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Sample records for dermis acelular porcina

  1. Lactobacillus porcinae sp. nov., isolated from traditional Vietnamese nem chua.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Doan Thi Lam; Cnockaert, Margo; Van Hoorde, Koenraad; De Brandt, Evie; Snauwaert, Isabel; Snauwaert, Cindy; De Vuyst, Luc; Le, Binh Thanh; Vandamme, Peter

    2013-05-01

    A species diversity study of lactic acid bacteria occurring in traditional Vietnamese nem chua yielded an isolate, LMG 26767(T), that could not be assigned to a species with a validly published name. The isolate was initially investigated by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, which revealed that it belonged to the genus Lactobacillus, with Lactobacillus manihotivorans and Lactobacillus camelliae as the closest relatives (98.9 % and 96.9 % gene sequence similarity to the type strains, respectively). Comparative (GTG)5-PCR genomic fingerprinting confirmed the unique taxonomic status of the novel strain. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, DNA G+C content determination, sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS) gene, and physiological and biochemical characterization demonstrated that strain LMG 26767(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Lactobacillus porcinae sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is LMG 26767(T) ( = CCUG 62266(T)). Biochemically, L. porcinae can be distinguished from L. manihotivorans and L. camelliae by its carbohydrate fermentation profile, absence of growth at 45 °C, and production of d- and l-lactate as end products of glucose metabolism.

  2. [Blood vessels in human dermis during aging].

    PubMed

    Gunin, A G; Petrov, V V; Vasil'eva, O V; Golubtsova, N N

    2014-01-01

    A factor that potentially influences on skin aging is blood supply which determines global conditions for an organ or a tissue functioning, including skin. Scientific data on conditions of blood supply in the skin during aging are insufficient and contradictory. Therefore, this work was aimed to the study of age-related changes in the number of blood vessels in the human dermis. Blood vessels were visualized with immunohistochemical technique to two endothelial markers, as von Willebrand factor and antigen CD31. The results showed that von Willebrand factor and antigen CD31 are present in endothelial cells of blood vessels of dermis in all examined age periods, from 20 weeks of pregnancy to 85 yeas. Intensity of immunohistochemical staining to von Willebrand factor is enhanced during age. Intensity of staining to CD31 is not changed with age. The number of blood vessels positively stained either to von Willebrand factor or to CD31 in dermis was decreased gradually with age. A total number of fibroblasts in dermis decreased with age. The number of PCNA+ fibroblasts in dermis showing their proliferative activity was decreased with the progression of age. The decrease in the number of blood vessels is statistically associated with that in the general number of fibroblasts and proliferating fibroblasts. Hence, a factor that leads to aged decrease in the number of dermal fibroblasts is diminished blood supply, and actions targeted to enhancement of blood supply are to be in the basis of clinical approaches to prophylaxis and treatment aging changes of the skin.

  3. Acellular dermis-assisted breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Spear, S L; Parikh, P M; Reisin, E; Menon, N G

    2008-05-01

    In 2004, the authors reported their findings with placement of tissue expanders for breast reconstruction in the partial submuscular position, the equivalent of the "dual-plane" technique for breast augmentation. Limitations with subpectoral expander placement include difficulty controlling the lower pole of the pocket during expansion, unprotected device coverage by a thin inferior mastectomy flap, possible effacement of the inframammary fold, and limited control over the superior migration of the pectoralis major muscle. This study aimed to examine the safety and efficacy of an acellular dermal sling in providing inferolateral support to the device during immediate breast reconstruction and expansion. This study prospectively investigated 58 breasts of 43 consecutive women who underwent immediate breast reconstruction with tissue expanders and acellular dermis. After completion of adjuvant therapy and expansion, the devices were exchanged for implants. The patients were tracked through January, 2007. The study parameters included demographic information, oncologic data, complications, and aesthetic outcomes. The mean time required to complete reconstruction was 8.6 months. The overall complication rate after expander/acellular dermis placement was 12%, whereas the complication rate after exchange to implants was 2.2%. The aesthetic outcome for reconstructed breasts did not differ significantly from that for the control subjects who had no surgery. Acellular dermis appears to be a useful adjunct in immediate prosthetic breast reconstruction. Acellular dermis-assisted breast reconstruction has a low complication rate, helps to reconstruct an aesthetically pleasing breast, and facilitates expeditious completion of the reconstruction.

  4. Conductivities of epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue at intermediate frequencies.

    PubMed

    Wake, K; Sasaki, K; Watanabe, S

    2016-06-21

    Novel data for the conductivities of the tissues composing the skin, which are the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue, were obtained at intermediate frequencies by in vitro measurement. The conductivity of the epidermis was determined from those of the dermis and bulk skin. The conductivities of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue were almost constant from 10 kHz to 1 MHz. On the other hand, a frequency dependence was observed for the epidermis; the conductivity decreases with decreasing frequency. It was found that the conductivity of bulk skin is not determined by that of the dermis but by that of the epidermis. The presented data are expected to contribute to the assessment of safety and to the research and development of medical applications.

  5. Conductivities of epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue at intermediate frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wake, K.; Sasaki, K.; Watanabe, S.

    2016-06-01

    Novel data for the conductivities of the tissues composing the skin, which are the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue, were obtained at intermediate frequencies by in vitro measurement. The conductivity of the epidermis was determined from those of the dermis and bulk skin. The conductivities of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue were almost constant from 10 kHz to 1 MHz. On the other hand, a frequency dependence was observed for the epidermis; the conductivity decreases with decreasing frequency. It was found that the conductivity of bulk skin is not determined by that of the dermis but by that of the epidermis. The presented data are expected to contribute to the assessment of safety and to the research and development of medical applications.

  6. Evaluation of artificial dermis neovascularization in an avascular wound.

    PubMed

    Baynosa, Richard C; Browder, Leslie K; Jones, Seth R; Oliver, Jill A; Van Der Harten, Carol A; Stephenson, Linda L; Wang, Wei Z; Khiabani, Kayvan T; Zamboni, William A

    2009-09-01

    Soft tissue coverage for avascular wounds is necessary in reconstructive surgery. Several authors have demonstrated successful treatment of problem wounds using artificial dermis. This study evaluates in an animal model the potential for neovascularization of artificial dermis in devascularized and avascular wound beds. Forty rats were assigned to four groups: (1) control, full-thickness skin graft was replaced on the vascular wound bed; (2) Integra, Integra placed over the full-thickness wound; (3) fascia, the spinotrapezius fascia exposed and Integra placed over the wound; and (4) fascia/Parafilm, a Parafilm layer placed under the raised fascia with Integra over the fascia. Laser Doppler readings were taken at baseline over the intact skin and then over the created wound beds. Biopsies of the full-thickness skin graft and the neodermis were obtained on postoperative day 14 and histologically evaluated for neovascularization. The laser Doppler readings confirmed the nature of the surgically created, poorly vascularized and avascular wound beds. Subsequent biopsies of the artificial dermis in these wound beds, however, demonstrated active neovascularization. This study demonstrates that Integra artificial dermis can serve as an effective dermal substitute in avascular wounds. Lateral ingrowth of capillaries into the dermal substitute may explain the successful integration of this artificial dermis.

  7. Effect of fibroblast-seeded artificial dermis on wound healing.

    PubMed

    Jang, Joon Chul; Choi, Rak-Jun; Han, Seung-Kyu; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2015-04-01

    In covering wounds, efforts should include use of the safest and least invasive methods with a goal of achieving optimal functional and cosmetic outcome. The recent development of advanced technology in wound healing has triggered the use of cells and/or biological dermis to improve wound healing conditions. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of fibroblast-seeded artificial dermis on wound healing efficacy.Ten nude mice were used in this study. Four full-thickness 6-mm punch wounds were created on the dorsal surface of each mouse (total, 40 wounds). The wounds were randomly assigned to one of the following 4 treatments: topical application of Dulbecco phosphate-buffered saline (control), human fibroblasts (FB), artificial dermis (AD), and human fibroblast-seeded artificial dermis (AD with FB). On the 14th day after treatment, wound healing rate and wound contraction, which are the 2 main factors determining wound healing efficacy, were evaluated using a stereoimage optical topometer system, histomorphological analysis, and immunohistochemistry.The results of the stereoimage optical topometer system demonstrated that the FB group did not have significant influence on wound healing rate and wound contraction. The AD group showed reduced wound contraction, but wound healing was delayed. The AD with FB group showed decreased wound contraction without significantly delayed wound healing. Histomorphological analysis exhibited that more normal skin structure was regenerated in the AD with FB group. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the AD group and the AD with FB group produced less α-smooth muscle actin than the control group, but this was not shown in the FB group.Fibroblast-seeded artificial dermis may minimize wound contraction without significantly delaying wound healing in the treatment of skin and soft tissue defects.

  8. Phenotypic Characterization of Leukocytes in Prenatal Human Dermis

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Christopher; Vaculik, Christine; Prior, Marion; Fiala, Christian; Mildner, Michael; Eppel, Wolfgang; Stingl, Georg; Elbe-Bürger, Adelheid

    2012-01-01

    The adult human skin harbors a variety of leukocytes providing immune surveillance and host defense, but knowledge about their ontogeny is scarce. In this study we investigated the number and phenotype of leukocytes in prenatal human skin (dermal dendritic cells (DDCs), macrophages, T cells (including FoxP3+ regulatory T cells), and mast cells) to unravel their derivation and to get a clue as to their putative function in utero. By flow cytometry and immunofluorescence, we found a distinction between CD206+CD1c+CD11c+ DDCs and CD206+CD209+CD1c− skin macrophages by 9 weeks estimated gestational age (EGA). T cells appear at the end of the first trimester, expressing CD3 intracytoplasmatically. During midgestation, CD3+FoxP3− and CD3+FoxP3+ cells can exclusively be found in the dermis. Similarly, other leukocytes such as CD117+ (c-kit) mast cells were not identified before 12–14 weeks EGA and only slowly acquire a mature phenotype during gestation. Our data show at which time point during gestation antigen-presenting cells, T cells, and mast cells populate the human dermis and provide a step forward to a better understanding of the development of the human skin immune system. PMID:22718119

  9. Phenotypic characterization of leukocytes in prenatal human dermis.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Christopher; Vaculik, Christine; Prior, Marion; Fiala, Christian; Mildner, Michael; Eppel, Wolfgang; Stingl, Georg; Elbe-Bürger, Adelheid

    2012-11-01

    The adult human skin harbors a variety of leukocytes providing immune surveillance and host defense, but knowledge about their ontogeny is scarce. In this study we investigated the number and phenotype of leukocytes in prenatal human skin (dermal dendritic cells (DDCs), macrophages, T cells (including FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells), and mast cells) to unravel their derivation and to get a clue as to their putative function in utero. By flow cytometry and immunofluorescence, we found a distinction between CD206(+)CD1c(+)CD11c(+) DDCs and CD206(+)CD209(+)CD1c(-) skin macrophages by 9 weeks estimated gestational age (EGA). T cells appear at the end of the first trimester, expressing CD3 intracytoplasmatically. During midgestation, CD3(+)FoxP3(-) and CD3(+)FoxP3(+) cells can exclusively be found in the dermis. Similarly, other leukocytes such as CD117(+) (c-kit) mast cells were not identified before 12-14 weeks EGA and only slowly acquire a mature phenotype during gestation. Our data show at which time point during gestation antigen-presenting cells, T cells, and mast cells populate the human dermis and provide a step forward to a better understanding of the development of the human skin immune system.

  10. Reduced dermis thickness and AGE accumulation in diabetic abdominal skin.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yiwen; Cao, Xiaozan; Song, Fei; Xie, Ting; Ji, Xiaoyun; Miao, Mingyuan; Dong, Jiaoyun; Tian, Ming; Lin, Yuan; Lu, Shuliang

    2012-09-01

    Dermatological problems in diabetes might play an important role in the spontaneous ulcers and impaired wound healing that are seen in diabetic patients. Investigation of the cause of diabetic skin disorders is critical for identifying effective treatment. The abdominal full-thickness skin tissues of 33 patients (14 nondiabetic and 19 diabetic) were analyzed. The cell viability and malondialdehyde (MDA) production of fibroblasts were measured after advanced glycosylation end product (AGE)-bovine serum albumin (BSA) exposure. Cutaneous histological observation showed reduced thickness of the diabetic abdominal dermis with morphological characteristics of obscured multilayer epithelium and shortened, thinned, and disorganized collagen fibrils with focal chronic inflammatory cell infiltration when compared with controls of the same age. Accumulation of AGEs in diabetic skin was prominent. Less hydroxyproline, higher myeloperoxidase activity, and increased MDA content were detected in diabetic skin. In vitro, the time- and dose-dependent inhibitory effects of AGE-BSA on fibroblast viability as well as the fact that AGE-BSA could promote MDA production of fibroblasts were shown. It is shown that the accumulation of AGEs in diabetic skin tissue induces an oxidative damage of fibroblasts and acts as an important contributor to the thinner diabetic abdominal dermis. The authors believe that diabetic cutaneous properties at baseline may increase the susceptibility to injury, and diabetic wounds possess atypical origin in the repair process.

  11. [CO-TRANSPLANTATION OF MOUSE EPIDERMIS AND DERMIS CELLS IN INDUCING HAIR FOLLICLE REGENERATION].

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Xi, Jiafei; Liu, Daqing; Zhang, Xiuyuan; Lü, Yang; Li, Jing; Wang, Jingxue; Zhou, Junnian; Nan, Xue; Yue, Wen; Pei, Xuetao

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the co-transplantation of C57-green fluorescent protein (GFP) mouse epidermis and dermis cells subcutaneously to induce the hair follicle regeneration. C57-GFP mouse epidermis and dermis were harvested for isolation the mouse epidermis and dermis cells. The morphology of epidermis and dermis mixed cells at ratio of 1:1 of adult mouse, dermis cells of adult mouse, cultured 3rd generation dermis cells were observed by fluorescence microscope. Immunocytochemistry staining was used to detect hair follicle stem cells markers in cultured 3rd generation dermis cells from new born C57-GFP mouse. And then the epidermis and dermis mixed cells of adult mouse (group A), dermis cells of adult mouse (group B), cultured 3rd generation dermis cells of new born mouse (group C), and saline (group D) were transplanted subcutaneously into Balb/c nude mice. The skin surface of nude mice were observed at 4, 5, 6 weeks of transplantation and hair follicle formation were detected at 6 weeks by immunohistochemistry staining. The isolated C57-GFP mouse epidermis and dermis cells strongly expressed the GFP under the fluorescence microscope. Immunocytochemistry staining for hair follicle stem cells markers in cultured 3rd generation dermis cells showed strong expression of Vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin, indicating that the cells were dermal sheath cells; some cells expressed CD133, Versican, and cytokeratin 15. After transplanted for 4-6 weeks, the skin became black at the injection site in group A, indicating new hair follicle formation. However, no color change was observed in groups B, C, and D. Immunohistochemical staining showed that new complete hair follicles structures formed in group A. GFP expression could be only observed in the hair follicle dermal sheath and outer root sheath in group B, and it could also be observed in the hair follicle dermal sheath, outer root sheath, dermal papilla cells, and sweat gland in group C. The expression of GFP was negative in

  12. Imaging of matrix-disorder in normal and pathological human dermis using nonlinear optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin; Xie, Shusen; Zheng, Liqin; Jiang, Xingshan

    2009-11-01

    In dermis, collagen and elastin are important structural proteins of extracellular maxtrix. The matrix-disorder is associated with various physiologic processes, such as localized scleroderma, anetoderma, photoaging. In this work, we demonstrate the capability of nonlinear optical microscopy in imaging structural proteins in normal and pathological human dermis.

  13. Stability of triptorelin in the presence of dermis and epidermis.

    PubMed

    Bachhav, Yogeshwar G; Kalia, Yogeshvar N

    2009-08-13

    An important issue with respect to the transdermal delivery of peptides is their stability during transit through the epidermis and dermis before entry into the systemic circulation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of epidermal and dermal tissue on the stability of the luteinizing hormone releasing hormone superagonist, triptorelin. The decapeptide was dissolved in PBS (pH 7.4) and placed in contact with (i) heat separated epidermis (HSE), (ii) dermatomed skin (0.75 mm; DS) and (iii) full thickness skin (FTS) and the extent of peptide biotransformation monitored as a function of time by HPLC. The results showed that triptorelin was metabolized when in contact with each of the skin tissues. However, there were marked differences with respect to the extent of peptide degradation. Triptorelin was least stable in the presence of FTS. After 3 h exposure to HSE, DS and FTS, the extent of triptorelin degradation was 15.0+/-6.0%, 64.8+/-9.9% and 100%, respectively. After 24 h, further triptorelin degradation had occurred in the samples in contact with HSE and DS--with 51.3+/-6.0% and 87.8+/-4.4%, respectively, of the peptide being degraded. The chromatograms revealed the presence of a degradation peak at a higher retention time than the parent molecule--most probably the free acid.

  14. Irreversible optical clearing of rabbit dermis for autogenic corneal stroma transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuji; Shi, Dong; Kubota, Akira; Takano, Yoshimasa; Fuse, Nobuo; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo; Nishida, Kohji

    2011-10-01

    Tissue engineering and transplantation of autogenic grafts have been widely investigated for solving problems on current allograft treatments (i.g., donor shortage and rejection). However, it is difficult to obtain an autogenic corneal stromal replacement that is composed of transparent, tough, and thick collagen constructs by current cell culture-based tissue engineering. Aim of this study is to develop transparent dermis for an autogenic corneal stroma transplantation. This study examined dehydration at 4-8°C and carbodiimide cross-linking on cloudy rabbit dermis (approx. 1.8%-3.8% light transmittance at 550 nm) for dermis optical clearing. Transparency of dehydrated rabbit dermis was founded to be approx. 37.9%-41.4% at 550 nm. Additional cross-linking treatment on dehydrated dermis prevented from swelling and clouding in saline, and improved its transparency to be 56.9% at 550 nm. Rabbit corneal epithelium was found to regenerate on optically cleared dermis in vitro. Furthermore, no abnormal biological response (i.e., inflammation, vascularization, and the barrier defect of epithelia) or no optical functional change on optically cleared dermis was observed during its 4-week autogenic transplantation into rabbit corneal stromal pocket.

  15. Distinct Fibroblasts in the Papillary and Reticular Dermis: Implications for Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Woodley, David T

    2017-01-01

    Human skin wounds heal largely by reparative wound healing rather than regenerative wound healing. Human skin wounds heal with scarring and without pilosebaceous units or other appendages. Dermal fibroblasts come from 2 distinct lineages of cells that have distinct cell markers and, more importantly, distinct functional abilities. Human skin wound healing largely involves the dermal fibroblast lineage from the reticular dermis and not the papillary dermis. If scientists could find a way to stimulate the dermal fibroblast lineages from the papillary dermis in early wound healing, perhaps human skin wounds could heal without scarring and with skin appendages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pesticide Uptake Across the Amphibian Dermis Through Soil and Overspray Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    For terrestrial amphibians, accumulation ofpesticides through dermal contact is a primary route ofexposure in agricultural landscapes and may be contributingto widespread amphibian declines. To show pesticidetransfer across the amphibian dermis at permitted labelapplication rates...

  17. Pesticide Uptake Across the Amphibian Dermis Through Soil and Overspray Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    For terrestrial amphibians, accumulation ofpesticides through dermal contact is a primary route ofexposure in agricultural landscapes and may be contributingto widespread amphibian declines. To show pesticidetransfer across the amphibian dermis at permitted labelapplication rates...

  18. Morphomechanics of dermis-A method for non-destructive testing of collagenous tissues.

    PubMed

    Shah, R G; Pierce, M C; Silver, F H

    2017-08-01

    Collagenous tissues store, transmit and dissipate elastic energy during mechanical deformation. In skin, mechanical energy is stored during loading and then is dissipated, which protects skin from mechanical failure. Thus, energy storage (elastic properties) and dissipation (viscous properties) are important characteristics of extracellular matrices (ECMs) that support the cyclic loading of ECMs without tissue failure. Uniaxial stress-strain measurements on decellularized human dermis have been made and compared to results of a non-destructive technique involving optical coherence tomography (OCT) combined with vibrational analysis. In addition, Poisson's ratio has been determined for tensile deformation of decellularized dermis. The modulus of decellularized dermis measured using standard tensile stress-strain tests and that determined from calculations derived from natural frequency measurements give similar results. It is also observed that Poisson's ratio for dermis is between 0.38 and 0.63 after correction for changes in volume that occur during tensile deformation. These results suggest that the assumption that dermis and other ECMs deform at constant volume is incorrect and will lead to differences in the calculated modulus by conventional tensile stress-strain measurements. It is proposed that OCT in conjunction with vibrational analysis is a convenient way to non-destructively measure the modulus of decellularized dermis, ECMs and other materials that have a positive curvature to their stress-strain curves. Tensile deformation of dermis and possibly other ECMs is associated with an increase in Poisson's ratio consistent with a model of fluid expulsion from collagen fibrils during stretching. The value of Poisson's ratio should be considered in analyzing the mechanical properties of ECMs since at least dermis appears to be compressible during tensile deformation. Fluid expression during tensile deformation may play a role in mechanotransduction in skin in a

  19. Effects of mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells on generation and vascularisation of dermis-like tissue after artificial dermis grafting.

    PubMed

    Soejima, Kazutaka; Kashimura, Tsutomu; Asami, Takashi; Kazama, Tomohiko; Matsumoto, Taro; Nakazawa, Hiroaki

    2015-02-01

    Although artificial dermis (AD) is effective for skin reconstruction, it requires two separate procedures, because the AD must be vascularised before skin grafts. To shorten the period of the dermis-like tissue generation before the secondary skin grafting must be beneficial. Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells are isolated from mature adipose cell suspensions and have potential to differentiate into multiple cell types including endothelial cells. This study aimed to investigate effects of DFAT cells on dermal regeneration after AD grafts in rats. The effects of combination use of DFAT cells and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were also tested to mimic clinical situations. DFAT cells were isolated from SD rats. Full-thickness wounds were created on the back of rats followed by AD grafting. Five groups were established; Group I: control, Group II: treated with DFAT cells, Group III: treated with bFGF, Group IV: treated with both of DFAT cells and bFGF, and Group V: treated with Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled DFAT cells and bFGF. Histological evaluation was serially performed. Group IV showed markedly promoted vascularisation of dermis-like tissue. In particular, capillary infiltration into the dermis was obtained within 2 days. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that the transplanted DFAT cells had differentiated into endothelial cells and participated in angiogenesis. Group IV also showed a marked increase in the thickness of the dermis like tissue. The present results suggest that the use of DFAT cells under bFGF treatment could be beneficial to shorten the period required for dermal regeneration and vascularisation and contribute to use AD more effectively and safely.

  20. [Repair mechanisms of the wounds with exposed bone structures using an artificial dermis].

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Wang, C; Zhang, C; Huang, X; Cao, H S

    2017-01-24

    Objective: To investigate the repair mechanisms of the wounds with bone exposed by artificial dermis transplantation. Methods: Seventy two rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups of 24 rabbits, the wound model was made on the top of head. In the skin defect group (SD group), skin was removed and skull periosteum was retained. In the periosteal defect group (PD group), the skin and skull periosteum were both removed, and the skull was exposed. In the skull burn group (SB group), after the periosteum was removed, the exposed skull bone was burned out with electric iron to cause skull surface necrosis, then the artificial dermis transplantation were performed in each group. In 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after transplantation, 2 specimens including artificial dermis and the underlying tissue in each group were cut for biopsy with HE staining to observe the angiogenesis in artificial dermis. Evans Blue perfusion was performed in four animals from each group to quantify angiogenesis in artificial dermis. Results: One week after transplantation, in SD group, a few microvessels can be observed in artificial dermis, but in the rest of the two groups, only a small amount of inflammatory cells can be seen. Two weeks after transplantation, in SD group, a large number of new blood vessels and fibroblasts can be seen filling in the artificial dermis, but angiogenesis delayed obviously in the PD and SB group. Three weeks after transplantation, the angiogenesis of artificial dermis in the PD and SB group accelerated obviously, and a thin layer of blood rich tissue membrane can be seen over the burned skull. The Evans Blue perfusion showed that the content of dye perfusion in the artificial dermis was closed to the peek value at 2 weeks after transplantation in the SD group, which was significantly higher than that in PD and SB group [(2 741±976) vs (1 039±590) and (403±209) μg/g, P<0.01]. Three weeks after transplantation, the content of Evans Blue in artificial dermis reached

  1. The exclusion of human serum albumin by human dermal collagenous fibres and within human dermis.

    PubMed Central

    Bert, J L; Mathieson, J M; Pearce, R H

    1982-01-01

    Preparations of dermal collagenous fibres and slices of human dermis have been equilibrated with 125I-labelled monomeric human serum albumin. The space inaccessible to the albumin in the fibres and in the dermis was determined by subtraction of the accessible space, calculated from the radioactivity of the specimen, from its total fluid. For a fibre preparation examined in detail, the fluid exclusion was independent of the concentration of either albumin or collagen. Binding of albumin to the fibres was not demonstrable. Three fibre preparations excluded albumin from 3.75 +/- 0.96, 3.55 +/- 0.67, and 2.05 +/- 0.39 g of fluid/g of collagen (+/-S.D.). Slices from three specimens of dermis excluded albumin from 1.45 +/- 0.08 g of fluid/g of insoluble solids or 1.57 +/- 0.11 g of fluid/g of collagen (+/-S.D.). Thus the exclusion of albumin by dermis was much less than expected from its content of collagenous fibres. On the basis of these data and the published composition of dermis, the concentration of albumin in the accessible interstitial space was estimated to be close to that in the plasma. PMID:7082298

  2. Reprogramming adult dermis to a neonatal state through epidermal activation of β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Charlotte A.; Kretzschmar, Kai; Watt, Fiona M.

    2011-01-01

    Hair follicle formation depends on reciprocal epidermal-dermal interactions and occurs during skin development, but not in adult life. This suggests that the properties of dermal fibroblasts change during postnatal development. To examine this, we used a PdgfraEGFP mouse line to isolate GFP-positive fibroblasts from neonatal skin, adult telogen and anagen skin and adult skin in which ectopic hair follicles had been induced by transgenic epidermal activation of β-catenin (EF skin). We also isolated epidermal cells from each mouse. The gene expression profile of EF epidermis was most similar to that of anagen epidermis, consistent with activation of β-catenin signalling. By contrast, adult dermis with ectopic hair follicles more closely resembled neonatal dermis than adult telogen or anagen dermis. In particular, genes associated with mitosis were upregulated and extracellular matrix-associated genes were downregulated in neonatal and EF fibroblasts. We confirmed that sustained epidermal β-catenin activation stimulated fibroblasts to proliferate to reach the high cell density of neonatal skin. In addition, the extracellular matrix was comprehensively remodelled, with mature collagen being replaced by collagen subtypes normally present only in developing skin. The changes in proliferation and extracellular matrix composition originated from a specific subpopulation of fibroblasts located beneath the sebaceous gland. Our results show that adult dermis is an unexpectedly plastic tissue that can be reprogrammed to acquire the molecular, cellular and structural characteristics of neonatal dermis in response to cues from the overlying epidermis. PMID:22031549

  3. Toward reliable retrieval of functional information of papillary dermis using spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Guo, Jun-Yen; Tzeng, Shih-Yu; Chou, Ting-Chun; Lin, Ming-Jen; Huang, Lynn Ling-Huei; Yang, Chao-Chun; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Tseng, Sheng-Hao

    2016-02-01

    Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (SRDRS) has been employed to quantify tissue optical properties and its interrogation volume is majorly controlled by the source-to-detector separations (SDSs). To noninvasively quantify properties of dermis, a SRDRS setup that includes SDS shorter than 1 mm is required. It will be demonstrated in this study that Monte Carlo simulations employing the Henyey-Greenstein phase function cannot always precisely predict experimentally measured diffuse reflectance at such short SDSs, and we speculated this could be caused by the non-negligible backward light scattering at short SDSs that cannot be properly modeled by the Henyey-Greenstein phase function. To accurately recover the optical properties and functional information of dermis using SRDRS, we proposed the use of the modified two-layer (MTL) geometry. Monte Carlo simulations and phantom experiment results revealed that the MTL probing geometry was capable of faithfully recovering the optical properties of upper dermis. The capability of the MTL geometry in probing the upper dermis properties was further verified through a swine study, and it was found that the measurement results were reasonably linked to histological findings. Finally, the MTL probe was utilized to study psoriatic lesions. Our results showed that the MTL probe was sensitive to the physiological condition of tissue volumes within the papillary dermis and could be used in studying the physiology of psoriasis.

  4. β-catenin has sequential roles in the survival and specification of ventral dermis

    PubMed Central

    Ohtola, Jennifer; Myers, John; Akhtar-Zaidi, Batool; Zuzindlak, Diana; Sandesara, Pooja; Yeh, Karen; Mackem, Susan; Atit, Radhika

    2009-01-01

    The dermis promotes the development and maintains the functional components of skin such as hair follicles, sweat glands, nerves, and blood vessels. The dermis is also critical for wound healing and homeostasis of the skin. The dermis originates from the somites, the lateral plate mesoderm, and the cranial neural crest. Despite the importance of the dermis in the structural and functional integrity of the skin, genetic analysis of dermal development in different parts of the embryo is incomplete. The signaling requirements for ventral dermal cell development have not been established in either the chick or mammalian embryo. We have shown previously that Wnt signaling specifies the dorsal dermis from the somites. In this study, we demonstrate that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is necessary for the survival of early ventral dermal progenitors. In addition, we show that at later stagesWnt/β-catenin signaling is sufficient for ventral dermal cell specification. Consistent with the different origins of dorsal and ventral dermal cells, our results demonstrate both conserved and divergent roles of β-catenin/Wnt signaling in dermal development. PMID:18539925

  5. Toward reliable retrieval of functional information of papillary dermis using spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Guo, Jun-Yen; Tzeng, Shih-Yu; Chou, Ting-Chun; Lin, Ming-Jen; Huang, Lynn Ling-Huei; Yang, Chao-Chun; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Tseng, Sheng-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (SRDRS) has been employed to quantify tissue optical properties and its interrogation volume is majorly controlled by the source-to-detector separations (SDSs). To noninvasively quantify properties of dermis, a SRDRS setup that includes SDS shorter than 1 mm is required. It will be demonstrated in this study that Monte Carlo simulations employing the Henyey-Greenstein phase function cannot always precisely predict experimentally measured diffuse reflectance at such short SDSs, and we speculated this could be caused by the non-negligible backward light scattering at short SDSs that cannot be properly modeled by the Henyey-Greenstein phase function. To accurately recover the optical properties and functional information of dermis using SRDRS, we proposed the use of the modified two-layer (MTL) geometry. Monte Carlo simulations and phantom experiment results revealed that the MTL probing geometry was capable of faithfully recovering the optical properties of upper dermis. The capability of the MTL geometry in probing the upper dermis properties was further verified through a swine study, and it was found that the measurement results were reasonably linked to histological findings. Finally, the MTL probe was utilized to study psoriatic lesions. Our results showed that the MTL probe was sensitive to the physiological condition of tissue volumes within the papillary dermis and could be used in studying the physiology of psoriasis. PMID:26977361

  6. Dermis-fat graft for treatment of exposed porous polyethylene implants in pediatric postenucleation retinoblastoma patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Joung; Khwarg, Sang In; Choung, Ho-Kyung; Kim, Nam Ju; Yu, Young Suk

    2011-08-01

    To demonstrate the use of the autogenous dermis-fat graft for the treatment of porous polyethylene implant exposure and volume augmentation in postenucleation retinoblastoma children. Retrospective, interventional case series. Ten children who received a dermis-fat graft at Seoul National University Hospital between July 1, 2005 and January 31, 2010 were included in this study. The patients had undergone unilateral enucleation for retinoblastoma, and received a subconjunctival dermis-fat graft to repair implant exposure and simultaneously correct enophthalmos. The clinical characteristics of the patients, rate of graft survival, and complications were analyzed. The cosmetic outcome was assessed using a grading system. All patients had enucleation using porous polyethylene implant as a primary orbital implant. The average time to exposure was 89.1 ± 22.4 months and the median size of defect was 2 × 3 mm. With a mean follow-up of 28 months, 9 of 10 patients showed well-survived graft without re-exposure. One patient who experienced a graft failure managed with implant rotation and a scleral graft. Seven patients showed significant improvement of enophthalmos. Implantation of an autogenous dermis-fat graft is a procedure that can be effectively used to treat porous polyethylene implant exposure and simultaneously correct enophthalmos. Use of this procedure can be particularly advantageous for pediatric postenucleation patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Wound healing effect of acellular artificial dermis containing extracellular matrix secreted by human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Seo, Young-Kwon; Song, Kye-Yong; Kim, Young-Jin; Park, Jung-Keug

    2007-07-01

    In this study, an acellular artificial dermis, composed of human collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) secreted by cultured human fibroblasts on a bovine collagen sponge, was developed. Much of the newly secreted extracellular matrix (ECM) remained after the cell removal process. The main theme of this study focused on the matrix, rather than the viable cell components of the skin, as the major dermal deficit in the wound. Both the acellular artificial and bioartificial dermises, containing viable cells with ECM, were significantly less soluble than the collagen sponge, and the relative GAG content in the bioartificial and acellular artificial dermises was approximately 115-120% of the chondroitin-6-sulfate (CS) content found in the collagen sponge. In the group receiving the collagen sponge, the wound area gradually decreased to approximately 10% of its original area, while in the groups receiving the bioartificial and acellular artificial dermises, the wound area also gradually decreased to approximately 60 and 50%, respectively, of the original size over the 5 weeks after grafting. Both the bioartificial and acellular artificial dermises formed thicker, denser collagen fibers; more new blood vessel formation was observed in both cases. The basement membrane of the regenerated epidermal-dermal junction was thicker and more linear in the acellular artificial dermis graft than in the collagen sponge graft. In conclusion, the wound healing effects of acellular artificial dermis are no less than those of the bioartificial dermis, and much better than the collagen sponge graft with respect to wound contraction, angiogenesis, collagen formation, and basement membrane repair.

  8. Glycerolized Reticular Dermis as a New Human Acellular Dermal Matrix: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, Pietro Maria; Balmativola, Davide; Cambieri, Irene; Scalzo, Maria Stella; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Annaratone, Laura; Casarin, Stefania; Fumagalli, Mara; Stella, Maurizio; Sapino, Anna; Castagnoli, Carlotta

    2016-01-01

    Human Acellular Dermal Matrices (HADM) are employed in various reconstructive surgery procedures as scaffolds for autologous tissue regeneration. The aim of this project was to develop a new type of HADM for clinical use, composed of glycerolized reticular dermis decellularized through incubation and tilting in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM). This manufacturing method was compared with a decellularization procedure already described in the literature, based on the use of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), on samples from 28 donors. Cell viability was assessed using an MTT assay and microbiological monitoring was performed on all samples processed after each step. Two surgeons evaluated the biomechanical characteristics of grafts of increasing thickness. The effects of the different decellularization protocols were assessed by means of histological examination and immunohistochemistry, and residual DNA after decellularization was quantified using a real-time TaqMan MGB probe. Finally, we compared the results of DMEM based decellularization protocol on reticular dermis derived samples with the results of the same protocol applied on papillary dermis derived grafts. Our experimental results indicated that the use of glycerolized reticular dermis after 5 weeks of treatment with DMEM results in an HADM with good handling and biocompatibility properties. PMID:26918526

  9. Isolation of human dermis derived mesenchymal stem cells using explants culture method: expansion and phenotypical characterization.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong-Ran; Kim, Eunjeong; Yang, Jungwon; Lee, Hanbyeol; Hong, Seok-Ho; Woo, Heung-Myong; Park, Sung-Min; Na, Sunghun; Yang, Se-Ran

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies have reported that stem cells can be isolated from a wide range of tissues including bone marrow, fatty tissue, adipose tissue and placenta. Moreover, several studies also suggest that skin dermis could serve as a source of stem cells, but are of unclear phenotype. Therefore, we isolated and investigated to determine the potential of stem cell within human skin dermis. We isolated cells from human dermis, termed here as human dermis-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hDMSCs) which is able to be isolated by using explants culture method. Our method has an advantage over the enzymatic method as it is easier, less expensive and less cell damage. hDMSCs were maintained in basal culture media and proliferation potential was measured. hDMSCs were highly proliferative and successfully expanded with no additional growth factor. In addition, hDMSCs revealed normal karyotype and expressed high levels of CD90, CD73 and CD105 while did not express the surface markers for CD34, CD45 and HLA-DR. Also, we confirmed that hDMSCs possess the capacity to differentiate into multiple lineage including adipocyte, osteocyte, chondrocyte and precursor of hepatocyte lineage. Considering these results, we suggest that hDMSCs might be a valuable source of stem cells and could potentially be a useful source of clinical application.

  10. Two Crosslinking Technologies for Superficial Reticular Dermis Injection: A Comparative Ultrasound and Histologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Besse, Stéphanie; Sarazin, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Background: Few hyaluronic acid fillers have been developed for superficial injection. Objective: To compare the diffusion and integration properties of cohesive polydensified matrix and Vycross® technology hyaluronic acid fillers with lidocaine following injection into the superficial reticular dermis. Methods and materials: Two subjects received two injections each of cohesive polydensified matrix and Vycross® hyaluronic acid (0.2mL/site) in the superficial reticular dermis of the buttock under ultrasound control. Biopsies were obtained at Days 0, 15, and/or 90. Ultrasound and histologic analyses were performed, plus a series of simple rheological tests. Results: Day 0 ultrasound images showed cohesive polydensified matrix hyaluronic acid homogeneous with the surrounding dermis. Vycross® hyaluronic acid showed more heterogeneity and some leakage into the hypodermis. Day 15 and Day 90 images were similar to Day 0. Histologic examination of biopsy tissue showed cohesive polydensified matrix hyaluronic acid homogeneously distributed among collagen fibrils with no visible particles. Vycross® hyaluronic acid appeared as variable-sized pools with a particulate appearance. Neither gel was associated with an inflammatory reaction. Laboratory tests showed cohesive polydensified matrix hyaluronic acid to have greater cohesivity and resistance to traction forces than Vycross®. Conclusion: cohesive polydensified matrix gel with lidocaine is homogeneously distributed following injection in the superficial reticular dermis and may be particularly suited for aesthetic indications requiring superficial injection. PMID:28210379

  11. Development and characterisation of a low-concentration sodium dodecyl sulphate decellularised porcine dermis.

    PubMed

    Helliwell, Jack A; Thomas, Daniel S; Papathanasiou, Vaia; Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Desai, Amisha; Jennings, Louise M; Rooney, Paul; Kearney, John N; Ingham, Eileen

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to adapt a proprietary decellularisation process for human dermis for use with porcine skin. Porcine skin was subject to: sodium chloride (1 M) to detach the epidermis, trypsin paste to remove hair follicles, peracetic acid (0.1% v/v) disinfection, washed in hypotonic buffer and 0.1% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulphate in the presence of proteinase inhibitors followed by nuclease treatment. Cellular porcine skin, decellularised porcine and human dermis were compared using histology, immunohistochemistry, GSL-1 lectin (alpha-gal epitope) staining, biochemical assays, uniaxial tensile and in vitro cytotoxicity tests. There was no microscopic evidence of cells in decellularised porcine dermis. DNA content was reduced by 98.2% compared to cellular porcine skin. There were no significant differences in the biomechanical parameters studied or evidence of cytotoxicity. The decellularised porcine dermis retained residual alpha-gal epitope. Basement membrane collagen IV immunostaining was lost following decellularisation; however, laminin staining was retained.

  12. Yarrowia porcina sp. nov. and Yarrowia bubula f.a. sp. nov., two yeast species from meat and river sediment.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Edina; Dlauchy, Dénes; Medeiros, Adriana O; Péter, Gábor; Rosa, Carlos A

    2014-04-01

    Eleven yeast strains representing two hitherto undescribed species were isolated from different kinds of meat samples in Hungary and one from the sediment of a tropical freshwater river in Southeastern Brazil. The analysis of the sequences of their large subunit rRNA gene D1/D2 domain and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions placed the two new species in the Yarrowia clade. Some of the seven strains representing the first new species can mate and give rise to asci and form ascospores embedded in capsular material, which qualifies it as the third teleomorph species of the Yarrowia clade. The name Yarrowia porcina sp. nov. (type strain: NCAIM Y.02100(T) = CBS 12935(T) = NRRL Y-63669(T), allotype strain UFMG-RD131(A) = CBS 12932(A)) is proposed for this new yeast species, which, based on physiological characters, is indistinguishable from Yarrowia lipolytica and some other species of the genus. Considerable intraspecific variability was detected among the sequences of the large subunit rRNA gene D1/D2 domains of the seven strains. The variability among the D1/D2 sequences exceeded the divergence observed among the ITS sequences and in some cases more than 1 % substitution among the D1/D2 sequences was detected. The conspecificity of these strains was supported by the low (0-3 substitutions) sequence divergence among their ITS sequences, the result of a parsimony network analysis utilizing the concatenated ITS and D1/D2 sequences and also by the fingerprint patterns generated by microsatellite primed PCR. No ascospore formation was observed in the group of the other five strains representing the second new species. These strains shared identical D1/D2 and ITS sequences. Yarrowia bubula f.a., sp. nov. (type strain: NCAIM Y.01998(T) = CBS 12934(T) = NRRL Y-63668(T)) is proposed to accommodate these strains.

  13. The comparison of microRNA profile of the dermis between the young and elderly.

    PubMed

    Li, Tong; Yan, Xianghong; Jiang, Min; Xiang, Leihong

    2016-05-01

    Skin aging is a process of structural and compositional remodeling that can be manifested as wrinkling and sagging. Remarkably, the dermis plays a dominant role in the process of skin aging. Recent studies suggest that microRNAs (miRNAs) may play a role in the regulation of gene expression in organism aging. However, studies about age-related miRNAs in human skin remain limited. To obtain an overall view of miRNAs expression in human aged dermis by comparison of dermis samples between young and elderly, construct the miRNA-gene-network and reveal the pivotal miRNAs in the regulatory network. Human dermis tissue was obtained from 12 donors, including 6 of young group and 6 of elderly one. The miRNA microarray and data analysis were performed. Target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted, followed by a gene ontology and pathway enrichment analysis. A miRNA-gene-network was then constructed, and the pivotal miRNAs in the network was revealed. Primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) were isolated, and the cellular senescence was induced by serial passaging. Alteration in the expression of miRNAs between young and senescent fibroblasts was evaluated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. MiR-34b-5p mimics were transfected into primary HDFs. Subsequent cell cycle analysis was performed and expression level of COL1A1, elastin and MMP-1 were evaluated. The expression of a total of 40 miRNAs (25 upregulated and 15 downregulated) was found to be significantly altered in aged dermis compared with young dermis. Real-time quantitative PCR results confirmed the differential expression of miR-34 family and miR-29 family between young and aged dermis. A computational approach demonstrated that predicted target genes of the miRNA profile were found to be mainly involved in processes including cell adhesion, collagen synthesis, positive or negative regulation of transcription, as well as pathways such as insulin signaling pathway, ErbB (Erythroblastic Leukemia Viral

  14. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy Evaluation of an Acellular Dermis Tissue Transplant (Epiflex®)

    PubMed Central

    Hohenberger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The structure of a biological scaffold is a major determinant of its biological characteristics and its interaction with cells. An acellular dermis tissue transplant must undergo a series of processing steps, to remove cells and genetic material and provide the sterility required for surgical use. During manufacturing and sterilization the structure and composition of tissue transplants may change. The composition of the human cell-free dermis transplant Epiflex® was investigated with specific attention paid to its structure, matrix composition, cellular content and biomechanics. We demonstrated that after processing, the structure of Epiflex remains almost unchanged with an intact collagen network and extracellular matrix (ECM) protein composition providing natural cell interactions. Although the ready to use transplant does contain some cellular and DNA debris, the processing procedure results in a total destruction of cells and active DNA which is a requirement for an immunologically inert and biologically safe substrate. Its biomechanical parameters do not change significantly during the processing. PMID:23056225

  15. In Vitro Glucose Metabolism in the Epidermis and Dermis of the Pig

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    oxidation gradually increased and approached a level v iilar to that observed in the upper layer of the dermis. Fatty acids and glycerol synthesis followed a...layers of the skin. Exogenous insulin enhanced, glucose oxidation, fatty acids and glycogen synthesis but had no effect on the synthesis of glycerol...acids and glycerol synthesis followed a similar pattern. In contrast, glucose incorporation into glycogen and the non-saponifiable fraction was

  16. Treatment of postoperative lower extremity wounds using human fibroblast-derived dermis: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Russell M; Smith, Nicholas C; Dux, Katherine; Stuck, Rodney M

    2014-04-01

    Human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute is a well-studied treatment for diabetic foot ulcers; however, no case series currently exist for its use in healing postoperative wounds of the lower extremity. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 32 lower extremity postoperative wounds treated weekly with human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute. Postoperative wounds were defined as a wound resulting from an open partial foot amputation, surgical wound dehiscence, or nonhealing surgical wound of the lower extremity. Wound surface area was calculated at 4 and 12 weeks or until wound closure if prior to 12 weeks. Postoperative wounds treated with weekly applications showed mean improvement in surface area reduction of 63.6% at 4 weeks and 96.1% at 12 weeks. More than 56% of all wounds healed prior to the 12-week endpoint. Additionally, only one adverse event was noted in this group. This retrospective review supports the use of human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute in the treatment of postoperative lower extremity wounds. This advanced wound care therapy aids in decreased total healing time and increased rate of healing for not only diabetic foot wounds but also postoperative wounds of the lower extremity, as demonstrated by this retrospective review.

  17. Three-dimensional venous anatomy of the dermis observed using stereography

    PubMed Central

    Imanishi, Nobuaki; Kishi, Kazuo; Chang, Hak; Nakajima, Hideo; Aiso, Sadakazu

    2008-01-01

    Veins of the dermis have been investigated mainly by histological methods in the fields of anatomy and histology, and a large number of schemata of the veins have been depicted in a variety of textbooks. However, the schemata are usually two-dimensional and it is therefore difficult to envisage the actual vasculature of the dermal veins. In this study, we performed a stereographic study of the skin of three fresh cadavers that had been injected with radio-opaque dye, which was dispersed throughout the entire body. A venous network consisting of venous polygons of various sizes existed just under the dermis or in the deep zone of the dermis, which is generally called the subdermal venous plexus. There were many small vessels towards the inside of each venous polygon, and most of them ascended, branching off stereoscopically. Those branches anastomosed with each other, and they formed the dermal and subpapillary venous plexuses. However, there was little vascular connection between dermal venous plexuses of different venous polygons. The characteristic structure of the dermal venous plexus has been considered to bring about venous congestion of the skin in various clinical situations. PMID:18422525

  18. Epidermal Wnt controls hair follicle induction by orchestrating dynamic signaling crosstalk between the epidermis and dermis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiang; Hsu, Wei

    2013-04-01

    A signal first arising in the dermis to initiate the development of hair follicles has been described for many decades. Wnt is the earliest signal known to be intimately involved in hair follicle induction. However, it is not clear whether the inductive signal of Wnt arises intradermally or intraepidermally. Whether Wnt acts as the first dermal signal to initiate hair follicle development also remains unclear. Here we report that Wnt production mediated by Gpr177, the mouse Wls ortholog, is essential for hair follicle induction. Gpr177, encoding a multipass transmembrane protein, regulates Wnt sorting and secretion. Cell type-specific abrogation of the signal reveals that only epidermal, but not dermal, production of Wnt is required. An intraepidermal Wnt signal is necessary and sufficient for hair follicle initiation. However, the subsequent development depends on reciprocal signaling crosstalk of epidermal and dermal cells. Wnt signals within the epidermis and dermis and crossing between the epidermis and dermis have distinct roles and specific functions in skin development. This study not only defines the cell type responsible for Wnt production, but also reveals a highly dynamic regulation of Wnt signaling at different steps of hair follicle morphogenesis. Our findings uncover a mechanism underlying hair follicle development orchestrated by the Wnt pathway.

  19. Cellular response in the dermis of common wombats (Vombatus ursinus) infected with Sarcoptes scabiei var. wombati.

    PubMed

    Skerratt, Lee F

    2003-01-01

    The cellular response in the dermis of common wombats (Vombatus ursinus) with sarcoptic mange exhibited some typical aspects of an immune response to Sarcoptes scabiei. There was an induction phase for wombats experimentally infected with S. scabiei represented by absence of a dermal inflammatory infiltrate for at least 12 days after infection. T lymphocytes, plasma cells, mast cells, and neutrophils then entered the dermis, consistent with a type IV (delayed) hypersensitivity response. In free-living wombats with severe parakeratotic sarcoptic mange eosinophils were also present in the dermis suggesting that a type I (immediate) hypersensitivity response may develop after a type IV hypersensitivity response. Absence of plasma cells and B lymphocytes in free-living wombats with severe parakeratotic sarcoptic mange compared with their presence in wombats experimentally infected with S. scabiei suggested that some immune tolerance may develop with severe infections. A large proportion of cells in the dermal response were not identified but were possibly cells of connective tissue. The thickness of the epidermis increased within 4 days in response to S. scabiei infection. Some antibodies raised against human leucocyte antigens CD3, CD5, HLA-DP, DQ, DR, and CD79b cross-reacted with leucocyte antigens of common wombats and were used to identify cell types in inflammatory infiltrates using immunohistochemistry.

  20. Temporal sequence in the formation of midline dermis and dorsal vertebral elements in avian embryos

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Qin; Christ, Bodo; Huang, Ruijin

    2012-01-01

    Somites compartmentalize into a dorsal epithelial dermomyotome and a ventral mesenchymal sclerotome. While sclerotomes give rise to vertebrae and intervertebral discs, dermomyotomes contribute to skeletal muscle and epaxial dermis. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-signals from the lateral mesoderm induce the lateral portion of the dermomyotome to form chondrogenic precursor cells, forming the cartilage of the scapula blade. The fact that BMPs are expressed in the roof plate of the neural tube where they induce cartilage formation led to the question why cells migrating from the medial part of the dermomyotome do not undergo chondrogenic differentiation and do not contribute to the dorsal part of the vertebrae. In the present study, we traced dermomyotomal derivatives by using the quail–chick marker technique. Our study reveals a temporal sequence in the formation of the vertebral cartilage and the midline dermis. The dorsal mesenchyme overlying the roof plate of the neural tube is formed prior to the de-epithelialization of the dermomyotome. Dermomyotomal cells start to migrate medially into the sub-ectodermal space to form the midline dermis after chondrogenesis of the dorsal mesenchyme has occurred. This time delay between chondrogenesis of the dorsal vertebra and dermal formation allows an undisturbed development of these two tissue components within a narrow region of the embryo. PMID:22606994

  1. Porous polyethylene (Medpor) orbital implants with primary acellular dermis patch grafts.

    PubMed

    Kadyan, Anju; Sandramouli, Soupramanien

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the results of the porous polyethylene (Medpor) orbital implantation technique combined with the use of a primary patch graft of acellular dermis. The study design was a retrospective, non-comparative single surgeon case series of 27 patients. The Medpor orbital implant was placed with a primary anterior sub-Tenon's acellular dermis patch after evisceration (23/27), enucleation (2/27) or implant exchange/secondary implant procedure (2/27) over a period of 3 years. Risk factors for dehiscence/complications were defined as trauma, infection, inflammation, previous ocular surgery, radiotherapy, secondary orbital implantation, and removal of extruding implants. The primary outcome measure was the development of implant exposure. Other complications were also recorded, including postoperative conjunctival wound dehiscence. Twenty-five patients (93%) had more than 2 risk factors. Mean follow-up time was 22 months (median 24 months, range 4-34 months). Three (11%) patients needed further intervention, which included pyogenic granuloma excision (1) and fornix formation (1). Conjunctival wound dehiscence followed by implant exposure occurred in 1 of 27 eyes (3.7%). The cosmetic appearance was satisfactory in 26/27 patients. Our results with primary acellular dermis grafts when coupled with Medpor orbital implantation are encouraging.

  2. Influence of the Dermis Thickness on the Results of the Skin Treatment with Monopolar and Bipolar Radiofrequency Currents

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Electrically layered tissue structure significantly modifies distribution of radiofrequency (RF) current in the dermis and in the subcutaneous adipose tissue comparing to that in a homogeneous medium. On the basis of the simple model of RF current distribution in a two-layer skin containing dermis and subcutis, we assess the influence of the dermal thickness on the current density in different skin layers. Under other equal conditions, current density in the dermis is higher for the skin having thinner dermis. This contradicts the main paradigm of the RF theory stating that treatment results are mainly dependent on the maximal temperature reached in a target tissue, since the best short- and long-term clinical results of RF application to the skin were reported in the areas having thicker dermis. To resolve this contradiction, it is proposed that the long-term effect of RF can be realized through a structural modification of the subcutaneous fat depot adjacent to the treated skin area. Stimulation of these cells located near the interface dermis/subcutis will demand the concentration of applied RF energy in this area and will require the optimal arrangement of RF electrodes on the skin surface. PMID:27493952

  3. Contracture of skin graft in human burns: effect of artificial dermis.

    PubMed

    Hur, Gi-Yeun; Seo, Dong-Kook; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2014-12-01

    Skin grafts with an artificial dermis have been widely used as a part of the efforts to minimize contractures and reduce donor-site scars. We conducted a prospective randomized clinical trial to study the effect of a dermal substitute by measuring the size of the graft after surgery for months. The artificial dermis (Matriderm, Dr. Suwelack Skin and Health Care AG, Billerbeck, Germany) was applied in combination with a split-thickness autograft in 40 patients with acute burn wounds or scar reconstruction. Demographic and medical data were collected on each patient. We directly measured the graft size by using a transparent two-ply film (Visitrak Grid, Smith & Nephew Wound Management, Inc, Largo, FL, USA) intraoperatively and 1, 2, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. For effective data comparison, the size of the graft at the time of surgery was taken to be "100%." Then, the size in each phase was estimated in percentage (%). During the 1st month, the average size was 89%. The figure decreased to 86% and 82% in the 2nd and 3rd months, respectively. In the 6th month, it slightly rebounded to 85% but failed to return to the original state. The size of patients with acute burns was smaller than the size of scar patients as follows: 85-91% in the 2nd month, 81-87% in the 3rd month, and 85-96% in the 6th month. This study examined the progress of skin grafts through the measurement of graft size in the human body. The grafted skin underwent contracture and remodeling for 3-6 months. In terms of skin contraction, an acute burn was more serious than scar reconstruction. The use of an artificial dermis that contains elastin is very effective from the functional and esthetic perspective by minimizing contractures and enhancing skin elasticity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Pathological Investigation of Acquired Lymphangiectasia Accompanied by Lower Limb Lymphedema: Lymphocyte Infiltration in the Dermis and Epidermis.

    PubMed

    Hara, Hisako; Mihara, Makoto; Anan, Takashi; Fukumoto, Takaya; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Iida, Takuya; Koshima, Isao

    2016-09-01

    Sometimes acquired lymphangiectasia (lymphangioma circumscriptum), the pathological mechanism of which is unknown, accompanies lymphedema. The purpose of this study was to better understand the pathological changes present in acquired lymphangiectasia. We examined the pathological characteristics of acquired lymphangiectasia with lymphedema among patients treated at the University of Tokyo Hospital from March 2008 to December 2015. In total, 16 biopsies from 10 patients were investigated. The average age of the patients was 57.2 years (range 43-69), and all were female with secondary lymphedema. Surgical specimens were fixed in formalin, and tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Additional immunostaining (podoplanin, lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor [LYVE] -1, CD4, CD8, CD20, and CD31) was performed in cases 1-3 and 8-10. Dilation of lymphatic vessels in the papillary dermis was present in all 10 cases. Infiltration of inflammatory cells, most of which were lymphocytes, was also observed in the dermis and the epidermis in all cases, even though there were no clinical signs of inflammation. The infiltrating lymphocytes were mainly CD4+ T cells, and less commonly, CD8+ T cells and CD20+ B cells. The number of three types of lymphocytes was significantly larger in the superficial layer of the dermis than in the deep layer, which may indicate that they oozed out from the dilated lymphatic vessels located in the superficial dermis. CD8+ T cells infiltrated the epidermis in seven of eight specimens. In case 4, coagulated lymphatic fluid inside the lymphatic vessel was observed. Proliferation of collagenous fiber in the dermis and acanthosis were observed. Lymphatic dilation and proliferation of collagenous fiber in the dermis were seen in cases of acquired lymphangiectasia (lymphangioma circumscriptum). Constant infiltration of lymphocytes in the dermis and the epidermis may have a relation to frequent cellulitis, which is often seen in

  5. Repair of refractory wounds through grafting of artificial dermis and autologous epidermis aided by vacuum-assisted closure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenwei; Liu, Dalie; Liang, Zhi; Liu, Fei; Lin, Haibo; Guo, Zhengdong

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the clinical efficacy of vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) combined with grafting of artificial dermis and autologous epidermis in the repair of refractory wounds. Patients with refractory wounds underwent debridement. Then the VAC device was used to culture wound granulation tissue. After the wound granulation tissue began to grow, artificial dermis was grafted on the wounds with VAC treatment. Then autologous epidermis was grafted on the artificial dermis to repair the wounds after survival of the artificial epidermis. The study mainly observed length of the hospital stay, survival of the artificial dermis, time required for culture of the granulation tissue using VAC before grafting of the artificial dermis, survival time of the artificial dermis, survival conditions of the autologous epidermis, influence on functions of a healed wound at a functional part, healing conditions of donor sites, and recurrence conditions of the wounds. Healing was successful for 22 patients (95.7%), but treatment failed for 1 child. The 22 patients were followed up for 6 to 24 months. According to follow-up findings, the skin grafts had good color and a soft texture. They were wear resistant and posed no influence on function. The appearance of the final results was the same as that of the full-thickness skin graft. Mild or no pigmentation and no scar formation occurred at the donor sites, and the wounds did not recur. Vacuum-assisted closure combined with grafting of artificial dermis and autologous epidermis is an effective means for repairing refractory wounds and is worth clinical popularizing and application. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  6. Biocompatible porcine dermis graft to treat severe cystocele: impact on quality of life and sexuality.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni; Caruso, Salvatore; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; Valenti, Gaetano; Rossetti, Diego; Cianci, Stefano; Cianci, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    To study the quality of life (QoL) and sexual function changes of women affected by severe cystocele treated using biocompatible porcine dermis graft. 20 women (ranging in age from 47 to 71 years, mean age 58.7) with third- and fourth-degree cystocele (according to Baden and Walker classification) were enrolled. The Short Form-36 questionnaire to assess QoL was administrated at baseline and 12 months after surgical treatment. The Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ-12) to measure the changes of sexual behavior was used at baseline and 12 months after surgical treatment. Each woman underwent translabial color Doppler ultrasonography to measure the clitoral blood flow before and 12 months after surgical treatment. Women reported QoL improvement (P < 0.001). By PISQ-12, improvement of the behavioral emotive factor score, the physical factor score, the partner-related factor score and of the total score during the 12-month follow-up with respect to baseline experience was observed (P < 0.001). Color Doppler measurement showed that the mean pulsatility index, peak systolic velocity, resistance index and end-diastolic velocity of clitoral arteries did not significantly change (P = NS). Biocompatible porcine dermis graft to treat severe cystocele considerably improves QoL and sexual function, and does not influence clitoral blood flow. Our data could add new information about sexual behavior after prolapse treatment using this kind of graft, particularly about the impact on clitoral blood flow changes.

  7. Comparison of Models for Bubonic Plague Reveals Unique Pathogen Adaptations to the Dermis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Rodrigo J; Weening, Eric H; Lane, M Chelsea; Miller, Virginia L

    2015-07-01

    Vector-borne pathogens are inoculated in the skin of mammals, most likely in the dermis. Despite this, subcutaneous (s.c.) models of infection are broadly used in many fields, including Yersinia pestis pathogenesis. We expand on a previous report where we implemented intradermal (i.d.) inoculations to study bacterial dissemination during bubonic plague and compare this model with an s.c. We found that i.d. inoculations result in faster kinetics of infection and that bacterial dose influenced mouse survival after i.d. but not s.c. inoculation. Moreover, a deletion mutant of rovA, previously shown to be moderately attenuated in the s.c. model, was severely attenuated in the i.d. Lastly, based on previous observations where a population bottleneck from the skin to lymph nodes was observed after i.d., but not after s.c., inoculations, we used the latter model as a strategy to identify an additional bottleneck in bacterial dissemination from lymph nodes to the bloodstream. Our data indicate that the more biologically relevant i.d. model of bubonic plague differs significantly from the s.c. model in multiple aspects of infection. These findings reveal adaptations of Y. pestis to the dermis and how these adaptations can define the progression of disease. They also emphasize the importance of using a relevant route of infection when addressing host-pathogen interactions. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Spatiotemporal Evolution of the Wound Repairing Process in a 3D Human Dermis Equivalent.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Bernadette; Casale, Costantino; Imparato, Giorgia; Urciuolo, Francesco; Netti, Paolo Antonio

    2017-07-01

    Several skin equivalent models have been developed to investigate in vitro the re-epithelialization process occurring during wound healing. Although these models recapitulate closure dynamics of epithelial cells, they fail to capture how a wounded connective tissue rebuilds its 3D architecture until the evolution in a scar. Here, the in vitro tissue repair dynamics of a connective tissue is replicated by using a 3D human dermis equivalent (3D-HDE) model composed of fibroblasts embedded in their own extracellular matrix (ECM). After inducing a physical damage, 3D-HDE undergoes a series of cellular and extracellular events quite similar to those occurring in the native dermis. In particular, fibroblasts differentiation toward myofibroblasts phenotype and neosynthesis of hyaluronic acid, fibronectin, and collagen during the repair process are assessed. Moreover, tissue reorganization after physical damage is investigated by measuring the diameter of bundles and the orientation of fibers of the newly formed ECM network. Finally, the ultimate formation of a scar-like tissue as physiological consequence of the repair and closure process is demonstrated. Taking together, the results highlight that the presence of cell-assembled and responsive stromal components enables quantitative and qualitative in vitro evaluation of the processes involved in scarring during wound healing. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Characterization of skin dermis microcirculation in flow-mediated dilation using optical sensor with pressurization mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yamakoshi, Yoshiki; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Miwa, Takashi

    2013-05-01

    Blood flows out of microvessels in the dermis when pressure higher than arterial blood pressure is applied to the fingertip, and subsequently re-flows into the microcirculation when pressure is released. Both the blood outflow and the reflow characteristics of microcirculation under pressurization are associated with microvasculature, blood and blood pressure. This study describes a novel method of measuring blood inflow and outflow characteristics of dermis microcirculation. An optical sensor, which is furnished with a 571 nm wavelength light source and a photodetector, is pressed to the skin surface using a pressure higher than the human subject's systolic arterial pressure. Hemoglobin concentration by change of the blood flow amount is estimated by the Beer-Lambert law. This method is applied to the measurement of blood inflow and outflow characteristics of microcirculation caused by reactive hyperemia after ischemia with duration of 5 min. Among three parameters evaluated, the one relating to the amplitude of pulsation shows a close correlation with conventional plethysmography, while the other two show varying time responses. Our method provides a new and useful insight into pathophysiology in health and disease conditions and may help researchers better understand the underlying mechanisms of numerous microcirculation-influenced diseases and medical conditions.

  10. In vivo measurement of the water content in the dermis by confocal Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Noriaki; Matsumoto, Masayuki; Sakai, Shingo

    2010-05-01

    Dermal water plays an important role in the physical properties of the skin. Recently, researchers have attempted to directly measure the dermal water content in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging, near infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. However, these methods have limitations. Although confocal Raman spectroscopy has been developed to measure the water content in the skin, no reports have suggested that this instrument can measure the dermal water content. This report describes a method for measuring the dermal water content in vivo using confocal Raman spectroscopy. We used a confocal Raman spectrometer and adjusted the laser exposure time and depth increments according to the skin depth. Age-related changes in the dermal water content of the forearm were examined in 30 young and 30 elderly male subjects. Diurnal changes in the dermal water content of the forearm were examined in 12 elderly male subjects. Adjusting the exposure time and depth increment dramatically improved the signal-to-noise ratios of the Raman spectra. Elderly dermis had significantly higher water content than young dermis. Moreover, the dermal water content displayed a diurnal change. This study demonstrates that the dermal water content can be measured in vivo using confocal Raman spectroscopy.

  11. Dermal-epidermal membrane systems by using human keratinocytes and mesenchymal stem cells isolated from dermis.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Simona; Messina, Antonietta; Giordano, Francesca; Bader, Augustinus; Drioli, Enrico; De Bartolo, Loredana

    2017-02-01

    Dermal-epidermal membrane systems were developed by co-culturing human keratinocytes with Skin derived Stem Cells (SSCs), which are Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) isolated from dermis, on biodegradable membranes of chitosan (CHT), polycaprolactone (PCL) and a polymeric blend of CHT and PCL. The membranes display physico-chemical, morphological, mechanical and biodegradation properties that could satisfy and fulfil specific requirements in skin tissue engineering. CHT membrane exhibits an optimal biodegradation rate for acute wounds; CHT-PCL for the chronic ones. On the other hand, PCL membrane in spite of its very slow biodegradation rate exhibits mechanical properties similar to in vivo dermis, a lower hydrophilic character, and a surface roughness, all properties that make it able to sustain cell adhesion and proliferation for in vitro skin models. Both CHT-PCL and PCL membranes guided epidermal and dermal differentiation of SSCs as pointed out by the expression of cytokeratins and the deposition of the ECM protein fibronectin, respectively. In the dermal-epidermal membrane systems, a more suitable microenvironment for the SSCs differentiation was promoted by the interactions and the mutual interplay with keratinocytes. Being skin tissue-biased stem cells committed to their specific final dermal and/or epidermal cell differentiation, SSCs are more suitable for skin tissue engineering than other adult MSCs with different origin. For this reason, they represent a useful autologous cell source for engineering skin substitutes for both in vivo and in vitro applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of argon, dye, and Nd:YAG lasers on epidermis, dermis, and venous vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Landthaler, M.; Haina, D.; Brunner, R.; Waidelich, W.; Braun-Falco, O.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of the present study, which was performed at the dorsal aspects of the ears of guinea pigs, was to compare effects of different lasers on epidermis, dermis, and small venous vessels. Irradiations were performed with argon, dye, and Nd:YAG lasers. In the first series tissue repair processes were studied after argon laser application. Laser defects were excised after 1, 4, 8, and 14 days and were prepared for routine histological examination. The breadth of epidermal defect and extent of dermal coagulation and occlusion of vessels by thrombus formation were examined histologically. In a second series parameters of irradiation (ie, exposure time, laser power) of the three different lasers were changed systematically. Laser-induced morphological tissue changes could be best observed 24 hours after irradiation. Each of the lasers led to occlusion of vessels by thrombus formation and also coagulated epidermis and dermis. The extent of dermal and epidermal coagulation was less pronounced after dye laser application. Using short exposure times it was possible to reduce the extent of epidermal damage caused by argon and Nd:YAG lasers. Only 50-msec dye laser pulses led to intravascular thrombus formation without epidermal and dermal damage.

  13. Psoriasiform architecture of murine epidermis overlying human psoriatic dermis transplanted onto SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Boehncke, W H; Sterry, W; Hainzl, A; Scheffold, W; Kaufmann, R

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary observations in a xenogeneic SCID mouse transplantation model indicated that murine epidermis overgrows human dermis from psoriatic skin but not that form normal skin. To investigate the effect of peripheral blood mononuclear cells on the differentiation of murine keratinocytes, we transplanted involved and uninvolved full-thickness skin from patients with psoriasis onto SCID mice and followed this with repeated subcutaneous injections of cells suspended in patient serum. After 6 weeks grafts were analysed morphologically and immunohistochemically. The epidermis in grafts from clinically uninvolved skin appeared normal. The persistence of a psoriasiform epidermis was noted in all grafts from affected sites despite a lack of lymphocytic infiltration. Staining for human and mouse MHC class I antigens revealed the murine origin of keratinocytes forming the psoriasiform epidermis, while the human dermis was retained. Our observations indicate that the defect underlying the pathogenesis of psoriasis is most likely located in the dermal rather than the epidermal compartment. This xenogeneic transplantation model may be useful for future studies of the pathogenesis and treatment of psoriasis.

  14. Prevention of ultraviolet damage to the dermis of hairless mice by sunscreens

    SciTech Connect

    Kligman, L.H.; Akin, F.J.; Kligman, A.M.

    1982-02-01

    To assess the ability of sunscreens to protect connective tissue from actinic damage, hairless mice were irradiated with Westinghouse FS20 sunlamps thrice weekly for 30 weeks. Each exposure, consisting mainly of UV-B and the less energetic UV-A, was approximately 6 human minimal erythema doses under these lights. One group of animals received irradiation only. The other 2 groups were treated, prior to irradiation, with sunscreens of either low or high sun protection factors (SPF 2 and SPF 15, respectively). Skin biopsies were taken at 10-week intervals and were stained with various histochemical stains to reveal changes in the dermis. The unprotected, irradiated animals showed a great increase in the following: reticulin fibers, elastic fibers to the extent of elastosis, neutral and acid mucopolysaccharides and melanin production. The SPF 15 sunscreen completely prevented these changes. The SPF 2 sunscreen was less effective. These effects were substantiated by ultrastructural examination of the tissues by electron microscopy. A surprising histologic finding was the repair capability of the dermis in the post-irradiation period.

  15. Epidermal β-catenin activation remodels the dermis via paracrine signalling to distinct fibroblast lineages

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberger, Beate M.; Mastrogiannaki, Maria; Watt, Fiona M.

    2016-01-01

    Sustained epidermal Wnt/β-catenin signalling expands the stem cell compartment and induces ectopic hair follicles (EFs). This is accompanied by extensive fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling in the underlying dermis. Here we show that epidermal Hedgehog (Hh) and Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signalling mediate the dermal changes. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of these pathways prevents β-catenin-induced dermal reprogramming and EF formation. Epidermal Shh stimulates proliferation of the papillary fibroblast lineage, whereas TGF-β2 controls proliferation, differentiation and ECM production by reticular fibroblasts. Hh inhibitors do not affect TGF-β target gene expression in reticular fibroblasts, and TGF-β inhibition does not prevent Hh target gene induction in papillary fibroblasts. However, when Hh signalling is inhibited the reticular dermis does not respond to epidermal β-catenin activation. We conclude that the dermal response to epidermal Wnt/β-catenin signalling depends on distinct fibroblast lineages responding to different paracrine signals. PMID:26837596

  16. pH changes in the dermis during the course of the tuberculin skin test.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, D K; Spence, V A; Beck, J S; Lowe, J G; Walker, W F

    1986-01-01

    The response of six healthy young adults to tuberculin skin testing was studied. Five subjects developed a typical delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to PPD with a local rise in skin temperature, and the sixth showed a less intense response; a considerable increase in blood flow velocity was seen in all reactions. All subjects showed a fall in pH in the dermis during the course of the reaction: in four subjects the pH minimum occurred at the time when the changes of erythema and induration were most prominent, in one subject the pH fall preceded the maximal clinical changes, and in the remaining subject a substantial fall in pH occurred with only transient erythema. It was concluded that the local tissue acidosis had resulted from the greatly increased metabolic demand of the lymphocytes and monocytes attracted into the dermis as part of the type IV delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction, and that the concurrent reactive hyperaemia was insufficient to clear the acidic metabolic products of the greatly increased cell population. Images Figure 1 PMID:3804375

  17. Decellularization of human dermis using non-denaturing anionic detergent and endonuclease: a review.

    PubMed

    Moore, Mark A; Samsell, Brian; Wallis, Glenna; Triplett, Sherry; Chen, Silvia; Jones, Alyce Linthurst; Qin, Xiaofei

    2015-06-01

    Decellularized human dermis has been used for a number of clinical applications including wound healing, soft tissue reconstruction, and sports medicine procedures. A variety of methods exist to prepare this useful class of biomaterial. Here, we describe a decellularization technology (MatrACELL(®)) utilizing a non-denaturing anionic detergent, N-Lauroyl sarcosinate, and endonuclease, which was developed to remove potentially immunogenic material while retaining biomechanical properties. Effective decellularization was demonstrated by a residual DNA content of ≤4 ng/mg of wet weight which represented >97 % DNA removal compared to unprocessed dermis. Two millimeter thick MatrACELL processed human acellular dermal matrix (MH-ADM) exhibited average ultimate tensile load to failure of 635.4 ± 199.9 N and average suture retention strength of 134.9 ± 55.1 N. Using an in vivo mouse skin excisional model, MH-ADM was shown to be biocompatible and capable of supporting cellular and vascular in-growth. Finally, clinical studies of MH-ADM in variety of applications suggest it can be an appropriate scaffold for wound healing, soft tissue reconstruction, and soft tissue augmentation.

  18. Keloid and Hypertrophic Scars Are the Result of Chronic Inflammation in the Reticular Dermis

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Rei

    2017-01-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars are caused by cutaneous injury and irritation, including trauma, insect bite, burn, surgery, vaccination, skin piercing, acne, folliculitis, chicken pox, and herpes zoster infection. Notably, superficial injuries that do not reach the reticular dermis never cause keloidal and hypertrophic scarring. This suggests that these pathological scars are due to injury to this skin layer and the subsequent aberrant wound healing therein. The latter is characterized by continuous and histologically localized inflammation. As a result, the reticular layer of keloids and hypertrophic scars contains inflammatory cells, increased numbers of fibroblasts, newly formed blood vessels, and collagen deposits. Moreover, proinflammatory factors, such as interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α are upregulated in keloid tissues, which suggests that, in patients with keloids, proinflammatory genes in the skin are sensitive to trauma. This may promote chronic inflammation, which in turn may cause the invasive growth of keloids. In addition, the upregulation of proinflammatory factors in pathological scars suggests that, rather than being skin tumors, keloids and hypertrophic scars are inflammatory disorders of skin, specifically inflammatory disorders of the reticular dermis. Various external and internal post-wounding stimuli may promote reticular inflammation. The nature of these stimuli most likely shapes the characteristics, quantity, and course of keloids and hypertrophic scars. Specifically, it is likely that the intensity, frequency, and duration of these stimuli determine how quickly the scars appear, the direction and speed of growth, and the intensity of symptoms. These proinflammatory stimuli include a variety of local, systemic, and genetic factors. These observations together suggest that the clinical differences between keloids and hypertrophic scars merely reflect differences in the intensity, frequency, and duration of

  19. Imaging collagen remodeling and sensing transplanted autologous fibroblast metabolism in mouse dermis using multimode nonlinear optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin; Cao, Ning; Jiang, Xingshan; Xie, Shusen; Xiong, Shuyuan

    2008-06-01

    Collagen remodeling and transplanted autologous fibroblast metabolic states in mouse dermis after cellular injection are investigated using multimode nonlinear optical imaging. Our findings show that the technique can image the progress of collagen remodeling in mouse dermis. It can also image transplanted autologous fibroblasts in their collagen matrix environment in the dermis, because of metabolic activity. It was also found that the approach can provide two-photon ratiometric redox fluorometry based on autologous fibroblast fluorescence from reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide coenzyme and oxidized flavoproteins for sensing the autologous fibroblast metabolic state. These results show that the multimode nonlinear optical imaging technique may have potential in a clinical setting as an in vivo diagnostic and monitoring system for cellular therapy in plastic surgery.

  20. Rolling autogenetic dermis up to form a tube may be used as scaffold in tissue-engineered blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Diao, Jian-Sheng; Yang, Sun; Xia, Wen-Sen; Yi, Wei; Xia, Wei; Shu, Mao-Guo; Zhang, Xi; Guo, Shu-Zhong

    2010-01-01

    Coronary and peripheral artery bypass grafting are widely being used to deal with vascular deficiencies currently, and a man-made synthetic tube or autogenous arteries or veins are needed a lot. But one's autogenous arteries or veins are limited, and artificial graft substitute isn't yet available in clinical applications because of many disadvantages. Various polymeric materials have been used as scaffolds, but without satisfying results due to intimal hyperplasia and the rate of degradation. Autogenetic dermis, which has the advantages of resistance to immunogenicity, good biocompatibility, and appropriate mechanical and physiological properties, has gained our attention to use it as a scaffold for tissue-engineered blood vessels. What is more, autogenetic dermis can be harvested easily. So we postulate that autogenetic dermis rolled up to form a tube may be an ideal scaffold for tissue-engineered blood vessels.

  1. [Clinical application of artificial dermis combined with basic fibroblast growth factor in the treatment of cicatrix and deep skin wounds].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yilan; Huang, Yalan; Luo, Gaoxing; Peng, Yizhi; Yan, Hong; Luo, Qizhi; Zhang, Jiaping; Wu, Jun; Peng, Daizhi

    2016-04-01

    To observe the effects of artificial dermis combined with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on the treatment of cicatrix and deep skin wounds. The clinical data of 72 patients with wounds repaired with artificial dermis, hospitalized in our unit from October 2010 to April 2015, conforming to the study criteria, were retrospectively analyzed. The types of wounds were wounds after resection of cicatrices, deep burn wounds without exposure of tendon or bone, and wounds with exposure of small area of tendon or bone, in a total number of 102. Wounds were divided into artificial dermis group (A, n=60) and artificial dermis+ bFGF group (B, n=42) according to whether or not artificial dermis combined with bFGF. In group A, after release and resection of cicatrices or thorough debridement of deep skin wounds, artificial dermis was directly grafted to wounds in the first stage operation. After complete vascularization of artificial dermis, wounds were repaired with autologous split-thickness skin grafts in the second stage operation. In group B, all the procedures were exactly the same as those in group A except that artificial dermis had been soaked in bFGF for 30 min before grafting. Operation area, complete vascularization time of artificial dermis, survival of skin grafts, and the follow-up condition of wounds in the two groups were recorded. Data were processed with t test and Fisher's exact test. (1) Operation areas of wounds after resection of cicatrices, deep burn wounds without exposure of tendon or bone, and wounds with exposure of small area of tendon or bone in the two groups were about the same (with t values from -1.853 to -0.200, P values above 0.05). Complete vascularization time of artificial dermis in wounds after resection of cicatrices, deep burn wounds without exposure of tendon or bone, and wounds with exposure of small area of tendon or bone in group B were respectively (15.6 ± 2.9), (14.7 ± 2.7), and (20.3 ± 4.4) d, and they were shorter by an

  2. [Correction of progressive hemifacial atrophy using dermis-fat graft and Medpor implant shaped by reverse engineering technique].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-rui; Wei, Jian-hua; Li, Yun-peng; Feng, Xing-hua

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect of dermis-fat graft combined with Medpor implant shaped by reverse engineering technique in the correction of the progressive hemifacial atrophy. A skull model was made by rapid prototyping and the bony deficiency model was acquired with reverse engineering technique. The Medpor implant was shaped precisely based on the deficiency model and implanted with dermis-fat graft at the same stage. 11 cases were treated successfully without infection, necrosis and rejection. The patients were followed up for six months to one year with satisfactory cosmetic improvement. The dermis-fat graft survived without obvious absorption. The technique can correct both the bony and soft tissue deficiency for progressive hemifacial atrophy. It is very practical and easily performed with reliant results and less morbidity.

  3. The use of noncellularized artificial dermis in the prevention of scar contracture and hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Téot, Luc; Otman, Sami; Trial, Chloé; Brancati, Antonio

    2011-09-01

    Abnormal scarring occurring after wounds and burns remains a major source of functional and cosmetic disorders. The dermal part of the skin is recognized as playing a major role in the contraction process. The skin dermis may be involved in superficial wounds, but when the basal membrane and the sources of keratinocytes, like hair follicles and adnexa, are left intact, little visible scarring is observed. The skin elasticity may be preserved, even when the extracellular matrix is somehow altered. On the opposite extreme, in wounds of extended depth, the loss of dermal component results in the absence of elasticity and fibroblastic cell proliferation, leading to hypertrophy and contracture. These phenomena may be explained either by differences in cell populations, by extracellular matrix reactions to different stimuli, or by chemical control of interactions between cells and matrix. © 2011 by the Wound Healing Society.

  4. The Dermis as a Delivery Site of Trypanosoma brucei for Tsetse Flies

    PubMed Central

    Caljon, Guy; Van Reet, Nick; De Trez, Carl; Vermeersch, Marjorie; Pérez-Morga, David; Van Den Abbeele, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Tsetse flies are the sole vectors of Trypanosoma brucei parasites that cause sleeping sickness. Our knowledge on the early interface between the infective metacyclic forms and the mammalian host skin is currently highly limited. Glossina morsitans flies infected with fluorescently tagged T. brucei parasites were used in this study to initiate natural infections in mice. Metacyclic trypanosomes were found to be highly infectious through the intradermal route in sharp contrast with blood stream form trypanosomes. Parasite emigration from the dermal inoculation site resulted in detectable parasite levels in the draining lymph nodes within 18 hours and in the peripheral blood within 42 h. A subset of parasites remained and actively proliferated in the dermis. By initiating mixed infections with differentially labeled parasites, dermal parasites were unequivocally shown to arise from the initial inoculum and not from a re-invasion from the blood circulation. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated intricate interactions of these skin-residing parasites with adipocytes in the connective tissue, entanglement by reticular fibers of the periadipocytic baskets and embedment between collagen bundles. Experimental transmission experiments combined with molecular parasite detection in blood fed flies provided evidence that dermal trypanosomes can be acquired from the inoculation site immediately after the initial transmission. High resolution thermographic imaging also revealed that intradermal parasite expansion induces elevated skin surface temperatures. Collectively, the dermis represents a delivery site of the highly infective metacyclic trypanosomes from which the host is systemically colonized and where a proliferative subpopulation remains that is physically constrained by intricate interactions with adipocytes and collagen fibrous structures. PMID:27441553

  5. Acute Cutaneous Wounds Treated with Human Decellularised Dermis Show Enhanced Angiogenesis during Healing

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, Nicholas S.; Morris, Julie; Benatar, Brian; Alonso-Rasgado, Teresa; Baguneid, Mohamed; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    Background The influence of skin substitutes upon angiogenesis during wound healing is unclear. Objectives To compare the angiogenic response in acute cutaneous human wounds treated with autogenic, allogenic and xenogenic skin substitutes to those left to heal by secondary intention. Methods On day 0, four 5mm full-thickness punch biopsies were harvested from fifty healthy volunteers (sites 1-4). In all cases, site 1 healed by secondary intention (control), site 2 was treated with collagen-GAG scaffold (CG), cadaveric decellularised dermis (DCD) was applied to site 3, whilst excised tissue was re-inserted into site 4 (autograft). Depending on study group allocation, healing tissue from sites 1-4 was excised on day 7, 14, 21 or 28. All specimens were bisected, with half used in histological and immunohistochemical evaluation whilst extracted RNA from the remainder enabled whole genome microarrays and qRT-PCR of highlighted angiogenesis-related genes. All wounds were serially imaged over 6 weeks using laser-doppler imaging and spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis. Results Inherent structural differences between skin substitutes influenced the distribution and organisation of capillary networks within regenerating dermis. Haemoglobin flux (p = 0.0035), oxyhaemoglobin concentration (p = 0.0005), and vessel number derived from CD31-based immunohistochemistry (p = 0.046) were significantly greater in DCD wounds at later time points. This correlated with time-matched increases in mRNA expression of membrane-type 6 matrix metalloproteinase (MT6-MMP) (p = 0.021) and prokineticin 2 (PROK2) (p = 0.004). Conclusion Corroborating evidence from invasive and non-invasive modalities demonstrated that treatment with DCD resulted in increased angiogenesis after wounding. Significantly elevated mRNA expression of pro-angiogenic PROK2 and extracellular matrix protease MT6-MMP seen only in the DCD group may contribute to observed responses. PMID:25602294

  6. A Mechanics Model for Sensors Imperfectly Bonded to the Skin for Determination of the Young's Moduli of Epidermis and Dermis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, J. H.; Shi, Y.; Pharr, M.; Feng, X.; Rogers, John A.; Huang, Yonggang

    2016-01-01

    A mechanics model is developed for the encapsulated piezoelectric thin-film actuators/sensors system imperfectly bonded to the human skin to simultaneously determine the Young's moduli of the epidermis and dermis as well as the thickness of epidermis. PMID:27330219

  7. Sexual function in women after rectocele repair with acellular porcine dermis graft vs site-specific rectovaginal fascia repair.

    PubMed

    Novi, Joseph M; Bradley, Catherine S; Mahmoud, Najjia N; Morgan, Mark A; Arya, Lily A

    2007-10-01

    The objective of the study was to compare preoperative and postoperative sexual function between women undergoing rectocele repair with porcine dermis graft and women undergoing site-specific repair of rectovaginal fascia. A standardized, validated questionnaire (Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire [PISQ]) was used to collect preoperative sexual function data from 100 patients with rectocele pelvic organ prolapse quantification stage 2 or greater. Fifty women underwent rectocele repair utilizing porcine dermis graft (group 1) and 50 women underwent a site-specific repair of the rectovaginal fascia (group 2). The same questionnaire was administered to all subjects 6 months after surgery. The two groups were similar in age, race, parity, prior hysterectomy, and postmenopausal hormone use. Preoperative sexual function scores were similar in the two groups (group 1 81.4+/-7.3 and group 2: 83.6+/-8.2, p=1.0). Six months after surgery, PISQ scores in group 1 significantly increased (score increase 19.9+/-2.2, p=0.01). The mean increase in PISQ scores for group 2 was 6.9+/-3.1 (p=0.08). When compared with group 2, subjects undergoing rectocele repair with porcine dermis graft scored significantly higher on the PISQ 6 months after surgery (group 1 101.3+/-6.4 and group 2 89.7+/-7.1, p=0.01). We conclude that rectocele repair using porcine dermis graft is associated with improved sexual functioning when compared with site-specific rectovaginal fascia repair.

  8. PDGF signalling in the dermis and in dermal condensates is dispensable for hair follicle induction and formation.

    PubMed

    Rezza, Amélie; Sennett, Rachel; Tanguy, Manon; Clavel, Carlos; Rendl, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Embryonic hair follicle (HF) induction and formation is dependent on signalling crosstalk between the dermis and specialized dermal condensates on the mesenchymal side and epidermal cells and incipient placodes on the epithelial side, but the precise nature and succession of signals remain unclear. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signalling is involved in the development of several organs and the maintenance of adult tissues, including HF regeneration in the hair cycle. As both PDGF receptors, PDGFRα and PDGFRβ, are expressed in embryonic dermis and dermal condensates, we explored in this study the role of PDGF signalling in HF induction and formation in the developing skin mesenchyme. We conditionally ablated both PDGF receptors with Tbx18(Cre) in early dermal condensates before follicle formation, and with Prx1-Cre broadly in the ventral dermis prior to HF induction. In both PDGFR double mutants, HF induction and formation ensued normally, and the pattern of HF formation and HF numbers were unaffected. These data demonstrate that mesenchymal PDGF signalling, either in the specialized niche or broadly in the dermis, is dispensable for HF induction and formation.

  9. Early stage alopecia areata is associated with inflammation in the upper dermis and damage to the hair follicle infundibulum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Ying; Cai, Zeming; Caulloo, Sillani; McElwee, Kevin J; Li, Yang; Chen, Xiaohong; Yu, Mei; Yang, Jian; Chen, Wenna; Tang, Xuhua; Zhang, Xingqi

    2013-08-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a non-scarring inflammatory hair loss disease. We investigated the early pathological changes of AA to identify possible factors participating in its pathogenesis. Clinical, laboratory and pathological features of 87 AA patients were investigated. Anti-nuclear antibody was found in 11 of 85 patients tested (13%), with a higher percentage in women (21%) than men (5%) (P = 0.026). In early AA lesions, inflammatory infiltration in the upper dermis and epithelial cell damage of the hair follicle infundibulum, just above the sebaceous gland, was observed. Liquefaction and disarrangement of peripheral infundibular epithelial cells coexisted with T-lymphocytic invasion and regression of the lower follicle. The latter findings positively correlated with the presence of eosinophils and perivascular mononuclear cell infiltration in the upper dermis. Eosinophilic infiltration was found in 35 patients (40%) and was positively correlated to elevated serum IgE levels (r = 0.21, P = 0.044), a more severe perivascular lymphocytic inflammation in the upper dermis (r = 0.24, P = 0.026), as well as a prominent swarm of bees-like peri-follicular infiltration (r = 0.41, P < 0.001). Mast cells were abundant in the upper dermis, especially around blood vessels, and positively correlated with eosinophil presence (r = 0.30, P = 0.027). Damage to the hair follicle infundibulum in the upper dermis might be an important component of early changes in AA lesions, possibly caused by lymphocyte cell infiltration in the same area. AA may involve damage of the upper hair follicle as well as the bulb, possibly involving hypersensitivity and autoimmunity. © 2013 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  10. Dermis, acellular dermal matrix, and fibroblasts from different layers of pig skin exhibit different profibrotic characteristics: evidence from in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Yanhai; Lu, Shuliang

    2017-01-01

    To explore the profibrotic characteristics of the autografted dermis, acellular dermal matrix, and dermal fibroblasts from superficial/deep layers of pig skin, 93 wounds were established on the dorsa of 7 pigs. 72 wounds autografted with the superficial/deep dermis and acellular dermal matrix served as the superficial/deep dermis and acellular dermal matrix group, respectively, and were sampled at 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-wounding. 21 wounds autografted with/without superficial/deep dermal fibroblasts served as the superficial/deep dermal fibroblast group and the control group, respectively, and were sampled at 2 weeks post-wounding. The hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that the wounded skin thicknesses in the deep dermis group (superficial acellular dermal matrix group) were significantly greater than those in the superficial dermis group (deep acellular dermal matrix group) at each time point, the thickness of the cutting plane in the deep dermal fibroblast group was significantly greater than that in the superficial dermal fibroblast group and the control group. The western blots showed that the α-smooth muscle actin expression in the deep dermis group (superficial acellular dermal matrix group) was significantly greater than that in the superficial dermis group (deep acellular dermal matrix group) at each time point. In summary, the deep dermis and dermal fibroblasts exhibited more profibrotic characteristics than the superficial ones, on the contrary, the deep acellular dermal matrix exhibited less profibrotic characteristics than the superficial one. PMID:28423561

  11. One-stage, simultaneous skin grafting with artificial dermis and basic fibroblast growth factor successfully improves elasticity with maturation of scar formation.

    PubMed

    Hamuy, Rodrigo; Kinoshita, Naoshi; Yoshimoto, Hiroshi; Hayashida, Kenji; Houbara, Seiji; Nakashima, Masahiro; Suzuki, Keiji; Mitsutake, Norisato; Mussazhanova, Zhanna; Kashiyama, Kazuya; Hirano, Akiyoshi; Akita, Sadanori

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of one-stage artificial dermis and skin grafting was tested in a nude rat model. Reconstruction with artificial dermis is usually a two-stage procedure with 2- to 3-week intermission. If one-stage use of artificial dermis and split-thickness skin grafting are effective, the overall burden on patients and the medical cost will markedly decrease. The graft take rate, contraction rate, tissue elasticity, histology, morphometric analysis of the dermal thickness, fibroblast counting, immunohistochemistry of α-smooth muscle actin, matrix metalloproteinase-2, CD31, and F4/80, as well as gelatin zymography, real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for matrix metalloproteinase-2, and electron microscopy, were investigated from day 3 to 3 months postoperatively. The graft take rate was good overall in one-stage artificial dermis and skin grafting groups up to 3 weeks, and the contraction rate was greater in the two-staged artificial dermis and skin grafting group than in the skin grafting alone or one stage of artificial dermis and skin grafting groups. Split-thickness skin grafting with artificial dermis and basic fibroblast growth factor at a concentration of 1 μg/cm(2) showed significantly greater elasticity by Cutometer, and the dermal thickness was significantly thinner, fibroblast counting was significantly greater, and the α-smooth muscle actin expression level was more notable with a more mature blood supply in the dermis and more organized dermal fibrils by electron microscopy at 3 weeks. Thus, one-stage artificial dermis and split-thickness skin grafting with basic fibroblast growth factor show a high graft take rate and better tissue elasticity determined by Cutometer analysis, maturity of the dermis, and increased fibroblast number and blood supply compared to a standard two-stage reconstruction. © 2012 by the Wound Healing Society.

  12. Tissue engineering potential of human dermis-isolated adult stem cells from multiple anatomical locations.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Heenam; Haudenschild, Anne K; Brown, Wendy E; Vapniarsky, Natalia; Paschos, Nikolaos K; Arzi, Boaz; Hu, Jerry C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2017-01-01

    Abundance and accessibility render skin-derived stem cells an attractive cell source for tissue engineering applications. Toward assessing their utility, the variability of constructs engineered from human dermis-isolated adult stem (hDIAS) cells was examined with respect to different anatomical locations (foreskin, breast, and abdominal skin), both in vitro and in a subcutaneous, athymic mouse model. All anatomical locations yielded hDIAS cells with multi-lineage differentiation potentials, though adipogenesis was not seen for foreskin-derived hDIAS cells. Using engineered cartilage as a model, tissue engineered constructs from hDIAS cells were compared. Construct morphology differed by location. The mechanical properties of human foreskin- and abdominal skin-derived constructs were similar at implantation, remaining comparable after 4 additional weeks of culture in vivo. Breast skin-derived constructs were not mechanically testable. For all groups, no signs of abnormality were observed in the host. Addition of aggregate redifferentiation culture prior to construct formation improved chondrogenic differentiation of foreskin-derived hDIAS cells, as evident by increases in glycosaminoglycan and collagen contents. More robust Alcian blue staining and homogeneous cell populations were also observed compared to controls. Human DIAS cells elicited no adverse host responses, reacted positively to chondrogenic regimens, and possessed multi-lineage differentiation potential with the caveat that efficacy may differ by anatomical origin of the skin. Taken together, these results suggest that hDIAS cells hold promise as a potential cell source for a number of tissue engineering applications.

  13. In vivo degradation of 14C-labeled porcine dermis biologic scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Lisa E.; Dearth, Christopher L.; Johnson, Scott A.; Londono, Ricardo; Medberry, Christopher J.; Daly, Kerry A.; Badylak, Stephen F.

    2017-01-01

    Biologic scaffold materials are used for repair and reconstruction of injured or missing tissues. Such materials are often composed of allogeneic or xenogeneic extracellular matrix (ECM) manufactured by decellularization of source tissue, such as dermis. Dermal ECM (D-ECM) has been observed to degrade and remodel in vivo more slowly than other biologic scaffold materials, such as small intestinal submucosa (SIS-ECM). Histologic examination is a common method for evaluating material degradation, but it lacks sensitivity and is subject to observer bias. Utilization of 14C-proline labeled ECM is a quantitative alternative for measuring degradation of ECM scaffolds. Using both methods, the amount of degradation of D-ECM and SIS-ECM was determined at 2, 4, and 24 weeks post-implantation in a rodent model. Results utilizing 14C liquid scintillation counting (LSC) analysis showed distinct differences in degradation at the three time points. D-ECM material in situ stayed the same at 76% remaining from 2 to 4 weeks post-implantation, and then decreased to 44% remaining at 24 weeks. In the same time period, implanted SIS-ECM material decreased from 72% to 13% to 0%. Visual examination of device degradation by histology overestimated degradation at 2 weeks and underestimated device degradation at 24 weeks, compared to the 14C method. PMID:24997479

  14. Differentiation of human labia minora dermis-derived fibroblasts into insulin-producing cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bona; Yoon, Byung Sun; Moon, Jai-Hee; Kim, Jonggun; Jun, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Jung Han; Kim, Jun Sung; Baik, Cheong Soon; Kim, Aeree; Whang, Kwang Youn

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that human skin fibroblasts may represent a novel source of therapeutic stem cells. In this study, we report a 3-stage method to induce the differentiation of skin fibroblasts into insulin-producing cells (IPCs). In stage 1, we establish the isolation, expansion and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells from human labia minora dermis-derived fibroblasts (hLMDFs) (stage 1: MSC expansion). hLMDFs express the typical mesenchymal stem cell marker proteins and can differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes or muscle cells. In stage 2, DMEM/F12 serum-free medium with ITS mix (insulin, transferrin, and selenite) is used to induce differentiation of hLMDFs into endoderm-like cells, as determined by the expression of the endoderm markers Sox17, Foxa2, and PDX1 (stage 2: mesenchymal-endoderm transition). In stage 3, cells in the mesenchymal-endoderm transition stage are treated with nicotinamide in order to further differentiate into self-assembled, 3-dimensional islet cell-like clusters that express multiple genes related to pancreatic β-cell development and function (stage 3: IPC). We also found that the transplantation of IPCs can normalize blood glucose levels and rescue glucose homeostasis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. These results indicate that hLMDFs have the capacity to differentiate into functionally competent IPCs and represent a potential cell-based treatment for diabetes mellitus. PMID:22020533

  15. Generation of Genetically Modified Organotypic Skin Cultures Using Devitalized Human Dermis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingting; Sen, George L

    2015-12-14

    Organotypic cultures allow the reconstitution of a 3D environment critical for cell-cell contact and cell-matrix interactions which mimics the function and physiology of their in vivo tissue counterparts. This is exemplified by organotypic skin cultures which faithfully recapitulates the epidermal differentiation and stratification program. Primary human epidermal keratinocytes are genetically manipulable through retroviruses where genes can be easily overexpressed or knocked down. These genetically modified keratinocytes can then be used to regenerate human epidermis in organotypic skin cultures providing a powerful model to study genetic pathways impacting epidermal growth, differentiation, and disease progression. The protocols presented here describe methods to prepare devitalized human dermis as well as to genetically manipulate primary human keratinocytes in order to generate organotypic skin cultures. Regenerated human skin can be used in downstream applications such as gene expression profiling, immunostaining, and chromatin immunoprecipitations followed by high throughput sequencing. Thus, generation of these genetically modified organotypic skin cultures will allow the determination of genes that are critical for maintaining skin homeostasis.

  16. Differentiation of human labia minora dermis-derived fibroblasts into insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bona; Yoon, Byung Sun; Moon, Jai Hee; Kim, Jonggun; Jun, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Jung Han; Kim, Jun Sung; Baik, Cheong Soon; Kim, Aeree; Whang, Kwang Youn; You, Seungkwon

    2012-01-31

    Recent evidence has suggested that human skin fibroblasts may represent a novel source of therapeutic stem cells. In this study, we report a 3-stage method to induce the differentiation of skin fibroblasts into insulin- producing cells (IPCs). In stage 1, we establish the isolation, expansion and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells from human labia minora dermis- derived fibroblasts (hLMDFs) (stage 1: MSC expansion). hLMDFs express the typical mesenchymal stem cell marker proteins and can differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes or muscle cells. In stage 2, DMEM/F12 serum-free medium with ITS mix (insulin, transferrin, and selenite) is used to induce differentiation of hLMDFs into endoderm-like cells, as determined by the expression of the endoderm markers Sox17, Foxa2, and PDX1 (stage 2: mesenchymal-endoderm transition). In stage 3, cells in the mesenchymal- endoderm transition stage are treated with nicotinamide in order to further differentiate into self-assembled, 3-dimensional islet cell-like clusters that express multiple genes related to pancreatic β-cell development and function (stage 3: IPC). We also found that the transplantation of IPCs can normalize blood glucose levels and rescue glucose homeostasis in streptozotocin- induced diabetic mice. These results indicate that hLMDFs have the capacity to differentiate into functionally competent IPCs and represent a potential cell-based treatment for diabetes mellitus.

  17. Imaging CD4+ T cell interstitial migration in the inflamed dermis

    PubMed Central

    Gaylo, Alison; Overstreet, Michael G.; Fowell, Deborah J.

    2017-01-01

    The ability of CD4+ T cells to carry out effector functions is dependent upon the rapid and efficient migration of these cells in inflamed peripheral tissues through an as-yet undefined mechanism. The application of multiphoton microscopy to the study of the immune system provides a tool to measure the dynamics of immune responses within intact tissues. Here we present a protocol for non-invasive intravital multiphoton imaging of CD4+ T cells in the inflamed mouse ear dermis. Use of a custom imaging platform and a venous catheter allows for the visualization of CD4+ T cell dynamics in the dermal interstitium, with the ability to interrogate these cells in real-time via the addition of blocking antibodies to key molecular components involved in motility. This system provides advantages over both in vitro models and surgically invasive imaging procedures. Understanding the pathways used by CD4+ T cells for motility may ultimately provide insight into the basic function of CD4+ T cells as well as the pathogenesis of both autoimmune diseases and pathology from chronic infections. PMID:27078264

  18. [Structural reorganization of the dermis of dog tibia during its elongation by the method of transosseous distraction osteosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Gorbach, Ye N

    2014-01-01

    Using the methods of light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and morphometry the status of the various components of the dermis was studied in the experiment performed on 16 adult mongrel dogs that had their shank extended by 17% of its original length using the method of transosseous distraction osteosynthesis with a daily rate of 1 mm for 4 steps. During the period of distraction, a reduction in the thickness of the dermis, change of the architectonics of its fibrous component, active collageno- and elastogenesis, cell proliferation, and the expressiveness of heteromorphism of fibroblast and macrophage cell populations were detected. In postdistraction period, all the indices were gradually approaching the norm. The data obtained may serve as criteria for the estimation of the stages of the reparative process developing under the created conditions and should be considered in the development of new technologies aimed at optimizing reparative-regenerative processes during tibial lengthening.

  19. Pesticide Uptake Across the Amphibian Dermis Through Soil and Overspray Exposures.

    PubMed

    Van Meter, Robin J; Glinski, Donna A; Henderson, W Matthew; Garrison, A Wayne; Cyterski, Mike; Purucker, S Thomas

    2015-11-01

    For terrestrial amphibians, accumulation of pesticides through dermal contact is a primary route of exposure in agricultural landscapes and may be contributing to widespread amphibian declines. To show pesticide transfer across the amphibian dermis at permitted label application rates, our study was designed to measure pesticide body burdens after two simulated exposure scenarios. We compared direct exposures, where amphibians were present when spraying occurred, to indirect exposures, where amphibians were exposed to soils after pesticide application. During summer 2012, we reared barking (Hyla gratiosa) and green treefrogs (H. cinerea) through 60-90 days post-metamorphosis at a United States Environmental Protection Agency research laboratory. We tested exposure for 8 h to five pesticide active ingredients (imidacloprid, atrazine, triadimefon, fipronil, or pendimethalin) in glass aquaria lined with soil in the laboratory. We quantified total pesticide body burden and soil concentrations using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All individuals in both treatments had measurable body burdens at the end of the study. A randomized block design analysis of variance (n = 18) showed that body burdens (p = 0.03) and bioconcentration factors (BCFs) (p = 0.01) were significantly greater in the direct overspray treatment relative to the indirect soil spray treatment for both species and tested pesticides. BCFs ranged from 0.1 to 1.16 and from 0.013 to 0.78 in the direct and indirect treatments, respectively. Our study shows dermal uptake for multiple pesticides from both direct spray and indirect soil exposures and provides empirical support for the degree to which terrestrial phase amphibians have higher body burdens after overspray pesticide exposure.

  20. Tissue engineering potential of human dermis-isolated adult stem cells from multiple anatomical locations

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Wendy E.; Vapniarsky, Natalia; Paschos, Nikolaos K.; Arzi, Boaz; Hu, Jerry C.

    2017-01-01

    Abundance and accessibility render skin-derived stem cells an attractive cell source for tissue engineering applications. Toward assessing their utility, the variability of constructs engineered from human dermis-isolated adult stem (hDIAS) cells was examined with respect to different anatomical locations (foreskin, breast, and abdominal skin), both in vitro and in a subcutaneous, athymic mouse model. All anatomical locations yielded hDIAS cells with multi-lineage differentiation potentials, though adipogenesis was not seen for foreskin-derived hDIAS cells. Using engineered cartilage as a model, tissue engineered constructs from hDIAS cells were compared. Construct morphology differed by location. The mechanical properties of human foreskin- and abdominal skin-derived constructs were similar at implantation, remaining comparable after 4 additional weeks of culture in vivo. Breast skin-derived constructs were not mechanically testable. For all groups, no signs of abnormality were observed in the host. Addition of aggregate redifferentiation culture prior to construct formation improved chondrogenic differentiation of foreskin-derived hDIAS cells, as evident by increases in glycosaminoglycan and collagen contents. More robust Alcian blue staining and homogeneous cell populations were also observed compared to controls. Human DIAS cells elicited no adverse host responses, reacted positively to chondrogenic regimens, and possessed multi-lineage differentiation potential with the caveat that efficacy may differ by anatomical origin of the skin. Taken together, these results suggest that hDIAS cells hold promise as a potential cell source for a number of tissue engineering applications. PMID:28767737

  1. Matrix Gla protein is involved in elastic fiber calcification in the dermis of pseudoxanthoma elasticum patients.

    PubMed

    Gheduzzi, Dealba; Boraldi, Federica; Annovi, Giulia; DeVincenzi, Chiara Paolinelli; Schurgers, Leon J; Vermeer, Cees; Quaglino, Daniela; Ronchetti, Ivonne Pasquali

    2007-10-01

    Mature MGP (Matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid protein) is known to inhibit soft connective tissues calcification. We investigated its possible involvement in pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), a genetic disorder whose clinical manifestations are due to mineralization of elastic fibers. PXE patients have lower serum concentration of total MGP compared to controls (P<0.001). Antibodies specific for the noncarboxylated (Glu-MGP) and for the gamma-carboxylated (Gla-MGP) forms of MGP were assayed on ultrathin sections of dermis from controls and PXE patients. Normal elastic fibers in controls and patients were slightly positive for both forms of MGP, whereas Gla-MGP was more abundant within control's than within patient's elastic fibers (P<0.001). In patients' calcified elastic fibers, Glu-MGP intensively colocalized with mineral precipitates, whereas Gla-MGP precisely localized at the mineralization front. Data suggest that MGP is present within elastic fibers and is associated with calcification of dermal elastic fibers in PXE. To investigate whether local cells produce MGP, dermal fibroblasts were cultured in vitro and MGP was assayed at mRNA and protein levels. In spite of very similar MGP mRNA expression, cells from PXE patients produced 30% less of Gla-MGP compared to controls. Data were confirmed by immunocytochemistry on ultrathin sections. Normal fibroblasts in vitro were positive for both forms of MGP. PXE fibroblasts were positive for Glu-MGP and only barely positive for Gla-MGP (P<0.001). In conclusion, MGP is involved in elastic fiber calcification in PXE. The lower ratio of Gla-MGP over Glu-MGP in pathological fibroblasts compared to controls suggests these cells may play an important role in the ectopic calcification in PXE.

  2. Different wound healing properties of dermis, adipose, and gingiva mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Boink, Mireille A; van den Broek, Lenie J; Roffel, Sanne; Nazmi, Kamran; Bolscher, Jan G M; Gefen, Amit; Veerman, Enno C I; Gibbs, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Oral wounds heal faster and with better scar quality than skin wounds. Deep skin wounds where adipose tissue is exposed, have a greater risk of forming hypertrophic scars. Differences in wound healing and final scar quality might be related to differences in mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) and their ability to respond to intrinsic (autocrine) and extrinsic signals, such as human salivary histatin, epidermal growth factor, and transforming growth factor beta1. Dermis-, adipose-, and gingiva-derived MSC were compared for their regenerative potential with regards to proliferation, migration, and matrix contraction. Proliferation was assessed by cell counting and migration using a scratch wound assay. Matrix contraction and alpha smooth muscle actin was assessed in MSC populated collagen gels, and also in skin and gingival full thickness tissue engineered equivalents (reconstructed epithelium on MSC populated matrix). Compared to skin-derived MSC, gingiva MSC showed greater proliferation and migration capacity, and less matrix contraction in full thickness tissue equivalents, which may partly explain the superior oral wound healing. Epidermal keratinocytes were required for enhanced adipose MSC matrix contraction and alpha smooth muscle actin expression, and may therefore contribute to adverse scarring in deep cutaneous wounds. Histatin enhanced migration without influencing proliferation or matrix contraction in all three MSC, indicating that salivary peptides may have a beneficial effect on wound closure in general. Transforming growth factor beta1 enhanced contraction and alpha smooth muscle actin expression in all three MSC types when incorporated into collagen gels. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for the superior oral wound healing will aid us to develop advanced strategies for optimal skin regeneration, wound healing and scar formation.

  3. Measurement of the dielectric properties of the epidermis and dermis at frequencies from 0.5 GHz to 110 GHz.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, K; Wake, K; Watanabe, S

    2014-08-21

    Numerous studies have reported the measurements of the dielectric properties of the skin. Clarifying the manner in which the human body interacts with electromagnetic waves is essential for medical research and development, as well as for the safety assessment of electromagnetic wave exposure. The skin comprises several layers: the epidermis, the dermis, and the subcutaneous fat. Each of these skin layers has a different constitution; however, the previous measurements of their dielectric properties were typically conducted on tissue which included all three layers of the skin. This study presents novel dielectric property data for the epidermis and dermis with in vitro measurement at frequencies ranging from 0.5 GHz to 110 GHz. Measured data was compared with literature values; in particular, the findings were compared with Gabriel's widely used data on skin dielectric properties. The experimental results agreed with the data reported by Gabriel for the dermis of up to 20 GHz, which is the upper limit of the range of frequencies at which Gabriel reported measurements. For frequencies of 20-100 GHz, the experimental results indicated larger values than those extrapolated from Gabriel's data using parametric expansion. For frequencies over 20 GHz, the dielectric properties provided by the parametric model tend toward the experimental results for the epidermis with increasing frequency.

  4. Measurement of the dielectric properties of the epidermis and dermis at frequencies from 0.5 GHz to 110 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, K.; Wake, K.; Watanabe, S.

    2014-08-01

    Numerous studies have reported the measurements of the dielectric properties of the skin. Clarifying the manner in which the human body interacts with electromagnetic waves is essential for medical research and development, as well as for the safety assessment of electromagnetic wave exposure. The skin comprises several layers: the epidermis, the dermis, and the subcutaneous fat. Each of these skin layers has a different constitution; however, the previous measurements of their dielectric properties were typically conducted on tissue which included all three layers of the skin. This study presents novel dielectric property data for the epidermis and dermis with in vitro measurement at frequencies ranging from 0.5 GHz to 110 GHz. Measured data was compared with literature values; in particular, the findings were compared with Gabriel’s widely used data on skin dielectric properties. The experimental results agreed with the data reported by Gabriel for the dermis of up to 20 GHz, which is the upper limit of the range of frequencies at which Gabriel reported measurements. For frequencies of 20-100 GHz, the experimental results indicated larger values than those extrapolated from Gabriel’s data using parametric expansion. For frequencies over 20 GHz, the dielectric properties provided by the parametric model tend toward the experimental results for the epidermis with increasing frequency.

  5. Human and murine dermis contain dendritic cells. Isolation by means of a novel method and phenotypical and functional characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, A; Heine, M; Schuler, G; Romani, N

    1993-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) comprise a system of cells in lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs that are specialized to present antigens and to initiate primary T cell responses. The Langerhans cell of the epidermis is used as a prototype for studies of DC in the skin. We have characterized a population of DC in human dermis, one of the first examples of these cells in nonlymphoid organs other than epidermis. To identify their distinct functions and phenotype, we relied upon the preparation of enriched populations that emigrate from organ explants of dermis. The dermal cells have the following key features of mature DC: (a) sheet-like processes, or veils, that are constantly moving; (b) very high levels of surface MHC products; (c) absence of markers for macrophages, lymphocytes, and endothelium; (d) substantial expression of adhesion/costimulatory molecules such as CD11/CD18, CD54 (ICAM-1), B7/BB1, CD40; and (e) powerful stimulatory function for resting T cells. Dermal DC are fully comparable to epidermis-derived DC, except for the lack of Birbeck granules, lower levels of CD1a, and higher levels of CD36. DC were also detected in explants of mouse dermis. We conclude that cutaneous DC include both epidermal and dermal components, and suggest that other human nonlymphoid tissues may also serve as sources of typical immunostimulatory DC. Images PMID:8254016

  6. Concise Review: Human Dermis as an Autologous Source of Stem Cells for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Vapniarsky, Natalia; Arzi, Boaz; Hu, Jerry C.; Nolta, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    The exciting potential for regenerating organs from autologous stem cells is on the near horizon, and adult dermis stem cells (DSCs) are particularly appealing because of the ease and relative minimal invasiveness of skin collection. A substantial number of reports have described DSCs and their potential for regenerating tissues from mesenchymal, ectodermal, and endodermal lineages; however, the exact niches of these stem cells in various skin types and their antigenic surface makeup are not yet clearly defined. The multilineage potential of DSCs appears to be similar, despite great variability in isolation and in vitro propagation methods. Despite this great potential, only limited amounts of tissues and clinical applications for organ regeneration have been developed from DSCs. This review summarizes the literature on DSCs regarding their niches and the specific markers they express. The concept of the niches and the differentiation capacity of cells residing in them along particular lineages is discussed. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of widely used methods to demonstrate lineage differentiation are considered. In addition, safety considerations and the most recent advancements in the field of tissue engineering and regeneration using DSCs are discussed. This review concludes with thoughts on how to prospectively approach engineering of tissues and organ regeneration using DSCs. Our expectation is that implementation of the major points highlighted in this review will lead to major advancements in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Significance Autologous dermis-derived stem cells are generating great excitement and efforts in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. The substantial impact of this review lies in its critical coverage of the available literature and in providing insight regarding niches, characteristics, and isolation methods of stem cells derived from the human dermis. Furthermore, it

  7. Concise Review: Human Dermis as an Autologous Source of Stem Cells for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Vapniarsky, Natalia; Arzi, Boaz; Hu, Jerry C; Nolta, Jan A; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2015-10-01

    The exciting potential for regenerating organs from autologous stem cells is on the near horizon, and adult dermis stem cells (DSCs) are particularly appealing because of the ease and relative minimal invasiveness of skin collection. A substantial number of reports have described DSCs and their potential for regenerating tissues from mesenchymal, ectodermal, and endodermal lineages; however, the exact niches of these stem cells in various skin types and their antigenic surface makeup are not yet clearly defined. The multilineage potential of DSCs appears to be similar, despite great variability in isolation and in vitro propagation methods. Despite this great potential, only limited amounts of tissues and clinical applications for organ regeneration have been developed from DSCs. This review summarizes the literature on DSCs regarding their niches and the specific markers they express. The concept of the niches and the differentiation capacity of cells residing in them along particular lineages is discussed. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of widely used methods to demonstrate lineage differentiation are considered. In addition, safety considerations and the most recent advancements in the field of tissue engineering and regeneration using DSCs are discussed. This review concludes with thoughts on how to prospectively approach engineering of tissues and organ regeneration using DSCs. Our expectation is that implementation of the major points highlighted in this review will lead to major advancements in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Autologous dermis-derived stem cells are generating great excitement and efforts in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. The substantial impact of this review lies in its critical coverage of the available literature and in providing insight regarding niches, characteristics, and isolation methods of stem cells derived from the human dermis. Furthermore, it provides

  8. Visualizing the neutrophil response to sterile tissue injury in mouse dermis reveals a three-phase cascade of events.

    PubMed

    Ng, Lai Guan; Qin, Jim S; Roediger, Ben; Wang, Yilin; Jain, Rohit; Cavanagh, Lois L; Smith, Adrian L; Jones, Cheryl A; de Veer, Michael; Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Meeusen, Els N; Weninger, Wolfgang

    2011-10-01

    Neutrophil granulocytes traffic into sites of organ injury in which they may not only participate in tissue repair and pathogen clearance but may also contribute to collateral cell damage through the release of noxious mediators. The dynamics and mechanisms of neutrophil migration in the extravascular space toward loci of tissue damage are not well understood. Here, we have used intravital multi-photon microscopy to dissect the behavior of neutrophils in response to tissue injury in the dermis of mice. We found that, following confined physical injury, initially rare scouting neutrophils migrated in a directional manner toward the damage focus. This was followed by the attraction of waves of additional neutrophils, and finally stabilization of the neutrophil cluster around the injury. Although neutrophil migration in the steady state and during the scouting phase depended on pertussis toxin-sensitive signals, the amplification phase was sensitive to interference with the cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose pathway. We finally demonstrated that neutrophil scouts also transit through the non-inflamed dermis, suggesting immunosurveillance function by these cells. Together, our data unravel a three-step cascade of events that mediates the specific accumulation of neutrophils at sites of sterile tissue injury in the interstitial space.

  9. Inhibition of collagen production in scleroderma fibroblast cultures by a connective tissue glycoprotein extracted from normal dermis

    SciTech Connect

    Maquart, F.X.; Bellon, G.; Cornillet-Stoupy, J.; Randoux, A.; Triller, R.; Kalis, B.; Borel, J.P.

    1985-08-01

    It was shown in a previous paper that a connective tissue glycoprotein (CTGP) extracted from normal rabbit dermis was able to inhibit total protein and collagen syntheses by normal dermis fibroblast cultures. In the present study, the effects of CTGP on scleroderma fibroblasts were investigated. (/sup 14/C)Proline incorporation into total proteins of the supernatant was not significantly different from that found in controls. By contrast, the amount of collagen, expressed as percentage of total secreted protein, was far higher in scleroderma cultures than in normal ones (14.4% +/- 6.0% vs 4.6% +/- 0.9%). Addition of CTGP to the medium induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of (/sup 14/C)proline incorporation into proteins from both control and scleroderma cells. In control cultures, no significant decrease of the percentage of collagen was observed, but over 60 micrograms/ml, both cytotoxic effects and inhibition of protein synthesis occurred. In scleroderma cultures, the inhibition was twice as effective on collagen as on noncollagen protein synthesis. The inhibition of collagen secretion was not related either to changes in collagen hydroxylation or to the intracellular catabolism of newly synthesized procollagen.

  10. Human bone marrow harbors cells with neural crest-associated characteristics like human adipose and dermis tissues

    PubMed Central

    Coste, Cécile; Neirinckx, Virginie; Sharma, Anil; Agirman, Gulistan; Rogister, Bernard; Foguenne, Jacques; Lallemend, François

    2017-01-01

    Adult neural crest stem-derived cells (NCSC) are of extraordinary high plasticity and promising candidates for use in regenerative medicine. Several locations such as skin, adipose tissue, dental pulp or bone marrow have been described in rodent, as sources of NCSC. However, very little information is available concerning their correspondence in human tissues, and more precisely for human bone marrow. The main objective of this study was therefore to characterize NCSC from adult human bone marrow. In this purpose, we compared human bone marrow stromal cells to human adipose tissue and dermis, already described for containing NCSC. We performed comparative analyses in terms of gene and protein expression as well as functional characterizations. It appeared that human bone marrow, similarly to adipose tissue and dermis, contains NESTIN+ / SOX9+ / TWIST+ / SLUG+ / P75NTR+ / BRN3A+/ MSI1+/ SNAIL1+ cells and were able to differentiate into melanocytes, Schwann cells and neurons. Moreover, when injected into chicken embryos, all those cells were able to migrate and follow endogenous neural crest migration pathways. Altogether, the phenotypic characterization and migration abilities strongly suggest the presence of neural crest-derived cells in human adult bone marrow. PMID:28683107

  11. Depth-resolved simplified characterization of collagen depletion in dermis with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography applicable to non-laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tougbaev, Vitali; Eom, Tae Joong; Shin, Woojin; Lee, Yeung Lak; Yu, Bong-Ahn; Kee, Chul-Sik; Ko, Do-Kyeong; Lee, Jongmin

    2007-07-01

    A further insight into the prior concept of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography system intended for non-laboratory conditions is brought forward and an experimental proof-of-concept is presented. A phenomenological model is adopted from the theory of light depolarization in crystalline polymers and modified to yield a simplified algorithm for mapping depolarization ratio in dermis. The algorithm could distinguish between dermal layers with depleted collagen content and normal dermis of normal perilesional skin. Dermis is simulated by bireringent lamellae of collagen arranged chaotically in multiple layers parallel to the skin surface. Both the design concept and the model imply the sub-millimeter tumor thickness as a proofed prognostic factor and an important criterion for complementary functional diagnostics of skin cancers at their early phase of vertical growth. Choice of the model is inspired by similarity of structural and optical properties between liquid-crystal collagen fibers in dermis and birefringent crystalline lamellae in polymer materials. The numerical computation based on the model allowing for real characteristics of dermis gives plausible interpreting of depolarization peculiarities caused by collagen depletion. Feasibility is discussed of exploiting fiber optic analogs of achromatic retarders. Fabrication of the fiber retarders is shown to be realistic by making use of the photonics technology possessed by the authors.

  12. Role of XIST/miR-29a/LIN28A pathway in denatured dermis and human skin fibroblasts (HSFs) after thermal injury.

    PubMed

    Guo, Le; Huang, Xu; Liang, Pengfei; Zhang, Pihong; Zhang, Minghua; Ren, Licheng; Zeng, Jizhang; Cui, Xv; Huang, Xiaoyuan

    2017-08-03

    Denatured dermis is a part of the dermis in deep burn wound and has the ability to restore normal morphology and function. In our previous study, we revealed that miR-29a downregulation in denatured dermis may help burn wound healing in the later phase, and further enhance type I collagen synthesis. LIN28A, a highly-conserved RNA binding protein expressed during embryogenesis, plays roles in development, pluripotency, metabolism, as well as tissue repair in adults. In the present study, we investigated the functional roles of LIN28A in human skin fibroblasts (HSFs) and extracellular matrix (ECM), and the interaction between miR-29a and LIN28A. In recent years, long non-coding RNAs have been reported to play a key role in normal development and physiology, as well as in disease development. By using online tools, we screened out several candidate lncRNAs of miR-29a, among which XIST was inversely regulated by miR-29a. XIST, one of the first found cancer-associated lncRNAs, has been frequently reported to play major role in several biological processes. Further, we evaluated the roles and mechanism of XIST in HSF proliferation, migration, and ECM synthesis. Through regulation of miR-29a/LIN28A, XIST knockdown suppressed HSF proliferation, migration, and ECM synthesis. In denatured dermis tissues, XIST, and LIN28A expression was upregulated, miR-29a expression was downregulated. Taken together, promoting XIST expression in denatured dermis, thus to inhibit miR-29a and promote LIN28A expression, further promote HSF proliferation, migration, and ECM synthesis presents a promising strategy for denatured dermis repair. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The role of microscaffold properties in controlling the collagen assembly in 3D dermis equivalent using modular tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Imparato, Giorgia; Urciuolo, Francesco; Casale, Costantino; Netti, Paolo A

    2013-10-01

    The realization of thick and viable tissues equivalents in vitro is one of the mayor challenges in tissue engineering, in particular for their potential use in tissue-on-chip technology. In the present study we succeeded in creating 3D viable dermis equivalent tissue, via a bottom-up method, and proved that the final properties, in terms of collagen assembly and organization of the 3D tissue, are tunable and controllable by micro-scaffold properties and degradation rate. Gelatin porous microscaffolds with controlled stiffness and degradation rate were realized by changing the crosslinking density through different concentrations of glyceraldehyde. Results showed that by modulating the crosslinking density of the gelatin microscaffolds it is possible to guide the process of collagen deposition and assembly within the extracellular space and match the processes of scaffold degradation, cell traction and tissue maturation to obtain firmer collagen network able to withstand the effect of contraction. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. What Lies Beneath: Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling and Cell Fate in the Lower Dermis.

    PubMed

    Jahoda, Colin A B; Gilmore, Adam C

    2016-06-01

    Dermal cell populations are markedly heterogeneous, and they have the capacity to differentiate into dynamic and complex dermal cell compartments. However, the regulatory processes that govern the establishment of each dermal subset remain unknown. Mastrogiannaki et al. provide evidence of Wnt/β-catenin signaling controlling adipogenic differentiation in the developing reticular dermis. They also show that overexpression of localized Wnt converts dermal adipose cells into a distinct fibroblast subtype, which leads to fibrosis and disrupted hair follicle cycling. These findings highlight the multifaceted roles of Wnt signaling in the normal development and pathology of skin, including the establishment of dermal identity. Further understanding of Wnt involvement and uncovering the roles of specific Wnt ligands could be useful for discovering new therapeutic targets in treating fibrosis-related disorders.

  15. Effects of endogenous cysteine proteinases on structures of collagen fibres from dermis of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Xin; Zhou, Da-Yong; Ma, Dong-Dong; Liu, Zi-Qiang; Liu, Yan-Fei; Song, Liang; Dong, Xiu-Ping; Li, Dong-Mei; Zhu, Bei-Wei; Konno, Kunihiko; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2017-10-01

    Autolysis of sea cucumber, caused by endogenous enzymes, leads to postharvest quality deterioration of sea cucumber. However, the effects of endogenous proteinases on structures of collagen fibres, the major biologically relevant substrates in the body wall of sea cucumber, are less clear. Collagen fibres were prepared from the dermis of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus), and the structural consequences of degradation of the collagen fibres caused by endogenous cysteine proteinases (ECP) from Stichopus japonicus were examined. Scanning electron microscopic images showed that ECP caused partial disaggregation of collagen fibres into collagen fibrils by disrupting interfibrillar proteoglycan bridges. Differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared analysis revealed increased structural disorder of fibrillar collagen caused by ECP. SDS-PAGE and chemical analysis indicated that ECP can liberate glycosaminoglycan, hydroxyproline and collagen fragments from collagen fibres. Thus ECP can cause disintegration of collagen fibres by degrading interfibrillar proteoglycan bridges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dermal substitutes do well on dura: comparison of split skin grafting+/-artificial dermis for reconstruction of full-thickness calvarial defects.

    PubMed

    Wain, R A J; Shah, S H A; Senarath-Yapa, K; Laitung, J K G

    2010-12-01

    Large, full-thickness calvarial defects present a series of significant reconstructive challenges involving a range of techniques, including local and free flaps. Occasionally these conventional methods may not be possible due to technical, or patient, factors. Artificial dermis is already widely used in burns surgery and is increasing in oncological reconstruction. We believe that artificial dermis coupled with split-thickness skin grafting provides an excellent option for closure of these defects when other techniques are not appropriate. Copyright © 2010 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Transplantation of acellular dermis and keratinocytes cultured on porous biodegradable microcarriers into full-thickness skin injuries on athymic rats.

    PubMed

    Seland, Håvard; Gustafson, Carl-Johan; Johnson, Hans; Junker, Johan P E; Kratz, Gunnar

    2011-02-01

    In search of an optimal transplantation regime for sufficient dermal and epidermal regeneration after a full-thickness skin injury, wounds on athymic rats were grafted with split-thickness skin grafts or acellular human dermis followed by transplantation with human keratinocytes either in single-cell suspension or cultured on porous biodegradable microcarriers. After 2 weeks, all wounds grafted with acellular human dermis showed a well organised and vascularised dermal component and reepithelialisation on the grafted dermal matrix was complete 21 days after transplantation with human keratinocytes. Wounds grafted with human keratinocytes seeded on biodegradable microcarriers or split-thickness skin grafts displayed over time (i.e. 16-21 days post-transplantation) a significantly thicker epithelial cell layer in comparison to wounds grafted with keratinocytes in single-cell suspensions or microcarriers not seeded with cells. Furthermore, measurements of dermal thickness in the closed wounds 21 days after grafting showed a significantly thicker and well organised neodermal component in wounds transplanted with keratinocytes seeded on microcarriers or split-thickness skin grafts compared to all other wounds. Positive immunostaining towards von Willebrand factor revealed the plausible proangiogenic effects of transplantation with keratinocytes seeded on microcarriers. Analysis of representative tissue sections after fluorescence in situ hybridisation visualised that grafted human keratinocytes were present in the epidermal layers covering the wounds 16 and 21 days after transplantation, strongly indicating preservation of cell viability. These results shows that the use of biodegradable microcarriers in the culture of autologous keratinocytes for treatment of full-thickness wounds not only facilitate the cultivation, transportation and transplantation processes but also enhances the dermal regeneration induced by a dermal scaffold which results in a clinical result

  18. Review of AlloDerm Acellular Human Dermis Regenerative Tissue Matrix in Multiple Types of Oculofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

    PubMed

    Bee, Youn-Shen; Alonzo, Brock; Ng, John D

    2015-01-01

    AlloDerm acellular human dermis is used for repair or replacement of damaged or inadequate skin tissue. It has been used successfully in multiple types of surgeries, including abdominal wall reconstruction, breast reconstruction, and head and neck reconstruction. Its application to ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery is less well described. This study seeks to evaluate the efficacy and factors influencing surgical outcomes using Alloderm in multiple types of oculofacial plastic surgery. Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective review of 84 patients who underwent surgical procedures using Alloderm. Preoperative demographic data, comorbidities, smoking, clinical etiology, surgical methods, Alloderm type, and outcome (cosmetic and functional) were evaluated. This study included 84 patients, accounting for a total of 98 procedures. Mean age was 52.5 years (3-93 years). Etiologies necessitating surgery included malignancy in 26 patients (31.0%), trauma in 19 patients (22.6%), congenital lesions in 15 patients (17.9%), and senile change in 11 patients (13.1%). Surgical procedures included lower eyelid posterior lamella elongation, socket and fornix reconstruction, scar repair, patch grafts, and filler. Mean duration of follow up was 530 days. Overall, 92.8% of patients had favorable outcomes. Factors associated with significantly worse outcomes included smoking, congenital anomaly etiologies, and previous graft/flaps in the same area (p = 0.03, p = 0.029, and p = 0.007, respectively). This study suggests that Alloderm acellular human dermis can be used safely and effectively in multiple types of oculofacial procedures. Smoking, congenital anomaly etiologies, and previous graft/flap were associated with poor cosmetic and functional outcomes.

  19. HIV-Associated Facial Lipodystrophy: Experience of a Tertiary Referral Center With Fat and Dermis-Fat Compound Graft Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Casal, Diogo; Bexiga, Joaquim; Sousa, Juliana; Martins, João; Teófilo, Eugénio; Maltez, Fernando; Germano, Isabel; Videira e Castro, José

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: HIV-associated lipodystrophy is a common comorbidity in HIV-infected patients, having a profound impact on every aspect of patients’ lives, particularly when involving the face. Hence, it is of the utmost importance to evaluate the result of any potential therapies that may help solve HIV-associated facial lipodystrophy. The aim of this article was to evaluate the outcome of patients undergoing facial lipodystrophy correction surgery within our institution. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the clinical charts and iconographic information of patients regarding demographics, morphologic changes, surgical option, postoperative complications, results, and patient satisfaction assessed by a 1- to 10-point scale and by the Assessment of Body Change and Distress questionnaire. Results: Twenty-three patients were operated on from March 2011 to April 2015. Seventy-five percent of cases were treated with fat graft injection, whereas dermis-fat grafts were applied in 25% of patients. The former had their fat harvested more commonly from the abdomen, whereas in the latter case, the graft was harvested mostly from the inner aspect of arms. The mean volume of fat injected on each side of the face was 28.5 ± 22.7 mL. On a scale from 1 to 10, mean patient satisfaction was 7.7 ± 2.8. The Assessment of Body Change and Distress questionnaire revealed statistically significant improvements. Complications occurred in 25% of cases, the most frequent being significant reabsorption. No major complications occurred. Conclusions: Treatment of HIV-associated facial lipodystrophy with autologous fat or dermis-fat compound graft is a safe procedure with long-lasting results and unquestionable aesthetic and social benefits. PMID:28123628

  20. In vivo quantification of epidermis pigmentation and dermis papilla density with reflectance confocal microscopy: variations with age and skin phototype.

    PubMed

    Lagarrigue, Sophie Garrido; George, Jerome; Questel, Emmanuel; Lauze, Christophe; Meyer, Nicolas; Lagarde, Jean-Michel; Simon, Michel; Schmitt, Anne-Marie; Serre, Guy; Paul, Carle

    2012-04-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) may help to quantify variations of skin pigmentation induced by different stimuli such as UV radiation or therapeutic intervention. The objective of our work was to identify RCM parameters able to quantify in vivo dermis papilla density and epidermis pigmentation potentially applicable in clinical studies. The study included 111 healthy female volunteers with phototypes I-VI. Photo-exposed and photo-protected anatomical sites were imaged. The effect of age was also assessed. Four epidermis components were specifically investigated: stratum corneum, stratum spinosum, basal epidermal layer and dermo-epidermal junction. Laser power, diameter of corneocytes and upper spinous keratinocytes, brightness of upper spinous and interpapillary spinous keratinocytes, number of dermal papillae and papillary contrast were systematically assessed. Papillary contrast measured at the dermo-epidermal junction appeared to be a reliable marker of epidermis pigmentation and showed a strong correlation with skin pigmentation assessed clinically using the Fitzpatrick's classification. Brightness of upper spinous and interpapillary spinous keratinocytes was not influenced by the skin phototype. The number of dermal papillae was significantly lower in subjects with phototypes I-II as compared with darker skin subjects. A dramatic reduction in the number of dermal papillae was noticed with age, particularly in subjects with fair skin. The method presented here provides a new in vivo investigation tool for quantification of dermis papilla density and epidermal pigmentation. Papillary contrast measured at the dermo-epidermal junction may be selected as a marker of skin pigmentation for evaluation in clinical studies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Random control trial of dermis-fat graft and interposition of temporalis fascia in the management of temporomandibular ankylosis in children.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, D; Pradhan, R; Mohammad, S; Jaiswara, C

    2008-10-01

    Temporomandibular ankylosis is a disabling condition that affects hygiene and cosmetic appearance. Several interpositional grafts such as meniscus, muscle, fascia, skin, cartilage, fat, dura, alloplastic materials and xenografts have been used to prevent recurrence of ankylosis. We studied the advantages and disadvantages of dermis fat graft as an interposition material after arthroplasty and compared it with temporalis fascia interposition. Seventeen patients with temporomandibular ankylosis involving 20 joints were randomly divided into two groups; the first group had operations for interposition of dermis-fat graft that was taken from the groin. Patients in control group had operations to interpose temporalis fascia and muscle from the same surgical site. All were assessed by age, sex, etiology, clinical features and post surgical complications. The groups were matched in age and the male: female ratio was 0.89:1.The median duration of ankylosis was 7.3 (range 2-11) years. Postoperative and follow up interincisal mouth opening was satisfactory with good healing of the dermis-fat graft donor site. We conclude that the use of dermis fat grafts has minimal donor site morbidity, and is a safe and effective interposition material to prevent the recurrence of temporomandibular ankylosis.

  2. Combined use of fenestrated-type artificial dermis and topical negative pressure wound therapy for the venous leg ulcer of a rheumatoid arthritis patient.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Naoki; Kuro, Atsuyuki; Yamauchi, Takashi; Horiuchi, Ai; Kakudo, Natsuko; Sakamoto, Michiharu; Suzuki, Kenji; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of circumferential venous leg ulcer in a rheumatoid arthritis patient. Mesh skin grafting was performed in another hospital, but the graft failed and the patient was referred to our hospital. This ulcer was treated by the combination therapy of a fenestrated-type artificial dermis with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) and secondary mesh grafting using our 'grip tape technique'. NPWT was started at -100 mmHg and continued until the formation of dermis-like tissue. A section stained using haematoxylin and eosin and an anti-αSMA (α smooth muscle actin) immunohistological section of the biopsy from dermis-like tissue showed an abundant infiltration of fibroblasts and capillary formation beneath the fenestration of the silicone sheet. Threefold mesh skin grafting was subsequently performed and it was taken up completely. The fenestrated-type artificial dermis in combination with NPWT produced good results without infection in the treatment of complex wounds. In addition, our 'grip tape technique' was useful to apply polyurethane foam to the entire surface of the lower leg.

  3. Mantle cell lymphoma with skin invasion characterized by the common variant in the subcutis and blastoid transformation in the overlying dermis.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Masafumi; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Kudo, Saori; Chen, Ko-Ron

    2010-04-01

    We report a case of common mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) with subcutis infiltration and transformation to blastoid MCL in the overlying dermis. The patient was initially diagnosed as having chronic lymphocytic leukemia and treated with chemotherapy. Eight months after the diagnosis of MCL with bone marrow involvement, subcutaneous nodules developed on the patient's left thigh and forearm. A skin biopsy showed a massive infiltration of neoplastic lymphocytes throughout the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. In the upper dermis, there was a perivascular mixed infiltrate of atypical large lymphoid cells and small-sized cells. In the mid to lower dermis, the infiltrate was dense with a nodular growth pattern and was composed of atypical large lymphoblast-like cells with large nuclei, dispersed chromatin, and numerous mitoses. In the subcutaneous tissue, there was a diffuse infiltration of neoplastic cells with common MCL cytologic features characterized by small- to medium-sized lymphoid cells. Cells in the common and blastoid variants of MCL were immunohistochemically positive for CD20 and cyclin D1 but negative for CD5. Neoplastic lymphocytes from the patient's bone marrow had the typical morphologic features and the immunophenotype of MCL (ie, CD5, CD20, cyclin D1, CD10, and CD23). Other case reports in the medical literature indicate that an MCL with skin invasion tends to have a poor prognosis. Our patient died 3 months after the appearance of skin invasion.

  4. Examination of toxicity and collagen linearity after the administration of the protein cross-linker genipin in equine tendon and dermis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bellefeuille, M; Peters, D F; Nolin, M; Slusarewicz, P; Telgenhoff, D

    2017-05-01

    Collagen cross-linking is an attractive therapeutic route aimed at supplementing natural collagen stabilisation. In this study the toxicity of the cross-linker genipin (GP) was examined in avascular (tendon) and vascular (dermis) tissue. High doses of GP were injected intratendinously into three yearling horses and evaluated at various time points up to 30 days. A second group of three yearlings were injected into the dermis and evaluated at various time points up to 1 year. Metrics used included lameness, circumferential swelling, ultrasound evaluation, microscopic morphology, collagen production and systemic effect on blood parameters. The tendon injection sites exhibited mild lameness and swelling with no apparent systemic toxicity or stabilisation defects. Treated tendons exhibited increased linear collagen microscopically. Dermal injections showed similar results, with mild swelling at the injection site. Microscopic morphology resulted in a decrease in dermal collagen at 30 days post-injection. Dermis injected at the high dose of 355 mmol/L examined 1 year post-treatment appeared similar to the untreated biopsies; however, there was an increase in mature collagen. GP injection appeared to be well tolerated, with transient lameness and mild circumferential swelling when injected into the tendon and local tissue swelling when injected into the dermis. No systemic hypersensitivities or toxicities were observed. Microscopically, GP resulted in increased linear collagen in tendons at 30 days post-injection and overall increased collagen in dermal tissue when evaluated 1 year post-injection. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  5. Proliferating cells in psoriatic dermis are comprised primarily of T cells, endothelial cells, and factor XIIIa+ perivascular dendritic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Morganroth, G.S.; Chan, L.S.; Weinstein, G.D.; Voorhees, J.J.; Cooper, K.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Determination of the cell types proliferating in the dermis of patients with psoriasis should identify those cells experiencing activation or responding to growth factors in the psoriatic dermal milieu. Toward that end, sections of formalin-fixed biopsies obtained from 3H-deoxyuridine (3H-dU)-injected skin of eight psoriatic patients were immunostained, followed by autoradiography. Proliferating dermal cells exhibit silver grains from tritium emissions. The identity of the proliferating cells could then be determined by simultaneous visualization with antibodies specific for various cell types. UCHL1+ (CD45RO+) T cells (recall antigen-reactive helper T-cell subset) constituted 36.6 +/- 3.1% (mean +/- SEM, n = 6) of the proliferating dermal cells in involved skin, whereas Leu 18+ (CD45RA+) T cells (recall antigen naive T-cell subsets) comprised only 8.7 +/- 1.5% (n = 6). The Factor XIIIa+ dermal perivascular dendritic cell subset (24.9 +/- 1.5% of proliferating dermal cells, n = 6) and Factor VIII+ endothelial cells represented the two other major proliferating populations in lesional psoriatic dermis. Differentiated tissue macrophages, identified by phase microscopy as melanophages or by immunostaining with antibodies to Leu M1 (CD15) or myeloid histiocyte antigen, comprised less than 5% of the proliferating population in either skin type. In addition to calculating the relative proportions of these cells to each other as percent, we also determined the density of cells, in cells/mm2 of tissue. The density of proliferating cells within these populations was increased in involved versus uninvolved skin: UCHL1+, 9.0 +/- 1.7 cells/mm2 versus 1.8 +/- 0.6 cells/mm2, p less than 0.01; Factor XIIIa+, 6.0 +/- 0.7 cells/mm2 versus 1.5 +/- 0.5 cells/mm2, p less than 0.01; Factor VIII+, 5.5 +/- 1.4 cells/mm2 versus 0.0 cells/mm2, p less than 0.05.

  6. Regeneration of mature dermis by transplanted particulate acellular dermal matrix in a rat model of skin defect wound.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Haibin; Peng, Daizhi; Zheng, Bixiang; Liu, Xiaoling; Wang, Yong; Wang, Lihua; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Jing

    2012-12-01

    Native mammalian extracellular matrix (ECM) has been made in various forms including particles, sheet and mesh which are appropriate for site-specific applications. The ECM particles are usually created by homogenization method and have a wider size distribution. This needs to be improved to produce more uniform ECM particles. In present study, we had successfully developed a method for preparing particulate acellular dermal matrix (PADM) in different gauges. The resultant PADM was approaching a rectangular parallelepiped or cubic shape, with a better or narrower size distribution than other ECM particles in previous reports. It also retained ultrastructure and functional molecules of native ECM. In vivo performances were evaluated after implantation of PADM in an acute full-thickness skin defect wound in rats. Histological analysis showed that allogeneic PADM used as dermal regeneration template could facilitate maturation and improving collagen bundle structure of regenerated dermis at the endpoint of 20 weeks post-surgery. The PADM could be used for further investigation in analyzing the impacts of cellularly and/or molecularly modified PADM on soft tissue regeneration.

  7. Histological study of cell migration in the dermis of hamsters after immunisation with two different vaccines against visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Nádia das Dores; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Vitoriano-Souza, Juliana; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2009-04-15

    Vaccine candidates, including live and/or killed parasites, Leishmania-purified fractions, defined recombinant antigens and antigen-encoding DNA-plasmids have been proposed to use as vaccine anti-Leishmania. More recently, the hamsters have been used to pre-selection of antigens candidate to apply in further experiments using canine model. In this report we evaluated the kinetics of cell migration in dermal inflammatory infiltrate, circulating leukocytes and the presence of nitric oxide (NO)/induced nitric oxide synthase during the early (1-24h) and late (48-168h) periods following inoculation of hamsters with antigenic components of anti-canine visceral leishmaniasis vaccines Leishmune and Leishmania braziliensis antigen (LB) with and without saponin (Sap) adjuvant. Our results show that LB caused an early reduction of lymphocytes in the dermis while Sap and LBSap triggered a late recruitment, suggesting the role of the adjuvant in the traffic of antigen-presenting cells and the induction of lymphocyte migration. In that manner our results suggest that the kinetics of cell migration on hamster model may be of value in the selection of vaccine antigens prior the tests in dogs particularly in respect of the toxicity of the preparations.

  8. Evaluation of wound healing effect on skin-defect nude mice by using human dermis-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Perng, C-K; Ku, H-H; Chiou, S-H; Chen, I-L; Tsai, F-T; Yang, Y-P; Chang, K Y; Kao, C-L

    2006-11-01

    We report that human dermis-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hDMSCs) possess differentiation potential of epidermis facilitating wound healing in skin-defect nude mice in combination with the treatment using gelatin/thermosensitive poly N-isopropylacrylamide (pNIPAAm)/polypropylene (PP). The results showed that the rate of cell growth and wound recovery in the hDMSC and gelatin/pNIPAAm/PP-treated group was significantly greater than those in the gelatin/pNIPAAm/PP-treated only group (P < .01). The reepithelialization marker of human pan-cytokeratin was also significantly increased on days 14 and day 21 in the wound site of hDMSCs and gelatin/pNIPAAm/PP-treated group. Furthermore, the stem cell marker of human CD13 gradually decreased during the period of wound healing. In sum, this novel method provided a transferring system for stem cell therapy, maintaining its temperature-sensitive property of easy peeling by lower temperature treatment.

  9. TAT-Mediated Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor Delivery to the Dermis Improves Wound Healing of Deep Skin Tissue in Rat.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Long; Hui, Qi; Tang, Lu; Zheng, Lulu; Jin, Zi; Yu, Bingjie; Wang, Zhitao; Lin, Peng; Yu, Weidan; Li, Haiyan; Li, Xiaokun; Wang, Xiaojie

    2015-01-01

    The definition of deep tissue injury was derived from multiple clinical cases as "A purple or maroon localized area of discolored intact skin or blood-filled blister due to damage of underlying soft tissue from pressure and/or shear". Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) significantly improves wound healing under diabetic conditions. However, to date, the therapeutic application of aFGF has been limited, due to its low delivery efficiency and short half-life. Using an animal model of magnet-induced pressure ulcers, transactivator of transcription protein (TAT)-aFGF was evaluated for transdermal delivery and wound healing. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were also performed to determine the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), CD68, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and TGF-β-receptor II (TGF- βRII) in cultured human dermal fibroblasts. We found that that mice treated with TAT-aFGF had higher accumulation of aFGF in both dermis and subcutaneous tissues compared with mice treated with aFGF alone. In the remodeling phase, TAT-aFGF treatment decreased the expression of α-SMA to normal levels, thereby facilitating normal wound healing processes and abrogating hypertrophic scarring. In human dermal fibroblasts, TAT-aFGF reversed the suppressive effect of TNF-α on α-SMA expression and restored TGF-βRII and TGF-β1 expression. Our results demonstrate that TAT-aFGF has a favorable therapeutic effect on the healing of subcutaneous deep tissue injury.

  10. Epidermis–dermis junction as a novel location for bone marrow-derived cells to reside in response to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Okano, Junko; Kojima, Hideto; Katagi, Miwako; Nakae, Yuki; Terashima, Tomoya; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Kurakane, Takeshi; Okamoto, Naoki; Morohashi, Keita; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Udagawa, Jun

    2015-06-12

    Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) can migrate into the various organs in the mice irradiated by ionizing radiation (IR). However, it may not be the case in the skin. While IR is used for bone marrow (BM) transplantation, studying with the epidermal sheets demonstrated that the BMDC recruitment is extraordinarily rare in epidermis in the mouse. Herein, using the chimera mice with BM from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice, we simply examined if BMDCs migrate into any layers in the total skin, as opposed to the epidermal sheets, in response to IR. Interestingly, we identified the presence of GFP-positive (GFP{sup +}) cells in the epidermis-dermis junction in the total skin sections although the epidermal cell sheets failed to have any GFP cells. To examine a possibility that the cells in the junction could be mechanically dissociated during separating epidermal sheets, we then salvaged such dissociated cells and examined its characteristics. Surprisingly, some GFP{sup +} cells were found in the salvaged cells, indicating that these cells could be derived from BM. In addition, such BMDCs were also associated with inflammation in the junction. In conclusion, BMDCs can migrate to and reside in the epidermis-dermis junction after IR. - Highlights: • Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) migrate in the epidermis due to ionizing radiation (IR). • BMDCs dissociate from the epidermis-dermis junction in preparing epidermal sheets. • The doses of IR determine the location and the number of migrating BMDCs in the skin.

  11. Bioimaging assessment and effect of skin wound healing using bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells with the artificial dermis in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hirokazu; Murakami, Takashi; Ajiki, Takashi; Hara, Mayumi; Hoshino, Yuichi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between the fate and healing effect of transplanted mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in a rat diabetic skin wound model. Rats are treated with streptozotocin to induce diabetic conditions. A full-thickness skin defect is surgically made on the head of diabetic rats, and covered with an artificial dermis impregnated with either bone marrow cells (BMCs) or bone-marrow-derived MSCs from firefly luciferase (luc) transgenic (Tg) rats. Wound healing is evaluated using planimetry and immunohistochemistry, and the fate of transplanted MSCs is determined using in-vivo luminescent imaging. The diabetic wound treated with MSCs-impregnated artificial dermis is significantly smaller than that treated with artificial dermis alone at 1 week postoperation. Photons of luc+ MSCs are detected at the transplanted site during healing (3 weeks), whereas those of luc+ MSCs are depleted only after 1 week postimplantation. Immunohistochemistry at the healing site treated with MSCs demonstrates that CD31+ vessels increase with expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, suggesting that MSCs accelerate angiogenesis. These findings suggest that transplanted MSCs could be retained at wound sites during the healing process in a diabetic rat model, and subsequently promote wound healing through angiogenesis.

  12. Multi-Center Pilot Study to Evaluate the Safety Pro le of High Energy Fractionated Radiofrequency With Insulated Microneedles to Multiple Levels of the Dermis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel L; Weiner, Steven F; Pozner, Jason N; Ibrahimi, Omar A; Vasily, David B; Ross, E Victor; Gabriel, Zena

    2016-11-01

    In this multi-center pilot study, the safety pro le of high intensity focused radiofrequency (RF) delivered to the dermis was evaluated for safety in the treatment of the aging neck and face. A newly designed insulated microneedle system delivers a signi cant coagulative thermal injury into the dermis while sparing the epidermis from RF injury. Thirty- ve healthy subjects from seven aesthetic practices were evaluated, and data from each were incorporated in this case report. The subjects received a single treatment using settings that delivered the highest RF energies suggested from the new recommended protocols. The depth of thermal delivery was adjusted before each pass and all subjects received a minimum of two to three passes to the treated areas. Before and after photographs along with adverse effects were recorded. This case report demonstrates the ability to deliver significant RF thermal injury to several layers of the dermis with insulated microneedles safely with little injury to the epidermis and minimum downtime. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(11):1308-1312..

  13. Extensive Characterization and Comparison of Endothelial Cells Derived from Dermis and Adipose Tissue: Potential Use in Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Monsuur, Hanneke N; Weijers, Ester M; Niessen, Frank B; Gefen, Amit; Koolwijk, Pieter; Gibbs, Susan; van den Broek, Lenie J

    2016-01-01

    Tissue-engineered constructs need to become quickly vascularized in order to ensure graft take. One way of achieving this is to incorporate endothelial cells (EC) into the construct. The adipose tissue stromal vascular fraction (adipose-SVF) might provide an alternative source for endothelial cells as adipose tissue can easily be obtained by liposuction. Since adipose-EC are now gaining more interest in tissue engineering, we aimed to extensively characterize endothelial cells from adipose tissue (adipose-EC) and compare them with endothelial cells from dermis (dermal-EC). The amount of endothelial cells before purification varied between 4-16% of the total stromal population. After MACS selection for CD31 positive cells, a >99% pure population of endothelial cells was obtained within two weeks of culture. Adipose- and dermal-EC expressed the typical endothelial markers PECAM-1, ICAM-1, Endoglin, VE-cadherin and VEGFR2 to a similar extent, with 80-99% of the cell population staining positive. With the exception of CXCR4, which was expressed on 29% of endothelial cells, all other chemokine receptors (CXCR1, 2, 3, and CCR2) were expressed on less than 5% of the endothelial cell populations. Adipose-EC proliferated similar to dermal-EC, but responded less to the mitogens bFGF and VEGF. A similar migration rate was found for both adipose-EC and dermal-EC in response to bFGF. Sprouting of adipose-EC and dermal-EC was induced by bFGF and VEGF in a 3D fibrin matrix. After stimulation of adipose-EC and dermal-EC with TNF-α an increased secretion was seen for PDGF-BB, but not uPA, PAI-1 or Angiopoietin-2. Furthermore, secretion of cytokines and chemokines (IL-6, CCL2, CCL5, CCL20, CXCL1, CXCL8 and CXCL10) was also upregulated by both adipose- and dermal-EC. The similar characteristics of adipose-EC compared to their dermal-derived counterpart make them particularly interesting for skin tissue engineering. In conclusion, we show here that adipose tissue provides for an

  14. Effect on the tensile strength of human acellular dermis (Epiflex®) of in-vitro incubation simulating an open abdomen setting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of human acellular dermis (hAD) to close open abdomen in the treatment process of severe peritonitis might be an alternative to standard care. This paper describes an investigation of the effects of fluids simulating an open abdomen environment on the biomechanical properties of Epiflex® a cell-free human dermis transplant. Methods hAD was incubated in Ringers solution, blood, urine, upper gastrointestinal (upper GI) secretion and a peritonitis-like bacterial solution in-vitro for 3 weeks. At day 0, 7, 14 and 21 breaking strength was measured, tensile strength was calculated and standard fluorescence microscopy was performed. Results hAD incubated in all five of the five fluids showed a decrease in mean breaking strength at day 21 when compared to day 0. However, upper GI secretion was the only incubation fluid that significantly reduced the mechanical strength of Epiflex after 21days of incubation when compared to incubation in Ringer’s solution. Conclusion hAD may be a suitable material for closure of the open abdomen in the absence of upper GI leakage and pancreatic fistulae. PMID:24468201

  15. Epidermis-dermis junction as a novel location for bone marrow-derived cells to reside in response to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Okano, Junko; Kojima, Hideto; Katagi, Miwako; Nakae, Yuki; Terashima, Tomoya; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Kurakane, Takeshi; Okamoto, Naoki; Morohashi, Keita; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Udagawa, Jun

    2015-06-12

    Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) can migrate into the various organs in the mice irradiated by ionizing radiation (IR). However, it may not be the case in the skin. While IR is used for bone marrow (BM) transplantation, studying with the epidermal sheets demonstrated that the BMDC recruitment is extraordinarily rare in epidermis in the mouse. Herein, using the chimera mice with BM from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice, we simply examined if BMDCs migrate into any layers in the total skin, as opposed to the epidermal sheets, in response to IR. Interestingly, we identified the presence of GFP-positive (GFP(+)) cells in the epidermis-dermis junction in the total skin sections although the epidermal cell sheets failed to have any GFP cells. To examine a possibility that the cells in the junction could be mechanically dissociated during separating epidermal sheets, we then salvaged such dissociated cells and examined its characteristics. Surprisingly, some GFP(+) cells were found in the salvaged cells, indicating that these cells could be derived from BM. In addition, such BMDCs were also associated with inflammation in the junction. In conclusion, BMDCs can migrate to and reside in the epidermis-dermis junction after IR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Effectiveness of scar split thickness skin graft combined with acellular allogeneic dermis in treatment of large deep II degree burn scar].

    PubMed

    Cui, Zelong; Yang, Xiaohui; Shou, Jiabao; Wang, Guangyi

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of using scar split thickness skin grafts combined with acellular allogeneic dermis in the treatment of large deep II degree burn scar. Between January 2013 and December 2013, 20 cases of large deep II degree burn scar undergoing plastic operation were enrolled. There were 14 males and 6 females, aged 4 to 60 years (mean, 40 years). Burn reasons included hydrothermal burns in 10 cases, flame burns in 9 cases, and lime burns in 1 case. The burn area accounted for 70% to 96% total body surface area (TBSA) with an average of 79% TBSA. The time from wound healing to scar repair was 3 months to 2 years (mean, 7 months). Based on self-control, 0.7 mm scar split thickness skin graft was used to repair the wound at the right side of joints after scar resection (control group, n=35), 0.5 mm scar split thickness skin graft combined with acellular allogeneic dermis at the left side of joints (trial group, n=30). Difference was not statistically significant in the scar sites between 2 groups (Z=-1.152, P=0.249). After grafting, negative pressure drainage was given for 10 days; plaster was used for immobilization till wound healing; and all patients underwent regular rehabilitation exercises. No significant difference was found in wound healing, infection, and healing time between 2 groups (P > 0.05). All patients were followed up for 6 months. According to the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS), the score was 5.23 ± 1.41 in trial group and was 10.17 ± 2.26 in control group, showing significant difference (t=8.925, P=0.000). Referring to Activities of Daily Living (ADL) grading standards to assess joint function, the results were excellent in 8 cases, good in 20 cases, fair in 1 case, and poor in 1 case in trial group; the results were excellent in 3 cases, good in 5 cases, fair in 22 cases, and poor in 5 cases in control group; and difference was statistically significant (Z=-4.894, P=0.000). A combination of scar split thickness skin

  17. The use of the artificial dermis (Integra) in combination with vacuum assisted closure for reconstruction of an extensive burn scar--a case report.

    PubMed

    Leffler, M; Horch, R E; Dragu, A; Bach, A D

    2010-01-01

    The artificial dermis Integra (Ethicon, Johnson & Johnson Medical, Norderstedt, Germany) is widely used in the treatment of excessive burn injuries. It is also used in reconstructive surgery when large soft-tissue defects could not be covered with local or free flaps. In this article a 25-year old patient who presented with an early childhood burn of the trunk and lower extremity was treated with Integra in combination with the vacuum assisted closure (V.A.C., KCI, Texas, U.S.A.) and split thickness skin grafting. The combination of the artificial dermal substitute with negative pressure therapy has lead to a complete healing of Integra and the skin graft. During the whole treatment sterile wound conditions were present and time-consuming dressing changes could be prevented. Hospital stay was shortened because the patient could be treated as an outpatient with an ambulant vacuum assisted closure device.

  18. Paget disease of the breast with invasion from nipple skin into the dermis: an unusual type of skin invasion not associated with an adverse outcome.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Mary Ann; Dominici, Laura; Denison, Christine; Golshan, Mehra; Wiecorek, Tad; Lester, Susan C

    2013-01-01

    Paget disease is an uncommon skin manifestation of breast cancer, associated with either invasive carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ in the underlying breast. In very rare cases, tumor cells within the epidermis invade through the basement membrane of the skin into the dermis. To identify a series of cases of Paget disease with direct dermal invasion and to investigate the clinicopathologic features and outcome. Cases were identified during a 6-year period from the files of 2 hospitals. The clinical histories, imaging studies, and pathology reports were reviewed. Seven patients were identified, 5 with microinvasion (<0.1 cm) and 2 with 0.2- or 0.3-cm invasive carcinomas in the dermis. No lymphovascular invasion was seen. Sentinel nodes were negative in 3 patients who underwent biopsy. Five patients were treated with breast conservation with radiation. Three patients were at high risk for breast cancer because of prior breast cancer, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, or radiation for Hodgkin disease. The latter 2 patients underwent bilateral mastectomies. Three patients received hormonal therapy and 1 oophorectomy. No patient received chemotherapy. At follow-ups ranging from 4 to 66 months (median, 20 months), there have been no recurrences. Patients with direct dermal invasion from Paget disease had a favorable outcome during the available follow-up period. This type of dermal involvement must be distinguished from locally advanced invasive carcinomas with skin invasion classified as T4b in the American Joint Cancer Commission staging system, as cancers with other types of skin invasion are associated with a poor prognosis.

  19. Use of macroporous gelatine spheres as a biodegradable scaffold for guided tissue regeneration of healthy dermis in humans: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Huss, Fredrik R M; Nyman, Erika; Bolin, Johanna S C; Kratz, Gunnar

    2010-05-01

    If a biodegradable scaffold is applied, the dermis can be regenerated by guided tissue regeneration. Scaffolds can stimulate in-growth of cells from the surroundings that migrate into them and start to produce autologous extracellular matrix as the scaffold is degraded. Several materials are available, but most of them are in the form of sheets and need to be laid on an open wound surface. A number of injectable fillers have been developed to correct soft-tissue defects. However, none of these has been used for guided tissue regeneration. We present a new technique that could possibly be used to correct dermal defects by using macroporous gelatine spheres as a biodegradable scaffold for guided tissue regeneration. In eight healthy volunteers, intradermal injections of macroporous gelatine spheres were compared with injections of saline and hyaluronic acid (Restylane). Full-thickness skin biopsy specimens of the implants and surrounding tissue were removed 2, 8, 12 and 26 weeks after injection, and the (immuno)histological results were analysed. The Restylane merely occupied space. It shattered the dermal tissue and compressed collagen fibres and cells at the interface between the implant and the dermis. No regeneration of tissue was found with this material at any time. The macroporous gelatine spheres were populated with fibroblasts already after 2 weeks. After 8 weeks the spheres were completely populated by fibroblasts producing dermal tissue. After 12 and 26 weeks, the gelatine spheres had been more or less completely resorbed and replaced by vascularised neodermis. There were no signs of capsular formation, rejection or adverse events in any subject. Further in vivo studies in humans are needed to evaluate the effect of the macroporous spheres fully as a matrix for guided tissue regeneration with and without cellular pre-seeding. However, the results of this study indicate the possibility of using macroporous gelatine spheres as an injectable, three

  20. [Influences of different rehabilitative methods on function of hands and psychological anxiety of patients with deeply burned hands retaining denatured dermis and grafting large autologous skin].

    PubMed

    Peng, H; Liang, P F; Wang, A; Yue, L Q

    2017-05-20

    Objective: To investigate influences of different rehabilitative methods on function of hands and psychological anxiety of patients with deeply burned hands retaining denatured dermis and grafting large autologous skin. Methods: Forty-four patients with deeply burned hands, conforming to the study criteria were admitted to Department of Burns and Reconstructive Surgery of Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from January 2014 to June 2015. Patients were divided into propaganda education rehabilitation group (PER, n=23) and specially-assigned person rehabilitation group (SAPR, n=21) according to the random number table and patients' willingness. On post injury day 3 to 7, 36 burned hands in group PER and 33 burned hands in group SAPR underwent operation of retaining denatured dermis and grafting large autologous skin. Patients in 2 groups received anti-scar treatment of hands with silicone gel from postoperative day 10. Besides, patients in group PER underwent active functional exercise under guidance of duty nurse and received psychological guidance from duty nurse with grade two psychological consultant certificate. Patients in group SAPR underwent active and passive functional exercise under guidance of rehabilitation therapist and received psychological guidance from psychotherapist with intermediate title. In postoperative month (POM) 1, 3 and 6, ranges of active motion of burned finger joints of patients in 2 groups were measured with joint goniometer to calculate excellent and good ratio of total active motion (TAM) range. Values of grip strength of burned hands of patients were measured with electronic hand dynamometer, and psychological anxiety was scored with Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). Data were processed with chi-square test, independent sample t test, McNemar test, analysis of variance of repeated measurement, SNK test and Bonferroni correction. Results: (1) Ratio of excellent and good of TAM range of burned finger joints of patients in

  1. Comparison of autogenous cartilage, acellular dermis, and solvent-dehydrated pericardium for the prevention and correction of dorsal nasal irregularities: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Çöloğlu, Harun; Uysal, Afşin; Tiftikçioğlu, Yiğit Özer; Oruç, Melike; Koçer, Uğur; Coşkun, Erhan; Ramadan, Selma Uysal; Astarcı, Müzeyyen Hesna

    2012-06-01

    reports and demonstrate that the used allografts had no adverse effects such as ulceration or extrusion. The evaluation of the internal nasal valve angles before and after the surgical interventions showed that cartilage grafts created a spreader effect as expected, but acellular dermis and solvent-dehydrated pericardium did not. Despite a moderate graft reaction, pericardium or acellular dermis remained intact. None of the materials caused adhesion to the overlying skin. The results of this experimental study showed that acellular dermis (AlloDerm®) or solvent-dehydrated pericardium (Tutogen) may be used successfully as an "onlay" graft for dorsal nasal problems compared to autogenous cartilage, which is commonly used for this purpose. There has been more cartilage resorption than thought. This should be considered when overcorrection is performed. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors at www.springer.com/00266.

  2. Role of Pinin in neural crest, dorsal dermis, and axial skeleton development and its involvement in the regulation of Tcf/Lef activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Joo, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Young Jae; Munguba, Gustavo C; Park, Sean; Taxter, Timothy J; Elsagga, Mohamed Y; Jackson, Moira R; Oh, S Paul; Sugrue, Stephen P

    2007-08-01

    Previous in vitro studies have indicated multiple and varied roles of Pinin (PNN); however, its in vivo role has remained unclear. Here, we report generation of null, hypomorphic, and conditional Pnn alleles in mice. We found that insertion of neomycin-resistance cassette into intron 8 of Pnn resulted in knockdown of Pnn, which allowed Pnn hypomorphic embryos to pass peri-implantation lethality. These mice are lethal at perinatal stages and exhibit defects in the cardiac outflow tract, palate, dorsal dermis, and axial skeleton. Since Wnt/beta-catenin signaling has been shown to play pivotal roles in development of all tissues affected by Pnn hypomorphism, we speculated that Pnn may affect Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Supporting this view, we demonstrate abnormal activities of Tcf/Lef transcription factors, and alterations in beta-catenin level in multiple Pnn hypomorphic tissues. Taken together, the data suggest that Pnn plays important roles during mouse development through its involvement in regulation of Tcf/Lef activity.

  3. Microencapsulated VEGF gene-modified umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells promote the vascularization of tissue-engineered dermis: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Han, Yanfu; Tao, Ran; Han, Yanqing; Sun, Tianjun; Chai, Jiake; Xu, Guang; Liu, Jing

    2014-02-01

    Tissue-engineered dermis (TED) is thought to be the best treatment for skin defect wounds; however, lack of vascular structures in these products can cause slow vascularization or even transplant failure. We assessed the therapeutic potential of microencapsulated human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (hUCMSCs) expressing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in vascularization of TED. hUCMSCs were isolated by means of enzymatic digestion and identified by means of testing biological characteristics. hUCMSCs were induced to differentiate into dermal fibroblasts in conditioned induction media. Collagen-chitosan laser drilling acellular dermal matrix (ADM) composite scaffold was prepared by means of the freeze dehydration and dehydrothermal cross-linking method. hUCMSC-derived fibroblasts were implanted on composite scaffolds to construct TED. TED with microencapsulated VEGF gene-modified hUCMSCs was then transplanted into skin defect wounds in pigs. The angiogenesis of TED at 1 week and status of wound healing at 3 weeks were observed. The collagen-chitosan laser ADM composite has a uniform microporous structure. This composite has been used to grow hUCMSC-derived fibroblasts in vitro and to successfully construct stem cell-derived TED. Microencapsulated VEGF gene-modified hUCMSCs were prepared with the use of a sodium alginate-barium chloride one-step encapsulation technology. Seven days after the transplantation of the stem cell-derived TED and microencapsulated VEGF gene-modified hUCMSCs into the skin defect wounds on the backs of miniature pigs, the VEGF expression increased and the TED had a higher degree of vascularization. Re-epithelialization of the wound was completed after 3 weeks. Microencapsulated VEGF gene-modified hUCMSCs can effectively improve the vascularization of TED and consequently the quality of wound healing. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Permacol (porcine dermal collagen) and Alloderm (acellular cadaveric dermis) as a vascular patch repair for common carotid arteriotomy in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Tsai, John W; Ayubi, Farhan S; Rice, Robert D; Zhang, Zhou; Armstrong, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    Occult injuries to arteries are common in trauma and evolution of their repair has been observed throughout military conflicts. Currently, autogenous vein and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) are used as patch agents for arterial trauma. However, suitable vein is often lacking in multitrauma patients, and PTFE is prone to infection in the contaminated combat wound. The purpose of this study is to evaluate Permacol, porcine dermal collagen, and Alloderm, acellular cadaveric dermis, as suitable alternatives to PTFE with the potential benefit of being used in contaminated wounds. A New Zealand White rabbit common carotid arteriotomy model was used to compare Permacol (n = 12), Alloderm (n = 11), and PTFE (n = 13) for patch repair. Thrombin generation was examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for thrombin-antithrombin complex. Histological samples were taken to analyze vessel lumen area, vessel diameter, intimal thickness, and medial thickness. Pathological examinations were made to compare rates of intimal hyperplasia, aneurysm, patency, and thrombus formation. The Permacol group showed equivalent rates of thrombus, aneurysm, and patency compared with PTFE. Increased lumen area was seen in the Permacol group, 0.344 mm2 (p = 0.02) compared with the PTFE group, 0.204 mm2. Permacol also had decreased incidence of intimal hyperplasia compared with PTFE, 50.0% versus 92% (p < 0.05). Alloderm had increased rates of aneurysm formation, 63.6% (p = 0.004) compared with PTFE, 0.0%, and Permacol groups, 8.3%. Alloderm also had increased intimal thickness through the patch, 0.076 mm (p = 0.18), compared with PTFE, 0.026 mm, and Permacol groups, 0.024 mm. Vessel diameter through the patch showed the Alloderm group, 1.87 mm (p = 0.004), was significantly larger than both the Permacol, 1.41 mm, and PTFE groups, 1.28 mm. Furthermore, Alloderm showed leukocyte migration around the patch. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for thrombin-antithrombin complex was only elevated

  5. S100A8 and S100A9 are messengers in the crosstalk between epidermis and dermis modulating a psoriatic milieu in human skin

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Young; Jang, Sunhyae; Min, Jeong-Ki; Lee, Kyungmin; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lim, Jong-Soon; Im, Myung; Lee, Hae-Eul; Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Chang-Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulated S100A8 and/or S100A9 in psoriasis epidermis induce cytokine production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulated S100A8 and/or S100A9 in psoriasis epidermis induce migration of immune cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulated S100A8 and/or S100A9 in psoriasis epidermis induce angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S100A8 and/or S100A9 may play a role in the crosstalk between epidermis and dermis in psoriasis. -- Abstract: S100A8 and S100A9 are members of the S100A8 protein family that exist as homodimers and heterodimers in neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages. Recent studies have shown the pivotal roles of S100A8 and S100A9 in the propagation of inflammation and keratinocyte proliferation in psoriasis. We found significant up-regulation of S100A8 and S100A9 secretion from keratinocytes in psoriatic lesions. To mimic the in vivo secretory conditions of S100A8 and S100A9 from psoriatic epidermal keratinocytes, we used the culture medium (CM) of S100A8 and S100A8/A9 adenovirus-transduced keratinocytes to investigate the functions of S100A8 and S100A9. We detected increased levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in the CM, including IL-8 and TNF-{alpha}, which are involved in aggravating psoriatic skin lesions, and IL-6 and members of the CXCL family of pro-angiogenic cytokines. The CM increased immune cell migration and increased angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In conclusion, we found that the upregulated production of S100A8 and S100A9 by psoriatic epidermal keratinocytes activated adjacent keratinocytes to produce several cytokines. Moreover, S100A8 and S100A9 themselves function as pro-angiogenic and chemotactic factors, generating a psoriatic milieu in skin.

  6. In vivo Quantification of the Effects of Radiation and Presence of Hair Follicle Pores on the Proliferation of Fibroblasts in an Acellular Human Dermis in a Dorsal Skinfold Chamber: Relevance for Tissue Reconstruction following Neoadjuvant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Patrick; Hohenberger, Peter; Roessner, Eric Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In neoadjuvant therapy, irradiation has a deleterious effect on neoangiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the post-implantation effects of neoadjuvant irradiation on the survival and proliferation of autologous cells seeded onto an acellular human dermis (hAD; Epiflex). Additionally, we examined the influence of dermal hair follicle pores on viability and proliferation. We used dorsal skinfold chambers implanted in rats and in-situ microscopy to quantify cell numbers over 9 days. Methods 24 rats received a skinfold chamber and were divided into 2 main groups; irradiated and unirradiated. In the irradiated groups 20Gy were applied epicutaneously at the dorsum. Epiflex pieces were cut to size 5x5mm such that each piece had either one or more visible hair follicle pores, or no such visible pores. Fibroblasts were transduced lentiviral with a fluorescent protein for cell tracking. Matrices were seeded statically with 2.5x104 fluorescent fibroblasts and implanted into the chambers. In each of the two main groups, half of the rats received Epiflex with hair follicle pores and half received Epiflex without pores. Scaffolds were examined in-situ at 0, 3, 6 and 9 days after transplantation. Visible cells on the surface were quantified using ImageJ. Results In all groups cell numbers were decreased on day 3. A treatment-dependent increase in cell numbers was observed at subsequent time points. Irradiation had an adverse effect on cell survival and proliferation. The number of cells detected in both irradiated and non-irradiated subjects was increased in those subjects that received transplants with hair follicle pores. Discussion This in-vivo study confirms that radiation negatively affects the survival and proliferation of fibroblasts seeded onto a human dermis transplant. The presence of hair follicle pores in the dermis transplants is shown to have a positive effect on cell survival and proliferation even in irradiated subjects. PMID:25955842

  7. Effects of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate on the incorporation of labelled precursors into RNA, DNA and protein in epidermis, dermis and subcutis from precancerous mouse skin with reference to enhanced tumorigenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bhisey, R.A.; Ramchandani, A.G.; Sirsat, S.M.

    1984-02-01

    The effects of a single application of 1.8 nmol 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on precursor incorporation into RNA, DNA and protein in the epidermis, dermis and subcutis from 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) injected precancerous mouse skin were studied at various time points between 3 and 96 h. In the precancerous tissues, the rates of incorporation of (/sup 3/H)uridine into RNA did not alter appreciably from those in the control tissues; while the rates of (/sup 3/H)methylthymidine incorporation into DNA were elevated with peaks appearing between 6 and 12 h, at 24 h and at 72 h in epidermis, dermis and subcutis. The rate of incorporation of (/sup 14/C)leucine into protein was markedly elevated in all the three tissues which showed 3-4 sharp peaks. The maximum stimulation ranged between 14 and 20 times that of the control. A single application of TPA to the precancerous mouse skin induced early stimulation of precursor incorporation into all the three macromolecules in epidermis, dermis and subcutis. The increased stimulation was maintained for 36-72 h. The patterns of incorporation of (/sup 3/H)methylthymidine into DNA gave rise to 2-3 peaks of elevated uptake in each tissue up to 36-48 h. A lowered rate of DNA synthesis between 48 and 60 h was followed by a peak at 72 h. In each group, epidermal mitotic activity correlated well with spurts of precursor incorporation into cellular DNA. The observations indicate that TPA recruits more cells into the DNA synthetic phase and accelerates selective growth of preneoplastic cells during tumor progression.

  8. DFT:B3LYP/3-21G theoretical insights on the confocal Raman experimental observations in skin dermis of healthy young, healthy elderly, and diabetic elderly women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Téllez Soto, Claudio Alberto; Pereira, Liliane; dos Santos, Laurita; Rajasekaran, Ramu; Fávero, Priscila; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2016-12-01

    In the confocal Raman spectra of skin dermis, the band area in the spectral region of proline and hydroxyproline varies according to the age and health condition of the volunteers, classified as healthy young women, healthy elderly women, and diabetic elderly women. Another observation refers to the intensity variation and negative Raman shift of the amide I band. To understand these effects, we adopted a model system using the DFT/B3LYP:3-21G procedure, considering the amino acid chain formed by glycine, hydroxyproline, proline, and alanine, which interacts with two and six water molecules. Through these systems, polarizability variations were analyzed to correlate its values with the observed Raman intensities of the three groups of volunteers and to assign the vibrational spectra of the skin dermis. As a way to correlate other experimental trends, we propose a model of chemical reaction of water interchange between the bonding amino acids, in which water molecules are attached with glucose by hydrogen bonds. The theoretical results are in accordance with the observed experimental trends.

  9. In vivo microdialysis for the investigation of drug levels in the dermis and the effect of barrier perturbation on cutaneous drug penetration. Studies in hairless rats and human subjects.

    PubMed

    Benfeldt, E

    1999-01-01

    The thesis opens with review chapters concerning theoretical and practical aspects of the investigation of drug contents in the skin. A discussion of the advantages and limitations of the established methods as well as the relatively new sampling method of microdialysis, which is employed in the experimental section, is given. Factors influencing the barrier function of the normal human skin are described as are the alterations in skin barrier function found in diseased and experimentally barrier perturbed skin. The microdialysis technique consists of introducing an ultra thin, semipermeable tube, a so-called probe, in the dermis. The tube is connected to a precision pump, which provides a steady flow of a tissue-compatible fluid through the probe at a very low flow. Smaller molecules in the tissue, among them the non-protein bound fraction of the drug content in the extracellular fluid, will passively diffuse across the surface of the membrane and thus enter the flow of the perfusate, which is sampled at regular intervals and analysed. Microdialysis is used for the determination of drug levels in the skin after topical as well as systemic drug delivery in the experimental part of the thesis. The method is not applicable to the investigation of all drugs or compounds, as we have shown that it is not feasible to sample highly protein-bound drugs or very lipophilic drugs by microdialysis without further development of the method. The investigation of topical drug administration consists of 2 studies of cutaneous penetration of a model drug, salicylic acid, initially investigated in hairless rats and subsequently in human volunteers. In both studies, barrier perturbation of the skin was undertaken by physical (removal of the stratum corneum by repeated tape stripping) or chemical (treatment with acetone) methods or by provocation of irritative dermatitis (by application of sodium lauryl sulphate, a detergent). Prior to the penetration experiment, the barrier damage

  10. A prospective, randomised, controlled, multicentre clinical trial examining healing rates, safety and cost to closure of an acellular reticular allogenic human dermis versus standard of care in the treatment of chronic diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Zelen, Charles M; Orgill, Dennis P; Serena, Thomas; Galiano, Robert; Carter, Marissa J; DiDomenico, Lawrence A; Keller, Jennifer; Kaufman, Jarrod; Li, William W

    2017-04-01

    Acellular dermal matrices can successfully heal wounds. This study's goal was to compare clinical outcomes of a novel, open-structure human reticular acellular dermis matrix (HR-ADM) to facilitate wound closure in non-healing diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) versus DFUs treated with standard of care (SOC). Following a 2-week screening period in which DFUs were treated with offloading and moist wound care, patients were randomised to either SOC alone or HR-ADM plus SOC applied weekly for up to 12 weeks. At 6 weeks, the primary outcome time, 65% of the HR-ADM-treated DFUs healed (13/20) compared with 5% (1/20) of DFUs that received SOC alone. At 12 weeks, the proportions of DFUs healed were 80% and 20%, respectively. Mean time to heal within 12 weeks was 40 days for the HR-ADM group compared with 77 days for the SOC group. There was no incidence of increased adverse or serious adverse events between groups or any adverse events related to the graft. Mean and median graft costs to closure per healed wound in the HR-ADM group were $1475 and $963, respectively. Weekly application of HR-ADM is an effective intervention for promoting closure of non-healing DFUs.

  11. Statistical Properties of Echosignal Obtained from Human Dermis In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrzkowska, Hanna; Litniewski, Jerzy; Nowicki, Andrzej; Szymańska, Elżbieta

    The paper presents the classification of the healthy skin and the skin lesions (basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis), basing on the statistical parameters of the envelope of ultrasonic echoes. The envelope was modeled using Rayleigh and non-Rayleigh (K-distribution) statistics. Furthermore, the characteristic parameter of the K-distribution, the effective number of scatterers was investigated. Also the attenuation coefficient was used for the skin lesion assessment.

  12. Porcine dermis implants in soft-tissue reconstruction: current status

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Neil J; Bryan, Nicholas; Hunt, John A; Daniels, Ian R

    2014-01-01

    Soft-tissue reconstruction for a variety of surgical conditions, such as abdominal wall hernia or pelvic organ prolapse, remains a challenge. There are numerous meshes available that may be simply categorized as either synthetic or biologic. Within biologic meshes, porcine dermal meshes have come to dominate the market. This review examines the current evidence for their use and the limitations of knowledge. Although there is increasing evidence to support their safety, long-term follow-up studies that support their efficacy are lacking. Numerous clinical trials that remain ongoing may help elucidate their precise role in soft-tissue reconstruction. PMID:24648721

  13. Collagen Formation by Fibroblasts of the Chick Embryo Dermis

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Keith R.; Pappas, George D.

    1959-01-01

    This investigation has sought to determine the relation between collagen fiber and fibroblast during fibrogenesis. Toward this end the surfaces of chick fibroblasts grown under in vitro conditions have been examined with the electron microscope after fixation in OsO4. Supplementary information has been obtained from thin sections of fibroblasts fixed in situ during phases of fiber production. The evidence provided by these studies and by various conditions of the experiments indicates that the unit fibrils of collagen form in close association with the cell surface. They were never observed within the cell. When these unit fibrils form in bundles it appears as though templates of some nature, possibly coinciding with stress fibers within the cell cortex, influence the polymerization of the fibrils out of material available at the cell surface. From here the fibrils and bundles of them are shed into the intercellular spaces and there grow to limited diameters by accretion of materials from the general milieu. PMID:13630947

  14. Age-dependent change of uric acid level in the dermis using cutaneous microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Suk; Yang, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Jung Chul; Eun, Hee Chul

    2005-01-01

    We had proposed the usefulness of cutaneous microdialysis for the study of antioxidants in the skin. We designed a study analyzing the level of uric acid in the skin, one of the major antioxidants, for an age-dependent change. 16 healthy male volunteers were divided into two groups according to age. Eleven subjects were in their 3rd decade, under 30 years of age (young group) and the others were their 8th decade (old group), over 70 years of age. Dialysate samples were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. In the young group the mean level of uric acid was 31.9+/-16.1 microg/ml, while in old group it was 13.4+/-5.2 microg/ml. This result demonstrated an in vivo state of antioxidant level in the human skin and the age-dependent difference was concordant with other in vitro or ex vivo studies; therefore, cutaneous microdialysis could be used in analysis and monitoring studies including human antioxidants and anti-aging. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Proteins deposited in the dermis are rapidly captured and presented by epidermal Langerhans cells

    PubMed Central

    Flacher, Vincent; Tripp, Christoph H.; Stoitzner, Patrizia; Haid, Bernhard; Ebner, Susanne; Koch, Franz; Park, Chae Gyu; Steinman, Ralph M.; Idoyaga, Juliana; Romani, Nikolaus

    2010-01-01

    Antigen-presenting cells can capture antigens that are deposited in the skin, including vaccines given subcutaneously. These include different dendritic cells (DC) such as epidermal Langerhans cells (LC), dermal DC and dermal langerin+ DC. To evaluate access of dermal antigens to skin DC, we used mAb to two C-type lectin endocytic receptors, DEC-205/CD205 and langerin/CD207. When applied to murine and human skin explant cultures, these mAb were efficiently taken up by epidermal LC. Additionally, anti-DEC-205 targeted langerin+ CD103+ and langerin− CD103− mouse dermal DC. Unexpectedly, intradermal injection of either mAb, but not isotype control, resulted in strong and rapid labelling of LC in situ, implying that large molecules can diffuse through the basement membrane into the epidermis. Epidermal LC targeted in vivo by ovalbumin-coupled anti-DEC-205 potently presented antigen to CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Thus, epidermal LC play a major role in uptake of lectin-binding ligands under standard vaccination conditions. PMID:19890348

  16. Longitudinal analysis of Plasmodium sporozoite motility in the dermis reveals component of blood vessel recognition

    PubMed Central

    Hopp, Christine S; Chiou, Kevin; Ragheb, Daniel RT; Salman, Ahmed M; Khan, Shahid M; Liu, Andrea J; Sinnis, Photini

    2015-01-01

    Malaria infection starts with injection of Plasmodium sporozoites by an Anopheles mosquito into the skin of the mammalian host. How sporozoites locate and enter a blood vessel is a critical, but poorly understood process. In this study, we examine sporozoite motility and their interaction with dermal blood vessels, using intravital microscopy in mice. Our data suggest that sporozoites exhibit two types of motility: in regions far from blood vessels, they exhibit ‘avascular motility’, defined by high speed and less confinement, while in the vicinity of blood vessels their motility is more constrained. We find that curvature of sporozoite tracks engaging with vasculature optimizes contact with dermal capillaries. Imaging of sporozoites with mutations in key adhesive proteins highlight the importance of the sporozoite's gliding speed and its ability to modulate adhesive properties for successful exit from the inoculation site. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07789.001 PMID:26271010

  17. Neural-competent cells of adult human dermis belong to the Schwann lineage.

    PubMed

    Etxaniz, Usue; Pérez-San Vicente, Adrián; Gago-López, Nuria; García-Dominguez, Mario; Iribar, Haizea; Aduriz, Ariane; Pérez-López, Virginia; Burgoa, Izaskun; Irizar, Haritz; Muñoz-Culla, Maider; Vallejo-Illarramendi, Ainara; Leis, Olatz; Matheu, Ander; Martín, Angel G; Otaegui, David; López-Mato, María Paz; Gutiérrez-Rivera, Araika; MacLellan, Robb; Izeta, Ander

    2014-11-11

    Resident neural precursor cells (NPCs) have been reported for a number of adult tissues. Understanding their physiological function or, alternatively, their activation after tissue damage or in vitro manipulation remains an unsolved issue. Here, we investigated the source of human dermal NPCs in adult tissue. By following an unbiased, comprehensive approach employing cell-surface marker screening, cell separation, transcriptomic characterization, and in vivo fate analyses, we found that p75NTR(+) precursors of human foreskin can be ascribed to the Schwann (CD56(+)) and perivascular (CD56(-)) cell lineages. Moreover, neural differentiation potential was restricted to the p75NTR(+)CD56(+) Schwann cells and mediated by SOX2 expression levels. Double-positive NPCs were similarly obtained from human cardiospheres, indicating that this phenomenon might be widespread.

  18. Creeping hair: an isolated hair burrowing in the uppermost dermis resembling larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Rie; Higashi, Kushio; Ohta, Miyuki; Sugimoto, Yasushi; Ikoma, Yukiko; Horiguchi, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    A 55-year-old Japanese male presented with a slowly moving linear erythema that looked like an eruption of creeping disease, or cutaneous larva migrans. The eruption extended linearly along Langer's line of the lateral side of the abdomen to the lower back, leaving wave-like erythema. In the top third of the erythematous eruption, close examination demonstrated a black thin line, which was revealed to be a hair shaft by a shallow incision of the skin. After removal of the hair, the eruption diminished immediately, leaving a slight pigmentation. An ingrown pubic hair seemed to have migrated with the lower end forward along Langer's line, because of the arrangement of hair cuticle and the force of body motion. Linearly moving erythematous eruptions that look like that of larva migrans should be differentiated from creeping hair by close examination detecting burrowing hair.

  19. Neural-Competent Cells of Adult Human Dermis Belong to the Schwann Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Etxaniz, Usue; Pérez-San Vicente, Adrián; Gago-López, Nuria; García-Dominguez, Mario; Iribar, Haizea; Aduriz, Ariane; Pérez-López, Virginia; Burgoa, Izaskun; Irizar, Haritz; Muñoz-Culla, Maider; Vallejo-Illarramendi, Ainara; Leis, Olatz; Matheu, Ander; Martín, Angel G.; Otaegui, David; López-Mato, María Paz; Gutiérrez-Rivera, Araika; MacLellan, Robb; Izeta, Ander

    2014-01-01

    Summary Resident neural precursor cells (NPCs) have been reported for a number of adult tissues. Understanding their physiological function or, alternatively, their activation after tissue damage or in vitro manipulation remains an unsolved issue. Here, we investigated the source of human dermal NPCs in adult tissue. By following an unbiased, comprehensive approach employing cell-surface marker screening, cell separation, transcriptomic characterization, and in vivo fate analyses, we found that p75NTR+ precursors of human foreskin can be ascribed to the Schwann (CD56+) and perivascular (CD56−) cell lineages. Moreover, neural differentiation potential was restricted to the p75NTR+CD56+ Schwann cells and mediated by SOX2 expression levels. Double-positive NPCs were similarly obtained from human cardiospheres, indicating that this phenomenon might be widespread. PMID:25418723

  20. Single-center ventral hernia repair with porcine dermis collagen implant.

    PubMed

    Boules, M; Strong, A T; Corcelles, R; Haskins, I N; Ilie, R; Wathen, C; Froylich, D; Sharma, G; Rodriguez, J; Rosenblatt, S; El-Hayek, K; Kroh, M

    2017-09-20

    This study aims to evaluate the outcomes and utilization of porcine acellular dermal collagen implant (PADCI) during VHR at a large tertiary referral center. Records of 5485 patients who underwent VIHR from June 1995 to August 2014 were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients >18 years of age who had VIHR with PADCI reinforcement. Use of multiple mesh reinforcement products, inguinal hernias, and hiatal hernias were exclusion criteria. The primary outcome was hernia recurrence, and secondary outcomes were early complications and surgical site occurrences (SSOs). Uni- and multivariate analyses assessed risk factors for recurrence after PADCI reinforced VIHR. There were 361 patients identified (54.5% female, mean age of 56.7 ± 12.5 years, and mean body mass index (BMI) of 33.0 ± 9.9 kg/m(2)). Hypertension (49.5%), diabetes (24.3%), and coronary artery disease (14.4%) were the most common comorbidities, as was active smoking (20.7%). Most were classified as American Association of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Class 3 (61.7%). Hernias were distributed across all grades of the ventral hernia working group (VHWG) grading system: grade I 93 (25.7%), grade II 51 (14.1%), grade III 113 (31.3%), and grade IV 6 (1.6%). Most VIHR were performed from an open approach (96.1%), and were frequently combined with concomitant surgical procedures (47.9%). Early postoperative complications (first 30 days) were reported in 39.0%, with 71 being SSO. Of the 19.7% of patients with SSO, there were 31 who required procedural intervention. After a mean follow-up of 71.5 ± 20.5 months, hernia recurrence was documented in 34.9% of patients. Age and male gender were predictors of recurrence on multivariate analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest retrospective single institutional study evaluating PADCI to date. Hernias repaired with PADCI were frequently in patients undergoing concomitant operations. Reinforcement with PADCI may be considered a temporary closure, with a relatively high recurrence rate, especially among patients who are older, male, and undergo multiple explorations in a short perioperative period.

  1. Surgical Outcomes of Porcine Acellular Dermis Graft in Anophthalmic Socket: Comparison with Oral Mucosa Graft

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Livia; Woo, Young Jun; Kim, Dong Kyu; Kim, Chang Yeom

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We describe our experience with the Permacol graft in anophthalmic socket reconstruction, and compare it to the autologous buccal mucosal graft, emphasizing the postoperative vascularization and contraction of each graft. Methods This was a retrospective comparative study. We measured the time necessary for the graft surface to be completely vascularized, as well as the fornix depth of the conjunctival sac in anophthalmic patients. Results Ten patients underwent Permacol graft reconstruction, with 44 undergoing buccal mucosal graft reconstruction. Seven eyelids (70%) in the Permacol group had a good outcome, with improvement in lower eyelid position and prosthesis retention. Nine out of 10 eyelids (90%) in this group showed complete vascularization of the graft at 2.6 ± 1.9 months postoperatively, while the grafted buccal mucosa was fully vascularized at 1.1 ± 0.3 months postoperatively (p < 0.01). Postoperative fornix depth in the Permacol group was 9.1 ± 2.2 mm, compared to 14.9 ± 4.5 mm in the buccal mucosal graft group (p < 0.01). Mean increases in fornix depth were 33.1% and 67.9% of the mean vertical length of the implanted graft. Conclusions The Permacol graft can be useful as spacer graft material in anophthalmic socket patients. It takes longer to vascularize, and undergoes greater graft shrinkage with time, compared to the buccal mucosal graft. PMID:28243018

  2. Mechanobiological dysregulation of the epidermis and dermis in skin disorders and in degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Rei; Hsu, Chao-Kai

    2013-01-01

    During growth and development, the skin expands to cover the growing skeleton and soft tissues by constantly responding to the intrinsic forces of underlying skeletal growth as well as to the extrinsic mechanical forces from body movements and external supports. Mechanical forces can be perceived by two types of skin receptors: (1) cellular mechanoreceptors/mechanosensors, such as the cytoskeleton, cell adhesion molecules and mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels, and (2) sensory nerve fibres that produce the somatic sensation of mechanical force. Skin disorders in which there is an abnormality of collagen [e.g. Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS)] or elastic (e.g. cutis laxa) fibres or a malfunction of cutaneous nerve fibres (e.g. neurofibroma, leprosy and diabetes mellitus) are also characterized to some extent by deficiencies in mechanobiological processes. Recent studies have shown that mechanotransduction is crucial for skin development, especially hemidesmosome maturation, which implies that the pathogenesis of skin disorders such as bullous pemphigoid is related to skin mechanobiology. Similarly, autoimmune diseases, including scleroderma and mixed connective tissue disease, and pathological scarring in the form of keloids and hypertrophic scars would seem to be clearly associated with the mechanobiological dysfunction of the skin. Finally, skin ageing can also be considered as a degenerative process associated with mechanobiological dysfunction. Clinically, a therapeutic strategy involving mechanoreceptors or MS nociceptor inhibition or acceleration together with a reduction or augmentation in the relevant mechanical forces is likely to be successful. The development of novel approaches such as these will allow the treatment of a broad range of cutaneous diseases. PMID:23672502

  3. Promoted dermis healing from full-thickness skin defect by porous silk fibroin scaffolds (PSFSs).

    PubMed

    Guan, Guoping; Bai, Lun; Zuo, Baoqi; Li, Mingzhong; Wu, Zhengyu; Li, Yonglin; Wang, Lu

    2010-01-01

    Studies on skin substitutes and dermal scaffolds have been extensively carried out in the past several decades and some commercial products derived from collagen and polymers have been in marketing. Yet little research on silk fibroin based dermal scaffolds and products has been reported so far. In the present study, therefore, porous silk fibroin scaffolds (PSFSs) have been prepared by freeze drying method. The effects of PSFSs on skin recovery from full thickness defect have been examined by histological evaluation with respect to neovascularization, dermal regeneration and infiltration of inflammatory cells. In addition, tissue compatibility between PSFSs and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponges (as control) has been semiquantitatively compared by scoring method. The results showed that at day 18 after implantation, new tissues formed in PSFSs whose structure was almost equal to normal skin structure where proportional distribution of functional blood vessels could be found. Furthermore, infiltration of inflammatory cells in PSFSs disappeared within 7 days. By contrast, a variety of interstices, fibrous encapsulization and moderate infiltration of inflammatory cells could be found in PVA sponges at day 18 after implantation. In summary, PSFSs has significantly promoted the skin recovery from full thickness defect, showing fibroin's outstanding tissue compatibility.

  4. Comparison between fingerprints of the epidermis and dermis: Perspectives in the identifying of corpses.

    PubMed

    Mizokami, Leila Lopes; Silva, Lara Rosana Vieira; Kückelhaus, Selma Aparecida Souza

    2015-07-01

    In forensic science, the putrefaction, maceration, mummification or burning make it difficult to collect the fingerprints of the epidermis for identification purposes. In such cases, the comparison between fingerprints collected from the dermal surface and the ante mortem pattern of the epidermal surface archived in databases must be performed. Therefore, considering that the identification of corpses is done by comparison of fingerprints on different surfaces, this study aimed to compare the epidermal and the dermal fingerprints to determine the discrepancies between the minutiae of both surfaces. The study was conducted with excised fingers of 19 fresh adult corpses. Once selected, excised and photographed, the fingers were subjected to maceration with 0.5% acetic acid solution for the removal of the epidermal glove and for registering the dermal fingerprint. Then, an area of 1cm(2) in the epidermal and dermal photographies was selected and the minutiae of each were separately marked by an expert in identification. The comparison between minutiae of the epidermal and dermal surfaces showed that: (1) both surfaces maintained the patterns and characteristics of fingerprints (arch, whorl or loop) and the characteristics related to the systems and the disposal of the lines, meaning the formation or not of deltas; (2) the total number of marked minutiae did not differ between both surfaces for the group of individuals (paired t test, p=0.48); (3) the percentage of coincidences and divergences (minutiae present on only one surface) between minutiae were 63.0±20.0% and 37.0±20.0%, respectively; (4) identification was possible for 16 fingers/individuals, but not for 3 of them; (5) the increase in the number of marked minutiae does not affect the percentage of coincidences. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of the dermal surface for identification purposes due to the high percentage of matching minutiae, but considering the discrepancies and the inconclusive identification of 3 fingers/individuals, our study points to the use of more fingers per individual, as well as the possibility of further studies to improve on the techniques for increasing the identification of corpses, or even to deploy new technologies to ensure their rapid and safe identification.

  5. Acellular dermis-assisted prosthetic breast reconstruction: a systematic and critical review of efficacy and associated morbidity.

    PubMed

    Sbitany, Hani; Serletti, Joseph M

    2011-12-01

    The use of acellular dermal matrix to assist in two-stage expander/implant breast reconstruction has increased over recent years. However, there are questions regarding the potential for increased morbidity when using these techniques relative to standard submuscular coverage techniques. This systematic review combines published data comparing the techniques, to compare morbidity and advantages of acellular dermal matrix relative to standard submuscular coverage techniques. An English language literature search was performed to find articles reporting outcomes of two-stage expander/implant reconstruction using acellular dermal matrix. The outcome categories analyzed were patient/treatment demographics, tissue expander characteristics, and complications. Nine articles met inclusion criteria for this analysis. Six of these were matched cohort studies comparing outcomes of acellular dermal matrix techniques to standard submuscular techniques. The remaining three were case series of acellular dermal matrix techniques. The only difference found in complications was a higher rate of seroma for the acellular dermal matrix group (4.3 percent versus 8.4 percent, p = 0.03). Despite this, both groups illustrated similar rates of infection leading to explantation (3.2 percent for submuscular and 3.4 percent for acellular dermal matrix, p = 0.18). In addition, acellular dermal matrix techniques illustrated greater intraoperative fill volumes and consistently fewer fills required to reach expander capacity. The use of acellular dermal matrix in two-stage expander/implant reconstruction offers a safety profile similar to that of standard submuscular techniques. Both techniques have shown similar rates of infection ultimately requiring explantation. In addition, acellular dermal matrix offers the advantage of a more rapid reconstruction with less need for manipulation of the prosthetic through filling. Therapeutic, III.

  6. Mimicking the quasi-random assembly of protein fibers in the dermis by freeze-drying method.

    PubMed

    Ghaleh, Hakimeh; Abbasi, Farhang; Alizadeh, Mina; Khoshfetrat, Ali Baradar

    2015-04-01

    Freeze-drying is extensively used for fabrication of porous materials in tissue engineering and biomedical applications, due to its versatility and use of no toxic solvent. However, it has some significant drawbacks. Conventional freeze-drying technique leads to the production of heterogeneous porous structures with side orientated columnar pores. As the top and bottom surfaces of the sample are not in contact with similar environments, different rates of heat transfer in the surfaces and the temperature gradient across the sample establish the preferential direction of heat transfer. To achieve a scaffold with a desirable microstructure for skin tissue engineering, freeze-drying method was modified by controlling the rate of cooling and regulation of heat transfer across the sample during the freezing step. It could create a homogeneous porous structure with more equiaxed non-oriented pores. Freezing the polymeric solution in the aluminum mold enhanced pore interconnectivity relative to the polystyrene mold. Recrystallization process was discussed how to influence the mean pore size of the scaffold when the final freezing temperature varied. Higher final freezing temperature can easily provide the energy required for the recrystallization process, which lead to enlarged ice crystals and resulting pores.

  7. Dermal CD271+ Cells are Closely Associated with Regeneration of the Dermis in the Wound Healing Process.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Yohei; Hasebe, Yuichi; Hasegawa, Seiji; Nakata, Satoru; Yagami, Akiko; Matsunaga, Kayoko; Sugiura, Kazumitsu; Akamatsu, Hirohiko

    2017-05-08

    Stem cells have recently been shown to play important roles in wound healing. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of dermal CD271+ cells in wound healing. Full-thickness wounds were produced on the backs of 5-year-old and 24-week-old mice, and time-course of wound closure, CD271+ cell counts, and gene expression levels were compared. Delayed wound healing was observed in 24-week-old mice. The peak of CD271+ cell increase was delayed in 24-week-old mice, and gene expression levels of growth factors in wounded tissue were significantly increased in 5-year-old mice. Dermal CD271+ cells purified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) expressed higher growth factors than CD271- cells, suggesting that CD271+ cells play important roles by producing growth factors. This study also investigated dermal CD271+ cells in patients with chronic skin ulcers. Dermal CD271+ cells in patients were significantly reduced compared with in healthy controls. Thus, dermal CD271+ cells are closely associated with wound healing.

  8. Comparison of pigment cell ultrastructure and organisation in the dermis of marble trout and brown trout, and first description of erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids.

    PubMed

    Djurdjevič, Ida; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Sušnik Bajec, Simona

    2015-11-01

    Skin pigmentation in animals is an important trait with many functions. The present study focused on two closely related salmonid species, marble trout (Salmo marmoratus) and brown trout (S. trutta), which display an uncommon labyrinthine (marble-like) and spot skin pattern, respectively. To determine the role of chromatophore type in the different formation of skin pigment patterns in the two species, the distribution and ultrastructure of chromatophores was examined with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The presence of three types of chromatophores in trout skin was confirmed: melanophores; xanthophores; and iridophores. In addition, using correlative microscopy, erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids was described for the first time. Two types of erythrophores are distinguished, both located exclusively in the skin of brown trout: type 1 in black spot skin sections similar to xanthophores; and type 2 with a unique ultrastructure, located only in red spot skin sections. Morphologically, the difference between the light and dark pigmentation of trout skin depends primarily on the position and density of melanophores, in the dark region covering other chromatophores, and in the light region with the iridophores and xanthophores usually exposed. With larger amounts of melanophores, absence of xanthophores and presence of erythrophores type 1 and type L iridophores in the black spot compared with the light regions and the presence of erythrophores type 2 in the red spot, a higher level of pigment cell organisation in the skin of brown trout compared with that of marble trout was demonstrated. Even though the skin regions with chromatophores were well defined, not all the chromatophores were in direct contact, either homophilically or heterophilically, with each other. In addition to short-range interactions, an important role of the cellular environment and long-range interactions between chromatophores in promoting adult pigment pattern formation of trout are proposed. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  9. Experimental study on repairing of nude mice skin defects with composite skin consisting of xenogeneic dermis and epidermal stem cells and hair follicle dermal papilla cells.

    PubMed

    Qi, Shao-Hai; Liu, Po; Xie, Ju-Lin; Shu, Bin; Xu, Ying-Bin; Ke, Chang-Neng; Liu, Xu-Sheng; Li, Tian-Zeng

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the influence of hair follicle dermal papilla cells (DPCs) on biological features of composite skin. In the test group, xenogeneic acellular dermal matrix was employed as the frame, DPCs were seeded on the subcutaneous side, and epithelial stem cells onto the dermal papilla side of the dermal frame so as to construct a composite skin. In the control group, there was no DPC in the frame. The two kinds of composite skin were employed to cover skin defects on the back of the nude mice. Wound healing was observed 4 weeks after grafting and area was analyzed and contraction rate was calculated. The tissue samples in the grafted area were harvested for HE staining and the state of the composite skin was observed. The stress-strain curve of the sampled skin was measured, so as to calculate the maximal breaking power of the sample. The data were collected and statistically analyzed. HE staining indicated that the epithelial depth was increased (more than 10 layers of cells) in test group, with only 6-7 layers in control group. The skin contraction rate in test group on the 4th week after skin grafting (3.94+/-0.013)% was much lower than that in control group (29.07+/-0.018)% (P<0.05). It was indicated by biomechanical test that the stress-strain curve of the composite skin in the test group was closer to that of normal nude mice skin in comparison to that in control group. The maximal breaking force of the composite skin in test group was (1.835+/-0.035)N (Newton), while that in control group was (1.075+/-0.065)N (P<0.01). Reconstruction of epidermis in composite skin was promoted by dermal DPCs seeded in the dermal matrix frame. As a result, there was less skin contraction in the composite skin with DPCs, so that the biological characteristics of the skin were improved.

  10. Photobiomodulation for the management of radiation dermatitis: the DERMIS trial, a pilot study of MLS(®) laser therapy in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Censabella, Sandrine; Claes, Stefan; Robijns, Jolien; Bulens, Paul; Mebis, Jeroen

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and acceptability of photobiomodulation using MLS(®) laser therapy (LT) in the management of acute radiation dermatitis (RD). We compared two successive groups of breast cancer patients undergoing identical radiotherapy regimens post-lumpectomy. Both groups received our standard skin care but the second group received six additional LT sessions (beam area 19.635 cm(2), 0.168 W/cm(2), 4 J/cm(2)), starting at fraction 20 of radiotherapy (control and LT group, N = 41 and 38, respectively). The clinical outcomes were the severity of RD (using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] criteria and the Radiotherapy-Induced Skin Reaction Assessment Scale [RISRAS]) and dermatology-specific quality of life (Skindex-16) before the start of LT and at the end of radiotherapy. Secondary outcomes were patients' ratings of skin care or LT (pleasantness, soothing effect, and global satisfaction). Skin toxicity was equivalent between the groups before the start of LT but significantly differed at the end of radiotherapy, with an aggravation in the control but not in the LT group (e.g., 29 versus 3 % of RTOG grade 2 RD, respectively, P < 0.005). We found no significant group differences with respect to quality of life. However, the RISRAS subjective score decreased in the LT group only, implying a decreased impact of RD on patients' quality of life. Finally, patients' ratings were significantly higher for LT than for standard care. These findings suggest that LT might be effective to manage acute RD and warrant further research. NCT01932073. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01932073 .

  11. Effects of a skin-massaging device on the ex-vivo expression of human dermis proteins and in-vivo facial wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Caberlotto, Elisa; Ruiz, Laetitia; Miller, Zane; Poletti, Mickael; Tadlock, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical and geometrical cues influence cell behaviour. At the tissue level, almost all organs exhibit immediate mechanical responsiveness, in particular by increasing their stiffness in direct proportion to an applied mechanical stress. It was recently shown in cultured-cell models, in particular with fibroblasts, that the frequency of the applied stress is a fundamental stimulating parameter. However, the influence of the stimulus frequency at the tissue level has remained elusive. Using a device to deliver an oscillating torque that generates cyclic strain at different frequencies, we studied the effect(s) of mild skin massage in an ex vivo model and in vivo. Skin explants were maintained ex vivo for 10 days and massaged twice daily for one minute at various frequencies within the range of 65-85 Hz. Biopsies were analysed at D0, D5 and D10 and processed for immuno-histological staining specific to various dermal proteins. As compared to untreated skin explants, the massaging procedure clearly led to higher rates of expression, in particular for decorin, fibrillin, tropoelastin, and procollagen-1. The mechanical stimulus thus evoked an anti-aging response. Strikingly, the expression was found to depend on the stimulus frequency with maximum expression at 75Hz. We then tested whether this mechanical stimulus had an anti-aging effect in vivo. Twenty Caucasian women (aged 65-75y) applied a commercial anti-aging cream to the face and neck, followed by daily treatments using the anti-aging massage device for 8 weeks. A control group of twenty-two women, with similar ages to the first group, applied the cream alone. At W0, W4 and W8, a blinded evaluator assessed the global facial wrinkles, skin texture, lip area, cheek wrinkles, neck sagging and neck texture using a clinical grading scale. We found that combining the massaging device with a skin anti-aging formulation amplified the beneficial effects of the cream.

  12. Effects of a skin-massaging device on the ex-vivo expression of human dermis proteins and in-vivo facial wrinkles

    PubMed Central

    Caberlotto, Elisa; Ruiz, Laetitia; Miller, Zane; Poletti, Mickael; Tadlock, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical and geometrical cues influence cell behaviour. At the tissue level, almost all organs exhibit immediate mechanical responsiveness, in particular by increasing their stiffness in direct proportion to an applied mechanical stress. It was recently shown in cultured-cell models, in particular with fibroblasts, that the frequency of the applied stress is a fundamental stimulating parameter. However, the influence of the stimulus frequency at the tissue level has remained elusive. Using a device to deliver an oscillating torque that generates cyclic strain at different frequencies, we studied the effect(s) of mild skin massage in an ex vivo model and in vivo. Skin explants were maintained ex vivo for 10 days and massaged twice daily for one minute at various frequencies within the range of 65–85 Hz. Biopsies were analysed at D0, D5 and D10 and processed for immuno-histological staining specific to various dermal proteins. As compared to untreated skin explants, the massaging procedure clearly led to higher rates of expression, in particular for decorin, fibrillin, tropoelastin, and procollagen-1. The mechanical stimulus thus evoked an anti-aging response. Strikingly, the expression was found to depend on the stimulus frequency with maximum expression at 75Hz. We then tested whether this mechanical stimulus had an anti-aging effect in vivo. Twenty Caucasian women (aged 65-75y) applied a commercial anti-aging cream to the face and neck, followed by daily treatments using the anti-aging massage device for 8 weeks. A control group of twenty-two women, with similar ages to the first group, applied the cream alone. At W0, W4 and W8, a blinded evaluator assessed the global facial wrinkles, skin texture, lip area, cheek wrinkles, neck sagging and neck texture using a clinical grading scale. We found that combining the massaging device with a skin anti-aging formulation amplified the beneficial effects of the cream. PMID:28249037

  13. Human epithelial cells induce human melanocyte growth in vitro but only skin keratinocytes regulate its proper differentiation in the absence of dermis

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Human keratinocytes isolated from a skin biopsy and cultured in vitro reconstitute a stratified squamous epithelium suitable for grafting on burned patients. Melanocytes coisolated from the same skin biopsy also proliferate under these culture conditions and maintain differentiated functions (i.e., synthesize melanin granules, regularly intersperse in the basal layer of the cultured epidermis, and transfer melanosomes in the cytoplasm of contiguous keratinocytes) (De Luca, M., A. T. Franzi, F. D'Anna, A. Zicca, E. Albanese, S. Bondanza, and R. Cancedda. 1988. Eur. J. Cell Biol. 46:176-180). Isolated melanocytes in culture grow in the presence of specific growth factors with a mean population doubling time of 4-10 d. In this paper we show that (a) human keratinocytes and oral epithelial cells possess strong and specific melanocyte growth stimulating activity (doubling time, 24 h); (b) melanocyte growth is not autonomous but requires close keratinocyte contact and is regulated to maintain a physiological melanocytes/keratinocytes ratiol and (c) pure skin keratinocytes, but not oral epithelial cells, have all the information required for the proper physiological location and differentiation of melanocytes in the epidermis. PMID:2460471

  14. Age, Segment, and Horn Disease Affect Expression of Cytokines, Growth Factors and Receptors in the Epidermis and Dermis of the Bovine Claw

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in amounts of RNA expression for growth factors, cytokines and receptors in epidermal-dermal tissues of the bovine claw relative to host age, claw region and disease state of the horn. Epidermal-dermal tissues were collected from the coronette, wall, sole...

  15. Porcine Dermis Patch Augmentation of Supraspinatus Tendon Repairs: A Pilot Study Assessing Tendon Integrity and Shoulder Function 2 Years After Arthroscopic Repair in Patients Aged 60 Years or Older.

    PubMed

    Flury, Matthias; Rickenbacher, Dominik; Jung, Christian; Schneider, Marco M; Endell, David; Audigé, Laurent

    2017-08-16

    To investigate the 2-year postoperative clinical and subjective outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR) with xenologous porcine dermal patch augmentation compared with ARCR alone. Patients aged 60 years or older with a complete supraspinatus (SSP) tendon tear underwent primary ARCR with a transosseous-equivalent technique. By use of a matched-pair comparative trial design, a consecutive series of 20 patients receiving additional xenologous porcine dermal patch augmentation (patch group) was matched by tear location with 20 patients who received ARCR only (control group). Prior conservative treatment failed in all patients. Patients with concomitant pathologies precluding accurate repair assessment, partial or open reconstruction, or a latissimus dorsi and/or pectoralis major muscle transfer were excluded. Patients reported daily pain levels for 10 days after surgery. Clinical parameters and various patient-reported outcome scores were documented preoperatively and at 3, 6, and 24 months after surgery. Repair integrity was determined by magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound at 24 months. Adverse events were recorded. Group outcome differences were analyzed with t tests, Fisher exact tests, and mixed models. Patients in both groups were aged 67 years on average (range, 60-74 years), and 70% of patients were men. Patients in the patch group had slightly more SSP fatty infiltration preoperatively. Patch surgical procedures were on average 22 minutes longer than control interventions (P = .003). At 24 months, 4 patients and 9 patients were diagnosed with a recurrent SSP tendon defect in the control group (n = 20) and patch group (n = 19), respectively (relative risk, 2.4; P = .096). Of 11 defects (85%) identified as medial cuff failure, 8 occurred in the patch group. Pain rated by all patients decreased from postoperative day 1 to day 10 without any significant group difference (P = .348). No significant group differences were noted for other outcome parameters, and recurrent defects had no relevant effect on functional outcomes. Local complications (including recurrent defects) occurred in 8 patients in the control group and 12 in the patch group (P = .343). Our pilot study supports the view that an SSP tear repair with porcine dermal xenograft augmentation does not benefit patients in terms of reducing the risk of a recurrent tendon defect or improving shoulder function up to 24 months after surgical repair. Level III, therapeutic study, retrospective comparative trial. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Single-stage application of a novel decellularized dermis for treatment-resistant lower limb ulcers: positive outcomes assessed by SIAscopy, laser perfusion, and 3D imaging, with sequential timed histological analysis.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Nicholas S; Benatar, Brian; Baguneid, Mohamed; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2013-01-01

    We present results of an original clinical study investigating efficacy of a decellularized dermal skin substitute (DCD) as part of a one-stage therapeutic strategy for recalcitrant leg ulcers. Twenty patients with treatment-resistant ulcers underwent hydrosurgical debridement, after which DCD was applied and covered with negative pressure dressings for 1 week. Participants were reviewed on seven occasions over 6 months. 3D photography, full-field laser perfusion imaging, spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis, and sequential biopsies were used to monitor healing. Mean ulcer duration and surface area prior to DCD placement were 4.76 years (range 0.25-40 years) and 13.11 cm(2) (range 1.06-40.75 cm(2)), respectively. Seventy percent of ulcers were venous. Surface area decreased in all patients after treatment (range 23-100%). Mean reduction was 87% after 6 months, and 60% of patients healed completely. Wound bed hemoglobin flux increased significantly 6 weeks after treatment (p = 0.005). Histological and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed progressive DCD integration with colonization by host fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and neutrophils, resulting in fibroplasia, reepithelialisation, and angiogenesis, with correlating raised CD31, collagen I, and collagen III levels. Subgroup analysis showed differing cellular behavior depending on wound duration, with delayed angiogenesis, reduced collagen deposition, and smaller reductions in surface area in ulcers present for over 1 year. The stain intensities of immunohistochemical markers including fibronectin, collagen, and CD31 differed depending on depth from the wound surface and presence of intact epithelium. DCD safely produced significant improvement in treatment-resistant leg ulcers. With no requirement for hospital admission, anesthetic, or autogenic skin grafting, this treatment could be administered in hospital and community settings. © 2013 by the Wound Healing Society.

  17. Exposure of bovine dermal tissue to ultraviolet light under the Antarctic ozone hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Tetsuya; Ogura, Takayuki; Tanaka, Keisuke; Hattori, Shunji; Kudoh, Sakae; Imura, Satoshi

    2016-12-01

    Bovine dermis was exposed outdoors in the Antarctic in 2013 to study the skin damage caused by short-wavelength ultraviolet light under the ozone hole. Collagen was extracted from the exposed dermis with pepsin. The amount of solubilized collagen in the exposed dermis was only 20%-40% of that in dermis shielded from ultraviolet light. The dermis was most difficult to extract when exposed in summer, and then when exposed in spring. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine the melting endothermic behavior of the dermal tissue. The peak temperature was highest for the dermis exposed in summer. The exposed dermis was degraded with cyanogen bromide to determine whether cross-linking had occurred. Cross-linked peptides were detected in the dermis exposed in summer or spring, but the dermis exposed in autumn did not differ markedly from the light-shielded dermis. These data show that cross-linkages were readily formed in the collagen molecule chains in dermis exposed to ultraviolet light in summer, when solar elevation is highest and the period of sunshine is longest. A comparison of the dermis exposed in spring and that exposed in autumn showed that cross-linkages were formed more readily by ultraviolet light in spring, when the ozone hole occurred.

  18. Basic histological structure and functions of facial skin.

    PubMed

    Arda, Oktay; Göksügür, Nadir; Tüzün, Yalçın

    2014-01-01

    The skin and its appendages that derive from the epidermis (hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, nails, and mammary glands) establish the integumentary system. Histologically, skin has two main layers-the epidermis and the dermis-with a subcutaneous fascia called the hypodermis, which lies deep in the dermis. The epidermis is formed of four to five layers of cells made mostly out of keratinocytes, along with three other different and less abundant cells. The dermis underlies the epidermis. The hypodermis is a looser connective tissue that is located beneath the dermis. It blends to the dermis with an unclear boundary.

  19. A blanching technique for intradermal injection of the hyaluronic acid Belotero.

    PubMed

    Micheels, Patrick; Sarazin, Didier; Besse, Stéphanie; Sundaram, Hema; Flynn, Timothy C

    2013-10-01

    With the proliferation of dermal fillers in the aesthetic workplace have come instructions from various manufacturers regarding dermal placement. Determination of injection needle location in the dermis has in large part been based on physician expertise, product and needle familiarity, and patient-specific skin characteristics. An understanding of the precise depth of dermal structures may help practitioners improve injection specificity. Unlike other dermal fillers that suggest intradermal and deep dermal injection planes, a new hyaluronic acid with a cohesive polydensified matrix may be more appropriate for the superficial dermis because of its structure and its high degree of integration into the dermis. To that end, the authors designed a small study to quantify the depth of the superficial dermis by means of ultrasound and histology. Using ultrasound resources, the authors determined the depths of the epidermis, the dermis, and the reticular dermis in the buttocks of six patients; the authors then extrapolated the depth of the superficial reticular dermis. Histologic studies of two of the patients showed full integration of the product in the reticular dermis. Following determination of injection depths and filler integration, the authors describe a technique ("blanching") for injection of the cohesive polydensified matrix hyaluronic acid into the superficial dermis. At this time, blanching is appropriate only for injection of the cohesive polydensified matrix hyaluronic acid known as Belotero Balance in the United States, although it may have applications for other hyaluronic acid products outside of the United States.

  20. Softenin, a Novel Protein That Softens the Connective Tissue of Sea Cucumbers through Inhibiting Interaction between Collagen Fibrils

    PubMed Central

    Takehana, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Akira; Tamori, Masaki; Motokawa, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    The dermis in the holothurian body wall is a typical catch connective tissue or mutable collagenous tissue that shows rapid changes in stiffness. Some chemical factors that change the stiffness of the tissue were found in previous studies, but the molecular mechanisms of the changes are not yet fully understood. Detection of factors that change the stiffness by working directly on the extracellular matrix was vital to clarify the mechanisms of the change. We isolated from the body wall of the sea cucumber Stichopus chloronotus a novel protein, softenin, that softened the body-wall dermis. The apparent molecular mass was 20 kDa. The N-terminal sequence of 17 amino acids had low homology to that of known proteins. We performed sequential chemical and physical dissections of the dermis and tested the effects of softenin on each dissection stage by dynamic mechanical tests. Softenin softened Triton-treated dermis whose cells had been disrupted by detergent. The Triton-treated dermis was subjected to repetitive freeze-and-thawing to make Triton-Freeze-Thaw (TFT) dermis that was softer than the Triton-treated dermis, implying that some force-bearing structure had been disrupted by this treatment. TFT dermis was stiffened by tensilin, a stiffening protein of sea cucumbers. Softenin softened the tensilin-stiffened TFT dermis while it had no effect on the TFT dermis without tensilin treatment. We isolated collagen from the dermis. When tensilin was applied to the suspending solution of collagen fibrils, they made a large compact aggregate that was dissolved by the application of softenin or by repetitive freeze-and-thawing. These results strongly suggested that softenin decreased dermal stiffness through inhibiting cross-bridge formation between collagen fibrils; the formation was augmented by tensilin and the bridges were broken by the freeze-thaw treatment. Softenin is thus the first softener of catch connective tissue shown to work on the cross-bridges between

  1. Case study: Epidermoid cyst following percutaneous Topaz coblation for plantar fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kim; Thomson, Allan George; Moir, John Stuart

    2012-03-01

    An epidermoid cyst is formed when there is proliferation of epidermal cells within an area of the dermis. They may be formed by the traumatic implantation of epidermal cells within the dermis as well as many other mechanisms. We present a case of epidermoid cyst formation following Topaz coblation for plantar fasciitis; a complication we believe is yet to be reported in the literature.

  2. Monitoring process of human keloid formation based on second harmonic generation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X. S.; Chen, S.; Chen, J. X.; Zhu, X. Q.; Zheng, L. Q.; Zhuo, S. M.; Wang, D. J.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, the morphological variation of collagen among the whole dermis from keloid tissue was investigated using second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. In the deep dermis of keloids, collagen bundles show apparently regular gap. In the middle dermis, the collagen bundles are randomly oriented and loosely arranged in the pattern of fine mesh while the collagen bundles are organized in a parallel manner in the superficial dermis near the epidermis. The developed parameters COI and BD can be used to further quantitatively describe these changes. Our results demonstrate the potential of SHG microscopy to understand the formation process of human keloid scar at the cellular level through imaging collagen variations in different depth of dermis.

  3. Multiphoton microscopy study of the morphological and quantity changes of collagen and elastic fiber components in keloid disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianxin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Jiang, Xingshan; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zheng, Liqin; Xie, Shusen; Lin, Bifang; Zeng, Haishan

    2011-05-01

    Multiphoton microscopy was used to study the extracellular matrix of keloid at the molecular level without tissue fixation and staining. Direct imaging of collagen and elastin was achieved by second harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence, respectively. The morphology and quantity of collagen and elastin in keloid were characterized and quantitatively analyzed in comparison to normal skin. The study demonstrated that in keloid, collagen content increased in both the upper dermis and the deep dermis, while elastin mostly showed up in the deep dermis and its quantity is higher compared to normal skin. This suggests the possibility that abnormal fibroblasts synthesized an excessive amount of collagen and elastin at the beginning of keloid formation, corresponding to the observed deep dermis, while after a certain time point, the abnormal fibroblast produced mostly collagen, corresponding to the observed upper dermis. The morphology of collagen and elastin in keloid was disrupted and presented different variations. In the deep dermis, elastic fibers showed node structure, while collagen showed obviously regular gaps between adjacent bundles. In the upper dermis, collagen bundles aligned in a preferred direction, while elastin showed as sparse irregular granules. This new molecular information provided fresh insight about the development process of keloid.

  4. Dermascope assisted interactive patient interface for multiple reference optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dsouza, Roshan; Subhash, Hrebesh; Neuhaus, Kai; Hogan, Josh; Wilson, Carol; Leahy, Martin

    2014-02-01

    There has been a growing interest in the development of a low cost depth-resolved non-invasive dermis imaging tool for both clinical and fundamental investigations of skin diseases. Multiple reference optical coherence tomography (MR-OCT) is a recently developed miniature time-domain low coherence interferometeric imaging platform, which promises to fit into robust, cost-effective designs that are virtually solid state, typical of handheld devices. In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility of MR-OCT for dermis imaging applications by incorporating it in a dermascope, which provides simultaneous imaging of dermis and an interactive tool for beam steering and registration of the OCT imaging beam at the dermis area. This allows the user to interactively investigate the depth resolved information of any target position of interest on the dermis by pointing the mouse cursor within the dermis image or selecting the area on a touch screen. Image acquisition is controlled with software that displays both the dermis and MR-OCT axial-scan, and allows detailed information of the depth scan signal to screen for skin disease. We believe this approach will have a significant impact on medical care.

  5. Elemental analysis of tissue pellets for the differentiation of epidermal lesion and normal skin by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Youngmin; Han, Jung Hyun; Shin, Sungho; Kim, Yong-Chul; Jeong, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    By laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis of epidermal lesion and dermis tissue pellets of hairless mouse, it is shown that Ca intensity in the epidermal lesion is higher than that in dermis, whereas Na and K intensities have an opposite tendency. It is demonstrated that epidermal lesion and normal dermis can be differentiated with high selectivity either by univariate or multivariate analysis of LIBS spectra with an intensity ratio difference by factor of 8 or classification accuracy over 0.995, respectively. PMID:27231610

  6. Structure and Function of Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Structure & Function of Your Skin Share | What It Looks Like . . . ... in the dermis. What It Does . . . The major function of skin is to provide a barrier between ...

  7. 40 CFR 157.22 - When required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... irritation persisting for 21 days or more; (5) The pesticide is corrosive to the skin (causes tissue destruction into the dermis and/or scarring) or causes severe skin irritation (severe erythema or edema) at...

  8. 40 CFR 157.22 - When required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... irritation persisting for 21 days or more; (5) The pesticide is corrosive to the skin (causes tissue destruction into the dermis and/or scarring) or causes severe skin irritation (severe erythema or edema) at...

  9. 40 CFR 157.22 - When required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... irritation persisting for 21 days or more; (5) The pesticide is corrosive to the skin (causes tissue destruction into the dermis and/or scarring) or causes severe skin irritation (severe erythema or edema) at...

  10. Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... wear sunscreen and protective clothing, such as a hat, to prevent painful sunburns. Protecting your skin now ... happens in a split second, without you ever thinking about it. previous continue Dermis = Lots of Blood ...

  11. Endemic Scrub Typhus-like Illness, Chile

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Results Dermis and subcutaneous fat showed a necrotizing leukocytoclastic vasculitis , perivascular infi ltrates with lymphocytes and macrophages...eschar on the left leg of patient admitted for treatment of scrub typhus–like symptoms, Chile. A) Leukocytoclastic vasculitis . Hematoxylin and

  12. Augmentation rhinoplasty with soft tissue and cartilage.

    PubMed

    Megumi, Y

    1988-05-01

    Augmentation rhinoplasty using soft tissue and cartilage was performed on 120 patients and the results were reexamined. They were found to be satisfactory and without complication. To narrow a round tip, a resection of two-thirds of the lateral crus cephalad portion and a transection of the caudal portion with a strip resection was done. To elevate the tip, septal cartilage was sutured to one-third of the upper part of medial crus to form a columella cartilage strut. To maintain the strut and to prevent pointing, a fibrous muscle tissue stretching from the medial crus to the upper cartilage or a dermis was transplanted into the area surrounding the septal cartilage tip. For a simple elevation of the dorsum, an onlay graft of dermis was applied, but where further elevation was required, further dermis and conchal cartilage was added for suture and attachment to the dermis.

  13. Papular dermatitis induced in guinea pigs by the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Histological, ultrastructural, and virological examinations were performed on abdominal skin from guinea pigs after a blood meal by colony-bred biting midges, Culicoides sonorensis. Small, superficial, cutaneous, crateriform ulcers with necrosis of superficial dermis developed at feeding sites and ...

  14. Burn, thermal - close-up (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... first degree burns cause only reddening of the epidermis (outer layer of the skin), as seen in this photograph. Second degree burns cause blistering and extend into the dermis (lower layer of skin). Third degree burns cause ...

  15. Oxyhemoglobin photodissociation efficiency in biological tissue exposed to laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barun, V. V.; Ivanov, A. P.

    2011-09-01

    We have obtained quantitative data on the differential (with respect to depth) and the integrated oxyhemoglobin photodissociation efficiency in the dermis when the skin surface is exposed to a light beam in the wavelength range 300-650 nm. With this aim, we have used our own previously developed optical model for skin tissue and analytical procedure for calculating the characteristics of optical fields in a medium. We have estimated the number of oxygen molecules formed at different depths in the medium, and also their integrated number over the entire thickness of the dermis as a function of the irradiation wavelength. We consider models for a dermis that is homogeneous with respect to depth and a dermis that has a layered structure. We show that the spectral photodissociation efficiency has a number of maxima associated with the absorption spectrum of oxyhemoglobin and the optical properties of all the layers of skin tissue. We discuss the effect of the epidermis on these maxima.

  16. Dermal penetration and systemic distribution of sup 14 C-labeled vitamin E human skin grafted athymic nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Klain, G.J.

    1989-03-13

    In vivo percutaneous penetration and tissue distribution of 14C-labeled vitamin E applied to human skin grafted onto athymic nude mice were determined. At 1 hr, mouse skin contained the highest level of radioactivity, followed by the muscle, blood, liver, lung, adipose tissue, spleen, kidney, brain, heart, and eyes. A linear increase with time in tissue radioactivity was observed throughout the 24 hr experimental period. At 4 and 24 hrs skin grafts were highly radioactive. At 4 hrs the epidermis and the upper portion of the dermis contained more radioactivity than the remaining portion of the dermis. In contrast, at 24 hrs the highest level of radioactivity was detected in the lower dermis. No radioactivity was detected in expired air while 0.2% of the dose was found in the urine. The data show that vitamin E does penetrate skin and that the dermis acts as a barrier or reservoir for this highly lipophilic compound.

  17. What Are Wrinkles?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a great job of stretching and holding in moisture. The dermis has an elastic quality thanks to ... skin gets thinner and has trouble getting enough moisture to the epidermis. The fat in the subcutaneous ...

  18. Burns (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... degree burns damage the outer layer of skin (epidermis) and cause pain, redness and swelling (erythema). Second degree burns damage the epidermis and the inner layer, the dermis, causing erythema ...

  19. Ecthyma (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Ecthyma is a skin infection similar to impetigo, but more deeply invasive. Usually caused by a streptococcus infection, ecthyma goes through the outer layer (epidermis) to the deeper layer (dermis) of ...

  20. Study of diffusion of indocyanine green as a photodynamic dye into skin using backscattering spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Genina, E A; Bashkatov, A N; Tuchin, V V

    2014-07-31

    One of the lines of development of modern medicine is theranostics consisting in simultaneous diagnosis and laser treatment with the use of multifunctional agents such as fluorescent indocyanine green that has photodynamic and photothermal properties. Diffusion of indocyanine green dissolved in water and aqueous solutions of alcohols (glycerol, propylene glycol and ethanol) into the dermis is studied by using backscattering spectroscopy. The coefficients of the dye diffusion into the dermis are obtained for the first time by using these solvents. (laser biophotonics)

  1. Targetoid hemosiderotic hemangioma - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Kakizaki, Priscila; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai; Paiva, Daniele Loureiro Mangueira; Dantas, Fernando Luiz Teixeira; Gonçalves, Sheila Viana Castelo Branco

    2014-01-01

    Targetoid Hemosiderotic Hemangioma, also known as Hobnail Hemangioma, is a lesion of vascular origin, probably lymphatic. The most common clinical feature is a solitary violaceous papule surrounded by a pale, thin area and a peripheral ecchymotic ring, simulating a target. Histopathologically, there is a biphasic pattern, with dilated vessels in the superficial dermis and pseudoangiosarcomatous pattern in the deep dermis, and endothelial cells with hobnail morphology. A simple excision is curative. We report a rare case of Targetoid Hemosiderotic Hemangioma. PMID:25387500

  2. Study of diffusion of indocyanine green as a photodynamic dye into skin using backscattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genina, E. A.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2014-07-01

    One of the lines of development of modern medicine is theranostics consisting in simultaneous diagnosis and laser treatment with the use of multifunctional agents such as fluorescent indocyanine green that has photodynamic and photothermal properties. Diffusion of indocyanine green dissolved in water and aqueous solutions of alcohols (glycerol, propylene glycol and ethanol) into the dermis is studied by using backscattering spectroscopy. The coefficients of the dye diffusion into the dermis are obtained for the first time by using these solvents.

  3. The integumentary system: anatomy, physiology and function of skin.

    PubMed

    McLafferty, Ella

    2012-09-19

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, examines the anatomy and physiology of skin, also termed the integumentary system. Skin is composed of two main layers, the epidermis and dermis. The structure of the epidermis and dermis are described and their functions are discussed. Accessory structures, such as nails and hair are also considered. Although many diseases of the skin exist, two common conditions - psoriasis and decubitus ulcers - are described in this article.

  4. The integumentary system: anatomy, physiology and function of skin.

    PubMed

    McLafferty, Ella; Hendry, Charles; Alistair, Farley

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, examines the anatomy and physiology of skin, also termed the integumentary system. Skin is composed of two main layers, the epidermis and dermis. The structure of the epidermis and dermis are described and their functions are discussed. Accessory structures, such as nails and hair are also considered. Although many diseases of the skin exist, two common conditions--psoriasis and decubitus ulcers--are described in this article.

  5. Angiogenic Signaling in Living Breast Tumor Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    harmonic generation imaging of the diseased state osteogenesis imperfecta : experiment and simulation,” Biophys. J. 94(11), 4504–4514 (2008). 3. O...biopsies, mouse models of breast cancer, and dermis from mouse models of Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OIM) [1–5,7]. The F/B ratio revealed the length scale of...interest in discriminating skin with Osteogenesis Imperfecta [2] from normal dermis [2] and SHG F/B ratio measurements have been used to help determine

  6. Progressive loss of lymphatic vessels in skin of patients with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Manetti, Mirko; Milia, Anna Franca; Guiducci, Serena; Romano, Eloisa; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Ibba-Manneschi, Lidia

    2011-02-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by microvascular and fibrotic changes in the skin and internal organs. The role of blood vessel dysfunction in the pathogenesis of SSc has been extensively investigated, but few studies have addressed the involvement of the lymphatic vascular system. Our aim was to evaluate dermal lymphatic vessels in patients with SSc according to different phases of skin involvement. Skin biopsies were obtained from the forearm of 25 SSc patients (10 early/15 late-stage disease) and 13 healthy controls. Skin sections were immunostained for podoplanin (D2-40), which is selectively expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells, and examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Lymphatic vessels were counted in the papillary and reticular dermis. Data were analyzed using Student's t test. The number of lymphatic vessels was significantly reduced in the papillary and reticular dermis of SSc patients compared with controls. In early SSc, lymphatic vessel counts were not different from controls in the papillary dermis, and showed a trend toward a reduction in the reticular dermis. In late SSc, a significant reduction in lymphatic vessels compared with controls was found in both the papillary and reticular dermis. The number of lymphatic vessels in the papillary dermis of late SSc was significantly lower than in early SSc. In SSc, lymphatic microangiopathy is linked to the progression of skin involvement. The progressive disappearance of lymphatic vessels may have a critical pathogenetic role in the progression of SSc from an early edematous phase to overt fibrosis.

  7. Histological Comparison of the Human Trunk Skin Creases: The Role of the Elastic Fiber Component

    PubMed Central

    Kakagia, Despoina; Yiacoumettis, Andreas; Vasilakaki, Thivi; Drougou, Aggeliki; Lambropoulou, Maria; Simopoulos, Constantinos; Tsaroucha, Alexandra K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Skin creases are features of major anatomical, morphological, surgical, and functional interest. This study focuses on the histological comparison of creases of the trunk and participation of the elastic fibers in their formation. The histological structure is a key consideration for the reconstructive planning of the relevant area and its knowledge may contribute in such direction. Methods: Fresh cadaver specimens were collected from the inframammary (n = 15), infragluteal (n = 16), and inguinal creases (n = 14), the anterior axillary fold (n = 14), and the surrounding skin (n = 10). Specimens were fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde. Collagen and muscle fibers were stained by Masson Trichrome and Van Gieson stains, reticular and collagen type III fibers by Reticulin stain, and elastic fibers by Verhoef and Orcein stains. Results: Skin creases of the trunk present well-defined dense bundles of collagen fibers, creating a beehive pattern with broad attachment to the dermis and denser in deeper sites related to the fascia of the underlying muscle. The elastic fibers participate in the collagen pattern and radiate in a parallel pattern in the reticular dermis and in a perpendicular fashion in the papillary dermis. The skin surrounding the creases lacks such organization. Conclusions: Creases of the trunk are formed by well-organized collagen bundles in a beehive pattern, attached to the dermis and related to the underlying muscle fascia. The elastic fibers participate in this structure and radiate in a parallel fashion in the reticular dermis and perpendicularly in the papillary dermis. PMID:27081433

  8. The expression of the homeobox gene Msx1 reveals two populations of dermal progenitor cells originating from the somites.

    PubMed

    Houzelstein, D; Chéraud, Y; Auda-Boucher, G; Fontaine-Pérus, J; Robert, B

    2000-05-01

    Experimental manipulation in birds has shown that trunk dermis has a double origin: dorsally, it derives from the somite dermomyotome, while ventrally, it is formed by the somatopleure. Taking advantage of an nlacZ reporter gene integrated into the mouse Msx1 locus (Msx1(nlacZ) allele), we detected segmental expression of the Msx1 gene in cells of the dorsal mesenchyme of the trunk between embryonic days 11 and 14. Replacing somites from a chick host embryo by murine Msx1(nlacZ )somites allowed us to demonstrate that these Msx1-(beta)-galactosidase positive cells are of somitic origin. We propose that these cells are dermal progenitor cells that migrate from the somites and subsequently contribute to the dorsalmost dermis. By analysing Msx1(nlacZ) expression in a Splotch mutant, we observed that migration of these cells does not depend on Pax3, in contrast to other migratory populations such as limb muscle progenitor cells and neural crest cells. Msx1 expression was never detected in cells overlying the dermomyotome, although these cells are also of somitic origin. Therefore, we propose that two somite-derived populations of dermis progenitor cells can be distinguished. Cells expressing the Msx1 gene would migrate from the somite and contribute to the dermis of the dorsalmost trunk region. A second population of cells would disaggregate from the somite and contribute to the dermis overlying the dermomyotome. This population never expresses Msx1. Msx1 expression was investigated in the context of the onset of dermis formation monitored by the Dermo1 gene expression. The gene is downregulated prior to the onset of dermis differentiation, suggesting a role for Msx1 in the control of this process.

  9. Ultrastructural Changes Associated with Reversible Stiffening in Catch Connective Tissue of Sea Cucumbers

    PubMed Central

    Tamori, Masaki; Ishida, Kinji; Matsuura, Eri; Ogasawara, Katsutoshi; Hanasaka, Tomohito; Takehana, Yasuhiro; Motokawa, Tatsuo; Osawa, Tokuji

    2016-01-01

    The dermis of sea cucumbers is a catch connective tissue or a mutable collagenous tissue that shows rapid, large and reversible stiffness changes in response to stimulation. The main component of the dermis is the extracellular material composed of collagen fibrils embedded in a hydrogel of proteoglycans. The stiffness of the extracellular material determines that of the dermis. The dermis has three mechanical states: soft (Sa), standard (Sb) and stiff (Sc). We studied the ultrastructural changes associated with the stiffness changes. Transverse sections of collagen fibrils in the dermis showed irregular perimeters with electron-dense protrusions or arms that cross-bridged between fibrils. The number of cross-bridges increased in stiffer dermis. The distance between the fibrils was shorter in Sc than that in other states, which was in accord with the previous report that water exuded from the tissue in the transition Sb→Sc. The ultrastructure of collagen fibrils that had been isolated from the dermis was also studied. Fibrils aggregated by tensilin, which causes the transition Sa→Sb possibly through an increase in cohesive forces between fibrils, had larger diameter than those dispersed by softenin, which antagonizes the effect of tensilin. No cross-bridges were found in isolated collagen fibrils. From the present ultrastructural study we propose that three different mechanisms work together to increase the dermal stiffness. 1.Tensilin makes collagen fibrils stronger and stiffer in Sa→Sb through an increase in cohesive forces between subfibrils that constituted fibrils; 2. Cross-bridging by arms caused the fibrils to be a continuous network of bundles both in Sa→Sb and in Sb→Sc; 3. The matrix embedding the fibril network became stiffer in Sb→Sc, which was produced by bonding associated with water exudation. PMID:27192546

  10. Up-regulation of cutaneous α1-adrenoceptors after a burn.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Peter D; Dawson, Linda F; Finch, Philip M; Drummond, Eleanor S; Wood, Fiona M; Fear, Mark W

    2015-09-01

    Stimulation of α1-adrenoceptors evokes inflammatory cytokine production, boosts neurogenic inflammation and pain, and influences cellular migration and proliferation. As expression of α1-adrenoceptors increases on dermal nerves and keratinocytes after peripheral nerve injury, the aim of this study was to determine whether another form of tissue injury (a cutaneous burn) triggered a similar response. In particular, changes in expression of α1-adrenoceptors were investigated on dermal nerve fibres, keratinocytes and fibroblast-like cells using immunohistochemistry 2-12 weeks after a full thickness burn in Wistar rats. Within two weeks of the burn, local increases in α1-adrenoceptor expression were seen in the re-forming epidermis, in dense bands of spindle-shaped cells in the upper dermis (putatively infiltrating immune cells and fibroblasts), and on nerve fibres in the deep dermis. In addition, nerve fibre density increased approximately three-fold in the deep dermis, and this response persisted for several more weeks. In contrast, α1-adrenoceptor labelled cells and staining intensity in the upper dermis decreased contralateral to the burn, as did nerve fibre density in the deep dermis. These findings suggest that inflammatory mediators and/or growth factors at the site of a burn trigger the synthesis of α1-adrenoceptors on resident epidermal cells and nerve fibres, and an influx of α1-adrenoceptor labelled cells. The heightened expression of α1-adrenoceptors in injured tissue could shape inflammatory and wound healing responses.

  11. Ultraviolet B radiation increases hairless mouse mast cells in a dose-dependent manner and alters distribution of UV-induced mast cell growth factor.

    PubMed

    Kligman, L H; Murphy, G F

    1996-01-01

    In studies of the effects of chronic UVB irradiation on dermal connective tissue in the hairless mouse, we observed that the number and size of mast cells was increased. Because mast cells are known to be associated with connective tissue remodeling, we examined and quantified the effect of increasing UVB (290-320 nm) doses on this cell. Groups of mice were exposed to filtered FS-40 Westinghouse lamps (290-400 nm: peak irradiance 313 nm) for 1-5 minimal erythema doses (MED) thrice weekly for 10 weeks. Appropriate controls were included. Biopsies, processed for light microscopy, were stained with toluidine blue. Mast cells were counted in 15 high-magnification fields per specimen with upper and lower dermis scored separately. Significant increases in large densely granular mast cells occurred at 2 MED in the lower dermis, in association with a UVB-exacerbated granulomatous reaction. In the upper dermis, mast cells were significantly increased with 3 MED. These findings suggest that mast cells may play a dual role in UV-irradiated skin with those in the lower dermis related to inflammation processes and those in the upper dermis involved in connective tissue modeling. To gain understanding of the mechanism of mast cell recruitment and maturation, we examined the effect of UVB on mast cell growth factor expression. This was enhanced in the epidermis by UVB, with a shift from cytoplasmic staining to membrane-associated or intercellular staining at 2 MED and higher. Dermal dendritic and mononuclear cells also showed increased reactivity.

  12. Technical parameters of vertical in vivo multiphoton microscopy: a critical evaluation of the flyscanning method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czekalla, C.; Schönborn, K. H.; Markworth, S.; Ulrich, M.; Göppner, D.; Gollnick, H.; Röwert-Huber, J.; Darvin, M. E.; Lademann, J.; Meinke, M. C.

    2015-08-01

    The optical biopsy could be a quick and painless support or alternative to a punch biopsy. In this letter the first in vivo vertical wide field two photon microscopy (2PM) images of healthy volunteers are shown. The 2PM images are fused images of two photon excited auto fluorescence (AF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) signals given as false-color images of 200 μm  ×  7 mm in size. By using these two nonlinear effects, the epidermis can be easily distinguished from the dermis at a glance. The auto fluorescence provides cellular resolution of the epidermal cells, and elastin fibers are partly visible in the dermis. Collagen, visible by SHG signal, is the dominant structure in the dermis. As contact agent water was evaluated to increase the AF signal, especially in the deeper layers of epidermis and dermis. For further improvement any terminal hairs should be removed by shaving and by taking tape strips of the first five layers of the stratum corneum. The first images illustrated that young skin compared to aged skin shows remarkably different dermal elastin and collagen signals in the dermis.

  13. Specificity of dermal mucin in the diagnosis of lupus erythematosus: comparison with other dermatitides and normal skin.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Jeremy G; Chan, May P

    2015-10-01

    Increased dermal mucin is a feature of lupus erythematosus (LE); however, its amount and distribution have not been well characterized. The differentiation of LE from other forms of dermatitis can be challenging when other features of LE are subtle or equivocal. One hundred and thirty-five skin specimens showing LE, graft vs. host disease, erythema multiforme/fixed drug eruption, lichen planus, polymorphous light eruption (PMLE), urticaria, eczematous dermatitis and psoriasis and normal skin with and without photodamage were collected. The amounts of mucin in the papillary, superficial reticular and deep reticular dermis were scored from 0 to 3 on hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and alcian blue (AB) stains, and compared between groups. The mean scores in the reticular dermis were significantly higher in LE than in other categories except PMLE and eczematous dermatitis. A combined H&E + AB score of ≥5 in the superficial reticular dermis gave an overall specificity of 85.7% for LE. Mucin in the papillary dermis failed to distinguish among entities. Normal photodamaged skin showed significantly more mucin in the superficial reticular dermis compared to non-photodamaged skin. While LE is associated with increased mucin deposition, scant to moderate amount of mucin alone has limited specificity and is common in other dermatitides or photodamaged skin. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Efficacy of intradermal mesotherapy in cellulite reduction - Conventional and high-frequency ultrasound monitoring results.

    PubMed

    Sylwia, Malinowska; Krzysztof, Mlosek Robert

    2017-10-01

    Cellulite affects the majority of women and is an unacceptable cosmetic defect. Therefore, effective methods for cellulite reduction are being sought. Intradermal mesotherapy is one of such methods. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of intradermal mesotherapy in cellulite reduction, using conventional and high-frequency ultrasound. Twenty-one women with cellulite underwent a series of intradermal mesotherapy procedures. The following parameters were assessed: thickness of epidermis, dermis and hypodermis, echogenicity of dermis and the surface area of serrated hypodermis-dermis junction. Furthermore, the thigh circumference was measured; body mass index and cellulite severity were assessed based on photographs using Nürnberger-Müller's scale. Intradermal mesotherapy reduced severity of cellulite. The surface area of serrated hypodermis-dermis junction and hypodermis thickness decreased significantly as compared to baseline. Cellulite reduction was also confirmed by palpation, decreased thigh circumference and the Nürnberger-Müller's grade. There were no statistically significant changes in epidermis or dermis thickness, body weight and the BMI. Intradermal mesotherapy offers effective cellulite reduction. It is a simple and safe treatment, which makes it popular. Further research in mesotherapy is essential due to a limited number of published studies. Ultrasound is a useful method to monitor intradermal mesotherapy and assess its efficacy.

  15. Fibroblast heterogeneity: more than skin deep.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, J Michael; Caplan, Arnold I

    2004-02-15

    Dermal fibroblasts are a dynamic and diverse population of cells whose functions in skin in many respects remain unknown. Normal adult human skin contains at least three distinct subpopulations of fibroblasts, which occupy unique niches in the dermis. Fibroblasts from each of these niches exhibit distinctive differences when cultured separately. Specific differences in fibroblast physiology are evident in papillary dermal fibroblasts, which reside in the superficial dermis, and reticular fibroblasts, which reside in the deep dermis. Both of these subpopulations of fibroblasts differ from the fibroblasts that are associated with hair follicles. Fibroblasts engage in fibroblast-epidermal interactions during hair development and in interfollicular regions of skin. They also play an important role in cutaneous wound repair and an ever-increasing role in bioengineering of skin. Bioengineered skin currently performs important roles in providing (1) a basic understanding of skin biology, (2) a vehicle for testing topically applied products and (3) a resource for skin replacement.

  16. Monitoring collagen remodeling on opto-thermal response of photoaged skin irradiated by Er:YAG laser with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoman; Wu, Shulian; Li, Hui

    2010-11-01

    The Optical Coherence Tomography technology was used to perform noninvasive cross-sectional imaging of internal structures in photoaged mouse skin irradiated by Er:YAG laser. The mice were irradiated chronically with a steady dose of ultraviolet irradiation. Various laser light doses were irradiated on the back skins of the photoaged mouse. An OCT was used to observe the process of the collagen remodeling in dermis. The relationship between optical characteristic parameter such as attenuation coefficient and light dose was discovered. The total attenuation coefficient increased when the light dose increased. Our findings showed that Er:YAG laser could be used for the symptoms of the photoaged skin with some degree of thermal damage in the dermis, and the OCT could image the progress of collagen remodeling in photoaged mouse dermis. The OCT may be a useful tool for the determination of optimal parameters for laser skin treatment.

  17. Mineralization of elastic fibers and alterations of extracellular matrix in pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Ultrastructure, immunocytochemistry, and X-ray analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, E.R.; Frederickson, R.G.; Mayes, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    Histologic paraffin sections of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE)-involved skin of forearm and axilla were used for histochemistry and immunohistochemical and analytical electron microscopy to study the progressive mineralization in the dermis of patients with PXE. The von Kossa technique identified mineral deposits throughout the reticular PXE dermis. X-ray analysis revealed patterns of calcium and phosphorus deposition in the von Kossa-positive areas, and the immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies identified increased chondroitin-6-sulfate in these areas when compared with normal skin. Scanning transmission electron microscopy observation combined with X-ray dot mapping show calcium and phosphorus to be codistributed within the mineralized area. This study confirms by new methods the increase in chondroitin-6-sulfate, alterations in elastin and collagen, and a high calcium and phosphorus elemental distribution matching the mineralized area in the PXE dermis.

  18. Monte Carlo study of skin optical clearing to enhance light penetration in the tissue: implications for photodynamic therapy of acne vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Genina, Elina A.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Altshuler, Gregory B.; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V.

    2008-06-01

    Result of Monte Carlo simulations of skin optical clearing is presented. The model calculations were carried out with the aim of studying of spectral response of skin under immersion liquids action and calculation of enhancement of light penetration depth. In summary, we have shown that: 1) application of glucose, propylene glycol and glycerol produced significant decrease of light scattering in different skin layers; 2) maximal clearing effect will be obtained in case of optical clearing of skin dermis, however, absorbed light fraction in skin dermis changed insignificantly, independently on clearing agent and place it administration; 3) in contrast to it, the light absorbed fraction in skin adipose layer increased significantly in case of optical clearing of skin dermis. It is very important because it can be used for development of optical methods of obesity treatment; 4) optical clearing of superficial skin layers can be used for decreasing of power of light radiation used for treatment of acne vulgaris.

  19. Ability of transplanted cultured epithelium to respond to dermal papillae.

    PubMed

    Xing, L; Kobayashi, K

    2001-10-01

    Cultured epithelium has been used successfully in the treatment of extensive burns. Regenerated epidermis, however, lacks such as hair follicles and sweat glands that are common in mammalian skin. We attempted to determine whether cultured epithelium could be induced to form hair follicles by dermal papillae, which are most important for the morphogenesis and growth of hair follicles. We cultivated adult rat sole keratinocytes, obtained the cultured epithelium, and prepared recombinants consisting of cultured epithelium and fresh dermal papillae with or without the sole dermis. These recombinants were then transplanted underneath the dermis of the dorsal skin of syngeneic rats or athymic mice. Histologic examination revealed that the transplanted cultured epithelium formed the follicular structures with sebaceous gland-like structure following induction of the dermal papillae, especially when supported by the dermis. We concluded that transplanted cultured epithelium of adult rat sole keratinocytes can respond to growth signals from adult dermal papillae.

  20. In vitro measurement of the mechanical properties of skin by nano/microindentation methods.

    PubMed

    Jee, T; Komvopoulos, K

    2014-03-21

    The elastic behaviors of stratum corneum, viable epidermis, dermis, and whole skin were investigated by nano/microindentation techniques. Insignificant differences in reduced elastic modulus of skin samples obtained from three different porcine breeds revealed breed type independent measurements. The reduced elastic modulus of stratum corneum is shown to be about three orders of magnitude higher than that of dermis. As a result, for relatively shallow and deep indentations, skin elasticity is controlled by that of stratum corneum and dermis, respectively. Skin deformation is interpreted in the context of a layered structure model consisting of a stiff and hard surface layer on a compliant and soft substrate, supported by microscopy observations and indentation measurements. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. In vitro study of indocyanine green solution interaction with skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genina, Elina A.; Kuzmina, Marina Yu.; Pankov, Stanislav S.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2007-05-01

    Absorption properties of Indocyanine Green (ICG) dissolved in both water and 40%-ethanol for potential using in laser selective thermolysis have been researched. Correlation between magnitudes and positions of absorption bands of ICG in dependence on the kind of solvent and concentration of ICG has been studied. Interaction between ICG solutions and rat skin in vitro has been investigated. Shift of the main absorption peaks of ICG solutions in skin has been defined. Such shift is caused by ICG interaction with protein molecules of the stratum corneum and dermis. Diffusion coefficients of ICG in skin have been estimated at diffusion of aqueous solutions through dermis and at diffusion of alcohol solutions through both dermis and epidermis as (7.70+/-2.51)×10 -7, (18.79+/-3.35)×10 -7 and (6.85+/-3.75)×10 -7, respectively.

  2. Evaluation of photoaging in facial skin by multiphoton laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sugata, Keiichi; Osanai, Osamu; Sano, Tomohiko; Takema, Yoshinori

    2011-02-01

    It has been reported that autofluorescence (AF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) generated in the upper dermis are related with skin photoaging. In this study, we assessed the photoaging of facial skin exposed to daily sunlight using in vivo multiphoton laser microscopy to measure AF and SHG. The intensities of AF and SHG in the upper dermis of cheek skin of 56 healthy volunteers aged 20-69 years were measured using a commercially available multiphoton laser microscope (DermaInspect(®) ). Correlations between the photo-signals and volunteer age were calculated. The intensity of SHG and the SHG-to-AF aging index of dermis (SAAID) correlated significantly with age (r=-0.48, -0.67, respectively). Our results suggest that SHG and the SAAID index are useful indicators of facial skin aging in vivo. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. The role of elastin and collagen in cutaneous aging: intrinsic aging versus photoexposure.

    PubMed

    Uitto, Jouni

    2008-02-01

    Cutaneous aging occurs through 2 biologically distinct processes: intrinsic and extrinsic aging. The first is a naturally occurring process that results from slow tissue degeneration. In human dermis, intrinsic aging is characterized by 3 features: atrophy of the dermis due to loss of collagen, degeneration in the elastic fiber network, and loss of hydration. In contrast to intrinsic aging, extrinsic aging is due to environmental factors. Since ultraviolet (UV) exposure is the principal cause of extrinsic aging, it is often referred to as photoaging. At the microscopic level, the distinguishing feature of photoaging is a massive accumulation of elastotic material in the upper and middle dermis, a process termed solar elastosis. Using recombinant DNA technology, it has become possible to demonstrate that UV radiation can activate the human elastin promoter. This provides a mechanism for enhanced elastin biosynthesis, which contributes to the clinical and morphologic changes observed in photoaged skin.

  4. Diffusion of (2-/sup 14/C)diazepam across isolated hairless mouse stratum corneum/epidermal tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, R.L.; Palicharla, P.; Groves, M.J.

    1988-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a method of preparing mouse stratum corneum/epidermal (SCE) tissue without the dermis for use in drug diffusion studies. The diffusion of radiolabeled diazepam across this new preparation has been studied and the effect of the dermis on diffusion evaluated. Incubation of large pieces of mouse skin in a 20mM EDTA, 15 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.2, in normal saline for 3-4 h at 37 degrees C resulted in a tissue which easily separated at the epidermal-dermal junction. The resulting tissue contains stratum corneum and epidermis, which are the same layers used in studies with human skin in vitro. The EDTA treatment did not effect diffusion of (2-/sup 14/C)diazepam across whole mouse skin (SCE and dermis) used as controls. The rate of drug diffusion was greater across SCE than SCE and dermis, however, 0.48-1.12 micrograms/cm2/h versus 0.11-0.52 microgram/cm/h, respectively. The permeability coefficients for mouse SCE ranged from 1.92-4.48 X 10(-2) cm/h. The lag times and diffusion coefficients were 0.36-0.91 h and 0.1-0.6 X 10(-6) cm2/h, respectively. The presence of the dermis decreased the diffusion rate or flux of diazepam. The dermis appears to accumulate drug until it is saturated and then the drug diffuses into the receiving chamber.

  5. Histochemical and immunohistochemical study in melasma: evidence of damage in the basal membrane.

    PubMed

    Torres-Álvarez, Bertha; Mesa-Garza, Iraida G; Castanedo-Cázares, Juan P; Fuentes-Ahumada, Cornelia; Oros-Ovalle, Cuauhtémoc; Navarrete-Solis, Josefina; Moncada, Benjamin

    2011-05-01

    The pathogenesis of melasma has not been clearly elucidated. Using Fontana Masson; diastase-resistant periodic acid-Schiff stains; and immunohistochemistry to stem cell factor (SCF), its receptor c-kit, anti-mast cell tryptase, and anti-collagen type IV antibody, we evaluated melasma lesions and compared them with perilesional skin and photoprotected skin. Samples were taken from lesional and photoprotected nonlesional skin in 24 patients. In other 24 patients, we took biopsies of lesional and perilesional skin. With Fontana Masson, we observed many pigmented basal cells protruding into the dermis of the melasma skin. Periodic acid-Schiff stain and anti-collagen type IV showed damage on the basal membrane in 95.5% and 83%, respectively, in melasma lesion. The immunoreactivity of SCF and the prevalence of mast cells were increased in the dermis of melasma compared with perilesional dermis. The expression of c-kit was significantly increased at lesional epidermis; a frequent protrusion of c-kit-positive basal cells into the dermis was evident in 70% versus that in 29% of perilesional skin. The expression of c-kit was increased at lesional dermis of melasma compared with perilesional skin. We found a low correlation between c-kit expression and prevalence of mast cells; these were increased in melasma skin. The results may suggest a role of SCF, c-kit, and mast cells in the pathogenesis of melasma. We were surprised by the unexpected evidence of damage to basal membrane (BM), which could facilitate the fall or the migration of active melanocytes and melanin into the dermis allowing the constant hyperpigmentation in melasma.

  6. Eosinophilic annular erythema.

    PubMed

    Sempau, Leticia; Larralde, Margarita; Luna, Paula Carolina; Casas, Jose; Staiger, Hernan

    2012-03-15

    Eosinophilic annular erythema is a rare benign recurrent disease, originally described in children, characterized by the recurrent appearance of persistent non-pruritic, urticarial annular lesions. Histologically a perivascular infiltrate composed of lymphocytes and abundant eosinophils in the dermis is exhibited. We report the case of a 15-year-old boy who presented with a 4-year history of recurrent flares of erythematous annular plaques on the trunk and extremities. The lesions resolved spontaneously after 3-5 weeks with no accompanying signs. A biopsy showed a mainly perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate with numerous eosinophils in the dermis.

  7. Linear hyperpigmentation with extensive epidermal apoptosis: a variant of linear lichen planus pigmentosus?

    PubMed

    Akagi, Atsushi; Ohnishi, Yoshihiro; Tajima, Shingo; Ishibashi, Akira

    2004-05-01

    We report 3 female patients who rapidly developed pigmented patches in a linear arrangement. Histologically there was minimum epidermal basal cell damage and bandlike lymphocyte infiltration in the dermis, but focal massive apoptotic materials positively stained with antikeratin antibody were prominently seen in the papillary and subpapillary dermis. We considered these cases as a variant of linear lichen planus pigmentosus with unique histologic change of severe epidermal apoptosis. These histologic features may represent a severe apoptotic change in the end stage of lichenoid tissue reaction.

  8. On The Construction of Models for Electrical Conduction in Biological Tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Aguilar, F.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.; Cordova-Fraga, T.; Rosales-Garcia, J.; Guia-Calderon, M.

    2010-12-07

    Applying RC circuit theory, a theoretical representation for the electrical conduction in a biological multilayer system was developed. In particular an equivalent circuit for the epidermis, dermis and the subcutaneous tissue was constructed. This model includes an equivalent circuit, inside the dermis, in order to model a small formation like tumor. This work shows the feasibility to apply superficial electrodes to detect subcutaneous abnormalities. The behavior of the model is shown in the form of a frequency response chart. The Bode and Nyquist plots are also obtained. This theoretical frame is proposed to be a general treatment to describe the bioelectrical transport in a three layer bioelectrical system.

  9. On The Construction of Models for Electrical Conduction in Biological Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Aguilar, F.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.; Cordova-Fraga, T.; Rosales-García, J.; Guía-Calderón, M.

    2010-12-01

    Applying RC circuit theory, a theoretical representation for the electrical conduction in a biological multilayer system was developed. In particular an equivalent circuit for the epidermis, dermis and the subcutaneous tissue was constructed. This model includes an equivalent circuit, inside the dermis, in order to model a small formation like tumor. This work shows the feasibility to apply superficial electrodes to detect subcutaneous abnormalities. The behavior of the model is shown in the form of a frequency response chart. The Bode and Nyquist plots are also obtained. This theoretical frame is proposed to be a general treatment to describe the bioelectrical transport in a three layer bioelectrical system.

  10. Morphea Simulating Paucibacillary Leprosy Clinically and Histopathologically

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, José Saulo Torres; Cavalcanti, Marília Lopes; Kac, Bernard Kawa; Pires, Claudia Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Clinically and histopathologically paucibacillary leprosy shows similar features with initial morphea. In this case we report a 24 yr-old male patient who presented to our dermatology department with diagnosed paucibacillary leprosy by his local dermatologist, and confirmed by perineurovascular lymphocytic infiltrate in the histopathological exam. On physical examination we found new plaque lesions that were suggestive of morphea with alteration of sensitivity. A new biopsy was performed showing sclerotic superficial dermis with thickening of the collagen bundles in deep dermis and linear arrays lymphocytic infiltrate between the collagen bundles that confirm the diagnosis of morphea. PMID:23372229

  11. Quantitative In Vivo Imaging of Breast Tumor Extracellular Matrix

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    dermis from mouse models of Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OIM) [1–5,7]. The F/B ratio revealed the length scale of ordering in the fibers. In these...imaging of the diseased state osteogenesis imperfecta : experiment and simulation,” Biophys. J. 94(11), 4504–4514 (2008). 3. O. Nadiarnykh, R. B. Lacomb...breast cancer, and dermis from mouse models of Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OIM) [1–5,7]. The F/B ratio revealed the length scale of ordering in the fibers

  12. Response of chromoblastomycosis to voriconazole*

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Alexandre Moretti; Sacht, Gabriely Lessa; de Paula, Lauren Zogbi Pereira; Aseka, Gabriela Kimie; Goetz, Hermann Soares; Gheller, Maicon Felippe; Torraca, Pedro de Freitas Silva

    2016-01-01

    Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic fungal infection of the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue, in which the most common etiologic agent in Brazil is Fonsecaea pedrosoi. In more advanced cases we found many difficulties in their treatment, and therefore, we report a case of extensive and severe chromoblastomycosis, with therapeutical failure of first choice treatments, but good response to voriconazole. PMID:27828652

  13. Base-Level Guide for Electromagnetic Frequency Radiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    64 of an inch (0.4 mm), which in most humans, except for eyelids and babies , avoids the second skin layer (the dermis) where critical structures...half moon , or any other shape imaginable. Round reflectors generally result in symmetrical beam patterns called "pencil beams" with gain about 35-60 dB

  14. Mortality in northern corroboree frog tadpoles (Pseudophryne pengilleyi) associated with Tetrahymena-like infection.

    PubMed

    Holz, P H; Portas, T; Donahoe, S; Crameri, S; Rose, K

    2015-08-01

    Mortality of northern corroboree frog tadpoles and eggs occurred in association with Tetrahymena-like ciliates. The predominant lesions in the tadpoles were inflammation and necrosis of the dermis and skeletal muscle. Some of the egg capsules also contained ciliates, but were overgrown with bacteria and fungi. Disease occurred, secondary to underlying husbandry issues, and resolved following their correction. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  15. Anti-fibrosclerotic effects of shock wave therapy in lipedema and cellulite.

    PubMed

    Siems, Werner; Grune, Tilman; Voss, Peter; Brenke, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    In vivo measurements in 26 female patients with lipedema and cellulite parameters were carried out before and after therapy by means of complex physical decongestive therapy (CPDT) including manual lymph drainage and compression as main components and/or shock wave therapy (SWT). Oxidative stress parameters of blood serum and biomechanic skin properties/smoothening of dermis and hypodermis surface were evaluated. Oxidative stress in lipedema and cellulite was demonstrated by increased serum concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and plasma protein carbonyls compared with healthy control persons. Both MDA and protein carbonyls in blood plasma decreased after serial shock wave application and CPDT. The SWT itself and CPDT itself lead to MDA release from edematous tissue into the plasma. Obviously both therapy types, SWT and CPDT, mitigate oxidative stress in lipedema and cellulite. In parallel SWT improved significantly the biomechanic skin properties leading to smoothening of dermis and hypodermis surface. Significant correlation between MDA depletion of edematous and lipid enriched dermis and improvement of mechanic skin properties was demonstrated. From these findings it is concluded, that a release of lipid peroxidation (LPO) products from edematous dermis is an important sclerosis-preventing effect of SWT and/or CPDT in lipedema and cellulite. Expression of factors stimulating angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis such as VEGF was not induced by SWT and/or CPDT and, therefore, not involved in beneficial effects by SWT and/or CPDT.

  16. Fractional synthesis rates of DNA and protein in rabbit skin are not correlated.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-jun; Chinkes, David L; Wu, Zhanpin; Martini, Wenjun Z; Wolfe, Robert R

    2004-09-01

    We developed a method for measurement of skin DNA synthesis, reflecting cell division, in conscious rabbits by infusing D-[U-(13)C(6)]glucose and L-[(15)N]glycine. Cutaneous protein synthesis was simultaneously measured by infusion of L-[ring-(2)H(5)]phenylalanine. Rabbits were fitted with jugular venous and carotid arterial catheters, and were studied during the infusion of an amino acid solution (10% Travasol). The fractional synthetic rate (FSR) of DNA from the de novo nucleotide synthesis pathway, a reflection of total cell division, was 3.26 +/- 0.59%/d in whole skin and 3.08 +/- 1.86%/d in dermis (P = 0.38). The de novo base synthesis pathway accounted for 76 and 60% of the total DNA FSR in whole skin and dermis, respectively; the contribution from the base salvage pathway was 24% in whole skin and 40% in dermis. The FSR of protein in whole skin was 5.35 +/- 4.42%/d, which was greater (P < 0.05) than that in dermis (2.91 +/- 2.52%/d). The FSRs of DNA and protein were not correlated (P = 0.33), indicating that cell division and protein synthesis are likely regulated by different mechanisms. This new approach enables investigations of metabolic disorders of skin diseases and regulation of skin wound healing by distinguishing the 2 principal components of skin metabolism, which are cell division and protein synthesis.

  17. Immunohistochemical study of specialized nail mesenchyme containing onychofibroblasts in transverse sections of the nail unit.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Youn; Yang, Jun-Mo; Mun, Goo-Hyun; Jang, Kee-Taek; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2011-05-01

    In the frozen longitudinal section of the nail unit, CD10 was previously found in nail mesenchymal cells beneath nail matrix, and we proposed calling the nail mesenchymal cells onychofibroblasts. In this study, to further characterize nail mesenchyme containing onychofibroblasts, we examined the expression of several mesenchymal markers immunohistochemically in transverse paraffin sections of the nail unit. CD10 was strongly expressed in the nail mesenchyme containing onychofibroblasts beneath the nail matrix. However, CD10 was not observed in dermal fibroblasts and surrounding extracellular matrix of the lateral nail fold (LNF), except around blood vessels and eccrine structures. In addition, versican was expressed diffusely in the nail mesenchyme containing onychofibroblasts in contrast to the dermis of LNF. Fibrillin, which is a major component of elastic fiber in the dermis, was expressed very weakly on the nail mesenchyme below the nail matrix but was expressed strongly in the dermis of LNF. These findings support the existence of specialized nail mesenchyme containing onychofibroblasts that is distinguished from the dermis of LNF.

  18. The histopathology of type I (lepra) and type II (ENL) reactions in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, V N; Gautam, R K; Koranne, R V; Beohar, P C

    1986-01-01

    The histopathological features in type I (lepra) reaction comprised a loose and disorganised granuloma in the upper and mid-dermis, dermal edema and variable cellular contents, namely, epithelioid cells, lymphocytes, giant cells, and macrophages. While ENL reactions, were characterised by predominant involvement of subcutaneous vessels, vasculitis, and polymorphonuclear infiltration in and around the blood vessels.

  19. In vitro 3D full thickness skin equivalent tissue model using silk and collagen biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Bellas, Evangelia; Seiberg, Miri; Garlick, Jonathan; Kaplan, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Current approaches to develop skin equivalents often only include the epidermal and dermal components. Yet, full thickness skin includes the hypodermis, a layer below the dermis of adipose tissue containing vasculature, nerves and fibroblasts, necessary to support the epidermis and dermis. In the present study, we developed a full thickness skin equivalent including an epidermis, dermis and hypodermis that could serve as an in vitro model for studying skin development, disease or as a platform for consumer product testing as a means to avoid animal testing. The full thickness skin equivalent was easy to handle and was maintained in culture for greater than 14 days while expressing physiologically relevant morphologies of both the epidermis and dermis, as seen by keratin 10, collagen I and collagen IV expression. The skin equivalent produced glycerol and leptin, markers of adipose tissue metabolism. This work serves as a foundation for our understanding of some of the necessary factors needed to develop a stable, functional model of full-thickness skin. PMID:23161763

  20. MAEG, an EGF-repeat containing gene, is a new marker associated with dermatome specification and morphogenesis of its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Buchner, G; Broccoli, V; Bulfone, A; Orfanelli, U; Gattuso, C; Ballabio, A; Franco, B

    2000-11-01

    We report on the expression pattern of a novel EGF- containing gene named Maeg. RNA in situ studies indicate that Maeg is first activated during specification of the early lateral dermatome, and continues to be expressed in all the dermatome derivatives as the dermis of the trunk, the hair follicles, and the mesenchyme of the cranio-facial region.

  1. Cutaneous Granular Cell Tumor on the Arm in a Middle-Aged Man.

    PubMed

    Benson, Kenneth A; Crandall, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Granular Cell Tumors are uncommon, often benign neoplasms that occur primarily in the oral cavity. Granular Cell Tumors have also been reported in breast, gastrointestinal tissues, and less commonly in the dermis of the upper extremities. This is a case presentation of a 44-year-old Caucasian male with an asymptomatic Granular Cell Tumor on his right arm.

  2. Heparin fragments modulate the collagen phenotype of fibroblasts from radiation-induced subcutaneous fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    el Nabout, R.; Martin, M.; Remy, J.; Robert, L.; Lafuma, C. )

    1989-10-01

    Acute local gamma irradiation of porcine skin induces, as in human skin, an extensive and mutilating sclerosis characterized by continuous expansion of the fibrosis invading the adjacent muscle and by accumulation of the macromolecular components of the extracellular matrix. Collagen synthesis, content, and types were studied in the presence of heparin fragments (100 micrograms/10(6) cells) in the culture medium, by measuring the incorporation of the radiolabeled precursor (3H)proline into confluent primary cultures of porcine fibroblasts obtained from normal and irradiated fibrotic dermis. Enhancement in collagen biosynthesis and deposition and preferential increase in collagen type III synthesis were observed in fibrotic fibroblast cultures when compared to those in normal dermis fibroblasts. The total collagen synthesis and the rate of collagen hydroxylation appear unmodified by heparin fragments both in normal and in fibrotic fibroblast cultures. But heparin fragments induce a 10- and 2-fold decrease, respectively, in collagen type III and type V syntheses by fibrosis fibroblasts. As only minor effects upon collagen type III and V are observed in cultures of normal dermis fibroblasts, these results highly suggest that heparin fragments are capable of specifically modulating the collagen phenotype of fibroblasts derived from radiation-induced dermis fibrosis and thus are able to regulate the fibrotic process.

  3. Morphological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural characterization of the skin of turbot (Psetta maxima L.).

    PubMed

    Faílde, L D; Bermúdez, R; Vigliano, F; Coscelli, G A; Quiroga, M I

    2014-10-01

    This study was undertaken to identify the normal morphologic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of skin of the turbot (Psetta maxima L.). In the turbot skin, three morphologically distinct layers were identified: epidermis, dermis and hypodermis. The epidermis was non-keratinizing, stratified squamous epithelium that varies in thickness from 5 to 14 cells and 60 to 100μm in size. Goblet cells were seen randomly distributed between malpighian cells in the epidermal layer. These mucous cells were mainly located in the upper third of the epidermis and displayed a spherical to elongated morphology. Dermis was divided in two well-differentiated layers, the superficial stratum laxum and the deeper stratum compactum. Hypodermis was a loose layer mainly composed by adipocytes but we could observe variable amounts of fibroblast, collagen and blood vessels. In turbot two pigmentary layers could be identified: the pigmentary layer of dermis was located between basement membrane and dermis and the pigmentary layer of hypodermis immediately above the muscular layer. Three different types of chromatophores were present: melanophores, iridophores and xanthophores. The main differences observed between groups of fish with different colouration were in the amount of melanophores and xanthophores. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of normal cutaneous biology prior to consideration of specific cutaneous alterations and diseases in turbot.

  4. Tinea corporis overlying the thyroid gland after radioiodine (131I) treatment of Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, A.J.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Yedinak, M.A.; Crooks, L.A.; Fox, B.J.

    1986-04-01

    A case of tinea corporis involving the skin overlying the thyroid gland is described in a 36-year-old man who had received radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease. The dermatophytosis mimicked a delayed roentgen erythema. Radiation to the dermis may have locally altered the cell-mediated immunity and predisposed this patient to the dermatophytosis.

  5. The Effect of Liquid Gun Propellant (LGP) on Skin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-27

    treated skin. In LGP-treated skin there was a multifocal, superficial, perivascular lymphoplasmacytic dermatitis with moderate perivascular infiltrate ...microscopic lesions observed in the LP-treated skin (Superficial perivascular lymphoplasmacytic dermatitis, edema and increased eosinophils) appeared to...Microscopic lesions in LP treated skin included superficial perivascular lymphoplasmacytic dermatitis, mild edema in the papillary dermis, mild increase

  6. Predicting Disease Progression in Scleroderma with Skin and Blood Biomarkers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    keratin signature in addition to the fibro-inflammatory signature indicating that the dysregulation in SSc skin is not confined to the dermis (as...the first microRNA whole blood profiling in SSc as described in Abstract #1 above. b. The discovery of the keratin signature in SSc skin described

  7. Exploration of the wound healing effect of topical administration of nicotine in combination with collagen scaffold in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Masuoka, Hiromu; Morimoto, Naoki; Sakamoto, Michiharu; Ogino, Shuichi; Suzuki, Shigehiko

    2016-06-01

    Nicotine has been reported to prolong the wound healing; however, we showed that the topical application of 10(-4) M nicotine promoted murine wound healing. The objective of this study was to explore the wound healing effects of nicotine in combination with collagen scaffold using skin defects in rabbit. Three full-thickness skin defects 8 mm in diameter were made on the rabbit auricle. Artificial dermis was applied to the defects, and 10 μl of nicotine solution (10(-5), 10(-4), and10(-3) M), bFGF solution (0.5 μg/10 μl), and both bFGF and 10(-4) M nicotine solutions were injected into the artificial dermis once daily for 7 days. Rabbits were sacrificed on day 10, 15, or 20, and the wound healing process was evaluated. bFGF was superior in the formation of the dermis-like tissue and capillaries. In nicotine groups, the epithelial length and the dermis-like tissue formations in the 10(-4) M group were superior, in contrast, those were inhibited in the 10(-3) M group. The synergistic effect of bFGF and 10(-4) M nicotine was not confirmed. This study suggests that the topical application of 10(-4) M nicotine promoted wound healing in rabbit, but the effect was not apparent compared with murine models.

  8. Diffusion profile of macromolecules within and between human skin layers for (trans)dermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Römgens, Anne M; Bader, Dan L; Bouwstra, Joke A; Baaijens, Frank P T; Oomens, Cees W J

    2015-10-01

    Delivering a drug into and through the skin is of interest as the skin can act as an alternative drug administration route for oral delivery. The development of new delivery methods, such as microneedles, makes it possible to not only deliver small molecules into the skin, which are able to pass the outer layer of the skin in therapeutic amounts, but also macromolecules. To provide insight into the administration of these molecules into the skin, the aim of this study was to assess the transport of macromolecules within and between its various layers. The diffusion coefficients in the epidermis and several locations in the papillary and reticular dermis were determined for fluorescein dextran of 40 and 500 kDa using a combination of fluorescent recovery after photobleaching experiments and finite element analysis. The diffusion coefficient was significantly higher for 40 kDa than 500 kDa dextran, with median values of 23 and 9 µm(2)/s in the dermis, respectively. The values only marginally varied within and between papillary and reticular dermis. For the 40 kDa dextran, the diffusion coefficient in the epidermis was twice as low as in the dermis layers. The adopted method may be used for other macromolecules, which are of interest for dermal and transdermal drug delivery. The knowledge about diffusion in the skin is useful to optimize (trans)dermal drug delivery systems to target specific layers or cells in the human skin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The use of high frequency ultrasound imaging in skin moisturization measurement.

    PubMed

    Mlosek, Robert K; Malinowska, Sylwia; Sikora, Magdalena; Dębowska, Renata; Stępień, Anna; Czekaj, Karolina; Dąbrowska, Anna

    2013-05-01

    The appropriate skin hydration level enables its normal function and healthy appearance. The purpose of present research was to assess the applicability of high frequency ultrasound (HFU) to the monitoring of skin moisturization treatments. The study sample encompassed 27 women, aged 20-67 y.o. (mean age of 45.48 y.o.) with dry skin. All women applied a strong moisturizing cream on their facial skin for 14 days. The course of treatment was monitored using the HFU. The following parameters were subjected to the ultrasound evaluation: epidermal echo thickness, dermis thickness, and separately the thickness of the superior and inferior layer of dermis. The measurements were taken on the participants' chins and cheeks. In addition, skin hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were determined. Statistically significant differences were obtained between the echogenicity of the superior layer of the dermis on the chin and cheek. After treatment, the statistically significant values of TEWL decrease and hydration increase were obtained on the cheek skin. No statistically significant differences between the TEWL or hydration levels were found on the chin. No statistically significant differences between the epidermal echo and dermis thickness values for the two measurement points were observed. The HFU is a useful method for the monitoring of skin moisturization treatments. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Genetically Modified Porcine Skin Grafts for Treatment of Severe Burn Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    and a sloughed epidermis (pg. 22, Appendix 2, s lide 6, yellow arrow), while B267 shows an intact epiderm is and dermis with only a m odest lym...partial viability on day 14, although with considerable inflammation. The graft bed was visible in this sample, confirming that the viable epidermis was in

  11. Visualization of the microcirculatory network in skin by high frequency optoacoustic mesoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Mathias; Aguirre, Juan; Buehler, Andreas; Omar, Murad; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2015-07-01

    Optoacoustic (photoacoustic) imaging has a high potential for imaging melanin-rich structures in skin and the microvasculature of the dermis due to the natural chromophores (de)oxyhemoglobin, and melanin. The vascular network in human dermis comprises a large network of arterioles, capillaries, and venules, ranging from 5 μm to more than 100 μm in diameter. The frequency spectrum of the microcirculatory network in human skin is intrinsically broadband, due to the large variety in size of absorbers. In our group we have developed raster-scan optoacoustic mesoscopy (RSOM) that applies a 100 MHz transducer with ultra-wide bandwidth in raster-scan mode achieving lateral resolution of 18 μm. In this study, we applied high frequency RSOM to imaging human skin in a healthy volunteer. We analyzed the frequency spectrum of anatomical structures with respect to depth and show that frequencies >60 MHz contain valuable information of structures in the epidermis and the microvasculature of the papillary dermis. We illustrate that RSOM is capable of visualizing the fine vascular network at and beneath the epidermal-dermal junction, revealing the vascular fingerprint of glabrous skin, as well as the larger venules deeper inside the dermis. We evaluate the ability of the RSOM system in measuring epidermal thickness in both hairy and glabrous skin. Finally, we showcase the capability of RSOM in visualizing benign nevi that will potentially help in imaging the penetration depth of melanoma.

  12. Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    Cancer Metastasis Rev. 1995;14(4):339-350. 9. Redler P, Lustig ES. Differences in the growth-promoting effect of normal and peritumoral dermis on...declared.Acknowledgements This research was supported by the Department of De- fense Breast Cancer Research Program W81XWH-08-1- 0523 01 (to YHS). We thank Drs

  13. Study on Mucin in Normal-Appearing Leg Skin.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel

    2017-03-01

    Dermal deposits of mucin in the legs have been described associated with venous insufficiency. However, some degree of stasis dermatitis is generally common in aged individuals. Therefore, some amount of mucin is expected a priori in the reticular dermis of aged patients, even in the absence of clinical lesions. To test this hypothesis, the authors investigated the mucin in the legs of aged individuals without any dermatologic disease. Cutaneous samples were taken from the legs of 15 autopsy cases. A sample of the skin of the legs (either from the left or the right leg without any distinction being made) was randomly taken (without selecting any specific area or attending to macroscopical features). The skin samples were fixed in formaldehyde, and sections obtained from all samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, iron, and Alcian blue. Iron deposits were graded as 0/4 in 7 cases, as 1/4 in 4 cases, as 2/4 in 2 cases, and as 4/4 in 2 cases. Cases with greater deposits of iron also had other signs of stasis, such as neovascularization. All the samples scored 0 for dermal mucin deposits in the reticular dermis. The authors conclude that mucin deposits in the legs are not inherent to aging. Therefore, any mucin deposit in the reticular dermis, as well as expansion of the periadnexal dermis by mucin deposits, should be considered abnormal.

  14. Papular Dermatitis Induced in Guinea Pig by Biting Midge Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidaie)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Histological, ultrastructural, and virological examinations were performed on abdominal skin from guinea pigs after a blood meal by colony-bred biting midges, Culicoides sonorensis. Small, superficial, cutaneous, crateriform ulcers with necrosis of superficial dermis developed at feeding sites and h...

  15. Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa of lower limb: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kalafi, Amir; Vasaghi, Attiyeh

    2014-01-01

    Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa (ENV) is a rare condition in which hyperkeratosis, fibrosis and disfiguration of dermis occurs. It is caused mostly by non infectious diseases such as surgery, trauma, tumors, and venous obstructions. To our knowledge there is not any case report of ENV in Middle East region. In this patient, ENV caused by trauma and Patient presented with enlargement of right lower limb.

  16. Two Cases of Melasma with Unusual Histopathologic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Won-Hyoung

    2006-01-01

    We reported two cases of clinically typical melasma presenting with unusual histopathologic findings. In one case, the epidermal melanocytes were markedly increased in number and protruded into the dermis, and in the other case, increased epidermal pigmentation as well as dermal melanocytosis were found. We suggested that the various treatment modalities of melasma should be applied depend on its histopathologic finding. PMID:16614533

  17. Dermatopathology in historical perspective: the Montgomery giant cell of lichen simplex chronicus.

    PubMed

    Rubakovic, Svetlana; Steffen, Charles

    2010-01-01

    In this short historical review, we will discuss the origin and references to the giant cell that is sometimes histopathologically present in the dermis of lichen simplex chronicus that was first described by Hamilton Montgomery, MD. A photomicrograph of the giant cell was included by Montgomery in his text Dermatopathology published in 1967. We will then provide a short biography of Montgomery.

  18. The fine structure of the swine sweat gland. II. The coiled ducts.

    PubMed

    De Melo, V R; Valeri, V; Orsi, A M

    1985-03-01

    The duct of the swine sweat gland crosses the dermis and epidermis in sequence. The cells of the dermic segment seem to be related with cellular secretion and absorption. In the epidermic segment of the duct the whole morphology of the cells resembles the cellular morphology of the epidermic cells.

  19. Mucinous eccrine nevus: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Sun, Jian-fang; Zeng, Xue-si; Liu, Yi; Jiang, Yi-qun; Li, A-mei; Song, Ya-li

    2009-06-01

    Mucinous eccrine nevus (MEN) is a rare variant of eccrine nevus, characterized by a proliferation of normal eccrine structure surrounded by mucin deposits. We report herein the eighth case of mucinous eccrine nevus in the literature, with abundant mucin deposits not only in the stroma surrounding the eccrine glands but also in the superficial dermis. The literature is reviewed.

  20. Skin structure in the snout of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Kemp, A

    2014-10-01

    Many fossil lungfish have a system of mineralised tubules in the dermis of the snout, branching extensively and radiating towards the epidermis. The tubules anastomose in the superficial layer of the dermis, forming a plexus consisting of two layers of vessels, with branches that expand into pore canals and flask organs, flanked by cosmine nodules where these are present. Traces of this system are found in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, consisting of branching tubules in the dermis, a double plexus below the epidermis and dermal papillae entering the epidermis without reaching the surface. In N. forsteri, the tubules, the plexus and the dermal papillae consist of thick, unmineralised connective tissue, enclosing fine blood vessels packed with lymphocytes. Tissues in the epidermis and the dermis of N. forsteri are not associated with deposits of calcium, which is below detectable limits in the skin of the snout at all stages of the life cycle. Canals of the sensory line system, with mechanoreceptors, are separate from the tubules, the plexus and the dermal papillae, as are the electroreceptors in the epidermis. The system of tubules, plexus, dermal papillae and lymphatic capillaries may function to protect the tissues of the snout from infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Progressive cutaneous and pulmonary lesions without infectious etiology: two cases reports of sweet syndrome with pulmonary involvement].

    PubMed

    Lang, Noémie; Vernez, Maxime; Vollenweider, Peter; Pasche, Antoine

    2014-09-17

    Sweet syndrome is a non infectious febrile disease with a neutrophilic infiltrate of dermis. Extracutaneous involvement can occur. We report two cases of Sweet syndrome with cutaneous and pulmonary involvement and give a short review of the literature of pulmonary involvement in Sweet syndrome.

  2. Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein Increases in Photodamaged Skin.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Kawabata, Keigo; Kusaka-Kikushima, Ayumi; Sugiyama, Yoshinori; Mabuchi, Tomotaka; Takekoshi, Susumu; Miyasaka, Muneo; Ozawa, Akira; Sakai, Shingo

    2016-06-01

    Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is a structural component of cartilage. Recent studies have described COMP as a pathogenic factor that promotes collagen deposition in fibrotic skin disorders such as scleroderma and keloid skin. Although collagen, a major dermis component, is thought to decrease in photoaged skin, recent reports have demonstrated the presence of tightly packed collagen fibrils with a structural resemblance to fibrosis in the papillary dermis of photoaged skin. Here we examined how photoaging damage relates to COMP expression and localization in photoaged skin. In situ hybridization revealed an increase in COMP-mRNA-positive cells with the progress of photoaging in preauricular skin (sun-exposed skin). The signal intensity of immunostaining for COMP increased with photoaging in not only the papillary dermis but also the reticular dermis affected by advancing solar elastosis. Immunoelectron microscopy detected the colocalization of COMP with both elastotic materials and collagen fibrils in photoaged skin. Ultraviolet light A irradiation of human dermal fibroblasts induced COMP expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Ultraviolet light A-induced COMP expression was inhibited by an anti-transforming growth factor-β antibody or SB431542, an activin receptor-like kinase 5 inhibitor. These results suggest that the transforming growth factor-β-mediated upregulation of COMP expression may contribute to the modulation of dermal extracellular matrix in the photoaging process.

  3. Musk ambrette and chronic actinic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cirne de Castro, J L; Pereira, M A; Prates Nunes, F; Pereira dos Santos, A

    1985-11-01

    A patient with persistent photosensitivity and positive photopatch tests to musk ambrette and an after-shave lotion is reported. Phototests showed extreme sensitivity to UV radiation, especially UVB. Patch tests with the European Standard Series and some plant allergens were negative. Histology showed a granulomatous reaction with epithelioid and giant cells in the dermis.

  4. Quantitative characterization of chitosan in the skin by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic imaging and ninhydrin assay: application in transdermal sciences.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, A; Wong, T W

    2016-07-01

    The chitosan has been used as the primary excipient in transdermal particulate dosage form design. Its distribution pattern across the epidermis and dermis is not easily accessible through chemical assay and limited to radiolabelled molecules via quantitative autoradiography. This study explored Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy imaging technique with built-in microscope as the means to examine chitosan molecular distribution over epidermis and dermis with the aid of histology operation. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy skin imaging was conducted using chitosan of varying molecular weights, deacetylation degrees, particle sizes and zeta potentials, obtained via microwave ligation of polymer chains at solution state. Both skin permeation and retention characteristics of chitosan increased with the use of smaller chitosan molecules with reduced acetyl content and size, and increased positive charge density. The ratio of epidermal to dermal chitosan content decreased with the use of these chitosan molecules as their accumulation in dermis (3.90% to 18.22%) was raised to a greater extent than epidermis (0.62% to 1.92%). A larger dermal chitosan accumulation nonetheless did not promote the transdermal polymer passage more than the epidermal chitosan. A small increase in epidermal chitosan content apparently could fluidize the stratum corneum and was more essential to dictate molecular permeation into dermis and systemic circulation. The histology technique aided Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy imaging approach introduces a new dimension to the mechanistic aspect of chitosan in transdermal delivery.

  5. Mechanical mutability in connective tissue of starfish body wall.

    PubMed

    Motokawa, Tatsuo

    2011-12-01

    Stiffness changes in response to mechanical and chemical stimulation were studied in muscle-free dermal samples from the body wall of the starfish Linckia laevigata. The ultrastructural study showed that the dermis was packed with collagen fibrils between which only a small number of cells were observed. Muscles were found only in the walls of coelomic extensions leading to papulae. Stress-strain tests were performed on isolated dermis containing no muscles. The tangent modulus was 27.5 MPa at 0.04% strain rate in the stress-strain tests. It was increased to 40.7 MPa by mechanical stimulation, which also increased the tensile strength and breaking-strain energy density. Dynamic mechanical tests showed that the increase in stiffness in response to mechanical stimulation was transient. Acetylcholine (10(-6)-10(-3) mol l(-1)) and artificial seawater with an elevated potassium concentration (KASW) stiffened the dermis. Mechanical stimulation caused a 12% mass loss. KASW also caused mass loss, which was inhibited by anesthesia. These results clearly showed that the stiffness changes in the starfish dermis were based on a non-muscular mechanism that was similar to that of other echinoderm connective tissues with mechanical mutability.

  6. Imaging of the skin and subcutaneous tissue using classical and high-frequency ultrasonographies in anti-cellulite therapy.

    PubMed

    Mlosek, Robert Krzysztof; Dębowska, Renata Maria; Lewandowski, Marcin; Malinowska, Sylwia; Nowicki, Andrzej; Eris, Irena

    2011-11-01

    The development of ultrasonography allowed for skin imaging used in dermatology and esthetic medicine. By means of classic and high-frequency ultrasonographies, changes within the dermis and subcutaneous tissue can be presented. The aim of this study was to show the possibilities of applying classic and high-frequency ultrasonographies in esthetic dermatology based on monitoring various types of anti-cellulite therapies. Sixty-one women with cellulite were assigned to two smaller groups. One group was using anti-cellulite cream and the second group was a placebo group. The ultrasound examination was carried out before the initiation and after the completion of the treatment and evaluated epidermal echoes, the thickness of the subcutaneous tissue and the dermis, dermis echogenicity, the length and surface area of the subcutaneous tissue fascicles growing into the dermis, and the presence or absence of edemas. After the completion of the treatment, a statistically significant difference was observed. The most useful parameters were as follows: the thickness of the subcutaneous tissue, echogenicity, the surface area and length of the subcutaneous tissue, as well as the presence of edemas. The discussed changes were not observed in the placebo group. Classic and high-frequency ultrasonographies are useful methods for monitoring anti-cellulite therapies. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Fourteen-Day Subacute Intravenous Toxicity Study of Hypertonic Saline/ Dextran 70 and its Constituents in Beagle Dogs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    decretsed cytcclasmic volume. Acinar ductules may be slightly dilated. --Duct Ectasia : Ducts and ductules are dilated and contain faintly-stained, amphophilit... Ectasia : See Lacrimzal-an- --Inflammnation, Chronic: imersninial fibrosis is accompanied by aggreganes of mar:Cprages, ;ymhocytes ardc r plasma cells...Neovascularization and fibrosis is present. -- Ectasia , Apocrine Glands: Apocrine glands in the dermis are abnormally dilated. --Foiliculitis, Subacute: Dermal

  8. Human Behavior Representation in Constructive Simulation (La representation du comportement humain dans la simulation constructive)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    Tract •Olfactory Epithelium •Olfactory Receptors •Olfactory Bulb Tactile & Haptic •Dermis •Nerve Endings •Cold & Warm Fibers •Visual vs. Kinesthetic ...Bridgewater, R. and Spencer. (2001). “Just think of TB and Asians, that’s all I ever hear”: Medical learners ’ views about training to work in an ethnically

  9. Perifollicular protrusions--mid-dermal elastolysis.

    PubMed

    Volz, Andreas; Pfister-Wartha, Andrea; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Braun-Falco, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Mid-dermal elastolysis is a rare peculiar entity clinically characterized by fine wrinkles and perifollicular protrusions that give the skin an aged or peau d'orange appearance. The histopathologic correlate is a bandlike loss of elastic tissue within the mid-dermis.We present a typical case with prominent perifollicular protrusions.

  10. Mechanism for transport of ivermectin to the stratum corneum in rats.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Atsushi; Kigure, Akira; Anata, Taichi; Hirota, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) is used as an oral medication for scabies, a skin infection caused by a mite, sarcoptes scabiei, which parasitizes in the stratum corneum. After oral administration IVM is absorbed from the intestine, and finally distributed to the stratum corneum to eliminate the mites. However its transport mechanism remains unclear. A pharmacokinetic study was performed using hairless Wistar Yagi (HWY) rats, which have no or atrophied sebaceous glands, and Wistar rats as a reference. After oral administration of IVM to both groups, the area under the concentration-time curve of IVM in the dermis and epidermis (dermis-epidermis) of HWY rats were about 60% lower than that of Wistar rats, even though the plasma concentration profiles were comparable in both groups. In addition at 12 h after the administration, IVM concentration in the outer stratum corneum, the shallower layer of the dermis-epidermis, was higher compared to that in the deeper layer. In the dermis-epidermis of the skin from various locations, the concentrations of IVM and squalene, the latter of which is secreted to the skin surface via the sebaceous gland, were positively well correlated. Those results suggest that IVM is transported to the stratum corneum via the sebaceous glands.

  11. [Temperature regime of biological tissue under photodynamic therapy].

    PubMed

    Barun, V V; Ivanov, A P

    2012-01-01

    An analytical model is proposed to calculate heating of human skin cover under laser light action of photodynamic therapy. A photosensitizer of "Fotolon" is taken as an example. Temperatures of skin surface and of deep dermis regions are studied as a function of time under pulsed and stationary irradiation of skin surface at the wavelength of 665 nm corresponding to the maximum of the photosensitizer absorption band. It is shown that, under the action of a short light pulse, the photosensitizer can lead to an essential temperature rise of dermis due to a considerable increase in its absorption coefficient. However, this rise does not destruct tissue cells because of the short action. Under stationary irradiation, the photosensitizer concentration has a low effect on the temperature regime of tissue. This is related with the specific features in heating of the medium by red light, where the main thermal process in skin is heat transfer over tissue volume from epidermis having a substantially larger absorption coefficient than that of dermis in the said spectral range. The role of blood perfusion in dermis and its effect on the temperature regime of tissue are evaluated.

  12. Role of dermatopontin in re-epithelialization: implications on keratinocyte migration and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Krishnaswamy, Venkat Raghavan; Korrapati, Purna Sai

    2014-12-09

    Re-epithelialization is a key event in wound healing and any impairment in that process is associated with various pathological conditions. Epidermal keratinocyte migration and proliferation during re-epithelialization is largely regulated by the cytokines and growth factors from the provisional matrix and dermis. Extracellular matrix consists of numerous growth factors which mediate cell migration via cell membrane receptors. Dermatopontin (DPT), a non-collagenous matrix protein highly expressed in dermis is known for its striking ability to promote cell adhesion. DPT also enhances the biological activity of transforming growth factor beta 1 which plays a central role in the process of wound healing. This study was designed to envisage the role of DPT in keratinocyte migration and proliferation along with its mRNA and protein expression pattern in epidermis. The results showed that DPT promotes keratinocyte migration in a dose dependant fashion but fail to induce proliferation. Further, PCR and immunodetection studies revealed that the mRNA and protein expression of DPT is considerably negligible in the epidermis in contrast to the dermis. To conclude, DPT has a profound role in wound healing specifically during re-epithelialization by promoting keratinocyte migration via paracrine action from the underlying dermis.

  13. Studies on the conservation of epidermal specificies of skin and certain mucosas in adult mammals.

    PubMed

    Billingham, R E; Silvers, W K

    1967-03-01

    To determine whether the factor(s) responsible for the conservation of epidermal specificities in adult guinea pigs and hamsters resides in the germinal layer of the epidermis or in the dermis, thin grafts of skin, possessing qualitatively distinct regional characteristics, were separated into their superficial epidermal and dermal components with the aid of trypsin. Dermis of one type was combined with epidermis of another to produce "recombinant" grafts which were then transplanted to small, full thickness cutaneous sites on the thorax of geneticaily compatible hosts. A variant of this procedure involved transplanting sheets of superficial epidermis of various types to shallow split thickness recipient areas in the skin of the thorax. All grafts were maintained for 100 days before they were excised and examined histologically. The results indicate that, whereas the dermis determines the kind of epidermis produced in recombinant grafts involving the ear, the sole of the foot, and the trunk, this is not the case in recombinants which include tongue, esophageal, or cheek pouch epithelia. The one exception to this occurred when tongue or esophagus epithelia were transplanted to split thickness beds in trunk skin. Here they appeared to produce an epidermis characteristic of their new location. It is believed that this exception is probably due to the fact that the native follicular epidermis present in trunk dermis made such a substantial contribution to the new superficial epidermis that it behaved overtly as body skin epidermis. Taken together, these results suggest that basal layer cells of the superficial epidermis of sole of foot skin, ear skin, and the hair-bearing skin of the general integument behave as if they are equipotential, and that in adult life maintenance of these particular epidermal specificities is the outcome of persistent specific inductive stimuli from the underlying dermis. The results of subsidiary experiments are reported which indicate that

  14. Phosphatidylcholine liposomes as carriers to improve topical ascorbic acid treatment of skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Gabriel; Almudéver, Patricia; Serrano, Juan-Manuel; Milara, Javier; Torrens, Ana; Expósito, Inmaculada; Cortijo, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes have been intensively investigated as carriers for different applications in dermatology and cosmetics. Ascorbic acid has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties preventing photodamage of keratinocytes; however, due to its instability and low skin penetration, an appropriate carrier is mandatory to obtain desirable efficacy. The present work investigates the ability of a specific ascorbate phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposome to overcome the barrier of the stratum corneum and deliver the active agent into the dermis to prevent photodamage. Abdominal skin from ten patients was used. Penetration of PC liposomes was tested ex vivo in whole skin, epidermis, and dermis by means of fluorescein and sodium ascorbate. Histology and Franz diffusion cells were used to monitor the percutaneous absorption. Ultraviolet (UV)-high performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze diffusion of sodium ascorbate through the different skin layers, while spectrofluorimetry and fluorescent microscopy were used for fluorescein monitoring. UVA/UVB irradiation of whole skin was applied to analyze the antioxidant capacity by Trolox assay and anti-inflammatory effects by tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta enzyme-linked immunoassay. PC liposomal formulation improved skin penetration of fluorescein and ascorbate. Fluorescein PC liposomes showed better diffusion through epidermis than dermis while ascorbate liposomes showed better diffusion through the dermis than the epidermis. Ascorbate PC liposomes showed preventive antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties on whole human skin irradiated with UVA/UVB. In summary, ascorbate PC liposomes penetrate through the epidermis and allow nonstable hydrophilic active ingredients reach epidermis and dermis preventing skin photodamage.

  15. Phosphatidylcholine liposomes as carriers to improve topical ascorbic acid treatment of skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Gabriel; Almudéver, Patricia; Serrano, Juan-Manuel; Milara, Javier; Torrens, Ana; Expósito, Inmaculada; Cortijo, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes have been intensively investigated as carriers for different applications in dermatology and cosmetics. Ascorbic acid has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties preventing photodamage of keratinocytes; however, due to its instability and low skin penetration, an appropriate carrier is mandatory to obtain desirable efficacy. The present work investigates the ability of a specific ascorbate phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposome to overcome the barrier of the stratum corneum and deliver the active agent into the dermis to prevent photodamage. Abdominal skin from ten patients was used. Penetration of PC liposomes was tested ex vivo in whole skin, epidermis, and dermis by means of fluorescein and sodium ascorbate. Histology and Franz diffusion cells were used to monitor the percutaneous absorption. Ultraviolet (UV)-high performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze diffusion of sodium ascorbate through the different skin layers, while spectrofluorimetry and fluorescent microscopy were used for fluorescein monitoring. UVA/UVB irradiation of whole skin was applied to analyze the antioxidant capacity by Trolox assay and anti-inflammatory effects by tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta enzyme-linked immunoassay. PC liposomal formulation improved skin penetration of fluorescein and ascorbate. Fluorescein PC liposomes showed better diffusion through epidermis than dermis while ascorbate liposomes showed better diffusion through the dermis than the epidermis. Ascorbate PC liposomes showed preventive antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties on whole human skin irradiated with UVA/UVB. In summary, ascorbate PC liposomes penetrate through the epidermis and allow nonstable hydrophilic active ingredients reach epidermis and dermis preventing skin photodamage. PMID:26719718

  16. Efficient delivery and distribution in skin of chlorogenic acid and resveratrol induced by microemulsion using sucrose laurate.

    PubMed

    Yutani, Reiko; Kikuchi, Taketomo; Teraoka, Reiko; Kitagawa, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    To achieve efficient skin delivery of polyphenols, we prepared a novel oil-in-water (o/w)-type microemulsion (MESL) using sucrose laurate as a surfactant and ethanol, isopropyl myristate and water as other components. We examined its usefulness by in vitro studies on skin delivery of chlorogenic acid and resveratrol as hydrophilic and hydrophobic polyphenols using Yucatan micropig skin, and also examined the difference in the distribution of these polyphenols in skin. MESL significantly improved skin incorporation of these polyphenols at all time points examined (6, 20, 40 h) in the epidermis and at 20 and 40 h in the dermis, compared with the microemulsion using Tween 80 as a surfactant component (MEK), although the solubilization capacity of MESL was lower than that of MEK. Using MESL, the incorporation amount in the dermis of each polyphenol increased with time, while the amount in the epidermis was almost constant during the time examined. Incorporation efficiencies into skin of chlorogenic acid and resveratrol induced by MESL at 40 h after application were about 6-fold and 19-fold higher in the epidermis and 3.5-fold and 15-fold higher in the dermis, respectively, than those by MEK. The increase was more prominent for resveratrol. Hydrophilic chlorogenic acid was distributed slightly more in the epidermis, while hydrophobic and smaller-molecular-weight resveratrol was mainly distributed in the dermis. These findings suggest that MESL could be a promising vehicle for the efficient skin delivery of chlorogenic acid and resveratrol, especially for resveratrol to the dermis.

  17. In vivo study of contrasting properties of gold nanoparticles for optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagaynova, E. V.; Shirmanova, M. V.; Orlova, A. G.; Balalaeva, I. V.; Kirillin, M. Y.; Kamensky, V. A.

    2007-07-01

    We have investigated the effect of application of gold nanoparticles with a diameter of 50 nm and nanoshells with a 150 nm silica core size and 25 nm thick gold shell on optical properties of skin. We have analyzed the possibility of using these particles as a contrasting agent for optical coherence tomography (OCT). As the first step in the study, effects of gold nanoparticles after one application to skin were studied using OCT. Then we evaluated the effects of multiple applications of 50 nm gold nanoparticles to skin in 30-minute intervals. Biopsy of relevant skin areas was performed under local anaesthesia and samples for light and electron microscopy were prepared. Identification of skin layers on OCT images was made by comparing with histology. Application of gold-silica nanoshells caused increase in intensity of useful signal, brightness of the superficial part of the dermis and contrast between the superficial and deep parts of the dermis 30 minutes after application on skin. After 24 hours the changes in OCT images became more pronounced as the brightness of the superficial part of the dermis and the contrast between the superficial and deep parts of the dermis further increased. In addition, the border between the superficial and deep parts of the dermis became more distinct, continuous and well discernible, permitting to accurately differentiate these layers. Besides that, the application of nanoshells caused contrasting of hair follicles and glands. In order to give interpretation to the obtained experimental OCT-images of skin and understand the mechanisms of contrasting a set of Monte Carlo calculations was performed in order to simulate the images of skin before and after application of the nanoparticles for skin model close to that in the experiment. The results of the simulation exhibit good qualitative agreement with the experimental images and prove that the contrasting originates from the nanoparticles added while contrasting of hair bulb

  18. Comparative histological and immunohistochemical changes of dry type cutaneous leishmaniasis after administration of meglumine antimoniate, imiquimod or combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Shamsi Meymandi, Simin; Javadi, Abdolreza; Dabiri, Shahriar; Shamsi Meymandi, Manzumeh; Nadji, Mehrdad

    2011-07-01

    This study compared histological and immunohistochemical changes of cutaneous leishmaniasis treated with meglumine antimoniate, imiquimod, and the combination of both therapies. Single blind clinicopathological studies of fifteen patients with old world cutaneous leishmaniasis in Kerman, Iran were included. A total of four patients received a combination of imiquimod (5% cream) and intra-lesional meglumine antimoniate weekly for four weeks. Monotherapy with imiquimod was given to seven patients and four patients were treated with meglumine antimoniate intralesionally. Histological confirmation was performed before and during therapy. Semi-quantitative histological parameters such as numbers of mixed inflammatory cells (cells/mm(2)) and percentages of Langerhans cells (CD1a+), T-cells (CD3+), B-cells (CD20+), and macrophages (CD68+) were calculated immunohistochemically in the dermis and adjacent epidermis. Topical imiquimod significantly reduced mean histiocytic cellular aggregation size (P<0.05). Meglumine antimoniate reduced parasite load and infected activated histiocytes in the dermis (P<0.05). Meglumine antimoniate therapy decreased epidermal CD3+ lymphocytes but increased them in the dermis, within the granulomas (P<0.05). During topical application of imiquimod a depletion of CD1a+ dendritic cells in the epidermis (P<0.05) and slight predominance of dendritic cells in the dermis were observed. Combined therapy and imiquimod monotherapy decreased CD68+ macrophages in the dermis (P<0.05). Meglumine antimoniate decreases parasite load with considerable effect on up-regulation of T-cells, which demonstrates that meglumine antimoniate works as parasitocidal and immunomodulator, which could be a first line of treatment. Imiquimod accentuates the host immune response and reduces granuloma size which could be effective immunomodulator for combination therapy. Monotherapy of imiquimod is less effective than the two other regimens in decreasing parasite load

  19. Pathogenesis of dermonecrosis induced by venom of the spitting cobra, Naja nigricollis: An experimental study in mice.

    PubMed

    Rivel, Mario; Solano, Daniela; Herrera, María; Vargas, Mariángela; Villalta, Mauren; Segura, Álvaro; Arias, Ana Silvia; León, Guillermo; Gutiérrez, José María

    2016-09-01

    The pathogenesis of dermonecrosis induced by the venom of the African spitting cobra Naja nigricollis was investigated in a mouse model. Intradermal injection of venom induced a macroscopic necrotic lesion. Histological examination revealed early edema of the dermis, followed by blistering, loss of skin appendages and reduction in cellularity. By 24 h, necrosis of the dermis was evident, sections of epidermis were lost, and a fibrinoid hyaline material filled the damaged areas. Abundant inflammatory infiltrate was present in the hypodermis and basal dermis, and there was an increment in the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Thrombi were observed in blood vessels. Abundant cells were present in the dermis by 7 days. By 14 and 28 days, re-epithelization had occurred, collagen was widespread in the dermis, and few skin appendages were present. The RP-HPLC fractions that reproduced the necrotic activity were composed of low molecular mass cytotoxins of the three-finger toxin family and, to a lesser extent, of phospholipases A2 (PLA2). Inhibition of PLA2 of venom by p-bromophenacyl bromide did not reduce the area of necrosis, but modified the appearance of necrotic regions. Depletion of neutrophils and inhibition of venom metalloproteinases and tissue MMPs did not affect dermonecrosis. IgG and F(ab')2 antivenoms were effective in the neutralization of dermonecrosis when incubated with venom prior to injection. However, when antivenoms were administered immediately after venom injection, dermonecrosis was reduced only to a partial extent, underscoring the difficulties in neutralizing this effect with antivenoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Senescence in the lesional fibroblasts of non-segmental vitiligo patients.

    PubMed

    Rani, Seema; Bhardwaj, Supriya; Srivastava, Niharika; Sharma, Vijay Lakshmi; Parsad, Davinder; Kumar, Ravinder

    2017-03-01

    Dermal fibroblasts secrete various growth factors which are important for skin pigmentation. Imbalance in the synchronization of epidermal and dermal cells in the skin can play vital role in the pathogenesis of pigmentary disorder vitiligo. Therefore, our objective was to check the lesional fibroblasts for any abnormality and senescence in non-segmental vitiligo patients (NSV). Skin punch biopsies were taken from NSV patients and healthy controls. Explant culture of fibroblast from lesional dermis, non-lesional dermis, and control was analyzed. The senescence was confirmed by β-galactosidase staining in the cultured fibroblasts. Senescence was checked at mRNA level in lesional dermis, non-lesional dermis of NSV patients by senescence markers p16, p21, and hp1 by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunofluorescence study was used for protein analysis. Morphological results showed number of fibroblasts with bigger perinuclear region and vacuoles were more in the lesional fibroblasts. Number of β-galactosidase positive fibroblasts in the lesional skin of NSV patients was higher as compared to the non-lesional and control fibroblasts. Results showed higher relative gene expression of senescence markers p16, p21, and hp1 in the lesional dermis of NSV patients at mRNA level and protein level as compared with control. Senescence in the dermal fibroblasts can decrease the secretion of growth factors and cytokines secreted by fibroblasts which may lead to the melanocyte death and progression of vitiligo. However, further studies on larger number of patients are needed to confirm the role of fibroblasts in the vitiligo pathogenesis.

  1. Investigation of age-related decline of microfibril-associated glycoprotein-1 in human skin through immunohistochemistry study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qian; Chen, Siming; Chen, Ying; Lyga, John; Wyborski, Russell; Santhanam, Uma

    2013-01-01

    During aging, the reduction of elastic and collagen fibers in dermis can lead to skin atrophy, fragility, and aged appearance, such as increased facial wrinkling and sagging. Microfibril-associated glycoprotein-1 (MAGP-1) is an extracellular matrix protein critical for elastic fiber assembly. It integrates and stabilizes the microfibril and elastin matrix network that helps the skin to endure mechanical stretch and recoil. However, the observation of MAGP-1 during skin aging and its function in the dermis has not been established. To better understand age-related changes in the dermis, we investigated MAGP-1 during skin aging and photoaging, using a combination of in vitro and in vivo studies. Gene expression by microarray was performed using human skin biopsies from young and aged female donors. In addition, immunofluorescence analysis on the MAGP-1 protein was performed in dermal fibroblast cultures and in human skin biopsies. Specific antibodies against MAGP-1 and fibrillin-1 were used to examine protein expression and extracellular matrix structure in the dermis via biopsies from donors of multiple age groups. A reduction of the MAGP-1 gene and protein levels were observed in human skin with increasing age and photoexposure, indicating a loss of the functional MAGP-1 fiber network and a lack of structural support in the dermis. Loss of MAGP-1 around the hair follicle/pore areas was also observed, suggesting a possible correlation between MAGP-1 loss and enlarged pores in aged skin. Our findings demonstrate that a critical "pre-elasticity" component, MAGP-1, declines with aging and photoaging. Such changes may contribute to age-related loss of dermal integrity and perifollicular structural support, which may lead to skin fragility, sagging, and enlarged pores.

  2. [Postnatal development of sensory nerve endings in the hairless nose skin of the cat].

    PubMed

    Halata, Z

    1981-01-01

    The postnatal development of sensory nerve endings has been studied in the skin of the planum nasale of the cat. The Merkel nerve endings develop in the prenatal period; after birth some redundant axons perish. Up to the third postnatal day, sporadic Merkel cells and nerve terminals still can be observed in the stratum papillare of the dermis. The free nerve endings in the dermis appear before birth. In the postnatal period the nerve fibres as well as the nerve endings ramify. A few of them come into contact with the stratum basale of the epidermis, others may perish. Most of these nerve endings are located in the stratum papillare of the dermis. The simple encapsulated corpuscles with an inner core develop after birth. In the depth of the dermis, the corpuscles are arranged mainly in groups, in the stratum papillare, however, they are more isolated. The development of those corpuscles, located in the depth of the dermis, already begins before birth and finishes mostly about the 39th postnatal day. The development of the corpuscles in the stratum papillare starts later and ends between the 3rd and 4th month. The nerve terminal of the corpuscle changes only slightly during development. It elongates, becomes thicker, and the number of mitochondria increases. During all stages it sends cytoplasmic spines in between the lamellar system of the inner core. The inner core is formed by cytoplasmic lamellae of the peripheric glial cells. In the course of development the number of cytoplasmic lamellae increases, they become thinner and gradually each one will be covered by a basal lamina. A mature corpuscle possesses an inner core with one or two longitudinal clefts. These clefts occur more frequently in corpuscles with complete capsules. The connective tissue cells primarily form a primitive capsule around the inner core. During development the layers of the capsule increase in number. Mature corpuscles have a one- to four-layered capsule. The capsular cells are then

  3. Photothermolysis of sebaceous glands in human skin ex vivo with a 1,708 nm Raman fiber laser and contact cooling.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Vinay V; Ke, Kevin; Xu, Zhao; Islam, Mohammed N; Freeman, Michael J; Pitt, Bertram; Welsh, Michael J; Orringer, Jeffrey S

    2011-08-01

    Wavelengths near ∼1,720 nm are of interest for targeting fat/lipid-rich tissues due to the high absorption coefficient of human fat and low water scattering and absorption. In this study, a 1,708 nm laser was built and shown to selectively target fat/lipid adjacent to porcine heart and dermis and then used to damage dermal sebaceous glands in human skin. STUDY DESIGN AND MATERIALS: An all-fiber 1,708 nm laser with ∼4 W maximum power was designed and built. Selectivity for targeting fat/lipid was studied by exposing porcine heart and skin tissue cross-sections to the 1,708 nm laser. Human skin treatments to damage sebaceous glands were performed both with and without cold window cooling. Histochemical evaluation on the frozen sections was performed using methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Histochemical analysis of porcine tissue cross-sections showed that 1,708 nm laser can selectively damage pericardial fat(heart) and subcutaneous fat(skin) with little to no damage to the myocardium and the dermis, respectively. In human skin, histochemical evaluation without contact cooling showed damage to both epidermis and dermis. With cooling, epidermis was spared and damage was observed in dermis extending ∼0.4-1.65 mm from the skin surface at an average laser fluence of ∼80 J/cm(2). Selective damage of sebaceous glands was suggested but not definitively demonstrated. We have developed an all-fiber 1,708 nm laser capable of damaging majority of the sebaceous glands in the dermis and thus may have potential applications in the treatment of conditions such as acne vulgaris whose pathophysiology involves disorders of sebaceous glands. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Analysis of Dermal Elastic Fibers in the Absence of Fibulin-5 Reveals Potential Roles for Fibulin-5 in Elastic Fiber Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jiwon; Bergdahl, Andreas; Zheng, Qian; Starcher, Barry; Yanagisawa, Hiromi; Davis, Elaine C.

    2009-01-01

    Fibulin-5 is a 66 kDa modular, extracellular matrix protein that localizes to elastic fibers. Although in vitro protein-protein binding studies have shown that fibulin-5 binds many proteins involved in elastic fiber formation, the specific role of fibulin-5 in elastogenesis remains unclear. To provide a more detailed analysis of elastic fiber assembly in the absence of fibulin-5, the dermis of wild-type and fibulin-5 gene knockout (Fbln5−/−) mice was examined with electron microscopy (EM). Although light microscopy showed apparently normal elastic fibers near the hair follicles and the absence of elastic fibers in the intervening dermis of the Fbln5−/− mouse, EM revealed the presence of aberrantly assembled elastic fibers in both locales. Instead of the elastin being incorporated into the microfibrillar scaffold, the elastin appeared as globules juxtaposed to the microfibrils. Desmosine analysis showed significantly lower levels of mature cross-linked elastin in the the Fbln5−/− dermis, however, gene expression levels for tropoelastin and fibrillin-1, the major elastic fiber components, were unaffected. Based on these results, the nature of tropoelastin cross-linking was investigated using domain specific antibodies to lysyl oxidase like-1 (LOXL-1). Immunolocalization with an antibody to the N-terminal pro-peptide, which is cleaved to generate the active enzyme, revealed abundant staining in the Fbln5−/− dermis and no staining in the wild-type dermis. Overall, these results suggest two previously unrecognized functions for fibulin-5 in elastogenesis; first, to limit the extent of aggregation of tropoelastin monomers and/or coacervates and aid in the incorporation of elastin into the microfibril bundles, and second, to potentially assist in the activation of LOXL-1. PMID:19321153

  5. [In vitro effect of the S3Pvac vaccine against cysticercosis in human mononucleate cells].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Orea, María Alicia; Mijares, José Miguel; Arcega, Raúl; Gómez-Conde, Eduardo; Castellanos-Sánchez, Víctor Omar; Briones-Rojas, Rosendo; Flores-Alonso, Juan Carlos; Marín-Briones, Miguel Ángel; Santos-López, Gerardo

    2013-05-01

    Introduccion. La neurocisticercosis (NCC) es una infeccion parasitaria generada por el establecimiento de cisticercos de Taenia solium en el sistema nervioso central. La fase larvaria del parasito tambien afecta al cerdo, que es el huesped intermediario indispensable para la transmision. Por tal motivo, muchos investigadores se han enfocado en identificar antigenos protectores para prevenir la cisticercosis porcina e interrumpir la transmision. Entre ellos figuran los antigenos de la vacuna S3Pvac, constituida por tres peptidos protectores: KETc1, KETc12 y GK1. Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de los peptidos vacunales KETc1, KETc12 y GK1 en celulas mononucleares de pacientes con NCC e individuos sanos. Sujetos y metodos. Estudio comparativo, prospectivo y transversal. Se analizo la proliferacion y el perfil de citocinas inducidos por los tres peptidos en celulas mononucleares de tres pacientes con NCC activa, 16 pacientes con NCC calcificada y 16 sujetos sanos. Resultados. KETc1 induce bajos niveles de proliferacion en las celulas de los pacientes con NCC activa y controlada, tanto en linfocitos como en monocitos. KETc12 y GK-1 inducen niveles positivos de proliferacion de monocitos en sujetos sanos. Conclusiones. El peptido KETc1 podria usarse como coadyuvante en el tratamiento de los pacientes con NCC activa, ya que indujo una respuesta Th2; y el peptido GK1, como estimulador del monocito/macrofago en inmunizaciones con otras proteinas.

  6. Reactivating the extracellular matrix synthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans to improve the human skin aspect and its mechanical properties

    PubMed Central

    Chajra, Hanane; Auriol, Daniel; Joly, Francine; Pagnon, Aurélie; Rodrigues, Magda; Allart, Sophie; Redziniak, Gérard; Lefevre, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to demonstrate that a defined cosmetic composition is able to induce an increase in the production of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) and/or proteoglycans and finally to demonstrate that the composition, through its combined action of enzyme production and synthesis of macromolecules, modulates organization and skin surface aspect with a benefit in antiaging applications. Materials and methods Gene expression was studied by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using normal human dermal fibroblasts isolated from a 45-year-old donor skin dermis. De novo synthesis of sGAGs and proteoglycans was determined using Blyscan™ assay and/or immunohistochemical techniques. These studies were performed on normal human dermal fibroblasts (41- and 62-year-old donors) and on human skin explants. Dermis organization was studied either ex vivo on skin explants using bi-photon microscopy and transmission electron microscopy or directly in vivo on human volunteers by ultrasound technique. Skin surface modification was investigated in vivo using silicone replicas coupled with macrophotography, and the mechanical properties of the skin were studied using Cutometer. Results It was first shown that mRNA expression of several genes involved in the synthesis pathway of sGAG was stimulated. An increase in the de novo synthesis of sGAGs was shown at the cellular level despite the age of cells, and this phenomenon was clearly related to the previously observed stimulation of mRNA expression of genes. An increase in the expression of the corresponding core protein of decorin, perlecan, and versican and a stimulation of their respective sGAGs, such as chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate, were found on skin explants. The biosynthesis of macromolecules seems to be correlated at the microscopic level to a better organization and quality of the dermis, with collagen fibrils having homogenous diameters. The dermis seems to be

  7. Cutaneous expression of Thy-1 in mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed Central

    Fivenson, D. P.; Douglass, M. C.; Nickoloff, B. J.

    1992-01-01

    Dermal dendritic cells from eleven cases of mycosis fungoides (MF) (six patch and five plaque stage), two cases of pre-MF, and five specimens of normal human skin, were characterized immunohistochemically using a panel of antibodies including anti-human Thy-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1; CD54), endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), CD1a, CD2, CD14, CD18, CD34, MAC387, KP-1, EBM-11, factor XIIIa, factor XIIIs, and S100. Thy-1 expression in normal skin was limited to the microvascular endothelium and perivascular dendritic cells. An extensive interstitial network of Thy-1+ dendritic cells was seen in the papillary dermis of all cases of MF, whereas no epidermal cells were Thy-1+. The mean +/- standard deviation of interstitial Thy-1+ cells per high power field in the dermis was: normal skin, 2.86 +/- 0.34; pre-MF, 15; patch stage MF, 13.4 +/- 7.08; plaque stage MF, 49.96 +/- 21.29. Thy-1+ dendritic cells morphologically resembled the factor XIIIa+ "dermal dendrocyte" (DD) and shared their VCAM-1+, ICAM-1+, CD1a, CD2-, CD14+, CD18+, EMB11+, factor XIIIa+, factor XI-IIs-, S100-, MAC387- and KP-1-immunophenotype in MF. Double labeling studies revealed up to 50% of Thy-1+DD were also factor XIIIa+ in MF. Immediately beneath these cells was a similar network of CD34+, Thy-1-, factor XIIIa- dendritic cells limited to the reticular dermis. Strong microvascular endothelial cell expression of Thy-1 and VCAM-1, and focal vascular ELAM-1 expression were also seen in MF. Distinct cellular compartmentalization (papillary dermis versus reticular dermis versus epidermis) of dendritic cells is demonstrated by the differential expression of Thy-1, factor XIIIa, and CD34 antigens. The extensive number and prominent dermal dendritic network in the papillary dermis juxtaposed between epidermal keratinocytes (KC) and dermal/epidermal T cells, suggests an important pathophysiologic role for this newly recognized and

  8. Use of Decellularized Scaffolds Combined with Hyaluronic Acid and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor for Skin Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhengzheng; Fan, Lina; Xu, Bin; Lin, Yongliang; Zhang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Skin damage is one of the common clinical skin diseases, and the main cure is the use of skin graft, especially for large area of skin injury or deep-skin damage. However, skin graft demand is far greater than that currently available. In this study, xenogeneic decellularized scaffold was prepared with pig peritoneum by a series of biochemical treatments to retain normal three-dimensional tissue scaffold and remove cells and antigenic components from the tissue. Scaffold was combined with hyaluronic acid (HA) plus two different concentrations of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and tested for its use for the repair of skin wounds. HA enhanced bFGF to adsorb to the decellularized scaffolds and slowed the release of bFGF from the scaffolds in vitro. A total of 20 rabbits were sacrificed on day 3, 6, 11, or 14 postsurgery. The wound healing rate and the thickness of dermis layer of each wound were determined for analyzing the wound repair. Statistical analysis was performed by the two-tailed Student's t-test. Wounds covered with scaffolds containing 1 μg/mL bFGF had higher wound healing rates of 47.24%, 74.69%, and 87.54%, respectively, for days 6, 11, and 14 postsurgery than scaffolds alone with wound healing rates of 28.17%, 50.31%, and 61.36% and vaseline oil gauze with wound healing rates of 24.84%, 42.75%, and 57.62%. Wounds covered with scaffolds containing 1 μg/mL bFGF showed more dermis regeneration than the other wounds and had dermis layer of 210.60, 374.40, and 774.20 μm, respectively, for days 6, 11, and 14 postsurgery compared with scaffolds alone with dermis layer of 116.60, 200.00, and 455.40 μm and vaseline oil gauze with dermis layer of 82.60, 186.20, and 384.40 μm. There was no significant difference in wound healing rates and thickness of dermis layer between wounds covered with scaffolds containing 1 and 3 μg/mL bFGF on days 3, 6, 11, and 14 postsurgery. The decellularized scaffolds combined with HA and bFGF can be further

  9. Scale development in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    SIRE, JEAN-YVES; ALLIZARD, FRANCOISE; BABIAR, OLIVIER; BOURGUIGNON, JACQUELINE; QUILHAC, ALEXANDRA

    1997-01-01

    In the course of an extensive comparative, structural and developmental study of the cranial and postcranial dermal skeleton (teeth and scales) in osteichthyan fishes, we have undertaken investigations on scale development in zebrafish (Danio (Brachydanio) rerio) using alizarin red staining, and light and transmission electron microscopy. The main goal was to know whether zebrafish scales can be used as a model for further research on the processes controlling the development of the dermal skeleton in general, especially epithelial–mesenchymal interactions. Growth series of laboratory bred specimens were used to study in detail: (1) the relationship of scale appearance with size and age; (2) the squamation pattern; and (3) the events taking place in the epidermis and in the dermis, before and during scale initiation and formation, with the aim of searching for morphological indications of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Scales form late in ontogeny, generally when zebrafish are more than 8.0 mm in standard length. Within a population of zebrafish of the same age scale appearance is related to standard length, but when comparing populations of different age the size of the fish at scale appearance is also related to age. Scales always appear first in the posterior region of the body and the squamation then extends anteriorly. Scales develop in the dermis but closely apposed to the epidermal–dermal boundary. Cellular modifications occurring in the basal layer of the epidermis and in the dermis before scale formation clearly indicate that the basal epidermal cells differentiate first, before any evidence of differentiation of the progenitors of the scale-forming cells in the dermis. This strongly suggests that scale differentiation could be initiated by the epidermal basal layer cells which probably produce a molecular signal towards the dermis below. Subsequently dermal cells accumulate close to the epidermis, and differentiate to form scale papillae. The

  10. Clinically granulomatous cheilitis with plasma cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Somenath; Ghosh, Sarmistha; Sengupta, Dipayan

    2016-01-01

    Plasma cell cheilitis, also known as plasma cell orificial mucositis is a benign inflammatory condition clinically characterized by erythematous plaque on lips that may be ulcerated. Histopathologically it is characterized by dense plasma cell infiltrates in a band-like pattern in dermis, which corresponds to Zoon's plasma cell balanitis. On the other hand, granulomatous cheilitis, as a part of orofacial granulomatosis, manifests as sudden diffuse or nodular swelling involving lip and cheek. Initial swelling is soft to firm, but with recurrent episodes swelling gradually become firm rubbery in consistency. We hereby report a case of cheilitis in a 52-year-old man with diffuse swelling involving lower lip, which clinically resembles granulomatous cheilitis, but histopathological examination showed diffuse infiltrate of plasma cells predominantly in upper and mid-dermis. PMID:27057489

  11. Histopathology of marine vibrio wound infections.

    PubMed

    Beckman, E N; Leonard, G L; Castillo, L E; Genre, C F; Pankey, G A

    1981-12-01

    Although marine vibrio wound infections and septicemia are being reported with increasing frequency, description of the histopathologic changes has been scanty. The histologic alterations in three patients with primary marine vibrio wound infections are presented. The lesions are characterized by intense acute cellulitis of the subcutis with much tissue destruction and extension into the adjacent dermis. The superficial dermis is devitalized and lacks an inflammatory cellular infiltrate. Subepidermal noninflammatory bullae are formed. Many organisms are seen both within the areas of intense acute inflammation and in devitalized areas. Organisms and inflammation are especially oriented around vessels, with associated acute vasculitis. It is concluded that the morphologic picture in marine vibrio wound infections is nonspecific yet characteristic.

  12. Fibromatosis over the dorsa of both feet: An unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Kishan Kumar, Y. Hari; Sujatha, C.; Jayaprasad, Sushmitha

    2015-01-01

    Fibromatosis is benign fibrous tissue condition intermediate between benign fibroma and metastasizing fibrosarcoma. The lesion tends to infiltrate and recur when removed, but do not metastasize. The lesion may be single or multiple, and the likelihood of recurrence after surgical removal varies with location of the lesion and age. A 40-year-old female presented with multiple raised lesions over both feet since 4 years, they were multiple well-defined firm nodules coalescing to form lobulated plaques distributed in a symmetrical pattern over the dorsum of both feet. Histopathology of skin showed epidermis with hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, mild parakeratosis, and prominent granular layer. Superficial dermis was unremarkable and deep dermis showed thick bundles of irregular collagen and fibroblastic proliferation, suggestive of fibromatosis. This case is being reported for its unusual presentation of fibromatosis over the dorsum of both feet. PMID:25821730

  13. Defining dermal adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Driskell, Ryan R; Jahoda, Colin A B; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Watt, Fiona M; Horsley, Valerie

    2014-09-01

    Here, we explore the evolution and development of skin-associated adipose tissue with the goal of establishing nomenclature for this tissue. Underlying the reticular dermis, a thick layer of adipocytes exists that encases mature hair follicles in rodents and humans. The association of lipid-filled cells with the skin is found in many invertebrate and vertebrate species. Historically, this layer of adipocytes has been termed subcutaneous adipose, hypodermis and subcutis. Recent data have revealed a common precursor for dermal fibroblasts and intradermal adipocytes during development. Furthermore, the development of adipocytes in the skin is independent from that of subcutaneous adipose tissue development. Finally, the role of adipocytes has been shown to be relevant for epidermal homoeostasis during hair follicle regeneration and wound healing. Thus, we propose a refined nomenclature for the cells and adipose tissue underlying the reticular dermis as intradermal adipocytes and dermal white adipose tissue, respectively.

  14. Light absorption in blood during low-intensity laser irradiation of skin

    SciTech Connect

    Barun, V V; Ivanov, A P

    2010-06-23

    An analytical procedure is proposed for describing optical fields in biological tissues inhomogeneous in the depth direction, such as human skin, with allowance for multiple scattering. The procedure is used to investigate the depth distribution of the optical power density in homogeneous and multilayer dermis when the skin is exposed to a laser beam. We calculate the absorbed laser power spectra for oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin at different depths in relation to the absorption selectivity of these haemoglobin derivatives and the spectral dependence of the optical power density and demonstrate that the spectra vary considerably with depth. A simple exponential approximation is proposed for the depth distribution of the power density in the epidermis and dermis. (laser methods in medicine)

  15. Two-photon fluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging of collagen in human tissue based on multiphoton microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xingshan; Zhong, Jiazhao; Liu, Yuchun; Yu, Haibo; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin

    2011-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopic imaging of collagen plays an important role in noninvasive diagnoses of human tissue. In this study, two-photon fluorescence and second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging of collagen in human skin dermis and submucosa of colon and stomach tissues were investigated based on multiphoton microscopy (MPM). Our results show that multiphoton microscopic image of collagen bundles exhibits apparently different pattern in human tissues. The collagen bundles can simultaneously reveal its SHG and two-photon excited fluorescence images in the submucosa of colon and stomach, whereas it solely emit SHG signal in skin dermis. The intensity spectral information from tissues further demonstrated the above results. This indicates that collagen bundles have completely different space arrangement in these tissues. Our experimental results bring more detailed information of collagen for the application of MPM in human noninvasive imaging. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa in Pregnancy: A Case Report of the Autosomal Dominant Subtype and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Herrell, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of inherited blistering skin diseases that vary widely in their pathogenesis and severity. There are three main categories of EB: simplex, junctional, and dystrophic. This classification is based on the level of tissue separation within the basement membrane zone and this is attributed to abnormalities of individual or several anchoring proteins that form the interlocking network spanning from the epidermis to the dermis underneath. Dystrophic EB results from mutations in COL7A1 gene coding for type VII collagen leading to blister formation within the dermis. Diagnosis ultimately depends on the patient's specific genetic mutation, but initial diagnosis can be made from careful examination and history taking. We present a pregnant patient known to have autosomal dominant dystrophic EB and discuss the obstetrical and neonatal outcome. The paper also reviews the current English literature on this rare skin disorder. PMID:24864146

  17. An unusual case of Sweet syndrome in a child: overlapping presentation with erythema elevatum diutinum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Liu, Hongjie; Wang, Lin; Guo, Zaipei; Li, Li

    2014-06-01

    In 1964, Sweet described an acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis. It is now widely accepted that Sweet syndrome is one of the associated neutrophilic dermatoses. Herein, we describe an unusual case of Sweet syndrome in a 5-year-old child who suffered from recurrent papules, plaques, and blisters on his face and trunk after the initial onset of fever without an obvious cause. Two skin biopsies were performed. The histopathological findings of the left arm biopsy showed a subepidermal blister with dense infiltrating neutrophils within the blister that were superficial to the middle layer of the dermis. The biopsy from a plaque on the left leg showed a dense infiltrate of neutrophils and a large number of infiltrating histiocytes superficial to the middle layer of the dermis. Direct immunofluorescence of a skin biopsy from the left arm confirmed that immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, IgA, and C3 expression were negative.

  18. Dowling Oration delivered at the Royal College of Physicians, London, Friday 5 June 1998. Retinoids: renaissance and reformation.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, C E

    1999-07-01

    There is confusion as to the cutaneous signs of ageing. For the most part the features of photoageing, namely actinic lentigines and wrinkling, are misinterpreted as features of ageing. Wrinkling is associated with a loss of collagens from the papillary dermis resulting from imperfect remodelling of the dermal extracellular matrix following sun exposure. Retinoids are either derivatives of vitamin A or synthetic ligands of nuclear retinoid receptors. Retinoid receptors, notably retinoic acid receptor gamma and retinoid X receptor alpha are present in human skin. Topically applied all-trans retinoic acid can repair and probably prevent photoageing of the skin by modulation of collagen synthesis in the dermis. There is emerging evidence that intrinsic ageing of the skin is also amenable to reversal by topical retinoids.

  19. Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma with paraproteinemia; an atypical case.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoshiyuki; Nishimura, Keisuke; Yamanaka, Kei-Ichi; Hakamada, Arata; Isoda, Ken-Ichi; Kurokawa, Ichiro; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    2008-01-01

    Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma (NXG) is a rare marker for paraproteinemia. An 86-year-old woman had a one year history of large red-yellow to brown annular plaques involving all limbs. Biopsies showed a non-palisading granuloma with numerous multinucleated giant cells showing prominent elastophagocytosis and extensive areas of necrobiosis throughout the entire dermis. Complete loss of elastic fibers was observed in the central atrophic area of an annular plaque. Small vascular thromboses were also present. Laboratory findings revealed paraproteinemia of IgG-lambda type. Immunohistochemical staining detected the presence of roughly equal numbers of IgG-lambda-and IgG-kappa-staining plasma cells in the dermis. We diagnosed NXG with paraproteinemia with monoclonal gammopathy (IgG-lambda type) of unknown significance.

  20. [Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis without arthritis: successful therapy with hydroxychloroquine].

    PubMed

    Gerbing, Eva Kristina; Metze, Dieter; Luger, Thomas A; Ständer, Sonja

    2003-02-01

    Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis is a rare entity characterized by cutaneous linear strands (the "rope sign") and rheumatoid arthritis. In the past years, 12 other cases have been described with variable cutaneous symptoms. All showed similar histological features, resembling those of granuloma annulare or 'palisaded neutrophilic and granulomatous dermatitis', suggesting a wide spectrum for a single entity. A 60-year-old patient presented with erythematous patches with an indurated, violaceous border resembling the "rope sign" on both flanks. The histological investigation revealed dense diffuse interstitial inflammatory infiltrates composed of eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, macrophages and multinucleated giant cells in the superficial and deep dermis. In the deep dermis, prominent eosinophilic degenerated collagen fibres with surrounding macrophages ('floating sign') occurred. In contrast to most previously described patients, our patient did not have arthralgias. The skin findings cleared following therapy with hydroxychloroquine.

  1. Experimental Characterization of Near-Infrared Laser Energy Absorption, Scattering, and Transmittance in Biological Tissue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    0.41 1.1E-02 0.91 4.5 0.91 0.010 4100 410 Std Err ± 0.001 0.02 1E-03 0.01 0.2 0.01 200 20 Distribution A – Approved for public release...220 0.8 0.88 Porcine dermis [32] 120 0.5-2 0.9 Human dermis [35] 2200 210 0.93 Porcine epidermis Project, 20 micron tissue 4100 410 0.91 Porcine...180 ± 30 cm-1. Table 12 shows values for the 10-micron samples with a scattering coefficient of 4100 ± 100 cm- 1and the absorption coefficient of 270

  2. Two Cases of Unilateral Ashy Dermatosis

    PubMed Central

    Imanishi, Hisayoshi; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Ishii, Masamitsu; Nakagawa, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    Ashy dermatosis is a typically asymptomatic disease of unknown origin that causes symmetrical gray spots to appear on the trunk and extremities. We report 2 cases of ashy dermatosis with unilateral distribution. To our knowledge, only 5 cases of ashy dermatosis with unilateral lesion have been reported so far. Case 1: an 11-year-old woman presented with asymptomatic slate-gray pigmented plaques on the left trunk and left upper arm. The skin biopsy specimen demonstrated a mild lymphohistiocytotic infiltrate in the upper dermis with epidermal and dermal melanosis. Q-Switched ruby laser did not improve such lesions. Case 2: a 21-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of asymptomatic slate-gray pigmented plaques on the left trunk and left upper arm. Histopathological findings were compatible with a mild lymphocytic infiltration with melanin incontinence in the upper dermis. The mechanism that governs unilateral distribution of ashy dermatosis, including in our cases, remains unclear. PMID:21897817

  3. Application of double-layered skin phantoms for optical flow imaging during laser tattoo treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byeong-il; Song, Woosub; Kim, Hyejin; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2016-05-01

    The feasible application of double-layered skin phantoms was evaluated to identify artificial blood flow with a Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) system for laser tattoo treatments. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used to fabricate the artificial phantoms with flow channels embedded. A double-integrating sphere system with an inverse adding-doubling method quantified both the absorption and the reduced scattering coefficients for epidermis and dermis phantoms. Both OCT and caliper measurements confirmed the double-layered phantom structure (epidermis = 136 ± 17 µm vs. dermis = 3.0 ± 0.1 mm). The DOCT method demonstrated that high flow rates were associated with high image contrast, visualizing the position and the shape of the flow channel. Application of the channel-embedded skin phantoms in conjunction with DOCT can be a reliable technique to assess dynamic variations in the blood flow during and after laser tattoo treatments.

  4. Skin elastic fibers in Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dridi, S M; Ghomrasseni, S; Bonnet, D; Aggoun, Y; Vabres, P; Bodemer, C; Lyonnet, S; de Prost, Y; Fraitag, S; Pellat, B; Sidi, D; Godeau, G

    1999-11-19

    The elastin gene is consistently deleted in Williams syndrome and as this protein represents the major component of the elastic fibers of the dermis, we sought to investigate skin elastic fibers in Williams syndrome as a key to unraveling extracellular matrix disorganization in this condition. Both morphometric parameters analyzed by using automated image analysis and immunofluorescence labeling with monoclonal antibodies against elastin and fibrillin 1 showed a disorganized pre-elastic (oxytalan and elaunin) and mature elastic fibers in the dermis of 10 Williams syndrome patients compared with five healthy children and one patient with isolated supravalvular aortic stenosis. Skin biopsies in Williams syndrome patients provide a simple mean to elucidate extracellular matrix anomalies. Hopefully, this method could give clues to the understanding of the elastic network anomalies in this condition and even to the consequences of these latter on elasticity and resilience of other tissues such as the arterial tree. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Collagen remodeling in photo-thermal damaged skin with optical coherence tomography and multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shu-lian; Li, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-man; Yu, Lili

    2009-08-01

    Cutaneous photo-thermal damage is the common damages in clinical medicine; it is a complex and dynamic process that follows an orderly sequence of events. The sequence can be roughly divided into three distinct, yet sequentially overlapping phases-inflammation, granulation tissue formation, and tissue remodeling. Characteristic structural changes associated with each phase could provide a basis for photo-thermal damage assessment with imaging technologies. Monitoring the skin tissue response during the skin after irradiated by laser and tracing the process of skin remodeling would help to understand the mechanism of photo-thermal. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and multiphoton microscopy (MPM) imaging were used to observe the process of the collagen remodeling in mouse dermis photo-thermal injured which after irradiated by intense pulsed light source (IPLs) in this paper. Our finding showed that the OCT and MPM techniques can image the process of collagen remodeling in mouse dermis.

  6. Changes in collagenous tissue microstructures and distributions of cathepsin L in body wall of autolytic sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Xin; Zhou, Da-Yong; Ma, Dong-Dong; Liu, Yan-Fei; Li, Dong-Mei; Dong, Xiu-Ping; Tan, Ming-Qian; Du, Ming; Zhu, Bei-Wei

    2016-12-01

    The autolysis of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) was induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and the changes of microstructures of collagenous tissues and distributions of cathepsin L were investigated using histological and histochemical techniques. Intact collagen fibers in fresh S. japonicus dermis were disaggregated into collagen fibrils after UV stimuli. Cathepsin L was identified inside the surface of vacuoles in the fresh S. japonicus dermis cells. After the UV stimuli, the membranes of vacuoles and cells were fused together, and cathepsin L was released from cells and diffused into tissues. The density of cathepsin L was positively correlated with the speed and degree of autolysis in different layers of body wall. Our results revealed that lysosomal cathepsin L was released from cells in response to UV stimuli, which contacts and degrades the extracellular substrates such as collagen fibers, and thus participates in the autolysis of S. japonicus.

  7. Photodamage in feline skin: clinical and histomorphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Almeida, E M P; Caraça, R A; Adam, R L; Souza, E M; Metze, K; Cintra, M L

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical and histomorphometric features of cat skin under long-term solar exposure. Ear skin of 34 Domestic Shorthair cats that were chronically exposed to sun was classified as follows: group 0, normal (n = 13); group 1, initial stage of photodamage (PD) (n = 10); group 2, advanced stage of PD (n = 11). Histologic sections were examined independently by 2 pathologists, and epidermal thickness, adnexal unit area, and dermal cellularity were assessed by morphometry. A positive correlation was obtained between age, degree of edema and sclerosis in the upper dermis, telangiectases, squamatization of basal keratinocytes, and epidermis thickness and the degree of PD. The area occupied by adnexal structures in the dermis diminished with increased PD. Dermal sclerosis and edema best separated the 3 groups. The results indicated a high level of skin hypersensitivity to sun rays in cats. The findings may be useful for clinical testing and in general veterinary pathology and dermatology.

  8. Two-photon microscopy of dermal innervation in a human re-innervated model of skin.

    PubMed

    Sevrain, David; Le Grand, Yann; Buhé, Virginie; Jeanmaire, Christine; Pauly, Gilles; Carré, Jean-Luc; Misery, Laurent; Lebonvallet, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    When skin is injured, innervation can be severely disrupted. The subsequent re-innervation processes are poorly understood notably because of the inability to image the full meandering course of nerves with their ramifications and endings from histological slices. In this letter, we report on two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy of entire human skin explants re-innervated by rodent sensory neurons labelled with the styryl dye FM1-43. TPEF imaging of nerve fibres to a depth up to roughly 300 μm within the dermis was demonstrated, allowing three-dimensional reconstruction of the neural tree structure. Endogenous second-harmonic imaging of type I fibrillar collagen was performed in parallel to TPEF imaging using the same nonlinear microscope, revealing the path of the nerves through the dermis.

  9. Pellagra in a patient with primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ben Ghorbel, Imed; Litaiem, Noureddine; Chelly, Ines; Houman, Habib

    2014-06-18

    A 27-year-old woman presented with persistent dryness of the mouth and eyes. She presented with permanent photodistributed rash involving the face and distal extremities. Laboratory tests showed positive Sjögren's syndrome (SS)-A and SS-B antibodies. Histological examination of minor salivary gland biopsy revealed inflammatory infiltration grade 4 according to Chisholm's classification. Skin biopsy showed acanthosis, hyperkeratosis in the epidermis and little inflammatory infiltrate in the dermis. There was an infiltration of CD4 T lymphocytes in the dermis. Based on the characteristics of the dermatitis and on a rapid response to niacin replacement, the diagnosis of pellagra was carried out. A complete resolution of the dermatological signs was obtained within 2 months. To the best of our knowledge, the association between primary SS and pellagra has never been reported. We emphasise the possible mechanisms of this association.

  10. Development of a skin phantom of the epidermis and evaluation by using fluorescence techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Thorsten; Beer, Sebastian; Maeder, Ulf; Burg, Jan M.; Schlupp, Peggy; Schmidts, Thomas; Runkel, Frank; Fiebich, Martin

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this project was to develop a skin phantom that resembles the epidermis including the lipid matrix of the stratum corneum and the dermis. The main intent was to achieve optical properties similar to skin tissue. Therefore, two compartments of the skin, dermis and epidermis, were examined regarding their optical properties. Based on these results, the skin phantom was designed using relevant skin components. The scattering coefficient was measured by using Reflectance-based Confocal Microscopy (RCM) and the fluorescence spectrum was detected via confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM). Prospective, the skin phantom can be used to incorporate various fluorescing chemicals, such as fluorescent dyes and fluorescent-labeled drugs to perform calibration measurements in wide-field and laser-scanning microscopes to provide a basis for the quantification of skin penetration studies.

  11. LASER METHODS IN MEDICINE: Light absorption in blood during low-intensity laser irradiation of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barun, V. V.; Ivanov, A. P.

    2010-06-01

    An analytical procedure is proposed for describing optical fields in biological tissues inhomogeneous in the depth direction, such as human skin, with allowance for multiple scattering. The procedure is used to investigate the depth distribution of the optical power density in homogeneous and multilayer dermis when the skin is exposed to a laser beam. We calculate the absorbed laser power spectra for oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin at different depths in relation to the absorption selectivity of these haemoglobin derivatives and the spectral dependence of the optical power density and demonstrate that the spectra vary considerably with depth. A simple exponential approximation is proposed for the depth distribution of the power density in the epidermis and dermis.

  12. Spectrally resolved visualization of fluorescent dyes permeating into skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeder, Ulf; Bergmann, Thorsten; Beer, Sebastian; Burg, Jan Michael; Schmidts, Thomas; Runkel, Frank; Fiebich, Martin

    2012-03-01

    We present a spectrally resolved confocal imaging approach to qualitatively asses the overall uptake and the penetration depth of fluorescent dyes into biological tissue. We use a confocal microscope with a spectral resolution of 5 nm to measure porcine skin tissue after performing a Franz-Diffusion experiment with a submicron emulsion enriched with the fluorescent dye Nile Red. The evaluation uses linear unmixing of the dye and the tissue autofluorescence spectra. The results are combined with a manual segmentation of the skin's epidermis and dermis layers to assess the penetration behavior additionally to the overall uptake. The diffusion experiments, performed for 3h and 24h, show a 3-fold increased dye uptake in the epidermis and dermis for the 24h samples. As the method is based on spectral information it does not face the problem of superimposed dye and tissue spectra and therefore is more precise compared to intensity based evaluation methods.

  13. Computational models for the determination of depth-dependent mechanical properties of skin with a soft, flexible measurement device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jianghong; Dagdeviren, Canan; Shi, Yan; Ma, Yinji; Feng, Xue; Rogers, John A.; Huang, Yonggang

    2016-10-01

    Conformal modulus sensors (CMS) incorporate PZT nanoribbons as mechanical actuators and sensors to achieve reversible conformal contact with the human skin for non-invasive, in vivo measurements of skin modulus. An analytic model presented in this paper yields expressions that connect the sensor output voltage to the Young moduli of the epidermis and dermis, the thickness of the epidermis, as well as the material and geometrical parameters of the CMS device itself and its encapsulation layer. Results from the model agree well with in vitro experiments on bilayer structures of poly(dimethylsiloxane). These results provide a means to determine the skin moduli (epidermis and dermis) and the thickness of the epidermis from in vivo measurements of human skin.

  14. Blepharopigmentation: histopathologic observations and X-ray microanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, K.B.; Payne, C.M.; Heyde, R.R. )

    1988-01-01

    Blepharopigmentation or permanent eyeliner is a popular cosmetic procedure currently performed by a variety of methods. All methods attempt to implant ferrous oxide pigment into the dermis. We performed histopathologic studies on a series of three eyelid specimens, including two by a previously undescribed multi-needle pigment delivery system. Light microscopy revealed the epidermis to be pigment-free and the dermis to contain pigment in clumps. Transmission electron microscopy (EM) demonstrated that the pigment was largely in macrophages. Energy-dispersive x-ray micro-analysis showed that in addition to iron and talc, titanium particles were also present. These findings suggest that the pigment is tolerated by the eyelid despite the fact that current pigments are contaminated.

  15. [Skin substitutes reconstructed in the laboratory: application in burn treatment].

    PubMed

    Braye, F; Hautier, A; Bouez, C; Damour, O

    2005-12-01

    The development of skin substitutes started 25 years ago with the cultivation of keratinocytes to replace the epidermis of extensively burned patients. It is now possible to reproduce in vitro the two layers of skin, epidermis and dermis. Cultured epidermises are now usually used in burn centers dealing with the more severe patients. They are provided by hospital or private laboratories. Dermal substrates are some collagen matrices, which act in vivo as a guide for the reconstruction of a neodermis. Living dermis include living fibroblasts. Different models are now available for clinical use. Living skin equivalent is obtained by coculturing fibroblast and keratinocytes on a collagen support. Clinical essays are going on for chronic wounds. We present the different skin equivalent models and their clinical applications.

  16. Milia En Plaque as a Distinct Follicular Hamartoma With Cystic Trichoepitheliomatous Features

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Akira; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Aiba, Setsuya

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Milia en plaque (MEP) is an uncommon disorder characterized by an erythematous plaque containing numerous milia. The pathogenesis of MEP is not clear. The authors report a man with an erythematous plaque on the right retroauricular area, containing numerous white-yellow cysts varying in size. Histological examination showed that multiple cystic structures at various levels of the dermis that were lined by stratified squamous epithelium and contained keratinous material—these findings were consistent with the diagnosis of multiple milia. In addition to epidermal cysts, however, the lesion consisted of a branched proliferation of pale-staining keratinocytes lined with basal keratinocytes budding from the overlying epidermis. Moreover, some cysts were formed within the branched epithelial proliferation, had thicker cyst walls than the ordinary milium, or had irregular or branched projections toward the surrounding dermis. From these findings, the authors conclude that MEP is a distinct follicular hamartoma with cystic trichoepitheliomatous features. PMID:26381115

  17. Angiotropic syringomatous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Eri; Saruta, Hiroshi; Nanri, Aya; Nakama, Takekuni; Ohata, Chika

    2017-01-11

    Syringomatous carcinoma (SC) is a slow-growing malignant skin tumor that usually affects the face or scalp. An 83-year-old female developed SC on the sole, a rare location. Histopathologically, numerous ducts with few keratinizing cysts were seen in the upper dermis, and cords, strands and nests with sclerotic stroma were seen in the deep dermis and subcutis. In addition to the perineural and intraneural invasion of the tumor, the tumor cells had also invaded the vessel walls. There was no intravasation of tumor cells or interruption of the endothelium. Because melanoma with vascular wall invasion without intravasation of melanoma cells or interruption of the endothelium has been called angiotropic melanoma, we termed the present tumor angiotropic SC. Tumor cells showed wide local invasion.

  18. Heterogeneous Pathology of Melasma and Its Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Hyo; Hwang, Young-Ji; Lee, Soo-Keun; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2016-05-26

    Melasma is a commonly acquired hypermelanosis that affects sun-exposed areas of the skin, with frequent facial involvement. Its histologic manifestations are evident in the epidermis, extracellular matrix, and dermis. In addition to epidermal pigmentation, pathologic findings of melasma include extracellular matrix abnormality, especially solar elastosis. The disrupted basement membrane has been described in melasma with variable incidences. In the dermis, an increase in vascularity and an increase in the number of mast cells were observed, indicating that dermal factors have critical roles in the pathogenesis of melasma, despite the fact that melasma is characterized by epidermal hyperpigmentation. This review discusses such histologic characteristics of melasma, with consideration to their implications for melasma treatment.

  19. Heterogeneous Pathology of Melasma and Its Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soon-Hyo; Hwang, Young-Ji; Lee, Soo-Keun; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Melasma is a commonly acquired hypermelanosis that affects sun-exposed areas of the skin, with frequent facial involvement. Its histologic manifestations are evident in the epidermis, extracellular matrix, and dermis. In addition to epidermal pigmentation, pathologic findings of melasma include extracellular matrix abnormality, especially solar elastosis. The disrupted basement membrane has been described in melasma with variable incidences. In the dermis, an increase in vascularity and an increase in the number of mast cells were observed, indicating that dermal factors have critical roles in the pathogenesis of melasma, despite the fact that melasma is characterized by epidermal hyperpigmentation. This review discusses such histologic characteristics of melasma, with consideration to their implications for melasma treatment. PMID:27240341

  20. Scanning electron microscopy of lichen sclerosus*

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Bicca, Eduardo de Barros Coelho; Breunig, Juliano de Avelar; Rocha, Nara Moreira; Silva, Ricardo Marques e

    2013-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is an acquired inflammatory condition characterized by whitish fibrotic plaques, with a predilection for the genital skin. We performed scanning electron microscopy of the dermis from a lesion of lichen sclerosus. Normal collagen fibers could be easily found in deeper layers of the specimen, as well as the transition to pathologic area, which seems homogenized. With higher magnifications in this transitional area collagen fibers are adherent to each other, and with very high magnifications a pearl chain aspect became evident along the collagen fibers. In the superficial dermis this homogenization is even more evident, collagen fibers are packed together and round structures are also observed. Rupture of collagen fibers and inflammatory cells were not found. These autoimmune changes of the extracellular matrix lead to the aggregation of immune complexes and/or changed matrix proteins along the collagen fibers, the reason why they seem hyalinized when examined by light microscopy. PMID:23739707

  1. [Xeroderma pigmentosum: radical therapeutic procedure on the face using artificial skin].

    PubMed

    Herlin, C; Saunière, D; Huertas, D

    2009-12-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare and severe photodermatitis without cure. Skin cancers are inevitable and give rise to iterative skin resections often mutilating especially in the face. We report the case of two sisters suffering from severe forms of xeroderma pigmentosum. Given the rapid emergence of multicancerous lesions, we opted for a radical approach entailing successively all aesthetic sub-units of the face. The reconstruction uses an original method used initially in the great burned: the artificial dermis. This simple method, providing a quality sub-soil, has helped us in these two complex cases to ensure coverage of a large defect providing a tissue recovery of excellent trophic and aesthetics quality. Thanks to this treatment strategy, we were able to significantly delay the development of this disease. With a retreat of 35 months, the quality of reconstruction by artificial dermis is considered to be satisfactory for its elasticity and its trophicity.

  2. Computed effects of sweat gland ducts on the propagation of 94 GHz waves in skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafirstein, Gal; Moros, Eduardo G.

    2011-03-01

    The effects of sweat gland ducts (SGD) on specific absorption rate and temperatures during millimeter wave irradiation of skin were investigated with a high resolution finite differences time domain model consisting of a 30 μm stratum corneum (SC), a 350 μm epidermis, 1000 μm dermis and five SGD (60 μm radius, 300 μm height, 370 μm separation). The source was a WR-10 waveguide irradiating at 94 GHz. Without SGD, specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature maximum were in the dermis near epidermis. With SGD, a higher SAR maximum was inside SGD in the epidermis while temperature maximum moved to the epidermis/stratumcorneum junction. SGD significantly affected how GHz waves were absorbed in the skin. Implications of these finding in nociceptive research will be discussed as well as other potential medical applications.

  3. Chemical peels: what's new and what isn't new but still works well.

    PubMed

    Fabbrocini, Gabriella; De Padova, Maria Pia; Tosti, Antonella

    2009-12-01

    Chemical peeling is becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of skin rejuvenation where it can improve damaged skin and fine wrinkles. The basic procedure aims at obtaining a controlled chemical burn of the epidermis and/or dermis. This results in epidermal regeneration and postinflammatory collagen neoformation with remodeling of collagen and elastic fibers and deposition of glycosaminoglycans in the dermis. Various chemicals have been used as peeling agents, of which the most used are the alpha-hydroxy acids, such as glycolic acid, or beta-hydroxy acids, such as salicylic acid. The choice of the compound is linked to the different indications and to the depth of the desired peeling. Phenol is still the best agent for deep peeling but requires specific indications, prescription, and post-peeling care. Combination of different compounds is one innovation in the field of chemical peelings. Further controlled studies are necessary to set up specific guidelines.

  4. Analysis of nonablative skin resurfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Thomas E.; Anvari, Bahman; Keikhanzadeh, Kurosh; Dave, Digant P.; Nelson, J. Stuart; Goodman, Dennis M.; Hennings, David R.; Baumgardner, John; Berry, Michael J.

    1997-05-01

    Nonablative skin resurfacing is a dermatologic procedure utilizing pulsed laser irradiation and dynamic cooling to induce selectively a wound healing response in the papillary and upper reticular dermis. Using temperature measurements of human skin provided by pulsed photothermal radiometry immediately following laser irradiation (lambda equals 1.32 micrometer), spatial distribution of thermal damage is predicted in response to various potential therapeutic laser- cryogen doses. Results of our analysis suggest that appropriate application of pulsed laser irradiation and cryogen spray cooling may be used to protect the epidermis and selectively confine thermal injury to the papillary and upper reticular dermis. Development of nonablative skin resurfacing will require understanding the relationship between the degree of dermal photocoagulation and the cutaneous wound healing response following laser irradiation.

  5. Study of Native Type I Collagen Fibrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, August

    2006-03-01

    Presented in this work is direct imaging and force microscopy of native, intact type I collagen fibrils extracted from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa dermis with affiliated proteoglycan molecules. The prototypical collagen fibril structure is well conserved through higher mammalian species and presents a model for study of the mechanical properties of the primary individual components of the dermis and skeletal ligature. Common practice is to use reconstituted fibrils which lack the precise conformal structure and affiliated proteoglycans. We have performed force microscopy to probe the mechanical properties of native fibrils and extract the elastic modulus under natural conditions. This knowledge is combined transmission and atomic force imaging, in conjunction with applied computation models, to demonstrate an inherent semitubular structure of these fibrils.

  6. Novel method for facial rejuvenation using Er:YAG laser equipped with a spatially modulated ablation module: An open prospective uncontrolled cohort study.

    PubMed

    Volkova, N V; Glazkova, L K; Khomchenko, V V; Sadick, N S

    2017-02-01

    Facial aging is a complex biological process that affects the skin and superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS). A new technology (RecoSMA) for skin rejuvenation based on acoustic-interference method using Er:YAG laser (2936 nm) equipped with a special module SMA that targets both the dermis and SMAS was evaluated in an open-label prospective cohort study of 100 female patients treated for facial rejuvenation. Measure of clinical improvement included investigator-rated clinical photography using the Modified Fitzpatrick Wrinkle Scale, and ultrasound measurements in the dermis a week, 30 days and six months post treatment. All patients completed the study and no complications were noted. Improvements in skin tone and texture were noted in all participants and significant decrease in wrinkle depth was demonstrated at the six-month follow-up that was confirmed by ultrasound skin measurements. Data presented herein confirm the safety and efficacy of RecoSMA treatment for facial rejuvenation.

  7. BMP-FGF signaling axis mediates Wnt-induced epidermal stratification in developing mammalian skin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao-Jing; Liu, YuDong; Dai, Zhong-Min; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Yang, XueQin; Li, Yan; Qiu, Mengsheng; Fu, Jiang; Hsu, Wei; Chen, YiPing; Zhang, Zunyi

    2014-10-01

    Epidermal stratification of the mammalian skin requires proliferative basal progenitors to generate intermediate cells that separate from the basal layer and are replaced by post-mitotic cells. Although Wnt signaling has been implicated in this developmental process, the mechanism underlying Wnt-mediated regulation of basal progenitors remains elusive. Here we show that Wnt secreted from proliferative basal cells is not required for their differentiation. However, epidermal production of Wnts is essential for the formation of the spinous layer through modulation of a BMP-FGF signaling cascade in the dermis. The spinous layer defects caused by disruption of Wnt secretion can be restored by transgenically expressed Bmp4. Non-cell autonomous BMP4 promotes activation of FGF7 and FGF10 signaling, leading to an increase in proliferative basal cell population. Our findings identify an essential BMP-FGF signaling axis in the dermis that responds to the epidermal Wnts and feedbacks to regulate basal progenitors during epidermal stratification.

  8. Expression of TGF-beta 1, -beta 2 and -beta 3 in localized and systemic scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Querfeld, C; Eckes, B; Huerkamp, C; Krieg, T; Sollberg, S

    1999-09-01

    Scleroderma is a generalized or localized disorder which leads to fibrosis of the affected organs. TGF-beta has been implicated as a causal agent in its pathogenesis. In mammals, TGF-beta comprises a family of three members, beta 1, beta 2 and beta 3. Since cutaneous wound healing is thought to result either in formation of a scar or in scar-free tissue regeneration, depending on the relative amounts of the beta 3 isoform, the expression of all three isoforms was studied in skin biopsies of patients with either localized or systemic scleroderma. mRNA for all three isoforms was detected in inflammatory skin areas of both disease forms, but never in sclerotic or healthy skin. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed expression of beta1 and beta 2 proteins in inflammatory skin of patients, whereas beta 3 protein appeared to be present in the subepidermal area and also found throughout the dermis of patients and healthy dermis as well.

  9. Review of patents for microneedle application devices allowing fluid injections through the skin.

    PubMed

    Lhernould, Marion S; Tailler, Serge; Deleers, Michel; Delchambre, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Microneedles have been developed in the past few years as a new means of transdermal drug delivery. They indeed present many advantages compared to injections using hypodermic needles (reduced risk of contamination and epidermic reactions), but mostly bring comfort and compliance to patients. Microneedles may be plain, opening pathways for medications to dissolve into the skin, or hollow, allowing fluid to actually enter the dermis or the hypodermis. This review focuses on the latter type of microneedles and two issues with their application: first, ensuring correct insertion into the skin (controlled and repeatable insertion depth, mainly); and second, ensuring correct fluid delivery to the dermis (controlled infusion rate). This paper thus focuses on recently published patents for hollow microneedle applicators-i.e., microneedles applicators that allow fluid delivery to the skin. Descriptions are given of several of the most relevant patents concerning this. The benefits and drawbacks of the different solutions are also described.

  10. Intertriginous bullous morphea: A clue for the pathogenesis?

    PubMed

    Kavala, Mukaddes; Zindanci, Ilkin; Demirkesen, Cuyan; Beyhan, Emek Kocaturk Seyhan; Turkoglu, Zafer

    2007-01-01

    Bullae occurring in lesions of morphea are uncommon. The cause of bullae formation in morphea is multifactorial, although lymphatic obstruction from the sclerodermatous process is considered the likeliest cause. Bullous morphea may be confused clinically with lichen sclerosus et atrophicus since both diseases may cause bullae in sclerodermatous plaques. A 69-year-old woman presented with a history of generalized morphea diagnosed 9 years earlier; and a 1-month history of pruritic bullae on her inframammary folds, axillary regions, lower abdomen, upper extremities and inguinal folds. Physical examination revealed multiple erythematous erosions, hemorrhagic vesicles and eroded bullae with slight scale or crusts overlying hypopigmented, indurated, shiny plaques. Skin biopsy revealed prominent edema in the papillary dermis, resulting in bulla formation and thickening of collagen fibers within the dermis. Direct immunofluorescence was negative. According to histologic and clinical features, the diagnosis of bullous morphea was established.

  11. Cancer field effects in normal tissues revealed by Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lieber, Chad A.; Nethercott, Hubert E.; Kabeer, Mustafa H.

    2010-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the presence of cancer results in detectable changes to uninvolved tissues, collectively termed cancer field effects (CFE). In this study, we directly assessed the ability of Raman microspectroscopy to detect CFE via in-vitro study of organotypic tissue rafts approximating human skin. Raman spectra were measured from both epidermis and dermis after transfer of the rafts to dishes containing adherent cultures of either normal human fibroblasts or fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells. Principal components analyses allowed discrimination between the groups with 86% classification accuracy in the epidermis and 94% in the dermis. These results encourage further study to evaluate the Raman capacity for detecting CFE as a possible tool for noninvasive screening for tumor presence. PMID:21258523

  12. Metallic discoloration on the right shin caused by titanium alloy prostheses in a patient with right total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Young; Shin, Dong Hoon; Choi, Jong Soo; Kim, Ki Hong

    2013-08-01

    The differential diagnosis of bluish-gray pigmentation of the skin includes dermal melanocytosis, malignant melanoma and metallic discoloration. Of these disorders, metallic discoloration, which develops from deposits of fine metallic particles on the skin, is an uncommon dermatologic disease. We report a case of metallic discoloration of the right shin caused by titanium alloy prostheses in a patient with right total knee replacement. The patient had bluish-gray pigmentation on her right shin as well as pain while walking. Histopathologic findings of the skin lesion showed abundant black particles in the perivascular area of the lower dermis. Polarizing microscopy revealed refractile foreign materials in the dermis. An energy dispersive X-ray spectrophotometer unit attached to a transmission electron microscope detected titanium and aluminium peaks in the specimen.

  13. Quick analysis of optical spectra to quantify epidermal melanin and papillary dermal blood content of skin.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Steven L

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a practical approach for assessing the melanin and blood content of the skin from total diffuse reflectance spectra, R(λ), where λ is wavelength. A quick spectral analysis using just three wavelengths (585 nm, 700 nm and 800 nm) is presented, based on the 1985 work of Kollias and Baquer who documented epidermal melanin of skin using the slope of optical density (OD) between 620 nm and 720 nm. The paper describes the non-rectilinear character of such a quick analysis, and shows that almost any choice of two wavelengths in the 600-900 range can achieve the characterization of melanin. The extrapolation of the melanin slope to 585 nm serves as a baseline for subtraction from the OD (585 nm) to yield a blood perfusion score. Monte Carlo simulations created spectral data for a skin model with epidermis, papillary dermis and reticular dermis to illustrate the analysis.

  14. In vivo optical monitoring of transcutaneous delivery of calcium carbonate microcontainers

    PubMed Central

    Genina, Elina A.; Svenskaya, Yulia I.; Yanina, Irina Yu.; Dolotov, Leonid E.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Terentyuk, Georgy S.; Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Gorin, Dmitry A.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Sukhorukov, Gleb B.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a method for delivery of biocompatible CaCO3 microcontainers (4.0 ± 0.8 µm) containing Fe3O4 nanoparticles (14 ± 5 nm) into skin in vivo using fractional laser microablation (FLMA) provided by a pulsed Er:YAG laser system. Six laboratory rats have been used for the microcontainer delivery and weekly monitoring implemented using an optical coherence tomography and a standard histological analysis. The use of FLMA allowed for delivery of the microcontainers to the depth about 300 μm and creation of a depot in dermis. On the seventh day we have observed the dissolving of the microcontainers and the release of nanoparticles into dermis. PMID:27375927

  15. Dual-effect laser handpiece for modification of tissue permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Kathleen

    2011-03-01

    A new approach for improving the availability of topically applied drugs by reducing the permeability of dermis has been evaluated. The premise of this work is that photothermal vascular injury will reduce vascular uptake of drug in the dermis. The dermal distribution of two topically applied drugs, 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C, is calculated, considering molecular diffusion and vascular uptake according to a distributed model, in the presence and absence of vascular injury. Intradermal drug exposures obtained are compared to exposures known to be effective in killing tumor cells. Combining the reduction in dermal permeability with fractional photothermal epidermal ablation to increase epidermal permeability may allow higher drug concentrations to be achieved in the skin. A newly developed laser handpiece for implementing the technique is described.

  16. Atelectasis after free rectus transfer and abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lo, Jamie O; Weber, Stephen M; Andersen, Peter E; Gross, Neil D; Gosselin, Marc; Wax, Mark K

    2008-10-01

    Atelectasis is commonly encountered in patients undergoing rectus abdominus tissue transfer. Primary closure of the anterior rectus sheath may contribute to this process. Augmentation of the closure with mesh may decrease the incidence of Atelectasis. In this retrospective review 32 patients with preoperative and postoperative augmentation were compared to 23 who had primary closure of the anterior rectus sheath. Augmentation consisted of acellular dermis (25) or mesh (7). Postoperative atelectasis was radiographically detected in: 91% (n=29) of augmented patients versus 83% (n=19) of primary closure patients. Major atelectasis in 41% (n=13) of augmented patients versus 61% (n=14) of primary closure patients p<.05. The incidence of atelectasis was independent of skin flap size and operative times. The use of acellular dermis or mesh to augment the abdominal wall appears to reduce the high incidence of postoperative atelectasis following rectus-free flap harvest. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 2008.

  17. Inhomogeneous Monte Carlo simulations of dermoscopic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareau, Daniel S.; Li, Ting; Jacques, Steven; Krueger, James

    2012-03-01

    Clinical skin-lesion diagnosis uses dermoscopy: 10X epiluminescence microscopy. Skin appearance ranges from black to white with shades of blue, red, gray and orange. Color is an important diagnostic criteria for diseases including melanoma. Melanin and blood content and distribution impact the diffuse spectral remittance (300-1000nm). Skin layers: immersion medium, stratum corneum, spinous epidermis, basal epidermis and dermis as well as laterally asymmetric features (eg. melanocytic invasion) were modeled in an inhomogeneous Monte Carlo model.

  18. Potamostoma shizunaiense gen. et sp. nov. (Nemertea: Hoplonemertea: Monostilifera): a new brackish-water nemertean from Japan.

    PubMed

    Kajihara, Hiroshi; Gibson, Ray; Mawatari, Shunsuke F

    2003-04-01

    Potamostoma shizunaiense gen. et sp. nov. (Nemertea: Hoplonemertea: Monostilifera) is described from the mouth of the River Shizunai, Hokkaido, Japan. This genus is readily distinguished from other monostiliferans by an oesophagus opening far anteriorly into the rhynchodaeum, a well developed excretory system extending the whole body length, terminals of the excretory collecting tubules situated between the body wall circular muscle layer and the dermis, and bilobed testes in males.

  19. Autologous Fat Transfer in a Patient with Lupus Erythematosus Profundus

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jimi; Kim, Hwa Mi; Kim, Tae-Heung; Kim, Chung-Won; Sun, Young-Woo; Yoon, Tae-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Lupus erythematosus profundus, a form of chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus, is a rare inflammatory disease involving in the lower dermis and subcutaneous tissues. It primarily affects the head, proximal upper arms, trunk, thighs, and presents as firm nodules, 1 to 3 cm in diameter. The overlying skin often becomes attached to the subcutaneous nodules and is drawn inward to produce deep, saucerized depressions. We present a rare case of lupus erythematosus profundus treated with autologous fat transfer. PMID:23139658

  20. An Assessment of Normalized Difference Skin Index Robustness in Aquatic Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    components of the skin also resides in the dermis, such as: blood vessels, capillaries nerve ending, sweat glands, and hair follicles . Subcutaneous tissue lies...reaching radiation could come from other sources, besides reflectance from the target . Five possible paths of travel are illustrated. . . . . . 12 2.3...diameter of the field-of-view, D is the effective diameter of the foreoptic lens, X is the distance to the target , and A is the foreoptic angular field

  1. Inframammary fold: a histologic reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Muntan, C D; Sundine, M J; Rink, R D; Acland, R D

    2000-02-01

    The inframammary fold is a defining element in the shape and structure of the female breast. It should be preserved whenever possible in ablative procedures and recreated accurately when the breast is reconstructed after mastectomy. To date, no accurate anatomic description of this essential structure exists. Previous studies have suggested that the fold is produced by a supporting ligament running from the dermis in the fold region to a variety of locations on the rib cage. This clinic's experience with mastectomy, augmentation mammaplasty, and breast reconstruction does not support the existence of a ligamentous structure. To define the structure of the inframammary fold, 10 female and 2 male cadavers were studied. The anterior chest wall was removed en bloc and frozen in orthostatic position. Parasagittal sections were made of the inframammary fold with the chest wall intact. After decalcification of the ribs and routine histologic preparation, thin sections were stained with Gomori's trichrome. On light microscopic examination, no demonstrable ligamentous structure of dense regular connective tissue could be identified in the fold region in any of the 12 specimens. Superficial and deep fascial layers were uniformly observed anterior to the pectoralis major and serratus anterior muscles. The superficial fascia was connected to the dermis in the fold region in a variety of configurations. In some cases, the deep fascia fused with the superficial fascia and dermis at the fold level. In other cases, bundles of collagen fibers arising from the superficial fascial layer were found to insert into the dermis at the inframammary fold, slightly inferior to it, or both. These bundles were observed consistently in sections from the sternum to the middle axillary line. They were distinct from Cooper's suspensory ligaments, which are seen more superiorly in the glandular tissue.

  2. Pyoderma gangrenosum masquerading as Donovanosis

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Varadraj V.; Kikkeri, Naveen Narayanshetty; Athanikar, S. B.; Myageri, Anil; Rai, Vijetha

    2014-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology characterized by neutrophilic infiltration of the dermis and destruction of tissue. PG is diagnosed after excluding more commonly occurring condition presenting with similar manifestation. Though PG has been reported to occur over the genitalia, it rarely presents with concurrent involvement of the groin. Herein, we present a case of PG masquerading as Donovanosis. PMID:26396454

  3. Epithelial Stem Cells of the Skin Contribute to the Histopathologic Umbrella-like Appearance in Actinic Keratosis.

    PubMed

    Mihara, Motoyuki

    2014-09-01

    Although the histopathologic umbrella-like appearance of the epidermis in actinic keratosis (AK) is well known, its histopathogenesis has remained unknown. The author suggests that the penetration depth of ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation can account for such a histopathologic feature by affecting specific epidermal stem cell pools, as the stem cells in the epidermis and the bulge stem cells and sebocyte stem cells in the mid-dermis reside at different depths.

  4. Evaluating the role of physical and radiographic examinations in assessing bullet tract termination for gunshot victims.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, F; Sullivan, J; Arellano, D; Roulier, R

    2000-03-01

    Knowledge of the path of a bullet and how it terminates is critical for expeditious assessment and optimal management of patients with gunshot wounds. To assess the accuracy of physical examination and X-rays in these patients, a prospective study was undertaken for all gunshot victims seen for a 1-year period on a single trauma service. The paramedics and trauma surgeons' physical examinations were evaluated for whether a bullet tract could be accurately categorized as 1) through and through, 2) graze, 3) palpable under dermis, or 4) retained (ie, not palpable). The impact of X-rays was assessed with regard to how it affected the trauma surgeons' categorization. A total of 78 patients were seen with a total of 120 bullet tracts. Seventy-seven per cent were injured by assault, and 64 per cent were shot with a 9-mm or .38-caliber handgun. Twenty of 60 (33%) bullet tracts on the torso terminated with a missile that was palpable under dermis, but only 2 of 10 neck (20%), 1 of 28 extremity (4%), and 1 of 22 head/face (5%) did so. Paramedics evaluated 15 torso bullet tracts that ended palpable under dermis, of which they detected 5 (33%). Upon initial examination, the trauma surgeon detected 11 of 20 torso bullet tracts that ended palpable under dermis (55%), and detected 14 of the 20 after X-rays were done (70%). Overall, obtaining X-rays changed the categorization for 15 of 111 bullet tracts (13%). We conclude that bullet tracts on the torso result in a subcutaneously palpable bullet one-third of the time, much more frequently than in other body regions. Paramedics only detect one-third of subcutaneously palpable missiles on the torso. X-rays change the categorization of bullet tracts infrequently. We recommend that a careful examination of the skin of the torso to detect palpable missiles be incorporated into the secondary survey of patients with wounds to that body region.

  5. THE AUTOIMMUNE CONSTELLATION IN LICHEN AMYLOIDOSIS.

    PubMed

    Andrese, Elena; Vâţă, D; Ciobanu, Delia; Stătescu, Laura; Solovăstru, Laura Gheucă

    2015-01-01

    Localized cutaneous amyloidosis is a rare disease among white people, being more common in South-Asia, China and South America. The disease is characterized by deposition of amyloid material in the papillary dermis without visceral involvement. Nevertheless, there is a growing list of immune-mediated disorders that have been linked to cutaneous amyloidosis. We present two cases of concomitant occurrence of lichen amyloidosis and autoimmune thyroiditis/atopic dermatitis in two Caucasian women.

  6. MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells in human skin equivalents show differential migration and phenotypic plasticity after allergen or irritant exposure.

    PubMed

    Kosten, Ilona J; Spiekstra, Sander W; de Gruijl, Tanja D; Gibbs, Susan

    2015-08-15

    After allergen or irritant exposure, Langerhans cells (LC) undergo phenotypic changes and exit the epidermis. In this study we describe the unique ability of MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells (MUTZ-LC) to display similar phenotypic plasticity as their primary counterparts when incorporated into a physiologically relevant full-thickness skin equivalent model (SE-LC). We describe differences and similarities in the mechanisms regulating LC migration and plasticity upon allergen or irritant exposure. The skin equivalent consisted of a reconstructed epidermis containing primary differentiated keratinocytes and CD1a(+) MUTZ-LC on a primary fibroblast-populated dermis. Skin equivalents were exposed to a panel of allergens and irritants. Topical exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of allergens (nickel sulfate, resorcinol, cinnamaldehyde) and irritants (Triton X-100, SDS, Tween 80) resulted in LC migration out of the epidermis and into the dermis. Neutralizing antibody to CXCL12 blocked allergen-induced migration, whereas anti-CCL5 blocked irritant-induced migration. In contrast to allergen exposure, irritant exposure resulted in cells within the dermis becoming CD1a(-)/CD14(+)/CD68(+) which is characteristic of a phenotypic switch of MUTZ-LC to a macrophage-like cell in the dermis. This phenotypic switch was blocked with anti-IL-10. Mechanisms previously identified as being involved in LC activation and migration in native human skin could thus be reproduced in the in vitro constructed skin equivalent model containing functional LC. This model therefore provides a unique and relevant research tool to study human LC biology in situ under controlled in vitro conditions, and will provide a powerful tool for hazard identification, testing novel therapeutics and identifying new drug targets.

  7. DNA damage in human skin fibroblasts exposed to UVA light used in clinical PUVA treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Bredberg, A.

    1981-06-01

    Human skin fibroblasts were irradiated with a clinically used UVA light source. The doses (1.1 and 3 J/cm2) were similar to those reaching the dermis during clinical PUVA treatment of psoriasis. DNA strand breaks, as determined by alkaline elution, were formed in a dose-dependent way and disappeared within 1 hr of postincubation at 37 degrees C. These findings have clinical implications since UVA-induced DNA damage may be accompanied by mutagenic and tumor promoting effects.

  8. Transcutaneous Optical Measurement of Hyperbilirubinemia in Neonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, Iyad Salam

    Bilirubin, a yellow pigment, is formed by the breakdown of hemoglobin. Neonates are susceptible to high bilirubin levels in their blood which places them at risk of neuronal damage, and monitoring of the bilirubin levels in these neonates is clinically required. Transcutaneous optical monitoring of the bilirubin will provide a non -invasive, inexpensive measurement of bilirubin in the skin. The optical properties of skin are important for interpretation of the reflected light from the skin. In this report, the optical properties of neonatal skin were measured in the visible range on twenty in vitro skin samples. The scattering of the skin is dominated by the collagen fiber bundles in the dermis. Scattering in the dermis increases linearly with gestational maturity due to the accompanying increase in the size and number of the collagen fiber bundles. Scattering in the dermis was modelled by Mie and Rayleigh scattering. The collection efficiency of an optical patch used for reflectance measurements at the skin surface varies with the skin's optical properties. The collection efficiency of the optical patch as a function of optical properties was determined by measurements in phantoms, and by Monte Carlo computer models. Dermal absorbers and epidermal melanin affect the reflected signals differently, and have to be analyzed separately. In addition to bilirubin content of neonatal skin, other sources of variation include skin maturity, skin thickness, melanin content, blood depth, and blood content. Each of these factors affects the reflected spectrum. Each source of variation was analyzed individually and an algorithm was developed to determine the absorbances of bilirubin and blood in the dermis from optical patch reflectance measurements. The algorithm was applied to analyze reflectance measurements performed on a heterogeneous clinical population consisting of 47 neonates. The algorithm was then adjusted to minimize a score designed to ensure that the determined in

  9. [Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin. 2 clinical cases].

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, A; Boschi, L; Ismail, I; Raducci, A

    1990-04-30

    Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin is a tumor generally found in elderly people. This neoplasm involves primarily the dermis; it is locally aggressive often metastatizing to the lymph nodes and, sometimes, diffusely in the body. It must be considered in the diagnostic approach of the cutaneous neoplastic nodules. The clinical, histologic and ultrastructural features of two cases are presented and compared with previously reported examples.

  10. In-vivo experimental evaluation of nonablative skin remodeling using a 1.54-μm laser with surface cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordon, Serge R.; Capon, Alexandre; Creusy, Collette; Fleurisse, Laurence; Buys, Bruno; Faucheux, Marc A.; Servell, Pascal

    2000-05-01

    Selective dermal remodeling using diode or 1.32 micrometer Nd:YAG lasers has been recently proposed for skin rejuvenation. This new technique consists in inducing collagen tightening and/or neocollagen synthesis without significant damage of the overlying epidermis. Such an approach requires (1) a cooling system in order to target dermal collagen with relatively good protection of the epidermal layer, (2) a specific wavelength for confining the thermal damage into the upper dermis (100 to 400 micrometer). Based on previous studies, demonstrating a better water absorption and a reduced melanin absorption at 1.54 micrometer compared to the 1.32 micrometer, this experimental study aimed to evaluate a new laser (co-doped Yb-Er:phosphate glass material, Aramis, Quantel-France) emitting at 1.54 micrometer. This laser was used in combination with the Dermacool system (Dermacool, Mableton, USA) in order to achieve epidermis cooling before, during and after irradiation. Male hairless rats were used for the study. Pulse train irradiation (1.1 J, 3 Hz, 30 pulses) and different cooling temperatures (+5 degree(s)C, 0 degree(s)C, -5 degree(s)C) were screened with clinical examination and histological evaluation at 1, 3, and 7 days after laser irradiation. The clinical effects showed that pulse train irradiation produced reproducible epidermal preservation and confinement of the thermal damage into the dermis. The different cooling temperatures did not provide detectable differences in terms of size and depth of thermal damage. New collagen synthesis was confirmed by a marked fibroblastic proliferation, detected in the lower dermis at D3 and clearly seen in the upper dermis at D7. This new laser appears to be a promising new tool for the treatment of skin laxity, solar elastosis, facial rhytids and mild reduction of wrinkles.

  11. Cutaneous Pythiosis in calves: An epidemiologic, pathologic, serologic and molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Konradt, Guilherme; Bassuino, Daniele Mariath; Bianchi, Matheus Viezzer; Castro, Lismara; Caprioli, Rafaela Albuquerque; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti; Santurio, Janio M; Azevedo, Maria Isabel; Jesus, Francielli P; Driemeier, David

    2016-12-01

    This study reports the epidemiological, pathological and mycological findings of cutaneous pythiosis in cattle in southern Brazil. 23 calves, that were kept next to a river with extensive marshy regions, presented ulcerated cutaneous lesions in thoracic and pelvic limbs, sometimes extending to the ventral thoracic region. Histopathological examination revealed multifocal pyogranulomas in the superficial and deep dermis. The Grocott-Methenamine silver, immunohistochemistry anti-Pythium insidiosum, ELISA serology and molecular characterization demonstrated the agent P. insidiosum in these cases.

  12. Elevated expression of type VII collagen in the skin of patients with systemic sclerosis. Regulation by transforming growth factor-beta.

    PubMed Central

    Rudnicka, L; Varga, J; Christiano, A M; Iozzo, R V; Jimenez, S A; Uitto, J

    1994-01-01

    A hallmark of systemic sclerosis (SSc) is the development of tissue fibrosis. Excessive production of several connective tissue components normally present in the dermis, including type I, III, V, and VI collagens as well as fibronectin and proteoglycans, is a consistent finding in the skin of SSc patients. Type VII collagen is a major constituent of anchoring fibrils, present in the skin at the dermal-epidermal basement membrane zone. TGF-beta has been shown to upregulate the expression of the type VII collagen gene. In this study, we assessed the expression of type VII collagen and TGF-beta in the skin of patients with SSc. Indirect immunofluorescence showed an abundance of type VII collagen in the patients' skin, including the dermis. Ultrastructural analysis of SSc skin revealed an abundance of fibrillar material, possibly representing type VII collagen. The increased expression of type VII collagen epitopes was accompanied by the elevated expression of immunodetectable TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2. Dermal fibroblasts cultured from the affected individuals showed a statistically significant (P < 0.02) increase in the expression of type VII collagen at the mRNA level, as detected by reverse transcription-PCR with a mutated cDNA as an internal standard, and increased deposition of the protein as assessed by indirect immunofluorescence. Thus, type VII collagen is abundantly present in SSc patients' dermis, a location not characteristic of its normal distribution, and its aberrant expression may relate to the presence of TGF-beta in the same topographic distribution. The presence of type VII collagen in the dermis may contribute to the tightly bound and indurated appearance of the affected skin in SSc patients. Images PMID:7512991

  13. Nano-scale observations of tattoo pigments in skin by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Grant, Colin A; Twigg, Peter C; Tobin, Desmond J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have shown how particles in carbon black tattoo ink accumulate in the human skin dermis using fine-resolution atomic force microscopy, with which a single ink particle in the collagenous network can be imaged. This information further demonstrates that tattoo inks are nano-particles. Further, we have deposited a commercially available tattoo ink on a glass slide and calculated a range of volumes for single ink particles. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Periumbilical perforating pseudoxanthoma elasticum.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Piyush; Savant, Sushil S; Barkat, Rizwana

    2016-11-15

    A 50-year-old woman presented with a 2-year history of a yellowish plaque studded with red brown keratotic papules in the periumbilical region. Histopathological examination from the yellow plaque showed curled and granular elastic fibers in the mid and lower dermis. Histopathological examination from a keratotic papule showed pathological elastic fibers and dense chronic inflammatory cells around areas of perforation. Clinicopathological correlation established periumbilical perforating pseudoxanthoma elasticum as the final diagnosis.

  15. Weightlifter's Nodule: A New Variant of Athlete's Nodule.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Jamie; Campanelli, Carmen; Lee, Jason B

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old high school football player presented to our dermatology clinic complaining of two asymptomatic lumps on the upper part of his back. The first lump was noticed on the right side of the upper aspect of his back following a weightlifting session. The second lump appeared on the left side of the upper part of his back several weeks later. The patient's personal and family medical history was unremarkable. Physical examination revealed an ill-defined, firm, mobile subcutaneous nodule measuring approximately 3 cm on the right upper part of the back and a similar but smaller nodule on the left upper portion of the back (Figure 1). The location of the lesions corresponded to the areas of maximal pressure produced by a squat bar that he uses frequently during weightlifting (Figure 2). Histologic analysis of the right lesion revealed a markedly expanded dermis caused by a striking increase in the number of collagen bundles that were relatively normal in thickness, accompanied by a subtle increase in the number of fibroblasts (Figure 3). In some foci, fibroplasia along with increased deposition of mucin further contributed to the expansion of the dermis (Figure 3). Although the process spanned the entire dermis, it was more pronounced in the deep reticular dermis, particularly near the subcutis as collagen bundles were arranged in a more haphazard array in this region. Verhoeff-Van Gieson stain revealed diminished and fragmented elastic fibers within some of the involved areas. This reactive fibrosis can be seen in athlete's nodules as a result of repetitive blunt pressure. We proposed a diagnosis of weightlifter's nodule to further classify these lesions and the patient was instructed to discontinue associated weightlifting activities.

  16. Aging of human skin: review of a mechanistic model and first experimental data.

    PubMed

    Giacomoni, P U; Declercq, L; Hellemans, L; Maes, D

    2000-04-01

    The physical, chemical, and biochemical factors that accelerate skin aging have been proposed to activate a self-maintained microinflammatory process, one of the expected end results of which is an imbalance in the turnover of macromolecules in the dermis. Surface peroxides are recognized as controllable factors of skin aging, and their accumulation is attributed to environmentally induced impairment of defense enzymes. Topical application of antioxidants decreases the rate at which skin elasticity and skin thickness are modified.

  17. Ultrasound image of the skin, apparatus and imaging basics

    PubMed Central

    Malinowska, Sylwia

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging of the skin is becoming more and more popular. Skin ultrasound examinations are used both in order to assess healthy skin and to evaluate pathological lesions. They are mainly performed in dermatology as well as in broadly understood aesthetic medicine and cosmetology. At present, skin imaging is enabled by high-frequency equipment and high-quality conventional devices. The introduction of high-frequency electronic transducers which are supported by conventional scanners may be a turning point in skin ultrasound equipment. Irrespective of the ultrasound scanner, three layers may be distinguished in the image of the healthy skin: epidermal echo, dermis and subcutaneous tissue. High-frequency equipment allows for detailed imaging of the epidermal echo, dermis and upper part of the subcutaneous tissue. It is also possible to visualize the skin appendages (hair with follicles and nails) as well as slight vessels that run in the dermis and upper subcutaneous tissue. Contrary to high-frequency equipment, conventional scanners do not allow for a detailed assessment of the epidermal and dermal echoes. Instead, they enable the visualization of the entire subcutaneous tissue. The following parameters are used for the assessment of skin ultrasound images: thickness of individual skin layers, caliber of blood vessels, echogenicity of the dermis or its individual layers, echogenicity of the subcutaneous tissue as well as the presence or absence of flow in slight venous vessels. Currently, the studies on the usage of sonoelastography for skin assessment are in progress. Considering the dynamic development of skin imaging equipment and its diagnostic possibilities, one might suspect that high-frequency examinations will become more common and will be fundamental for the evaluation of both healthy and pathologically altered skin. This paper is an introduction to a series of articles on the clinical application of high-frequency ultrasound. The next articles will

  18. [Forum: dermopigmentation or medical tattooing. Brief notes on technical aspects of dermopigmentation].

    PubMed

    Chavoin, J P; Oksman, B

    1992-08-01

    Tattooing is a very old procedure widespread throughout the world. Recently dermatologists and plastic surgeons have applied this procedure for medical dermography. Incarcerating a pigment in the depth of the dermis has caused no problems for professionals and aestheticiens performing tattoos. Medical ethics oblige us to specify the nature of the pigment used. The instrument used for injecting the pigment should be well adapted for safety, technically, ergonomically and for asepsis.

  19. Verrucous Hemangioma Treated with Electrocautery

    PubMed Central

    Fatani, Mohammad; Al Otaibi, Homaid; Mohammed, Muath; Hegazy, Osama

    2016-01-01

    Verrucous hemangioma is a rare vascular malformation consisting of a proliferation of dilated blood vessels of different sizes that occupy the dermis and hypodermis. The epidermis of the affected area shows a strong proliferative reaction that presents as a warty appearance. Here, we report the case of a 17-year-old male who presented with an asymptomatic warty growth above the lateral malleolus on the right leg, which healed after electrocautery. PMID:27462218

  20. Idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation in a Chinese child

    PubMed Central

    Wei-Feng, Zha; Ai-E, Xu; Jun-Fan, Chen

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a healthy 8-year-old boy who presented with disseminated asymptomatic brown macules on the face, neck, trunk, and proximal extremities for 3 months. Dermatologic examination revealed multiple, smooth, nonscaly, brown macules involving the face, neck, trunk, and proximal limbs. The Darier's sign was negative. Histopathologic study showed normal epidermis and basal membrane, and increasingly scattered melanophages in the papillary dermis. The final diagnosis was idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation. PMID:26225334

  1. In Vitro and In Vivo Measurement of Percutaneous Penetration of Low Molecular Weight Toxins of Military Interest

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-21

    surface, stratum corneum , epidermis, dermis, receptor fluid) and each treatment (vehicles). There was a significant relationship between accumulation...recovery of radioactivity from the stratum corneum plus epidermis of excised guinea pig skin dosed with [3H]PbTx-3. See Figure 2 for key to venicles and...penetrate 2 at least through the layers of the stratum corneum and into the viable epidermis to cause toxic effects. RATIONALE USED IN CURRENT STUDY

  2. Congenital tufted angioma.

    PubMed

    Satter, Elizabeth K; Graham, Bradley S; Gibbs, Neil F

    2002-01-01

    A 7-year-old Filipino girl presented to the dermatology clinic with a slowly enlarging plaque on the inner aspect of her upper left arm. Although she had this lesion since birth, it had gradually enlarged and become indurated and slightly painful. The histopathologic examination showed a vascular proliferation within the dermis, with a "cannonball" appearance consistent with a tufted angioma. We review the literature and discuss the clinical presentation of this rare vascular tumor.

  3. Extragenital bullous lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Maxwell B; Linzon-Smith, Jaclyn; Beecker, Jennifer

    2014-11-01

    Lichen sclerosus is an inflammatory skin condition characterized by inflammation of the papillary dermis that leads to white scarlike plaques. It occurs classically in the genitals but also has extragenital manifestations with a variety of clinical presentations including a bullous variant. The purpose of this review is to characterize extragenital bullous lichen sclerosus, suggest that it may be more common than dermatologists realize, and discuss treatment of both routine and recalcitrant cases.

  4. Nail apparatus melanoma initially diagnosed as nail matrix blue nevus: a case report with dermatoscopy and dermatopathology

    PubMed Central

    Akay, Bengu Nisa; Heper, Aylin Okcu; Thomas, Luc; Balme, Brigitte; Clark, Simon; Rosendahl, Cliff

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of nail apparatus melanoma in a 50-year-old woman presenting as new and changing longitudinal melanonychia of the right thumb. Very heavy melanin pigmentation involving both the epidermis and dermis interfered with dermatopathological assessment, which initially leads to a diagnosis of nail matrix blue nevus. After consultation with a specialist multidisciplinary clinic the diagnosis was revised to invasive melanoma, a diagnosis consistent with the clinical and dermatoscopic assessment. PMID:28243499

  5. High-definition optical coherence tomography intrinsic skin ageing assessment in women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Boone, M A L M; Suppa, M; Marneffe, A; Miyamoto, M; Jemec, G B E; Del Marmol, V

    2015-10-01

    Several non-invasive two-dimensional techniques with different lateral resolution and measurable depth range have proved to be useful in assessing and quantifying morphological changes in skin ageing. Among these, only in vivo microscopy techniques permit histometric measurements in vivo. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related (IAR) morphological changes of epidermis, dermo-epidermal junction (DEJ), papillary dermis (PD), papillary-reticular dermis junction and reticular dermis (RD) have been performed by high-definition optical coherence tomography in real time 3-D. HD-OCT images were taken at the internal site of the right upper arm. Qualitative HD-OCT IAR descriptors were reported at skin surface, at epidermal layer, DEJ, PD and upper RD. Quantitative evaluation of age-related compaction and backscattered intensity or brightness of different skin layers was performed by using the plugin plot z-axis profile of ImageJ(®) software permitting intensity assessment of HD-OCT (DICOM) images (3-D images). Analysis was in blind from all clinical information. Sixty, fair-skinned (Fitzpatrick types I-III) healthy females were analysed retrospectively in this study. The subjects belonged to three age groups: twenty in group I aged 20-39, twenty in group II aged 40-59 and twenty in group III aged 60-79. Only intrinsic ageing in women has been studied. Significant age-related qualitative and quantitative differences could be noticed. IAR changes in dermal matrix fibers morphology/organisation and in microvasculature were observed. The brightness and compaction of the different skin layers increased significantly with intrinsic skin ageing. The depth of visibility of fibers in RD increased significantly in the older age group. In conclusion, HD-OCT allows 3-D in vivo and real time qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related morphological skin changes at high resolution from skin surface to a depth

  6. Multiphoton spectroscopy of human skin in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunig, Hans G.; Weinigel, Martin; König, Karsten

    2012-03-01

    In vivo multiphoton-intensity images and emission spectra of human skin are reported. Optical sections from different depths of the epidermis and dermis have been measured with near-infrared laser-pulse excitation. While the intensity images reveal information on the morphology, the spectra show emission characteristics of main endogenous skin fluorophores like keratin, NAD(P)H, melanin, elastin and collagen as well as of second harmonic generation induced by the excitation-light interaction with the dermal collagen network.

  7. THE SKIN | Functional morphology of the integumentary system in fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, D.G.; Farrell, Anthony P.

    2011-01-01

    The integument that covers the outer surface of a fish’s body and fins is a multifunctional organ, with morphological features highly adapted to carry out these functions. The integument consists of two layers. The outer layer, the epidermis, is essentially cellular in structure, comprised of a multilayered epithelium that usually includes specialized cells. The inner layer, the dermis, is primarily a fibrous structure with relatively few cells, although it may contain scales, nerves, blood vessels, adipose tissue, and pigment cells.

  8. [Trichogenic trichoblastoma].

    PubMed

    Imai, S; Nitto, H

    1982-11-01

    A case of rare follicular tumor, which occurred on nasal root of a 73-year-old man, is presented. Histologically one finds a tumor, localized in dermis and subcutaneous tissue, consisting of keratinous cysts, irregular shaped or antlerlike epithelial cell nests and surrounding stroma. The cell nest consists of basaloid cells. Moreover rudimentary hair matrix structures, sebaceous gland lobules and apocrine sweat ducts are observed. This tumor corresponds to trichogenic trichoblastoma as proposed by Headington.

  9. Angiokeratoma of Tongue.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Satvinder S

    2017-07-01

    A 9 year old male presented with diffuse swelling on his tongue since childhood associated with intermittent bleeding. On examination there was multiple, sessile, firm, pinkish, erythematous, shiny papules on both dorsal and ventral surface of the tongue. Angiokeratomas are vascular malformations of capillaries characterized clinically by asymptomatic, solitary or multiple, keratotic papules or plaques, and histologically by benign vascular ectasia of the papillary dermis. Treatment usually consists of local excision and intralesional injection of steroids.

  10. The influence of gender and age on the thickness and echo-density of skin.

    PubMed

    Firooz, A; Rajabi-Estarabadi, A; Zartab, H; Pazhohi, N; Fanian, F; Janani, L

    2017-02-01

    The more recent use of ultrasound scanning allows a direct measurement on unmodified skin, and is considered to be a reliable method for in vivo measurement of epidermal and dermal thickness. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of gender and age on the thickness and echo-density of skin measured by high frequency ultrasonography (HFUS). This study was carried out on 30 healthy volunteers (17 female, 13 male) with age range of 24-61 years old. The thickness and echo-density of dermis as well as epidermal entrance echo thickness in five anatomic sites (cheek, neck, palm, dorsal foot, and sole) were measured using two different types of B mode HFUS, 22 and 50 MHz frequencies. The epidermal entrance echo thickness and thickness of dermis in males were higher than females, which was statistically significant on neck and dorsum of foot. The echo-density of dermis was higher in females on all sites, but was only statistically significant on neck. The epidermal entrance echo thickness and thickness of dermis in young age group was statistically higher than old group on sole and dorsal of the foot respectively. Overall, the skin thickness decreased with age. High frequency ultrasonography method provides a simple non-invasive method for evaluating the skin thickness and echo-density. Gender and age have significant effect on these parameters. Differences in study method, population, and body site likely account for different results previously reported. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Topical distribution of acyclovir in normal equine skin and equine sarcoids: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Haspeslagh, M; Taevernier, L; Maes, A A; Vlaminck, L E M; De Spiegeleer, B; Croubels, S M; Martens, A M

    2016-06-01

    Topical acyclovir application is an owner-friendly treatment for occult equine sarcoids, without the caustic side-effects other topical treatments have. Variable clinical success rates have been described, but it is not known to what rate and extent acyclovir penetrates in and through equine skin from a topical formulation. In the current study, an in vitro Franz diffusion model was used to determine the permeation parameters for a generic 5% acyclovir cetomacrogol cream for both healthy and sarcoid equine skin. The distribution of acyclovir between different layers of both skin types was also evaluated. While acyclovir penetrated through both skin types, significantly less acyclovir permeated to the deep dermis of sarcoid skin (197.62ng/mm(3)) compared to normal skin (459.41ng/mm(3)). Within sarcoid skin samples, significantly higher acyclovir concentrations were found in the epidermis (983.59ng/mm(3)) compared to the superficial dermis (450.02ng/mm(3)) and the deep dermis. At each sample point, significantly more acyclovir permeated to the receptor fluid through normal skin compared to sarcoid skin, which is reflected in the significantly higher permeation parameters of normal skin. Normal skin was found to be more permissive for acyclovir, but even in sarcoid skin, enough acyclovir reached the deep dermis to treat a Herpes simplex virus infection. In the case of equine sarcoids, the treatment is aimed at the Bovine papillomavirus and no information is available on the susceptibility of the DNA polymerase of this virus for acyclovir. Therefore, further research is needed to determine the efficacy of acyclovir to treat equine sarcoids.

  12. Skin simulation for minor surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Munro, A; Park, K G; Atkinson, D; Day, R P; Capperauld, I

    1994-06-01

    A simulated skin preparation is described which is made by bonding siliconized rubber to a latex foam base. This composite material, which simulates both the dermis/epidermis and subcutaneous fat, provides a realistic model which can be used to teach excision of skin lesions and a variety of suturing methods. We believe that this simulator is of value not only for surgeons in-training but also will allow general practitioners to improve their technical skills in performing minor surgical procedures.

  13. Cutaneous amyloidosis associated with autoimmune hepatitis-primary biliary cirrhosis overlap syndrome.

    PubMed

    González-Moreno, Emmanuel I; Cámara-Lemarroy, Carlos R; Borjas-Almaguer, David O; Martínez-Cabriales, Sylvia A; Paz-Delgadillo, Jonathan; Gutiérrez-Udave, Rodrigo; Ayala-Cortés, Ana S; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Cortéz-Hernández, Carlos A; Maldonado-Garza, Héctor J

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous amyloidosis is a rare disease characterized by the deposition of amyloid in the dermis. It can be primary or secondary, depending on associated diseases. It has been linked to various autoimmune diseases, including primary biliary cirrhosis. We present the case of a patient with an autoimmune hepatitis-primary biliary cirrhosis overlap syndrome with concomitant cutaneous amyloidosis, a very unusual association, and discuss similar cases and possible pathophysiological implications.

  14. Static procedures for the management of the midface and lower face.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuk Ming; Sherris, David A

    2008-05-01

    Facial reanimation for facial paralysis continues to be an evolving field in facial reconstruction. Static procedures in the management of mid and lower facial paralysis include the use of facial slings made from autologous tissue, freeze-dried acellular human dermis, and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene. A newly described suspension technique using a multivector suture suspension stands to expand the tools that can be used by the reconstructive surgeon. This article describes and contrasts each of these techniques.

  15. Dermal melanin concentration of yellow perch Perca flavescens in relation to water transparency.

    PubMed

    Rheault, G; Langevin, M; Cabana, G; Glémet, H

    2015-11-01

    A positive relationship was observed between Secchi disc depth and dermal melanin concentration in yellow perch Perca flavescens sampled from 11 humic lakes located on the Canadian Shield in southern Quebec (Canada). Secchi disc depth explained 23% of the variations of dermal melanin concentration. Secchi disc depth and thus water transparency appear to have a positive influence on melanin production in the dermis of P. flavescens.

  16. Effects of hair removal alexandrite laser on biometric parameters of the skin.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Shiva; Abolhasani, Ehsan; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammadali

    2016-04-01

    The effects of alexandrite laser (AL) on skin parameters such as melanin content, skin layer depth, elasticity, and density have not been investigated through biometric methods. We aim to assess the effect of AL on the skin parameters through biometric devices to determine whether it has positive effects on treated region. In this pretest-posttest study, we recruited patients who attended Laser Clinic of Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, from January through December 2014. Patients had to be free of any dermatologic conditions and lesion at the site of treatment or any contraindication to laser therapy. Baseline measurements were performed and patients received four sessions of AL therapy (spot size, 12 mm; fluence, 12 J/cm(2); and pulse width, 5 Hz) with 4-week intervals. Four weeks after the last treatment session, the same parameters were assessed that included skin color, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), dermis and epidermis density and depth (through skin ultrasonography), melanin content, erythema intensity, and skin elasticity. Biometric parameters of 33 patients (27 females [81.8%]), with mean (SD) age of 35.7 (9.5) years were evaluated. The mean percent changes of skin parameters were as follows: skin color, 5.88% through Visioface and by 56.8% through Colorimeter devices (became lighter); melanin content, -15.95%; TEWL, -2.96%; elasticity, +14.88%; dermis depth -19.01%; and dermis density, +1580.11% (P < 0.001 for changes in each parameter). AL could decrease melanin content of the skin and make the skin thinner while it could increase elasticity and density of epidermis and dermis, which might indicate increased collagen content of skin.

  17. An Unusual Association between Sweet's Syndrome and Metastatic Papillary Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jariwala, Sunit; Benson, Ariel; Patel, Payal; Friedman, Adam; Broadway, Kameelah

    2013-02-01

    Sweet's syndrome (SS), or acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, is marked by fever, leukocytosis, and painful erythematous papules/plaques resulting from neutrophil migration and accumulation in the dermis. This condition has been associated with underlying hematologic as well as solid malignancies. We describe a unique case of SS in a patient with metastatic papillary follicular thyroid carcinoma and group A streptococcal pharyngitis. The distribution of the patient's SS rash was similar to the rash of neutrophilic dermatosis (pustular vasculitis) of the dorsal hands.

  18. Tumoral melanosis in an adolescent after trauma: a clinicopathological dilemma.

    PubMed

    Dogruk Kacar, Seval; Ozuguz, Pinar; Karaca, Semsettin; Aktepe, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Tumoral melanosis (TM) is a histologic term used to indicate a nodular accumulation of melanophages in the dermis clinically presenting as a pigmented lesion. It is usually associated with regression of melanoma and nonmelanoma melanocytic pigmented lesions. We present the case of a 16-year-old girl with a suspicious pigmented macule on her right knee that appeared after trauma. The lesion was completely excised and diagnosed as TM.

  19. Huge Nevus Lipomatosus Cutaneous Superficialis on Back: An Unusual Presentation.

    PubMed

    Das, Dipti; Das, Anupam; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Kumar, Dhiraj

    2015-01-01

    Nevus lipomatosus cutaneous superficialis (NLCS) is a benign dermatosis, histologically characterized by the presence of mature ectopic adipocytes in the dermis. We hereby report a case of a 10-year-old boy who presented with multiple huge swellings on the scapular regions and lower back. The lesions were surmounted by small papules, along with peau-d orange appearance at places. Histology showed features consistent with NLCS. The case is being reported for the unusual clinical presentation.

  20. Proof-of-Principle Dermal Decontamination Experiments: Swine Skin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    Desquamation The shedding or peeling of the epidermis in scales; sloughing off. Epidermis The outer, protective, nonvascular layer of the skin of...radionuclides are limited to the level of the epidermis , dermis and its vasculature. More soluble forms of the radionuclides may result in a small percentage...below the epidermis , containing nerve endings, sweat and sebaceous glands, and blood and lymph vessels. Dermatitis Inflammation of the skin

  1. Determination of the elastic modulus of native collagen fibrils via radial indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, August J.; Matthews, William G.; Koob, Thomas J.

    2006-10-01

    The authors studied the elastic response of single, native collagen fibrils extracted from tissues of the inner dermis of the sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, via local nanoscale indentation with an atomic force microscope (AFM). AFM imaging of fibrils under ambient conditions are presented, demonstrating a peak-to-peak periodicity, the d band, of dehydrated, unfixed fibrils to be ˜64.5nm. Radial indentation experiments were performed, and the measured value for the reduced modulus is 1-2GPa.

  2. Clearance of experimental cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus infections in mice.

    PubMed

    Onunkwo, Charles C; Hahn, Beth L; Sohnle, Peter G

    2010-07-01

    Staphylococcal skin infections are quite common in human patients. These infections often clear spontaneously, but may also progress locally and/or disseminate to cause serious and sometimes fatal deep infections. The present studies were undertaken to examine the clearance phase of experimental cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus infections in a mouse model system. Previous work in this system has shown that staphylococci applied to the skin rapidly disseminate to the spleen and kidney. In the present experiments the bacteria were found to persist at the skin infection site at a time (8 days after inoculation) when they had disappeared from the spleen and kidney. Examination of the infected skin at earlier times revealed rapid (within 6 h) invasion into the stratum corneum, stratum Malpighii, and dermis, but subsequent redistribution of bacteria (at 1-2 days) to more superficial sites, particularly crusts located just above the skin surface. The crusts seen in these infections were of two distinct types, which were termed type 1 and type 2. Type 1 crusts appeared first, consisted of bacteria, inflammatory cells, and debris, and developed over an intact epidermis. Type 2 crusts arose from the process of dermal necrosis previously reported to take place at 2 days in this model system. In the latter situation the bacteria were not really cleared from the epidermis and dermis; rather those layers were transformed into a superficial crust that contained the bacteria. Deep hair follicle infections in the dermis were found in these infections, but they did not persist and did not seem to be a reservoir for organisms in the dermis. Resolution of these experimental infections appeared to involve redistribution of invading bacteria to more superficial locations in crusts above the skin surface, marked proliferation of the epidermis, loss of the bacteria-laden crusts from the skin, and eventual healing of the cutaneous damage.

  3. Paratesticular angioleiomyoma with cytological atypia.

    PubMed

    Del Sordo, Rachele; Leite, Silvia; Petroni, Pietro Antonio; Sidoni, Angelo

    2008-04-01

    Angioleiomyomas are common benign smooth muscle neoplasms in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue of limbs. Very rarely have they been described in the external male genitalia with only two cases in the paratesticular tissues and another intratesticular. We report a case of a paratesticular angioleiomyoma with cytological atypia and a peculiar vascular pattern, found incidentally as a painless nodule in a 75-year-old man. The main clinicopathological features together with the differential diagnoses and the pertinent published reports are reviewed.

  4. Lupus tumidus: a report of two cases*

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet Muylaert, Bianca Pinheiro; Braga, Bruna Backsmann; Esteves, Eduarda Braga; Garbelini, Luciana Elisa Barandas; Michalany, Alexandre Ozores; de Oliveira Filho, Jayme

    2016-01-01

    Lupus tumidus is considered a rare subtype of chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus, characterized by erythema and bright urticarial erythematous-violaceous lesions that leave no scars after regression. Histopathology reveals perivascular and periannexal lymphohistiocytic infiltrates in the papillary and reticular dermis and interstitial mucin deposition. Treatment is based on photoprotection, topical corticosteroids and antimalarials. We report two cases of lupus tumidus, which deserve attention for their low frequency in the literature, in addition to their relevance as a differential diagnosis among dermatologic disorders.

  5. CD4(+)FOXP3(+) T regulatory cells decrease and CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells recruitment in TILs from melanoma metastases after electrochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Di Gennaro, P; Gerlini, G; Urso, C; Sestini, S; Brandani, P; Pimpinelli, N; Borgognoni, L

    2016-12-01

    Electrochemotherapy (ECT) represents an effective local treatment for skin unresectable melanoma metastases with high overall objective response rate. ECT is based on the combination of anti-neoplastic drugs administration and cancer cells electroporation. Whether ECT can also activate the immune system is a matter of debate, however a significant recruitment of dendritic cells in melanoma treated metastases has been described. Herein we investigated immediate and late effects of ECT treatment on T cell subsets in ECT-treated lesions by fluorescent immunohistochemistry. Biopsies from melanoma patients (n = 10) were taken before ECT (t0), at d1 and d14 from treatment. At t0, CD3(+)CD4(+) T cells were the most represented T cells, well detected in the perilesional dermis, particularly at tumour margin, while CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells were less represented. CD4(+)FOXP3(+) T regulatory (Treg) cells were present in the perilesional dermis and within the lesion. ECT induced a significant decrease of CD4(+)FOXP3(+) Treg cells percentage in the perilesional dermis, observed at d1 and at d14 (p < 0.001). CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells frequency significantly increased at d14 from treatment in the perilesional dermis (p < 0.001). Furthermore calreticulin translocation to the plasma membrane, a hallmark of immunogenic cell death, was observed in metastatic cells after ECT. The data reported here confirm that ECT induces a local response, with a lymphoid infiltrate characterized by CD4(+)FOXP3(+) Treg cells decrease and CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells recruitment in the treated lesions. These results might contribute to design novel combinational therapeutic approaches with ECT and immunotherapy in order to generate a systemic long-lasting anti-melanoma immunity.

  6. Parry-Romberg syndrome in association with contralateral Poland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dintiman, B J; Shapiro, R S; Hood, A F; Guba, A M

    1990-02-01

    A 35-year-old woman had a 4-year history of skin depression on the right side of both the forehead and chin. A biopsy specimen showed a normal dermis and an absence of subcutaneous tissue. She also had Poland syndrome on the left side of the body, with loss of the sternocostal portion of the greater pectoral muscle. Significant cosmetic improvement was achieved with dermal fat grafts and silicone implants.

  7. The beneficial effects of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) on wound healing of rabbit skin.

    PubMed

    Pişkin, Ahmet; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Tümentemur, Gamze; Kaplan, Süleyman; Yazıcı, Ozgür Bülent; Hökelek, Murat

    2014-08-01

    Momordica charantia (MC; bitter gourd) is a traditional herbal commonly used for its antidiabetic, antioxidant, contraceptive and antibacterial properties. In the current study, the authors aim to observe the topical effect of MC cream on the wound-healing process in rabbits. Moreover, they compare the healing potential with conventional creams used therapeutically. Towards this aim, 28 New Zealand rabbits were divided into four groups and excision wounds (7 cm²) were made on their backs. Open wound dressing was carried out daily for 28 days among the experimental groups with the application of dekspanthenol (Bepanthen®; BP group, n = 7), nitrofurazon (Furacin®; FR group, n = 7) and olive oil extract of MC (MC group, n = 7). No application was made to the control group. At the end of day 28, areas of the skin with initial wound area were en bloc dissected and prepared for histopathological and stereological analysis. Inflammatory cells were abundant in the control group and cream application led to a decrease in the number of these cells, especially in the MC group. The highest number of fibroblasts was detected in the MC group. Furthermore, the MC group displayed the highest fractions of epidermis to papillary dermis, fibroblasts to reticular dermis and collagen fibres to reticular dermis. The MC group also presented a high density of blood vessels, moderate density of collagen fibres and mature fibroblasts. The BP group showed better epithelialisation compared with the FR group, but the latter provided more effective reorganisation of the dermis. Different cream supplements caused healthy and fast wound healing according to untreated controls and the results show that administration of the MC extract improves and accelerates the process of wound healing in rabbits in comparison with the BP and FR extracts.

  8. Integra as a Dermal Replacement in a Meshed Composite Skin Graft in a Rat Model: A One-Step Operative Procedure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    one-step procedure in rats with full thickness skin injuries.7 Cryopre- served cellular and decellularized porcine allogeneic dermis, in conjunction...MATERIALS AND METHODS Experimental Animals White female Lewis rats (Harlan, Houston, TX) weigh- ing 220 25 g were used as experimental animals . In...conducting the research described in this report, the investi- gators adhered to the Animal Welfare Act and other federal statutes and regulations relating to

  9. Skin age testing criteria: characterization of human skin structures by 500 MHz MRI multiple contrast and image processing.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rakesh

    2010-07-21

    Ex vivo magnetic resonance microimaging (MRM) image characteristics are reported in human skin samples in different age groups. Human excised skin samples were imaged using a custom coil placed inside a 500 MHz NMR imager for high-resolution microimaging. Skin MRI images were processed for characterization of different skin structures. Contiguous cross-sectional T1-weighted 3D spin echo MRI, T2-weighted 3D spin echo MRI and proton density images were compared with skin histopathology and NMR peaks. In all skin specimens, epidermis and dermis thickening and hair follicle size were measured using MRM. Optimized parameters TE and TR and multicontrast enhancement generated better MRI visibility of different skin components. Within high MR signal regions near to the custom coil, MRI images with short echo time were comparable with digitized histological sections for skin structures of the epidermis, dermis and hair follicles in 6 (67%) of the nine specimens. Skin % tissue composition, measurement of the epidermis, dermis, sebaceous gland and hair follicle size, and skin NMR peaks were signatures of skin type. The image processing determined the dimensionality of skin tissue components and skin typing. The ex vivo MRI images and histopathology of the skin may be used to measure the skin structure and skin NMR peaks with image processing may be a tool for determining skin typing and skin composition.

  10. Skin age testing criteria: characterization of human skin structures by 500 MHz MRI multiple contrast and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rakesh

    2010-07-01

    Ex vivo magnetic resonance microimaging (MRM) image characteristics are reported in human skin samples in different age groups. Human excised skin samples were imaged using a custom coil placed inside a 500 MHz NMR imager for high-resolution microimaging. Skin MRI images were processed for characterization of different skin structures. Contiguous cross-sectional T1-weighted 3D spin echo MRI, T2-weighted 3D spin echo MRI and proton density images were compared with skin histopathology and NMR peaks. In all skin specimens, epidermis and dermis thickening and hair follicle size were measured using MRM. Optimized parameters TE and TR and multicontrast enhancement generated better MRI visibility of different skin components. Within high MR signal regions near to the custom coil, MRI images with short echo time were comparable with digitized histological sections for skin structures of the epidermis, dermis and hair follicles in 6 (67%) of the nine specimens. Skin % tissue composition, measurement of the epidermis, dermis, sebaceous gland and hair follicle size, and skin NMR peaks were signatures of skin type. The image processing determined the dimensionality of skin tissue components and skin typing. The ex vivo MRI images and histopathology of the skin may be used to measure the skin structure and skin NMR peaks with image processing may be a tool for determining skin typing and skin composition.

  11. Histology and Ultrastructure of Transitional Changes in Skin Morphology in the Juvenile and Adult Four-Striped Mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio)

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Eranée; Ajao, Moyosore Salihu

    2013-01-01

    The four-striped mouse has a grey to brown coloured coat with four characteristic dark stripes interspersed with three lighter stripes running along its back. The histological differences in the skin of the juvenile and adult mouse were investigated by Haematoxylin and Eosin and Masson Trichrome staining, while melanocytes in the skin were studied through melanin-specific Ferro-ferricyanide staining. The ultrastructure of the juvenile skin, hair follicles, and melanocytes was also explored. In both the juvenile and adult four-striped mouse, pigment-containing cells were observed in the dermis and were homogeneously dispersed throughout this layer. Apart from these cells, the histology of the skin of the adult four-striped mouse was similar to normal mammalian skin. In the juvenile four-striped mouse, abundant hair follicles of varying sizes were observed in the dermis and hypodermis, while hair follicles of similar size were only present in the dermis of adult four-striped mouse. Ultrastructural analysis of juvenile hair follicles revealed that the arrangement and differentiation of cellular layers were typical of a mammal. This study therefore provides unique transition pattern in the four-striped mouse skin morphology different from the textbook description of the normal mammalian skin. PMID:24288469

  12. Millimeter wave dosimetry of human skin.

    PubMed

    Alekseev, S I; Radzievsky, A A; Logani, M K; Ziskin, M C

    2008-01-01

    To identify the mechanisms of biological effects of mm waves it is important to develop accurate methods for evaluating absorption and penetration depth of mm waves in the epidermis and dermis. The main characteristics of mm wave skin dosimetry were calculated using a homogeneous unilayer model and two multilayer models of skin. These characteristics included reflection, power density (PD), penetration depth (delta), and specific absorption rate (SAR). The parameters of the models were found from fitting the models to the experimental data obtained from measurements of mm wave reflection from human skin. The forearm and palm data were used to model the skin with thin and thick stratum corneum (SC), respectively. The thin SC produced little influence on the interaction of mm waves with skin. On the contrary, the thick SC in the palm played the role of a matching layer and significantly reduced reflection. In addition, the palmar skin manifested a broad peak in reflection within the 83-277 GHz range. The viable epidermis plus dermis, containing a large amount of free water, greatly attenuated mm wave energy. Therefore, the deeper fat layer had little effect on the PD and SAR profiles. We observed the appearance of a moderate SAR peak in the therapeutic frequency range (42-62 GHz) within the skin at a depth of 0.3-0.4 mm. Millimeter waves penetrate into the human skin deep enough (delta = 0.65 mm at 42 GHz) to affect most skin structures located in the epidermis and dermis.

  13. Linear Lumbar Localized Lysis of Elastic Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Tschen, Jaime A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The absence or loss of elastic fibers in the skin is referred to as dermal elastolysis. Purpose: This paper describes a woman with a distinctive clinical presentation of mid-dermal elastolysis characterized morphologically by multiple horizontal raised bands on the lower back. Methods: A 20-year-old Filipino woman presented with multiple asymptomatic, flesh-colored, raised, firm, linear, cord-like bands on the lumbar area of her back. There were neither similar lesions elsewhere nor a family member with this condition. Results: Microscopic examination of the raised band showed nearly complete absence of elastic fibers in the mid dermis. In contrast, a biopsy of symmetrically located normal-appearing skin showed a uniform distribution of elastic fibers throughout the dermis. Linear lumbar localized elastolysis is a descriptive designation that accurately reflects a correlation of the clinical and pathological changes of this condition. Conclusion: The clinical differential of raised horizontal cord-like bands on the lower back (without a family history of an inherited elastic fiber disorder, a prior history of trauma, or a significant change in weight or exercise habit) includes linear focal elastosis and linear lumbar localized elastolysis. Microscopic evaluation of a Verhoeff-van Gieson stained lesion specimen (which may be accompanied by a biopsy of normal-appearing skin for comparison) will readily differentiate these conditions. The former is usually characterized by increased elastic fibers, whereas the latter, as in this patient, shows a paucity or absence of elastic fibers in the mid dermis. PMID:23882313

  14. Quantification of aortic and cutaneous elastin and collagen morphology in Marfan syndrome by multiphoton microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jason Z; Tehrani, Arash Y; Jett, Kimberly A; Bernatchez, Pascal; van Breemen, Cornelis; Esfandiarei, Mitra

    2014-09-01

    In a mouse model of Marfan syndrome, conventional Verhoeff-Van Gieson staining displays severe fragmentation, disorganization and loss of the aortic elastic fiber integrity. However, this method involves chemical fixatives and staining, which may alter the native morphology of elastin and collagen. Thus far, quantitative analysis of fiber damage in aorta and skin in Marfan syndrome has not yet been explored. In this study, we have used an advanced noninvasive and label-free imaging technique, multiphoton microscopy to quantify fiber fragmentation, disorganization, and total volumetric density of aortic and cutaneous elastin and collagen in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome. Aorta and skin samples were harvested from Marfan and control mice aged 3-, 6- and 9-month. Elastin and collagen were identified based on two-photon excitation fluorescence and second-harmonic-generation signals, respectively, without exogenous label. Measurement of fiber length indicated significant fragmentation in Marfan vs. control. Fast Fourier transform algorithm analysis demonstrated markedly lower fiber organization in Marfan mice. Significantly reduced volumetric density of elastin and collagen and thinner skin dermis were observed in Marfan mice. Cutaneous content of elastic fibers and thickness of dermis in 3-month Marfan resembled those in the oldest control mice. Our findings of early signs of fiber degradation and thinning of skin dermis support the potential development of a novel non-invasive approach for early diagnosis of Marfan syndrome.

  15. In vivo assessment of optical properties of basal cell carcinoma and differentiation of BCC subtypes by high-definition optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Boone, Marc; Suppa, Mariano; Miyamoto, Makiko; Marneffe, Alice; Jemec, Gregor; Del Marmol, Veronique

    2016-01-01

    High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) features of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) have recently been defined. We assessed in vivo optical properties (IV-OP) of BCC, by HD-OCT. Moreover their critical values for BCC subtype differentiation were determined. The technique of semi-log plot whereby an exponential function becomes linear has been implemented on HD-OCT signals. The relative attenuation factor (µraf) at different skin layers could be assessed.. IV-OP of superficial BCC with high diagnostic accuracy (DA) and high negative predictive values (NPV) were (i) decreased µraf in lower part of epidermis and (ii) increased epidermal thickness (E-T). IV-OP of nodular BCC with good to high DA and NPV were (i) less negative µraf in papillary dermis compared to normal adjacent skin and (ii) significantly decreased E-T and papillary dermal thickness (PD-T). In infiltrative BCC (i) high µraf in reticular dermis compared to normal adjacent skin and (ii) presence of peaks and falls in reticular dermis had good DA and high NPV. HD-OCT seems to enable the combination of in vivo morphological analysis of cellular and 3-D micro-architectural structures with IV-OP analysis of BCC. This permits BCC sub-differentiation with higher accuracy than in vivo HD-OCT analysis of morphology alone. PMID:27375943

  16. Neutrophils rapidly migrate via lymphatics after Mycobacterium bovis BCG intradermal vaccination and shuttle live bacilli to the draining lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Abadie, Valérie; Badell, Edgar; Douillard, Patrice; Ensergueix, Danielle; Leenen, Pieter J M; Tanguy, Myriam; Fiette, Laurence; Saeland, Sem; Gicquel, Brigitte; Winter, Nathalie

    2005-09-01

    The early innate response after Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination is poorly characterized but probably decisive for subsequent protective immunity against tuberculosis. Therefore, we vaccinated mice with fluorescent BCG strains in the ear dorsum, as a surrogate of intradermal vaccination in humans. During the first 3 days, we tracked BCG host cells migrating out of the dermis to the auricular draining lymph nodes (ADLNs). Resident skin dendritic cells (DCs) or macrophages did not play a predominant role in early BCG capture and transport to ADLNs. The main BCG host cells rapidly recruited both in the dermis and ADLNs were neutrophils. Fluorescent green or red BCG strains injected into nonoverlapping sites were essentially sheltered by distinct neutrophils in the ADLN capsule, indicating that neutrophils had captured bacilli in peripheral tissue and transported them to the lymphoid organ. Strikingly, we observed BCG-infected neutrophils in the lumen of lymphatic vessels by confocal microscopy on ear dermis. Fluorescence-labeled neutrophils injected into the ears accumulated exclusively into the ipsilateral ADLN capsule after BCG vaccination. Thus, we provide in vivo evidence that neutrophils, like DCs or inflammatory monocytes, migrate via afferent lymphatics to lymphoid tissue and can shuttle live microorganisms.

  17. A Comparison of Conventional Collagen Sponge and Collagen-Gelatin Sponge in Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Jinno, Chizuru; Morimoto, Naoki; Ito, Ran; Sakamoto, Michiharu; Ogino, Shuichi; Taira, Tsuguyoshi; Suzuki, Shigehiko

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the collagen-gelatin sponge (CGS) with that of the collagen sponge (CS) in dermis-like tissue regeneration. CGS, which achieves the sustained release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), is a promising material in wound healing. In the present study, we evaluated and compared CGSs and conventional CSs. We prepared 8 mm full-thickness skin defects on the backs of rats. Either CGSs or CSs were impregnated with normal saline solution (NSS) or 7 μg/cm(2) of bFGF solution and implanted into the defects. At 1 and 2 weeks after implantation, tissue specimens were obtained from the rats of each group (n = 3, total n = 24). The wound area, neoepithelial length, dermis-like tissue area, and the number and area of capillaries were evaluated at 1 and 2 weeks after implantation. There were no significant differences in the CGS without bFGF and CS groups. Significant improvements were observed in the neoepithelial length, the dermis-like tissue area, and the number of newly formed capillaries in the group of rats that received CGSs impregnated with bFGF. The effects on epithelialization, granulation, and vascularization of wound healing demonstrated that, as a scaffold, CGSs are equal or superior to conventional CSs.

  18. PIXE analysis in different stages of psoriatic skin

    SciTech Connect

    Kurz, K.; Steigleder, G.K.; Bischof, W.; Gonsior, B.

    1987-02-01

    Elemental distribution in psoriatic skin varies with the functional state of the keratinocytes, e.g., electrolytes influence cell metabolism and cell proliferation, and trace elements play a crucial role in a great number of enzymes. Elemental distribution in pinpoint lesions, old plaques, and uninvolved skin of 5 psoriatic patients and 4 healthy controls was studied by means of PIXE (proton-induced x-ray emission) analysis. This technique allows the simultaneous detection of elements with an atomic number greater than or equal to 14 along the epidermis and dermis in freeze-dried skin biopsies. Trace elements such as Fe, Cu, and Zn were determined down to a level of 1 ppm. In comparison with uninvolved skin, concentrations of P and K were elevated in psoriatic epidermis. In addition, increased levels of K were correlated with the stage of the psoriatic lesion. Zinc concentrations were significantly elevated in pinpoint lesions. The Zn concentration profiles within the epidermis and upper dermis showed high correlation to the P concentration profiles. Iron levels were decreased in old psoriatic plaques, whereas Cu concentrations varied considerably. In comparison to the controls, Cl concentrations were markedly decreased in the dermis of involved and uninvolved psoriatic skin, whereas epidermal Cl levels were unaffected. As high K levels prevent the Ca-induced differentiation of keratinocytes, high K levels may be the cause of the high cell differentiation in psoriatic skin. Elevated DNA- and RNA-polymerases might be the cause of elevated Zn levels in pinpoint lesions.

  19. In-vivo optical investigation of psoriasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapsokalyvas, Dimitrios; Cicchi, Riccardo; Bruscino, Nicola; Alfieri, Domenico; Massi, Daniela; Lotti, Torello; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2011-03-01

    Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease of the skin characterized by hyperkeratosis, hyperproliferation of the epidermis, inflammatory cell accumulation and increased dilatation of dermal papillary blood vessels. Cases of psoriasis were investigated in vivo with optical means in order to evaluate the potential of in vivo optical biopsy. A Polarization Multispectral Dermoscope was employed for the macroscopic observation. Features such as the 'dotted' blood vessels pattern was observed with high contrast. The average size of dot vessels in Psoriasis was measured to be 974 μm2 which is much higher compared to healthy skin. High resolution image sections of the epidermis and the dermis were produced with a custom made Multiphoton Microscope. Imaging extended from the surface of the lesion down to the papillary dermis, at a depth of 200 μm. In the epidermis, a characteristic morphology of the stratum corneum found only in Psoriasis was revealed. Additionally, the cytoplasmic area of the cells in the stratum spinosum layer was found to be smaller than normal. In the dermis the morphological features were more pronounced, where the elongated dermal papillae dominated the papillary layer. Their length exceeds 100μm, which is a far greater value compared to that of healthy skin. These in vivo observations are consistent with the ex vivo histopathological observations, supporting both the applicability and potentiality of multispectral dermoscopy and multiphoton microscopy in the field of in vivo optical investigation and biopsy of skin.

  20. Hyperspectral imaging for dermal hemoglobin spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, Peter J.; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    1999-10-01

    It has been shown previously that images collected at selected wavelengths in a sufficiently narrow bandwidth can be used to produce maps of the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in the dermis. A four-wavelength algorithm has been developed based on a two-layer model of the skin, in which the blood is contained in the lower layer (dermis), while the upper layer attenuates some of the reflection and adds a clutter term. In the present work, the algorithm is compared analytically to simpler algorithms using three wavelengths and based on a single-layer model. It is shown through Monte-Carlo models that, for typical skin, the single-layer model is adequate to analyze data from fiber-optical reflectance spectroscopy, but the two-layer model produces better results for imaging systems. Although the model does not address the full complexity of reflectance of a two-layer skin, it has proven to be sufficient to recover the oxygen saturation, and perhaps other medically relevant information. The algorithm is demonstrated on a suction blister, where the epidermis is removed to reveal the underlying dermis. Applications for this imaging modality exist in dermatology, in surgery, and in developing treatment plans for various diseases.

  1. Msx genes are expressed in the carapacial ridge of turtle shell: a study of the European pond turtle, Emys orbicularis.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Christine; Bontoux, Martine; Le Douarin, Nicole M; Pieau, Claude; Monsoro-Burq, Anne-Hélène

    2003-09-01

    The turtle shell forms by extensive ossification of dermis ventrally and dorsally. The carapacial ridge (CR) controls early dorsal shell formation and is thought to play a similar role in shell growth as the apical ectodermal ridge during limb development. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying carapace development are still unknown. Msx genes are involved in the development of limb mesenchyme and of various skeletal structures. In particular, precocious Msx expression is recorded in skeletal precursors that develop close to the ectoderm, such as vertebral spinous processes or skull. Here, we have studied the embryonic expression of Msx genes in the European pond turtle, Emys orbicularis. The overall Msx expression in head, limb, and trunk is similar to what is observed in other vertebrates. We have focused on the CR area and pre-skeletal shell condensations. The CR expresses Msx genes transiently, in a pattern similar to that of fgf10. In the future carapace domain, the dermis located dorsal to the spinal cord expresses Msx genes, as in other vertebrates, but we did not see expansion of this expression in the dermis located more laterally, on top of the dermomyotomes. In the ventral plastron, although the dermal osseous condensations form in the embryonic Msx-positive somatopleura, we did not observe enhanced Msx expression around these elements. These observations may indicate that common mechanisms participate in limb bud and CR early development, but that pre-differentiation steps differ between shell and other skeletal structures and involve other gene activities than that of Msx genes.

  2. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the calf muscle mass and architecture in elderly patients with and without sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Kuyumcu, Mehmet Emin; Halil, Meltem; Kara, Özgür; Çuni, Bledjan; Çağlayan, Gökhan; Güven, Serdar; Yeşil, Yusuf; Arık, Güneş; Yavuz, Burcu Balam; Cankurtaran, Mustafa; Özçakar, Levent

    2016-01-01

    To sonographically assess the muscle mass and architecture of sarcopenic elderly subjects, and to explore the utility of ultrasound (US) measurements in predicting sarcopenia. One hundred elderly subjects were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Mean age value of our study population was 73.08±6.18years. The diagnosis of sarcopenia was confirmed by measuring fat-free mass index (using bioelectrical impedance analysis) and handgrip strength. Calf circumference was measured and US evaluations comprised bilateral gastrocnemius muscle (MG) thickness, fascicle length and pennate angles; subcutaneous fat and dermis thicknesses in the calf. Bilateral muscle thickness and fascicle length values were significantly lower in patients with sarcopenia (both p<0.05). Sarcopenic and nonsarcopenic subjects had similar pennate angles, subcutaneous fat and dermis thicknesses. Median thickness ratio (100×t (MG)/[t (subcutaneous tissue)+t (dermis)+t (MG)]) values were 64% (40-88%) in the right and 64% (38-86%) in the left calf. Bilateral MG thickness and fascicle length values showed high sensitivity in predicting sarcopenia (all values>76.92%). Gastrocnemius muscle thickness and fascicle length values are lower in sarcopenic elderly and these two parameters can serve as alternative measurements for predicting/quantifying sarcopenia. Calf circumference measurements alone may not be appropriate for assessing sarcopenia. Instead, US imaging can conveniently be used to evaluate different compartments of the musculoskelal system in (sarcopenic) elderly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Secondary Cutaneous Amyloidosis in a Patient with Mycosis Fungoides.

    PubMed

    Nam, Chan Hee; Park, Min Kee; Choi, Mi Soo; Hong, Seung Phil; Park, Byung Cheol; Kim, Myung Hwa

    2017-02-01

    Secondary cutaneous amyloidosis refers to clinically unapparent amyloid deposits within the skin in association with a pre-existing skin condition or skin tumors, such as basal cell carcinoma, porokeratosis, solar elastosis, Bowen's disease, and mycosis fungoides. A 70-year-old woman presented with a 6-month history of asymptomatic multiple yellowish plaques on both legs. She had been diagnosed with mycosis fungoides 7 years ago and was treated with psoralen and ultraviolet A radiation (PUVA) therapy, narrow-band ultraviolet B (UVB) therapy, and acitretin for 5 years. Finally, she reached complete remission of mycosis fungoides. However, new yellowish lesions started to appear 1 year after discontinuing the phototherapy. A physical examination revealed multiple yellowish plaques on both extremities. The plaques were well circumscribed and slightly elevated. All laboratory tests were normal. A biopsy specimen showed multiple nodular deposits of eosinophilic amorphous material in papillary dermis and upper reticular dermis. The deposits represented apple green birefringence on Congo red stain viewed under polarized light. Acellular small nodules in the upper dermis consisted of randomly oriented, non-branching, 6.67~12.7 nm thick amyloid fibrils on electron microscopy. We report an interesting and rare case of secondary cutaneous amyloidosis after narrow-band UVB therapy and PUVA therapy in a patient with mycosis fungoides.

  4. In vitro activation of the neuro-transduction mechanism in sensitive organotypic human skin model.

    PubMed

    Martorina, Francesca; Casale, Costantino; Urciuolo, Francesco; Netti, Paolo A; Imparato, Giorgia

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in tissue engineering have encouraged researchers to endeavor the production of fully functional three-dimensional (3D) thick human tissues in vitro. Here, we report the fabrication of a fully innervated human skin tissue in vitro that recapitulates and replicates skin sensory function. Previous attempts to innervate in vitro 3D skin models did not demonstrate an effective functionality of the nerve network. In our approach, we initially engineer functional human skin tissue based on fibroblast-generated dermis and differentiated epidermis; then, we promote rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons axon ingrowth in the de-novo developed tissue. Neurofilaments network infiltrates the entire native dermis extracellular matrix (ECM), as demonstrated by immunofluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging. To prove sensing functionality of the tissue, we use topical applications of capsaicin, an agonist of transient receptor protein-vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel, and quantify calcium currents resulting from variations of Ca(++) concentration in DRG neurons innervating our model. Calcium currents generation demonstrates functional cross-talking between dermis and epidermis compartments. Moreover, through a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis, we set fluid dynamic conditions for a non-planar skin equivalent growth, as proof of potential application in creating skin grafts tailored on-demand for in vivo wound shape.

  5. In-vivo morphologic and spectroscopic investigation of Psoriasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapsokalyvas, Dimitrios; Cicchi, Riccardo; Bruscino, Nicola; Alfieri, Domenico; Massi, Daniela; Lotti, Torello; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2011-07-01

    Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease of the skin characterized by hyperkeratosis, hyperproliferation of the epidermis, inflammatory cell accumulation and increased dilatation of dermal papillary blood vessels. Cases of psoriasis were investigated in vivo with optical means in order to evaluate the potential of in vivo optical biopsy. A Polarization Multispectral Dermoscope was employed for the macroscopic observation. Features such as the 'dotted' blood vessels pattern was observed with high contrast. High resolution image sections of the epidermis and the dermis were produced with a custom made Multiphoton Microscope. Imaging extended from the surface of the lesion down to the papillary dermis, at a depth of 200 μm. In the epidermis, a characteristic morphology of the stratum corneum found only in Psoriasis was revealed. Additionally, the cytoplasmic area of the cells in the stratum spinosum layer was found to be smaller than normal. In the dermis the morphological features were more pronounced, where the elongated dermal papillae dominated the papillary layer. Their length exceeds 100μm, which is a far greater value compared to that of healthy skin. These in vivo observations are consistent with the ex vivo histopathological observations, supporting both the applicability and potentiality of multispectral dermoscopy and multiphoton microscopy in the field of in vivo optical investigation and biopsy of skin.

  6. Effects of dermal multipotent cell transplantation on skin wound healing.

    PubMed

    Chunmeng, Shi; Tianmin, Cheng; Yongping, Su; Xinze, Ran; Yue, Mai; Jifu, Qu; Shufen, Lou; Hui, Xu; Chengji, Luo

    2004-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that dermis contains adult multipotent stem cells. To investigate the effects of dermis-derived multipotent cells on wound healing, we transplanted a clonal population of dermis-derived multipotent cells (termed as DMCs) by topical and systemic application into the skin wound of rats with simple wounds and rats with combined wound and radiation injury. Our results suggest that both topical and systemic transplantation of DMCs accelerate the healing process in rats with a simple wound; the promoting effect by topical transplantation occurs earlier than systemic transplantation. However, systemic transplantation of DMCs promotes the healing process in irradiated rats, while topical transplantation of DMCs fails. Further studies on the mechanisms of DMCs to promote wound healing indicate that the supernatant of DMCs could promote the proliferation of fibroblasts and epidermal cells; DMCs expressed transcripts of a series of cytokines and extracellular matrix molecules, including VEGF, PDGF, HGF, TGF-beta, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and Fibronectin, which were closely related to the wound healing by DNA microarray analysis. The implanted DMCs can engraft into recipient skin wounded tissues after transplantation by the FISH analysis with Y-chromosome-specific probe. Systemic transplantation of DMCs also promotes the recovery of peripheral white blood cells in irradiated rats. These results demonstrate the different effects of DMCs on wound healing in non-irradiated and irradiated rats and illustrate the importance of optimizing wound healing via the topical or systemic transplantation of stem cells.

  7. A Case of Eccrine Angiomatous Hamartoma Associated with Verrucous Hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Seung Hyun; Lim, Ji Yeon; Kim, So Young; Choi, You Won; Choi, Hae Young

    2009-01-01

    Eccrine angiomatous hamartomas are benign vascular and eccrine malformations often accompanied by hyperhidrosis or pain, increased eccrine glands, and aggregates of vessels. Verrucous hemangiomas are congenital vascular malformations presenting as unilateral grouped papules. Histologically, they show verrucous epidermal change and proliferation of capillaries in the dermis. We report a case of a 47-year-old woman with a red keratotic patch overlying a bluish plaque on the right sole, which had been present since birth. It was accompanied by pain and hyperhidrosis. Histologically, there were verrucous changes in the epidermis, numerous dilated capillaries in the papillary dermis, and increased eccrine glands with angiomatous foci in the deep dermis. The epithelial cells of the eccrine glands were positive for CEA, and the endothelial cells were positive for CD31 and GLUT-1. Eccrine angiomatous hamartomas have been reported in conjunction with other vascular tumors in only a few instances. We report an interesting case of an eccrine angiomatous hamartoma associated with a verrucous hemangioma. PMID:20523811

  8. Comparative study of dermal components and plasma TGF-β1 levels in Slc39a13/Zip13-KO mice

    PubMed Central

    HIROSE, Takuya; OGURA, Takayuki; TANAKA, Keisuke; MINAGUCHI, Jun; YAMAUCHI, Takeshi; FUKADA, Toshiyuki; KOYAMA, Yoh-ichi; TAKEHANA, Kazushige

    2015-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a group of disorders caused by abnormalities that are identified in the extracellular matrix. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays a crucial role in formation of the extracellular matrix. It has been reported that the loss of function of zinc transporter ZRT/IRT-like protein 13 (ZIP13) causes the spondylocheiro dysplastic form of EDS (SCD-EDS: OMIM 612350), in which dysregulation of the TGF-β1 signaling pathway is observed, although the relationship between the dermis abnormalities and peripheral TGF-β1 level has been unclear. We investigated the characteristics of the dermis of the Zip13-knockout (KO) mouse, an animal model for SCD-EDS. Both the ratio of dermatan sulfate (DS) in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) components and the amount of collagen were decreased, and there were very few collagen fibrils with diameters of more than 150 nm in Zip13-KO mice dermis. We also found that the TGF-β1 level was significantly higher in Zip13-KO mice serum. These results suggest that collagen synthesis and collagen fibril fusion might be impaired in Zip13-KO mice and that the possible decrease of decorin level by reduction of the DS ratio probably caused an increase of free TGF-β1 in Zip13-KO mice. In conclusion, skin fragility due to defective ZIP13 protein may be attributable to impaired extracellular matrix synthesis accompanied by abnormal peripheral TGF-β homeostasis. PMID:26050750

  9. CenoDerm vs. Fascia lata for the Prevention of Dorsal Nasal Irregularities in Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Mohebbi, Alireza; Hamidian, Roghayeh; Poosti, Seyed-Behzad; Hosseini, Seyedeh-Simindokht

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Dorsal nasal irregularity is a complication of rhinoplasty surgery, mostly seen in patients with thin skin. Acellular dermis (CenoDerm) and homologous fascia lata covering the nasal bone cartilage structure have been used to achieve a smooth surface. In this study, we aimed to investigate clinical outcomes using these two materials. Materials and Methods: After a standard rhinoplasty procedure, a layer of the acellular dermis or homologous fascia lata was placed in the pocket of the dorsum. Patients were evaluated for clinical outcomes at 3, 6, and 12 months after the procedure. Results: Forty-two of 68 patients completed the follow-up period. Patient satisfaction was higher in the homologous fascia lata group. Similarly, nasal dorsum inspection and palpation results were better in the homologous fascia lata group compared with the CenoDerm group but was significant in palpation (P=0.00). There was no complete absorption in the homologous fascia lata group 6 months after surgery (P= 0.04 vs. CenoDerm) but no significant difference was observed at 12 months. Conclusion: Homologous fascia lata is better than acellular dermis in preventing dorsal nasal irregularity after rhinoplasty in thin-skinned patients. PMID:27602334

  10. Preventive effect of dietary astaxanthin on UVA-induced skin photoaging in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Toshiyuki; Sasaki, Suguru; Manabe, Yuki; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Astaxanthin, a carotenoid found mainly in seafood, has potential clinical applications due to its antioxidant activity. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dietary astaxanthin derived from Haematococcus pluvialis on skin photoaging in UVA-irradiated hairless mice by assessing various parameters of photoaging. After chronic ultraviolet A (UVA) exposure, a significant increase in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and wrinkle formation in the dorsal skin caused by UVA was observed, and dietary astaxanthin significantly suppressed these photoaging features. We found that the mRNA expression of lympho-epithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor, steroid sulfatase, and aquaporin 3 in the epidermis was significantly increased by UVA irradiation for 70 days, and dietary astaxanthin significantly suppressed these increases in mRNA expression to be comparable to control levels. In the dermis, the mRNA expression of matrix metalloprotease 13 was increased by UVA irradiation and significantly suppressed by dietary astaxanthin. In addition, HPLC-PDA analysis confirmed that dietary astaxanthin reached not only the dermis but also the epidermis. Our results indicate that dietary astaxanthin accumulates in the skin and appears to prevent the effects of UVA irradiation on filaggrin metabolism and desquamation in the epidermis and the extracellular matrix in the dermis.

  11. Feeding and migration habits of white shark Carcharodon carcharias (Lamniformes: Lamnidae) from Isla Guadalupe inferred by analysis of stable isotopes delta15N and delta13C.

    PubMed

    Jaime-Rivera, Mario; Caraveo-Patiño, Javier; Hoyos-Padilla, Mauricio; Galván-Magaña, Felipe

    2014-06-01

    Stable isotope composition of marine top predator's tissues provides insight information of its trophic ecology and migratory behavior. Previous reports have shown that dermal tissues could record longer patterns of hunting and movement. Based on this, the aim of this study was to describe the feeding and migratory habits of the white shark from Isla Guadalupe, using stable isotopic analysis of dermis. We considered a small subset of many possible prey taxa that the sharks could have eaten throughout their migration: pinnipeds, squid and tuna. We grouped the data in five focal areas: Gulf of California, Coast of California, Isla Guadalupe, SOFA and Hawaii. We performed a Bayesian mixing model to study the trophic ecology of this top predator. Average isotopic values for dermis tissue of white shark were delta13C (-14.5 per thousand) and delta15N (19.1 per thousand). Corrected white shark dermal mean values to resemble muscle were delta13C (-16.6 per thousand) and delta15N (21.2 per thousand). Mixing model data from dermis showed predation in offshore areas such the SOFA and a main importance of pinnipeds as prey of the white shark in Isla Guadalupe.

  12. Histomorphological Evaluation of Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Plantar Soft Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yak-Nam; Lee, Kara; Ledoux, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetic foot ulceration has a complex and multi-factorial etiology and can involve changes in the pathophysiology of the plantar soft tissue. In the current study, histomorphological analyses of diabetic and non-diabetic plantar tissue were performed. It was hypothesized that the diabetic tissue would have thicker skin (epidermis and dermis), less interdigitation between the dermis and epidermis, thicker elastic septa and decreased adipose cell size. Materials and Methods Two locations of the foot (the heel and the first metatarsal) were examined, both of which have been reported to be locations with a high incidence of ulceration. Stereological methods and quantitative morphological techniques were used to evaluate the skin thickness, interdigitation index, elastic septae thickness and adipocyte cell size. Results The diabetic donors had a greater body mass index (BMI) than the non-diabetic donors. The diabetic tissue had significantly thicker elastic septae and dermis. However, no significant difference was observed in the interdigitation index or adipocyte size. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that morphological changes can be evaluated histologically to give a better understanding of the pathological changes in the plantar soft tissue with diabetes. These evaluations can then be associated with biomechanical changes that occur in diabetes to provide new insight into how microstructural changes can alter macroscopic properties. Clinical Relevance An understanding of the histomorphological changes in the soft tissue in relationship to the location on the foot could help to explain the biomechanical changes that occur in diabetes and the subsequent increase in susceptibility to breakdown. PMID:22049867

  13. Different morphologic formation patterns of dark patches in the black-spotted frog (Pelophylax nigromaculata) and the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans).

    PubMed

    Guangming, Gan; Tao, Zhao; Chao, Li; Moyan, Zhao

    2017-01-01

    The black-spotted frog (Pelophylax nigromaculata) and Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans), two relatively distantly related species, live in different habitats with different adaptive dark patches. To explain the formation of dark patches, the distribution patterns of melanin granules were examined with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Melanin granules were produced and gathered into the "cap" structures on top of the nuclei in most epidermal cells. The "cap" structures may play a role in forming the dorsal dark patches coupled with three-layer melanophores, which can give rise to three layers of interconnected melanin networks in the dorsal dermis in P. nigromaculata. Epidermal melanocytes are rare and do not have a definitive role in forming dorsal dark patches in either P. nigromaculata or B. gargarizans. In B. gargarizans, the dermal melanophores only give rise to a single-layered melanin network, which hardly results in dark patches in the dorsal skin. However, the dermal melanophores migrate twice and form into pseudostratified networks, leading to dark patch formation in the ventral skin in B. gargarizans. The melanin granules precisely coregulate dark patches in the dermis and/or epidermis in P. nigromaculata and B. gargarizans. The dark patch formation depends on melanin granules in the epidermis or/and dermis in P. nigromaculata and B. gargarizans.

  14. Blood-derived dermal langerin+ dendritic cells survey the skin in the steady state

    PubMed Central

    Ginhoux, Florent; Collin, Matthew P.; Bogunovic, Milena; Abel, Michal; Leboeuf, Marylene; Helft, Julie; Ochando, Jordi; Kissenpfennig, Adrien; Malissen, Bernard; Grisotto, Marcos; Snoeck, Hans; Randolph, Gwendalyn; Merad, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    Langerin is a C-type lectin receptor that recognizes glycosylated patterns on pathogens. Langerin is used to identify human and mouse epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs), as well as migratory LCs in the dermis and the skin draining lymph nodes (DLNs). Using a mouse model that allows conditional ablation of langerin+ cells in vivo, together with congenic bone marrow chimeras and parabiotic mice as tools to differentiate LC- and blood-derived dendritic cells (DCs), we have revisited the origin of langerin+ DCs in the skin DLNs. Our results show that in contrast to the current view, langerin+CD8− DCs in the skin DLNs do not derive exclusively from migratory LCs, but also include blood-borne langerin+ DCs that transit through the dermis before reaching the DLN. The recruitment of circulating langerin+ DCs to the skin is dependent on endothelial selectins and CCR2, whereas their recruitment to the skin DLNs requires CCR7 and is independent of CD62L. We also show that circulating langerin+ DCs patrol the dermis in the steady state and migrate to the skin DLNs charged with skin antigens. We propose that this is an important and previously unappreciated element of immunosurveillance that needs to be taken into account in the design of novel vaccine strategies. PMID:18086862

  15. Secondary Cutaneous Amyloidosis in a Patient with Mycosis Fungoides

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Chan Hee; Park, Min Kee; Choi, Mi Soo; Hong, Seung Phil; Park, Byung Cheol

    2017-01-01

    Secondary cutaneous amyloidosis refers to clinically unapparent amyloid deposits within the skin in association with a pre-existing skin condition or skin tumors, such as basal cell carcinoma, porokeratosis, solar elastosis, Bowen's disease, and mycosis fungoides. A 70-year-old woman presented with a 6-month history of asymptomatic multiple yellowish plaques on both legs. She had been diagnosed with mycosis fungoides 7 years ago and was treated with psoralen and ultraviolet A radiation (PUVA) therapy, narrow-band ultraviolet B (UVB) therapy, and acitretin for 5 years. Finally, she reached complete remission of mycosis fungoides. However, new yellowish lesions started to appear 1 year after discontinuing the phototherapy. A physical examination revealed multiple yellowish plaques on both extremities. The plaques were well circumscribed and slightly elevated. All laboratory tests were normal. A biopsy specimen showed multiple nodular deposits of eosinophilic amorphous material in papillary dermis and upper reticular dermis. The deposits represented apple green birefringence on Congo red stain viewed under polarized light. Acellular small nodules in the upper dermis consisted of randomly oriented, non-branching, 6.67~12.7 nm thick amyloid fibrils on electron microscopy. We report an interesting and rare case of secondary cutaneous amyloidosis after narrow-band UVB therapy and PUVA therapy in a patient with mycosis fungoides. PMID:28223751

  16. Nanoencapsulation of Clobetasol Propionate Decreases Its Penetration to Skin Layers Without Changing Its Relative Skin Distribution.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Diego Fontana; Fontana, Márcia Camponogara; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Guterres, Silvia Stanisçuaski; Carlos, Ruy; Beck, Ruver

    2015-01-01

    An immunosuppressive effect with drug release control and higher NTPDase activity in the treatment of contact dermatitis was previously reported for a hydrogel containing 0.05% clobetasol propionate-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (HG-LNC-CP) compared to a hydrogel containing the non-encapsulated drug (HG-CP). In order to investigate the factors underlying this different performance, we evaluated the in vitro skin permeation/penetration of CP from both formulations (HG-LNC-CP and HG-CP). CP did not permeate to the receptor medium during the experiment (24 h), but penetrated into the stratum corneum and viable skin (epidermis and dermis) in significant amounts after 24 h, regardless the type of the formulation. Comparing both formulations, although the relative amount of CP in each skin layer was not affected by the nanoencapsulation, HG-LNC-CP was able to reduce in 5.8, 6.9 and 3.7 times the amount of CP released into the stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis respectively. In this way, the higher effect of HG-LNC-CP previously observed could be due to the controlled drug penetration rate into the skin layers. Moreover, HG-LNC-CP reduces the chances of the corticosteroid to be absorbed systemically as the amount of CP reaching the dermis was reduced. The study reinforces the HG-LNC-CP as a promising dermatological nanomedicine for the treatment of skin disorders.

  17. A study of the solar effect on actinic keratoses by quantification of elastic fibres using an image analysis system.

    PubMed

    Cho, C G; Jo, H Y; Choi, H C; Kim, I H; Song, H J; Oh, C H

    1999-07-01

    It is widely accepted that elastotic changes of the skin are primarily an indicator of cumulative sun exposure of the dermis and are a characteristic finding of actinic keratoses. To date, there have been few reports that measure the amount of elastic tissue objectively and quantitatively, especially in actinic keratoses. The computerized image analysis method has proved useful recently in determining the area of elastic fibres. Using this method, we objectively quantified the elastotic tissue in actinic keratoses and evaluated the relationship between the degree of dermal elastosis, epidermal atypia and histological types of actinic keratoses. Of the 28 actinic keratoses studied, the average percentage area of the elastic fibre was 40.48 +/- 14.48 (mean +/- SD) percentile. There was a 3.65-fold increase in the amount of elastic fibre in actinic keratoses compared with that of seborrhoeic keratoses occurring on the face (p < 0.00001). In addition, the more severe the atypia, the greater the area of elastic fibres in a representative section of the dermis. In conclusion, we observed that on quantitative assessment of elastic tissue in actinic keratoses, the percentage area of the elastic fibres in a representative section of the dermis ranges from 34.86 to 46.11%. This result may provide information for use in histological diagnosis of actinic keratoses and evidence for the possible role of sunlight in the pathogenesis of actinic keratosis.

  18. The process of ageing reflected by histological changes in the skin.

    PubMed

    Bonta, Marinela; Daina, Lucia; Muţiu, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Structural and functional alterations, as well as changes occurring in the aspect of the skin during the ageing process, are due to some complex mechanisms, determined by intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which act synergistically. This study aims to analyze the histological changes of collagen and elastic fibers and of skin vasculature that occur in time, during the process of ageing. Fragments of skin have been collected from subjects of both sexes and of different ages, totaling 121 samples from different body regions. The following stains were used: Modified Goldner's Masson trichrome, Ferric Orcein-Hematoxylin and the combined stains Orcein-Goldner's trichrome. As the process of ageing advances, collagen fibers become thinner and change their aspect; at advanced age, the lysis of collagen fibers and their thickening in the deep dermis is present, as they become more fibrous. Elastic fibers show the tendency of fragmentation at more advanced age, gradually change their tinctorial affinity and reduce in amount; in the deep dermis, they tend to thicken progressively, in the presence of discrete elastolysis processes that evolve steadily and irreversibly. Thus, processes of elastic fibers degeneration and lysis run faster by comparison with those of collagen fibers degeneration. With ageing, a progressive reduction of dermis vasculature is present, due to a reduction in the number and size of vascular vessels, which is in its turn associated with the progressive alterations of vascular walls components, changes that advance until the function of the vessel ceases.

  19. Autofluorescence analysis of dermatitis and squamous cell carcinoma in paraffin wax-embedded skin samples.

    PubMed

    Choi, J H; Jeong, K H; Sung, J Y; Kim, N I; Shin, M K

    2015-03-01

    Recent research has investigated the use of autofluorescence (AF) for distinguishing between normal and cancerous tissues according to different fluorescence characteristics. To analyze if AF can help differentiate cancerous lesions from other nonneoplastic lesions, such as dermatitis, in each layer of the skin ex vivo. Paraffin wax-embedded tissue samples were obtained from patients who were histopathologically diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), psoriasis, chronic dermatitis (lichen simplex chronicus, prurigo nodularis) or acute dermatitis (atopic dermatitis). AF intensity was measured in four layers of the epidermis (corneal, granular, spinous and basal) and two layers of the dermis (papillary and reticular). AF was highest in all layers of psoriasis samples compared with all layers of all other groups. Higher AF values were seen in SCC compared with all skin layers of acute and chronic dermatitis; this finding was especially true in the corneal layer, papillary dermis and reticular dermis. This ex vivo AF study provides basic data for future in vivo studies of AF as a noninvasive diagnostic tool. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. S100a8/NF-κB signal pathway is involved in the 800-nm diode laser-induced skin collagen remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaolin; Ge, Minggai; Qin, Xiaofeng; Xu, Peng; Zhu, Pingya; Dang, Yongyan; Gu, Jun; Ye, Xiyun

    2016-05-01

    The 800-nm diode laser is widely used for hair removal and also promotes collagen synthesis, but the molecular mechanism by which dermis responses to the thermal damage induced by the 800-nm diode laser is still unclear. Ten 2-month-old mice were irradiated with the 800-nm diode laser at 20, 40, and 60 J/cm(2), respectively. Skin samples were taken for PCR, Western blot analysis, and histological study at day 3 or 30 after laser irradiation. The expression of S100a8 and its two receptors (advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptor, RAGE and toll-like receptor 4, TRL4) was upregulated at day 3 after laser treatments. P-p65 levels were also elevated, causing the increase of cytokine (tumor necrosis factor, TNF-α and interleukin 6, IL-6) and MMPs (MMP1a, MMP9). At day 30, PCR and Western blot analysis showed significant increase of type I and III procollagen in the dermis treated with laser. Importantly, skin structure was markedly improved in the laser-irradiated skin compared with the control. Thus, it seemed that S100a8 upregulation triggered NF-κB signal pathway through RAGE and TLR4, responding to laser-induced dermis wound healing. The involvement of the NF-κB pathway in MMP gene transcription promoted the turnover of collagen in the skin, accelerating new collagen synthesis.

  1. Do geese fully develop brood patches? A histological analysis of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and Ross's geese (C. rossii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.; Homberger, D.G.; Henk, W.G.; Alisauskas, R.T.

    2006-01-01

    Most birds develop brood patches before incubation; epidermis and dermis in the brood patch region thicken, and the dermal connective tissue becomes increasingly vascularized and infiltrated by leukocytes. However, current dogma states that waterfowl incubate without modifications of skin within the brood patch region. The incubation periods of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter called snow geese) and Ross's geese (C. rossii) are 2-6 days shorter than those of other goose species; only females incubate. Thus, we hypothesized that such short incubation periods would require fully developed brood patches for sufficient heat transfer from incubating parents to eggs. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the skin histology of abdominal regions of snow and Ross's geese collected at Karrak Lake, Nunavut, Canada. For female snow geese, we found that epidermis and dermis had thickened and vascularization of dermis was 14 times greater, on average, than that observed in males (n=5 pairs). Our results for Ross's geese (n=5 pairs) were more variable, wherein only one of five female Ross's geese fully developed a brood patch. Our results are consistent with three hypotheses about brood patch development and its relationship with different energetic cost-benefit relationships, resulting from differences in embryonic development and body size. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  2. Treatment of port-wine stains: analysis

    SciTech Connect

    van Gemert, M.J.; Welch, A.J.

    1987-08-01

    Port-wine stains (PWS) are bluish red skin stains that are caused by enlarged, ectatic blood vessels in the dermis. Laser treatment of PWS is analyzed from computation of the spatial distribution of heat production by direct absorption of the laser light and subsequent heat conduction. The absorption and scattering caused by oxyhemoglobin, epidermis, and dermis as a function of wavelength are utilized in this analysis. Ideal treatment is defined as coagulating the ectatic blood vessels without irreversible damage to the epidermis and dermis. The analysis shows that a millisecond pulsed, yellow dye laser at 577 nm (one of the large absorption bands in blood) is the laser of choice to treat PWS, offering as close to the ''ideal treatment'' as possible. The blue-green argon laser, which is currently the most frequently used laser for this purpose, is strongly recommended with irradiation times in milliseconds. Other lasers that are in clinical use, such as the red ruby and near-infrared Nd-YAG lasers, can provide selective treatment only when the epidermis is cooled concurrently. The CO/sub 2/ laser, on the other hand, can coagulate the blood vessels only through heat conduction from the hot epidermis; hence, it has neither the treatment selectivity nor any other physical option to force this selectivity.

  3. Preventive effect of dietary astaxanthin on UVA-induced skin photoaging in hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Toshiyuki; Sasaki, Suguru; Manabe, Yuki; Hirata, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Astaxanthin, a carotenoid found mainly in seafood, has potential clinical applications due to its antioxidant activity. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dietary astaxanthin derived from Haematococcus pluvialis on skin photoaging in UVA-irradiated hairless mice by assessing various parameters of photoaging. After chronic ultraviolet A (UVA) exposure, a significant increase in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and wrinkle formation in the dorsal skin caused by UVA was observed, and dietary astaxanthin significantly suppressed these photoaging features. We found that the mRNA expression of lympho-epithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor, steroid sulfatase, and aquaporin 3 in the epidermis was significantly increased by UVA irradiation for 70 days, and dietary astaxanthin significantly suppressed these increases in mRNA expression to be comparable to control levels. In the dermis, the mRNA expression of matrix metalloprotease 13 was increased by UVA irradiation and significantly suppressed by dietary astaxanthin. In addition, HPLC-PDA analysis confirmed that dietary astaxanthin reached not only the dermis but also the epidermis. Our results indicate that dietary astaxanthin accumulates in the skin and appears to prevent the effects of UVA irradiation on filaggrin metabolism and desquamation in the epidermis and the extracellular matrix in the dermis. PMID:28170435

  4. Neurogenic factors in the impaired healing of diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Galkowska, Hanna; Olszewski, Waldemar L; Wojewodzka, Urszula; Rosinski, Grzegorz; Karnafel, Waldemar

    2006-08-01

    We hypothesize that the reduced innervation of skin can be observed both in clinically neuropathic and non-neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers and can contribute to low inflammatory cell infiltration. Twenty patients with type 2 diabetes and active foot ulcers, without clinical evidence of peripheral sensory neuropathy (n = 12) and with sensory neuropathy (n = 8) were involved in this study. Biopsies from ulcer margin were examined immunohistochemically. Studies revealed presence of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5)+ nerve endings only in reticular dermis in 3 of 12 non-neuropathic subjects, however, regenerating GAP-43+ endings were seen in dermis of almost all specimens. Lack of substance P+ nerve endings was characteristic for both groups. The reduced distribution of calcitonin gene-related peptide+ nerves in epidermis and dermis was seen mainly in neuropathic group. In neo-epidermis lack of nerve growth factor expression was observed in both groups, whereas neurotrophin 3 immunostaining was characteristic for neuropathic specimens (P < 0.03). Expression of trkA and trkC receptors did not differ significantly between groups. Low inflammatory cell infiltration and moderate presence of fibroblasts was characteristic for all studied specimens. The observed reduction of foot skin innervation and neurogenic factors expression can be correlated with low inflammatory cell accumulation and subsequently leads to the observed chronicity of diabetic foot ulcer healing process in both neuropathic and non-neuropathic patients.

  5. Skin fragility in the wild-derived, inbred mouse strain Mus pahari/EiJ.

    PubMed

    Herbert Pratt, C; Potter, Christopher S; Kuiper, Raoul V; Karst, Son Yong; Dadras, Soheil S; Roopenian, Derry C; Sundberg, John P

    2017-02-01

    Mus pahari is a wild-derived, inbred mouse strain. M. pahari colony managers observed fragility of this strain's skin resulting in separation of tail skin from the mouse if handled incorrectly. Tail skin tension testing of M. pahari resulted in significantly lowered force threshold for caudal skin rupture and loss in comparison to closely related inbred mouse species and subspecies and even more than a model for junctional epidermolysis bullosa. Histologically, the tail skin separated at the subdermal level with the dermis firmly attached to the epidermis, excluding the epidermolysis bullosa complex of diseases. The dermal collagen bundles were abnormally thickened and branched. Elastin fiber deposition was focally altered in the dermis adjacent to the hair follicle. Collagens present in the skin could not be differentiated between the species in protein gels following digestion with pepsin. Together these data suggest that M. pahari have altered extracellular matrix development resulting in separation of the skin below the level of the dermis with moderate force similar to the African spiny mouse (Acomys spp.). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Histology and ultrastructure of transitional changes in skin morphology in the juvenile and adult four-striped mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio).

    PubMed

    Stewart, Eranée; Ajao, Moyosore Salihu; Ihunwo, Amadi Ogonda

    2013-01-01

    The four-striped mouse has a grey to brown coloured coat with four characteristic dark stripes interspersed with three lighter stripes running along its back. The histological differences in the skin of the juvenile and adult mouse were investigated by Haematoxylin and Eosin and Masson Trichrome staining, while melanocytes in the skin were studied through melanin-specific Ferro-ferricyanide staining. The ultrastructure of the juvenile skin, hair follicles, and melanocytes was also explored. In both the juvenile and adult four-striped mouse, pigment-containing cells were observed in the dermis and were homogeneously dispersed throughout this layer. Apart from these cells, the histology of the skin of the adult four-striped mouse was similar to normal mammalian skin. In the juvenile four-striped mouse, abundant hair follicles of varying sizes were observed in the dermis and hypodermis, while hair follicles of similar size were only present in the dermis of adult four-striped mouse. Ultrastructural analysis of juvenile hair follicles revealed that the arrangement and differentiation of cellular layers were typical of a mammal. This study therefore provides unique transition pattern in the four-striped mouse skin morphology different from the textbook description of the normal mammalian skin.

  7. Evaluation of the hazard from exposure to electron irradiation simulating that in the synchronous orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lippincott, S. W.; Foelsche, T.; Montour, J. L.; Bender, R.; Wilson, I. J.

    1972-01-01

    The electron spectrum predicted for the synchronous orbit was simulated to determine the effects that might occur to astroscientists exposed to such irradiation while on a prolonged space station mission in that region. Miniature pigs were exposed to monoenergetic and spectral-fractionated irradiations with 0.5 to 2.1 MeV electrons. Clinical and pathological alterations observed in biopsies were correlated with depth-dose pattern and length of post irradiation period up to one year. With monoenergetic electrons, the lowest dose causing a recognizable lesion was 1450 rad and with increasing dose lesions appeared earlier and were more severe. At the highest dose given, 2650 rad, ulceration extending into the dermis was present by twenty one days and required about four months for complete healing. Spectral-fractionated irradiations, in which the total dose range was essentially comparable to that of the monoenergetic series, resulted in very minimal outer dermis edema at 1790 rad and at no dose employed did necrosis of epidermis or ulceration into dermis occur.

  8. Influence of skin tissue properties on the radial reference point for glucose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yue; Xu, Kexin; Ding, Lijun; Shi, Zhenzhi; Chen, Wenliang

    2009-02-01

    A reference position where the diffuse reflectance light intensity is insensitive to the variation of glucose concentration exists in the radial detection space for glucose measurement in the scattering medium such as skin. The signal measured in this position could be used as an inside reference to evaluate the influence on spectrum caused by other interferential factors. The relationship between the position of radial reference point and the skin tissue property is studied in this paper. Three-layer skin models with different optical parameters are designed to get sample sets at 1200~1700nm. In these sets, μa, μs and g of dermis varies respectively, so does the depth of epidermis or dermis. The distribution rule of dispersion of diffuse reflectance light intensity in the radial space is confirmed with the glucose concentration changes. And the distribution property of the radial reference position in every sample set is obtained through Monte Carlo simulation. The result shows that the distance of radial reference position from light source is insensitive to the variation of absorption coefficient or the depth of dermis, but an increased scattering coefficient will shorten the distance; an increased anisotropy coefficient or depth of epidermis will lengthen it. On the basis of that, the optical probes with different structures are designed according to the skin tissue properties. So they could be used for the measurement of corresponding patients, which enhances the practicability of floating reference method greatly.

  9. Effects of chronic low-dose ultraviolet B radiation on DNA damage and repair in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, D L; Greinert, R; de Gruijl, F R; Guikers, K L; Breitbart, E W; Byrom, M; Gallmeier, M M; Lowery, M G; Volkmer, B

    1999-06-15

    Chronic exposure to sunlight causes skin cancer in humans, yet little is known about how habitual exposure to low doses of ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) affects DNA damage in the skin. We treated Skh-1 hairless mice with daily doses of suberythemal UVB for 40 days and analyzed the amount and distribution of DNA photodamage using RIAs and immunofluorescence micrography. We found that DNA damage accumulated in mouse skin as a result of chronic irradiation and that this damage persisted in the dermis and epidermis for several weeks after the chronic treatment was terminated. Although the persistent damage was evenly distributed throughout the dermis, it remained in the epidermis as a small number of heavily damaged cells at the dermal-epidermal boundary. Rates of DNA damage induction and repair were determined at different times over the course of chronic treatment in response to a higher challenge dose of UVB light. The amount of damage induced by the challenge dose increased in response to chronic exposure, and excision repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone dimers was significantly reduced. The sensitization of mouse epidermal DNA to photoproduct induction, the reduction in excision repair, and the accumulation of nonrepairable DNA damage in the dermis and epidermis suggest that chronic low-dose exposure to sunlight may significantly enhance the predisposition of mammalian skin to sunlight-induced carcinogenesis.

  10. [Study on the best detector-distance of noninvasive biochemical examination by Monte Carlo simulation].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan-Fei; Lu, Qi-Peng; Ding, Hai-Quan; Gao, Hong-Zhi

    2014-04-01

    The present paper studies the best detector-distance to improve the near-infrared spectrum signal intensity of the dermis layer and eliminate the interference of the epidermis and subcutaneous layer. First, we analyzed the organizational structure of the skin and calculated the tissue optical parameters of different layers. And we established the Monte Carlo model with the example of glucose absorption peak at 2 270 nm. Then, we used the Monte Carlo method to simulate the light transmission rules in the skin, obtaining the average path length, the average visit depth and the fractions of absorbed energy at each layer with the change in critical angle and detector-distance. The results show that when the photons are incident at an angle less than 45 degrees, you can ignore the effect of the incident angle on photon transmission path, and when the detector-distance is 1 mm, the fraction of absorbed photon energy by the dermis layer is the largest, while it can ensure more energy received by detector. We determined that the best detector-distance is 1mm, which successfully avoids the interference of the epidermis spectral information and obtains large amounts of blood in the dermis layer, which is conducive to the near-infrared non-invasive measurement of biochemical components and the subsequent experiments.

  11. In silico prediction of percutaneous absorption and disposition kinetics of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Longjian; Han, Lujia; Saib, Ouarda; Lian, Guoping

    2015-05-01

    To develop in-silico model for predicting percutaneous absorption and disposition kinetics of chemicals in skin layers so as to facilitate the design of transdermal drug delivery systems and skin care products, and risk assessment of occupational or consumer exposure. A general-purpose computer model for simulating skin permeation, absorption and disposition kinetics in the stratum corneum, viable dermis and dermis has been developed. Equations have been proposed for determining the partition and diffusion properties of chemicals by considering molecular partition, binding and mobility in skin layers. In vitro skin penetration data of 12 chemicals was used to validate the model. The observed and simulated permeation and disposition in skin layers were compared for 12 tested chemicals. For most tested chemicals, the experimental and model results are in good agreement with the coefficient of determination >0.80 and relative root mean squared error <1.20. The disposition kinetic parameters of the maximum concentration and the area under the curve in the viable epidermis and dermis initially increased with hydrophobicity, but reached maxima and then decreased with further increase of hydrophobicity. By considering skin physiological structure and composition, the partition and diffusion properties of chemicals in skin layers are determined. This allows in-silico simulation of percutaneous permeation, absorption and disposition kinetics of wide chemical space. The model produced results in good agreement with experimental data of 12 chemicals, suggesting a much improved framework to support transdermal delivery of drug and cosmetic actives as well as integrated risk assessment.

  12. Do geese fully develop brood patches? A histological analysis of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and Ross's geese (C. rossii).

    PubMed

    Jónsson, Jón Einar; Afton, Alan D; Homberger, Dominique G; Henk, William G; Alisauskas, Ray T

    2006-06-01

    Most birds develop brood patches before incubation; epidermis and dermis in the brood patch region thicken, and the dermal connective tissue becomes increasingly vascularized and infiltrated by leukocytes. However, current dogma states that waterfowl incubate without modifications of skin within the brood patch region. The incubation periods of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter called snow geese) and Ross's geese (C. rossii) are 2-6 days shorter than those of other goose species; only females incubate. Thus, we hypothesized that such short incubation periods would require fully developed brood patches for sufficient heat transfer from incubating parents to eggs. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the skin histology of abdominal regions of snow and Ross's geese collected at Karrak Lake, Nunavut, Canada. For female snow geese, we found that epidermis and dermis had thickened and vascularization of dermis was 14 times greater, on average, than that observed in males (n=5 pairs). Our results for Ross's geese (n=5 pairs) were more variable, wherein only one of five female Ross's geese fully developed a brood patch. Our results are consistent with three hypotheses about brood patch development and its relationship with different energetic cost-benefit relationships, resulting from differences in embryonic development and body size.

  13. The progression of burn depth in experimental burns: a histological and methodological study.

    PubMed

    Papp, A; Kiraly, K; Härmä, M; Lahtinen, T; Uusaro, A; Alhava, E

    2004-11-01

    This study was designed to create a reproducible model for experimental burn wound research in pigs. Previously, the thicker paraspinal skin has been used. We used the more human-like ventral skin to create burns of different depths. Contact burns were created to 11 pigs using a brass plate heated to 100 degrees C in boiling water. Different contact times were used to create burns of different depths. In pigs 1-6, the follow-up time was 72 h and in pigs 7-11 24 h. Burn depth was determined by histology. Histologically, samples were classified into five anatomical layers: epidermis, upper one-third of the dermis, middle third of the dermis, deepest third of the dermis and subcutaneous fat. The location of both thromboses and burn marks were evaluated, respectively. The 1 s contact time lead to a superficial thermal injury, 3 s to a partial thickness and 9 s to a full thickness injury. A progression of burn depth was found until 48 h post-injury. The intra-observer correlation after repeated histological analyses of burn depths by the same histopathologist and the repeatability of burn depth creation yielded kappa coefficients 0.83 and 0.92, respectively. a reproducible burn model for further research purposes was obtained.

  14. Modelling millimetre wave propagation and absorption in a high resolution skin model: the effect of sweat glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafirstein, Gal; Moros, Eduardo G.

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential effect of sweat gland ducts (SGD) on specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature distributions during mm-wave irradiation. High resolution electromagnetic and bio-heat transfer models of human skin with SGD were developed using a commercially available simulation software package (SEMCAD X™). The skin model consisted of a 30 µm stratum corneum, 350 µm epidermis and papillary dermis (EPD) and 1000 µm dermis. Five SGD of 60 µm radius and 300 µm height were embedded linearly with 370 µm separation. A WR-10 waveguide positioned 20 µm from the skin surface and delivering 94 GHz electromagnetic radiation was included in the model. Saline conductivity was assigned inside SGD. SAR and temperatures were computed with and without SGD. Despite their small scale, SAR was significantly higher within SGD than in the EPD without SGD. Without SGD, SAR and temperature maxima were in the dermis near EPD. With SGD, SAR maximum was inside SGD while temperature maximum moved to the EPD/stratum-corneum junction. Since the EPD participates actively in perception, the effect of SGD should be taken into account in nociceptive studies involving mm-waves. This research represents a significant step towards higher spatial resolution numerical modelling of the skin and shows that microstructures can play a significant role in mm-wave absorption and induced temperature distributions.

  15. The chemical peel.

    PubMed

    Peters, W

    1991-06-01

    Chemical peeling of facial skin has become a valuable adjunct in the armamentarium of the facial aesthetic surgeon. Among the various techniques available, phenol solutions are the most commonly used. Peeling produces a controlled, partial-thickness chemical burn of the epidermis and the outer dermis. Several techniques are available to "fine tune" the depth of the peel. Regeneration of peeled skin results in a fresh, orderly, organized epidermis. In the dermis, a new 2- to 3-mm band of dense, compact, orderly collagen is formed between the epidermis and the underlying damaged dermis, which results in effective ablation of the fine wrinkles in the skin and a reduction of pigmentation. These clinical and histological changes are long lasting (15-20 years) and may be permanent in some patients. Because of the metabolism and systemic complications of phenol, patient selection should involve systemic evaluation of liver, renal, and cardiac function, as well as an evaluation of the skin quality and medication status of the patient. Because of potential cardiac arrhythmias, peeling must be performed in a medically supervised environment, with continuous cardiac monitoring. The local complications of peeling include pigmentation changes, scarring, milia, ectropion, infection, activation of herpes simplex, and toxic shock syndrome.

  16. A new model for the standardization of experimental burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Venter, Neil G; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa; Marques, Ruy G

    2015-05-01

    Burns are common and recurrent events treated by physicians on a daily basis at most emergency rooms around the world. There is a constant need to understand the physiopathology of burns, so as to minimize their devastating results. The objective of the present report is to describe a burn apparatus in association with an innovative method of animal fixation, as to produce burns of varying sizes and depths. Rats were subjected to burns of 60 °C, 70 °C, and 80 °C for 10 s and after 3 days half of the rats in each group were killed and the resulting lesions were analyzed using histological techniques. In the other half of the rats the wound was measured weakly until complete re-epithelialization. All burns were easily visible and the histological feature for the 60 °C burn was a superficial second-degree burn (28% of the dermis), for 70 °C we observed a deep second-degree burn (72% of the dermis), and in the 80 °C group, a third degree-burn was present (100% of the dermis). This is a safe, reliable, easy to construct and use model that has the ability to produce a regular and uniform reproducible burn due to precise temperature control associated with standardized animal positioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. Ex vivo multiscale quantitation of skin biomechanics in wild-type and genetically-modified mice using multiphoton microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bancelin, Stéphane; Lynch, Barbara; Bonod-Bidaud, Christelle; Ducourthial, Guillaume; Psilodimitrakopoulos, Sotiris; Dokládal, Petr; Allain, Jean-Marc; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Ruggiero, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Soft connective tissues such as skin, tendon or cornea are made of about 90% of extracellular matrix proteins, fibrillar collagens being the major components. Decreased or aberrant collagen synthesis generally results in defective tissue mechanical properties as the classic form of Elhers-Danlos syndrome (cEDS). This connective tissue disorder is caused by mutations in collagen V genes and is mainly characterized by skin hyperextensibility. To investigate the relationship between the microstructure of normal and diseased skins and their macroscopic mechanical properties, we imaged and quantified the microstructure of dermis of ex vivo murine skin biopsies during uniaxial mechanical assay using multiphoton microscopy. We used two genetically-modified mouse lines for collagen V: a mouse model for cEDS harboring a Col5a2 deletion (a.k.a. pN allele) and the transgenic K14-COL5A1 mice which overexpress the human COL5A1 gene in skin. We showed that in normal skin, the collagen fibers continuously align with stretch, generating the observed increase in mechanical stress. Moreover, dermis from both transgenic lines exhibited altered collagen reorganization upon traction, which could be linked to microstructural modifications. These findings show that our multiscale approach provides new crucial information on the biomechanics of dermis that can be extended to all collagen-rich soft tissues. PMID:26631592

  18. An Essential Role for Dermal Primary Cilia in Hair Follicle Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Jonathan; Laag, Essam; Michaud, Edward J.; Yoder, Bradley K.

    2009-01-01

    The primary cilium is a microtubule-based organelle implicated as an essential component of a number of signaling pathways. It is present on cells throughout the mammalian body; however, its functions in most tissues remain largely unknown. Herein we demonstrate that primary cilia are present on cells in murine skin and hair follicles throughout morphogenesis and during hair follicle cycling in postnatal life. Using the Cre-lox system, we disrupted cilia assembly in the ventral dermis and evaluated the effects on hair follicle development. Mice with disrupted dermal cilia have severe hypotrichosis (lack of hair) in affected areas. Histological analyses reveal that most follicles in the mutants arrest at stage 2 of hair development and have small or absent dermal condensates. This phenotype is reminiscent of that seen in the skin of mice lacking Shh or Gli2. In situ hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicates that the hedgehog pathway is downregulated in the dermis of the cilia mutant hair follicles. Thus, these data establish cilia as a critical signaling component required for normal hair morphogenesis and suggest that this organelle is needed on cells in the dermis for reception of signals such as sonic hedgehog. PMID:18987668

  19. Ex vivo multiscale quantitation of skin biomechanics in wild-type and genetically-modified mice using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bancelin, Stéphane; Lynch, Barbara; Bonod-Bidaud, Christelle; Ducourthial, Guillaume; Psilodimitrakopoulos, Sotiris; Dokládal, Petr; Allain, Jean-Marc; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Ruggiero, Florence

    2015-12-01

    Soft connective tissues such as skin, tendon or cornea are made of about 90% of extracellular matrix proteins, fibrillar collagens being the major components. Decreased or aberrant collagen synthesis generally results in defective tissue mechanical properties as the classic form of Elhers-Danlos syndrome (cEDS). This connective tissue disorder is caused by mutations in collagen V genes and is mainly characterized by skin hyperextensibility. To investigate the relationship between the microstructure of normal and diseased skins and their macroscopic mechanical properties, we imaged and quantified the microstructure of dermis of ex vivo murine skin biopsies during uniaxial mechanical assay using multiphoton microscopy. We used two genetically-modified mouse lines for collagen V: a mouse model for cEDS harboring a Col5a2 deletion (a.k.a. pN allele) and the transgenic K14-COL5A1 mice which overexpress the human COL5A1 gene in skin. We showed that in normal skin, the collagen fibers continuously align with stretch, generating the observed increase in mechanical stress. Moreover, dermis from both transgenic lines exhibited altered collagen reorganization upon traction, which could be linked to microstructural modifications. These findings show that our multiscale approach provides new crucial information on the biomechanics of dermis that can be extended to all collagen-rich soft tissues.

  20. Simulation of heat distribution and thermal damage patterns of diode hair-removal lasers: an applicable method for optimizing treatment parameters.

    PubMed

    Ataie-Fashtami, Leila; Shirkavand, Afshan; Sarkar, Saeed; Alinaghizadeh, Mohammadreza; Hejazi, Marjaneh; Fateh, Mohsen; Esmaeeli Djavid, Gholamreza; Zand, Nasrin; Mohammadreza, Hanieh

    2011-07-01

    We simulated the heat distribution and thermal damage patterns of diode hair-removal lasers for different spot sizes, pulse durations, and fluences as a guide for optimization. Recently, the concept of thermal damage time as a reference for pulse duration has become a subject of debate. Laser-Induced-Temperature-Calculation-In-Tissue (LITCIT) was used for the simulations. Skin was modeled as two homogenous layers of epidermis/dermis and two coaxial cylinders as the hair shaft/ follicle. Opto-thermal coefficients of the components and the radiant parameters of the laser (diode, 810 nm) were defined. At constant fluences and pulse durations, the damage occurred deeper when larger spot sizes were used. At constant pulse duration, high fluences caused significant damage to the hair follicle and epidermis. By using longer pulse durations (≤ 400 ms) at constant fluences, there was more effective damage to the hair follicle while sparing the adjacent epidermis and dermis. Because of the time-dependent temperature profiles, an increased pulse duration creates a moderate, gradual rise in the target's temperature. Pulse durations > 400 ms are accompanied by unwanted dermis damage. Our results show that using very long pulse durations near the tissue damage time (≤ 400 ms) creates better efficacy in treating unwanted hairs while avoiding unwanted damage.

  1. Coexistence of generalized morphea and lichen sclerosus et atrophicus mimicking systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Sueli; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia; Russi, Daniela C; Albuquerque, Elisa M; Sousa, Maria Auxiliadora J

    2011-01-01

    A 70-year-old white housewife presented with a rare presentation of coexistent generalized morphea and lichen sclerosus et atrophicus with unusual clinical aspects. The patient had disseminated erythematous lesions that evolved into indurated large plaques. Hypopigmentation and hyperpigmentation developed later, in addition to ivory, white, and shiny plaques on the trunk (Figure 1). The skin of the arms and legs showed a wavy contour (Figure 2). Various areas were markedly sclerotic and some had edematous papules (Figure 3). Multiple indurated, ivory, white, shiny, large, and hypochromic plaques were seen on the trunk Laboratory examinations showed increased immunoglobulin A and antinuclear antibodies 1:200 speckled. Scl-70, anti-centromere, anti-ribonucleoprotein, and anti-DNA tests were negative. Esophageal manometry and abdominal and pelvic ultrasound findings were all normal. Complete blood cell count, blood profile, and urinalysis were also within normal limits. Skin biopsy of an arm lesion showed an atrophic epidermis with orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and follicular plugging. A broad area of homogenization and edema was seen in the papillary dermis with dilated capillaries and a perivascular lymphocytic infiltration. There was also collagen sclerosis throughout the reticular dermis, and thickened, homogenized collagen bundles replaced the subcutaneous fat. Vessel walls showed proliferated intima with mucin deposition and sclerosis, as well as multiplied elastic layers. There was edema of the papillary dermis in some areas and incipient deposition of calcium (Figures 4-7).

  2. Histopathological analysis of vesicular and bullous lesions in Kaposi sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In this study, the clinical and morphological features of vesiculobullous lesions observed in Kaposi sarcoma are analyzed, and the features of bullous Kaposi sarcoma cases are emphasized. Methods A total of 178 biopsy materials of 75 cases diagnosed as classic-type cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma were reviewed. Twenty-five cases showing vesiculobullous features were included in the study. Tumor, epidermis, dermis, and clinical data regarding these cases was evaluated. Results Vesicular changes were observed in 21 (12%) out of 178 lesions of the 75 cases, while bullous changes were present in only 4 (2%). In all cases where vesicular and bullous changes were detected, tumor, epidermis, and dermis changes were similar. All cases were nodular stage KS lesions, whereas hyperkeratosis and serum exudation in the epidermis, marked edema in the dermis, and enlarged lymphatic vessels and chronic inflammatory response were observed. Conclusions Our findings suggest that changes in vascular resistance occurring during tumor progression are the most important factors comprising vesiculobullous morphology. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1646397188748474 PMID:22894735

  3. A Comparison of Conventional Collagen Sponge and Collagen-Gelatin Sponge in Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Jinno, Chizuru; Morimoto, Naoki; Ito, Ran; Sakamoto, Michiharu; Ogino, Shuichi; Taira, Tsuguyoshi; Suzuki, Shigehiko

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the collagen-gelatin sponge (CGS) with that of the collagen sponge (CS) in dermis-like tissue regeneration. CGS, which achieves the sustained release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), is a promising material in wound healing. In the present study, we evaluated and compared CGSs and conventional CSs. We prepared 8 mm full-thickness skin defects on the backs of rats. Either CGSs or CSs were impregnated with normal saline solution (NSS) or 7 μg/cm2 of bFGF solution and implanted into the defects. At 1 and 2 weeks after implantation, tissue specimens were obtained from the rats of each group (n = 3, total n = 24). The wound area, neoepithelial length, dermis-like tissue area, and the number and area of capillaries were evaluated at 1 and 2 weeks after implantation. There were no significant differences in the CGS without bFGF and CS groups. Significant improvements were observed in the neoepithelial length, the dermis-like tissue area, and the number of newly formed capillaries in the group of rats that received CGSs impregnated with bFGF. The effects on epithelialization, granulation, and vascularization of wound healing demonstrated that, as a scaffold, CGSs are equal or superior to conventional CSs. PMID:27218103

  4. Modelling millimetre wave propagation and absorption in a high resolution skin model: the effect of sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Shafirstein, Gal; Moros, Eduardo G

    2011-03-07

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential effect of sweat gland ducts (SGD) on specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature distributions during mm-wave irradiation. High resolution electromagnetic and bio-heat transfer models of human skin with SGD were developed using a commercially available simulation software package (SEMCAD X™). The skin model consisted of a 30 µm stratum corneum, 350 µm epidermis and papillary dermis (EPD) and 1000 µm dermis. Five SGD of 60 µm radius and 300 µm height were embedded linearly with 370 µm separation. A WR-10 waveguide positioned 20 µm from the skin surface and delivering 94 GHz electromagnetic radiation was included in the model. Saline conductivity was assigned inside SGD. SAR and temperatures were computed with and without SGD. Despite their small scale, SAR was significantly higher within SGD than in the EPD without SGD. Without SGD, SAR and temperature maxima were in the dermis near EPD. With SGD, SAR maximum was inside SGD while temperature maximum moved to the EPD/stratum-corneum junction. Since the EPD participates actively in perception, the effect of SGD should be taken into account in nociceptive studies involving mm-waves. This research represents a significant step towards higher spatial resolution numerical modelling of the skin and shows that microstructures can play a significant role in mm-wave absorption and induced temperature distributions.

  5. Spatial frequency domain spectroscopy of two layer media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudovsky, Dmitry; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2011-10-01

    Monitoring of tissue blood volume and oxygen saturation using biomedical optics techniques has the potential to inform the assessment of tissue health, healing, and dysfunction. These quantities are typically estimated from the contribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to the absorption spectrum of the dermis. However, estimation of blood related absorption in superficial tissue such as the skin can be confounded by the strong absorption of melanin in the epidermis. Furthermore, epidermal thickness and pigmentation varies with anatomic location, race, gender, and degree of disease progression. This study describes a technique for decoupling the effect of melanin absorption in the epidermis from blood absorption in the dermis for a large range of skin types and thicknesses. An artificial neural network was used to map input optical properties to spatial frequency domain diffuse reflectance of two layer media. Then, iterative fitting was used to determine the optical properties from simulated spatial frequency domain diffuse reflectance. Additionally, an artificial neural network was trained to directly map spatial frequency domain reflectance to sets of optical properties of a two layer medium, thus bypassing the need for iteration. In both cases, the optical thickness of the epidermis and absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the dermis were determined independently. The accuracy and efficiency of the iterative fitting approach was compared with the direct neural network inversion.

  6. In vivo spatial frequency domain spectroscopy of two layer media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudovsky, Dmitry; Nguyen, John Quan M.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2012-10-01

    Monitoring of tissue blood volume and local oxygen saturation can inform the assessment of tissue health, healing, and dysfunction. These quantities can be estimated from the contribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to the absorption spectrum of the dermis. However, estimation of blood related absorption in skin can be confounded by the strong absorption of melanin in the epidermis and epidermal thickness and pigmentation varies with anatomic location, race, gender, and degree of disease progression. Therefore, a method is desired that decouples the effect of melanin absorption in the epidermis from blood absorption in the dermis for a large range of skin types and thicknesses. A previously developed inverse method based on a neural network forward model was applied to simulated spatial frequency domain reflectance of skin for multiple wavelengths in the near infrared. It is demonstrated that the optical thickness of the epidermis and absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the dermis can be determined independently and with minimal coupling. Then, the same inverse method was applied to reflectance measurements from a tissue simulating phantom and in vivo human skin. Oxygen saturation and total hemoglobin concentrations were estimated from the volar forearms of weakly and strongly pigmented subjects using a standard homogeneous model and the present two layer model.

  7. Evaluation of the transdermal permeation of different paraben combinations through a pig ear skin model.

    PubMed

    Caon, Thiago; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira

    2010-05-31

    Although parabens have several features of ideal preservatives, different studies have shown that they may affect human health due to their estrogenic activity. Therefore, various strategies have been applied to reduce their skin penetration. However, the effect of paraben combinations on transdermal permeation has not yet been investigated. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate paraben permeation in pig ear skin using a Franz diffusion cell system with capillary electrophoresis detection, in order to identify which paraben combinations (defined by a factorial design) have the lowest skin permeation. The permeation of isolated parabens was also evaluated and the permeation characteristics, obtained by the Moser model, confirmed that lipophilicity and molecular weight may influence the systemic absorption of these compounds. In previous tests using isolated parabens, methyl and ethyl parabens presented greater retention in the epidermis compared to the dermis, while propyl and butyl parabens had similar retention profiles in these layers. An increase in ethanol concentration and experimental time promoted greater parabens retention in the dermis compared to the epidermis. The binary combinations of methyl and ethyl parabens as well as of methyl and propyl parabens (added to several cosmetic products in order to increase the antimicrobial spectrum) reduced significantly their permeation rates through pig ear skin (with the exception of EP), probably due to the high retention of these parabens in the epidermis and dermis.

  8. Coagulation and ablation patterns of high-intensity focused ultrasound on a tissue-mimicking phantom and cadaveric skin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Jin; Kim, Han Gu; Zheng, Zhenlong; Park, Hyoun Jun; Yoon, Jeung Hyun; Oh, Wook; Lee, Cheol Woo; Cho, Sung Bin

    2015-12-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can be applied noninvasively to create focused zones of tissue coagulation on various skin layers. We performed a comparative study of HIFU, evaluating patterns of focused tissue coagulation and ablation upon application thereof. A tissue-mimicking (TM) phantom was prepared with bovine serum albumin and polyacrylamide hydrogel to evaluate the geometric patterns of HIFU-induced thermal injury zones (TIZs) for five different HIFU devices. Additionally, for each device, we investigated histologic patterns of HIFU-induced coagulation and ablation in serial sections of cadaveric skin of the face and neck. All HIFU devices generated remarkable TIZs in the TM phantom, with different geometric values of coagulation for each device. Most of the TIZs seemed to be separated into two or more tiny parts. In cadaveric skin, characteristic patterns of HIFU-induced ablation and coagulation were noted along the mid to lower dermis at the focal penetration depth of 3 mm and along subcutaneous fat to the superficial musculoaponeurotic system or the platysma muscle of the neck at 4.5 mm. Additionally, remarkable pre-focal areas of tissue coagulation were observed in the upper and mid dermis at the focal penetration depth of 3 mm and mid to lower dermis at 4.5 mm. For five HIFU devices, we outlined various patterns of HIFU-induced TIZ formation along pre-focal, focal, and post-focal areas of TM phantom and cadaveric skin of the face and neck.

  9. CD34-positive dendritic cells disappear from scars but are increased in pericicatricial tissue.

    PubMed

    Erdag, Gulsun; Qureshi, Hina S; Patterson, James W; Wick, Mark R

    2008-08-01

    CD34-positive stromal cells (CD34SC) are distributed throughout the body, including the dermis. They are thought to play a role in maturation and proliferation of adjacent mesenchymal and epithelial stem cells and in immune responses. To investigate the role of such cells in wound healing after excision of cutaneous lesions, we examined the distribution and quantity of CD34SC in scars from the sites of removal of malignant skin tumors and from reconstructive surgery, as well as in samples of normal skin. In normal skin, CD34 staining was confined to dendritic cells in the dermis, endothelial cells, perifollicular cells and eccrine glands. In cutaneous scars, the cicatricial tissue was totally devoid of CD34SC. However, the dermis adjacent to scar showed increased numbers of CD34SC as compared with normal skin [41.5 cells/mm(2) vs. 24.5 cells/mm(2) (p < 0.001)]. We conclude that CD34SC disappears from scars but are induced to proliferate in pericicatricial tissue. The cells in question may play a role in remodeling of scarred skin. One should be aware that augmented labeling for CD34SC around scars is common; it should not be interpreted as evidence for the persistence or recurrence of tumors that may also express CD34.

  10. Mechanical properties of an artificial vascularized human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passot, A.; Cabodevila, G.

    2011-05-01

    In order to make blood sample tests an artificial skin similar to that of the baby's heel is modeled and realized. The most superficial bloodstream and the two main layers of the skin -epidermis and dermis- have to be recreated. Studies and capillaroscopies of the baby's heel give characteristics of these layers and the bloodstream. The skin is viscohyperelastic, but the choice of materials that will be used is based on the Young's modulus. The epidermis layer is based on a stronger less adhesive silicon rubber Elastosil. The dermis layer is composed of a mixture based on a very soft sticky silicon rubber Silgel and Sylgard. The mixture of Silgel with 5% Sylgard has an elastic modulus of 48 kPa which is similar to that of the dermis. The artificial skin is an assembly of several layers including a layer of Sylgard that is structured by a mold representing the capillary network and adapted to manufacturing processes in a clean room. Each layer is deposited by spin coating and is combined with the other through adhesion. Mechanical tests such as tension are performed to verify the mechanical properties of the artificial skin.

  11. Composite lymphoma of mycosis fungoides and cutaneous small B-cell lymphoma in a 73-year-old male patient.

    PubMed

    Whitling, Nicholas A; Shanesmith, Rebecca P; Jacob, Leah; McBurney, Elizabeth; Sebastian, Siby; Wang, Endi; Wang, Alun R

    2013-04-01

    Composite lymphoma of T-cell and B-cell type is uncommon, and the one occurring primarily on skin is extremely rare. Herein, we report a unique case of composite lymphoma of mycosis fungoides and cutaneous small B-cell lymphoma in a 73-year-old male patient. The patient presented with multiple erythematous patches, plaques, and nodules on the upper arms, scalp, and trunk. Four punch biopsies of arm and scalp lesions demonstrated lymphoid infiltrate in superficial to deep dermis with a characteristic zone distribution of T-cell and B-cell components. T cells were distributed in papillary and perifollicular dermis and displayed a larger size with convoluted nuclei, whereas B cells were small sized, assuming nodular infiltrate in mid-deep dermis with coexpression of CD5. Molecular test detected clonal rearrangement of both TCRG and IGH/K genes with identical amplicons for each gene in all 4 biopsies. Clinical staging revealed no extracutaneous lesions. A multidisplinary approach is emphasized to establish a definitive diagnosis.

  12. In vivo assessment of optical properties of basal cell carcinoma and differentiation of BCC subtypes by high-definition optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Boone, Marc; Suppa, Mariano; Miyamoto, Makiko; Marneffe, Alice; Jemec, Gregor; Del Marmol, Veronique

    2016-06-01

    High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) features of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) have recently been defined. We assessed in vivo optical properties (IV-OP) of BCC, by HD-OCT. Moreover their critical values for BCC subtype differentiation were determined. The technique of semi-log plot whereby an exponential function becomes linear has been implemented on HD-OCT signals. The relative attenuation factor (µraf ) at different skin layers could be assessed.. IV-OP of superficial BCC with high diagnostic accuracy (DA) and high negative predictive values (NPV) were (i) decreased µraf in lower part of epidermis and (ii) increased epidermal thickness (E-T). IV-OP of nodular BCC with good to high DA and NPV were (i) less negative µraf in papillary dermis compared to normal adjacent skin and (ii) significantly decreased E-T and papillary dermal thickness (PD-T). In infiltrative BCC (i) high µraf in reticular dermis compared to normal adjacent skin and (ii) presence of peaks and falls in reticular dermis had good DA and high NPV. HD-OCT seems to enable the combination of in vivo morphological analysis of cellular and 3-D micro-architectural structures with IV-OP analysis of BCC. This permits BCC sub-differentiation with higher accuracy than in vivo HD-OCT analysis of morphology alone.

  13. Yersinia pestis subverts the dermal neutrophil response in a mouse model of bubonic plague.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Jeffrey G; Hasenkrug, Aaron M; Dorward, David W; Nair, Vinod; Carmody, Aaron B; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2013-08-27

    The majority of human Yersinia pestis infections result from introduction of bacteria into the skin by the bite of an infected flea. Once in the dermis, Y. pestis can evade the host's innate immune response and subsequently disseminate to the draining lymph node (dLN). There, the pathogen replicates to large numbers, causing the pathognomonic bubo of bubonic plague. In this study, several cytometric and microscopic techniques were used to characterize the early host response to intradermal (i.d.) Y. pestis infection. Mice were infected i.d. with fully virulent or attenuated strains of dsRed-expressing Y. pestis, and tissues were analyzed by flow cytometry. By 4 h postinfection, there were large numbers of neutrophils in the infected dermis and the majority of cell-associated bacteria were associated with neutrophils. We observed a significant effect of the virulence plasmid (pCD1) on bacterial survival and neutrophil activation in the dermis. Intravital microscopy of i.d. Y. pestis infection revealed dynamic interactions between recruited neutrophils and bacteria. In contrast, very few bacteria interacted with dendritic cells (DCs), indicating that this cell type may not play a major role early in Y. pestis infection. Experiments using neutrophil depletion and a CCR7 knockout mouse suggest that dissemination of Y. pestis from the dermis to the dLN is not dependent on neutrophils or DCs. Taken together, the results of this study show a very rapid, robust neutrophil response to Y. pestis in the dermis and that the virulence plasmid pCD1 is important for the evasion of this response. Yersinia pestis remains a public health concern today because of sporadic plague outbreaks that occur throughout the world and the potential for its illegitimate use as a bioterrorism weapon. Since bubonic plague pathogenesis is initiated by the introduction of Y. pestis into the skin, we sought to characterize the response of the host's innate immune cells to bacteria early after

  14. MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells in human skin equivalents show differential migration and phenotypic plasticity after allergen or irritant exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Kosten, Ilona J.; Spiekstra, Sander W.; Gruijl, Tanja D. de; Gibbs, Susan

    2015-08-15

    After allergen or irritant exposure, Langerhans cells (LC) undergo phenotypic changes and exit the epidermis. In this study we describe the unique ability of MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells (MUTZ-LC) to display similar phenotypic plasticity as their primary counterparts when incorporated into a physiologically relevant full-thickness skin equivalent model (SE-LC). We describe differences and similarities in the mechanisms regulating LC migration and plasticity upon allergen or irritant exposure. The skin equivalent consisted of a reconstructed epidermis containing primary differentiated keratinocytes and CD1a{sup +} MUTZ-LC on a primary fibroblast-populated dermis. Skin equivalents were exposed to a panel of allergens and irritants. Topical exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of allergens (nickel sulfate, resorcinol, cinnamaldehyde) and irritants (Triton X-100, SDS, Tween 80) resulted in LC migration out of the epidermis and into the dermis. Neutralizing antibody to CXCL12 blocked allergen-induced migration, whereas anti-CCL5 blocked irritant-induced migration. In contrast to allergen exposure, irritant exposure resulted in cells within the dermis becoming CD1a{sup −}/CD14{sup +}/CD68{sup +} which is characteristic of a phenotypic switch of MUTZ-LC to a macrophage-like cell in the dermis. This phenotypic switch was blocked with anti-IL-10. Mechanisms previously identified as being involved in LC activation and migration in native human skin could thus be reproduced in the in vitro constructed skin equivalent model containing functional LC. This model therefore provides a unique and relevant research tool to study human LC biology in situ under controlled in vitro conditions, and will provide a powerful tool for hazard identification, testing novel therapeutics and identifying new drug targets. - Highlights: • MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells integrated into skin equivalents are fully functional. • Anti-CXCL12 blocks allergen-induced MUTZ-LC migration.

  15. A novel microstructural interpretation for the biomechanics of mouse skin derived from multiscale characterization.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Barbara; Bancelin, Stéphane; Bonod-Bidaud, Christelle; Gueusquin, Jean-Baptiste; Ruggiero, Florence; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Allain, Jean-Marc

    2017-03-01

    Skin is a complex, multi-layered organ, with important functions in the protection of the body. The dermis provides structural support to the epidermal barrier, and thus has attracted a large number of mechanical studies. As the dermis is made of a mixture of stiff fibres embedded in a soft non-fibrillar matrix, it is classically considered that its mechanical response is based on an initial alignment of the fibres, followed by the stretching of the aligned fibres. Using a recently developed set-up combining multiphoton microscopy with mechanical assay, we imaged the fibres network evolution during dermis stretching. These observations, combined with a wide set of mechanical tests, allowed us to challenge the classical microstructural interpretation of the mechanical properties of the dermis: we observed a continuous alignment of the collagen fibres along the stretching. All our results can be explained if each fibre contributes by a given stress to the global response. This plastic response is likely due to inner sliding inside each fibre. The non-linear mechanical response is due to structural effects of the fibres network in interaction with the surrounding non-linear matrix. This multiscale interpretation explains our results on genetically-modified mice with a simple alteration of the dermis microstructure. Soft tissues, as skin, tendon or aorta, are made of extra-cellular matrix, with very few cells embedded inside. The matrix is a mixture of water and biomolecules, which include the collagen fibre network. The role of the collagen is fundamental since the network is supposed to control the tissue mechanical properties and remodeling: the cells attach to the collagen fibres and feel the network deformations. This paper challenges the classical link between fibres organization and mechanical properties. To do so, it uses multiscale observations combined to a large set of mechanical loading. It thus appears that the behaviour at low stretches is mostly

  16. In vivo histological evaluation of non-insulated microneedle radiofrequency applicator with novel fractionated pulse mode.

    PubMed

    Harth, Yoram; Frank, Ido

    2013-12-01

    Microneedle radiofrequency is a novel method that allows non-thermal penetration of the epidermis followed by RF coagulation in selected depth of the dermis surrounded by zone of non-coagulative volumetric heating. The first generation of Microneedle RF applicators used insulated needles. These treatments were limited by a few factors, including low volume of dermal heating, lack of effect in the papillary dermis and pinpoint bleeding during the treatment. The system tested in this study (EndyMed PRO, Intensif applicator, EndyMed Medical, Cesarea, Israel) utilizes special extra sharp tapered non-insulated microneedles and a special pulse mode, allowing full coagulation during treatment and higher effective volume of dermal heat. After Ethics Committee approval, one female pig (Type Large white X Landrace, 34 Kg) was chosen for the study. The animal was anesthetized using Ketamine, Xylazin and Isofluran. The EndyMed PRO, Intensif applicator (was used for treatment with different needle depth penetration (1 mm-3.5 mm) and in multiple energy settings. Six mm punch biopsies were harvested for histological analysis at the following time points: immediately after the treatment, 4 days after the treatment and 14 days after the treatment. H&E and Masson-Trichrome stains were processed. Visual inspection of the treated skin, immediately after the treatment, revealed arrays of pinpoint erythematous papules surrounded by undamaged epidermal tissue. Treatment field showed no sign of bleeding. Mild to moderate Erythema and Edema developed a few minutes after the treatment, varying according to the total energy delivered. The histologies taken 4-day after therapy showed in all energy settings, dry micro crusts over the treatment zones, with full healing of epidermis. In the 14-day specimens there was a replacement of the crusts/debris by a normal looking stratum corneum with complete healing of epidermis and dermis. The current in vivo study confirms that the EndyMed PRO

  17. Cellular immunophenotyping of exfoliative dermatitis in canine leishmaniosis (Leishmania infantum).

    PubMed

    Papadogiannakis, E I; Koutinas, A F; Saridomichelakis, M N; Vlemmas, J; Lekkas, S; Karameris, A; Fytianou, A

    2005-04-08

    Lymphocyte subsets, major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-II expressing cells and number of amastigotes in the epidermis and dermis were investigated immunohistochemically in 48 dogs with patent leishmaniosis, with or without exfoliative dermatitis (ED) to study the immunopathogenesis of this common cutaneous form of the disease. Skin biopsies were obtained and compared for ED sites (group A, n = 26), normal-appearing skin from the same animals (group B, n = 24), and leishmanial dogs not exhibiting ED (group C, n = 22), and normal controls (group D, n = 22). The CD3+, CD45RA+, CD4+, CD8+ (CD8a+), CD21+, and MHC-II+ cells and leishmania amastigotes were identified immunohistochemically and counted with the aid of an image analysis system. Pyogranulomatous to granulomatous dermatitis, expressed in various histopathological patterns, was noticed in all groups A and B and in half of group C dogs. In the epidermis, the low number of T-cells and their subsets did not differ significantly between groups A and B, but CD8+ outnumbered CD4+ lymphocytes in both groups. MHC-II+ expression on epidermal keratinocytes was intense in the skin with and without lesions from dogs with ED but not in group C dogs. CD3+, CD8+ and MHC-II+ cells were fewer in group C compared to group A and B dogs. In the dermis, CD3+ cells in group A animals were mainly represented by the CD8+. CD45RA+ and CD21+ cells were also seen in high numbers. MHC-II expression, potentially in lymphocytes, fibroblasts, dendritic cells, and macrophages was intense. The numbers of all cellular subpopulations in the dermis were significantly different between the groups, being highest in group A and lowest in group D. In sebaceous adenitis sites, CD4+ outnumbered CD8+ cells in contrast to the neighbouring dermis and the epidermis. The number of CD21+ and CD45RA+ cells was much lower in the inflamed sebaceous glands compared to the dermis. Finally, the number of amastigotes in the normal-appearing skin was

  18. Origin of Infrared Light Modulation in Reflectance-Mode Photoplethysmography

    PubMed Central

    Sidorov, Igor S.; Romashko, Roman V.; Koval, Vasily T.; Giniatullin, Rashid

    2016-01-01

    We recently pointed out the important role of dermis deformation by pulsating arterial pressure in the formation of a photoplethysmographic signal at green light. The aim of this study was to explore the role of this novel finding in near-infrared (NIR) light. A light-emitting diode (LED)-based imaging photoplethysmography (IPPG) system was used to detect spatial distribution of blood pulsations under frame-to-frame switching green and NIR illumination in the palms of 34 healthy individuals. We observed a significant increase of light-intensity modulation at the heartbeat frequency for both illuminating wavelengths after a palm was contacted with a glass plate. Strong positive correlation between data measured at green and NIR light was found, suggesting that the same signal was read independently from the depth of penetration. Analysis of the data shows that an essential part of remitted NIR light is modulated in time as a result of elastic deformations of dermis caused by variable blood pressure in the arteries. Our observations suggest that in contrast with the classical model, photoplethysmographic waveform originates from the modulation of the density of capillaries caused by the variable pressure applied to the skin from large blood vessels. Particularly, beat-to-beat transmural pressure in arteries compresses/decompresses the dermis and deforms its connective-tissue components, thus affecting the distance between the capillaries, which results in the modulation of absorption and scattering coefficients of both green and NIR light. These findings are important for the correct interpretation of this widely used medical technique, which may have novel applications in diagnosis and treatment monitoring of aging and skin diseases. PMID:27768753

  19. Human percutaneous absorption of a direct hair dye comparing in vitro and in vivo results: implications for safety assessment and animal testing.

    PubMed

    Lademann, J; Richter, H; Jacobi, U; Patzelt, A; Hueber-Becker, F; Ribaud, C; Benech-Kieffer, F; Dufour, E K; Sterry, W; Schaefer, H; Leclaire, J; Toutain, H; Nohynek, G J

    2008-06-01

    Although in vitro skin absorption studies often detect small residues of applied test material in the epidermis/dermis, it is uncertain whether the residue is within the living skin. We studied the dermal absorption of a hair dye hydroxyanthraquinone-aminopropyl methyl morpholinium methosulphate (HAM) in human skin in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, skin (back and scalp) received 0.5% HAM in a commercial formulation at 20microg/cm2 After 0.5 or 48h, skin was tape stripped, followed by cyanoacrylate biopsies (CAB). Sebum from scalp sites was collected for 48h. In vitro, skin was treated with 20mg/cm2 dye for 0.5h, penetration determined after 24h. In vivo, at 0.5h, total recovery (back) was 0.67microg/cm2 (tape strips+CAB). Fluorescence microscopy showed HAM in the hair follicle openings (HFO). At 0.5h, scalp tape strips contained 1.80microg/cm2, HFO 0.82microg/cm2. At 48h, HFO contained 0.21microg/cm2, sebum 0.80microg/cm2. In vivo, skin residues were in the non-living skin and eliminated via desquamation and sebum secretion. In vitro, the SC contained 1.50microg/cm2, epidermis/dermis 0.86microg/cm2, receptor fluid<0.04microg/cm2, a total of 0.90microg/cm2 was considered to be bioavailable. In vitro epidermis/dermis residues were nearly identical to those located in non-living skin in vivo. In conclusion, in vitro percutaneous penetration studies may produce seemingly bioavailable material , which raises the need for a Threshold of Skin Absorption (TSA) addressing a negligible dermal absorption in order to avoid unnecessary in vivo toxicity studies on substances that produce no significant human systemic exposure.

  20. Three-way assessment of long-chain n-3 PUFA nutrition: by questionnaire and matched blood and skin samples.

    PubMed

    Wallingford, Sarah C; Pilkington, Suzanne M; Massey, Karen A; Al-Aasswad, Naser M I; Ibiebele, Torukiri I; Celia Hughes, Maria; Bennett, Susan; Nicolaou, Anna; Rhodes, Lesley E; Green, Adèle C

    2013-02-28

    The long-chain n-3 PUFA, EPA, is believed to be important for skin health, including roles in the modulation of inflammation and protection from photodamage. FFQ and blood levels are used as non-invasive proxies for assessing skin PUFA levels, but studies examining how well these proxies reflect target organ content are lacking. In seventy-eight healthy women (mean age 42·8, range 21-60 years) residing in Greater Manchester, we performed a quantitative analysis of long-chain n-3 PUFA nutrition estimated from a self-reported FFQ (n 75) and correlated this with n-3 PUFA concentrations in erythrocytes (n 72) and dermis (n 39). Linear associations between the three n-3 PUFA measurements were assessed by Spearman correlation coefficients and agreement between these measurements was estimated. Average total dietary content of the principal long-chain n-3 PUFA EPA and DHA was 171 (SD 168) and 236 (SD 248) mg/d, respectively. EPA showed significant correlations between FFQ assessments and both erythrocyte (r 0·57, P< 0·0001) and dermal (r 0·33, P= 0·05) levels, as well as between erythrocytes and dermis (r 0·45, P= 0·008). FFQ intake of DHA and the sum of n-3 PUFA also correlated well with erythrocyte concentrations (r 0·50, P< 0·0001; r 0·27, P= 0·03). Agreement between ranked thirds of dietary intake, blood and dermis approached 50% for EPA and DHA, though gross misclassification was lower for EPA. Thus, FFQ estimates and circulating levels of the dietary long-chain n-3 PUFA, EPA, may be utilised as well-correlated measures of its dermal bioavailability.

  1. The healing of full-thickness burns treated by using plasmid DNA encoding VEGF-165 activated collagen-chitosan dermal equivalents.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Xu, Shaojun; Ma, Lie; Huang, Aibin; Gao, Changyou

    2011-02-01

    Repair of deep burn by use of the dermal equivalent relies strongly on the angiogenesis and thereby the regeneration of dermis. To enhance the dermal regeneration, in this study plasmid DNA encoding vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (VEGF-165)/N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan chloride (TMC) complexes were loaded into a bilayer porous collagen-chitosan/silicone membrane dermal equivalents (BDEs), which were applied for treatment of full-thickness burn wounds. The DNA released from the collagen-chitosan scaffold could remain its supercoiled structure but its degree was decayed along with the prolongation of incubation time. The released DNA could transfect HEK293 cells in vitro with decayed efficiency too. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro cultured in the scaffold loaded with TMC/pDNA-VEGF complexes expressed a significantly higher level of VEGF and showed higher viability than those cultured in the controls, i.e. blank scaffold, and scaffolds loaded with naked pDNA-VEGF and TMC/pDNA-eGFP, respectively. The four different BDEs were then transplanted in porcine full-thickness burn wounds. Results showed that the TMC/pDNA-VEGF group had a significantly higher number of newly-formed and mature blood vessels, and fastest regeneration of the dermis. RT-qPCR and western blotting found that the experimental group also had the highest expression of VEGF, CD31 and α-SMA in both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, ultra-thin skin grafting was performed on the regenerated dermis 14 days later, leading to complete repair of the burn wounds with normal histology. Moreover, the tensile strength of the repaired tissue increased along with the time prolongation of post grafting, resulting in a value of approximately 70% of the normal skin at 105 days. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Topical delivery of acyclovir and ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Gerda A; Gerber, Minja; Malan, Maides M; du Preez, Jan L; Fox, Lizelle T; du Plessis, Jeanetta

    2016-01-01

    Viral and fungal cutaneous manifestations are regularly encountered in immunocompromised human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome individuals and can be treated by drugs such as acyclovir and ketoconazole, respectively. The aim of this study was to determine whether the novel Pheroid delivery system improved the transdermal delivery and/or dermal delivery of acyclovir and ketoconazole when incorporated into semi-solid formulations. Semi-solid products (creams and emulgels) containing these drug compounds were formulated, either with or without (control) the Pheroid delivery system. The stability of the formulated semi-solid products was examined over a period of six months and included the assay of the actives, pH, viscosity, mass loss and particle size observation. Vertical Franz cell diffusion studies and tape stripping methods were used to determine the in vitro, stratum corneum (SC)-epidermis and epidermis-dermis delivery of these formulations. Stability tests showed that none of the formulations were completely stable. Acyclovir showed a biphasic character during the in vitro skin diffusion studies for all the tested formulations. The Pheroid™ cream enhanced the transdermal, SC-epidermis and epidermis-dermis delivery of acyclovir the most. The average amount of ketoconazole diffused over 12 h showed improved delivery of ketoconazole, with the Pheroid™ emulgel exhibiting the best transdermal and epidermis-dermis delivery. The Pheroid formulae increased transdermal penetration as well as delivery to the dermal and epidermal skin layers. The Pheroid emulgel and the Pheroid cream increased the topical delivery of ketoconazole and acyclovir, respectively.

  3. Near-infrared optical properties of ex vivo human skin and subcutaneous tissues measured using the Monte Carlo inversion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, C. Rebecca; Kohl, Matthias; Essenpreis, Matthias; Cope, Mark

    1998-09-01

    The absorption and transport scattering coefficients of caucasian and negroid dermis, subdermal fat and muscle have been measured for all wavelengths between 620 and 1000 nm. Samples of tissue 2 mm thick were measured ex vivo to determine their reflectance and transmittance. A Monte Carlo model of the measurement system and light transport in tissue was then used to recover the optical coefficients. The sample reflectance and transmittance were measured using a single integrating sphere `comparison' method. This has the advantage over conventional double-sphere techniques in that no corrections are required for sphere properties, and so measurements sufficiently accurate to recover the absorption coefficient reliably could be made. The optical properties of caucasian dermis were found to be approximately twice those of the underlying fat layer. At 633 nm, the mean optical properties over 12 samples were and for absorption coefficient and and for transport scattering coefficient for caucasian dermis and the underlying fat layer respectively. The transport scattering coefficient for all biological samples showed a monotonic decrease with increasing wavelength. The method was calibrated using solid tissue phantoms and by comparison with a temporally resolved technique.

  4. Chitosan-decorated polystyrene-b-poly(acrylic acid) polymersomes as novel carriers for topical delivery of finasteride.

    PubMed

    Caon, Thiago; Porto, Ledilege Cucco; Granada, Andréa; Tagliari, Monika Piazzon; Silva, Marcos Antonio Segatto; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira; Borsali, Redouane; Soldi, Valdir

    2014-02-14

    In view of the fact that the oral administration of finasteride (FIN) has resulted in various undesirable systemic side effects, the topical application of polystyrene and poly(acrylic acid)-based polymersomes (underexplored system) was investigated. Undecorated PS139-b-PAA17 and PS404-b-PAA63 vesicles (C3 and C7, respectively) or vesicles decorated with chitosan samples of different molecular weight (C3/CS-oligo, C7/CS-oligo, C3/CS-37 and C7/CS-37) were prepared by the co-solvent self-assembly method and characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering,transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering techniques. In vitro release experiments and ex vivo permeation using Franz diffusion cells were carried out (through comparison with hydroethanolic finasteride solution). The ideal system should provide high finasteride retention in the dermis and epidermis while allowing some control of the drug release. The particle size and in vitro release were negatively correlated with the permeation coefficient and skin retention in both the epidermis and dermis. The findings that the longest lag time was obtained for the hydroethanolic drug solution and lowest permeation for the systems able to release the drug faster support the hypothesis that nanostructured systems may be required to enhance the penetration and permeation of the drug. Chitosan-decorated polymersomes interacted more strongly with the skin components than non-decorated samples, probably due to the positive surface charge, which increased the FIN retention and reduced the lag time. C7 polymersomes decorated with chitosan were more appropriate for topical applications (high retention in the dermis and epidermis and controlled drug delivery).

  5. Percutaneous collagen induction therapy: an alternative treatment for burn scars.

    PubMed

    Aust, Matthias C; Knobloch, Karsten; Reimers, Kerstin; Redeker, Jörn; Ipaktchi, Ramin; Altintas, Mehmet Ali; Gohritz, Andreas; Schwaiger, Nina; Vogt, Peter M

    2010-09-01

    This study aims to evaluate percutaneous collagen induction (PCI) in post-burn scarring. Patients with scarring after burn frequently request help in improving the aesthetic appearance of their residual cicatricial deformity. Their scars are generally treated by tissue transfer, W- and Z-plasties, flaps, cortisone injections or ablative procedures that injure or destroy the epidermis and its basement membrane and subsequently lead to fibrosis of the papillary dermis. The ideal treatment would be to preserve the epidermis and promote normal collagen and elastin formation in the dermis. A total of 16 consecutive patients (average age: 37+/-15.5 years, average body mass index (BMI): 25.7) in Germany with post-burn scarring. PCI using the Medical Roll-CIT (Vivida, Cape Town, South Africa). This device was designed to multiply-puncture the skin to the level of the dermal scar to institute remodelling. Patients were prepared with topical vitamin A and C cosmetic creams for a minimum of 4 weeks preoperatively to maximise collagen stimulation. The outcome was measured rating (visual analogue scale (VAS) and Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS)), histological specimen 12 months after intervention. On average, patients rated their improvement as a mean of 80% better (+/-15.5) than before treatment. Histologic examination revealed considerable increase in collagen and elastin deposition 12 months postoperatively. The epidermis demonstrated 45% thickening of stratum spinosum and normal rete ridges as well as the normalisation of the collagen/elastin matrix in the reticular dermis at 1 year postoperatively. This pilot study shows that PCI appears to be a safe method for treating post-burn scarring without destroying the epidermis. The procedure can be repeated safely and is also applicable in regions where laser treatments and deep peels are of limited use. However, it is necessary to initiate an efficacy trial to prove the data of this pilot study. 2009 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights

  6. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for cutaneous radiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akita, Sadanori; Akino, Kozo; Hirano, Akiyoshi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2010-06-01

    Systemic and local radiation injuries caused by nuclear power reactor accidents, therapeutic irradiation, or nuclear terrorism should be prevented or properly treated in order to improve wound management and save lives. Currently, regenerative surgical modalities should be attempted with temporal artificial dermis impregnated and sprayed with a local angiogenic factor such as basic fibroblast growth factor, and secondary reconstruction can be a candidate for demarcation and saving the donor morbidity. Human mesenchymal stem cells and adipose-derived stem cells, together with angiogenic and mitogenic factor of basic fibroblast growth factor and an artificial dermis, were applied over the excised irradiated skin defect and were tested for differentiation and local stimulation effects in the radiation-exposed wounds. The perforator flap and artificial dermal template with growth factor were successful for reconstruction in patients who were suffering from complex underlying disease. Patients were uneventfully treated with minimal morbidities. In the experiments, the hMSCs are strongly proliferative even after 20 Gy irradiation in vitro. In vivo, 4 Gy rat whole body irradiation demonstrated that sustained marrow stromal (mesenchymal stem) cells survived in the bone marrow. Immediate artificial dermis application impregnated with cells and the cytokine over the 20 Gy irradiated skin and soft tissues demonstrated the significantly improved fat angiogenesis, architected dermal reconstitution, and less inflammatory epidermal recovery. Detailed understanding of underlying diseases and rational reconstructive procedures brings about good outcomes for difficult irradiated wound healing. Adipose-derived stem cells are also implicated in the limited local injuries for short cell harvesting and processing time in the same subject.

  7. Diffusion of (2-/sup 14/C)diazepam across hairless mouse skin and human skin

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, R.L.; Palicharla, P.; Groves, M.J.

    1987-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the absorption of diazepam applied topically to the hairless mouse in vivo and to determine the diffusion of diazepam across isolated hairless mouse skin and human skin. (/sup 14/C)Diazepam was readily absorbed after topical administration to the intact hairless mouse, a total of 75.8% of the /sup 14/C-label applied being recovered in urine and feces. Diazepam was found to diffuse across human and hairless mouse skin unchanged in experiments with twin-chambered diffusion cells. The variation in diffusion rate or the flux for both human and mouse tissues was greater among specimens than between duplicate or triplicate trials for a single specimen. Fluxes for mouse skin (stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis) were greater than for human skin (stratum corneum and epidermis): 0.35-0.61 microgram/cm2/h for mouse skin vs 0.24-0.42 microgram/cm2/h for human skin. The permeability coefficients for mouse skin ranged from 1.4-2.4 X 10(-2)cm/h compared with 0.8-1.4 X 10(-2)cm/h for human skin. Although human stratum corneum is almost twice the thickness of that of the hairless mouse, the diffusion coefficients for human skin were 3-12 times greater (0.76-3.31 X 10(-6) cm2/h for human skin vs 0.12-0.27 X 10(-6) cm2/h for hairless mouse) because of a shorter lag time for diffusion across human skin. These differences between the diffusion coefficients and diffusion rates (or permeability coefficients) suggest that the presence of the dermis may present some barrier properties. In vitro the dermis may require complete saturation before the diazepam can be detected in the receiving chamber.

  8. Skin telocytes versus fibroblasts: two distinct dermal cell populations

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yuli; Zhu, Zaihua; Zheng, Yonghua; Wan, Weiguo; Manole, Catalin G; Zhang, Qiangqiang

    2015-01-01

    It is already accepted that telocytes (TCs) represent a new type of interstitial cells in human dermis. In normal skin, TCs have particular spatial relations with different dermal structures such as blood vessels, hair follicles, arrector pili muscles or segments of sebaceous and/or eccrine sweat glands. The distribution and the density of TCs is affected in various skin pathological conditions. Previous studies mentioned the particular (ultra)structure of TCs and also their immunophenotype, miR imprint or proteome, genome or secretome features. As fibroblast is the most common intersitital cell (also in human dermis), a dedicated comparison between human skin TCs and fibroblasts (Fbs) was required to be performed. In this study, using different techniques, we document several points of difference between human dermis TCs and Fbs. By transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we demonstrated TCs with their hallmark cellular prolongations – telopodes. Thus, we showed their ultrastructural distinctiveness from Fbs. By RayBio Human Cytokine Antibody Array V analyses performed on the supernatant from separately cultured TCs and Fbs, we detected the cytokine profile of both cell types, individually. Two of 79 detected cytokines – epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78 and granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 – were 1.5 times higher in the supernatant of TCs (comparing with Fbs). On the other hand, 37 cytokines were at least 1.5 higher in Fbs supernatant (comparing with TCs), and among them six cytokines – interleukin 5, monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3), MCP-4, macrophage inflammatory protein-3, angiogenin, thrombopoietin – being 9.5 times higher (results also confirmed by ELISA testing). In summary, using different techniques, we showed that human dermal TCs and Fbs are different in terms of ultrastructure and cytokine profile. PMID:26414534

  9. Comparison of structural changes in skin and amnion tissue grafts for transplantation induced by gamma and electron beam irradiation for sterilization.

    PubMed

    Mrázová, H; Koller, J; Kubišová, K; Fujeríková, G; Klincová, E; Babál, P

    2016-06-01

    Sterilization is an important step in the preparation of biological material for transplantation. The aim of the study is to compare morphological changes in three types of biological tissues induced by different doses of gamma and electron beam radiation. Frozen biological tissues (porcine skin xenografts, human skin allografts and human amnion) were irradiated with different doses of gamma rays (12.5, 25, 35, 50 kGy) and electron beam (15, 25, 50 kGy). Not irradiated specimens served as controls. The tissue samples were then thawn and fixed in 10 % formalin, processed by routine paraffin technique and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, alcian blue at pH 2.5, orcein, periodic acid Schiff reaction, phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin, Sirius red and silver impregnation. The staining with hematoxylin and eosin showed vacuolar cytoplasmic changes of epidermal cells mainly in the samples of xenografts irradiated by the lowest doses of gamma and electron beam radiation. The staining with orcein revealed damage of fine elastic fibers in the xenograft dermis at the dose of 25 kGy of both radiation types. Disintegration of epithelial basement membrane, especially in the xenografts, was induced by the dose of 15 kGy of electron beam radiation. The silver impregnation disclosed nuclear chromatin condensation mainly in human amnion at the lowest doses of both radiation types and disintegration of the fine collagen fibers in the papillary dermis induced by the lowest dose of electron beam and by the higher doses of gamma radiation. Irradiation by both, gamma rays and the electron beam, causes similar changes on cells and extracellular matrix, with significant damage of the basement membrane and of the fine and elastic and collagen fibers in the papillary dermis, the last caused already by low dose electron beam radiation.

  10. In vivo characterization of structural and optical properties of human skin by combined photothermal radiometry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdel, Nina; Marin, Ana; Vidovič, Luka; Milanič, Matija; Majaron, Boris

    2017-02-01

    We have combined two optical techniques to enable simultaneous assessment of structure and composition of human skin in vivo: Pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR), which involves measurements of transient dynamics in midinfrared emission from sample surface after exposure to a light pulse, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) in visible part of the spectrum. Namely, while PPTR is highly sensitive to depth distribution of selected absorbers, DRS provides spectral information and thus enables differentiation between various chromophores. The accuracy and robustness of the inverse analysis is thus considerably improved compared to use of either technique on its own. Our analysis approach is simultaneous multi-dimensional fitting of the measured PPTR signals and DRS with predictions from a numerical model of light-tissue interaction (a.k.a. inverse Monte Carlo). By using a three-layer skin model (epidermis, dermis, and subcutis), we obtain a good match between the experimental and modeling data. However, dividing the dermis into two separate layers (i.e., papillary and reticular dermis) helps to bring all assessed parameter values within anatomically and physiologically plausible intervals. Both the quality of the fit and the assessed parameter values depend somewhat on the assumed scattering properties for skin, which vary in literature and likely depend on subject's age and gender, anatomical site, etc. In our preliminary experience, simultaneous fitting of the scattering properties is possible and leads to considerable improvement of the fit. The described approach may thus have a potential for simultaneous determination of absorption and scattering properties of human skin in vivo.

  11. Automated skin segmentation in ultrasonic evaluation of skin toxicity in breast cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yi; Tannenbaum, Allen; Chen, Hao; Torres, Mylin; Yoshida, Emi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yuefeng; Curran, Walter; Liu, Tian

    2013-11-01

    Skin toxicity is the most common side effect of breast cancer radiotherapy and impairs the quality of life of many breast cancer survivors. We, along with other researchers, have recently found quantitative ultrasound to be effective as a skin toxicity assessment tool. Although more reliable than standard clinical evaluations (visual observation and palpation), the current procedure for ultrasound-based skin toxicity measurements requires manual delineation of the skin layers (i.e., epidermis-dermis and dermis-hypodermis interfaces) on each ultrasound B-mode image. Manual skin segmentation is time consuming and subjective. Moreover, radiation-induced skin injury may decrease image contrast between the dermis and hypodermis, which increases the difficulty of delineation. Therefore, we have developed an automatic skin segmentation tool (ASST) based on the active contour model with two significant modifications: (i) The proposed algorithm introduces a novel dual-curve scheme for the double skin layer extraction, as opposed to the original single active contour method. (ii) The proposed algorithm is based on a geometric contour framework as opposed to the previous parametric algorithm. This ASST algorithm was tested on a breast cancer image database of 730 ultrasound breast images (73 ultrasound studies of 23 patients). We compared skin segmentation results obtained with the ASST with manual contours performed by two physicians. The average percentage differences in skin thickness between the ASST measurement and that of each physician were less than 5% (4.8 ± 17.8% and -3.8 ± 21.1%, respectively). In summary, we have developed an automatic skin segmentation method that ensures objective assessment of radiation-induced changes in skin thickness. Our ultrasound technology offers a unique opportunity to quantify tissue injury in a more meaningful and reproducible manner than the subjective assessments currently employed in the clinic. Copyright © 2013 World

  12. Multiscale Mechanical Model of the Pacinian Corpuscle Shows Depth and Anisotropy Contribute to the Receptor's Characteristic Response to Indentation.

    PubMed

    Quindlen, Julia C; Lai, Victor K; Barocas, Victor H

    2015-09-01

    Cutaneous mechanoreceptors transduce different tactile stimuli into neural signals that produce distinct sensations of touch. The Pacinian corpuscle (PC), a cutaneous mechanoreceptor located deep within the dermis of the skin, detects high frequency vibrations that occur within its large receptive field. The PC is comprised of lamellae that surround the nerve fiber at its core. We hypothesized that a layered, anisotropic structure, embedded deep within the skin, would produce the nonlinear strain transmission and low spatial sensitivity characteristic of the PC. A multiscale finite-element model was used to model the equilibrium response of the PC to indentation. The first simulation considered an isolated PC with fiber networks aligned with the PC's surface. The PC was subjected to a 10 μm indentation by a 250 μm diameter indenter. The multiscale model captured the nonlinear strain transmission through the PC, predicting decreased compressive strain with proximity to the receptor's core, as seen experimentally by others. The second set of simulations considered a single PC embedded epidermally (shallow) or dermally (deep) to model the PC's location within the skin. The embedded models were subjected to 10 μm indentations at a series of locations on the surface of the skin. Strain along the long axis of the PC was calculated after indentation to simulate stretch along the nerve fiber at the center of the PC. Receptive fields for the epidermis and dermis models were constructed by mapping the long-axis strain after indentation at each point on the surface of the skin mesh. The dermis model resulted in a larger receptive field, as the calculated strain showed less indenter location dependence than in the epidermis model.

  13. In situ CUTANEOUS CELLULAR IMMUNE RESPONSE IN DOGS NATURALLY AFFECTED BY VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS

    PubMed Central

    ROSSI, Claudio Nazaretian; TOMOKANE, Thaise Yumie; BATISTA, Luis Fábio da Silva; MARCONDES, Mary; LARSSON, Carlos Eduardo; LAURENTI, Márcia Dalastra

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Thirty-eight dogs naturally affected by visceral leishmaniasis were recruited in Araçatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil - an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis. The animals were distributed into one of two groups, according to their clinical and laboratory features, as either symptomatic or asymptomatic dogs. Correlations between clinical features and inflammatory patterns, cellular immune responses, and parasitism in the macroscopically uninjured skin of the ear were investigated. Histological skin patterns were similar in both groups, and were generally characterized by a mild to intense inflammatory infiltrate in the dermis, mainly consisting of mononuclear cells. There was no difference in the number of parasites in the skin (amastigotes/mm²) between the two groups. Concerning the characterization of the cellular immune response, the number of positive inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS+) cells was higher in the dermis of symptomatic than in asymptomatic dogs (p = 0.0368). A positive correlation between parasite density and macrophages density (p = 0.031), CD4+ T-cells (p = 0.015), and CD8+ T-cells (p = 0.023) was observed. Furthermore, a positive correlation between density of iNOS+ cells and CD3+ T-cells (p = 0.005), CD4+ T-cells (p = 0.001), and CD8+ T-cells (p = 0.0001) was also found. The results showed the existence of a non-specific chronic inflammatory infiltrate in the dermis of dogs affected by visceral leishmaniasis, characterized by the presence of activated macrophages and T-lymphocytes, associated to cutaneous parasitism, independent of clinical status. PMID:27410908

  14. AUTOMATED SKIN SEGMENTATION IN ULTRASONIC EVALUATION OF SKIN TOXICITY IN BREAST CANCER RADIOTHERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yi; Tannenbaum, Allen; Chen, Hao; Torres, Mylin; Yoshida, Emi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yuefeng; Curran, Walter; Liu, Tian

    2013-01-01

    Skin toxicity is the most common side effect of breast cancer radiotherapy and impairs the quality of life of many breast cancer survivors. We, along with other researchers, have recently found quantitative ultrasound to be effective as a skin toxicity assessment tool. Although more reliable than standard clinical evaluations (visual observation and palpation), the current procedure for ultrasound-based skin toxicity measurements requires manual delineation of the skin layers (i.e., epidermis-dermis and dermis-hypodermis interfaces) on each ultrasound B-mode image. Manual skin segmentation is time consuming and subjective. Moreover, radiation-induced skin injury may decrease image contrast between the dermis and hypodermis, which increases the difficulty of delineation. Therefore, we have developed an automatic skin segmentation tool (ASST) based on the active contour model with two significant modifications: (i) The proposed algorithm introduces a novel dual-curve scheme for the double skin layer extraction, as opposed to the original single active contour method. (ii) The proposed algorithm is based on a geometric contour framework as opposed to the previous parametric algorithm. This ASST algorithm was tested on a breast cancer image database of 730 ultrasound breast images (73 ultrasound studies of 23 patients). We compared skin segmentation results obtained with the ASST with manual contours performed by two physicians. The average percentage differences in skin thickness between the ASST measurement and that of each physician were less than 5% (4.8 ± 17.8% and −3.8 ± 21.1%, respectively). In summary, we have developed an automatic skin segmentation method that ensures objective assessment of radiation-induced changes in skin thickness. Our ultrasound technology offers a unique opportunity to quantify tissue injury in a more meaningful and reproducible manner than the subjective assessments currently employed in the clinic. PMID:23993172

  15. Adult-onset tufted angiomas associated with an arteriovenous malformation in a renal transplant recipient: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Sara; Carugno, Andrea; Vignini, Mariadelaide; Rosso, Renato; Borroni, Riccardo G

    2015-02-01

    Tufted angioma (TA) is a rare benign vascular neoplasm characterized histopathologically by the proliferation of endothelial cells arranged in lobules in the dermis and subcutaneous fat. To date, about 200 cases have been reported, most of which are of Japanese ethnicity. TA predominantly affects children and young adults, developing in 80% of patients younger than 10 years. A white 72-year-old renal transplant recipient presented with 2 asymptomatic dusky red papules on his right leg. The lesions appeared 5 years after the start of immunosuppressive treatment. Histopathologic examination showed a proliferation of poorly canalized capillary-sized vascular structures with typical "cannonball" pattern in the dermis and subcutaneous fat. Eccrine glands were also evident focally in the stroma of capillary lobules. On immunohistochemistry, endothelial cells in the vascular tufts stained positive for CD31 and CD34 but were negative for factor VIII-related antigen, human herpes virus 8, and podoplanin (clone D2-40); α-smooth muscle actin stained pericytes disposed in a single layer in capillary-sized vessels and in 2-3 or more layers in vessels of larger size, respectively. The microscopic findings were suggestive of TA. In the deep dermis, venules with smooth muscle wall and arterioles, as shown by Van Gieson staining, normally not found at that level, were present and appeared surrounded by capillary lobules. Onset of TA in adulthood is rare and may be associated with pregnancy, varicella zoster virus infection, and pharmacological immunosuppression. A case of acquired adult-onset TA associated with an arteriovenous malformation in an elderly transplanted patient is described.

  16. Lamin A and lamin-associated polypeptide 2 (LAP-2) in human skin in the process of aging.

    PubMed

    Golubtsova, N N; Filippov, F N; Gunin, A G

    2016-01-01

    At present time, relationships between lamins and processes leading to aging are established. Mutations of genes of lamins lead to diseases, one of them is progeria. This disease is caused by violation of splaysing of lamin A gene and accumulation the farnezylated prelamin A (progerin) in the nucleus. LAP-2 is an important factor which regulates and stabilizes the lamin A. However, roles of lamin A and LAP-2 in behavior of population of dermal fibroblasts in relation to age were not examined. The aim of this research was to study A type lamin and LAP-2 in human skin at different ages. Lamin A and LAP-2 were detected in sections of the skin by indirect immunohistochemistry. The number of fibroblasts containing lamin A was gradually decreased from 90,4 to 76,9 % from 20 weeks of gestation to 85 years old. There were 32 % of dermal fibroblasts with positive staining for LAP-2 at the period from 20 weeks of gestation to 20 years old. From 21 to 40 years, 37,8 % of fibroblasts containing lamin A were found in the dermis. In age interval 41-85 years, 49-51 % of dermal fibroblasts had a positive staining for LAP-2. Content of lamin A in the nuclei of fibroblasts was almost constant from 20 weeks of gestation to 85 years old. Expression of LAP-2 in the nuclei of fibroblasts was reduced from birth to 20 years old but increased from 21 years old. Number of fibroblasts and PCNA+ fibroblasts in dermis was diminished with age. The most significant decrease in the number of fibroblasts was observed from 20 weeks of gestation to 20 years old. Results allow to assume the participation of lamin A and LAP-2 in triggering age-dependent decrease in the number of fibroblasts in the dermis in humans.

  17. Inhibition of β-catenin signalling in dermal fibroblasts enhances hair follicle regeneration during wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Celine; Pisco, Angela Oliveira; Rawlins, Emma L.; Simons, Ben D.

    2016-01-01

    New hair follicles (HFs) do not form in adult mammalian skin unless epidermal Wnt signalling is activated genetically or within large wounds. To understand the postnatal loss of hair forming ability we monitored HF formation at small circular (2 mm) wound sites. At P2, new HFs formed in back skin, but HF formation was markedly decreased by P21. Neonatal tail also formed wound-associated HFs, albeit in smaller numbers. Postnatal loss of HF neogenesis did not correlate with wound closure rate but with a reduction in Lrig1-positive papillary fibroblasts in wounds. Comparative gene expression profiling of back and tail dermis at P1 and dorsal fibroblasts at P2 and P50 showed a correlation between loss of HF formation and decreased expression of genes associated with proliferation and Wnt/β-catenin activity. Between P2 and P50, fibroblast density declined throughout the dermis and clones of fibroblasts became more dispersed. This correlated with a decline in fibroblasts expressing a TOPGFP reporter of Wnt activation. Surprisingly, between P2 and P50 there was no difference in fibroblast proliferation at the wound site but Wnt signalling was highly upregulated in healing dermis of P21 compared with P2 mice. Postnatal β-catenin ablation in fibroblasts promoted HF regeneration in neonatal and adult mouse wounds, whereas β-catenin activation reduced HF regeneration in neonatal wounds. Our data support a model whereby postnatal loss of hair forming ability in wounds reflects elevated dermal Wnt/β-catenin activation in the wound bed, increasing the abundance of fibroblasts that are unable to induce HF formation. PMID:27287810

  18. Measuring changes in the scattering properties of Intralipid at different depths with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinnunen, Matti; Myllylä, Risto

    2007-07-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful tool for imaging tissue structure. The images provide information on a micrometer scale. By averaging depth scans, an intensity profile can be formed as a function of depth. The slope of a straight line fitted to the OCT signal depth profile contains information on light attenuation in the sample at different depths. This slope can be used to detect changes in the scattering properties of the sample, especially in a single scattering region. In this article, the effect of fitting the line at different depths on detection sensitivity was studied in Intralipid phantoms with different concentrations. Different glucose concentrations were also used with 5 % Intralipid samples. Different depths were studied because the depth of the dermis and the thicknesses of skin layers in human skin vary in different body locations. The results show that the sensitivity of detecting changes in the scattering properties of Intralipid is better at a depth corresponding to that of the dermis in the human arm (0.166 - 0.276 mm) than at a depth equaling the dermis in the forefinger (0.441 - 0.579 mm). For this reason, the applicability of the single scattering model for fitting the straight line to different depths of the OCT signal is limited, and a more comprehensive model for extracting changes in scattering is recommended at greater depths. This has to be kept in mind when determining the depth position for registering glucose-induced changes in vivo with an OCT-based glucose sensor.

  19. Extracellular matrix composition and interstitial pH modulate NHE1-mediated melanoma cell motility.

    PubMed

    Vahle, Anne-Kristin; Domikowsky, Britta; Schwöppe, Christian; Krähling, Hermann; Mally, Sabine; Schäfers, Michael; Hermann, Sven; Shahin, Victor; Haier, Jörg; Schwab, Albrecht; Stock, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The activity of the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 is required for human melanoma cell adhesion and migration. The goal of the present study was to suppress mouse melanoma (B16V) cell invasion in vivo by inhibiting NHE1. Intravital observations in mobilized left liver lobes of laparotomized male Sprague-Dawley rats disclosed that five minutes after intra-arterial administration of the B16V cell suspension, cells adhered to the endothelia of liver sinusoidal capillaries and started to migrate into the surrounding liver tissue. In the presence of the NHE1-specific inhibitor cariporide, migration/invasion was reduced by about 50% while adhesion was not lowered. Time-lapse video microscopy and adhesion/invasion assays revealed that in vitro, blockade of NHE1 by cariporide i) significantly decreased the migratory speed of the cells and ii) completely inhibited the invasive behavior of both an artificial, basement membrane-like and a dermis-like matrix. Cells were more motile on the basement membrane and more invasive on the dermis-like matrix. Small-animal PET (positron-emission tomography) analyses of B16V metastasis in female C57BL/6 mice showed that, although NHE1 inhibition hardly affected the percentage of animals developing metastases or relapses, metastases seem to get directed to the lungs in cariporide-treated animals while animals feeding on the standard diet show metastases spread all over the body. We conclude that i) B16V cells prefer to invade a dermis-like rather than a basement membrane-like matrix; ii) the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition strongly impacts on NHE1-dependent in vitro cell motility and invasion; and iii) the lungs are metastasis‑prone and impair the efficiency of cariporide due to their ECM composition and the pulmonary interstitial (extravascular) pH.

  20. Systemic FasL and TRAIL Neutralisation Reduce Leishmaniasis Induced Skin Ulceration

    PubMed Central

    Lieke, Thorsten; Lemu, Befekadu; Meless, Hailu; Ruffin, Nicolas; Wolday, Dawit; Asseffa, Abraham; Yagita, Hideo; Britton, Sven; Akuffo, Hannah

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by Leishmania infection of dermal macrophages and is associated with chronic inflammation of the skin. L. aethiopica infection displays two clinical manifestations, firstly ulcerative disease, correlated to a relatively low parasite load in the skin, and secondly non-ulcerative disease in which massive parasite infiltration of the dermis occurs in the absence of ulceration of epidermis. Skin ulceration is linked to a vigorous local inflammatory response within the skin towards infected macrophages. Fas ligand (FasL) and Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) expressing cells are present in dermis in ulcerative CL and both death ligands cause apoptosis of keratinocytes in the context of Leishmania infection. In the present report we show a differential expression of FasL and TRAIL in ulcerative and non-ulcerative disease caused by L. aethiopica. In vitro experiments confirmed direct FasL- and TRAIL-induced killing of human keratinocytes in the context of Leishmania-induced inflammatory microenvironment. Systemic neutralisation of FasL and TRAIL reduced ulceration in a model of murine Leishmania infection with no effect on parasitic loads or dissemination. Interestingly, FasL neutralisation reduced neutrophil infiltration into the skin during established infection, suggesting an additional proinflammatory role of FasL in addition to direct keratinocyte killing in the context of parasite-induced skin inflammation. FasL signalling resulting in recruitment of activated neutrophils into dermis may lead to destruction of the basal membrane and thus allow direct FasL mediated killing of exposed keratinocytes in vivo. Based on our results we suggest that therapeutic inhibition of FasL and TRAIL could limit skin pathology during CL. PMID:20967287

  1. Induction of Skin-Derived Precursor Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama-Nakagiri, Yoriko; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Moriwaki, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    The generation of full thickness human skin from dissociated cells is an attractive approach not only for treating skin diseases, but also for treating many systemic disorders. However, it is currently not possible to obtain an unlimited number of skin dermal cells. The goal of this study was to develop a procedure to produce skin dermal stem cells from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Skin-derived precursor cells (SKPs) were isolated as adult dermal precursors that could differentiate into both neural and mesodermal progenies and could reconstitute the dermis. Thus, we attempted to generate SKPs from iPSCs that could reconstitute the skin dermis. Human iPSCs were initially cultured with recombinant noggin and SB431542, an inhibitor of activin/nodal and TGFβ signaling, to induce neural crest progenitor cells. Those cells were then treated with SKP medium that included CHIR99021, a WNT signal activator. The induction efficacy from neural crest progenitor cells to SKPs was more than 97%. No other modifiers tested were able to induce those cells. Those human iPSC-derived SKPs (hiPSC-SKPs) showed a similar gene expression signature to SKPs isolated from human skin dermis. Human iPSC-SKPs differentiated into neural and mesodermal progenies, including adipocytes, skeletogenic cell types and Schwann cells. Moreover, they could be induced to follicular type keratinization when co-cultured with human epidermal keratinocytes. We here provide a new efficient protocol to create human skin dermal stem cells from hiPSCs that could contribute to the treatment of various skin disorders.

  2. Non-linear laser imaging of skin lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchi, R.; Sestini, S.; De Giorgi, V.; Stambouli, D.; Carli, P.; Massi, D.; Lotti, T.; Pavone, F. S.

    2007-07-01

    We investigated different kinds of human cutaneous ex-vivo skin samples by combined two photon intrinsic fluorescence (TPE), second harmonic generation microscopy (SHG), fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), spectral lifetime imaging (SLIM), and multispectral two photon emission detection (MTPE). Morphological and spectroscopic differences were found between healthy and pathological skin samples, including tumors. In particular, we examined tissue samples from normal and pathological scar tissue (keloid), and skin tumors, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and malignant melanoma (MM). By using combined TPE-SHG microscopy we investigated morphological features of different skin regions, as BCC, tumor stroma, healthy dermis, fibroblastic proliferation, and keloids. A score, based on the SHG to autofluorescence aging index of dermis (SAAID), was assigned to characterize each region. We found that both BCC and surrounding dermis have a negative SAAID value, tumor stroma has a positive SAAID value, whereas fibroblastic proliferation and keloids have a SAAID value close to the unit. Further comparative analysis of healthy skin and neoplastic samples was performed using FLIM, SLIM, and MTPE. In particular, BCC showed a blue-shifted fluorescence emission, a higher fluorescence response at 800 nm excitation wavelength and a slightly longer mean fluorescence lifetime. MM showed an emission spectrum similar to the corresponding healthy skin emission spectrum, and a mean fluorescence lifetime distribution shifted towards shorter values. Finally, the use of aminolevulinic acid as a contrast agent has been demonstrated to increase the constrast in BCC border detection. The results obtained represent further support for in-vivo non-invasive imaging of diseased skin.

  3. Dielectric measurement in experimental burns: a new tool for burn depth determination?

    PubMed

    Papp, Anthony; Lahtinen, Tapani; Härmä, Markku; Nuutinen, Jouni; Uusaro, Ari; Alhava, Esko

    2006-03-01

    There has been a lack of methods to provide quantitative information of local tissue edema after burn injury. Noninvasive dielectric measurements provide this information. The measured value, the dielectric constant, is directly related to the amount of water in tissue. Using probes of different sizes, the measurements give information from different tissue depths. The aim of this study was to characterize edema formation at different tissue depths and to examine whether the dielectric measurements could be used to distinguish partial- and full-thickness burns in pigs. An experimental animal study with pigs (n = 6) was performed in which dielectric measurements were taken of superficial, partial-thickness, and full-thickness burns for 72 hours. There was an increase in tissue water content in the superficial dermis in the partial-thickness burns at 48 hours. In whole dermis, the superficial burns resulted in increased tissue water content at 8 hours, and the partial-thickness burns resulted in increased tissue water content at 8, 24, and 72 hours. In deep burns, the water content was significantly decreased in the superficial dermis at 24 hours. All burns resulted in a considerable increase in fat water content. The dielectric probes could be used to differentiate partial- and full-thickness burns as early as 8 hours after burn. Receiver operating curve analysis of the measurements indicated 70 to 90 percent sensitivity and 80 to 100 percent specificity after 8 hours. The dielectric measurements provide a sensitive and noninvasive method for examining tissue edema and differentiate partial- and full-thickness burns in experimental burns. Thus, they are of clinical interest for early burn depth determination.

  4. Evaluating thermal damage induced by pulsed light with multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Wei; Xie, Shusen; Huang, Yimei

    2009-02-01

    Nonablative skin remodeling is a new light treatment approach for photodamaged skin. Compared to ablative CO2 or Er:YAG laser resurfacing, dermabrasion, and chemical peels, the clinical objective of nonablative skin remodeling is to maximize thermal damage to upper dermis while minimizing injury to the epidermis and surrounding tissue, consequently decreasing potential complications and shortening long recuperation periods. Histological analysis of preoperative and postoperative biopsies using H&E or special stains has indicated the dermal thermal injury, which resulting in collagen denaturation, is the most important mechanism of nonablative skin remodeling for improving skin situation. And the extent of improvement of skin situation corresponded to the formation of a new band of dense, compact collagen bundles in the papillary dermis. The diversity of individual skin condition influences the choice of pulsed light treatment parameters, and further influences the degree of dermal thermal damage, thus the efficacy of nonablative skin remodeling remains unstable. Recently, multiphoton microscopy has show a promising application for monitoring skin thermal damage, because collagen could produce strong second harmonic generation (SHG). And SHG intensity is presumably proportional to the percentage of collagen in dermis. In this paper, the auto-fluorescence (AF) intensity and SHG intensity of mice skin irradiated by pulsed Nd:YAG laser were measured and imaged with multiphoton microscope, and the results show the ratio of SHG to AF decreases with the increase of irradiation exposure dose, and could be a quantitative technique to assess dermal thermal damage, and could further benefit the choice of light treatment parameters.

  5. [Analysis of the endoplasmic reticulum stress in non-ablative skin rejuvenation using Q-switched 1064nm Nd:YAG laser].

    PubMed

    Li, Zi-Quan; Zhuang, Le; Feng, Zi-Chao; Qi, Qi-Chao; Zhong, Hua; Ma, Wei-Yuan

    2013-03-01

    To study the effect of Q-switched 1 064 nm Nd:YAG laser treatment on the proliferation of dermal collagen and expression of immunoglobulin binding protein/glucose related protein 78 (BiP/GRP78) in rats' skin and the mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Dorsal skin of 25 Wistar rats was divided into two parts equally after hair removal. Q-switched 1 064nm Nd:YAG laser was applied to treat rats' dorsal skin for 4 times at an interval of 2 days in the experiment part. The control part received no laser treatments. The rats' dorsal skin samples were taken on the 14th and 30th day after laser treatment to measure the dermis thickness and collagen bundles under HE stain and to measure the hydroxyproline content by alkaline hydrolysis method after laser treatment. The expression of BiP/GRP78 was also detected by immunohistochemical method. Statistics was used to analyze the data. The dermis thickness increased by 29. 6% on the 14th day and 16.7% on the 30th day after laser treatment. The collagen bundles became thicker and denser. The hydroxyproline in the skin was also raised after laser treatment (P < 0.05). The immunohistochemical result showed the expression of BiP/GRP78 increased to 100% after laser treatment, showing a significant difference from the control group(X2 = 28.76, P < 0.01). The Q-switched 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser treatment can induce endoplasmic reticulum stress, so as to enhance the protein folding and synthesizing precisely. The proliferation of dermis collagen is the base of effect of non-ablative skin rejuvenation.

  6. Spectra from 2.5-15 microm of tissue phantom materials, optical clearing agents and ex vivo human skin: implications for depth profiling of human skin.

    PubMed

    Viator, John A; Choi, Bernard; Peavy, George M; Kimel, Sol; Nelson, J Stuart

    2003-01-21

    Infrared measurements have been used to profile or image biological tissue, including human skin. Usually, analysis of such measurements has assumed that infrared absorption is due to water and collagen. Such an assumption may be reasonable for soft tissue, but introduction of exogenous agents into skin or the measurement of tissue phantoms has raised the question of their infrared absorption spectrum. We used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection mode to measure the infrared absorption spectra, in the range of 2-15 microm, of water, polyacrylamide, Intralipid, collagen gels, four hyperosmotic clearing agents (glycerol, 1,3-butylene glycol, trimethylolpropane, Topicare), and ex vivo human stratum corneum and dermis. The absorption spectra of the phantom materials were similar to that of water, although additional structure was noted in the range of 6-10 microm. The absorption spectra of the clearing agents were more complex, with molecular absorption bands dominating between 6 and 12 microm. Dermis was similar to water, with collagen structure evident in the 6-10 microm range. Stratum corneum had a significantly lower absorption than dermis due to a lower content of water. These results suggest that the assumption of water-dominated absorption in the 2.5-6 microm range is valid. At longer wavelengths, clearing agent absorption spectra differ significantly from the water spectrum. This spectral information can be used in pulsed photothermal radiometry or utilized in the interpretation of reconstructions in which a constant mu(ir) is used. In such cases, overestimating mu(ir) will underestimate chromophore depth and vice versa, although the effect is dependent on actual chromophore depth.

  7. Wavelength and fluence effect on vascular damage with photodynamic therapy on skin.

    PubMed

    Tsoukas, M M; González, S; Flotte, T J; Anderson, R R; Sherwood, M E; Kollias, N

    2000-02-01

    Normal skin phototoxicity is clinically predictable during photodynamic therapy with light at 690 and 458 nm wavelengths, in the first 5 h after intravenous bolus infusion of benzoporphyrin derivative mono-acid ring A. This study goal was to determine histologic milestones that lead to tissue necrosis with exposure to red (690 nm) and blue (458 nm) light. The threshold doses for skin necrosis on rabbits were equal at both wavelengths. Lower, equal to, and higher than threshold fluences were delivered in duplicates at hourly intervals, with 40% increments, at constant irradiance. Pathology specimens from irradiated and control sites, were collected at 0, 2, 7, 24, 48 h, and 2 wk after treatment and were paired to equivalent treated sites for clinical evaluation. Immediately after irradiation, at 690 and 458 nm thresholds, light microscopy showed stasis and inflammatory infiltrate in the papillary dermis, respectively; electron microscopy demonstrated pericyte and endothelial cell damage - greater at 690 than 458 nm. At day 1, vascular stasis in the dermis showed a steeper dose-response with red than blue light, and led to necrosis of skin appendages (day 1) and epidermis (days 1-2) at both wavelengths. Sub-threshold fluences induced similar, but significantly milder (p < 0.05) changes and epidermis recovered. Skin necrosis, at threshold fluences in photodynamic therapy with benzoporphyrin derivative mono-acid ring A, was primarily due to vascular compromise to a depth potentially reaching the subcutaneous muscle at 690 nm, whereas at 458 nm vascular damage was confined to upper dermis. This system facilitates selective destruction of skin vasculature, sparing normal epidermis.

  8. Ablative skin resurfacing with a novel microablative CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Gotkin, Robert H; Sarnoff, Deborah S; Cannarozzo, Giovanni; Sadick, Neil S; Alexiades-Armenakas, Macrene

    2009-02-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser skin resurfacing has been a mainstay of facial rejuvenation since its introduction in the mid 1990s. Recently, a new generation of fractional or microablative CO2 lasers has been introduced to the marketplace. According to the concept of fractional photothermolysis, these lasers ablate only a fraction of the epidermal and dermal architecture in the treatment area. An array of microscopic thermal wounds is created that ablates the epidermis and dermis within very tiny zones; adjacent to these areas, the epidermis and dermis are spared. This microablative process of laser skin resurfacing has proven safe and effective not only for facial rejuvenation, but elsewhere on the body as well. It is capable of improving wrinkles, acne scars, and other types of atrophic scars and benign pigmented lesions associated with elastotic, sun-damaged skin. Because of the areas of spared epidermis and dermis inherent in a procedure that employs fractional photothermolysis, healing is more rapid compared to fully ablative CO2 laser skin resurfacing and downtime is proportionately reduced. A series of 32 consecutive patients underwent a single laser resurfacing procedure with the a new microablative CO2 laser. All patients were followed for a minimum of 6 months and were asked to complete patient satisfaction questionnaires; a 6 month postoperative photographic evaluation by an independent physician, not involved in the treatment, was also performed. Both sets of data were graded and reported on a quartile scale. Results demonstrated greater than 50% improvement in almost all patients with those undergoing treatment for wrinkles, epidermal pigment or solar elastosis deriving the greatest change for the better (>75%).

  9. Isolation and Characterization of CD271⁺ Stem Cells Derived from Sheep Dermal Skin.

    PubMed

    Jahroomishirazi, Roomina; Bader, Augustinus; Ebert, Sabine; Schmidt, Christian; Sedaghati, Bita; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela; Zscharnack, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have great promise in the field of regenerative medicine due to their differentiation potential into several lineages. Besides the bone marrow, MSCs can be obtained from the dermis, which represents a large stem cell reservoir in the skin. Sheep provide an appropriate large animal model for preclinical studies. In this study, we focused on the isolation and characterization of MSCs from sheep dermis as an alternative to bone marrow MSCs (bmMSCs). Primary ovine cells were obtained from the dermis for comparison with bone marrow. CD271(+)/45(-) dermal MSCs (CD271-dMSCs), which were sorted by flow cytometry, and plastic-adherent bmMSCs were examined for morphology, proliferation and senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity in both low and high oxygen conditions. CD271 expression on cultured cells was assessed by flow cytometry. Adipogenic and osteogenic potentials of CD271-dMSCs were evaluated by oil red O and von Kossa staining. Chondrogenic capacity of CD271-dMSCs and CD271(+)/CD45(-) bone marrow cells (CD271-bmMSCs) was detected using immunohistochemistry and measurement of sulfated glycosaminoglycans. The cell proliferation assay demonstrated no significant difference between CD271-dMSCs and bmMSCs under low oxygen conditions. Cultured CD271-dMSCs revealed much more CD271 expression compared to CD271-bmMSCs. CD271-dMSCs and CD271-bmMSCs showed basically similar expression of the cartilage-specific proteins aggrecan and collagen type II, although with a stronger staining in CD271-bmMSC-derived cultures. Remarkably, there was co-expression of CD271 and aggrecan during chondrogenic differentiation, suggesting an involvement of CD271 in chondrogenesis. Based on these findings, CD271-dMSCs might serve as an appropriate alternative cell source in preclinical research. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Development of edge-activated liposomes for siRNA delivery to human basal epidermis for melanoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Dorrani, Mania; Garbuzenko, Olga B; Minko, Tamara; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena

    2016-04-28

    Delivery of macromolecules such as siRNA into cells that reside in the basal epidermis of the skin is a major challenge due to the transport barriers that need to be overcome. siRNAs have potential therapeutic applications in various dermatological diseases such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and cancer. Unfortunately, a low permeability of siRNA through the stratum corneum and epidermis has significantly limited its use for topical application. The objective of this study was to develop a topical siRNA delivery system that can permeate through the stratum corneum and viable epidermis and efficiently deposit therapeutic levels of siRNA to the basal epidermis/upper dermis where melanoma cells reside. To achieve this objective, a series of liposome compositions that contained various concentrations of edge activator in their structures were prepared and then complexed with siRNA at different ratios to generate a small library of liposome-siRNA complexes (lipoplexes) with different physicochemical properties. In this study we used melanoma as a disease model. Through use of quantitative imaging analysis, we identified the necessary design parameters for effective permeation of lipoplexes through the skin layers and deposition at the upper dermis. The ability of the formulated lipoplexes to internalize into melanoma cells, knockdown the expression of the BRAF protein and induce cell death in melanoma cells was studied by fluorescent microscopy, in-cell immunofluorescence assay and WST-1 cell proliferation assay. By providing direct quantitative and qualitative microscopy evidence, the results of this study demonstrate for the first time that the passive delivery of an edge-activated liposomal formulation can effectively carry siRNA through the stratum corneum and deposit it at the lower epidermis/upper dermis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Normal and abnormal skin color].

    PubMed

    Ortonne, J-P

    2012-11-01

    The varieties of normal skin color in humans range from people of "no color" (pale white) to "people of color" (light brown, dark brown, and black). Skin color is a blend resulting from the skin chromophores red (oxyhaemoglobin), blue (deoxygenated haemoglobin), yellow-orange (carotene, an exogenous pigment), and brown (melanin). Melanin, however, is the major component of skin color ; it is the presence or absence of melanin in the melanosomes in melanocytes and melanin in keratinocytes that is responsible for epidermal pigmentation, and the presence of melanin in macrophages or melanocytes in the dermis that is responsible for dermal pigmentation. Two groups of pigmentary disorders are commonly distinguished: the disorders of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of normal pigment and the abnormal presence of exogenous or endogenous pigments in the skin. The first group includes hyperpigmentations, which clinically manifest by darkening of the skin color, and leukodermia, which is characterized by lightening of the skin. Hypermelanosis corresponds to an overload of melanin or an abnormal distribution of melanin in the skin. Depending on the color, melanodermia (brown/black) and ceruloderma (blue/grey) are distinguished. Melanodermia correspond to epidermal hypermelanocytosis (an increased number of melanocytes) or epidermal hypermelanosis (an increase in the quantity of melanin in the epidermis with no modification of the number of melanocytes). Ceruloderma correspond to dermal hypermelanocytosis (abnormal presence in the dermis of cells synthesizing melanins) ; leakage in the dermis of epidermal melanin also exists, a form of dermal hypermelanosis called pigmentary incontinence. Finally, dyschromia can be related to the abnormal presence in the skin of a pigment of exogenous or endogenous origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Antler velvet is thicker in adult than in yearling pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus): a histological study.

    PubMed

    Bielli, A; Freitas-de-Melo, A; Genovese, P; Villagrán, M; Ungerfeld, R

    2017-01-01

    Antlers are lined by soft velvet tissue during antler growth. Later, the velvet is shed before rut onset. There are no detailed histological descriptions of the growing velvet, nor whether the velvet changes according to stag age. Our aims were to: 1) describe the basic histology of pampas deer antler velvet from adult and yearling males; and 2) determine the influence of age and time of antler growth on velvet's tissues morphometry. Samples were collected from 10 stags allocated in two groups, either adult (3-5 years old, n = 5) or yearling males (2 years old, n = 5). The day of antler cast was recorded for each animal. In spring, the stags were anaesthetised and velvet samples were collected from the third tine's distal end. Samples were described qualitatively and a restricted morphometrical analysis of the antler velvet was performed. The number of keratinocyte layers and the thicknesses of: total epidermis, corneum, intermediate and basale epidermal strata, total dermis, superficial and deep dermis were determined. Age and days after antler casting positively influenced in conjunction epidermal thickness (p = 0.037), and tended to influence both stratum intermedium (p = 0.076) and stratum corneum (p = 0.1) thicknesses. Age influenced stratum corneum thickness (p = 0.04). The pampas deer antler velvet lacked both sweat glands and arrector pili muscles. The deep dermis was densely irrigated but displayed abundant and well developed collagen bundles. Both total epidermal and stratum corneum thicknesses related positively to the age of the animals but were not to the time since antler cast.

  13. Pilot study of dermal and subcutaneous fat structures by MRI in individuals who differ in gender, BMI, and cellulite grading.

    PubMed

    Mirrashed, F; Sharp, J C; Krause, V; Morgan, J; Tomanek, B

    2004-08-01

    Puckered, dimply skin on the thighs, hips, and buttocks is known as cellulite. The cause of cellulite is not known, although there are a number of different hypotheses. In this study, we use magnetic resonance (MR) micro-imaging to study cellulite skin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported MR study of cellulite. High-resolution in vivo MR images of the postlateral thigh skin of two male groups and four female groups were obtained. Subjects were grouped according to their body mass index (BMI) and cellulite grade. A qualitative assessment of how MRI can be used to differentiate skin tissue at different levels of cellulite grading was performed. We found that changes in skin architecture with cellulite can be visualized by in vivo MR micro-imaging. The skin fat layers beneath the dermis and down to the level of muscles are well visualized in the images. Also, the diffuse pattern of extrusion of underlying adipose tissue into dermis is clearly imaged, and was found to correlate with cellulite grading. We also show that other skin tissue parameters such as (a) the percentile of adipose vs. connective tissue in a given volume of hypodermis and (b) the percentile of hypodermic invaginations inside the dermis are correlated with cellulite grade. MR images can be interpreted to measure tissue parameters correlated with cellulite. Considering that we had only three subjects in each group, the achievements of this pilot study were highly satisfactory. We have shown that the in vivo micro-MR is a technique able to detect the effects of cellulite and gender. This study can be extended for further investigations of drugs and/or medical devices for cellulite treatment.

  14. Equine lamellar energy metabolism studied using tissue microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Medina-Torres, C E; Pollitt, C C; Underwood, C; Castro-Olivera, E M; Collins, S N; Allavena, R E; Richardson, D W; van Eps, A W

    2014-09-01

    Failure of lamellar energy metabolism may contribute to the pathophysiology of equine laminitis. Tissue microdialysis has the potential to dynamically monitor lamellar energy balance over time. The objectives of this study were to develop a minimally invasive lamellar microdialysis technique and use it to measure normal lamellar energy metabolite concentrations over 24 h. Microdialysis probes were placed (through the white line) into either the lamellar dermis (LAM) (n = 6) or the sublamellar dermis (SUBLAM) (n = 6) and perfused continuously over a 24 h study period. Probes were placed in the skin dermis (SKIN) for simultaneous comparison to LAM (n = 6). Samples were collected every 2 h and analysed for glucose, lactate, pyruvate, urea and glycerol concentrations. LAM was further compared with SUBLAM by simultaneous placement and sampling in four feet from two horses over 4 h. Horses were monitored for lameness, and either clinically evaluated for 1 month after probe removal (n = 4) or subjected to histological evaluation of the probe site (n = 10). There were no deleterious clinical effects of probe placement and the histological response was mild. Sample fluid recovery and metabolite concentrations were stable for 24 h. Glucose was lower (and lactate:glucose ratio higher) in LAM compared with SUBLAM and SKIN (P < 0.05). Pyruvate was lower in SUBLAM than SKIN and urea was lower in LAM than SKIN (P < 0.05). These differences suggest lower perfusion and increased glucose consumption in LAM compared with SUBLAM and SKIN. In conclusion, lamellar tissue microdialysis was well tolerated and may be useful for determining the contribution of energy failure in laminitis pathogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The use of digital image speckle correlation to measure the mechanical properties of skin and facial muscular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staloff, Isabelle Afriat

    Skin mechanical properties have been extensively studied and have led to an understanding of the structure and role of the collagen and elastin fibers network in the dermis and their changes due to aging. All these techniques have either isolated the skin from its natural environment (in vitro), or, when studied in vivo, attempted to minimize the effect of the underlying tissues and muscles. The human facial region is unique compared to the other parts of the body in that the underlying musculature runs through the subcutaneous tissue and is directly connected to the dermis with collagen based fibrous tissues. These fibrous tissues comprise the superficial musculoaponeurotic system, commonly referred to as the SMAS layer. Retaining ligaments anchor the skin to the periosteum, and hold the dermis to the SMAS. In addition, traditional techniques generally collect an average response of the skin. Data gathered in this manner is incomplete as the skin is anisotropic and under constant tension. We therefore introduce the Digital Image Speckle Correlation (DISC) method that maps in two dimensions the skin deformation under the complex set of forces involved during muscular activity. DISC, a non-contact in vivo technique, generates spatial resolved information. By observing the detailed motion of the facial skin we can infer the manner in which the complex ensemble of forces induced by movement of the muscles distribute and dissipate on the skin. By analyzing the effect of aging on the distribution of these complex forces we can measure its impact on skin elasticity and quantify the efficacy of skin care products. In addition, we speculate on the mechanism of wrinkle formation. Furthermore, we investigate the use of DISC to map the mechanism of film formation on skin of various polymers. Finally, we show that DISC can detect the involuntary facial muscular activity induced by various fragrances.

  16. Deposition of eosinophil granule major basic protein onto microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus in the skin of patients treated with diethylcarbamazine.

    PubMed

    Kephart, G M; Gleich, G J; Connor, D H; Gibson, D W; Ackerman, S J

    1984-01-01

    We investigated the association between eosinophil degranulation, as evidenced by the deposition of granule major basic protein (MBP), and the killing of microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus in vivo following treatment with diethylcarbamazine (DEC). Utilizing an immunofluorescence procedure for the cellular and extracellular localization of eosinophil MBP in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, we studied skin biopsies from onchocerciasis patients before and during treatment with topically or orally administered DEC. Before DEC, there was little or no inflammatory response in either dermis or epidermis and microfilariae were essentially intact. Immunofluorescent staining for MBP revealed some filamentous fluorescence associated with dermal collagen fibers, very few eosinophils, and no fluorescence in association with intact microfilariae. In contrast, during treatment with DEC, immunofluorescent staining for MBP revealed extensive eosinophil infiltrates in both dermis and epidermis with numerous intraepidermal eosinophil abscesses containing degenerating microfilariae. An intense extracellular immunofluorescence for MBP surrounded degenerating microfilariae in the dermis and epidermis in both the presence and absence of eosinophil infiltrates as early as 4.5 hours after starting therapy. Many intact nondegenerating microfilariae were also present, but they did not show immunofluorescent staining for MBP nor a surrounding inflammatory infiltrate. The results show that immediately following administration of DEC, eosinophils localize and degranulate around microfilariae in the skin and release granule MBP onto or in close proximity to the parasite's surface. Because of the striking association between eosinophil localization, degranulation, and deposition of MBP onto microfilarial surfaces, and the degeneration of microfilariae in the skin, these observations support the hypothesis that the eosinophil, through helminthotoxic granule proteins such as MBP

  17. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVIII: VII: results of scalp examination.

    PubMed

    Vogel, F S; Lloyd, B; Cruty, M R; Benton, E V

    1975-04-01

    The scalps of the four pocket mice that were recovered alive from the Apollo XVII flight contained acute focal lesions in the epidermis and an inflammatory reaction in the subjacent dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Hair follicles were focally damaged in three of the four mice. There were 13 scalp lesions singled out in the four flight mice because of histological features that distinguished them from changes observed in the scalps of the control mice. There was only one possible coincidence between a lesion and the trajectory of a cosmic ray particle registered in a subscalp dosimeter. There is, however, a possibility that at least some lesions were produced by unregistered particles.

  18. Chromomycosis, an unusual cause of cicatricial ectropion: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rios, José Eduardo Simarro; Paiva, Carolina Bonfim de; Paula, Gabriela Moura de; Figueiredo, Wanderley Ribeiro Borges; Arantes, Julio César Daher; Almeida, Fábio Marques de; Limongi, Roberto Murilo

    2017-01-01

    Chromomycosis is a fungal infection that affects the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue and is caused by dematiaceous fungal species that turn black on staining. We report the case of a 50-year-old male patient who was a rural worker and had been treated without success for three decades. Facial lesions progressed and caused severe cicatricial retraction. As the infection evolved, the left upper eyelid developed cicatricial ectropion. The surgical treatment was performed using skin obtained from the patient's own abdomen. Patient has developed a good postoperative appearance.

  19. Identification of the Gene for Scleroderma in the Tsk/2 Mouse Strain: Implications for Human Scleroderma Pathogenesis and subset Distinctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    cells in the epidermis and sur- rounding the hair follicle in Tsk2/+ mice at four, 10 and 23 weeks of age but not at two weeks of age (Fig. 3B...blue). (D) and (E), KI67 staining for proliferating cells in the hair follicles and dermis of Tsk2 mice at 2, 4, 10 and 23 weeks of age. We find a...hybridized)the)mouse)genomic)DNA)to)the)chips)and) collected)Tsk2/+)interval)DNA,)meeting)this) target .)They)have)sequenced)both)Tsk2/+)and)101/H

  20. Agminated blue nevus - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Lisboa, Alice Paixão; Silvestre, Keline Jácome; Pedreira, Renata Leite; Alves, Natália Ribeiro de Magalhães; Obadia, Daniel Lago; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2016-01-01

    Blue nevi are benign melanocytic lesions located in the deeper reticular dermis, consequence of failure of melanocytic migration into the dermal-epidermal junction from the neural crest. Lesions are usually asymptomatic and solitary, but may present in a multiple or agminated (grouped) pattern. The agminated subtype is formed when bluish-pigmented lesions cluster together in a well-defined area. Lesions can be flat or raised. We report the case of a patient who presented multiple bluish macules (1-3 mm in diameter) grouped on the left upper back. Dermoscopy and anatomic pathological examination were consistent with blue nevus. PMID:27828645

  1. Two-photon excited spectroscopies of ex vivo human skin endogenous species irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianxin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Luo, Tianshu; Zhao, Jingjun

    2006-10-01

    Two-photon excited spectroscopies from ex vivo human skin are investigated by using a femtosecond laser and a confocal microscope (Zeiss LSM 510 META). In the dermis, collagen is responsible for second harmonic generation (SHG); elastin, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), melanin and porphyrin are the primary endogenous sources of two-photon excited autofluorescence. In the epidermis, keratin, NADH, melanin and porphyrins contribute to autofluorescence signals. The results also show that the SHG spectra have the ability to shift with the excitation wavelength and the autofluorescence spectra display a red shift of the spectral peaks when increasing the excitation wavelength. These results may have practical implications for diagnosis of skin diseases.

  2. Fibrous hamartoma of infancy.

    PubMed

    Vinayak, Rohan S; Kumar, Sumit; Chandana, Sudhir; Trivedi, Priti

    2011-01-01

    Fibrous hamartoma of infancy (FHI) is a rare, benign tumor of the subcutis and lower dermis, which usually occurs within the first 2 years of life. Ninety one percent of the tumors occur in the first year of life. The histogenesis of FHI is unclear. The clinical course is typically benign and prognosis excellent. The physical characteristics of the subcutaneous mass in a child may suggest a malignant process; however, FHI should be included in the differential diagnosis. The prognosis of FHI is excellent with local surgical excision and it rarely recurs.

  3. Plasma cell cheilitis, successfully treated with topical 0.03% tacrolimus ointment.

    PubMed

    Jin, Seon Pil; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Huh, Chang Hun

    2010-05-01

    Plasma cell cheilitis is a rare, idiopathic mucosal condition. The treatment of plasma cell cheilitis is often disappointing. It is often resistant to various topical treatments. We present a 65-year-old woman who had a painful, eroded area on her lower lip, which responded poorly to various topical treatments. A biopsy revealed a band-like infiltration composed mainly of plasma cells in the dermis. She was diagnosed as having plasma cell cheilitis, and was successfully treated with 0.03% topical tacrolimus ointment.

  4. Dermal Influence on Epidermal Resurfacing during the Repair of Split Thickness Wounds.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-15

    RESOLUTION TEST CHART N~ATIONAL BU.REAU OF STANDAPOS -1465 AW 4/ % % R %. . - -. ’. - ., PHOTOGRAPH THIS SHEET i.&6MAi- 1jNrLL(AC~t o~j 6PIA6PJ4AL ~I~ 00...epidermal and dermal interrelationships during wound repair. Platelets contain a growth factor for dermal fibroblasts. We are testing the effects of...examine the effects on the epidermis of adding a factor that affects the dermis (factors from platelets). Two methods were used to test for a

  5. Nutrition and aging skin: sugar and glycation.

    PubMed

    Danby, F William

    2010-01-01

    The effect of sugars on aging skin is governed by the simple act of covalently cross-linking two collagen fibers, which renders both of them incapable of easy repair. Glucose and fructose link the amino acids present in the collagen and elastin that support the dermis, producing advanced glycation end products or "AGEs." This process is accelerated in all body tissues when sugar is elevated and is further stimulated by ultraviolet light in the skin. The effect on vascular, renal, retinal, coronary, and cutaneous tissues is being defined, as are methods of reducing the glycation load through careful diet and use of supplements. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The deep penetrating nevus.

    PubMed

    Strazzula, Lauren; Senna, Maryanne Makredes; Yasuda, Mariko; Belazarian, Leah

    2014-12-01

    The deep penetrating nevus (DPN), also known as the plexiform spindle cell nevus, is a pigmented lesion that commonly arises on the head and neck in the first few decades of life. Histopathologically, the DPN is wedge-shaped and contains melanocytes that exhibit deep infiltration into the dermis. Given these features, DPN may clinically and histopathologically mimic malignant melanoma, sparking confusion about the appropriate evaluation and management of these lesions. The goal of this review is to summarize the clinical and histopathological features of DPN and to discuss diagnostic and treatment strategies for dermatologists.

  7. Use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in nipple reconstruction: the 'central-pillar technique'.

    PubMed

    Bramhall, Russell J; Thiruchelvam, Paul T R; Concepcion, Mae; Gui, Gerald P

    2017-08-01

    Nipple reconstructions are prone to a variable and unpredictable degree of flattening, which in some cases lead to secondary reconstruction. The use of an acellular dermal matrix (ADM) augmentation may be appropriate in cases with very thin dermis that are particularly prone to flattening or in revision cases where the first procedure has already failed. The authors present a series of 13 nipple reconstructions in ten cases. Average projection at 12 months was 51% in primary cases and 46% in secondary revision cases. This represents a better than expected long term result in a difficult cohort of patients.

  8. Contactless diagnostics of biophysical parameters of skin and blood on the basis of approximating functions for radiation fluxes scattered by skin

    SciTech Connect

    Lisenko, S A; Kugeiko, M M

    2014-03-28

    Approximating expressions are derived to calculate spectral and spatial characteristics of diffuse reflection of light from a two-layer medium mimicking human skin. The effectiveness of the use of these expressions in the optical diagnosis of skin biophysical parameters (tissue scattering parameters, concentration of melanin in the epidermis, concentration of total haemoglobin and bilirubin in the tissues of the dermis) and content of haemoglobin derivatives in blood (oxy-, deoxy-, met-, carboxy- and sulfhaemoglobin) is analysed numerically. The methods are proposed to determine in realtime these parameters without contact of the measuring instrument with the patient's body. (biophotonics)

  9. Pseudo-Kaposi sarcoma (acroangiodermatitis): occurring after bullous erysipelas.

    PubMed

    Kutlubay, Zekayi; Yardimci, Gürkan; Engin, Burhan; Demirkesen, Cuyan; Aydin, Övgü; Khatib, Rashid; Tuzun, Yalçın

    2015-05-18

    Pseudo-Kaposi sarcoma is a benign reactive vascular proliferative disorder, which can be seen at any age. It occurs when the chronic venous pressure changes result in vascular proliferation in the upper and mid dermis. This disease is divided into two subtypes: the most frequent subtype is the Mali type and seen in early ages. The Mali type is seen in chronic venous insufficiency and in those patients with arteriovenous shunts. The rare subtype is the Stewart-Bluefarb type. This disease must be distinguished from Kaposi sarcoma because of their clinical resemblance. Herein, we present a patient with pseudo-Kaposi sarcoma, which developed after bullous erysipelas.

  10. Hypergammaglobulinaemic purpura associated with alcoholic liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Futei, Y; Chen, K R

    2009-12-01

    Hypergammaglobulinaemic purpura (HP) is commonly found in Sjögren's syndrome. We report a rare association of HP arising in a patient with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. A 65-year-old man presented with palpable purpura on the legs. Histological examination of a biopsy taken from the purpura found leucocytoclastic vasculitis in the superficial and mid-dermis. The activity of the vasculitic skin lesions correlated with liver dysfunction. Increased IgA and IgG levels, and hypocomplementaemia, may account for the pathogenesis of the hypergammaglobulinaemic immune complex-mediated vasculitis in this case.

  11. arNOX: generator of reactive oxygen species in the skin and sera of aging individuals subject to external modulation.

    PubMed

    Morré, Dorothy M; Meadows, Christiaan; Morré, D James

    2010-01-01

    An aging-related cell-surface oxidase (aging-related NADH oxidase, arNOX) generating superoxide and other reactive oxygen species is shed from the cell surface and is found in saliva, urine, perspiration, and interstitial fluids that surround the collagen and elastin matrix underlying dermis. arNOX activity correlates with age and reaches a maximum at about age 65 in males and 55 in females. arNOX activities are highly correlated with values of human skin where a causal relationship is indicated. Ongoing efforts focus on cloning arNOX proteins and development of antiaging formulas based on arNOX inhibition (intervention).

  12. Burn sepsis and burn toxin

    PubMed Central

    Allgöwer, Martin; Städtler, Karl; Schoenenberger, Guido A

    1974-01-01

    The salient steps of a 20-year programme of research into the nature of burn disease are described. By burn disease we mean the late mortality and morbidity following burns. We have isolated a burn toxin which is derived from a thermal polymerization of cell membrane lipoproteins within the dermis and have studied its influence on the effects of sepsis. We have also used it in the development of active and passive immunization therapy of severe burns. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:4429330

  13. Effect of sample preparation techniques on the concentrations and distributions of elements in biological tissues using µSRXRF: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Al-Ebraheem, A; Dao, E; Desouza, E; Li, C; Wainman, B C; McNeill, F E; Farquharson, M J

    2015-03-01

    Routine tissue sample preparation using chemical fixatives is known to preserve the morphology of the tissue being studied. A competitive method, cryofixation followed by freeze drying, involves no chemical agents and maintains the biological function of the tissue. The possible effects of both sample preparation techniques in terms of the distribution of bio-metals (calcium (Ca), copper (Cu) zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) specifically) in human skin tissue samples was investigated. Micro synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence (μSRXRF) was used to map bio-metal distribution in epidermal and dermal layers of human skin samples from various locations of the body that have been prepared using both techniques. For Ca, Cu and Zn, there were statistically significant differences between the epidermis and dermis using the freeze drying technique (p = 0.02, p < 0.01, and p < 0.01, respectively). Also using the formalin fixed, paraffin embedded technique the levels of Ca, Cu and Zn, were significantly different between the epidermis and dermis layers (p = 0.03, p < 0.01, and p < 0.01, respectively). However, the difference in levels of Fe between the epidermis and dermis was unclear and further analysis was required. The epidermis was further divided into two sub-layers, one mainly composed of the stratum corneum and the other deeper layer, the stratum basale. It was found that the difference between the distribution of Fe in the two epidermal layers using the freeze drying technique resulted in a statistically significant difference (p = 0.012). This same region also showed a difference in Fe using the formalin fixed, paraffin embedded technique (p < 0.01). The formalin fixed, paraffin embedded technique also showed a difference between the deeper epidermal layer and the dermis (p < 0.01). It can be concluded that studies involving Ca, Cu and Zn might show similar results using both sample preparation techniques, however studies involving Fe would need more

  14. Cherry Angiomas on the Scalp

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Park, Hwa-young; Ahn, Sung Ku

    2009-01-01

    Cherry angiomas are a common cutaneous vascular proliferation which manifests as single or multiple spots and occurs predominantly on the upper trunk and arms. They typically appear as round-to-oval, bright, red, dome-shaped papules and pinpoint macules measuring up to several millimeters in diameter. The histopathologic findings of a cherry angioma are consistent with a true capillary hemangioma, which is formed by numerous, newly developed capillaries with narrow lumens and prominent endothelial cells arranged in a lobular fashion in the papillary dermis. Herein, we report a case of multiple cherry angiomas on the scalp, an uncommon location for cherry angiomas. PMID:20652121

  15. Cherry Angiomas on the Scalp.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Park, Hwa-Young; Ahn, Sung Ku

    2009-11-11

    Cherry angiomas are a common cutaneous vascular proliferation which manifests as single or multiple spots and occurs predominantly on the upper trunk and arms. They typically appear as round-to-oval, bright, red, dome-shaped papules and pinpoint macules measuring up to several millimeters in diameter. The histopathologic findings of a cherry angioma are consistent with a true capillary hemangioma, which is formed by numerous, newly developed capillaries with narrow lumens and prominent endothelial cells arranged in a lobular fashion in the papillary dermis. Herein, we report a case of multiple cherry angiomas on the scalp, an uncommon location for cherry angiomas.

  16. Recent advances in dengue pathogenesis and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Cameron P; McPherson, Kirsty; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Hoai Tam, D T; Young, Paul; Mackenzie, Jason; Wills, Bridget

    2015-12-10

    This review describes and commentates on recent advances in the understanding of dengue pathogenesis and immunity, plus clinical research on vaccines and therapeutics. We expand specifically on the role of the dermis in dengue virus infection, the contribution of cellular and humoral immune responses to pathogenesis and immunity, NS1 and mechanisms of virus immune evasion. Additionally we review a series of therapeutic intervention trials for dengue, as well as recent clinical research aimed at improving clinical diagnosis, risk prediction and disease classification. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. [Normolipemic plane xanthomas and mycosis fungoides].

    PubMed

    García-Arpa, Mónica; Rodríguez-Vázquez, María; Vera, Elena; Romero, Guillermo; González-García, Jesús; Cortina, Pilar

    2005-06-01

    Diffuse normolipemic plane xanthomas are characterized by the presence of yellowish plaques on the eyelids, neck, upper trunk, buttocks and flexures. Histology shows foamy histiocytes in the dermis. Approximately half of all cases are associated with hematological disorders. On rare occasions, they have been described in the context of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. We present the case of a female patient with tumor-stage mycosis fungoides who developed normolipemic plane xanthomas coinciding with the appearance of new lymphoma lesions. We review English-language literature regarding the rare association of xanthomas and cutaneous T-cell lymphomas.

  18. Dosimetry for lasers and light in dermatology: Monte Carlo simulations of 577 nm-pulsed laser penetration into cutaneous vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, Steven L.; Keijzer, Marleen

    1991-06-01

    The role of skin optics in planning proper dosimetry for radiant energy delivered by lasers and conventional light sources is presented. The optical properties of the epidermis, dermis, and cutaneous blood are summarized. The ability of laser pulses at 577-nm wavelength to penetrate into and around a large blood vessel is studied using Monte Carlo simulations. The variation in laser penetration for variable beam diameters and variable vessel depths in presented. The distinction between TOTAL PULSE ENERGY versus PULSE ENERGY DENSITY is illustrated. The topic of this paper is especially pertinent to laser therapy for portwine stain lesions.

  19. [Deep sweet syndrome as a cause or fever of unknown origin. A case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Mancheno-Valencia, Alexandra; Káram-Orantes, Marcia; Arrazola-Guerrero, Jisel; Hajar-Serviansky, Tamar; Ochoa-Sánchez, Patricia; Rosas-Manzano, Adriana; Sánchez-Armendáriz, Karen; Zepeda-López, Priscilla; Vega-Memije, María Elisa; Toussaint-Caire, Sonia; Rodríguez-Carreón, Alma Angélica

    2011-01-01

    Sweet syndrome is the prototype of neutrophilic dermatosis, which typically presents an intense inflammatory infiltrate of neutrophils in the epidermis and/or dermis, apparently due to a hypersensitivity reaction. This is a case of a 31 year-old woman with fever of more than three weeks duration and erythematous nudosities on her arms and legs. The histological study of a skin lesion showed a lobular inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes and neutrophils, with excellent response to prednisone. Therefore, it was concluded as subcutaneous sweet syndrome.

  20. Simultaneous Larva Migrans and Larva Currens Caused by Strongyloides stercoralis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Corte, Liliam Dalla; da Silva, Mariana Vale Scribel; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins

    2013-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is an infectious disease caused by the Strongyloides stercoralis larvae, which penetrate the skin, go through the lymphatic circulation, and migrate to the lungs before reaching the intestines. They mature and may cause cutaneous strongyloidiasis, known as larva currens because of the quick migratory rate of the larva. The authors describe a case in which the larvae did not follow their natural lymph route, and after penetrating into the intertriginous area, they migrated to the dermis, developing larva migrans in the early phase, and later associated with the typical lesions of larva currens. The diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of larva in the skin biopsy. PMID:23476820