investigate their properties, we recorded spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) from SNr neurons in brain slices, in which afferents from upstream nuclei are severed, and the cells fire rhythmically. The sIPSC trains contained a mixture of periodic and aperiodic events. Autocorrelation analysis of sIPSC trains showed that a majority of cells had one to four active unitary inputs. The properties of the unitary IPSCs (uIPSCs) were analyzed for cells with one unitary input, using a model of periodic presynaptic firing and stochastic synaptic transmission. The inferred presynaptic firing rates and coefficient of variation of interspike intervals (ISIs) corresponded well with direct measurements of spiking in SNr neurons. Methods were developed to estimate the success probability, amplitude distributions, and kinetics of the uIPSCs, while removing the contribution from aperiodic sIPSCs. The sIPSC amplitudes were not increased upon release from halorhodopsin silencing, suggesting that most synapses were not depressed at the spontaneous firing rate. Gramicidin perforated-patch recordings indicated that the average reversal potential of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic potentials was −64 mV. Because of the change in driving force across the ISI, the unitary inputs are predicted to have a larger postsynaptic impact when they arrive late in the ISI. Simulations of network activity suggest that this very sparse inhibitory coupling may act to desynchronize the activity of SNr neurons while having only a small effect on firing rate. PMID:26961101
Other Specified Inflammatory Disorders of Skin or Subcutaneous Tissue; Pyoderma Gangrenosum; Erosive Pustular Dermatosis of the Scalp; Sweet's Syndrome; Behcet's Disease; Bowel-associated Dermatosis-arthritis Syndrome; Pustular Psoriasis; Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis; Keratoderma Blenorrhagicum; Sneddon-Wilkinson Disease; IgA Pemphigus; Amicrobial Pustulosis of the Folds; Infantile Acropustulosis; Transient Neonatal Pustulosis; Neutrophilic Eccrine Hidradenitis; Rheumatoid Neutrophilic Dermatitis; Neutrophilic Urticaria; Still's Disease; Erythema Marginatum; Unclassified Periodic Fever Syndromes / Autoinflammatory Syndromes; Dermatitis Herpetiformis; Linear IgA Bullous Dermatosis; Bullous Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Inflammatory Epidermolysis Bullosa Aquisita; Neutrophilic Dermatosis of the Dorsal Hands (Pustular Vasculitis); Small Vessel Vasculitis Including Urticarial Vasculitis; Erythema Elevatum Diutinum; Medium Vessel Vasculitis
Dragicevic, Elena; Poetschke, Christina; Duda, Johanna; Schlaudraff, Falk; Lammel, Stephan; Schiemann, Julia; Fauler, Michael; Hetzel, Andrea; Watanabe, Masahiko; Lujan, Rafael; Malenka, Robert C.; Striessnig, Joerg
Dopamine midbrain neurons within the substantia nigra are particularly prone to degeneration in Parkinson’s disease. Their selective loss causes the major motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, but the causes for the high vulnerability of SN DA neurons, compared to neighbouring, more resistant ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons, are still unclear. Consequently, there is still no cure available for Parkinson’s disease. Current therapies compensate the progressive loss of dopamine by administering its precursor l-DOPA and/or dopamine D2-receptor agonists. D2-autoreceptors and Cav1.3-containing L-type Ca2+ channels both contribute to Parkinson’s disease pathology. L-type Ca2+ channel blockers protect SN DA neurons from degeneration in Parkinson’s disease and its mouse models, and they are in clinical trials for neuroprotective Parkinson’s disease therapy. However, their physiological functions in SN DA neurons remain unclear. D2-autoreceptors tune firing rates and dopamine release of SN DA neurons in a negative feedback loop through activation of G-protein coupled potassium channels (GIRK2, or KCNJ6). Mature SN DA neurons display prominent, non-desensitizing somatodendritic D2-autoreceptor responses that show pronounced desensitization in PARK-gene Parkinson’s disease mouse models. We analysed surviving human SN DA neurons from patients with Parkinson’s disease and from controls, and detected elevated messenger RNA levels of D2-autoreceptors and GIRK2 in Parkinson’s disease. By electrophysiological analysis of postnatal juvenile and adult mouse SN DA neurons in in vitro brain-slices, we observed that D2-autoreceptor desensitization is reduced with postnatal maturation. Furthermore, a transient high-dopamine state in vivo, caused by one injection of either l-DOPA or cocaine, induced adult-like, non-desensitizing D2-autoreceptor responses, selectively in juvenile SN DA neurons, but not ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. With pharmacological
Dragicevic, Elena; Poetschke, Christina; Duda, Johanna; Schlaudraff, Falk; Lammel, Stephan; Schiemann, Julia; Fauler, Michael; Hetzel, Andrea; Watanabe, Masahiko; Lujan, Rafael; Malenka, Robert C; Striessnig, Joerg; Liss, Birgit
Dopamine midbrain neurons within the substantia nigra are particularly prone to degeneration in Parkinson's disease. Their selective loss causes the major motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, but the causes for the high vulnerability of SN DA neurons, compared to neighbouring, more resistant ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons, are still unclear. Consequently, there is still no cure available for Parkinson's disease. Current therapies compensate the progressive loss of dopamine by administering its precursor l-DOPA and/or dopamine D2-receptor agonists. D2-autoreceptors and Cav1.3-containing L-type Ca(2+) channels both contribute to Parkinson's disease pathology. L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers protect SN DA neurons from degeneration in Parkinson's disease and its mouse models, and they are in clinical trials for neuroprotective Parkinson's disease therapy. However, their physiological functions in SN DA neurons remain unclear. D2-autoreceptors tune firing rates and dopamine release of SN DA neurons in a negative feedback loop through activation of G-protein coupled potassium channels (GIRK2, or KCNJ6). Mature SN DA neurons display prominent, non-desensitizing somatodendritic D2-autoreceptor responses that show pronounced desensitization in PARK-gene Parkinson's disease mouse models. We analysed surviving human SN DA neurons from patients with Parkinson's disease and from controls, and detected elevated messenger RNA levels of D2-autoreceptors and GIRK2 in Parkinson's disease. By electrophysiological analysis of postnatal juvenile and adult mouse SN DA neurons in in vitro brain-slices, we observed that D2-autoreceptor desensitization is reduced with postnatal maturation. Furthermore, a transient high-dopamine state in vivo, caused by one injection of either l-DOPA or cocaine, induced adult-like, non-desensitizing D2-autoreceptor responses, selectively in juvenile SN DA neurons, but not ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. With pharmacological and genetic
Samant, Suvidha; Huo, Tian; Dawson, Jeffrey O; Hahn, Dittmar
Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to assess the abundance and relative distribution of host infection groups of the root-nodule forming, nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia in four soils with similar physicochemical characteristics, two of which were vegetated with a host plant, Alnus glutinosa, and two with a non-host plant, Betula nigra. Analyses of DAPI-stained cells at three locations, i.e., at a distance of less than 1 m (near stem), 2.5 m (middle crown), and 3-5 m (crown edge) from the stems of both tree species revealed no statistically significant differences in abundance. Frankiae generally accounted for 0.01 to 0.04 % of these cells, with values between 4 and 36 × 10(5) cells (g soil)(-1). In three out of four soils, abundance of frankiae was significantly higher at locations "near stem" and/or "middle crown" compared to "crown edge," while numbers at these locations were not different in the fourth soil. Frankiae of the Alnus host infection group were dominant in all samples accounting for about 75 % and more of the cells, with no obvious differences with distance to stem. In three of the soils, all of these cells were represented by strain Ag45/Mut15. In the fourth soil that was vegetated with older A. glutinosa trees, about half of these cells belonged to a different subgroup represented by strain ArI3. In all soils, the remaining cells belonged to the Elaeagnus host infection group represented by strain EAN1pec. Casuarina-infective frankiae were not found. Abundance and relative distribution of Frankia host infection groups were similar in soils under the host plant A. glutinosa and the non-host plant B. nigra. Results did thus not reveal any specific effects of plant species on soil Frankia populations.
Ding, Chang-Jun; Liang, Li-Xiong; Diao, Shu; Su, Xiao-Hua; Zhang, Bing-Yu
DNA methylation is an important mechanism of epigenetic modification. Methylation changes during stress responses and developmental processes have been well studied; however, their role in plant adaptation to the day/night cycle is poorly understood. In this study, we detected global methylation patterns in leaves of the black poplar Populus nigra 'N46' at 8:00 and 24:00 by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeDIP-seq). We found 10,027 and 10,242 genes to be methylated in the 8:00 and 24:00 samples, respectively. The methylated genes appeared to be involved in multiple biological processes, molecular functions, and cellular components, suggesting important roles for DNA methylation in poplar cells. Comparing the 8:00 and 24:00 samples, only 440 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) overlapped with genic regions, including 193 hyper- and 247 hypo-methylated DMRs, and may influence the expression of 137 downstream genes. Most hyper-methylated genes were associated with transferase activity, kinase activity, and phosphotransferase activity, whereas most hypo-methylated genes were associated with protein binding, ATP binding, and adenyl ribonucleotide binding, suggesting that different biological processes were activated during the day and night. Our results indicated that methylated genes were prevalent in the poplar genome, but that only a few of these participated in diurnal gene expression regulation.
Li, Shuwen; Martin, Lili T.; Pezeshki, S. Reza; Shields, F. Douglas
Herbivory and flooding influence plant species composition and diversity in many wetland ecosystems. Black willow ( Salix nigra) naturally occurs in floodplains and riparian zones of the southeastern United States. Cuttings from this species are used as a bioengineering tool for streambank stabilization and habitat rehabilitation. The present study was conducted to evaluate the photosynthetic and growth responses of black willow to simulated herbivory and flooding. Potted cuttings were subjected to three levels of single-event herbivory: no herbivory (control), light herbivory, and heavy herbivory; and three levels of flooding conditions: no flooding (control), continuous flooding, and periodic flooding. Results indicated that elevated stomatal conductance partially contributed to the increased net photosynthesis noted under both levels of herbivory on day 30. However, chlorophyll content was not responsible for the observed compensatory photosynthesis. Cuttings subjected to heavy herbivory accumulated the lowest biomass even though they had the highest height growth by the conclusion of the experiment. In addition, a reduction in root/shoot ratio was noted for plants subjected to continuous flooding with no herbivory. However, continuously flooded, lightly clipped plants allocated more resources to roots than shoots. This study provides evidence that it is feasible to use black willow for habitat rehabilitation along highly eroded streambanks where both flooding and herbivory are present.
Micheletta, Jérôme; Waller, Bridget M; Panggur, Maria R; Neumann, Christof; Duboscq, Julie; Agil, Muhammad; Engelhardt, Antje
Enduring positive social bonds between individuals are crucial for humans' health and well being. Similar bonds can be found in a wide range of taxa, revealing the evolutionary origins of humans' social bonds. Evidence suggests that these strong social bonds can function to buffer the negative effects of living in groups, but it is not known whether they also function to minimize predation risk. Here, we show that crested macaques (Macaca nigra) react more strongly to playbacks of recruitment alarm calls (i.e. calls signalling the presence of a predator and eliciting cooperative mobbing behaviour) if they were produced by an individual with whom they share a strong social bond. Dominance relationships between caller and listener had no effect on the reaction of the listener. Thus, strong social bonds may improve the coordination and efficiency of cooperative defence against predators, and therefore increase chances of survival. This result broadens our understanding of the evolution and function of social bonds by highlighting their importance in the anti-predator context.
Micheletta, Jérôme; Waller, Bridget M.; Panggur, Maria R.; Neumann, Christof; Duboscq, Julie; Agil, Muhammad; Engelhardt, Antje
Enduring positive social bonds between individuals are crucial for humans' health and well being. Similar bonds can be found in a wide range of taxa, revealing the evolutionary origins of humans' social bonds. Evidence suggests that these strong social bonds can function to buffer the negative effects of living in groups, but it is not known whether they also function to minimize predation risk. Here, we show that crested macaques (Macaca nigra) react more strongly to playbacks of recruitment alarm calls (i.e. calls signalling the presence of a predator and eliciting cooperative mobbing behaviour) if they were produced by an individual with whom they share a strong social bond. Dominance relationships between caller and listener had no effect on the reaction of the listener. Thus, strong social bonds may improve the coordination and efficiency of cooperative defence against predators, and therefore increase chances of survival. This result broadens our understanding of the evolution and function of social bonds by highlighting their importance in the anti-predator context. PMID:22859593
Bolding, Mark S.; Reid, Meredith A.; Avsar, Kathy B.; Roberts, Rosalinda C.; Gamlin, Paul D.; Gawne, Timothy J.; White, David M.; den Hollander, Jan A.; Lahti, Adrienne C.
Background Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has multiple contrast mechanisms. Like various staining techniques in histology, each contrast type reveals different information about the structure of the brain. However, it is not always clear how structures visible in MRI correspond to structures previously identified by histology. The purpose of this study was to determine if magnetic transfer contrast (MTC) or T2 contrast MRI was better at delineating the substantia nigra. Methods MRI scans were acquired in-vivo from two non-human primates (NHPs). The NHPs were subsequently euthanized, perfused, and their brains sectioned for histological analyses. Each slice was photographed prior to sectioning. Each brain was sectioned into approximately 500, 40-micron sections, encompassing most of the cortex, midbrain, and dorsal parts of the hindbrain. Levels corresponding to anatomical MRI images were selected. From these, adjacent sections were stained using Kluver Barrera (myelin and cell bodies) or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) (dopaminergic neurons) immunohistochemistry. The resulting images were coregistered to the block-face images using a moving least squares algorithm with similarity transformations. MR images were similarly coregistered to the block-face images, allowing the structures in the MRI to be identified with structures in the histological images. Results We found that hyperintense (light) areas in MTC images were coextensive with the SN as delineated histologically. The hypointense (dark) areas in T2-weighted images were not coextensive with the SN, but extended partially into the SN and partially into the cerebral peduncles. Conclusions MTC is a more accurate contrast mechanism than T2-weighting for localizing the SN in vivo. PMID:22981657
Du, Guangwei; Lewis, Mechelle M; Sterling, Nicholas W; Kong, Lan; Chen, Honglei; Mailman, Richard B; Huang, Xuemei
Parkinson's disease (PD) is marked by the loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Although the exact etiology is unknown, sporadic PD is hypothesized to be a result of genetic susceptibility interacting with environmental insult. Epidemiological studies suggest that pesticide exposure is linked to higher PD risk, but there are no studies demonstrating SN changes with chronic pesticide exposure in human subjects. Thus, high resolution T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor (DTI) images were obtained from 12 agricultural workers with chronic pesticide exposure, 12 controls, and 12 PD subjects. Neither controls nor pesticide-exposed subjects, had any parkinsonian symptoms. Exposure history to pesticides was assessed by a structured questionnaire. DTI measures in the SN, including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD), were obtained for all subjects and compared among groups. Compared to controls, PD patients showed the expected significant changes in all DTI measurements in the SN. The pesticide-exposed subjects, compared to controls, had significantly lower FA values (p=0.022, after multiple comparisons correction), but no significant differences in RD, MD, or AD measures. The study is the first to demonstrate microstructural changes in the SN of human subjects with chronic pesticide exposure. The changes detected by MRI may mark "one of the hits" leading to PD, and underlie the increased risk of PD in pesticide users found in epidemiological studies. Further human studies assisted by these imaging markers may be useful in understanding the etiology of PD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ghosh, Sudipta; Indukuri, Kiran; Bondalapati, Somasekhar; Saikia, Anil K; Rangan, Latha
The labdane diterpene, (E)-labda-8(17), 12-diene-15, 16-dial (compound A) and its epoxide analogue, (E)-8β, 17-Epoxylabd-12-ene-15, 16-dial (compound B) were isolated from the seeds of Alpinia nigra for the first time. The antibacterial activities of both compounds were evaluated against three Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria, and flow cytometric analysis revealed that these compounds caused significant damage to the bacterial cell membranes. Further, field emission scanning electron microscope imaging and cell leakage analysis confirmed that the labdane diterpenes were responsible for bacterial cell membrane damage and disintegration. Our findings provide new insight into the broad-spectrum effects of two natural labdane diterpenes that may be useful in the future development of herbal antibiotic products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Politeo, Olivera; Skocibusic, Mirjana; Maravic, Ana; Ruscic, Mirko; Milos, Mladen
The chemical composition and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil isolated from the needles of endemic Dalmatian black pine (Pinus nigra ssp. dalmatica) from Croatia were investigated. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC and GC/MS analyses, and the main compounds identified were α-pinene, β-pinene, germacrene D, and β-caryophyllene. Disc-diffusion and broth-microdilution assays were used for the in vitro antimicrobial screening. The Dalmatian black pine essential oil exhibited a great potential of antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (MIC=0.03-0.50% (v/v)) and a less pronounced activity against Gram-negative bacteria (MIC=0.12-3.2% (v/v)). The volatile compounds also inhibited the growth of all fungi tested, including yeast. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.
Ding, Shengyuan; Wei, Wei
GABA projection neurons (GABA neurons) in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and dopamine projection neurons (DA neurons) in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) have strikingly different firing properties. SNc DA neurons fire low-frequency, long-duration spikes, whereas SNr GABA neurons fire high-frequency, short-duration spikes. Since voltage-activated sodium (NaV) channels are critical to spike generation, the different firing properties raise the possibility that, compared with DA neurons, NaV channels in SNr GABA neurons have higher density, faster kinetics, and less cumulative inactivation. Our quantitative RT-PCR analysis on immunohistochemically identified nigral neurons indicated that mRNAs for pore-forming NaV1.1 and NaV1.6 subunits and regulatory NaVβ1 and Navβ4 subunits are more abundant in SNr GABA neurons than SNc DA neurons. These α-subunits and β-subunits are key subunits for forming NaV channels conducting the transient NaV current (INaT), persistent Na current (INaP), and resurgent Na current (INaR). Nucleated patch-clamp recordings showed that INaT had a higher density, a steeper voltage-dependent activation, and a faster deactivation in SNr GABA neurons than in SNc DA neurons. INaT also recovered more quickly from inactivation and had less cumulative inactivation in SNr GABA neurons than in SNc DA neurons. Furthermore, compared with nigral DA neurons, SNr GABA neurons had a larger INaR and INaP. Blockade of INaP induced a larger hyperpolarization in SNr GABA neurons than in SNc DA neurons. Taken together, these results indicate that NaV channels expressed in fast-spiking SNr GABA neurons and slow-spiking SNc DA neurons are tailored to support their different spiking capabilities. PMID:21880943
Acute larvicidal toxicity of five essential oils (Pinus nigra, Hyssopus officinalis, Satureja montana, Aloysia citrodora and Pelargonium graveolens) against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus: Synergistic and antagonistic effects.
Benelli, Giovanni; Pavela, Roman; Canale, Angelo; Cianfaglione, Kevin; Ciaschetti, Giampiero; Conti, Fabio; Nicoletti, Marcello; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Maggi, Filippo
Mosquito vector control is facing a number of important and timely challenges, mainly due to the rapid development of pesticide resistance and environmental concerns. In this scenario, screening of botanical resources for their mosquitocidal activity may offer effective and eco-friendly tools against Culicidae vectors. Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector of lymphatic filariasis and of dangerous arboviral diseases, such as West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis. In this study, the chemical composition of five essential oils obtained from different plants, namely Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold var. italica (Pinaceae), Hyssopus officinalis L. subsp. aristatus (Lamiaceae), Satureja montana L. subsp. montana (Lamiaceae), Aloysia citriodora Palau (Verbenaceae) and Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér (Geraniaceae), was investigated by GC-MS analysis. Furthermore, it was evaluated their acute toxicity on larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. Then, the most effective oils were selected, in order to focus on the potential synergistic and antagonistic effects, testing them in binary mixtures on C. quinquefasciatus larvae. Results showed that the higher effectiveness was obtained by S. montana subsp. montana essential oil (LC 50 =25.6μL·L -1 ), followed by P. nigra var. italica (LC 50 =49.8μL·L -1 ) and A. citriodora (LC 50 =65.6μL·L -1 ), while the other essential oils showed LC 50 values higher than 90μL·L -1 . The larvicidal effectiveness can be enhanced by preparing simple binary mixtures of essential oils, such as S. montana+A. citriodora (ratio 1:1), which showed higher larvicidal toxicity (LC 50 =18.3μL·L -1 ). On the other hand, testing S. montana+P. nigra (1:1) an antagonistic effect was detected, leading to a LC 50 (72.5μL·L -1 ) higher than the LC 50 values calculated for the two oils tested separately. Overall, our results add useful knowledge to allow the employ of synergistic essential oil blends as effective, cheap and eco-friendly mosquito
Viggiano, Andrea; Stoddard, Madison; Pisano, Simone; Operto, Francesca Felicia; Iovane, Valentina; Monda, Marcellino; Coppola, Giangennaro
The mechanism responsible for the anti-seizure effect of ketogenic diets is poorly understood. Because the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is a "gate" center for seizures, the aim of the present experiment was to evaluate if a ketogenic diet modifies the neuronal response of this nucleus when a seizure-inducing drug is administered in rats. Two groups of rats were given a standard diet (group 1) or a ketogenic diet (group 2) for four weeks, then the threshold for seizure induction and the firing rate of putative GABAergic neurons within the SNr were evaluated with progressive infusion of pentylenetetrazole under general anesthesia. The results demonstrated that the ketogenic diet abolished the correlation between the firing rate response of SNr-neurons and the seizure-threshold. This result suggests that the anti-seizure effect of ketogenic diets can be due to a decrease in reactivity of GABAergic SNr-neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brown, Jennifer; Pan, Wei-Xing; Dudman, Joshua Tate
Dysfunction of the basal ganglia produces severe deficits in the timing, initiation, and vigor of movement. These diverse impairments suggest a control system gone awry. In engineered systems, feedback is critical for control. By contrast, models of the basal ganglia highlight feedforward circuitry and ignore intrinsic feedback circuits. In this study, we show that feedback via axon collaterals of substantia nigra projection neurons control the gain of the basal ganglia output. Through a combination of physiology, optogenetics, anatomy, and circuit mapping, we elaborate a general circuit mechanism for gain control in a microcircuit lacking interneurons. Our data suggest that diverse tonic firing rates, weak unitary connections and a spatially diffuse collateral circuit with distinct topography and kinetics from feedforward input is sufficient to implement divisive feedback inhibition. The importance of feedback for engineered systems implies that the intranigral microcircuit, despite its absence from canonical models, could be essential to basal ganglia function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02397.001 PMID:24849626
Abbott, R D; Nelson, J S; Ross, G W; Uyehara-Lock, J H; Tanner, C M; Masaki, K H; Launer, L J; White, L R; Petrovitch, H
Marinesco bodies (MB) are intranuclear inclusions in pigmented neurons of the substantia nigra (SN). While rare in children, frequency increases with normal ageing and is high in Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and other neurodegenerative disorders. Coinciding with the age-related rise in MB frequency is initiation of cell death among SN neurons. Whether MB have a role in this process is unknown. Our aim is to examine the association of MB with SN neuron density in Parkinson's disease (PD) in the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. Data on MB and neuron density were measured in SN transverse sections in 131 autopsied men aged 73-99 years at the time of death from 1992 to 2007. Marinesco body frequency was low in the presence vs. absence of PD (2.3% vs. 6.6%, P < 0.001). After PD onset, MB frequency declined as duration of PD increased (P = 0.006). Similar patterns were observed for SN neuron density. When MB frequency was low, neuron density was noticeably reduced in the SN ventrolateral quadrant, the region most vulnerable to PD neurodegeneration. Low MB frequency was unique to PD as its high frequency in non-PD cases was unrelated to parkinsonian signs and incidental Lewy bodies. Frequency was high in the presence of Alzheimer's disease and apolipoprotein ε4 alleles. While findings confirm that MB frequency is low in PD, declines in MB frequency continue with PD duration. The extent to which MB have a distinct relationship with PD warrants clarification. Further studies of MB could be important in understanding PD processes. © 2017 British Neuropathological Society.
Larsen, Tobias; Collette, Sven; Tyszka, Julian M.; Seymour, Ben; O'Doherty, John P.
The role of neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain in contributing to the elicitation of reward prediction errors during appetitive learning has been well established. Less is known about the differential contribution of these midbrain regions to appetitive versus aversive learning, especially in humans. Here we scanned human participants with high-resolution fMRI focused on the SN and VTA while they participated in a sequential Pavlovian conditioning paradigm involving an appetitive outcome (a pleasant juice), as well as an aversive outcome (an unpleasant bitter and salty flavor). We found a degree of regional specialization within the SN: Whereas a region of ventromedial SN correlated with a temporal difference reward prediction error during appetitive Pavlovian learning, a dorsolateral area correlated instead with an aversive expected value signal in response to the most distal cue, and to a reward prediction error in response to the most proximal cue to the aversive outcome. Furthermore, participants' affective reactions to both the appetitive and aversive conditioned stimuli more than 1 year after the fMRI experiment was conducted correlated with activation in the ventromedial and dorsolateral SN obtained during the experiment, respectively. These findings suggest that, whereas the human ventromedial SN contributes to long-term learning about rewards, the dorsolateral SN may be particularly important for long-term learning in aversive contexts. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The role of the substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) in appetitive learning is well established, but less is known about their contribution to aversive compared with appetitive learning, especially in humans. We used high-resolution fMRI to measure activity in the SN and VTA while participants underwent higher-order Pavlovian learning. We found a regional specialization within the SN: a ventromedial area was selectively engaged
Kamiński, Jan; Mamelak, Adam N; Birch, Kurtis; Mosher, Clayton P; Tagliati, Michele; Rutishauser, Ueli
The encoding of information into long-term declarative memory is facilitated by dopamine. This process depends on hippocampal novelty signals, but it remains unknown how midbrain dopaminergic neurons are modulated by declarative-memory-based information. We recorded individual substantia nigra (SN) neurons and cortical field potentials in human patients performing a recognition memory task. We found that 25% of SN neurons were modulated by stimulus novelty. Extracellular waveform shape and anatomical location indicated that these memory-selective neurons were putatively dopaminergic. The responses of memory-selective neurons appeared 527 ms after stimulus onset, changed after a single trial, and were indicative of recognition accuracy. SN neurons phase locked to frontal cortical theta-frequency oscillations, and the extent of this coordination predicted successful memory formation. These data reveal that dopaminergic neurons in the human SN are modulated by memory signals and demonstrate a progression of information flow in the hippocampal-basal ganglia-frontal cortex loop for memory encoding. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Jang, Miae; Bum Um, Ki; Jang, Jinyoung; Jin Kim, Hyun; Cho, Hana; Chung, Sungkwon; Kyu Park, Myoung
Dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra have long been believed to have multiple aspiny dendrites which receive many glutamatergic synaptic inputs from several regions of the brain. But, here, using high-resolution two-photon confocal microscopy in the mouse brain slices, we found a substantial number of common dendritic spines in the nigral dopamine neurons including thin, mushroom, and stubby types of spines. However, the number of dendritic spines of the dopamine neurons was approximately five times lower than that of CA1 pyramidal neurons. Immunostaining and morphological analysis revealed that glutamatergic shaft synapses were present two times more than spine synapses. Using local two-photon glutamate uncaging techniques, we confirmed that shaft synapses and spine synapses had both AMPA and NMDA receptors, but the AMPA/NMDA current ratios differed. The evoked postsynaptic potentials of spine synapses showed lower amplitudes but longer half-widths than those of shaft synapses. Therefore, we provide the first evidence that the midbrain dopamine neurons have two morphologically and functionally distinct types of glutamatergic synapses, spine synapses and shaft synapses, on the same dendrite. This peculiar organization could be a new basis for unraveling many physiological and pathological functions of the midbrain dopamine neurons. PMID:26435058
Friedman, W J; Dreyfus, C F; McEwen, B; Black, I B
Recent evidence suggests that extracellular signals regulate neurotransmitter traits in brain catecholaminergic (CA) neurons as in the periphery. Development of the dopaminergic phenotype in the mouse substantia nigra (SN) was studied by monitoring tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in CA biosynthesis in vivo and in culture. Explants of SN were dissected from embryonic day 15 embryos and grown in culture for a week. To define the influence of depolarizing signals on central dopaminergic neurons, cultures were grown with the pharmacologic depolarizing agent veratridine. This treatment elicited a significant increase in TH enzyme activity, accompanied by elevated levels of enzyme protein. The increase in activity was prevented by TTX, suggesting that transmembrane Na+ influx was necessary for the rise in TH. A physiologic presynaptic agonist, substance P, also evoked a significant increase in TH activity; however, the coproduced tachykinin peptide, substance K (SK, neurokinin A) elicited a more dramatic rise. The SK effect was blocked by TTX, suggesting that the physiologic agonist was acting through the same mechanism as the pharmacologic agent veratridine. Immunoblot analysis revealed that SK elicited a parallel increase in TH enzyme protein. Our observations suggest that the novel peptide, SK, serves a physiological role in the regulation of TH in the striatonigral pathway.
Márkus, Zita; Eördegh, Gabriella; Paróczy, Zsuzsanna; Benedek, G; Nagy, A
Despite extensive analysis of the motor functions of the basal ganglia and the fact that multisensory information processing appears critical for the execution of their behavioral action, little is known concerning the sensory functions of the caudate nucleus (CN) and the substantia nigra (SN). In the present study, we set out to describe the sensory modality distribution and to determine the proportions of multisensory units within the CN and the SN. The separate single sensory modality tests demonstrated that a majority of the neurons responded to only one modality, so that they seemed to be unimodal. In contrast with these findings, a large proportion of these neurons exhibited significant multisensory cross-modal interactions. Thus, these neurons should also be classified as multisensory. Our results suggest that a surprisingly high proportion of sensory neurons in the basal ganglia are multisensory, and demonstrate that an analysis without a consideration of multisensory cross-modal interactions may strongly underrepresent the number of multisensory units. We conclude that a majority of the sensory neurons in the CN and SN process multisensory information and only a minority of these units are clearly unimodal.
Blanco, L; Pavón, N; Macías, R; Castillo, L; Díaz, C; García, A; Alvarez, P
Microtransplantation of fetal dopaminergic cells has been used over the past ten years with good results in models of Parkinson's disease. To evaluate the effect of microtransplantation of fetal dopaminergic cells 'seeded' in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) and striate (St) simultaneously. The animals received a transplant or microtransplant of cells into the St and SNpr ipsilateral to the lesion in the substantia nigra pars compacta or to both regions. Depending on the site and technique used the following experimental groups were considered: I. Macrotransplantation to the St (n = 20); II. Microtransplant to the St (n = 20); III. Microtransplant to St + SNpr (n = 20); IV. Microtransplant to St + SNpr (n = 20); V. Macrotransplantation to SNpr (n = 20); VI. Microtransplantation to SNpr (n = 20); and VII. Control (lesion only) (n = 20). The rotations induced by D-amphetamine (5 mg/kg i.p.) and by apomorphine were studied 1, 2, 3 and 6 months and 3 and 6 months respectively after transplantation. Three months after transplantation we studied the motor asymmetry shown by the animals by means of the ladder test. The rotations were reduced in the groups with intrastriate transplantation. Comparison between the surgical techniques showed nonsignificant differences between them. The ladder test showed significant differences in use of the limbs in all experimental groups. Use of the left limb was significantly reduced in all groups. Modification of the rotations seems more sensitive to the site of transplant than to the technique used. It seems that the skills studied using the ladder test are not altered by the microtransplant technique.
Shugalev, N P
A study was made of the functional significance of GABA-ergic structures of the substantia nigra (SN) and the caudate nucleus (CN) and their role in food-procuring behaviour of cats. Analysis was made of behavioral and EEG-effects of local GABA and the GABA antagonist, picrotoxin, microinjections into the studied brain structures. Stimulation of the GABA-ergic structures of the SN produced a sedative effect and depression of the cat food-procuring behaviour. Effects of stimulation of the CN GABA-ergic structures were to a great degree reverse. The conclusion has been made that GABA-ergic structures of the SN and the CN play different roles in controlling the CN inhibitory influence upon food-procuring behaviour.
Wu, Yan-Na; Munhall, Adam C; Johnson, Steven W
Mild uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation has been reported to reduce generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and therefore may be neuroprotective. We reported previously that the mitochondrial poison rotenone enhanced currents evoked by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) by a ROS-dependent mechanism in rat midbrain dopamine neurons. Thus, rotenone, which produces a model of Parkinson's disease in rodents, may increase the risk of dopamine neuron excitotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that oxidative phosphorylation uncoupling agents would antagonize the effect of rotenone on NMDA current. We used patch pipettes to record whole-cell currents under voltage-clamp (-60 mV) in substantia nigra dopamine neurons in slices of rat brain. Rotenone, NMDA and uncoupling agents were added to the brain slice superfusate. Inward currents evoked by NMDA (30 μM) more than doubled in amplitude after slices were superfused for 30 min with 100 nM rotenone. Continuous superfusion with the uncoupling agent carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxy-phenylhydrazone (1-3 nM) or 2,4-dinitrophenol (100 nM) significantly antagonized and delayed the ability of rotenone to potentiate NMDA currents. Coenzyme Q₁₀ (1-10 nM), which has been reported to facilitate uncoupling protein activity, also antagonized this action of rotenone. These results suggest that mild uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation may protect dopamine neurons against injury from mitochondrial poisons such as rotenone. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Brown, Jennifer; Pan, Wei-Xing; Dudman, Joshua Tate
Dysfunction of the basal ganglia produces severe deficits in the timing, initiation, and vigor of movement. These diverse impairments suggest a control system gone awry. In engineered systems, feedback is critical for control. By contrast, models of the basal ganglia highlight feedforward circuitry and ignore intrinsic feedback circuits. In this study, we show that feedback via axon collaterals of substantia nigra projection neurons control the gain of the basal ganglia output. Through a combination of physiology, optogenetics, anatomy, and circuit mapping, we elaborate a general circuit mechanism for gain control in a microcircuit lacking interneurons. Our data suggest that diverse tonic firing rates, weak unitary connections and a spatially diffuse collateral circuit with distinct topography and kinetics from feedforward input is sufficient to implement divisive feedback inhibition. The importance of feedback for engineered systems implies that the intranigral microcircuit, despite its absence from canonical models, could be essential to basal ganglia function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02397.001. Copyright © 2014, Brown et al.
Harokopakis, Evlambia; Albzreh, Mohamad H; Haase, Elaine M; Scannapieco, Frank A; Hajishengallis, George
Prolonged induction of excessive levels of inflammatory mediators contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic disease states, such as periodontitis. It is thus important to develop safe and effective anti-inflammatory strategies for therapeutic reasons. In this study, we determined the ability of aqueous extracts from elder flower (Sambucus nigra) to inhibit the proinflammatory activity of major virulence factors from the periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Monocytes/macrophages or neutrophils were incubated with whole cells of P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, or purified components thereof (lipopolysaccharide and fimbriae) in the absence or presence of elder flower extract and were assayed for cytokine production, integrin activation, or induction of the oxidative burst. The elder flower extract was found to potently inhibit all proinflammatory activities tested. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms revealed that the anti-inflammatory extract inhibited activation of the nuclear transcription factor kappaB and of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. The elder flower extract displays useful anti-inflammatory properties that could be exploited therapeutically for the control of inflammation in human periodontitis.
Fichot, Régis; Chamaillard, Sylvain; Depardieu, Claire; Le Thiec, Didier; Cochard, Hervé; Barigah, Têtè S; Brignolas, Franck
Tests were carried out to determine whether variations in the hydraulic architecture of eight Populus deltoides×Populus nigra genotypes could be related to variations in leaf function and growth performance. Measurements were performed in a coppice plantation on 1-year-old shoots under optimal irrigation. Hydraulic architecture was characterized through estimates of hydraulic efficiency (the ratio of conducting sapwood area to leaf area, A(X):A(L); leaf- and xylem-specific hydraulic conductance of defoliated shoots, k(SL) and k(SS), respectively; apparent whole-plant leaf-specific hydraulic conductance, k(plant)) and xylem safety (water potential inducing 50% loss in hydraulic conductance). The eight genotypes spanned a significant range of k(SL) from 2.63 kg s(-1) m(-2) MPa(-1) to 4.18 kg s(-1) m(-2) MPa(-1), variations being mostly driven by k(SS) rather than A(X):A(L). There was a strong trade-off between hydraulic efficiency and xylem safety. Values of k(SL) correlated positively with k(plant), indicating that high-pressure flowmeter (HPFM) measurements of stem hydraulic efficiency accurately reflected whole-plant water transport efficiency of field-grown plants at maximum transpiration rate. No clear relationship could be found between hydraulic efficiency and either net CO(2) assimilation rates, water-use efficiency estimates (intrinsic water-use efficiency and carbon isotope discrimination against (13)C), or stomatal characteristics (stomatal density and stomatal pore area index). Estimates of hydraulic efficiency were negatively associated with relative growth rate. This unusual pattern, combined with the trade-off observed between hydraulic efficiency and xylem safety, provides the rationale for the positive link already reported between relative growth rate and xylem safety among the same eight P. deltoides×P. nigra genotypes.
Maafi, Zahra Tanha; Taheri, Zahra Majd
Bamboo is grown sporadically in the north of Iran and is confined to very limited areas. The history of growing bamboo was to some extent simultaneous with the entrance, commencement, and growth of the tea industry in the north about a century ago. The bamboo was used for making baskets to transfer the harvested tea foliage from farm to the factory and other linked functions. A main area allocated for bamboo growing is located in Lahidjan Agricultural Research Station (LARS) in the north of Iran, where several species of bamboo were cultivated in an area of 5 ha. The species include five species of Phyllostachys (viz., P. aurea, P. bambusoides, P. decora, P. nigra, P. vivax) and one species of Arundinaria gigantean, Pleioblastus fortune, and Semiarundinaria fastuosa; however, only P. aurea and P. nigra have been precisely identified. A survey on plant parasitic nematodes associated with bamboo mainly on P. nigra in LARS revealed second-stage juveniles of cyst forming nematode in soil samples. Further analysis of root and soil samples led to recovery of a cyst nematode belonging to the genus Heterodera and the Afenestrata group. Cysts, vulval cone, and second-stage juveniles were studied for morphological and morphometric features. The classical identification was followed by amplification of the ribosomal RNA-ITS region and the D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S large-subunit rRNA gene; the amplified fragments were sequenced, edited, and compared with those of the corresponding published gene sequences. New D2-D3 and rRNA-ITS gene sequences were deposited in the GenBank database under the accession numbers KR818910 and KR818911, respectively. Based on the morphological and molecular data, the species of the cyst-forming nematode was identified as H. koreana (Vovlas et al., 1992; Mundo-Ocampo et al., 2008). The body contour of cysts was mainly subspherical, vey often with irregular shape (Fig. 1A), yellowish to light brown, thin cuticle with fine zigzag pattern
Boehler, C.N.; Bunzeck, N.; Krebs, R.M.; Noesselt, T.; Schoenfeld, M.A.; Heinze, H.-J.; Münte, T.F.; Woldorff, M.G.; Hopf, J.-M.
Effective adaptation to the demands of a changing environment requires flexible cognitive control. The medial and lateral frontal cortices are involved in such control processes, putatively in close interplay with the basal ganglia. In particular, dopaminergic projections from the midbrain (i.e., from the substantia nigra (SN) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA)) have been proposed to play a pivotal role in modulating the activity in these areas for cognitive control purposes. In that dopaminergic involvement has been strongly implicated in reinforcement learning, these ideas suggest functional links between reinforcement learning, where the outcome of actions shapes behavior over time, and cognitive control in a more general context, where no direct reward is involved. Here, we provide evidence from functional MRI in humans that activity in the SN predicts systematic subsequent trial-to-trial response time (RT) prolongations that are thought to reflect cognitive control in a Stop-signal paradigm. In particular, variations in the activity level of the SN in one trial predicted the degree of RT prolongation on the subsequent trial, consistent with a modulating output signal from the SN being involved in enhancing cognitive control. This link between SN activity and subsequent behavioral adjustments lends support to theoretical accounts that propose dopaminergic control signals that shape behavior both in the presence and absence of direct reward. This SN-based modulatory mechanism is presumably mediated via a wider network that determines response speed in this task, including frontal and parietal control regions, along with the basal ganglia and the associated subthalamic nucleus. PMID:20465358
Jung, Un Ju; Jeon, Min-Tae; Choi, Myung-Sook; Kim, Sang Ryong
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) pathway. The cause of neuronal death in PD is largely unknown, but it is becoming clear that inflammation plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of PD. Silibinin is a major flavonoid in milk thistle which has an anti-inflammatory activity. We investigated whether silibinin could have neuroprotective effects on DA neurons in the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+))-treated animal model of PD in vivo. To address this question, animals received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections 10, 50, or 100 mg/kg of silibinin, starting 1 day before MPP(+) injection and continued daily until 6 days post-lesion for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) staining, or until 1 hour prior to the MPP(+) injection to examine the expression levels of inflammatory proteins. Finally, their brains were harvested at the indicated time points for the analyses. Silibinin treatment with 10 mg/kg had no significantly neuroprotective effects in the substantia nigra (SN). However, 50 and 100 mg/kg of silibinin ameliorated the MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity in the SN in a dose-dependent manner, and the increased levels of inflammatory molecules such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by MPP(+) treatment were attenuated by treatment with 100 mg/kg of silibinin. These results indicate that silibinin could be a useful and beneficial natural product offering promise for the prevention of DA neuronal degeneration involved in PD.
Schoonover, Kirsten E; McCollum, Lesley A; Roberts, Rosalinda C
The substantia nigra (SN) provides the largest dopaminergic input to the brain, projects to the striatum (the primary locus of action for antipsychotic medication), and receives GABAergic and glutamatergic inputs. This study used western blot analysis to compare protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), and vesicular glutamate transporters (vGLUT1 and vGLUT2) in postmortem human SN in schizophrenia subjects (n=13) and matched controls (n=12). As a preliminary analysis, the schizophrenia group was subdivided by (1) treatment status: off medication (n=4) or on medication (n=9); or (2) treatment response: treatment resistant (n=5) or treatment responsive (n=4). The combined schizophrenia group had higher TH and GAD67 protein levels than controls (an increase of 69.6%, P=0.01 and 19.5%, P=0.004, respectively). When subdivided by medication status, these increases were found in the on-medication subjects (TH 88.3%, P=0.008; GAD67 40.6%, P=0.003). In contrast, unmedicated schizophrenia subjects had higher vGLUT2 levels than controls (an increase of 28.7%, P=0.041), but vGLUT2 levels were similar between medicated schizophrenia subjects and controls. Treatment-resistant subjects had significantly higher TH and GAD67 levels than controls (an increase of 121.0%, P=0.0003 and 58.7%, P=0.004, respectively). These data suggest increases in dopamine and GABA transmission in the SN in schizophrenia, with a potential relation to treatment and response.
Zhou, Fu-Ming; Lee, Christian R.
The GABA projection neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) are output neurons for the basal ganglia and thus critical for movement control. Their most striking neurophysiological feature is sustained, spontaneous high frequency spike firing. A fundamental question is: what are the key ion channels supporting the remarkable firing capability in these neurons? Recent studies indicate that these neurons express tonically active TRPC3 channels that conduct a Na-dependent inward current even at hyperpolarized membrane potentials. When the membrane potential reaches −60 mV, a voltage-gated persistent sodium current (INaP) starts to activate, further depolarizing the membrane potential. At or slightly below −50 mV, the large transient voltage-activated sodium current (INaT) starts to activate and eventually triggers the rapid rising phase of action potentials. SNr GABA neurons have a higher density of (INaT), contributing to the faster rise and larger amplitude of action potentials, compared with the slow-spiking dopamine neurons. INaT also recovers from inactivation more quickly in SNr GABA neurons than in nigral dopamine neurons. In SNr GABA neurons, the rising phase of the action potential triggers the activation of high-threshold, inactivation-resistant Kv3-like channels that can rapidly repolarize the membrane. These intrinsic ion channels provide SNr GABA neurons with the ability to fire spontaneous and sustained high frequency spikes. Additionally, robust GABA inputs from direct pathway medium spiny neurons in the striatum and GABA neurons in the globus pallidus may inhibit and silence SNr GABA neurons, whereas glutamate synaptic input from the subthalamic nucleus may induce burst firing in SNr GABA neurons. Thus, afferent GABA and glutamate synaptic inputs sculpt the tonic high frequency firing of SNr GABA neurons and the consequent inhibition of their targets into an integrated motor control signal that is further fine-tuned by neuromodulators
Bolasco, Adriana; Fioravanti, Rossella; Rossi, Francesca; Rossi, Paola; Vitali, Alberto
In vivo biotransformation experiments were performed by using a cell suspension culture of Morus nigra expressing a high PT (prenyltransferase) activity, fed with the target substrate 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone. In order to improve the reaction yields by enhancing the chalcone solubility, three different cyclodextrins have been used to host the substrate. The respective complexes have been studied by means of both spectroscopic and calorimetric techniques (Fourier-transform infrared, 1H-NMR and differential scanning calorimetry) and the solution behaviours have been characterized by solubility phase studies. The hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin complex was found to be the most suitable for biotransformation, and the reaction of prenylation resulted in a 6-fold higher yield of the final product when compared with the use of the free substrate. The reaction provided as the sole product the 3'-dimethylallyl derivative isocordoin, a biologically active plant compound. The results obtained allow the development of systems based on the use of biofermentors or the use of immobilized cells in order to enhance the biotransformation yields.
Atalay, Ibrahim; Efe, Recep
The aim of this study is to determine ecoregions and the effect of ecological properties on natural distribution of Anatolian black pine [Pinus nigra Arnold. subsp. pallasiana Lamb. (Holmboe)] in Turkey. The results suggest that 6 ecoregions exist and climate, parent material, topography, anthropogenic factors, floristic composition, competition are ecological factors that determine the distribution of Black pine in Turkey. But, climatic elements such as precipitation and temperature are the dominant factors. The six ecoregions with different characteristics have been identified and distribution ofAnatolian black pine revealed depending on ecological features of each region. Each region has its own characteristics that affect the growth and distribution of black pine. Productive black pine forest are found on the subhumid-semiarid areas receiving humid air mass coming from the seas either on northern or southern coastal mountains of Turkey. The poor and/or lowest productive stands occur in the semiarid parts of Inner Anatolia. Black pine can grow on all material in the semi-arid and sub-humid cold climates, but deep weatheared parent materials are the best for growing of black pine.
Soudek, Petr; Petrová, Sárka; Benesová, Dagmar; Tykva, Richard; Vanková, Radomíra; Vanek, Tomás
The uptake of 226Ra from the contaminated soil was compared in three woody species: alder (Alnus glutinosa), birch (Betula pendula) and elder (Sambucus nigra). The 226Ra activities increased during the vegetation periods (in 2003, 2004 and 2005) both in the leaves and flowers+seeds. The highest accumulation was found in birch, reaching 0.41 Bq/g DW in the leaves (at the end of the vegetation period in 2003). The lowest 226Ra accumulation was determined in alder. The extent of 226Ra accumulation in the leaves of woody species demonstrates that these pioneer woody species can be used as remediation alternative to the use of herbs, provided that the removal of fallen leaves could be achieved in the end of vegetation period.
Yilmaz, R; Behnke, S; Liepelt-Scarfone, I; Roeben, B; Pausch, C; Runkel, A; Heinzel, S; Niebler, R; Suenkel, U; Eschweiler, G W; Maetzler, W; Berg, D
Deficits in cognition have been reported in Parkinson's disease (PD) already in the early and even in the pre-motor stages. Whilst substantia nigra hyperechogenicity measured by transcranial B-mode sonography (TCS) represents a strong PD marker and is associated with an increased risk for PD in still healthy individuals, its association with cognitive performance in prodromal PD stages is not well established. Two different cohorts of healthy elderly individuals were assessed by TCS and two different neuropsychological test batteries covering executive functions, verbal memory, language, visuo-constructional function and attention. Cognitive performance was compared between individuals with hyperechogenicity (SN+) and without hyperechogenicity (SN-). In both cohorts, SN+ individuals performed significantly worse than the SN- group in tests assessing verbal memory (word list delayed recall P = 0.05, logical memory II P < 0.017). Significant differences in Mini-Mental State Examination score (cohort 1, P = 0.02) and executive function tests (cohort 2, Stroop Color-Word Reading, P = 0.004) could only be shown in one of the two cohorts. No between-group effects were found in other cognitive tests and domains. These results indicate that individuals with the PD risk marker SN+ perform worse in verbal memory compared to SN- independent of the assessment battery. Memory performance should be assessed in detail in individuals at risk for PD. © 2016 EAN.
Gülçin, Ilhami; Büyükokuroglu, M Emin; Oktay, Münir; Küfrevioglu, O Irfan
The aim of this study is to examine possible antioxidant and analgesic activities of turpentine exudes from Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallsiana (Lamb.) Holmboe (TPN). Total antioxidant activity, reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging, free radical scavenging, metal chelating, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities were studied. The total antioxidant activity increased with the increasing amount of extracts (100, 300, and 500 microg) added to linoleic acid emulsion. All of the doses of TPN showed higher antioxidant activity than alpha-tocopherol. The samples showed 49, 70, and 91% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. On the other hand, the 300 microg of alpha-tocopherol showed 40% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion. There is correlation between antioxidant activity and the reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging, free radical scavenging, metal chelating, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities. Like antioxidant activity, the reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging, free radical scavenging, metal chelating, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities of TPN depending on concentration and increasing with increased concentration of TPN. These properties may be the major reasons for the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The results obtained in the present study indicate that the TPN has a potential source of natural antioxidant. In addition, analgesic effect of TPN was investigated in present study and TPN had strong analgesic effect. The analgesic effect of TPN compared with metamizol as a standard analgesic compound.
Díaz-Hung, Mei-Li; Yglesias-Rivera, Arianna; Hernández-Zimbrón, Luis Fernando; Orozco-Suárez, Sandra; Ruiz-Fuentes, Jenny Laura; Díaz-García, Alexis; León-Martínez, Rilda; Blanco-Lezcano, Lisette; Pavón-Fuentes, Nancy; Lorigados-Pedre, Lourdes
Glutathione (GSH) deficiency has been identified as an early event in the progression of Parkinson's disease. However, the role of GSH in the etiology and pathogenesis of this neurodegenerative disorder is not well established. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of transient GSH depletion in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) on neuroinflammation after the injection of a single dose of l-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) into the SNpc of male Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that BSO treatment stimulates microglia (p<0.01) and astroglial response (p<0.01), c-Jun N-terminal kinase and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (p<0.001) in the SNpc, accompanied by dopaminergic dysfunction. In addition, high levels of tumor necrosis factor α (p<0.01), interleukins IL-1β p<0.01), IL-6 p<0.001) and nitric oxide p<0.01) were found in the treated animals compared to control groups, while no significant differences were found in IL-10 levels. These results suggest that transient GSH depletion can increase the susceptibility of SNpc to degeneration by promoting an inflammatory response and nitrosative stress, reinforcing the possible role of GSH unbalance, oxygen/nitrogen reactive species and neuroinflammation as causal factors on the degeneration of the SNpc. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Choi, Moon-Hee; Jo, Han-Gyo; Yang, Ji Hye; Ki, Sung Hwan; Shin, Hyun-Jae
Phyllostachys nigra var. henosis, a domestic bamboo species, has been attracting much attention; its bioactive compounds (especially in the leaf) show antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity activities. Little information is available on the antioxidative and anti-melanogenetic activities of the bioactive compounds in bamboo stems. The anti-melanogenic and antioxidative activities of the EtOAc fraction (PN3) of a P. nigra stem extract were investigated in a cell-free system and in B16F10 melanoma cells. PN3 consisted of a mixture of flavonoids, such as catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and p -coumaric acid. The antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS)), and hydroxyl radical scavenging) was evaluated, as well as the inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the Fenton reaction. PN3 showed in vitro tyrosinase inhibition activity with the half maximal inbihitory concentration (IC 50 ) values of 240 μg/mL, and in vivo cytotoxic concentration ranges > 100 μg/mL. The protein expression levels and mRNA transcription levels of TYR , TRP-1 , and MITF were decreased in a dose-dependent manner by the treatment with PN3. PN3 interfered with the phosphorylation of intracellular protein kinase A (PKA)/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), demonstrating potent anti-melanogenic effects. PN3 could inhibit PKA/CREB and the subsequent degradation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), resulting in the suppression of melanogenic enzymes and melanin production, probably because of the presence of flavonoid compounds. These properties make it a candidate as an additive to whitening cosmetics.
Choi, Moon-Hee; Jo, Han-Gyo; Yang, Ji Hye; Ki, Sung Hwan
Phyllostachys nigra var. henosis, a domestic bamboo species, has been attracting much attention; its bioactive compounds (especially in the leaf) show antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity activities. Little information is available on the antioxidative and anti-melanogenetic activities of the bioactive compounds in bamboo stems. The anti-melanogenic and antioxidative activities of the EtOAc fraction (PN3) of a P. nigra stem extract were investigated in a cell-free system and in B16F10 melanoma cells. PN3 consisted of a mixture of flavonoids, such as catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and p-coumaric acid. The antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS)), and hydroxyl radical scavenging) was evaluated, as well as the inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the Fenton reaction. PN3 showed in vitro tyrosinase inhibition activity with the half maximal inbihitory concentration (IC50) values of 240 μg/mL, and in vivo cytotoxic concentration ranges > 100 μg/mL. The protein expression levels and mRNA transcription levels of TYR, TRP-1, and MITF were decreased in a dose-dependent manner by the treatment with PN3. PN3 interfered with the phosphorylation of intracellular protein kinase A (PKA)/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), demonstrating potent anti-melanogenic effects. PN3 could inhibit PKA/CREB and the subsequent degradation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), resulting in the suppression of melanogenic enzymes and melanin production, probably because of the presence of flavonoid compounds. These properties make it a candidate as an additive to whitening cosmetics. PMID:29385729
Viapiana, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek
The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of teas prepared from twenty-four commercially available berries and flowers of Sambucus nigra L. in relation to their phenolic profile, as reflected by the most representative phenolic acids (caffeic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, ferulic, gallic and syringic acids); flavonols (quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin and rutin); and total phenolic (TPC), phenolic acid (TAC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents. The infusions prepared from elderflowers contained more abundant phenolic compounds than the elderberry infusions. The TPC of these infusions ranged from 19.81 to 23.90 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight of sample (GAE/g DW) for elderberries and from 15.23 to 35.57 mg GAE/g DW for elderflowers, whereas the TFC ranged from 2.60 to 4.49 mg of rutin equivalents/g dry weight of sample (RUTE/g DW) in elderberry infusions and from 5.27 to 13.19 mg RUTE/g DW in elderflower infusions. Among the phenolic compounds quantified in this study, quercetin (2.07-9.48 mg/g DW) and myricetin (1.17-9.62 mg/g DW) had the highest concentrations in the teas prepared from berries and flowers, respectively. Moreover, the antioxidant potential of elder infusions assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays revealed that the teas prepared from flowers had higher mean DPPH and FRAP activities than the teas prepared from berries. Therefore, elder beverages could be important dietary sources of natural antioxidants that contribute to the prevention of diseases caused by oxidative stress.
Velikova, Violeta; Tsonev, Tsonko; Loreto, Francesco; Centritto, Mauro
Poplar (Populus nigra) plants were grown hydroponically with 30 and 200 μM Ni (Ni30 and Ni200). Photosynthesis limitations and isoprenoid emissions were investigated in two leaf types (mature and developing). Ni stress significantly decreased photosynthesis, and this effect depended on the leaf Ni content, which was lower in mature than in developing leaves. The main limitations to photosynthesis were attributed to mesophyll conductance and metabolism impairment. In Ni-stressed developing leaves, isoprene emission was significantly stimulated. We attribute such stimulation to the lower chloroplastic [CO2] than in control leaves. However chloroplastic [CO2] did not control isoprene emission in mature leaves. Ni stress induced the emission of cis-β-ocimene in mature leaves, and of linalool in both leaf types. Induced biosynthesis and emission of isoprenoids reveal the onset of antioxidant processes that may also contribute to reduce Ni stress, especially in mature poplar leaves. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zafar, Hira; Ali, Attarad; Zia, Muhammad
Interests associated with nanoparticles (NPs) are budding due to their toxicity to living species. The lethal effect of NPs depends on their nature, size, shape, and concentration. Present investigation reports that CuO NPs badly affected Brassica nigra seed germination and seedling growth parameters. However, variation in antioxidative activities and nonenzymatic oxidants is observed in plantlets. Culturing the leaf and stem explants on MS medium in presence of low concentration of CuO NPs (1-20 mg l -1 ) produces white thin roots with thick root hairs. These roots also show an increase in DPPH radical scavenging activity (up to 80 % at 10 mg l -1 ), total antioxidant, and reducing power potential (maximum in presence of 10 mg l -1 CuO NPs in the media). Nonenzymatic antioxidative molecules, phenolics and flavonoids, are observed elevated but NPs concentration dependent. We can conclude that CuO NPs can induce rooting from plant explants cultured on appropriate medium. These roots can be explored for the production of active chemical constituents.
Jørgensen, U; Hansen, M; Christensen, L P; Jensen, K; Kaack, K
Fresh elder flowers (Sambucus nigra L.) were extracted with an aqueous solution containing sucrose, peeled lemon slices, tartaric acid, and sodium benzoate to make elder flower syrup. Aroma compounds emitted from the elder flower syrup were collected by the dynamic headspace technique and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 59 compounds were identified, 18 of which have not previously been detected in elder flower products. The concentrations of the identified volatiles were measured in five elder cultivars, Allesoe, Donau, Sambu, Sampo, and Samyl, and significant differences were detected among cultivars in the concentration levels of 48 compounds. The odor of the volatiles was evaluated by the GC-sniffing technique. cis-Rose oxide, nerol oxide, hotrienol, and nonanal contributed to the characteristic elder flower odor, whereas linalool, alpha-terpineol, 4-methyl-3-penten-2-one, and (Z)-beta-ocimene contributed with floral notes. Fruity odors were associated with pentanal, heptanal, and beta-damascenone. Fresh and grassy odors were primarily correlated with hexanal, hexanol, and (Z)-3-hexenol.
von dem Borne, P A; Jonkman, M F; van Doorn, R
Subcorneal pustular dermatosis (SPD), or Sneddon-Wilkinson disease, is a rare pustular skin disease that follows a chronic relapsing course. A well-known association exists between SPD and IgA monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), which exists in up to 40% of cases. SPD has also been observed in patients with IgA myeloma. In SPD, direct and indirect immunofluorescence studies do not reveal in vivo bound IgA to the epithelial cell surface, in contrast to IgA pemphigus, which has similar clinicopathological features. Here we describe the case of a male patient with SPD and a concurrent IgA MGUS who had been treated with dapsone for 20 years with frequent relapses. Following development of multiple myeloma, the patient was treated with intensive antimyeloma treatment consisting of high-dose melphalan with autologous stem cell transplantation. This resulted in a complete remission of the myeloma with disappearance of the M-protein. In addition, a sustained remission of SPD was achieved without further treatment. Twenty-eight months after melphalan therapy the M-protein reappeared in the serum, and 2 months later SPD reappeared with histopathologically proven skin lesions at predilection sites. Presence and absence of skin lesions was found to correlate with the presence and absence of the M-protein in the serum. This is the first report of antimyeloma therapy inducing a long-lasting remission in SPD. The findings in this patient strongly suggest a causal role for circulating IgA antibodies in the pathogenesis of SPD. Antimyeloma treatment should be considered in patients with IgA MGUS-associated SPD refractory to other therapies. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.
Hétu, Sébastien; Luo, Yi; D’Ardenne, Kimberlee; Lohrenz, Terry
Abstract As models of shared expectations, social norms play an essential role in our societies. Since our social environment is changing constantly, our internal models of it also need to change. In humans, there is mounting evidence that neural structures such as the insula and the ventral striatum are involved in detecting norm violation and updating internal models. However, because of methodological challenges, little is known about the possible involvement of midbrain structures in detecting norm violation and updating internal models of our norms. Here, we used high-resolution cardiac-gated functional magnetic resonance imaging and a norm adaptation paradigm in healthy adults to investigate the role of the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA) complex in tracking signals related to norm violation that can be used to update internal norms. We show that the SN/VTA codes for the norm’s variance prediction error (PE) and norm PE with spatially distinct regions coding for negative and positive norm PE. These results point to a common role played by the SN/VTA complex in supporting both simple reward-based and social decision making. PMID:28981876
Ziegler, David A.; Wonderlick, Julien S.; Ashourian, Paymon; Hansen, Leslie A.; Young, Jeremy C.; Murphy, Alex J.; Koppuzha, Cecily K.; Growdon, John H.; Corkin, Suzanne
Objective To test the hypothesis that degeneration of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) precedes that of the cholinergic basal forebrain (BF) in Parkinson disease (PD) using new multispectral structural magnetic resonance (MR) imaging tools to measure the volumes of the SNc and BF. Design Matched case-control study. Setting The Athinoula A. Martinos Imaging Center at the McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and the Massachusetts General Hospital/MIT Morris Udall Center of Excellence in Parkinson Disease Research. Patients Participants included 29 patients with PD (Hoehn and Yahr [H&Y] stages 1–3) and 27 matched healthy control subjects. Main Outcome Measures We acquired multiecho T1-weighted, multiecho proton density, T2-weighted, and T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences from each participant. For the SNc, we created a weighted mean of the multiple echoes, yielding a single volume with a high ratio of contrast to noise. We visualized the BF using T2-weighted FLAIR images. For each participant, we manually labeled the 2 structures and calculated their volumes. Results Relative to the controls, 13 patients with H&Y stage 1 PD had significantly decreased SNc volumes. Sixteen patients with H&Y stage 2 or 3 PD showed little additional volume loss. In contrast, the BF volume loss occurred later in the disease, with a significant decrease apparent in patients having H&Y stage 2 or 3 PD compared with the controls and the patients having H&Y stage 1 PD. The latter group did not differ significantly from the controls. Conclusion Our results support the proposed neuropathological trajectory in PD and establish novel multispectral methods as MR imaging biomarkers for tracking the degeneration of the SNc and BF. PMID:23183921
Zhao, Jerry; Baudry, Michel; Jones, Susan
Repeated activation of N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) causes a Ca 2+ -dependent reduction in NMDAR-mediated current in dopamine (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in one week old rats; however, a Ca 2+ -dependent regulatory protein has not been identified. The role of the Ca 2+ -dependent cysteine protease, calpain, in mediating NMDAR current rundown was investigated. In brain slices from rats aged postnatal day 7-9 ('P7'), bath application of either of the membrane permeable calpain inhibitors, N-Acetyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-norleucinal (ALLN, 20 μM) or MDL-28170 (30 μM) significantly reduced whole-cell NMDAR current rundown. To investigate the role of the calpain-2 isoform, the membrane permeable calpain-2 inhibitor, Z-Leu-Abu-CONH-CH2-C6H3 (3, 5-(OMe)2 (C2I, 200 nM), was applied; C2I application significantly reduced whole cell NMDAR current rundown. Interestingly, ALLN but not C2I significantly reduced rundown of NMDA-EPSCs. These results suggest the calpain-2 isoform mediates Ca 2+ -dependent regulation of extrasynaptic NMDAR current in the first postnatal week, while calpain-1 might mediate rundown of synaptic NMDAR currents. One week later in postnatal development, at P12-P16 ('P14'), there was significantly less rundown in SNc-DA neurons, and no significant effect on rundown of either Ca 2+ chelation or treatment with the calpain inhibitor, ALLN, suggesting that the rundown observed in SNc-DA neurons from two week-old rats might be Ca 2+ -independent. In conclusion, Ca 2+ -dependent rundown of extrasynaptic NMDAR currents in SNc DA neurons involves calpain-2 activation, but Ca 2+ - and calpain-2-dependent NMDAR current rundown is developmentally regulated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu, Xiqi; Shao, Rushing; Li, Meng; Yang, Guofeng
To investigate the mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of edaravone in substantia nigra (SN) of the 6-OHDA-induced rat model of Parkinson's disease. Animal model of Parkinson's disease was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by injecting 6-OHDA into the left medial forebrain bundle. Subsequently, rats were intraperitoneally injected with 0.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg of edaravone for 14 days or with 3 mg/kg edaravone for 14 days followed by 14 days of no treatment. We evaluated the effect of edaravone on the rotational and normal behavior of the rats, and on the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells, the amount of Nissl bodies, and the levels of glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the SN. Edaravone treatment at 3 mg/kg significantly reduced apomorphine-induced rotational behavior (P < 0.01), improved the spontaneous behavior, prevented the decrease in the levels of TH-positive cells, Nissl bodies and GSH, and inhibited the increase in the levels of MDA (P < 0.05) in SN of rats with 6-OHDA-induced PD. Edaravone exerted a long-term neuroprotective effects in 6-OHDA-induced PD animal model by attenuating changes in the levels of GSH and MDA in SN, caused by oxidative stress. Edaravone prevented 6-OHDA-induced behavioral changes and de-pigmentation of SN that results from the loss of dopaminergic neurons.
Vincze, E.; Hunkár, M.; Dunkel, Z.
Phenological observations in Hungary started in 1871. The observation system collapsed and revived time by time. The aim of the observations as well as the locations, the methods and observed plants have been changed many times, therefore data series for a given plant species derived from the same place are rare. If we want to study the responses of biosphere to climate variability we need long time data series from the same places, especially phenological data of native plants. Phenological observations organized by the Hungarian Meteorological Service between 1983- 1999 contain valuable data for lilac (Syringa vulgaris) and elderberry (Sambucus nigra). Those perennial native plants are good indicators of spring warming therefore it is worth to study their phenological development concerning to climate variability. Eight locations in Hungary were selected where the site of the observations remaind the same year by year. Observed phenological phases were: Sprouting of leaves (SL, BBCH:11); Begin of Flowers (BF, BBCH:61); Fall of leaves (FO, BBCH:95). Spatial and temporal trends and variability of phenophases will be presented. The effect of meteorological conditions is studied to build up phenological model controlled by the temperature. Growing degree days above the base temperature was involved together with the duration and severeness of the chilling period. The study is supported by the National Scientific Foundation (OTKA-81979).
Chlorophyll (Chl) accumulation was monitored during black pine (Pinus nigra L.) seed germination for 14 days in the light and in the dark in the presence of gabaculine (GAB) and cytokinin in order to elucidate the regulation of gymnosperm seedling greening in the dark, primarily at the level of aminolevulinic acid formation. In the light, GAB inhibited chlorophyll accumulation in a manner dependent on concentration and developmental stage, and in the dark it showed no effect. Cytokinin, 10(-5) M benzyl adenine (BA) partly overcame GAB-induced inhibition in the light, mainly during earlier developmental stages. In the seedlings grown in the dark, an equal quantity of Chl accumulated in the presence of cytokinin with and without GAB and it was approximately 20-40% higher than in the control seedlings or in the seedlings grown only in the presence of GAB. 5-Amino-levulinic acid (ALA) synthesis was equal in the light and in the dark in seedlings of the same age and seedlings treated with GAB grown in the dark. In the light, GAB inhibited ALA synthetic activity. The results indicate that ALA synthesis is not a rate-limiting step within Chl biosynthesis in pine seedlings grown in the dark.
Förster-Waldl, E; Marchetti, M; Schöll, I; Focke, M; Radauer, C; Kinaciyan, T; Nentwich, I; Jäger, S; Schmid, E R; Boltz-Nitulescu, G; Scheiner, O; Jensen-Jarolim, E
Patients suffering from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and dyspnoea during summer may exhibit these symptoms after contact with flowers or dietary products of the elderberry tree Sambucus nigra. Patients with a history of summer hayfever were tested in a routine setting for sensitization to elderberry. Nine patients having allergic symptoms due to elderberry and specific sensitization were investigated in detail. We studied the responsible allergens in extracts from elderberry pollen, flowers and berries, and investigated cross-reactivity with allergens from birch, grass and mugwort. Sera from patients were tested for IgE reactivity to elderberry proteins by one-dimensional (1D) and 2D electrophoresis/immunoblotting. Inhibition studies with defined allergens and elderberry-specific antibodies were used to evaluate cross-reactivity. The main elderberry allergen was purified by gel filtration and reversed-phase HPLC, and subjected to mass spectrometry. The in-gel-digested allergen was analysed by the MS/MS sequence analysis and peptide mapping. The N-terminal sequence of the predominant allergen was analysed. 0.6% of 3668 randomly tested patients showed positive skin prick test and/or RAST to elderberry. IgE in patients' sera detected a predominant allergen of 33.2 kDa in extracts from elderberry pollen, flowers and berries, with an isoelectric point at pH 7.0. Pre-incubation of sera with extracts from birch, mugwort or grass pollen rendered insignificant or no inhibition of IgE binding to blotted elderberry proteins. Specific mouse antisera reacted exclusively with proteins from elderberry. N-terminal sequence analysis, as well as MS/MS spectrometry of the purified elderberry allergen, indicated homology with ribosomal inactivating proteins (RIPs). We present evidence that the elderberry plant S. nigra harbours allergenic potency. Independent methodologies argue for a significant homology of the predominant 33.2 kDa elderberry allergen with homology to RIPs. We
Gültekin-Özgüven, Mine; Karadağ, Ayşe; Duman, Şeyma; Özkal, Burak; Özçelik, Beraat
Fine-disperse anionic liposomes containing black mulberry (Morus nigra) extract (BME) were prepared by high pressure homogenization at 25,000 psi. Primary liposomes were coated with cationic chitosan (0.4, w/v%) using the layer-by-layer depositing method and mixed with maltodextrin (MD) (20, w/v%) prior to spray drying. After that, spray dried liposomal powders containing BME were added to chocolates with alkalization degrees (pH 4.5, 6, 7.5) at conching temperatures of 40 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C. The results showed that, compared to spray dried extract, chitosan coated liposomal powders provided better protection of anthocyanin content in both increased temperature and pH. In addition, encapsulation in liposomes enhanced in vitro bioaccessability of anthocyanins. Chocolate was fortified with encapsulated anthocyanins maximum 76.8% depending on conching temperature and pH. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Schramm, B G; Casares, M; Lance, V A
The Galápagos Islands are home to 11 subspecies of large terrestrial tortoises (Geochelone nigra). All Galápagos tortoises are considered endangered and approximately 12,000 animals still exist. Until now, the reproductive cycle of the Galápagos tortoise has been studied only in captive animals, and no data from free-ranging tortoises have been available. During a one-year period, blood samples were collected from male and female G. nigra living under seminatural conditions on Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos. Plasma steroid hormones were measured by radioimmunoassays (RIAs). In males, plasma testosterone and corticosterone increased a few months before the onset of the mating season. Peak levels were observed while most copulations occurred and environmental temperatures were highest. Both testosterone and corticosterone showed low levels during the cold and dry nesting season and high levels during the hot and rainy mating season. In females, testosterone and corticosterone also rose during the hot and rainy mating season. Both hormones peaked during the second half of the mating season and decreased during the cooler dry season. Female estradiol levels increased at the onset of the mating season, reaching the highest level at the peak of the mating season, which coincided with the highest annual temperatures measured. Estradiol slowly decreased within the next months and rapidly dropped at the onset of the nesting season when temperatures decreased. Progesterone levels were high close to the time of ovulation and showed clearly elevated levels at the beginning of the nesting season after some females had laid their first clutch. Progesterone decreased during the nesting season, when ambient temperatures began to decrease, and reached minimal levels in the postbreeding period shortly before the onset of the next mating season. There were significant annual variations in plasma testosterone in both males and females. Plasma corticosterone was generally higher in
Bouwmans, Angela E P; Vlaar, Annemarie M M; Mess, Werner H; Kessels, Alfons; Weber, Wim E J
Objective Numerous ultrasound studies have suggested that a typical enlarged area of echogenicity in the substantia nigra (SN+) can help diagnose idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Almost all these studies were retrospective and involved patients with well-established diagnoses and long-disease duration. In this study the diagnostic accuracy of transcranial sonography (TCS) of the substantia nigra in the patient with an undiagnosed parkinsonian syndrome of recent onset has been evaluated. Design Prospective cohort study for diagnostic accuracy. Setting Neurology outpatient clinics of two teaching hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients 196 consecutive patients, who were referred to two neurology outpatient clinics for analysis of clinically unclear parkinsonism. Within 2 weeks of inclusion all patients also underwent a TCS and a 123I-ioflupane Single Photon Emission CT (FP-CIT SPECT) scan of the brain (n=176). Outcome measures After 2 years, patients were re-examined by two movement disorder specialist neurologists for a final clinical diagnosis, that served as a surrogate gold standard for our study. Results Temporal acoustic windows were insufficient in 45 of 241 patients (18.67%). The final clinical diagnosis was IPD in 102 (52.0%) patients. Twenty-four (12.3%) patients were diagnosed with atypical parkinsonisms (APS) of which 8 (4.0%) multisystem atrophy (MSA), 6 (3.1%) progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), 6 (3.1%) Lewy body dementia and 4 (2%) corticobasal degeneration. Twenty-one (10.7%) patients had a diagnosis of vascular parkinsonism, 20 (10.2%) essential tremor, 7 (3.6%) drug-induced parkinsonism and 22 (11.2%) patients had no parkinsonism but an alternative diagnosis. The sensitivity of a SN+ for the diagnosis IPD was 0.40 (CI 0.30 to 0.50) and the specificity 0.61 (CI 0.52 to 0.70). Hereby the positive predictive value (PPV) was 0.53 and the negative predictive value (NPV) 0.48. The sensitivity and specificity of FP-CIT SPECT scans for diagnosing
Banks, A N; Sanderson, W G; Hughes, B; Cranswick, P A; Smith, L E; Whitehead, S; Musgrove, A J; Haycock, B; Fairney, N P
Carmarthen Bay, UK, regularly supports internationally important numbers (>16,000) of non-breeding Common Scoters Melanitta nigra. The spill of 72,000 tonnes of crude oil from the Sea Empress in 1996 affected birds both through direct mortality and likely pollution of key food resources. Numbers were greatly reduced following the spill, whilst changes in the distribution of birds within Carmarthen Bay suggested that potentially sub-optimal foraging zones were used. However, ten years after the incident, numbers of Common Scoter were no different to those recorded immediately before the spill. Compared to some other spills, rapid revival is evident. Numbers increased to pre-spill levels within three winters and distributional changes suggested a concurrent return to previously contaminated feeding areas, implying that the ecosystem had regenerated sufficiently to support its top predator. The importance of prolonged, standardised monitoring of bird numbers and distribution as indicators of ecological recovery from environmental damage is emphasised.
Jackson, Kasey L.; Lin, Wen-Lang; Miriyala, Sumitra; Dayton, Robert D.; Panchatcharam, Manikandan; McCarthy, Kevin J.; Castanedes-Casey, Monica; Dickson, Dennis W.; Klein, Ronald L.
One of the proteins most frequently found in neuropathological lesions is the ubiquitin binding protein p62 (sequestosome 1). Post-mortem analysis of p62 is a defining diagnostic marker in several neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and inclusion body myositis. Since p62 functions in protein degradation pathways including autophagy, the build-up of p62-positive inclusions suggests defects in protein clearance. p62 was expressed unilaterally in the rat substantia nigra with an adeno-associated virus vector (AAV9) in order to study p62 neuropathology. Inclusions formed within neurons from several days to several weeks after gene transfer. By electron microscopy, the inclusions were found to contain packed 10 nm thick filaments, and mitochondria cristae structure was disrupted, resulting in the formation of empty spaces. In corollary cell culture transfections, p62 clearly impaired mitochondrial function. To probe for potential effects on macroautophagy, we co-expressed p62 with a double fluorescent tagged reporter for the autophagosome protein LC3 in the rat. p62 induced a dramatic and specific dissociation of the two tags. By 12 weeks, a rotational behavior phenotype manifested, consistent with a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons analyzed post-mortem. p62 overexpression resulted in a progressive and robust pathology model with neuronal inclusions and neurodegeneration. p62 gene transfer could be a novel methodological probe to disrupt mitochondrial function or autophagy in the brain and other tissues in vivo. PMID:28076378
Jackson, Kasey L; Lin, Wen-Lang; Miriyala, Sumitra; Dayton, Robert D; Panchatcharam, Manikandan; McCarthy, Kevin J; Castanedes-Casey, Monica; Dickson, Dennis W; Klein, Ronald L
One of the proteins most frequently found in neuropathological lesions is the ubiquitin binding protein p62 (sequestosome 1). Post-mortem analysis of p62 is a defining diagnostic marker in several neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and inclusion body myositis. Since p62 functions in protein degradation pathways including autophagy, the build-up of p62-positive inclusions suggests defects in protein clearance. p62 was expressed unilaterally in the rat substantia nigra with an adeno-associated virus vector (AAV9) in order to study p62 neuropathology. Inclusions formed within neurons from several days to several weeks after gene transfer. By electron microscopy, the inclusions were found to contain packed 10 nm thick filaments, and mitochondria cristae structure was disrupted, resulting in the formation of empty spaces. In corollary cell culture transfections, p62 clearly impaired mitochondrial function. To probe for potential effects on macroautophagy, we co-expressed p62 with a double fluorescent tagged reporter for the autophagosome protein LC3 in the rat. p62 induced a dramatic and specific dissociation of the two tags. By 12 weeks, a rotational behavior phenotype manifested, consistent with a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons analyzed post-mortem. p62 overexpression resulted in a progressive and robust pathology model with neuronal inclusions and neurodegeneration. p62 gene transfer could be a novel methodological probe to disrupt mitochondrial function or autophagy in the brain and other tissues in vivo.
Shahsavandi, Shahla; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Majid; Hasaninejad Farahani, Ameneh
Sambucus nigra (elder) are broadly used species to treat microbial infections. The potential antiviral activity and mechanism action of elder fruit (EF) in human epithelium cell (A549) cultures infected with H9N2 influenza virus were determined. The effect of various concentrations of EF on influenza virus replication was examined by using virus titration, quantitative real time RT-PCR, fusion and lipid raft assays following two treatment procedures: A) pre-treated H9N2 virus with each concentration of EF extract and transfection of A549 cell cultures, and B) each concentrations of EF was added to H9N2 virus infected-cell cultures following virus adsorption. In both treatments with lower doses of EF increased viral titer as well as synthesized viral nucleoprotein as indicating the herb had no inhibitory effects on virus replication. In (B) trial with higher doses, 40 and 80 μg/mL of EF, a significant decrease in virus titer and viral protein synthesis were shown in EF treated cells indicating the herb affect either entry of viruses or inhibition virus particle release. The results suggest that EF treatment of the influenza virus infected-human epithelial cells may involve in lipid raft association which function as platform for formation of viral membrane fusion and budding. Differencesin treatment time and dose of EF extract in infected cells with influenza virus have a marked effect on the efficacy of the herb. PMID:29201101
Collins, S.A.; Robinson, G.E.; Conner, J.K.
Two species of mustard, Brassica nigra and B. rapa, were grown under simulated ambient and enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation and exposed to pollinators, Apis mellifera L. Observations were made to determine whether UV-B-induced changes in these plants affected pollinator behavior. Total duration of the foraging trip, number of flowers visited, foraging time per flower, search time per flower, total amount of pollen collected, and pollen collected per flower were measured. There were no significant differences between UV-B treatments in any of the behaviors measured or in any of the pollen measurements. These results suggest that increases in the amount ofmore » solar UV-B reaching the earth`s surface may not have a negative effect on the relationship between these members of the genus Brassica and their honey bee pollinators. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.« less
Wenzel, Jonathan; Storer Samaniego, Cheryl; Wang, Lihua; Burrows, Laron; Tucker, Evan; Dwarshuis, Nathan; Ammerman, Michelle; Zand, Ali
The black walnut, Junglas nigra, is indigenous to eastern North America, and abscission of its fruit occurs around October. The fruit consists of a husk, a hard shell, and kernel. The husk is commonly discarded in processing, though it contains phenolic compounds that exhibit antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. For this study, black walnut husks were extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide with an ethanol modifier. The effects of temperature, ethanol concentration, and drying of walnut husks prior to extraction upon antioxidant potential were evaluated using a factorial design of experiments. The solvent density was held constant at 0.75 g/mL. The optimal extraction conditions were found to be 68°C and 20 wt-% ethanol in supercritical carbon dioxide. At these conditions, the antioxidant potential as measured by the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay was 0.027 mmol trolox equivalent/g (mmol TE/g) for dried walnut husk and 0.054 mmol TE/g for walnut husks that were not dried. Antioxidant potential was also evaluated using the total phenolic content (TPC) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assays and the FRAP assay was found to linearly correlate to the TPC assay.
Walker, Thomas; Michaelides, Christos; Ekonomou, Antigoni; Geraki, Kalotina; Parkes, Harold G; Suessmilch, Maria; Herlihy, Amy H; Crum, William R; So, Po-Wah
Despite regulation, brain iron increases with aging and may enhance aging processes including neuroinflammation. Increases in magnetic resonance imaging transverse relaxation rates, R2 and R2*, in the brain have been observed during aging. We show R2 and R2* correlate well with iron content via direct correlation to semi-quantitative synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence iron mapping, with age-associated R2 and R2* increases reflecting iron accumulation. Iron accumulation was concomitant with increased ferritin immunoreactivity in basal ganglia regions except in the substantia nigra (SN). The unexpected dissociation of iron accumulation from ferritin-upregulation in the SN suggests iron dyshomeostasis in the SN. Occurring alongside microgliosis and astrogliosis, iron dyshomeotasis may contribute to the particular vulnerability of the SN. Dietary restriction (DR) has long been touted to ameliorate brain aging and we show DR attenuated agerelated in vivo R2 increases in the SN over ages 7 – 19 months, concomitant with normal iron-induction of ferritin expression and decreased microgliosis. Iron is known to induce microgliosis and conversely, microgliosis can induce iron accumulation, which of these may be the initial pathological aging event warrants further investigation. We suggest iron chelation therapies and anti-inflammatory treatments may be putative ‘antibrain aging’ therapies and combining these strategies may be synergistic. PMID:27743512
Du, Jingjing; Zhang, Yuyan; Guo, Wei; Li, Ningyun; Gao, Chaoshuai; Cui, Minghui; Lin, Zhongdian; Wei, Mingbao; Zhang, Hongzhong
Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles have been applied in diverse commercial products, which could lead to toxic effects on aquatic microbes and would inhibit some important ecosystem processes. The study aimed to investigate the chronic impacts of TiO 2 nanoparticles with different concentrations (5, 50, and 500 mg L -1 ) on Populus nigra L. leaf decomposition in the freshwater ecosystem. After 50 d of decomposing, a significant decrease in decomposition rates was observed with higher concentrations of TiO 2 nanoparticles. During the period of litter decomposition, exposure of TiO 2 nanoparticles led to decreases in extracellular enzyme activities, which was caused by the reduction of microbial especially fungal biomass. In addition, the diversity and composition of the fungal community associated with litter decomposition were strongly affected by the concentrations of TiO 2 nanoparticles. The diversity and composition of the fungal community associated with litter decomposition was strongly affected. The abundance of Tricladium chaetocladium decreased with the increasing concentrations of TiO 2 nanoparticles, indicating the little contribution of the species to the litter decomposition. In conclusion, this study provided the evidence for the chronic exposure effects of TiO 2 nanoparticles on the litter decomposition and further the functions of freshwater ecosystems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Testa, Claudia M; Sherer, Todd B; Greenamyre, J Timothy
Rotenone, a pesticide and complex I inhibitor, causes nigrostriatal degeneration similar to Parkinson disease pathology in a chronic, systemic, in vivo rodent model [M. Alam, W.J. Schmidt, Rotenone destroys dopaminergic neurons and induces parkinsonian symptoms in rats, Behav. Brain Res. 136 (2002) 317-324; R. Betarbet, T.B. Sherer, G. MacKenzie, M. Garcia-Osuna, A.V. Panov, J.T. Greenamyre, Chronic systemic pesticide exposure reproduces features of Parkinson's disease, Nat. Neurosci. 3 (2000) 1301-1306; S.M. Fleming, C. Zhu, P.O. Fernagut, A. Mehta, C.D. DiCarlo, R.L. Seaman, M.F. Chesselet, Behavioral and immunohistochemical effects of chronic intravenous and subcutaneous infusions of varying doses of rotenone, Exp. Neurol. 187 (2004) 418-429; T.B. Sherer, J.H. Kim, R. Betarbet, J.T. Greenamyre, Subcutaneous rotenone exposure causes highly selective dopaminergic degeneration and alpha-synuclein aggregation, Exp. Neurol. 179 (2003) 9-16.]. To better investigate the role of mitochondria and complex I inhibition in chronic, progressive neurodegenerative disease, we developed methods for long-term culture of rodent postnatal midbrain organotypic slices. Chronic complex I inhibition over weeks by low dose (10-50 nM) rotenone in this system lead to dose- and time-dependent destruction of substantia nigra pars compacta neuron processes, morphologic changes, some neuronal loss, and decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein levels. Chronic complex I inhibition also caused oxidative damage to proteins, measured by protein carbonyl levels. This oxidative damage was blocked by the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). At the same time, alpha-tocopherol also blocked rotenone-induced reductions in TH protein and TH immunohistochemical changes. Thus, oxidative damage is a primary mechanism of mitochondrial toxicity in intact dopaminergic neurons. The organotypic culture system allows close study of this and other interacting mechanisms over a prolonged time period in
Paris, Irmgard; Muñoz, Patricia; Huenchuguala, Sandro; Couve, Eduardo; Sanders, Laurie H.; Greenamyre, John Timothy; Caviedes, Pablo; Segura-Aguilar, Juan
Aminochrome, the precursor of neuromelanin, has been proposed to be involved in the neurodegeneration neuromelanin-containing dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s disease. We aimed to study the mechanism of aminochrome-dependent cell death in a cell line derived from rat substantia nigra. We found that aminochrome (50μM), in the presence of NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase, EC 126.96.36.199 (DT)-diaphorase inhibitor dicoumarol (DIC) (100μM), induces significant cell death (62 ± 3%; p < 0.01), increase in caspase-3 activation (p < 0.001), release of cytochrome C, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (p < 0.01), damage of mitochondrial DNA, damage of mitochondria determined with transmission electron microscopy, a dramatic morphological change characterized as cell shrinkage, and significant increase in number of autophagic vacuoles. To determine the role of autophagy on aminochrome-induced cell death, we incubated the cells in the presence of vinblastine and rapamycin. Interestingly, 10μM vinblastine induces a 5.9-fold (p < 0.001) and twofold (p < 0.01) significant increase in cell death when the cells were incubated with 30μM aminochrome in the absence and presence of DIC, respectively, whereas 10μM rapamycin preincubated 24 h before addition of 50μM aminochrome in the absence and the presence of 100μM DIC induces a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in cell death. In conclusion, autophagy seems to be an important protective mechanism against two different aminochrome-induced cell deaths that initially showed apoptotic features. The cell death induced by aminochrome when DT-diaphorase is inhibited requires activation of mitochondrial pathway, whereas the cell death induced by aminochrome alone requires inhibition of autophagy-dependent degrading of damaged organelles and recycling through lysosomes. PMID:21427056
Kimm, Tilia; Khaliq, Zayd M.
Little is known about the voltage-dependent potassium currents underlying spike repolarization in midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Studying mouse substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons both in brain slice and after acute dissociation, we found that BK calcium-activated potassium channels and Kv2 channels both make major contributions to the depolarization-activated potassium current. Inhibiting Kv2 or BK channels had very different effects on spike shape and evoked firing. Inhibiting Kv2 channels increased spike width and decreased the afterhyperpolarization, as expected for loss of an action potential-activated potassium conductance. BK inhibition also increased spike width but paradoxically increased the afterhyperpolarization. Kv2 channel inhibition steeply increased the slope of the frequency–current (f–I) relationship, whereas BK channel inhibition had little effect on the f–I slope or decreased it, sometimes resulting in slowed firing. Action potential clamp experiments showed that both BK and Kv2 current flow during spike repolarization but with very different kinetics, with Kv2 current activating later and deactivating more slowly. Further experiments revealed that inhibiting either BK or Kv2 alone leads to recruitment of additional current through the other channel type during the action potential as a consequence of changes in spike shape. Enhancement of slowly deactivating Kv2 current can account for the increased afterhyperpolarization produced by BK inhibition and likely underlies the very different effects on the f–I relationship. The cross-regulation of BK and Kv2 activation illustrates that the functional role of a channel cannot be defined in isolation but depends critically on the context of the other conductances in the cell. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This work shows that BK calcium-activated potassium channels and Kv2 voltage-activated potassium channels both regulate action potentials in dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra
Kimm, Tilia; Khaliq, Zayd M; Bean, Bruce P
Little is known about the voltage-dependent potassium currents underlying spike repolarization in midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Studying mouse substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons both in brain slice and after acute dissociation, we found that BK calcium-activated potassium channels and Kv2 channels both make major contributions to the depolarization-activated potassium current. Inhibiting Kv2 or BK channels had very different effects on spike shape and evoked firing. Inhibiting Kv2 channels increased spike width and decreased the afterhyperpolarization, as expected for loss of an action potential-activated potassium conductance. BK inhibition also increased spike width but paradoxically increased the afterhyperpolarization. Kv2 channel inhibition steeply increased the slope of the frequency-current (f-I) relationship, whereas BK channel inhibition had little effect on the f-I slope or decreased it, sometimes resulting in slowed firing. Action potential clamp experiments showed that both BK and Kv2 current flow during spike repolarization but with very different kinetics, with Kv2 current activating later and deactivating more slowly. Further experiments revealed that inhibiting either BK or Kv2 alone leads to recruitment of additional current through the other channel type during the action potential as a consequence of changes in spike shape. Enhancement of slowly deactivating Kv2 current can account for the increased afterhyperpolarization produced by BK inhibition and likely underlies the very different effects on the f-I relationship. The cross-regulation of BK and Kv2 activation illustrates that the functional role of a channel cannot be defined in isolation but depends critically on the context of the other conductances in the cell. This work shows that BK calcium-activated potassium channels and Kv2 voltage-activated potassium channels both regulate action potentials in dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta. Although both
Pérez, María J; Zampini, Iris C; Alberto, Maria R; Isla, María I
This work is part of the search in native food matrices from arid regions of Argentina of interest to improve human health. Prosopis species are ethnic food resources in South America capable of growing in arid and semi-arid environments. This work was focused to determine the nutritional and phytochemical composition of Prosopis nigra fine flour and to evaluate its biological properties. Flour showed a high level of sucrose (30.35 g/100 g flour), fiber (6.34 g/100 g flour), polyphenols (0.45 g GAE/100 g flour), and minerals (potassium, calcium, and magnesium). Apigenin C glycosides and phenylpropanoid acids were identified in free and bound phenolic enriched extracts, respectively. Polyphenols (especially free polyphenols) were able to inhibit enzymes associated with the metabolic syndrome, including α-amylase (IC 50 30.1 μg GAE/mL), α-glucosidase (IC 50 22.5 μg GAE/mL), while bound phenolics may control lipase activity (IC 50 33.5 μg GAE/mL) and exhibit antioxidant activity by different action mechanisms (SC 50 between 16 and 93 μg GAE/mL). Both extracts were more effective to inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 than phospholipase A 2 and lipoxygenase, proinflammatory enzymes. Polyphenolic extracts did not show any mutagenic effect. Our studies add value to this non-conventional flour as a promising food resource that could be used as a functional food or functional ingredient in formulations to reduce the risk of the development of obesity. These studies revalue our native resources by promoting their conservation, their use and their propagation. Pods of P. nigra are traditional food resources in South America. The non-conventional flour obtained from them is a food that inhibits enzymes linked to carbohydrates metabolism and lipids metabolism, show antioxidant activity and anti-inflamatory activity, principally on COX-2. This natural product is a promising resource that could be used as a functional food or as functional ingredient in food formulations for reduce
Gaze is strongly attracted to visual objects that have been associated with rewards. Key to this function is a basal ganglia circuit originating from the caudate nucleus (CD), mediated by the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), and aiming at the superior colliculus (SC). Notably, subregions of CD encode values of visual objects differently: stably by CD tail [CD(T)] vs. flexibly by CD head [CD(H)]. Are the stable and flexible value signals processed separately throughout the CD-SNr-SC circuit? To answer this question, we identified SNr neurons by their inputs from CD and outputs to SC and examined their sensitivity to object values. The direct input from CD was identified by SNr neuron's inhibitory response to electrical stimulation of CD. We found that SNr neurons were separated into two groups: 1) neurons inhibited by CD(T) stimulation, located in the caudal-dorsal-lateral SNr (cdlSNr), and 2) neurons inhibited by CD(H) stimulation, located in the rostral-ventral-medial SNr (rvmSNr). Most of CD(T)-recipient SNr neurons encoded stable values, whereas CD(H)-recipient SNr neurons tended to encode flexible values. The output to SC was identified by SNr neuron's antidromic response to SC stimulation. Among the antidromically activated neurons, many encoded only stable values, while some encoded only flexible values. These results suggest that CD(T)-cdlSNr-SC circuit and CD(H)-rvmSNr-SC circuit transmit stable and flexible value signals, largely separately, to SC. The speed of signal transmission was faster through CD(T)-cdlSNr-SC circuit than through CD(H)-rvmSNr-SC circuit, which may reflect automatic and controlled gaze orienting guided by these circuits. PMID:25540224
Mehraein, Fereshteh; Talebi, Reza; Jameie, Behnamedin; Joghataie, Mohammad Taghi; Madjd, Zahra
Background: Melatonin has receptors in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and regulates development of dopaminergic (DA) neurons. This study was undertaken to determine ability of melatonin to protect SNc dopaminergic neuron loss induced by estrogen deficiency in ovariectomized rats. Methods: Female rats were randomized into four groups of seven each: control, ethanol sham, ovariectomy (ovx) and ovx with melatonin (ovx + m). In ovx, ovaries were removed. Ovx + m group was intraperitoneally injected with melatonin for 10 days, while the ethanol sham group received only ethanol. All rats were perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde, midbrains removed, fixed and paraffin embedded, then processed for Nissl and tyrosine hydroxylase staining (IHC). Ten sections of SNc in Nissl and IHC staining were analyzed in each animal, Nissl stained and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive cells were counted in five experimental groups randomly. Data was analyzed using SPSS by ANOVA and t-test. Differences were considered significant for P<0.05. Results: There was less cell number in ovx compared to control and ethanol sham groups significantly (P<0.001). The ovx + m group had more cells than the ovx group in the SNc significantly (P<0.001). Furthermore, there was significant decrease of TH positive cell number in the ovx group compared to control and ethanol sham groups (P<0.05). The number of TH immunoreactive cells was higher in ovx + m compared to the ovx group (P<0.05). Conclusion: These findings can be compared with human and used in clinical application for prevention of DA neuron death of SNc after ovariectomy. PMID:21725499
Santagapita, Patricio R; Ott Schneider, Helena; Agudelo-Laverde, Lina M; Buera, M Pilar
Willow seeds are classified as orthodox, but they show some recalcitrant characteristics, as they lose viability in a few weeks at room temperature. The aim of this work was to improve the desiccation tolerance of willow seeds (Salix nigra L.), as a model of sensitive materials to dehydration, through imbibition in solutions and later vacuum (VD) or freeze-drying (FD). Imbibition was conducted with 45% w/v trehalose or polyethylene glycol 400 -PEG- or water prior to dehydration treatments. Water- and especially trehalose-imbibed seeds subjected to VD showed better germination capability with respect to the freeze-dried ones. Water crystallization was mainly responsible for the great loss of capability germination observed in water- or trehalose-imbibed seeds subjected to FD. PEG behavior was better when seeds were FD instead of VD. DSC thermograms of seeds allowed to identify two thermal transitions corresponding to lipids melting and to proteins denaturation. This last transition reveals information about proteins state/functionality. Dehydration of control and PEG- or water-imbibed seeds affected proteins functionality leading to lower germinability. In the case of trehalose-imbibed seeds subjected to VD, proteins maintained their native state along dehydration, and the seeds showed a great germination capacity for all the water content range. Germinated seeds showed higher luminosity (L*), greenness (a*) and yellowness (b*) values than not-germinated seeds independently of the employed agent. Present work reveals that the presence of adequate protective agents as well the dehydration method were the main critical factors involved in willow seed desiccation tolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Day, Richard H.; Doyle, T.W.; Draugelis-Dale, R. O.
The large river swamps of Louisiana have complex topography and hydrology, characterized by black willow (Salix nigra) dominance on accreting alluvial sediments and vast areas of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) deepwater swamps with highly organic substrates. Seedling survival of these two wetland tree species is influenced by their growth rate in relation to the height and duration of annual flooding in riverine environments. This study examines the interactive effects of substrate, hydroperiod, and nutrients on growth rates of black willow and baldcypress seedlings. In a greenhouse experiment with a split-split-plot design, 1-year seedlings of black willow and baldcypress were subjected to two nutrient treatments (unfertilized versus fertilized), two hydroperiods (continuously flooded versus twice daily flooding/draining), and two substrates (sand versus commercial peat mix). Response variables included height, diameter, lateral branch count, biomass, and root:stem ratio. Black willow growth in height and diameter, as well as all biomass components, were significantly greater in peat substrate than in sand. Black willow showed a significant hydroperiod-nutrient interaction wherein fertilizer increased stem and root biomass under drained conditions, but flooded plants did not respond to fertilization. Baldcypress diameter and root biomass were higher in peat than in sand, and the same two variables increased with fertilization in flooded as well as drained treatments. These results can be used in Louisiana wetland forest models as inputs of seedling growth and survival, regeneration potential, and biomass accumulation rates of black willow and baldcypress.
Chudomel, O; Hasson, H; Bojar, M; Moshé, S L; Galanopoulou, A S
Previous studies have shown that the pharmacologic effects of GABAergic drugs and the postsynaptic phasic GABAAergic inhibitory responses in the anterior part of the rat substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNRA) are age- and sex-specific. Here, we investigate whether there are age- and sex-related differences in the expression of the δ GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunit and GABAAR mediated tonic currents. We have used δ-specific immunochemistry and whole cell patch clamp to study GABAAR mediated tonic currents in the SNRA of male and female postnatal day (PN) PN5-9, PN11-16, and PN25-32 rats. We observed age-related decline, but no sex-specific changes, in bicuculline (BIM) sensitive GABAAR tonic current density, which correlated with the decline in δ subunit in the SNRA between PN15 and 30. Furthermore, we show that the GABAAR tonic currents can be modified by muscimol (GABAAR agonist; partial GABACR agonist), THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo (5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol: α4β3δ GABAARs agonist and GABACR antagonist), and zolpidem (α1-subunit selective GABAAR agonist) in age- and sex-dependent manner specific for each drug. We propose that the emergence of the GABAAR-sensitive anticonvulsant effects of the rat SNRA during development may depend upon the developmental decline in tonic GABAergic inhibition of the activity of rat SNRA neurons, although other sex-specific factors are also involved.
Richter, Sarah; Moser, Barbara; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Wohlgemuth, Thomas
Low elevation Scots pine forests of European inner-alpine dry valleys may potentially disappear under continued climate warming, largely in response to increased warming and drought effects. In the upper Rhone valley, the driest region in Switzerland, increased Scots pine mortality in mature forest stands and sparse tree establishment after a large-scale forest fire already give evidence for ongoing climate change. Furthermore, vegetation models predict a decline of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens) even under a moderate temperature increase of 2-3°C. A decline of tree species in the region may lead to a transition from forest to a steppe-like vegetation. Such a change is of considerable concern for both biodiversity and natural hazard protection. Although changing climate conditions affect all life stages of a tree, its most vulnerable stage is recruitment. We tested P. sylvestris and P. nigra seedlings to simulated temperature increase and water stress, using seeds from the upper Rhone valley, Switzerland (CH), and from Peñyagolosa, Spain (ES). The experiment was located outdoors at the bottom of the Rhone Valley. Treatments consisted of factorial combinations of 3 precipitation regimes (‘wet spring-wet summer', ‘dry spring-dry summer' and ‘wet spring-dry summer') and 3 soil heating levels (+0 °C, +2.5 °C, +5 °C). Automatically operated shelters intercepted natural rainfall and different precipitation regimes were simulated by manual irrigation. We found significantly lower germination rates under dry conditions compared to wet conditions, whereas soil temperature affected germination rates only for P. nigra and when elevated by 5°C. Contrastingly, an increase of soil temperatures by 2.5 °C already caused a substantial decrease of survival rates under both ‘dry spring-dry summer' and ‘wet spring-dry summer' conditions. Precipitation regime was more important for survival than temperature increase. Seasonality of
Valian, Neda; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Dargahi, Leila
Methamphetamine (MA) produces long-lasting deficits in dopaminergic neurons in the long-term use via several neurotoxic mechanisms. The effects of MA on mitochondrial biogenesis is less studied currently. So, we evaluated the effects of repeated escalating MA regimen on transcriptional factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) expression in substantia nigra (SN) and striatum of rat. In male Wistar rats, increasing doses of MA (1-14 mg/kg) were administrated twice a day for 14 days. At the 1st, 14th, 28th, and 60th days after MA discontinuation, we measured the PGC1α, TFAM and NRF1 mRNA levels, indicator of mitochondrial biogenesis, and GDNF expression in SN and striatum. Furthermore, we evaluated the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Iba1 mRNA levels, and the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and α-synuclein (α-syn) using immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We detected increments in PGC1α and TFAM mRNA levels in SN, but not striatum, and elevations in GDNF levels in SN immediately after MA discontinuation. We also observed increases in GFAP and Iba1 mRNA levels in SN on day 1 and increases in Iba1 mRNA on days 1 and 14 in striatum. Data analysis revealed that the number of TH + cells in the SN did not reduce in any time points, though TH mRNA levels was increased on day 1 after MA discontinuation in SN. These data show that repeated escalating MA induces several compensatory mechanisms, such as mitochondrial biogenesis and elevation in GDNF in SN. These mechanisms can reverse MA-induced neuroinflammation and prevent TH-immunoreactivity reduction in nigrostriatal pathway. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1369-1378, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Opris, Razvan; Tatomir, Corina; Olteanu, Diana; Moldovan, Remus; Moldovan, Bianca; David, Luminita; Nagy, Andras; Decea, Nicoleta; Kiss, Mihai Ludovic; Filip, Gabriela Adriana
Nanomaterials such as gold nanoparticles (NPs) conjugated with natural products have shown good results in lowering the glycated hemoglobin and have an anti-inflamatory effect. The aim of our study is to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of NPs functionalized with Sambucus nigra L. (SN) extract on experimental model of diabetes in rats. Diabetes was induced to 18 Wistar male rats (n=6) by a single intramuscular injection of streptozotocin (30mg/kg body weight - b.w.). SN extract (15mg/kg b.w.), NPs (0.3mg/kg b.w.) and vehicle (normal saline) were administered by gavage once a day, every morning, for 2 weeks. Other 18 animals were used as control groups and were treated with the same compounds, at the same time. Afterwards, blood, liver and muscle samples were taken to assess the oxidant/antioxidant status and the liver for the evaluation of metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and 9 activities, COX-2 and NFKB expressions and for immunohistochemistry. Serum glycemia, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) were also measured. The administration of NPs extract increased the muscle and systemic GSH/GSSG ratio in the diabetic group vs. diabetic (p<0.03) or non-diabetic groups treated with vehicle (p<0.05) and decreased MDA levels compared to non-diabetic group (p<0.05). COX-2 expression (p<0.0001) and proMMP-2 activity (p<0.05) decreased after pretreatment with NPs in parallel with the reduction of Kupffer cells percent (<0.001). No morphological abnormalities were detected in histopathology. NPs present a great potential for further usage as adjuvants in the diabetic therapy due to the increase of antioxidant defence and reduction of MMPs activity and inflammation in liver tissue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Qu, Liang; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Hai-Tao; Li, Nan; Wang, Qiang; Yang, Qian; Gao, Guo-Dong; Wang, Xue-Lian
Voltage gated calcium channels (VGCC) are sensitive to oxidative stress, and their activation or inactivation can impact cell death. Although these channels have been extensively studied in expression systems, their role in the brain, particularly in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), remain controversial. In this study, we assessed 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced transformation of firing pattern and functional changes of calcium channels in SNc dopaminergic neurons. Application of 6-OHDA (0.5-2mM) evoked a dose-dependent, desensitizing inward current and intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) rise. In voltage clamp, ω-conotoxin-sensitive Ca(2+) current modulation mediated by 6-OHDA reflected an altered sensitivity. Furthermore, we found that 6-OHDA modulated Ca(2+) currents through PKA pathway. These results provided evidence for the potential role of VGCCs and PKA involved in oxidative stress in degeneration of SNc neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aumann, Tim D
The ability of neurons to change the amount or type of neurotransmitter they use, or 'neurotransmitter plasticity', is an emerging new form of adult brain plasticity. For example, it has recently been shown that neurons in the adult rat hypothalamus up- or down-regulate dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in response to the amount of light the animal receives (photoperiod), and that this in turn affects anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors (Dulcis et al., 2013). In this Chapter I consolidate recent evidence from my laboratory suggesting neurons in the adult mouse substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) also undergo DA neurotransmitter plasticity in response to persistent changes in their electrical activity, including that driven by the mouse's environment or behavior. Specifically, we have shown that the amounts of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in DA synthesis) gene promoter activity, TH mRNA and TH protein in SNc neurons increases or decreases after ∼20h of altered electrical activity. Also, infusion of ion-channel agonists or antagonists into the midbrain for 2 weeks results in ∼10% (∼500 neurons) more or fewer TH immunoreactive (TH+) SNc neurons, with no change in the total number of SNc neurons (TH+ and TH-). Targeting ion-channels mediating cell-autonomous pacemaker activity in, or synaptic input and afferent pathways to, SNc neurons are equally effective in this regard. In addition, exposing mice to different environments (sex pairing or environment enrichment) for 1-2 weeks induces ∼10% more or fewer TH+ SNc (and ventral tegmental area or VTA) neurons and this is abolished by concurrent blockade of synaptic transmission in midbrain. Although further research is required to establish SNc (and VTA) DA neurotransmitter plasticity, and to determine whether it alters brain function and behavior, it is an exciting prospect because: (1) It may play important roles in movement, motor learning, reward, motivation, memory and cognition; and (2
Composition and antimicrobial activity of fatty acids detected in the hygroscopic secretion collected from the secretory setae of larvae of the biting midge Forcipomyia nigra (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).
Urbanek, Aleksandra; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Stepnowski, Piotr; Boros-Majewska, Joanna; Gabriel, Iwona; Dawgul, Małgorzata; Kamysz, Wojciech; Sosnowska, Danuta; Gołębiowski, Marek
The hygroscopic secretion produced by the secretory setae of terrestrial larvae of the biting midge Forcipomyia nigra (Winnertz) was analysed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The viscous secretion is stored at the top of each seta and absorbs water from moist air. GC-MS analyses (four independent tests) showed that the secretion contained 12 free fatty acids, the most abundant of which were oleic (18:1), palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (16:1) and linoleic (18:2). Other acids identified were valeric (5:0), enanthic (7:0), caprylic (8:0), pelargonic (9:0), capric (10:0), lauric (12:0), myristic (14:0) and stearic (18:0). Two other compounds, glycerol and pyroglutamic acid, were also found. The antibacterial activity of the fatty acids and pyroglutamic acid was tested using the agar disc diffusion method and targeted Gram positive (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram negative bacterial strains (Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens). The antifungal activity was tested by determining minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of examined compounds. Fatty acids were tested against enthomopathogenic fungi (Paecilomyces lilacinus, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Lecanicillium lecanii, Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana (Tve-N39), Beauveria bassiana (Dv-1/07)). The most effective acids against bacterial and fungal growth were C(9:0), C(10:0) and C(16:1), whereas C(14:0), C(16:0,) C(18:0) and C(18:1) demonstrated rather poor antifungal activity and did not inhibit the growth of bacteria. The antimicrobial assay investigated mixtures of fatty and pyroglutamic acids (corresponding to the results of each GC-MS test): they were found to be active against almost all the bacteria except P. fluorescens and also demonstrated certain fungistatic activity against enthomopathogenic fungi. The hygroscopic secretion facilitates cuticular respiration and plays an important role in the
Schamber, Jason L.
Abundance indices of Black Scoters (Melanitta nigra. americana) breeding in Alaska indicate a long-term population decline without obvious cause (s). However, few life history data are available for the species in North America. In 2001–2004, information was collected on nesting habitat and reproductive parameters (i.e. components of productivity) from a population of Black Scoters nesting on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. A total of 157 nests were found over four years. Primarily, nests were among dense vegetation in shrub edge habitat, predominantly dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa) and Alaska spiraea (Spiraea beauverdiana), an average of 58 m from water. Females initiated nests from 11 June and 17 July across years. Clutch size averaged 7.5 eggs and did not vary annually. Nest success was highly variable among years and ranged from 0.01 to 0.37. Duckling survival to 30 days old varied among years, and ranged from 0.09 – 0.35. Nest success was poor in three of four years, likely due to predation by Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes). Black Scoters appear to have low but variable productivity, consistent with life-history patterns of other sea duck species. Information gained will direct future demographic research on Black Scoters, and highlights knowledge gaps impeding management strategies needed for population recovery.
Brazhnik, Elena; Cruz, Ana V; Avila, Irene; Wahba, Marian I; Novikov, Nikolay; Ilieva, Neda M; McCoy, Alex J; Gerber, Colin; Walters, Judith R
Excessive beta frequency oscillatory and synchronized activity has been reported in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian patients and animal models of the disease. To gain insight into processes underlying this activity, this study explores relationships between oscillatory activity in motor cortex and basal ganglia output in behaving rats after dopamine cell lesion. During inattentive rest, 7 d after lesion, increases in motor cortex-substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) coherence emerged in the 8-25 Hz range, with significant increases in local field potential (LFP) power in SNpr but not motor cortex. In contrast, during treadmill walking, marked increases in both motor cortex and SNpr LFP power, as well as coherence, emerged in the 25-40 Hz band with a peak frequency at 30-35 Hz. Spike-triggered waveform averages showed that 77% of SNpr neurons, 77% of putative cortical interneurons, and 44% of putative pyramidal neurons were significantly phase-locked to the increased cortical LFP activity in the 25-40 Hz range. Although the mean lag between cortical and SNpr LFPs fluctuated around zero, SNpr neurons phase-locked to cortical LFP oscillations fired, on average, 17 ms after synchronized spiking in motor cortex. High coherence between LFP oscillations in cortex and SNpr supports the view that cortical activity facilitates entrainment and synchronization of activity in basal ganglia after loss of dopamine. However, the dramatic increases in cortical power and relative timing of phase-locked spiking in these areas suggest that additional processes help shape the frequency-specific tuning of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical network during ongoing motor activity.
Huang, Chun; Zhu, Li; Li, Huan; Shi, Fu-Guo; Wang, Guo-Qing; Wei, Yi-Zheng; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Feng
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most neurodegenerative disorder with a regional decrease of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Despite intense exploration, the etiology of PD progressive process remains unclear. This study was to investigate the synergistic effects of systemic inflammation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and neurotoxicity of rotenone (ROT) on exacerbating DA neuron lesion. Male SD adulthood rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of LPS. Seven months later, rats were subcutaneously given ROT five times a week for consecutive 4 weeks. Rat behavior changes were assessed via rotarod and open-field tests. Brain SN was immunostained to evaluate DA neuronal loss and microglia activation. Striatum DA and its metabolites levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrochemistry. The protein levels of α-synuclein (α-Syn), inflammatory factors and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway activation were detected by western blotting analysis. Results indicated that no significant difference between the control and LPS alone groups was shown. Compared with ROT alone group, LPS combined with ROT significantly reduced motor activity and induced SN DA neurons loss accompanied by the decreased contents of striatum DA and its metabolites. Furthermore, LPS together with ROT enhanced microglia activation and the increased expressions of α-Syn and inflammatory factors and also MAPK signaling pathway activation. However, LPS alone had no significant effects on the above parameters. These findings suggest that adulthood exposure to LPS exacerbates the neurotoxic and inflammatory effects of ROT in the SN. PMID:28533741
Rao, Raghavendra; Prabhu, Smitha Smitha; Sripathi, H; Gupta, Sachi
Vesiculobullous disorders in a child can be a diagnostic challenge. Common causes of blisters in early childhood include genodermatoses like epidermolysis bullosa and infections like herpes simplex. Lipoid proteinosis may rarely present with vesiculobullous lesions in childhood. We report a child, who presented in early childhood with blistering dermatosis. On long term follow-up, typical features of lipoid proteinosis developed. A high index of suspicion is required when one deals with blistering dermatosis in a child.
Wang, Gui-Xiang; Lv, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Han, Shuo; Zong, Mei; Guo, Ning; Zeng, Xing-Ying; Zhang, Yue-Yun; Wang, You-Ping; Liu, Fan
Broad phenotypic variations were obtained previously in derivatives from the asymmetric somatic hybridization of cauliflower "Korso" (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, 2n = 18, CC genome) and black mustard "G1/1" (Brassica nigra, 2n = 16, BB genome). However, the mechanisms underlying these variations were unknown. In this study, 28 putative introgression lines (ILs) were pre-selected according to a series of morphological (leaf shape and color, plant height and branching, curd features, and flower traits) and physiological (black rot/club root resistance) characters. Multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that these plants contained 18 chromosomes derived from "Korso." Molecular marker (65 simple sequence repeats and 77 amplified fragment length polymorphisms) analysis identified the presence of "G1/1" DNA segments (average 7.5%). Additionally, DNA profiling revealed many genetic and epigenetic differences among the ILs, including sequence alterations, deletions, and variation in patterns of cytosine methylation. The frequency of fragments lost (5.1%) was higher than presence of novel bands (1.4%), and the presence of fragments specific to Brassica carinata (BBCC 2n = 34) were common (average 15.5%). Methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism analysis indicated that methylation changes were common and that hypermethylation (12.4%) was more frequent than hypomethylation (4.8%). Our results suggested that asymmetric somatic hybridization and alien DNA introgression induced genetic and epigenetic alterations. Thus, these ILs represent an important, novel germplasm resource for cauliflower improvement that can be mined for diverse traits of interest to breeders and researchers.
Lutas, Andrew; Birnbaumer, Lutz
Neurons use glucose to fuel glycolysis and provide substrates for mitochondrial respiration, but neurons can also use alternative fuels that bypass glycolysis and feed directly into mitochondria. To determine whether neuronal pacemaking depends on active glucose metabolism, we switched the metabolic fuel from glucose to alternative fuels, lactate or β-hydroxybutyrate, while monitoring the spontaneous firing of GABAergic neurons in mouse substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) brain slices. We found that alternative fuels, in the absence of glucose, sustained SNr spontaneous firing at basal rates, but glycolysis may still be supported by glycogen in the absence of glucose. To prevent any glycogen-fueled glycolysis, we directly inhibited glycolysis using either 2-deoxyglucose or iodoacetic acid. Inhibiting glycolysis in the presence of alternative fuels lowered SNr firing to a slower sustained firing rate. Surprisingly, we found that the decrease in SNr firing was not mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel activity, but if we lowered the perfusion flow rate or omitted the alternative fuel, KATP channels were activated and could silence SNr firing. The KATP-independent slowing of SNr firing that occurred with glycolytic inhibition in the presence of alternative fuels was consistent with a decrease in a nonselective cationic conductance. Although mitochondrial metabolism alone can prevent severe energy deprivation and KATP channel activation in SNr neurons, active glucose metabolism appears important for keeping open a class of ion channels that is crucial for the high spontaneous firing rate of SNr neurons. PMID:25471572
Wild, A.R.; Akyol, E.; Brothwell, S.L.C.; Kimkool, P.; Skepper, J.N.; Gibb, A.J.; Jones, S.
NMDA glutamate receptors (NMDARs) have critical functional roles in the nervous system but NMDAR over-activity can contribute to neuronal damage. The open channel NMDAR blocker, memantine is used to treat certain neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD) and is well tolerated clinically. We have investigated memantine block of NMDARs in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopamine neurones, which show severe pathology in PD. Memantine (10 μM) caused robust inhibition of whole-cell (synaptic and extrasynaptic) NMDARs activated by NMDA at a high concentration or a long duration, low concentration. Less memantine block of NMDAR-EPSCs was seen in response to low frequency synaptic stimulation, while responses to high frequency synaptic stimulation were robustly inhibited by memantine; thus memantine inhibition of NMDAR-EPSCs showed frequency-dependence. By contrast, MK-801 (10 μM) inhibition of NMDAR-EPSCs was not significantly different at low versus high frequencies of synaptic stimulation. Using immunohistochemistry, confocal imaging and stereological analysis, NMDA was found to reduce the density of cells expressing tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker of viable dopamine neurones; memantine prevented the NMDA-evoked decrease. In conclusion, memantine blocked NMDAR populations in different subcellular locations in SNc dopamine neurones but the degree of block depended on the intensity of agonist presentation at the NMDAR. This profile may contribute to the beneficial effects of memantine in PD, as glutamatergic activity is reported to increase, and memantine could preferentially reduce over-activity while leaving some physiological signalling intact. PMID:23727219
Budygin, Evgeny A.; Oleson, Erik B.; Lee, Yun Beom; Blume, Lawrence C.; Bruno, Michael J.; Howlett, Allyn C.; Thompson, Alexis C.; Bass, Caroline E.
Recent studies have used conditional knockout mice to selectively delete the D2 autoreceptor; however, these approaches result in global deletion of D2 autoreceptors early in development. The present study takes a different approach using RNA interference (RNAi) to knockdown the expression of the D2 receptors (D2R) in the substantia nigra (SN), including dopaminergic neurons, which project primarily to the dorsal striatum (dStr) in adult rats. This approach restricts the knockdown primarily to nigrostriatal pathways, leaving mesolimbic D2 autoreceptors intact. Analyses of dopamine (DA) kinetics in the dStr reveal a decrease in DA transporter (DAT) function in the knockdown rats, an effect not observed in D2 autoreceptor knockout mouse models. SN D2 knockdown rats exhibit a behavioral phenotype characterized by persistent enhancement of locomotor activity in a familiar open field, reduced locomotor responsiveness to high doses of cocaine and the ability to overcome haloperidol-induced immobility on the bar test. Together these results demonstrate that presynaptic D2R can be depleted from specific neuronal populations and implicates nigrostriatal D2R in different behavioral responses to psychotropic drugs. PMID:28154530
Engberg, G; Kling-Petersen, T; Nissbrandt, H
Previous electrophysiological experiments have emphasized the importance of the firing pattern for the functioning of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. In this regard, excitatory amino acid receptors appear to constitute an important modulatory control mechanism. In the present study, extracellular recording techniques were used to investigate the significance of GABAB-receptor activation for the firing properties of DA neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) in the rat. Intravenous administration of the GABAB-receptor agonist baclofen (1-16 mg/kg) was associated with a dose-dependent regularization of the firing pattern, concomitant with a reduction in burst firing. At higher doses (16-32 mg/kg), the firing rate of the DA neurons was dose-dependently decreased. Also, microiontophoretic application of baclofen regularized the firing pattern of nigral DA neurons, including a reduction of burst firing. Both the regularization of the firing pattern and inhibition of firing rate produced by systemic baclofen administration was antagonized by the GABAB-receptor antagonist CGP 35348 (200 mg/kg, i.v.). The GABAA-receptor agonist muscimol produced effects on the firing properties of DA neurons that were opposite to those observed following baclofen, i.e., an increase in firing rate accompanied by a decreased regularity. The NMDA receptor antagonist MK 801 (0.4-3.2 mg/kg, i.v.) produced a moderate, dose-dependent increase in the firing rate of the nigral DA neurons as well as a slightly regularized firing pattern. Pretreatment with MK 801 (3.2 mg/kg, i.v., 3-10 min) did neither promote nor prevent the regularization of the firing pattern or inhibition of firing rate on the nigral DA neurons produced by baclofen. The present results clearly show that GABAB-receptors can alter the firing pattern of nigral DA neurons, hereby counterbalancing the previously described ability of glutamate to induce burst firing activity on these neurons.
Muñoz, Patricia; Paris, Irmgard; Sanders, Laurie H.; Greenamyre, J. Timothy; Segura-Aguilar, Juan
We tested the hypothesis that both VMAT-2 and DT-diaphorase are an important cellular defense against aminochrome-dependent neurotoxicity during dopamine oxidation. A cell line with VMAT-2 and DT-diaphorase over-expressed was created. The transfection of RCSN-3 cells with a bicistronic plasmid coding for VMAT-2 fused with GFP-IRES-DT-diaphorase cDNA induced a significant increase in protein expression of VMAT-2 (7-fold; P<0.001) and DT-diaphorase (9-fold; P<0.001), accompanied by a 4- and 5.5-fold significant increase in transport and enzyme activity, respectively. Studies with synaptic vesicles from rat substantia nigra revealed that VMAT-2 uptake of 3H-aminochrome 6.3 ± 0.4nmol/min/mg was similar to dopamine uptake 6.2 ± 0.3 nmol/min/mg that which were dependent on ATP. Interestingly, aminochrome uptake was inhibited by 2 μM lobeline but not reserpine (1 and 10 μM). Incubation of cells overexpressing VMAT-2 and DT-diaphorase with 20 μM aminochrome resulted in (i) a significant decrease in cell death (6-fold, P<0.001); (ii) normal ultra structure determined by transmission electron microscopy contrasting with a significant increase of autophagosome and a dramatic remodeling of the mitochondrial inner membrane in wild type cells; (iii) normal level of ATP (256 ± 11 μM) contrasting with a significant decrease in wild type cells (121 ± 11 μM, P<0.001); and (iv) a significant decrease in DNA laddering (21 ± 8 pixels, P<0.001) cells in comparison with wild type cells treated with 20 μM aminochrome (269 ± 9). These results support our hypothesis that VMAT-2 and DT-diaphorase are an important defense system against aminochrome formed during dopamine oxidation. PMID:22483869
Chowdhury, Shreya Roy; Ray, Upasana; Chatterjee, Bishnu P; Roy, Sib S
Ovarian carcinoma (OC) patients encounter the severe challenge of clinical management owing to lack of screening measures, chemoresistance and finally dearth of non-toxic therapeutics. Cancer cells deploy various defense strategies to sustain the tumor microenvironment, among which deregulated apoptosis remains a versatile promoter of cancer progression. Although recent research has focused on identifying agents capable of inducing apoptosis in cancer cells, yet molecules efficiently breaching their survival advantage are yet to be classified. Here we identify lectin, Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA) to exhibit selectivity towards identifying OC by virtue of its specific recognition of α-2, 6-linked sialic acids. Superficial binding of SNA to the OC cells confirm the hyper-sialylated status of the disease. Further, SNA activates the signaling pathways of AKT and ERK1/2, which eventually promotes de-phosphorylation of dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp-1). Upon its translocation to the mitochondrial fission loci Drp-1 mediates the central role of switch in the mitochondrial phenotype to attain fragmented morphology. We confirmed mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization resulting in ROS generation and cytochrome-c release into the cytosol. SNA response resulted in an allied shift of the bioenergetics profile from Warburg phenotype to elevated mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, altogether highlighting the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in restraining cancer progression. Inability to replenish the SNA-induced energy crunch of the proliferating cancer cells on the event of perturbed respiratory outcome resulted in cell cycle arrest before G2/M phase. Our findings position SNA at a crucial juncture where it proves to be a promising candidate for impeding progression of OC. Altogether we unveil the novel aspect of identifying natural molecules harboring the inherent capability of targeting mitochondrial structural dynamics, to hold the future for
Krüger, S; Mirgos, M; Morlock, G E
A healthy diet is an important factor in a healthy lifestyle that is becoming increasingly important in today's society. The fruits of European elder (Sambucus nigra L.) are a rich source of bioactive compounds like anthocyanins. In this study, dried and fresh fruits of four cultivated and six wild growing plants were investigated for their anthocyanin pattern and content as well as their bioactive compounds. After separation on HPTLC plates silica gel 60 F254 with a mixture of ethyl acetate, 2-butanone, formic acid and water, the plates were quantitatively evaluated by densitometry and also subjected to various (bio)assays to investigate the samples for compounds acting as radical-scavengers, antimicrobials, estrogens, and acetylcholinesterase or tyrosinase inhibitors. The mean contents for the two most abundant anthocyanins in European elderberries, confirmed by HPTLC-ESI-MS, ranged from 159 to 647mg/100g in fresh and from 166 to 2764mg/100g in dried fruits for cyanidin-3-sambubioside, and from 112 to 521mg/100g in fresh and 95 to 226mg/100g in dried fruits for cyanidin-3-glucoside. Additionally, the anthocyanin content was higher in berries of cultivars than of wild growing plants. The anthocyanins' radical scavenging activity and antimicrobial effect against Aliivibrio fischeri were confirmed. Further, a radical scavenging compound affecting A. fischeri and acting as acetylcholinesterase inhibitor was tentatively assigned by its protonated molecule at m/z 456 as either ursolic or oleanolic acid by HPTLC-ESI-MS. HPTLC hyphenated with bioassays and mass spectrometry was selected as method of choice for fingerprinting, pattern recognition, and bioprofiling of elderberry samples as well as quantitation and confirmation of bioactive compounds therein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vukovic, Nenad; Sukdolak, Slobodan; Solujic, Slavica; Niciforovic, Neda
The chemical composition of essential oils obtained from the roots, stems, and leaves of Ballota nigra, growing in Serbia, was investigated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses. Kovats indices, mass spectra, and standard compounds were used to identify a total of 115 individual compounds. The plant produces two types of essential oils. Oils derived from stems and leaves were sesquiterpene rich (78.17% and 88.40%, respectively), containing principally beta-caryophyllene, germacrene D, and alpha-humulene, present in appreciable amounts. In contrast, oil derived from the root was dominated by p-vinylguiacol (9.24%), borneol (7.51%), myrtenol (7.13%), trans-pinocarveol (5.22%), pinocarvone (4.37%), 2-methyl-3-phenylpropanal (4.32%), and p-cymen-8-ol (4.30%). Essential oil obtained from the roots was evaluated for the antimicrobial activity against seven bacterial species and one fungi.
Bhattacharya, Sumangala; Christensen, Kathrine B; Olsen, Louise C B; Christensen, Lars P; Grevsen, Kai; Færgeman, Nils J; Kristiansen, Karsten; Young, Jette F; Oksbjerg, Niels
Obesity and insulin resistance in skeletal muscles are major features of type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we examined the potential of Sambucus nigra flower (elderflowers) extracts to stimulate glucose uptake (GU) in primary porcine myotubes and reduce fat accumulation (FAc) in Caenorhabditis elegans. Bioassay guided chromatographic fractionations of extracts and fractions resulted in the identification of naringenin and 5-O- caffeoylquinic acid exhibiting a significant increase in GU. In addition, phenolic compounds related to those found in elderflowers were also tested, and among these, kaempferol, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and caffeic acid increased GU significantly. FAc was significantly reduced in C. elegans, when treated with elderflower extracts, their fractions and the metabolites naringenin, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-5″-acetylglycoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside and the related phenolic compounds kaempferol and ferulic acid. The study indicates that elderflower extracts contain bioactive compounds capable of modulating glucose and lipid metabolism, suitable for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications.
Brazhnik, Elena; Cruz, Ana V.; Avila, Irene; Wahba, Marian I.; Novikov, Nikolay; Ilieva, Neda M.; McCoy, Alex J.; Gerber, Colin; Walters, Judith. R.
Excessive beta frequency oscillatory and synchronized activity has been reported in the basal ganglia of Parkinsonian patients and animal models of the disease. To gain insight into processes underlying this activity, this study explores relationships between oscillatory activity in motor cortex and basal ganglia output in behaving rats after dopamine cell lesion. During inattentive rest, seven days after lesion, increases in motor cortex-substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) coherence emerged in the 8–25 Hz range, with significant increases in local field potential (LFP) power in SNpr but not motor cortex. In contrast, during treadmill walking, marked increases in both motor cortex and SNpr LFP power, as well as coherence, emerged in the 25–40 Hz band with a peak frequency at 30–35 Hz. Spike-triggered waveform averages showed that 77% of SNpr neurons, 77% of putative cortical interneurons and 44% of putative pyramidal neurons were significantly phase-locked to the increased cortical LFP activity in the 25–40 Hz range. Although the mean lag between cortical and SNpr LFPs fluctuated around zero, SNpr neurons phase-locked to cortical LFP oscillations fired, on average, 17 ms after synchronized spiking in motor cortex. High coherence between LFP oscillations in cortex and SNpr supports the view that cortical activity facilitates entrainment and synchronization of activity in basal ganglia after loss of dopamine. However, the dramatic increases in cortical power and relative timing of phase-locked spiking in these areas suggest that additional processes help shape the frequency-specific tuning of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical network during ongoing motor activity. PMID:22674263
Robertson, G S; Damsma, G; Fibiger, H C
Dopamine (DA) is released not only from the terminals of the nigrostriatal projection, but also from the dendrites of these neurons, which arborize in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR). Although striatal DA release has been extensively studied by in vivo microdialysis, dendritic DA release in the SNR has not been characterized by this technique. Extracellular DA was monitored simultaneously in the ipsilateral striatum and SNR. The nigral probe was implanted at a 50 degree angle, permitting 2.5 mm of SNR to be dialyzed. Delivery of the tracer Fluoro-Gold into the striatal probe retrogradely labeled tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cell bodies and dendrites in the vicinity of the nigral probe. Hence, it could be demonstrated that dopaminergic neurons near the nigral probe projected to the vicinity of the striatal probe. Addition of 50 mM KCl to the SNR perfusion solution produced a 3.5-fold increase in DA and a 50% reduction in dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the SNR; in contrast, this manipulation in the SNR caused DA release in the striatum to be decreased by 20%, while striatal DOPAC was increased by 50%. Local administration of nomifensine (10 microM) in the SNR produced a sevenfold increase in SNR DA but had no effect on striatal DA. Systemic injection of d-amphetamine (2 mg/kg, s.c.) elevated DA in the SNR and striatum five- to sevenfold, while DOPAC was decreased in both structures by at least 40%. To determine the effect of tetrodotoxin (TTX), basal concentrations of DA in the SNR were first elevated threefold by including nomifensine (1 microM) in the nigral perfusion solution.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Tchabo, William; Ma, Yongkun; Kwaw, Emmanuel; Zhang, Haining; Xiao, Lulu; Apaliya, Maurice T
The four different methods of color measurement of wine proposed by Boulton, Giusti, Glories and Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) were applied to assess the statistical relationship between the phytochemical profile and chromatic characteristics of sulfur dioxide-free mulberry (Morus nigra) wine submitted to non-thermal maturation processes. The alteration in chromatic properties and phenolic composition of non-thermal aged mulberry wine were examined, aided by the used of Pearson correlation, cluster and principal component analysis. The results revealed a positive effect of non-thermal processes on phytochemical families of wines. From Pearson correlation analysis relationships between chromatic indexes and flavonols as well as anthocyanins were established. Cluster analysis highlighted similarities between Boulton and Giusti parameters, as well as Glories and CIE parameters in the assessment of chromatic properties of wines. Finally, principal component analysis was able to discriminate wines subjected to different maturation techniques on the basis of their chromatic and phenolics characteristics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Lima, Marcelo M S; Andersen, Monica L; Reksidler, Angela B; Vital, Maria A B F; Tufik, Sergio
As of late, dopaminergic neurotransmission has been recognized to be involved in the generation of sleep disturbances. Increasing evidence shows that sleep disturbances in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are mostly related to the disease itself, rather than being a secondary phenomenon. Evidence contained in the literature lends support to the hypothesis that the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway is closely involved in the regulation of sleep patterns. To test this hypothesis we examined the electrophysiological activity along the sleep-wake cycle of rats submitted to a surgically induced lesion of the SNpc by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). We demonstrated that a 50% lesion of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) suffices to produce disruptions of several parameters in the sleep-wake pattern of rats. A robust and constant decrease in the latency to the onset of slow wave sleep (SWS) was detected throughout the five days of recording in both light [F((22.16)) = 72.46, p<0.0001] and dark [F((22.16)) = 75.0, p<0.0001] periods. Also found was a pronounced increase in the percentage of sleep efficiency during the first four days of recording [F((21.15)) = 21.48, p<0.0001], in comparison to the sham group. Additionally, the reduction in the SNpc dopaminergic neurons provoked an ablation in the percentage of rapid eye movement sleep (REM) during three days of the sleep-wake recording period with a strong correlation (r = 0.91; p<0.0001) between the number of dopaminergic neurons lost and the percentage decrease of REM sleep on the first day of recording. On day 4, the percentage of REM sleep during the light and dark periods was increased, [F((22.16)) = 2.46, p<0.0007], a phenomenon consistent with REM rebound. We propose that dopaminergic neurons present in the SNpc possess a fundamental function in the regulation of sleep processes, particularly in promoting REM sleep.
Misalová, A; Durkovic, J; Mamonová, M; Priwitzer, T; Lengyelová, A; Hladká, D; Lux, A
Changes in anatomical organisation of the leaf, photosynthetic performance and wood formation were examined to evaluate the temporal and spatial patterns of acclimatisation of micropropagated slow-growing black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) plantlets to the ex vitro environment. Leaf structure differentiation, the rates of net photosynthesis (P(n)), transpiration (E) and stomatal conductance (g(s)), and secondary xylem growth were determined in the course of a 56-day acclimatisation. Differentiation of palisade parenchyma was observed 7 days after transfer. At this stage, the rates of P(n), E and g(s) reached maximum values, after which the rates of all three gas exchange parameters gradually decreased. The highest proportion of woody area occupied by vessels was also observed 7 days after transfer. An important feature of developing woody tissue is the difference in patterns of vessel distribution from the characteristic differentiation patterns of earlywood and latewood vessels in mature wood of ring-porous trees. Vessels with lumen areas over 3000 microm(2) were only differentiated in acclimatised plantlets, whereas vessels in stems sampled on days 0 and 7 had very small lumen areas of up to 560 microm(2). Full acclimatisation, observed 56 days after transfer to the ex vitro environment, was associated with the rapid growth of new in vivo formed leaves, very low rates of E and g(s), and much increased secondary xylem tissue within the stem area.
Wang, Gui-xiang; Lv, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Han, Shuo; Zong, Mei; Guo, Ning; Zeng, Xing-ying; Zhang, Yue-yun; Wang, You-ping; Liu, Fan
Broad phenotypic variations were obtained previously in derivatives from the asymmetric somatic hybridization of cauliflower “Korso” (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, 2n = 18, CC genome) and black mustard “G1/1” (Brassica nigra, 2n = 16, BB genome). However, the mechanisms underlying these variations were unknown. In this study, 28 putative introgression lines (ILs) were pre-selected according to a series of morphological (leaf shape and color, plant height and branching, curd features, and flower traits) and physiological (black rot/club root resistance) characters. Multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that these plants contained 18 chromosomes derived from “Korso.” Molecular marker (65 simple sequence repeats and 77 amplified fragment length polymorphisms) analysis identified the presence of “G1/1” DNA segments (average 7.5%). Additionally, DNA profiling revealed many genetic and epigenetic differences among the ILs, including sequence alterations, deletions, and variation in patterns of cytosine methylation. The frequency of fragments lost (5.1%) was higher than presence of novel bands (1.4%), and the presence of fragments specific to Brassica carinata (BBCC 2n = 34) were common (average 15.5%). Methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism analysis indicated that methylation changes were common and that hypermethylation (12.4%) was more frequent than hypomethylation (4.8%). Our results suggested that asymmetric somatic hybridization and alien DNA introgression induced genetic and epigenetic alterations. Thus, these ILs represent an important, novel germplasm resource for cauliflower improvement that can be mined for diverse traits of interest to breeders and researchers. PMID:27625659
Lutas, Andrew; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Yellen, Gary
Neurons use glucose to fuel glycolysis and provide substrates for mitochondrial respiration, but neurons can also use alternative fuels that bypass glycolysis and feed directly into mitochondria. To determine whether neuronal pacemaking depends on active glucose metabolism, we switched the metabolic fuel from glucose to alternative fuels, lactate or β-hydroxybutyrate, while monitoring the spontaneous firing of GABAergic neurons in mouse substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) brain slices. We found that alternative fuels, in the absence of glucose, sustained SNr spontaneous firing at basal rates, but glycolysis may still be supported by glycogen in the absence of glucose. To prevent any glycogen-fueled glycolysis, we directly inhibited glycolysis using either 2-deoxyglucose or iodoacetic acid. Inhibiting glycolysis in the presence of alternative fuels lowered SNr firing to a slower sustained firing rate. Surprisingly, we found that the decrease in SNr firing was not mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel activity, but if we lowered the perfusion flow rate or omitted the alternative fuel, KATP channels were activated and could silence SNr firing. The KATP-independent slowing of SNr firing that occurred with glycolytic inhibition in the presence of alternative fuels was consistent with a decrease in a nonselective cationic conductance. Although mitochondrial metabolism alone can prevent severe energy deprivation and KATP channel activation in SNr neurons, active glucose metabolism appears important for keeping open a class of ion channels that is crucial for the high spontaneous firing rate of SNr neurons. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3416336-12$15.00/0.
Tufekcioglu, Aydin; Kucuk, Mehmet; Saglam, Bulent; Bilgili, Ertugrul; Altun, Lokman
Fire is an important tool in the management of forest ecosystems. Although both prescribed and wildland fires are common in Turkey, few studies have addressed the influence of such disturbances on soil properties and root biomass dynamics. In this study, soil properties and root biomass responses to prescribed fire were investigated in 25-year-old corsican pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) stands in Kastamonu, Turkey. The stands were established by planting and were subjected to prescribed burning in July 2003. Soil respiration rates were determined every two months using soda-lime method over a two-year period. Fine (0-2 mm diameter) and small root (2-5 mm diameter) biomass were sampled approximately bimonthly using sequential coring method. Mean daily soil respiration ranged from 0.65 to 2.19 g Cm(-2) d(-1) among all sites. Soil respiration rates were significantly higher in burned sites than in controls. Soil respiration rates were correlated significantly with soil moisture and soil temperature. Fine root biomass was significantly lower in burned sites than in control sites. Mean fine root biomass values were 4940 kg ha(-1) for burned and 5450 kg ha(-1) for control sites. Soil pH was significantly higher in burned sites than in control sites in 15-35 cm soil depth. Soil organic matter content did not differ significantly between control and burned sites. Our results indicate that, depending on site conditions, fire could be used successfully as a tool in the management of forest stands in the study area.
Sánchez-Salcedo, Eva M; Tassotti, Michele; Del Rio, Daniele; Hernández, Francisca; Martínez, Juan José; Mena, Pedro
This study reports the (poly)phenolic fingerprinting and chemometric discrimination of leaves of eight mulberry clones from Morus alba and Morus nigra cultivated in Spain. UHPLC-MS(n) (Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) high-throughput analysis allowed the tentative identification of a total of 31 compounds. The phenolic profile of mulberry leaf was characterized by the presence of a high number of flavonol derivatives, mainly glycosylated forms of quercetin and kaempferol. Caffeoylquinic acids, simple phenolic acids, and some organic acids were also detected. Seven compounds were identified for the first time in mulberry leaves. The chemometric analysis (cluster analysis and principal component analysis) of the chromatographic data allowed the characterization of the different mulberry clones and served to explain the great intraspecific variability in mulberry secondary metabolism. This screening of the complete phenolic profile of mulberry leaves can assist the increasing interest for purposes related to quality control, germplasm screening, and bioactivity evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 and FGF receptor 3 are required for the development of the substantia nigra, and FGF-2 plays a crucial role for the rescue of dopaminergic neurons after 6-hydroxydopamine lesion.
Timmer, Marco; Cesnulevicius, Konstantin; Winkler, Christian; Kolb, Julia; Lipokatic-Takacs, Esther; Jungnickel, Julia; Grothe, Claudia
Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) is involved in the development and maintenance of the nervous system. Exogenous administration of FGF-2 increased dopaminergic (DA) graft survival in different animal models of Parkinson's disease. To study the physiological function of the endogenous FGF-2 system, we analyzed the nigrostriatal system of mice lacking FGF-2, mice overexpressing FGF-2, and FGF-receptor-3 (FGFR3)-deficient mice both after development and after 6-hydroxydopamine lesion. FGFR3-deficient mice (+/-) displayed a reduced number of DA neurons compared with the respective wild type. Whereas absence of FGF-2 led to significantly increased numbers of DA neurons, enhanced amount of the growth factor in mice overexpressing FGF-2 resulted in less tyrosine hydroxylase expression and a reduced DA cell density. The volumes of the substantia nigra were enlarged in both FGF-2(-/-) and in FGF-2 transgenic mice, suggesting an important role of FGF-2 for the establishment of the proper number of DA neurons and a normal sized substantia nigra during development. In a second set of experiments, the putative relevance of endogenous FGF-2 after neurotoxin application was investigated regarding the number of rescued DA neurons after partial 6-OHDA lesion. Interestingly, the results after lesion were directly opposed to the results after development: significantly less DA neurons survived in FGF-2(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice. Together, the results indicate that FGFR3 is crucially involved in regulating the number of DA neurons. The lack of FGF-2 seems to be (over)compensated during development, but, after lesion, compensation mechanisms fail. The transgenic mice showed that endogenous FGF-2 protects DA neurons from 6-OHDA neurotoxicity.
Tsuneki, H; Klink, R; Léna, C; Korn, H; Changeux, J P
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed in the midbrain ascending dopaminergic system, a target of many addictive drugs. Here we assessed the intracellular Ca2+ level by imaging fura-2-loaded cells in substantia nigra pars compacta in mouse brain slices, and we examined the influence on this level of prolonged exposures to nicotine using mice lacking the nAChR beta2-subunit. In control cells, superfusion with nicotine (10-100 microM) caused a long-lasting rise of intracellular Ca2+ level which depended on extracellular Ca2+. This nicotinic response was almost completely absent in beta2-/- mutant mice, leaving a small residual response to a high concentration (100 microM) of nicotine which was inhibited by the alpha7-subunit-selective antagonist, methyllycaconitine. Conversely, the alpha7-subunit-selective agonist choline (10 mM) caused a methyllycaconitine-sensitive increase in intracellular Ca2+ level both in wild-type and beta2-/- mutant mice. Nicotine-elicited Ca2+ mobilization was reduced by the Na+ channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) and by T-type Ca2+ channel blocking agents, whereas the choline-elicited Ca2+ increase was insensitive to TTX. Neither nicotine nor choline produced Ca2+ increase following inhibition of the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores by dantrolene. These results demonstrate that in nigral dopaminergic neurons, nicotine can elicit Ca2+ mobilization via activation of two distinct nAChR subtypes: that of beta2-subunit-containing nAChR followed by activation of Na+ channel and T-type Ca2+ channels, and/or activation of alpha7-subunit-containing nAChR. The Ca2+ influx due to nAChR activation is subsequently amplified by the recruitment of intracellular Ca2+ stores. This Ca2+ mobilization may possibly contribute to the long-term effects of nicotine on the dopaminergic system.
Wu, Fuzhong; Yang, Wanqin; Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Liqiang
To characterize the phytoextraction efficiency of a hybrid poplar (Populus deltoidsxPopulus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, a pot experiment in field was carried out in Sichuan basin, western China. After one growing period, the poplar accumulated the highest of 541.98+/-19.22 and 576.75+/-40.55 microg cadmium per plant with 110.77+/-12.68 and 202.54+/-19.12 g dry mass in these contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, respectively. Higher phytoextraction efficiency with higher cadmium concentration in tissues was observed in poplar growing in purple soil than that in alluvial soil at relative lower soil cadmium concentration. The poplar growing in alluvial soil had relative higher tolerance ability with lower reduction rates of morphological and growth characters than that in purple soil, suggesting that the poplar growing in alluvial soil might display the higher phytoextraction ability when cadmium contamination level increased. Even so, the poplars exhibited obvious cadmium transport from root to shoot in both soils regardless of cadmium contamination levels. It implies that this examined poplar can extract more cadmium than some hyperaccumulators. The results indicated that metal phytoextraction using the poplar can be applied to clean up soils moderately contaminated by cadmium in these purple soil and alluvial soil. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Senica, Mateja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja
Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) possesses high antioxidant activity and has been used to treat numerous medicinal disorders. In addition to their antioxidant properties, elderberry parts accumulate toxic cyanogenic glycosides (CGG). It has been proven that altitude influences the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites. In the present study we investigated the change of phenolics and CGG in elder leaves, flowers, and berries induced by different altitudes and locations. The data indicate that the accumulation of CGG and phenolics is affected by the altitude of the growing site. An increase of anthocyanin content was recorded in elder berries collected at higher elevations in both locations. Fruit collected at the foothills of location 2 contained 3343 µg g -1 anthocyanins as opposed to fruit from the hilltop, which contained 7729 µg g -1 . Elder berries contained the lowest levels of harmful CGG compared to other analysed plant parts. However, more cyanogenic glycosides were always present in plant parts collected at the hilltop. Accordingly, berries accumulated 0.11 µg g -1 CGG at the foothills and 0.59 µg g -1 CGG at the hilltop. Elder berries and flowers collected at the foothill were characterised by the lowest levels of both beneficial (phenolics) and harmful compounds (CGG) and are suitable for moderate consumption. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Alvarez-Maya, I.; Navarro-Quiroga, I.; Meraz-Ríos, M. A.; Aceves, J.; Martinez-Fong, D.
BACKGROUND: Recently, we synthesized a nonviral gene vector capable of transfecting cell lines taking advantage of neurotensin (NT) internalization. The vector is NT cross-linked with poly-L-lysine, to which a plasmid DNA was bound to form a complex (NT-polyplex). Nigral dopamine neurons are able to internalize NT, thus representing a target for gene transfer via NT-polyplex. This hypothesis was tested here using reporter genes encoding green fluorescent protein or chloramphenicol acetyl transferase. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NT-polyplex was injected into the substantia nigra. Double immunofluorescence labeling was used to reveal the cell type involved in the propidium iodide-labeled polyplex internalization and reporter gene expression. RESULTS: Polyplex internalization was observed within dopamine neurons but not within glial cells, and was prevented by both hypertonic sucrose solution and SR-48692, a selective nonpeptide antagonist of NT receptors. Reporter gene expression was observed in dopamine neurons from 48 hr up to 15 days after NT-polyplex injection, and was prevented by SR-48692. However, no expression was seen when the NT-polyplex was injected into the ansiform lobule of the cerebellum, which contains low- but not high-affinity NT receptors. Neither internalization nor expression was observed in cultured glial cells, despite the NT-polyplex binding to those cells that was prevented by levocabastine, a low-affinity NT receptor antagonist. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that high-affinity NT receptors mediate the uptake of NT-polyplex with the subsequent reporter gene expression in vivo. NT polyfection may be used to transfer genes of physiologic interest to nigrostriatal dopamine neurons, and to produce transgenic animal models of dopamine-related diseases. PMID:11471555
Schaefer, H Martin; Braun, Julius
Communication mediates interactions between organisms and can be based on signals or cues. Signals are selected for their signaling function, whereas cues evolve for reasons other than signaling. To be evolutionarily stable, communication needs to be reliable on average, but the mechanisms that enforce reliability are hotly debated in light of strong environmental influence on signals and cues. While fruit quality in black elder (Sambucus nigra) is unrelated to fruit color, it is indicated by alternative pedicel phenotypes. Information on fruit quality has thus been transferred from the fruit to the developmentally associated pedicels, which are environmentally determined cues. Within each phenotype, color variation indicates fruit quality. Communication by black elder is thus reliable, but the proximate mechanisms enforcing reliability are habitat specific. High irradiance increases both the contrasts of the visual cue and fruit quality in the anthocyanin-based red pedicel phenotype, while shaded plants of the chlorophyll-based green phenotype apparently use signals by forgoing photosynthesis. This is because lower chlorophyll content in green pedicels creates contrasting pedicels, and higher contrasts indicate higher sugar content in the fruits of green pedicels. Because anthocyanins are light-induced, plants use cues when exposed to high irradiance, whereas they apparently use costly signals in the shade by reducing chlorophyll content in the pedicels. In behavioral field and laboratory experiments we document that avian seed dispersers select among pedicel phenotypes that indicate different fruit quality. Plants can thus increase their reproductive success by sending highly informative cues. Our results indicate how reliable information transfer can be maintained both in cues and signals in spite of substantial environmental influence on visual traits.
Koutavas, A.; Dimitrakopoulos, A. P.
We present a 750-year long tree-ring chronology from black pines (Pinus nigra) in Valia Kalda National Park, Pindos Mountains, Greece. The chronology shows a strong climate signal which consists of significant negative correlation (R=-0.5) with summer temperature (Jun-Jul-Aug-Sep), and positive correlation with summer precipitation. We exploit these relationships to reconstruct summer climate from ~1250 CE to present. In particular we investigate the character of the Little Ice Age (LIA) on mountainous Greece. We find evidence for cooler/wetter summers during the 18th and 19th centuries, but warmer/drier summers during the 14th through 17th centuries, during some of the coldest periods of the LIA in Northern Europe including the Maunder Minimum. This counter-intuitive pattern suggests the LIA had distinct signatures in the Easter Mediterranean, diverging from those of Northern Europe. The temperature pattern reconstructed here is remarkably similar to a recent reconstruction of summer temperatures from maximum latewood density (MXD) of Pinus heldreichii on Mount Olympus, just 150 km east of our site. However, because of the ambivalence of the climate signal with respect to temperature vs. precipitation in both of these reconstructions, there remains uncertainty as to whether the LIA was primarily warm, or dry, or some combination. We advocate for further reconstructions of LIA climate in the Balkan Peninsula and Eastern Mediterranean to explore relationships with Northern Europe and elucidate the broader climatic pattern and dynamical connections.
Kinoshita, Ken-ichi; Tada, Yayoi; Muroi, Yoshikage; Unno, Toshihiro; Ishii, Toshiaki
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). In PD, thinking and retrieval deficits often arise from cognitive impairments. However, the mechanism of cognitive disorders in PD remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated cognitive function in PD model mice produced by intraperitoneal administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), which specifically destroys the DAergic neurons in the SNpc. We evaluated the cognitive function of MPTP-treated mice (PD mice) using the contextual fear conditioning test. In the test, each experiment consists of three phases: training, re-exposure, and testing. Mice were trained with a foot shock (a weak unconditioned stimulus: 1mA/2s duration, once, or an intense unconditioned stimulus: 2mA/2s duration, twice), and 24h later, mice were re-exposed to the training context for 3min to determine reconsolidation or 30min to determine extinction. The percentage of time spent freezing was measured during the test session as indexes of memory consolidation, reconsolidation, and extinction. Reconsolidation of PD mice occurred normally but memory extinction was facilitated in PD mice compared to control mice. Moreover, memory retention in PD mice was attenuated earlier than in controls following repeated conditioned stimuli every day. PD mice with selective loss of DAergic neurons in the SNpc showed attenuated memory retention, probably via facilitated extinction learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Palle-Reisch, Monika; Cichna-Markl, Margit; Hochegger, Rupert
The paper presents a duplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of three potentially allergenic mustard species commonly used in food: white mustard (Sinapis alba), black mustard (Brassica nigra) and brown mustard (Brassica juncea). White mustard is detected in the "green" and black/brown mustard in the "yellow" channel. The duplex real-time PCR assay does not show cross-reactivity with other Brassicaceae species including broccoli, cauliflower, radish and rapeseed. Low cross-reactivities (difference in the Ct value ⩾ 11.91 compared with the positive control) were obtained with cumin, fenugreek, ginger, rye and turmeric. When applying 500 ng DNA per PCR tube, the duplex real-time PCR assay allowed the detection of white, black and brown mustard in brewed model sausages down to a concentration of 5mg/kg in 10 out of 10 replicates. The duplex real-time PCR assay was applied to verify correct labelling of commercial foodstuffs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Orduna, Tomás A; Lloveras, Susana C; Echazarreta, Sofía E; Garro, Santiago L; González, Gustavo D; Falcone, Claudia C
We describe a case of a 32-year-old man, resident in Buenos Aires, with dermatologic manifestations compatible with gnathostomiasis. The patient had traveled to Colombia in the month prior to the onset of symptoms. There, he repeatedly ate ceviche (raw fish marinated in lemon juice). He presented with an erythematous migratory panniculitis accompanied by eosinophilia. He underwent skin biopsy of a lesion and pathological diagnosis was "eosinophilic panniculitis". The triad of migratory panniculitis, eosinophilia and consume of raw fish during the trip to Colombia was suggestive of gnathostomiasis. Ivermectin treatment started out with good initial response but subsequent relapse. We performed a new treatment with the same drug with good results and no relapses during three years of follow up. The dermatological disease is common upon return from a trip, and is the third leading cause of morbidity in travelers. It is very important to recognize cutaneous manifestations of disease as many of them are potentially serious and may compromise the patient's life if not promptly diagnosed and treated.
The pharmaceutical and food industries expect detailed knowledge on the physicochemical properties of elderberry fruit extracts, their stability and microbiological quality, as well as the polyphenol content in elderberry cultivars. The characteristics of the extracts might be additionally modified by citric acid, which improves the stability of anthocyanins and protects processed fruits and syrups from pathogenic microorganisms. The choice of the method with citric acid was a consequence of the physicochemical charac teristics of elderberry pigments, which are not stable under the effect of light in alcoholic solutions. The aim of study was to analyze the properties of elderberry fruit extracts regarding polyphenol content and antiradical activity, as well as their stability and microbiological quality. The plant material consisted of fruit from four cultivars (Alleso, Korsor, Sampo, Samyl) of black elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.). The following were determined in fruit extracts: polyphe- nolic content (HPLC), antiradical activity (ABTS and DPPH) and stability and microbiological quality. The HPLC analysis of polyphenols demonstrated that the extracts from fruits collected from cv. Samyl had the highest 3-sambubioside cyanidin content and those from cv. Korsor contained the highest quantity of 3-glucoside cyanidin. The extracts from cv. Sampo fruit had a dominant 3-sambubioside-5-gluco- side cyanidin and 3,5-diglucoside cyanidin content. The highest quercetin (5.92 mg 100 mg-1 of extract) and caffeic acid (1.21 mg 100 mg-1 of extract) content was found in fruit extracts from cv. Alleso. The cultivars Samyl and Korsor had a higher level of anthocyanins and higher antiradical activity (ABTS) in fruit extracts than cv. Alleso and Sampo. The antiradical activity (DPPH) of fruit extracts from elderberry cultivars as- sessed in this research was similar. The degradation index for all fruit extracts was similar (DI = 1.035). The microbiological species detected in
Eison, A S; Eison, M S; Iversen, S D
The behavioural response following infusion of a novel, stable substance P (SP) analogue, DiMe-C7, into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of rats was characterized and contrasted with the response to an equal dose of the parent compound SP. DiMe-C7 produced a longer-lasting behavioural stimulation than SP as evidenced in several behaviours, including locomotor activity, wet dog shakes, rearing and grooming. DiMe-C7-induced locomotor activity and rearing were potentiated by concurrent peripheral administration of D-amphetamine and blocked by pretreatment with haloperidol. Such responses to DiMe-C7 may thus be dependent upon dopaminergic activity. When given immediately following VTA infusion of DiMe-C7, morphine decreased, while naloxone had no effect upon most behavioural measures. The effect of methysergide on DiMe-C7 or SP into the substantia nigra reticulata produced a pattern of responses similar to nature to those produced by VTA infusion but different with respect to time course. These findings suggest that DiMe-C7 is a metabolically stable analogue of substance P which manifests prolonged actions on behaviour when centrally administered. Further, a role for central dopaminergic mechanisms is implicated in DiMe-C7-induced behavioural action.
Brown, Corrine S.; Luebbert, Joanne; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Schamber, Jason L.; Rosenberg, Daniel H.
Sea duck populations are declining in Alaska. The reasons for the decline are not known; environmental lead exposure is one suspected cause. Thirty wild Steller's eider ducks (Polysticta stelleri) and 40 wild black scoter ducks (Melanitta nigra) were tested for blood lead levels using a portable blood lead analyzer (LeadCare; ESA, Inc., Chelmsford, Massachusetts 01824, USA). Sixty-seven and one-tenth percent of the sea ducks had undetectable blood lead levels, 30.0% had values indicating normal or background lead exposure, and 2.9% had values indicating lead exposure. None of the birds had values indicating lead toxicity, and no birds demonstrated clinical signs of toxicity. Birds in areas with higher human population density had higher blood lead levels than those in less densely populated areas. This is the first time a portable blood lead analyzer has been utilized with sea ducks in a field setting. Because it provides immediate results, it is valuable as a screening tool for investigators carrying out surgical procedures on birds in the field as well as establishing baseline blood lead data on sea ducks. Lead exposure does occur in wild sea ducks, and the study indicates that additional research is needed in order to determine the role environmental lead plays in declining sea duck populations.
Wilkie, Iain C.
The skeletal morphology of the arm spine joint of the brittlestar Ophiocomina nigra was examined by scanning electron microscopy and the associated epidermis, connective tissue structures, juxtaligamental system and muscle by optical and transmission electron microscopy. The behaviour of spines in living animals was observed and two experiments were conducted to establish if the spine ligament is mutable collagenous tissue: these determined (1) if animals could detach spines to which plastic tags had been attached and (2) if the extension under constant load of isolated joint preparations was affected by high potassium stimulation. The articulation normally operates as a flexible joint in which the articular surfaces are separated by compliant connective tissue. The articular surfaces comprise a reniform apposition and peg-in-socket mechanical stop, and function primarily to stabilise spines in the erect position. Erect spines can be completely immobilised, which depends on the ligament having mutable tensile properties, as was inferred from the ability of animals to detach tagged spines and the responsiveness of isolated joint preparations to high potassium. The epidermis surrounding the joint has circumferential constrictions that facilitate compression folding and unfolding when the spine is inclined. The interarticular connective tissue is an acellular meshwork of collagen fibril bundles and may serve to reduce frictional forces between the articular surfaces. The ligament consists of parallel bundles of collagen fibrils and 7–14 nm microfibrils. Its passive elastic recoil contributes to the re-erection of inclined spines. The ligament is permeated by cell processes containing large dense-core vesicles, which belong to two types of juxtaligamental cells, one of which is probably peptidergic. The spine muscle consists of obliquely striated myocytes that are linked to the skeleton by extensions of their basement membranes. Muscle contraction may serve mainly to
Fichot, Régis; Laurans, Françoise; Monclus, Romain; Moreau, Alain; Pilate, Gilles; Brignolas, Franck
Six Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. x P. nigra L. genotypes were selected to investigate whether stem xylem anatomy correlated with gas exchange rates, water-use efficiency (WUE) and growth performance. Clonal copies of the genotypes were grown in a two-plot common garden test under contrasting water regimes, with one plot maintained irrigated and the other one subjected to moderate summer water deficit. The six genotypes displayed a large range of xylem anatomy, mean vessel and fibre diameter varying from about 40 to 60 microm and from 7.5 to 10.5 microm, respectively. Decreased water availability resulted in a reduced cell size and an important rise in vessel density, but the extent of xylem plasticity was both genotype and trait dependent. Vessel diameter and theoretical xylem-specific hydraulic conductivity correlated positively with stomatal conductance, carbon isotope discrimination and growth performance-related traits and negatively with intrinsic WUE, especially under water deficit conditions. Vessel diameter and vessel density measured under water deficit conditions correlated with the relative losses in biomass production in response to water deprivation; this resulted from the fact that a more plastic xylem structure was generally accompanied by a larger loss in biomass production.
Duboscq, Julie; Micheletta, Jérôme; Agil, Muhammad; Hodges, Keith; Thierry, Bernard; Engelhardt, Antje
In primates, females typically drive the evolution of the social system and present a wide diversity of social structures. To understand this diversity, it is necessary to document the consistency and/or flexibility of female social structures across and within species, contexts, and environments. Macaques (Macaca sp.) are an ideal taxon for such comparative study, showing both consistency and variation in their social relations. Their social styles, constituting robust sets of social traits, can be classified in four grades, from despotic to tolerant. However, tolerant species are still understudied, especially in the wild. To foster our understanding of tolerant societies and to assess the validity of the concept of social style, we studied female crested macaques, Macaca nigra, under entirely natural conditions. We assessed their degree of social tolerance by analyzing the frequency, intensity, and distribution of agonistic and affiliative behaviors, their dominance gradient, their bared-teeth display, and their level of conciliatory tendency. We also analyzed previously undocumented behavioral patterns in grade 4 macaques: reaction upon approach and distribution of affiliative behavior across partners. We compared the observed patterns to data from other populations of grade 4 macaques and from species of other grades. Overall, female crested macaques expressed a tolerant social style, with low intensity, frequently bidirectional, and reconciled conflicts. Dominance asymmetry was moderate, associated with an affiliative bared-teeth display. Females greatly tolerated one another in close proximity. The observed patterns matched the profile of other tolerant macaques and were outside the range of patterns of more despotic species. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of females’ social behavior in a tolerant macaque species under natural conditions and as such, contributes to a better understanding of macaque societies. It also highlights the
Gathse, A; Obengui; Ibara, J R
A prospective survey has been carried out in the Brazzaville (Congo) dermatology service in order to specify dermatosis linked to the use of bleaching agents in 104 Congolese women consulting for this problem. The used bleaching agents were topical corticoids based products for 40 cases, hydroquinone for 32 cases, and hydroquinone associated with topical dermocorticoids for 32 cases. Acne was the most frequent motive for consulting (24%), followed by the paradoxical peri-orbital hyperpigmentation (21.1%), profuse mycosis (16.3%) and vibices(8.6%). The results of this survey were not superimposable to those of Dakar where infectious dermatosis were the first reason for consulting.
Ren, M. Q.; Xie, J. P.; Wang, X. S.; Ong, W. Y.; Leong, S. K.; Watt, F.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neuronal degenerative brain disease of the elderly, and is caused by the selective degeneration of neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the brain, resulting in a reduced production of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Iron has been linked to dopaminergic cell death in Parkinson's disease because of its potential to promote free radicals, leading to oxidative stress. The present study is aimed at using the techniques of nuclear microscopy to elucidate the iron concentrations and distributions in the SN of both young and old monkeys following unilateral 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioning. A group of three old monkeys (older than 7 years) and a group of three young monkeys (younger than 7 years) were unilaterally MPTP-lesioned (right side) to induce parkinsonism and sacrificed after 35 days. The left side SN was used as a control. This time interval was chosen to correspond to an average 50% loss of dopamine producing cells in the lesioned right side SN. We have observed a significant difference in iron concentrations between the SNs of the young and old monkeys (increasing from an average of 233 to 1092 parts per million dry weight). When comparing the lesioned and non-lesioned SNs of the same animal, we found no significant difference in iron levels for each young monkey. However we have found a slight increase in iron (approximately 10%) between the lesioned SN and control SN for old monkeys. We have also observed that in the SN of younger primates, there is a weak anti-correlation in the SN iron levels with the neuron distribution. In the older monkeys, however, we have observed a proliferation of iron-rich granules, which appear to be more strongly anti-correlated with the distribution of neurons. The iron-cell anti-correlation occurs both in the control as well as the lesioned SN. Our results suggest that iron, particularly in the form of iron-rich deposits, accumulates in specific sites
Christensen, Kathrine B; Petersen, Rasmus K; Kristiansen, Karsten; Christensen, Lars P
Obesity is one of the predisposing factors for the development of overt Type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D is caused by a combination of insulin resistance and beta-cell failure and can be treated with insulin sensitizing drugs that target the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma. Extracts of elderflowers (Sambucus nigra) have been found to activate PPARgamma and to stimulate insulin-dependent glucose uptake suggesting that they have a potential use in the prevention and/or treatment of insulin resistance. Bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation of a methanol extract of elderflowers resulted in the identification of two well-known PPARgamma agonists; alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid as well as the flavanone naringenin. Naringenin was found to activate PPARgamma without stimulating adipocyte differentiation. However, the bioactivities of these three metabolites were not able to fully account for the observed PPARgamma activation of the crude elderflower extracts and further studies are needed to determine whether this is due synergistic effects and/or other ligand-independent mechanisms. Elderflower metabolites such as quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid were unable to activate PPARgamma. These findings suggest that flavonoid glycosides cannot activate PPARgamma, whereas some of their aglycones are potential agonists of PPARgamma.
Ibañez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Hernández, Adán; Florán, Benjamin; Galarraga, Elvira; Tapia, Dagoberto; Valdiosera, Rene; Erlij, David; Aceves, Jorge; Bargas, José
The effects of activating dopaminergic D1 and D2 class receptors of the subthalamic projections that innervate the pars reticulata of the subtantia nigra (SNr) were explored in slices of the rat brain using the whole cell patch-clamp technique. Excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) that could be blocked by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxalene-2,3-dione and D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid were evoked onto reticulata GABAergic projection neurons by local field stimulation inside the subthalamic nucleus in the presence of bicuculline. Bath application of (RS)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine hydrochloride (SKF-38393), a dopaminergic D1-class receptor agonist, increased evoked EPSCs by approximately 30% whereas the D2-class receptor agonist, trans-(-)-4aR-4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a,9-octahydro-5-propyl-1H-pyrazolo(3,4-g)quinoline (quinpirole), reduced EPSCs by approximately 25%. These apparently opposing actions were blocked by the specific D1- and D2-class receptor antagonists: R-(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetra-hydro-1H-3-benzazepinehydrochloride (SCH 23390) and S-(-)-5-amino-sulfonyl-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-methyl]-2-methoxybenzamide (sulpiride), respectively. Both effects were accompanied by changes in the paired-pulse ratio, indicative of a presynaptic site of action. The presynaptic location of dopamine receptors at the subthalamonigral projections was confirmed by mean-variance analysis. The effects of both SKF-38393 and quinpirole could be observed on terminals contacting the same postsynaptic neuron. Sulpiride and SCH 23390 enhanced and reduced the evoked EPSC, respectively, suggesting a constitutive receptor activation probably arising from endogenous dopamine. These data suggest that dopamine presynaptically modulates the subthalamic projection that targets GABAergic neurons of the SNr. Implications of this modulation for basal ganglia function are discussed.
Zheng, Tangchun; Li, Shuang; Zang, Lina; Dai, Lijuan; Yang, Chuanping; Qu, Guan-Zheng
In Arabidopsis, AP1 is a floral meristem identity gene and plays an important role in floral organ development. In this study, PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 were isolated from the male reproductive buds of poplar (Populus simonii × P. nigra), which are the orthologs of AP1 in Arabidopsis, by sequence analysis. Northern blot and qRT-PCR analysis showed that PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 exhibited high expression level in early inflorescence development of poplar. Subcellular localization showed the PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 proteins are localized in the nucleus. Overexpression of PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 in tobacco under the control of a CaMV 35S promoter significantly enhanced early flowering. These transgenic plants also showed much earlier stem initiation and higher rates of photosynthesis than did wild-type tobacco. qRT-PCR analysis further indicated that overexpression of PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 resulted in up-regulation of genes related to flowering, such as NtMADS4, NtMADS5 and NtMADS11. Overexpression of PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 in Arabidopsis also induced early flowering, but did not complement the ap1-10 floral morphology to any noticeable extent. This study indicates that PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 play a role in floral transition of poplar.
Zheng, Tangchun; Li, Shuang; Zang, Lina; Dai, Lijuan; Yang, Chuanping; Qu, Guan-Zheng
In Arabidopsis, AP1 is a floral meristem identity gene and plays an important role in floral organ development. In this study, PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 were isolated from the male reproductive buds of poplar (Populus simonii × P. nigra), which are the orthologs of AP1 in Arabidopsis, by sequence analysis. Northern blot and qRT-PCR analysis showed that PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 exhibited high expression level in early inflorescence development of poplar. Subcellular localization showed the PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 proteins are localized in the nucleus. Overexpression of PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 in tobacco under the control of a CaMV 35S promoter significantly enhanced early flowering. These transgenic plants also showed much earlier stem initiation and higher rates of photosynthesis than did wild-type tobacco. qRT-PCR analysis further indicated that overexpression of PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 resulted in up-regulation of genes related to flowering, such as NtMADS4, NtMADS5 and NtMADS11. Overexpression of PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 in Arabidopsis also induced early flowering, but did not complement the ap1-10 floral morphology to any noticeable extent. This study indicates that PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 play a role in floral transition of poplar. PMID:25360739
Levanič, Tom; Popa, Ionel; Poljanšek, Simon; Nechita, Constantin
Increase in temperature and decrease in precipitation pose a major future challenge for sustainable ecosystem management in Romania. To understand ecosystem response and the wider social consequences of environmental change, we constructed a 396-year long (1615-2010) drought sensitive tree-ring width chronology (TRW) of Pinus nigra var. banatica (Georg. et Ion.) growing on steep slopes and shallow organic soil. We established a statistical relationship between TRW and two meteorological parameters-monthly sum of precipitation (PP) and standardised precipitation index (SPI). PP and SPI correlate significantly with TRW (r = 0.54 and 0.58) and are stable in time. Rigorous statistical tests, which measure the accuracy and prediction ability of the model, were all significant. SPI was eventually reconstructed back to 1688, with extreme dry and wet years identified using the percentile method. By means of reconstruction, we identified two so far unknown extremely dry years in Romania--1725 and 1782. Those 2 years are almost as dry as 1946, which was known as the "year of great famine." Since no historical documents for these 2 years were available in local archives, we compared the results with those from neighbouring countries and discovered that both years were extremely dry in the wider region (Slovakia, Hungary, Anatolia, Syria, and Turkey). While the 1800-1900 period was relatively mild, with only two moderately extreme years as far as weather is concerned, the 1900-2009 period was highly salient owing to the very high number of wet and dry extremes--five extremely wet and three extremely dry events (one of them in 1946) were identified.
Chiba, Tomohiro; Sakurada, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Rie; Yamaguchi, Kohji; Kimura, Yasuhisa; Kioka, Noriyuki; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Matsuo, Michinori; Ueda, Kazumitsu
Hypercholesterolemia is one of the key risk factors for coronary heart disease, a major cause of death in developed countries. Suppression of NPC1L1-mediated dietary and biliary cholesterol absorption is predicted to be one of the most effective ways to reduce the risk of hypercholesterolemia. In a screen for natural products that inhibit ezetimibe glucuronide binding to NPC1L1, we found a novel compound, fomiroid A, in extracts of the mushroom Fomitopsis nigra. Fomiroid A is a lanosterone derivative with molecular formula C30H48O3. Fomiroid A inhibited ezetimibe glucuronide binding to NPC1L1, and dose-dependently prevented NPC1L1-mediated cholesterol uptake and formation of esterified cholesterol in NPC1L1-expressing Caco2 cells. Fomiroid A exhibited a pharmacological chaperone activity that corrected trafficking defects of the L1072T/L1168I mutant of NPC1L1. Because ezetimibe does not have such an activity, the binding site and mode of action of fomiroid A are likely to be distinct from those of ezetimibe. PMID:25551765
Marino, Giovanni; Brunetti, Cecilia; Tattini, Massimiliano; Romano, Andrea; Biasioli, Franco; Tognetti, Roberto; Loreto, Francesco; Ferrini, Francesco; Centritto, Mauro
Isoprene is synthesized through the 2-C-methylerythritol-5-phosphate (MEP) pathway that also produces abscisic acid (ABA). Increases in foliar free ABA concentration during drought induce stomatal closure and may also alter ethylene biosynthesis. We hypothesized a role of isoprene biosynthesis in protecting plants challenged by increasing water deficit, by influencing ABA production and ethylene evolution. We performed a split-root experiment on Populus nigra L. subjected to three water treatments: well-watered (WW) plants with both root sectors kept at pot capacity, plants with both root compartments allowed to dry for 5 days (DD) and plants with one-half of the roots irrigated to pot capacity, while the other half did not receive water (WD). WD and WW plants were similar in photosynthesis, water relations, foliar ABA concentration and isoprene emission, whereas these parameters were significantly affected in DD plants: leaf isoprene emission increased despite the fact that photosynthesis declined by 85% and the ABA-glucoside/free ABA ratio decreased significantly. Enhanced isoprene biosynthesis in water-stressed poplars may have contributed to sustaining leaf ABA biosynthesis by keeping the MEP pathway active. However, this enhancement in ABA was accompanied by no change in ethylene biosynthesis, likely confirming the antagonistic role between ABA and ethylene. These results may indicate a potential cross-talk among isoprene, ABA and ethylene under drought. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Zecca, Luigi; Stroppolo, Antonella; Gatti, Alberto; Tampellini, Davide; Toscani, Marco; Gallorini, Mario; Giaveri, Giuseppe; Arosio, Paolo; Santambrogio, Paolo; Fariello, Ruggero G.; Karatekin, Erdem; Kleinman, Mark H.; Turro, Nicholas; Hornykiewicz, Oleh; Zucca, Fabio A.
In this study, a comparative analysis of metal-related neuronal vulnerability was performed in two brainstem nuclei, the locus coeruleus (LC) and substantia nigra (SN), known targets of the etiological noxae in Parkinson's disease and related disorders. LC and SN pars compacta neurons both degenerate in Parkinson's disease and other Parkinsonisms; however, LC neurons are comparatively less affected and with a variable degree of involvement. In this study, iron, copper, and their major molecular forms like ferritins, ceruloplasmin, neuromelanin (NM), manganese-superoxide dismutase (SOD), and copper/zinc-SOD were measured in LC and SN of normal subjects at different ages. Iron content in LC was much lower than that in SN, and the ratio heavy-chain ferritin/iron in LC was higher than in the SN. The NM concentration was similar in LC and SN, but the iron content in NM of LC was much lower than SN. In both regions, heavy- and light-chain ferritins were present only in glia and were not detectable in neurons. These data suggest that in LC neurons, the iron mobilization and toxicity is lower than that in SN and is efficiently buffered by NM. The bigger damage occurring in SN could be related to the higher content of iron. Ferritins accomplish the same function of buffering iron in glial cells. Ceruloplasmin levels were similar in LC and SN, but copper was higher in LC. However, the copper content in NM of LC was higher than that of SN, indicating a higher copper mobilization in LC neurons. Manganese-SOD and copper/zinc-SOD had similar age trend in LC and SN. These results may explain at least one of the reasons underlying lower vulnerability of LC compared to SN in Parkinsonian syndromes. PMID:15210960
Wang, Qingshan; Oyarzabal, Esteban; Wilson, Belinda; Qian, Li; Hong, Jau-Shyong
The distribution of microglia varies greatly throughout the brain. The substantia nigra (SN) contains the highest density of microglia among different brain regions. However, the mechanism underlying this uneven distribution remains unclear. Substance P (SP) is a potent proinflammatory neuropeptide with high concentrations in the SN. We recently demonstrated that SP can regulate nigral microglial activity. In the present study, we further investigated the involvement of SP in modulating nigral microglial density in postnatal developing mice. Nigral microglial density was quantified in wild-type (WT) and SP-deficient mice from postnatal day 1 (P1) to P30. SP was detected at high levels in the SN as early as P1 and microglial density did not peak until around P30 in WT mice. SP-deficient mice (TAC1(-/-)) had a significant reduction in nigral microglial density. No differences in the ability of microglia to proliferate were observed between TAC1(-/-) and WT mice, suggesting that SP may alter microglial density through chemotaxic recruitment. SP was confirmed to dose-dependently attract microglia using a trans-well culture system. Mechanistic studies revealed that both the SP receptor neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) and the superoxide-producing enzyme NADPH oxidase (NOX2) were necessary for SP-mediated chemotaxis in microglia. Furthermore, genetic ablation and pharmacological inhibition of NK1R or NOX2 attenuated SP-induced microglial migration. Finally, protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) was recognized to couple SP/NK1R-mediated NOX2 activation. Altogether, we found that SP partly accounts for the increased density of microglia in the SN through chemotaxic recruitment via a novel NK1R-NOX2 axis-mediated pathway. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.
Yu, Shu-Yang; Cao, Chen-Jie; Zuo, Li-Jun; Chen, Ze-Jie; Lian, Teng-Hong; Wang, Fang; Hu, Yang; Piao, Ying-Shan; Li, Li-Xia; Guo, Peng; Liu, Li; Yu, Qiu-Jin; Wang, Rui-Dan; Chan, Piu; Chen, Sheng-di; Wang, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Wei
Transcranial ultrasound is a useful tool for providing the evidences for the early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD). However, the relationship between hyper echogenicity in substantia nigra (SN) and clinical symptoms of PD patients remains unknown, and the role of dysfunction of iron metabolism on the pathogenesis of SN hyper echogenicity is unclear. PD patients was detected by transcranial sonography and divided into with no hyper echogenicity (PDSN-) group and with hyper echogenicity (PDSN+) group. Motor symptoms (MS) and non-motor symptoms (NMS) were evaluated, and the levels of iron and related proteins in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were detected for PD patients. Data comparison between the two groups and correlation analyses were performed. PDSN+ group was significantly older, and had significantly older age of onset, more advanced Hohen-Yahr stage, higher SCOPA-AUT score and lower MoCA score than PDSN- group (P < 0.05). Compared with PDSN- group, the levels of transferrin and light-ferritin in serum and iron level in CSF were significantly elevated (P < 0.05), but ferroportin level in CSF was significantly decreased in PDSN+ group (P < 0.05). PD patients with hyper echogenicity in SN are older, at more advanced disease stage, have severer motor symptoms, and non-motor symptoms of cognitive impairment and autonomic dysfunction. Hyper echogenicity of SN in PD patients is related to dysfunction of iron metabolism, involving increased iron transport from peripheral system to central nervous system, reduction of intracellular iron release and excessive iron deposition in brain.
Zhang, Ying; Wu, Xiao-qing; Yu, Zuo-yu
To investigate the differences of total flavonoid (TF) content and antifree radical activity between the-leaves of bamboo and Gingo biloba, as well as their seasonal changes. Spectrophotometery and Chemiluminescence methods were adopted to determine TF and half inhibiting concentration (IC50) on active oxygen free radicals of the leaves of bamboo, phyllostachys nigra (Lodd. ex. Lindl.) Munro, and Ginkgo biloba. Two kinds of leaves were picked in the same plot at the same time monthly. The TF of bamboo leaf varied in the range of 0.67%-1.71% (in dry basis of leaf, below as same) throughout a year, the minimum apparing in June and the maximum in July, then going down obviously, and remaining at a much high lever during November to next April. However, the TF of Ginkgo bilabo leaf varied in 1.48%-2.49% during whole growing period, early April to late November. It ascended with the growth of leaf, reaching the top during June and July, the going down slowly, and finally another peak appeared before defoliation. The average IC50 values on O2-. and .OH of bamboo leaf were at 11.0 micrograms.mL-1 and 5.3 mg.mL-1, and Ginkgo biloba at 19.0 micrograms.mL-1 and 3.6 mg.mL-1, respectively. The TF content and anti-free radical activity the bamboo leaf are comparable with the leaf of ginkgo biloba, which is a kind of potential resources for natural antioxidant and free radical scavenger.
Coleman, Adrienne E; Merola, Valentina
To identify clinical signs associated with oral exposure to black walnut tree (Juglans nigra) wood, nuts, or nut hulls in dogs and to compare clinical syndromes between dogs that ingested wood and dogs that ingested the walnuts or nut hulls. Retrospective case series. 93 dogs. Records of dogs with oral exposure to black walnut wood, nuts, or nut hulls between November 2001 and December 2012 were retrieved from the Animal Poison Control Center database. Records were reviewed, and data regarding signalment; exposure; time of onset, type, and duration of clinical signs; serum biochemical abnormalities; treatment; and response to treatment were collected. Results were compared statistically between dogs that ingested wood and those that ingested nut components. 28 cases involved exposure to wood, and 65 involved exposure to nuts or hulls. Spontaneous vomiting was commonly observed (13/28 [46%] and 31/65 [48%] dogs that ingested wood and nut components, respectively). Neurologic or musculoskeletal signs were significantly more common in dogs that ingested wood (26/28 [93%]) than in those that ingested nuts or hulls (15/65 [23%]). Relative risk of developing neurologic signs after ingestion of wood was approximately 4 times that after ingestion of nuts or hulls. Ingestion of black walnut wood by dogs resulted in a clinical syndrome in which neurologic or musculoskeletal signs were most frequently reported, whereas ingestion of black walnuts or their hulls was most commonly associated with vomiting. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing 2 different clinical syndromes associated with exposure to black walnut tree components in dogs.
de Jesús Aceves, José; Rueda-Orozco, Pavel E.; Hernández, Ricardo; Plata, Víctor; Ibañez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, José
Previous work has shown the functions associated with activation of dopamine presynaptic receptors in some substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) afferents: (i) striatonigral terminals (direct pathway) posses presynaptic dopamine D1-class receptors whose action is to enhance inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) and GABA transmission. (ii) Subthalamonigral terminals posses D1- and D2-class receptors where D1-class receptor activation enhances and D2-class receptor activation decreases excitatory postsynaptic currents. Here we report that pallidonigral afferents posses D2-class receptors (D3 and D4 types) that decrease inhibitory synaptic transmission via presynaptic modulation. No action of D1-class agonists was found on pallidonigral synapses. In contrast, administration of D1-receptor antagonists greatly decreased striatonigral IPSCs in the same preparation, suggesting that tonic dopamine levels help in maintaining the function of the striatonigral (direct) pathway. When both D3 and D4 type receptors were blocked, pallidonigral IPSCs increased in amplitude while striatonigral connections had no significant change, suggesting that tonic dopamine levels are repressing a powerful inhibition conveyed by pallidonigral synapses (a branch of the indirect pathway). We then blocked both D1- and D2-class receptors to acutely decrease direct pathway (striatonigral) and enhance indirect pathways (subthalamonigral and pallidonigral) synaptic force. The result was that most SNr projection neurons entered a recurrent bursting firing mode similar to that observed during Parkinsonism in both patients and animal models. These results raise the question as to whether the lack of dopamine in basal ganglia output nuclei is enough to generate some pathological signs of Parkinsonism. PMID:21347219
Wei, Yan-Yan; Chen, Jing; Dou, Ke-Feng; Wang, Ya-Yun
Background Altered chloride homeostasis has been thought to be a risk factor for several brain disorders, while less attention has been paid to its role in liver disease. We aimed to analyze the involvement and possible mechanisms of altered chloride homeostasis of GABAergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in the motor deficit observed in a model of encephalopathy caused by acute liver failure, by using glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 - green fluorescent protein knock-in transgenic mice. Methods Alterations in intracellular chloride concentration in GABAergic neurons within the SNr and changes in the expression of two dominant chloride homeostasis-regulating genes, KCC2 and NKCC1, were evaluated in mice with hypolocomotion due to hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The effects of pharmacological blockade and/or activation of KCC2 and NKCC1 functions with their specific inhibitors and/or activators on the motor activity were assessed. Results In our mouse model of acute liver injury, chloride imaging indicated an increase in local intracellular chloride concentration in SNr GABAergic neurons. In addition, the mRNA and protein levels of KCC2 were reduced, particularly on neuronal cell membranes; in contrast, NKCC1 expression remained unaffected. Furthermore, blockage of KCC2 reduced motor activity in the normal mice and led to a further deteriorated hypolocomotion in HE mice. Blockade of NKCC1 was not able to normalize motor activity in mice with liver failure. Conclusion Our data suggest that altered chloride homeostasis is likely involved in the pathophysiology of hypolocomotion following HE. Drugs aimed at restoring normal chloride homeostasis would be a potential treatment for hepatic failure. PMID:23741482
The Kindler syndrome is a new form of inherited epidermolysis bullosa and the first genodermatosis caused by a defect of the focal adhesions. Kindlin-1, the deficient protein, plays an essential role in integrin activation and in the adhesion of keratinocytes to the extracellular matrix. The adhesion defect leads to skin blistering which begins at birth and ameliorates with age, and to mucosal fragility which leads to scarring and stricture formation. Skin atrophy and poikiloderma develop progressively. Photosensitivity is rather mild, but squamous cell carcinomas develop on sun-exposed areas mainly after the age of 40 years. The most important differential diagnoses are epidermolysis bullosa with mottled pigmentation and dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. Management aims to treat the symptoms and prevent complications.
Bouwmans, Angela E. P.; Leentjens, Albert F. G.; Mess, Werner H.; Weber, Wim E. J.
Background. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have a high risk of cognitive problems. Objective. This study assesses whether abnormal echogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN) and raphe nuclei (RN) and the diameter of third ventricle are markers of cognitive impairment in patients with PD and other forms of parkinsonism. Methods. 126 outpatients with early signs of parkinsonism underwent transcranial sonography (TCS). The scales for the outcome of Parkinson's disease cognition (SCOPA-COG) were used as cognitive measure. Definite neurological diagnosis was established after two-year follow-up. Results. One-third of the patients with PD and half of those with APS had signs of cognitive impairment. The echogenicity of the SN was not related to cognitive impairment. The diameter of the third ventricle was significantly larger in PD patients with cognitive impairment compared to those without. In patients with APS we found a significantly higher frequency of hypoechogenic RN in patients with cognitive problems. Conclusions. Cognitive impairment is already present in a substantial proportion of patients with PD and APS at first referral. In patients with APS the frequency of hypoechogenic RN points to the direction of other pathophysiology with more emphasis on deficits in the serotonergic neurotransmitter system. The larger diameter of the third ventricle in PD patients with cognitive impairment may reflect Alzheimer like brain atrophy, as has been reported in earlier studies. PMID:26881179
Lin, Shou-Wang; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng
Knowledge of the developmental time of the immature stages of necrophagous flies has been the main tool for estimating minimum post-mortem intervals (min PMIs) in forensic entomology. Many parasitic insects can alter the development of immature stages of flies and thus affect min PMI estimates. The larvae of most species of Aleochara rove beetles are ectoparasitoids of the pupae of cyclorrhapha flies. Among them, some species that parasitise necrophagous flies may have forensic importance. Two Taiwanese Aleochara species, A. nigra and A. asiatica, which visit carrion sites were studied herein. All five necrophagous (Hemipyrellia ligurriens, Lucilia cuprina, Chrysomya megacephala, C. rufifacies and sarcophagid sp.) and one non-necrophagous fly species (Bactrocera dorsalis) we examined have the potential to be parasitised by these two Aleochara species, but differences among the acceptability and suitability of these hosts to rove beetle species suggested that rove beetles may prefer specific hosts. Each stage of the beetle life history was recorded to estimate developmental durations at six different temperatures. The larval stage together with the pupal stage of both beetle species was longer than the pupal stages of their hosts, implying the possibility of elongating the min PMI estimation. In addition, the host weight and larval duration of these two Aleochara beetles were positively correlated; thus, potential applications can be expected when using parasitised fly pupae in min PMI estimations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chronic Atypical Neutrophilic Dermatosis With Lipodystrophy and Elevated Temperature (CANDLE); Juvenile Dermatomyositis (JDM); Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING)-Associated Vasculopathy With Onset During Infancy (SAVI); Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome (AGS)
Kuś, Piotr M; Okińczyc, Piotr; Jakovljević, Martina; Jokić, Stela; Jerković, Igor
The supercritical CO 2 (SC-CO 2 ) extraction process of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) buds was optimized (pressure, temperature) based on the yields of major phytochemicals (volatiles and non-volatiles). The optimal settings were 30 MPa/60 °C. Major volatiles determined by GC-MS in the optimized SC-CO 2 extract (mg of benzyl salicylate equivalent (BSE) per 100 g of buds) were: pinostrobin chalcone (1574.2), β-eudesmol (640.8), α-eudesmol (581.9), 2-methyl-2-butenyl-p-coumarate (289.9), pentyl-p-coumarate (457.0), γ-eudesmol (294.4), and benzyl salicylate (289.2). Partial qualitative similarity was observed between SC-CO 2 extracts and corresponding hydrodistilled essential oil dominated by sesquiterpenes, but with lower yields. Major compounds (mg per 100 g of buds) identified by UHPLC-DAD-QqTOF-MS in the optimized SC-CO 2 extract were: pinostrobin (751.7), pinocembrin (485.6), 3-O-pinobanksin acetate and methyl-butenyl-p-coumarate (290.2; 144.9 of pinobanksin and p-coumaric acid equivalents, respectively). SC-CO 2 extraction was found useful for green, efficient and simultaneous extraction of both volatile/non-volatile, bioactive phytochemicals of poplar buds - precursors of poplar-type propolis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cakir, Meric; Makineci, Ender
In order to assess the effects of conversion of natural stands into plantations, soil invertebrate micro- and macroarthropod communities were evaluated for their abundance and richness in a sessile oak (SO; Quercus petraea L.) stand and adjacent Austrian pine (AP; Pinus nigra Arnold) plantation. Sites were sampled four times a year in 3-month intervals from May 2009 to February 2010. Humus characteristics such as total mass; carbon, lignin, and cellulose contents; and C/N ratio were significantly different between SO and AP. Statistically significant differences were detected on soil pH, carbon and nitrogen contents, and electrical conductivity between the two sites. The number of microarthropods was higher in AP than in the SO site. The annual mean abundance values of microarthropods in a square meter were 67,763 in AP and 50,542 in SO, and the annual mean abundance values of macroarthropods were 921 m(-2) in AP and 427 m(-2) in SO. Among the soil microarthropods, Acari and Collembola were the dominant groups. Shannon's diversity index was more affected by evenness than species number despite the species diversity (H') of soil arthropods being generally higher in the SO stand. The abundance of microarthropods showed clear seasonal trends depending upon the humidity of the soil.
Thong, P. S. P.; He, Y.; Lee, T.; Watt, F.
Various transition metals, particularly iron, have been implicated in the aetiology of the neurodegenerative disease, Parkinson's disease, in which there is a characteristic loss of cells in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the brain. In this study, monkeys were unilaterally lesioned with the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-pyridine (MPTP) to obtain primate models of parkinsonism, with the non-lesioned side of the brain serving as controls. The monkeys were sacrificed at one day, one week, two weeks, one month and one year after lesioning to investigate the time dependent elemental changes in the parkinsonian SN. Sections of the brain encompassing both the lesioned and non-lesioned SNs were analysed using the National University of Singapore nuclear microscope. Adjacent sections were tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemically stained to provide complementary information on dopaminergic cell loss and to facilitate definition of the SN boundaries during data analysis. In one-day and one-week monkeys (representing early stages of the disease), there were no changes in elemental concentrations within experimental errors and the adjacent TH-stained sections did not show apparent cell loss in the SN. At two weeks, cell loss was seen in the lesioned SN compared to the control SN. Although there was no bulk increase in SN iron, localised accumulation of iron in granules containing up to 15% by weight iron was observed in the lesioned SN of one of the two-week monkeys. An average 15% increase in nigral iron, significant at the 90% confidence level ( p < 0.1), was seen in the one-month monkeys. TH-stained sections for the one-month monkeys showed cell loss in the lesioned SN. In one-year samples (representing the advanced stage of the disease) there was a significant ( p < 0.05) 56% increase in iron, 14% increase in phosphorous and a 20% decrease in copper. Here an almost complete loss of cells in the lesioned SN was apparent from the adjacent TH
Thomas, A L; Byers, P L; Avery, J D; Kaps, M; Gu, S; Johnson, H-Y; Millican, M
Elderberries are being increasingly produced and consumed in North America for their edible and medicinal flowers and fruits. The American elderberry ( Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis ) is native to, and most often cultivated in North America. The European elderberry ( S. nigra subsp. nigra ) has been developed into an economically-important horticultural crop in Europe, but most European cultivars do not perform well in the midwestern USA. The genotype S. nigra subsp. nigra 'Marge' is an open-pollinated seedling of S. nigra subsp. nigra 'Haschberg', which is one of the most popular elderberry cultivars grown in Europe. In a four-year study (one establishment year followed by 3 production years; 2008-2011) at three Missouri (USA) locations, 'Marge' significantly out-performed and out-yielded eight American elderberry genotypes within the same replicated field plots. Across 3 production years at all three sites, 'Marge' achieved budbreak later, flowered earlier, suffered less Eriophyid mite damage, was taller, produced larger berries, and yielded significantly greater amounts of fruit compared with all eight American elderberry genotypes in the study. At one site, 'Marge' produced three times the yield (1.89 kg/plant) compared with the next highest-producing American elderberry genotype (0.65 kg/plant). It is an exceptionally robust and drought-resistant elderberry. The phenotypic attributes of 'Marge' are similar to that of European elderberry except that it performs exceptionally well in the midwestern USA. DNA marker results, along with phenological and morphological characteristics, indicate that 'Marge' is a European elderberry ( S. nigra subsp. nigra ). As with most European genotypes, 'Marge' does not fruit on first-year wood, and will therefore require a different pruning regimen compared with American elderberry for success in North American production. We do not yet know how 'Marge' will perform outside the midwestern USA, but it is so productive, unique
cerebellum, substantia nigra, nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis, the thalamus, the deep layers of the superior colliculus and the oculomotor plant...and pause cells), the vestibular nucleus , abducens nucleus , oculomotor nucleus , cerebellum, substantia nigra, nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis, the...vestibular nucleus , abducens nucleus , oculomotor nucleus , cerebellum, substantia nigra, nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis (NRTP), the thalamus, the
... AND DERMATOSIS SYNDROME Sources for This Page Damgaard RB, Walker JA, Marco-Casanova P, Morgan NV, Titheradge ... K, Elliott PR, Glockner L, Fiil BK, Damgaard RB, Kulathu Y, Wauer T, Hospenthal MK, Gyrd-Hansen ...
Kendrick, K M; Keverne, E B; Chapman, C; Baldwin, B A
Intracranial dialysis was used to measure the release of oxytocin (OXY), monoamines and their metabolites and uric acid (UA) from the substantia nigra (SN) and olfactory bulb (OB) of sheep during parturition, suckling, separation from lambs and eating. Results showed that OXY concentrations increased significantly during parturition, suckling and eating in the SN and during parturition and suckling in the OB. Concentrations of dopamine (DA) increased significantly in the SN during suckling and eating and in the OB during parturition and suckling. The dopamine metabolite, homovanillic acid, also increased significantly in the SN during parturition. Concentrations of the noradrenaline metabolite, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethan-1,2-diol (MHPG) and the purine metabolite, UA, were significantly raised during parturition, suckling and separation from the lambs in the SN and increased UA levels were also found during eating. In a separate experiment it was confirmed that OXY was detectable in homogenates of both the SN and the OB. These results show that, in the sheep, OXY and DA release in the SN is associated with maternal and ingestive behaviour whereas similar release in the OB may only be related to maternal behaviour. Release of MHPG in the SN may be associated with maternal behaviour and/or stress.
Pang, Y; Lin, S; Wright, C; Shen, J; Carter, K; Bhatt, A; Fan, L-W
Protection of substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic (DA) neurons by neurotrophic factors (NTFs) is one of the promising strategies in Parkinson's disease (PD) therapy. A major clinical challenge for NTF-based therapy is that NTFs need to be delivered into the brain via invasive means, which often shows limited delivery efficiency. The nose to brain pathway is a non-invasive brain drug delivery approach developed in recent years. Of particular interest is the finding that intranasal insulin improves cognitive functions in Alzheimer's patients. In vitro, insulin has been shown to protect neurons against various insults. Therefore, the current study was designed to test whether intranasal insulin could afford neuroprotection in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-based rat PD model. 6-OHDA was injected into the right side of striatum to induce a progressive DA neuronal lesion in the ipsilateral SN pars compact (SNc). Recombinant human insulin was applied intranasally to rats starting from 24h post lesion, once per day, for 2 weeks. A battery of motor behavioral tests was conducted on day 8 and 15. The number of DA neurons in the SNc was estimated by stereological counting. Our results showed that 6-OHDA injection led to significant motor deficits and 53% of DA neuron loss in the ipsilateral side of injection. Treatment with insulin significantly ameliorated 6-OHDA-induced motor impairments, as shown by improved locomotor activity, tapered/ledged beam-walking performance, vibrissa-elicited forelimb-placing, initial steps, as well as methamphetamine-induced rotational behavior. Consistent with behavioral improvements, insulin treatment provided a potent protection of DA neurons in the SNc against 6-OHDA neurotoxicity, as shown by a 74.8% increase in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons compared to the vehicle group. Intranasal insulin treatment did not affect body weight and blood glucose levels. In conclusion, our study showed that intranasal insulin provided strong
Ishiwari, Keita; Mingote, Susana; Correa, Merce; Trevitt, Jennifer T; Carlson, Brian B; Salamone, John D
Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is a major output nucleus of the basal ganglia that receives GABAergic projections from neostriatum and globus pallidus. Previous research has shown that local pharmacological manipulations of GABA in SNr can influence tremulous jaw movements in rats. Tremulous jaw movements are defined as rapid vertical deflections of the lower jaw that resemble chewing but are not directed at a particular stimulus, and evidence indicates that these movements share many characteristics with parkinsonian tremor in humans. In order to investigate the role of GABA in motor functions related to tremor, the present study tested the GABA uptake blocker beta-alanine for its ability to reduce pilocarpine-induced tremulous jaw movements. In a parallel experiment, the effect of an active dose of beta-alanine on dialysate levels of GABA in SNr was assessed using microdialysis methods. GABA levels in dialysis samples were measured using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. beta-Alanine (250-500 mg/kg) significantly reduced tremulous jaw movements induced by pilocarpine (4.0 mg/kg). Moreover, systemic administration of beta-alanine at a dose that reduced tremulous jaw movements (500 mg/kg) resulted in a substantial increase in extracellular levels of GABA in SNr compared to the pre-injection baseline. Thus, the present results are consistent with the hypothesis that GABAergic tone in SNr plays a role in the regulation of tremulous jaw movements. This research may lead to a better understanding of how parkinsonian symptoms are modulated by SNr GABA mechanisms.
Hashemi, Parastoo; Dankoski, Elyse C.; Wood, Kevin M.; Ambrose, R. Ellen; Wightman, R. Mark
Exploring the mechanisms of serotonin (5-hydoxytryptophan (5-HT)) in the brain requires an in vivo method that combines fast temporal resolution with chemical selectivity. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is a technique with sufficient temporal and chemical resolution for probing dynamic 5-HT neurotransmission events; however, traditionally it has not been possible to probe in vivo 5-HT mechanisms. Recently, we optimized FSCV for measuring 5-HT release and uptake in vivo in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) with electrical stimulation of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in the rat brain. Here, we address technical challenges associated with rat DRN surgery by electrically stimulating 5-HT projections in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB), a more accessible anatomical location. MFB stimulation elicits 5-HT in the SNR; furthermore, we find simultaneous release of an additional species. We use electrochemical and pharmacological methods and describe physiological, anatomical and independent chemical analyses to identify this species as histamine. We also show pharmacologically that increasing the lifetime of extracellular histamine significantly decreases 5-HT release, most likely due to increased activation of histamine H-3 receptors that inhibit 5-HT release. Despite this, under physiological conditions, we find by kinetic comparisons of DRN and MFB stimulations that the simultaneous release of histamine does not interfere with the quantitative 5-HT concentration profile. We therefore present a novel and robust electrical stimulation of the MFB that is technically less challenging than DRN stimulation to study 5-HT and histamine release in the SNR. PMID:21682723
Blanco-Lezcano, L; Rocha-Arrieta, L L; Alvarez-González, L; Martínez-Martí, L; Pavón-Fuentes, N; González-Fraguela, M E; Bauzá-Calderín, Y; Coro-Grave de Peralta, Y
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), co-localized with the mesencephalic locomotor region, has been proposed as a key structure in the physiopathology of Parkinson's disease. The goal of the present study was to assess if the aminoacid neurotransmitter release in the PPN is modified by the degeneration of dopaminergic cells, from substantia nigra pars compacta in 6-hydroxidopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats. In addition, it was studied the aminoacid neurotransmitter release in the PPN of rats with lesion of the subthalamic nucleus by quinolinic acid (QUIN) (100 nmol) intracerebral injection. Rats were assigned to five groups: untreated rats (I) (n = 13), 6-OHDA lesion (II) (n = 11), 6-OHDA + QUIN lesion (III) (n = 9), sham-operated (IV) (n = 10), QUIN, STN (V) lesioned (n = 9). The extracellular concentrations of glutamic acid (GLU) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were determined by brain microdialysis and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). RESULTS. GLU released in PPN from 6-OHDA lesioned rats (group II), was significantly increased in comparison with the others groups (F(4, 47) = 18.21, p < 0.001). GABA released shows significant differences between experimental groups (F(4, 45) = 12.75, p < 0.001). It was detected a higher valour (p < 0.05) in-group II. The groups III and IV exhibited intermeddle valour (p < 0.001) and groups I and IV (p < 0.001) showed the lower GABA extracellular concentrations. The infusion of artificial cerebrospinal fluid with higher potassium (100 mmol) induced an increase in the GLU and GABA released in all groups, which confirm the neuronal origin of the extracellular content. These results are in agreement with the current model of basal ganglia functioning and suggest the role of STN-PPN projection in the physiopathology of Parkinson's disease.
Thomas, A.L.; Byers, P.L.; Avery, J.D.; Kaps, M.; Gu, S.; Johnson, H.-Y.; Millican, M.
Elderberries are being increasingly produced and consumed in North America for their edible and medicinal flowers and fruits. The American elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis) is native to, and most often cultivated in North America. The European elderberry (S. nigra subsp. nigra) has been developed into an economically-important horticultural crop in Europe, but most European cultivars do not perform well in the midwestern USA. The genotype S. nigra subsp. nigra ‘Marge’ is an open-pollinated seedling of S. nigra subsp. nigra ‘Haschberg’, which is one of the most popular elderberry cultivars grown in Europe. In a four-year study (one establishment year followed by 3 production years; 2008–2011) at three Missouri (USA) locations, ‘Marge’ significantly out-performed and out-yielded eight American elderberry genotypes within the same replicated field plots. Across 3 production years at all three sites, ‘Marge’ achieved budbreak later, flowered earlier, suffered less Eriophyid mite damage, was taller, produced larger berries, and yielded significantly greater amounts of fruit compared with all eight American elderberry genotypes in the study. At one site, ‘Marge’ produced three times the yield (1.89 kg/plant) compared with the next highest-producing American elderberry genotype (0.65 kg/plant). It is an exceptionally robust and drought-resistant elderberry. The phenotypic attributes of ‘Marge’ are similar to that of European elderberry except that it performs exceptionally well in the midwestern USA. DNA marker results, along with phenological and morphological characteristics, indicate that ‘Marge’ is a European elderberry (S. nigra subsp. nigra). As with most European genotypes, ‘Marge’ does not fruit on first-year wood, and will therefore require a different pruning regimen compared with American elderberry for success in North American production. We do not yet know how ‘Marge’ will perform outside the midwestern USA
... to the production of a version of MEK1 protein kinase that is overactive, which increases RAS/MAPK signaling in bone tissue. ... BA, Griffith OL, Mardis ER. Melorheostosis: Exome sequencing of an associated dermatosis implicates postzygotic mosaicism of ...
Background A phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum L., Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Sambucus nigra L., and Cassia augustifolia is largely used in Brazil for the treatment of constipation. However, the laxative efficacy of the compound has never been tested in a randomized clinical trial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the product. Methods This randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled, single-blinded trial included 20 patients presenting with chronic constipation according to the criteria of the American Association of Gastroenterology. The order of treatments was counterbalanced across subjects: half of the subjects received the phytotherapic compound for a 5-day period, whereas the other half received placebo for the same period. Both treatment periods were separated by a 9-day washout period followed by the reverse treatment for another 5-day period. The primary endpoint was colonic transit time (CTT), measured radiologically. Secondary endpoints included number of evacuations per day, perception of bowel function, adverse effects, and quality of life. Results Mean CTT assessed by X ray was 15.7 hours (95%CI 11.1-20.2) in the active treatment period and 42.3 hours (95%CI 33.5-51.1) during the placebo treatment (p < 0.001). Number of evacuations per day increased during the use of active tea; significant differences were observed as of the second day of treatment (p < 0.001). Patient perception of bowel function was improved (p < 0.01), but quality of life did not show significant differences among the study periods. Except for a small reduction in serum potassium levels during the active treatment, no significant differences were observed in terms of adverse effects throughout the study period. Conclusions The findings of this randomized controlled trial allow to conclude that the phytotherapic compound assessed has laxative efficacy and is a safe alternative option for the treatment of constipation. Trial
Cardoso, Henriqueta D.; Passos, Priscila P.; Lagranha, Claudia J.; Ferraz, Anete C.; Santos Júnior, Eraldo F.; Oliveira, Rafael S.; Oliveira, Pablo E. L.; Santos, Rita de C. F.; Santana, David F.; Borba, Juliana M. C.; Rocha-de-Melo, Ana P.; Guedes, Rubem C. A.; Navarro, Daniela M. A. F.; Santos, Geanne K. N.; Borner, Roseane; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam W.; Beltrão, Eduardo I.; Silva, Janilson F.; Rodrigues, Marcelo C. A.; Andrade da Costa, Belmira L. S.
Oxidative stress (OS) has been implicated in the etiology of certain neurodegenerative disorders. Some of these disorders have been associated with unbalanced levels of essential fatty acids (EFA). The response of certain brain regions to OS, however, is not uniform and a selective vulnerability or resilience can occur. In our previous study on rat brains, we observed that a two-generation EFA dietary restriction reduced the number and size of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) rostro-dorso-medial. To understand whether OS contributes to this effect, we assessed the status of lipid peroxidation (LP) and anti-oxidant markers in both SN and corpus striatum (CS) of rats submitted to this dietary treatment for one (F1) or two (F2) generations. Wistar rats were raised from conception on control or experimental diets containing adequate or reduced levels of linoleic and α-linolenic fatty acids, respectively. LP was measured using the thiobarbituric acid reaction method (TBARS) and the total superoxide dismutase (t-SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymatic activities were assessed. The experimental diet significantly reduced the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels of SN phospholipids in the F1 (~28%) and F2 (~50%) groups. In F1 adult animals of the experimental group there was no LP in both SN and CS. Consistently, there was a significant increase in the t-SOD activity (p < 0.01) in both regions. In EF2 young animals, degeneration in dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neurons and a significant increase in LP (p < 0.01) and decrease in the CAT activity (p < 0.001) were detected in the SN, while no inter-group difference was found for these parameters in the CS. Conversely, a significant increase in t-SOD activity (p < 0.05) was detected in the CS of the experimental group compared to the control. The results show that unbalanced EFA dietary levels reduce the redox balance in the SN and reveal mechanisms of resilience in the CS under this stressful condition. PMID
Centritto, Mauro; Brilli, Federico; Fodale, Roberta; Loreto, Francesco
The effects of the interaction between high growth temperatures and water stress on gas-exchange properties of Populus nigra saplings were investigated. Water stress was expressed as a function of soil water content (SWC) or fraction of transpirable soil water (FTSW). Isoprene emission and photosynthesis (A) did not acclimate in response to elevated temperature, whereas dark (R(n)) and light (R(d)) respiration underwent thermal acclimation. R(d) was ~30% lower than R(n) irrespective of growth temperature and water stress level. Water stress induced a sharp decline, but not a complete inhibition, of both R(n) and R(d). There was no significant effect of high growth temperature on the responses of A, stomatal conductance (g(s)), isoprene emission, R(n) or R(d) to FTSW. High growth temperature resulted in a significant increase in the SWC endpoint. Photosynthesis was limited mainly by CO(2) acquisition in water-stressed plants. Impaired carbon metabolism became apparent only at the FTSW endpoint. Photosynthesis was restored in about a week following rewatering, indicating transient biochemical limitations. The kinetics of isoprene emission in response to FTSW confirmed that water stress uncouples the emission of isoprene from A, isoprene emission being unaffected by decreasing g(s). The different kinetics of A, respiration and isoprene emission in response to the interaction between high temperature and water stress led to rising R(d)/A ratio and amount of carbon lost as isoprene. Since respiration and isoprene sensitivity are much lower than A sensitivity to water stress, temperature interactions with water stress may dominate poplar acclimatory capability and maintenance of carbon homeostasis under climate change scenarios. Furthermore, predicted temperature increases in arid environments may reduce the amount of soil water that can be extracted before plant gas exchange decreases, exacerbating the effects of water stress even if soil water availability is not
You, Hyang-Suk; Kim, Gun-Wook; Kim, Won-Jeong; Mun, Je-Ho; Song, Margaret; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Byung-Soo
Background A variety of infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic dermatoses can develop on the glans penis, and definitive diagnosis in such cases may be difficult owing to their non-specific symptoms and clinical appearance. Furthermore, data on dermatoses of the glans penis in Korea are limited. Objective In the present study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of dermatoses of the glans penis in Korea and provide clinical data to assist in making an accurate diagnosis. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records, clinical photographs, and histologic slides of 65 patients with dermatoses of the glans penis that visited the Pusan National University Hospital between January 2004 and August 2013. Results Twenty-six types of dermatoses were identified: inflammatory dermatosis was the most common (38/65, 58.5%), followed by infectious (13/65, 20.0%), neoplastic (10/65, 15.4%), and other dermatoses (4/65, 6.2%). The most common dermatosis of the glans penis was seborrheic dermatitis, followed by lichen planus, herpes progenitalis, condyloma accuminatum, erythroplasia of Queyrat, Zoon's balanitis, and psoriasis. In the topographic analysis, the most common type of dermatosis was dermatoses that localized to the glans penis (39/65, 60.0%), followed by dermatoses involving the extra-genitalia and glans penis (22/65, 33.9%), and the genitalia (glans penis plus other genital areas) (4/65, 6.2%). Conclusion This study shows the usefulness of a topographic approach in the diagnosis of dermatoses of the glans penis in Korea. The findings could be used as baseline data for establishing an accurate diagnosis in Koreans. PMID:26848217
De Salles, A A; Melega, W P; Laćan, G; Steele, L J; Solberg, T D
Radiosurgery for functional neurosurgery performed using a linear accelerator (LINAC) has not been extensively characterized in preclinical studies. In the present study, the properties of a newly designed 3-mm-diameter collimator were evaluated in a dedicated LINAC, which produced lesions in the basal ganglia of vervet monkeys. Lesion formation was determined in vivo in three animals by examining magnetic resonance (MR) images to show the dose-delivery precision of targeting and the geometry and extent of the lesions. Postmortem immunohistochemical studies were conducted to determine the extent of lesion-induced radiobiological effects. In three male vervet monkeys, the subthalamic nucleus (STN; one animal) and the pars compacta of the lateral substantia nigra (SN; two animals) were targeted by a Novalis Shaped Beam Surgery System that included a 3-mm collimator and delivered a maximum dose of 150 Gy. Magnetic resonance images obtained 4, 5, and 9 months posttreatment were reviewed, and the animals were killed so that immunohistological characterizations could be made. The generation of precise radiosurgical lesions by a 3-mm collimator was validated in studies that targeted the basal ganglia of the vervet monkey. The extent of the lesions created in all animals remained restricted in diameter (< 3 mm) throughout the duration of the studies, as assessed by reviewing MR images. Histological studies showed that the lesions were contained within the STN and SN target areas and that there were persistent increases in glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity. Increases in immunoreactivity for tyrosine hydroxylase, the serotonin transporter, and the GluR1 subunit of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate glutamate receptor in penumbral regions of the lesion were suggestive of compensatory neuronal adaptations. This radiosurgical approach may be of particular interest for the induction of lesions of the STN and SN in studies of experimental
Petrucco, Laura; Nardini, Andrea; von Arx, Georg; Saurer, Matthias; Cherubini, Paolo
The 2003 and 2012 summer seasons were among the warmest and driest of the last 200 years over southeastern Europe, and in particular in the Karst region (northeastern Italy). Starting from winter-spring 2013, several black pines (Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold) suffered crown die-back. Declining trees occurred nearby individuals with no signs of die-back, raising hypotheses about the occurrence of individual-specific hydraulic strategies underlying different responses to extreme drought. We investigated possible processes driving black pine decline by dendrochronological and wood anatomical measurements, coupled with analysis of tree-ring carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotopic composition in healthy trees (H) and trees suffering die-back (D). Die-back trees showed higher growth rates than H trees at the beginning of the last century, but suffered important growth reduction following the dry summers in 2003 and 2012. After the 2012 drought, D trees produced tracheids with larger diameter and greater vulnerability to implosion than H ones. Healthy trees had significantly higher wood δ13C than D trees, reflecting higher water-use efficiency for the surviving trees, i.e., less water transpired per unit carbon gain, which could be related to lower stomatal conductance and a more conservative use of water. Relatively high δ18O for D trees indicates that they were strongly dependent on shallow water sources, or that they sustained higher transpiration rates than H trees. Our results suggest that H trees adopted a more conservative water-use strategy under drought stress compared with D trees. We speculate that this diversity might have a genotypic basis, but other possible explanations, like different rooting depth, cannot be ruled out. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
First detection of Echinococcus multilocularis infection in two species of nonhuman primates raised in a zoo: a fatal case in Cercopithecus diana and a strongly suspected case of spontaneous recovery in Macaca nigra.
Yamano, Kimiaki; Kouguchi, Hirokazu; Uraguchi, Kohji; Mukai, Takeshi; Shibata, Chikako; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Takaesu, Noboru; Ito, Masaki; Makino, Yoshinori; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi; Yagi, Kinpei
The causative parasite of alveolar echinococcosis, Echinococcus multilocularis, maintains its life cycle between red foxes (Vulpes vulples, the definitive hosts) and voles (the intermediate hosts) in Hokkaido, Japan. Primates, including humans, and some other mammal species can be infected by the accidental ingestion of eggs in the feces of red foxes. In August 2011, a 6-year-old zoo-raised female Diana monkey (Cercopithecus diana) died from alveolar echinococcosis. E. multilocularis infection was confirmed by histopathological examination and detection of the E. multilocularis DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A field survey in the zoo showed that fox intrusion was common, and serodiagnosis of various nonhuman primates using western blotting detected a case of a 14-year-old female Celebes crested macaque (Macaca nigra) that was weakly positive for E. multilocularis. Computed tomography revealed only one small calcified lesion (approximately 8mm) in the macaque's liver, and both western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed a gradual decline of antibody titer. These findings strongly suggest that the animal had recovered spontaneously. Until this study, spontaneous recovery from E. multilocularis infection in a nonhuman primate had never been reported. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water. The presence of arsenic in water supplies has been linked to arsenical dermatosis and skin cancer . Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange capacities. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of ...
Scott, D W; Miller, W H
Primary seborrhoea was diagnosed in 14 English springer spaniels over a 17-year period. Seven of the dogs developed clinical signs by two years of age. The dermatosis began as a generalised non-pruritic dry scaling which gradually worsened. Some dogs remained in this dry (seborrhoea sicca) stage, but in most cases the dermatosis became greasy and inflamed (seborrhoea oleosa and seborrhoeic dermatitis). Eight of the dogs suffered from recurrent episodes of superficial or deep bacterial pyoderma. Histological findings in skin biopsy specimens included marked orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis of surface and infundibular epithelium, papillomatosis, parakeratotic capping of the papillae, and superficial perivascular dermatitis in which lymphocytes and mast cells were prominent. The dogs with seborrhoea sicca responded more satisfactorily to therapy with topical emollient-humectant agents or oral omega-3/omega-6 fatty acid supplementation. Dogs with seborrhoea oleosa and seborrhoeic dermatitis did not respond satisfactorily to topical therapy. One dog, however, responded well to etretinate and omega-3/omega-6 fatty acid administration. No dog was cured.
Wood, Benjamin A; LeBoit, Philip E
To study the clinical and pathological features of cases of apparent solar purpura, with attention to the recently described phenomenon of inflammatory changes within otherwise typical lesions. We studied 95 cases diagnosed as solar purpura and identified 10 cases (10.5%) in which significant neutrophilic inflammation was present, potentially simulating a leukocytoclastic vasculitis or neutrophilic dermatosis. An additional three cases were identified in subsequent routine practice. The clinical features, including follow-up for subsequent development of vasculitis and histological features were studied. In all cases the histological features were typical of solar purpura, with the exception of inflammatory changes, typically associated with clefting of elastotic stroma. Clinical follow-up information was available for all patients and none developed subsequent evidence of a cutaneous or systemic vasculitis or neutrophilic dermatosis. Inflammatory changes appear to be more frequent in solar purpura than is generally recognised. Awareness of this histological variation and correlation with the clinical findings and evolution is important in avoiding misdiagnosis.
Lozano-Masdemont, B; Baniandrés-Rodríguez, O; Parra-Blanco, V; Suárez-Fernández, R
Granulomatous dermatitis has been associated with hematologic disorders, including the myelodysplastic syndromes. We describe the first case of granulomatous dermatitis associated with polycythemia vera, presenting as large erythematous nodules mimicking panniculitis. We also present the seventh case associated with myelodysplasia, with erythematous plaques on the face and neck, similar to a neutrophilic dermatosis. We consider it particularly interesting for dermatologists to be aware of this dermatosis as a nonspecific manifestation of various hematologic disorders. We suggest performing additional tests (complete blood count) to exclude the possibility that the skin manifestations are the initial sign of hematologic disease. Furthermore, we propose using the broader term, granulomatous dermatitis, to refer to these disorders as, although there are more reports of interstitial forms, cases with a more nodular presentation have also been published, and the importance of the diagnosis derives not from the subtype but from the relationship with an underlying disease. Copyright © 2015 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Wawrzycki, B; Chodorowska, G; Pietrzak, A; Krasowska, D W; Wąsik, Sz; Dybiec, E; Lotti, T; Hercegova, J
Sweet's syndrome (acute febrile dermatosis) is characterized by fever, peripheral neutrophil leukocytosis, acute onset of tender erythematous skin lesions (papules, nodules or plaques), and histological findings of a dense infiltrate consisting predominantly of mature neutrophils. Malignancy-associated Sweet's syndrome constitutes approximately 21% of patients, the majority of whom suffer from hematologic disorder. We report the case of patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia with recurrent eruptions of tender, pseudovesiculated nodules and plaques with good response to corticosteroid therapy, resembling Sweet's syndrome. However, histological examination revealed lymphocytic infiltrate in the dermis, which made impossible to establish diagnosis of acute febrile dermatosis according to diagnostic criteria. Association of the skin eruptions with leukemia was implied by improvement of skin lesions after chemotherapy. We present review of the literature reporting cases with atypical histopathological presentations which preceded classical histological appearances, that were mainly associated with hematological malignancies and discuss them in the context of our patient.
Liu, Ting-Ting; Weng, Shao-Wen; Wang, Ming-Chung; Huang, Wan-Ting
Disseminated nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection with concurrent IgG4-related lymphadenopathy has not been reported. We described a patient with neutralizing autoantibodies to interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and elevated levels of serum IgG4 presenting with generalized lymphadenopathy and reactive dermatosis. Histologically, lymph nodes (LNs) showed effaced nodal architecture with polymorphic infiltrates, mimicking angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. Both the absolute number and the ratio of IgG4+ plasma cells to IgG+ plasma cells were increased. Mycobacterium abscessus was isolated from cultures of LNs, and demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The skin biopsy showed neutrophilic dermatosis, consistent with Sweet syndrome. The patient met the criteria of both adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome and IgG4-related lymphadenopathy. This case provides evidence of disseminated NTM infection with concurrent type III IgG4-related lymphadenopathy in the patient with anti-IFN-γ autoantibodies. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lane, Robert S.; Shachter, Sherry P.; Keh, Benjamin
Cheyletiella blakei, an ectoparasitic mite of domestic cats, can cause an extremely annoying, persistent and pruritic dermatosis of obscure origin (cryptic infestation) in susceptible persons having close contact with infested cats. Although the prevalence of cheyletiellosis in humans and cats appears to be low, evidence of its occurrence in California is increasing. Cheyletiellosis is often underdiagnosed in both its natural host and in humans. The small size of the mite, lack of publicity about the disease, frequent absence of symptoms in infested cats and failure to recover the mite from humans contribute to its delayed recognition. When C blakei or other mites are suspected of being the cause of a dermatosis, medical entomologists may help to hasten the diagnosis by examining the patient's physical surroundings, potential vertebrate hosts and other sources for the presence of mites. After C blakei has been eliminated from cats with an appropriate pesticide, the disease in humans is self-limiting. PMID:3825118
Keh, B; Lane, R S; Shachter, S P
Cheyletiella blakei, an ectoparasitic mite of domestic cats, can cause an extremely annoying, persistent and pruritic dermatosis of obscure origin (cryptic infestation) in susceptible persons having close contact with infested cats. Although the prevalence of cheyletiellosis in humans and cats appears to be low, evidence of its occurrence in California is increasing. Cheyletiellosis is often underdiagnosed in both its natural host and in humans. The small size of the mite, lack of publicity about the disease, frequent absence of symptoms in infested cats and failure to recover the mite from humans contribute to its delayed recognition. When C blakei or other mites are suspected of being the cause of a dermatosis, medical entomologists may help to hasten the diagnosis by examining the patient's physical surroundings, potential vertebrate hosts and other sources for the presence of mites. After C blakei has been eliminated from cats with an appropriate pesticide, the disease in humans is self-limiting.
Walach, Margarete; Meisner, Christoph; Fritz, Melanie; Scholten, Marlieke; Breit, Sorin; Plewnia, Christian; Bender, Benjamin; Gharabaghi, Alireza; Wächter, Tobias
Gait and balance disturbances typically emerge in advanced Parkinson’s disease with generally limited response to dopaminergic medication and subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation. Therefore, advanced programming with interleaved pulses was put forward to introduce concomittant nigral stimulation on caudal contacts of a subthalamic lead. Here, we hypothesized that the combined stimulation of subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata improves axial symptoms compared with standard subthalamic nucleus stimulation. Twelve patients were enrolled in this 2 × 2 cross-over double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial and both the safety and efficacy of combined subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata stimulation were evaluated compared with standard subthalamic nucleus stimulation. The primary outcome measure was the change of a broad-scaled cumulative axial Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale score (Scale II items 13–15, Scale III items 27–31) at ‘3-week follow-up’. Secondary outcome measures specifically addressed freezing of gait, balance, quality of life, non-motor symptoms and neuropsychiatric symptoms. For the primary outcome measure no statistically significant improvement was observed for combined subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata stimulation at the ‘3-week follow-up’. The secondary endpoints, however, revealed that the combined stimulation of subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata might specifically improve freezing of gait, whereas balance impairment remained unchanged. The combined stimulation of subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata was safe, and of note, no clinically relevant neuropsychiatric adverse effect was observed. Patients treated with subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata stimulation revealed no ‘global’ effect on axial motor domains. However, this study opens the perspective that concomittant stimulation
Weiss, Daniel; Walach, Margarete; Meisner, Christoph; Fritz, Melanie; Scholten, Marlieke; Breit, Sorin; Plewnia, Christian; Bender, Benjamin; Gharabaghi, Alireza; Wächter, Tobias; Krüger, Rejko
Gait and balance disturbances typically emerge in advanced Parkinson's disease with generally limited response to dopaminergic medication and subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation. Therefore, advanced programming with interleaved pulses was put forward to introduce concomittant nigral stimulation on caudal contacts of a subthalamic lead. Here, we hypothesized that the combined stimulation of subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata improves axial symptoms compared with standard subthalamic nucleus stimulation. Twelve patients were enrolled in this 2 × 2 cross-over double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial and both the safety and efficacy of combined subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata stimulation were evaluated compared with standard subthalamic nucleus stimulation. The primary outcome measure was the change of a broad-scaled cumulative axial Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score (Scale II items 13-15, Scale III items 27-31) at '3-week follow-up'. Secondary outcome measures specifically addressed freezing of gait, balance, quality of life, non-motor symptoms and neuropsychiatric symptoms. For the primary outcome measure no statistically significant improvement was observed for combined subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata stimulation at the '3-week follow-up'. The secondary endpoints, however, revealed that the combined stimulation of subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata might specifically improve freezing of gait, whereas balance impairment remained unchanged. The combined stimulation of subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata was safe, and of note, no clinically relevant neuropsychiatric adverse effect was observed. Patients treated with subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata stimulation revealed no 'global' effect on axial motor domains. However, this study opens the perspective that concomittant stimulation of the substantia
Bonesi, Marco; Menichini, Federica; Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica R; Conforti, Filomena; Passalacqua, Nicodemo G; Statti, Giancarlo A; Menichini, Francesco
This study aimed to investigate the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity of the essential oils from Pinus nigra subsp. nigra, P. nigra var. calabrica, and P. heldreichii subsp. leucodermis. This activity is relevant to the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), since cholinesterase drugs are currently the only drugs available to treat AD. P. heldreichii subsp. leucodermis exhibited the most promising activity, with IC(50) values of 51.1 and 80.6 microg/mL against AChE and BChE, respectively. An interesting activity against AChE was also observed with P. nigra subsp. nigra essential oil, with an IC(50) value of 94.4 microg/mL. Essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS with the purpose of investigating their relationships with the observed activities. Among the identified constituents, terpinolene, beta-phellandrene, linalyl acetate, trans-caryophyllene, and terpinen-4-ol were tested. trans-Caryophyllene and terpinen-4-ol inhibited BChE with IC(50) values of 78.6 and 107.6 microg/mL, respectively. beta-Phellandrene was selective against AChE (IC(50) value of 120.2 microg/mL).
Somayajulu-Niţu, Mallika; Sandhu, Jagdeep K; Cohen, Jerome; Sikorska, Marianna; Sridhar, T S; Matei, Anca; Borowy-Borowski, Henryk; Pandey, Siyaram
Parkinson's disease, for which currently there is no cure, develops as a result of progressive loss of dopamine neurons in the brain; thus, identification of any potential therapeutic intervention for disease management is of a great importance. Here we report that prophylactic application of water-soluble formulation of coenzyme Q10 could effectively offset the effects of environmental neurotoxin paraquat, believed to be a contributing factor in the development of familial PD. In this study we utilized a model of paraquat-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in adult rats that received three weekly intra-peritoneal injections of the herbicide paraquat. Histological and biochemical analyses of rat brains revealed increased levels of oxidative stress markers and a loss of approximately 65% of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra region. The paraquat-exposed rats also displayed impaired balancing skills on a slowly rotating drum (rotorod) evidenced by their reduced spontaneity in gait performance. In contrast, paraquat exposed rats receiving a water-soluble formulation of coenzyme Q10 in their drinking water prior to and during the paraquat treatment neither developed neurodegeneration nor reduced rotorod performance and were indistinguishable from the control paraquat-untreated rats. Our data confirmed that paraquat-induced neurotoxicity represents a convenient rat model of parkinsonian neurodegeneration suitable for mechanistic and neuroprotective studies. This is the first preclinical evaluation of a water-soluble coenzyme Q10 formulation showing the evidence of prophylactic neuroprotection at clinically relevant doses.
Somayajulu-Niţu, Mallika; Sandhu, Jagdeep K; Cohen, Jerome; Sikorska, Marianna; Sridhar, TS; Matei, Anca; Borowy-Borowski, Henryk; Pandey, Siyaram
Background Parkinson's disease, for which currently there is no cure, develops as a result of progressive loss of dopamine neurons in the brain; thus, identification of any potential therapeutic intervention for disease management is of a great importance. Results Here we report that prophylactic application of water-soluble formulation of coenzyme Q10 could effectively offset the effects of environmental neurotoxin paraquat, believed to be a contributing factor in the development of familial PD. In this study we utilized a model of paraquat-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in adult rats that received three weekly intra-peritoneal injections of the herbicide paraquat. Histological and biochemical analyses of rat brains revealed increased levels of oxidative stress markers and a loss of approximately 65% of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra region. The paraquat-exposed rats also displayed impaired balancing skills on a slowly rotating drum (rotorod) evidenced by their reduced spontaneity in gait performance. In contrast, paraquat exposed rats receiving a water-soluble formulation of coenzyme Q10 in their drinking water prior to and during the paraquat treatment neither developed neurodegeneration nor reduced rotorod performance and were indistinguishable from the control paraquat-untreated rats. Conclusion Our data confirmed that paraquat-induced neurotoxicity represents a convenient rat model of Parkinsonian neurodegeneration suitable for mechanistic and neuroprotective studies. This is the first preclinical evaluation of a water-soluble coenzyme Q10 formulation showing the evidence of prophylactic neuroprotection at clinically relevant doses. PMID:19635141
Rasheed, Fahad; Dreyer, Erwin; Richard, Béatrice; Brignolas, Franck; Montpied, Pierre; Le Thiec, Didier
(13) C discrimination between atmosphere and bulk leaf matter (Δ(13) C(lb) ) is frequently used as a proxy for transpiration efficiency (TE). Nevertheless, its relevance is challenged due to: (1) potential deviations from the theoretical discrimination model, and (2) complex time integration and upscaling from leaf to whole plant. Six hybrid genotypes of Populus deltoides×nigra genotypes were grown in climate chambers and tested for whole-plant TE (i.e. accumulated biomass/water transpired). Net CO(2) assimilation rates (A) and stomatal conductance (g(s) ) were recorded in parallel to: (1) (13) C in leaf bulk material (δ(13) C(lb) ) and in soluble sugars (δ(13) C(ss) ) and (2) (18) O in leaf water and bulk leaf material. Genotypic means of δ(13) C(lb) and δ(13) C(ss) were tightly correlated. Discrimination between atmosphere and soluble sugars was correlated with daily intrinsic TE at leaf level (daily mean A/g(s) ), and with whole-plant TE. Finally, g(s) was positively correlated to (18) O enrichment of bulk matter or water of leaves at individual level, but not at genotype level. We conclude that Δ(13) C(lb) captures efficiently the genetic variability of whole-plant TE in poplar. Nevertheless, scaling from leaf level to whole-plant TE requires to take into account water losses and respiration independent of photosynthesis, which remain poorly documented. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Holloway, James V.; Rillig, Matthias C.; Gurnell, Angela M.
Following analysis of morphological (including dendrochronological and sedimentological) aspects of buried stem and coarse root structures of eight mature P. nigra individuals located within two sites along the middle to lower Tagliamento River, Italy (Holloway et al., 2017), this paper introduces information on the historical processes of vegetation development and river flow and links this to the form of these eight trees. Aerial images and flow time series are assembled to reconstruct the flood history, potential recruitment periods, and vegetation cover development in the vicinity of the studied trees. This information is combined with previous morphological evidence to reconstruct the development history of each tree via three-element summary diagrams showing (i) a time series of floods, aerial imagery dates, and potential recruitment periods, with colour-coded bars indicating likely key stages in the development of the tree; (ii) colour-coded overlays on an SfM photogrammetric model of each tree; and (iii) colour-coded text boxes providing explanatory annotations. The combined morphology-process analysis reveals complex three-dimensional underground structures, incorporating buried stems, shoots, and adventitious roots that are sometimes joined by grafting, linking the standing tree with the buried gravel surface on which it was recruited. Analysis of process data provides a firm basis for identifying and dating influential flow disturbance events and recruitment windows and shows that a relatively small number of flood events have significantly impacted the studied trees, which are mainly but not exclusively the largest floods in the record. Nevertheless, we stress that all suggested dates are best estimates in the light of the combined evidence. There is undoubted potential for building different interpretations of belowground woody structure development in light of such evidence, but we feel that the form and timing of the developmental trajectories we
Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Rodríguez de la Cruz, David; Escribano-Bailón, María Teresa
Three main species of Popululs L. (Salicaceae) have been reported to occur in the Iberian Peninsula: Populus nigra L., Populus alba L. and Populus tremula L. The degree of pilosity of the bracts of the male catkins is a key character for their differentiation. The anthers of these poplar species possess anthocyanins that provide them a red colouration. Since these poplars are wind-pollinated and, consequently, do not need to attract pollinators, anthocyanins in the anthers might be acting as photoprotectors, shielding pollen grains from excessive sunlight. In order to verify this hypothesis, the first objective of this study was to establish if there is any relationship between the degree of pilosity of the bracts (related to the physical shading of the pollen grains) and the levels and types of anthocyanins in the anthers of these three species. This study also aimed to check the usefulness of the anthocyanins of the anthers as chemotaxonomic markers, through the study of the differences in the anthocyanin composition between these poplar species. Anthocyanins were identified from the data supplied by HPLC-DAD-MS(n) analyses. Seventeen different compounds, including mono-, di- and triglycosides and anthocyanin-derived pigments (F-A(+) dimers) have been identified. Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was the major compound in all the samples (>60% of the total content), which may be in accordance with the photoprotective role proposed for them. However, qualitative and quantitative differences were detected among samples. Cyanidin and delphinidin 3-O-sambubiosides have been detected only in the anthers of P. tremula as well as cyanidin 3-O-(2″-O-xyloxyl)rutinoside, making them valuable chemotaxonomic markers for this species. Hierarchical Cluster and Principal Components Analyses (HCA and PCA) carried out with the anthocyanin percent composition data have allowed a separation of the samples that is in accordance with the initial classification of the samples made from the
occidentalis), river birch (Betula nigra), black willow (Salix nigra), red maple (Acer rubrum) and other hardwoods. The Vigilant Warrior site is...4004 L E C Maxwell Support Division April 9, 2008 Ms. Debbie Thomas Tribal Historic Preservation Officer Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas 571
Province. Dominants in this habitat are mostly white oak (Quercus alba ) and black oak (Quercus velutina), with pockets of post oak and blackjack oak...Stream-bank species include mostly black willow ( Salix nigra), cottonwood (Populus del- toides), sycamore, honey locust, river birch (Betula nigra), or
Ohlinger, R; Seidlitz, A; Volgmann, T
Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP) is a rare dermatosis of unknown etiology that is most frequently seen in primiparas and twin/multiple pregnancies. The prognosis is favorable. We report a case of PUPPP in a primipara and review the clinical signs, differential diagnosis, possible etiologic factors, diagnosis, and therapy.
stress include chronic heat exhaustion, forms of tropical dermatosis , and renal stones. Interestingly, no chronic physiological failures resulting from...kcal/m2 /hr as described by Lowry), or 90 kcal/hr or 105 watts for the average adult male (with 1.8 m2 of body surface area). Normal work is expected
Mark V. Coggeshall; J.W." Jerry" Van Sambeek; Scott E. Schlarbaum
Open-pollinated bare-root seedlings from six families of cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.), seven families of water oak (Q. nigra L.), six families of willow oak (Q. phellos L.), and eight families of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) were planted in spring 2003 in nine channels of the...
Dixit, Shreya; Selva-Nayagam, Priya; Hamann, Ian; Fischer, Gayle
Rituximab is being used increasingly for the treatment of B-cell malignancies and nonmalignant conditions. Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare neutrophilic dermatosis, which can be either idiopathic or associated with underlying systemic inflammatory conditions. We present a series of 4 patients who presented with ulcerative pyoderma gangrenosum in the vulvovaginal area after treatment with rituximab.
Goldberg, Natalie R.S.; Meshul, Charles K.
Our goal was to extend our understanding of the neural changes behind motor recovery with treadmill exercise in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned mouse. We determined the extent of dopamine (DA) terminal changes using western immunoblotting [striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)] and alterations in the mean number of DA cells/section by immunohistochemistry and Nissl staining [TH-labeled cells and thionin-stained cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN-PC)]. We measured recovery of gait performance and amount of spontaneous physical activity using the parallel rod activity chamber (PRAC). We hypothesized that the decrease in TH-labeled neurons in the SN-PC due to MPTP will be partially reversed by treadmill exercise, leading to recovery of motor behavior as measured by the PRAC. Following MPTP or vehicle administration, mice ran on the treadmill for 1 hour per day at 18 cm/s, 5 days per week. Results showed that treadmill exercise improves gait performance and increases physical activity while promoting increased protein expression of striatal DAT and TH. Exercise was effective for all mice, however effects of early treadmill-based intervention appear to have an additional and unique benefit in mice who received MPTP. We are the first to show that, even following a nearly 50% decrease in the mean number of TH-labeled neurons/section in the SN-PC following MPTP, treadmill exercise leads to an increase of neurons in the SN-PC and improved motor behavior. PMID:21315689
Sidbury, Robert; Tom, Wynnis L.; Bergman, James N.; Cooper, Kevin D.; Silverman, Robert A.; Berger, Timothy G.; Chamlin, Sarah L.; Cohen, David E.; Cordoro, Kelly M.; Davis, Dawn M.; Feldman, Steven R.; Hanifin, Jon M.; Krol, Alfons; Margolis, David J.; Paller, Amy S.; Schwarzenberger, Kathryn; Simpson, Eric L.; Williams, Hywel C.; Elmets, Craig A.; Block, Julie; Harrod, Christopher G.; Begolka, Wendy Smith; Eichenfield, Lawrence F.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic inflammatory dermatosis that can affect all age groups. This evidence-based guideline addresses important clinical questions that arise in its management. In this final section, treatments for flare prevention and adjunctive and complementary therapies and approaches are reviewed. Suggestions on utilization are given based on available evidence. PMID:25264237
Chen, D M; Crosby, D L
Rosacea is a common dermatosis with a variety of clinical manifestations. The eyes are often affected. The most frequent ocular findings are blepharitis and conjunctivitis. We describe three patients with rosacea in whom periorbital edema was the initial presentation. This symptom may be confused with other dermatoses and may be refractory to conventional treatments for rosacea.
Miyoshi, F; Ogawa, T; Kitao, S-i; Kitayama, M; Shinohara, Y; Takasugi, M; Fujii, S; Kaminou, T
Progressive changes in the substantia nigra pars compacta and locus ceruleus of patients with Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease visualized by neuromelanin MRI and cardiac postganglionic sympathetic nerve function on (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy have not been fully evaluated. We compared the diagnostic value of these modalities among patients with early Parkinson disease, late Parkinson disease, and Alzheimer disease. We compared contrast ratios of signal intensity in medial and lateral regions of the substantia nigra pars compacta and locus ceruleus with those of the tegmentum of the midbrain and the pons, respectively, by use of neuromelanin MRI in patients with early Parkinson disease (n = 13), late Parkinson disease (n = 31), Alzheimer disease (n = 6), and age-matched healthy control subjects (n = 20). We calculated heart-to-mediastinum ratios on (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigrams after setting regions of interest on the left cardiac ventricle and upper mediastinum. The signal intensity of the lateral substantia nigra pars compacta on neuromelanin MRI was significantly reduced in early and late Parkinson disease, and that of the medial substantia nigra pars compacta was gradually and stage-dependently reduced in Parkinson disease. The signal intensity of the locus ceruleus was obviously reduced in late Parkinson disease. Signal reduction was not significant in the substantia nigra pars compacta and locus ceruleus of patients with Alzheimer disease. The heart-to-mediastinum ratio on (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigrams was stage-dependently reduced in Parkinson disease and normal in Alzheimer disease. The signal intensity ratios in substantia nigra pars compacta and locus ceruleus on neuromelanin MRI positively correlated with the heart-to-mediastinum ratio on (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigrams. Both neuromelanin MRI and (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy can help to evaluate disease progression in Parkinson
Datta, Siddhartha; Chakrabarti, Nilkanta
Rise in brain lactate is the hallmark of ageing. Separate studies report that ageing is associated with elevation of lactate level and alterations of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-A/B mRNA-expression-ratio in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. However, age related lactate rise in brain and its association with LDH status and their brain regional variations are still elusive. In the present study, level of lactate, LDH (A and B) activity and LDH-A expression were evaluated in post-mitochondrial fraction of tissues isolated from four different brain regions (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, substantia nigra and cerebellum) of young and aged mice. Lactate levels elevated in four brain regions with maximum rise in substantia nigra of aged mice. LDH-A protein expression and its activity decreased in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and substantia nigra without any changes of these parameters in cerebellum of aged mice. LDH-B activity decreased in hippocampus, substantia nigra and cerebellum whereas its activity remains unaltered in cerebral cortex of aged mice. Accordingly, the ratio of LDH-A/LDH-B-activity remains unaltered in hippocampus and substantia nigra, decreased in cerebral cortex and increased in cerebellum. Therefore, rise of lactate in three brain regions (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, substantia nigra) appeared to be not correlated with the alterations of its regulatory enzymes activities in these three brain regions, rather it supports the fact of involvement of other mechanisms, like lactate transport and/or aerobic/anaerobic metabolism as the possible cause(s) of lactate rise in these three brain regions. The increase in LDH-A/LDH-B-activity-ratio appeared to be positively correlated with elevated lactate level in cerebellum of aged mice. Overall, the present study indicates that the mechanism of rise in lactate in brain varies with brain regions where LDH status plays an important role during ageing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marushia, Robin G.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Holt, Jodie S.
Invasive species researchers often ask: Why do some species invade certain habitats while others do not? Ecological theories predict that taxonomically related species may invade similar habitats, but some related species exhibit contrasting invasion patterns. Brassica nigra, Brassica tournefortii, and Hirschfeldia incana are dominant, closely related nonnative species that have overlapping, but dissimilar, distributions. Brassica tournefortii is rapidly spreading in warm deserts of the southwestern United States, whereas B. nigra and H. incana are primarily limited to semiarid and mesic regions. We compared traits of B. tournefortii that might confer invasiveness in deserts with those of related species that have not invaded desert ecosystems. Brassica tournefortii, B. nigra and H. incana were compared in controlled experiments conducted outdoors in a mesic site (Riverside, CA) and a desert site (Blue Diamond, NV), and in greenhouses, over 3 yr. Desert and mesic B. tournefortii populations were also compared to determine whether locally adapted ecotypes contribute to desert invasion. Experimental variables included common garden sites and soil water availability. Response variables included emergence, growth, phenology, and reproduction. There was no evidence for B. tournefortii ecotypes, but B. tournefortii had a more rapid phenology than B. nigra or H. incana. Brassica tournefortii was less affected by site and water availability than B. nigra and H. incana, but was smaller and less fecund regardless of experimental conditions. Rapid phenology allows B. tournefortii to reproduce consistently under variable, stressful conditions such as those found in Southwestern deserts. Although more successful in milder, mesic ecosystems, B. nigra and H. incana may be limited by their ability to reproduce under desert conditions. Rapid phenology and drought response partition invasion patterns of nonnative mustards along a gradient of aridity in the southwestern United States
Poetschke, Christina; Dragicevic, Elena; Duda, Johanna; Benkert, Julia; Dougalis, Antonios; DeZio, Roberta; Snutch, Terrance P; Striessnig, Joerg; Liss, Birgit
The preferential degeneration of Substantia nigra dopamine midbrain neurons (SN DA) causes the motor-symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Voltage-gated L-type calcium channels (LTCCs), especially the Cav1.3-subtype, generate an activity-related oscillatory Ca(2+) burden in SN DA neurons, contributing to their degeneration and PD. While LTCC-blockers are already in clinical trials as PD-therapy, age-dependent functional roles of Cav1.3 LTCCs in SN DA neurons remain unclear. Thus, we analysed juvenile and adult Cav1.3-deficient mice with electrophysiological and molecular techniques. To unmask compensatory effects, we compared Cav1.3 KO mice with pharmacological LTCC-inhibition. LTCC-function was not necessary for SN DA pacemaker-activity at either age, but rather contributed to their pacemaker-precision. Moreover, juvenile Cav1.3 KO but not WT mice displayed adult wildtype-like, sensitised inhibitory dopamine-D2-autoreceptor (D2-AR) responses that depended upon both, interaction of the neuronal calcium sensor NCS-1 with D2-ARs, and on voltage-gated T-type calcium channel (TTCC) activity. This functional KO-phenotype was accompanied by cell-specific up-regulation of NCS-1 and Cav3.1-TTCC mRNA. Furthermore, in wildtype we identified an age-dependent switch of TTCC-function from contributing to SN DA pacemaker-precision in juveniles to pacemaker-frequency in adults. This novel interplay of Cav1.3 L-type and Cav3.1 T-type channels, and their modulation of SN DA activity-pattern and D2-AR-sensitisation, provide new insights into flexible age- and calcium-dependent activity-control of SN DA neurons and its pharmacological modulation.
Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Ivancic, Anton; Schmitzer, Valentina; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci
Differences in the content of sugars, organic acids, total phenolics and antioxidative activity have been evaluated among three different elderberry species (Sambucus nigra, Sambucus cerulea, Sambucus javanica) and seven interspecific hybrids. The highest content of sugars has been determined in the fruits of JA×CER hybrid and the lowest in fruits of (JA×NI)×cv. Black Beauty hybrid. S. nigra berries contained highest levels of total organic acids. S. nigra and (JA×NI)×CER flower extracts were characterized by 1.3- to 2.8-fold higher content of total sugars compared to other species/hybrids analyzed. Total phenolic content (TPC) in berries ranged from 3687 to 6831 mg GAE per kg FW. The highest TPC has been determined in S. nigra fruits and flowers. The ABTS scavenging activity differed significantly among species and hybrids and ranged from 3.2 to 39.59 mM trolox/kgF W in fruits and 44.87-118.26 mM trolox/kg DW in flowers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
[Antiurolithiasic effect of a plant mixture of Herniaria glabra, Agropyron repens, Equisetum arvense and Sambucus nigra (Herbensurina®) in the prevention of experimentally induced nephrolithiasis in rats].
Crescenti, Anna; Puiggròs, Francesc; Colomé, Arnau; Poch, Josep Antón; Caimari, Antoni; Bas, Josep Maria; Boqué, Noemí; Arola, Lluís
To determine the effect of a botanical formulation of Herniaria glabra, Agropyron repens, Equisetum arvense, and Sambucus nigra as a preventive agent in an experimentally induced nefrolithiasis model in rats. Six groups of six Wistar male rats each were induced for nefrolithiasis by treatment with 0.75% ethylene glycol (EG) and 1% ammonium chloride for three days and then EG only for 15 days. One group was treated with placebo (control group) and the other groups (treated groups) were treated with 30 mg/Kg, 60 mg/Kg, 125 mg/Kg, 250 mg/Kg and 500 mg/Kg of the plant extract formulation (PEF). 24-h urine and water samples were collected one day before EG administration and at 7, 13 and 18 days to determine diuresis, crystalluria and urine biochemistry. The kidneys were removed for histological analysis. The phytochemical characterization of PEF and each of its component plant extracts was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Animals treated with 125 mg/Kg of the PEF had statistically significantly lower calcium oxalate crystals deposits content compared to the control group. All PEF doses statistically significantly decreased the number of microcalcifications compared to the control group. Furthermore, the number of kidneys affected by subcapsular fibrosis was statistically significantly higher in control group than in treated groups with the PEF. The diuresis of the 125 mg/Kg and 500 mg/Kg PEF-treated groups was statistically significantly higher than that of the control group. A phytochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of flavonoids, dicarboxylic acids and saponins. Treatment with PEF prevents deposits of calcium oxalate crystals formation and of microcalcifications in the kidney, and reduces the risk of fibrosis subcapsular. 125 mg/Kg of PEF is the dose that has a greater effect on the studied parameters.
Wang, Shengji; Wang, Jiying; Yao, Wenjing; Zhou, Boru; Li, Renhua; Jiang, Tingbo
Spatio-temporal expression patterns of 13 out of 119 poplar WRKY genes indicated dynamic and tissue-specific roles of WRKY family proteins in salinity stress tolerance. To understand the expression patterns of poplar WRKY genes under salinity stress, 51 of the 119 WRKY genes were selected from di-haploid Populus simonii × P. nigra by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). We used qRT-PCR to profile the expression of the top 13 genes under salinity stress across seven time points, and employed RNA-Seq platforms to cross-validate it. Results demonstrated that all the 13 WRKY genes were expressed in root, stem, and leaf tissues, but their expression levels and overall patterns varied notably in these tissues. Regarding overall gene expression in roots, the 13 genes were significantly highly expressed at all six time points after the treatment, reaching the plateau of expression at hour 9. In leaves, the 13 genes were similarly up-regulated from 3 to 12 h in response to NaCl treatment. In stems, however, expression levels of the 13 genes did not show significant changes after the NaCl treatment. Regarding individual gene expression across the time points and the three tissues, the 13 genes can be classified into three clusters: the lowly expressed Cluster 1 containing PthWRKY28, 45 and 105; intermediately expressed Clusters 2 including PthWRKY56, 88 and 116; and highly expressed Cluster 3 consisting of PthWRKY41, 44, 51, 61, 62, 75 and 106. In general, genes in Cluster 2 and 3 displayed a dynamic pattern of "induced amplification-recovering", suggesting that these WRKY genes and corresponding pathways may play a critical role in mediating salt response and tolerance in a dynamic and tissue-specific manner.
Minnema, Daniel J; Travis, Kim Z; Breckenridge, Charles B; Sturgess, Nicholas C; Butt, Mark; Wolf, Jeffrey C; Zadory, Dan; Beck, Melissa J; Mathews, James M; Tisdel, Merrill O; Cook, Andrew R; Botham, Philip A; Smith, Lewis L
Several investigations have reported that mice administered paraquat dichloride (PQ·Cl2) by intraperitoneal injection exhibit a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). In this study, male and female C57BL/6J mice were administered PQ·Cl2 in the diet at concentrations of 0 (control), 10, and 50ppm for a duration of 13weeks. A separate group of mice were administered 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) during week 12 as positive controls to produce a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc. The comparative effects of PQ and MPTP on the SNpc and/or striatum were assessed using neurochemical, neuropathological, and stereological endpoints. Morphological and stereological assessments were performed by investigators 'blinded' to the origin of the tissue. Neither dose of PQ·Cl2 (10 or 50 ppm in the diet) caused a loss of striatal dopamine or dopamine metabolite concentrations in the brains of mice. Pathological assessments of the SNpc and striatum showed no evidence of neuronal degeneration or astrocytic/microglial activation. Furthermore, the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH(+)) neurons in the SNpc was not reduced in PQ-treated mice. In contrast, MPTP caused a decrease in striatal dopamine concentration, a reduction in TH(+) neurons in the SNpc, and significant pathological changes including astrocytic and microglial activation in the striatum and SNpc. The MPTP-induced effects were greater in males than in females. It is concluded that 13weeks of continuous dietary exposure of C57BL/6J mice to 50ppm PQ·Cl2 (equivalent to 10.2 and 15.6mg PQ ion/kg body weight/day for males and females, respectively) does not result in the loss of, or damage to, dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra and prefrontal cortex rodent organotypic brain slices as an integrated model to study the cellular changes induced by oxygen/glucose deprivation and reperfusion: effect of neuroprotective agents.
Colombo, Laura; Parravicini, Chiara; Lecca, Davide; Dossi, Elena; Heine, Claudia; Cimino, Mauro; Wanke, Enzo; Illes, Peter; Franke, Heike; Abbracchio, Maria P
Unveiling the roles of distinct cell types in brain response to insults is a partially unsolved challenge and a key issue for new neuroreparative approaches. In vivo models are not able to dissect the contribution of residential microglia and infiltrating blood-borne monocytes/macrophages, which are fundamentally undistinguishable; conversely, cultured cells lack original tissue anatomical and functional complexity, which profoundly alters reactivity. Here, we tested whether rodent organotypic co-cultures from mesencephalic ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra and prefrontal cortex (VTA/SN-PFC) represent a suitable model to study changes induced by oxygen/glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/R). OGD/R induced cytotoxicity to both VTA/SN and PFC slices, with higher VTA/SN susceptibility. Neurons were highly affected, with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes undergoing very mild damage. Marked reactive astrogliosis was also evident. Notably, OGD/R triggered the activation of CD68-expressing microglia and increased expression of Ym1 and Arg1, two markers of "alternatively" activated beneficial microglia. Treatment with two well-known neuroprotective drugs, the anticonvulsant agent valproic acid and the purinergic P2-antagonist PPADS, prevented neuronal damage. Thus, VTA/SN-PFC cultures are an integrated model to investigate OGD/R-induced effects on distinct cells and easily screen neuroprotective agents. The model is particularly adequate to dissect the microglia phenotypic shift in the lack of a functional vascular compartment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Smeyne, Richard Jay; Breckenridge, Charles B; Beck, Melissa; Jiao, Yun; Butt, Mark T; Wolf, Jeffrey C; Zadory, Dan; Minnema, Daniel J; Sturgess, Nicholas C; Travis, Kim Z; Cook, Andrew R; Smith, Lewis L; Botham, Philip A
The neurotoxicity of paraquat dichloride (PQ) was assessed in two inbred strains of 9- or 16-week old male C57BL/6 mice housed in two different laboratories and compared to the effects of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). PQ was administered by intraperitoneal injections; either once (20 mg/kg) or twice (10 mg/kg) weekly for 3 weeks, while MPTP-HCl was injected 4 times on a single day (20 mg/kg/dose). Brains were collected 8, 16, 24, 48, 96 or 168 hours after the last PQ treatment, and 48 or 168 hours after MPTP treatment. Dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) were identified by antibodies to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH+) and microglia were identified using Iba-1 immunoreactivity. The total number of TH+ neurons and the number of resting and activated microglia in the SNpc at 168 hours after the last dose were estimated using model- or design-based stereology, with investigators blinded to treatment. In a further analysis, a pathologist, also blinded to treatment, evaluated the SNpc and/or striatum for loss of TH+ neurons (SNpc) or terminals (striatum), cell death (as indicated by amino cupric silver uptake, TUNEL and/or caspase 3 staining) and neuroinflammation (as indicated by Iba-1 and/or GFAP staining). PQ, administered either once or twice weekly to 9- or 16-week old mice from two suppliers, had no effect on the number of TH+ neurons or microglia in the SNpc, as assessed by two groups, each blinded to treatment, using different stereological methods. PQ did not induce neuronal cell loss or degeneration in the SNpc or striatum. Additionally, there was no evidence of apoptosis, microgliosis or astrogliosis. In MPTP-treated mice, the number of TH+ neurons in the SNpc was significantly decreased and the number of activated microglia increased. Histopathological assessment found degenerating neurons/terminals in the SNpc and striatum but no evidence of apoptotic cell death. MPTP activated microglia in the SNpc and increased
Job, Anupa Mary; Kaimal, Sowmya
Vulvovaginal lichen planus is a type of chronic inflammatory dermatosis of the vulva, usually seen as a part of widespread lichen planus. The common clinical types of vulval lichen planus include papulosquamous, erosive and pigmented types. Hypertrophic lichen planus of the vulva is a rare entity. We report a case of hypertrophic lichen planus of the vulva which clinically simulated genital warts.
Hendry, W F; Munro, D D
A group of 16 male patients with infertility had dermatitis of the scrotum and groins giving lichenified oedematous skin; the resulting thickening and loss of rugosity produced a characteristic appearance that we have termed wash leather scrotum. Treatment of the dermatosis resulted in an improvement in sperm count and motility in most patients, and 5 couples produced one or more pregnancies.
Nair, Pragya Ashok
Vulvar lichen sclerosus (VLS) is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis characterized by ivory-white plaques or patches with glistening surface commonly affecting the vulva and anus. Common symptoms are irritation, soreness, dyspareunia, dysuria, and urinary or fecal incontinence. Anogenital lichen sclerosus (LS) is characterized by porcelain-white atrophic plaques, which may become confluent extending around the vulval and perianal skin in a figure of eight configuration. Thinning and shrinkage of the genital area make coitus, urination, and defecation painful. LS is not uncommon in India and present as an itchy vulvar dermatosis which a gynecologist may mistake for candidal vulvovaginitis. There is often a delay in diagnosis of VLS due to its asymptomatic nature and lack of awareness in patients as well as physicians. Embarrassment of patients due to private nature of the disease and failure to examine the genital skin properly are the other reasons for delay in diagnosis. There is no curative treatment for LS. Various medications available only relieve the symptoms. Chronic nature of the disease affects the quality of life. Proper and regular follow-up is required as there are chances of the development of squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:28706405
Newman-Tancredi, A; Cussac, D; Brocco, M; Rivet, J M; Chaput, C; Touzard, M; Pasteau, V; Millan, M J
Unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNPC) neurons in rats induce behavioural hypersensitivity to dopaminergic agonists. However, the role of specific dopamine receptors is unclear, and potential alterations in their transduction mechanisms remain to be evaluated. The present study addressed these issues employing the dopaminergic agonist, quinelorane, which efficaciously stimulated G-protein activation (as assessed by [35S]GTPgammaS binding) at cloned hD2 (and hD3) receptors. At rat striatal membranes, dopamine stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding by 1.9-fold over basal, but its actions were only partially reversed by the selective D2/D3 receptor antagonist, raclopride, indicating the involvement of other receptor subtypes. In contrast, quinelorane-induced stimulation (48% of the effect of dopamine) was abolished by raclopride, and by the D2 receptor antagonist, L741,626. Further, novel antagonists selective for D3 and D4 receptors, S33084 and S18126, respectively, blocked the actions of quinelorane at concentrations corresponding to their affinities for D2 receptors. Quinelorane potently induced contralateral rotation in unilaterally 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, an effect abolished by raclopride and L741,626, but not by D3 and D4 receptor-selective doses of S33084 and S18126, respectively. In functional ([35S]GTPgammaS) autoradiography experiments, quinelorane stimulated G-protein activation in caudate putamen and, to a lesser extent, in nucleus accumbens and cingulate cortex of naive rats. In unilaterally SNPC-lesioned rats, quinelorane-induced G-protein activation in the caudate putamen on the non-lesioned side was similar to that seen in naive animals (approximately 50% stimulation), but significantly greater on the lesioned side (approximately 80%). This increase was both pharmacologically and regionally specific since it was reversed by raclopride, and was not observed in nucleus accumbens or cingulate cortex. In conclusion
Studer, Mirjam S.; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.; Schmidt, Michael W. I.; Abiven, Samuel
Plants might be a key factor for the long-term stabilisation of carbon (C) in the soil, e.g. through enhanced physical protection of root-derived C against microbial decomposition in soil aggregates. On the other hand C released by the plants into the soil might promote the decomposition of native soil organic matter (SOM) through the stimulation of microbial activity. We measured the C budget of developing plant-soil systems (Populus deltoides x nigra, Cambisol soil) in the laboratory under controlled environmental conditions. In order to distinguish plant-derived from native C in the SOM and the soil CO2 efflux, we labelled the poplar shoots continuously with 13C-CO2 from first emergence of leaves (sprouting from stem cuttings). Throughout the experiment the CO2 fluxes (photosynthetic assimilation, dark respiratory loss, soil CO2 efflux) were measured frequently (every 30 min) and the 13C was traced in the soil CO2 efflux (1-2 times a week). After 10 weeks the plant-soil systems were destructively harvested and the distribution of the 13C distribution was analysed. The plants developed slowly (compared to previous experiments), most likely due to limitation in C reserves (long term cutting storage) and C supply (low light intensities). The amount of 13C recovered in the roots, microbial biomass and soil CO2 efflux was directly correlated with the leaf area of the different plant individuals. After 3-4 weeks of plant development we observed a high peak in the total soil CO2 efflux. During this time the relative belowground C release was increased massively over the basal rate of 17 % of net C assimilated, whereby the variability between the plant individuals was large. The smallest plants, i.e. the plants that were most resource limited, obtained the highest belowground C release accounting at the peak time for up to 57 % of net assimilated C. We hypothesize that the plants released specific compounds, which either directly (enzymatically) or indirectly (priming
Background Pleiotrophin is known to promote the survival and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in vitro and is up-regulated in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease patients. To establish whether pleiotrophin has a trophic effect on nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in vivo, we injected a recombinant adenovirus expressing pleiotrophin in the substantia nigra of 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats. Results The viral vector induced pleiotrophin over-expression by astrocytes in the substantia nigra pars compacta, without modifying endogenous neuronal expression. The percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells as well as the area of their projections in the lesioned striatum was higher in pleiotrophin-treated animals than in controls. Conclusions These results indicate that pleiotrophin over-expression partially rescues tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cell bodies and terminals of dopaminergic neurons undergoing 6-hydroxydopamine-induced degeneration. PMID:21649894
Taravini, Irene Re; Chertoff, Mariela; Cafferata, Eduardo G; Courty, José; Murer, Mario G; Pitossi, Fernando J; Gershanik, Oscar S
Pleiotrophin is known to promote the survival and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in vitro and is up-regulated in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease patients. To establish whether pleiotrophin has a trophic effect on nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in vivo, we injected a recombinant adenovirus expressing pleiotrophin in the substantia nigra of 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats. The viral vector induced pleiotrophin over-expression by astrocytes in the substantia nigra pars compacta, without modifying endogenous neuronal expression. The percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells as well as the area of their projections in the lesioned striatum was higher in pleiotrophin-treated animals than in controls. These results indicate that pleiotrophin over-expression partially rescues tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cell bodies and terminals of dopaminergic neurons undergoing 6-hydroxydopamine-induced degeneration.
Sitek, Jan C.
Actinic prurigo is a pruritic sun-induced dermatosis classified among the immunologically mediated photodermatoses. The disease is a well-known entity among Native Americans and in Central and South America, however rare in Caucasians with only a few reports from Australia, Britain and France. We report the first case of actinic prurigo in a Scandinavian patient, responding favorably to systemic treatment with cyclosporine A. PMID:29142659
Guarneri, Claudio; Chokoeva, Anastasiya Atanasova; Wollina, Uwe; Lotti, Torello; Tchernev, Georgi
Trombiculiasis represents a striking emerging infestation in humans. In fact, modified lifestyles and easy and quick traveling around the globe, together with the altered ecology and habits of the parasite Neotrombicula autumnalis, make this original epizoonosis an extraordinary example of synanthropic dermatosis. We present an additional clinical image of this unusual parasite transmission from animals to humans occurring in a trekker in Calabria, Italy.
et al, however, were very similar to that of ours and suggests a relationship (6). Eosinophilic folliculitis is a papular eruption which occurs in HIV...patients with moderate to advanced HIV infection (14). The dermatopathology of eosinophilic folliculitis is primarily characterized by follicular...Berger TG. HIV-associated eosinophilic folliculitis : A unique dermatosis associated with advanced HIV infection. Arch Derm 1991; 127: 206 15. Ray TL
Sitek, Jan C
Actinic prurigo is a pruritic sun-induced dermatosis classified among the immunologically mediated photodermatoses. The disease is a well-known entity among Native Americans and in Central and South America, however rare in Caucasians with only a few reports from Australia, Britain and France. We report the first case of actinic prurigo in a Scandinavian patient, responding favorably to systemic treatment with cyclosporine A.
Fischer, M.; Trnka, M.; Kucera, J.; Zalud, Z.
This study reports on evapotranspiration and tree water use in short rotation coppice culture of hybrid poplar (Populus nigra x P. maximowiczii) for biomass energy in the Czech Republic. The high density poplar plantation (10 000 trees per ha) was established in 2003 on arable land in Czech-Moravian Highland (49°32´ N, 16°15´ E, 530 m a.s.l.) and has been coppiced in rotation period of 7 years. Firstly, evapotranspiration of the stand has been estimated by applying the Bowen ratio-energy budget method, which is considered as reliable, robust, quite simple and inexpensive technique with comparable results to eddy covariance and lysimeters. The gaps in evapotranspiration diurnal patterns caused by limitation of the bowen ratio method were filled with simple linear regression model based on relation between potential and actual evapotranspiration with regard to soil water availability and leaf area index and thus the daily, monthly and seasonal totals could be calculated. The amount of evapotranspiration during the growing season 2009 (1 March - 31 October) was 593 mm with highest monthly total 116 mm in June. Mean daily water loss over the season reached 2.43 mm per day. During the hot summer day, the maximal value 5.73 mm per day, which presented 89 % of potential evapotranspiration calculated by Penman equation, was recorded with a peak rate 0.94 mm per hour. Secondly, the transpiration was measured by sap flow tissue heat balance techniques on four individual trees with greatest stem diameters (11 - 12 cm d.b.h.) and height of 12 - 12.5 m. Relatively high transpiration values by the poplars were found during the measured part of growing season (18 June - 31 October), with maximum and mean daily transpiration of 44.41 dm3 and 16.69 dm3 per day, respectively. The seasonal transpiration of the most vigorous from the investigated individuals amounted 2542 dm3. Because in this study we didńt evaluate the transpiration of thinner trees (technical features of sap
Mantyh, P.W.; Hunt, S.P.
Previous studies have indicated that the substantia nigra contains the highest concentration of substance P-like immunoreactivity (SPLI) in the brain. Paradoxically, it also appears to contain one of the lowest concentrations of substance P receptors in the brain. One possibility is that the massive amount of SPLI blocks the binding of the radioligand to the substance P receptor and/or down-regulates the number of substance P receptors present in this structure. Since greater than 95% of the SPLI within the substantia nigra originates from the corpus striatum, we have lesioned this area and measured the changes in substance P receptor concentrationmore » in the substantia nigra and other corpus striatal projection areas. A semiquantitative autoradiographic technique for measuring the binding of /sup 3/H-substance P to substance P receptors was used in conjunction with tritium-sensitive film. 3H-substance P binding was measured in both the corpus striatum and its projection areas after kainic acid lesion of the corpus striatum. At either 4 or 21 d after the lesion there was approximately a 90% loss of substance P receptors in the rostral striatum, a 74% loss in the globus pallidus, a 57% increase in receptor number in lamina I and II of the ipsilateral somatosensory cortex, and no apparent change in the number of receptors in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, superior colliculus, and central gray. These findings suggest that the low concentration of substance P receptors found within the substantia nigra is not due the massive SPLI innervation, since removal of greater than 95% of the SPLI had no measurable effect on the concentration of substance P receptors.« less
Kakeda, Shingo; Korogi, Yukunori; Yoneda, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Keita; Moriya, Junji; Murakami, Yu; Sato, Toru; Hiai, Yasuhiro; Ohnari, Norihiro; Ide, Satoru; Okada, Kazumasa; Uozumi, Takenori; Tsuji, Sadatoshi; Hirai, Toshinori; Yamashita, Yasuyuki
To determine whether it is possible to diagnose patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) on an individual basis using magnetic resonance imaging with phase difference enhanced imaging (PADRE). PADRE delineated the crural fibres as a layer of low signal intensity and the substantia nigra as a layer of medium signal intensity in a healthy volunteer, and showed a clear boundary between the crural fibres and the substantia nigra (BCS). Twenty-four PD patients and 24 control subjects were enrolled. Contrast ratios between the substantia nigra and occipital white matter were calculated, and two radiologists independently reviewed the PADRE findings regarding BCS obscuration. Mean contrast ratio in PD patients was significantly higher than in control subjects (0.56 vs 0.39, P < 0.01). The BCS on PADRE was obscured significantly more frequently in any subgroups with PD patients compared with control subjects (P < 0.01). The observation of BCS obscuration had a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the diagnosis of PD of 92 %, 88 % and 90 % for radiologist 1 and 83 %, 88 % and 85 % for radiologist 2, respectively. PADRE is able to identify PD in patients as a loss of delineation between the crural fibres and the substantia nigra on an individual basis.
Smeyne, Richard Jay; Breckenridge, Charles B.; Beck, Melissa; Jiao, Yun; Butt, Mark T.; Wolf, Jeffrey C.; Zadory, Dan; Minnema, Daniel J.; Sturgess, Nicholas C.; Travis, Kim Z.; Cook, Andrew R.; Smith, Lewis L.; Botham, Philip A.
The neurotoxicity of paraquat dichloride (PQ) was assessed in two inbred strains of 9- or 16-week old male C57BL/6 mice housed in two different laboratories and compared to the effects of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). PQ was administered by intraperitoneal injections; either once (20 mg/kg) or twice (10 mg/kg) weekly for 3 weeks, while MPTP-HCl was injected 4 times on a single day (20 mg/kg/dose). Brains were collected 8, 16, 24, 48, 96 or 168 hours after the last PQ treatment, and 48 or 168 hours after MPTP treatment. Dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) were identified by antibodies to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH+) and microglia were identified using Iba-1 immunoreactivity. The total number of TH+ neurons and the number of resting and activated microglia in the SNpc at 168 hours after the last dose were estimated using model- or design-based stereology, with investigators blinded to treatment. In a further analysis, a pathologist, also blinded to treatment, evaluated the SNpc and/or striatum for loss of TH+ neurons (SNpc) or terminals (striatum), cell death (as indicated by amino cupric silver uptake, TUNEL and/or caspase 3 staining) and neuroinflammation (as indicated by Iba-1 and/or GFAP staining). PQ, administered either once or twice weekly to 9- or 16-week old mice from two suppliers, had no effect on the number of TH+ neurons or microglia in the SNpc, as assessed by two groups, each blinded to treatment, using different stereological methods. PQ did not induce neuronal cell loss or degeneration in the SNpc or striatum. Additionally, there was no evidence of apoptosis, microgliosis or astrogliosis. In MPTP-treated mice, the number of TH+ neurons in the SNpc was significantly decreased and the number of activated microglia increased. Histopathological assessment found degenerating neurons/terminals in the SNpc and striatum but no evidence of apoptotic cell death. MPTP activated microglia in the SNpc and increased
Z.J. Wang; J.Y. Zhu; Ronald S. Jr. Zalesny; K.F. Chen
Dilute acid (DA) and Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome Recalcitrance of Lignocelluloses (SPORL) pretreatments were directly applied to wood chips of four poplar wood samples of different genotypes (hereafter referred to as poplars; Populus tremuloides Michx. ânative aspen collectionâ; Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh x Populus nigra L. âNE222â and âDN5â; P. nigra x...
Phototherapy is a useful therapeutic method for various skin diseases due to its modulatory effect on the cutaneous immune system. Alopecia areata is a dermatosis characterized by partial or complete hair loss. Collapse of the immune privilege of the hair follicle, which induces noncicatricial alopecia, is an important factor in its etiology. Several forms of phototherapy are used in dermatology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bildfell, Robert J; Löhr, Christiane V; Tornquist, Susan J
This article provides an overview of tests and appropriate samples to send to a Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for the diagnosis of common diseases of New World Camelids (NWC) such as abortions, congenital anomalies, anemia, enteritis, endoparasitism, gastric ulcer, hepatic lipidosis, encephalitis, pneumonia, dermatosis, neoplasia and cryptococcosis. Unique anatomic features of NWC and common findings encountered during gross necropsy examination are briefly reviewed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nixon, Anne M; Meadowcroft, Mark D; Neely, Elizabeth B; Snyder, Amanda M; Purnell, Carson J; Wright, Justin; Lamendella, Regina; Nandar, Wint; Huang, Xuemei; Connor, James R
Parkinson's disease is marked clinically by motor dysfunction and pathologically by dopaminergic cell loss in the substantia nigra and iron accumulation in the substantia nigra. The driver underlying iron accumulation remains unknown and could be genetic or environmental. The HFE protein is critical for the regulation of cellular iron uptake. Mutations within this protein are associated with increased iron accumulation including in the brain. We have focused on the commonly occurring H63D variant of the HFE gene as a disease modifier in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. To investigate the role of H63D HFE genotype, we generated a mouse model in which the wild-type (WT) HFE gene is replaced by the H67D gene variant (mouse homolog of the human H63D gene variant). Using paraquat toxicity as the model for Parkinson's disease, we found that WT mice responded as expected with significantly greater motor function, loss of tyrosine hydroxylase staining and increase microglial staining in the substantia nigra, and an increase in R 2 relaxation rate within the substantia nigra of the paraquat-treated mice compared to their saline-treated counterparts. In contrast, the H67D mice showed a remarkable resistance to paraquat treatment; specifically differing from the WT mice with no changes in motor function or changes in R 2 relaxation rates following paraquat exposure. At baseline, there were differences between the H67D HFE mice and WT mice in gut microbiome profile and increased L-ferritin staining in the substantia nigra that could account for the resistance to paraquat. Of particular note, the H67D HFE mice regardless of whether or not they were treated with paraquat had significantly less tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining than WT. Our results clearly demonstrate that the HFE genotype impacts the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in the substantia nigra, the gut microbiome and the response to paraquat providing additional support that the HFE genotype is a disease
Tsianakas, P; Polack, B; Pinquier, L; Levy Klotz, B; Prost-Squarcioni, C
Species of Cheyletiella mites are parasites hosted by dogs, cats and rabbits. In humans, they cause a dermatosis not well known by dermatologists. We report a case of an unusual, purely vesiculobullous eruption due to Cheyletiella blakei acquired from an infected cat. A 76-year-old woman presented a very pruritic eruption of vesicles and bullous lesions located on the trunk and external areas of the arms. Biopsy showed dermoepidermal cleavage and polynuclear infiltrate with prominent eosinophils, consistent with the diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid. We suspected a Cheyletiella dermatitis due to the aspect and distribution of the elementary lesions and the fact that prior to the eruption the patient had acquired a cat that sometimes slept in her bed. The diagnosis was confirmed by a veterinary examination and isolation of Cheyletiella blakei from the cat's skin. The cat was treated successfully with ivermectin, while the household was disinfected with permethrin. A treatment with benzyl benzoate (Ascabiol) resolved all the patient's symptoms. This case is particularly interesting due to the purely vesiculobullous pattern of the rash and by the difficulty and considerable delay of diagnosis. Patients who have recently acquired a cat or dog before developing a pruritic dermatosis may indeed have cheyletiellosis.
Langkammer, Christian; Pirpamer, Lukas; Seiler, Stephan; Deistung, Andreas; Schweser, Ferdinand; Franthal, Sebastian; Homayoon, Nina; Katschnig-Winter, Petra; Koegl-Wallner, Mariella; Pendl, Tamara; Stoegerer, Eva Maria; Wenzel, Karoline; Fazekas, Franz; Ropele, Stefan; Reichenbach, Jürgen Rainer; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schwingenschuh, Petra
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and R2* relaxation rate mapping have demonstrated increased iron deposition in the substantia nigra of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the findings in other subcortical deep gray matter nuclei are converse and the sensitivity of QSM and R2* for morphological changes and their relation to clinical measures of disease severity has so far been investigated only sparsely. The local ethics committee approved this study and all subjects gave written informed consent. 66 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and 58 control subjects underwent quantitative MRI at 3T. Susceptibility and R2* maps were reconstructed from a spoiled multi-echo 3D gradient echo sequence. Mean susceptibilities and R2* rates were measured in subcortical deep gray matter nuclei and compared between patients with PD and controls as well as related to clinical variables. Compared to control subjects, patients with PD had increased R2* values in the substantia nigra. QSM also showed higher susceptibilities in patients with PD in substantia nigra, in the nucleus ruber, thalamus, and globus pallidus. Magnetic susceptibility of several of these structures was correlated with the levodopa-equivalent daily dose (LEDD) and clinical markers of motor and non-motor disease severity (total MDS-UPDRS, MDS-UPDRS-I and II). Disease severity as assessed by the Hoehn & Yahr scale was correlated with magnetic susceptibility in the substantia nigra. The established finding of higher R2* rates in the substantia nigra was extended by QSM showing superior sensitivity for PD-related tissue changes in nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways. QSM additionally reflected the levodopa-dosage and disease severity. These results suggest a more widespread pathologic involvement and QSM as a novel means for its investigation, more sensitive than current MRI techniques.
Abstract Recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors of serotypes 6, 8, and 9 were characterized as tools for gene delivery to dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra for future gene therapeutic applications in Parkinson's disease. While vectors of all three serotypes transduced nigral dopaminergic neurons with equal efficiency when directly injected to the substantia nigra, AAV6 was clearly superior to AAV8 and AAV9 for retrograde transduction of nigral neurons after striatal delivery. For sequential transduction of nigral dopaminergic neurons, the combination of AAV9 with AAV6 proved to be more powerful than AAV8 with AAV6 or repeated AAV6 administration. Surprisingly, single-stranded viral genomes persisted in nigral dopaminergic neurons within cell bodies and axon terminals in the striatum, and intact assembled AAV capsid was enriched in nuclei of nigral neurons, 4 weeks after virus injections to the substantia nigra. 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)–induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra reduced the number of viral genomes in the striatum, in line with viral genome persistence in axon terminals. However, 6-OHDA–induced axonal degeneration did not induce any transsynaptic spread of AAV infection in the striatum. Therefore, the potential presence of viral particles in axons may not represent an important safety issue for AAV gene therapy applications in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23600720
Sidbury, Robert; Davis, Dawn M.; Cohen, David E.; Cordoro, Kelly M.; Berger, Timothy G.; Bergman, James N.; Chamlin, Sarah L.; Cooper, Kevin D.; Feldman, Steven R.; Hanifin, Jon M.; Krol, Alfons; Margolis, David J.; Paller, Amy S.; Schwarzenberger, Kathryn; Silverman, Robert A.; Simpson, Eric L.; Tom, Wynnis L.; Williams, Hywel C.; Elmets, Craig A.; Block, Julie; Harrod, Christopher G.; Begolka, Wendy Smith; Eichenfield, Lawrence F.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, pruritic inflammatory dermatosis that affects up to 25% of children and 2-3% of adults. This guideline addresses important clinical questions that arise in AD management and care, providing recommendations based on the available evidence. In this third of four sections, treatment of AD with phototherapy and systemic immunomodulators, antimicrobials, and antihistamines is reviewed, including indications for use and the risk-benefit profile of each treatment option. PMID:24813298
Almodovar-Real, Ana; Molina-Leyva, Alejandro; Espiñeira-Carmona, María Jose; Ríos-Pelegrina, Rosa; Naranjo-Sintes, Ramón; Husein El-Ahmed, Husein
We present a case of eosinophilic pustular folliculitis, a rare dermatosis which is often associated with HIV infection or internal malignancies. We report the case of a 66-year-old man with a medical history of hypertension. Histopathological examination showed a dense follicular inflammatory infiltrate with abundant eosinophils. The clinical response to indomethacin was excellent with no recurrence during the follow-up. The patient responded well to indomethacin treatment. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Lima, Caren dos Santos; Lemes, Luciana Rodino; Melo, Daniel Fernandes
Yellow dots are follicular ostium filled with keratin and/or sebum. Initially, they were exclusively associated with alopecia areata. Currently they have also been described in androgenetic alopecia, chronic cutaneous (discoid) lupus erythematosus, and dissecting cellulitis. Due to the growing importance of trichoscopy and its findings in the evaluation of the scalp, this article describes the main diseases in which yellow dots are a common trichoscopic finding, highlighting its characteristics in each dermatosis. PMID:29166518
Dulf, Francisc Vasile; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Dulf, Eva-Henrietta; Toşa, Monica Ioana
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of solid-state fermentation (SSF) by Aspergillus niger on phenolic contents and antioxidant activity in Sambucus nigra L. and Sambucus ebulus L. berry pomaces. The effect of fermentation time on the total fats and major lipid classes (neutral and polar) was also investigated. During the SSF, the extractable phenolics increased with 18.82% for S. ebulus L. and 11.11% for S. nigra L. The levels of antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts were also significantly enhanced. The HPLC-MS analysis indicated that the cyanidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside is the major phenolic compound in both fermented Sambucus fruit residues. In the early stages of fungal growth, the extracted oils (with TAGs as major lipid fraction) increased with 12% for S. nigra L. and 10.50% for S. ebulus L. The GC-MS analysis showed that the SSF resulted in a slight increase of the linoleic and oleic acids level.
Romeo, Stefania; Viaggi, Cristina; Di Camillo, Daniela; Willis, Allison W; Lozzi, Luca; Rocchi, Cristina; Capannolo, Marta; Aloisi, Gabriella; Vaglini, Francesca; Maccarone, Rita; Caleo, Matteo; Missale, Cristina; Racette, Brad A; Corsini, Giovanni U; Maggio, Roberto
This study explores the effect of continuous exposure to bright light on neuromelanin formation and dopamine neuron survival in the substantia nigra. Twenty-one days after birth, Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into groups and raised under different conditions of light exposure. At the end of the irradiation period, rats were sacrificed and assayed for neuromelanin formation and number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra. The rats exposed to bright light for 20 days or 90 days showed a relatively greater number of neuromelanin-positive neurons. Surprisingly, TH-positive neurons decreased progressively in the substantia nigra reaching a significant 29% reduction after 90 days of continuous bright light exposure. This decrease was paralleled by a diminution of dopamine and its metabolite in the striatum. Remarkably, in preliminary analysis that accounted for population density, the age and race adjusted Parkinson's disease prevalence significantly correlated with average satellite-observed sky light pollution.
Romeo, Stefania; Viaggi, Cristina; Di Camillo, Daniela; Willis, Allison W.; Lozzi, Luca; Rocchi, Cristina; Capannolo, Marta; Aloisi, Gabriella; Vaglini, Francesca; Maccarone, Rita; Caleo, Matteo; Missale, Cristina; Racette, Brad A.; Corsini, Giovanni U.; Maggio, Roberto
This study explores the effect of continuous exposure to bright light on neuromelanin formation and dopamine neuron survival in the substantia nigra. Twenty-one days after birth, Sprague–Dawley albino rats were divided into groups and raised under different conditions of light exposure. At the end of the irradiation period, rats were sacrificed and assayed for neuromelanin formation and number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra. The rats exposed to bright light for 20 days or 90 days showed a relatively greater number of neuromelanin-positive neurons. Surprisingly, TH-positive neurons decreased progressively in the substantia nigra reaching a significant 29% reduction after 90 days of continuous bright light exposure. This decrease was paralleled by a diminution of dopamine and its metabolite in the striatum. Remarkably, in preliminary analysis that accounted for population density, the age and race adjusted Parkinson's disease prevalence significantly correlated with average satellite-observed sky light pollution. PMID:23462874
Wintenberger, Coraline; Rodrigues, Stephane; Breheret, Jean-Gabriel; Jugé, Philippe; Villar, Marc
In Europe, riparian Salicaceae is declining following the loss of potential germination areas associated with river management. Nevertheless, as an exception for lowland rivers, the Loire River (France) shows in its middle reaches an efficient sexual regeneration of Populus nigra and Salix alba species on bare sediments deposited during flood events. The study focuses on the influence of flow, sediment dynamics and fluvial maintenance operations on the establishment and survival of black poplar and white willow seedlings during the first year of development in a lowland sandy-gravel river, the Middle Loire. Main questions are: what is the influence of morphological and sedimentary features on seedlings recruitment and how do they withstand the hydro-sedimentary stresses occurring during high flow periods? How fluvial management works, and induced morphology and sedimentary features, modify the sediment dynamics and subsequent establishment and maintenance of seedlings? To answer these questions, we developed an ex-situ approach which allowed, under controlled conditions, to determine the influence of the sedimentological characteristics of the substrate on the development and maintenance of seedlings with a specific focus on the root system. Three experiments were carried out for three sedimentary mixtures from the river (sand, sand-gravel and 0.2 m of sand superimposed on sand-gravel mixture) that correspond to grain size and stratigraphy conditions often observed on bars and secondary channels in the Loire. The experimental design includes 108 plots of 1 m3, with 400 seeds per plot (corresponding to the Loire density measurements) and combining seeds from two species, three sedimentary mixtures, four replicates and three experiments. Experiment 1 (control) is based on the architecture of root systems using the WinRHIZO image analysis software. Experiment 2 is relative to the evaluation of constraints leading to "uprooting" of seedlings. Experiment 3 provides data
Panicolytic-like effects caused by substantia nigra pars reticulata pretreatment with low doses of endomorphin-1 and high doses of CTOP or the NOP receptors antagonist JTC-801 in male Rattus norvegicus.
da Silva, Juliana Almeida; Biagioni, Audrey Franceschi; Almada, Rafael Carvalho; de Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) are connected to the deep layers of the superior colliculus (dlSC). The dlSC, in turn, connect with the SNpr through opioid projections. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (N/OFQ) is a natural ligand of a Gi protein-coupled nociceptin receptor (ORL1; NOP) that is also found in the SNpr. Our hypothesis is that tectonigral opioid pathways and intranigral orphanin-mediated mechanisms modulate GABAergic nigrotectal connections. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the role of opioid and NOP receptors in the SNpr during the modulation of defence reactions organised by the dlSC. The SNpr was pretreated with either opioid or NOP receptor agonists and antagonists, followed by dlSC treatment with bicuculline. Blockade of GABA A receptors in the dlSC elicited fear-related defensive behaviour. Pretreatment of the SNpr with naloxone benzoylhydrazone (NalBzoH), a μ-, δ-, and κ 1 -opioid receptor antagonist as well as a NOP receptor antagonist, decreased the aversive effect of bicuculline treatment on the dlSC. Either μ-opioid receptor activation or blockade by SNpr microinjection of endomorphin-1 (EM-1) and CTOP promoted pro-aversive and anti-aversive actions, respectively, that modulated the defensive responses elicited by bicuculline injection into the dlSC. Pretreatment of the SNpr with the selective NOP receptor antagonist JTC801 decreased the aversive effect of bicuculline, and microinjections of the selective NOP receptor agonist NNC 63-0532 promoted the opposite effect. These results demonstrate that opioid pathways and orphanin-mediated mechanisms have a critical role in modulating the activity of nigrotectal GABAergic pathways during the organisation of defensive behaviours.
Milosevic, Luka; Kalia, Suneil K; Hodaie, Mojgan; Lozano, Andres M; Fasano, Alfonso; Popovic, Milos R; Hutchison, William D
Abstract Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is an effective treatment for Parkinson’s disease symptoms. The therapeutic benefits of deep brain stimulation are frequency-dependent, but the underlying physiological mechanisms remain unclear. To advance deep brain stimulation therapy an understanding of fundamental mechanisms is critical. The objectives of this study were to (i) compare the frequency-dependent effects on cell firing in subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata; (ii) quantify frequency-dependent effects on short-term plasticity in substantia nigra pars reticulata; and (iii) investigate effects of continuous long-train high frequency stimulation (comparable to conventional deep brain stimulation) on synaptic plasticity. Two closely spaced (600 µm) microelectrodes were advanced into the subthalamic nucleus (n = 27) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (n = 14) of 22 patients undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery for Parkinson’s disease. Cell firing and evoked field potentials were recorded with one microelectrode during stimulation trains from the adjacent microelectrode across a range of frequencies (1–100 Hz, 100 µA, 0.3 ms, 50–60 pulses). Subthalamic firing attenuated with ≥20 Hz (P < 0.01) stimulation (silenced at 100 Hz), while substantia nigra pars reticulata decreased with ≥3 Hz (P < 0.05) (silenced at 50 Hz). Substantia nigra pars reticulata also exhibited a more prominent increase in transient silent period following stimulation. Patients with longer silent periods after 100 Hz stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus tended to have better clinical outcome after deep brain stimulation. At ≥30 Hz the first evoked field potential of the stimulation train in substantia nigra pars reticulata was potentiated (P < 0.05); however, the average amplitude of the subsequent potentials was rapidly attenuated (P < 0.01). This is suggestive of synaptic facilitation followed by rapid depression. Paired pulse
Friedman, Paula; Sabban, Emilia Cohen; Marcucci, Carolina; Peralta, Rosario; Cabo, Horacio
Lichen planus (LP) is a papulosquamous dermatosis that involves the skin, scalp, nails and mucous membranes. Although its pathogenesis is still unknown, there is evidence that an imbalance of immunologic cellular reactivity plays an important role. Histopathologic examination reveals characteristic interface dermatitis. Dermoscopy is a non-invasive tool, useful in the assessment of inflammatory dermatoses, such as lichen planus. In this paper we describe the dermoscopic findings of different variants of LP (ungual, cutaneous, planopilaris, pigmentosus).
Ferreira, Bárbara Roque; Roccia, Maria Grazia; Cardoso, José Carlos; França, Katlein; Wollina, Uwe; Lotti, Torello; Fioranelli, Massimo
"Morgellons disease" has been a controversial topic in the history of psychodermatology. The most consensual scientific opinion is that it is a primary psychiatric disorder, particularly, a delusional disorder, although others were also pointed out. Some authors have suggested that it may correspond to a common dermatosis with secondary psychopathology. The Morgellons Research Foundation has advocated that it is "an emerging infectious" entity. This paper intends to critically review the main ideas and controversies, since its first description.
Boyd, Alan S; Ritchie, Coleman; Fenton, Jeremy S
Erysipeloid, a cutaneous infection with the gram-positive bacillus Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, is typically an occupational dermatosis seen in persons working with livestock or involved in commercial fishing (fishmongers). Other more-generalized forms of infection with this organism also exist, including a septic form usually associated with endocarditis. Many infections may be self-limited. They have rarely been reported in children or in immunocompromised patients. This microbe is sensitive to many mainstream antibiotic agents. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Different mite species may infest humans temporarily; such arthropods should be considered a possible cause of pruritic skin reactions of unclear origin. Pseudo-scabies is a common problem. This self-limiting dermatosis may often be misdiagnosed. Several mite species including Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis, Sarcoptes scabiei var. bovis, Notoedres cati, Cheyletiella yasguri, Cheyletiella blakei, Dermanyssus gallinae and Ophionyssus natricis may infest human skin, causing symptoms. Other less common animal mites, Neotrombicula autumnalis and foodstuff mites are also discussed.
Friedman, Paula; Sabban, Emilia Cohen; Marcucci, Carolina; Peralta, Rosario; Cabo, Horacio
Lichen planus (LP) is a papulosquamous dermatosis that involves the skin, scalp, nails and mucous membranes. Although its pathogenesis is still unknown, there is evidence that an imbalance of immunologic cellular reactivity plays an important role. Histopathologic examination reveals characteristic interface dermatitis. Dermoscopy is a non-invasive tool, useful in the assessment of inflammatory dermatoses, such as lichen planus. In this paper we describe the dermoscopic findings of different variants of LP (ungual, cutaneous, planopilaris, pigmentosus). PMID:26693092
Almodovar-Real, Ana; Molina-Leyva, Alejandro; Espiñeira-Carmona, María Jose; Ríos-Pelegrina, Rosa; Naranjo-Sintes, Ramón; Husein El-Ahmed, Husein
Objective We present a case of eosinophilic pustular folliculitis, a rare dermatosis which is often associated with HIV infection or internal malignancies. Clinical Presentation and Intervention We report the case of a 66-year-old man with a medical history of hypertension. Histopathological examination showed a dense follicular inflammatory infiltrate with abundant eosinophils. The clinical response to indomethacin was excellent with no recurrence during the follow-up. Conclusion The patient responded well to indomethacin treatment. PMID:24751524
Background The giant Galápagos tortoise, Chelonoidis nigra, is a large-sized terrestrial chelonian of high patrimonial interest. The species recently colonized a small continental archipelago, the Galápagos Islands, where it has been facing novel environmental conditions and limited resource availability. To explore the genomic consequences of this ecological shift, we analyze the transcriptomic variability of five individuals of C. nigra, and compare it to similar data obtained from several continental species of turtles. Results Having clarified the timing of divergence in the Chelonoidis genus, we report in C. nigra a very low level of genetic polymorphism, signatures of a weakened efficacy of purifying selection, and an elevated mutation load in coding and regulatory sequences. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of an extremely low long-term effective population size in this insular species. Functional evolutionary analyses reveal a reduced diversity of immunity genes in C. nigra, in line with the hypothesis of attenuated pathogen diversity in islands, and an increased selective pressure on genes involved in response to stress, potentially related to the climatic instability of its environment and its elongated lifespan. Finally, we detect no population structure or homozygosity excess in our five-individual sample. Conclusions These results enlighten the molecular evolution of an endangered taxon in a stressful environment and point to island endemic species as a promising model for the study of the deleterious effects on genome evolution of a reduced long-term population size. PMID:24342523
Loire, Etienne; Chiari, Ylenia; Bernard, Aurélien; Cahais, Vincent; Romiguier, Jonathan; Nabholz, Benoît; Lourenço, Joao Miguel; Galtier, Nicolas
The giant Galápagos tortoise, Chelonoidis nigra, is a large-sized terrestrial chelonian of high patrimonial interest. The species recently colonized a small continental archipelago, the Galápagos Islands, where it has been facing novel environmental conditions and limited resource availability. To explore the genomic consequences of this ecological shift, we analyze the transcriptomic variability of five individuals of C. nigra, and compare it to similar data obtained from several continental species of turtles. Having clarified the timing of divergence in the Chelonoidis genus, we report in C. nigra a very low level of genetic polymorphism, signatures of a weakened efficacy of purifying selection, and an elevated mutation load in coding and regulatory sequences. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of an extremely low long-term effective population size in this insular species. Functional evolutionary analyses reveal a reduced diversity of immunity genes in C. nigra, in line with the hypothesis of attenuated pathogen diversity in islands, and an increased selective pressure on genes involved in response to stress, potentially related to the climatic instability of its environment and its elongated lifespan. Finally, we detect no population structure or homozygosity excess in our five-individual sample. These results enlighten the molecular evolution of an endangered taxon in a stressful environment and point to island endemic species as a promising model for the study of the deleterious effects on genome evolution of a reduced long-term population size.
A novel method for the treatment of Parkinson's disease is proposed. Pluripotent stem cells are laser cultured, using ultrashort wavelength, (around 0.1 micron-ultraviolet radiation-with intensities of a few mW/cm2) , multiple laser beams. The multiple-energy laser photons interact with the neuron DNA molecules to be cloned. The laser created dopaminergic substantia nigra neurons can be, (theoretically), laser transplanted, (a higher focusing precision as compared to a syringe method), into the striatum or substantia nigra regions of the brain, or both. Supported by Nikola Tesla Labs, Stefan University.
Tadokoro, Koh; Ohta, Yasuyuki; Sato, Kota; Maeki, Takahiro; Sasaki, Ryo; Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Shang, Jingwei; Takemoto, Mami; Hishikawa, Nozomi; Yamashita, Toru; Lim, Chang Kweng; Tajima, Shigeru; Abe, Koji
Japanese encephalitis (JE) survivors often present with nigrostriatal aftereffects with parkinsonian features. A 67-year-old woman with JE showed right-dominant clinical parkinsonism and left-dominant substantia nigra lesions after magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging using 123 I-labeled 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-nortropane ( 123 I-FP-CIT) revealed a corresponding left-dominant decrease. The present case is the first to reveal a clear match of laterality between clinical parkinsonism, MRI-based substantia nigra lesions, and impaired DAT in presynaptic dopaminergic neurons in JE.
The response of male and female black poplar (Populus nigra L. subspecies betulifolia (Pursh) W. Wettst.) cuttings to different water table depths and sediment types: implications for flow management and river corridor biodiversity
Hughes, Francine M. R.; Barsoum, Nadia; Richards, Keith S.; Winfield, Mark; Hayes, Adrian
Management of river flows has altered the pattern of flood arrival times and reduced their frequency and duration on many European floodplains. Floodplain tree species depend on floods both to provide new sites for their regeneration and to recharge water tables at various depths in the rooting zone. A reduction in floods is one factor that has led to loss of river corridor biodiversity, with early successional tree species from the Salicaceae being particularly adversely affected. Members of the Salicaceae are dioecious and it is possible that the males and females of these species have measurably different water table requirements, which might lead to spatial segregation of the sexes on a floodplain. This paper describes an investigation that was carried out into the response of male and female black poplar (Populus nigra L. subspecies betulifolia (Pursh) W. Wettst.) to different soil moisture conditions. An experiment was set up on an alluvial island in the River Great Ouse (UK) in which cuttings of male and female black poplar were grown in different sediment types with different water table levels. The experiment was carried out over two field seasons in 1997 and 1998. Results showed that females tended to prefer wetter and more nutrient-rich sites than males but that there was considerable overlap in their requirements. A complementary genetic study showed very little genetic variation in the experimental population, which may also partially explain the relatively low level of variation between the two sexes found in the study. It is suggested that some limited spatial segregation of the sexes does occur in response to soil moisture availability and that river flow management which aims to maintain or increase river corridor biodiversity may need to take this into account.
Lobo, Marta Aguado; Gonzalo, Elena Sierra; Jiménez-Reyes, José
Eosinophilic annular erythema (EAE) is an uncommon eosinophilic dermatosis. Clinically it is characterized by recurrent episodes of annular or figurative plaques. The histopathological study shows a perivascular inflammatory infiltrate in the superficial and deep dermis, composed of lymphocytes and eosinophils. It was originally described in children. We report an adult woman who presented with recurrent erythematous annular plaques on the trunk and extremities. A biopsy showed a mainly perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate with numerous eosinophils in the dermis. Laboratory examinations revealed subclinical hypothyroidism. The lesions resolved with topical corticosteroid spontaneously after 3 months.El eritema anular eosinofílico (EAE) es una dermatosis eosinofílica poco frecuente. Clínicamente se caracteriza por episodios recurrentes de placas anulares o figuradas.El estudio histopatológico muestra un infiltrado inflamatorio en dermis superficial y profunda, de localización perivascular y compuesto p