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Sample records for dermis acelular porcina

  1. Development of a terminally sterilised decellularised dermis.

    PubMed

    Hogg, P; Rooney, P; Leow-Dyke, S; Brown, C; Ingham, E; Kearney, J N

    2015-09-01

    Many of the decellularised dermis products on the market at present are aspectically produced. NHS Blood and Transplant Tissue Services have developed a method of producing a dCELL human dermis which has been terminally sterilised by gamma irradiation. The terminally sterilised decellularised dermis was compared with cellular tissue and examined for histology, residual DNA content, biomechanical and biochemical properties, in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo implantation in a mouse model. No alterations in morphology as viewed by light microscopy were observed and DNA removal was 99%. There were no significant changes in ultimate tensile stress or evidence for collagen denaturation or cytotoxicity. The in vivo studies did not indicate any adverse tissue reactions in the mouse model and demonstrated incorporation of dCELL human dermis into the host. Decellularisation, followed by terminal sterilisation with gamma irradiation, is an appropriate method to produce a human dermis allograft material suitable for transplantation. PMID:25341645

  2. Autogenous dermis-fat "baseball" orbital implant.

    PubMed

    Bullock, J D

    1987-01-01

    A new procedure has been devised for the construction of an autogenous dermis-fat orbital implant, in which two figure-eight-shaped dermis-fat grafts are sutured together into a baseball shape. Correct implant size can be determined by preplacement of different-sized Mule spheres and testing for accurate fit. The "baseball" implant eliminates deep orbital fat which is distant from a vascular supply, and because it is covered with dermis, it maximizes graft vascularization, thus promoting survival of the implanted tissues. In eight patients, followed postoperatively for as long as 28 months, baseball implants have produced highly satisfactory results.

  3. Conductivities of epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue at intermediate frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wake, K.; Sasaki, K.; Watanabe, S.

    2016-06-01

    Novel data for the conductivities of the tissues composing the skin, which are the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue, were obtained at intermediate frequencies by in vitro measurement. The conductivity of the epidermis was determined from those of the dermis and bulk skin. The conductivities of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue were almost constant from 10 kHz to 1 MHz. On the other hand, a frequency dependence was observed for the epidermis; the conductivity decreases with decreasing frequency. It was found that the conductivity of bulk skin is not determined by that of the dermis but by that of the epidermis. The presented data are expected to contribute to the assessment of safety and to the research and development of medical applications.

  4. Fitting of the dermis-fat grafted socket.

    PubMed

    Przybyla, V A; La Piana, F G; Bergin, D J

    1981-09-01

    Anophthalmic orbits that reject conventional implants may accept the dermis-fat graft. The subsequent fitting of such a socket differs in many important ways from the fitting of sockets containing conventional implants. Before surgery, the ocularist should construct a custom-made scleral ring to be inserted after the operation. This replaces the standard conformer that can erode the underlying dermis. The socket must be observed carefully for any evidence of damage to the conjunctiva-dermis suture line by the ring, and the latter modified or replaced as necessary. Granulation tissue forming around the sutures uniting conjunctiva and dermis may have to be resected and cauterized. Impression molding of an artificial eye is performed five weeks after surgery. The artificial eye always requires modifications over the first six months as the graft recedes due to partial atrophy of the fat of the graft, thus deepening the socket. PMID:7029387

  5. Recellularized human dermis for testing gene electrotransfer ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Bulysheva, Anna A; Burcus, Nina; Lundberg, Cathryn; Edelblute, Chelsea M; Francis, Michael P; Heller, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Gene electrotransfer (GET) is a proven and valuable tool for in vivo gene delivery to a variety of tissues such as skin, cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, and tumors, with controllable gene delivery and expression levels. Optimizing gene expression is a challenging hurdle in preclinical studies, particularly for skin indications, due to differences in electrical conductivity of animal compared to human dermis. Therefore, the goal of this study was to develop an ex vivo model for GET using recellularized human dermis to more closely mimic human skin. Decellularized human dermis (DermACELL(®)) was cultured with human dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes for 4 weeks. After one week of fibroblast culture, fibroblasts infiltrated and dispersed throughout the dermis. Air-liquid interface culture led to epithelial cell proliferation, stratification and terminal differentiation with distinct basal, spinous, granular and cornified strata. Firefly luciferase expression kinetics were evaluated after GET of recellularized constructs for testing gene delivery parameters to skin in vitro. Elevated luciferase expression persisted up to a week following GET compared to controls without electrotransfer. In summary, recellularized dermis structurally and functionally resembled native human skin in tissue histological organization and homeostasis, proving an effective 3D human skin model for preclinical gene delivery studies. PMID:27121769

  6. Facial dermis grafts after removal of basal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung-Kyu; Yoon, Won-Young; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2012-11-01

    Selecting a proper reconstruction method is the key to success in skin cancer management, especially for lesions involving the face. Using a skin graft is usually straightforward when covering a skin defect; however, major concerns in skin grafting include a poor color match in the recipient-site and donor-site morbidity. To overcome these limitations, the authors have developed a dermis graft, which utilizes a de-epithelialized split-thickness skin graft method. The purpose of this retrospective study was to report reliability of dermis grafts after removal of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) on the face by presenting our clinical experience with them. This study included 38 patients who were treated for facial defects created by resection of BCCs. The locations of the defects were as follows: nose (n = 17), orbital area (n = 14), cheek (n = 4), temple area (n = 2), and forehead (n = 1). The defects ranged in size from 3.3 to 6.5 cm. Functional and cosmetic outcomes, postoperative complications, and patient satisfaction were assessed. The patients were followed up for 12 to 36 months. The entire dermis graft re-epithelialized after grafting within 17 to 27 days. Most of the patients had satisfactory results in both functional and cosmetic matters with high-quality skin characteristics. There were no significant complications and no recurrences were observed during the follow-up period. Patient satisfaction with the dermis graft was also excellent. The dermis graft may be used reliably for covering defects after removal of BCCs on the face. PMID:23172436

  7. Effect of fibroblast-seeded artificial dermis on wound healing.

    PubMed

    Jang, Joon Chul; Choi, Rak-Jun; Han, Seung-Kyu; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2015-04-01

    In covering wounds, efforts should include use of the safest and least invasive methods with a goal of achieving optimal functional and cosmetic outcome. The recent development of advanced technology in wound healing has triggered the use of cells and/or biological dermis to improve wound healing conditions. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of fibroblast-seeded artificial dermis on wound healing efficacy.Ten nude mice were used in this study. Four full-thickness 6-mm punch wounds were created on the dorsal surface of each mouse (total, 40 wounds). The wounds were randomly assigned to one of the following 4 treatments: topical application of Dulbecco phosphate-buffered saline (control), human fibroblasts (FB), artificial dermis (AD), and human fibroblast-seeded artificial dermis (AD with FB). On the 14th day after treatment, wound healing rate and wound contraction, which are the 2 main factors determining wound healing efficacy, were evaluated using a stereoimage optical topometer system, histomorphological analysis, and immunohistochemistry.The results of the stereoimage optical topometer system demonstrated that the FB group did not have significant influence on wound healing rate and wound contraction. The AD group showed reduced wound contraction, but wound healing was delayed. The AD with FB group showed decreased wound contraction without significantly delayed wound healing. Histomorphological analysis exhibited that more normal skin structure was regenerated in the AD with FB group. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the AD group and the AD with FB group produced less α-smooth muscle actin than the control group, but this was not shown in the FB group.Fibroblast-seeded artificial dermis may minimize wound contraction without significantly delaying wound healing in the treatment of skin and soft tissue defects.

  8. Collagen fibril aggregation-inhibitor from sea cucumber dermis.

    PubMed

    Trotter, J A; Lyons-Levy, G; Chino, K; Koob, T J; Keene, D R; Atkinson, M A

    1999-12-01

    Collagen fibrils from the dermis of the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa are aggregated in vitro by the dermal glycoprotein stiparin (Trotter et al., 1996). Under physiological ionic conditions stiparin appears to be both necessary and sufficient to cause fibrils to aggregate (Trotter et al., 1997). We report here the initial biochemical and biophysical characterization of a sulfated glycoprotein from C. frondosa dermis that binds stiparin and inhibits its fibril-aggregating activity. This inhibitory glycoprotein, which has been named 'stiparin-inhibitor,' has the highest negative charge density of all the macromolecules extracted from the dermis. SDS-PAGE reveals three approximately 31-kDa bands that stain with alcian blue but not with Coomassie blue. Analytical ultracentrifugation indicates a native molecular weight of 62 kDa. Transmission electron microscopy of rotary-shadowed molecules shows curved rods about 22 nm long. The glycoprotein does not bind collagen fibrils, but does bind stiparin with a 1:1 stoichiometry. The binding of stiparin-inhibitor to stiparin prevents the binding of stiparin to collagen fibrils. The carbohydrate moiety produced by papain-digestion of the glycoprotein retains all of its inhibitory activity. The carbohydrate moiety of the inhibitor is dominated by galactose and sulfate.

  9. Human Dermis Harbors Distinct Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Subsets

    PubMed Central

    Vaculik, Christine; Schuster, Christopher; Bauer, Wolfgang; Iram, Nousheen; Pfisterer, Karin; Kramer, Gero; Reinisch, Andreas; Strunk, Dirk; Elbe-Bürger, Adelheid

    2012-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are found in a variety of adult tissues including human dermis. These MSCs are morphologically similar to bone marrow–derived MSCs, but are of unclear phenotype. To shed light on the characteristics of human dermal MSCs, this study was designed to identify and isolate dermal MSCs by a specific marker expression profile, and subsequently rate their mesenchymal differentiation potential. Immunohistochemical staining showed that MSC markers CD73/CD90/CD105, as well as CD271 and SSEA-4, are expressed on dermal cells in situ. Flow cytometric analysis revealed a phenotype similar to bone marrow–derived MSCs. Human dermal cells isolated by plastic adherence had a lower differentiation capacity as compared with bone marrow–derived MSCs. To distinguish dermal MSCs from differentiated fibroblasts, we immunoselected CD271+ and SSEA-4+ cells from adherent dermal cells and investigated their mesenchymal differentiation capacity. This revealed that cells with increased adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic potential were enriched in the dermal CD271+ population. The differentiation potential of dermal SSEA-4+ cells, in contrast, appeared to be limited to adipogenesis. These results indicate that specific cell populations with variable mesenchymal differentiation potential can be isolated from human dermis. Moreover, we identified three different subsets of dermal mesenchymal progenitor cells. PMID:22048731

  10. Human dermis harbors distinct mesenchymal stromal cell subsets.

    PubMed

    Vaculik, Christine; Schuster, Christopher; Bauer, Wolfgang; Iram, Nousheen; Pfisterer, Karin; Kramer, Gero; Reinisch, Andreas; Strunk, Dirk; Elbe-Bürger, Adelheid

    2012-03-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are found in a variety of adult tissues including human dermis. These MSCs are morphologically similar to bone marrow-derived MSCs, but are of unclear phenotype. To shed light on the characteristics of human dermal MSCs, this study was designed to identify and isolate dermal MSCs by a specific marker expression profile, and subsequently rate their mesenchymal differentiation potential. Immunohistochemical staining showed that MSC markers CD73/CD90/CD105, as well as CD271 and SSEA-4, are expressed on dermal cells in situ. Flow cytometric analysis revealed a phenotype similar to bone marrow-derived MSCs. Human dermal cells isolated by plastic adherence had a lower differentiation capacity as compared with bone marrow-derived MSCs. To distinguish dermal MSCs from differentiated fibroblasts, we immunoselected CD271(+) and SSEA-4(+) cells from adherent dermal cells and investigated their mesenchymal differentiation capacity. This revealed that cells with increased adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic potential were enriched in the dermal CD271(+) population. The differentiation potential of dermal SSEA-4(+) cells, in contrast, appeared to be limited to adipogenesis. These results indicate that specific cell populations with variable mesenchymal differentiation potential can be isolated from human dermis. Moreover, we identified three different subsets of dermal mesenchymal progenitor cells.

  11. Development of an artificial dermis composed of hyaluronic acid and collagen.

    PubMed

    Mineo, Akina; Suzuki, Ryusuke; Kuroyanagi, Yoshimitsu

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of an artificial dermis composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) and collagen (Col) with or without epidermal growth factor (EGF), both in in vitro and in vivo. The cross-linked high molecular weight HA spongy sheet was prepared by freeze-drying. The spongy sheet was immersed in a mixed solution of high molecular weight HA, low molecular weight HA, and heat-denatured Col, and then lyophilized to obtain a two-layered spongy sheet. Cross-linking among Col molecules was induced by ultraviolet irradiation to prepare the artificial dermis (Type I). In a similar manner, a two-layered artificial dermis containing EGF (Type II) was prepared using a similar mixed solution containing EGF. The in vitro experiments demonstrated that EGF released from the Type II artificial dermis stimulates fibroblasts to produce increased amounts of vascular endothelial growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor. The therapeutic efficacy of artificial dermis was evaluated in animal tests using Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The dorsal skin of the SD rat was shaved and then exposed to boiling water for 3 s to induce a deep dermal burn. The necrotic tissue was then excised 3 days later. Each artificial dermis was applied to the skin defect for 7 days and assessed for its ability to generate a wound bed. The in vivo experiments demonstrated that the Type II artificial dermis promotes angiogenesis to a greater extent at an early stage (within 3 days), and also suppresses the inflammatory reaction more successfully compared with the Type I artificial dermis. In further animal tests, an autologous skin graft was performed by excising a piece of skin from the abdominal region and then grafting it onto the wound bed prepared using each artificial dermis for 7 days. Although the Type II artificial dermis had the highest potential to promote angiogenesis, in this animal study, each artificial dermis induced excellent wound bed formation acceptable for autologous skin

  12. Pesticide Uptake Across the Amphibian Dermis Through Soil and Overspray Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    For terrestrial amphibians, accumulation ofpesticides through dermal contact is a primary route ofexposure in agricultural landscapes and may be contributingto widespread amphibian declines. To show pesticidetransfer across the amphibian dermis at permitted labelapplication rates...

  13. Artificial dermis for major burns. A multi-center randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed Central

    Heimbach, D; Luterman, A; Burke, J; Cram, A; Herndon, D; Hunt, J; Jordan, M; McManus, W; Solem, L; Warden, G

    1988-01-01

    This communication presents an 11-center prospective randomized trial using the artificial dermis invented by Burke and Yannas. Patients with life-threatening burns who underwent primary excision and grafting within 7 days of injury had comparable sites randomized to receive either the artificial dermis (study site) or the investigator's usual skin grafting material (control site). Control materials were autograft, allograft, xenograft, or a synthetic dressing. Epidermal grafts were applied to the study site during a second operation, and surviving patients were followed for 1 year after grafting. One hundred thirty-nine sites on 106 patients were studied. Mean burn size was 46.5 +/- 15% mean total body surface (TBSA). Overall mortality was 13%, and mean hospital stay was 68 +/- 45 days. Median artificial dermis take was 80% compared with 95% for all comparative sites, but the take was equivalent to that of all nonautograft control materials. Results with the artificial dermis improved slightly as the investigators became more familiar with the material. Donor site thickness for the study site averaged .006'' +/- .002'' compared to .013'' +/- .018'' for control (p less than .0001) and the epidermal donor site healed an average of 4 days sooner (10 +/- 6 vs. 14 +/- 8 days) (p less than .0001). As the wounds matured during the first year, both patients and surgeons felt that both sites became more comparable in appearance and function. At the completion of the study, there was less hypertrophic scarring of the artificial dermis, and more patients preferred the artificial dermis to the control graft. Artificial dermis with an epidermal graft provides a permanent cover that is at least as satisfactory as currently available skin grafting techniques, and uses donor grafts that are thinner and donor sites that heal faster. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:3048216

  14. Toward reliable retrieval of functional information of papillary dermis using spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Guo, Jun-Yen; Tzeng, Shih-Yu; Chou, Ting-Chun; Lin, Ming-Jen; Huang, Lynn Ling-Huei; Yang, Chao-Chun; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Tseng, Sheng-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (SRDRS) has been employed to quantify tissue optical properties and its interrogation volume is majorly controlled by the source-to-detector separations (SDSs). To noninvasively quantify properties of dermis, a SRDRS setup that includes SDS shorter than 1 mm is required. It will be demonstrated in this study that Monte Carlo simulations employing the Henyey-Greenstein phase function cannot always precisely predict experimentally measured diffuse reflectance at such short SDSs, and we speculated this could be caused by the non-negligible backward light scattering at short SDSs that cannot be properly modeled by the Henyey-Greenstein phase function. To accurately recover the optical properties and functional information of dermis using SRDRS, we proposed the use of the modified two-layer (MTL) geometry. Monte Carlo simulations and phantom experiment results revealed that the MTL probing geometry was capable of faithfully recovering the optical properties of upper dermis. The capability of the MTL geometry in probing the upper dermis properties was further verified through a swine study, and it was found that the measurement results were reasonably linked to histological findings. Finally, the MTL probe was utilized to study psoriatic lesions. Our results showed that the MTL probe was sensitive to the physiological condition of tissue volumes within the papillary dermis and could be used in studying the physiology of psoriasis. PMID:26977361

  15. Glycerolized Reticular Dermis as a New Human Acellular Dermal Matrix: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Pietro Maria; Balmativola, Davide; Cambieri, Irene; Scalzo, Maria Stella; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Annaratone, Laura; Casarin, Stefania; Fumagalli, Mara; Stella, Maurizio; Sapino, Anna; Castagnoli, Carlotta

    2016-01-01

    Human Acellular Dermal Matrices (HADM) are employed in various reconstructive surgery procedures as scaffolds for autologous tissue regeneration. The aim of this project was to develop a new type of HADM for clinical use, composed of glycerolized reticular dermis decellularized through incubation and tilting in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM). This manufacturing method was compared with a decellularization procedure already described in the literature, based on the use of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), on samples from 28 donors. Cell viability was assessed using an MTT assay and microbiological monitoring was performed on all samples processed after each step. Two surgeons evaluated the biomechanical characteristics of grafts of increasing thickness. The effects of the different decellularization protocols were assessed by means of histological examination and immunohistochemistry, and residual DNA after decellularization was quantified using a real-time TaqMan MGB probe. Finally, we compared the results of DMEM based decellularization protocol on reticular dermis derived samples with the results of the same protocol applied on papillary dermis derived grafts. Our experimental results indicated that the use of glycerolized reticular dermis after 5 weeks of treatment with DMEM results in an HADM with good handling and biocompatibility properties. PMID:26918526

  16. Glycerolized Reticular Dermis as a New Human Acellular Dermal Matrix: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, Pietro Maria; Balmativola, Davide; Cambieri, Irene; Scalzo, Maria Stella; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Annaratone, Laura; Casarin, Stefania; Fumagalli, Mara; Stella, Maurizio; Sapino, Anna; Castagnoli, Carlotta

    2016-01-01

    Human Acellular Dermal Matrices (HADM) are employed in various reconstructive surgery procedures as scaffolds for autologous tissue regeneration. The aim of this project was to develop a new type of HADM for clinical use, composed of glycerolized reticular dermis decellularized through incubation and tilting in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM). This manufacturing method was compared with a decellularization procedure already described in the literature, based on the use of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), on samples from 28 donors. Cell viability was assessed using an MTT assay and microbiological monitoring was performed on all samples processed after each step. Two surgeons evaluated the biomechanical characteristics of grafts of increasing thickness. The effects of the different decellularization protocols were assessed by means of histological examination and immunohistochemistry, and residual DNA after decellularization was quantified using a real-time TaqMan MGB probe. Finally, we compared the results of DMEM based decellularization protocol on reticular dermis derived samples with the results of the same protocol applied on papillary dermis derived grafts. Our experimental results indicated that the use of glycerolized reticular dermis after 5 weeks of treatment with DMEM results in an HADM with good handling and biocompatibility properties. PMID:26918526

  17. Reconstruction of Chopart's Amputation Stump Using Artificial Dermis Combined with Free Anterolateral Thigh Flap.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Mari; Matsumine, Hajime; Takeuchi, Masaki

    2015-11-01

    A 63-year-old man dropped a metal chunk onto his left foot during his work and suffered a crush injury of the left forefoot. He underwent Chopart's amputation followed by stump coverage with sole skin at the orthopedic department on the same day. He was referred to our department for reconstruction because of poor vascularization and subsequent necrosis of tissue at the stump. After the necrotic tissue was debrided, exposure of the talus bone was noted. An artificial dermis was then applied to the stump wound, followed by local negative pressure wound therapy. After 3 weeks, the generation of a strong dermis-like tissue was observed at the site of artificial dermis grafting. We then performed flow-through free anterolateral thigh flap grafting to reconstruct the stump wound. This procedure involved suturing of the peroneal muscle group and tibialis anterior muscle, which were cut off during Chopart's amputation, and suturing the soft tissue surrounding the calcaneus firmly to the fascia lata of the anterolateral thigh flap, followed by suturing of the flap to the skin defect of the left foot. There were neither postoperative complications, such as skin ulcer and equinus/varus deformity, nor need for secondary repair of the grafted flap, so the patient was able to smoothly enter a rehabilitation program including gait training. The current reconstruction technique for the tissue defect following Chopart's amputation, consisting of artificial dermis grafting, negative pressure wound therapy, and flow-through free anterolateral thigh flap grafting, enabled safe and smooth gait rehabilitation with a forefoot prosthesis. PMID:26893983

  18. Reconstruction of a Recurrent First Dorsal Web Space Defect using Acellular Dermis

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Donald W.; Kloeters, Oliver; Eo, SuRak; Jones, Neil F.

    2007-01-01

    Oncologic defects of the hand can be problematic for the reconstructive surgeon. These defects may require a delay in definitive coverage until clear margins of resection can be obtained, which can result in a prolonged period of painful dressing changes and increased risk of soft-tissue infection. In addition, reconstructive options for oncologic defects are often limited to skin grafting, which can yield functional deficits secondary to contracted healing. Currently, there is no definitive method for preventing skin graft contracture; however, acellular dermis has been proposed as a biomechanical scaffold to enhance subsequent skin graft healing and slow this functionally debilitating process. Here, we present a patient with recurrent melanoma of the first dorsal web space. After re-resection of the melanoma, the 11 cm × 5 cm defect was reconstructed using acellular dermis as temporary coverage to allow ample time for permanent section results. Ten days later, after confirming negative margins of resection, a split-thickness skin graft (STSG) was applied over the vascularized neo-dermis. Follow-up clinical examination and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaires were used to assess outcome. At 7 months, the patient had no recurrence of melanoma and a DASH functional reduction of only 6.9%. After approximately 18 months, the patient’s wounds had healed with excellent cosmetic and functional results, without any evidence of a web space contracture. These observations suggest that acellular dermis is a useful adjunct for wound coverage of the hand, particularly in areas of functional importance, such as the first dorsal web space. PMID:18780060

  19. A case of giant naevus followed up for 22 years after treatment with artificial dermis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shigehiko; Morimoto, Naoki; Yamawaki, Satoko; Fujitaka, Junpei; Kawai, Katsuya

    2013-08-01

    We present an ultra-long followed-up case in which an artificial dermis was used for the treatment of a giant naevus. A 5-year-old boy had a giant naevus on his lower back and both buttocks. The light black pigmentation extended to the lower abdomen and both upper thighs. The lesions on the lower back and both buttocks were treated using the artificial dermis Pelnac in three operative series every 2 years. After removal of the lesion, Pelnac was placed onto the skin defect. Three weeks postoperatively, the silicone film was peeled off and a thin split-thickness skin graft (STSG) taken from the upper-middle back was placed on the regenerated dermis-like connective tissue. Thin STSGs were harvested from the same upper back area repeatedly. The lesions on both posteromedial upper thighs and the lower abdomen were treated in three operative series using tissue expanders. Finally, tissue expanders were inserted subcutaneously in both buttocks where Pelnac had been used 5 years or 7 years before. The lesions around the anus were reconstructed using the expanded skin and local skin flaps. Twenty-two years after the first operation, both grafted and donor sites keep good condition not only cosmetically but also functionally.

  20. Cellular response in the dermis of common wombats (Vombatus ursinus) infected with Sarcoptes scabiei var. wombati.

    PubMed

    Skerratt, Lee F

    2003-01-01

    The cellular response in the dermis of common wombats (Vombatus ursinus) with sarcoptic mange exhibited some typical aspects of an immune response to Sarcoptes scabiei. There was an induction phase for wombats experimentally infected with S. scabiei represented by absence of a dermal inflammatory infiltrate for at least 12 days after infection. T lymphocytes, plasma cells, mast cells, and neutrophils then entered the dermis, consistent with a type IV (delayed) hypersensitivity response. In free-living wombats with severe parakeratotic sarcoptic mange eosinophils were also present in the dermis suggesting that a type I (immediate) hypersensitivity response may develop after a type IV hypersensitivity response. Absence of plasma cells and B lymphocytes in free-living wombats with severe parakeratotic sarcoptic mange compared with their presence in wombats experimentally infected with S. scabiei suggested that some immune tolerance may develop with severe infections. A large proportion of cells in the dermal response were not identified but were possibly cells of connective tissue. The thickness of the epidermis increased within 4 days in response to S. scabiei infection. Some antibodies raised against human leucocyte antigens CD3, CD5, HLA-DP, DQ, DR, and CD79b cross-reacted with leucocyte antigens of common wombats and were used to identify cell types in inflammatory infiltrates using immunohistochemistry. PMID:12685083

  1. Treatment of postoperative lower extremity wounds using human fibroblast-derived dermis: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Russell M; Smith, Nicholas C; Dux, Katherine; Stuck, Rodney M

    2014-04-01

    Human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute is a well-studied treatment for diabetic foot ulcers; however, no case series currently exist for its use in healing postoperative wounds of the lower extremity. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 32 lower extremity postoperative wounds treated weekly with human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute. Postoperative wounds were defined as a wound resulting from an open partial foot amputation, surgical wound dehiscence, or nonhealing surgical wound of the lower extremity. Wound surface area was calculated at 4 and 12 weeks or until wound closure if prior to 12 weeks. Postoperative wounds treated with weekly applications showed mean improvement in surface area reduction of 63.6% at 4 weeks and 96.1% at 12 weeks. More than 56% of all wounds healed prior to the 12-week endpoint. Additionally, only one adverse event was noted in this group. This retrospective review supports the use of human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute in the treatment of postoperative lower extremity wounds. This advanced wound care therapy aids in decreased total healing time and increased rate of healing for not only diabetic foot wounds but also postoperative wounds of the lower extremity, as demonstrated by this retrospective review.

  2. Cellular response in the dermis of common wombats (Vombatus ursinus) infected with Sarcoptes scabiei var. wombati.

    PubMed

    Skerratt, Lee F

    2003-01-01

    The cellular response in the dermis of common wombats (Vombatus ursinus) with sarcoptic mange exhibited some typical aspects of an immune response to Sarcoptes scabiei. There was an induction phase for wombats experimentally infected with S. scabiei represented by absence of a dermal inflammatory infiltrate for at least 12 days after infection. T lymphocytes, plasma cells, mast cells, and neutrophils then entered the dermis, consistent with a type IV (delayed) hypersensitivity response. In free-living wombats with severe parakeratotic sarcoptic mange eosinophils were also present in the dermis suggesting that a type I (immediate) hypersensitivity response may develop after a type IV hypersensitivity response. Absence of plasma cells and B lymphocytes in free-living wombats with severe parakeratotic sarcoptic mange compared with their presence in wombats experimentally infected with S. scabiei suggested that some immune tolerance may develop with severe infections. A large proportion of cells in the dermal response were not identified but were possibly cells of connective tissue. The thickness of the epidermis increased within 4 days in response to S. scabiei infection. Some antibodies raised against human leucocyte antigens CD3, CD5, HLA-DP, DQ, DR, and CD79b cross-reacted with leucocyte antigens of common wombats and were used to identify cell types in inflammatory infiltrates using immunohistochemistry.

  3. Evaluation of a sunscreen photoprotective effect by ascorbic acid assessment in human dermis using microdialysis and gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lévêque, Nathalie; Mac-Mary, Sophie; Muret, Patrice; Makki, Safwat; Aubin, Francois; Kantelip, Jean-Pierre; Heusèle, Catherine; S, Schnebert; Humbert, Philippe

    2005-03-01

    Ultraviolet irradiation causes adverse effects like sunburn, photosensitivity reactions or immunologic suppression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the photo-protective outcome of a sunscreen cream (SPF8) by the determination of erythema indexes and the assessment of ascorbic acid and its metabolites in human dermis. These substances were used as markers of oxidative effect. Eight healthy female subjects were enrolled in this study. Two abdominal areas were exposed to solar simulated irradiation with three minimal erythema dose, one with SPF8 application and the other site without SPF8 application. Two other areas were used as control, one without SPF8 application and the other site after SPF8 application. Ascorbic acid and its metabolites (dehydroascorbic acid, threonic acid, oxalic acid and xylose) were collected from human dermis by microdialysis and assessed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Irradiated site without sunscreen application had significantly demonstrated lower dermis ascorbic acid concentrations and a higher erythema index than the three other sites (P < 0.05). Threonic acid, oxalic acid and xylose dermis concentrations were significantly higher in site III than in the control site I (P < 0.05). The protected-irradiated site did not show erythema formation and there was stability of ascorbic acid dermis concentrations with non-variation in its metabolites. The assessment of ascorbic acid and its metabolites in human dermis could be an efficient tool to demonstrate the oxidative process and consequently to control the efficiency of sunscreen creams against undesirable UV effects. PMID:15740589

  4. Influence of the Dermis Thickness on the Results of the Skin Treatment with Monopolar and Bipolar Radiofrequency Currents

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Electrically layered tissue structure significantly modifies distribution of radiofrequency (RF) current in the dermis and in the subcutaneous adipose tissue comparing to that in a homogeneous medium. On the basis of the simple model of RF current distribution in a two-layer skin containing dermis and subcutis, we assess the influence of the dermal thickness on the current density in different skin layers. Under other equal conditions, current density in the dermis is higher for the skin having thinner dermis. This contradicts the main paradigm of the RF theory stating that treatment results are mainly dependent on the maximal temperature reached in a target tissue, since the best short- and long-term clinical results of RF application to the skin were reported in the areas having thicker dermis. To resolve this contradiction, it is proposed that the long-term effect of RF can be realized through a structural modification of the subcutaneous fat depot adjacent to the treated skin area. Stimulation of these cells located near the interface dermis/subcutis will demand the concentration of applied RF energy in this area and will require the optimal arrangement of RF electrodes on the skin surface. PMID:27493952

  5. Adipose tissue regeneration in vivo using micronized acellular allogenic dermis as an injectable scaffold.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Young; Yang, Hyun Jin; Rhie, Jong Won; Han, Ki Talk

    2014-10-01

    Over the past few years, the clinical use of injectable artificial materials in plastic surgery has increased. In addition, autologous lipoimplantation is being performed for volume replacement of soft tissue for aesthetic purposes. In this study, acellular allogenic dermis was utilized as a scaffold for the culturing of preadipocytes, confirming the possibility of three-dimensional proliferation of progenitor cells, the eventual differentiation of stromal cells in adipose tissue into the adipocytes, and the in vivo implantation of such adipocytes to form fat tissue. Preadipocytes, recently called ASCs (adipose tissue-derived stromal/stem cells), were cultured in acellular allogenic dermis, successfully attached to the dermal particles in a three-dimensional structure, and proliferated, differentiated, and eventually formed a cluster. For the in vivo implantation, four groups were formed: the first group was cultured within the dermal scaffold for 24 h before implantation (24-h preconditioned group), the second group was induced for differentiation for 10 days before implantation (10-day preconditioned group), the third group was implanted immediately after cell propagation (nonpreconditioned group), and the control group was implanted with only dermal scaffold. In vivo implanted preadipocytes showed great differentiation into adipocytes within the dermal scaffolds. Also, the 10-day preconditioned group showed a greater volume of fat tissue compared to the 24-h preconditioned group. From these results, we confirmed that after a three-dimensional culture in acellular allogenic dermis, implanted preadipocytes formed a greater amount of fat tissue and that this could be a possible effective method for future soft tissue restoration.

  6. Discrimination of collagen in normal and pathological dermis through polarization second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ping-Jung; Chen, Wei-Liang; Hong, Jin-Bon; Li, Tsung-Hsien; Wu, Ruei-Jr; Chou, Chen-Kuan; Lin, Sung-Jan; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2010-02-01

    We used polarization-resolved, second harmonic generation (P-SHG) microscopy at single pixel resolution for medical diagnosis of pathological skin dermis, and found that P-SHG can be used to distinguish normal and dermal pathological conditions of keloid, morphea, and dermal elastolysis. We find that the histograms of the d33/d31 ratio for the pathological skins to contain two peak values and to be wider than that of the normal case, suggesting that the pathological dermal collagen fibers tend to be more structurally heterogeneous. Our work demonstrates that pixel-resolved, second-order susceptibility microscopy is effective for detecting heterogeneity in spatial distribution of collagen fibers.

  7. Prevention of ultraviolet damage to the dermis of hairless mice by sunscreens

    SciTech Connect

    Kligman, L.H.; Akin, F.J.; Kligman, A.M.

    1982-02-01

    To assess the ability of sunscreens to protect connective tissue from actinic damage, hairless mice were irradiated with Westinghouse FS20 sunlamps thrice weekly for 30 weeks. Each exposure, consisting mainly of UV-B and the less energetic UV-A, was approximately 6 human minimal erythema doses under these lights. One group of animals received irradiation only. The other 2 groups were treated, prior to irradiation, with sunscreens of either low or high sun protection factors (SPF 2 and SPF 15, respectively). Skin biopsies were taken at 10-week intervals and were stained with various histochemical stains to reveal changes in the dermis. The unprotected, irradiated animals showed a great increase in the following: reticulin fibers, elastic fibers to the extent of elastosis, neutral and acid mucopolysaccharides and melanin production. The SPF 15 sunscreen completely prevented these changes. The SPF 2 sunscreen was less effective. These effects were substantiated by ultrastructural examination of the tissues by electron microscopy. A surprising histologic finding was the repair capability of the dermis in the post-irradiation period.

  8. Three dimensional poly(ε-caprolactone) and silk fibroin nanocomposite fibrous matrix for artificial dermis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Min; Chae, Taesik; Sheikh, Faheem A; Ju, Hyung Woo; Moon, Bo Mi; Park, Hyun Jung; Park, Ye Ri; Park, Chan Hum

    2016-11-01

    Ideal dermal substitutes should have comparable physicochemical and biological properties to the natural skin tissue. In this study, we report a novel strategy to "engineer" controlled 3D nanocomposite fibrous matrix of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and silk fibroin (SF) for an artificial dermis application. Using a custom-designed cold-plate electrospinning and automatic magnet agitation system, up to 6mm of the thickness was achieved resulting from the accumulation of ice crystal layers on the PCL nanofibers surface-modified with the SF particles. The sacrificed ice crystals induced interconnected macro-pores ranging from tens to hundreds μm. The agitation system introduced uniform distribution of the SF protein within/on the nanofibers, preventing the particles from precipitation and agglomeration. NIH 3T3 fibroblasts proliferated in vitro on the PCL and PCL/SF scaffolds for 7days, but there was no statistical difference between the groups. Conversely, In vivo rat model studies revealed that the wound healing rate and collagen deposition increased with the SF content within the nanocomposites. The unique 3D construct with the PCL/SF nanocomposite fibers provided desirable spatial cues, surface topography, and surface chemistry for the native cells to infiltrate into the scaffolds. The wound healing potential of the nanocomposites was comparable to the commercial Matriderm® artificial dermis. PMID:27524077

  9. Effects of argon, dye, and Nd:YAG lasers on epidermis, dermis, and venous vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Landthaler, M.; Haina, D.; Brunner, R.; Waidelich, W.; Braun-Falco, O.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of the present study, which was performed at the dorsal aspects of the ears of guinea pigs, was to compare effects of different lasers on epidermis, dermis, and small venous vessels. Irradiations were performed with argon, dye, and Nd:YAG lasers. In the first series tissue repair processes were studied after argon laser application. Laser defects were excised after 1, 4, 8, and 14 days and were prepared for routine histological examination. The breadth of epidermal defect and extent of dermal coagulation and occlusion of vessels by thrombus formation were examined histologically. In a second series parameters of irradiation (ie, exposure time, laser power) of the three different lasers were changed systematically. Laser-induced morphological tissue changes could be best observed 24 hours after irradiation. Each of the lasers led to occlusion of vessels by thrombus formation and also coagulated epidermis and dermis. The extent of dermal and epidermal coagulation was less pronounced after dye laser application. Using short exposure times it was possible to reduce the extent of epidermal damage caused by argon and Nd:YAG lasers. Only 50-msec dye laser pulses led to intravascular thrombus formation without epidermal and dermal damage.

  10. Partial biochemical and immunologic characterization of fibrillin microfibrils from sea cucumber dermis.

    PubMed

    Thurmond, F A; Koob, T J; Bowness, J M; Trotter, J A

    1997-01-01

    The dermis of the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa is a mutable collagenous tissue composed of collagen fibrils, microfibrils, proteoglycans, and other soluble and insoluble components. A major constituent of the dermis is a network of 10-14 nm microfibrils which surrounds and penetrates bundles of collagen fibrils. These microfibrils, which are morphologically very similar to the fibrillin microfibrils of vertebrates, were found to be insoluble in protein denaturants, including chaotropic agents and ionic and nonionic detergents, regardless of the reduction of disulfide bonds. The microfibrils are covalently crosslinked by epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)lysine at a concentration of 3.725 nmol/mg dry weight of purified insoluble material. The network is susceptible to proteolysis by trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pancreatic elastase, but not by bacterial collagenase. Amino acid compositional analysis of the network shows it to be composed of 25% ASX and GLX residues. Comparison with the proteins in the SwissProt database gives the network protein a high probability of being related to the mammalian protein fibrillin. The network is glycosylated: approximately 7% of the mass is constituted by neutral and amino sugars. The intact microfibrillar network cross-reacted with a well-characterized antiserum to mammalian fibrillin.

  11. Three dimensional poly(ε-caprolactone) and silk fibroin nanocomposite fibrous matrix for artificial dermis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Min; Chae, Taesik; Sheikh, Faheem A; Ju, Hyung Woo; Moon, Bo Mi; Park, Hyun Jung; Park, Ye Ri; Park, Chan Hum

    2016-11-01

    Ideal dermal substitutes should have comparable physicochemical and biological properties to the natural skin tissue. In this study, we report a novel strategy to "engineer" controlled 3D nanocomposite fibrous matrix of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and silk fibroin (SF) for an artificial dermis application. Using a custom-designed cold-plate electrospinning and automatic magnet agitation system, up to 6mm of the thickness was achieved resulting from the accumulation of ice crystal layers on the PCL nanofibers surface-modified with the SF particles. The sacrificed ice crystals induced interconnected macro-pores ranging from tens to hundreds μm. The agitation system introduced uniform distribution of the SF protein within/on the nanofibers, preventing the particles from precipitation and agglomeration. NIH 3T3 fibroblasts proliferated in vitro on the PCL and PCL/SF scaffolds for 7days, but there was no statistical difference between the groups. Conversely, In vivo rat model studies revealed that the wound healing rate and collagen deposition increased with the SF content within the nanocomposites. The unique 3D construct with the PCL/SF nanocomposite fibers provided desirable spatial cues, surface topography, and surface chemistry for the native cells to infiltrate into the scaffolds. The wound healing potential of the nanocomposites was comparable to the commercial Matriderm® artificial dermis.

  12. Iontophoresis successfully delivers dexamethasone sodium phosphate to dermis as measured by microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Abhay; Stagni, Grazia; Cleary, Ann; Patel, Komal; Weiss, David S; Hagins, Marshall

    2014-01-01

    Despite its widespread and long term use, the effectiveness of iontophoresis to increase the delivery of dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DSP) remains controversial. The goal of this study was to quantitatively compare the DSP concentrations in dermis' dialysates in two delivery scenarios: with and without iontophoresis. Interstitial fluid concentrations were measured by cutaneous microdialysis. Passive and active iontophoresis were applied simultaneously on the skin of the forearm in eight healthy adult participants using each participant as his/her own control. The iontophoresis apparatus and procedures were identical to those used in common clinical practice. Iontophoresis electrodes were loaded with 2 mL of 4.4 mg/mL of preservative-free DSP solution. Electric current (4 mA) was applied for 20 min. Dialysate samples were collected for 2 h and analyzed for DSP and its active metabolite dexamethasone (DXM). Seven out of eight iontophoresis sites contained quantifiable levels of DSP and DXM, whereas none of the samples collected at the passive site contained either form of the drug. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that iontophoresis significantly (p < 0.0001) increases delivery of DSP to the dermis compared with passive delivery of the same, and that microdialysis can be used to monitor DSP delivery and DXM formation in skin.

  13. Influence of layered skin structure on the distribution of radiofrequency currents in dermis and subcutaneous fat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruglikov, Ilja L.

    2015-12-01

    The layered structure of skin with multiple interfaces separating the skin layers having very different electrical characteristics significantly modifies the spatial distribution of radiofrequency (RF) current in the skin compared to that in a homogeneous medium. In this study we present the analytical solutions of Laplace's equation describing the current densities for a two-layer skin model with homogeneous single layers for the monopolar and bipolar configurations of RF electrodes. Then we analyze analytically and numerically the optimal distances between the RF electrodes providing the maximal current concentration in a given depth or in a given depths' interval under the skin surface. It is demonstrated that two main parameters which significantly define the optimization condition are the thickness of the dermis and the reflection coefficient of the current at the dermis/subcutis interface. According to this model, under physiological conditions, the surface under RF electrode collecting 50% of the current entering subcutis is 184 times larger than in homogeneous medium. Such redistribution of RF current will significantly reduce the local density of the current entering the fat tissue reducing the effect of its selective heating.

  14. Epidermal β-catenin activation remodels the dermis via paracrine signalling to distinct fibroblast lineages.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberger, Beate M; Mastrogiannaki, Maria; Watt, Fiona M

    2016-01-01

    Sustained epidermal Wnt/β-catenin signalling expands the stem cell compartment and induces ectopic hair follicles (EFs). This is accompanied by extensive fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling in the underlying dermis. Here we show that epidermal Hedgehog (Hh) and Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signalling mediate the dermal changes. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of these pathways prevents β-catenin-induced dermal reprogramming and EF formation. Epidermal Shh stimulates proliferation of the papillary fibroblast lineage, whereas TGF-β2 controls proliferation, differentiation and ECM production by reticular fibroblasts. Hh inhibitors do not affect TGF-β target gene expression in reticular fibroblasts, and TGF-β inhibition does not prevent Hh target gene induction in papillary fibroblasts. However, when Hh signalling is inhibited the reticular dermis does not respond to epidermal β-catenin activation. We conclude that the dermal response to epidermal Wnt/β-catenin signalling depends on distinct fibroblast lineages responding to different paracrine signals. PMID:26837596

  15. Imaging collagen remodeling and sensing transplanted autologous fibroblast metabolism in mouse dermis using multimode nonlinear optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin; Cao, Ning; Jiang, Xingshan; Xie, Shusen; Xiong, Shuyuan

    2008-06-01

    Collagen remodeling and transplanted autologous fibroblast metabolic states in mouse dermis after cellular injection are investigated using multimode nonlinear optical imaging. Our findings show that the technique can image the progress of collagen remodeling in mouse dermis. It can also image transplanted autologous fibroblasts in their collagen matrix environment in the dermis, because of metabolic activity. It was also found that the approach can provide two-photon ratiometric redox fluorometry based on autologous fibroblast fluorescence from reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide coenzyme and oxidized flavoproteins for sensing the autologous fibroblast metabolic state. These results show that the multimode nonlinear optical imaging technique may have potential in a clinical setting as an in vivo diagnostic and monitoring system for cellular therapy in plastic surgery.

  16. Marginal characteristics of skin scarred dermis quantitatively extracted from multiphoton microscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zheng, Liqin; Jiang, Xingshan; Chen, Jianxin; Lin, Bifang

    2010-11-01

    Multiphoton microscopy based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) was applied to examine the marginal regions at dermis of normal, atrophic and keloid scars. High-contrast, high-resolution image showed an obvious boundary at scar margin and different morphological patterns of collagen or elastin on the two sides. Since the degree of the morphological alteration between the two sides of boundary at scar margin was varied among different types of scars, alteration degree of SHG-to-TPEF index was defined as a quantitative indicator for discrimination. It will help to determine the most appropriate clinical treatment strategy for different types of scars and potentially monitor therapy in vivo.

  17. Stimuli-responsive polymer nanocomposites inspired by the sea cucumber dermis.

    PubMed

    Capadona, Jeffrey R; Shanmuganathan, Kadhiravan; Tyler, Dustin J; Rowan, Stuart J; Weder, Christoph

    2008-03-01

    Sea cucumbers, like other echinoderms, have the ability to rapidly and reversibly alter the stiffness of their inner dermis. It has been proposed that the modulus of this tissue is controlled by regulating the interactions among collagen fibrils, which reinforce a low-modulus matrix. We report on a family of polymer nanocomposites, which mimic this architecture and display similar chemoresponsive mechanic adaptability. Materials based on a rubbery host polymer and rigid cellulose nanofibers exhibit a reversible reduction by a factor of 40 of the tensile modulus, for example, from 800 to 20 megapascals (MPa), upon exposure to a chemical regulator that mediates nanofiber interactions. Using a host polymer with a thermal transition in the regime of interest, we demonstrated even larger modulus changes (4200 to 1.6 MPa) upon exposure to emulated physiological conditions.

  18. The Dermis as a Delivery Site of Trypanosoma brucei for Tsetse Flies

    PubMed Central

    Caljon, Guy; Van Reet, Nick; De Trez, Carl; Vermeersch, Marjorie; Pérez-Morga, David; Van Den Abbeele, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Tsetse flies are the sole vectors of Trypanosoma brucei parasites that cause sleeping sickness. Our knowledge on the early interface between the infective metacyclic forms and the mammalian host skin is currently highly limited. Glossina morsitans flies infected with fluorescently tagged T. brucei parasites were used in this study to initiate natural infections in mice. Metacyclic trypanosomes were found to be highly infectious through the intradermal route in sharp contrast with blood stream form trypanosomes. Parasite emigration from the dermal inoculation site resulted in detectable parasite levels in the draining lymph nodes within 18 hours and in the peripheral blood within 42 h. A subset of parasites remained and actively proliferated in the dermis. By initiating mixed infections with differentially labeled parasites, dermal parasites were unequivocally shown to arise from the initial inoculum and not from a re-invasion from the blood circulation. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated intricate interactions of these skin-residing parasites with adipocytes in the connective tissue, entanglement by reticular fibers of the periadipocytic baskets and embedment between collagen bundles. Experimental transmission experiments combined with molecular parasite detection in blood fed flies provided evidence that dermal trypanosomes can be acquired from the inoculation site immediately after the initial transmission. High resolution thermographic imaging also revealed that intradermal parasite expansion induces elevated skin surface temperatures. Collectively, the dermis represents a delivery site of the highly infective metacyclic trypanosomes from which the host is systemically colonized and where a proliferative subpopulation remains that is physically constrained by intricate interactions with adipocytes and collagen fibrous structures. PMID:27441553

  19. The Dermis as a Delivery Site of Trypanosoma brucei for Tsetse Flies.

    PubMed

    Caljon, Guy; Van Reet, Nick; De Trez, Carl; Vermeersch, Marjorie; Pérez-Morga, David; Van Den Abbeele, Jan

    2016-07-01

    Tsetse flies are the sole vectors of Trypanosoma brucei parasites that cause sleeping sickness. Our knowledge on the early interface between the infective metacyclic forms and the mammalian host skin is currently highly limited. Glossina morsitans flies infected with fluorescently tagged T. brucei parasites were used in this study to initiate natural infections in mice. Metacyclic trypanosomes were found to be highly infectious through the intradermal route in sharp contrast with blood stream form trypanosomes. Parasite emigration from the dermal inoculation site resulted in detectable parasite levels in the draining lymph nodes within 18 hours and in the peripheral blood within 42 h. A subset of parasites remained and actively proliferated in the dermis. By initiating mixed infections with differentially labeled parasites, dermal parasites were unequivocally shown to arise from the initial inoculum and not from a re-invasion from the blood circulation. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated intricate interactions of these skin-residing parasites with adipocytes in the connective tissue, entanglement by reticular fibers of the periadipocytic baskets and embedment between collagen bundles. Experimental transmission experiments combined with molecular parasite detection in blood fed flies provided evidence that dermal trypanosomes can be acquired from the inoculation site immediately after the initial transmission. High resolution thermographic imaging also revealed that intradermal parasite expansion induces elevated skin surface temperatures. Collectively, the dermis represents a delivery site of the highly infective metacyclic trypanosomes from which the host is systemically colonized and where a proliferative subpopulation remains that is physically constrained by intricate interactions with adipocytes and collagen fibrous structures. PMID:27441553

  20. Monocyte recruitment to the dermis and differentiation to dendritic cells increases the targets for dengue virus replication.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Michael A; Harris, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) causes the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease in humans. Although Aedes mosquitoes transmit DENV when probing for blood in the skin, no information exists on DENV infection and immune response in the dermis, where the blood vessels are found. DENV suppresses the interferon response, replicates, and causes disease in humans but not wild-type mice. Here, we used mice lacking the interferon-α/β receptor (Ifnar(-/-)), which had normal cell populations in the skin and were susceptible to intradermal DENV infection, to investigate the dynamics of early DENV infection of immune cells in the skin. CD103(+) classical dendritic cells (cDCs), Ly6C(-) CD11b(+) cDCs, and macrophages in the steady-state dermis were initial targets of DENV infection 12-24 hours post-inoculation but then decreased in frequency. We demonstrated recruitment of adoptively-transferred Ly6C(high) monocytes from wild-type and Ifnar(-/-) origin to the DENV-infected dermis and differentiation to Ly6C(+) CD11b(+) monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs), which became DENV-infected after 48 hours, and were then the major targets for virus replication. Ly6C(high) monocytes that entered the DENV-infected dermis expressed chemokine receptor CCR2, likely mediating recruitment. Further, we show that ∼ 100-fold more hematopoietic cells in the dermis were DENV-infected compared to Langerhans cells in the epidermis. Overall, these results identify the dermis as the main site of early DENV replication and show that DENV infection in the skin occurs in two waves: initial infection of resident cDCs and macrophages, followed by infection of monocytes and moDCs that are recruited to the dermis. Our study reveals a novel viral strategy of exploiting monocyte recruitment to increase the number of targets for infection at the site of invasion in the skin and highlights the skin as a potential site for therapeutic action or intradermal vaccination. PMID:25474197

  1. One-stage, simultaneous skin grafting with artificial dermis and basic fibroblast growth factor successfully improves elasticity with maturation of scar formation.

    PubMed

    Hamuy, Rodrigo; Kinoshita, Naoshi; Yoshimoto, Hiroshi; Hayashida, Kenji; Houbara, Seiji; Nakashima, Masahiro; Suzuki, Keiji; Mitsutake, Norisato; Mussazhanova, Zhanna; Kashiyama, Kazuya; Hirano, Akiyoshi; Akita, Sadanori

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of one-stage artificial dermis and skin grafting was tested in a nude rat model. Reconstruction with artificial dermis is usually a two-stage procedure with 2- to 3-week intermission. If one-stage use of artificial dermis and split-thickness skin grafting are effective, the overall burden on patients and the medical cost will markedly decrease. The graft take rate, contraction rate, tissue elasticity, histology, morphometric analysis of the dermal thickness, fibroblast counting, immunohistochemistry of α-smooth muscle actin, matrix metalloproteinase-2, CD31, and F4/80, as well as gelatin zymography, real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for matrix metalloproteinase-2, and electron microscopy, were investigated from day 3 to 3 months postoperatively. The graft take rate was good overall in one-stage artificial dermis and skin grafting groups up to 3 weeks, and the contraction rate was greater in the two-staged artificial dermis and skin grafting group than in the skin grafting alone or one stage of artificial dermis and skin grafting groups. Split-thickness skin grafting with artificial dermis and basic fibroblast growth factor at a concentration of 1 μg/cm(2) showed significantly greater elasticity by Cutometer, and the dermal thickness was significantly thinner, fibroblast counting was significantly greater, and the α-smooth muscle actin expression level was more notable with a more mature blood supply in the dermis and more organized dermal fibrils by electron microscopy at 3 weeks. Thus, one-stage artificial dermis and split-thickness skin grafting with basic fibroblast growth factor show a high graft take rate and better tissue elasticity determined by Cutometer analysis, maturity of the dermis, and increased fibroblast number and blood supply compared to a standard two-stage reconstruction.

  2. Electrostatic, elastic and hydration-dependent interactions in dermis influencing volume exclusion and macromolecular transport.

    PubMed

    Øien, Alf H; Wiig, Helge

    2016-07-01

    Interstitial exclusion refers to the limitation of space available for plasma proteins and other macromolecules based on collagen and negatively charged glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the interstitial space. It is of particular importance to interstitial fluid and plasma volume regulation. Here we present a novel mechanical and mathematical model of the dynamic interactions of structural elements within the interstitium of the dermis at the microscopic level that may explain volume exclusion of charged and neutral macroparticles. At this level, the interstitium is considered to consist of elements called extracellular matrix (ECM) cells, again containing two main interacting structural components on a fluid background including anions and cations setting up osmotic forces: one smaller GAG component, having an intrinsic expansive electric force, and one bigger collagen component, having an intrinsic elastic force. Because of size differences, the GAG component interacts with a fraction of the collagen component only at normal hydration. This fraction, however, increases with rising hydration as a consequence of the modeled form of the interaction force between the GAGs and collagen. Collagen is locally displaced at variable degrees as hydration changes. Two models of GAGs are considered, having largely different geometries which demands different, but related, forms of GAG-collagen interaction forces. The effects of variable fixed charges on GAGs and of GAG density in tissue are evaluated taking into account observed volume exclusion properties of charged macromolecules as a function of tissue hydration. The presented models may improve our biophysical understanding of acting forces influencing tissue fluid dynamics. Such knowledge is significant when evaluating the transport of electrically charged and neutral macromolecules into and through the interstitium, and therefore to drug uptake and the therapeutic effects of macromolecular agents. PMID:27079466

  3. Different wound healing properties of dermis, adipose, and gingiva mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Boink, Mireille A; van den Broek, Lenie J; Roffel, Sanne; Nazmi, Kamran; Bolscher, Jan G M; Gefen, Amit; Veerman, Enno C I; Gibbs, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Oral wounds heal faster and with better scar quality than skin wounds. Deep skin wounds where adipose tissue is exposed, have a greater risk of forming hypertrophic scars. Differences in wound healing and final scar quality might be related to differences in mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) and their ability to respond to intrinsic (autocrine) and extrinsic signals, such as human salivary histatin, epidermal growth factor, and transforming growth factor beta1. Dermis-, adipose-, and gingiva-derived MSC were compared for their regenerative potential with regards to proliferation, migration, and matrix contraction. Proliferation was assessed by cell counting and migration using a scratch wound assay. Matrix contraction and alpha smooth muscle actin was assessed in MSC populated collagen gels, and also in skin and gingival full thickness tissue engineered equivalents (reconstructed epithelium on MSC populated matrix). Compared to skin-derived MSC, gingiva MSC showed greater proliferation and migration capacity, and less matrix contraction in full thickness tissue equivalents, which may partly explain the superior oral wound healing. Epidermal keratinocytes were required for enhanced adipose MSC matrix contraction and alpha smooth muscle actin expression, and may therefore contribute to adverse scarring in deep cutaneous wounds. Histatin enhanced migration without influencing proliferation or matrix contraction in all three MSC, indicating that salivary peptides may have a beneficial effect on wound closure in general. Transforming growth factor beta1 enhanced contraction and alpha smooth muscle actin expression in all three MSC types when incorporated into collagen gels. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for the superior oral wound healing will aid us to develop advanced strategies for optimal skin regeneration, wound healing and scar formation. PMID:26542883

  4. Effect of hydration on interstitial distribution of charged albumin in rat dermis in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wiig, Helge; Tenstad, Olav; Bert, Joel L

    2005-01-01

    At physiological pH, negatively charged glycosaminoglycans in the extracellular matrix may influence distribution volume of macromolecular probes, a phenomenon of importance for hydration of the interstitium and therefore for body fluid balance. We hypothesized that such charge effect was dependent on hydration. Human serum albumin (HSA) (the pH value for the isoelectric point (pI) = 4.9) was made neutral by cationization (cHSA) (pI = 7.6). Rat dermis was studied in vitro in a specially designed equilibration cell allowing control of hydration. Using a buffer containing labelled native HSA and cHSA, the distribution volumes were calculated relative to that of 51Cr-EDTA, an extracellular tracer. During changes in hydration (H), defined as (wet weight – dry weight) (dry weight)−1), the slope of the equation describing the relationship between extracellular fluid volume (Vx) (in g H2O (g dry weight)−1) and H (Vx = 0.925 H + 0.105) differed significantly from that for available volumes of cHSA (Va,cHSA = 0.624 H – 0.538) and HSA (Va,HSA = 0.518 H – 0.518). A gradual reduction in H led to a reduction in difference between available volumes for the two albumin species. Screening the fixed charges by 1 m NaCl resulted in similar available and excluded volumes of native HSA and neutral cHSA. We conclude that during gradual dehydration, there is a reduced effect of fixed negative charges on interstitial exclusion of charged macromolecules. This effect may be explained by a reduced hydration domain surrounding tissue and probe macromolecules in conditions of increased electrostatic interactions. Furthermore, screening of negative charges suggested that hyaluronan associated with collagen may influence intrafibrillar volume of collagen and thereby available and excluded volume fraction. PMID:16210353

  5. Pesticide Uptake Across the Amphibian Dermis Through Soil and Overspray Exposures.

    PubMed

    Van Meter, Robin J; Glinski, Donna A; Henderson, W Matthew; Garrison, A Wayne; Cyterski, Mike; Purucker, S Thomas

    2015-11-01

    For terrestrial amphibians, accumulation of pesticides through dermal contact is a primary route of exposure in agricultural landscapes and may be contributing to widespread amphibian declines. To show pesticide transfer across the amphibian dermis at permitted label application rates, our study was designed to measure pesticide body burdens after two simulated exposure scenarios. We compared direct exposures, where amphibians were present when spraying occurred, to indirect exposures, where amphibians were exposed to soils after pesticide application. During summer 2012, we reared barking (Hyla gratiosa) and green treefrogs (H. cinerea) through 60-90 days post-metamorphosis at a United States Environmental Protection Agency research laboratory. We tested exposure for 8 h to five pesticide active ingredients (imidacloprid, atrazine, triadimefon, fipronil, or pendimethalin) in glass aquaria lined with soil in the laboratory. We quantified total pesticide body burden and soil concentrations using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All individuals in both treatments had measurable body burdens at the end of the study. A randomized block design analysis of variance (n = 18) showed that body burdens (p = 0.03) and bioconcentration factors (BCFs) (p = 0.01) were significantly greater in the direct overspray treatment relative to the indirect soil spray treatment for both species and tested pesticides. BCFs ranged from 0.1 to 1.16 and from 0.013 to 0.78 in the direct and indirect treatments, respectively. Our study shows dermal uptake for multiple pesticides from both direct spray and indirect soil exposures and provides empirical support for the degree to which terrestrial phase amphibians have higher body burdens after overspray pesticide exposure.

  6. Stiparin: a glycoprotein from sea cucumber dermis that aggregates collagen fibrils.

    PubMed

    Trotter, J A; Lyons-Levy, G; Luna, D; Koob, T J; Keene, D R; Atkinson, M A

    1996-07-01

    The interactions between collagen fibrils in many echinoderm connective tissues are rapidly altered by the secretions of resident neurosecretory cells. Recent evidence has suggested that a secreted protein is responsible for the interactions that lead to an increase in tissue stiffness (Trotter and Koob, 1995). Structurally intact collagen fibrils have been isolated from such a connective tissue- the dermis of the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa- and used in an assay in vitro to identify a protein that binds to them and causes them to aggregate. This protein has been purified by anion-exchange and molecular sieve chromatography. It is eluted from a MonoQ column at approximately 0.55 M NaCl. Its isoelectric point is 5.2. It elutes from a Superose-6 column in a position corresponding to a molecule with a Stokes radius of 11.5 nm. Its native molecular weight estimated from sedimentation equilibrium analysis under non-denaturing conditions is 375,000, and its monomer molecular weight, estimated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, is approximately 350,000. Sedimentation velocity measurements indicated for the native molecule a sedimentation coefficient of 11 x 10(-13)s, a diffusion coefficient of 3.274 x 10(-7) cm2s-1, and a frictional ratio of 1.95, which corresponds to a prolate ellipsoid of revolution with an axial ratio of 19. The highly asymmetric structure suggested by the above correlated well with the images obtained by transmission electron microscopy following rotary shadowing, which revealed a flexible structure approximately 125 nm long. Based on its ability to aggregate collagen fibrils, this protein has been named "stiparin," from the Latin stipare, "to pack together."

  7. Human Acellular Dermis versus Submuscular Tissue Expander Breast Reconstruction: A Multivariate Analysis of Short-Term Complications

    PubMed Central

    Davila, Armando A.; Seth, Akhil K.; Wang, Edward; Hanwright, Philip; Bilimoria, Karl; Fine, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Background Acellular dermal matrix (ADM) allografts and their putative benefits have been increasingly described in prosthesis based breast reconstruction. There have been a myriad of analyses outlining ADM complication profiles, but few large-scale, multi-institutional studies exploring these outcomes. In this study, complication rates of acellular dermis-assisted tissue expander breast reconstruction were compared with traditional submuscular methods by evaluation of the American College of Surgeon's National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) registry. Methods Patients who underwent immediate tissue expander breast reconstruction from 2006-2010 were identified using surgical procedure codes. Two hundred forty tracked variables from over 250 participating sites were extracted for patients undergoing acellular dermis-assisted versus submuscular tissue expander reconstruction. Thirty-day postoperative outcomes and captured risk factors for complications were compared between the two groups. Results A total of 9,159 patients underwent tissue expander breast reconstruction; 1,717 using acellular dermis and 7,442 with submuscular expander placement. Total complications and reconstruction related complications were similar in both cohorts (5.5% vs. 5.3%, P=0.68 and 4.7% vs. 4.3%, P=0.39, respectively). Multivariate logistic regression revealed body mass index and smoking as independent risk factors for reconstructive complications in both cohorts (P<0.01). Conclusions The NSQIP database provides large-scale, multi-institutional, independent outcomes for acellular dermis and submuscular breast reconstruction. Both thirty-day complication profiles and risk factors for post operative morbidity are similar between these two reconstructive approaches. PMID:23362476

  8. Histological fate of abdominal dermis-fat grafts implanted in the temporomandibular joint of the rabbit following condylectomy.

    PubMed

    Dimitroulis, G; Slavin, J; Morrison, W

    2011-02-01

    The histological fate of abdominal dermis-fat grafts implanted into the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) following condylectomy was studied. 21 rabbits underwent left TMJ discectomies and condylectomies; 6 were controls (Group A; no graft used); 15 (Group B) had autogenous abdominal grafts transplanted into the left TMJ. Animals were killed after 4, 12 and 20 weeks. Specimens of the TMJ were histologically and histomorphometrically evaluated. At 4 weeks, fat necrosis was clear in all specimens. The dermis component survived and formed cysts with no necrosis. By 12 weeks, viable fat deposits appeared with no evidence of necrotic fat. At 20 weeks, large amounts of viable fat were present in Group B specimens. Group A had no fat, although the missing condyles regenerated. In the presence of viable fat, Group B showed little condyle regeneration 20 weeks after condylectomy. Non-vascularised fat grafts do not survive transplantation, but stimulate neoadipogenesis. The fate of the dermis component of the graft is independent of the fat component. Fat in the joint space disrupts the regeneration of a new condylar head. Neoadipogensis inhibits growth of new bone and cartilage. This has clinical implications for TMJ ankylosis management and preventing heterotopic bone formation around prosthetic joints. PMID:21050720

  9. Measurement of the dielectric properties of the epidermis and dermis at frequencies from 0.5 GHz to 110 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, K.; Wake, K.; Watanabe, S.

    2014-08-01

    Numerous studies have reported the measurements of the dielectric properties of the skin. Clarifying the manner in which the human body interacts with electromagnetic waves is essential for medical research and development, as well as for the safety assessment of electromagnetic wave exposure. The skin comprises several layers: the epidermis, the dermis, and the subcutaneous fat. Each of these skin layers has a different constitution; however, the previous measurements of their dielectric properties were typically conducted on tissue which included all three layers of the skin. This study presents novel dielectric property data for the epidermis and dermis with in vitro measurement at frequencies ranging from 0.5 GHz to 110 GHz. Measured data was compared with literature values; in particular, the findings were compared with Gabriel’s widely used data on skin dielectric properties. The experimental results agreed with the data reported by Gabriel for the dermis of up to 20 GHz, which is the upper limit of the range of frequencies at which Gabriel reported measurements. For frequencies of 20-100 GHz, the experimental results indicated larger values than those extrapolated from Gabriel’s data using parametric expansion. For frequencies over 20 GHz, the dielectric properties provided by the parametric model tend toward the experimental results for the epidermis with increasing frequency.

  10. Dynamic mechanical characterization of a mutable collagenous tissue: response of sea cucumber dermis to cell lysis and dermal extracts.

    PubMed

    Szulgit, G K; Shadwick, R E

    2000-05-01

    The dermis of the holothurian Cucumaria frondosa is a mutable collagenous tissue (MCT). In this study, the inner and outer regions of the dermis were separated and used to make two different tissue extracts. These extracts were applied to intact pieces of dermis, one invoking a stiff mechanical state and the other invoking a compliant state. The extracts were effective on tissues incubated in artificial sea water (ASW) and in those incubated in Ca(2+)-chelated ASW. Furthermore, the extracts were effective on both fresh tissues and tissues in which the cells had been lysed by freeze-thawing, indicating that the sites of action are in the extracellular matrix. Dynamic oscillatory shear tests and analyses were used to measure both the dynamic shear stiffness (G*) and the relative damping (tan delta ) of the tissue. These two parameters proved to be inversely related to each other (i.e. when G* increased, tan delta decreased). A theoretical viscoelastic model is constructed to interpret the results of these tests. It is concluded that changes in the mechanical state of the tissue involve interactions between elastic elements within the tissue rather than an alteration of its viscous components.

  11. Purification, characterization and cloning of tensilin, the collagen-fibril binding and tissue-stiffening factor from Cucumaria frondosa dermis.

    PubMed

    Tipper, Jennifer P; Lyons-Levy, Gillian; Atkinson, Mark A L; Trotter, John A

    2002-12-01

    The inner dermis of the sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, is a mutable collagenous tissue characterized by rapid and reversible changes in its mechanical properties regulated by one or more protein effectors that are released from neurosecretory cells. One such effector, tensilin, is a collagen-fibril binding protein, named for its ability to induce dermis stiffening. Tensilin was purified using an affinity column constructed from C. frondosa collagen-fibrils. The protein migrates as a single band on SDS-PAGE (Mr approximately 33 kDa) and has an isoelectric point of 5.8. Equilibrium sedimentation experiments suggest a molecular mass of approximately 28.5-29.4 kDa. Carbohydrate analysis of tensilin revealed no measurable sugar content. The molar amount of tensilin was determined to be 0.38% that of collagen and 47% that of stiparin, a constitutive matrix glycoprotein. A full-length cDNA clone for tensilin was obtained from a C. frondosa inner dermis cDNA expression library. Predicted properties derived from the deduced peptide sequence were in agreement with those of the native protein. A noted feature of tensilin's deduced peptide sequence, particularly in its N-terminal domain, is its homology to tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases. Tensilin's C-terminal tail has no known homology to other proteins but contains a putative collagen-fibril binding site.

  12. [CHANGES OF THE CONTENT OF DLL4 AND Jag-1 ANGIOGENESIS REGULATORS IN HUMAN DERMIS IN ONTOGENESIS].

    PubMed

    Golubtzova, N N; Vasiliyeva, O V; Petrov, V V; Gunin, A G

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the contents of D114 and Jag-1 angiogenesis regulators in human dermis at different age periods. D114 and Jag-1 were demonstrated by indirect immunohistochemistry in skin sections of fetuses of 20-40 gestational weeks and in persons aged from birth to 85 years. D114 was studied in 150 skin samples of 72 females and 78 males, while Jag-1 was examined in 120 samples of 58 females and 62 males. It is found that the immunoreactivity was mainly expressed by the endothelial cells. Vessels, which gave a positive reaction to D114 and Jag-1, were found throughout the entire thickness of the dermis, both in fetuses, and people of all age groups. Expression of D114 in the vessels of dermal microvasculature was shown to increase from 20 weeks of gestation to 20 years. With the further age increase, the intensity of the reaction of blood vessels for D114 was decreased. Expression of Jag-1 in dermal microvessels was enhanced from 20 weeks of gestation to 85 years. The results are discussed in connection with the role of D114 and Jag-1 in angiogenesis in human dermis during ontogeny. PMID:27487663

  13. Concise Review: Human Dermis as an Autologous Source of Stem Cells for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Vapniarsky, Natalia; Arzi, Boaz; Hu, Jerry C.; Nolta, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    The exciting potential for regenerating organs from autologous stem cells is on the near horizon, and adult dermis stem cells (DSCs) are particularly appealing because of the ease and relative minimal invasiveness of skin collection. A substantial number of reports have described DSCs and their potential for regenerating tissues from mesenchymal, ectodermal, and endodermal lineages; however, the exact niches of these stem cells in various skin types and their antigenic surface makeup are not yet clearly defined. The multilineage potential of DSCs appears to be similar, despite great variability in isolation and in vitro propagation methods. Despite this great potential, only limited amounts of tissues and clinical applications for organ regeneration have been developed from DSCs. This review summarizes the literature on DSCs regarding their niches and the specific markers they express. The concept of the niches and the differentiation capacity of cells residing in them along particular lineages is discussed. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of widely used methods to demonstrate lineage differentiation are considered. In addition, safety considerations and the most recent advancements in the field of tissue engineering and regeneration using DSCs are discussed. This review concludes with thoughts on how to prospectively approach engineering of tissues and organ regeneration using DSCs. Our expectation is that implementation of the major points highlighted in this review will lead to major advancements in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Significance Autologous dermis-derived stem cells are generating great excitement and efforts in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. The substantial impact of this review lies in its critical coverage of the available literature and in providing insight regarding niches, characteristics, and isolation methods of stem cells derived from the human dermis. Furthermore, it

  14. Assessment of principal parabens used in cosmetics after their passage through human epidermis-dermis layers (ex-vivo study).

    PubMed

    El Hussein, Sawsan; Muret, Patrice; Berard, Michel; Makki, Safwat; Humbert, Philippe

    2007-10-01

    Concern is continuously raised about the safety of parabens which are present in most of the cosmetic preparations. In this investigation, methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butyl paraben (MP, EP, PP, BP), in a commercial cosmetic lotion, were deposited on human skin fragments, collected after surgical operations. Permeated parabens were determined after their passage through human epidermis-dermis layers, fixed on Franz diffusion cells. Bovine serum albumin (3%) was employed as receptor fluid. Then, parabens were assessed by liquid chromatography. The objective of this research was to determine the permeation of these molecules through human epidermis-dermis layers, and their possible passage to body tissues and/or accumulation in skin layers. Two groups of experiments were performed. In the first experimental group (G1), unique doses of the cosmetic were deposited on skin fragments fixed on Franz cells (n = 6), at time 0 h, followed with different withdrawn times of the receptor fluid at 12, 24 and 36 h. G1 results demonstrated that parabens penetration was influenced by their lipophilicity: more lipophilic the parabens were (BP > PP > EP > MP), less they crossed the skin layers (BP < PP < EP < MP). The second experimental group (G2) was constituted of three equal deposits on each Franz cell (n = 6) at different hour times 0, 12 and 24 h followed with three withdrawn times of the receptor fluid at 12, 24 and 36 h. The G2 results indicated that investigated parabens had significant increasing permeations in skin layers. This situation provokes the accumulation of these molecules which were considered by some authors as the cause of skin toxicities and carcinogenicity.

  15. Combined use of fenestrated-type artificial dermis and topical negative pressure wound therapy for the venous leg ulcer of a rheumatoid arthritis patient.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Naoki; Kuro, Atsuyuki; Yamauchi, Takashi; Horiuchi, Ai; Kakudo, Natsuko; Sakamoto, Michiharu; Suzuki, Kenji; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of circumferential venous leg ulcer in a rheumatoid arthritis patient. Mesh skin grafting was performed in another hospital, but the graft failed and the patient was referred to our hospital. This ulcer was treated by the combination therapy of a fenestrated-type artificial dermis with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) and secondary mesh grafting using our 'grip tape technique'. NPWT was started at -100 mmHg and continued until the formation of dermis-like tissue. A section stained using haematoxylin and eosin and an anti-αSMA (α smooth muscle actin) immunohistological section of the biopsy from dermis-like tissue showed an abundant infiltration of fibroblasts and capillary formation beneath the fenestration of the silicone sheet. Threefold mesh skin grafting was subsequently performed and it was taken up completely. The fenestrated-type artificial dermis in combination with NPWT produced good results without infection in the treatment of complex wounds. In addition, our 'grip tape technique' was useful to apply polyurethane foam to the entire surface of the lower leg. PMID:25650053

  16. Proliferating cells in psoriatic dermis are comprised primarily of T cells, endothelial cells, and factor XIIIa+ perivascular dendritic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Morganroth, G.S.; Chan, L.S.; Weinstein, G.D.; Voorhees, J.J.; Cooper, K.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Determination of the cell types proliferating in the dermis of patients with psoriasis should identify those cells experiencing activation or responding to growth factors in the psoriatic dermal milieu. Toward that end, sections of formalin-fixed biopsies obtained from 3H-deoxyuridine (3H-dU)-injected skin of eight psoriatic patients were immunostained, followed by autoradiography. Proliferating dermal cells exhibit silver grains from tritium emissions. The identity of the proliferating cells could then be determined by simultaneous visualization with antibodies specific for various cell types. UCHL1+ (CD45RO+) T cells (recall antigen-reactive helper T-cell subset) constituted 36.6 +/- 3.1% (mean +/- SEM, n = 6) of the proliferating dermal cells in involved skin, whereas Leu 18+ (CD45RA+) T cells (recall antigen naive T-cell subsets) comprised only 8.7 +/- 1.5% (n = 6). The Factor XIIIa+ dermal perivascular dendritic cell subset (24.9 +/- 1.5% of proliferating dermal cells, n = 6) and Factor VIII+ endothelial cells represented the two other major proliferating populations in lesional psoriatic dermis. Differentiated tissue macrophages, identified by phase microscopy as melanophages or by immunostaining with antibodies to Leu M1 (CD15) or myeloid histiocyte antigen, comprised less than 5% of the proliferating population in either skin type. In addition to calculating the relative proportions of these cells to each other as percent, we also determined the density of cells, in cells/mm2 of tissue. The density of proliferating cells within these populations was increased in involved versus uninvolved skin: UCHL1+, 9.0 +/- 1.7 cells/mm2 versus 1.8 +/- 0.6 cells/mm2, p less than 0.01; Factor XIIIa+, 6.0 +/- 0.7 cells/mm2 versus 1.5 +/- 0.5 cells/mm2, p less than 0.01; Factor VIII+, 5.5 +/- 1.4 cells/mm2 versus 0.0 cells/mm2, p less than 0.05.

  17. Histological study of cell migration in the dermis of hamsters after immunisation with two different vaccines against visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Nádia das Dores; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Vitoriano-Souza, Juliana; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2009-04-15

    Vaccine candidates, including live and/or killed parasites, Leishmania-purified fractions, defined recombinant antigens and antigen-encoding DNA-plasmids have been proposed to use as vaccine anti-Leishmania. More recently, the hamsters have been used to pre-selection of antigens candidate to apply in further experiments using canine model. In this report we evaluated the kinetics of cell migration in dermal inflammatory infiltrate, circulating leukocytes and the presence of nitric oxide (NO)/induced nitric oxide synthase during the early (1-24h) and late (48-168h) periods following inoculation of hamsters with antigenic components of anti-canine visceral leishmaniasis vaccines Leishmune and Leishmania braziliensis antigen (LB) with and without saponin (Sap) adjuvant. Our results show that LB caused an early reduction of lymphocytes in the dermis while Sap and LBSap triggered a late recruitment, suggesting the role of the adjuvant in the traffic of antigen-presenting cells and the induction of lymphocyte migration. In that manner our results suggest that the kinetics of cell migration on hamster model may be of value in the selection of vaccine antigens prior the tests in dogs particularly in respect of the toxicity of the preparations.

  18. TAT-Mediated Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor Delivery to the Dermis Improves Wound Healing of Deep Skin Tissue in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Lu; Zheng, Lulu; Jin, Zi; Yu, Bingjie; Wang, Zhitao; Lin, Peng; Yu, Weidan; Li, Haiyan; Li, Xiaokun; Wang, Xiaojie

    2015-01-01

    Background The definition of deep tissue injury was derived from multiple clinical cases as “A purple or maroon localized area of discolored intact skin or blood-filled blister due to damage of underlying soft tissue from pressure and/or shear”. Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) significantly improves wound healing under diabetic conditions. However, to date, the therapeutic application of aFGF has been limited, due to its low delivery efficiency and short half-life. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an animal model of magnet-induced pressure ulcers, transactivator of transcription protein (TAT)-aFGF was evaluated for transdermal delivery and wound healing. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were also performed to determine the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), CD68, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and TGF-β-receptor II (TGF- βRII) in cultured human dermal fibroblasts. We found that that mice treated with TAT-aFGF had higher accumulation of aFGF in both dermis and subcutaneous tissues compared with mice treated with aFGF alone. In the remodeling phase, TAT-aFGF treatment decreased the expression of α-SMA to normal levels, thereby facilitating normal wound healing processes and abrogating hypertrophic scarring. In human dermal fibroblasts, TAT-aFGF reversed the suppressive effect of TNF-α on α-SMA expression and restored TGF-βRII and TGF-β1 expression. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that TAT-aFGF has a favorable therapeutic effect on the healing of subcutaneous deep tissue injury. PMID:26271041

  19. Epidermis–dermis junction as a novel location for bone marrow-derived cells to reside in response to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Okano, Junko; Kojima, Hideto; Katagi, Miwako; Nakae, Yuki; Terashima, Tomoya; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Kurakane, Takeshi; Okamoto, Naoki; Morohashi, Keita; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Udagawa, Jun

    2015-06-12

    Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) can migrate into the various organs in the mice irradiated by ionizing radiation (IR). However, it may not be the case in the skin. While IR is used for bone marrow (BM) transplantation, studying with the epidermal sheets demonstrated that the BMDC recruitment is extraordinarily rare in epidermis in the mouse. Herein, using the chimera mice with BM from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice, we simply examined if BMDCs migrate into any layers in the total skin, as opposed to the epidermal sheets, in response to IR. Interestingly, we identified the presence of GFP-positive (GFP{sup +}) cells in the epidermis-dermis junction in the total skin sections although the epidermal cell sheets failed to have any GFP cells. To examine a possibility that the cells in the junction could be mechanically dissociated during separating epidermal sheets, we then salvaged such dissociated cells and examined its characteristics. Surprisingly, some GFP{sup +} cells were found in the salvaged cells, indicating that these cells could be derived from BM. In addition, such BMDCs were also associated with inflammation in the junction. In conclusion, BMDCs can migrate to and reside in the epidermis-dermis junction after IR. - Highlights: • Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) migrate in the epidermis due to ionizing radiation (IR). • BMDCs dissociate from the epidermis-dermis junction in preparing epidermal sheets. • The doses of IR determine the location and the number of migrating BMDCs in the skin.

  20. Kinetics of UV light-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in human skin in vivo: an immunohistochemical analysis of both epidermis and dermis.

    PubMed

    Katiyar, S K; Matsui, M S; Mukhtar, H

    2000-12-01

    It is well known that UV exposure of human skin induces DNA damage, and the cumulative effect of such repeated damage is an important contributor to the development of skin cancer. Here, we demonstrate UV dose- and time-dependent induction of DNA damage in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) in skin cells following a single exposure of human skin to UV radiation. CPD+ cells were identified by an immunohistochemical technique using monoclonal antibodies to thymine dimers. The percentage of CPD+ cells was UV dose-dependent, even a suberythemal (0.5 minimal erythemal dose [MED]) dose resulted in detectable level of cells that contained pyrimidine dimers. Forty-eight hours after irradiation the percent of total epidermal cells positive for CPD ranged from 19 +/- 8, 36 +/- 10, 57 +/- 12 and 80 +/- 10, and total percent dermal cells positive for CPD ranged from 1 +/- 1, 7 +/- 3, 16 +/- 3 and 20 +/- 5, respectively, following 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 MED. CPD were also observed in deeper reticular dermis, which suggest the penetrating ability of UV radiation into the skin. The change in CPD+ cells from 0.5 to 240 h post-UV exposure in both epidermal and dermal compartments of the skin was also quantitated. CPD+ cells were observed in skin biopsies at early time points after UV exposure which remained elevated for 48 h, then declined significantly by 3 days post-UV. A close examination of the skin at and after 3 days following UV exposure indicates the significant removal of DNA damaged cells from the epidermis. Ten days after UV exposure the levels of CPD+ cells in both epidermis and dermis were not significantly different from that in unirradiated skin.

  1. Structure-permeability relationship analysis of the permeation barrier properties of the stratum corneum and viable epidermis/dermis of rat skin.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Koji; Mitsui, Tetsuya; Aso, Yoshinori; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate structure-permeability relationships for chemicals through stratum corneum (SC) and viable epidermis/dermis (VED). In vitro skin permeation of ten compounds through excised rat skin was analyzed based on a two-layer diffusion model and the diffusion coefficients in SC (D(SC)) and VED (D(VED)) were determined. The relationships between the permeation parameters and the physicochemical parameters (octanol-water partition coefficient (log K(o/w)), and hydrogen bond donor number (HBD)) of the compounds were analyzed. D(SC) increased as lipophilicity increased, whereas D(VED) decreased for log K(o/w) > 2. Increases in log K(o/w) caused a decrease in the permeability coefficient from SC through VED (P(VED/SC)) for log K(o/w) > 1. The simulation study suggests that the in vitro skin permeation of a highly lipophilic compound is strongly controlled by skin thickness due to low diffusivity in VED. The present study suggests that VED act as a considerable permeation barrier for highly lipophilic compounds due to low diffusivity. PMID:18228598

  2. Comparative analysis of use of porous orbital implant with mucus membrane graft and dermis fat graft as a primary procedure in reconstruction of severely contracted socket

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Kasturi; Bhattacharjee, Harsha; Kuri, Ganesh; Das, Jayanta Kr; Dey, Debleena

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of our study is to present a surgical technique of primary porous orbital ball implantation with overlying mucus membrane graft (MMG) for reconstruction of severely contracted socket and to evaluate prosthesis retention and motility in comparison to dermis fat graft (DFG). Study Design: Prospective comparative study. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 patients of severe socket contracture (Grade 2-4 Krishna's classification) were subdivided into two groups, 12 patients in each group. In Group I, DFG have been used for reconstruction. In Group II, porous polyethylene implant with MMG has been used as a primary procedure for socket reconstruction. In Group I DFG was carried out in usual procedure. In case of Group II, vascularized scar tissues were separated 360° and were fashioned into four strips. A scleral capped porous polyethylene implant was placed in the intraconal space and four strips of scar tissue were secured to the scleral cap and extended part overlapped the implant to make a twofold barrier between the implant and MMG. Patients were followed-up as per prefixed proforma. Prosthesis motility and retention between the two groups were measured. Results: In Group I, four patients had recurrence of contracture with fall out of prosthesis. In Group II stable reconstruction was achieved in all the patients. In terms of prosthesis motility, maximum in Group I was 39.2% and Group II, was 59.3%. The difference in prosthesis retention (P = 0.001) and motility (P = 0.004) between the two groups was significant. Conclusion: Primary socket reconstruction with porous orbital implant and MMG for severe socket contracture is an effective method in terms of prosthesis motility and prosthesis retention. PMID:24618485

  3. S100A8 and S100A9 are messengers in the crosstalk between epidermis and dermis modulating a psoriatic milieu in human skin

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Young; Jang, Sunhyae; Min, Jeong-Ki; Lee, Kyungmin; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lim, Jong-Soon; Im, Myung; Lee, Hae-Eul; Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Chang-Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulated S100A8 and/or S100A9 in psoriasis epidermis induce cytokine production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulated S100A8 and/or S100A9 in psoriasis epidermis induce migration of immune cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulated S100A8 and/or S100A9 in psoriasis epidermis induce angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S100A8 and/or S100A9 may play a role in the crosstalk between epidermis and dermis in psoriasis. -- Abstract: S100A8 and S100A9 are members of the S100A8 protein family that exist as homodimers and heterodimers in neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages. Recent studies have shown the pivotal roles of S100A8 and S100A9 in the propagation of inflammation and keratinocyte proliferation in psoriasis. We found significant up-regulation of S100A8 and S100A9 secretion from keratinocytes in psoriatic lesions. To mimic the in vivo secretory conditions of S100A8 and S100A9 from psoriatic epidermal keratinocytes, we used the culture medium (CM) of S100A8 and S100A8/A9 adenovirus-transduced keratinocytes to investigate the functions of S100A8 and S100A9. We detected increased levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in the CM, including IL-8 and TNF-{alpha}, which are involved in aggravating psoriatic skin lesions, and IL-6 and members of the CXCL family of pro-angiogenic cytokines. The CM increased immune cell migration and increased angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In conclusion, we found that the upregulated production of S100A8 and S100A9 by psoriatic epidermal keratinocytes activated adjacent keratinocytes to produce several cytokines. Moreover, S100A8 and S100A9 themselves function as pro-angiogenic and chemotactic factors, generating a psoriatic milieu in skin.

  4. In vivo Quantification of the Effects of Radiation and Presence of Hair Follicle Pores on the Proliferation of Fibroblasts in an Acellular Human Dermis in a Dorsal Skinfold Chamber: Relevance for Tissue Reconstruction following Neoadjuvant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Patrick; Hohenberger, Peter; Roessner, Eric Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In neoadjuvant therapy, irradiation has a deleterious effect on neoangiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the post-implantation effects of neoadjuvant irradiation on the survival and proliferation of autologous cells seeded onto an acellular human dermis (hAD; Epiflex). Additionally, we examined the influence of dermal hair follicle pores on viability and proliferation. We used dorsal skinfold chambers implanted in rats and in-situ microscopy to quantify cell numbers over 9 days. Methods 24 rats received a skinfold chamber and were divided into 2 main groups; irradiated and unirradiated. In the irradiated groups 20Gy were applied epicutaneously at the dorsum. Epiflex pieces were cut to size 5x5mm such that each piece had either one or more visible hair follicle pores, or no such visible pores. Fibroblasts were transduced lentiviral with a fluorescent protein for cell tracking. Matrices were seeded statically with 2.5x104 fluorescent fibroblasts and implanted into the chambers. In each of the two main groups, half of the rats received Epiflex with hair follicle pores and half received Epiflex without pores. Scaffolds were examined in-situ at 0, 3, 6 and 9 days after transplantation. Visible cells on the surface were quantified using ImageJ. Results In all groups cell numbers were decreased on day 3. A treatment-dependent increase in cell numbers was observed at subsequent time points. Irradiation had an adverse effect on cell survival and proliferation. The number of cells detected in both irradiated and non-irradiated subjects was increased in those subjects that received transplants with hair follicle pores. Discussion This in-vivo study confirms that radiation negatively affects the survival and proliferation of fibroblasts seeded onto a human dermis transplant. The presence of hair follicle pores in the dermis transplants is shown to have a positive effect on cell survival and proliferation even in irradiated subjects. PMID:25955842

  5. In vivo microdialysis for the investigation of drug levels in the dermis and the effect of barrier perturbation on cutaneous drug penetration. Studies in hairless rats and human subjects.

    PubMed

    Benfeldt, E

    1999-01-01

    The thesis opens with review chapters concerning theoretical and practical aspects of the investigation of drug contents in the skin. A discussion of the advantages and limitations of the established methods as well as the relatively new sampling method of microdialysis, which is employed in the experimental section, is given. Factors influencing the barrier function of the normal human skin are described as are the alterations in skin barrier function found in diseased and experimentally barrier perturbed skin. The microdialysis technique consists of introducing an ultra thin, semipermeable tube, a so-called probe, in the dermis. The tube is connected to a precision pump, which provides a steady flow of a tissue-compatible fluid through the probe at a very low flow. Smaller molecules in the tissue, among them the non-protein bound fraction of the drug content in the extracellular fluid, will passively diffuse across the surface of the membrane and thus enter the flow of the perfusate, which is sampled at regular intervals and analysed. Microdialysis is used for the determination of drug levels in the skin after topical as well as systemic drug delivery in the experimental part of the thesis. The method is not applicable to the investigation of all drugs or compounds, as we have shown that it is not feasible to sample highly protein-bound drugs or very lipophilic drugs by microdialysis without further development of the method. The investigation of topical drug administration consists of 2 studies of cutaneous penetration of a model drug, salicylic acid, initially investigated in hairless rats and subsequently in human volunteers. In both studies, barrier perturbation of the skin was undertaken by physical (removal of the stratum corneum by repeated tape stripping) or chemical (treatment with acetone) methods or by provocation of irritative dermatitis (by application of sodium lauryl sulphate, a detergent). Prior to the penetration experiment, the barrier damage

  6. In vivo microdialysis for the investigation of drug levels in the dermis and the effect of barrier perturbation on cutaneous drug penetration. Studies in hairless rats and human subjects.

    PubMed

    Benfeldt, E

    1999-01-01

    The thesis opens with review chapters concerning theoretical and practical aspects of the investigation of drug contents in the skin. A discussion of the advantages and limitations of the established methods as well as the relatively new sampling method of microdialysis, which is employed in the experimental section, is given. Factors influencing the barrier function of the normal human skin are described as are the alterations in skin barrier function found in diseased and experimentally barrier perturbed skin. The microdialysis technique consists of introducing an ultra thin, semipermeable tube, a so-called probe, in the dermis. The tube is connected to a precision pump, which provides a steady flow of a tissue-compatible fluid through the probe at a very low flow. Smaller molecules in the tissue, among them the non-protein bound fraction of the drug content in the extracellular fluid, will passively diffuse across the surface of the membrane and thus enter the flow of the perfusate, which is sampled at regular intervals and analysed. Microdialysis is used for the determination of drug levels in the skin after topical as well as systemic drug delivery in the experimental part of the thesis. The method is not applicable to the investigation of all drugs or compounds, as we have shown that it is not feasible to sample highly protein-bound drugs or very lipophilic drugs by microdialysis without further development of the method. The investigation of topical drug administration consists of 2 studies of cutaneous penetration of a model drug, salicylic acid, initially investigated in hairless rats and subsequently in human volunteers. In both studies, barrier perturbation of the skin was undertaken by physical (removal of the stratum corneum by repeated tape stripping) or chemical (treatment with acetone) methods or by provocation of irritative dermatitis (by application of sodium lauryl sulphate, a detergent). Prior to the penetration experiment, the barrier damage

  7. SPREADING PROPERTY OF AZOPROTEINS IN THE DERMIS

    PubMed Central

    Claude, Albert

    1935-01-01

    1. Azoproteins are shown to have the property of spreading when introduced intradermally into the rabbit skin. 2. The aromatic derivative selected for the coupling does not affect specifically the spreading property of the azoprotein. Likewise, the type of protein has no importance, except in quantitative respects. 3. The spreading property conferred upon a protein by coupling appears to derive from the presence of the azo group. 4. The spreading power of an azoprotein preparation seems to be determined by the number of diazo groups which enter the protein molecule, and to vary in direct proportion with the concentration of the solution. 5. Azo compounds of low molecular weight fail to exhibit any significant effect on skin permeability. PMID:19870411

  8. Dermis mechanical behaviour after different cell removal treatments.

    PubMed

    Terzini, Mara; Bignardi, Cristina; Castagnoli, Carlotta; Cambieri, Irene; Zanetti, Elisabetta M; Audenino, Alberto L

    2016-09-01

    Human acellular dermal matrices (HADMs) are used in reconstructive surgery as scaffolds promoting autologous tissue regeneration. Critical to the HADM ability to remodel and integrate into the host tissue is the removal of cells while maintaining an intact extracellular architecture. The objective of this work is to develop a methodology to analyse the mechanical properties of HADMs after decellularization to identify its ideal form of treatment and its duration. Two different decellularization techniques were used as a benchmark: the first is a well-established technique (incubation in NaOH for 1-7 weeks), and the second is an innovative technique developed by this research group (incubation in DMEM (Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium) for 1-7 weeks). After decellularization, the specimens underwent uniaxial tensile tests, and experimental data were represented with stress strain curves, calculating both engineering and true values. Mechanical tests have led to the identification of the optimal method (NaOH or DMEM) and duration for the decellularization treatment; differences between engineering and true values can reach 84%, but the engineering values remain useful to make comparisons, providing reliable indications with a simpler experimental set up and data processing.

  9. Porcine dermis implants in soft-tissue reconstruction: current status

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Neil J; Bryan, Nicholas; Hunt, John A; Daniels, Ian R

    2014-01-01

    Soft-tissue reconstruction for a variety of surgical conditions, such as abdominal wall hernia or pelvic organ prolapse, remains a challenge. There are numerous meshes available that may be simply categorized as either synthetic or biologic. Within biologic meshes, porcine dermal meshes have come to dominate the market. This review examines the current evidence for their use and the limitations of knowledge. Although there is increasing evidence to support their safety, long-term follow-up studies that support their efficacy are lacking. Numerous clinical trials that remain ongoing may help elucidate their precise role in soft-tissue reconstruction. PMID:24648721

  10. Mucin in the dermis: a case of tender tumors.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Gina J; Spohn, Gina P; Gru, Alejandro; Kaffenberger, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    We present an original case report of a 45-year-old woman with a five-month history of sporadic, tender, nodules present on the right upper abdomen, bilateral dorsal wrists, right upper arm, and left flank. Biopsy revealed a mild perivascular infiltrate, increased dermal mucin, and no significant increase in fibroblasts. Presentation and histology were most consistent with nodular lichen myxedematosus (NLM), a rare primary mucinosis. Only four previous cases are reported in the literature to our knowledge. Management of NLM and other subtypes of lichen myxedematosus is not well described. Our patient failed systemic steroids and was unable to tolerate hydroxychloroquine, but subsequently improved with oral methotrexate. This suggests that methotrexate may be of benefit for NLM. PMID:27617942

  11. Comparison between fingerprints of the epidermis and dermis: Perspectives in the identifying of corpses.

    PubMed

    Mizokami, Leila Lopes; Silva, Lara Rosana Vieira; Kückelhaus, Selma Aparecida Souza

    2015-07-01

    In forensic science, the putrefaction, maceration, mummification or burning make it difficult to collect the fingerprints of the epidermis for identification purposes. In such cases, the comparison between fingerprints collected from the dermal surface and the ante mortem pattern of the epidermal surface archived in databases must be performed. Therefore, considering that the identification of corpses is done by comparison of fingerprints on different surfaces, this study aimed to compare the epidermal and the dermal fingerprints to determine the discrepancies between the minutiae of both surfaces. The study was conducted with excised fingers of 19 fresh adult corpses. Once selected, excised and photographed, the fingers were subjected to maceration with 0.5% acetic acid solution for the removal of the epidermal glove and for registering the dermal fingerprint. Then, an area of 1cm(2) in the epidermal and dermal photographies was selected and the minutiae of each were separately marked by an expert in identification. The comparison between minutiae of the epidermal and dermal surfaces showed that: (1) both surfaces maintained the patterns and characteristics of fingerprints (arch, whorl or loop) and the characteristics related to the systems and the disposal of the lines, meaning the formation or not of deltas; (2) the total number of marked minutiae did not differ between both surfaces for the group of individuals (paired t test, p=0.48); (3) the percentage of coincidences and divergences (minutiae present on only one surface) between minutiae were 63.0±20.0% and 37.0±20.0%, respectively; (4) identification was possible for 16 fingers/individuals, but not for 3 of them; (5) the increase in the number of marked minutiae does not affect the percentage of coincidences. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of the dermal surface for identification purposes due to the high percentage of matching minutiae, but considering the discrepancies and the inconclusive identification of 3 fingers/individuals, our study points to the use of more fingers per individual, as well as the possibility of further studies to improve on the techniques for increasing the identification of corpses, or even to deploy new technologies to ensure their rapid and safe identification.

  12. Creeping hair: an isolated hair burrowing in the uppermost dermis resembling larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Rie; Higashi, Kushio; Ohta, Miyuki; Sugimoto, Yasushi; Ikoma, Yukiko; Horiguchi, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    A 55-year-old Japanese male presented with a slowly moving linear erythema that looked like an eruption of creeping disease, or cutaneous larva migrans. The eruption extended linearly along Langer's line of the lateral side of the abdomen to the lower back, leaving wave-like erythema. In the top third of the erythematous eruption, close examination demonstrated a black thin line, which was revealed to be a hair shaft by a shallow incision of the skin. After removal of the hair, the eruption diminished immediately, leaving a slight pigmentation. An ingrown pubic hair seemed to have migrated with the lower end forward along Langer's line, because of the arrangement of hair cuticle and the force of body motion. Linearly moving erythematous eruptions that look like that of larva migrans should be differentiated from creeping hair by close examination detecting burrowing hair. PMID:17033177

  13. Proteins deposited in the dermis are rapidly captured and presented by epidermal Langerhans cells

    PubMed Central

    Flacher, Vincent; Tripp, Christoph H.; Stoitzner, Patrizia; Haid, Bernhard; Ebner, Susanne; Koch, Franz; Park, Chae Gyu; Steinman, Ralph M.; Idoyaga, Juliana; Romani, Nikolaus

    2010-01-01

    Antigen-presenting cells can capture antigens that are deposited in the skin, including vaccines given subcutaneously. These include different dendritic cells (DC) such as epidermal Langerhans cells (LC), dermal DC and dermal langerin+ DC. To evaluate access of dermal antigens to skin DC, we used mAb to two C-type lectin endocytic receptors, DEC-205/CD205 and langerin/CD207. When applied to murine and human skin explant cultures, these mAb were efficiently taken up by epidermal LC. Additionally, anti-DEC-205 targeted langerin+ CD103+ and langerin− CD103− mouse dermal DC. Unexpectedly, intradermal injection of either mAb, but not isotype control, resulted in strong and rapid labelling of LC in situ, implying that large molecules can diffuse through the basement membrane into the epidermis. Epidermal LC targeted in vivo by ovalbumin-coupled anti-DEC-205 potently presented antigen to CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Thus, epidermal LC play a major role in uptake of lectin-binding ligands under standard vaccination conditions. PMID:19890348

  14. Mimicking the quasi-random assembly of protein fibers in the dermis by freeze-drying method.

    PubMed

    Ghaleh, Hakimeh; Abbasi, Farhang; Alizadeh, Mina; Khoshfetrat, Ali Baradar

    2015-04-01

    Freeze-drying is extensively used for fabrication of porous materials in tissue engineering and biomedical applications, due to its versatility and use of no toxic solvent. However, it has some significant drawbacks. Conventional freeze-drying technique leads to the production of heterogeneous porous structures with side orientated columnar pores. As the top and bottom surfaces of the sample are not in contact with similar environments, different rates of heat transfer in the surfaces and the temperature gradient across the sample establish the preferential direction of heat transfer. To achieve a scaffold with a desirable microstructure for skin tissue engineering, freeze-drying method was modified by controlling the rate of cooling and regulation of heat transfer across the sample during the freezing step. It could create a homogeneous porous structure with more equiaxed non-oriented pores. Freezing the polymeric solution in the aluminum mold enhanced pore interconnectivity relative to the polystyrene mold. Recrystallization process was discussed how to influence the mean pore size of the scaffold when the final freezing temperature varied. Higher final freezing temperature can easily provide the energy required for the recrystallization process, which lead to enlarged ice crystals and resulting pores.

  15. The Immunologic Properties of Bone Morphogenic Protein Receptor IB Positive Subpopulation before and after Osteogenic Differentiation in Mouse Dermis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Xu, Hua; Zhang, Yi; Dong, Jia-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that human dermal bone morphogenic protein receptor (BMPR) IB positive subpopulation had a high osteogenic differentiation potential and may be a promising cell source for allogeneic bone tissue engineering. In this study, the immunologic properties of dermal BMPR-IB+ subpopulation before and after osteogenic differentiation were reported. The results confirmed that dermal BMPR-IB+ cells possessed a similar osteogenic differentiation potential with bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells in a mouse model. Furthermore, the expression of immune rejection-related surface antigens such as major histocompatibility class II and co-stimulatory proteins (CD40, CD80, and CD86) were absent on dermal BMPRIB+ cells. Dermal BMPRIB+ cells elicited no proliferation of allogeneic splenocytes and suppressed the proliferation of stimulated immune cells. Interestingly, osteogenic differentiation in vitro had no adverse effect on the immunological features of these cells. Most importantly, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was involved in immunoregulatory effects by undifferentiated BMPRIB+ fibroblasts, whereas indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity was related to mediating immunomodulatory function by osteogenic differentiated BMPRIB+ fibroblasts. In conclusion, dermal BMPRIB+ cells have a low immunogenicity and possess immunosuppressive capacity before and after osteogenic differentiation in vitro, which would facilitate the allotransplantation in the future. However, mechanisms mediating immunoregulatory property between undifferentiated and osteogenic differentiated BMPRIB+ fibroblasts may be different and need further investigation. PMID:27552226

  16. Global Gene Expression Analysis in PKCα-/- Mouse Skin Reveals Structural Changes in the Dermis and Defective Wound Granulation Tissue.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Nichola H; Balachandra, Jeya P; Hardman, Matthew J

    2015-12-01

    The skin's mechanical integrity is maintained by an organized and robust dermal extracellular matrix (ECM). Resistance to mechanical disruption hinges primarily on homeostasis of the dermal collagen fibril architecture, which is regulated, at least in part, by members of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan (SLRP) family. Here we present data linking protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) to the regulated expression of multiple ECM components including SLRPs. Global microarray profiling reveals deficiencies in ECM gene expression in PKCα-/- skin correlating with abnormal collagen fibril morphology, disorganized dermal architecture, and reduced skin strength. Detailed analysis of the skin and wounds from wild-type and PKCα-/- mice reveals a failure to upregulate collagen and other ECM components in response to injury, resulting in delayed granulation tissue deposition in PKCα-/- wounds. Thus, our data reveal a previously unappreciated role for PKCα in the regulation of ECM structure and deposition during skin wound healing.

  17. The Immunologic Properties of Bone Morphogenic Protein Receptor IB Positive Subpopulation before and after Osteogenic Differentiation in Mouse Dermis.

    PubMed

    He, Jin-Guang; Wang, Ting-Liang; Wang, Tao; Xu, Hua; Zhang, Yi; Dong, Jia-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that human dermal bone morphogenic protein receptor (BMPR) IB positive subpopulation had a high osteogenic differentiation potential and may be a promising cell source for allogeneic bone tissue engineering. In this study, the immunologic properties of dermal BMPR-IB+ subpopulation before and after osteogenic differentiation were reported. The results confirmed that dermal BMPR-IB+ cells possessed a similar osteogenic differentiation potential with bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells in a mouse model. Furthermore, the expression of immune rejection-related surface antigens such as major histocompatibility class II and co-stimulatory proteins (CD40, CD80, and CD86) were absent on dermal BMPRIB+ cells. Dermal BMPRIB+ cells elicited no proliferation of allogeneic splenocytes and suppressed the proliferation of stimulated immune cells. Interestingly, osteogenic differentiation in vitro had no adverse effect on the immunological features of these cells. Most importantly, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was involved in immunoregulatory effects by undifferentiated BMPRIB+ fibroblasts, whereas indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity was related to mediating immunomodulatory function by osteogenic differentiated BMPRIB+ fibroblasts. In conclusion, dermal BMPRIB+ cells have a low immunogenicity and possess immunosuppressive capacity before and after osteogenic differentiation in vitro, which would facilitate the allotransplantation in the future. However, mechanisms mediating immunoregulatory property between undifferentiated and osteogenic differentiated BMPRIB+ fibroblasts may be different and need further investigation. PMID:27552226

  18. Mimicking the quasi-random assembly of protein fibers in the dermis by freeze-drying method.

    PubMed

    Ghaleh, Hakimeh; Abbasi, Farhang; Alizadeh, Mina; Khoshfetrat, Ali Baradar

    2015-04-01

    Freeze-drying is extensively used for fabrication of porous materials in tissue engineering and biomedical applications, due to its versatility and use of no toxic solvent. However, it has some significant drawbacks. Conventional freeze-drying technique leads to the production of heterogeneous porous structures with side orientated columnar pores. As the top and bottom surfaces of the sample are not in contact with similar environments, different rates of heat transfer in the surfaces and the temperature gradient across the sample establish the preferential direction of heat transfer. To achieve a scaffold with a desirable microstructure for skin tissue engineering, freeze-drying method was modified by controlling the rate of cooling and regulation of heat transfer across the sample during the freezing step. It could create a homogeneous porous structure with more equiaxed non-oriented pores. Freezing the polymeric solution in the aluminum mold enhanced pore interconnectivity relative to the polystyrene mold. Recrystallization process was discussed how to influence the mean pore size of the scaffold when the final freezing temperature varied. Higher final freezing temperature can easily provide the energy required for the recrystallization process, which lead to enlarged ice crystals and resulting pores. PMID:25687012

  19. Skin-draining lymph nodes contain dermis-derived CD103(-) dendritic cells that constitutively produce retinoic acid and induce Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Guilliams, Martin; Crozat, Karine; Henri, Sandrine; Tamoutounour, Samira; Grenot, Pierre; Devilard, Elisabeth; de Bovis, Béatrice; Alexopoulou, Lena; Dalod, Marc; Malissen, Bernard

    2010-03-11

    Small intestinal CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs) have the selective ability to promote de novo generation of regulatory T cells via the production of retinoic acid (RA). Considering that aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity controls the production of RA, we used a flow cytometry-based assay to measure ALDH activity at the single-cell level and to perform a comprehensive analysis of the RA-producing DC populations present in lymphoid and nonlymphoid mouse tissues. RA-producing DCs were primarily of the tissue-derived, migratory DC subtype and can be readily found in the skin and in the lungs as well as in their corresponding draining lymph nodes. The RA-producing skin-derived DCs were capable of triggering the generation of regulatory T cells, a finding demonstrating that the presence of RA-producing, tolerogenic DCs is not restricted to the intestinal tract as previously thought. Unexpectedly, the production of RA by skin DCs was restricted to CD103(-) DCs, indicating that CD103 expression does not constitute a "universal" marker for RA-producing mouse DCs. Finally, Toll-like receptor (TLR) triggering or the presence of a commensal microflora was not essential for the induction of ALDH activity in the discrete ALDH(+) DC subsets that characterize tissues constituting environmental interfaces.

  20. S100A8 and S100A9 Are Induced by Decreased Hydration in the Epidermis and Promote Fibroblast Activation and Fibrosis in the Dermis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Aimei; Xu, Wei; Zhao, Jingling; Xie, Ping; Jia, Shengxian; Sun, Jiaming; Galiano, Robert D; Mustoe, Thomas A; Hong, Seok J

    2016-01-01

    The most critical function of the epidermis is to prevent water loss and maintain skin homeostasis. Disruption of the functional skin barrier causes delayed wound healing, hypertrophic scarring, and many skin diseases. Herein, we show that reduced hydration increases the expression of S100 protein family members, S100A8/S100A9, in stratified keratinocyte culture and human ex vivo skin culture. Immunohistological analyses show that S100A8/A9 are highly expressed in the epidermis of human hypertrophic scar and keloid tissues. Reduced hydration demonstrates activation of fibroblasts in the keratinocyte-fibroblast co-culture. In contrast, knockdown of S100A8 or S100A9 by RNA interference in keratinocytes failed to activate fibroblasts. Pretreatment with pharmacological blockers of S100A8/A9 receptors, Toll-like receptor 4 and receptor for advanced glycation end products, inhibits fibroblast activation induced by recombinant S100A8/A9 proteins. Moreover, we observe that local delivery of S100A8 protein results in a marked increase in hypertrophic scarring in the in vivo rabbit ear scar model. Our results indicate that hydration status promotes fibroblast activation and fibrosis by directly affecting the expression of inflammatory signaling in keratinocytes, thereby strongly suggesting S100A8/A9 to be novel targets in preventing scarring.

  1. S100A8 and S100A9 Are Induced by Decreased Hydration in the Epidermis and Promote Fibroblast Activation and Fibrosis in the Dermis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Aimei; Xu, Wei; Zhao, Jingling; Xie, Ping; Jia, Shengxian; Sun, Jiaming; Galiano, Robert D; Mustoe, Thomas A; Hong, Seok J

    2016-01-01

    The most critical function of the epidermis is to prevent water loss and maintain skin homeostasis. Disruption of the functional skin barrier causes delayed wound healing, hypertrophic scarring, and many skin diseases. Herein, we show that reduced hydration increases the expression of S100 protein family members, S100A8/S100A9, in stratified keratinocyte culture and human ex vivo skin culture. Immunohistological analyses show that S100A8/A9 are highly expressed in the epidermis of human hypertrophic scar and keloid tissues. Reduced hydration demonstrates activation of fibroblasts in the keratinocyte-fibroblast co-culture. In contrast, knockdown of S100A8 or S100A9 by RNA interference in keratinocytes failed to activate fibroblasts. Pretreatment with pharmacological blockers of S100A8/A9 receptors, Toll-like receptor 4 and receptor for advanced glycation end products, inhibits fibroblast activation induced by recombinant S100A8/A9 proteins. Moreover, we observe that local delivery of S100A8 protein results in a marked increase in hypertrophic scarring in the in vivo rabbit ear scar model. Our results indicate that hydration status promotes fibroblast activation and fibrosis by directly affecting the expression of inflammatory signaling in keratinocytes, thereby strongly suggesting S100A8/A9 to be novel targets in preventing scarring. PMID:26597884

  2. Age, Segment, and Horn Disease Affect Expression of Cytokines, Growth Factors and Receptors in the Epidermis and Dermis of the Bovine Claw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in amounts of RNA expression for growth factors, cytokines and receptors in epidermal-dermal tissues of the bovine claw relative to host age, claw region and disease state of the horn. Epidermal-dermal tissues were collected from the coronette, wall, sole...

  3. Comparison of pigment cell ultrastructure and organisation in the dermis of marble trout and brown trout, and first description of erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids.

    PubMed

    Djurdjevič, Ida; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Sušnik Bajec, Simona

    2015-11-01

    Skin pigmentation in animals is an important trait with many functions. The present study focused on two closely related salmonid species, marble trout (Salmo marmoratus) and brown trout (S. trutta), which display an uncommon labyrinthine (marble-like) and spot skin pattern, respectively. To determine the role of chromatophore type in the different formation of skin pigment patterns in the two species, the distribution and ultrastructure of chromatophores was examined with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The presence of three types of chromatophores in trout skin was confirmed: melanophores; xanthophores; and iridophores. In addition, using correlative microscopy, erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids was described for the first time. Two types of erythrophores are distinguished, both located exclusively in the skin of brown trout: type 1 in black spot skin sections similar to xanthophores; and type 2 with a unique ultrastructure, located only in red spot skin sections. Morphologically, the difference between the light and dark pigmentation of trout skin depends primarily on the position and density of melanophores, in the dark region covering other chromatophores, and in the light region with the iridophores and xanthophores usually exposed. With larger amounts of melanophores, absence of xanthophores and presence of erythrophores type 1 and type L iridophores in the black spot compared with the light regions and the presence of erythrophores type 2 in the red spot, a higher level of pigment cell organisation in the skin of brown trout compared with that of marble trout was demonstrated. Even though the skin regions with chromatophores were well defined, not all the chromatophores were in direct contact, either homophilically or heterophilically, with each other. In addition to short-range interactions, an important role of the cellular environment and long-range interactions between chromatophores in promoting adult pigment pattern formation of trout are proposed.

  4. Basic histological structure and functions of facial skin.

    PubMed

    Arda, Oktay; Göksügür, Nadir; Tüzün, Yalçın

    2014-01-01

    The skin and its appendages that derive from the epidermis (hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, nails, and mammary glands) establish the integumentary system. Histologically, skin has two main layers-the epidermis and the dermis-with a subcutaneous fascia called the hypodermis, which lies deep in the dermis. The epidermis is formed of four to five layers of cells made mostly out of keratinocytes, along with three other different and less abundant cells. The dermis underlies the epidermis. The hypodermis is a looser connective tissue that is located beneath the dermis. It blends to the dermis with an unclear boundary.

  5. Changes in the Dermal Structure during Cultured Epidermal Autograft Engraftment Process

    PubMed Central

    Muramatsu, Hideyuki; Nakano, Minoru; Yamamoto, Naoto; Tokunaka, Ryohei; Umezawa, Kazuya; Hamajima, Akito; Araki, Natsue; Yoshimoto, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of cultured epithelial autografts for the treatment of extensive burn wounds has become popular in recent years. We examined extensive burn wounds in 14 patients by using a combination of autograft and cultured epithelial autografts developed in Japan (JACE). Methods: We undertook a skin biopsy at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after transplantation with JACE. By using electron microscopy we observed the engraftment process. Results: In transmission electron microscope findings, we recognized the engraftment process of JACE. Keratinocytes matured gradually. Collagen fibers formed thick bundles in the dermis layer. In scanning electron microscope findings, we observed papillary dermis development on the artificial dermis. Conclusions: After managing wound bed preparation by using artificial dermis, we were able to recognize the good result of grafting JACE on meshed 6:1 split thickness autografts. This is because the auto dermis from autograft extended under the JACE, binding between JACE, and the dermis became strong. PMID:27757335

  6. A blanching technique for intradermal injection of the hyaluronic acid Belotero.

    PubMed

    Micheels, Patrick; Sarazin, Didier; Besse, Stéphanie; Sundaram, Hema; Flynn, Timothy C

    2013-10-01

    With the proliferation of dermal fillers in the aesthetic workplace have come instructions from various manufacturers regarding dermal placement. Determination of injection needle location in the dermis has in large part been based on physician expertise, product and needle familiarity, and patient-specific skin characteristics. An understanding of the precise depth of dermal structures may help practitioners improve injection specificity. Unlike other dermal fillers that suggest intradermal and deep dermal injection planes, a new hyaluronic acid with a cohesive polydensified matrix may be more appropriate for the superficial dermis because of its structure and its high degree of integration into the dermis. To that end, the authors designed a small study to quantify the depth of the superficial dermis by means of ultrasound and histology. Using ultrasound resources, the authors determined the depths of the epidermis, the dermis, and the reticular dermis in the buttocks of six patients; the authors then extrapolated the depth of the superficial reticular dermis. Histologic studies of two of the patients showed full integration of the product in the reticular dermis. Following determination of injection depths and filler integration, the authors describe a technique ("blanching") for injection of the cohesive polydensified matrix hyaluronic acid into the superficial dermis. At this time, blanching is appropriate only for injection of the cohesive polydensified matrix hyaluronic acid known as Belotero Balance in the United States, although it may have applications for other hyaluronic acid products outside of the United States.

  7. Softenin, a novel protein that softens the connective tissue of sea cucumbers through inhibiting interaction between collagen fibrils.

    PubMed

    Takehana, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Akira; Tamori, Masaki; Motokawa, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    The dermis in the holothurian body wall is a typical catch connective tissue or mutable collagenous tissue that shows rapid changes in stiffness. Some chemical factors that change the stiffness of the tissue were found in previous studies, but the molecular mechanisms of the changes are not yet fully understood. Detection of factors that change the stiffness by working directly on the extracellular matrix was vital to clarify the mechanisms of the change. We isolated from the body wall of the sea cucumber Stichopus chloronotus a novel protein, softenin, that softened the body-wall dermis. The apparent molecular mass was 20 kDa. The N-terminal sequence of 17 amino acids had low homology to that of known proteins. We performed sequential chemical and physical dissections of the dermis and tested the effects of softenin on each dissection stage by dynamic mechanical tests. Softenin softened Triton-treated dermis whose cells had been disrupted by detergent. The Triton-treated dermis was subjected to repetitive freeze-and-thawing to make Triton-Freeze-Thaw (TFT) dermis that was softer than the Triton-treated dermis, implying that some force-bearing structure had been disrupted by this treatment. TFT dermis was stiffened by tensilin, a stiffening protein of sea cucumbers. Softenin softened the tensilin-stiffened TFT dermis while it had no effect on the TFT dermis without tensilin treatment. We isolated collagen from the dermis. When tensilin was applied to the suspending solution of collagen fibrils, they made a large compact aggregate that was dissolved by the application of softenin or by repetitive freeze-and-thawing. These results strongly suggested that softenin decreased dermal stiffness through inhibiting cross-bridge formation between collagen fibrils; the formation was augmented by tensilin and the bridges were broken by the freeze-thaw treatment. Softenin is thus the first softener of catch connective tissue shown to work on the cross-bridges between

  8. Softenin, a Novel Protein That Softens the Connective Tissue of Sea Cucumbers through Inhibiting Interaction between Collagen Fibrils

    PubMed Central

    Takehana, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Akira; Tamori, Masaki; Motokawa, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    The dermis in the holothurian body wall is a typical catch connective tissue or mutable collagenous tissue that shows rapid changes in stiffness. Some chemical factors that change the stiffness of the tissue were found in previous studies, but the molecular mechanisms of the changes are not yet fully understood. Detection of factors that change the stiffness by working directly on the extracellular matrix was vital to clarify the mechanisms of the change. We isolated from the body wall of the sea cucumber Stichopus chloronotus a novel protein, softenin, that softened the body-wall dermis. The apparent molecular mass was 20 kDa. The N-terminal sequence of 17 amino acids had low homology to that of known proteins. We performed sequential chemical and physical dissections of the dermis and tested the effects of softenin on each dissection stage by dynamic mechanical tests. Softenin softened Triton-treated dermis whose cells had been disrupted by detergent. The Triton-treated dermis was subjected to repetitive freeze-and-thawing to make Triton-Freeze-Thaw (TFT) dermis that was softer than the Triton-treated dermis, implying that some force-bearing structure had been disrupted by this treatment. TFT dermis was stiffened by tensilin, a stiffening protein of sea cucumbers. Softenin softened the tensilin-stiffened TFT dermis while it had no effect on the TFT dermis without tensilin treatment. We isolated collagen from the dermis. When tensilin was applied to the suspending solution of collagen fibrils, they made a large compact aggregate that was dissolved by the application of softenin or by repetitive freeze-and-thawing. These results strongly suggested that softenin decreased dermal stiffness through inhibiting cross-bridge formation between collagen fibrils; the formation was augmented by tensilin and the bridges were broken by the freeze-thaw treatment. Softenin is thus the first softener of catch connective tissue shown to work on the cross-bridges between

  9. Case study: Epidermoid cyst following percutaneous Topaz coblation for plantar fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kim; Thomson, Allan George; Moir, John Stuart

    2012-03-01

    An epidermoid cyst is formed when there is proliferation of epidermal cells within an area of the dermis. They may be formed by the traumatic implantation of epidermal cells within the dermis as well as many other mechanisms. We present a case of epidermoid cyst formation following Topaz coblation for plantar fasciitis; a complication we believe is yet to be reported in the literature.

  10. Monitoring process of human keloid formation based on second harmonic generation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X. S.; Chen, S.; Chen, J. X.; Zhu, X. Q.; Zheng, L. Q.; Zhuo, S. M.; Wang, D. J.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, the morphological variation of collagen among the whole dermis from keloid tissue was investigated using second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. In the deep dermis of keloids, collagen bundles show apparently regular gap. In the middle dermis, the collagen bundles are randomly oriented and loosely arranged in the pattern of fine mesh while the collagen bundles are organized in a parallel manner in the superficial dermis near the epidermis. The developed parameters COI and BD can be used to further quantitatively describe these changes. Our results demonstrate the potential of SHG microscopy to understand the formation process of human keloid scar at the cellular level through imaging collagen variations in different depth of dermis.

  11. Multiphoton microscopy study of the morphological and quantity changes of collagen and elastic fiber components in keloid disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianxin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Jiang, Xingshan; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zheng, Liqin; Xie, Shusen; Lin, Bifang; Zeng, Haishan

    2011-05-01

    Multiphoton microscopy was used to study the extracellular matrix of keloid at the molecular level without tissue fixation and staining. Direct imaging of collagen and elastin was achieved by second harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence, respectively. The morphology and quantity of collagen and elastin in keloid were characterized and quantitatively analyzed in comparison to normal skin. The study demonstrated that in keloid, collagen content increased in both the upper dermis and the deep dermis, while elastin mostly showed up in the deep dermis and its quantity is higher compared to normal skin. This suggests the possibility that abnormal fibroblasts synthesized an excessive amount of collagen and elastin at the beginning of keloid formation, corresponding to the observed deep dermis, while after a certain time point, the abnormal fibroblast produced mostly collagen, corresponding to the observed upper dermis. The morphology of collagen and elastin in keloid was disrupted and presented different variations. In the deep dermis, elastic fibers showed node structure, while collagen showed obviously regular gaps between adjacent bundles. In the upper dermis, collagen bundles aligned in a preferred direction, while elastin showed as sparse irregular granules. This new molecular information provided fresh insight about the development process of keloid.

  12. Dermascope assisted interactive patient interface for multiple reference optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dsouza, Roshan; Subhash, Hrebesh; Neuhaus, Kai; Hogan, Josh; Wilson, Carol; Leahy, Martin

    2014-02-01

    There has been a growing interest in the development of a low cost depth-resolved non-invasive dermis imaging tool for both clinical and fundamental investigations of skin diseases. Multiple reference optical coherence tomography (MR-OCT) is a recently developed miniature time-domain low coherence interferometeric imaging platform, which promises to fit into robust, cost-effective designs that are virtually solid state, typical of handheld devices. In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility of MR-OCT for dermis imaging applications by incorporating it in a dermascope, which provides simultaneous imaging of dermis and an interactive tool for beam steering and registration of the OCT imaging beam at the dermis area. This allows the user to interactively investigate the depth resolved information of any target position of interest on the dermis by pointing the mouse cursor within the dermis image or selecting the area on a touch screen. Image acquisition is controlled with software that displays both the dermis and MR-OCT axial-scan, and allows detailed information of the depth scan signal to screen for skin disease. We believe this approach will have a significant impact on medical care.

  13. Elemental analysis of tissue pellets for the differentiation of epidermal lesion and normal skin by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Youngmin; Han, Jung Hyun; Shin, Sungho; Kim, Yong-Chul; Jeong, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    By laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis of epidermal lesion and dermis tissue pellets of hairless mouse, it is shown that Ca intensity in the epidermal lesion is higher than that in dermis, whereas Na and K intensities have an opposite tendency. It is demonstrated that epidermal lesion and normal dermis can be differentiated with high selectivity either by univariate or multivariate analysis of LIBS spectra with an intensity ratio difference by factor of 8 or classification accuracy over 0.995, respectively. PMID:27231610

  14. Papular dermatitis induced in guinea pigs by the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Histological, ultrastructural, and virological examinations were performed on abdominal skin from guinea pigs after a blood meal by colony-bred biting midges, Culicoides sonorensis. Small, superficial, cutaneous, crateriform ulcers with necrosis of superficial dermis developed at feeding sites and ...

  15. Ecthyma (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Ecthyma is a skin infection similar to impetigo, but more deeply invasive. Usually caused by a streptococcus infection, ecthyma goes through the outer layer (epidermis) to the deeper layer (dermis) of ...

  16. 40 CFR 157.22 - When required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... irritation persisting for 21 days or more; (5) The pesticide is corrosive to the skin (causes tissue destruction into the dermis and/or scarring) or causes severe skin irritation (severe erythema or edema) at...

  17. 40 CFR 157.22 - When required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... irritation persisting for 21 days or more; (5) The pesticide is corrosive to the skin (causes tissue destruction into the dermis and/or scarring) or causes severe skin irritation (severe erythema or edema) at...

  18. Burns (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... degree burns damage the outer layer of skin (epidermis) and cause pain, redness and swelling (erythema). Second degree burns damage the epidermis and the inner layer, the dermis, causing erythema ...

  19. Dermal penetration and systemic distribution of sup 14 C-labeled vitamin E human skin grafted athymic nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Klain, G.J.

    1989-03-13

    In vivo percutaneous penetration and tissue distribution of 14C-labeled vitamin E applied to human skin grafted onto athymic nude mice were determined. At 1 hr, mouse skin contained the highest level of radioactivity, followed by the muscle, blood, liver, lung, adipose tissue, spleen, kidney, brain, heart, and eyes. A linear increase with time in tissue radioactivity was observed throughout the 24 hr experimental period. At 4 and 24 hrs skin grafts were highly radioactive. At 4 hrs the epidermis and the upper portion of the dermis contained more radioactivity than the remaining portion of the dermis. In contrast, at 24 hrs the highest level of radioactivity was detected in the lower dermis. No radioactivity was detected in expired air while 0.2% of the dose was found in the urine. The data show that vitamin E does penetrate skin and that the dermis acts as a barrier or reservoir for this highly lipophilic compound.

  20. Study of diffusion of indocyanine green as a photodynamic dye into skin using backscattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genina, E. A.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2014-07-01

    One of the lines of development of modern medicine is theranostics consisting in simultaneous diagnosis and laser treatment with the use of multifunctional agents such as fluorescent indocyanine green that has photodynamic and photothermal properties. Diffusion of indocyanine green dissolved in water and aqueous solutions of alcohols (glycerol, propylene glycol and ethanol) into the dermis is studied by using backscattering spectroscopy. The coefficients of the dye diffusion into the dermis are obtained for the first time by using these solvents.

  1. Study of diffusion of indocyanine green as a photodynamic dye into skin using backscattering spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Genina, E A; Bashkatov, A N; Tuchin, V V

    2014-07-31

    One of the lines of development of modern medicine is theranostics consisting in simultaneous diagnosis and laser treatment with the use of multifunctional agents such as fluorescent indocyanine green that has photodynamic and photothermal properties. Diffusion of indocyanine green dissolved in water and aqueous solutions of alcohols (glycerol, propylene glycol and ethanol) into the dermis is studied by using backscattering spectroscopy. The coefficients of the dye diffusion into the dermis are obtained for the first time by using these solvents. (laser biophotonics)

  2. Histological Comparison of the Human Trunk Skin Creases: The Role of the Elastic Fiber Component

    PubMed Central

    Kakagia, Despoina; Yiacoumettis, Andreas; Vasilakaki, Thivi; Drougou, Aggeliki; Lambropoulou, Maria; Simopoulos, Constantinos; Tsaroucha, Alexandra K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Skin creases are features of major anatomical, morphological, surgical, and functional interest. This study focuses on the histological comparison of creases of the trunk and participation of the elastic fibers in their formation. The histological structure is a key consideration for the reconstructive planning of the relevant area and its knowledge may contribute in such direction. Methods: Fresh cadaver specimens were collected from the inframammary (n = 15), infragluteal (n = 16), and inguinal creases (n = 14), the anterior axillary fold (n = 14), and the surrounding skin (n = 10). Specimens were fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde. Collagen and muscle fibers were stained by Masson Trichrome and Van Gieson stains, reticular and collagen type III fibers by Reticulin stain, and elastic fibers by Verhoef and Orcein stains. Results: Skin creases of the trunk present well-defined dense bundles of collagen fibers, creating a beehive pattern with broad attachment to the dermis and denser in deeper sites related to the fascia of the underlying muscle. The elastic fibers participate in the collagen pattern and radiate in a parallel pattern in the reticular dermis and in a perpendicular fashion in the papillary dermis. The skin surrounding the creases lacks such organization. Conclusions: Creases of the trunk are formed by well-organized collagen bundles in a beehive pattern, attached to the dermis and related to the underlying muscle fascia. The elastic fibers participate in this structure and radiate in a parallel fashion in the reticular dermis and perpendicularly in the papillary dermis. PMID:27081433

  3. Ultrastructural Changes Associated with Reversible Stiffening in Catch Connective Tissue of Sea Cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Tamori, Masaki; Ishida, Kinji; Matsuura, Eri; Ogasawara, Katsutoshi; Hanasaka, Tomohito; Takehana, Yasuhiro; Motokawa, Tatsuo; Osawa, Tokuji

    2016-01-01

    The dermis of sea cucumbers is a catch connective tissue or a mutable collagenous tissue that shows rapid, large and reversible stiffness changes in response to stimulation. The main component of the dermis is the extracellular material composed of collagen fibrils embedded in a hydrogel of proteoglycans. The stiffness of the extracellular material determines that of the dermis. The dermis has three mechanical states: soft (Sa), standard (Sb) and stiff (Sc). We studied the ultrastructural changes associated with the stiffness changes. Transverse sections of collagen fibrils in the dermis showed irregular perimeters with electron-dense protrusions or arms that cross-bridged between fibrils. The number of cross-bridges increased in stiffer dermis. The distance between the fibrils was shorter in Sc than that in other states, which was in accord with the previous report that water exuded from the tissue in the transition Sb→Sc. The ultrastructure of collagen fibrils that had been isolated from the dermis was also studied. Fibrils aggregated by tensilin, which causes the transition Sa→Sb possibly through an increase in cohesive forces between fibrils, had larger diameter than those dispersed by softenin, which antagonizes the effect of tensilin. No cross-bridges were found in isolated collagen fibrils. From the present ultrastructural study we propose that three different mechanisms work together to increase the dermal stiffness. 1.Tensilin makes collagen fibrils stronger and stiffer in Sa→Sb through an increase in cohesive forces between subfibrils that constituted fibrils; 2. Cross-bridging by arms caused the fibrils to be a continuous network of bundles both in Sa→Sb and in Sb→Sc; 3. The matrix embedding the fibril network became stiffer in Sb→Sc, which was produced by bonding associated with water exudation. PMID:27192546

  4. Ultrastructural Changes Associated with Reversible Stiffening in Catch Connective Tissue of Sea Cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Tamori, Masaki; Ishida, Kinji; Matsuura, Eri; Ogasawara, Katsutoshi; Hanasaka, Tomohito; Takehana, Yasuhiro; Motokawa, Tatsuo; Osawa, Tokuji

    2016-01-01

    The dermis of sea cucumbers is a catch connective tissue or a mutable collagenous tissue that shows rapid, large and reversible stiffness changes in response to stimulation. The main component of the dermis is the extracellular material composed of collagen fibrils embedded in a hydrogel of proteoglycans. The stiffness of the extracellular material determines that of the dermis. The dermis has three mechanical states: soft (Sa), standard (Sb) and stiff (Sc). We studied the ultrastructural changes associated with the stiffness changes. Transverse sections of collagen fibrils in the dermis showed irregular perimeters with electron-dense protrusions or arms that cross-bridged between fibrils. The number of cross-bridges increased in stiffer dermis. The distance between the fibrils was shorter in Sc than that in other states, which was in accord with the previous report that water exuded from the tissue in the transition Sb→Sc. The ultrastructure of collagen fibrils that had been isolated from the dermis was also studied. Fibrils aggregated by tensilin, which causes the transition Sa→Sb possibly through an increase in cohesive forces between fibrils, had larger diameter than those dispersed by softenin, which antagonizes the effect of tensilin. No cross-bridges were found in isolated collagen fibrils. From the present ultrastructural study we propose that three different mechanisms work together to increase the dermal stiffness. 1.Tensilin makes collagen fibrils stronger and stiffer in Sa→Sb through an increase in cohesive forces between subfibrils that constituted fibrils; 2. Cross-bridging by arms caused the fibrils to be a continuous network of bundles both in Sa→Sb and in Sb→Sc; 3. The matrix embedding the fibril network became stiffer in Sb→Sc, which was produced by bonding associated with water exudation.

  5. Ultrastructural Changes Associated with Reversible Stiffening in Catch Connective Tissue of Sea Cucumbers

    PubMed Central

    Tamori, Masaki; Ishida, Kinji; Matsuura, Eri; Ogasawara, Katsutoshi; Hanasaka, Tomohito; Takehana, Yasuhiro; Motokawa, Tatsuo; Osawa, Tokuji

    2016-01-01

    The dermis of sea cucumbers is a catch connective tissue or a mutable collagenous tissue that shows rapid, large and reversible stiffness changes in response to stimulation. The main component of the dermis is the extracellular material composed of collagen fibrils embedded in a hydrogel of proteoglycans. The stiffness of the extracellular material determines that of the dermis. The dermis has three mechanical states: soft (Sa), standard (Sb) and stiff (Sc). We studied the ultrastructural changes associated with the stiffness changes. Transverse sections of collagen fibrils in the dermis showed irregular perimeters with electron-dense protrusions or arms that cross-bridged between fibrils. The number of cross-bridges increased in stiffer dermis. The distance between the fibrils was shorter in Sc than that in other states, which was in accord with the previous report that water exuded from the tissue in the transition Sb→Sc. The ultrastructure of collagen fibrils that had been isolated from the dermis was also studied. Fibrils aggregated by tensilin, which causes the transition Sa→Sb possibly through an increase in cohesive forces between fibrils, had larger diameter than those dispersed by softenin, which antagonizes the effect of tensilin. No cross-bridges were found in isolated collagen fibrils. From the present ultrastructural study we propose that three different mechanisms work together to increase the dermal stiffness. 1.Tensilin makes collagen fibrils stronger and stiffer in Sa→Sb through an increase in cohesive forces between subfibrils that constituted fibrils; 2. Cross-bridging by arms caused the fibrils to be a continuous network of bundles both in Sa→Sb and in Sb→Sc; 3. The matrix embedding the fibril network became stiffer in Sb→Sc, which was produced by bonding associated with water exudation. PMID:27192546

  6. Release of propolis phenolic acids from semisolid formulations and their penetration into the human skin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zilius, Modestas; Ramanauskienė, Kristina; Briedis, Vitalis

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects are attributed to phenolic compounds present in propolis, and when delivered to the skin surface and following penetration into epidermis and dermis, they can contribute to skin protection from damaging action of free radicals that are formed under UV and premature skin aging. This study was designed to determine the penetration of phenolic acids and vanillin into the human skin in vitro from experimentally designed vehicles. Results of the study demonstrated the ability of propolis phenolic acids (vanillic, coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids) and vanillin to penetrate into skin epidermis and dermis. The rate of penetration and distribution is affected both by physicochemical characteristics of active substances and physical structure and chemical composition of semisolid vehicle. Vanillin and vanillic acid demonstrated relatively high penetration through epidermis into dermis where these compounds were concentrated, coumaric and ferulic acids were uniformly distributed between epidermis and dermis, and caffeic acid slowly penetrated into epidermis and was not determined in dermis. Further studies are deemed relevant for the development of semisolid topically applied systems designed for efficient delivery of propolis antioxidants into the skin.

  7. The nano-scale mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix regulate dermal fibroblast function.

    PubMed

    Achterberg, Volker F; Buscemi, Lara; Diekmann, Heike; Smith-Clerc, Josiane; Schwengler, Helge; Meister, Jean-Jacques; Wenck, Horst; Gallinat, Stefan; Hinz, Boris

    2014-07-01

    Changes in the mechanical properties of dermis occur during skin aging or tissue remodeling and affect the activity of resident fibroblasts. With the aim to establish elastic culture substrates that reproduce the variable softness of dermis, we determined Young's elastic modulus E of human dermis at the cell perception level using atomic force microscopy. The E of dermis ranged from 0.1 to 10 kPa, varied depending on body area and dermal layer, and tended to increase with age in 26-55-year-old donors. The activation state of human dermal fibroblasts cultured on "skin-soft" E (5 kPa) silicone culture substrates was compared with stiff plastic culture (GPa), collagen gel cultures (0.1-9 kPa), and fresh human dermal tissue. Fibroblasts cultured on skin-soft silicones displayed low mRNA levels of fibrosis-associated genes and increased expression of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP-1 and MMP-3 as compared with collagen gel and plastic cultures. The activation profile exhibited by fibroblasts on "skin-soft" silicone culture substrates was most comparable with that of human dermis than any other tested culture condition. Hence, providing biomimetic mechanical conditions generates fibroblasts that are more suitable to investigate physiologically relevant cell processes than fibroblasts spontaneously activated by stiff conventional culture surfaces.

  8. Technical parameters of vertical in vivo multiphoton microscopy: a critical evaluation of the flyscanning method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czekalla, C.; Schönborn, K. H.; Markworth, S.; Ulrich, M.; Göppner, D.; Gollnick, H.; Röwert-Huber, J.; Darvin, M. E.; Lademann, J.; Meinke, M. C.

    2015-08-01

    The optical biopsy could be a quick and painless support or alternative to a punch biopsy. In this letter the first in vivo vertical wide field two photon microscopy (2PM) images of healthy volunteers are shown. The 2PM images are fused images of two photon excited auto fluorescence (AF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) signals given as false-color images of 200 μm  ×  7 mm in size. By using these two nonlinear effects, the epidermis can be easily distinguished from the dermis at a glance. The auto fluorescence provides cellular resolution of the epidermal cells, and elastin fibers are partly visible in the dermis. Collagen, visible by SHG signal, is the dominant structure in the dermis. As contact agent water was evaluated to increase the AF signal, especially in the deeper layers of epidermis and dermis. For further improvement any terminal hairs should be removed by shaving and by taking tape strips of the first five layers of the stratum corneum. The first images illustrated that young skin compared to aged skin shows remarkably different dermal elastin and collagen signals in the dermis.

  9. Specificity of dermal mucin in the diagnosis of lupus erythematosus: comparison with other dermatitides and normal skin.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Jeremy G; Chan, May P

    2015-10-01

    Increased dermal mucin is a feature of lupus erythematosus (LE); however, its amount and distribution have not been well characterized. The differentiation of LE from other forms of dermatitis can be challenging when other features of LE are subtle or equivocal. One hundred and thirty-five skin specimens showing LE, graft vs. host disease, erythema multiforme/fixed drug eruption, lichen planus, polymorphous light eruption (PMLE), urticaria, eczematous dermatitis and psoriasis and normal skin with and without photodamage were collected. The amounts of mucin in the papillary, superficial reticular and deep reticular dermis were scored from 0 to 3 on hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and alcian blue (AB) stains, and compared between groups. The mean scores in the reticular dermis were significantly higher in LE than in other categories except PMLE and eczematous dermatitis. A combined H&E + AB score of ≥5 in the superficial reticular dermis gave an overall specificity of 85.7% for LE. Mucin in the papillary dermis failed to distinguish among entities. Normal photodamaged skin showed significantly more mucin in the superficial reticular dermis compared to non-photodamaged skin. While LE is associated with increased mucin deposition, scant to moderate amount of mucin alone has limited specificity and is common in other dermatitides or photodamaged skin.

  10. SDF-1 liposomes promote sustained cell proliferation in mouse diabetic wounds.

    PubMed

    Olekson, Melissa A Przyborowski; Faulknor, Renea; Bandekar, Amey; Sempkowski, Michelle; Hsia, Henry C; Berthiaume, François

    2015-09-01

    Chronic skin wounds are a common complication of diabetes. When standard wound care fails to heal such wounds, a promising approach consists of using decellularized matrices and other porous scaffold materials to promote the restoration of skin. Proper revascularization is critical for the efficacy of such materials in regenerative medicine. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is a chemokine known to play a key role for angiogenesis in ischemic tissues. Herein we developed nanosized SDF-1 liposomes, which were then incorporated into decellularized dermis scaffolds used for skin wound healing applications. SDF-1 peptide associated with liposomes with an efficiency of 80%, and liposomes were easily dispersed throughout the acellular dermis. Acellular dermis spiked with SDF-1 liposomes exhibited more persistent cell proliferation in the dermis, especially in CD31(+) areas, compared to acellular dermis spiked with free SDF-1, which resulted in increased improved wound closure at day 21, and increased granulation tissue thickness at day 28. SDF-1 liposomes may increase the performance of a variety of decellularized matrices used in tissue engineering.

  11. Crude extract of Fusarium oxysporum induces apoptosis and structural alterations in the skin of healthy rats.

    PubMed

    de Paulo, Luis F; Coelho, Ana C; Svidzinski, Terezinha I E; Sato, Francielle; Rohling, Jurandir H; Natali, Maria Raquel M; Baesso, Mauro L; Hernandes, Luzmarina

    2013-09-01

    We evaluate the biological and physicochemical effects of a Fusarium oxysporum crude extract (CE) on the skin of healthy rats. The CE is topically applied and subsequently the skin is collected after 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. The samples are analyzed by Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) and histomorphometric analysis. Terminal dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay) is performed to detect both the cells in apoptosis and proliferation. There is a thickening of the epidermis after 6, 12, and 24 h and dermis after 12 and 24 h of CE application. A reduction of the dermis thickness is observed at 3 and 6 h. The treated skin shows higher labeling intensity by TUNEL at 3 h, while a higher intensity by proliferating cell nuclear antigen occurs at 3 and 12 h. FTIR-PAS data support the histology observations showing an increase in the absorption peaks in the dermis after the application of the CE. F. oxysporum CE permeated through the epidermis and the dermis, reaching the subcutaneous tissue, inducing cell apoptosis, and causing physicochemical changes in the organic molecules located in the dermis. This is the first known study associating histopathological and physical chemistry changes on healthy skin after the application of F. oxysporum CE.

  12. Development of full-thickness human skin equivalents with blood and lymph-like capillary networks by cell coating technology.

    PubMed

    Matsusaki, Michiya; Fujimoto, Kumiko; Shirakata, Yuji; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Koji; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2015-10-01

    We developed a human skin equivalent (HSE) containing blood and lymph-like capillary networks using a cell coating technique, which is a rapid fabrication technology of three-dimensional cellular constructs by cell surface coating using layer-by-layer assembled nanofilms of extracellular matrices. The thickness of dermis consisting of normal human dermal fibroblasts was easily controlled from approximately 5 to 100 µm by altering the seeded cell number. Keratinocytes as a major cell population showed homogeneous differentiation on the surface of the dermis by lifting to air-liquid interface. Histological analysis revealed four distinct layers such as basal layer, spinous layer, granular layer, and cornified cell layer in the epidermis. Interestingly, the measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) indicated prolongation of the attainment time for maximum value by increasing the number of the dermal fibroblasts, and the HSEs with six layers of dermis revealed the longest period maintaining over 500 Ω cm(2) of TEER. The co-sandwich culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and normal human dermal lymphatic microvascular endothelial cells within eight-layered dermis showed in vitro co-network formation of individual blood and lymph-like capillaries inside the dermis. This is the report for homogeneous full-thickness HSEs with blood and lymph capillary networks, which will be useful for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications.

  13. Monte Carlo study of skin optical clearing to enhance light penetration in the tissue: implications for photodynamic therapy of acne vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Genina, Elina A.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Altshuler, Gregory B.; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V.

    2008-06-01

    Result of Monte Carlo simulations of skin optical clearing is presented. The model calculations were carried out with the aim of studying of spectral response of skin under immersion liquids action and calculation of enhancement of light penetration depth. In summary, we have shown that: 1) application of glucose, propylene glycol and glycerol produced significant decrease of light scattering in different skin layers; 2) maximal clearing effect will be obtained in case of optical clearing of skin dermis, however, absorbed light fraction in skin dermis changed insignificantly, independently on clearing agent and place it administration; 3) in contrast to it, the light absorbed fraction in skin adipose layer increased significantly in case of optical clearing of skin dermis. It is very important because it can be used for development of optical methods of obesity treatment; 4) optical clearing of superficial skin layers can be used for decreasing of power of light radiation used for treatment of acne vulgaris.

  14. Mineralization of elastic fibers and alterations of extracellular matrix in pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Ultrastructure, immunocytochemistry, and X-ray analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, E.R.; Frederickson, R.G.; Mayes, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    Histologic paraffin sections of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE)-involved skin of forearm and axilla were used for histochemistry and immunohistochemical and analytical electron microscopy to study the progressive mineralization in the dermis of patients with PXE. The von Kossa technique identified mineral deposits throughout the reticular PXE dermis. X-ray analysis revealed patterns of calcium and phosphorus deposition in the von Kossa-positive areas, and the immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies identified increased chondroitin-6-sulfate in these areas when compared with normal skin. Scanning transmission electron microscopy observation combined with X-ray dot mapping show calcium and phosphorus to be codistributed within the mineralized area. This study confirms by new methods the increase in chondroitin-6-sulfate, alterations in elastin and collagen, and a high calcium and phosphorus elemental distribution matching the mineralized area in the PXE dermis.

  15. Monitoring collagen remodeling on opto-thermal response of photoaged skin irradiated by Er:YAG laser with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoman; Wu, Shulian; Li, Hui

    2010-11-01

    The Optical Coherence Tomography technology was used to perform noninvasive cross-sectional imaging of internal structures in photoaged mouse skin irradiated by Er:YAG laser. The mice were irradiated chronically with a steady dose of ultraviolet irradiation. Various laser light doses were irradiated on the back skins of the photoaged mouse. An OCT was used to observe the process of the collagen remodeling in dermis. The relationship between optical characteristic parameter such as attenuation coefficient and light dose was discovered. The total attenuation coefficient increased when the light dose increased. Our findings showed that Er:YAG laser could be used for the symptoms of the photoaged skin with some degree of thermal damage in the dermis, and the OCT could image the progress of collagen remodeling in photoaged mouse dermis. The OCT may be a useful tool for the determination of optimal parameters for laser skin treatment.

  16. Injectable tissue-engineered soft tissue for tissue augmentation.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Sung-Mi; You, Hi-Jin; Han, Seung-Kyu

    2014-11-01

    Soft tissue augmentation is a process of implanting tissues or materials to treat wrinkles or soft tissue defects in the body. Over the years, various materials have evolved to correct soft tissue defects, including a number of tissues and polymers. Autogenous dermis, autogenous fat, autogenous dermis-fat, allogenic dermis, synthetic implants, and fillers have been widely accepted for soft tissue augmentations. Tissue engineering technology has also been introduced and opened a new venue of opportunities in this field. In particular, a long-lasting filler consisting of hyaluronic acid filler and living human mesenchymal cells called "injectable tissue-engineered soft tissue" has been created and applied clinically, as this strategy has many advantages over conventional methods. Fibroblasts and adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction cells can be clinically used as injectable tissue-engineered soft tissue at present. In this review, information on the soft tissue augmentation method using the injectable tissue-engineered soft tissue is provided.

  17. Histochemical and immunohistochemical study in melasma: evidence of damage in the basal membrane.

    PubMed

    Torres-Álvarez, Bertha; Mesa-Garza, Iraida G; Castanedo-Cázares, Juan P; Fuentes-Ahumada, Cornelia; Oros-Ovalle, Cuauhtémoc; Navarrete-Solis, Josefina; Moncada, Benjamin

    2011-05-01

    The pathogenesis of melasma has not been clearly elucidated. Using Fontana Masson; diastase-resistant periodic acid-Schiff stains; and immunohistochemistry to stem cell factor (SCF), its receptor c-kit, anti-mast cell tryptase, and anti-collagen type IV antibody, we evaluated melasma lesions and compared them with perilesional skin and photoprotected skin. Samples were taken from lesional and photoprotected nonlesional skin in 24 patients. In other 24 patients, we took biopsies of lesional and perilesional skin. With Fontana Masson, we observed many pigmented basal cells protruding into the dermis of the melasma skin. Periodic acid-Schiff stain and anti-collagen type IV showed damage on the basal membrane in 95.5% and 83%, respectively, in melasma lesion. The immunoreactivity of SCF and the prevalence of mast cells were increased in the dermis of melasma compared with perilesional dermis. The expression of c-kit was significantly increased at lesional epidermis; a frequent protrusion of c-kit-positive basal cells into the dermis was evident in 70% versus that in 29% of perilesional skin. The expression of c-kit was increased at lesional dermis of melasma compared with perilesional skin. We found a low correlation between c-kit expression and prevalence of mast cells; these were increased in melasma skin. The results may suggest a role of SCF, c-kit, and mast cells in the pathogenesis of melasma. We were surprised by the unexpected evidence of damage to basal membrane (BM), which could facilitate the fall or the migration of active melanocytes and melanin into the dermis allowing the constant hyperpigmentation in melasma.

  18. Diffusion of (2-/sup 14/C)diazepam across isolated hairless mouse stratum corneum/epidermal tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, R.L.; Palicharla, P.; Groves, M.J.

    1988-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a method of preparing mouse stratum corneum/epidermal (SCE) tissue without the dermis for use in drug diffusion studies. The diffusion of radiolabeled diazepam across this new preparation has been studied and the effect of the dermis on diffusion evaluated. Incubation of large pieces of mouse skin in a 20mM EDTA, 15 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.2, in normal saline for 3-4 h at 37 degrees C resulted in a tissue which easily separated at the epidermal-dermal junction. The resulting tissue contains stratum corneum and epidermis, which are the same layers used in studies with human skin in vitro. The EDTA treatment did not effect diffusion of (2-/sup 14/C)diazepam across whole mouse skin (SCE and dermis) used as controls. The rate of drug diffusion was greater across SCE than SCE and dermis, however, 0.48-1.12 micrograms/cm2/h versus 0.11-0.52 microgram/cm/h, respectively. The permeability coefficients for mouse SCE ranged from 1.92-4.48 X 10(-2) cm/h. The lag times and diffusion coefficients were 0.36-0.91 h and 0.1-0.6 X 10(-6) cm2/h, respectively. The presence of the dermis decreased the diffusion rate or flux of diazepam. The dermis appears to accumulate drug until it is saturated and then the drug diffuses into the receiving chamber.

  19. Tensilin-like stiffening protein from Holothuria leucospilota does not induce the stiffest state of catch connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Tamori, Masaki; Yamada, Akira; Nishida, Naoto; Motobayashi, Yumiko; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Motokawa, Tatsuo

    2006-05-01

    The dermis of sea cucumbers is a catch connective tissue or mutable connective tissue that exhibits large changes in mechanical properties. A stiffening protein, tensilin, has been isolated from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa. We purified a similar protein, H-tensilin, from Holothuria leucospilota, which belongs to a different family to C. frondosa. H-tensilin appeared as a single band with an apparent molecular mass of 34 kDa on SDS-PAGE. No sugar chain was detected. Tryptic fragments of the protein had homology to known tensilin. H-tensilin aggregated isolated collagen fibrils in vitro in a buffer containing 0.5 mol l(-1) NaCl with or without 10 mmol l(-1) Ca(2+). The activity of H-tensilin was quantitatively studied by dynamic mechanical tests on the isolated dermis. H-tensilin increased stiffness of the dermis in the soft state, induced by Ca(2+)-free artificial seawater, to a level comparable to that of the standard state, which was the state found in the dermis rested in artificial seawater with normal ionic condition. H-tensilin decreased the energy dissipation ratio of the soft dermis to a level comparable to that of the standard state. When H-tensilin was applied on the dermis in the standard state, it did not alter stiffness nor dissipation ratio. The subsequent application of artificial seawater in which the potassium concentration was raised to 100 mmol l(-1) increased stiffness by one order of magnitude. These findings suggest that H-tensilin is involved in the changes from the soft state to the standard state and that some stiffening factors other than tensilin are necessary for the changes from the standard to the stiff state.

  20. Effect of topical preparation of mycophenolic acid on experimental allergic contact dermatitis of guinea-pigs induced by dinitrofluorobenzene.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Y; Fukumura, T; Kudo, M; Yanagawa, A; Shimada, J; Mizushima, Y

    1994-08-01

    The effects of a topical preparation of mycophenolic acid on the experimental allergic contact dermatitis induced by dinitrofluorobenzene was investigated. Visual assessment of skin reactions showed significant efficacy of a topical preparation of mycophenolic acid. This efficacy appeared from the early stage and endured up to 3 days. Morphological changes in the epidermis and dermis layers of animals treated with a mycophenolic acid cream were moderate compared with that in animals treated with vehicle only. In particular, hyperkeratosis was strongly suppressed. Since suppression of inflammatory cell infiltration was also observed, this efficacy might reach to the epidermis and dermis layer.

  1. Mechanism of skin resurfacing using the ultrapulse carbon dioxide laser: animal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wei-Wei; Liu, Chun-Li; Lai, Huang-Wen; Yung, Chuan-Hong

    1998-11-01

    Ultrapulse carbon dioxide laser ablations of rabbit skin were investigated. Macroscopic, microscopic and electron microscopic appearances of the ablation sites were evaluated. Results showed that the effect of laser treatment was on the epidermis and the papillary dermis. All or some of the cell layers of epidermis were ablated degeneration took place in the papillary dermis. Wrinkles of the new epidermis were shallow and seldom. The new collagenous fibers were more elastic which made the skin tighter and few wrinkles. Results also demonstrated that ultrapulse carbon dioxide laser stimulated hairs to grow fast.

  2. Quantitative biomarkers of human skin photoaging based on intrinsic second harmonic generation signal.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Chen, Jianxin; Xie, Shusen

    2013-01-01

    Collagen change is a major feature in the photoaged human skin. Here, we present the use of intrinsic second harmonic generation (SHG) signal as a novel means to quantify collagen change with photoaging. We obtain the SHG images of the superficial dermis from ex vivo the cheek skin and the abdomen skin of eight patients aged 55-60 years. The results show that SHG signal can quantitatively reveal collagen change between normal and photoaged human skin in three dimensions. By comparing normal with photoaged dermis, there are significant differences in the collagen content and fine structure, providing substantial potential to be applied in vivo for the clinical diagnosis of human skin photoaging.

  3. Generalized mucinosis in a patient with erythroderma.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Taku; Okuyama, Ryuhei; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Terui, Tadashi; Aiba, Setsuya

    2006-01-01

    We describe an 81-year-old Japanese patient with erythroderma overlapping with widespread and symmetrical deposits of mucin in the upper dermis. Clinically, the mucinous lesions on the nape and upper trunk were localized papular mucinosis. Histologically, there was a perivascular infiltrate of lymphohistiocytic cells mingled with plasma cells in the upper dermis but no sclerosis. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that more than 90% of these infiltrating plasma cells produced immunoglobulin lambda-chain. Both the erythroderma and generalized mucinosis responded to topical steroid and PUVA therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of erythroderma accompanied by generalized mucinosis. PMID:16707887

  4. On The Construction of Models for Electrical Conduction in Biological Tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Aguilar, F.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.; Cordova-Fraga, T.; Rosales-Garcia, J.; Guia-Calderon, M.

    2010-12-07

    Applying RC circuit theory, a theoretical representation for the electrical conduction in a biological multilayer system was developed. In particular an equivalent circuit for the epidermis, dermis and the subcutaneous tissue was constructed. This model includes an equivalent circuit, inside the dermis, in order to model a small formation like tumor. This work shows the feasibility to apply superficial electrodes to detect subcutaneous abnormalities. The behavior of the model is shown in the form of a frequency response chart. The Bode and Nyquist plots are also obtained. This theoretical frame is proposed to be a general treatment to describe the bioelectrical transport in a three layer bioelectrical system.

  5. Effective prevention of posttraumatic tattoo using hydrosurgical debridement in the ED.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Soo; Min, Jin Hong

    2016-04-01

    Traumatic tattoos can result from the accidental deposition of foreign particles in the dermis. These pigmented particles can become permanently lodged in the dermis after wound re-epithelialization and lead to irregular black or blue skin discoloration. Different methods exist for tattoo removal. The best strategy is to prevent traumatic tattoo formation by immediately removing the foreign particles before the healing process begins. Here, we present a fine-tuned, hydrosurgical debridement system to selectively debride wounds and preserve as much viable tissue as possible. PMID:26482686

  6. Papular Dermatitis Induced in Guinea Pig by Biting Midge Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidaie)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Histological, ultrastructural, and virological examinations were performed on abdominal skin from guinea pigs after a blood meal by colony-bred biting midges, Culicoides sonorensis. Small, superficial, cutaneous, crateriform ulcers with necrosis of superficial dermis developed at feeding sites and h...

  7. Visualization of the microcirculatory network in skin by high frequency optoacoustic mesoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Mathias; Aguirre, Juan; Buehler, Andreas; Omar, Murad; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2015-07-01

    Optoacoustic (photoacoustic) imaging has a high potential for imaging melanin-rich structures in skin and the microvasculature of the dermis due to the natural chromophores (de)oxyhemoglobin, and melanin. The vascular network in human dermis comprises a large network of arterioles, capillaries, and venules, ranging from 5 μm to more than 100 μm in diameter. The frequency spectrum of the microcirculatory network in human skin is intrinsically broadband, due to the large variety in size of absorbers. In our group we have developed raster-scan optoacoustic mesoscopy (RSOM) that applies a 100 MHz transducer with ultra-wide bandwidth in raster-scan mode achieving lateral resolution of 18 μm. In this study, we applied high frequency RSOM to imaging human skin in a healthy volunteer. We analyzed the frequency spectrum of anatomical structures with respect to depth and show that frequencies >60 MHz contain valuable information of structures in the epidermis and the microvasculature of the papillary dermis. We illustrate that RSOM is capable of visualizing the fine vascular network at and beneath the epidermal-dermal junction, revealing the vascular fingerprint of glabrous skin, as well as the larger venules deeper inside the dermis. We evaluate the ability of the RSOM system in measuring epidermal thickness in both hairy and glabrous skin. Finally, we showcase the capability of RSOM in visualizing benign nevi that will potentially help in imaging the penetration depth of melanoma.

  8. Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein Increases in Photodamaged Skin.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Kawabata, Keigo; Kusaka-Kikushima, Ayumi; Sugiyama, Yoshinori; Mabuchi, Tomotaka; Takekoshi, Susumu; Miyasaka, Muneo; Ozawa, Akira; Sakai, Shingo

    2016-06-01

    Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is a structural component of cartilage. Recent studies have described COMP as a pathogenic factor that promotes collagen deposition in fibrotic skin disorders such as scleroderma and keloid skin. Although collagen, a major dermis component, is thought to decrease in photoaged skin, recent reports have demonstrated the presence of tightly packed collagen fibrils with a structural resemblance to fibrosis in the papillary dermis of photoaged skin. Here we examined how photoaging damage relates to COMP expression and localization in photoaged skin. In situ hybridization revealed an increase in COMP-mRNA-positive cells with the progress of photoaging in preauricular skin (sun-exposed skin). The signal intensity of immunostaining for COMP increased with photoaging in not only the papillary dermis but also the reticular dermis affected by advancing solar elastosis. Immunoelectron microscopy detected the colocalization of COMP with both elastotic materials and collagen fibrils in photoaged skin. Ultraviolet light A irradiation of human dermal fibroblasts induced COMP expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Ultraviolet light A-induced COMP expression was inhibited by an anti-transforming growth factor-β antibody or SB431542, an activin receptor-like kinase 5 inhibitor. These results suggest that the transforming growth factor-β-mediated upregulation of COMP expression may contribute to the modulation of dermal extracellular matrix in the photoaging process. PMID:26968261

  9. Response of chromoblastomycosis to voriconazole*

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Alexandre Moretti; Sacht, Gabriely Lessa; de Paula, Lauren Zogbi Pereira; Aseka, Gabriela Kimie; Goetz, Hermann Soares; Gheller, Maicon Felippe; Torraca, Pedro de Freitas Silva

    2016-01-01

    Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic fungal infection of the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue, in which the most common etiologic agent in Brazil is Fonsecaea pedrosoi. In more advanced cases we found many difficulties in their treatment, and therefore, we report a case of extensive and severe chromoblastomycosis, with therapeutical failure of first choice treatments, but good response to voriconazole.

  10. Skin structure in the snout of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Kemp, A

    2014-10-01

    Many fossil lungfish have a system of mineralised tubules in the dermis of the snout, branching extensively and radiating towards the epidermis. The tubules anastomose in the superficial layer of the dermis, forming a plexus consisting of two layers of vessels, with branches that expand into pore canals and flask organs, flanked by cosmine nodules where these are present. Traces of this system are found in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, consisting of branching tubules in the dermis, a double plexus below the epidermis and dermal papillae entering the epidermis without reaching the surface. In N. forsteri, the tubules, the plexus and the dermal papillae consist of thick, unmineralised connective tissue, enclosing fine blood vessels packed with lymphocytes. Tissues in the epidermis and the dermis of N. forsteri are not associated with deposits of calcium, which is below detectable limits in the skin of the snout at all stages of the life cycle. Canals of the sensory line system, with mechanoreceptors, are separate from the tubules, the plexus and the dermal papillae, as are the electroreceptors in the epidermis. The system of tubules, plexus, dermal papillae and lymphatic capillaries may function to protect the tissues of the snout from infection.

  11. Musk ambrette and chronic actinic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cirne de Castro, J L; Pereira, M A; Prates Nunes, F; Pereira dos Santos, A

    1985-11-01

    A patient with persistent photosensitivity and positive photopatch tests to musk ambrette and an after-shave lotion is reported. Phototests showed extreme sensitivity to UV radiation, especially UVB. Patch tests with the European Standard Series and some plant allergens were negative. Histology showed a granulomatous reaction with epithelioid and giant cells in the dermis.

  12. Isolation and characterization of migratory human skin dendritic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Richters, C D; Hoekstra, M J; van Baare, J; Du Pont, J S; Hoefsmit, E C; Kamperdijk, E W

    1994-01-01

    A method is described to isolate and characterize human skin dendritic cells (DC). This method is based on the migratory capacities of these cells. The cells migrated 'spontaneously' out of split-skin explants into the medium during a 24-h culture period and contained up to 75% CD1a+ cells. After removal of co-migrated T cells and macrophages, the highly enriched (> 95% CD1a+) DC showed potent allo-antigen-presenting capacities. About 25% of the CD1a+ cells were also positive for the dermal DC marker CD1b, whereas only 15-20% of the cells contained Birbeck granules, the characteristic cell organelle of the epidermal Langerhans cell. Before culture, CD1a+ DC were observed on cryostat sections not only in the epidermis but also in the dermis. After culture, the number of CD1a+ cells in both epidermis and dermis had decreased. Not all the cells had migrated during the culture period; some CD1a+ cells could still be detected in the epidermis and dermis after culture. Thus, using this method, potent allo-stimulating CD1a+ cells, migrating from both epidermis and dermis, can be obtained without the use of enzymes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7955541

  13. Quantitative characterization of chitosan in the skin by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic imaging and ninhydrin assay: application in transdermal sciences.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, A; Wong, T W

    2016-07-01

    The chitosan has been used as the primary excipient in transdermal particulate dosage form design. Its distribution pattern across the epidermis and dermis is not easily accessible through chemical assay and limited to radiolabelled molecules via quantitative autoradiography. This study explored Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy imaging technique with built-in microscope as the means to examine chitosan molecular distribution over epidermis and dermis with the aid of histology operation. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy skin imaging was conducted using chitosan of varying molecular weights, deacetylation degrees, particle sizes and zeta potentials, obtained via microwave ligation of polymer chains at solution state. Both skin permeation and retention characteristics of chitosan increased with the use of smaller chitosan molecules with reduced acetyl content and size, and increased positive charge density. The ratio of epidermal to dermal chitosan content decreased with the use of these chitosan molecules as their accumulation in dermis (3.90% to 18.22%) was raised to a greater extent than epidermis (0.62% to 1.92%). A larger dermal chitosan accumulation nonetheless did not promote the transdermal polymer passage more than the epidermal chitosan. A small increase in epidermal chitosan content apparently could fluidize the stratum corneum and was more essential to dictate molecular permeation into dermis and systemic circulation. The histology technique aided Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy imaging approach introduces a new dimension to the mechanistic aspect of chitosan in transdermal delivery. PMID:26695532

  14. Heparin fragments modulate the collagen phenotype of fibroblasts from radiation-induced subcutaneous fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    el Nabout, R.; Martin, M.; Remy, J.; Robert, L.; Lafuma, C. )

    1989-10-01

    Acute local gamma irradiation of porcine skin induces, as in human skin, an extensive and mutilating sclerosis characterized by continuous expansion of the fibrosis invading the adjacent muscle and by accumulation of the macromolecular components of the extracellular matrix. Collagen synthesis, content, and types were studied in the presence of heparin fragments (100 micrograms/10(6) cells) in the culture medium, by measuring the incorporation of the radiolabeled precursor (3H)proline into confluent primary cultures of porcine fibroblasts obtained from normal and irradiated fibrotic dermis. Enhancement in collagen biosynthesis and deposition and preferential increase in collagen type III synthesis were observed in fibrotic fibroblast cultures when compared to those in normal dermis fibroblasts. The total collagen synthesis and the rate of collagen hydroxylation appear unmodified by heparin fragments both in normal and in fibrotic fibroblast cultures. But heparin fragments induce a 10- and 2-fold decrease, respectively, in collagen type III and type V syntheses by fibrosis fibroblasts. As only minor effects upon collagen type III and V are observed in cultures of normal dermis fibroblasts, these results highly suggest that heparin fragments are capable of specifically modulating the collagen phenotype of fibroblasts derived from radiation-induced dermis fibrosis and thus are able to regulate the fibrotic process.

  15. Morphological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural characterization of the skin of turbot (Psetta maxima L.).

    PubMed

    Faílde, L D; Bermúdez, R; Vigliano, F; Coscelli, G A; Quiroga, M I

    2014-10-01

    This study was undertaken to identify the normal morphologic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of skin of the turbot (Psetta maxima L.). In the turbot skin, three morphologically distinct layers were identified: epidermis, dermis and hypodermis. The epidermis was non-keratinizing, stratified squamous epithelium that varies in thickness from 5 to 14 cells and 60 to 100μm in size. Goblet cells were seen randomly distributed between malpighian cells in the epidermal layer. These mucous cells were mainly located in the upper third of the epidermis and displayed a spherical to elongated morphology. Dermis was divided in two well-differentiated layers, the superficial stratum laxum and the deeper stratum compactum. Hypodermis was a loose layer mainly composed by adipocytes but we could observe variable amounts of fibroblast, collagen and blood vessels. In turbot two pigmentary layers could be identified: the pigmentary layer of dermis was located between basement membrane and dermis and the pigmentary layer of hypodermis immediately above the muscular layer. Three different types of chromatophores were present: melanophores, iridophores and xanthophores. The main differences observed between groups of fish with different colouration were in the amount of melanophores and xanthophores. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of normal cutaneous biology prior to consideration of specific cutaneous alterations and diseases in turbot.

  16. Diffusion profile of macromolecules within and between human skin layers for (trans)dermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Römgens, Anne M; Bader, Dan L; Bouwstra, Joke A; Baaijens, Frank P T; Oomens, Cees W J

    2015-10-01

    Delivering a drug into and through the skin is of interest as the skin can act as an alternative drug administration route for oral delivery. The development of new delivery methods, such as microneedles, makes it possible to not only deliver small molecules into the skin, which are able to pass the outer layer of the skin in therapeutic amounts, but also macromolecules. To provide insight into the administration of these molecules into the skin, the aim of this study was to assess the transport of macromolecules within and between its various layers. The diffusion coefficients in the epidermis and several locations in the papillary and reticular dermis were determined for fluorescein dextran of 40 and 500 kDa using a combination of fluorescent recovery after photobleaching experiments and finite element analysis. The diffusion coefficient was significantly higher for 40 kDa than 500 kDa dextran, with median values of 23 and 9 µm(2)/s in the dermis, respectively. The values only marginally varied within and between papillary and reticular dermis. For the 40 kDa dextran, the diffusion coefficient in the epidermis was twice as low as in the dermis layers. The adopted method may be used for other macromolecules, which are of interest for dermal and transdermal drug delivery. The knowledge about diffusion in the skin is useful to optimize (trans)dermal drug delivery systems to target specific layers or cells in the human skin.

  17. The effect of aluminium chlorhydrate on sweat gland activity in cattle.

    PubMed

    Rees-Jones, A M; Jenkinson, D M

    1978-03-01

    Topical application of aluminium chlorhydrate had no appreciable antiperspirant action on the epitrichial glands of cattle. There was no evidence of penetration of the salt into the dermis or of any change in the morphology of the glands. It is probable that the antiperspirant activity of aluminium chlorhydrate in the human axilla, is only on the atrichial glands. PMID:632617

  18. Anti-fibrosclerotic effects of shock wave therapy in lipedema and cellulite.

    PubMed

    Siems, Werner; Grune, Tilman; Voss, Peter; Brenke, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    In vivo measurements in 26 female patients with lipedema and cellulite parameters were carried out before and after therapy by means of complex physical decongestive therapy (CPDT) including manual lymph drainage and compression as main components and/or shock wave therapy (SWT). Oxidative stress parameters of blood serum and biomechanic skin properties/smoothening of dermis and hypodermis surface were evaluated. Oxidative stress in lipedema and cellulite was demonstrated by increased serum concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and plasma protein carbonyls compared with healthy control persons. Both MDA and protein carbonyls in blood plasma decreased after serial shock wave application and CPDT. The SWT itself and CPDT itself lead to MDA release from edematous tissue into the plasma. Obviously both therapy types, SWT and CPDT, mitigate oxidative stress in lipedema and cellulite. In parallel SWT improved significantly the biomechanic skin properties leading to smoothening of dermis and hypodermis surface. Significant correlation between MDA depletion of edematous and lipid enriched dermis and improvement of mechanic skin properties was demonstrated. From these findings it is concluded, that a release of lipid peroxidation (LPO) products from edematous dermis is an important sclerosis-preventing effect of SWT and/or CPDT in lipedema and cellulite. Expression of factors stimulating angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis such as VEGF was not induced by SWT and/or CPDT and, therefore, not involved in beneficial effects by SWT and/or CPDT.

  19. Characterization of lymphocyte subtypes in scabietic skin lesions of naive and sensitized dogs.

    PubMed

    Arlian, L G; Rapp, C M; Stemmer, B L; Morgan, M S; Moore, P F

    1997-03-01

    We delineated the density of cells expressing CD4, CD8, CD21 and CD45RA antigens in the cellular infiltrates in the epidermis, dermis and follicular epithelium in scabietic skin lesions of naive hosts and sensitized hosts that expressed resistance to scabies infestation. No cells expressing CD21 (B-lymphocytes and follicular dendritic cells) were present in the epidermis and only a few were occasionally present in the dermis during both the first and second infestations. Naive T-cells (CD45RA+) and CD8+ cells (cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes) were present in varying densities in the infiltrates throughout the epidermis, dermis and follicular epithelium with no apparent differences in density and the rate of appearance between sensitizing and challenge infestations. CD4+ cells were abundant in fluctuating densities in the dermis, epidermis, and follicular epidermis during the sensitizing infestation and these cells became the dominant cell type early during the challenge infestation. The density of CD4+ cells in the infiltrate was much greater during the challenge than during the sensitization infestation. This population of CD4+ cells consisted of both T-helper/inducer cells and neutrophils and the large increase in their numbers during the challenge suggested they played a key role in the successful immune/inflammatory response that resulted in resistance to scabies infestation.

  20. Tinea corporis overlying the thyroid gland after radioiodine (131I) treatment of Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, A.J.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Yedinak, M.A.; Crooks, L.A.; Fox, B.J.

    1986-04-01

    A case of tinea corporis involving the skin overlying the thyroid gland is described in a 36-year-old man who had received radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease. The dermatophytosis mimicked a delayed roentgen erythema. Radiation to the dermis may have locally altered the cell-mediated immunity and predisposed this patient to the dermatophytosis.

  1. A case of lichen amyloidosus accompanied by vesicles and dyschromia.

    PubMed

    Cho, T-H; Lee, M-H

    2008-05-01

    Lichen amyloidosus (LA) is a chronic pruritic skin disorder characterized by the deposition of amyloid in the papillary dermis. The usual features are multiple, discrete hyperkeratotic papules, which may coalesce into plaques that typically occur on the legs, especially the shins. We report a case of LA accompanied by vesicles and dyschromia.

  2. Rosacea-Like Leukemia Cutis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Cruz Manzano, Mariana; Ramírez García, Lilliana; Sánchez Pont, Julio E; Velázquez Mañana, Ana I; Sánchez, Jorge L

    2016-08-01

    Leukemia cutis describes the infiltration and dissemination of neoplastic leukemic cells into the epidermis, dermis, or subcutis, resulting in clinically identifiable cutaneous lesions. Depending on the type of leukemia, a wide range of clinical and histopathological findings may be encountered. This report describes a patient with a rosacea-like eruption as a unique clinical presentation of T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia. PMID:27043335

  3. How the turtle forms its shell: a paracrine hypothesis of carapace formation.

    PubMed

    Cebra-Thomas, Judith; Tan, Fraser; Sistla, Seeta; Estes, Eileen; Bender, Gunes; Kim, Christine; Riccio, Paul; Gilbert, Scott F

    2005-11-15

    We propose a two-step model for the evolutionary origin of the turtle shell. We show here that the carapacial ridge (CR) is critical for the entry of the ribs into the dorsal dermis. Moreover, we demonstrate that the maintenance of the CR and its ability to attract the migrating rib precursor cells depend upon fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling. Inhibitors of FGF allow the CR to degenerate, with the consequent migration of ribs along the ventral body wall. Beads containing FGF10 can rearrange rib migration in the chick, suggesting that the CR FGF10 plays an important role in attracting the rib rudiments. The co-ordinated growth of the carapacial plate and the ribs may be a positive feedback loop (similar to that of the limbs) caused by the induction of Fgf8 in the distal tips of the ribs by the FGF10-secreting mesenchyme of the CR. Once in the dermis, the ribs undergo endochrondral ossification. We provide evidence that the ribs act as signaling centers for the dermal ossification and that this ossification is due to bone morphogenetic proteins secreted by the rib. Thus, once the ribs are within the dermis, the ossification of the dermis is not difficult to achieve. This relatively rapid means of carapace formation would allow for the appearance of turtles in the fossil record without obvious intermediates. PMID:15968684

  4. Pathogenesis of dermonecrosis induced by venom of the spitting cobra, Naja nigricollis: An experimental study in mice.

    PubMed

    Rivel, Mario; Solano, Daniela; Herrera, María; Vargas, Mariángela; Villalta, Mauren; Segura, Álvaro; Arias, Ana Silvia; León, Guillermo; Gutiérrez, José María

    2016-09-01

    The pathogenesis of dermonecrosis induced by the venom of the African spitting cobra Naja nigricollis was investigated in a mouse model. Intradermal injection of venom induced a macroscopic necrotic lesion. Histological examination revealed early edema of the dermis, followed by blistering, loss of skin appendages and reduction in cellularity. By 24 h, necrosis of the dermis was evident, sections of epidermis were lost, and a fibrinoid hyaline material filled the damaged areas. Abundant inflammatory infiltrate was present in the hypodermis and basal dermis, and there was an increment in the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Thrombi were observed in blood vessels. Abundant cells were present in the dermis by 7 days. By 14 and 28 days, re-epithelization had occurred, collagen was widespread in the dermis, and few skin appendages were present. The RP-HPLC fractions that reproduced the necrotic activity were composed of low molecular mass cytotoxins of the three-finger toxin family and, to a lesser extent, of phospholipases A2 (PLA2). Inhibition of PLA2 of venom by p-bromophenacyl bromide did not reduce the area of necrosis, but modified the appearance of necrotic regions. Depletion of neutrophils and inhibition of venom metalloproteinases and tissue MMPs did not affect dermonecrosis. IgG and F(ab')2 antivenoms were effective in the neutralization of dermonecrosis when incubated with venom prior to injection. However, when antivenoms were administered immediately after venom injection, dermonecrosis was reduced only to a partial extent, underscoring the difficulties in neutralizing this effect with antivenoms. PMID:27288896

  5. Characterization and mechanisms of photoageing-related changes in skin. Damages of basement membrane and dermal structures.

    PubMed

    Amano, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    Sun-exposed skin is characterized by superficial changes such as wrinkles, sagging and pigmentary changes, and also many internal changes in the structure and function of epidermis, basement membrane (BM) and dermis. These changes (so-called photoageing) are predominantly induced by the ultraviolet (UV) component of sunlight. Epidermis of UV-irradiated skin produced several enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), urinary plasminogen activator (uPA)/plasmin and heparanase, which degrade dermal collagen fibres and elastic fibres in the dermis, and components of epidermal BM. The BM at the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ) controls dermal-epidermal signalling and plays an important role in the maintenance of a healthy epidermis and dermis. BM is repetitively damaged in sun-exposed skin compared with unexposed skin, leading to epidermal and dermal deterioration and accelerated skin ageing. UV exposure also induces an increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an angiogenic factor, while thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), an anti-angiogenic factor, is decreased; these changes induce angiogenesis in papillary dermis with increased migration of elastase-positive leucocytes, leading to dermal elastic fibre damage. Elastic fibres, such as oxytalan fibres in papillary dermis, are associated with not only skin resilience, but also skin surface texture, and elastic fibre formation by fibroblasts is facilitated by increased expression of fibulin-5. Thus, induction of fibulin-5 expression is a damage-repair mechanism, and fibulin-5 is an early marker of photoaged skin. UV-induced skin damage is cumulative and leads to premature ageing of skin. However, appropriate daily skincare may ameliorate photoageing by inhibiting processes causing damage and enhancing repair processes. PMID:27539897

  6. Phosphatidylcholine liposomes as carriers to improve topical ascorbic acid treatment of skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Gabriel; Almudéver, Patricia; Serrano, Juan-Manuel; Milara, Javier; Torrens, Ana; Expósito, Inmaculada; Cortijo, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes have been intensively investigated as carriers for different applications in dermatology and cosmetics. Ascorbic acid has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties preventing photodamage of keratinocytes; however, due to its instability and low skin penetration, an appropriate carrier is mandatory to obtain desirable efficacy. The present work investigates the ability of a specific ascorbate phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposome to overcome the barrier of the stratum corneum and deliver the active agent into the dermis to prevent photodamage. Abdominal skin from ten patients was used. Penetration of PC liposomes was tested ex vivo in whole skin, epidermis, and dermis by means of fluorescein and sodium ascorbate. Histology and Franz diffusion cells were used to monitor the percutaneous absorption. Ultraviolet (UV)-high performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze diffusion of sodium ascorbate through the different skin layers, while spectrofluorimetry and fluorescent microscopy were used for fluorescein monitoring. UVA/UVB irradiation of whole skin was applied to analyze the antioxidant capacity by Trolox assay and anti-inflammatory effects by tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta enzyme-linked immunoassay. PC liposomal formulation improved skin penetration of fluorescein and ascorbate. Fluorescein PC liposomes showed better diffusion through epidermis than dermis while ascorbate liposomes showed better diffusion through the dermis than the epidermis. Ascorbate PC liposomes showed preventive antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties on whole human skin irradiated with UVA/UVB. In summary, ascorbate PC liposomes penetrate through the epidermis and allow nonstable hydrophilic active ingredients reach epidermis and dermis preventing skin photodamage. PMID:26719718

  7. Pathogenesis of dermonecrosis induced by venom of the spitting cobra, Naja nigricollis: An experimental study in mice.

    PubMed

    Rivel, Mario; Solano, Daniela; Herrera, María; Vargas, Mariángela; Villalta, Mauren; Segura, Álvaro; Arias, Ana Silvia; León, Guillermo; Gutiérrez, José María

    2016-09-01

    The pathogenesis of dermonecrosis induced by the venom of the African spitting cobra Naja nigricollis was investigated in a mouse model. Intradermal injection of venom induced a macroscopic necrotic lesion. Histological examination revealed early edema of the dermis, followed by blistering, loss of skin appendages and reduction in cellularity. By 24 h, necrosis of the dermis was evident, sections of epidermis were lost, and a fibrinoid hyaline material filled the damaged areas. Abundant inflammatory infiltrate was present in the hypodermis and basal dermis, and there was an increment in the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Thrombi were observed in blood vessels. Abundant cells were present in the dermis by 7 days. By 14 and 28 days, re-epithelization had occurred, collagen was widespread in the dermis, and few skin appendages were present. The RP-HPLC fractions that reproduced the necrotic activity were composed of low molecular mass cytotoxins of the three-finger toxin family and, to a lesser extent, of phospholipases A2 (PLA2). Inhibition of PLA2 of venom by p-bromophenacyl bromide did not reduce the area of necrosis, but modified the appearance of necrotic regions. Depletion of neutrophils and inhibition of venom metalloproteinases and tissue MMPs did not affect dermonecrosis. IgG and F(ab')2 antivenoms were effective in the neutralization of dermonecrosis when incubated with venom prior to injection. However, when antivenoms were administered immediately after venom injection, dermonecrosis was reduced only to a partial extent, underscoring the difficulties in neutralizing this effect with antivenoms.

  8. [In vitro effect of the S3Pvac vaccine against cysticercosis in human mononucleate cells].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Orea, María Alicia; Mijares, José Miguel; Arcega, Raúl; Gómez-Conde, Eduardo; Castellanos-Sánchez, Víctor Omar; Briones-Rojas, Rosendo; Flores-Alonso, Juan Carlos; Marín-Briones, Miguel Ángel; Santos-López, Gerardo

    2013-05-01

    Introduccion. La neurocisticercosis (NCC) es una infeccion parasitaria generada por el establecimiento de cisticercos de Taenia solium en el sistema nervioso central. La fase larvaria del parasito tambien afecta al cerdo, que es el huesped intermediario indispensable para la transmision. Por tal motivo, muchos investigadores se han enfocado en identificar antigenos protectores para prevenir la cisticercosis porcina e interrumpir la transmision. Entre ellos figuran los antigenos de la vacuna S3Pvac, constituida por tres peptidos protectores: KETc1, KETc12 y GK1. Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de los peptidos vacunales KETc1, KETc12 y GK1 en celulas mononucleares de pacientes con NCC e individuos sanos. Sujetos y metodos. Estudio comparativo, prospectivo y transversal. Se analizo la proliferacion y el perfil de citocinas inducidos por los tres peptidos en celulas mononucleares de tres pacientes con NCC activa, 16 pacientes con NCC calcificada y 16 sujetos sanos. Resultados. KETc1 induce bajos niveles de proliferacion en las celulas de los pacientes con NCC activa y controlada, tanto en linfocitos como en monocitos. KETc12 y GK-1 inducen niveles positivos de proliferacion de monocitos en sujetos sanos. Conclusiones. El peptido KETc1 podria usarse como coadyuvante en el tratamiento de los pacientes con NCC activa, ya que indujo una respuesta Th2; y el peptido GK1, como estimulador del monocito/macrofago en inmunizaciones con otras proteinas.

  9. Use of Decellularized Scaffolds Combined with Hyaluronic Acid and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor for Skin Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhengzheng; Fan, Lina; Xu, Bin; Lin, Yongliang; Zhang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Skin damage is one of the common clinical skin diseases, and the main cure is the use of skin graft, especially for large area of skin injury or deep-skin damage. However, skin graft demand is far greater than that currently available. In this study, xenogeneic decellularized scaffold was prepared with pig peritoneum by a series of biochemical treatments to retain normal three-dimensional tissue scaffold and remove cells and antigenic components from the tissue. Scaffold was combined with hyaluronic acid (HA) plus two different concentrations of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and tested for its use for the repair of skin wounds. HA enhanced bFGF to adsorb to the decellularized scaffolds and slowed the release of bFGF from the scaffolds in vitro. A total of 20 rabbits were sacrificed on day 3, 6, 11, or 14 postsurgery. The wound healing rate and the thickness of dermis layer of each wound were determined for analyzing the wound repair. Statistical analysis was performed by the two-tailed Student's t-test. Wounds covered with scaffolds containing 1 μg/mL bFGF had higher wound healing rates of 47.24%, 74.69%, and 87.54%, respectively, for days 6, 11, and 14 postsurgery than scaffolds alone with wound healing rates of 28.17%, 50.31%, and 61.36% and vaseline oil gauze with wound healing rates of 24.84%, 42.75%, and 57.62%. Wounds covered with scaffolds containing 1 μg/mL bFGF showed more dermis regeneration than the other wounds and had dermis layer of 210.60, 374.40, and 774.20 μm, respectively, for days 6, 11, and 14 postsurgery compared with scaffolds alone with dermis layer of 116.60, 200.00, and 455.40 μm and vaseline oil gauze with dermis layer of 82.60, 186.20, and 384.40 μm. There was no significant difference in wound healing rates and thickness of dermis layer between wounds covered with scaffolds containing 1 and 3 μg/mL bFGF on days 3, 6, 11, and 14 postsurgery. The decellularized scaffolds combined with HA and bFGF can be further

  10. Evaluation of Copper and Hydrogen Peroxide Treatments on the Biology, Biomechanics, and Cytotoxicity of Decellularized Dermal Allografts.

    PubMed

    Leow-Dyke, Sophie F; Rooney, Paul; Kearney, John N

    2016-03-01

    Decellularized tissue allografts are paving the way as an alternative to cellular tissue transplantation. Effective sterilization or decontamination of tissue allografts is paramount for the safety of the allograft; however, some of the current sterilization procedures have a detrimental effect on the tissue scaffold. The bactericidal and virucidal activity of copper (II) ions and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) have been widely reported, however, their effect on the biology, biochemistry, and biocompatibility of decellularized tissue have yet to be elucidated. In this study, decellularized human dermis (dCELL human dermis) was treated with copper (II) chloride (CuCl2) and H2O2; both singly and in combination, and parameters, including concentration, pH, and synergy between CuCl2 and H2O2, were evaluated to identify conditions where any detrimental effects on the tissue scaffold were observed. Skin from 13 human donors was retrieved with appropriate consent and processed into dCELL human dermis. The dCELL human dermis was then treated for 3 h with 0.1 mg/L-1 g/L (w/v) CuCl2 and 0.01-7.5% (v/v) H2O2 and combinations of both of these in the same concentration range. dCELL human dermis treated with solutions of 0.1 mg/L-1 g/L CuCl2 or 0.01-7.5% H2O2 caused no detrimental effects on gross histology, collagen denaturation, collagen orientation, and biomechanical properties of the tissue or cytotoxicity. The highest combined concentration of CuCl2 and H2O2 demonstrated an increase in ultimate tensile strength, loss of collagen type IV immunostaining at the dermal-epidermal junction, and in vitro cytotoxicity. Combinations within the range of up to 10 mg/L CuCl2 with up to 0.5% H2O2 had no effect. The data identify the concentrations of CuCl2 and H2O2 solutions that have no effect on the biological, biomechanical, and biochemical properties of dCELL human dermis, while retaining biocompatibility. These treatments may be suitable for use as sterilization

  11. Inadequate Processing of Decellularized Dermal Matrix Reduces Cell Viability In Vitro and Increases Apoptosis and Acute Inflammation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Aaron H.; Chang, Julie; Kyriakides, Themis R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Decellularized tissue scaffolds are commonly used in the clinic because they can be used as substitutes for more traditional biomaterials, while imparting additional physiological effects. Nevertheless, reports of complications associated with their use are widespread and poorly understood. This study probes possible causes of these complications by examining cell viability and apoptosis in response to eluents from decellularized dermis. Using multiple sources of decellularized dermis, this study shows that typical decellularized scaffolds (prepared with commonly used laboratory techniques, as well as purchased from commercial sources) contain soluble components that are cytotoxic and that these components can be removed by extensive washes in cell culture media. In addition, this study demonstrates that these observed in vitro phenotypes correlate with increased apoptosis and acute inflammation when implanted subcutaneously in mice. PMID:27500014

  12. Milia En Plaque as a Distinct Follicular Hamartoma With Cystic Trichoepitheliomatous Features

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Akira; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Aiba, Setsuya

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Milia en plaque (MEP) is an uncommon disorder characterized by an erythematous plaque containing numerous milia. The pathogenesis of MEP is not clear. The authors report a man with an erythematous plaque on the right retroauricular area, containing numerous white-yellow cysts varying in size. Histological examination showed that multiple cystic structures at various levels of the dermis that were lined by stratified squamous epithelium and contained keratinous material—these findings were consistent with the diagnosis of multiple milia. In addition to epidermal cysts, however, the lesion consisted of a branched proliferation of pale-staining keratinocytes lined with basal keratinocytes budding from the overlying epidermis. Moreover, some cysts were formed within the branched epithelial proliferation, had thicker cyst walls than the ordinary milium, or had irregular or branched projections toward the surrounding dermis. From these findings, the authors conclude that MEP is a distinct follicular hamartoma with cystic trichoepitheliomatous features. PMID:26381115

  13. The histopathology of subcutaneous minocycline pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Anneli Ririe; McCalmont, Timothy H

    2007-11-01

    Hyperpigmentation associated with prolonged minocycline use is well documented. The histopathology of cutaneous minocycline pigment is characterized by deposition of brown/black, Fontana-Masson, and Perls' positive granules deposited along elastic fibers in the papillary dermis and occurring within macrophages along vessels and eccrine units in the dermis. The subcutis may also be involved; however, the specific subcutaneous findings associated with minocycline hyperpigmentation have not been well established. We present the histopathologic findings of 4 cases of minocycline hyperpigmentation with subcutaneous involvement. Green-gray, flocculent, nonrefractile globules within macrophages were found in the subcutis of all patients. Two of 4 cases exhibited lipomembraneous changes that were also associated with pigment. These distinctive findings may provide additional clues to enable a diagnosis of drug-induced hyperpigmentation to be offered, even in the absence of a clear clinical history. PMID:17939935

  14. An unusual case of Sweet syndrome in a child: overlapping presentation with erythema elevatum diutinum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Liu, Hongjie; Wang, Lin; Guo, Zaipei; Li, Li

    2014-06-01

    In 1964, Sweet described an acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis. It is now widely accepted that Sweet syndrome is one of the associated neutrophilic dermatoses. Herein, we describe an unusual case of Sweet syndrome in a 5-year-old child who suffered from recurrent papules, plaques, and blisters on his face and trunk after the initial onset of fever without an obvious cause. Two skin biopsies were performed. The histopathological findings of the left arm biopsy showed a subepidermal blister with dense infiltrating neutrophils within the blister that were superficial to the middle layer of the dermis. The biopsy from a plaque on the left leg showed a dense infiltrate of neutrophils and a large number of infiltrating histiocytes superficial to the middle layer of the dermis. Direct immunofluorescence of a skin biopsy from the left arm confirmed that immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, IgA, and C3 expression were negative.

  15. Quick analysis of optical spectra to quantify epidermal melanin and papillary dermal blood content of skin.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Steven L

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a practical approach for assessing the melanin and blood content of the skin from total diffuse reflectance spectra, R(λ), where λ is wavelength. A quick spectral analysis using just three wavelengths (585 nm, 700 nm and 800 nm) is presented, based on the 1985 work of Kollias and Baquer who documented epidermal melanin of skin using the slope of optical density (OD) between 620 nm and 720 nm. The paper describes the non-rectilinear character of such a quick analysis, and shows that almost any choice of two wavelengths in the 600-900 range can achieve the characterization of melanin. The extrapolation of the melanin slope to 585 nm serves as a baseline for subtraction from the OD (585 nm) to yield a blood perfusion score. Monte Carlo simulations created spectral data for a skin model with epidermis, papillary dermis and reticular dermis to illustrate the analysis.

  16. Heterogeneous Pathology of Melasma and Its Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soon-Hyo; Hwang, Young-Ji; Lee, Soo-Keun; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Melasma is a commonly acquired hypermelanosis that affects sun-exposed areas of the skin, with frequent facial involvement. Its histologic manifestations are evident in the epidermis, extracellular matrix, and dermis. In addition to epidermal pigmentation, pathologic findings of melasma include extracellular matrix abnormality, especially solar elastosis. The disrupted basement membrane has been described in melasma with variable incidences. In the dermis, an increase in vascularity and an increase in the number of mast cells were observed, indicating that dermal factors have critical roles in the pathogenesis of melasma, despite the fact that melasma is characterized by epidermal hyperpigmentation. This review discusses such histologic characteristics of melasma, with consideration to their implications for melasma treatment. PMID:27240341

  17. Sensory receptors in the equine foot.

    PubMed

    Bowker, R M; Brewer, A M; Vex, K B; Guida, L A; Linder, K E; Sonea, I M; Stinson, A W

    1993-11-01

    Two types of sensory receptors were located in the equine foot, using anatomic techniques. Histologic examination of stained hoof sections revealed lamellated corpuscles in the hoof dermis, which had many of the morphologic characteristics of Pacinian corpuscles. These sensory receptors were restricted to the palmar (caudal) aspects of the solar dermis of the heel. A second type of receptor was detected by use of immunocytochemistry, indicating apparently naked nerve endings containing the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide-like immunoreactivity in skin, solar dermal tubules, and the digital cushion. This peptide is an example of a sensory neurotransmitter contained in dorsal root ganglion cells and is believed to exist only in unmyelinated sensory nerve fibers. These 2 morphologic structures may be used for detection of sensory stimuli, such as pressure (or vibratory senses) and pain, respectively, in horses during various locomotory gaits.

  18. Impact of extracorporeal shock waves on the human skin with cellulite: a case study of an unique instance.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Christoph; Angehrn, Fiorenzo; Sonnabend, Ortrud; Voss, Axel

    2008-01-01

    In this case study of an unique instance, effects of medium-energy, high-focused extracorporeal generated shock waves (ESW) onto the skin and the underlying fat tissue of a cellulite afflicted, 50-year-old woman were investigated. The treatment consisted of four ESW applications within 21 days. Diagnostic high-resolution ultrasound (Collagenoson) was performed before and after treatment. Directly after the last ESW application, skin samples were taken for histopathological analysis from the treated and from the contra-lateral untreated area of skin with cellulite. No damage to the treated skin tissue, in particular no mechanical destruction to the subcutaneous fat, could be demonstrated by histopathological analysis. However an astounding induction of neocollageno- and neoelastinogenesis within the scaffolding fabric of the dermis and subcutis was observed. The dermis increased in thickness as well as the scaffolding within the subcutaneous fat-tissue. Optimization of critical application parameters may turn ESW into a noninvasive cellulite therapy.

  19. Alkaptonuric ochronosis presenting as palmoplantar pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Vijaikumar, M; Thappa, D M; Srikanth, S; Sethuraman, G; Nadarajan, S

    2000-06-01

    We describe a 37-year-old woman who presented with palmoplantar pigmentation, thickening and pitting of 4 years duration. Bluish pigmented patches were seen over the sclera of her eyes. Her lumbar spine showed typical calcification of the intervertebral discs. Addition of Benedict's reagent to a urine sample of the patient gave rise to greenish brown precipitate and brownish black supernatant. Alkalinization of urine turned it black. A biopsy of the palmar lesion demonstrated irregular breaking up, swelling and homogenization of collagen bundles in the reticular dermis. Yellow-brown (ochre coloured) pigment was seen lying within the collagen bundles and also freely in the deeper dermis confirming our clinical diagnosis of alkaptonuric ochronosis. To the best of our knowledge this is probably the second report of alkaptonuria presenting with palmoplantar pigmentation. PMID:10971492

  20. Noncultured Autologous Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Therapy for Chronic Radiation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Akita, Sadanori; Akino, Kozo; Hirano, Akiyoshi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2010-01-01

    Increasing concern on chronic radiation injuries should be treated properly for life-saving improvement of wound management and quality of life. Recently, regenerative surgical modalities should be attempted with the use of noncultured autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) with temporal artificial dermis impregnated and sprayed with local angiogenic factor such as basic fibroblast growth factor, and secondary reconstruction can be a candidate for demarcation and saving the donor morbidity. Autologous adipose-derived stem cells, together with angiogenic and mitogenic factor of basic fibroblast growth factor and an artificial dermis, were applied over the excised irradiated skin defect and tested for Patients who were uneventfully healed with minimal donor-site morbidity, which lasts more than 1.5 years. PMID:21151652

  1. Analysis of nonablative skin resurfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Thomas E.; Anvari, Bahman; Keikhanzadeh, Kurosh; Dave, Digant P.; Nelson, J. Stuart; Goodman, Dennis M.; Hennings, David R.; Baumgardner, John; Berry, Michael J.

    1997-05-01

    Nonablative skin resurfacing is a dermatologic procedure utilizing pulsed laser irradiation and dynamic cooling to induce selectively a wound healing response in the papillary and upper reticular dermis. Using temperature measurements of human skin provided by pulsed photothermal radiometry immediately following laser irradiation (lambda equals 1.32 micrometer), spatial distribution of thermal damage is predicted in response to various potential therapeutic laser- cryogen doses. Results of our analysis suggest that appropriate application of pulsed laser irradiation and cryogen spray cooling may be used to protect the epidermis and selectively confine thermal injury to the papillary and upper reticular dermis. Development of nonablative skin resurfacing will require understanding the relationship between the degree of dermal photocoagulation and the cutaneous wound healing response following laser irradiation.

  2. Histological findings after brown recluse spider envenomation.

    PubMed

    Elston, D M; Eggers, J S; Schmidt, W E; Storrow, A B; Doe, R H; McGlasson, D; Fischer, J R

    2000-06-01

    Histologic specimens from 41 rabbits were studied for changes resulting from the manual injection of brown recluse spider venom. Major findings included a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate, coagulative tissue necrosis, and vasculitis. All specimens demonstrated a well-delineated zone of eosinophilic staining recognizable as "mummified" coagulative necrosis of the epidermis and dermis. A dense band of neutrophils bordered the zone of necrosis. Immediately adjacent to the neutrophilic band, small vessel vasculitis was a universal finding. Degranulated eosinophils and neutrophils and macrophages filled with eosinophilic granules were common. Inflammatory foci were often centered on groups of lipocytes within the dermis. Large vessel vasculitis resembling that seen in polyarteritis nodosa was present deep to 7 of the 40 eschars. Large vessel vasculitis may contribute to the large zones of necrosis seen after some brown recluse spider bites. Eosinophils may play a role in tissue damage after envenomation.

  3. Tufted hair folliculitis after scalp injury.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, J C; Correia, T M; Azevedo, F; Mesquita-Guimarães, J

    2001-03-01

    We describe the case of a 38-year-old epileptic man with tufted hair folliculitis. The condition started 5 years ago after a scalp laceration that had been sustained 3 months earlier during an epileptic crisis. There then appeared a circumscribed inflammatory bulging lesion (with exudation and crusts) that evolved to scarring alopecia with tufts of 20 to 30 apparently normal hair shafts. Results of bacteriologic examination of pus extruding from the dilated follicular ostia revealed Staphylococcus aureus. The cutaneous pathologic examination showed polymorphous inflammatory exudate in the upper and mid dermis, which was mostly perifollicular, and the presence of normal and independent follicles in the deep dermis, which, while ascending, converged to a common dilated follicular channel. The patient was treated successively with oral flucloxacillin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and with topical application of erythromycin, clindamycin, povidone iodine, and ketoconazole. Transient improvement was followed by recurrence and enlargement of the affected area.

  4. LASER METHODS IN MEDICINE: Light absorption in blood during low-intensity laser irradiation of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barun, V. V.; Ivanov, A. P.

    2010-06-01

    An analytical procedure is proposed for describing optical fields in biological tissues inhomogeneous in the depth direction, such as human skin, with allowance for multiple scattering. The procedure is used to investigate the depth distribution of the optical power density in homogeneous and multilayer dermis when the skin is exposed to a laser beam. We calculate the absorbed laser power spectra for oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin at different depths in relation to the absorption selectivity of these haemoglobin derivatives and the spectral dependence of the optical power density and demonstrate that the spectra vary considerably with depth. A simple exponential approximation is proposed for the depth distribution of the power density in the epidermis and dermis.

  5. Blepharopigmentation: histopathologic observations and X-ray microanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, K.B.; Payne, C.M.; Heyde, R.R. )

    1988-01-01

    Blepharopigmentation or permanent eyeliner is a popular cosmetic procedure currently performed by a variety of methods. All methods attempt to implant ferrous oxide pigment into the dermis. We performed histopathologic studies on a series of three eyelid specimens, including two by a previously undescribed multi-needle pigment delivery system. Light microscopy revealed the epidermis to be pigment-free and the dermis to contain pigment in clumps. Transmission electron microscopy (EM) demonstrated that the pigment was largely in macrophages. Energy-dispersive x-ray micro-analysis showed that in addition to iron and talc, titanium particles were also present. These findings suggest that the pigment is tolerated by the eyelid despite the fact that current pigments are contaminated.

  6. Nodular colloid degeneration of the skin: Report of three cases with review and update

    PubMed Central

    Ghanadan, Alireza; Kamyab-Hesari, Kambiz; Daneshpajouh, Maryam; Balighi, Kamran; Normohammadpour, Pedram

    2014-01-01

    Nodular colloid degeneration (NCD) is a rare dermatological disorder and uncommon type of colloid milium. The degeneration may be related to sun exposure. In this report, three cases, all presenting as multiple plaques and nodules over the nose and the face are depicted. Histologically, these nodular masses were homogeneous, with eosinophilic-cleaved materials expanding the papillary dermis and extending into the deep dermis. Periodic acid Schiff (PAS), crystal violet, and methyl-violet stains highlight the colloid material. All the three cases were finally diagnosed as NCD. NCD could be considered in any case with facial nodules and a long history of sun exposure. We suggest the long-term sun exposure as an etiologic factor; thus sun protection would be the most preventive and available treatment. PMID:25506562

  7. Light absorption in blood during low-intensity laser irradiation of skin

    SciTech Connect

    Barun, V V; Ivanov, A P

    2010-06-23

    An analytical procedure is proposed for describing optical fields in biological tissues inhomogeneous in the depth direction, such as human skin, with allowance for multiple scattering. The procedure is used to investigate the depth distribution of the optical power density in homogeneous and multilayer dermis when the skin is exposed to a laser beam. We calculate the absorbed laser power spectra for oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin at different depths in relation to the absorption selectivity of these haemoglobin derivatives and the spectral dependence of the optical power density and demonstrate that the spectra vary considerably with depth. A simple exponential approximation is proposed for the depth distribution of the power density in the epidermis and dermis. (laser methods in medicine)

  8. Computed effects of sweat gland ducts on the propagation of 94 GHz waves in skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafirstein, Gal; Moros, Eduardo G.

    2011-03-01

    The effects of sweat gland ducts (SGD) on specific absorption rate and temperatures during millimeter wave irradiation of skin were investigated with a high resolution finite differences time domain model consisting of a 30 μm stratum corneum (SC), a 350 μm epidermis, 1000 μm dermis and five SGD (60 μm radius, 300 μm height, 370 μm separation). The source was a WR-10 waveguide irradiating at 94 GHz. Without SGD, specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature maximum were in the dermis near epidermis. With SGD, a higher SAR maximum was inside SGD in the epidermis while temperature maximum moved to the epidermis/stratumcorneum junction. SGD significantly affected how GHz waves were absorbed in the skin. Implications of these finding in nociceptive research will be discussed as well as other potential medical applications.

  9. Changes in collagenous tissue microstructures and distributions of cathepsin L in body wall of autolytic sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Xin; Zhou, Da-Yong; Ma, Dong-Dong; Liu, Yan-Fei; Li, Dong-Mei; Dong, Xiu-Ping; Tan, Ming-Qian; Du, Ming; Zhu, Bei-Wei

    2016-12-01

    The autolysis of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) was induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and the changes of microstructures of collagenous tissues and distributions of cathepsin L were investigated using histological and histochemical techniques. Intact collagen fibers in fresh S. japonicus dermis were disaggregated into collagen fibrils after UV stimuli. Cathepsin L was identified inside the surface of vacuoles in the fresh S. japonicus dermis cells. After the UV stimuli, the membranes of vacuoles and cells were fused together, and cathepsin L was released from cells and diffused into tissues. The density of cathepsin L was positively correlated with the speed and degree of autolysis in different layers of body wall. Our results revealed that lysosomal cathepsin L was released from cells in response to UV stimuli, which contacts and degrades the extracellular substrates such as collagen fibers, and thus participates in the autolysis of S. japonicus. PMID:27374541

  10. Differential regional expression of multiple ADAMs during feather bud formation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Juntang; Luo, Jiankai; Redies, Christoph

    2011-09-01

    The expression of seven members of the ADAM family was investigated by in situ hybridization in the developing feather buds of chicken. The expression profiles of the ADAMs in the cells and tissues of the feather buds differ from each other. ADAM9, ADAM10, and ADAM17 are expressed in the epidermis of the feather bud, whereas ADAM23 expression is restricted to the bud crest, with a distribution similar to that of sonic hedgehog. ADAM13 is not only expressed in the epidermis, but also in restricted regions of the dermis. Both ADAM12 and ADAM22 are expressed in the dermis of the feather bud, with an opposite mediolateral and anteroposterior polarity. Furthermore, the mRNAs of all investigated ADAMs show regional differences in their expression, for example, in the neck and in the roots of the leg and wing. These results suggest that ADAMs play a variety of roles during avian feather bud formation.

  11. Visualization of dermal alteration in skin lesions with discoid lupus erythematosus by multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, L. H.; Yu, H. B.; Zhu, X. Q.; Zhuo, S. M.; Wang, Y. Y.; Yang, Y. H.; Chen, J. X.

    2013-04-01

    Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) is a chronic dermatological disease which lacks valid methods for early diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring. Considering the collagen and elastin disorder due to mucin deposition of DLE, multiphoton microscopy (MPM) imaging techniques were employed to obtain high-resolution collagen and elastin images from the dermis. The content and distribution of collagen and elastin were quantified to characterize the dermal pathological status of skin lesions with DLE in comparison with normal skin. Our results showed a significant difference between skin lesions with DLE and normal skin in terms of the morphological structure of collagen and elastin in the dermis, demonstrating the possibility of MPM for noninvasively tracking the pathological process of DLE even in its early stages and evaluating the therapeutic efficacy at the molecular level.

  12. Focal dermal hypoplasia: ultrastructural abnormalities of the connective tissue.

    PubMed

    del Carmen Boente, María; Asial, Raúl A; Winik, Beatriz C

    2007-02-01

    We followed over 10 years three girls with focal dermal hypoplasia syndrome. The histopathological changes demonstrated at the optical level an hypoplastic dermis with thin and scarce collagen bundles and a marked diminution of elastic fibers. Mature adipose tissue was found scattered within the papillary and reticular dermis. No alterations in the basal membrane were observed by immunocytochemical or ultrastructural techniques. Ultrastructurally, in the skin-affected areas, loosely arranged collagen bundles composed of few fibrils were seen scattered in the extracellular matrix. Scarce elastic fibers of normal morphology were also observed. Fibroblasts were smaller, oval-shaped, and diminished in number with a poorly developed cytoplasm. In these fibroblasts, the most conspicuous feature was a remarkable and irregular thickening of the nuclear fibrous lamina. Taking into account that a common link between all laminopaties may be a failure of stem cells to regenerate mesenchymal tissue, this failure would induce the dermal hypoplasia observed in our patients presenting Goltz syndrome.

  13. Changes in collagenous tissue microstructures and distributions of cathepsin L in body wall of autolytic sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Xin; Zhou, Da-Yong; Ma, Dong-Dong; Liu, Yan-Fei; Li, Dong-Mei; Dong, Xiu-Ping; Tan, Ming-Qian; Du, Ming; Zhu, Bei-Wei

    2016-12-01

    The autolysis of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) was induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and the changes of microstructures of collagenous tissues and distributions of cathepsin L were investigated using histological and histochemical techniques. Intact collagen fibers in fresh S. japonicus dermis were disaggregated into collagen fibrils after UV stimuli. Cathepsin L was identified inside the surface of vacuoles in the fresh S. japonicus dermis cells. After the UV stimuli, the membranes of vacuoles and cells were fused together, and cathepsin L was released from cells and diffused into tissues. The density of cathepsin L was positively correlated with the speed and degree of autolysis in different layers of body wall. Our results revealed that lysosomal cathepsin L was released from cells in response to UV stimuli, which contacts and degrades the extracellular substrates such as collagen fibers, and thus participates in the autolysis of S. japonicus.

  14. Study of Native Type I Collagen Fibrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, August

    2006-03-01

    Presented in this work is direct imaging and force microscopy of native, intact type I collagen fibrils extracted from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa dermis with affiliated proteoglycan molecules. The prototypical collagen fibril structure is well conserved through higher mammalian species and presents a model for study of the mechanical properties of the primary individual components of the dermis and skeletal ligature. Common practice is to use reconstituted fibrils which lack the precise conformal structure and affiliated proteoglycans. We have performed force microscopy to probe the mechanical properties of native fibrils and extract the elastic modulus under natural conditions. This knowledge is combined transmission and atomic force imaging, in conjunction with applied computation models, to demonstrate an inherent semitubular structure of these fibrils.

  15. Application of double-layered skin phantoms for optical flow imaging during laser tattoo treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byeong-il; Song, Woosub; Kim, Hyejin; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2016-05-01

    The feasible application of double-layered skin phantoms was evaluated to identify artificial blood flow with a Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) system for laser tattoo treatments. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used to fabricate the artificial phantoms with flow channels embedded. A double-integrating sphere system with an inverse adding-doubling method quantified both the absorption and the reduced scattering coefficients for epidermis and dermis phantoms. Both OCT and caliper measurements confirmed the double-layered phantom structure (epidermis = 136 ± 17 µm vs. dermis = 3.0 ± 0.1 mm). The DOCT method demonstrated that high flow rates were associated with high image contrast, visualizing the position and the shape of the flow channel. Application of the channel-embedded skin phantoms in conjunction with DOCT can be a reliable technique to assess dynamic variations in the blood flow during and after laser tattoo treatments.

  16. Isolation and cultivation of dermal stem cells that differentiate into functional epidermal melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Fukunaga-Kalabis, Mizuho; Herlyn, Meenhard

    2012-01-01

    Human melanocytes have been extensively studied, but a melanocyte stem cell reservoir in glabrous skin has not yet been found. Human dermis contains cells that are nonpigmented but can differentiate to several different cell types. We have recently shown that multipotent dermal stem cells isolated from human neonatal foreskins are able to differentiate to multiple cell lineages, including pigmented melanocytes. The dermal stem cells grow as three-dimensional spheres in human embryonic stem cell medium and express some neural crest stem cell and embryonic stem cell markers. Melanocytes derived from dermal stem cells express melanocytic markers and act the same way as mature epidermal melanocytes. Dermal spheres, embedded in the reconstructed dermis consisting of collagen with fibroblasts, can migrate to the basement membrane, where they become pigmented in the same way as epidermal melanocytes suggesting that dermal stem cells can give rise to epidermal melanocytes.

  17. Spectrally resolved visualization of fluorescent dyes permeating into skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeder, Ulf; Bergmann, Thorsten; Beer, Sebastian; Burg, Jan Michael; Schmidts, Thomas; Runkel, Frank; Fiebich, Martin

    2012-03-01

    We present a spectrally resolved confocal imaging approach to qualitatively asses the overall uptake and the penetration depth of fluorescent dyes into biological tissue. We use a confocal microscope with a spectral resolution of 5 nm to measure porcine skin tissue after performing a Franz-Diffusion experiment with a submicron emulsion enriched with the fluorescent dye Nile Red. The evaluation uses linear unmixing of the dye and the tissue autofluorescence spectra. The results are combined with a manual segmentation of the skin's epidermis and dermis layers to assess the penetration behavior additionally to the overall uptake. The diffusion experiments, performed for 3h and 24h, show a 3-fold increased dye uptake in the epidermis and dermis for the 24h samples. As the method is based on spectral information it does not face the problem of superimposed dye and tissue spectra and therefore is more precise compared to intensity based evaluation methods.

  18. Dermofat graft in deep nasolabial fold and facial rhytidectomy.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Han, Jin Yi; Kim, Dae Joong

    2003-01-01

    Fat and dermis or the combined tissues are used commonly in augmentation of the nasolabial fold. Guyuron obtained the dermofat graft from either the suprapubic or the groin region. The thickness of the preauricular skin was measured in seven Korean cadavers, five male and two female. We used the dermofat graft out of the preauricular skin remnant after facial rhytidectomy to augment the deep nasolabial fold in a patient. The average thickness of the epidermis was 56 +/- 12 microm, the dermis was 1820 +/- 265 microm thick, and the subcutaneous tissue was 4783 +/- 137 microm. More dense connective tissues, such as SMAS, are seen in the preauricular skin. The dermofat graft was easily obtained and prepared from the leftover preauricular skin after dissection of the lax skin in face lifting. This technique could be employed effectively and successfully to alleviate a deep nasolabial fold and concomitant facial rhytidectomy in an Asian with a thick preauricular skin.

  19. In vivo optical monitoring of transcutaneous delivery of calcium carbonate microcontainers

    PubMed Central

    Genina, Elina A.; Svenskaya, Yulia I.; Yanina, Irina Yu.; Dolotov, Leonid E.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Terentyuk, Georgy S.; Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Gorin, Dmitry A.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Sukhorukov, Gleb B.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a method for delivery of biocompatible CaCO3 microcontainers (4.0 ± 0.8 µm) containing Fe3O4 nanoparticles (14 ± 5 nm) into skin in vivo using fractional laser microablation (FLMA) provided by a pulsed Er:YAG laser system. Six laboratory rats have been used for the microcontainer delivery and weekly monitoring implemented using an optical coherence tomography and a standard histological analysis. The use of FLMA allowed for delivery of the microcontainers to the depth about 300 μm and creation of a depot in dermis. On the seventh day we have observed the dissolving of the microcontainers and the release of nanoparticles into dermis. PMID:27375927

  20. Effects of hair removal alexandrite laser on biometric parameters of the skin.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Shiva; Abolhasani, Ehsan; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammadali

    2016-04-01

    The effects of alexandrite laser (AL) on skin parameters such as melanin content, skin layer depth, elasticity, and density have not been investigated through biometric methods. We aim to assess the effect of AL on the skin parameters through biometric devices to determine whether it has positive effects on treated region. In this pretest-posttest study, we recruited patients who attended Laser Clinic of Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, from January through December 2014. Patients had to be free of any dermatologic conditions and lesion at the site of treatment or any contraindication to laser therapy. Baseline measurements were performed and patients received four sessions of AL therapy (spot size, 12 mm; fluence, 12 J/cm(2); and pulse width, 5 Hz) with 4-week intervals. Four weeks after the last treatment session, the same parameters were assessed that included skin color, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), dermis and epidermis density and depth (through skin ultrasonography), melanin content, erythema intensity, and skin elasticity. Biometric parameters of 33 patients (27 females [81.8%]), with mean (SD) age of 35.7 (9.5) years were evaluated. The mean percent changes of skin parameters were as follows: skin color, 5.88% through Visioface and by 56.8% through Colorimeter devices (became lighter); melanin content, -15.95%; TEWL, -2.96%; elasticity, +14.88%; dermis depth -19.01%; and dermis density, +1580.11% (P < 0.001 for changes in each parameter). AL could decrease melanin content of the skin and make the skin thinner while it could increase elasticity and density of epidermis and dermis, which might indicate increased collagen content of skin.

  1. Vascular structures in dermoscopy*

    PubMed Central

    Ayhan, Erhan; Ucmak, Derya; Akkurt, ZeynepMeltem

    2015-01-01

    Dermoscopy is an aiding method in the visualization of the epidermis and dermis. It is usually used to diagnose melanocytic lesions. In recent years, dermoscopy has increasingly been used to diagnose non-melanocytic lesions. Certain vascular structures, their patterns of arrangement and additional criteria may demonstrate lesion-specific characteristics. In this review, vascular structures and their arrangements are discussed separately in the light of conflicting views and an overview of recent literature. PMID:26375224

  2. The beneficial effects of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) on wound healing of rabbit skin.

    PubMed

    Pişkin, Ahmet; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Tümentemur, Gamze; Kaplan, Süleyman; Yazıcı, Ozgür Bülent; Hökelek, Murat

    2014-08-01

    Momordica charantia (MC; bitter gourd) is a traditional herbal commonly used for its antidiabetic, antioxidant, contraceptive and antibacterial properties. In the current study, the authors aim to observe the topical effect of MC cream on the wound-healing process in rabbits. Moreover, they compare the healing potential with conventional creams used therapeutically. Towards this aim, 28 New Zealand rabbits were divided into four groups and excision wounds (7 cm²) were made on their backs. Open wound dressing was carried out daily for 28 days among the experimental groups with the application of dekspanthenol (Bepanthen®; BP group, n = 7), nitrofurazon (Furacin®; FR group, n = 7) and olive oil extract of MC (MC group, n = 7). No application was made to the control group. At the end of day 28, areas of the skin with initial wound area were en bloc dissected and prepared for histopathological and stereological analysis. Inflammatory cells were abundant in the control group and cream application led to a decrease in the number of these cells, especially in the MC group. The highest number of fibroblasts was detected in the MC group. Furthermore, the MC group displayed the highest fractions of epidermis to papillary dermis, fibroblasts to reticular dermis and collagen fibres to reticular dermis. The MC group also presented a high density of blood vessels, moderate density of collagen fibres and mature fibroblasts. The BP group showed better epithelialisation compared with the FR group, but the latter provided more effective reorganisation of the dermis. Different cream supplements caused healthy and fast wound healing according to untreated controls and the results show that administration of the MC extract improves and accelerates the process of wound healing in rabbits in comparison with the BP and FR extracts.

  3. Topical distribution of acyclovir in normal equine skin and equine sarcoids: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Haspeslagh, M; Taevernier, L; Maes, A A; Vlaminck, L E M; De Spiegeleer, B; Croubels, S M; Martens, A M

    2016-06-01

    Topical acyclovir application is an owner-friendly treatment for occult equine sarcoids, without the caustic side-effects other topical treatments have. Variable clinical success rates have been described, but it is not known to what rate and extent acyclovir penetrates in and through equine skin from a topical formulation. In the current study, an in vitro Franz diffusion model was used to determine the permeation parameters for a generic 5% acyclovir cetomacrogol cream for both healthy and sarcoid equine skin. The distribution of acyclovir between different layers of both skin types was also evaluated. While acyclovir penetrated through both skin types, significantly less acyclovir permeated to the deep dermis of sarcoid skin (197.62ng/mm(3)) compared to normal skin (459.41ng/mm(3)). Within sarcoid skin samples, significantly higher acyclovir concentrations were found in the epidermis (983.59ng/mm(3)) compared to the superficial dermis (450.02ng/mm(3)) and the deep dermis. At each sample point, significantly more acyclovir permeated to the receptor fluid through normal skin compared to sarcoid skin, which is reflected in the significantly higher permeation parameters of normal skin. Normal skin was found to be more permissive for acyclovir, but even in sarcoid skin, enough acyclovir reached the deep dermis to treat a Herpes simplex virus infection. In the case of equine sarcoids, the treatment is aimed at the Bovine papillomavirus and no information is available on the susceptibility of the DNA polymerase of this virus for acyclovir. Therefore, further research is needed to determine the efficacy of acyclovir to treat equine sarcoids. PMID:27234546

  4. Microbotox of the Lower Face and Neck: Evolution of a Personal Technique and Its Clinical Effects.

    PubMed

    Wu, Woffles T L

    2015-11-01

    Microbotox is the injection of multiple microdroplets of diluted onabotulinumtoxinA into the dermis or the interface between the dermis and the superficial layer of facial muscles. The intention is to decrease sweat and sebaceous gland activity to improve skin texture and sheen and to target the superficial layer of muscles that find attachment to the undersurface of the dermis causing visible rhytides. For treatment of the lower face and neck, hundreds of microdroplets of diluted Botox are injected into the dermis or immediate subdermal plane to improve skin texture, smoothen horizontal creases, and decrease vertical banding of the neck, as well as to achieve better apposition of the platysma to the jawline and neck, improving contouring of the cervicomental angle. The Microbotox solution is mixed in the syringe by adding a small volume of lidocaine to the calculated dose of onabotulinumtoxinA drawn from a standard bottle of Botox prepared with 2.5 mL saline. Each 1 mL syringe of Microbotox solution contains 20-28 units of onabotulinumtoxinA per mL of solution and is used to deliver 100-120 injections. The lower face and neck will usually require 1 mL per side. The injections are delivered intradermally using a 30- or 32-G needle raising a tiny blanched weal at each point. The author has over 1867 documented cases of Microbotox in various parts of the face (forehead, glabellar, crow's-feet, infraorbital, and cheeks) and neck, the majority of these patients being treated in forehead or the lower face and neck as described in this article. PMID:26441119

  5. Treatment of childhood cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with alpha-interferon plus PUVA.

    PubMed

    Tay, Y K; Weston, W L; Aeling, J L

    1996-01-01

    All forms of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma are rare in childhood. We describe an 8-year-old boy with plaque-stage mycosis fungoides stage IIA whose cutaneous eruption had been present for 5 years. Histologic examination revealed the presence of a granulomatous infiltrate together with atypical lymphocytes within the dermis. The child had an excellent response to combination psoralen-UVA (PUVA) with interferon-alpha 2a treatment and is currently in remission.

  6. Food hypersensitivity in a cat.

    PubMed

    Medleau, L; Latimer, K S; Duncan, J R

    1986-09-15

    Food hypersensitivity was diagnosed in a 4-year-old Siamese cat. Clinical signs included intense erythema, with alopecia, excoriations, erosions, and crusts involving the ventral portion of the abdomen, inguinal region, medial aspect of each thigh, and cranial and lateral aspects of all 4 limbs. The cat was intensely pruritic. Histologically, there was cutaneous mast cell hyperplasia and diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in the dermis. Blood eosinophilia also was found. Clinical signs resolved after exclusive feeding of a hypoallergenic diet.

  7. Extensive morphea profunda with autoantibodies and benign tumors: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Budamakuntla, Leelavathy; Malvankar, Dipali

    2012-01-01

    The term deep morphea describes a variant of morphea (localised scleroderma) in which inflammation and sclerosis are found in the deep dermis, panniculus, fascia or superficial muscle. It is sometimes associated with autoantibodies. We report the case of a 49 year-old male who had morphea profunda (radiologically and histopathologically confirmed) affecting mainly the left side of the body with face, trunk and limb involvement, along with autoantibody production and associated neurofibromas and lipomas. PMID:23189258

  8. Ultrasound image of the skin, apparatus and imaging basics

    PubMed Central

    Malinowska, Sylwia

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging of the skin is becoming more and more popular. Skin ultrasound examinations are used both in order to assess healthy skin and to evaluate pathological lesions. They are mainly performed in dermatology as well as in broadly understood aesthetic medicine and cosmetology. At present, skin imaging is enabled by high-frequency equipment and high-quality conventional devices. The introduction of high-frequency electronic transducers which are supported by conventional scanners may be a turning point in skin ultrasound equipment. Irrespective of the ultrasound scanner, three layers may be distinguished in the image of the healthy skin: epidermal echo, dermis and subcutaneous tissue. High-frequency equipment allows for detailed imaging of the epidermal echo, dermis and upper part of the subcutaneous tissue. It is also possible to visualize the skin appendages (hair with follicles and nails) as well as slight vessels that run in the dermis and upper subcutaneous tissue. Contrary to high-frequency equipment, conventional scanners do not allow for a detailed assessment of the epidermal and dermal echoes. Instead, they enable the visualization of the entire subcutaneous tissue. The following parameters are used for the assessment of skin ultrasound images: thickness of individual skin layers, caliber of blood vessels, echogenicity of the dermis or its individual layers, echogenicity of the subcutaneous tissue as well as the presence or absence of flow in slight venous vessels. Currently, the studies on the usage of sonoelastography for skin assessment are in progress. Considering the dynamic development of skin imaging equipment and its diagnostic possibilities, one might suspect that high-frequency examinations will become more common and will be fundamental for the evaluation of both healthy and pathologically altered skin. This paper is an introduction to a series of articles on the clinical application of high-frequency ultrasound. The next articles will

  9. Molecular diagnostics complementing morphology in superficial mesenchymal tumors.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Alison L; Goldblum, John R; Billings, Steven D

    2013-02-01

    Molecular techniques are increasingly important in the practice of surgical pathology. In soft tissue tumors, there are a number of tumors with recurring cytogenetic abnormalities. Knowledge of these abnormalities has furthered our understanding of these tumors and has also allowed development of molecular techniques to aid in the diagnosis. This review will focus on mesenchymal tumors with specific cytogenetic abnormalities that may present as a superficial tumor of the dermis or subcutis.

  10. ELR-Negative CXC Chemokine CXCL11 (IP-9/I-TAC) Facilitates Dermal and Epidermal Maturation during Wound Repair

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Cecelia C.; Whaley, Diana; Y-Chen, Amy; Kulesekaran, Priya; Hebda, Patricia A.; Wells, Alan

    2008-01-01

    In skin wounds, the chemokine CXCR3 receptor appears to play a key role in coordinating the switch from regeneration of the ontogenically distinct mesenchymal and epithelial compartments toward maturation. However, because CXCR3 equivalently binds four different ELR-devoid CXC chemokines (ie, PF4/CXCL4, IP-10/CXCL10, MIG/CXCL9, and IP-9/CXCL11), we sought to identify the ligand that coordinates epidermal coverage with the maturation of the underlying superficial dermis. Because CXCL11 (IP-9 or I-TAC) is produced by redifferentiating keratinocytes late in the regenerative phase when re-epithelialization is completed and matrix maturation ensues, we generated mice in which an antisense construct (IP-9AS) eliminated IP-9 expression during the wound-healing process. Both full and partial thickness excisional wounds were created and analyzed histologically throughout a 2-month period. Wound healing was impaired in the IP-9AS mice, with a hypercellular and immature dermis noted even after 60 days. Re-epithelialization was delayed with a deficient delineating basement membrane persisting in mice expressing the IP-9AS construct. Provisional matrix components persisted in the dermis, and the mature basement membrane components laminin V and collagen IV were severely diminished. Interestingly, the inflammatory response was not diminished despite IP-9/I-TAC being chemotactic for such cells. We conclude that IP-9 is a key ligand in the CXCR3 signaling system for wound repair, promoting re-epithelialization and modulating the maturation of the superficial dermis. PMID:18669615

  11. Second harmonic generation imaging of dermal collagen component in human keloid tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H. B.; Chen, S.; Zhu, X. Q.; Yang, H. Q.; Chen, J. X.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we report second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging of human keloid tissue. High resolution SHG images of collagen component were obtained in the superficial, medial and deep dermis of human keloid tissue, respectively. Our results show that this method has a capability to observe the structure of collagen component in human keloid tissue, which will help to better understand the formation process of human keloid scar at the molecular level.

  12. THE AUTOIMMUNE CONSTELLATION IN LICHEN AMYLOIDOSIS.

    PubMed

    Andrese, Elena; Vâţă, D; Ciobanu, Delia; Stătescu, Laura; Solovăstru, Laura Gheucă

    2015-01-01

    Localized cutaneous amyloidosis is a rare disease among white people, being more common in South-Asia, China and South America. The disease is characterized by deposition of amyloid material in the papillary dermis without visceral involvement. Nevertheless, there is a growing list of immune-mediated disorders that have been linked to cutaneous amyloidosis. We present two cases of concomitant occurrence of lichen amyloidosis and autoimmune thyroiditis/atopic dermatitis in two Caucasian women. PMID:26793847

  13. MUCI positive cutaneous metastasis with transepidermal elimination from a breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Luna, Amalia; Merino, Maria Emilia; Alberdi, Cecilio G; Abba, Martin C; Segal-Eiras, Amada; Croce, Maria Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of cutaneous metastases from internal malignancies. Generally, the neoplastic cells are located in the dermis or hypodermis, while a finding of transepidermal elimination on cutaneous metastases is exceptional. In this report we present a patient with perforating cutaneous metastases from breast cancer with mucin 1 expression. Cutaneous, bone, lung, and hepatic lesions were detected two years after the diagnosis of the primary tumor.

  14. MUCI positive cutaneous metastasis with transepidermal elimination from a breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Luna, Amalia; Merino, Maria Emilia; Alberdi, Cecilio G; Abba, Martin C; Segal-Eiras, Amada; Croce, Maria Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of cutaneous metastases from internal malignancies. Generally, the neoplastic cells are located in the dermis or hypodermis, while a finding of transepidermal elimination on cutaneous metastases is exceptional. In this report we present a patient with perforating cutaneous metastases from breast cancer with mucin 1 expression. Cutaneous, bone, lung, and hepatic lesions were detected two years after the diagnosis of the primary tumor. PMID:24235849

  15. A novel method of skin closure for aging or fragile skin.

    PubMed

    Lipnik, Morris J

    2015-10-01

    A novel method of skin closure is detailed for surgical removal of tumors in patients with aging or thin and fragile skin. A polyethylene film with an acrylate adhesive was used as an adjunct to the dermis to help provide stability for suturing. Cases are presented with clinical photographs to demonstrate how this technique may prevent wound complications in elderly patients or those with fragile skin.

  16. Immediate reconstruction after subcutaneous mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Maillard, G F; Garey, L J

    1989-01-01

    We describe an improved technique for subcutaneous mastectomy using two surgical approaches, one through a short axillary incision and the other through an inframmary incision. Pathological breast tissue is removed from the prepectoral space through the lower incision and a silicone implant is placed in the retropectoral space through the axillary approach. A further modification is described using a laterally rotated inframmary dermis flap to reinforce the lateral margin of the retropectoral space containing the prosthesis.

  17. Functional morphology of the integumentary system in fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, D.G.; Farrell, Anthony P.

    2011-01-01

    The integument that covers the outer surface of a fish’s body and fins is a multifunctional organ, with morphological features highly adapted to carry out these functions. The integument consists of two layers. The outer layer, the epidermis, is essentially cellular in structure, comprised of a multilayered epithelium that usually includes specialized cells. The inner layer, the dermis, is primarily a fibrous structure with relatively few cells, although it may contain scales, nerves, blood vessels, adipose tissue, and pigment cells.

  18. Development of the mouse dermal adipose layer occurs independently of subcutaneous adipose tissue and is marked by restricted early expression of FABP4.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowicz, Kamila; Gledhill, Karl; Ambler, Carrie A; Manning, Craig B; Jahoda, Colin A B

    2013-01-01

    The laboratory mouse is a key animal model for studies of adipose biology, metabolism and disease, yet the developmental changes that occur in tissues and cells that become the adipose layer in mouse skin have received little attention. Moreover, the terminology around this adipose body is often confusing, as frequently no distinction is made between adipose tissue within the skin, and so called subcutaneous fat. Here adipocyte development in mouse dorsal skin was investigated from before birth to the end of the first hair follicle growth cycle. Using Oil Red O staining, immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR and TUNEL staining we confirmed previous observations of a close spatio-temporal link between hair follicle development and the process of adipogenesis. However, unlike previous studies, we observed that the skin adipose layer was created from cells within the lower dermis. By day 16 of embryonic development (e16) the lower dermis was demarcated from the upper dermal layer, and commitment to adipogenesis in the lower dermis was signalled by expression of FABP4, a marker of adipocyte differentiation. In mature mice the skin adipose layer is separated from underlying subcutaneous adipose tissue by the panniculus carnosus. We observed that the skin adipose tissue did not combine or intermix with subcutaneous adipose tissue at any developmental time point. By transplanting skin isolated from e14.5 mice (prior to the start of adipogenesis), under the kidney capsule of adult mice, we showed that skin adipose tissue develops independently and without influence from subcutaneous depots. This study has reinforced the developmental link between hair follicles and skin adipocyte biology. We argue that because skin adipocytes develop from cells within the dermis and independently from subcutaneous adipose tissue, that it is accurately termed dermal adipose tissue and that, in laboratory mice at least, it represents a separate adipose depot.

  19. Potamostoma shizunaiense gen. et sp. nov. (Nemertea: Hoplonemertea: Monostilifera): a new brackish-water nemertean from Japan.

    PubMed

    Kajihara, Hiroshi; Gibson, Ray; Mawatari, Shunsuke F

    2003-04-01

    Potamostoma shizunaiense gen. et sp. nov. (Nemertea: Hoplonemertea: Monostilifera) is described from the mouth of the River Shizunai, Hokkaido, Japan. This genus is readily distinguished from other monostiliferans by an oesophagus opening far anteriorly into the rhynchodaeum, a well developed excretory system extending the whole body length, terminals of the excretory collecting tubules situated between the body wall circular muscle layer and the dermis, and bilobed testes in males.

  20. 18F-FDG PET/CT in a seldom case of primary duodenal dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans with lung and skeletal metastases.

    PubMed

    Karunanithi, Sellam; Jain, Tarun Kumar; Singh, Ashok; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2015-02-01

    Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is an uncommon cutaneous soft tissue sarcoma tumor that arises from the dermis of the skin. Sarcomas of the intestines are rare, and a DFSP arising from the small intestine is a very rare occurrence. Here we present F-FDG PET/CT imaging findings of a 60-year-old man with DFSP in the duodenum with metastases to the lung, mesentery, and skeleton.

  1. In-vivo experimental evaluation of nonablative skin remodeling using a 1.54-μm laser with surface cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordon, Serge R.; Capon, Alexandre; Creusy, Collette; Fleurisse, Laurence; Buys, Bruno; Faucheux, Marc A.; Servell, Pascal

    2000-05-01

    Selective dermal remodeling using diode or 1.32 micrometer Nd:YAG lasers has been recently proposed for skin rejuvenation. This new technique consists in inducing collagen tightening and/or neocollagen synthesis without significant damage of the overlying epidermis. Such an approach requires (1) a cooling system in order to target dermal collagen with relatively good protection of the epidermal layer, (2) a specific wavelength for confining the thermal damage into the upper dermis (100 to 400 micrometer). Based on previous studies, demonstrating a better water absorption and a reduced melanin absorption at 1.54 micrometer compared to the 1.32 micrometer, this experimental study aimed to evaluate a new laser (co-doped Yb-Er:phosphate glass material, Aramis, Quantel-France) emitting at 1.54 micrometer. This laser was used in combination with the Dermacool system (Dermacool, Mableton, USA) in order to achieve epidermis cooling before, during and after irradiation. Male hairless rats were used for the study. Pulse train irradiation (1.1 J, 3 Hz, 30 pulses) and different cooling temperatures (+5 degree(s)C, 0 degree(s)C, -5 degree(s)C) were screened with clinical examination and histological evaluation at 1, 3, and 7 days after laser irradiation. The clinical effects showed that pulse train irradiation produced reproducible epidermal preservation and confinement of the thermal damage into the dermis. The different cooling temperatures did not provide detectable differences in terms of size and depth of thermal damage. New collagen synthesis was confirmed by a marked fibroblastic proliferation, detected in the lower dermis at D3 and clearly seen in the upper dermis at D7. This new laser appears to be a promising new tool for the treatment of skin laxity, solar elastosis, facial rhytids and mild reduction of wrinkles.

  2. Hylaform: a new hyaluronic acid filler.

    PubMed

    Monheit, Gary D

    2004-05-01

    Hylaform is a new facial filler composed of hyaluronic acid. Hylaform is derived from an avian source, and is a clear gel substance. Skin testing is not necessary, although rare allergic reactions can occur form the avian protein content. Hylaform is injected into the dermis to add volume and provide a rapid correction of facial contour defects. It works particularly well in wrinkles, grooves, and thin lips deflated from aging changes.

  3. Dermal melanin concentration of yellow perch Perca flavescens in relation to water transparency.

    PubMed

    Rheault, G; Langevin, M; Cabana, G; Glémet, H

    2015-11-01

    A positive relationship was observed between Secchi disc depth and dermal melanin concentration in yellow perch Perca flavescens sampled from 11 humic lakes located on the Canadian Shield in southern Quebec (Canada). Secchi disc depth explained 23% of the variations of dermal melanin concentration. Secchi disc depth and thus water transparency appear to have a positive influence on melanin production in the dermis of P. flavescens. PMID:26399476

  4. High-definition optical coherence tomography intrinsic skin ageing assessment in women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Boone, M A L M; Suppa, M; Marneffe, A; Miyamoto, M; Jemec, G B E; Del Marmol, V

    2015-10-01

    Several non-invasive two-dimensional techniques with different lateral resolution and measurable depth range have proved to be useful in assessing and quantifying morphological changes in skin ageing. Among these, only in vivo microscopy techniques permit histometric measurements in vivo. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related (IAR) morphological changes of epidermis, dermo-epidermal junction (DEJ), papillary dermis (PD), papillary-reticular dermis junction and reticular dermis (RD) have been performed by high-definition optical coherence tomography in real time 3-D. HD-OCT images were taken at the internal site of the right upper arm. Qualitative HD-OCT IAR descriptors were reported at skin surface, at epidermal layer, DEJ, PD and upper RD. Quantitative evaluation of age-related compaction and backscattered intensity or brightness of different skin layers was performed by using the plugin plot z-axis profile of ImageJ(®) software permitting intensity assessment of HD-OCT (DICOM) images (3-D images). Analysis was in blind from all clinical information. Sixty, fair-skinned (Fitzpatrick types I-III) healthy females were analysed retrospectively in this study. The subjects belonged to three age groups: twenty in group I aged 20-39, twenty in group II aged 40-59 and twenty in group III aged 60-79. Only intrinsic ageing in women has been studied. Significant age-related qualitative and quantitative differences could be noticed. IAR changes in dermal matrix fibers morphology/organisation and in microvasculature were observed. The brightness and compaction of the different skin layers increased significantly with intrinsic skin ageing. The depth of visibility of fibers in RD increased significantly in the older age group. In conclusion, HD-OCT allows 3-D in vivo and real time qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related morphological skin changes at high resolution from skin surface to a depth

  5. Beyond the borders of keloid formation: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Cugno, S; Rizis, D; Cordoba, C

    2011-01-01

    The keloid scar is a cutaneous mass characterized by nodular fibroblastic proliferation of dermis and a predilection for distinctive anatomical locations. However, keloid extension to neighbouring tissue as a nonsyndromic entity has not been described. In the present report, a case involving a 48-year-old woman with extensive bilateral keloids of the ear lobules and neck following ear piercing is presented. PMID:22379373

  6. Analysis of the photorejuvenation mechanisms for healthcare and treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shusen; Gong, Wei; Li, Hui

    2005-01-01

    "Nonablative skin photorejuvenation" is a new treatment for photoaged skin, which is to wound the upper dermis in order to induce dermal fibrosis and improve the clinical appearance. In this paper, the penetration depths of the light emitted by intense pulsed light source (IPLS) were analyzed, and the results show the IPLS was suitable for nonablative skin photorejuvenation. A new method with thermal texture maps (TTM) technology for exploring the mechanisms and repairing processes in the nonablative treatment of photoaged skin was presented.

  7. Verrucous Hemangioma Treated with Electrocautery

    PubMed Central

    Fatani, Mohammad; Al Otaibi, Homaid; Mohammed, Muath; Hegazy, Osama

    2016-01-01

    Verrucous hemangioma is a rare vascular malformation consisting of a proliferation of dilated blood vessels of different sizes that occupy the dermis and hypodermis. The epidermis of the affected area shows a strong proliferative reaction that presents as a warty appearance. Here, we report the case of a 17-year-old male who presented with an asymptomatic warty growth above the lateral malleolus on the right leg, which healed after electrocautery. PMID:27462218

  8. Determination of the elastic modulus of native collagen fibrils via radial indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, August J.; Matthews, William G.; Koob, Thomas J.

    2006-10-01

    The authors studied the elastic response of single, native collagen fibrils extracted from tissues of the inner dermis of the sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, via local nanoscale indentation with an atomic force microscope (AFM). AFM imaging of fibrils under ambient conditions are presented, demonstrating a peak-to-peak periodicity, the d band, of dehydrated, unfixed fibrils to be ˜64.5nm. Radial indentation experiments were performed, and the measured value for the reduced modulus is 1-2GPa.

  9. A Familial Poikiloderma-Like Cutaneous Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Unni, Mahesh; Ankad, Balachandra; Naidu, Varna; Sudakar Rao, KM

    2014-01-01

    Familial poikiloderma-like cutaneous amyloidosis(FPLCA) is a rare, generalized but genetic dyschromic skin disorder characterized by amyloid deposits in dermis due to defective DNA repair secondary to sunlight damage. Clinically, it presents with diffuse brownish pigmentation with hypo-pigmented macules and many brownish scattered lichenoid papules with normal developmental milestones. The condition is autosomal dominant with incomplete penetrance. We are here reporting a rare familial case of FPLCA with a review of the literature PMID:25484425

  10. THE AUTOIMMUNE CONSTELLATION IN LICHEN AMYLOIDOSIS.

    PubMed

    Andrese, Elena; Vâţă, D; Ciobanu, Delia; Stătescu, Laura; Solovăstru, Laura Gheucă

    2015-01-01

    Localized cutaneous amyloidosis is a rare disease among white people, being more common in South-Asia, China and South America. The disease is characterized by deposition of amyloid material in the papillary dermis without visceral involvement. Nevertheless, there is a growing list of immune-mediated disorders that have been linked to cutaneous amyloidosis. We present two cases of concomitant occurrence of lichen amyloidosis and autoimmune thyroiditis/atopic dermatitis in two Caucasian women.

  11. Pre-tibial myxedema: treatment with intralesional corticosteroid.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Luana Oliveira; Mattos, Paloma Corrêa; Figueredo, Giuseppe Lemos Pertoti de; Maia, Alef Alioscha Andrade; Romero, Sandra Adolfina Reys

    2015-01-01

    The pretibial myxedema is a manifestation of Graves' disease characterized by accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in the reticular dermis. The dermopathy is self-limiting but in some cases may cause cosmetic and functional damage. Conventional treatment is use of topical steroids under occlusive dressing, however the intralesional application has shown good results. We present a case of pretibial myxedema treated with single injection of intralesional corticosteroid. PMID:26312698

  12. Dermal melanin concentration of yellow perch Perca flavescens in relation to water transparency.

    PubMed

    Rheault, G; Langevin, M; Cabana, G; Glémet, H

    2015-11-01

    A positive relationship was observed between Secchi disc depth and dermal melanin concentration in yellow perch Perca flavescens sampled from 11 humic lakes located on the Canadian Shield in southern Quebec (Canada). Secchi disc depth explained 23% of the variations of dermal melanin concentration. Secchi disc depth and thus water transparency appear to have a positive influence on melanin production in the dermis of P. flavescens.

  13. Diagnostic Challenge of Desmoplastic Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Andreevscaia, Olga; Theate, Ivan; Goossens, Cathy; Vanhooteghem, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Desmoplastic melanoma (DM) is a rare variant of spindle-cell malignant melanoma. DM is easily misdiagnosed at an early stage because it can be confused with benign entities. Histological analysis, including careful attention to the presence of atypical spindle cells, as well as to lymphocytic aggregates in an abundant fibrotic stroma in the dermis, provides clues for diagnosis. The adjunction of an immunohistochemical panel, and particularly testing for S-100 protein, is needed for the final diagnosis. PMID:27134705

  14. Effects of hair removal alexandrite laser on biometric parameters of the skin.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Shiva; Abolhasani, Ehsan; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammadali

    2016-04-01

    The effects of alexandrite laser (AL) on skin parameters such as melanin content, skin layer depth, elasticity, and density have not been investigated through biometric methods. We aim to assess the effect of AL on the skin parameters through biometric devices to determine whether it has positive effects on treated region. In this pretest-posttest study, we recruited patients who attended Laser Clinic of Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, from January through December 2014. Patients had to be free of any dermatologic conditions and lesion at the site of treatment or any contraindication to laser therapy. Baseline measurements were performed and patients received four sessions of AL therapy (spot size, 12 mm; fluence, 12 J/cm(2); and pulse width, 5 Hz) with 4-week intervals. Four weeks after the last treatment session, the same parameters were assessed that included skin color, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), dermis and epidermis density and depth (through skin ultrasonography), melanin content, erythema intensity, and skin elasticity. Biometric parameters of 33 patients (27 females [81.8%]), with mean (SD) age of 35.7 (9.5) years were evaluated. The mean percent changes of skin parameters were as follows: skin color, 5.88% through Visioface and by 56.8% through Colorimeter devices (became lighter); melanin content, -15.95%; TEWL, -2.96%; elasticity, +14.88%; dermis depth -19.01%; and dermis density, +1580.11% (P < 0.001 for changes in each parameter). AL could decrease melanin content of the skin and make the skin thinner while it could increase elasticity and density of epidermis and dermis, which might indicate increased collagen content of skin. PMID:26861986

  15. Exogenous ochronosis After Prolonged Use of Topical Hydroquinone (2%) in a 50-Year-Old Indian Female.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Vijay; Verma, Prashant; Naik, Geetanjali

    2012-09-01

    Ochronosis is a rare disease characterized by speckled and diffuse pigmentation symmetrically over the face, neck, and photo-exposed areas. It is characterized histologically by banana-shaped ochre-colored deposits in the dermis. It can present in exogenous or endogenous form. We report a case of exogenous ochronosis in a 50-year-old Indian woman after prolonged use of topical hydroquinone which is a rare complication with a commonly used drug which is available over the counter. PMID:23112363

  16. DNA damage in human skin fibroblasts exposed to UVA light used in clinical PUVA treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Bredberg, A.

    1981-06-01

    Human skin fibroblasts were irradiated with a clinically used UVA light source. The doses (1.1 and 3 J/cm2) were similar to those reaching the dermis during clinical PUVA treatment of psoriasis. DNA strand breaks, as determined by alkaline elution, were formed in a dose-dependent way and disappeared within 1 hr of postincubation at 37 degrees C. These findings have clinical implications since UVA-induced DNA damage may be accompanied by mutagenic and tumor promoting effects.

  17. Clearance of experimental cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus infections in mice

    PubMed Central

    Onunkwo, Charles C.; Hahn, Beth L.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcal skin infections are quite common in human patients. These infections often clear spontaneously, but may also progress locally and/or disseminate to cause serious and sometimes fatal deep infections. The present studies were undertaken to examine the clearance phase of experimental cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus infections in a mouse model system. Previous work in this system has shown that staphylococci applied to the skin rapidly disseminate to the spleen and kidney. In the present experiments the bacteria were found to persist at the skin infection site at a time (8 days after inoculation) when they had disappeared from the spleen and kidney. Examination of the infected skin at earlier times revealed rapid (within 6 h) invasion into the stratum corneum, stratum Malpighii, and dermis, but subsequent redistribution of bacteria (at 1–2 days) to more superficial sites, particularly crusts located just above the skin surface. The crusts seen in these infections were of two distinct types, which were termed type 1 and type 2. Type 1 crusts appeared first, consisted of bacteria, inflammatory cells, and debris, and developed over an intact epidermis. Type 2 crusts arose from the process of dermal necrosis previously reported to take place at 2 days in this model system. In the latter situation the bacteria were not really cleared from the epidermis and dermis; rather those layers were transformed into a superficial crust that contained the bacteria. Deep hair follicle infections in the dermis were found in these infections, but they did not persist and did not seem to be a reservoir for organisms in the dermis. Resolution of these experimental infections appeared to involve redistribution of invading bacteria to more superficial locations in crusts above the skin surface, marked proliferation of the epidermis, loss of the bacteria-laden crusts from the skin, and eventual healing of the cutaneous damage. PMID:20130894

  18. Recent advances in dengue pathogenesis and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Cameron P; McPherson, Kirsty; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Hoai Tam, D T; Young, Paul; Mackenzie, Jason; Wills, Bridget

    2015-12-10

    This review describes and commentates on recent advances in the understanding of dengue pathogenesis and immunity, plus clinical research on vaccines and therapeutics. We expand specifically on the role of the dermis in dengue virus infection, the contribution of cellular and humoral immune responses to pathogenesis and immunity, NS1 and mechanisms of virus immune evasion. Additionally we review a series of therapeutic intervention trials for dengue, as well as recent clinical research aimed at improving clinical diagnosis, risk prediction and disease classification.

  19. The beneficial effects of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) on wound healing of rabbit skin.

    PubMed

    Pişkin, Ahmet; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Tümentemur, Gamze; Kaplan, Süleyman; Yazıcı, Ozgür Bülent; Hökelek, Murat

    2014-08-01

    Momordica charantia (MC; bitter gourd) is a traditional herbal commonly used for its antidiabetic, antioxidant, contraceptive and antibacterial properties. In the current study, the authors aim to observe the topical effect of MC cream on the wound-healing process in rabbits. Moreover, they compare the healing potential with conventional creams used therapeutically. Towards this aim, 28 New Zealand rabbits were divided into four groups and excision wounds (7 cm²) were made on their backs. Open wound dressing was carried out daily for 28 days among the experimental groups with the application of dekspanthenol (Bepanthen®; BP group, n = 7), nitrofurazon (Furacin®; FR group, n = 7) and olive oil extract of MC (MC group, n = 7). No application was made to the control group. At the end of day 28, areas of the skin with initial wound area were en bloc dissected and prepared for histopathological and stereological analysis. Inflammatory cells were abundant in the control group and cream application led to a decrease in the number of these cells, especially in the MC group. The highest number of fibroblasts was detected in the MC group. Furthermore, the MC group displayed the highest fractions of epidermis to papillary dermis, fibroblasts to reticular dermis and collagen fibres to reticular dermis. The MC group also presented a high density of blood vessels, moderate density of collagen fibres and mature fibroblasts. The BP group showed better epithelialisation compared with the FR group, but the latter provided more effective reorganisation of the dermis. Different cream supplements caused healthy and fast wound healing according to untreated controls and the results show that administration of the MC extract improves and accelerates the process of wound healing in rabbits in comparison with the BP and FR extracts. PMID:22812507

  20. Use of peracetic acid to sterilize human donor skin for production of acellular dermal matrices for clinical use.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qizhi; Dawson, Rebecca A; Pegg, David E; Kearney, John N; Macneil, Sheila

    2004-01-01

    We previously reported methods for sterilizing human skin for clinical use. In a comparison of gamma-irradiation, glycerol, and ethylene oxide, sterilization with ethylene oxide after treatment with glycerol provided the most satisfactory dermis in terms of structure and its ability to produce reconstructed skin with many of the characteristics of normal skin. However, the use of ethylene oxide is becoming less common in the United Kingdom due to concerns about its possible genotoxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate peracetic acid as an alternative sterilizing agent. Skin sterilized with peracetic acid was compared with skin sterilized using glycerol alone or glycerol with ethylene oxide. The effect of subsequently storing peracetic acid sterilized skin in glycerol or propylene glycol was also examined. Acellular dermal matrices were produced after removal of the epidermis and cells in the dermis, processed for histological and ultrastructural analysis, and the biological function was evaluated by reconstitution with keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Results showed that sterilized acellular matrices retained the integrity of dermal structure and major components of the basement membrane. There were no overall significant differences in the ability of these matrices to form reconstructed skin, but peracetic acid alone gave a lower histologic score than when combined with glycerol or propylene glycol. We conclude that peracetic acid sterilization followed by preservation in glycerol or propylene glycol offers a convenient alternative protocol for processing of human skin. It is suggested that this sterile acellular dermis may be suitable for clinical use.

  1. Ex vivo multiscale quantitation of skin biomechanics in wild-type and genetically-modified mice using multiphoton microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bancelin, Stéphane; Lynch, Barbara; Bonod-Bidaud, Christelle; Ducourthial, Guillaume; Psilodimitrakopoulos, Sotiris; Dokládal, Petr; Allain, Jean-Marc; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Ruggiero, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Soft connective tissues such as skin, tendon or cornea are made of about 90% of extracellular matrix proteins, fibrillar collagens being the major components. Decreased or aberrant collagen synthesis generally results in defective tissue mechanical properties as the classic form of Elhers-Danlos syndrome (cEDS). This connective tissue disorder is caused by mutations in collagen V genes and is mainly characterized by skin hyperextensibility. To investigate the relationship between the microstructure of normal and diseased skins and their macroscopic mechanical properties, we imaged and quantified the microstructure of dermis of ex vivo murine skin biopsies during uniaxial mechanical assay using multiphoton microscopy. We used two genetically-modified mouse lines for collagen V: a mouse model for cEDS harboring a Col5a2 deletion (a.k.a. pN allele) and the transgenic K14-COL5A1 mice which overexpress the human COL5A1 gene in skin. We showed that in normal skin, the collagen fibers continuously align with stretch, generating the observed increase in mechanical stress. Moreover, dermis from both transgenic lines exhibited altered collagen reorganization upon traction, which could be linked to microstructural modifications. These findings show that our multiscale approach provides new crucial information on the biomechanics of dermis that can be extended to all collagen-rich soft tissues. PMID:26631592

  2. Linear Lumbar Localized Lysis of Elastic Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Tschen, Jaime A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The absence or loss of elastic fibers in the skin is referred to as dermal elastolysis. Purpose: This paper describes a woman with a distinctive clinical presentation of mid-dermal elastolysis characterized morphologically by multiple horizontal raised bands on the lower back. Methods: A 20-year-old Filipino woman presented with multiple asymptomatic, flesh-colored, raised, firm, linear, cord-like bands on the lumbar area of her back. There were neither similar lesions elsewhere nor a family member with this condition. Results: Microscopic examination of the raised band showed nearly complete absence of elastic fibers in the mid dermis. In contrast, a biopsy of symmetrically located normal-appearing skin showed a uniform distribution of elastic fibers throughout the dermis. Linear lumbar localized elastolysis is a descriptive designation that accurately reflects a correlation of the clinical and pathological changes of this condition. Conclusion: The clinical differential of raised horizontal cord-like bands on the lower back (without a family history of an inherited elastic fiber disorder, a prior history of trauma, or a significant change in weight or exercise habit) includes linear focal elastosis and linear lumbar localized elastolysis. Microscopic evaluation of a Verhoeff-van Gieson stained lesion specimen (which may be accompanied by a biopsy of normal-appearing skin for comparison) will readily differentiate these conditions. The former is usually characterized by increased elastic fibers, whereas the latter, as in this patient, shows a paucity or absence of elastic fibers in the mid dermis. PMID:23882313

  3. S100a8/NF-κB signal pathway is involved in the 800-nm diode laser-induced skin collagen remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaolin; Ge, Minggai; Qin, Xiaofeng; Xu, Peng; Zhu, Pingya; Dang, Yongyan; Gu, Jun; Ye, Xiyun

    2016-05-01

    The 800-nm diode laser is widely used for hair removal and also promotes collagen synthesis, but the molecular mechanism by which dermis responses to the thermal damage induced by the 800-nm diode laser is still unclear. Ten 2-month-old mice were irradiated with the 800-nm diode laser at 20, 40, and 60 J/cm(2), respectively. Skin samples were taken for PCR, Western blot analysis, and histological study at day 3 or 30 after laser irradiation. The expression of S100a8 and its two receptors (advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptor, RAGE and toll-like receptor 4, TRL4) was upregulated at day 3 after laser treatments. P-p65 levels were also elevated, causing the increase of cytokine (tumor necrosis factor, TNF-α and interleukin 6, IL-6) and MMPs (MMP1a, MMP9). At day 30, PCR and Western blot analysis showed significant increase of type I and III procollagen in the dermis treated with laser. Importantly, skin structure was markedly improved in the laser-irradiated skin compared with the control. Thus, it seemed that S100a8 upregulation triggered NF-κB signal pathway through RAGE and TLR4, responding to laser-induced dermis wound healing. The involvement of the NF-κB pathway in MMP gene transcription promoted the turnover of collagen in the skin, accelerating new collagen synthesis.

  4. Determination of the Critical Concentration of Neutrophils Required to Block Bacterial Growth in Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongmei; Karlin, Arthur; Loike, John D.; Silverstein, Samuel C.

    2004-01-01

    We showed previously that the competition between bacterial killing by neutrophils and bacterial growth in stirred serum-containing suspensions could be modeled as the competition between a first-order reaction (bacterial growth) and a second-order reaction (bacterial killing by neutrophils). The model provided a useful parameter, the critical neutrophil concentration (CNC), below which bacterial concentration increased and above which it decreased, independent of the initial bacterial concentration. We report here that this model applies to neutrophil killing of bacteria in three-dimensional fibrin matrices and in rabbit dermis. We measured killing of 103–108 colony forming units/ml Staphylococcus epidermidis by 105–108 human neutrophils/ml in fibrin gels. The CNC was ∼4 × 106 neutrophils/ml gel in the presence of normal serum and ∼1.6 × 107 neutrophils/ml gel in the presence of C5-deficient serum. Application of our model to published data of others on killing of ∼5 × 107 to 2 × 108 E. coli/ml rabbit dermis yielded CNCs from ∼4 × 106 to ∼8 × 106 neutrophils/ml dermis. Thus, in disparate tissues and tissuelike environments, our model fits the kinetics of bacterial killing and gives similar lower limits (CNCs) to the neutrophil concentration required to control bacterial growth. PMID:15353554

  5. An Essential Role for Dermal Primary Cilia in Hair Follicle Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Jonathan; Laag, Essam; Michaud, Edward J.; Yoder, Bradley K.

    2009-01-01

    The primary cilium is a microtubule-based organelle implicated as an essential component of a number of signaling pathways. It is present on cells throughout the mammalian body; however, its functions in most tissues remain largely unknown. Herein we demonstrate that primary cilia are present on cells in murine skin and hair follicles throughout morphogenesis and during hair follicle cycling in postnatal life. Using the Cre-lox system, we disrupted cilia assembly in the ventral dermis and evaluated the effects on hair follicle development. Mice with disrupted dermal cilia have severe hypotrichosis (lack of hair) in affected areas. Histological analyses reveal that most follicles in the mutants arrest at stage 2 of hair development and have small or absent dermal condensates. This phenotype is reminiscent of that seen in the skin of mice lacking Shh or Gli2. In situ hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicates that the hedgehog pathway is downregulated in the dermis of the cilia mutant hair follicles. Thus, these data establish cilia as a critical signaling component required for normal hair morphogenesis and suggest that this organelle is needed on cells in the dermis for reception of signals such as sonic hedgehog. PMID:18987668

  6. Development of ciclopirox olamine topical formulations: evaluation of drug release, penetration and cutaneous retention.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Vanessa Alves; Serikaku, Daniela; Baby, Andre Rolim; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Consiglieri, Vladi Olga

    2015-03-01

    With the aim of reducing system absorption and consequently, the side effects, and simultaneously select a penetration enhancing, three topical formulations with 0.5% ciclopirox olamine (CO) and 15% of propylene glycol (PG), ethoxydiglycol or oleic acid were developed and evaluated regarding the skin penetration and cutaneous retention of the drug using Franz diffusion cells. Release experiments were performed through synthetic membrane while dermatomed pig ear skin was used to evaluate CO skin penetration and skin retention. Retention studies were carried out applying tape stripping method and dosing CO in stratum corneum and in epidermis and dermis. A HPLC method was validated for quantifying CO. All formulations tested with synthetic membrane presented no retention of the drug. Permeation data suggested that there was no systemic absorption of ciclopirox olamine from the studied formulations, even when the skin penetration enhancers were applied. Higher concentrations of the drug were found in the stratum corneum (SC) and also in epidermis and dermis, for all of the developed formulations. The addition of enhancers improved the penetration and cutaneous retention of CO, and propylene glycol promoted higher concentrations in epidermis and dermis, probably because its cumulative effect on the skin and by an efficient solvent power.

  7. Melasma.

    PubMed

    Kauh, Y C; Zachian, T F

    1999-01-01

    Melasma is a common disorder of macular hyperpigmentation which involves mostly in sun exposed areas of the face and neck. Those most affected are women. Multiple factors have been postulated to involve in the etiology and pathogenesis of melasma including pregnancy, oral contraceptives, genetics, sun exposure, cosmetics and race. We have conducted a clinical trial utilizing all trans-retinoic acid (tretinoin, Retin-A) cream 0.1% q pm and hydroquinone lotion 3% (Melanex) applied every morning in Korean women with melasma. Our study patients demonstrated all three clinical patterns common to melasma: centrofacial, malar and mandibular. Wood's light examination was performed on all patients and identified two of the four types of melasma described. Most patients showed epidermal melasma and a few manifested a mixed type. No patients exhibited solely dermal or inapparent type in melasma. With open studies of tretinoin cream and hydroquinone lotion followed by sun screen, we have found significant improvement within 5 months with a few side effects. Histopathologic examination of melasma in the pre-trial biopsies revealed increased pigmentation of the epidermis, dermis or both. In addition, significant alterations of the dermis with solar damage was noted in all melasma patients sampled. Biopsies taken after five months of treatment revealed significant decreases in epidermal pigmentation and improvement of solar damage in the dermis. We reconfirmed that a synergistic mechanism between tretinoin and hydroquinone is responsible for the improvement seen in the female Korean melasma patients from our study.

  8. Melanoma miRNA trafficking controls tumour primary niche formation.

    PubMed

    Dror, Shani; Sander, Laureen; Schwartz, Hila; Sheinboim, Danna; Barzilai, Aviv; Dishon, Yuval; Apcher, Sebastien; Golan, Tamar; Greenberger, Shoshana; Barshack, Iris; Malcov, Hagar; Zilberberg, Alona; Levin, Lotan; Nessling, Michelle; Friedmann, Yael; Igras, Vivien; Barzilay, Ohad; Vaknine, Hananya; Brenner, Ronen; Zinger, Assaf; Schroeder, Avi; Gonen, Pinchas; Khaled, Mehdi; Erez, Neta; Hoheisel, Jörg D; Levy, Carmit

    2016-09-01

    Melanoma originates in the epidermis and becomes metastatic after invasion into the dermis. Prior interactions between melanoma cells and dermis are poorly studied. Here, we show that melanoma cells directly affect the formation of the dermal tumour niche by microRNA trafficking before invasion. Melanocytes, cells of melanoma origin, are specialized in releasing pigment vesicles, termed melanosomes. In melanoma in situ, we found melanosome markers in distal fibroblasts before melanoma invasion. The melanosomes carry microRNAs into primary fibroblasts triggering changes, including increased proliferation, migration and pro-inflammatory gene expression, all known features of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). Specifically, melanosomal microRNA-211 directly targets IGF2R and leads to MAPK signalling activation, which reciprocally encourages melanoma growth. Melanosome release inhibitor prevented CAF formation. Since the first interaction of melanoma cells with blood vessels occurs in the dermis, our data suggest an opportunity to block melanoma invasion by preventing the formation of the dermal tumour niche. PMID:27548915

  9. Quasi-holographic solution to polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography acceptable to nonlaboratory applications.

    PubMed

    Tougbaev, Vitali; Eom, Tae Joong; Yu, Bong-Ahn; Lee, Yeung Lak; Shin, Woojin; Gee, Sangyoun; Ko, Do-Kyeong; Lee, Jongmin

    2008-01-01

    Experimental proof-of-concept is presented for a quasi-holographic solution to polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS OCT). Due to decoupling between the reference and sample beams by polarization, the solution seems acceptable to acquisition and communication of optical data in the nonlaboratory environment. The nonlab environment implies uncontrollable disturbances, e.g., temperature changes and mechanical effects happening under shop testing in industry or routine examinations in common clinics and hospitals. For mapping the collagen-related depolarization ratio of light backscattered from the human dermis, a phenomenological model is evolved from the theory of light depolarization in crystalline polymers. The model yielded a simplified intensity-based estimation algorithm. The design concept and the model rely on a submillimeter tumor thickness as a proofed prognostic factor and an important criterion for complementary functional diagnostics of skin cancers in their early phase. Choice of the model is inspired by similarity of structural and optical properties between liquid-crystal collagen fibers in the dermis and birefringent crystalline lamellae in some polymer materials. The model gives a plausible interpretation of a peculiarity of cumulative birefringence in the abnormal skin dermis. Following a top-down approach to design, the authors attempt to contribute to bridging the gap between practitioners' concerns and academic studies. PMID:19021342

  10. In-vivo morphologic and spectroscopic investigation of Psoriasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapsokalyvas, Dimitrios; Cicchi, Riccardo; Bruscino, Nicola; Alfieri, Domenico; Massi, Daniela; Lotti, Torello; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2011-07-01

    Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease of the skin characterized by hyperkeratosis, hyperproliferation of the epidermis, inflammatory cell accumulation and increased dilatation of dermal papillary blood vessels. Cases of psoriasis were investigated in vivo with optical means in order to evaluate the potential of in vivo optical biopsy. A Polarization Multispectral Dermoscope was employed for the macroscopic observation. Features such as the 'dotted' blood vessels pattern was observed with high contrast. High resolution image sections of the epidermis and the dermis were produced with a custom made Multiphoton Microscope. Imaging extended from the surface of the lesion down to the papillary dermis, at a depth of 200 μm. In the epidermis, a characteristic morphology of the stratum corneum found only in Psoriasis was revealed. Additionally, the cytoplasmic area of the cells in the stratum spinosum layer was found to be smaller than normal. In the dermis the morphological features were more pronounced, where the elongated dermal papillae dominated the papillary layer. Their length exceeds 100μm, which is a far greater value compared to that of healthy skin. These in vivo observations are consistent with the ex vivo histopathological observations, supporting both the applicability and potentiality of multispectral dermoscopy and multiphoton microscopy in the field of in vivo optical investigation and biopsy of skin.

  11. In-vivo optical investigation of psoriasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapsokalyvas, Dimitrios; Cicchi, Riccardo; Bruscino, Nicola; Alfieri, Domenico; Massi, Daniela; Lotti, Torello; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2011-03-01

    Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease of the skin characterized by hyperkeratosis, hyperproliferation of the epidermis, inflammatory cell accumulation and increased dilatation of dermal papillary blood vessels. Cases of psoriasis were investigated in vivo with optical means in order to evaluate the potential of in vivo optical biopsy. A Polarization Multispectral Dermoscope was employed for the macroscopic observation. Features such as the 'dotted' blood vessels pattern was observed with high contrast. The average size of dot vessels in Psoriasis was measured to be 974 μm2 which is much higher compared to healthy skin. High resolution image sections of the epidermis and the dermis were produced with a custom made Multiphoton Microscope. Imaging extended from the surface of the lesion down to the papillary dermis, at a depth of 200 μm. In the epidermis, a characteristic morphology of the stratum corneum found only in Psoriasis was revealed. Additionally, the cytoplasmic area of the cells in the stratum spinosum layer was found to be smaller than normal. In the dermis the morphological features were more pronounced, where the elongated dermal papillae dominated the papillary layer. Their length exceeds 100μm, which is a far greater value compared to that of healthy skin. These in vivo observations are consistent with the ex vivo histopathological observations, supporting both the applicability and potentiality of multispectral dermoscopy and multiphoton microscopy in the field of in vivo optical investigation and biopsy of skin.

  12. Do geese fully develop brood patches? A histological analysis of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and Ross's geese (C. rossii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.; Homberger, D.G.; Henk, W.G.; Alisauskas, R.T.

    2006-01-01

    Most birds develop brood patches before incubation; epidermis and dermis in the brood patch region thicken, and the dermal connective tissue becomes increasingly vascularized and infiltrated by leukocytes. However, current dogma states that waterfowl incubate without modifications of skin within the brood patch region. The incubation periods of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter called snow geese) and Ross's geese (C. rossii) are 2-6 days shorter than those of other goose species; only females incubate. Thus, we hypothesized that such short incubation periods would require fully developed brood patches for sufficient heat transfer from incubating parents to eggs. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the skin histology of abdominal regions of snow and Ross's geese collected at Karrak Lake, Nunavut, Canada. For female snow geese, we found that epidermis and dermis had thickened and vascularization of dermis was 14 times greater, on average, than that observed in males (n=5 pairs). Our results for Ross's geese (n=5 pairs) were more variable, wherein only one of five female Ross's geese fully developed a brood patch. Our results are consistent with three hypotheses about brood patch development and its relationship with different energetic cost-benefit relationships, resulting from differences in embryonic development and body size. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  13. Spatial frequency domain spectroscopy of two layer media

    PubMed Central

    Yudovsky, Dmitry; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of tissue blood volume and oxygen saturation using biomedical optics techniques has the potential to inform the assessment of tissue health, healing, and dysfunction. These quantities are typically estimated from the contribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to the absorption spectrum of the dermis. However, estimation of blood related absorption in superficial tissue such as the skin can be confounded by the strong absorption of melanin in the epidermis. Furthermore, epidermal thickness and pigmentation varies with anatomic location, race, gender, and degree of disease progression. This study describes a technique for decoupling the effect of melanin absorption in the epidermis from blood absorption in the dermis for a large range of skin types and thicknesses. An artificial neural network was used to map input optical properties to spatial frequency domain diffuse reflectance of two layer media. Then, iterative fitting was used to determine the optical properties from simulated spatial frequency domain diffuse reflectance. Additionally, an artificial neural network was trained to directly map spatial frequency domain reflectance to sets of optical properties of a two layer medium, thus bypassing the need for iteration. In both cases, the optical thickness of the epidermis and absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the dermis were determined independently. The accuracy and efficiency of the iterative fitting approach was compared with the direct neural network inversion. PMID:22029367

  14. Mechanical properties of an artificial vascularized human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passot, A.; Cabodevila, G.

    2011-05-01

    In order to make blood sample tests an artificial skin similar to that of the baby's heel is modeled and realized. The most superficial bloodstream and the two main layers of the skin -epidermis and dermis- have to be recreated. Studies and capillaroscopies of the baby's heel give characteristics of these layers and the bloodstream. The skin is viscohyperelastic, but the choice of materials that will be used is based on the Young's modulus. The epidermis layer is based on a stronger less adhesive silicon rubber Elastosil. The dermis layer is composed of a mixture based on a very soft sticky silicon rubber Silgel and Sylgard. The mixture of Silgel with 5% Sylgard has an elastic modulus of 48 kPa which is similar to that of the dermis. The artificial skin is an assembly of several layers including a layer of Sylgard that is structured by a mold representing the capillary network and adapted to manufacturing processes in a clean room. Each layer is deposited by spin coating and is combined with the other through adhesion. Mechanical tests such as tension are performed to verify the mechanical properties of the artificial skin.

  15. In vivo assessment of optical properties of basal cell carcinoma and differentiation of BCC subtypes by high-definition optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Boone, Marc; Suppa, Mariano; Miyamoto, Makiko; Marneffe, Alice; Jemec, Gregor; Del Marmol, Veronique

    2016-01-01

    High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) features of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) have recently been defined. We assessed in vivo optical properties (IV-OP) of BCC, by HD-OCT. Moreover their critical values for BCC subtype differentiation were determined. The technique of semi-log plot whereby an exponential function becomes linear has been implemented on HD-OCT signals. The relative attenuation factor (µraf) at different skin layers could be assessed.. IV-OP of superficial BCC with high diagnostic accuracy (DA) and high negative predictive values (NPV) were (i) decreased µraf in lower part of epidermis and (ii) increased epidermal thickness (E-T). IV-OP of nodular BCC with good to high DA and NPV were (i) less negative µraf in papillary dermis compared to normal adjacent skin and (ii) significantly decreased E-T and papillary dermal thickness (PD-T). In infiltrative BCC (i) high µraf in reticular dermis compared to normal adjacent skin and (ii) presence of peaks and falls in reticular dermis had good DA and high NPV. HD-OCT seems to enable the combination of in vivo morphological analysis of cellular and 3-D micro-architectural structures with IV-OP analysis of BCC. This permits BCC sub-differentiation with higher accuracy than in vivo HD-OCT analysis of morphology alone. PMID:27375943

  16. Feeding and migration habits of white shark Carcharodon carcharias (Lamniformes: Lamnidae) from Isla Guadalupe inferred by analysis of stable isotopes delta15N and delta13C.

    PubMed

    Jaime-Rivera, Mario; Caraveo-Patiño, Javier; Hoyos-Padilla, Mauricio; Galván-Magaña, Felipe

    2014-06-01

    Stable isotope composition of marine top predator's tissues provides insight information of its trophic ecology and migratory behavior. Previous reports have shown that dermal tissues could record longer patterns of hunting and movement. Based on this, the aim of this study was to describe the feeding and migratory habits of the white shark from Isla Guadalupe, using stable isotopic analysis of dermis. We considered a small subset of many possible prey taxa that the sharks could have eaten throughout their migration: pinnipeds, squid and tuna. We grouped the data in five focal areas: Gulf of California, Coast of California, Isla Guadalupe, SOFA and Hawaii. We performed a Bayesian mixing model to study the trophic ecology of this top predator. Average isotopic values for dermis tissue of white shark were delta13C (-14.5 per thousand) and delta15N (19.1 per thousand). Corrected white shark dermal mean values to resemble muscle were delta13C (-16.6 per thousand) and delta15N (21.2 per thousand). Mixing model data from dermis showed predation in offshore areas such the SOFA and a main importance of pinnipeds as prey of the white shark in Isla Guadalupe. PMID:25102646

  17. Cutaneous autonomic denervation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Otano, Judith; Casanova-Mollà, Jordi; Morales, Merche; Valls-Solé, Josep; Tolosa, Eduard

    2015-08-01

    Numerous studies have detailed involvement of the peripheral autonomic nervous system (PANS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). We assessed autonomic innervation of dermal annexes through quantitative fluorescence measurement from skin obtained via punch biopsies at distal leg region in PD and control subjects. We defined a ratio between the area corresponding to protein gen product (PGP) immunoreactivity and the area corresponding to blood vessel or sweat gland as a quantitative measure of autonomic innervation. Presence of alpha-synuclein (AS) deposits in dermis and hypodermis was also assessed by immunohistochemistry. Skin biopsies form six PD patients and six healthy controls were studied. Autonomic innervation scores were lower in PD than in controls in both blood vessels and sweat glands. No AS or phosphorylated AS (pAS) immunoreactivity was detected in dermis or hypodermis in any of the studied subjects. The results of this investigation suggest that autonomic innervation of dermal annexes in living patients with PD is reduced compared to controls. AS or pAS deposits were not found in dermis or hypodermis suggesting that distal leg skin study is not useful for in vivo detection of AS in PD.

  18. Penetration of ASM 981 in canine skin: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Gutzwiller, Meret E Ricklin; Reist, Martin; Persohn, Elke; Peel, John E; Roosje, Petra J

    2006-01-01

    ASM 981 has been developed for topical treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. It specifically inhibits the production and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We measured the skin penetration of ASM 981 in canine skin and compared penetration in living and frozen skin. To make penetration of ASM 981 visible in dog skin, tritium labelled ASM 981 was applied to a living dog and to defrosted skin of the same dog. Using qualitative autoradiography the radioactive molecules were detected in the lumen of the hair follicles until the infundibulum, around the superficial parts of the hair follicles and into a depth of the dermis of 200 to 500 microm. Activity could not be found in deeper parts of the hair follicles, the dermis or in the sebaceous glands. Penetration of ASM 981 is low in canine skin and is only equally spread in the upper third of the dermis 24 hours after application. Penetration in frozen skin takes even longer than in living canine skin but shows the same distribution.

  19. Penetration, permeation, and resorption of 8-methoxypsoralen. Comperative in vitro and in vivo studies after topical application of four standard preparations.

    PubMed

    Kammerau, B; Klebe, U; Zesch, A; Schaefer, H

    1976-03-10

    The penetration, permeation, and resorption of radioactively labelled 8-Methoxypsoralen was investigated in human skin. Siultaneously, the effects to time and ointment carrier on the penetration kinetics were ascertained. The carriers tested were: vaseline, aqueous wool-wax alcohol ointment, aqueous hydrophilic ointment and polyethylene glycol ointment. The absolute concentrations of 8-Methoxypsoralen were estimated in the horny layer, epidermis and dermis. With the most advantageous carrier, aqueous wool-wax alcohol ointment, 4-6X10(-5) M and 10(-5) M were attained in the epidermis and dermis, respectively. Moreover, it was shown that the substance penetrates rapidly (10 min) into the epidermis and dermis and the high concentrations reached constant over a period of 16 h. Only with a formulation of aqueous wool-wax alcohols is any accumulation at all achieved in the deeper areas of the horny layer. A uniform decrease in drug concentration with increasing depth of the horny layer is found with the other 3 vehicles, whereby slight variations in concentrations pertain from carrier to carrier. 4 h after local application, 8-Methoxypsoralen can be detected in the urine. Regardless of the ointment base employed, 8-Methoxypsoralen is no longer detectable in the urine 40 h after application. In comparison to the oral therapy, the same magnitude of percutaneous resorption into the central compartment is to be derived from the data, if half the body surface is treated locally.

  20. Cutaneous autonomic denervation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Otano, Judith; Casanova-Mollà, Jordi; Morales, Merche; Valls-Solé, Josep; Tolosa, Eduard

    2015-08-01

    Numerous studies have detailed involvement of the peripheral autonomic nervous system (PANS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). We assessed autonomic innervation of dermal annexes through quantitative fluorescence measurement from skin obtained via punch biopsies at distal leg region in PD and control subjects. We defined a ratio between the area corresponding to protein gen product (PGP) immunoreactivity and the area corresponding to blood vessel or sweat gland as a quantitative measure of autonomic innervation. Presence of alpha-synuclein (AS) deposits in dermis and hypodermis was also assessed by immunohistochemistry. Skin biopsies form six PD patients and six healthy controls were studied. Autonomic innervation scores were lower in PD than in controls in both blood vessels and sweat glands. No AS or phosphorylated AS (pAS) immunoreactivity was detected in dermis or hypodermis in any of the studied subjects. The results of this investigation suggest that autonomic innervation of dermal annexes in living patients with PD is reduced compared to controls. AS or pAS deposits were not found in dermis or hypodermis suggesting that distal leg skin study is not useful for in vivo detection of AS in PD. PMID:25536890

  1. Heparin penetration into and permeation through human skin from aqueous and liposomal formulations in vitro.

    PubMed

    Betz, G; Nowbakht, P; Imboden, R; Imanidis, G

    2001-10-01

    The transport of unfractionated (UH) and low molecular weight Heparin (LMWH) in human skin was investigated in vitro using heat separated epidermal membrane and dermis and the effect of liposomal formulations with Phospholipon(R) 80 (PL80) and Sphingomyelin (SM) was assessed. The distribution of Heparin within skin tissue was studied by the tape stripping method. Heparin concentrations were measured with a biological assay. Transepidermal water loss was determined to characterize barrier properties of skin. No consistent permeation of Heparin through epidermal membrane was detected. Penetration into the epidermal membrane was for LMWH significantly greater than for UH. Accumulation of UH was largely restricted to the outermost layers of the stratum corneum while LMWH penetrated into deeper epidermal layers. UH penetration into epidermis was detected for the PL80 liposomal formulation only. The extent of LMWH penetration was independent of the formulation, LMWH, however, showed a trend to accumulate in deeper epidermal layers for the PL80 compared to the aqueous formulation. Thus, molecular weight and liposomal formulations influenced the penetration pattern of Heparin in the epidermis. It can not be concluded whether the concentration of LMWH achieved at the blood capillaries is sufficient to exert a pharmacological effect. UH permeated readily through dermis irrespectively of formulation and its accumulation in the dermis was significantly enhanced and its lag time of permeation increased in the presence of SM liposomes.

  2. Distribution of polyphenols and a surfactant component in skin during Aerosol OT microemulsion-enhanced intradermal delivery.

    PubMed

    Yutani, Reiko; Morita, Shin-ya; Teraoka, Reiko; Kitagawa, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    As for most other polyphenols, intradermal delivery of curcumin and resveratrol is limited; however, it was significantly improved by a microemulsion using Aerosol OT (Aerosol OT microemulsion) and Tween 80 (Tween 80 microemulsion) as surfactants. Aerosol OT microemulsion was more effective and the incorporation ratio of these polyphenols into skin by Aerosol OT microemulsion was five-fold or ten-fold that by Tween 80 microemulsion. To clarify the mechanism of the enhancement we examined the distribution of these polyphenols and the surfactant component, Aerosol OT, using excised guinea pig skin and Yucatan micropig (YMP) skin. During permeation, polyphenols distributed deep in the skin. In particular, a small molecule, resveratrol, was mainly present in the dermis in YMP skin. Aerosol OT also distributed deep in the skin. These findings suggest the possible involvement of the interaction of surfactant molecules with skin components in the enhanced delivery process of polyphenols. The distribution ratio between the dermis and epidermis of the polyphenols, including quercetin, in the presence of Aerosol OT microemulsion decreased with the increase of molecular weight in YMP skin, suggesting the possibility that distribution to the dermis is regulated by the molecular size.

  3. Histology and Ultrastructure of Transitional Changes in Skin Morphology in the Juvenile and Adult Four-Striped Mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio)

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Eranée; Ajao, Moyosore Salihu

    2013-01-01

    The four-striped mouse has a grey to brown coloured coat with four characteristic dark stripes interspersed with three lighter stripes running along its back. The histological differences in the skin of the juvenile and adult mouse were investigated by Haematoxylin and Eosin and Masson Trichrome staining, while melanocytes in the skin were studied through melanin-specific Ferro-ferricyanide staining. The ultrastructure of the juvenile skin, hair follicles, and melanocytes was also explored. In both the juvenile and adult four-striped mouse, pigment-containing cells were observed in the dermis and were homogeneously dispersed throughout this layer. Apart from these cells, the histology of the skin of the adult four-striped mouse was similar to normal mammalian skin. In the juvenile four-striped mouse, abundant hair follicles of varying sizes were observed in the dermis and hypodermis, while hair follicles of similar size were only present in the dermis of adult four-striped mouse. Ultrastructural analysis of juvenile hair follicles revealed that the arrangement and differentiation of cellular layers were typical of a mammal. This study therefore provides unique transition pattern in the four-striped mouse skin morphology different from the textbook description of the normal mammalian skin. PMID:24288469

  4. In vivo spatial frequency domain spectroscopy of two layer media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudovsky, Dmitry; Nguyen, John Quan M.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2012-10-01

    Monitoring of tissue blood volume and local oxygen saturation can inform the assessment of tissue health, healing, and dysfunction. These quantities can be estimated from the contribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to the absorption spectrum of the dermis. However, estimation of blood related absorption in skin can be confounded by the strong absorption of melanin in the epidermis and epidermal thickness and pigmentation varies with anatomic location, race, gender, and degree of disease progression. Therefore, a method is desired that decouples the effect of melanin absorption in the epidermis from blood absorption in the dermis for a large range of skin types and thicknesses. A previously developed inverse method based on a neural network forward model was applied to simulated spatial frequency domain reflectance of skin for multiple wavelengths in the near infrared. It is demonstrated that the optical thickness of the epidermis and absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the dermis can be determined independently and with minimal coupling. Then, the same inverse method was applied to reflectance measurements from a tissue simulating phantom and in vivo human skin. Oxygen saturation and total hemoglobin concentrations were estimated from the volar forearms of weakly and strongly pigmented subjects using a standard homogeneous model and the present two layer model.

  5. Detection of COL III in parchment by amino acid analysis.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Dorte V P; Larsen, René

    2016-01-01

    Cultural heritage parchments made from the reticular dermis of animals have been subject to studies of deterioration and conservation by amino acid analysis. The reticular dermis contains a varying mixture of collagen I and III (COL I and III). When dealing with the results of the amino acid analyses, till now the COL III content has not been taken into account. Based on the available amino acid sequences, we present a method for determining the amount of COL III in the reticular dermis of new and historical parchments calculated from the ratio of Ile/Val. We find COL III contents between 7 and 32 % in new parchments and between 0.2 and 40 % in the historical parchments. This is consistent with results in the literature. The varying content of COL III has a significant influence on the uncertainty of the amino acid analysis. Although we have not found a simple correlation between the COL III content and the degree of deterioration, our results show that this question must be taken into consideration in future studies of the chemical and physical deterioration of parchment measured by amino acid analysis and other analytical methods.

  6. Ex vivo multiscale quantitation of skin biomechanics in wild-type and genetically-modified mice using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bancelin, Stéphane; Lynch, Barbara; Bonod-Bidaud, Christelle; Ducourthial, Guillaume; Psilodimitrakopoulos, Sotiris; Dokládal, Petr; Allain, Jean-Marc; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Ruggiero, Florence

    2015-12-01

    Soft connective tissues such as skin, tendon or cornea are made of about 90% of extracellular matrix proteins, fibrillar collagens being the major components. Decreased or aberrant collagen synthesis generally results in defective tissue mechanical properties as the classic form of Elhers-Danlos syndrome (cEDS). This connective tissue disorder is caused by mutations in collagen V genes and is mainly characterized by skin hyperextensibility. To investigate the relationship between the microstructure of normal and diseased skins and their macroscopic mechanical properties, we imaged and quantified the microstructure of dermis of ex vivo murine skin biopsies during uniaxial mechanical assay using multiphoton microscopy. We used two genetically-modified mouse lines for collagen V: a mouse model for cEDS harboring a Col5a2 deletion (a.k.a. pN allele) and the transgenic K14-COL5A1 mice which overexpress the human COL5A1 gene in skin. We showed that in normal skin, the collagen fibers continuously align with stretch, generating the observed increase in mechanical stress. Moreover, dermis from both transgenic lines exhibited altered collagen reorganization upon traction, which could be linked to microstructural modifications. These findings show that our multiscale approach provides new crucial information on the biomechanics of dermis that can be extended to all collagen-rich soft tissues.

  7. Expression pattern of glycoconjugates in the integument of Bufo ictericus (Anuran, Bufonidae): biochemical and histochemical (lectin) profiles.

    PubMed

    de Brito Gitirana, Lycia; Azevedo, Rodrigo Alves; Pelli, Adriana Alves

    2007-12-01

    Mucous consists of glycoproteins and proteoglycans produced by specific secretory cells (mucocytes). In anurans the cutaneous mucous is produced by intradermal glands and displays both mechanical and chemical protection functions. Indeed, mucous maintains the integument moist and facilitates gas exchange (cutaneous respiration). In this work, the carbohydrate moiety distribution was investigated in the integument of Bufo ictericus using conventional and lectin histochemistry to describe the pattern of cutaneous glycoconjugate expression, including both secretory and structural proteoglycans. As a preliminary step, the descendent chromatography in Whatmann 1MM paper was undertaken to prepare the histochemical trials involving the lectins. In B. ictericus, the integument exhibits the basic morphological structure found in lower terrestrial vertebrates: the epidermis is a keratinized squamous stratified epithelium supported by spongious and compact layers. The spongy dermis contain secretory portion of both mucous and serous (or poison) glands. The paper chromatography identified galactose, fucose and mannose as characteristic sugar residues. The secretory cells of the mucous gland in the dermis, as well as the interstice between the stratum corneum and the subjacent stratum spinosum in the epidermis exhibit alpha-l-fucose and alpha-galactose residues. The serous glands give no reaction. The alpha-mannose residue was detected in the extracellular matrix of spongious dermis, but not in the dermal glands. The different glycoconjugate location reflects in two glycoconjugates categories: the secretory which participate in the water flow regulation, and the structural which is involved in the dermal maintenance. PMID:17900644

  8. S100a8/NF-κB signal pathway is involved in the 800-nm diode laser-induced skin collagen remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaolin; Ge, Minggai; Qin, Xiaofeng; Xu, Peng; Zhu, Pingya; Dang, Yongyan; Gu, Jun; Ye, Xiyun

    2016-05-01

    The 800-nm diode laser is widely used for hair removal and also promotes collagen synthesis, but the molecular mechanism by which dermis responses to the thermal damage induced by the 800-nm diode laser is still unclear. Ten 2-month-old mice were irradiated with the 800-nm diode laser at 20, 40, and 60 J/cm(2), respectively. Skin samples were taken for PCR, Western blot analysis, and histological study at day 3 or 30 after laser irradiation. The expression of S100a8 and its two receptors (advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptor, RAGE and toll-like receptor 4, TRL4) was upregulated at day 3 after laser treatments. P-p65 levels were also elevated, causing the increase of cytokine (tumor necrosis factor, TNF-α and interleukin 6, IL-6) and MMPs (MMP1a, MMP9). At day 30, PCR and Western blot analysis showed significant increase of type I and III procollagen in the dermis treated with laser. Importantly, skin structure was markedly improved in the laser-irradiated skin compared with the control. Thus, it seemed that S100a8 upregulation triggered NF-κB signal pathway through RAGE and TLR4, responding to laser-induced dermis wound healing. The involvement of the NF-κB pathway in MMP gene transcription promoted the turnover of collagen in the skin, accelerating new collagen synthesis. PMID:26914682

  9. Pigmentary disorders in oriental skin.

    PubMed

    Jimbow, M; Jimbow, K

    1989-01-01

    Brown hyperpigmented disorders may be melanotic in which there is a normal number of epidermal melanocytes but melanin pigment is increased in the epidermis (eg, melasma), melanocytotic, in which melanocytes are increased (eg, café-au-lait macules), and nonmelanotic hyperpigmentation (eg, minocycline pigmentation). Blue hyperpigmented disorders may also be melanotic in which there is a normal number of epidermal melanocytes, but melanin pigment is present in the upper dermis (eg, gray/slate pigmentation in Riehl's melanosis), melanocytotic in which melanocytes are present in both the epidermis and dermis (eg, blue pigmentation in Nevus Ota and Mongolian spot), and nonmelanotic hyperpigmentation in which pigment is present in the deep dermis (eg, blue pigmentation in tattoos). Hypomelanosis (leukoderma) may be divided histopathologically into melanocytopenic disorders on which melanocytes are absent (eg, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome and vitiligo), melanopenic disorders in which melanocytes are present but melanin is reduced (eg, nevus depigmentosus and incontinentia pigmenti achromians), and nonmelanotic disorders in which melanin pigmentation is unaffected (nevus anemicus) and the pigmentary abnormality is caused by something other than melanin. There are numerous pigmentary disorders in the oriental skin, and some of them are either characteristic to or established in the orientals. Importantly, a number of congenital hypermelanotic and hypomelanotic diseases (eg, nevus depigmentosus, incontinentia pigmenti, and incontinentia pigmenti achromians, take a distribution following to the Blaschko's line.

  10. Dermatitis Herpetiformis: A Review of Direct Immunofluorescence Findings.

    PubMed

    Barnadas, Maria A

    2016-04-01

    Direct immunofluorescence (DIF) findings in dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) are incompletely defined. The presence and localization of immune reactants in this disorder are reviewed. A retrospective study on 72 biopsies from 71 patients with DH was performed. Deposits of IgG, IgA, IgM, C'3, C1q, and fibrinogen in skin using a DIF test were analyzed. Granular IgA was observed at the dermal-epidermal junction in 65 biopsies and in the fibers of the papillary dermis in 72 samples. IgG, IgM, C'3, C1q, and fibrinogen were detected in the same locations in lower percentages. IgA was present in the vessels of the papillary dermis in 33 biopsies and in the reticular dermis in 10, followed by fibrinogen, C'3, IgM, and IgG. IgA and IgM were detected in the elastic fibers in 17 and 5 samples, respectively. IgA was observed in 19 cases in the arrector pili muscles, and in a few cases, C'3, IgM, and IgG. IgA and other immune reagents were present in the fibers around hair follicles and in the basement membrane of sweat glands and ducts. Immunofluorescence findings in routine DIF studies from skin biopsies of patients with DH cover a much wider spectrum than previously known. PMID:26630684

  11. Treatment of port-wine stains: analysis

    SciTech Connect

    van Gemert, M.J.; Welch, A.J.

    1987-08-01

    Port-wine stains (PWS) are bluish red skin stains that are caused by enlarged, ectatic blood vessels in the dermis. Laser treatment of PWS is analyzed from computation of the spatial distribution of heat production by direct absorption of the laser light and subsequent heat conduction. The absorption and scattering caused by oxyhemoglobin, epidermis, and dermis as a function of wavelength are utilized in this analysis. Ideal treatment is defined as coagulating the ectatic blood vessels without irreversible damage to the epidermis and dermis. The analysis shows that a millisecond pulsed, yellow dye laser at 577 nm (one of the large absorption bands in blood) is the laser of choice to treat PWS, offering as close to the ''ideal treatment'' as possible. The blue-green argon laser, which is currently the most frequently used laser for this purpose, is strongly recommended with irradiation times in milliseconds. Other lasers that are in clinical use, such as the red ruby and near-infrared Nd-YAG lasers, can provide selective treatment only when the epidermis is cooled concurrently. The CO/sub 2/ laser, on the other hand, can coagulate the blood vessels only through heat conduction from the hot epidermis; hence, it has neither the treatment selectivity nor any other physical option to force this selectivity.

  12. Do geese fully develop brood patches? A histological analysis of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and Ross's geese (C. rossii).

    PubMed

    Jónsson, Jón Einar; Afton, Alan D; Homberger, Dominique G; Henk, William G; Alisauskas, Ray T

    2006-06-01

    Most birds develop brood patches before incubation; epidermis and dermis in the brood patch region thicken, and the dermal connective tissue becomes increasingly vascularized and infiltrated by leukocytes. However, current dogma states that waterfowl incubate without modifications of skin within the brood patch region. The incubation periods of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter called snow geese) and Ross's geese (C. rossii) are 2-6 days shorter than those of other goose species; only females incubate. Thus, we hypothesized that such short incubation periods would require fully developed brood patches for sufficient heat transfer from incubating parents to eggs. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the skin histology of abdominal regions of snow and Ross's geese collected at Karrak Lake, Nunavut, Canada. For female snow geese, we found that epidermis and dermis had thickened and vascularization of dermis was 14 times greater, on average, than that observed in males (n=5 pairs). Our results for Ross's geese (n=5 pairs) were more variable, wherein only one of five female Ross's geese fully developed a brood patch. Our results are consistent with three hypotheses about brood patch development and its relationship with different energetic cost-benefit relationships, resulting from differences in embryonic development and body size. PMID:16432729

  13. Millimeter wave dosimetry of human skin.

    PubMed

    Alekseev, S I; Radzievsky, A A; Logani, M K; Ziskin, M C

    2008-01-01

    To identify the mechanisms of biological effects of mm waves it is important to develop accurate methods for evaluating absorption and penetration depth of mm waves in the epidermis and dermis. The main characteristics of mm wave skin dosimetry were calculated using a homogeneous unilayer model and two multilayer models of skin. These characteristics included reflection, power density (PD), penetration depth (delta), and specific absorption rate (SAR). The parameters of the models were found from fitting the models to the experimental data obtained from measurements of mm wave reflection from human skin. The forearm and palm data were used to model the skin with thin and thick stratum corneum (SC), respectively. The thin SC produced little influence on the interaction of mm waves with skin. On the contrary, the thick SC in the palm played the role of a matching layer and significantly reduced reflection. In addition, the palmar skin manifested a broad peak in reflection within the 83-277 GHz range. The viable epidermis plus dermis, containing a large amount of free water, greatly attenuated mm wave energy. Therefore, the deeper fat layer had little effect on the PD and SAR profiles. We observed the appearance of a moderate SAR peak in the therapeutic frequency range (42-62 GHz) within the skin at a depth of 0.3-0.4 mm. Millimeter waves penetrate into the human skin deep enough (delta = 0.65 mm at 42 GHz) to affect most skin structures located in the epidermis and dermis.

  14. [Study on the best detector-distance of noninvasive biochemical examination by Monte Carlo simulation].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan-Fei; Lu, Qi-Peng; Ding, Hai-Quan; Gao, Hong-Zhi

    2014-04-01

    The present paper studies the best detector-distance to improve the near-infrared spectrum signal intensity of the dermis layer and eliminate the interference of the epidermis and subcutaneous layer. First, we analyzed the organizational structure of the skin and calculated the tissue optical parameters of different layers. And we established the Monte Carlo model with the example of glucose absorption peak at 2 270 nm. Then, we used the Monte Carlo method to simulate the light transmission rules in the skin, obtaining the average path length, the average visit depth and the fractions of absorbed energy at each layer with the change in critical angle and detector-distance. The results show that when the photons are incident at an angle less than 45 degrees, you can ignore the effect of the incident angle on photon transmission path, and when the detector-distance is 1 mm, the fraction of absorbed photon energy by the dermis layer is the largest, while it can ensure more energy received by detector. We determined that the best detector-distance is 1mm, which successfully avoids the interference of the epidermis spectral information and obtains large amounts of blood in the dermis layer, which is conducive to the near-infrared non-invasive measurement of biochemical components and the subsequent experiments.

  15. Drug and vehicle deposition from topical applications: localization of minoxidil within skin strata of the hairless mouse.

    PubMed

    Tsai, J C; Weiner, N; Flynn, G L; Ferry, J J

    1994-01-01

    The cutaneous bioavailability of topical 2% minoxidil solution was verified in live hairless mice. Minoxidil and propylene glycol deposition on the skin surface, epidermis and dermis from the single-dose in vivo study were compared with the results from previous in vitro studies. A distinct difference is apparent in the epidermis where the in vitro values are 11-22 times higher than the in vivo values for minoxidil and 8-16 times higher for propylene glycol. The differences were not as great in the dermis. Percutaneous absorption of the drug appeared to be a very small fraction of the applied dose. Similarly shaped stratum corneum and plasma concentration profiles and the relatively constant dermal profiles of minoxidil and propylene glycol open the possibility of transappendageal routes being involved in percutaneous absorption. The greater amount of drug and vehicle found in the dermis from in vitro studies can be explained by the absence of dermal clearance. The overestimation in the amount of drug found in the epidermis in vitro may also be attributable to poor dermal clearance. On the whole, the study raises questions about the use of in vitro tissue dispositions for bioavailability assessment and bioequivalence demonstration. PMID:8054208

  16. Modelling millimetre wave propagation and absorption in a high resolution skin model: the effect of sweat glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafirstein, Gal; Moros, Eduardo G.

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential effect of sweat gland ducts (SGD) on specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature distributions during mm-wave irradiation. High resolution electromagnetic and bio-heat transfer models of human skin with SGD were developed using a commercially available simulation software package (SEMCAD X™). The skin model consisted of a 30 µm stratum corneum, 350 µm epidermis and papillary dermis (EPD) and 1000 µm dermis. Five SGD of 60 µm radius and 300 µm height were embedded linearly with 370 µm separation. A WR-10 waveguide positioned 20 µm from the skin surface and delivering 94 GHz electromagnetic radiation was included in the model. Saline conductivity was assigned inside SGD. SAR and temperatures were computed with and without SGD. Despite their small scale, SAR was significantly higher within SGD than in the EPD without SGD. Without SGD, SAR and temperature maxima were in the dermis near EPD. With SGD, SAR maximum was inside SGD while temperature maximum moved to the EPD/stratum-corneum junction. Since the EPD participates actively in perception, the effect of SGD should be taken into account in nociceptive studies involving mm-waves. This research represents a significant step towards higher spatial resolution numerical modelling of the skin and shows that microstructures can play a significant role in mm-wave absorption and induced temperature distributions.

  17. Comparative study of dermal components and plasma TGF-β1 levels in Slc39a13/Zip13-KO mice.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Takuya; Ogura, Takayuki; Tanaka, Keisuke; Minaguchi, Jun; Yamauchi, Takeshi; Fukada, Toshiyuki; Koyama, Yoh-ichi; Takehana, Kazushige

    2015-11-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a group of disorders caused by abnormalities that are identified in the extracellular matrix. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays a crucial role in formation of the extracellular matrix. It has been reported that the loss of function of zinc transporter ZRT/IRT-like protein 13 (ZIP13) causes the spondylocheiro dysplastic form of EDS (SCD-EDS: OMIM 612350), in which dysregulation of the TGF-β1 signaling pathway is observed, although the relationship between the dermis abnormalities and peripheral TGF-β1 level has been unclear. We investigated the characteristics of the dermis of the Zip13-knockout (KO) mouse, an animal model for SCD-EDS. Both the ratio of dermatan sulfate (DS) in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) components and the amount of collagen were decreased, and there were very few collagen fibrils with diameters of more than 150 nm in Zip13-KO mice dermis. We also found that the TGF-β1 level was significantly higher in Zip13-KO mice serum. These results suggest that collagen synthesis and collagen fibril fusion might be impaired in Zip13-KO mice and that the possible decrease of decorin level by reduction of the DS ratio probably caused an increase of free TGF-β1 in Zip13-KO mice. In conclusion, skin fragility due to defective ZIP13 protein may be attributable to impaired extracellular matrix synthesis accompanied by abnormal peripheral TGF-β homeostasis. PMID:26050750

  18. Human dermal stem cells differentiate into functional epidermal melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Fukunaga-Kalabis, Mizuho; Yu, Hong; Xu, Xiaowei; Kong, Jun; Lee, John T; Herlyn, Meenhard

    2010-03-15

    Melanocytes sustain a lifelong proliferative potential, but a stem cell reservoir in glabrous skin has not yet been found. Here, we show that multipotent dermal stem cells isolated from human foreskins lacking hair follicles are able to home to the epidermis to differentiate into melanocytes. These dermal stem cells, grown as three-dimensional spheres, displayed a capacity for self-renewal and expressed NGFRp75, nestin and OCT4, but not melanocyte markers. In addition, cells derived from single-cell clones were able to differentiate into multiple lineages including melanocytes. In a three-dimensional skin equivalent model, sphere-forming cells differentiated into HMB45-positive melanocytes, which migrated from the dermis to the epidermis and aligned singly among the basal layer keratinocytes in a similar fashion to pigmented melanocytes isolated from the epidermis. The dermal stem cells were negative for E-cadherin and N-cadherin, whereas they acquired E-cadherin expression and lost NGFRp75 expression upon contact with epidermal keratinocytes. These results demonstrate that stem cells in the dermis of human skin with neural-crest-like characteristics can become mature epidermal melanocytes. This finding could significantly change our understanding of the etiological factors in melanocyte transformation and pigmentation disorders; specifically, that early epigenetic or genetic alterations leading to transformation may take place in the dermis rather than in the epidermis.

  19. Evaluation of the hazard from exposure to electron irradiation simulating that in the synchronous orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lippincott, S. W.; Foelsche, T.; Montour, J. L.; Bender, R.; Wilson, I. J.

    1972-01-01

    The electron spectrum predicted for the synchronous orbit was simulated to determine the effects that might occur to astroscientists exposed to such irradiation while on a prolonged space station mission in that region. Miniature pigs were exposed to monoenergetic and spectral-fractionated irradiations with 0.5 to 2.1 MeV electrons. Clinical and pathological alterations observed in biopsies were correlated with depth-dose pattern and length of post irradiation period up to one year. With monoenergetic electrons, the lowest dose causing a recognizable lesion was 1450 rad and with increasing dose lesions appeared earlier and were more severe. At the highest dose given, 2650 rad, ulceration extending into the dermis was present by twenty one days and required about four months for complete healing. Spectral-fractionated irradiations, in which the total dose range was essentially comparable to that of the monoenergetic series, resulted in very minimal outer dermis edema at 1790 rad and at no dose employed did necrosis of epidermis or ulceration into dermis occur.

  20. A Comparison of Conventional Collagen Sponge and Collagen-Gelatin Sponge in Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Jinno, Chizuru; Morimoto, Naoki; Ito, Ran; Sakamoto, Michiharu; Ogino, Shuichi; Taira, Tsuguyoshi; Suzuki, Shigehiko

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the collagen-gelatin sponge (CGS) with that of the collagen sponge (CS) in dermis-like tissue regeneration. CGS, which achieves the sustained release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), is a promising material in wound healing. In the present study, we evaluated and compared CGSs and conventional CSs. We prepared 8 mm full-thickness skin defects on the backs of rats. Either CGSs or CSs were impregnated with normal saline solution (NSS) or 7 μg/cm2 of bFGF solution and implanted into the defects. At 1 and 2 weeks after implantation, tissue specimens were obtained from the rats of each group (n = 3, total n = 24). The wound area, neoepithelial length, dermis-like tissue area, and the number and area of capillaries were evaluated at 1 and 2 weeks after implantation. There were no significant differences in the CGS without bFGF and CS groups. Significant improvements were observed in the neoepithelial length, the dermis-like tissue area, and the number of newly formed capillaries in the group of rats that received CGSs impregnated with bFGF. The effects on epithelialization, granulation, and vascularization of wound healing demonstrated that, as a scaffold, CGSs are equal or superior to conventional CSs. PMID:27218103

  1. Histomorphological Evaluation of Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Plantar Soft Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yak-Nam; Lee, Kara; Ledoux, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetic foot ulceration has a complex and multi-factorial etiology and can involve changes in the pathophysiology of the plantar soft tissue. In the current study, histomorphological analyses of diabetic and non-diabetic plantar tissue were performed. It was hypothesized that the diabetic tissue would have thicker skin (epidermis and dermis), less interdigitation between the dermis and epidermis, thicker elastic septa and decreased adipose cell size. Materials and Methods Two locations of the foot (the heel and the first metatarsal) were examined, both of which have been reported to be locations with a high incidence of ulceration. Stereological methods and quantitative morphological techniques were used to evaluate the skin thickness, interdigitation index, elastic septae thickness and adipocyte cell size. Results The diabetic donors had a greater body mass index (BMI) than the non-diabetic donors. The diabetic tissue had significantly thicker elastic septae and dermis. However, no significant difference was observed in the interdigitation index or adipocyte size. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that morphological changes can be evaluated histologically to give a better understanding of the pathological changes in the plantar soft tissue with diabetes. These evaluations can then be associated with biomechanical changes that occur in diabetes to provide new insight into how microstructural changes can alter macroscopic properties. Clinical Relevance An understanding of the histomorphological changes in the soft tissue in relationship to the location on the foot could help to explain the biomechanical changes that occur in diabetes and the subsequent increase in susceptibility to breakdown. PMID:22049867

  2. Characterization of third-degree burned skin by nonlinear microscopy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Moisés O.; Pelegati, Vitor B.; Cesar, Carlos L.; Correa, Paulo R.; Zorn, Telma Maria T.; Zezell, Denise M.

    2011-03-01

    Nonlinear microscopy imaging technique enable take both images of collagen fibers in dermis through second harmonic generation (SHG) signal and elastic fibers by two-photon emission fluorescence microscopy (TPEFM). These techniques are the most commonly used technique for turbid and thick tissue imaging and also to image biological samples which presents highly ordered structural proteins without any exogenous label. The objective of this study is characterizing dermis of third-degree burned skin by TPEFM and SHG technique. The modelocked laser (Spectra Physics) source used in this study with pulse width of approximately 100 fs at 80 MHz was directed into a multiphoton microscope using a laser scanning unit (Olympus Fluoview 300), mounted on an inverted confocal system microscope (Olympus IX81), with focusing objective (40x, NA = 1.30). The samples were obtained from Wistar rats, male, adult. One dorsum area was submitted to burn caused by vapour exposure. The biopsies obtained were cryosectioned in slices of 20 μm width. Selected area of interface between the injured and healthy subdermal burned skin were imaged by TPEFM and SHG technique. Two different autofluorescence signals are observed as a function of excitation wavelength. The autofluorescence observed at 760 nm and 690 nm suggest components of extracellular matrix at differents depths. In SHG images, collagen fibers are visible. According to the images obtained, these methodologies can be used to characterize dermis of burned tissue as its healing process with reduced out-of-plane photobleaching and phototoxicity.

  3. CenoDerm vs. Fascia lata for the Prevention of Dorsal Nasal Irregularities in Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Mohebbi, Alireza; Hamidian, Roghayeh; Poosti, Seyed-Behzad; Hosseini, Seyedeh-Simindokht

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Dorsal nasal irregularity is a complication of rhinoplasty surgery, mostly seen in patients with thin skin. Acellular dermis (CenoDerm) and homologous fascia lata covering the nasal bone cartilage structure have been used to achieve a smooth surface. In this study, we aimed to investigate clinical outcomes using these two materials. Materials and Methods: After a standard rhinoplasty procedure, a layer of the acellular dermis or homologous fascia lata was placed in the pocket of the dorsum. Patients were evaluated for clinical outcomes at 3, 6, and 12 months after the procedure. Results: Forty-two of 68 patients completed the follow-up period. Patient satisfaction was higher in the homologous fascia lata group. Similarly, nasal dorsum inspection and palpation results were better in the homologous fascia lata group compared with the CenoDerm group but was significant in palpation (P=0.00). There was no complete absorption in the homologous fascia lata group 6 months after surgery (P= 0.04 vs. CenoDerm) but no significant difference was observed at 12 months. Conclusion: Homologous fascia lata is better than acellular dermis in preventing dorsal nasal irregularity after rhinoplasty in thin-skinned patients. PMID:27602334

  4. Papillary fibroblasts differentiate into reticular fibroblasts after prolonged in vitro culture.

    PubMed

    Janson, David; Saintigny, Gaëlle; Mahé, Christian; El Ghalbzouri, Abdoelwaheb

    2013-01-01

    The dermis can be divided into two morphologically different layers: the papillary and reticular dermis. Fibroblasts isolated from these layers behave differently when cultured in vitro. During skin ageing, the papillary dermis decreases in volume. Based on the functional differences in vitro, it is hypothesized that the loss of papillary fibroblasts contributes to skin ageing. In this study, we aimed to mimic certain aspects of skin ageing by using high-passage cultures of reticular and papillary fibroblasts and investigated the effect of these cells on skin morphogenesis in reconstructed human skin equivalents. Skin equivalents generated with reticular fibroblasts showed a reduced terminal differentiation and fewer proliferating basal keratinocytes. Aged in vitro papillary fibroblasts had increased expression of biomarkers specific to reticular fibroblasts. The phenotype and morphology of skin equivalents generated with high-passage papillary fibroblasts resembled that of reticular fibroblasts. This demonstrates that papillary fibroblasts can differentiate into reticular fibroblasts in vitro. Therefore, we hypothesize that papillary fibroblasts represent an undifferentiated phenotype, while reticular fibroblasts represent a more differentiated population. The differentiation process could be a new target for anti-skin-ageing strategies.

  5. PIXE analysis in different stages of psoriatic skin

    SciTech Connect

    Kurz, K.; Steigleder, G.K.; Bischof, W.; Gonsior, B.

    1987-02-01

    Elemental distribution in psoriatic skin varies with the functional state of the keratinocytes, e.g., electrolytes influence cell metabolism and cell proliferation, and trace elements play a crucial role in a great number of enzymes. Elemental distribution in pinpoint lesions, old plaques, and uninvolved skin of 5 psoriatic patients and 4 healthy controls was studied by means of PIXE (proton-induced x-ray emission) analysis. This technique allows the simultaneous detection of elements with an atomic number greater than or equal to 14 along the epidermis and dermis in freeze-dried skin biopsies. Trace elements such as Fe, Cu, and Zn were determined down to a level of 1 ppm. In comparison with uninvolved skin, concentrations of P and K were elevated in psoriatic epidermis. In addition, increased levels of K were correlated with the stage of the psoriatic lesion. Zinc concentrations were significantly elevated in pinpoint lesions. The Zn concentration profiles within the epidermis and upper dermis showed high correlation to the P concentration profiles. Iron levels were decreased in old psoriatic plaques, whereas Cu concentrations varied considerably. In comparison to the controls, Cl concentrations were markedly decreased in the dermis of involved and uninvolved psoriatic skin, whereas epidermal Cl levels were unaffected. As high K levels prevent the Ca-induced differentiation of keratinocytes, high K levels may be the cause of the high cell differentiation in psoriatic skin. Elevated DNA- and RNA-polymerases might be the cause of elevated Zn levels in pinpoint lesions.

  6. MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells in human skin equivalents show differential migration and phenotypic plasticity after allergen or irritant exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Kosten, Ilona J.; Spiekstra, Sander W.; Gruijl, Tanja D. de; Gibbs, Susan

    2015-08-15

    After allergen or irritant exposure, Langerhans cells (LC) undergo phenotypic changes and exit the epidermis. In this study we describe the unique ability of MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells (MUTZ-LC) to display similar phenotypic plasticity as their primary counterparts when incorporated into a physiologically relevant full-thickness skin equivalent model (SE-LC). We describe differences and similarities in the mechanisms regulating LC migration and plasticity upon allergen or irritant exposure. The skin equivalent consisted of a reconstructed epidermis containing primary differentiated keratinocytes and CD1a{sup +} MUTZ-LC on a primary fibroblast-populated dermis. Skin equivalents were exposed to a panel of allergens and irritants. Topical exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of allergens (nickel sulfate, resorcinol, cinnamaldehyde) and irritants (Triton X-100, SDS, Tween 80) resulted in LC migration out of the epidermis and into the dermis. Neutralizing antibody to CXCL12 blocked allergen-induced migration, whereas anti-CCL5 blocked irritant-induced migration. In contrast to allergen exposure, irritant exposure resulted in cells within the dermis becoming CD1a{sup −}/CD14{sup +}/CD68{sup +} which is characteristic of a phenotypic switch of MUTZ-LC to a macrophage-like cell in the dermis. This phenotypic switch was blocked with anti-IL-10. Mechanisms previously identified as being involved in LC activation and migration in native human skin could thus be reproduced in the in vitro constructed skin equivalent model containing functional LC. This model therefore provides a unique and relevant research tool to study human LC biology in situ under controlled in vitro conditions, and will provide a powerful tool for hazard identification, testing novel therapeutics and identifying new drug targets. - Highlights: • MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells integrated into skin equivalents are fully functional. • Anti-CXCL12 blocks allergen-induced MUTZ-LC migration.

  7. Non-linear laser imaging of skin lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchi, R.; Sestini, S.; De Giorgi, V.; Stambouli, D.; Carli, P.; Massi, D.; Lotti, T.; Pavone, F. S.

    2007-07-01

    We investigated different kinds of human cutaneous ex-vivo skin samples by combined two photon intrinsic fluorescence (TPE), second harmonic generation microscopy (SHG), fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), spectral lifetime imaging (SLIM), and multispectral two photon emission detection (MTPE). Morphological and spectroscopic differences were found between healthy and pathological skin samples, including tumors. In particular, we examined tissue samples from normal and pathological scar tissue (keloid), and skin tumors, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and malignant melanoma (MM). By using combined TPE-SHG microscopy we investigated morphological features of different skin regions, as BCC, tumor stroma, healthy dermis, fibroblastic proliferation, and keloids. A score, based on the SHG to autofluorescence aging index of dermis (SAAID), was assigned to characterize each region. We found that both BCC and surrounding dermis have a negative SAAID value, tumor stroma has a positive SAAID value, whereas fibroblastic proliferation and keloids have a SAAID value close to the unit. Further comparative analysis of healthy skin and neoplastic samples was performed using FLIM, SLIM, and MTPE. In particular, BCC showed a blue-shifted fluorescence emission, a higher fluorescence response at 800 nm excitation wavelength and a slightly longer mean fluorescence lifetime. MM showed an emission spectrum similar to the corresponding healthy skin emission spectrum, and a mean fluorescence lifetime distribution shifted towards shorter values. Finally, the use of aminolevulinic acid as a contrast agent has been demonstrated to increase the constrast in BCC border detection. The results obtained represent further support for in-vivo non-invasive imaging of diseased skin.

  8. The in vivo evaluation of tissue-based biomaterials in a rat full-thickness abdominal wall defect model.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Nicholas; Ahswin, Helen; Smart, Neil; Bayon, Yves; Wohlert, Stephen; Hunt, John A

    2014-05-01

    Hernias are defects in which an anatomical fascia is breached resulting in ectopic positioning of an organ into an orifice which routinely does not contain it. Intervention often involves repositioning translocated organs and repair of damaged fascia using exogenous grafts. Despite hernia prevalence, repairs can still fail due to postoperative complications, such as chronic pain and decreased mobility. This study compared repair capacities and characterized the foreign body response elicited by a number of hernia repair grafts to deduce their bulk inflammatory properties while also concluding the point in their fabrication when these are inferred. Materials derived from human dermis (Alloderm(®) ), porcine dermis (Permacol™, patch A, patch D and Strattice(®) ), porcine small-intestinal submucosa (Surgisis™) and a synthetic (multifilament Surgipro™) were implanted into a rat full-thickness abdominal wall excision model, incubated for up to 2 years and characterized histopathologically. Surgisis™ resorbed the fastest of the materials tested (1-3 months) resulting in a mechanically stable parietal peritoneum. Decellularization using sodium dodecyl sulfate (patch A) stimulated a large early inflammatory response which ultimately may have contributed to increased resorption of porcine dermal matrix however the remaining materials typically persisted throughout the 2-year incubation. Cross-linking porcine dermis using 1,6-hexamethylene disocyanate (vs. an identical noncross-linked counterpart) showed no difference in cell recruitment or material integration over 2 years. Typically Strattice(®) and Alloderm(®) recruited larger early populations of cells than Permacol™; however, over extended periods of time in vivo this response normalized. PMID:24155173

  9. Human percutaneous absorption of a direct hair dye comparing in vitro and in vivo results: implications for safety assessment and animal testing.

    PubMed

    Lademann, J; Richter, H; Jacobi, U; Patzelt, A; Hueber-Becker, F; Ribaud, C; Benech-Kieffer, F; Dufour, E K; Sterry, W; Schaefer, H; Leclaire, J; Toutain, H; Nohynek, G J

    2008-06-01

    Although in vitro skin absorption studies often detect small residues of applied test material in the epidermis/dermis, it is uncertain whether the residue is within the living skin. We studied the dermal absorption of a hair dye hydroxyanthraquinone-aminopropyl methyl morpholinium methosulphate (HAM) in human skin in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, skin (back and scalp) received 0.5% HAM in a commercial formulation at 20microg/cm2 After 0.5 or 48h, skin was tape stripped, followed by cyanoacrylate biopsies (CAB). Sebum from scalp sites was collected for 48h. In vitro, skin was treated with 20mg/cm2 dye for 0.5h, penetration determined after 24h. In vivo, at 0.5h, total recovery (back) was 0.67microg/cm2 (tape strips+CAB). Fluorescence microscopy showed HAM in the hair follicle openings (HFO). At 0.5h, scalp tape strips contained 1.80microg/cm2, HFO 0.82microg/cm2. At 48h, HFO contained 0.21microg/cm2, sebum 0.80microg/cm2. In vivo, skin residues were in the non-living skin and eliminated via desquamation and sebum secretion. In vitro, the SC contained 1.50microg/cm2, epidermis/dermis 0.86microg/cm2, receptor fluid<0.04microg/cm2, a total of 0.90microg/cm2 was considered to be bioavailable. In vitro epidermis/dermis residues were nearly identical to those located in non-living skin in vivo. In conclusion, in vitro percutaneous penetration studies may produce seemingly bioavailable material , which raises the need for a Threshold of Skin Absorption (TSA) addressing a negligible dermal absorption in order to avoid unnecessary in vivo toxicity studies on substances that produce no significant human systemic exposure. PMID:18417263

  10. The ultrastructure of the integument of the American eel, Anguilla rostrata.

    PubMed

    Leonard, J B; Summers, R G

    1976-08-16

    The morphology and ultrastructure of the lateral body integument of the leptocephalus, glass eel, pigmented elver, and adult stages of the American eel, Anguilla rostrata, were examined with light and electron microscopy. The integument consists of an epidermis separated by a basal lamina from the underlying dermis. Three cell types are present in the epidermis in all stages. Filament-containing cells, which are the principal structural cell type, are increasingly numerous at each stage. Mucous cells, which secrete the mucous that compose the mucous surface coat, are also more numerous in each subsequent stage and are more numerous in the anterior lateral body epidermis than in the posterior lateral body epidermis of the adult. Club cells, whose function is unknown, are most numerous in the glass eel and pigmented elver. Chloride cells are common in the leptocephalus which is marine and infrequent in the glass eel. They are not present in the pigmented elver and adult which inhabit estuaries and freshwater. Lymphocytes and melanocytes are also present in some stages. The dermis comprises two layers: a layer of collagenous lamellae, the stratum compactum, and an underlying layer of loose connective tissue, the stratum spongiosum. There is a progressive increase in epidermal thickness at each stage which is paralleled by an increase in the thickness of the stratum compactum. Rudimentary scales are present in the dermis of the adult. The increase in the number of epidermal filament-containing cells, epidermal thickness and stratum compactum thickness is correlated with an increased need for protection from abrasion and mechanical damage as the eel moves from a pelagic, oceanic habitat to a benthic, freshwater habitat. The increase in mucous cell numbers is likewise correlated with an increased need for the protective and anti-bacterial action of the mucous surface coat in the freshwater environment.

  11. Skin telocytes versus fibroblasts: two distinct dermal cell populations

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yuli; Zhu, Zaihua; Zheng, Yonghua; Wan, Weiguo; Manole, Catalin G; Zhang, Qiangqiang

    2015-01-01

    It is already accepted that telocytes (TCs) represent a new type of interstitial cells in human dermis. In normal skin, TCs have particular spatial relations with different dermal structures such as blood vessels, hair follicles, arrector pili muscles or segments of sebaceous and/or eccrine sweat glands. The distribution and the density of TCs is affected in various skin pathological conditions. Previous studies mentioned the particular (ultra)structure of TCs and also their immunophenotype, miR imprint or proteome, genome or secretome features. As fibroblast is the most common intersitital cell (also in human dermis), a dedicated comparison between human skin TCs and fibroblasts (Fbs) was required to be performed. In this study, using different techniques, we document several points of difference between human dermis TCs and Fbs. By transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we demonstrated TCs with their hallmark cellular prolongations – telopodes. Thus, we showed their ultrastructural distinctiveness from Fbs. By RayBio Human Cytokine Antibody Array V analyses performed on the supernatant from separately cultured TCs and Fbs, we detected the cytokine profile of both cell types, individually. Two of 79 detected cytokines – epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78 and granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 – were 1.5 times higher in the supernatant of TCs (comparing with Fbs). On the other hand, 37 cytokines were at least 1.5 higher in Fbs supernatant (comparing with TCs), and among them six cytokines – interleukin 5, monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3), MCP-4, macrophage inflammatory protein-3, angiogenin, thrombopoietin – being 9.5 times higher (results also confirmed by ELISA testing). In summary, using different techniques, we showed that human dermal TCs and Fbs are different in terms of ultrastructure and cytokine profile. PMID:26414534

  12. Inhibition of β-catenin signalling in dermal fibroblasts enhances hair follicle regeneration during wound healing.

    PubMed

    Rognoni, Emanuel; Gomez, Celine; Pisco, Angela Oliveira; Rawlins, Emma L; Simons, Ben D; Watt, Fiona M; Driskell, Ryan R

    2016-07-15

    New hair follicles (HFs) do not form in adult mammalian skin unless epidermal Wnt signalling is activated genetically or within large wounds. To understand the postnatal loss of hair forming ability we monitored HF formation at small circular (2 mm) wound sites. At P2, new HFs formed in back skin, but HF formation was markedly decreased by P21. Neonatal tail also formed wound-associated HFs, albeit in smaller numbers. Postnatal loss of HF neogenesis did not correlate with wound closure rate but with a reduction in Lrig1-positive papillary fibroblasts in wounds. Comparative gene expression profiling of back and tail dermis at P1 and dorsal fibroblasts at P2 and P50 showed a correlation between loss of HF formation and decreased expression of genes associated with proliferation and Wnt/β-catenin activity. Between P2 and P50, fibroblast density declined throughout the dermis and clones of fibroblasts became more dispersed. This correlated with a decline in fibroblasts expressing a TOPGFP reporter of Wnt activation. Surprisingly, between P2 and P50 there was no difference in fibroblast proliferation at the wound site but Wnt signalling was highly upregulated in healing dermis of P21 compared with P2 mice. Postnatal β-catenin ablation in fibroblasts promoted HF regeneration in neonatal and adult mouse wounds, whereas β-catenin activation reduced HF regeneration in neonatal wounds. Our data support a model whereby postnatal loss of hair forming ability in wounds reflects elevated dermal Wnt/β-catenin activation in the wound bed, increasing the abundance of fibroblasts that are unable to induce HF formation. PMID:27287810

  13. Spatial distribution of mast cells in chronic venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Abd-El-Aleem, S A; Morgan, C; Ferguson, M W J; McCollum, C N; Ireland, G W

    2005-01-01

    Chronic venous leg ulcers (CVUs) show chronic inflammation but different pathological changes occur in different parts of the ulcer. There is a lack of re-epithelialisation and defective matrix deposition in the ulcer base but epidermal hyperproliferation and increased matrix deposition in the surrounding skin. The role of mast cells in wound healing, inflammation, fibrosis and epidermal hyperproliferation has been extensively studied but less is known about their role in CVUs. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of mast cells in CVUs with specific consideration of the differences between the ulcer base and the skin surrounding the ulcer. Both histochemical and immunohistological methods were used to detect the mast cell marker tryptase in frozen sections of CVU biopsies. Mast cells were counted in the dermis of normal skin, in the ulcer base and in the skin surrounding the ulcer. Double immunofluorescence staining was used to study the location of mast cells in relation to blood vessels. In normal skin few mast cells were seen in the dermis but none in the epidermis. However in CVUs there was a significant increase in intact and degranulated mast cells in the surrounding skin and ulcer edge (184 per field, p<0.003) of CVUs and a significant reduction in the ulcer base (20.5 per field p<0.05) in comparison to normal skin (61 per field). In CVUs mast cells showed a characteristic location near the epithelial basement membrane whilst mast cell granules and phantom cells (mast cells devoid of granules) were predominantly seen in the epidermis. In the dermis, mast cells were seen associated with blood vessels. The marked increase in mast cells in the surrounding skin of CVUs and depletion of mast cells in the ulcer base could implicate mast cell mediators in the pathological changes in CVUs particularly in the epidermal and vascular changes occurring in the surrounding skin.

  14. Usefulness of sentinel lymph node biopsy for prognostic prediction in extramammary Paget's disease.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Dai; Kiyohara, Yoshio; Yoshikawa, Syusuke; Tsuchida, Tetsuya

    2016-06-01

    Complete excision of the primary lesion has long been considered the standard treatment for extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD). However, the presence of lymph node metastases has been reported as an important prognostic factor. We evaluated the association between lymph node metastasis and prognosis for EMPD using sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy. This retrospective study included 59 patients with histopathologically-confirmed primary EMPD. A total of 45 patients with microinvasion to the papillary dermis and deep invasion into the reticular dermis or subcutaneous tissue were included in the analysis. The survival curves of the SLN-negative group and the SLN-positive group were compared and we examined the risk factors for SLN positivity. A total of 139 SLNs were excised from one (28 patients) or both inguinal regions (31 patients). The average number of detected SLNs was 2.4. The incidence of SLN metastases was 16.9%. SLN positivity rates according to level of invasion were 0% for intraepithelial lesions, 4.1% for microinvasion, and 42.8% for dermal invasion. The five-year survival rates were 100% in the SLN-negative and 24% in the SLN-positive groups (p = 0.0001). Reticular dermis or subcutaneous tissue invasion was a significant independent risk factor for SLN positivity according to multivariate analysis. The result of SLN biopsy affected prognosis. It is extremely important to accurately ascertain the presence, i.e. the number, or absence of regional lymph node metastases in patients with EMPD. We conclude that SLN biopsy may be appropriate for cases where invasion is suspected.

  15. The role of vitamin C in pushing back the boundaries of skin aging: an ultrasonographic approach

    PubMed Central

    Crisan, Diana; Roman, Iulia; Crisan, Maria; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Badea, Radu

    2015-01-01

    Background Imagistic methods stand as modern, non-invasive, and objective means of assessing the impact of topical cutaneous therapies. Objective This study focuses on the evaluation, by high-frequency ultrasound, of the cutaneous changes induced by topical use of a vitamin C complex at facial level. Methods A vitamin C-based solution/Placebo moisturizer cream was applied at facial level of 60 healthy female subjects according to a predetermined protocol. Ultrasonographic images (Dermascan C, 20 MHz) were taken from zygomatic level initially, at 40 and 60 days after therapy. The following parameters were assessed for every subject: thickness of the epidermis and dermis (mm), the number of low (LEP), medium (MEP), high echogenic pixels (HEP), and the number of LEP in the upper dermis/lower dermis (LEPs/LEPi). Results LEP decreased significantly in all age categories during and after therapy, but especially in the first 2 age intervals, up to the age of 50 (P=0.0001). MEP and HEP, pixel categories that quantify protein synthesis also had an age-dependent evolution in the study, increasing significantly in all age categories but most of all in the first age interval (P=0.002). Our ultrasonographic data suggest that collagen synthesis increased significantly after topical vitamin C therapy, and is responsible for the increase in MEP and HEP and consequent decrease of the LEP. Conclusion Our study shows that topically applied vitamin C is highly efficient as a rejuvenation therapy, inducing significant collagen synthesis in all age groups with minimal side effects. PMID:26366101

  16. NOTE: Spectra from 2.5-15 µm of tissue phantom materials, optical clearing agents and ex vivo human skin: implications for depth profiling of human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viator, John A.; Choi, Bernard; Peavy, George M.; Kimel, Sol; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2003-01-01

    Infrared measurements have been used to profile or image biological tissue, including human skin. Usually, analysis of such measurements has assumed that infrared absorption is due to water and collagen. Such an assumption may be reasonable for soft tissue, but introduction of exogenous agents into skin or the measurement of tissue phantoms has raised the question of their infrared absorption spectrum. We used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection mode to measure the infrared absorption spectra, in the range of 2-15 µm, of water, polyacrylamide, Intralipid, collagen gels, four hyperosmotic clearing agents (glycerol, 1,3-butylene glycol, trimethylolpropane, TopicareTM), and ex vivo human stratum corneum and dermis. The absorption spectra of the phantom materials were similar to that of water, although additional structure was noted in the range of 6-10 µm. The absorption spectra of the clearing agents were more complex, with molecular absorption bands dominating between 6 and 12 µm. Dermis was similar to water, with collagen structure evident in the 6-10 µm range. Stratum corneum had a significantly lower absorption than dermis due to a lower content of water. These results suggest that the assumption of water-dominated absorption in the 2.5-6 µm range is valid. At longer wavelengths, clearing agent absorption spectra differ significantly from the water spectrum. This spectral information can be used in pulsed photothermal radiometry or utilized in the interpretation of reconstructions in which a constant μir is used. In such cases, overestimating μir will underestimate chromophore depth and vice versa, although the effect is dependent on actual chromophore depth.

  17. Chitosan-decorated polystyrene-b-poly(acrylic acid) polymersomes as novel carriers for topical delivery of finasteride.

    PubMed

    Caon, Thiago; Porto, Ledilege Cucco; Granada, Andréa; Tagliari, Monika Piazzon; Silva, Marcos Antonio Segatto; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira; Borsali, Redouane; Soldi, Valdir

    2014-02-14

    In view of the fact that the oral administration of finasteride (FIN) has resulted in various undesirable systemic side effects, the topical application of polystyrene and poly(acrylic acid)-based polymersomes (underexplored system) was investigated. Undecorated PS139-b-PAA17 and PS404-b-PAA63 vesicles (C3 and C7, respectively) or vesicles decorated with chitosan samples of different molecular weight (C3/CS-oligo, C7/CS-oligo, C3/CS-37 and C7/CS-37) were prepared by the co-solvent self-assembly method and characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering,transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering techniques. In vitro release experiments and ex vivo permeation using Franz diffusion cells were carried out (through comparison with hydroethanolic finasteride solution). The ideal system should provide high finasteride retention in the dermis and epidermis while allowing some control of the drug release. The particle size and in vitro release were negatively correlated with the permeation coefficient and skin retention in both the epidermis and dermis. The findings that the longest lag time was obtained for the hydroethanolic drug solution and lowest permeation for the systems able to release the drug faster support the hypothesis that nanostructured systems may be required to enhance the penetration and permeation of the drug. Chitosan-decorated polymersomes interacted more strongly with the skin components than non-decorated samples, probably due to the positive surface charge, which increased the FIN retention and reduced the lag time. C7 polymersomes decorated with chitosan were more appropriate for topical applications (high retention in the dermis and epidermis and controlled drug delivery).

  18. In situ CUTANEOUS CELLULAR IMMUNE RESPONSE IN DOGS NATURALLY AFFECTED BY VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Claudio Nazaretian; Tomokane, Thaise Yumie; Batista, Luis Fábio da Silva; Marcondes, Mary; Larsson, Carlos Eduardo; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra

    2016-07-11

    Thirty-eight dogs naturally affected by visceral leishmaniasis were recruited in Araçatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil - an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis. The animals were distributed into one of two groups, according to their clinical and laboratory features, as either symptomatic or asymptomatic dogs. Correlations between clinical features and inflammatory patterns, cellular immune responses, and parasitism in the macroscopically uninjured skin of the ear were investigated. Histological skin patterns were similar in both groups, and were generally characterized by a mild to intense inflammatory infiltrate in the dermis, mainly consisting of mononuclear cells. There was no difference in the number of parasites in the skin (amastigotes/mm²) between the two groups. Concerning the characterization of the cellular immune response, the number of positive inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS+) cells was higher in the dermis of symptomatic than in asymptomatic dogs (p = 0.0368). A positive correlation between parasite density and macrophages density (p = 0.031), CD4+ T-cells (p = 0.015), and CD8+ T-cells (p = 0.023) was observed. Furthermore, a positive correlation between density of iNOS+ cells and CD3+ T-cells (p = 0.005), CD4+ T-cells (p = 0.001), and CD8+ T-cells (p = 0.0001) was also found. The results showed the existence of a non-specific chronic inflammatory infiltrate in the dermis of dogs affected by visceral leishmaniasis, characterized by the presence of activated macrophages and T-lymphocytes, associated to cutaneous parasitism, independent of clinical status. PMID:27410908

  19. Percutaneous absorption of estradiol and progesterone in normal and appendage-free skin of the hairless rat: lack of importance of nutritional blood flow.

    PubMed

    Hueber, F; Besnard, M; Schaefer, H; Wepierre, J

    1994-01-01

    Percutaneous absorption occurs after passive diffusion through the different layers of the skin and its appendages. Thereafter, a resorption process into the cutaneous microcirculation brings the compounds into the systemic circulation. The objective of this in vivo study in the hairless rat was to compare the percutaneous absorption of two steroids on normal and appendage-free (scar) skin and to show if differences in absorption result only from the lack of hair follicles and sebaceous glands and/or from a modification of local blood flow. Percutaneous absorption was evaluated with estradiol and progesterone after 30 min, 2 and 6 h. Except after 30 min, the reservoir function of the stratum corneum of scar skin was approximately twice as high as in normal skin. Eighty to ninety percent of the estradiol and progesterone found in the stratum corneum were located in its superficial layers. Inversely, whatever the application time was, the concentrations of both steroids in the epidermis and dermis were significantly higher in normal skin than in scar skin with maximal difference between about 40 and 400 microns, the area of sebaceous gland localization. Cutaneous blood flow in full-thickness skin, assessed by the thallium-201 method, was globally identical in normal and in scar skin. In scar skin, at the level of papillary dermis, a decrease in blood flow due to the thicker viable epidermis and the flat dermoepidermal junction has been shown without implying an accumulation of drug in the epidermis and superficial dermis. Under these conditions, our results clearly demonstrate that the nutritional blood flow does not interfere with the percutaneous absorption of estradiol and progesterone in normal and scar skin. Thus, they confirm the significant contribution of hair follicles and sebaceous glands to drug penetration into the skin and subsequently the systemic circulation.

  20. Responses of dermal mast cells to injury.

    PubMed Central

    el Sayed, S O; Dyson, M

    1993-01-01

    The effect on dermal mast cell numbers and degranulation of making a partial thickness skin wound on the right flank of Wistar rats was studied immediately after operation and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 72 h postoperatively. An equivalent area of intact dermis on the left flank was used as a control. In the injured dermis the mean number of detectable mast cells in the experimental group immediately after making the partial thickness wound was not significantly different from the control side (P > 0.25) but it later decreased, reaching its lowest value after 2 h and increasing from 16 h to 72 h postoperatively when the final assessment was made. The possibility that the reduction in mast cell number per unit area might be an artefact resulting from increased tissue volume due to oedema was investigated and disproved. The total number of dermal mast cells in equivalent areas of the intact left flank remained unchanged throughout this period. The percentage of degranulating mast cells started rising 0.5 h postoperatively, increased gradually to reach its highest value after 2 h, remained high up to 8 h postoperatively and then decreased to reach its lowest value after 72 h. The percentage of degranulating mast cells of the intact dermis of the left flank did not alter during this period. The lack of a significant change in the control groups shows either the absence of any systemic effect or that the technique used was not sensitive enough to detect it. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8226292

  1. Broad histopathologic patterns of non-glabrous skin and glabrous skin from patients with a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus-part 1.

    PubMed

    Howard, Michael S; Yepes, Maria M; Maldonado-Estrada, Juan G; Villa-Robles, Edinson; Jaramillo, Andrés; Botero, Jorge H; Patiño, Pablo J; Hashimoto, Takashi; Abreu-Velez, Ana M

    2010-02-01

    A prospective, controlled epidemiologic survey performed in El Bagre, Colombia revealed a new variant of endemic pemphigus disease, occurring in a gold mining region. The disease resembled Senear-Usher syndrome, and occurred in an endemic fashion. The aim of this study is to describe the most frequent histopathologic patterns in non-glabrous skin and in glabrous skin observed in these patients, and their clinical correlation. The study was performed on non-glabrous skin biopsies of 30 patients from the dominantly clinical affected areas (either on the chest, arms or face). Simultaneously, biopsies from the palms were obtained in 10 randomly chosen patients of the 30 total patients. The specimens were examined following hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The most common blisters observed were subcorneal, although in some cases intraspinous and subepidermal blisters were visualized. Our results showed a very heterogeneous pattern of histopathologic patterns in non-glabrous skin, which seemed to correlate with the clinical features. The most common pattern was typical pemphigus foliaceus-like, with some lupus erythematosus-like features. A non-specific, chronic dermatitis pattern prevailed in the clinically controlled patients taking daily corticosteroids. In the patients who have had the most severe and relapsing pemphigus, early sclerodermatous changes and scleredermoid alterations prevailed in their reticular dermis. In addition to the scleredermoid alterations, the reticular dermis showed a paucity of appendageal structures. On the contrary, in the palms, a similar pattern was seen in all cases, including thickening of the stratum corneum, hypergranulosis, edema in the papillary and reticular dermis and a dermal perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate. The direct immunofluorescence of the glabrous vs. the non-glabrous skin also showed some differences. We conclude that the histopathologic features of this new variant of endemic pemphigus are complex, therefore

  2. Equine lamellar energy metabolism studied using tissue microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Medina-Torres, C E; Pollitt, C C; Underwood, C; Castro-Olivera, E M; Collins, S N; Allavena, R E; Richardson, D W; van Eps, A W

    2014-09-01

    Failure of lamellar energy metabolism may contribute to the pathophysiology of equine laminitis. Tissue microdialysis has the potential to dynamically monitor lamellar energy balance over time. The objectives of this study were to develop a minimally invasive lamellar microdialysis technique and use it to measure normal lamellar energy metabolite concentrations over 24 h. Microdialysis probes were placed (through the white line) into either the lamellar dermis (LAM) (n = 6) or the sublamellar dermis (SUBLAM) (n = 6) and perfused continuously over a 24 h study period. Probes were placed in the skin dermis (SKIN) for simultaneous comparison to LAM (n = 6). Samples were collected every 2 h and analysed for glucose, lactate, pyruvate, urea and glycerol concentrations. LAM was further compared with SUBLAM by simultaneous placement and sampling in four feet from two horses over 4 h. Horses were monitored for lameness, and either clinically evaluated for 1 month after probe removal (n = 4) or subjected to histological evaluation of the probe site (n = 10). There were no deleterious clinical effects of probe placement and the histological response was mild. Sample fluid recovery and metabolite concentrations were stable for 24 h. Glucose was lower (and lactate:glucose ratio higher) in LAM compared with SUBLAM and SKIN (P < 0.05). Pyruvate was lower in SUBLAM than SKIN and urea was lower in LAM than SKIN (P < 0.05). These differences suggest lower perfusion and increased glucose consumption in LAM compared with SUBLAM and SKIN. In conclusion, lamellar tissue microdialysis was well tolerated and may be useful for determining the contribution of energy failure in laminitis pathogenesis. PMID:24947715

  3. The use of digital image speckle correlation to measure the mechanical properties of skin and facial muscular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staloff, Isabelle Afriat

    Skin mechanical properties have been extensively studied and have led to an understanding of the structure and role of the collagen and elastin fibers network in the dermis and their changes due to aging. All these techniques have either isolated the skin from its natural environment (in vitro), or, when studied in vivo, attempted to minimize the effect of the underlying tissues and muscles. The human facial region is unique compared to the other parts of the body in that the underlying musculature runs through the subcutaneous tissue and is directly connected to the dermis with collagen based fibrous tissues. These fibrous tissues comprise the superficial musculoaponeurotic system, commonly referred to as the SMAS layer. Retaining ligaments anchor the skin to the periosteum, and hold the dermis to the SMAS. In addition, traditional techniques generally collect an average response of the skin. Data gathered in this manner is incomplete as the skin is anisotropic and under constant tension. We therefore introduce the Digital Image Speckle Correlation (DISC) method that maps in two dimensions the skin deformation under the complex set of forces involved during muscular activity. DISC, a non-contact in vivo technique, generates spatial resolved information. By observing the detailed motion of the facial skin we can infer the manner in which the complex ensemble of forces induced by movement of the muscles distribute and dissipate on the skin. By analyzing the effect of aging on the distribution of these complex forces we can measure its impact on skin elasticity and quantify the efficacy of skin care products. In addition, we speculate on the mechanism of wrinkle formation. Furthermore, we investigate the use of DISC to map the mechanism of film formation on skin of various polymers. Finally, we show that DISC can detect the involuntary facial muscular activity induced by various fragrances.

  4. In situ CUTANEOUS CELLULAR IMMUNE RESPONSE IN DOGS NATURALLY AFFECTED BY VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS

    PubMed Central

    ROSSI, Claudio Nazaretian; TOMOKANE, Thaise Yumie; BATISTA, Luis Fábio da Silva; MARCONDES, Mary; LARSSON, Carlos Eduardo; LAURENTI, Márcia Dalastra

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Thirty-eight dogs naturally affected by visceral leishmaniasis were recruited in Araçatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil - an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis. The animals were distributed into one of two groups, according to their clinical and laboratory features, as either symptomatic or asymptomatic dogs. Correlations between clinical features and inflammatory patterns, cellular immune responses, and parasitism in the macroscopically uninjured skin of the ear were investigated. Histological skin patterns were similar in both groups, and were generally characterized by a mild to intense inflammatory infiltrate in the dermis, mainly consisting of mononuclear cells. There was no difference in the number of parasites in the skin (amastigotes/mm²) between the two groups. Concerning the characterization of the cellular immune response, the number of positive inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS+) cells was higher in the dermis of symptomatic than in asymptomatic dogs (p = 0.0368). A positive correlation between parasite density and macrophages density (p = 0.031), CD4+ T-cells (p = 0.015), and CD8+ T-cells (p = 0.023) was observed. Furthermore, a positive correlation between density of iNOS+ cells and CD3+ T-cells (p = 0.005), CD4+ T-cells (p = 0.001), and CD8+ T-cells (p = 0.0001) was also found. The results showed the existence of a non-specific chronic inflammatory infiltrate in the dermis of dogs affected by visceral leishmaniasis, characterized by the presence of activated macrophages and T-lymphocytes, associated to cutaneous parasitism, independent of clinical status. PMID:27410908

  5. Unusual remodeling of the hyalinization band in vulval lichen sclerosus by type V collagen and ECM 1 protein

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Charles A.P.; Teodoro, Walcy R.; Velosa, Ana Paula P.; Garippo, Ana Lucia; Eher, Esmeralda Miristeni; Parra, Edwin Roger; Sotto, Mirian N.; Capelozzi, Vera L.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The vulva is the primary site affected in lichen sclerosus, a chronic dermatosis in women that is histologically characterized by a zone of collagen remodeling in the superior dermis. The normal physiological properties of the vulva depend on the assembly of collagen types I (COLI), III (COLIII) and V (COLV), which form heterotypic fibers, and extracellular matrix protein interactions. COLV regulates the heterotypic fiber diameter, and the preservation of its properties is important for maintaining normal tissue architecture and function. In the current work, we analyzed the expression of COLV and its relationship with COLI, COLIII, elastic fibers and extracellular matrix protein 1 in vulvar biopsies from patients with lichen sclerosus. METHODS: Skin biopsies from 21 patients with lichen sclerosus, classified according to Hewitt histological criteria, were studied and compared to clinically normal vulvar tissue (N=21). Morphology, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, 3D reconstruction and morphometric analysis of COLI, COLIII, COLV deposition, elastic fibers and extracellular matrix 1 expression in a zone of collagen remodeling in the superior dermis were performed. RESULTS: A significant decrease of elastic fibers and extracellular matrix 1 protein was present in the hyalinization zone of lichen sclerosus compared to healthy controls. The non-homogeneous distribution of collagen fibers visualized under immunofluorescence in the hyalinization zone of lichen sclerosus and control skin was confirmed by histomorphometry. Lichen sclerosus dermis shows a significant increase of COLI, COLIII and COLV expression compared to the healthy controls. Significant inverse associations were found between elastic fibers and COLV and between COLV and extracellular matrix 1 expression. A direct association was found between elastic fiber content and extracellular matrix 1 expression. Tridimensional reconstruction of the heterotypic fibers of the lichen sclerosus

  6. Origin of Infrared Light Modulation in Reflectance-Mode Photoplethysmography

    PubMed Central

    Sidorov, Igor S.; Romashko, Roman V.; Koval, Vasily T.; Giniatullin, Rashid

    2016-01-01

    We recently pointed out the important role of dermis deformation by pulsating arterial pressure in the formation of a photoplethysmographic signal at green light. The aim of this study was to explore the role of this novel finding in near-infrared (NIR) light. A light-emitting diode (LED)-based imaging photoplethysmography (IPPG) system was used to detect spatial distribution of blood pulsations under frame-to-frame switching green and NIR illumination in the palms of 34 healthy individuals. We observed a significant increase of light-intensity modulation at the heartbeat frequency for both illuminating wavelengths after a palm was contacted with a glass plate. Strong positive correlation between data measured at green and NIR light was found, suggesting that the same signal was read independently from the depth of penetration. Analysis of the data shows that an essential part of remitted NIR light is modulated in time as a result of elastic deformations of dermis caused by variable blood pressure in the arteries. Our observations suggest that in contrast with the classical model, photoplethysmographic waveform originates from the modulation of the density of capillaries caused by the variable pressure applied to the skin from large blood vessels. Particularly, beat-to-beat transmural pressure in arteries compresses/decompresses the dermis and deforms its connective-tissue components, thus affecting the distance between the capillaries, which results in the modulation of absorption and scattering coefficients of both green and NIR light. These findings are important for the correct interpretation of this widely used medical technique, which may have novel applications in diagnosis and treatment monitoring of aging and skin diseases. PMID:27768753

  7. Skin telocytes versus fibroblasts: two distinct dermal cell populations.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yuli; Zhu, Zaihua; Zheng, Yonghua; Wan, Weiguo; Manole, Catalin G; Zhang, Qiangqiang

    2015-11-01

    It is already accepted that telocytes (TCs) represent a new type of interstitial cells in human dermis. In normal skin, TCs have particular spatial relations with different dermal structures such as blood vessels, hair follicles, arrector pili muscles or segments of sebaceous and/or eccrine sweat glands. The distribution and the density of TCs is affected in various skin pathological conditions. Previous studies mentioned the particular (ultra)structure of TCs and also their immunophenotype, miR imprint or proteome, genome or secretome features. As fibroblast is the most common intersitital cell (also in human dermis), a dedicated comparison between human skin TCs and fibroblasts (Fbs) was required to be performed. In this study, using different techniques, we document several points of difference between human dermis TCs and Fbs. By transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we demonstrated TCs with their hallmark cellular prolongations - telopodes. Thus, we showed their ultrastructural distinctiveness from Fbs. By RayBio Human Cytokine Antibody Array V analyses performed on the supernatant from separately cultured TCs and Fbs, we detected the cytokine profile of both cell types, individually. Two of 79 detected cytokines - epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78 and granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 - were 1.5 times higher in the supernatant of TCs (comparing with Fbs). On the other hand, 37 cytokines were at least 1.5 higher in Fbs supernatant (comparing with TCs), and among them six cytokines - interleukin 5, monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3), MCP-4, macrophage inflammatory protein-3, angiogenin, thrombopoietin - being 9.5 times higher (results also confirmed by ELISA testing). In summary, using different techniques, we showed that human dermal TCs and Fbs are different in terms of ultrastructure and cytokine profile.

  8. Inhibition of β-catenin signalling in dermal fibroblasts enhances hair follicle regeneration during wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Celine; Pisco, Angela Oliveira; Rawlins, Emma L.; Simons, Ben D.

    2016-01-01

    New hair follicles (HFs) do not form in adult mammalian skin unless epidermal Wnt signalling is activated genetically or within large wounds. To understand the postnatal loss of hair forming ability we monitored HF formation at small circular (2 mm) wound sites. At P2, new HFs formed in back skin, but HF formation was markedly decreased by P21. Neonatal tail also formed wound-associated HFs, albeit in smaller numbers. Postnatal loss of HF neogenesis did not correlate with wound closure rate but with a reduction in Lrig1-positive papillary fibroblasts in wounds. Comparative gene expression profiling of back and tail dermis at P1 and dorsal fibroblasts at P2 and P50 showed a correlation between loss of HF formation and decreased expression of genes associated with proliferation and Wnt/β-catenin activity. Between P2 and P50, fibroblast density declined throughout the dermis and clones of fibroblasts became more dispersed. This correlated with a decline in fibroblasts expressing a TOPGFP reporter of Wnt activation. Surprisingly, between P2 and P50 there was no difference in fibroblast proliferation at the wound site but Wnt signalling was highly upregulated in healing dermis of P21 compared with P2 mice. Postnatal β-catenin ablation in fibroblasts promoted HF regeneration in neonatal and adult mouse wounds, whereas β-catenin activation reduced HF regeneration in neonatal wounds. Our data support a model whereby postnatal loss of hair forming ability in wounds reflects elevated dermal Wnt/β-catenin activation in the wound bed, increasing the abundance of fibroblasts that are unable to induce HF formation. PMID:27287810

  9. Msx genes are expressed in the carapacial ridge of turtle shell: a study of the European pond turtle, Emys orbicularis.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Christine; Bontoux, Martine; Le Douarin, Nicole M; Pieau, Claude; Monsoro-Burq, Anne-Hélène

    2003-09-01

    The turtle shell forms by extensive ossification of dermis ventrally and dorsally. The carapacial ridge (CR) controls early dorsal shell formation and is thought to play a similar role in shell growth as the apical ectodermal ridge during limb development. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying carapace development are still unknown. Msx genes are involved in the development of limb mesenchyme and of various skeletal structures. In particular, precocious Msx expression is recorded in skeletal precursors that develop close to the ectoderm, such as vertebral spinous processes or skull. Here, we have studied the embryonic expression of Msx genes in the European pond turtle, Emys orbicularis. The overall Msx expression in head, limb, and trunk is similar to what is observed in other vertebrates. We have focused on the CR area and pre-skeletal shell condensations. The CR expresses Msx genes transiently, in a pattern similar to that of fgf10. In the future carapace domain, the dermis located dorsal to the spinal cord expresses Msx genes, as in other vertebrates, but we did not see expansion of this expression in the dermis located more laterally, on top of the dermomyotomes. In the ventral plastron, although the dermal osseous condensations form in the embryonic Msx-positive somatopleura, we did not observe enhanced Msx expression around these elements. These observations may indicate that common mechanisms participate in limb bud and CR early development, but that pre-differentiation steps differ between shell and other skeletal structures and involve other gene activities than that of Msx genes. PMID:12905019

  10. The in vivo evaluation of tissue-based biomaterials in a rat full-thickness abdominal wall defect model.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Nicholas; Ahswin, Helen; Smart, Neil; Bayon, Yves; Wohlert, Stephen; Hunt, John A

    2014-05-01

    Hernias are defects in which an anatomical fascia is breached resulting in ectopic positioning of an organ into an orifice which routinely does not contain it. Intervention often involves repositioning translocated organs and repair of damaged fascia using exogenous grafts. Despite hernia prevalence, repairs can still fail due to postoperative complications, such as chronic pain and decreased mobility. This study compared repair capacities and characterized the foreign body response elicited by a number of hernia repair grafts to deduce their bulk inflammatory properties while also concluding the point in their fabrication when these are inferred. Materials derived from human dermis (Alloderm(®) ), porcine dermis (Permacol™, patch A, patch D and Strattice(®) ), porcine small-intestinal submucosa (Surgisis™) and a synthetic (multifilament Surgipro™) were implanted into a rat full-thickness abdominal wall excision model, incubated for up to 2 years and characterized histopathologically. Surgisis™ resorbed the fastest of the materials tested (1-3 months) resulting in a mechanically stable parietal peritoneum. Decellularization using sodium dodecyl sulfate (patch A) stimulated a large early inflammatory response which ultimately may have contributed to increased resorption of porcine dermal matrix however the remaining materials typically persisted throughout the 2-year incubation. Cross-linking porcine dermis using 1,6-hexamethylene disocyanate (vs. an identical noncross-linked counterpart) showed no difference in cell recruitment or material integration over 2 years. Typically Strattice(®) and Alloderm(®) recruited larger early populations of cells than Permacol™; however, over extended periods of time in vivo this response normalized.

  11. Human cutaneous protothecosis: report of a case and literature review.

    PubMed

    Seok, Jae Yeon; Lee, Yoonho; Lee, Hyukmin; Yi, Sang Yeop; Oh, Hwa Eun; Song, Ji-Sun

    2013-12-01

    The Prototheca species is achlorophyllic algae and rarely causes human infection. Human protothecosis presents clinically as a cutaneous infection, olecranon bursitis, and disseminated systemic disease. We report a case of human cutaneous protothecosis involving the left wrist. A 68-year-old man presented with an ill-defined erythematous lesion with crust at the dorsal aspect of his left wrist. A punch biopsy was performed to reveal the histologic features of granulomatous inflammation with necrosis at the upper dermis, containing Prototheca organisms, of which, the characteristic features were highlighted by special staining. Through a molecular study, the Prototheca zopfii species was identified. PMID:24421852

  12. Human Cutaneous Protothecosis: Report of a Case and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Jae Yeon; Lee, Yoonho; Lee, Hyukmin; Yi, Sang Yeop; Oh, Hwa Eun

    2013-01-01

    The Prototheca species is achlorophyllic algae and rarely causes human infection. Human protothecosis presents clinically as a cutaneous infection, olecranon bursitis, and disseminated systemic disease. We report a case of human cutaneous protothecosis involving the left wrist. A 68-year-old man presented with an ill-defined erythematous lesion with crust at the dorsal aspect of his left wrist. A punch biopsy was performed to reveal the histologic features of granulomatous inflammation with necrosis at the upper dermis, containing Prototheca organisms, of which, the characteristic features were highlighted by special staining. Through a molecular study, the Prototheca zopfii species was identified. PMID:24421852

  13. Case for diagnosis*

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Lourenço de Azevedo; Haddad, Natacha de Carvalho Mello; Lima, Ricardo Barbosa; D'Acri, Antonio Macedo; Martins, Carlos José

    2014-01-01

    Degos disease, also known as malignant atrophic papulosis, is a rare occlusive vasculopathy of unknown etiology characterized by infarcts in the dermis, gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system, and other organs. It is characterized by papules, which become umbilicated and evolve with a depressed porcelain-white central area, with an erythematous halo with telangiectasias. Histological findings include wedge-shaped dermoepidermal necrosis and blood vessel thrombosis. Approximately 50-60% of patients with systemic symptoms die within 2-3 years, most due to gastrointestinal perforation. We report a typical case, with lethal outcome, in a 45-year-old woman. PMID:24937836

  14. Interaction of the IR laser radiation with human skin: Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djorev, Pl.; Borisova, Ekaterina G.; Avramov, Lachezar A.

    2003-11-01

    In this study, the Nd:YAG laser (1.06 μm and 1.32 μm) beam-skin tissue interaction is simulated by the MC method. Two-layer skin model-epidermis and dermis is used. The goal of the study is to explain the causes for obtaining of qualitatively different macro-effects in clinical applications of near situated IR wavelengths. The possibility to use the Nd:YAG laser in the cosmetics for skin rejuvenation by the thermal influence to collagen without any damaging effects to the surrounding tissues is shown.

  15. Effects of Age, Gender, BMI, and Anatomical Site on Skin Thickness in Children and Adults with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Derraik, José G. B.; Rademaker, Marius; Cutfield, Wayne S.; Pinto, Teresa E.; Tregurtha, Sheryl; Faherty, Ann; Peart, Jane M.; Drury, Paul L.; Hofman, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess the effects of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and anatomical site on skin thickness in children and adults with diabetes. Methods We studied 103 otherwise healthy children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes aged 5–19 years, and 140 adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes aged 20–85 years. The thicknesses of both the dermis and subcutis were assessed using ultrasound with a linear array transducer, on abdominal and thigh skin. Results There was an age-related thickening of both dermis (p<0.0001) and subcutis (p = 0.013) in children and adolescents. Girls displayed a substantial pubertal increase in subcutis of the thigh (+54%; p = 0.048) and abdomen (+68%; p = 0.009). Adults showed an age-related decrease in dermal (p = 0.021) and subcutis (p = 0.009) thicknesses. Pubertal girls had a thicker subcutis than pubertal boys in both thigh (16.7 vs 7.5 mm; p<0.0001) and abdomen (16.7 vs 8.8 mm; p<0.0001). Men had greater thigh dermal thickness than women (1.89 vs 1.65 mm; p = 0.003), while the subcutis was thicker in women in thigh (21.3 vs 17.9 mm; p = 0.012) and abdomen (17.7 vs 9.8 mm; p<0.0001). In boys, men, and women, both dermis and subcutis were thicker on the abdomen compared to thigh; in girls this was only so for dermal thickness. In both children and adults, the skin (dermis and subcutis) became steadily thicker with increasing BMI (p<0.0001). Conclusions Skin thickness is affected by age, pubertal status, gender, BMI, and anatomical site. Such differences may be important when considering appropriate sites for dermal/subcutaneous injections and other transdermal delivery systems. PMID:24466182

  16. Recombinant 1F9 spidroin microgels for murine full-thickness wound repairing.

    PubMed

    Moisenovich, M M; Malyuchenko, N V; Arkhipova, A Yu; Goncharenko, A V; Kotlyarova, M S; Davydova, L I; Vasil'eva, T V; Bogush, V G; Agapov, I I; Debabov, V G; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2016-01-01

    The study of the stimulating effect of the microgels (MGs) based on recombinant 1F9 spidroin on the regeneration of the deep skin wound in mice was carried out. The use of spidroin MGs was shown to increase significantly the quality of healing compared to the control. The introduction of the MG in the wound edges led to recovery of all the structural elements of the skin: the epidermis, the dermis, including vascular and nervous network, in the periphery of the wound underlying muscles, and skin appendages (sebaceous and sweat glands and hair follicles) was revealed. PMID:27025477

  17. Linear arrangement of hypopigmented Spitz nevi on the ear after trauma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Gang; Fan, Pingshen; Gao, Tianwen

    2010-04-01

    A 10-year-old boy had multiple papules after surgery on a primary lesion on his left ear. The papules were pink and showed a linear arrangement around the helix. Histopathological examination of two separate lesions showed proliferation of epithelioid cells in the dermis and some of them formed nests. No melanin was found in the epithelioid cells, and immunohistochemistry staining with S100, HMB45 and Melan-A were positive in the neoplasm cells. According to the clinical and histopathological characteristics, it was diagnosed as hypopigmented Spitz nevi with linear arrangement after trauma.

  18. Contactless diagnostics of biophysical parameters of skin and blood on the basis of approximating functions for radiation fluxes scattered by skin

    SciTech Connect

    Lisenko, S A; Kugeiko, M M

    2014-03-28

    Approximating expressions are derived to calculate spectral and spatial characteristics of diffuse reflection of light from a two-layer medium mimicking human skin. The effectiveness of the use of these expressions in the optical diagnosis of skin biophysical parameters (tissue scattering parameters, concentration of melanin in the epidermis, concentration of total haemoglobin and bilirubin in the tissues of the dermis) and content of haemoglobin derivatives in blood (oxy-, deoxy-, met-, carboxy- and sulfhaemoglobin) is analysed numerically. The methods are proposed to determine in realtime these parameters without contact of the measuring instrument with the patient's body. (biophotonics)

  19. Complications associated with use of tantalum-mesh--covered implants.

    PubMed

    Przybyla, V A; La Piana, F G

    1982-02-01

    In 1948, ophthalmologists started implanting plastic spheres partially covered with tantalum mesh (eg, the Valley Forge Implant) in anophthalmic sockets. Numerous patients have developed complications ten to 15 years after surgery: pain ("pinching" or "deep"), headache, heavy mucopurulent discharge and diffuse conjunctival inflammation, migration of the implant, thinning or erosion of tissues covering the implant (extrusion), and inability to wear an artificial eye. Management includes refabrication of the artificial eye and replacement of the implant with a dermis-fat graft or a silicone ball plus scleral graft. Tantalum-mesh--covered orbital implants should probably not be used.

  20. Transmission Electron Microscopy Analysis of Skin Lesions from Sporotrichosis Epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Porto Ferreira, Cassio; Oliveira de Almeida, Ana Cristina; Corte-Real, Suzana

    2015-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy can yield useful information in a range of scientific fields; it is capable of imaging at a significantly higher resolution than light microscopes and has been a very useful tool in the identification of morphological changes of the dermis as well as assessment of changes in the extracellular matrix. Our aim is to characterize by electron microscopy the cellular profile of lesions caused by Sporothrix schenckii from the sporotrichosis epidemic in its zoonotic form that occurs in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:25653392

  1. Two-photon excited spectroscopies of ex vivo human skin endogenous species irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianxin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Luo, Tianshu; Zhao, Jingjun

    2006-10-01

    Two-photon excited spectroscopies from ex vivo human skin are investigated by using a femtosecond laser and a confocal microscope (Zeiss LSM 510 META). In the dermis, collagen is responsible for second harmonic generation (SHG); elastin, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), melanin and porphyrin are the primary endogenous sources of two-photon excited autofluorescence. In the epidermis, keratin, NADH, melanin and porphyrins contribute to autofluorescence signals. The results also show that the SHG spectra have the ability to shift with the excitation wavelength and the autofluorescence spectra display a red shift of the spectral peaks when increasing the excitation wavelength. These results may have practical implications for diagnosis of skin diseases.

  2. Low Level Light Therapy with Light-Emitting Diodes for the Aging Face.

    PubMed

    Calderhead, R Glen; Vasily, David B

    2016-07-01

    Low level light therapy (LLLT) with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is emerging from the mists of black magic as a solid medico-scientific modality, with a substantial buildup of corroborative bodies of evidence for its efficacy and elucidation of the modes of action. Reports are appearing from many different specialties; however, of particular interest to plastic surgeons treating the aging face is the proven action of LED-LLLT on skin cells in both the epidermis and dermis and enhanced blood flow. Thus, LED-LLLT is a safe and effective stand-alone therapy for patients who are prepared to wait until the final effect is perceived.

  3. Immunohistochemical localization of irisin in skin, eye, and thyroid and pineal glands of the crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata).

    PubMed

    Gençer Tarakçı, B; Girgin, A; Timurkaan, S; Yalçın, M H; Gür, F M; Karan, M

    2016-08-01

    Irisin was first identified in muscle cells. We detected irisin immunoreactivity in various organs of the crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata). In the epidermis, irisin immunoreactivity was localized mainly in stratum basale, stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum layers; immunoreactivity was not observed in the stratum corneum. In the dermis, irisin was found in the external and internal root sheath, cortex and medulla of hair follicles, and in sebaceous glands. Irisin immunoreactivity was found in the neural retina and skeletal muscle fibers associated with the eye. The pineal and thyroid glands also exhibited irisin immunoreactivity. PMID:27192184

  4. Effects of low frequency pulsed electrical current on keratinocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Hinsenkamp, M.; Jercinovic, A.

    1997-05-01

    The effects of low frequency pulsed electrical current on epidermal repair in vitro were examined. Charge-balanced current stimuli proposed for chronic wound treatment were tested on skin keratinocytes cultured at an air-liquid interface on dead human dermis. Results imply that the balance between proliferation and differentiation in electrically treated samples is significantly modified in favor of differentiation. More advanced differentiation, shown through epidermal histology, was obtained in cultures exposed to electrical current, whereas the culture growth, the result of keratinocyte migration and proliferation, was greater in control samples.

  5. Shedding light on cutaneous innate immune responses: the intravital microscopy approach.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rohit; Weninger, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    The skin is under constant assault by environmental factors and microbes. Innate immune cells in epidermis and dermis regulate immune responses against pathogens while maintaining tolerance against commensal bacteria and autoantigens. The introduction of intravital imaging approaches, in particular multiphoton microscopy, has enabled studying the cellular and molecular regulation of cutaneous immunity in real time within intact skin. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of innate immune cell behaviour in the skin, as unravelled by intravital microscopy, with emphasis on the function of myeloid cells, including dendritic cells, neutrophils and monocytes.

  6. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVIII: VII: results of scalp examination.

    PubMed

    Vogel, F S; Lloyd, B; Cruty, M R; Benton, E V

    1975-04-01

    The scalps of the four pocket mice that were recovered alive from the Apollo XVII flight contained acute focal lesions in the epidermis and an inflammatory reaction in the subjacent dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Hair follicles were focally damaged in three of the four mice. There were 13 scalp lesions singled out in the four flight mice because of histological features that distinguished them from changes observed in the scalps of the control mice. There was only one possible coincidence between a lesion and the trajectory of a cosmic ray particle registered in a subscalp dosimeter. There is, however, a possibility that at least some lesions were produced by unregistered particles.

  7. The science of cellulite treatment and its long-term effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Wassef, Cindy; Rao, Babar K

    2012-04-01

    Cellulite is a disorder in which adipose tissue extends through the dermis, producing a cosmetically displeasing dimpling in the affected areas. While many treatments claim to be able to improve the appearance of cellulite, the long-term effectiveness of these treatments and whether the logic behind these treatments can lead to a long-term improvement has not been extensively reviewed. In the following review, our goal is to assess the various cellulite treatments and evaluate the length of time results persist and whether the science behind the treatments warrants them as reliable and effective treatments for cellulite.

  8. Use of a locking compression plate as an external fixator for repair of a tarsometatarsal fracture in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Ronald D; Crandall, Elizabeth; Bellah, Jamie R

    2011-06-01

    We describe the successful treatment of a tarsometatarsal fracture in a mature bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) using a locking compression plate as an external fixator. The anatomy of the area (inelastic dermis and minimal subcutaneous space) and the high forces placed on a fracture at that site necessitated a unique approach to fixation. The unconventional use of a locking compression plate as an external fixator was minimally invasive, well tolerated by the eagle, and provided adequate stability in opposing fracture forces. This technique may serve as a method of fixation for tarsometatarsal fractures in other large avian species.

  9. A multifunctional automated system of 2D laser polarimetry of biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabolotna, Natalia I.; Radchenko, Kostiantyn O.

    2014-09-01

    Multifunctional automated system of 2D laser polarimetry of biological tissues with enhanced functional capabilities is proposed. Two-layer optically thin (attenuation coefficient τ <= 0,1 ) biological structures, formed by "muscle tissue (MT) - the dermis of the skin (DS)" histological cryosections for the two physiological states (normal - dystrophy) were investigated. Complex of objective indexes which characterized by 2D polarization reproduced distributions under the following criteria: histograms of the distributions; statistical moments of the 1st - 4th order; autocorrelation functions; correlation moments; power spectra logarithmic dependencies of the distributions; fractal dimensions of the distributions; spectra moments are presented.

  10. The deep penetrating nevus.

    PubMed

    Strazzula, Lauren; Senna, Maryanne Makredes; Yasuda, Mariko; Belazarian, Leah

    2014-12-01

    The deep penetrating nevus (DPN), also known as the plexiform spindle cell nevus, is a pigmented lesion that commonly arises on the head and neck in the first few decades of life. Histopathologically, the DPN is wedge-shaped and contains melanocytes that exhibit deep infiltration into the dermis. Given these features, DPN may clinically and histopathologically mimic malignant melanoma, sparking confusion about the appropriate evaluation and management of these lesions. The goal of this review is to summarize the clinical and histopathological features of DPN and to discuss diagnostic and treatment strategies for dermatologists.

  11. Treatment of acne scarring.

    PubMed

    Alam, M; Dover, J S

    Acne scarring is common but surprisingly difficult to treat. Scars can involve textural change in the superficial and deep dermis, and can also be associated with erythema, and less often, pigmentary change. In general, treatment of acne scarring is a multistep procedure. First, examination of the patient is necessary to classify the subtypes of scarring that are present. Then, the patient's primary concerns are elicited, and the patient is offered a menu of procedures that may address the various components of the scarring process. It is important to emphasize to the patient that acne scarring can be improved but never entirely reversed. PMID:17180246

  12. Favorable response of reticular erythematous mucinosis to ultraviolet B irradiation using a 308-nm excimer lamp.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Ken; Miyajima, Osamu; Yokogawa, Maki; Sano, Shigetoshi

    2010-02-01

    Abstract Reticular erythematous mucinosis (REM) is a rare chronic mucinosis. Histologically, the presence of mucin in the upper dermis is the most specific feature. A 73-year-old woman presented to our outpatient clinic with a 4-year history of netlike macular erythema with slight edema on her left arm. She was diagnosed as having REM on the basis of the clinical picture and histological findings. She was treated with ultraviolet B irradiation using the VTRAC Excimer Lamp system with favorable response. This is the first reported case that was treated with a 308-nm excimer lamp. PMID:20175851

  13. Erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet ablative laser treatment for endogenous ochronosis.

    PubMed

    Chaptini, Cassandra; Huilgol, Shyamala C

    2015-08-01

    Ochronosis is a rare disease characterised clinically by bluish-grey skin discolouration and histologically by yellow-brown pigment deposits in the dermis. It occurs in endogenous and exogenous forms. Endogenous ochronosis, also known as alkaptonuria, is an autosomal recessive disease of tyrosine metabolism, resulting in the accumulation and deposition of homogentisic acid in connective tissue. We report a case of facial endogenous ochronosis and coexistent photodamage, which was successfully treated with erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser resurfacing and deep focal point treatment to remove areas of residual deep pigment.

  14. Immunohistochemical localization of irisin in skin, eye, and thyroid and pineal glands of the crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata).

    PubMed

    Gençer Tarakçı, B; Girgin, A; Timurkaan, S; Yalçın, M H; Gür, F M; Karan, M

    2016-08-01

    Irisin was first identified in muscle cells. We detected irisin immunoreactivity in various organs of the crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata). In the epidermis, irisin immunoreactivity was localized mainly in stratum basale, stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum layers; immunoreactivity was not observed in the stratum corneum. In the dermis, irisin was found in the external and internal root sheath, cortex and medulla of hair follicles, and in sebaceous glands. Irisin immunoreactivity was found in the neural retina and skeletal muscle fibers associated with the eye. The pineal and thyroid glands also exhibited irisin immunoreactivity.

  15. The most common mistakes on dermatoscopy of melanocytic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kamińska-Winciorek, Grażyna

    2015-01-01

    Dermatoscopy is a method of in vivo evaluation of the structures within the epidermis and dermis. Currently, it may be the most precise pre-surgical method of diagnosing melanocytic lesions. Diagnostic errors may result in unnecessary removal of benign lesions or what is even worse, they can cause early and very early melanomas to be overlooked. Errors in assessment of dermatoscopy can be divided into those arising from failure to maintain proper test procedures (procedural and technical errors) and knowledge based mistakes related to the lack of sufficient familiarity and experience in dermatoscopy. The article discusses the most common mistakes made by beginner or inexperienced dermatoscopists. PMID:25821425

  16. In Ovo Electroporation for Targeting the Somitic Mesoderm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohata, Emi; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    The somite is a transient structure present in early vertebrate embryos, giving rise to a variety of essential tissues including skeletal muscles, dermis, axial bones and blood vessels. The term “somite” refers to a tissue of spherical structure that forms by pinching off from the continuous tissue called presomitic mesoderm (PSM, also called segmental plate in avian embryos). The PSM is recognized as a pair of longitudinal stripes along the midline of the body. Thus, each somite forms at the anterior end of PSM, and this process recurs periodically in time and space, gener ating the segmented pattern of the body along the antero-posterior axis.

  17. Controlling reactive oxygen species in skin at their source to reduce skin aging.

    PubMed

    Kern, Dale G; Draelos, Zoe D; Meadows, Christiaan; James Morré, D; Morré, Dorothy M

    2010-01-01

    Activity of an age-related, superoxide-forming, cell-surface oxidase (arNOX) comparing dermis, epidermis, serum, and saliva from female and male subjects ages 28-72 years measured spectrophotometrically using reduction of ferricytochrome c correlated with oxidative skin damage as estimated from autofluoresence of skin using an Advanced Glycation End products Reader (AGE-Reader; DiagnOptics B.V., Netherlands). By reducing arNOX activity in skin with arNOX-inhibitory ingredients (NuSkin's ageLOC technology), skin appearance was improved through decreased protein cross-linking and an accelerated increase in collagen.

  18. Cannulas for facial filler placement.

    PubMed

    DeJoseph, Louis M

    2012-05-01

    With more physicians performing injections to the face in increasingly sophisticated ways, techniques must evolve accordingly. Injectables are no longer mere wrinkle fillers but true panfacial volumizers that are placed in many different planes and tissues of the face, in contrast to fillers of the past used for the dermis. This development is providing better results previously not achievable with off-the-shelf fillers. Microcannulas represent a step forward in enhancing surgeons' ability to fill the face with less discomfort, edema, and ecchymosis, with faster recovery. Microcannulas will probably play a role in volume replacement for many years to come.

  19. The histological aspects of fillers complications.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Ute S; Clerici, Thierry J

    2004-12-01

    The histological aspects of resorbable heterologous fillers (bovine collagen, acid hyaluronique), autologous fillers (lipofilling, dermis-fat graft), biodegradable fillers (New-Fill), and permanent fillers (silicone, Artecoll, Evolution, Aquamid, DermaLive, DermaDeep, Bioplastique, Paraffin) are described. This article relates the morphological aspect of these materials, the normal tissue reaction after injection, and its chronological evolution as the morphological aspects from the different side effects, more frequently observed for the permanent fillers. They mainly consist of granulomatous reactions which may appear long after injection.

  20. The localisation and characterisation of insulin-like growth factor-I receptors and the investigation of melatonin receptors on the hair follicles of seasonal and non-seasonal fibre-producing goats.

    PubMed

    Dicks, P; Morgan, C J; Morgan, P J; Kelly, D; Williams, L M

    1996-10-01

    To define the hormonal influences that are directly involved in the hair follicle cycles of animals with differing patterns of fibre growth and moulting, we have investigated the possible presence of IGF-I and melatonin receptors on the dermis and hair follicles of cashmere and Angora goats, sampled in February. March and June, using quantitative in vitro autoradiography. The presence of IGF-I receptors in the dermis of both breeds of goat was determined using cryostat sections incubated with 50 pM 125I-labelled IGF-I in the presence or absence of 50 nM IGF-I. Sections of the growing tip of deep antlers concerning the cartilaginous zone, a tissue known to contain high concentrations of specific IGF-I receptors, were used as a positive control. As the production of antler velvet uniquely involves the generation of hair follicles de novo, the presence of IGF-I receptors in the velvet-producing region was also investigated. In both breeds of goat, specific 125I-IGF-I binding was localised over the inner and outer root sheath, the matrix, the germinal matrix, the dermal papilla and the sebaceous glands and satisfied the basic kinetic criteria considered to be representative of a specific IGF-I receptor. Analysis of saturation isotherms using a one-site binding model revealed dissociation constants (Kd) in the range 0.1-0.9 nM and theoretical maximal numbers of binding sites (Bmax) between 21.4 and 45.6 fmol/mg tissue. Kd and Bmax values derived from cashmere and Angora goats sampled at different times of the year did not differ significantly between breeds or sampling times. Specific 125I-IGF-I binding was also localised to the developing follicles on the deer antler dermis. The presence of melatonin receptors within the goat dermis was also investigated. Sections were incubated with 100 pM 2-[125I]iodomelatonin with or without 0.1 microM melatonin, along with sections of sheep pars tuberalis which are known to contain high levels of high-affinity melatonin receptors

  1. Cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to Alternaria tenuissima.

    PubMed

    Romano, C; Fimiani, M; Pellegrino, M; Valenti, L; Casini, L; Miracco, C; Faggi, E

    1996-01-01

    A 50-year-old gardener with a 3-year history of pemphigus vulgaris and steroid-induced diabetes complained of various papulonodular lesions on the left elbow. The lesions had appeared 11 months previously. Skin biopsy showed chronic granulomatous inflammation of the dermis which contained septate hyphae and large spores mainly free. Fragments of the biopsy specimen, cultured on Sabouraud glucose agar without cycloheximide, for 4 days, produced soft white colonies which later turned blackish brown, especially on the underside. On the basis of the microscopic characters of the conidiophores and conidia, Alternaria tenuissima was identified. This phaeohyphomycete has only been isolated previously in two other cases in Italy.

  2. Review of ultrasound appearance in inflammatory breast cancer: A pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Abeywardhana, Dilupani Y; Nascimento, Vinicius C; Dissanayake, Deepthi; Taylor, Donna; Metcalf, Cecily; Saunders, Christobel; Wylie, Elizabeth

    2016-02-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare malignancy accounting for 1-2% of breast cancers. It has an aggressive clinical presentation and poor prognosis. The sonographic findings in 41 patients with a clinical diagnosis of IBC and biopsy-proven breast malignancy are presented in this study. The most common finding was the presence of skin thickening (92%). Multiple small anechoic spaces within the dermis, correlating with the presence of dermal lymphatic invasion by tumour emboli on histopathology were noted in approximately one-third of cases. Other sonographic findings included single or multiple masses, parenchymal oedema, axillary lymphadenopathy, echogenic foci consistent with microcalcifications and increased vascularity. PMID:26631841

  3. Use of a locking compression plate as an external fixator for repair of a tarsometatarsal fracture in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Ronald D; Crandall, Elizabeth; Bellah, Jamie R

    2011-06-01

    We describe the successful treatment of a tarsometatarsal fracture in a mature bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) using a locking compression plate as an external fixator. The anatomy of the area (inelastic dermis and minimal subcutaneous space) and the high forces placed on a fracture at that site necessitated a unique approach to fixation. The unconventional use of a locking compression plate as an external fixator was minimally invasive, well tolerated by the eagle, and provided adequate stability in opposing fracture forces. This technique may serve as a method of fixation for tarsometatarsal fractures in other large avian species. PMID:21877449

  4. Benign cephalic histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, F; Caputo, R; Ermacora, E; Gianni, E

    1986-09-01

    Benign cephalic histiocytosis is a self-healing non-X, nonlipid cutaneous histiocytosis of children, characterized by a papular eruption on the head. Mucous membranes and viscera are always spared. In the 13 cases reported herein, the children were otherwise in good general health. The disease appeared during the first three years of life, and spontaneous regression was complete by the age of nine years in the four cases healed to date. The histiocytic infiltrate was localized in the upper and middle dermis and contained no lipids at any stage of evolution. All the histiocytes contained coated vesicles, and 5% to 30% also contained comma-shaped bodies in their cytoplasm.

  5. Benign cephalic histiocytosis: report of four cases.

    PubMed

    de Luna, M L; Glikin, I; Golberg, J; Stringa, S; Schroh, R; Casas, J

    1989-09-01

    We cared for four patients with benign cephalic histiocytosis, a self-healing non-X, nonlipid cutaneous histiocytosis of children. The age of onset of the disease was 5 to 9 months, with papules and erythematous macules involving the head (mainly the cheeks), and posterior spread to the trunk and limbs in three patients. Microscopic examination of skin biopsies revealed a histiocytic infiltrate in the superficial dermis that was S100 protein-negative by immunoperoxidase (PAP method). One patient showed comma-shaped bodies and desmosomelike junctions on electron microscopy. No Birbeck's granules were present. Benign cephalic histiocytosis is a self-limiting condition that requires no treatment.

  6. [The role of oxidative stress in skin aging].

    PubMed

    Kozina, L S; Borzova, I V; Arutiunov, V A; Ryzhak, G A

    2012-01-01

    The review covers the literature proving that ROS formation in aging overbalances the antioxidant defense system potential of the skin structure (horny layer, epidermis and dermis). It has been shown that ROS are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory processes and allergic responses in the skin. The role of ROS and antioxidant systems in the cell-mediated responses associated with the MAP kinase activity in the skin is discussed. Special attention is paid to the ultraviolet irradiation exposure, which accounts for its genotoxic, immunosuppressive and carcinogenic effects on the skin.

  7. Agminated blue nevus - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Lisboa, Alice Paixão; Silvestre, Keline Jácome; Pedreira, Renata Leite; Alves, Natália Ribeiro de Magalhães; Obadia, Daniel Lago; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2016-01-01

    Blue nevi are benign melanocytic lesions located in the deeper reticular dermis, consequence of failure of melanocytic migration into the dermal-epidermal junction from the neural crest. Lesions are usually asymptomatic and solitary, but may present in a multiple or agminated (grouped) pattern. The agminated subtype is formed when bluish-pigmented lesions cluster together in a well-defined area. Lesions can be flat or raised. We report the case of a patient who presented multiple bluish macules (1-3 mm in diameter) grouped on the left upper back. Dermoscopy and anatomic pathological examination were consistent with blue nevus.

  8. Retiform Hemangioendothelioma: An Uncommon Pediatric Vascular Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Ranga, Swaroop M; Kuchangi, Nischal C; Shankar, Vijay S; Amita, K; Haleuoor, Basavaraj B; Belagola, Sathyanarayana D

    2014-01-01

    Retiform hemangioendothelioma is considered as a low grade angiosarcoma, commonly seen in 2nd-4th decade of life. The youngest patient reported is of 9 years of age. A 9-year-old boy was presented with an asymptomatic red patch on the chest since 1 year. There was an erythematous patch with nodule of about 5 mm near the distal margin. Biopsy from the nodule revealed numerous thin-walled branching vessels in dermis resembling rete testis, suggestive of retiform hemangioendothelioma. We, hereby, report this case for its rarity and uncommon clinical presentation in childhood period. PMID:25484427

  9. Dermal vacuoles in two biopsies of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Ayva, Sebnem; Erkek, Emel; Atasoy, Pinar

    2008-11-01

    Two patients presented with cutaneous lesions clinically typical of psoriasis. The first case was a 38-year-old man and the second was a 51-year-old woman. To confirm the diagnosis, 4-mm punch biopsy samples were obtained from both patients from the lesions on the knees. Histology in both cases was in favour of psoriasis and also revealed empty vacuoles in the papillary dermis, concentrated at sites of intense lymphocyte infiltration. The empty vacuoles resembled true fat cells or fat globules. They did not reveal positive immunostaining with CD34 antigen, suggesting that they were not lined by endothelial cells. Final histological diagnosis was psoriasis associated with dermal vacuolization.

  10. Spectral characteristics of two-photon autofluorescence and second harmonic generation from human skin in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunig, Hans G.; König, Karsten

    2011-03-01

    We performed multiphoton imaging of human skin and recorded in combination the complete spectral content of the signals in vivo. The spectra represent the integration of multiphoton signals over the investigated regions of the epidermis and dermis. They are used to study depth-resolved in vivo emission characteristics of main endogenous skin fluorophores like keratin, NAD(P)H, collagen and elastin. The identification of the specific fluorophores is supported by analysis of additional in vivo fluorescence lifetime imaging. Furthermore, as a potential application of spectrally selective imaging the possibility to investigate the penetration of nanoparticles from sunscreen lotion into skin in vivo is discussed.

  11. Pseudo-Kaposi sarcoma (acroangiodermatitis): occurring after bullous erysipelas.

    PubMed

    Kutlubay, Zekayi; Yardimci, Gürkan; Engin, Burhan; Demirkesen, Cuyan; Aydin, Övgü; Khatib, Rashid; Tuzun, Yalçın

    2015-05-01

    Pseudo-Kaposi sarcoma is a benign reactive vascular proliferative disorder, which can be seen at any age. It occurs when the chronic venous pressure changes result in vascular proliferation in the upper and mid dermis. This disease is divided into two subtypes: the most frequent subtype is the Mali type and seen in early ages. The Mali type is seen in chronic venous insufficiency and in those patients with arteriovenous shunts. The rare subtype is the Stewart-Bluefarb type. This disease must be distinguished from Kaposi sarcoma because of their clinical resemblance. Herein, we present a patient with pseudo-Kaposi sarcoma, which developed after bullous erysipelas.

  12. Tension tests on mammalian collagen fibrils.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yehe; Ballarini, Roberto; Eppell, Steven J

    2016-02-01

    A brief overview of isolated collagen fibril mechanics testing is followed by presentation of the first results testing fibrils isolated from load-bearing mammalian tendons using a microelectromechanical systems platform. The in vitro modulus (326 ± 112 MPa) and fracture stress (71 ± 23 MPa) are shown to be lower than previously measured on fibrils extracted from sea cucumber dermis and tested with the same technique. Scanning electron microscope images show the fibrils can fail with a mechanism that involves circumferential rupture, whereas the core of the fibril stays at least partially intact. PMID:26855757

  13. Contactless diagnostics of biophysical parameters of skin and blood on the basis of approximating functions for radiation fluxes scattered by skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenko, S. A.; Kugeiko, M. M.

    2014-03-01

    Approximating expressions are derived to calculate spectral and spatial characteristics of diffuse reflection of light from a two-layer medium mimicking human skin. The effectiveness of the use of these expressions in the optical diagnosis of skin biophysical parameters (tissue scattering parameters, concentration of melanin in the epidermis, concentration of total haemoglobin and bilirubin in the tissues of the dermis) and content of haemoglobin derivatives in blood (oxy-, deoxy-, met-, carboxy- and sulfhaemoglobin) is analysed numerically. The methods are proposed to determine in realtime these parameters without contact of the measuring instrument with the patient's body.

  14. Optical tissue phantoms based on spin coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jihoon; Ha, Myungjin; Yu, Sung Kon; Radfar, Edalat; Jun, Eunkwon; Lee, Nara; Jung, Byungjo

    2015-03-01

    Fabrication of optical tissue phantom (OTP) simulating whole skin structure has been regarded as laborious and time consuming work. This study fabricated multilayer OTP optically and structurally simulating epidermis-dermis structure including blood vessel. Spin coating method was used to produce thin layer mimicking epidermal layer, then optimized for reference epoxy and silicone matrix. Adequacy of both materials in phantom fabrication was considered by comparison the fabrication results. In addition similarities between OTP and biological tissue in optical property and thickness was measured to evaluate this fabrication process.

  15. Simulation of the effect of photoprotective titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on the thermal response and optical characteristics of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnikov, I. V.; Seteikin, A. Yu.; Popov, A. P.

    2015-04-01

    The thermal response of skin covered with a mixture of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles of optimal sizes and irradiated by sunlight has been calculated. The nanoparticles were rubbed into the skin for maximum protection against the incident radiation. The dependences of the temperature dynamics in different skin layers (corneal layer, epidermis, dermis) have been obtained and analyzed upon skin irradiation with light at a wavelength of 310-800 nm. It has been found that increasing light scattering and absorption due to the nanoparticles introduced into the corneal layer resulted in a decrease in the thermal load and penetration depth of the incident radiation.

  16. Controlling reactive oxygen species in skin at their source to reduce skin aging.

    PubMed

    Kern, Dale G; Draelos, Zoe D; Meadows, Christiaan; James Morré, D; Morré, Dorothy M

    2010-01-01

    Activity of an age-related, superoxide-forming, cell-surface oxidase (arNOX) comparing dermis, epidermis, serum, and saliva from female and male subjects ages 28-72 years measured spectrophotometrically using reduction of ferricytochrome c correlated with oxidative skin damage as estimated from autofluoresence of skin using an Advanced Glycation End products Reader (AGE-Reader; DiagnOptics B.V., Netherlands). By reducing arNOX activity in skin with arNOX-inhibitory ingredients (NuSkin's ageLOC technology), skin appearance was improved through decreased protein cross-linking and an accelerated increase in collagen. PMID:19954332

  17. Differentiation of cutaneous melanoma from surrounding skin using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jung Hyun; Moon, Youngmin; Lee, Jong Jin; Choi, Sujeong; Kim, Yong-Chul; Jeong, Sungho

    2015-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has the potential to be used as a surgical tool for simultaneous tissue ablation and elemental analysis of the ablated tissue. LIBS may be used to distinguish melanoma lesions from the surrounding dermis based on the quantitative difference of elements within melanoma lesions. Here, we measured the elements in homogenized pellets and real tissues from excised skin samples of melanoma-implanted mice. In addition, statistical analysis of LIBS spectra using principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis was performed. Our results showed that this method had high detection sensitivity, highlighting the potential of this tool in clinical applications. PMID:26819817

  18. Penicillamine-induced elastosis of the mucosal lip.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Bethany K H; Chern, Peggy L; Stone, Mary Seabury

    2009-04-01

    Long-term penicillamine therapy has been associated with alterations in dermal elastic tissue. Well-described associated dermatoses include pseudo-pseudoxanthoma elasticum, acquired cutis laxa, elastosis perforans serpiginosa, and anetoderma. Histologically, "lumpy-bumpy" or "bramble-bush" morphologic changes of elastic fibers in the dermis are characteristic. Previous reports of these findings in normal-appearing skin and internal organs suggest a systemic elastolytic process. Here we report an unusual case of penicillamine-induced elastosis affecting the mucosa of the lip with characteristic histologic features. PMID:19293020

  19. Cutaneous complications related to permanent decorative tattooing.

    PubMed

    Kluger, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    Decorative tattooing involves the introduction of exogenous pigments and/or dyes into the dermis to produce a permanent design. Practiced for thousands of years, it has gained tremendous popularity during the past 20 years, especially among the young. Tattoo-associated cutaneous complications have only been reported since the end of the 19th Century. With the increased prevalence of tattooed individuals, dermatologists have witnessed increasing numbers of patients presenting with complaints about their tattoos. Complications primarily include infections, hypersensitivity reaction to tattoo pigments, benign and sometimes malignant tumors arising on tattoos, and the localization of various dermatoses to tattoos. PMID:20441423

  20. Quantitative analysis on collagen morphology in aging skin based on multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shulian; Li, Hui; Yang, Hongqin; Zhang, Xiaoman; Li, Zhifang; Xu, Shufei

    2011-04-01

    Multiphoton microscopy was employed for monitoring the structure changes of mouse dermis collagen in the intrinsic- or the extrinsic-age-related processes in vivo. The characteristics of textures in different aging skins were uncovered by fast Fourier transform in which the orientation index and bundle packing of collagen were quantitatively analyzed. Some significant differences in collagen-related changes are found in different aging skins, which can be good indicators for the statuses of aging skins. The results are valuable to the study of aging skin and also of interest to biomedical photonics.

  1. Molluscum Contagiosum Involving an Epidermoid Cyst - A Rare Association and Potential Source of Clinical Misdiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Prithwijit; Saha, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a viral infection of skin and mucous membrane commonly affecting the adolescents and young adults. Extensive lesions are usually common in immunocompromised patients. We herein report a rare case of molluscum contagiosum in an epidermoid cyst (EC) in a 24-year-old immunocompetent male. The provisional clinical diagnosis was inflammed epidermoid cyst or lipoma. On histopathological examination, the lesion displayed a unilocular epidermoid cyst in deep dermis, the lining of which was infected by molluscum contagiosum virus with characteristic inclusions. The overlying epidermis was absolutely normal having no attachment with the cyst. PMID:26905556

  2. Cutaneous Sarcoidosis Clinically Mimicking Necrobiosis Lipoidica in a Patient with Systemic Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Takahara, Masakazu; Nakahara, Takeshi; Fukagawa, Shuji; Takei, Kenjiro; Shono, Asuka; Kiryu, Hiromaro; Moroi, Yoichi; Furue, Masutaka

    2012-01-01

    A 70-year-old woman with an 8-year history of systemic sarcoidosis developed round, red-brown eruptions, with central atrophic lesions on her lower legs. The features of the biopsy specimen resembled those of necrobiosis lipoidica (NL), but although necrobiosis was present there were well-formed non-necrotizing granulomas in the dermis. The histological diagnosis was cutaneous sarcoidosis. Systemic sarcoidosis presenting with NL has rarely been reported. The histological features of cutaneous sarcoidosis sometimes mimic those of other granulomatous diseases, including NL and granuloma annulare, which are difficult to distinguish. We discuss the novel association between sarcoidosis and other granulomatous diseases. PMID:22363160

  3. Dermato-neuro syndrome in a case of scleromyxedema

    PubMed Central

    Savran, Yusuf; Akarsu, Sevgi

    2015-01-01

    Scleromyxedema is an uncommon connective tissue disease characterized by mucin deposits, fibrosis, and proliferation of fibroblasts in the dermis. Although it shares similar sclerodermoid features, it is a different clinical entity than scleroderma. A monoclonal gammopathy is almost always present; however, progression to multiple myeloma is rare. It may have many systemic manifestations, of which the most notable being the dermato-neuro syndrome because of its rarity and potential fatal outcome. We present a case of a 50-year-old woman with scleromyxedema in whom the dermato-neuro syndrome developed.

  4. Effects of breeder feeding restriction programs and incubation temperatures on progeny footpad development.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, M J; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Wineland, M J; Wilson, J; Montiel, E

    2014-08-01

    Footpad dermatitis begins early in life, and there is evidence of individual susceptibility. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the carryover effects of breeder feed restriction programs and incubation temperatures (TEM) on progeny footpad development at hatch, and 7 and 22 d. Cobb 500 fast feathering breeders were subjected to 2 dietary feed restriction programs during rearing: skip-a-day (SAD) and every-day feeding (EDF). At 60 wk of age, eggs from each group were collected and incubated according to 2 TEM, standard (S) eggshell temperature (38.1°C) and early-low late-high (LH). This second profile had low (36.9°C) eggshell temperature for the first 3 d, and standard temperature until the last 3 d when eggs were subjected to elevated (38.9°C) eggshell temperature. At hatch, 15 chicks from each treatment combination were sampled to obtain footpads for histological analysis. Seventy-two chicks per treatment were placed in 48 cages (6/cage), and raised to 22 d. At 7 and 22 d, 1 and 2 chickens, respectively, were sampled for footpads. The BW and group feed intake were recorded to obtain BW gain and feed conversion ratio at 7 and 21 d. Histological analysis assessed thickness and total area of stratus corneum (SC), epidermis, and dermis, and total papillae height. Data were analyzed as randomized complete block design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. There was a negative effect of LH TEM on performance at both ages. An interaction effect on SC area and papillae height was observed at hatch. Additionally, SAD treatment increased thickness and area of footpad dermis. At 7 d, the SC parameters of the SAD progeny were increased. Epidermis thickness was affected by treatment interaction. Furthermore, LH TEM decreased epidermis thickness and dermis area. At 22 d, interaction effects were observed in thickness and area of SC and epidermis. Incubation S TEM increased thickness and area of dermis. It was concluded that breeder feed restriction programs

  5. A case of acquired tufted angioma in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Pesapane, Filippo; Nazzaro, Gianluca; Alberti-Violetti, Silvia; Gianotti, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Tufted angioma is a rare vascular tumor whose name derives from its histopathological appearance, characterized by tufts of capillaries within the dermis. Its etiology and pathogenesis are uncertain. Tufted angioma typically occurs during infancy or early childhood and displays various clinical patterns. It may present as a subtle stain-like area that later thickens as a large plaque, infiltrated or dusky blue-purple lesion, or as an exophytic, firm, violaceous, cutaneous nodule. Medical treatment is not necessary for tufted angioma, given its benign nature and slow progression. Only clinical follow-up is therefore recommended. PMID:26312663

  6. Recent advances in dengue pathogenesis and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Cameron P; McPherson, Kirsty; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Hoai Tam, D T; Young, Paul; Mackenzie, Jason; Wills, Bridget

    2015-12-10

    This review describes and commentates on recent advances in the understanding of dengue pathogenesis and immunity, plus clinical research on vaccines and therapeutics. We expand specifically on the role of the dermis in dengue virus infection, the contribution of cellular and humoral immune responses to pathogenesis and immunity, NS1 and mechanisms of virus immune evasion. Additionally we review a series of therapeutic intervention trials for dengue, as well as recent clinical research aimed at improving clinical diagnosis, risk prediction and disease classification. PMID:26458808

  7. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome complicated by Grave's disease.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ayumi; Tamura, Atsushi; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2002-12-01

    The report describes a woman with primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome complicated with Grave's disease. Developing symptoms included a small cutaneous nodule on her finger and subsequently ecchymotic purpura on the cheeks, ears, buttocks and lower legs. Histological examinations showed thrombosed vessels in the dermis without or with hemorrhage, respectively. Laboratory investigation revealed positive lupus anticoagulant and immunogenic hyperthyroidism due to Grave's disease. There is a close relationship between the cutaneous manifestation of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and the activities of Grave's disease and a possible link of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome with Grave's disease was suggested both by the etiology of the disease as well as the disease activity. PMID:12532043

  8. Use of fractional laser microablation and ultrasound to facilitate the delivery of gold nanoparticles into skin in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Terentyuk, G S; Genina, Elina A; Bashkatov, A N; Ryzhova, M V; Tsyganova, N A; Chumakov, D S; Khlebtsov, B N; Sazonov, A A; Dolotov, L E; Tuchin, Valerii V; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G; Inozemtseva, O A

    2012-06-30

    The delivery of gold nanoparticles (nanocages coated with a layer of silicon dioxide (40/20 nm)) dispersed in the solution (glycerol + polyethylene glycol-400, 1 : 1) into the skin tissue is studied experimentally in vivo. From the data of optical coherence tomography and histochemical analysis it follows that simple application of suspension of nanoparticles is not efficient enough for delivery of the particles into the skin as a result of passive diffusion. It is shown that fractional laser microablation of skin before the application of the suspension, followed by the topical treatment by ultrasound allows penetration through the epidermis layer and delivery of nanoparticles into dermis and hypodermis.

  9. Photoplethysmographic Waveform as a Function of Subject's Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nippolainen, E.; Podolian, N. P.; Romashko, R. V.; Kulchin, Y. N.; Kamshilin, A. A.

    In this report we present the experimental study of imaging photoplethysmography in the area of the palm and wrist of fifty-six healthy subjects. We found that the amplitude of the PPG waveform is unevenly distributed over the studied area forming the hot spots with the elevated amplitude. There is clear tendency of the amplitude increasing in the hottest spots with the age of the subject. These observations support the recently proposed model of photoplethysmography in which pulse oscillations of the arterial transmural pressure deform the connective-tissue components of the dermis resulting in periodical changes of both the light scattering and absorption.

  10. Oral psoriasis in a patient with hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Nishioka, Kiyoshi

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of 65-year-old patient with psoriasis vulgaris who developed a psoriatic manifestation on his lower lip, along with typical features of psoriasis on his trunk and extremities. Mucous membranes, palate and tongue were not affected. A biopsy specimen from lip showed acanthosis of the epidermis with parakeratosis, and mild cellular infiltrates in the upper dermis. He was also suffering from type C hepatitis, however, he had not been treated with interferons. Oral psoriasis involving the lip is extremely rare. PMID:11809602

  11. Unilateral acrokeratoelastoidosis--second reported case.

    PubMed

    Klekowski, Nicole; Shwayder, Tor

    2011-01-01

    Acrokeratoelastoidosis (AKE) is a rare disease that manifests as wartlike papules along the dorsal palmar junction. It is characterized by orthohyperkeratosis in the horny layer and elastorrhexis in the reticular dermis. Both sporadic and familial cases following autosomal dominant inheritance have been reported. Currently, no effective treatments exist for AKE, which can have a significant cosmetic impact. Here we present the second reported case of unilateral AKE in a 5-year-old African American girl and hypothesize that the mechanism for the unilateral nature of AKE in this patient is genetic mosaicism.

  12. Cell Autonomous and Non-Autonomous Effects of Senescent Cells in the Skin.

    PubMed

    Demaria, Marco; Desprez, Pierre Yves; Campisi, Judith; Velarde, Michael C

    2015-07-01

    Human and mouse skin accumulate senescent cells in both the epidermis and dermis during aging. When chronically present, senescent cells are thought to enhance the age-dependent deterioration of the skin during extrinsic and intrinsic aging. However, when transiently present, senescent cells promote optimal wound healing. Here, we review recent studies on how senescent cells and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype contribute to different physiological and pathophysiological conditions in the skin with a focus on some of the cell autonomous and non-autonomous functions of senescent cells in the context of skin aging and wound healing.

  13. Elemental concentrations in skin of patients with fibroeptelial polip using synchrotron radiation total reflection x-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Júlio C. A. C. R.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Canellas, Catarine G. L.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2012-05-01

    In this work, the concentrations of trace elements were measured in acrochordon, a skin lesion also known as skin tag or fibroepithelial polyp, as well as in normal skin from the same patient. The samples were analyzed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (SRTXRF) in the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (LNLS) in Campinas/São Paulo-Brazil. The collection of lesion and healthy skin samples, including papillary dermis and epidermis, has involved 17 patients. It was evaluated the presence of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in the paired samples, which were compared, and significant differences were found in some of them.

  14. UNUSUAL PRESENTATION OF GENERALIZED MACULAR AMYLOIDOSIS IN A YOUNG ADULT

    PubMed Central

    Kudur, Mohan H; B, Sathish Pai; H, Sripathi; Prabhu, Smitha

    2008-01-01

    Macular amyloidosis is a common problem seen dermatology out-patient department. Generalized macular amyloidosis presenting with a poikilodermatous appearance is rare. In our case, an 18-year-old male presented with generalized hypopigmented macules with a poikilodermatous appearance of 10-year duration. His developmental milestones were normal with negative family history of similar complaints. Histopathology of hyperpigmented lesions revealed hyperkeratosis and acanthosis of epidermis and hypopigmented lesion showing only hyperkeratosis. Both lesions were showing the deposition of amorphous, hazy material in the tips of papillary dermis with perivascular inflammatory infiltrate. Congo red staining of the amorphous material was positive for amyloid. PMID:19882037

  15. Onchocerca sweetae (Nematoda: Filarioidea): notes on the intermediate host.

    PubMed

    Spratt, D M; Dyce, A L; Standfast, H A

    1978-03-01

    Microfilariae of Onchocerca sweetae are broadly distributed in the superficial layers of the dermis of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). A total of 2855 insects representing 20 species were collected from O. sweetae-infected bait buffaloes. Only one species, Culicoides sp. "M", ingested microfilariae from buffalo skin. Larval development of O. sweetae was observed in the thorax of this species. Atotal of 829 insects, representing 7 species and including 749 parous Culicoides spp. were collected from light and Manitoba traps. Developing filarioid larvae were observed only in Culicoides sp. "M". It is concluded that Culicoides sp. "M" is a natural intermediate host of O. sweetae in the Northern Territory of Australia.

  16. Pediatric rosacea.

    PubMed

    Kellen, Roselyn; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2016-07-01

    Because rosacea is uncommon in the pediatric population, care must be taken to exclude other papulopustular disorders. Children can present with vascular, papulopustular, and/or ocular findings. Importantly, ocular symptoms can appear before the cutaneous symptoms of rosacea, leading to misdiagnosis. Rosacea is a clinical diagnosis, but histopathologic examination typically reveals dilated vessels, perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltrates in the upper dermis, elastosis, and disorganization of the upper dermal connective tissue. Treatment involves avoiding known triggers and utilizing topical and/or systemic therapies. Although treatment can control flares, pediatric rosacea often persists into adulthood. PMID:27529708

  17. Multiple roles of timing in somite formation

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Claudio D.; Piatkowska, Agnieszka M.

    2015-01-01

    During development, vertebrate embryos produce serially repeated elements, the somites, on each side of the midline. These generate the vertebral column, skeletal musculature and dermis. They form sequentially, one pair at a time, from mesenchymal tissue near the tail. Somite development is a complex process. The embryo must control the number, size, and timing of somite formation, their subdivision into functional regions along three axes, regional identity such that somites develop in a region-specific way, and interactions with neighbouring tissues that coordinate them with nearby structures. Here we discuss many timing-related mechanisms that contribute to set up the spatial pattern. PMID:26116228

  18. Chondroid syringoma with tyrosine crystals: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Constantinescu, Monica B; Chan, Jessica B; Cassarino, David S

    2010-04-01

    Chondroid syringoma (CS) is a relatively rare cutaneous mixed tumor arising from sweat glands. It usually presents in the head and neck area as an asymptomatic, slow-growing, firm, circumscribed, lobulated nodule within the dermis or subcutaneous fat. CSs share morphologic similarities with their salivary gland counterparts, pleomorphic adenomas (benign mixed tumors). Although the presence of tyrosine-rich crystalloids in mixed tumors of the salivary gland is well recognized, to our knowledge, this finding has not been previously described in mixed tumors of the skin. We report a case of tyrosine crystalline structures in a CS and review the pertinent literature.

  19. Atypical pityriasis rosea.

    PubMed

    Imamura, S; Ozaki, M; Oguchi, M; Okamoto, H; Horiguchi, Y

    1985-01-01

    Six cases of pityriasis rosea with atypical morphology and distribution of the eruption are reported. The eruption did not show a typical 'Christmas-tree' arrangement, confined to the trunk and proximal parts of the extremities. However, the histology of the eruption revealed dyskeratotic cells in the epidermis and extravasated erythrocytes in the dermis, which were recently reported as rather characteristic findings of this disease. Prodromal symptoms, course and response to therapy were compatible with pityriasis rosea. Histological examination is important and helpful for the diagnosis of atypical cases.

  20. Guttate morphoea in human T-cell lymphoma/lymphotrophic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infection.

    PubMed

    Oiso, N; Fukai, K; Hosomi, N; Ishii, M

    2003-07-01

    A 62-year-old Japanese man presented with multiple small atrophic macules on the trunk and extremities. The lesions were discrete, oval in shape and enclosed by lilac ring. They were distributed in a Christmas tree distribution, reminiscent of pityriasis rosea. Skin biopsy showed increased collagen fibres in the dermis and invading subcutaneous tissue. The clinico-pathological features were consistent with guttate morphoea, a rare variant of localized scleroderma. Serological tests revealed a positive reaction to human T-cell lymphoma/lymphotropic virus type-1 infection.

  1. Low Level Light Therapy with Light-Emitting Diodes for the Aging Face.

    PubMed

    Calderhead, R Glen; Vasily, David B

    2016-07-01

    Low level light therapy (LLLT) with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is emerging from the mists of black magic as a solid medico-scientific modality, with a substantial buildup of corroborative bodies of evidence for its efficacy and elucidation of the modes of action. Reports are appearing from many different specialties; however, of particular interest to plastic surgeons treating the aging face is the proven action of LED-LLLT on skin cells in both the epidermis and dermis and enhanced blood flow. Thus, LED-LLLT is a safe and effective stand-alone therapy for patients who are prepared to wait until the final effect is perceived. PMID:27363768

  2. Reflectance confocal microscopy of cutaneous melanoma. Correlation with dermoscopy and histopathology*

    PubMed Central

    Rstom, Silvia Arroyo; Libório, Lorena Silva; Paschoal, Francisco Macedo

    2015-01-01

    In vivo Confocal Microscopy is a method for non-invasive, real-time visualization of microscopic structures and cellular details of the epidermis and dermis, which has a degree of resolution similar to that obtained with histology. We present a case of cutaneous melanoma in which diagnosis was aided by confocal microscopy examination. We also correlate the observed features with the dermoscopic and histopathological findings. Confocal microscopy proved to be an useful adjunct to dermoscopy, playing an important role as a method 'between clinical evaluation and histopathology'. PMID:26131877

  3. Myxofibrosarcoma - Case report.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Breno Augusto Campos; Piancastelli, André Costa Cruz; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Piancastelli, Patricia Mourthe; Ribeiro, Carlos Alberto; Miranda, Rubem Mateus Campos

    2016-01-01

    Myxofibrosarcoma is recognized as a malignant neoplasm of fibroblastic origin with increased prevalence in the elderly, presenting as nodules or tumors that may extend to the dermis and skeletal muscle, preferably in the lower limbs. Histologically it is characterized by a proliferation of spindle cells in a myxoid stroma. Myxofibrosarcoma has a high potential for local recurrence and metastasis, mainly when it presents a high or intermediate histological grade. We report the case of an eighty-four year old patient with a difficult diagnosis of a highly aggressive tumor.

  4. Myxofibrosarcoma - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Breno Augusto Campos; Piancastelli, André Costa Cruz; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Piancastelli, Patricia Mourthe; Ribeiro, Carlos Alberto; Miranda, Rubem Mateus Campos

    2016-01-01

    Myxofibrosarcoma is recognized as a malignant neoplasm of fibroblastic origin with increased prevalence in the elderly, presenting as nodules or tumors that may extend to the dermis and skeletal muscle, preferably in the lower limbs. Histologically it is characterized by a proliferation of spindle cells in a myxoid stroma. Myxofibrosarcoma has a high potential for local recurrence and metastasis, mainly when it presents a high or intermediate histological grade. We report the case of an eighty-four year old patient with a difficult diagnosis of a highly aggressive tumor. PMID:26982788

  5. Absorbable mesh and topical negative pressure therapy for closure of abdominal dehiscence with exposed bowel.

    PubMed

    Chuo, C B; Thomas, S S

    2008-11-01

    Permacol mesh is a porcine dermis-derived biomaterial used for the repair of abdominal incisional and inguinal hernia. It has been found to be a safe and effective alternative to non-absorbable mesh for application over exposed bowel. This mesh has also been successfully applied over contaminated abdominal wound beds and around stomas. Topical negative pressure therapy has been used for the management of wound complications after surgical implantation of Permacol mesh. We describe our experience with the combined use of Permacol mesh and simultaneous application of topical negative pressure therapy to aid wound contraction and granulation in a patient with abdominal dehiscence and exposed bowel.

  6. Comparison of Alexandrite and Diode Lasers for Hair Removal in Dark and Medium Skin: Which is Better?

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Farhad Hamad; Jaafar, Mohamad Suhimi; Ismail, Asaad Hamid; Mutter, Kussay Nugamesh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: To improve laser hair removal (LHR) for dark skin, the fluence rate reaching the hair follicle in LHR is important. This paper presents the results of a comparative study examining the function of wavelength on dark skin types using 755 nm alexandrite and 810 nm diode lasers. Methods: The structure of the skin was created using a realistic skin model by the Advanced Systems Analysis Program. Result: In this study, the alexandrite laser (755 nm) and diode laser (810 nm) beam–skin tissue interactions were simulated. The simulation results for both lasers differed. The transmission ratio of the diode laser to the dark skin dermis was approximately 4% more than that of the alexandrite laser for the same skin type. For the diode laser at skin depth z = 0.67 mm, the average transmission ratios of both samples were 36% and 27.5%, but those for the alexandrite laser at the same skin depth were 32% and 25%. Conclusion: Both lasers were suitable in LHR for dark skin types, but the diode laser was better than the alexandrite laser because the former could penetrate deeper into the dermis layer. PMID:25653820

  7. A new mechanochemical model: coupled Ginzburg-Landau and Swift-Hohenberg equations in biological patterns of marine animals.

    PubMed

    Morales, M A; Rojas, J F; Oliveros, J; Hernández S, A A

    2015-03-01

    In this work the skin coating of some vertebrate marine animals is modeled considering only dermis, epidermis and basal layers. The biological process takes into account: cellular diffusion of the epidermis, diffusion inhibition and long-range spatial interaction (nonlocal effect on diffusive dispersal) for cells of dermal tissue. The chemical and physical interactions between dermis and epidermis are represented by coupling quadratic terms and nonlinear terms additional. The model presents an interesting property associated with their gradient form: a connection between some physical, chemical and biological systems. The model equations proposed are solved with numerical methods to study the spatially stable emergent configurations. The spatiotemporal dynamic obtained of the numerical solution of these equations, present similarity with biological behaviors that have been found recently in the cellular movement of chromatophores (as contact-dependent depolarization and repulsion movement between melanophores, xanthophores and iridophores). The numerical solution of the model shows a great variety of beautiful patterns that are robust to changes of boundary condition. The resultant patterns are very similar to the pigmentation of some fish.

  8. MFG-E8 regulates angiogenesis in cutaneous wound healing.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Akihiko; Yamada, Kazuya; Ogino, Sachiko; Yokoyama, Yoko; Takeuchi, Yuko; Udey, Mark C; Ishikawa, Osamu; Motegi, Sei-ichiro

    2014-07-01

    Our research group recently demonstrated that pericytes are major sources of the secreted glycoprotein and integrin ligand lactadherin (MFG-E8) in B16 melanoma tumors, and that MFG-E8 promotes angiogenesis via enhanced PDGF-PDGFRβ signaling mediated by integrin-growth factor receptor crosstalk. However, sources of MFG-E8 and its possible roles in skin physiology are not well characterized. The objective of this study was to characterize the involvement of MFG-E8 in skin wound healing. In the dermis of normal murine and human skin, accumulations of MFG-E8 were found around CD31(+) blood vessels, and MFG-E8 colocalized with PDGFRβ(+), αSMA(+), and NG2(+) pericytes. MFG-E8 protein and mRNA levels were elevated in the dermis during full-thickness wound healing in mice. MFG-E8 was diffusely present in granulation tissue and was localized around blood vessels. Wound healing was delayed in MFG-E8 knockout mice, compared with the wild type, and myofibroblast and vessel numbers in wound areas were significantly reduced in knockout mice. Inhibition of MFG-E8 production with siRNA attenuated the formation of capillary-like structures in vitro. Expression of MFG-E8 in fibrous human granulation tissue with scant blood vessels was less than that in granulation tissue with many blood vessels. These findings suggest that MFG-E8 promotes cutaneous wound healing by enhancing angiogenesis.

  9. Confocal microscopy of excised human skin using acetic acid and crossed polarization: rapid detection of nonmelanoma skin cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajadhyaksha, Milind M.; Menaker, Gregg; Gonzalez, Salvador

    2000-05-01

    Moh's micrographic surgery for basal- and squamous-cell cancers (BCCs, SCCs) involves precise excision of the tumor with minimal damage to the surrounding normal skin. Precise excision is guided by histopathologic examination for tumor margins; typically, 2 - 4 slices of skin are excised, and there is a waiting time of 15 - 45 minutes for the surgeon and patient while each slice is being processed for histopathology. We can avoid the processing by using a confocal reflectance microscope; confocal detection of BCCs and SCCs is possible after staining the nuclei in the excised skin with 5% acetic acid, and imaging in crossed polarization. The cancerous nuclei appear bright against the dark surrounding normal dermis. The contrast is due to increased back-scattering as well as increased depolarization from the intra-nuclear structure relative to that from the surrounding normal dermis. As in conventional histopathology, the tumors are first detected at low resolution (section thickness 20 micrometer) in a wide field (1-2 mm); nuclear morphology is then viewed at high resolution (section thickness 2 micrometer) in a small field (0.25 - 0.50 mm). Mosaics of images are assembled to produce confocal maps of the BCCs or SCCs within large excised tissue. Rapid detection (within minutes) is possible.

  10. Preparation and Characterization of a Lecithin Nanoemulsion as a Topical Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huafeng; Yue, Yang; Liu, Guanlan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Gong, Qiu; Yan, Zemin; Duan, Mingxing

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of this study was to establish a lecithin nanoemulsion (LNE) without any synthetic surfactant as a topical delivery vehicle and to evaluate its topical delivery potential by the following factors: particle size, morphology, viscosity, stability, skin hydration and skin penetration. Experimental results demonstrated that an increasing concentration of soybean lecithin and glycerol resulted in a smaller size LNE droplet and increasing viscosity, respectively. The droplet size of optimized LNE, with the glycerol concentration above 75% (w/w), changed from 92 (F10) to 58 nm (F14). Additionally, LNE, incorporated into o/w cream, improved the skin hydration capacity of the cream significantly with about 2.5-fold increase when the concentration of LNE reached 10%. LNE was also demonstrated to improve the penetrability of Nile red (NR) dye into the dermis layer, when an o/w cream, incorporated with NR-loaded LNE, applied on the abdominal skin of rat in vivo. Specifically, the arbitrary unit (ABU) of fluorescence in the dermis layer that had received the cream with a NR-loaded LNE was about 9.9-fold higher than the cream with a NR-loaded general emulsion (GE). These observations suggest that LNE could be used as a promising topical delivery vehicle for lipophilic compounds.

  11. Immunization with DNA through the skin.

    PubMed

    Peachman, Kristina K; Rao, Mangala; Alving, Carl R

    2003-11-01

    The skin has evolved as a barrier to prevent external agents, including pathogens, from entering the body. It has a complex and efficient immune surveillance system, which includes Langerhans cells and dendritic cells. By targeting the body's natural defense system, skin-DNA immunization attempts to produce an efficient immune response. Nucleic acid vaccines provide DNA for protein expression in a variety of cells, including keratinocytes, Langerhans cells, and dendritic cells, which are located in the two main areas of the skin, the epidermis (the most superficial layer) and the dermis. After maturation, Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells can migrate to local lymph nodes where presentation of antigens to T cells can occur and thus start a variety of immunologic responses. Dermal immunization methods described in this article target the epidermis, the dermis, or both and include: (a) stripping; (b) chemical modification; (c) trans-epidermal immunization (transcutaneous immunization or non-invasive vaccination of the skin); (d) gene gun technology; (e) electroporation; (f) intradermal injections; and (g) microseeding. These techniques all require the removal of hair, the circumvention or modification of the stratum corneum layer of the epidermis, and the addition of DNA or amplification of DNA signal. As the biology of the skin and the mechanisms of DNA vaccination are elucidated, these skin immunization techniques will be optimized. With refinement, skin-DNA immunization will achieve the goal of producing a reliable and efficacious immune response to a variety of pathogens.

  12. Ballistic impact of single particles into gelatin: experiments and modeling with application to transdermal pharmaceutical delivery.

    PubMed

    Guha, R A; Shear, N H; Papini, M

    2010-10-01

    The impact and penetration of high speed particles with the human skin is of interest for targeted drug delivery by transdermal powder injection. However, it is often difficult to perform penetration experiments on dermal tissue using micron scale particles. To address this, a finite element model of the impact and penetration of a 2 μm gold particle into the human dermis was developed and calibrated using experiments found in the literature. Using dimensional analysis, the model was linked to a larger scale steel ball-gelatin system in order to extract key material parameters for both systems and perform impact studies. In this manner, an elastic modulus of 2.25 MPa was found for skin, in good agreement with reported values from the literature. Further gelatin experiments were performed with steel, polymethyl methacrylate, titanium, and tungsten carbide balls in order to determine the effects of particle size and density on penetration depth. Both the finite element model and the steel-gelatin experiments were able to predict the penetration behavior that was found by other investigators in the study of the impact of typical particles used for vaccine delivery into the human dermis. It can therefore be concluded that scaled up systems utilizing ballistic gelatins can be used to investigate the performance of transdermal powder injection technology.

  13. Merkel cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease and chronic occupational arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Tsuruta, D; Hamada, T; Mochida, K; Nakagawa, K; Kobayashi, H; Ishii, M

    1998-08-01

    We diagnosed a unique case of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) coexisting with Bowen's disease on the sole of the foot of a 72-year-old man who had worked for about 4 years in a factory handling inorganic arsenic. He had a past history of arsenical keratosis and multiple Bowen's disease. The tumour first appeared as a reddish macule and then showed marked growth over the next month. The tumour was excised and the specimen was examined histopathologically. The tumour consisted of two components: a group of atypical cells representing Bowen's disease in the epidermis and another group of atypical cells with a trabecular pattern characteristic of MCC in the dermis. Neither group of cells showed transitional findings, and the tumour elements were divided by a clear basement membrane. The tumour cells in the dermis were positive for neurone-specific enolase, and on electron microscopy had dense core granules in the cytoplasm. Inorganic arsenic can cause various cutaneous neoplasms, but to our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of MCC associated with Bowen's disease.

  14. Effect of micropulse duration on tissue ablation using a stretched free electron laser pulse train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozub, John A.; Mackanos, Mark A.; Mendenhall, Marcus H.; Jansen, E. Duco

    2004-06-01

    The pulse train from a Mark III FEL tuned to a wavelength of 6.45 microns has been shown to be efficient at ablating soft tissue with minimal collateral damage. This laser has a unique pulse structure consisting of a train of 1ps micropulses spaced 350ps apart, which is maintained for 4-5 microseconds (the macropulse) and is repeated at 1-30Hz. We are investigating the role of the pulse structure in the ablation mechanism. In order to determine the importance of non-linear effects potentially induced by the high peak power of the micropulses, we are using a grating pulse stretcher optimized for 6.45 microns to vary the micropulse duration while maintaining the macropulse duration and micropulse frequency. The technique allows use of the same pulse energy and average power with widely variable peak power. Ablation thresholds were measured using PROB-IT analysis and crater depths were measured using OCT imaging. In water, gelatin, and mouse dermis, we have found no statistically significant difference in the ablation threshold of pulses having widths of 1, 30, 60, and 100ps. The measured ablation efficiency of mouse dermis also showed no significant difference over the same range of pulse widths. This data suggests that the ablation characteristics obtained with the FEL at 6.45 microns are independent of the micropulse duration and do not rely on the high peak power of the FEL pulse train.

  15. A survey of clearing techniques for 3D imaging of tissues with special reference to connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Azaripour, Adriano; Lagerweij, Tonny; Scharfbillig, Christina; Jadczak, Anna Elisabeth; Willershausen, Brita; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F

    2016-08-01

    For 3-dimensional (3D) imaging of a tissue, 3 methodological steps are essential and their successful application depends on specific characteristics of the type of tissue. The steps are 1° clearing of the opaque tissue to render it transparent for microscopy, 2° fluorescence labeling of the tissues and 3° 3D imaging. In the past decades, new methodologies were introduced for the clearing steps with their specific advantages and disadvantages. Most clearing techniques have been applied to the central nervous system and other organs that contain relatively low amounts of connective tissue including extracellular matrix. However, tissues that contain large amounts of extracellular matrix such as dermis in skin or gingiva are difficult to clear. The present survey lists methodologies that are available for clearing of tissues for 3D imaging. We report here that the BABB method using a mixture of benzyl alcohol and benzyl benzoate and iDISCO using dibenzylether (DBE) are the most successful methods for clearing connective tissue-rich gingiva and dermis of skin for 3D histochemistry and imaging of fluorescence using light-sheet microscopy.

  16. Ingestion of BioCell Collagen®, a novel hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage extract; enhanced blood microcirculation and reduced facial aging signs

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Stephen R; Park, Joosang

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging and its clinical manifestation is associated with altered molecular metabolism in the extracellular matrix of the dermis. In a pilot open-label study, we investigated the effect of a dietary supplement, BioCell Collagen® (BCC), which contains a naturally occurring matrix of hydrolyzed collagen type II and low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate, in 26 healthy females who displayed visible signs of natural and photoaging in the face. Daily supplementation with 1 g of BCC for 12 weeks led to a significant reduction of skin dryness/scaling (76%, P = 0.002) and global lines/wrinkles (13.2%, P = 0.028) as measured by visual/tactile score. Additionally, a significant increase in the content of hemoglobin (17.7%, P = 0.018) and collagen (6.3%, P = 0.002) in the skin dermis was observed after 6 weeks of supplementation. At the end of the study, the increase in hemoglobin remained significant (15%, P = 0.008), while the increase in collagen content was maintained, but the difference from baseline was not significant (3.5%, P = 0.134). This study provides preliminary data suggesting that dietary supplementation with BCC elicits several physiological events which can be harnessed to counteract natural photoaging processes to reduce visible aging signs in the human face. A controlled study is necessary to verify these observations. PMID:22956862

  17. Histopathology of Incontinence-Associated Skin Lesions: Inner Tissue Damage Due to Invasion of Proteolytic Enzymes and Bacteria in Macerated Rat Skin

    PubMed Central

    Mugita, Yuko; Minematsu, Takeo; Huang, Lijuan; Nakagami, Gojiro; Kishi, Chihiro; Ichikawa, Yoshie; Nagase, Takashi; Oe, Makoto; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Mori, Taketoshi; Abe, Masatoshi; Sugama, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    A common complication in patients with incontinence is perineal skin lesions, which are recognized as a form of dermatitis. In these patients, perineal skin is exposed to digestive enzymes and intestinal bacterial flora, as well as excessive water. The relative contributions of digestive enzymes and intestinal bacterial flora to skin lesion formation have not been fully shown. This study was conducted to reveal the process of histopathological changes caused by proteases and bacterial inoculation in skin maceration. For skin maceration, agarose gel containing proteases was applied to the dorsal skin of male Sprague-Dawley rats for 4 h, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculation for 30 min. Macroscopic changes, histological changes, bacterial distribution, inflammatory response, and keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation were examined. Proteases induced digestion in the prickle cell layer of the epidermis, and slight bleeding in the papillary dermis and around hair follicles in the macerated skin without macroscopic evidence of erosion. Bacterial inoculation of the skin macerated by proteolytic solution resulted in the formation of bacteria-rich clusters comprising numerous microorganisms and inflammatory cells within the papillary dermis, with remarkable tissue damage around the clusters. Tissue damage expanded by day 2. On day 3, the proliferative keratinocyte layer was elongated from the bulge region of the hair follicles. Application of proteases and P. aeruginosa induced skin lesion formation internally without macroscopic erosion of the overhydrated area, suggesting that the histopathology might be different from regular dermatitis. The healing process of this lesion is similar to transepidermal elimination. PMID:26407180

  18. Confocal mosaicing microscopy of basal-cell carcinomas ex vivo: progress in digital staining to simulate histology-like appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Jason; Spain, James; Nehal, Kishwer; Hazelwood, Vikki; DiMarzio, Charles; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2011-03-01

    Confocal mosaicing microscopy enables rapid imaging of large areas of fresh tissue, without the processing that is necessary for conventional histology. Using acridine orange (1 milliMolar, 20 seconds) to stain nuclei, basal cell carcinomas were detected in fluorescence confocal mosaics of Mohs surgical excisions with sensitivity of 96.6% and specificity of 89.2%. A possible barrier toward clinical acceptance is that confocal mosaics are based on a single mode of contrast and appear in grayscale, whereas histology is based on two (hematoxylin for nuclei, eosin for cellular cytoplasm and dermis) and appears purple-and-pink. Toward addressing this barrier, we report progress in developing a multispectral analytical model for digital staining: fluorescence confocal mosaics, which show only nuclei, are digitally stained purple and overlaid on reflectance confocal mosaics, which show only cellular cytoplasm and dermis, and digitally stained pink, to mimic the appearance of histology. Comparison of digitally stained confocal mosaics by our Mohs surgeon to the corresponding Mohs histology shows good correlation for normal and tumor detail. Digitally stained confocal mosaicing microscopy may allow direct examination of freshly excised tissue and serve as an adjunct for rapid pathology at-the-bedside.

  19. Confocal mosaicing microscopy of human skin ex vivo: spectral analysis for digital staining to simulate histology-like appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Jason; Spain, James; Nehal, Kishwer; Hazelwood, Vikki; Dimarzio, Charles; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2011-07-01

    Confocal mosaicing microscopy enables rapid imaging of large areas of fresh tissue, without the processing that is necessary for conventional histology. Mosaicing may offer a means to perform rapid histology at the bedside. A possible barrier toward clinical acceptance is that the mosaics are based on a single mode of grayscale contrast and appear black and white, whereas histology is based on two stains (hematoxylin for nuclei, eosin for cellular cytoplasm and dermis) and appears purple and pink. Toward addressing this barrier, we report advances in digital staining: fluorescence mosaics that show only nuclei, are digitally stained purple and overlaid on reflectance mosaics, which show only cellular cytoplasm and dermis, and are digitally stained pink. With digital staining, the appearance of confocal mosaics mimics the appearance of histology. Using multispectral analysis and color matching functions, red, green, and blue (RGB) components of hematoxylin and eosin stains in tissue were determined. The resulting RGB components were then applied in a linear algorithm to transform fluorescence and reflectance contrast in confocal mosaics to the absorbance contrast seen in pathology. Optimization of staining with acridine orange showed improved quality of digitally stained mosaics, with good correlation to the corresponding histology.

  20. Measurement of the Mechanical Properties of Intact Collagen Fibrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercedes, H.; Heim, A.; Matthews, W. G.; Koob, T.

    2006-03-01

    Motivated by the genetic disorder Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), in which proper collagen synthesis is interrupted, we are investigating the structural and mechanical properties of collagen fibrils. The fibrous glycoprotein collagen is the most abundant protein found in the human body and plays a key role in the extracellular matrix of the connective tissue, the properties of which are altered in EDS. We have selected as our model system the collagen fibrils of the sea cucumber dermis, a naturally mutable tissue. This system allows us to work with native fibrils which have their proteoglycan complement intact, something that is not possible with reconstituted mammalian collagen fibrils. Using atomic force microscopy, we measure, as a function of the concentration of divalent cations, the fibril diameter, its response to force loading, and the changes in its rigidity. Through these experiments, we will shed light on the mechanisms which control the properties of the sea cucumber dermis and hope to help explain the altered connective tissue extracellular matrix properties associated with EDS.

  1. Telocytes in human skin – are they involved in skin regeneration?

    PubMed Central

    Ceafalan, Laura; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Popescu, L M; Simionescu, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Telocytes (TCs), a particular interstitial cell type, have been recently described in a wide variety of mammalian organs (www.telocytes.com). The TCs are identified morphologically by a small cell body and extremely long (tens to hundreds of μm), thin prolongations (less than 100 nm in diameter, below the resolving power of light microscopy) called telopodes. Here, we demonstrated with electron microscopy and immunofluorescence that TCs were present in human dermis. In particular, TCs were found in the reticular dermis, around blood vessels, in the perifollicular sheath, outside the glassy membrane and surrounding sebaceous glands, arrector pili muscles and both the secretory and excretory portions of eccrine sweat glands. Immunofluorescence screening and laser scanning confocal microscopy showed two subpopulations of dermal TCs; one expressed c-kit/CD117 and the other was positive for CD34. Both subpopulations were also positive for vimentin. The TCs were connected to each other by homocellular junctions, and they formed an interstitial 3D network. We also found TCs adjoined to stem cells in the bulge region of hair follicles. Moreover, TCs established atypical heterocellular junctions with stem cells (clusters of undifferentiated cells). Given the frequency of allergic skin pathologies, we would like to emphasize the finding that close, planar junctions were frequently observed between TCs and mast cells. In conclusion, based on TC distribution and intercellular connections, our results suggested that TCs might be involved in skin homeostasis, skin remodelling, skin regeneration and skin repair. PMID:22500885

  2. In Men at Risk of HIV Infection, IgM, IgG1, IgG3 and IgA Reach the Human Foreskin Epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Maria P.; Karuna, Shelly T.; Mize, Gregory J.; Fong, Youyi; Montano, Silvia M.; Ganoza, Carmela; Lama, Javier R.; Sanchez, Jorge; McElrath, M. Juliana

    2015-01-01

    We profiled the humoral response in the penis, an area that has been minimally explored but may be relevant for protecting insertive men against HIV and other sexually-acquired infections. Comparing paired tissue samples from 20 men at risk of HIV infection, foreskin contains less IgA and more IgG2 than colon. Using foreskin dermal and epidermal explants and paired plasma from 17 men, we examined Ig accumulation by normalizing Ig to human serum albumin (HSA) transudation. Dermal IgM, IgG2, IgA, and IgE ratios were greater than in plasma, suggesting there is local antibody secretion at the dermis. Local Ig transcription was concentrated at the inner rather than the outer foreskin, and inner foreskin Ig ratios did not correlate with blood, indicating that localized production can contribute to the foreskin response. IgM, IgG1, IgG3, and IgA have preferential access to the foreskin epidermis, whereas IgG2, IgG4, and IgE are restricted to the dermis. Lastly, Ad5-specific IgA was selectively in the colon; whereas foreskin Ad5 IgG was mainly derived from blood, and reached the inner epidermis at higher ratios than the outer (p<0.002). In summary, the foreskin antibody response combines local and systemic sources and there is selective isotype accumulation in the epidermis. PMID:26509877

  3. Stichopin-containing nerves and secretory cells specific to connective tissues of the sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Tamori, Masaki; Saha, Apurba Kumar; Matsuno, Akira; Noskor, Sukumar Chandra; Koizumi, Osamu; Kobayakawa, Yoshitaka; Nakajima, Yoko; Motokawa, Tatsuo

    2007-09-22

    Stichopin, a 17-amino acid peptide isolated from a sea cucumber, affects the stiffness change of the body-wall catch connective tissues and the contraction of the body-wall muscles. The localization of stichopin in sea cucumbers was studied by indirect immunohistochemistry using antiserum against stichopin. Double staining was performed with both stichopin antiserum and 1E11, the monoclonal antibody specific to echinoderm nerves. A stichopin-like immunoreactivity (stichopin-LI) was exclusively found in the connective tissues of various organs. Many fibres and cells with processes were stained by both the anti-stichopin antibody and 1E11. They were found in the body-wall dermis and the connective tissue layer of the cloacae and were suggested to be connective tissue-specific nerves. Oval cells with stichopin-LI (OCS) without processes were found in the body-wall dermis, the connective tissue sheath of the longitudinal body-wall muscles, the connective tissue layer of the tube feet and tentacles, and the connective tissue in the radial nerves separating the ectoneural part from the hyponeural part. Electron microscopic observations of the OCSs in the radial nerves showed that they were secretory cells. The OCSs were located either near the well-defined neural structures or near the water-filled cavities, such as the epineural sinus and the canals of the tube feet. The location near the water-filled cavities might suggest that stichopin was secreted into these cavities to function as a hormone.

  4. Topical application of alpha-tocopherol modulates the antioxidant network and diminishes ultraviolet-induced oxidative damage in murine skin.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Torres, M; Thiele, J J; Shindo, Y; Han, D; Packer, L

    1998-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of topical alpha-tocopherol application on epidermal and dermal antioxidants and its ability to prevent ultraviolet (UV)-induced oxidative damage. Hairless mice received topical applications of alpha-tocopherol 24 h before a single, acute UV irradiation (10 x minimal erythemal dose). The four major antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase), hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants, and lipid hydroperoxides, markers of oxidative damage, were assayed in both epidermis and dermis of hairless mice. Topical alpha-tocopherol treatment increased dermal superoxide dismutase activity by 30% (P < 0.01) and protected epidermal glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase from depletion after UV irradiation. Total and reduced glutathione levels in the epidermis increased by 50% after the topical treatment (P < 0.05), as did dermal ascorbate levels (by 40%: P < 0.01). The topical treatment increased alpha-tocopherol levels both in the epidermis (62-fold) and the dermis (22-fold: P < 0.001 in each layer). Furthermore, alpha-tocopherol treatment significantly reduced the formation of epidermal lipid hydroperoxides after UV irradiation (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that topical administration of alpha-tocopherol protects cutaneous tissues against oxidative damage induced by UV irradiation in vivo, and suggest that the underlying mechanism of this effect involves the up-regulation of a network of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants.

  5. Claw length recommendations for dairy cow foot trimming

    PubMed Central

    Archer, S. C.; Newsome, R.; Dibble, H.; Sturrock, C. J.; Chagunda, M. G. G.; Mason, C. S.; Huxley, J. N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to describe variation in length of the dorsal hoof wall in contact with the dermis for cows on a single farm, and hence, derive minimum appropriate claw lengths for routine foot trimming. The hind feet of 68 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were collected post mortem, and the internal structures were visualised using x-ray µCT. The internal distance from the proximal limit of the wall horn to the distal tip of the dermis was measured from cross-sectional sagittal images. A constant was added to allow for a minimum sole thickness of 5 mm and an average wall thickness of 8 mm. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics and two-level linear regression models with claw nested within cow. Based on 219 claws, the recommended dorsal wall length from the proximal limit of hoof horn was up to 90 mm for 96 per cent of claws, and the median value was 83 mm. Dorsal wall length increased by 1 mm per year of age, yet 85 per cent of the null model variance remained unexplained. Overtrimming can have severe consequences; the authors propose that the minimum recommended claw length stated in training materials for all Holstein-Friesian cows should be increased to 90 mm. PMID:26220848

  6. Claw length recommendations for dairy cow foot trimming.

    PubMed

    Archer, S C; Newsome, R; Dibble, H; Sturrock, C J; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C S; Huxley, J N

    2015-09-01

    The aim was to describe variation in length of the dorsal hoof wall in contact with the dermis for cows on a single farm, and hence, derive minimum appropriate claw lengths for routine foot trimming. The hind feet of 68 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were collected post mortem, and the internal structures were visualised using x-ray µCT. The internal distance from the proximal limit of the wall horn to the distal tip of the dermis was measured from cross-sectional sagittal images. A constant was added to allow for a minimum sole thickness of 5 mm and an average wall thickness of 8 mm. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics and two-level linear regression models with claw nested within cow. Based on 219 claws, the recommended dorsal wall length from the proximal limit of hoof horn was up to 90 mm for 96 per cent of claws, and the median value was 83 mm. Dorsal wall length increased by 1 mm per year of age, yet 85 per cent of the null model variance remained unexplained. Overtrimming can have severe consequences; the authors propose that the minimum recommended claw length stated in training materials for all Holstein-Friesian cows should be increased to 90 mm. PMID:26220848

  7. Isolation and growth of endothelial cells from the microvessels of the newborn human foreskin in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Davison, P M; Bensch, K; Karasek, M A

    1980-10-01

    A procedure for the isolation and in vitro cultivation of endothelial cells from the microvessels of the newborn human foreskin dermis is described. The epidermis was removed from foreskin tissue using a Castroviejo keratotome (0.1 mm shim). Endothelial cells were released from the dermal vessels by trypsinization of 5 mm2 sections of dermis at 37 degrees C for 40 min. Cells were expressed into Minimal Essential Medium (MEM) containing 10% pooled human serum, collected by centrifugation and plated onto either a plain plastic or a fibronectin treated culture surface. In primary culture the rate of endothelial cell proliferation was dependent upon serum type and concentration being optimal in 50% pooled human serum. High serum concentration in combination with pretreatment of the culture surface with fibronectin was required for maximal proliferation rate, for the cells to achieve confluence and for subcultivation. Primary and subcultured cells were characterized as endothelial by light microscopic, immunofluorescent (Factor VIII associated protein) and ultrastructural (Weibel-Palade body) criteria.

  8. Type VI Collagen Regulates Dermal Matrix Assembly and Fibroblast Motility.

    PubMed

    Theocharidis, Georgios; Drymoussi, Zoe; Kao, Alexander P; Barber, Asa H; Lee, David A; Braun, Kristin M; Connelly, John T

    2016-01-01

    Type VI collagen is a nonfibrillar collagen expressed in many connective tissues and implicated in extracellular matrix (ECM) organization. We hypothesized that type VI collagen regulates matrix assembly and cell function within the dermis of the skin. In the present study we examined the expression pattern of type VI collagen in normal and wounded skin and investigated its specific function in new matrix deposition by human dermal fibroblasts. Type VI collagen was expressed throughout the dermis of intact human skin, at the expanding margins of human keloid samples, and in the granulation tissue of newly deposited ECM in a mouse model of wound healing. Generation of cell-derived matrices (CDMs) by human dermal fibroblasts with stable knockdown of COL6A1 revealed that type VI collagen-deficient matrices were significantly thinner and contained more aligned, thicker, and widely spaced fibers than CDMs produced by normal fibroblasts. In addition, there was significantly less total collagen and sulfated proteoglycans present in the type VI collagen-depleted matrices. Normal fibroblasts cultured on de-cellularized CDMs lacking type VI collagen displayed increased cell spreading, migration speed, and persistence. Taken together, these findings indicate that type VI collagen is a key regulator of dermal matrix assembly, composition, and fibroblast behavior and may play an important role in wound healing and tissue regeneration. PMID:26763426

  9. Cone of skin exists in rat: A "hypertrophic scarring free" animal.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yanhai; Yu, Xiaoping; Lu, Shuliang

    2016-08-01

    Cone of skin is deemed to be related to hypertrophic scarring and absent in such traditionally "hypertrophic scarring and keloid free" animals as rat. The purpose of our study is to determine whether the cone of skin exists in rat. If it was, why it was ignored, and what was the meaning of it. The depilation of left dorsum of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats was performed using a wax/rosin mixture. Skin samples were harvested on 0 d, 3 d, 9 d, 15 d, 21 d, 27 d, 33 d, and 39 d after depilation and stained by hematoxylin and eosin methods. Light microscopic observation of the dermis-fat interface was studied at 25× magnification. It was observed that, "dome" like fat tissue bulged up into the dermis from 3 d to 27 d and hair follicle bulged down into the "dome" like fat tissue from 15 d to 27 d and a "cone" like structure was seen. Cone of skin exists in rat in certain stages of hair follicle cycle, which is a valuable addition to the scientific literature and might be a challenge to the relation between cone of skin and hypertrophic scarring. Anat Rec, 299:1140-1144, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27125905

  10. Multidimensional two-photon imaging of diseased skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchi, R.; Sestini, S.; De Giorgi, V.; Massi, D.; Lotti, T.; Pavone, F. S.

    2008-02-01

    We used combined two photon intrinsic fluorescence (TPE), second harmonic generation microscopy (SHG), fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), and multispectral two photon emission detection (MTPE) to investigate different kinds of human cutaneous ex-vivo skin lesions. Morphological and spectroscopic analyses allowed to characterize both healthy and pathological skin samples, including tumors, as well as to discriminate between healthy and diseased tissue, in a good agreement with common routine histology. In particular, we examined tissue samples from normal and pathological scar tissue (keloid), and skin tumors, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and malignant melanoma (MM). By using combined TPE-SHG microscopy we investigated morphological features of different skin regions, as BCC, tumor-stroma interface, healthy dermis, fibroblastic proliferation, and keloids. The SHG to autofluorescence aging index of dermis (SAAID) score was used to characterize each region, finding differences between BCC, healthy skin, tumor-stroma interface, keloids, and fibroblastic proliferation. Further comparative analysis of healthy skin and neoplastic samples was performed using FLIM. In particular, BCC showed a blue-shifted fluorescence emission, a higher absorption at 800 nm excitation wavelength, and a slightly longer mean fluorescence lifetime. MM showed a lifetime distribution similar to the corresponding melanocytic nevus (MN) lifetime distribution for the slow lifetime component, and different for the fast lifetime component.

  11. Cell culture from lizard skin: a tool for the study of epidermal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Polazzi, Elisabetta; Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2011-12-01

    An in vitro system of isolated skin cells has been developed in order to address the understanding on the factors that control the shedding cycle and differentiation of lizard epidermis. The skin from the regenerating lizard tail has been separated in epidermis and dermis, cells have been dissociated, cultivated in vitro, and studied ultrastructurally after 1-30 days of culture condition. Dissociated keratinocytes after 12 days in culture show numerous cell elongations and contain bundles of keratin or sparse keratin filaments. These cells often contain one to three 0.5-3 μm large and dense "keratinaceous bodies", an organelle representing tonofilament disassembling. Most keratinocytes have sparse tonofilaments in the cytoplasm and form shorter bundles of keratin in the cell periphery. The dissociated dermis mainly consists of mesenchymal cells containing sparse bundles of intermediate filaments. These cells proliferate and form multi-stratified layers and a dermal pellicle in about 2-3 weeks in vitro in our basic medium. Conversely, cultures of keratinocytes do not expand but eventually reduce to few viable cells within 2-3 weeks of in vitro condition. It is suggested that dermal cells sustain themselves through the production of growth factors but that epidermal cells requires specific growth factors still to be identified before setting-up an in vitro system that allows analyzing the control of the shedding cycle in lizards.

  12. A sensitive LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the quantification of avobenzone in rat plasma and skin layers: Application to a topical administration study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Gi; Kim, Tae Hwan; Shin, Beom Soo; Kim, Min Gyu; Seok, Su Hyun; Kim, Kyu-Bong; Lee, Jong Bong; Choi, Hyeon Gwan; Lee, Young Sung; Yoo, Sun Dong

    2015-10-15

    This study describes the development of a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the quantification of avobenzone in rat plasma and skin layers. Separations were performed on a Zorbax SB C8 column using a binary gradient mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water. The assay achieved LLOQ of 0.5ng/ml for plasma, 5ng/ml for stratum corneum, and 10ng/ml for epidermis and dermis. This method was applied to a percutaneous absorption study of avobenzone in rats. At 12h following topical application of emulsion and lotion (applied amount of avobenzone 11.7mg/kg), avobenzone was found primarily in the stratum corneum (16.3-17.8%) followed by epidermis (2.0-3.4%) and dermis (0.11-0.15%). Avobenzone was not quantifiable in the plasma samples collected over a 12h sampling period. Given the excellent plasma assay sensitivity, this study provides evidence that the systemic absorption of avobenzone is insignificant, if any, after topical application.

  13. The distribution, density and three-dimensional histomorphology of Pacinian corpuscles in the foot of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and their potential role in seismic communication.

    PubMed

    Bouley, D M; Alarcón, C N; Hildebrandt, T; O'Connell-Rodwell, C E

    2007-10-01

    Both Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants produce low-frequency, high-amplitude rumbles that travel well through the ground as seismic waves, and field studies have shown that elephants may utilize these seismic signals as one form of communication. Unique elephant postures observed in field studies suggest that the elephants use their feet to 'listen' to these seismic signals, but the exact sensory mechanisms used by the elephant have never been characterized. The distribution, morphology and tissue density of Pacinian corpuscles, specialized mechanoreceptors, were studied in a forefoot and hindfoot of Asian elephants. Pacinian corpuscles were located in the dermis and distal digital cushion and were most densely localized to the anterior, posterior, medial and lateral region of each foot, with the highest numbers in the anterior region of the forefoot (52.19%) and the posterior region of the hindfoot (47.09%). Pacinian corpuscles were encapsulated, had a typical lamellar structure and were most often observed in large clusters. Three-dimensional reconstruction through serial sections of the dermis revealed that individual Pacinian corpuscles may be part of a cluster. By studying the distribution and density of these mechanoreceptors, we propose that Pacinian corpuscles are one possible anatomic mechanism used by elephants to detect seismic waves.

  14. Distinct fibroblast lineages determine dermal architecture in skin development and repair

    PubMed Central

    Driskell, Ryan R.; Simons, Ben D.; Charalambous, Marika; Ferron, Sacri R.; Herault, Yann; Pavlovic, Guillaume; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C.; Watt, Fiona M.

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblasts are the major mesenchymal cell type in connective tissue and deposit the collagen and elastic fibers of the extracellular matrix (ECM)1. Even within a single tissue fibroblasts exhibit remarkable functional diversity, but it is not known whether this reflects the existence of a differentiation hierarchy or is a response to different environmental factors. Here we show, using transplantation assays and lineage tracing, that the fibroblasts of skin connective tissue arise from two distinct lineages. One forms the upper dermis, including the dermal papilla that regulates hair growth and the arrector pili muscle (APM), which controls piloerection. The other forms the lower dermis, including the reticular fibroblasts that synthesise the bulk of the fibrillar ECM, and the pre-adipocytes and adipocytes of the hypodermis. The upper lineage is required for hair follicle formation. In wounded adult skin, the initial wave of dermal repair is mediated by the lower lineage and upper dermal fibroblasts are recruited only during re-epithelialisation. Epidermal beta-catenin activation stimulates expansion of the upper dermal lineage, rendering wounds permissive for hair follicle formation. Our findings explain why wounding is linked to formation of ECM-rich scar tissue that lacks hair follicles2-4. They also form a platform for discovering fibroblast lineages in other tissues and for examining fibroblast changes in ageing and disease. PMID:24336287

  15. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy detects pigmentary changes in melasma at a cellular level resolution.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee Young; Bahadoran, Philippe; Suzuki, Itaru; Zugaj, Didier; Khemis, Abdallah; Passeron, Thierry; Andres, Philippe; Ortonne, Jean-Paul

    2010-08-01

    Melasma is a frequent pigmentary disorder caused by abnormal melanin deposits in the skin. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a repetitive imaging tool that provides real-time images of the skin at nearly histological resolution. As melanin is the strongest endogenous contrast in human skin, pigmentary disorders are the most suitable candidates for RCM examination but RCM features of melasma have never been reported. This study investigates the pilot use of RCM in melasma to provide a set of well-described morphological criteria with histological correlations. RCM images were acquired from melasma skin and compared to adjacent control skin in 26 patients. Skin biopsies were obtained from eight patients. In the epidermis, RCM showed in all patients a significant increase in hyperrefractile cobblestoning cells. These cells corresponded to hyperpigmented basal keratinocytes in histology. In six patients, dendritic cells corresponding to activated melanocytes were also found in the epidermis. In the dermis, RCM identified in nine patients plump bright cells corresponding to melanophages. Interestingly, for a given patient, the topographic distribution of melanophages in melasma lesions was very heterogeneous. RCM also showed a significant increase in solar elastosis and blood vessels in the dermis. RCM is a non-invasive technique that detects pigmentary changes in melasma at a cellular level resolution. Therefore, RCM provides an innovative way to classify melasma by pigment changes.

  16. Effects of systemic indomethacin, meclizine, and BW755C on chronic ultraviolet B-induced effects in hairless mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Kochevar, I E; Moran, M; Lyon, N; Flotte, T; Siebert, E; Gange, R W

    1993-02-01

    Chronic exposure of hairless mice to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is associated with inflammation as well as an altered macromolecular composition of the dermis. This study was designed to determine whether or not various systemic anti-inflammatory agents inhibit chronic UVB-induced changes in the macromolecular content of the dermis and, if so, whether each agent had the same or different effects. The agents and doses were chosen for their ability to inhibit the changes induced by a single exposure to UVB radiation (increased vasopermeability, neutrophil accumulation, and skin-fold thickness). Indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, and meclizine, an H1 histamine receptor antagonist, were administered from slow-release pellets. BW755C, a combined cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitor, was administered intraperitoneally 30 min prior to UVB exposure. Animals were exposed to UVB three times per week for 20-26 weeks or were unirradiated. The elastin, glycosaminoglycan and collagen content of the skin were determined by measuring the desmosine, uronic acid, and hydroxyproline levels, respectively. The amount of each macromolecule per area of skin increased after chronic UVB exposure. The increase in desmosine was inhibited by indomethacin; the increase in hydroxyproline was inhibited by meclizine and BW755C. None of the agents inhibited the uronic acid increase. These results suggest that chronic inflammation contributes to the dermal changes seen in chronically UVB-exposed skin and that different inflammatory mediators are involved in the increases observed in elastin, glycosaminoglycans, and collagen. PMID:8429241

  17. Ballistic impact of single particles into gelatin: experiments and modeling with application to transdermal pharmaceutical delivery.

    PubMed

    Guha, R A; Shear, N H; Papini, M

    2010-10-01

    The impact and penetration of high speed particles with the human skin is of interest for targeted drug delivery by transdermal powder injection. However, it is often difficult to perform penetration experiments on dermal tissue using micron scale particles. To address this, a finite element model of the impact and penetration of a 2 μm gold particle into the human dermis was developed and calibrated using experiments found in the literature. Using dimensional analysis, the model was linked to a larger scale steel ball-gelatin system in order to extract key material parameters for both systems and perform impact studies. In this manner, an elastic modulus of 2.25 MPa was found for skin, in good agreement with reported values from the literature. Further gelatin experiments were performed with steel, polymethyl methacrylate, titanium, and tungsten carbide balls in order to determine the effects of particle size and density on penetration depth. Both the finite element model and the steel-gelatin experiments were able to predict the penetration behavior that was found by other investigators in the study of the impact of typical particles used for vaccine delivery into the human dermis. It can therefore be concluded that scaled up systems utilizing ballistic gelatins can be used to investigate the performance of transdermal powder injection technology. PMID:20887013

  18. Anti-photoaging properties of the phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor cilostazol in ultraviolet B-irradiated hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ha Neui; Gil, Chan Hee; Kim, Yu Ri; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether cilostazol, an activator of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent intracellular signaling, could inhibit ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation-induced photoaging in HR-1 hairless mice. Cilostazol decreased wrinkle formation and skin thickness in UVB-irradiated mice, as well as increased staining of collagen fibers and inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in the skin. Moreover, the proteolytic activities of gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and collagenase MMP-3 were significantly decreased in UVB-irradiated mice treated with cilostazol. Western blotting showed that UVB-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB was significantly inhibited by cilostazol, whereas the activation of Akt was significantly enhanced by cilostazol. Confirmation of localized protein expression in the skin revealed marked p38 MAPK and NF-κB activation that was mainly detected in the dermis. Marked Akt activation was mainly detected in the epidermis. Our results suggest that cilostazol may have anti-photoaging effects on UVB-induced wrinkle formation by maintaining the extracellular matrix density in the dermis, which occurs via regulation of ROS and related p38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling, and subsequent down-regulation of MMPs. Therefore, cilostazol may protect against photoaging-induced wrinkle formation. PMID:27484958

  19. Role of seaweed laminaran from Saccharina longicruris on matrix deposition during dermal tissue-engineered production.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Akram; Pereira, Jadson Moreira; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Turgeon, Sylvie L; Beaulieu, Martin; Moulin, Véronique J

    2015-04-01

    Our laboratory has developed a technique to reconstruct in vitro tissue from human cells using the self-assembly tissue-engineering method, which utilizes the ability of fibroblasts to deposit the matrix they secrete. The time necessary for tissue construction, several weeks, is a drawback for many clinical uses. We hypothesized that the addition of laminaran can increase the deposition of matrix, speeding up the production of the tissue. Laminaran was isolated from the brown seaweed Saccharina longicruris harvested in Canada and its structure was evaluated. Laminaran is a small molecular weight polysaccharide composed of linear glucose chains. Monolayer-cultured human skin fibroblasts were cultured in the presence of laminaran with ascorbate for 7 or 35 days to produce a dermis. Treatment did not induce any variation in the growth rate or alpha smooth muscle actin content but it did increase the deposition of collagen I in a dose-dependent manner. After 35 days, the reconstructed dermal thickness was increased when laminaran was added, and collagen I deposition and MMP activity were also significantly increased. Thus, laminaran can be used to increase the rate of production of reconstructed self-assembled dermis and can also potentially be used in cosmetic or therapeutic creams to stimulate matrix production.

  20. Dynamic cooling during laser skin welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Nathaniel M.; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.

    1999-06-01

    Cryogen spray cooling of the tissue surface was investigated for laser welding applications. Benefits include reduced thermal damage to the papillary dermis and reduced operation time. Two-cm-long, full-thickness incisions were made on the backs of guinea pigs, in vivo. India ink was used as an absorber and clamps were used to appose the incision edges. Continuous-wave, 1.06-μm, Nd:YAG laser radiation was scanned over the incisions, producing ~100 ms pulses. A 4-mm-diameter laser spot was used with a constant power of 16 W. The total operation time was 60 or 120 s. Cryogen was delivered in spurt durations of 20, 60, or 100 ms, with 2 or 4 s between spurts. The working distance was approximately 12 cm, and the spray covered an area of about 5.0 x 5.0 cm. Control welds were irradiated for 20, 40, or 60 s. Total operation times were reduced from 10 min without dynamic cooling to 1 min with dynamic cooling. Optimal tensile strength was 1.7 +/- 0.7 kg/cm2, comparible to stengths of 2.1 +/- 0.7 kg/cm2 reported in previous studies without cryogen cooling (p>0.25). Thermal damage in the papillary dermis measured 320 +/- 80 μm.

  1. Histopathology of Incontinence-Associated Skin Lesions: Inner Tissue Damage Due to Invasion of Proteolytic Enzymes and Bacteria in Macerated Rat Skin.

    PubMed

    Mugita, Yuko; Minematsu, Takeo; Huang, Lijuan; Nakagami, Gojiro; Kishi, Chihiro; Ichikawa, Yoshie; Nagase, Takashi; Oe, Makoto; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Mori, Taketoshi; Abe, Masatoshi; Sugama, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    A common complication in patients with incontinence is perineal skin lesions, which are recognized as a form of dermatitis. In these patients, perineal skin is exposed to digestive enzymes and intestinal bacterial flora, as well as excessive water. The relative contributions of digestive enzymes and intestinal bacterial flora to skin lesion formation have not been fully shown. This study was conducted to reveal the process of histopathological changes caused by proteases and bacterial inoculation in skin maceration. For skin maceration, agarose gel containing proteases was applied to the dorsal skin of male Sprague-Dawley rats for 4 h, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculation for 30 min. Macroscopic changes, histological changes, bacterial distribution, inflammatory response, and keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation were examined. Proteases induced digestion in the prickle cell layer of the epidermis, and slight bleeding in the papillary dermis and around hair follicles in the macerated skin without macroscopic evidence of erosion. Bacterial inoculation of the skin macerated by proteolytic solution resulted in the formation of bacteria-rich clusters comprising numerous microorganisms and inflammatory cells within the papillary dermis, with remarkable tissue damage around the clusters. Tissue damage expanded by day 2. On day 3, the proliferative keratinocyte layer was elongated from the bulge region of the hair follicles. Application of proteases and P. aeruginosa induced skin lesion formation internally without macroscopic erosion of the overhydrated area, suggesting that the histopathology might be different from regular dermatitis. The healing process of this lesion is similar to transepidermal elimination. PMID:26407180

  2. Nuclear microscopy: a tool for imaging elemental distribution and percutaneous absorption in vivo.

    PubMed

    Veríssimo, Ana; Alves, Luís C; Filipe, Paulo; Silva, João N; Silva, Raquel; Ynsa, Maria Dolores; Gontier, Etienne; Moretto, Philippe; Pallon, Jan; Pinheiro, Teresa

    2007-04-01

    Nuclear microscopy is a technique based on a focused beam of accelerated particles that has the ability of imaging the morphology of the tissue in vivo and of producing the correspondent elemental maps, whether in major, minor, or trace concentrations. These characteristics constitute a strong advantage in studying the morphology of human skin, its elemental distributions and the permeation mechanisms of chemical compounds. In this study, nuclear microscopy techniques such as scanning transmission ion microscopy and particle induced X-ray emission were applied simultaneously, to cryopreserved human skin samples with the purpose of obtaining high-resolution images of cells and tissue morphology. In addition, quantitative elemental profiling and mapping of phosphorus, calcium, chlorine, and potassium in skin cross-sections were obtained. This procedure accurately distinguishes the epidermal strata and dermis by overlapping in real time the elemental information with density images obtained from the transmitted beam. A validation procedure for elemental distributions in human skin based on differential density of epidermal strata and dermis was established. As demonstrated, this procedure can be used in future studies as a tool for the in vivo examination of trans-epidermal and -dermal delivery of products.

  3. T lymphocytes expressing HECA-452 epitope are present in cutaneous acute graft-versus-host disease and erythema multiforme, but not in acute graft-versus-host disease in gut organs.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, R. E.; Smoller, B. R.

    1992-01-01

    Lymphocytes in formalin-fixed skin biopsies from patients with cutaneous acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) were studied with HECA-452 (an antibody recognizing lymphocytes with skin-homing properties) and a panel of antibodies recognizing pan-B (L26 [CD20]), pan-T (L60 [CD43] and A6 [CD45RA]), and T-helper subset (OPD4) antigens in paraffin sections. Biopsies from patients with erythema multiforme (EM) were similarly studied for comparison. In both conditions, T lymphocytes stained by OPD4 were predominantly confined to the dermis, whereas those stained by HECA-452 were concentrated in the epidermis; however, there was considerable variation between cases, and overlap between findings in the dermis and epidermis. Lymphocytes similarly studied in paraffin sections of liver, salivary gland, and gut affected by aGVHD were essentially unreactive with HECA-452, although they were largely stained by pan-T markers and showed some comparable reactivity with OPD4. The findings suggest that aGVHD of the skin is mediated by a different set of lymphocytes than in gut organs, and may have a similar immunologic mechanism to EM. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1381561

  4. The characteristics of three-dimensional skin imaging system by full-colored optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bor-Wen; Chan, Li-Ming; Wang, Kai-Cheng

    2009-05-01

    In the present cosmetic market, the skin image obtained from a hand-held camera is two-dimensional (2-D). Due to insufficient penetration, only the skin surface can be detected, and thus phenomena in the dermis cannot be observed. To take the place of the conventional 2D camera, a new hand-held imaging system is proposed for three-dimensional (3-D) skin imaging. Featuring non-invasiveness, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become one of the popular medical imaging techniques. The dermal images shown in OCT-related reports were mainly single-colored because of the use of a monotonic light source. With three original-colored beams applied in OCT, a full-colored image can be derived for dermatology. The penetration depth of the system ranges from 0.43 to 0.78 mm, sufficient for imaging of main tissues in the dermis. Colorful and non-invasive perspectives of deep dermal structure help to advance skin science, dermatology and cosmetology.

  5. In men at risk of HIV infection, IgM, IgG1, IgG3, and IgA reach the human foreskin epidermis.

    PubMed

    Lemos, M P; Karuna, S T; Mize, G J; Fong, Y; Montano, S M; Ganoza, C; Lama, J R; Sanchez, J; McElrath, M J

    2016-05-01

    We profiled the humoral response in the penis, an area that has been minimally explored but may be relevant for protecting insertive men against HIV and other sexually acquired infections. Comparing paired tissue samples from 20 men at risk of HIV infection, foreskin contains less immunoglobulin A (IgA) and more IgG2 than colon. Using foreskin dermal and epidermal explants and paired plasma from 17 men, we examined Ig accumulation by normalizing Ig to human serum albumin (HSA) transudation. Dermal IgM, IgG2, IgA, and IgE ratios were greater than that in plasma, suggesting there is local antibody secretion at the dermis. Local Ig transcription was concentrated at the inner rather than the outer foreskin, and inner foreskin Ig ratios did not correlate with blood, indicating that localized production can contribute to the foreskin response. IgM, IgG1, IgG3, and IgA have preferential access to the foreskin epidermis, whereas IgG2, IgG4, and IgE are restricted to the dermis. Lastly, Ad5-specific IgA was selectively present in the colon, whereas foreskin Ad5 IgG was mainly derived from blood, and reached the inner epidermis at higher ratios than the outer (P<0.002). In summary, the foreskin antibody response combines local and systemic sources, and there is selective isotype accumulation in the epidermis. PMID:26509877

  6. Infrared fiber optic evanescent wave spectroscopy for the study of diffusion in the human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raichlin, Yosef; Goldberg, I.; Brenner, Sarah; Shulzinger, Evgeny; Katzir, Abraham

    2002-03-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic systems make use of Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) elements for the study of skin in dermatology. FTIR - ATR allows real time and reagent-less analysis of several components, simultaneously. The potential for skin studies is increased by the development of the flexible fiber optic sensor made from infrared transparent polycrystalline silver halide. Segments of fibers can replace the ATR sensing elements inside an FTIR system. Moreover a Fiberoptic Evanescent Wave Spectroscopy (FEWS) can also be used for real time in vivo measurement on skin, in situ. We used FEWS to study the diffusion of UV sunscreen lotions from the outer skin layer into the dermis and epidermis, and used the various absorption bands to differentiate between the behavior of the organic and the water molecules in the lotion. FEWS can be a powerful tool for studying the transport of drugs and cosmetic creams through the skin from the stratum corneum to the dermis and epidermis and for studying the lateral diffusion of various molecules into the skin, in vivo and in real time.

  7. Anti-photoaging properties of the phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor cilostazol in ultraviolet B-irradiated hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha Neui; Gil, Chan Hee; Kim, Yu Ri; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether cilostazol, an activator of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent intracellular signaling, could inhibit ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation-induced photoaging in HR-1 hairless mice. Cilostazol decreased wrinkle formation and skin thickness in UVB-irradiated mice, as well as increased staining of collagen fibers and inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in the skin. Moreover, the proteolytic activities of gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and collagenase MMP-3 were significantly decreased in UVB-irradiated mice treated with cilostazol. Western blotting showed that UVB-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB was significantly inhibited by cilostazol, whereas the activation of Akt was significantly enhanced by cilostazol. Confirmation of localized protein expression in the skin revealed marked p38 MAPK and NF-κB activation that was mainly detected in the dermis. Marked Akt activation was mainly detected in the epidermis. Our results suggest that cilostazol may have anti-photoaging effects on UVB-induced wrinkle formation by maintaining the extracellular matrix density in the dermis, which occurs via regulation of ROS and related p38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling, and subsequent down-regulation of MMPs. Therefore, cilostazol may protect against photoaging-induced wrinkle formation. PMID:27484958

  8. Evidence and considerations in the application of chemical peels in skin disorders and aesthetic resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Rendon, Marta I; Berson, Diane S; Cohen, Joel L; Roberts, Wendy E; Starker, Isaac; Wang, Beatrice

    2010-07-01

    Chemical peeling is a popular, relatively inexpensive, and generally safe method for treatment of some skin disorders and to refresh and rejuvenate skin. This article focuses on chemical peels and their use in routine clinical practice. Chemical peels are classified by the depth of action into superficial, medium, and deep peels. The depth of the peel is correlated with clinical changes, with the greatest change achieved by deep peels. However, the depth is also associated with longer healing times and the potential for complications. A wide variety of peels are available, utilizing various topical agents and concentrations, including a recent salicylic acid derivative, beta-lipohydroxy acid, which has properties that may expand the clinical use of peels. Superficial peels, penetrating only the epidermis, can be used to enhance treatment for a variety of conditions, including acne, melasma, dyschromias, photodamage, and actinic keratoses. Medium-depth peels, penetrating to the papillary dermis, may be used for dyschromia, multiple solar keratoses, superficial scars, and pigmentary disorders. Deep peels, affecting reticular dermis, may be used for severe photoaging, deep wrinkles, or scars. Peels can be combined with other in-office facial resurfacing techniques to optimize outcomes and enhance patient satisfaction and allow clinicians to tailor the treatment to individual patient needs. Successful outcomes are based on a careful patient selection as well as appropriate use of specific peeling agents. Used properly, the chemical peel has the potential to fill an important therapeutic need in the dermatologist's and plastic surgeon's armamentarium. PMID:20725555

  9. Injectable poly-L: -lactic acid: a novel sculpting agent for the treatment of dermal fat atrophy after severe acne.

    PubMed

    Sadove, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Acne vulgaris affects up to 80% of people 11 to 30 years of age, and scarring can occur for up to 95% of these patients. Scarring may be pitted or hypertrophic in nature, although in most cases it is atrophic. Atrophic acne scarring follows dermal collagen and fat loss after moderate to severe acne infection. Injectable poly-L-acid (PLLA) is a biocompatible, biodegradable, synthetic polymer device that is hypothesized to enhance dermal volume via the endogenous production of fibroblasts and, subsequently, collagen. The gradual improvements in cutaneous volume observed after treatment with injectable PLLA have been noted to last up to 2 years. The case studies presented describe the use of injectable PLLA to correct dermal fat loss in macular atrophic acne scarring of the cheeks. Two female patients underwent three treatment sessions with injectable PLLA over a 12-week period. At each treatment session, the reconstituted product was injected into the deep dermis under the depressed portion of the scar. Both patients were extremely pleased with their results at, respectively, 1- and 4-year follow-up evaluations. Patients experienced minimal swelling and redness after injection and no product-related adverse events such as papule and/or nodule formation. The author believes these data suggest that injectable PLLA is a good treatment option for the correction of macular atropic scarring with thin dermis (off-label use), particularly compared with other injectable fillers currently used for this indication that have shorter durations of effect. PMID:18923863

  10. Mast cells are key mediators of cathelicidin-initiated skin inflammation in rosacea.

    PubMed

    Muto, Yumiko; Wang, Zhenping; Vanderberghe, Matthieu; Two, Aimee; Gallo, Richard L; Di Nardo, Anna

    2014-11-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disease whose pathophysiological mechanism is still unclear. However, it is known that mast cell (MC) numbers are increased in the dermis of rosacea patients. MC proteases not only recruit other immune cells, which amplify the inflammatory response, but also cause vasodilation and angiogenesis. MCs are also one of the primary sources of cathelicidin LL-37 (Cath LL-37), an antimicrobial peptide that has been shown to be an enabler of rosacea pathogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that MCs are key mediators of cathelicidin-initiated skin inflammation. After Cath LL-37 injection into the dermis, MC-deficient B6.Cg-Kit(W-sh)/HNihrJaeBsmJ (KitW-sh) mice did not develop rosacea-like features. Conversely, chymase (P<0.001), tryptase, and Mmp9 (P<0.01) mRNA levels were significantly higher in C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice. Treating WT mice with an MC stabilizer significantly decreased the expressions of Mmp9 and Cxcl2 (P<0.01). Our data were confirmed on erythematotelangiectatic rosacea subjects who showed a decrease in matrix metalloproteinase activity (P<0.05), after 8 weeks of topical cromolyn treatment. We conclude that MCs have a central role in the development of inflammation subsequent to Cath LL-37 activation and that downregulation of activated MCs may be a therapy for rosacea treatment.

  11. Dorsal skin reactions of hairless dogs to topical treatment with corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Kimura, T; Doi, K

    1999-01-01

    Dorsal skin reactions to continuous topical treatment with different types of corticosteroids were histologically investigated in hairless descendants of Mexican hairless dogs. The preparations tested were prednisolone (ST-1; weak), fluocinolone acetonide (ST-2; moderate), diflucortolone valrerate (ST-3; strong), and mometasone furoate (ST-4; very strong). Grossly, the sites treated with ST-3 and ST-4 showed moderate inflammatory reactions. After completion of the corticosteroid treatment, both sites were less pigmented and had a thin texture. The severity of histologic changes in the skin was dependent on the efficacy of the corticosteroids. The epidermis was prominently thinned from 1 wk after treatment with the corticosteroids, resulting in a flat dermis-epidermis junction. By the end of the corticosteroid treatment, these lesions became progressively more severe. At 2 wk after completion of topical treatment, the epidermal thickness in the sites treated with ST-1 and ST-2 began to return to normal values, whereas the epidermis of the skin treated with ST-3 and ST-4 became thinner. At 3-4 wk after topical treatment with ST-3 and ST-4, the dermis showed hyalinization of collagen bundles. These dermatologic findings in hairless dogs are in accordance with steroid-induced skin atrophy of human beings. These results suggest that the skin of hairless dogs responds sensitively to topical corticosteroids and that these animals are a useful model for investigating the efficacy and adverse effects of cutaneous topical corticosteroids. PMID:10528632

  12. Efficacy of Slimming Cream Containing 3.5% Water-Soluble Caffeine and Xanthenes for the Treatment of Cellulite: Clinical Study and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Sang-Young; Kwon, Soon-Hyo; Heo, Su-Hak; Shim, Jae-Seong; Du, Mi-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background Cellulite is a 'cottage cheese-like' cutaneous change caused by subcutaneous fat bulging into the dermis that usually leads to cosmetic problems. Slimming cream containing 3.5% water-soluble caffeine and xanthenes exhibits a lipolytic effect with penetration into the dermis. Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of slimming cream for the treatment of cellulite. Methods Fifteen subjects with cellulite applied slimming cream to the thighs and inner side of the upper arms twice daily for 6 weeks. Efficacy was assessed using a standard visual scale, changes in the circumferences of the thighs and upper arms, and patient satisfaction by a questionnaire at baseline, week 3, and week 6. Safety was assessed by inquiring about adverse events through questionnaires. Results The standard visual scale score improved significantly by 0.49 points (19.8%) at week 6. Thigh and upper-arm circumferences decreased by 0.7 cm (1.7%) and 0.8 cm (2.3%), respectively, at week 6. Slight itching and transient flushing were commonly reported, but no serious adverse event occurred. Conclusion The slimming cream tested appears to be effective for the treatment of cellulitis without serious adverse effects. However, additional large clinical trials are required to confirm the efficacy and safety of slimming cream for the treatment of cellulitis. PMID:26082579

  13. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and optical polarization imaging of in-vivo biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora-Núñez, A.; Castillejos, Y.; García-Torales, G.; Martínez-Ponce, G.

    2013-11-01

    A number of optical techniques have been reported in the scientific literature as accomplishable methodologies to diagnose diseases in biological tissue, for instance, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and optical polarization imaging (OPI). The skin is the largest organ in the body and consists of three primary layers, namely, the epidermis (the outermost layer exposed to the world), the dermis, and the hypodermis. The epidermis changes from to site to site, mainly because of difference in hydration. A lower water content increase light scattering and reduce the penetration depth of radiation. In this work, two hairless mice have been selected to evaluate their skin features by using DRS and OPI. Four areas of the specimen body were chosen to realize the comparison: back, abdomen, tail, and head. From DRS, it was possible to distinguish the skin nature because of different blood irrigation at dermis. In the other hand, OPI shows pseudo-depolarizing regions in the measured Mueller images related to a spatially varying propagation of the scattered light. This provides information about the cell size in the irradiated skin.

  14. Diagnostic Immunohistochemistry in Cutaneous Neoplasia: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Compton, Leigh A.; Murphy, George F.; Lian, Christine G.

    2015-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an important adjunct in the diagnosis of neoplastic skin diseases. In addition to the many established IHC markers currently in use, new markers continue to emerge, although their general acceptance and routine application requires robust validation. Here, we summarize the most well-established and commonly used biomarkers along with an array of newer ones reported in the past several decades that either demonstrate or hold high clinical promise in the field of cutaneous pathology. We also highlight recent applications of novel IHC markers in melanoma diagnosis including genetic mutation status markers [e.g. BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B) and NRAS (neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog)] and an epigenetic alteration marker (e.g. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine). We specifically focus on the role of IHC in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous lesions that fall under the following categories: melanoma, epidermal tumors with an intraepidermal epitheliomatous pattern, spindle cell lesions of the dermis, small round blue cell tumors of the dermis, and cutaneous adnexal tumors. While IHC is a valuable tool in diagnostic dermatopathology, marker selection and interpretation must be highly informed by clinical context and the histologic differential diagnosis. With rapid progress in our understanding of the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of tumorigenesis, new IHC markers will continue to emerge in the field of diagnostic dermatopathology. PMID:27047932

  15. Lupus vulgaris: unusual presentation on face.

    PubMed

    Pilani, A; Vora, R V

    2014-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris is a variant of cutaneous tuberculosis. As the disease has potential to mutilate when left untreated, leaving deforming scars and disfigurement, an early diagnosis is of paramount importance. Though the common type is plaque type, rarely mutilating and vegetative forms also are found. A 28 year old female, labourer presented with progressive annular plaque over right side of cheek extending upto right lower lid and ala of nose. There were two satellite plaques near the right side of giant lesion. On diascopy apple jelly nodule was seen. There was no regional lymhadenopathy. Histopathological examination showed many granulomas in upper dermis extending to deep dermis comprising of epitheloid cells with langhans' type of giant cells, lymphocytic infiltration & focal necrosis suggestive of lupus vulgaris. The consequences of failing to make an early diagnosis can be disastrous for the patients, as the progression of the disease can lead to necrosis, destruction of bones and cartilage leading to permanent deformity. Thus it is vital for clinicians to have a high index of suspicion of such atypical forms and take biopsy samples for histological and bacteriological studies.

  16. A unique cross section through the skin of the dinosaur Psittacosaurus from China showing a complex fibre architecture

    PubMed Central

    Lingham-Soliar, Theagarten

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a unique preservation of soft tissues in the ventrolateral region of the plant-eating dinosaur Psittacosaurus from the Jehol biota of China. The preservation is of a deep cross section through the dermis, which includes multiple layers of collagenous fibres in excess of 25, among the highest recorded in vertebrates, with a further 15 more layers (poorly preserved) estimated for the entire height of the section. Also, for the first time in a dinosaur two fibre layers parallel to the skin surface are preserved deep within the dermis at the base of the cross section. These fibre layers comprise regularly disposed fibres arranged in left- and right-handed geodesic helices, matching the pattern at the surface and reasonably inferred for the entire section. As noted from the studies on modern-day animals, this fibre structure plays a critical part in the stresses and strains the skin may be subjected to and is ideally suited to providing support and protection. Psittacosaurus gives a remarkable, unprecedented understanding of the dinosaur skin. PMID:18182372

  17. Roles of Proteoglycans and Glycosaminoglycans in Wound Healing and Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ghatak, Shibnath; Maytin, Edward V.; Mack, Judith A.; Hascall, Vincent C.; Atanelishvili, Ilia; Moreno Rodriguez, Ricardo; Markwald, Roger R.; Misra, Suniti

    2015-01-01

    A wound is a type of injury that damages living tissues. In this review, we will be referring mainly to healing responses in the organs including skin and the lungs. Fibrosis is a process of dysregulated extracellular matrix (ECM) production that leads to a dense and functionally abnormal connective tissue compartment (dermis). In tissues such as the skin, the repair of the dermis after wounding requires not only the fibroblasts that produce the ECM molecules, but also the overlying epithelial layer (keratinocytes), the endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells of the blood vessel and white blood cells such as neutrophils and macrophages, which together orchestrate the cytokine-mediated signaling and paracrine interactions that are required to regulate the proper extent and timing of the repair process. This review will focus on the importance of extracellular molecules in the microenvironment, primarily the proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan, and their roles in wound healing. First, we will briefly summarize the physiological, cellular, and biochemical elements of wound healing, including the importance of cytokine cross-talk between cell types. Second, we will discuss the role of proteoglycans and hyaluronan in regulating these processes. Finally, approaches that utilize these concepts as potential therapies for fibrosis are discussed. PMID:26448760

  18. In vitro percutaneous permeation and skin accumulation of finasteride using vesicular ethosomal carriers.

    PubMed

    Rao, Yuefeng; Zheng, Feiyue; Zhang, Xingguo; Gao, Jianqing; Liang, Wenquan

    2008-01-01

    In order to develop a novel transdermal drug delivery system that facilitates the skin permeation of finasteride encapsulated in novel lipid-based vesicular carriers (ethosomes)finasteride ethosomes were constructed and the morphological characteristics were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The particle size, zeta potential and the entrapment capacity of ethosome were also determined. In contrast to liposomes ethosomes were of more condensed vesicular structure and they were found to be oppositely charged. Ethosomes were found to be more efficient delivery carriers with high encapsulation capacities. In vitro percutaneous permeation experiments demonstrated that the permeation of finasteride through human cadaver skin was significantly increased when ethosomes were used. The finasteride transdermal fluxes from ethosomes containing formulation (1.34 +/- 0.11 microg/cm(2)/h) were 7.4, 3.2 and 2.6 times higher than that of finasteride from aqueous solution, conventional liposomes and hydroethanolic solution respectively (P < 0.01).Furthermore, ethosomes produced a significant (P < 0.01) finasteride accumulation in the skin, especially in deeper layers, for instance in dermis it reached to 18.2 +/- 1.8 microg/cm(2). In contrast, the accumulation of finasteride in the dermis was only 2.8 +/- 1.3 microg/cm(2) with liposome formulation. The study demonstrated that ethosomes are promising vesicular carriers for enhancing percutaneous absorption of finasteride.

  19. YAP and TAZ regulate skin wound healing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Jung; Ran Byun, Mi; Furutani-Seiki, Makoto; Hong, Jeong-Ho; Jung, Han-Sung

    2014-02-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway regulates organ size, tissue regeneration, and stem cell self-renewal. The two key downstream transcription coactivators in this pathway, Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), mediate the major gene regulation and biological functions of the Hippo pathway. The biological functions of YAP and TAZ in many tissues are known; however, their roles in skin wound healing remain unclear. To analyze whether YAP and/or TAZ are required for cutaneous wound healing, we performed small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of YAP/TAZ in full-thickness skin wounds. YAP is strongly expressed in the nucleus and cytoplasm in the epidermis and hair follicle. Interestingly, YAP is expressed in the nucleus in the dermis at 2 and 7 days after wounding. TAZ normally localizes to the cytoplasm in the dermis but is distributed in both the nucleus and cytoplasm at 1 day after wounding. The knockdown of YAP and TAZ markedly delayed the rate of wound closure and reduced the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression in the wound. YAP and TAZ also modulate the expression of TGF-β1 signaling pathway components such as Smad-2, p21, and Smad-7. These results suggest that YAP and TAZ localization to the nucleus is required for skin wound healing.

  20. Investigation of the piezoelectric thimble tactile device operating modes.

    PubMed

    Bansevicius, Ramutis; Dragasius, Egidijus; Grigas, Vytautas; Jurenas, Vytautas; Mazeika, Darius; Zvironas, Arunas

    2014-01-01

    A multifunctional device to transfer graphical or text information for blind or visually impaired is presented. The prototype using tactile perception has been designed where information displayed on the screen of electronic device (mobile phone, PC) is transferred by oscillating needle, touching the fingertip. Having the aim to define optimal parameters of the fingertip excitation by needle, the computational analysis of different excitation modes has been carried out. A 3D solid computational finite element model of the skin segment, comprising four main fingertip skin layers (stratum corneum, epidermis, dermis and hypodermis) was built by using ANSYS Workbench FEA software. Harmonic analysis of its stress-strain state under excitation with different frequency (up to 10000 Hz) and harmonic force (0.01 N), acting outer stratum corneum layer in normal direction at one, two or three points has been performed. The influence of the mode of dynamic loading of skin was evaluated (in terms of the tactile signal level) on the basis of the normal and shear elastic strain in dermis, where mechanoreceptors are placed. It is shown that the tactile perception of information, delivered by three vibrating pins, may be influenced by configuration of excitation points (their number and phase of loading) and the frequency of excitation.

  1. [A Case of Cutaneous Phaeohyphomycosis Caused by Exophiala lecanii-corni Showing a Seasonal Fluctuation of Skin Lesions].

    PubMed

    Tsujioka, Kaoru; Tanaka, Risa; Anzawa, Kazushi; Ogura, Haruo

    2015-01-01

    A 56-year-old Japanese female presented to our hospital in March complaining of asymptomatic skin lesions on both cheeks for the past few years. She had been receiving treatment for phlebosclerotic colitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease. We identified subcutaneous nodules with scale, erosion, and necrotic crusts on the surface, with one on the right cheek and two on the left. The patient said that the eruptions almost disappeared every summer but always recurred in winter, a phenomenon that we confirmed. Histopathology revealed pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia and marked infiltration from various inflammatory cells with a granulomatous reaction in the dermis. Brown fungal elements were scattered around the epidermis and dermis in the form of single spore or toruloid hyphae. We identified the fungus as Exophiala lecanii-corni based on morphological and physiological characteristics, as well as rRNA gene analysis. The strain grew well at 27 ℃, but growth was remarkably suppressed at 33 ℃ and not observed at all at 37 ℃. Treatment with itraconazole 200 mg / day for 6 months resulted in complete remission of the lesions. PMID:26617107

  2. Optimization of an ex vivo wound healing model in the adult human skin: Functional evaluation using photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Garcia, Jenifer; Sebastian, Anil; Alonso-Rasgado, Teresa; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2015-09-01

    Limited utility of in vitro tests and animal models of human repair, create a demand for alternative models of cutaneous healing capable of functional testing. The adult human skin Wound Healing Organ Culture (WHOC) provides a useful model, to study repair and enable evaluation of therapies such as the photodynamic therapy (PDT). Thus, the aim here was to identify the optimal WHOC model and to evaluate the role of PDT in repair. Wound geometry, system of support, and growth media, cellular and matrix biomarkers were investigated in WHOC models. Subsequently, cellular activity, extracellular matrix remodeling, and oxidative stress plus gene and protein levels of makers of wound repair measured the effect of PDT on the optimized WHOC. WHOCs embedded in collagen and supplemented DMEM were better organized showing stratified epidermis and compact dermis with developing neo-epidermis. Post-PDT, the advancing reepithelialization tongue was 3.5 folds longer, and was highly proliferative with CK-14 plus p16 increased (p < 0.05) compared to controls. The neo-epidermis was fully differentiated forming neo-collagen. Proliferating nuclear antigen, p16, COLI, COLIII, MMP3, MMP19, and α-SMA were significantly more expressed (p < 0.05) in dermis surrounding the healing wound. In conclusion, an optimal model of WHOC treated with PDT shows increased reepithelialization and extracellular matrix reconstruction and remodeling, supporting evidence toward development of an optimal ex vivo wound healing model. PMID:26094764

  3. Bioinspired Antifreeze Secreting Frost-Responsive Pagophobic Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoda; Damle, Viraj; Rykaczewski, Konrad

    2014-11-01

    Prevention of ice and frost accumulation is of interest to transportation, power generation, and agriculture industries. Superhydrophobic and lubricant impregnated pagophobic coatings have been proposed, however, they both fail in frosting conditions. Inspired by functional liquid secretion in natural systems, such as toxin secretion by poison dart frost in response to predator presence, we developed frost-responsive antifreeze secreting pagophobic coatings. These are bi-layered coatings with an inner superhydrophilic ``dermis'' infused with antifreeze and an outer permeable superhydrophobic ``epidermis.'' The superhydrophobic epidermis separates the antifreeze from the environment and prevents ice accumulation by repelling impinging water droplets. In frosting conditions, the antifreeze is secreted from the dermis through pores in the epidermis either due to contact with condensed droplets or temporary switch of the epidermis wettability from hydrophobic to hydrophilic caused by surface icing. Here we demonstrate superior performance of this multifunctional coating in simulated frosting, freezing mist/fog, and freezing spray/rain conditions. KR acknowledges startup funding from ASU.

  4. Analytical model of diffuse reflectance spectrum of skin tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Lisenko, S A; Kugeiko, M M; Firago, V A; Sobchuk, A N

    2014-01-31

    We have derived simple analytical expressions that enable highly accurate calculation of diffusely reflected light signals of skin in the spectral range from 450 to 800 nm at a distance from the region of delivery of exciting radiation. The expressions, taking into account the dependence of the detected signals on the refractive index, transport scattering coefficient, absorption coefficient and anisotropy factor of the medium, have been obtained in the approximation of a two-layer medium model (epidermis and dermis) for the same parameters of light scattering but different absorption coefficients of layers. Numerical experiments on the retrieval of the skin biophysical parameters from the diffuse reflectance spectra simulated by the Monte Carlo method show that commercially available fibre-optic spectrophotometers with a fixed distance between the radiation source and detector can reliably determine the concentration of bilirubin, oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin in the dermis tissues and the tissue structure parameter characterising the size of its effective scatterers. We present the examples of quantitative analysis of the experimental data, confirming the correctness of estimates of biophysical parameters of skin using the obtained analytical expressions. (biophotonics)

  5. A custom tailored model to investigate skin penetration in porcine skin and its comparison with human skin.

    PubMed

    Herbig, Michael E; Houdek, Pia; Gorissen, Sascha; Zorn-Kruppa, Michaela; Wladykowski, Ewa; Volksdorf, Thomas; Grzybowski, Stephan; Kolios, Georgios; Willers, Christoph; Mallwitz, Henning; Moll, Ingrid; Brandner, Johanna M

    2015-09-01

    Reliable models for the determination of skin penetration and permeation are important for the development of new drugs and formulations. The intention of our study was to develop a skin penetration model which (1) is viable and well supplied with nutrients during the period of the experiment (2) is mimicking human skin as far as possible, but still is independent from the problems of supply and heterogeneity, (3) can give information about the penetration into different compartments of the skin and (4) considers specific inter-individual differences in skin thickness. In addition, it should be quick and inexpensive (5) and without ethical implications (6). Using a chemically divers set of four topically approved active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), namely diclofenac, metronidazole, tazarotene, and terbinafine, we demonstrated that the model allows reliable determination of drug concentrations in different layers of the viable epidermis and dermis. For APIs susceptible for skin metabolism, the extent of metabolic transformation in epidermis and dermis can be monitored. Furthermore, a high degree of accordance in the ability for discrimination of skin concentrations of the substances in different layers was found in models derived from porcine and human skin. Viability, proliferation, differentiation and markers for skin barrier function were surveyed in the model. This model, which we call 'Hamburg model of skin penetration' is particularly suited to support a rational ranking and selection of dermatological formulations within drug development projects.

  6. A sensitive LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the quantification of avobenzone in rat plasma and skin layers: Application to a topical administration study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Gi; Kim, Tae Hwan; Shin, Beom Soo; Kim, Min Gyu; Seok, Su Hyun; Kim, Kyu-Bong; Lee, Jong Bong; Choi, Hyeon Gwan; Lee, Young Sung; Yoo, Sun Dong

    2015-10-15

    This study describes the development of a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the quantification of avobenzone in rat plasma and skin layers. Separations were performed on a Zorbax SB C8 column using a binary gradient mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water. The assay achieved LLOQ of 0.5ng/ml for plasma, 5ng/ml for stratum corneum, and 10ng/ml for epidermis and dermis. This method was applied to a percutaneous absorption study of avobenzone in rats. At 12h following topical application of emulsion and lotion (applied amount of avobenzone 11.7mg/kg), avobenzone was found primarily in the stratum corneum (16.3-17.8%) followed by epidermis (2.0-3.4%) and dermis (0.11-0.15%). Avobenzone was not quantifiable in the plasma samples collected over a 12h sampling period. Given the excellent plasma assay sensitivity, this study provides evidence that the systemic absorption of avobenzone is insignificant, if any, after topical application. PMID:26409261

  7. Evidence and Considerations in the Application of Chemical Peels in Skin Disorders and Aesthetic Resurfacing

    PubMed Central

    Berson, Diane S.; Cohen, Joel L.; Roberts, Wendy E.; Starker, Isaac; Wang, Beatrice

    2010-01-01

    Chemical peeling is a popular, relatively inexpensive, and generally safe method for treatment of some skin disorders and to refresh and rejuvenate skin. This article focuses on chemical peels and their use in routine clinical practice. Chemical peels are classified by the depth of action into superficial, medium, and deep peels. The depth of the peel is correlated with clinical changes, with the greatest change achieved by deep peels. However, the depth is also associated with longer healing times and the potential for complications. A wide variety of peels are available, utilizing various topical agents and concentrations, including a recent salicylic acid derivative, β-lipohydroxy acid, which has properties that may expand the clinical use of peels. Superficial peels, penetrating only the epidermis, can be used to enhance treatment for a variety of conditions, including acne, melasma, dyschromias, photodamage, and actinic keratoses. Medium-depth peels, penetrating to the papillary dermis, may be used for dyschromia, multiple solar keratoses, superficial scars, and pigmentary disorders. Deep peels, affecting reticular dermis, may be used for severe photoaging, deep wrinkles, or scars. Peels can be combined with other in-office facial resurfacing techniques to optimize outcomes and enhance patient satisfaction and allow clinicians to tailor the treatment to individual patient needs. Successful outcomes are based on a careful patient selection as well as appropriate use of specific peeling agents. Used properly, the chemical peel has the potential to fill an important therapeutic need in the dermatologist's and plastic surgeon's armamentarium. PMID:20725555

  8. MicroRNA 181b regulates decorin production by dermal fibroblasts and may be a potential therapy for hypertrophic scar.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Peter; Ding, Jie; Tredget, Edward E

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic scarring is a frequent fibroproliferative complication following deep dermal burns leading to impaired function and lifelong disfigurement. Decorin reduces fibrosis and induces regeneration in many tissues, and is significantly downregulated in hypertrophic scar and normal deep dermal fibroblasts. It was hypothesized that microRNAs in these fibroblasts downregulate decorin and blocking them would increase decorin and may prevent hypertrophic scarring. Lower decorin levels were found in hypertrophic scar as compared to normal skin, and in deep as compared to superficial dermis. A decorin 3' un-translated region reporter assay demonstrated microRNA decreased decorin in deep dermal fibroblasts, and microRNA screening predicted miR- 24, 181b, 421, 526b, or 543 as candidates. After finding increased levels of mir-181b in deep dermal fibroblasts, it was demonstrated that TGF-β1 stimulation decreased miR-24 but increased miR-181b and that hypertrophic scar and deep dermis contained increased levels of miR-181b. By blocking miR-181b with an antagomiR, it was possible to increase decorin protein expression in dermal fibroblasts. This suggests miR-181b is involved in the differential expression of decorin in skin and wound healing. Furthermore, blocking miR-181b reversed TGF-β1 induced decorin downregulation and myofibroblast differentiation in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts, suggesting a potential therapy for hypertrophic scar.

  9. Periostin induces fibroblast proliferation and myofibroblast persistence in hypertrophic scarring.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Justin; Nygard, Karen; Gan, Bing Siang; O'Gorman, David Brian

    2015-02-01

    Hypertrophic scarring is characterized by the excessive development and persistence of myofibroblasts. These cells contract the surrounding extracellular matrix resulting in the increased tissue density characteristic of scar tissue. Periostin is a matricellular protein that is abnormally abundant in fibrotic dermis, however, its roles in hypertrophic scarring are largely unknown. In this report, we assessed the ability of matrix-associated periostin to promote the proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation of dermal fibroblasts isolated from the dermis of hypertrophic scars or healthy skin. Supplementation of a thin type-I collagen cell culture substrate with recombinant periostin induced a significant increase in the proliferation of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts but not normal dermal fibroblasts. Periostin induced significant increases in supermature focal adhesion formation, α smooth muscle actin levels and collagen contraction in fibroblasts cultured from hypertrophic scars under conditions of increased matrix tension in three-dimensional type-I collagen lattices. Inhibition of Rho-associated protein kinase activity significantly attenuated the effects of matrix-associated periostin on hypertrophic scar fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Depletion of endogenous periostin expression in hypertrophic scar myofibroblasts resulted in a sustained decrease in α smooth muscle actin levels under conditions of reducing matrix tension, while matrix-associated periostin levels caused the cells to retain high levels of a smooth muscle actin under these conditions. These findings indicate that periostin promotes Rho-associated protein kinase-dependent proliferation and myofibroblast persistence of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts and implicate periostin as a potential therapeutic target to enhance the resolution of scars.

  10. Skin aging in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Aquino Favarato, Grace Kelly Naves; da Silva, Aline Cristina Souza; Oliveira, Lívia Ferreira; da Fonseca Ferraz, Mara Lúcia; de Paula Antunes Teixeira, Vicente; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the histomorphometric skin changes over aging patients with autopsied acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In 29 skin fragments of autopsied elderly (older than 50 years) and nonelderly patients with AIDS, epidermal thickness, the number of layers, the diameter of cells, the percentage of collagen and elastic fibers in the dermis, and the number and morphology of Langerhans cells were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed by SigmaStat 2.03 program. The thickness of the epidermis (92.55 × 158.94 μm), the number of layers (7 × 9 layers), and the diameter of the cells (13.27 × 17.6 μm) were statistically lower among the elderly. The quantity of collagen fibers (9.68 × 14.11%) and elastic fibers (11.89 × 15.31%) was also significantly lower in the elderly. There was a decrease in total (10.61 × 12.38 cel/mm(2)) and an increase in immature Langerhans cells (6.31 × 4.98 cel/mm(2)) in elderly patients with AIDS. The aging of the skin of patients with AIDS is amended in different histomorphometric aspects, the epidermis constituents suffer less pronounced changes in normal aging, and the dermis has more intense changes in elastic fibers and collagen.

  11. Langerin negative dendritic cells promote potent CD8+ T-cell priming by skin delivery of live adenovirus vaccine microneedle arrays

    PubMed Central

    Bachy, Veronique; Hervouet, Catherine; Becker, Pablo D.; Chorro, Laurent; Carlin, Leo M.; Herath, Shanthi; Papagatsias, Timos; Barbaroux, Jean-Baptiste; Oh, Sea-Jin; Benlahrech, Adel; Athanasopoulos, Takis; Dickson, George; Patterson, Steven; Kwon, Sung-Yun; Geissmann, Frederic; Klavinskis, Linda S.

    2013-01-01

    Stabilization of virus protein structure and nucleic acid integrity is challenging yet essential to preserve the transcriptional competence of live recombinant viral vaccine vectors in the absence of a cold chain. When coupled with needle-free skin delivery, such a platform would address an unmet need in global vaccine coverage against HIV and other global pathogens. Herein, we show that a simple dissolvable microneedle array (MA) delivery system preserves the immunogenicity of vaccines encoded by live recombinant human adenovirus type 5 (rAdHu5). Specifically, dried rAdHu5 MA immunization induced CD8+ T-cell expansion and multifunctional cytokine responses equipotent with conventional injectable routes of immunization. Intravital imaging demonstrated MA cargo distributed both in the epidermis and dermis, with acquisition by CD11c+ dendritic cells (DCs) in the dermis. The MA immunizing properties were attributable to CD11c+ MHCIIhi CD8αneg epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAMneg) CD11b+ langerin (Lang; CD207)neg DCs, but neither Langerhans cells nor Lang+ DCs were required for CD8+ T-cell priming. This study demonstrates an important technical advance for viral vaccine vectors progressing to the clinic and provides insights into the mechanism of CD8+ T-cell priming by live rAdHu5 MAs. PMID:23386724

  12. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical detection of keratins and extracellular matrix proteins in lizard skin cultured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo; Polazzi, Elisabetta

    2012-04-01

    The present study shows the localization of epidermal and dermal proteins produced in lizard skin cultivated in vitro. Cells from the skin have been cultured for up to one month to detect the expression of keratins, actin, vimentin and extracellular matrix proteins (fibronectin, chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan, elastin and collagen I). Keratinocytes and dermal cells weakly immunoreact for Pan-Cytokeratin but not with the K17-antibody at the beginning of the cell culture when numerous keratin bundles are present in keratinocyte cytoplasm. The dense keratin network disappears after 7-12 days in culture, and K17 becomes detectable in both keratinocytes and mesenchymal cells isolated from the dermis. While most epidermal cells are lost after 2 weeks of in vitro cultivation dermal cells proliferate and form a pellicle of variable thickness made of 3-8 cell layers. The fibroblasts of this dermal equivalent produces an extracellular matrix containing chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan, collagen I, elastic fibers and fibronectin, explaining the attachment of the pellicle to the substratum. The study indicates that after improving keratinocyte survival a skin equivalent for lizard epidermis would be feasible as a useful tool to analyze the influence of the dermis on the process of epidermal differentiation and the control of the shedding cycle in squamates.

  13. Histopathology of Incontinence-Associated Skin Lesions: Inner Tissue Damage Due to Invasion of Proteolytic Enzymes and Bacteria in Macerated Rat Skin.

    PubMed

    Mugita, Yuko; Minematsu, Takeo; Huang, Lijuan; Nakagami, Gojiro; Kishi, Chihiro; Ichikawa, Yoshie; Nagase, Takashi; Oe, Makoto; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Mori, Taketoshi; Abe, Masatoshi; Sugama, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    A common complication in patients with incontinence is perineal skin lesions, which are recognized as a form of dermatitis. In these patients, perineal skin is exposed to digestive enzymes and intestinal bacterial flora, as well as excessive water. The relative contributions of digestive enzymes and intestinal bacterial flora to skin lesion formation have not been fully shown. This study was conducted to reveal the process of histopathological changes caused by proteases and bacterial inoculation in skin maceration. For skin maceration, agarose gel containing proteases was applied to the dorsal skin of male Sprague-Dawley rats for 4 h, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculation for 30 min. Macroscopic changes, histological changes, bacterial distribution, inflammatory response, and keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation were examined. Proteases induced digestion in the prickle cell layer of the epidermis, and slight bleeding in the papillary dermis and around hair follicles in the macerated skin without macroscopic evidence of erosion. Bacterial inoculation of the skin macerated by proteolytic solution resulted in the formation of bacteria-rich clusters comprising numerous microorganisms and inflammatory cells within the papillary dermis, with remarkable tissue damage around the clusters. Tissue damage expanded by day 2. On day 3, the proliferative keratinocyte layer was elongated from the bulge region of the hair follicles. Application of proteases and P. aeruginosa induced skin lesion formation internally without macroscopic erosion of the overhydrated area, suggesting that the histopathology might be different from regular dermatitis. The healing process of this lesion is similar to transepidermal elimination.

  14. Imaging early pathogenesis of bubonic plague: are neutrophils commandeered for lymphatic transport of bacteria?

    PubMed

    Bland, David M; Anderson, Deborah M

    2013-11-05

    Vector-borne infections begin in the dermis when a pathogen is introduced by an arthropod during a blood meal. Several barriers separate an invading pathogen from its replicative niche, including phagocytic cells in the dermis that activate immunity by engulfing would-be pathogens and migrating to the lymph node. In addition, neutrophils circulating in the blood are rapidly recruited when the dermal barriers are penetrated. For flea-borne disease, no insect-encoded immune-suppressive molecules have yet been described that might influence the establishment of infection, leaving the bacteria on their own to defend against the mammalian immune system. Shortly after a flea transmits Yersinia pestis to a mammalian host, the bacteria are transported to the lymph node, where they grow logarithmically and later spread systemically. Even a single cell of Y. pestis can initiate a lethal case of plague. In their article, J. G. Shannon et al. [mBio 4(5):e00170-13, 2013, doi:10.1128/mBio.00170-13] used intravital microscopy to visualize trafficking of Y. pestis in transgenic mice in vivo, which allowed them to examine interactions between bacteria and specific immune cells. Bacteria appeared to preferentially interact with neutrophils but had no detectable interactions with dendritic cells. These findings suggest that Y. pestis infection of neutrophils not only prevents their activation but may even result in their return to circulation and migration to distal sites.

  15. Structural tissue organization in the beak of Java and Darwin's finches

    PubMed Central

    Genbrugge, Annelies; Adriaens, Dominique; Kegel, Barbara; Brabant, Loes; Hoorebeke, Luc; Podos, Jeffrey; Dirckx, Joris; Aerts, Peter; Herrel, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Birds are well known for occupying diverse feeding niches, and for having evolved diverse beak morphologies associated with dietary specialization. Birds that feed on hard seeds typically possess beaks that are both deep and wide, presumably because of selection for fracture avoidance, as suggested by prior studies. It follows then that birds that eat seeds of different size and hardness should vary in one or more aspects of beak morphology, including the histological organization of the rhamphotheca, the cellular interface that binds the rhamphotheca to the bone, and the organization of trabeculae in the beak. To explore this expectation we here investigate tissue organization in the rhamphotheca of the Java finch, a large granivorous bird, and describe interspecific differences in the trabecular organization of the beak across 11 species of Darwin's finches. We identify specializations in multiple layers of the horny beak, with the dermis anchored to the bone by Sharpey's fibers in those regions that are subjected to high stresses during biting. Moreover, the rhamphotheca is characterized by a tight dermo-epidermal junction through interdigitations of these two tissues. Herbst corpuscles are observed in high density in the dermis of the lateral aspect of the beak as observed in other birds. Finally, the trabecular organization of the beak in Darwin's finches appears most variable in regions involved most in food manipulation, with the density of trabeculae in the beak generally mirroring loading regimes imposed by different feeding habits and beak use in this clade. PMID:22938039

  16. Comparison of in vivo and ex vivo laser scanning microscopy and multiphoton tomography application for human and porcine skin imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Darvin, M E; Richter, H; Zhu, Y J; Meinke, M C; Knorr, F; Lademann, J; Gonchukov, S A; Koenig, K

    2014-07-31

    Two state-of-the-art microscopic optical methods, namely, confocal laser scanning microscopy in the fluorescence and reflectance regimes and multiphoton tomography in the autofluorescence and second harmonic generation regimes, are compared for porcine skin ex vivo and healthy human skin in vivo. All skin layers such as stratum corneum (SC), stratum spinosum (SS), stratum basale (SB), papillary dermis (PD) and reticular dermis (RD) as well as transition zones between these skin layers are measured noninvasively at a high resolution, using the above mentioned microscopic methods. In the case of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), measurements in the fluorescence regime were performed by using a fluorescent dye whose topical application on the surface is well suited for the investigation of superficial SC and characterisation of the skin barrier function. For investigations of deeply located skin layers, such as SS, SB and PD, the fluorescent dye must be injected into the skin, which markedly limits fluorescence measurements using CLSM. In the case of reflection CLSM measurements, the obtained results can be compared to the results of multiphoton tomography (MPT) for all skin layers excluding RD. CLSM cannot distinguish between dermal collagen and elastin measuring their superposition in the RD. By using MPT, it is possible to analyse the collagen and elastin structures separately, which is important for the investigation of anti-aging processes. The resolution of MPT is superior to CLSM. The advantages and limitations of both methods are discussed and the differences and similarities between human and porcine skin are highlighted. (laser biophotonics)

  17. CO2 laser debridement of sulphur mustard (bis-2-chloroethyl sulphide) induced cutaneous lesions accelerates production of a normal epidermis with elimination of cytological atypia.

    PubMed

    Smith, K J; Skelton, H G; Martin, J L; Hurst, C G; Hackley, B E

    1997-10-01

    Sulphur mustard (bis-2-chloroethyl sulphide; HD) exposure acutely produces lesions that vary from mild erythema, to blister formation, to necrosis. When blisters occur, with or without necrosis, healing of the lesions is delayed. Weanling pigs exposed to a mild erythema-producing dose of HD and to a moderate erythema-producing dose that consistently gave microblister formation were treated with CO2 laser (Tru-Pulse) debridement at 6, 24 or 48 h after exposure. The histopathological features observed at 14 days after exposure in control skin and skin exposed to both HD doses were compared with the features observed in CO2 laser-debrided skin in non-exposed and HD-exposed skin sites. The overlying epidermis in the non-laser treated lesions was thin, with cytological atypia and squamoid changes within the basal cell layer, as well as scattered apoptotic/necrotic keratinocytes. An increased inflammatory infiltrate and necrobiotic changes in the dermis were seen at the higher HD dose. All laser-treated lesions appeared identical, with a thick, differentiated epidermis and a well-formed basal cell layer. There was minimal inflammatory infiltrate. In the papillary dermis there were increased stromal cells. Laser debridement of mild clinical lesions induced by HD produced a more functional epidermis by 14 days as well as clearing the epidermis of damaged keratinocytes.

  18. Development of tissue-engineered models of oral dysplasia and early invasive oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Colley, H E; Hearnden, V; Jones, A V; Weinreb, P H; Violette, S M; MacNeil, S; Thornhill, M H; Murdoch, C

    2011-01-01

    Background: Current organotypic models of dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) lack the complexity that mimics in vivo tissue. Here we describe a three-dimensional in vitro model of the oral epithelium that replicates tumour progression from dysplasia to an invasive phenotype. Methods: The OSCC cell lines were seeded as a cell suspension (D20, Cal27) or as multicellular tumour spheroids (FaDu) with oral fibroblasts on to a de-epidermised acellular dermis to generate tissue-engineered models and compared with patient biopsies. Results: The D20 and Cal27 cells generated a model of epithelial dysplasia. Overtime Cal27 cells traversed the basement membrane and invaded the connective tissue to reproduce features of early invasive OSCC. When seeded onto a model of the normal oral mucosa, FaDu spheroids produced a histological picture mimicking carcinoma in situ with severe cellular atypia juxtaposed to normal epithelium. Conclusion: It is possible to culture in vitro models with the morphological appearance and histological characteristics of dysplasia and tumour cell invasion seen in vivo using native dermis. Such models could facilitate study of the molecular processes involved in malignant transformation, invasion and tumour growth as well as in vitro testing of new treatments, diagnostic tests and drug delivery systems for OSCC. PMID:21989184

  19. Quantitative changes in human epithelial cancers and osteogenesis imperfecta disease detected using nonlinear multicontrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adur, Javier; Pelegati, Vitor B.; de Thomaz, Andre A.; D'Souza-Li, Lilia; Assunção, Maria do Carmo; Bottcher-Luiz, Fátima; Andrade, Liliana A. L. A.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2012-08-01

    We show that combined multimodal nonlinear optical (NLO) microscopies, including two-photon excitation fluorescence, second-harmonic generation (SHG), third harmonic generation, and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) can be used to detect morphological and metabolic changes associated with stroma and epithelial transformation during the progression of cancer and osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) disease. NLO microscopes provide complementary information about tissue microstructure, showing distinctive patterns for different types of human breast cancer, mucinous ovarian tumors, and skin dermis of patients with OI. Using a set of scoring methods (anisotropy, correlation, uniformity, entropy, and lifetime components), we found significant differences in the content, distribution and organization of collagen fibrils in the stroma of breast and ovary as well as in the dermis of skin. We suggest that our results provide a framework for using NLO techniques as a clinical diagnostic tool for human cancer and OI. We further suggest that the SHG and FLIM metrics described could be applied to other connective or epithelial tissue disorders that are characterized by abnormal cells proliferation and collagen assembly.

  20. Scrotal calcinosis: idiopathic or dystrophic?

    PubMed

    Dubey, Suparna; Sharma, Rajeev; Maheshwari, Veena

    2010-01-01

    Scrotal calcinosis is a rare benign local process characterized by multiple, painless, hard scrotal nodules in the absence of any systemic metabolic disorder. Histological examination reveals extensive deposition of calcium in the dermis, which may be surrounded by histiocytes and an inflammatory giant cell reaction. Numerous theories have been propounded to explain the pathogenesis of this condition, but the principal debate revolves around whether the calcium is deposited at the site of previous epithelial cysts or the calcified nodules are purely idiopathic. This is the largest study of scrotal calcinosis to date with 100 cases, on which clinical, biochemical, radiological, cytopathological, and histopathological examinations were conducted. The histological picture shows a continuous spectrum of changes ranging from intact epithelial cysts (41.0%) - both normal and inflamed; through inflamed cysts containing calcific material in the lumen but with intact cyst wall (53.0%); calcified inflamed cysts with partial epithelial lining (11.0%); to 'naked' calcium deposits lying in the dermis (100%), sometimes compressing surrounding collagen fibres to form a pseudocyst (56.0%). The presence of normal values of calcium and phosphorus along with this spectrum of changes in histology both support the theory that these form by dystrophic calcification of epithelial cysts in a progression that involves inflammation, rupture, calcification and obliteration of the cyst wall. PMID:20178701

  1. Transcutaneous delivery of micro- and nanoparticles with laser microporation.

    PubMed

    Genina, Elina A; Bashkatov, Alexey N; Dolotov, Leonid E; Maslyakova, Galina N; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V; Altshuler, Gregory B; Tuchin, Valery V

    2013-11-01

    Fractional laser ablation is one of the relatively safe and minimally invasive methods used to administer micro- and nanoparticles into the skin at sufficiently large depth. In this article, we present the results of delivery of TiO₂ nanoparticles and Al₂O₃ microparticles into skin. Fractional laser microablation of skin was provided by a system based on a pulsed Er:YAG laser with the following parameters: the wavelength 2940 nm, the pulse energy 3.0 J, and the pulse duration 20 ms. Ex vivo and in vivo human skin was used in the study. The suspensions of titanium dioxide and alumina powder in polyethylene glycol with particle size of about 100 nm and 27 μm, respectively, were used. In the ex vivo experiments, reflectance spectra of skin samples with administered particles were measured and histological sections of the samples were made. In the in vivo experiment, reflectance spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, and clinical photography were used to monitor the skin status during one month after suspension administering. It is shown that particles can be delivered into dermis up to the depth 230 μm and distributed uniformly in the tissue. Spectral measurements confirm that the particles stay in the dermis longer than 1 month. PMID:23856834

  2. Study on the human perception of incipient and overall slippages using a 2D FE fingertip model.

    PubMed

    Zhongkui Wang; Chathuranga, Damith Suresh; Hirai, Shinichi

    2015-08-01

    Slippage on the fingertips is an important phenomenon that occurs constantly in our daily life. However, the mechanism behind the slippage, especially incipient slippage, which appears prior to overall slippage, has not been fully understood. In this paper, a 2D finite element (FE) model of the human fingertip was presented to study how the human fingertip perceives slippages. The 2D geometries of the fingertip were generated based on magnetic resonance (MR) images. The fingertip model consisted of four layers: epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous tissue, and distal phalanx. The microstructures of the intermediate and limiting ridges in between the epidermis and dermis layers were manually constructed to locate four types of mechanoreceptors. Simulations of pushing and sliding motions were implemented, and mechanical measures of the acceleration and strain energy density (SED) were investigated at the locations of the mechanoreceptors. We found that both incipient and overall slippages could be clearly detected using the acceleration signal captured by the FA-I and SA-I receptors. The SED measurement does not provide useful information for the slippage detection. PMID:26737602

  3. Gender variations in the optical properties of skin in murine animal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabro, Katherine; Curtis, Allison; Galarneau, Jean-Rene; Krucker, Thomas; Bigio, Irving J.

    2011-01-01

    Gender is identified as a significant source of variation in optical reflectance measurements on mouse skin, with variation in the thickness of the dermal layer being the key explanatory variable. For three different mouse strains, the thickness values of the epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis layers, as measured by histology, are correlated to optical reflectance measurements collected with elastic scattering spectroscopy (ESS). In all three strains, males are found to have up to a 50% increase in dermal thickness, resulting in increases of up to 80% in reflectance values and higher observed scattering coefficients, as compared to females. Collagen in the dermis is identified as the primary source of these differences due to its strong scattering nature; increased dermal thickness leads to a greater photon path length through the collagen, as compared to other layers, resulting in a larger scattering signal. A related increase in the observed absorption coefficient in females is also observed. These results emphasize the importance of considering gender during experimental design in studies that involve photon interaction with mouse skin. The results also elucidate the significant impact that relatively small thickness changes can have on observed optical measurements in layered tissue.

  4. A case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma misdiagnosed as an erysipelas of the face.

    PubMed

    Teresiak-Mikołajczak, Ewa; Szymańska, Magdalena; Czarnecka-Operacz, Magdalena

    2013-08-01

    We report a case of a woman with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Primary cutaneous lymphomas (PCLs) represent distinct clinical and histopathologic subtypes of extranodal T- and B-cell lymphomas. Cutaneous B-cell lymphomas comprise 20-25% of all primary cutaneous lymphomas. The patient presented an erythematous tumour mass of the left nasolabial fold, nose and left cheek as well as disseminated infiltrative plagues on the trunk, arms and left lower leg. Skin biopsy revealed a diffuse infiltrate of lymphocytes around hair follicles and blood vessels within dermis and subcutaneous tissue. An immunohistochemistry showed a diffuse infiltrate of large non-cleaved B-cells, with a high proportion of centroblast-like cells within dermis. Tumor cells expressed CD20, bcl-2 protein and did not express CD10. The patient was misdiagnosed as the erysipelas of the face and unsuccessfully treated with long-term antibiotic therapy by a laryngologist and a dermatologist. The correct diagnosis was delayed and established after 6 months' history of DLBCL lesions. Therefore, we would like to strongly stress the importance of considering diagnosis of cutaneous lymphomas in chronic skin lesions non-responsive to adequate therapies.

  5. [Two cases of scleroderma associated with vibration syndrome].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Y; Kawabe, M; Yasue, T; Yuguchi, M; Yoshida, I

    1989-02-01

    Case 1, a 49-year-old male who had been engaged in repair and reclamation of automobile tires, developed symptoms of vibration syndrome (Raynaud's phenomenon, numbness of both hands, tinnitus and impaired hearing) after some 30 years' use of a grinder and impact wrench. Two years thereafter, multiple sclerodermic lesions appeared over the trunk, upper extremities, and thighs; these disappeared about 2 years later. Histologically, hyperplasia and nodular swelling of collagen bundles were present in the dermis. An immunological study showed the serum to be positive for anti-centromere antibody, but no visceral lesions were demonstrable. This case corresponded to generalized morphea. Case 2, a 53-year-old male, developed symptoms of vibration syndrome (Raynaud's phenomenon, numbness of both hands, impaired hearing and arthralgia) after 25 years' use of a jack hammer in a quarry. Thereafter, sclerodermic changes of the forearms, lower legs, face and abdomen occurred with an associated sclerodactyly. Histological examination of involved skin revealed diffuse hyperplasia and homogenization of collagen bundles throughout the entire thickness of the dermis. These findings, together with serum positivity for anti-RNP antibody and dilation of the lower portion of the esophagus, led us to a diagnosis of progressive systemic sclerosis. We inferred that the vibration syndrome in the present cases might be related etiologically to these forms of scleroderma.

  6. Skin aging in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Aquino Favarato, Grace Kelly Naves; da Silva, Aline Cristina Souza; Oliveira, Lívia Ferreira; da Fonseca Ferraz, Mara Lúcia; de Paula Antunes Teixeira, Vicente; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the histomorphometric skin changes over aging patients with autopsied acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In 29 skin fragments of autopsied elderly (older than 50 years) and nonelderly patients with AIDS, epidermal thickness, the number of layers, the diameter of cells, the percentage of collagen and elastic fibers in the dermis, and the number and morphology of Langerhans cells were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed by SigmaStat 2.03 program. The thickness of the epidermis (92.55 × 158.94 μm), the number of layers (7 × 9 layers), and the diameter of the cells (13.27 × 17.6 μm) were statistically lower among the elderly. The quantity of collagen fibers (9.68 × 14.11%) and elastic fibers (11.89 × 15.31%) was also significantly lower in the elderly. There was a decrease in total (10.61 × 12.38 cel/mm(2)) and an increase in immature Langerhans cells (6.31 × 4.98 cel/mm(2)) in elderly patients with AIDS. The aging of the skin of patients with AIDS is amended in different histomorphometric aspects, the epidermis constituents suffer less pronounced changes in normal aging, and the dermis has more intense changes in elastic fibers and collagen. PMID:27649952

  7. Analytical model of diffuse reflectance spectrum of skin tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenko, S. A.; Kugeiko, M. M.; Firago, V. A.; Sobchuk, A. N.

    2014-01-01

    We have derived simple analytical expressions that enable highly accurate calculation of diffusely reflected light signals of skin in the spectral range from 450 to 800 nm at a distance from the region of delivery of exciting radiation. The expressions, taking into account the dependence of the detected signals on the refractive index, transport scattering coefficient, absorption coefficient and anisotropy factor of the medium, have been obtained in the approximation of a two-layer medium model (epidermis and dermis) for the same parameters of light scattering but different absorption coefficients of layers. Numerical experiments on the retrieval of the skin biophysical parameters from the diffuse reflectance spectra simulated by the Monte Carlo method show that commercially available fibre-optic spectrophotometers with a fixed distance between the radiation source and detector can reliably determine the concentration of bilirubin, oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin in the dermis tissues and the tissue structure parameter characterising the size of its effective scatterers. We present the examples of quantitative analysis of the experimental data, confirming the correctness of estimates of biophysical parameters of skin using the obtained analytical expressions.

  8. Chemical purity and toxicology of pigments used in tattoo inks.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Henrik; Lewe, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The safety of tattoo inks has obviously increased in Europe since the existence of European Union Resolution ResAP(2008)1, which resulted in the improved quality control of pigment raw materials due to the definition of impurity limits that manufacturers can refer to. High-performance pigments are mostly used in tattoo inks, and these pigments are supposed to be chemically inert and offer high light fastness and low migration in solvents. However, these pigments were not developed or produced for applications involving long-term stay in the dermis or contact with bodily fluids. Therefore, these pigments often do not comply with the purity limits of the resolution; however, it is required that every distributed tattoo ink does not contain aromatic amines and not exceed the limits of heavy metals or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Current toxicity studies of pigments underline that no ecotoxicological threat to human health or to the environment should be expected. However, the pigment as well as its impurities and coating materials must be considered. In order to evaluate the safety of pigments according to their impurities, two different validated sample preparation methods are necessary: (1) simulation of their long-term stay in the bodily fluid of the dermis and (2) simulation of cleavage due to laser removal or ultraviolet exposure. The development of standardized, validated and well-adapted methods for this application has to be part of prospective efforts. Concerning legislation, it might be appropriate that the first regulative approaches be based on those of cosmetics.

  9. Comparison of in vivo and ex vivo laser scanning microscopy and multiphoton tomography application for human and porcine skin imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvin, M. E.; Richter, H.; Zhu, Y. J.; Meinke, M. C.; Knorr, F.; Gonchukov, S. A.; Koenig, K.; Lademann, J.

    2014-07-01

    Two state-of-the-art microscopic optical methods, namely, confocal laser scanning microscopy in the fluorescence and reflectance regimes and multiphoton tomography in the autofluorescence and second harmonic generation regimes, are compared for porcine skin ex vivo and healthy human skin in vivo. All skin layers such as stratum corneum (SC), stratum spinosum (SS), stratum basale (SB), papillary dermis (PD) and reticular dermis (RD) as well as transition zones between these skin layers are measured noninvasively at a high resolution, using the above mentioned microscopic methods. In the case of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), measurements in the fluorescence regime were performed by using a fluorescent dye whose topical application on the surface is well suited for the investigation of superficial SC and characterisation of the skin barrier function. For investigations of deeply located skin layers, such as SS, SB and PD, the fluorescent dye must be injected into the skin, which markedly limits fluorescence measurements using CLSM. In the case of reflection CLSM measurements, the obtained results can be compared to the results of multiphoton tomography (MPT) for all skin layers excluding RD. CLSM cannot distinguish between dermal collagen and elastin measuring their superposition in the RD. By using MPT, it is possible to analyse the collagen and elastin structures separately, which is important for the investigation of anti-aging processes. The resolution of MPT is superior to CLSM. The advantages and limitations of both methods are discussed and the differences and similarities between human and porcine skin are highlighted.

  10. Pilot study of semiautomated localization of the dermal/epidermal junction in reflectance confocal microscopy images of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurugol, Sila; Dy, Jennifer G.; Brooks, Dana H.; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2011-03-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) continues to be translated toward the detection of skin cancers in vivo. Automated image analysis may help clinicians and accelerate clinical acceptance of RCM. For screening and diagnosis of cancer, the dermal/epidermal junction (DEJ), at which melanomas and basal cell carcinomas originate, is an important feature in skin. In RCM images, the DEJ is marked by optically subtle changes and features and is difficult to detect purely by visual examination. Challenges for automation of DEJ detection include heterogeneity of skin tissue, high inter-, intra-subject variability, and low optical contrast. To cope with these challenges, we propose a semiautomated hybrid sequence segmentation/classification algorithm that partitions z-stacks of tiles into homogeneous segments by fitting a model of skin layer dynamics and then classifies tile segments as epidermis, dermis, or transitional DEJ region using texture features. We evaluate two different training scenarios: 1. training and testing on portions of the same stack; 2. training on one labeled stack and testing on one from a different subject with similar skin type. Initial results demonstrate the detectability of the DEJ in both scenarios with epidermis/dermis misclassification rates smaller than 10% and average distance from the expert labeled boundaries around 8.5 μm.

  11. The analysis of aging skin based on multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shulian; Li, Hui; Zhang, Xiaoman; Li, Zhifang; Xu, Shufei

    2010-11-01

    Aging is a very important issue not only in dermatology, but also in cosmetic science. Cutaneous aging involves both chronological and photoaging aging process. The chronological aging is induced with the passage of time. And the photoaging skin is the extrinsic aging caused by sun exposure. The aim of this study is to use multiphoton microscopy (MPM) in vivo to assess intrinsic-age-related and photo-age-related difference. The changes of dermal collagen are measured in quantitively. The algorithm that we used automatically produced the transversal dermal map from MPM. Others, the texture of dermis are analyzed by Fourier transform and Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix. And the object extraction in textured images is proposed based on the method in object edge extraction, and the aim of it is to detect the object hidden in the skin texture in difference aging skin. The result demonstrates that the approach is effective in detecting the object in epidermis and dermis textured image in different aging skin. It could help to further understand the aging mechanism.

  12. Analysis of the scalp of women with AIDS subjected to autopsy: epithelial, follicular, and immunologic aspects.

    PubMed

    Faria, Humberto Aparecido; Farnese, Mauricio; Rocha, Laura Penna; Olegário, Janaínna Grazielle Pacheco; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; de Oliveira Guimarães, Camila Souza; dos Reis, Marlene Antônia; Miranda Corrêa, Rosana Rosa

    2013-02-01

    Hair keeps the scalp warmer and slightly moister than the rest of the skin, which contributes to a favorable environment for mycotic, bacterial, and parasitic infections. It is well established that AIDS makes the patient more susceptible to opportunistic infections and cutaneous manifestations. Because of this, the aim of this study was to analyze scalp fragments of autopsied women with AIDS. Twenty-eight scalp samples of women aged between 18 and 46 years were observed. These women were divided into 2 groups: with AIDS (n = 14) and without AIDS (n = 14). We conducted histochemical (hematoxylin-eosin, Picrosirius, and Verhoeff), morphometric (Image J; National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, ON, Canada and KS-300 Kontron-Zeiss; Kontron Elektronik, Carl-Zeiss, Germany), and immunohistochemical (S-100) analyses of the scalp. In patients with AIDS, epithelial thickness, number of epithelial cell layers, number of immature Langerhans cells in the epidermis, and percentages of elastic fibers in the dermis were significantly lower, whereas telogen hair follicles were significantly higher. The percentage of collagen fibers in the dermis and the diameter of the epithelial cells were smaller in patients with AIDS, without significant difference. AIDS possibly causes immunologic and morphologic alterations in the scalp. This study may establish parameters for better clinical and morphologic diagnostic in patients with AIDS.

  13. Confocal mosaicing microscopy of human skin ex vivo: spectral analysis for digital staining to simulate histology-like appearance.

    PubMed

    Bini, Jason; Spain, James; Nehal, Kishwer; Hazelwood, Vikki; DiMarzio, Charles; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2011-07-01

    Confocal mosaicing microscopy enables rapid imaging of large areas of fresh tissue, without the processing that is necessary for conventional histology. Mosaicing may offer a means to perform rapid histology at the bedside. A possible barrier toward clinical acceptance is that the mosaics are based on a single mode of grayscale contrast and appear black and white, whereas histology is based on two stains (hematoxylin for nuclei, eosin for cellular cytoplasm and dermis) and appears purple and pink. Toward addressing this barrier, we report advances in digital staining: fluorescence mosaics that show only nuclei, are digitally stained purple and overlaid on reflectance mosaics, which show only cellular cytoplasm and dermis, and are digitally stained pink. With digital staining, the appearance of confocal mosaics mimics the appearance of histology. Using multispectral analysis and color matching functions, red, green, and blue (RGB) components of hematoxylin and eosin stains in tissue were determined. The resulting RGB components were then applied in a linear algorithm to transform fluorescence and reflectance contrast in confocal mosaics to the absorbance contrast seen in pathology. Optimization of staining with acridine orange showed improved quality of digitally stained mosaics, with good correlation to the corresponding histology.

  14. A unique cross section through the skin of the dinosaur Psittacosaurus from China showing a complex fibre architecture.

    PubMed

    Lingham-Soliar, Theagarten

    2008-04-01

    This paper reports on a unique preservation of soft tissues in the ventrolateral region of the plant-eating dinosaur Psittacosaurus from the Jehol biota of China. The preservation is of a deep cross section through the dermis, which includes multiple layers of collagenous fibres in excess of 25, among the highest recorded in vertebrates, with a further 15 more layers (poorly preserved) estimated for the entire height of the section. Also, for the first time in a dinosaur two fibre layers parallel to the skin surface are preserved deep within the dermis at the base of the cross section. These fibre layers comprise regularly disposed fibres arranged in left- and right-handed geodesic helices, matching the pattern at the surface and reasonably inferred for the entire section. As noted from the studies on modern-day animals, this fibre structure plays a critical part in the stresses and strains the skin may be subjected to and is ideally suited to providing support and protection. Psittacosaurus gives a remarkable, unprecedented understanding of the dinosaur skin.

  15. Collision of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of Anogenital Mammary-like Glands and Vulvar Sarcomatoid Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tien A N; Deavers, Michael T; Carlson, J Andrew; Malpica, Anais

    2015-09-01

    A spectrum of invasive adenocarcinomas presumably arising from the anogenital mammary-like glands of the vulva has been reported. Even rarer are the cases of pure ductal carcinoma in situ that originated from these unique glandular structures. Herein, we report an 81-yr-old woman presented with an invasive well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Unexpectedly, the underlying dermis demonstrated a cystically dilated structure that displayed a layer of malignant squamous cells in the periphery, and a second centrally located population of neoplastic cells exhibiting glandular differentiation. In addition, a spindle and pleomorphic malignant cell population consistent with a sarcomatoid carcinoma was identified around the cystic structure. Scattered benign anogenital mammary-like glands were present in the adjacent dermis. The histologic and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with those of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma that has undergone sarcomatoid transformation after spreading in a pagetoid fashion into an underlying focus of ductal carcinoma in situ of anogenital mammary-like gland origin.

  16. Noninvasive intravital cellular diagnosis of atopic dermatitis by using harmonic optical virtual biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Szu-Yu; Lee, Jyh-Hong; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2007-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is now very common in people who live in cities, especially for babies and children. Since the cause of AD is still not completely understood and each person may have his own mixed symptoms that can change over time, diagnosis of AD can not be done precisely. Unlike some skin diseases, physical biopsy is rarely used in diagnosing AD on account of its low urgency. Thus, only indirect diagnoses, like asking for a medical history to learn about the symptoms and to rule out other diseases can be carried out. To gain insight into cellular details of AD for long-term diagnosing without physical biopsy, a noninvasive in vivo tool with a sub-micron subsurface resolution and high penetrability has to be used. In this presentation, we show that harmonic optical virtual biopsy can provide the required noninvasive cellular imaging, and is ideal for future clinical diagnosis of AD. Harmonic optical microscopy has been demonstrated to have the capability to reveal cellular morphology of human skin from epidermis to dermis layer. Third harmonic generation (THG), which is sensitive to inhomogeneous interfaces, can show the structures of skins, and can be used to reveal the morphological changes, for example, the thicken cuticle which is a common symptom of AD. Second harmonic generation (SHG), which occurs in non-centrosymmetric structures, has excellent contrast in collagen fibers and can show the pathological changes of dermis layer. Utilizing both THG and SHG, useful information may be given to facilitate the diagnosis of AD.

  17. Collagen XII and XIV, New Partners of Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein in the Skin Extracellular Matrix Suprastructure*

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Pallavi; Zwolanek, Daniela; Keene, Douglas R.; Schulz, Jan-Niklas; Blumbach, Katrin; Heinegård, Dick; Zaucke, Frank; Paulsson, Mats; Krieg, Thomas; Koch, Manuel; Eckes, Beate

    2012-01-01

    The tensile and scaffolding properties of skin rely on the complex extracellular matrix (ECM) that surrounds cells, vasculature, nerves, and adnexus structures and supports the epidermis. In the skin, collagen I fibrils are the major structural component of the dermal ECM, decorated by proteoglycans and by fibril-associated collagens with interrupted triple helices such as collagens XII and XIV. Here we show that the cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), an abundant component of cartilage ECM, is expressed in healthy human skin. COMP expression is detected in the dermal compartment of skin and in cultured fibroblasts, whereas epidermis and HaCaT cells are negative. In addition to binding collagen I, COMP binds to collagens XII and XIV via their C-terminal collagenous domains. All three proteins codistribute in a characteristic narrow zone in the superficial papillary dermis of healthy human skin. Ultrastructural analysis by immunogold labeling confirmed colocalization and further revealed the presence of COMP along with collagens XII and XIV in anchoring plaques. On the basis of these observations, we postulate that COMP functions as an adapter protein in human skin, similar to its function in cartilage ECM, by organizing collagen I fibrils into a suprastructure, mainly in the vicinity of anchoring plaques that stabilize the cohesion between the upper dermis and the basement membrane zone. PMID:22573329

  18. Impact of extracorporeal shock waves on the human skin with cellulite: A case study of an unique instance

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Christoph; Angehrn, Fiorenzo; Sonnabend, Ortrud; Voss, Axel

    2008-01-01

    In this case study of an unique instance, effects of medium-energy, high-focused extracorporeal generated shock waves (ESW) onto the skin and the underlying fat tissue of a cellulite afflicted, 50-year-old woman were investigated. The treatment consisted of four ESW applications within 21 days. Diagnostic high-resolution ultrasound (Collagenoson) was performed before and after treatment. Directly after the last ESW application, skin samples were taken for histopathological analysis from the treated and from the contra-lateral untreated area of skin with cellulite. No damage to the treated skin tissue, in particular no mechanical destruction to the subcutaneous fat, could be demonstrated by histopathological analysis. However an astounding induction of neocollageno- and neoelastino-genesis within the scaffolding fabric of the dermis and subcutis was observed. The dermis increased in thickness as well as the scaffolding within the subcutaneous fat-tissue. Optimization of critical application parameters may turn ESW into a noninvasive cellulite therapy. PMID:18488890

  19. Comparison between histopathologic features of leprosy in reaction lesions in HIV coinfected and non-coinfected patients*

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Carla Andréa Avelar; de Miranda, Mario Fernando Ribeiro; Bittencourt, Maraya de Jesus Semblano; de Brito, Arival Cardoso; Xavier, Marília Brasil

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Leprosy and HIV are diseases that have a major impact on public health in Brazil. Patients coinfected with both diseases, appear to be at higher risk to develop leprosy reactions. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to describe the histopathological aspects of cutaneous lesions during reactional states in a group of patients with HIV-leprosy coinfection, compared to patients with leprosy, without coinfection. METHODS Two groups were established: group 1 comprised of 40 patients coinfected with HIV-leprosy; group 2, comprised of 107 patients with leprosy only. Patients presenting reactional states of leprosy had their lesions biopsied and comparatively evaluated. RESULTS Reversal reaction was the most frequent feature in both groups, with dermis edema as the most common histopathological finding. Giant cells were seen in all group 1 histopathological examinations. Dermis edema was the most common finding in patients with erythema nodosum leprosum. CONCLUSION Few histopathological differences were found in both groups, with reversal reaction as the most significant one, although this fact should be analyzed considering the predominant BT clinical form in the coinfected group and BB form in the group without HIV. Larger prospective studies in patients with HIV-leprosy coinfection are needed to confirm and broaden these results. PMID:25672296

  20. Interstitial Mycosis Fungoides: A Clinicopathologic Study of 21 Patients.

    PubMed

    Reggiani, Camilla; Massone, Cesare; Fink-Puches, Regina; Cota, Carlo; Cerroni, Lorenzo

    2016-10-01

    Interstitial mycosis fungoides (IMF) is a rare histopathologic variant of mycosis fungoides (MF) that may mimic other inflammatory dermatoses, mainly interstitial granuloma annulare, inflammatory morphea, and interstitial granulomatous dermatitis. Only small series and sporadic case reports of IMF have been described in the literature. We reviewed 27 specimens from 21 patients with IMF (M:F=11:10, median age 60) to better characterize clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical features of this disease. Most patients presented clinically with patches and/or plaques. Conventional MF was documented before, concomitant with, or after IMF in 12 patients, whereas only in 2 patients different biopsies showed exclusive features of IMF over a period of 4 and 191 months, respectively. Histology revealed in all cases variably long, linear aggregates of dermal lymphocytes splaying the collagen fibers, involving predominantly the superficial and mid-dermis (6 cases) or the entire dermis (21 cases). Immunohistochemical stainings revealed a cytotoxic phenotype in 9/18 tested cases. Variable amounts of histiocytes/macrophages were found interstitially in all tested biopsies but never represented a population larger than that of T lymphocytes. Our study shows that IMF is a peculiar variant of MF with frequent cytotoxic phenotype. This histopathologic variant in most cases represents a transient pattern in otherwise conventional MF. Accurate clinicopathologic correlation and phenotypic studies of atypical dermal interstitial lymphohistiocytic infiltrates allow to make a correct diagnosis.

  1. Adipose-derived stem cells for skin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Hiroshi; Nambu, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    Intractable skin ulcers resulting from diabetes, ischemia and collagen diseases represent significant problems with few solutions. Cell-based therapy may hold promise in overcoming such disorders. In order to establish a suitable experimental model for the treatment of such ulcers using stem cells, this chapter describes detailed methods for: (1) isolation of stem cells from adipose tissue, termed adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), (2) preparing a hybrid-type artificial dermis that consists of a type I collagen sponge and ASCs, (3) preparing intractable ulcers using Mitomycin C, and (4) evaluating the effect of wound healing histologically. ASCs seeded onto a type I collagen sponge are applied to intractable ulcers induced by topical application of Mitomycin C. Histological evaluation after 1 and 2 weeks revealed an increase in capillary density and granulation thickness of the hybrid-type artificial dermis. These findings suggest that ASCs may have a positive effect on wound healing and may be a useful tool for future cell-based therapy. PMID:21082422

  2. Ultrastructural analysis between fetal and adult wound healing process of marsupial opossum skin.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, Kei; Ihara, Setsunosuke

    2015-01-01

    The opossum delivers a newborn baby equivalent to tremature fetus state by postpregnancy. The peculiarity is advantageous for studies of fetus, because operations to take out fetus from the uterus of a mother are not necessary. When mammalian skin is wounded by full-thickness excision, fetal and adult wound healing processes differ. Fetal-type wound healing does not leave a scar. However, studies of how the fetal wound healing process differs in detail from the adult type are not advanced. We first observed the normal skin development of the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) using an electron microscope. As for normal skin, an epidermis became multi-layered, and thickened from birth through to 7 days after birth. The quantity of extracellular matrix of the dermis increased thereafter, and several types of cells were found in the dermis. To examine the wound healing, we used material from a 1 day-old newborn baby, and from another 15 days after birth, and compared the wound healing style morphologically. Differences in the constitution of cells and fine structures of the skin were observed, it was obviously suggested that change in the wound healing style from fetal-type to adult-type occurred between 1 to 15 days after birth.

  3. Armored geckos: A histological investigation of osteoderm development in Tarentola (Phyllodactylidae) and Gekko (Gekkonidae) with comments on their regeneration and inferred function.

    PubMed

    Vickaryous, M K; Meldrum, G; Russell, A P

    2015-11-01

    Osteoderms are bone-rich organs found in the dermis of many scleroglossan lizards sensu lato, but are only known for two genera of gekkotans (geckos): Tarentola and Gekko. Here, we investigate their sequence of appearance, mode of development, structural diversity and ability to regenerate following tail loss. Osteoderms were present in all species of Tarentola sampled (Tarentola annularis, T. mauritanica, T. americana, T. crombei, T. chazaliae) as well as Gekko gecko, but not G. smithii. Gekkotan osteoderms first appear within the integument dorsal to the frontal bone or within the supraocular scales. They then manifest as mineralized structures in other positions across the head. In Tarentola and G. gecko, discontinuous clusters subsequently form dorsal to the pelvis/base of the tail, and then dorsal to the pectoral apparatus. Gekkotan osteoderm formation begins once the dermis is fully formed. Early bone deposition appears to involve populations of fibroblast-like cells, which are gradually replaced by more rounded osteoblasts. In T. annularis and T. mauritanica, an additional skeletal tissue is deposited across the superficial surface of the osteoderm. This tissue is vitreous, avascular, cell-poor, lacks intrinsic collagen, and is herein identified as osteodermine. We also report that following tail loss, both T. annularis and T. mauritanica are capable of regenerating osteoderms, including osteodermine, in the regenerated part of the tail. We propose that osteoderms serve roles in defense against combative prey and intraspecific aggression, along with anti-predation functions.

  4. Development of a Murine Infection Model with Leishmania killicki, Responsible for Cutaneous Leishmaniosis in Algeria: Application in Pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Eddaikra, Naouel; Kherachi Djenad, Ihcene; Benbetka, Sihem; Benikhlef, Razika; Aït-Oudhia, Khatima; Moulti-Mati, Farida; Oury, Bruno; Sereno, Denis; Harrat, Zoubir

    2016-01-01

    In Algeria, Leishmania infantum, Leishmania major, and Leishmania killicki (Leishmania tropica) are responsible for cutaneous leishmaniosis. We established a murine model of L. killicki infection to investigate its infective capacity, some immunophysiopathological aspects, and its suitability for pharmacological purposes. Following the injection of L. major or L. killicki metacyclic promastigotes in the ear dermis of BALB/c mice, the course of infection was followed. The infection with L. killicki caused slower lesion formation than with L. major. The presence of L. killicki or L. major DNA and parasites was detected in the ear dermis and in lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Lesions induced by L. killicki were nonulcerative in their aspect, whereas those caused by L. major were highly ulcerative and necrotic, which matches well with the lesion phenotype reported in humans for L. killicki and L. major, respectively. The treatment of L. killicki lesions by injection of Glucantime® significantly reduced the lesion thickness and parasite burden. Ear dermal injection of BALB/c mice constitutes a model to study lesions physiopathology caused by L. killicki and presents interest for in vivo screening of new compounds against this pathogen, emerging in Algeria. PMID:26949705

  5. Condylomata lata on the ankle: an unusual location.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Eri; Goto, Akane; Suzaki, Reiko; Sawada, Mizuki; Dekio, Itaru; Ishizaki, Sumiko; Fujibayashi, Mariko; Takahashi, Hayato; Tanaka, Masaru

    2016-04-01

    A 43-year-old Japanese man presented with reddish nodules on the ankle. The nodules had a yellowish crust and eroded surface. Dermoscopy revealed red to milky-red globules at the periphery and some glomerular vessels in the center and a whitish-pink network, which corresponded to capillary dilatation in the papillary dermis and prominent acanthosis, respectively. These structures were surrounded by a yellowish peripheral structureless area and multiple white, small, round structures in the center, corresponding to the macerated horny layer and keratin plugs. Blood samples were positive for rapid plasma reagin (1:64), Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (1:20480), and fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (1:1280). A lesional skin biopsy specimen showed irregular acanthosis and papillomatosis. The Warthin-Starry and anti-Treponema pallidum antibody stains on the biopsy specimen revealed many spirochetes in the lower epidermis and the papillary dermis. A diagnosis of secondary syphilis with condylomata lata was made. After one week of treatment with oral benzylpenicillin benzathine hydrate (Bicillin(®) G granules 400,000 units; Banyu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Tokyo, Japan), 1.6 million units (U) daily, the ankle lesions had resolved with a small ulcer and pigmentation. Although syphilis is a relatively common disease, this case study reports an unusual presentation as well as dermoscopy findings. PMID:27222772

  6. Laser abrasion for cosmetic and medical treatment of facial actinic damage

    SciTech Connect

    David, L.M.; Lask, G.P.; Glassberg, E.; Jacoby, R.; Abergel, R.P.

    1989-06-01

    Previous studies have shown the carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) laser to be effective in the treatment of actinic cheilitis. After CO/sub 2/ laser abrasion, normal skin and marked cosmetic improvement of the lip were noted. In our study, twenty-three patients were treated with CO/sub 2/ laser abrasions for cosmetic improvement of facial lines and actinic changes. Pre- and postoperative histopathologic examinations were made on two patients. Preoperative examination of specimens from actinically damaged skin showed atypical keratinocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis, with overlying dense compact orthokeratosis and parakeratosis. Abundant solar elastosis was seen in the papillary dermis. Postoperative histologic specimens showed a normal-appearing epidermis with fibrosis in the papillary dermis and minimal solar elastosis (about four weeks after laser treatment). At present, various modalities are available for the regeneration of the aged skin, including chemical peels and dermabrasion. Significantly fewer complications were noted with CO/sub 2/ laser abrasion than with these methods. Thus, CO/sub 2/ laser abrasion can be useful in the cosmetic and medical treatment of the aged skin. Marked clinical and histologic improvement has been demonstrated.

  7. A Patient with Giant Rippled-Pattern Sebaceoma in the Occipital Region

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Masayuki; Arima, Masaru; Iwata, Yohei; Suzuki, Kayoko; Mizoguchi, Yoshikazu; Kuroda, Makoto; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2016-01-01

    A 72-year-old male visited a nearby hospital with a large tumor in his occipital region, which had existed since 20 years. Since malignant tumor was suspected, he was referred to our department. At the initial consultation, an elastic-hard, yellow-brown, sessile tumor, measuring 8 × 7 × 5 cm and with a flat surface, was observed in the occipital region. The tumor was resected and covered with artificial dermis. Histopathologically, the lesion was composed of basal-cell-like cells with nest formation in the dermis. A rippled pattern, or the single-line arrangement of tumor cells involving the stroma, was present. In addition, some tumor clusters revealed the differentiation to sebaceous glands, and these cells were positive for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and epithelial membrane antigen, which is consistent with the staining of sebaceous glands. On the contrary, tumor cells were negative for epithelial antigen (Ber-EP4), and Ki67 (MIB1) index was 5% or lower. Therefore, we diagnosed the tumor as rippled-pattern sebaceoma and not as basal cell carcinoma. Although this case was quite unique in its large size, immunostaining was useful for the definite diagnosis. PMID:27462217

  8. A Patient with Giant Rippled-Pattern Sebaceoma in the Occipital Region.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masayuki; Arima, Masaru; Iwata, Yohei; Suzuki, Kayoko; Mizoguchi, Yoshikazu; Kuroda, Makoto; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2016-01-01

    A 72-year-old male visited a nearby hospital with a large tumor in his occipital region, which had existed since 20 years. Since malignant tumor was suspected, he was referred to our department. At the initial consultation, an elastic-hard, yellow-brown, sessile tumor, measuring 8 × 7 × 5 cm and with a flat surface, was observed in the occipital region. The tumor was resected and covered with artificial dermis. Histopathologically, the lesion was composed of basal-cell-like cells with nest formation in the dermis. A rippled pattern, or the single-line arrangement of tumor cells involving the stroma, was present. In addition, some tumor clusters revealed the differentiation to sebaceous glands, and these cells were positive for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and epithelial membrane antigen, which is consistent with the staining of sebaceous glands. On the contrary, tumor cells were negative for epithelial antigen (Ber-EP4), and Ki67 (MIB1) index was 5% or lower. Therefore, we diagnosed the tumor as rippled-pattern sebaceoma and not as basal cell carcinoma. Although this case was quite unique in its large size, immunostaining was useful for the definite diagnosis. PMID:27462217

  9. Reconstruction with cutaneous flap after resection for breast cancer's skin metastases in a chemoresistant patient.

    PubMed

    Varricchio, Antonio; Di Libero, Lorenzo; Iannace, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    We reported a case of a breast cancer's skin metastases in a patient that had sustained 3 lines of chemotherapy. At first she received surgical treatment with Madden's mastectomy with dissection of axillary limphnodes and positioning of an expander. After that she underwent to chemo- and radiotherapy. The schedules we performed were: FEC, TC,Vinorelbine and Capecitabine. Only after the FEC there was a clinical remission just for 1 year. After that she underwent to surgery for the removal of a lozenge of skin on the right hemithorax, including also the subcutaneous tissue, a strip of muscular tissue, and a residue of the breast implant. The histology showed a multiple-nodules infiltration involving the dermis, the hypodermis, and the muscle. This pattern was valuated as a G3 breast cancer recurrence with ER 70%, PgR<5%, Ki67 50% Her2neu-. During the second line chemotherapy with TC she developed an high grade LCIS with lymphovascular infiltration on the left breast; on the right hemithorax there were cutaneous metastases with dermis' infiltration. Surgery with local excision was performed, and a cutaneous flap was realized. PMID:23685463

  10. Enrichment and characterization of human dermal stem/progenitor cells by intracellular granularity.

    PubMed

    Shim, Joong Hyun; Lee, Tae Ryong; Shin, Dong Wook

    2013-04-15

    Adult stem cells from the dermis would be an attractive cell source for therapeutic purposes as well as studying the process of skin aging. Several studies have reported that human dermal stem/progenitor cells (hDSPCs) with multipotent properties exist within the dermis of adult human skin. However, these cells have not been well characterized, because methods for their isolation or enrichment have not yet been optimized. In the present study, we enriched high side scatter (SSC(high))-hDSPCs from normal human dermal fibroblasts using a structural characteristic, intracellular granularity, as a sorting parameter. The SSC(high)-hDSPCs had high in vitro proliferation properties and expressed high levels of SOX2 and S100B, similar to previously identified mouse SOX2+ hair follicle dermal stem cells. The SSC(high)-hDSPCs could differentiate into not only mesodermal cell types, for example, adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts, but also neuroectodermal cell types, such as neural cells. In addition, the SSC(high)-hDSPCs exhibited no significant differences in the expression of nestin, vimentin, SNAI2, TWIST1, versican, and CORIN compared with non-hDSPCs. These cells are therefore different from the previously identified multipotent fibroblasts and skin-derived progenitors. In this study, we suggest that hDSPCs can be enriched by using characteristic of their high intracellular granularity, and these SSC(high)-hDSPCs exhibit high in vitro proliferation and differentiation potentials.

  11. Fabrication of 3D tissue equivalent: an in vitro platform for understanding collagen evolution in healthy and diseased models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urciuolo, F.; Imparato, G.; Casale, C.; Scamardella, S.; Netti, P.

    2013-04-01

    In this study we realized a three-dimensional human dermis equivalent (3D-HDE) and, by exploiting multi-photon microscopy (MPM) we validated its use as an in vitro model to study collagen network re-arrangement under simulated solar exposure. The realization of 3D-HDE has been pursed by means of a bottom-up tissue engineering strategy that comprises firstly the fabrication of micron sized tissue building blocks and then their assembly in a 3D tissue construct. The building blocks injected in a maturation chamber, and cultured under optimized culture condition, were able to fuse due to the establishment of cell-cell and cell-extra cellular matrix (ECM) interactions that induced a biological sintering process resulting in 3D-HDE production. The final 3D tissue was made-up by fibroblasts embedded in their own ECM rich in endogenous collagen type I, resembling the composition and the architecture of native human dermis. Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and Two-Photon Excited Fluorescence (TPEF) imaging have been exploited to assess modification in collagen assembly before and after UV irradiation. Textural features and SHG to TPFE ratio of the endogenous ECM within 3D-HDE have been shown to vary after UVA irradiation, proving the hypothesis that the 3DHDE realized can be used as biological platform in vitro to study ECM modifications induced by photo-damage.

  12. Minimally invasive non-thermal laser technology using laser-induced optical breakdown for skin rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Habbema, Louis; Verhagen, Rieko; Van Hal, Robbert; Liu, Yan; Varghese, Babu

    2012-02-01

    We describe a novel, minimally invasive laser technology for skin rejuvenation by creating isolated microscopic lesions within tissue below the epidermis using laser induced optical breakdown. Using an in-house built prototype device, tightly focused near-infrared laser pulses are used to create optical breakdown in the dermis while leaving the epidermis intact, resulting in lesions due to cavitation and plasma explosion. This stimulates a healing response and consequently skin remodelling, resulting in skin rejuvenation effects. Analysis of ex-vivo and in-vivo treated human skin samples successfully demonstrated the safety and effectiveness of the microscopic lesion creation inside the dermis. Treatments led to mild side effects that can be controlled by small optimizations of the optical skin contact and treatment depth within the skin. The histological results from a limited panel test performed on five test volunteers show evidence of microscopic lesion creation and new collagen formation at the sites of the optical breakdown. This potentially introduces a safe, breakthrough treatment procedure for skin rejuvenation without damaging the epidermis with no or little social down-time and with efficacy comparable to conventional fractional ablative techniques.

  13. Damage from periorbital ageing to the multilayered structures and resilience of the skin in Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chuh-Kai; Tsai, Feng-Chou; Fong, Tsorng-Harn; Hu, Chien-Ming; Wei, Po-Li; Su, Ching-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Ageing dynamically disrupts the multilayered supporting components of the skin that are held together by cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). Skin specimens from 33 female Chinese patients undergoing lower blepharoplasty were divided into three age groups and examined by haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Elastica-van Gieson (EVG) stains, western blotting, surface electron microscopy (SEM) and biomechanical tension analysis. The SEM density (skin surface topology) showed a negative linear relationship with age. The triangular pattern of the skin surface in the younger group gradually broke down into quadrangular and irregular patterns in the older group. Collagens and elastic fibres in the dermis showed anisotropy and decreased density in the older groups compared with the younger group, especially in the papillary dermis. Anisotropy means that physical properties differ according to the direction of measurement. E-cadherin and integrin αv (whose functions are to bind epidermal and dermal elements respectively) increased and decreased, respectively, in the oldest group. Skin resilience decreased significantly in this group under repetitive stress. In conclusion, a loss of skin surface textures, integrin αv expressions, epidermal-dermal connections and dermal compactness led to the multilayered structure of the skin becoming separated. This in turn decreased resilience during ageing. These findings may therefore explain why aged skins cannot tolerate repetitive facial expressions, and why this action produces further dynamic wrinkles. PMID:23441675

  14. Variability of dermal elastin visualized ultrastructurally with iron hematoxylin.

    PubMed Central

    Spicer, S. S.; Brissie, R. M.; Thompson, N. T.

    1975-01-01

    The Verhoeff iron hematoxylin-lead citrate (VIH-LC) method demonstrated vertical elastic fibers that were often composed only of microfibrillar component extending into the epidermal basement membrane in human skin. These fibers connected with a network of trabeculae composed of microfibrils and elastin fibrils in varying proportions. The large elastic fibers in the deep two thirds of the dermis consited mainly of compact bundles of small elstin fibrils in infants and of solid elastin cores with a fimbriated periphery in adults; Dermis of a 6-month-old fetus contained very few small elastic fibrils except around blood vessels. Skin of an elderly subject revealed exteme proliferation of unusual reticulated elastic fibers in various areas and disclosed abnormal nodules of elastin or collagen fibrils in finely particulate matter. Small elastin fibrils, abundant microfibrils, and intermixed individual collagen fibrils comprised an adventitial collar between sweat glands and fibroblasts. Elastin fibrils were absent from this collar in the fetus and increased with the subject's age. A permanganate-high iron diamine sequence appeared to impart density to the microfibrillar component of elastic fibers. Images Figs 6-7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 Fig 13 Fig 14 Fig 15 Fig 16 Fig 17 Fig 18 Fig 19 Fig 20 Fig 21 Fig 22 Fig 23 Fig 24 Fig 25 Fig 26 Fig 27 Fig 1 Fig 2 Figs 3-5 Fig 28 Fig 29 Fig 30 Fig 31 Fig 32 Fig 33 PMID:49149

  15. Estimating nerve excitation thresholds to cutaneous electrical stimulation by finite element modeling combined with a stochastic branching nerve fiber model.

    PubMed

    Mørch, Carsten Dahl; Hennings, Kristian; Andersen, Ole Kæseler

    2011-04-01

    Electrical stimulation of cutaneous tissue through surface electrodes is an often used method for evoking experimental pain. However, at painful intensities both non-nociceptive Aβ-fibers and nociceptive Aδ- and C-fibers may be activated by the electrical stimulation. This study proposes a finite element (FE) model of the extracellular potential and stochastic branching fiber model of the afferent fiber excitation thresholds. The FE model described four horizontal layers; stratum corneum, epidermis, dermis, and hypodermal used to estimate the excitation threshold of Aβ-fibers terminating in dermis and Aδ-fibers terminating in epidermis. The perception thresholds of 11 electrodes with diameters ranging from 0.2 to 20 mm were modeled and assessed on the volar forearm of healthy human volunteers by an adaptive two-alternative forced choice algorithm. The model showed that the magnitude of the current density was highest for smaller electrodes and decreased through the skin. The excitation thresholds of the Aδ-fibers were lower than the excitation thresholds of Aβ-fibers when current was applied through small, but not large electrodes. The experimentally assessed perception threshold followed the lowest excitation threshold of the modeled fibers. The model confirms that preferential excitation of Aδ-fibers may be achieved by small electrode stimulation due to higher current density in the dermoepidermal junction. PMID:21207174

  16. Defects in dermal Vγ4 γ δ T cells result in delayed wound healing in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongyang; Xu, Yingbin; Zhang, Xiaorong; Liang, Guangping; Chen, Lei; Xie, Julin; Tang, Jinming; Zhao, Jingling; Shu, Bin; Qi, Shaohai; Chen, Jian; Luo, Gaoxing; Wu, Jun; He, Weifeng; Liu, Xusheng

    2016-01-01

    The skin serves as a physical and chemical barrier to provide an initial line of defense against environmental threats; however, this function is impaired in diabetes. Vγ4 γ δ T cells in the dermis are an important part of the resident cutaneous immunosurveillance program, but these cells have yet to be explored in the context of diabetes. In this study, we observed that the impaired maintenance of dermal Vγ4 γ δ T cells is caused by reduced production of IL-7 in the skin of diabetic mice, which was closely associated with weakened activation of the mTOR pathway in the epidermis of diabetic mice. Weakened CCL20/CCR6 chemokine signaling resulted in the impaired recruitment of dermal Vγ4 γ δ T cells following wounding in diabetic mice. Meanwhile, reduced levels of IL-23 and IL-1β in the dermis around the wounds of diabetic mice resulted in the impaired production of IL-17 by dermal Vγ4 γ δ T cells. Therefore, diminished dermal Vγ4 γ δ T cells and impaired IL-17 production by these cells were important factors in the markedly reduced IL-17 levels in the skin around the wounds of diabetic mice. Because reduced IL-17 levels at the wound edge have been closely associated with delayed wound closure in diabetic mice, defects in dermal Vγ4 γ δ T cells may be an important mechanism underlying delayed wound healing in diabetic mice. PMID:27398150

  17. Condylomata lata on the ankle: an unusual location

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Eri; Goto, Akane; Suzaki, Reiko; Sawada, Mizuki; Dekio, Itaru; Ishizaki, Sumiko; Fujibayashi, Mariko; Takahashi, Hayato; Tanaka, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    A 43-year-old Japanese man presented with reddish nodules on the ankle. The nodules had a yellowish crust and eroded surface. Dermoscopy revealed red to milky-red globules at the periphery and some glomerular vessels in the center and a whitish-pink network, which corresponded to capillary dilatation in the papillary dermis and prominent acanthosis, respectively. These structures were surrounded by a yellowish peripheral structureless area and multiple white, small, round structures in the center, corresponding to the macerated horny layer and keratin plugs. Blood samples were positive for rapid plasma reagin (1:64), Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (1:20480), and fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (1:1280). A lesional skin biopsy specimen showed irregular acanthosis and papillomatosis. The Warthin-Starry and anti-Treponema pallidum antibody stains on the biopsy specimen revealed many spirochetes in the lower epidermis and the papillary dermis. A diagnosis of secondary syphilis with condylomata lata was made. After one week of treatment with oral benzylpenicillin benzathine hydrate (Bicillin® G granules 400,000 units; Banyu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Tokyo, Japan), 1.6 million units (U) daily, the ankle lesions had resolved with a small ulcer and pigmentation. Although syphilis is a relatively common disease, this case study reports an unusual presentation as well as dermoscopy findings. PMID:27222772

  18. The prefabricated scapula flap consists of syngeneic bone, connective tissue, and a self-assembled epithelial coating.

    PubMed

    Kunstfeld, R; Petzelbauer, P; Wickenhauser, G; Schlenz, I; Korak, K; Vinzenz, K; Holle, J

    2001-12-01

    The reconstruction of maxillary defects is a challenge in plastic surgery. The so-called prefabricated scapula flap consists of syngeneic bone covered with syngeneic dermis and is used to reconstruct maxillary defects. After placing these flaps into the oral cavity, they are reepithelialized within a short time period, raising the question of the cellular origin of the "neomucosa." We therefore obtained sequential biopsy samples of the prefabricated flap and of the flap after being placed into the oral cavity and analyzed the keratin expression profile of epithelial cells. We expected that after placing the prefabricated flap into the oral cavity, keratinocytes from adnexal structures of the dermal component of the graft would migrate onto the surface and reepithelialize the flap. Unexpectedly, reepithelialization occurred earlier. The flap had acquired a mucosa-like epithelium at the interface between the Gore-Tex coating and the dermis while still being positioned within the scapular region. The keratin expression profile of this epithelium was very similar to that of mucosal epithelium. Thus, the prefabricated scapula flap not only consisted of bone covered with connective tissue, but was also covered with epithelial cells derived from adnexal structures of the dermal graft. This seems to be the reason for the rapid restoration of an intact mucosa and the excellent outcome achieved with this surgical technique.

  19. Defects in dermal Vγ4 γ δ T cells result in delayed wound healing in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongyang; Xu, Yingbin; Zhang, Xiaorong; Liang, Guangping; Chen, Lei; Xie, Julin; Tang, Jinming; Zhao, Jingling; Shu, Bin; Qi, Shaohai; Chen, Jian; Luo, Gaoxing; Wu, Jun; He, Weifeng; Liu, Xusheng

    2016-01-01

    The skin serves as a physical and chemical barrier to provide an initial line of defense against environmental threats; however, this function is impaired in diabetes. Vγ4 γ δ T cells in the dermis are an important part of the resident cutaneous immunosurveillance program, but these cells have yet to be explored in the context of diabetes. In this study, we observed that the impaired maintenance of dermal Vγ4 γ δ T cells is caused by reduced production of IL-7 in the skin of diabetic mice, which was closely associated with weakened activation of the mTOR pathway in the epidermis of diabetic mice. Weakened CCL20/CCR6 chemokine signaling resulted in the impaired recruitment of dermal Vγ4 γ δ T cells following wounding in diabetic mice. Meanwhile, reduced levels of IL-23 and IL-1β in the dermis around the wounds of diabetic mice resulted in the impaired production of IL-17 by dermal Vγ4 γ δ T cells. Therefore, diminished dermal Vγ4 γ δ T cells and impaired IL-17 production by these cells were important factors in the markedly reduced IL-17 levels in the skin around the wounds of diabetic mice. Because reduced IL-17 levels at the wound edge have been closely associated with delayed wound closure in diabetic mice, defects in dermal Vγ4 γ δ T cells may be an important mechanism underlying delayed wound healing in diabetic mice.

  20. Automated Segmentation of Skin Strata in Reflectance Confocal Microscopy Depth Stacks.

    PubMed

    Hames, Samuel C; Ardigò, Marco; Soyer, H Peter; Bradley, Andrew P; Prow, Tarl W

    2016-01-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a powerful tool for in-vivo examination of a variety of skin diseases. However, current use of RCM depends on qualitative examination by a human expert to look for specific features in the different strata of the skin. Developing approaches to quantify features in RCM imagery requires an automated understanding of what anatomical strata is present in a given en-face section. This work presents an automated approach using a bag of features approach to represent en-face sections and a logistic regression classifier to classify sections into one of four classes (stratum corneum, viable epidermis, dermal-epidermal junction and papillary dermis). This approach was developed and tested using a dataset of 308 depth stacks from 54 volunteers in two age groups (20-30 and 50-70 years of age). The classification accuracy on the test set was 85.6%. The mean absolute error in determining the interface depth for each of the stratum corneum/viable epidermis, viable epidermis/dermal-epidermal junction and dermal-epidermal junction/papillary dermis interfaces were 3.1 μm, 6.0 μm and 5.5 μm respectively. The probabilities predicted by the classifier in the test set showed that the classifier learned an effective model of the anatomy of human skin. PMID:27088865

  1. Development of a Murine Infection Model with Leishmania killicki, Responsible for Cutaneous Leishmaniosis in Algeria: Application in Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Eddaikra, Naouel; Kherachi Djenad, Ihcene; Benbetka, Sihem; Benikhlef, Razika; Aït-Oudhia, Khatima; Moulti-Mati, Farida; Oury, Bruno; Sereno, Denis; Harrat, Zoubir

    2016-01-01

    In Algeria, Leishmania infantum, Leishmania major, and Leishmania killicki (Leishmania tropica) are responsible for cutaneous leishmaniosis. We established a murine model of L. killicki infection to investigate its infective capacity, some immunophysiopathological aspects, and its suitability for pharmacological purposes. Following the injection of L. major or L. killicki metacyclic promastigotes in the ear dermis of BALB/c mice, the course of infection was followed. The infection with L. killicki caused slower lesion formation than with L. major. The presence of L. killicki or L. major DNA and parasites was detected in the ear dermis and in lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Lesions induced by L. killicki were nonulcerative in their aspect, whereas those caused by L. major were highly ulcerative and necrotic, which matches well with the lesion phenotype reported in humans for L. killicki and L. major, respectively. The treatment of L. killicki lesions by injection of Glucantime® significantly reduced the lesion thickness and parasite burden. Ear dermal injection of BALB/c mice constitutes a model to study lesions physiopathology caused by L. killicki and presents interest for in vivo screening of new compounds against this pathogen, emerging in Algeria. PMID:26949705

  2. Histology of the thick scar on the female, red Duroc pig: final similarities to human hypertrophic scar.

    PubMed

    Harunari, Nobuyuki; Zhu, Kathy Q; Armendariz, Rebecca T; Deubner, Heike; Muangman, Pornprom; Carrougher, Gretchen J; Isik, F Frank; Gibran, Nicole S; Engrav, Loren H

    2006-09-01

    The etiology and treatment of hypertrophic scar remain puzzles even after decades of research. A significant reason is the lack of an accepted animal model of the process. The female, red Duroc pig model was described long ago. Since the skin of the pig is similar to that of humans, we are attempting to validate this model and found it to be encouraging. In this project we quantified myofibroblasts, mast cells and collagen nodules in the thick scar of the Duroc pig and compared these to the values for human hypertrophic scar. We found the results to be quite similar and so further validated the model. In addition, we observed that soon after wounding an inflammatory cell layer forms. The thickness of the inflammatory layer approaches the thickness of the skin removed as if the remaining dermis "knows" how much dermis is gone. In deep wounds this inflammatory layer thickens and this thickness is predictive of the thickness of the ultimate scar. PMID:16905264

  3. BMP-FGF Signaling Axis Mediates Wnt-Induced Epidermal Stratification in Developing Mammalian Skin

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao-Jing; Liu, YuDong; Dai, Zhong-Min; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Yang, XueQin; Li, Yan; Qiu, Mengsheng; Fu, Jiang; Hsu, Wei; Chen, YiPing; Zhang, Zunyi

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal stratification of the mammalian skin requires proliferative basal progenitors to generate intermediate cells that separate from the basal layer and are replaced by post-mitotic cells. Although Wnt signaling has been implicated in this developmental process, the mechanism underlying Wnt-mediated regulation of basal progenitors remains elusive. Here we show that Wnt secreted from proliferative basal cells is not required for their differentiation. However, epidermal production of Wnts is essential for the formation of the spinous layer through modulation of a BMP-FGF signaling cascade in the dermis. The spinous layer defects caused by disruption of Wnt secretion can be restored by transgenically expressed Bmp4. Non-cell autonomous BMP4 promotes activation of FGF7 and FGF10 signaling, leading to an increase in proliferative basal cell population. Our findings identify an essential BMP-FGF signaling axis in the dermis that responds to the epidermal Wnts and feedbacks to regulate basal progenitors during epidermal stratification. PMID:25329657

  4. Optimization of an ex vivo wound healing model in the adult human skin: Functional evaluation using photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Garcia, Jenifer; Sebastian, Anil; Alonso-Rasgado, Teresa; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2015-09-01

    Limited utility of in vitro tests and animal models of human repair, create a demand for alternative models of cutaneous healing capable of functional testing. The adult human skin Wound Healing Organ Culture (WHOC) provides a useful model, to study repair and enable evaluation of therapies such as the photodynamic therapy (PDT). Thus, the aim here was to identify the optimal WHOC model and to evaluate the role of PDT in repair. Wound geometry, system of support, and growth media, cellular and matrix biomarkers were investigated in WHOC models. Subsequently, cellular activity, extracellular matrix remodeling, and oxidative stress plus gene and protein levels of makers of wound repair measured the effect of PDT on the optimized WHOC. WHOCs embedded in collagen and supplemented DMEM were better organized showing stratified epidermis and compact dermis with developing neo-epidermis. Post-PDT, the advancing reepithelialization tongue was 3.5 folds longer, and was highly proliferative with CK-14 plus p16 increased (p < 0.05) compared to controls. The neo-epidermis was fully differentiated forming neo-collagen. Proliferating nuclear antigen, p16, COLI, COLIII, MMP3, MMP19, and α-SMA were significantly more expressed (p < 0.05) in dermis surrounding the healing wound. In conclusion, an optimal model of WHOC treated with PDT shows increased reepithelialization and extracellular matrix reconstruction and remodeling, supporting evidence toward development of an optimal ex vivo wound healing model.

  5. Armored geckos: A histological investigation of osteoderm development in Tarentola (Phyllodactylidae) and Gekko (Gekkonidae) with comments on their regeneration and inferred function.

    PubMed

    Vickaryous, M K; Meldrum, G; Russell, A P

    2015-11-01

    Osteoderms are bone-rich organs found in the dermis of many scleroglossan lizards sensu lato, but are only known for two genera of gekkotans (geckos): Tarentola and Gekko. Here, we investigate their sequence of appearance, mode of development, structural diversity and ability to regenerate following tail loss. Osteoderms were present in all species of Tarentola sampled (Tarentola annularis, T. mauritanica, T. americana, T. crombei, T. chazaliae) as well as Gekko gecko, but not G. smithii. Gekkotan osteoderms first appear within the integument dorsal to the frontal bone or within the supraocular scales. They then manifest as mineralized structures in other positions across the head. In Tarentola and G. gecko, discontinuous clusters subsequently form dorsal to the pelvis/base of the tail, and then dorsal to the pectoral apparatus. Gekkotan osteoderm formation begins once the dermis is fully formed. Early bone deposition appears to involve populations of fibroblast-like cells, which are gradually replaced by more rounded osteoblasts. In T. annularis and T. mauritanica, an additional skeletal tissue is deposited across the superficial surface of the osteoderm. This tissue is vitreous, avascular, cell-poor, lacks intrinsic collagen, and is herein identified as osteodermine. We also report that following tail loss, both T. annularis and T. mauritanica are capable of regenerating osteoderms, including osteodermine, in the regenerated part of the tail. We propose that osteoderms serve roles in defense against combative prey and intraspecific aggression, along with anti-predation functions. PMID:26248595

  6. Histopathological detection of entry and exit holes in human skin wounds caused by firearms.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Marcus Vinícius; d'Ávila, Solange C G P; d'Ávila, Antônio Miguel M P

    2014-07-01

    The judiciary needs forensic medicine to determine the difference between an entry hole and an exit hole in human skin caused by firearms for civilian use. This important information would be most useful if a practical and accurate method could be done with low-cost and minimal technological resources. Both macroscopic and microscopic analyses were performed on skin lesions caused by firearm projectiles, to establish histological features of 14 entry holes and 14 exit holes. Microscopically, in the abrasion area macroscopically observed, there were signs of burns (sub-epidermal cracks and keratinocyte necrosis) in the entrance holes in all cases. These signs were not found in three exit holes which showed an abrasion collar, nor in other exit holes. Some other microscopic features not found in every case were limited either to entry holes, such as cotton fibres, grease deposits, or tattooing in the dermis, or to exit holes, such as adipose tissue, bone or muscle tissue in the dermis. Coagulative necrosis of keratinocytes and sub-epidermal cracks are characteristic of entry holes. Despite the small sample size, it can be safely inferred that this is an important microscopic finding, among others less consistently found, to define an entry hole in questionable cases.

  7. Nerves and nerve endings in the skin of tropical cattle.

    PubMed

    Amakiri, S F; Ozoya, S E; Ogunnaike, P O

    1978-01-01

    The nerves and nerve endings in the skin of tropical cattle were studied using histological and histochemical techniques. Many nerve trunks and fibres were present in the reticular and papillary dermis in both hairy and non-hairy skin sites. In non-hairy skin locations such as the muzzle and lower lip, encapsulated endings akin to Krause and Ruffini end bulbs, which arise from myelinated nerve trunks situated lower down the dermis were observed at the upper papillary layer level. Some fibre trunks seen at this level extended upwards to terminate within dermal papillae as bulb-shaped longitudinally lamellated Pacinian-type endings, while other onion-shaped lamellated nerve structures were located either within dermal papillae or near the dermo-epidermal area. Intraepidermal free-ending nerve fibres, appearing non-myelinated were observed in areas with thick epidermis. Intraepidermal free-ending nerve fibres, appearing non-myelinated were observed in areas with thick epidermis. On hairy skin sites, however, organized nerve endings or intraepidermal nerve endings were not readily identifiable. PMID:76410

  8. Automated Segmentation of Skin Strata in Reflectance Confocal Microscopy Depth Stacks

    PubMed Central

    Hames, Samuel C.; Ardigò, Marco; Soyer, H. Peter; Bradley, Andrew P.; Prow, Tarl W.

    2016-01-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a powerful tool for in-vivo examination of a variety of skin diseases. However, current use of RCM depends on qualitative examination by a human expert to look for specific features in the different strata of the skin. Developing approaches to quantify features in RCM imagery requires an automated understanding of what anatomical strata is present in a given en-face section. This work presents an automated approach using a bag of features approach to represent en-face sections and a logistic regression classifier to classify sections into one of four classes (stratum corneum, viable epidermis, dermal-epidermal junction and papillary dermis). This approach was developed and tested using a dataset of 308 depth stacks from 54 volunteers in two age groups (20–30 and 50–70 years of age). The classification accuracy on the test set was 85.6%. The mean absolute error in determining the interface depth for each of the stratum corneum/viable epidermis, viable epidermis/dermal-epidermal junction and dermal-epidermal junction/papillary dermis interfaces were 3.1 μm, 6.0 μm and 5.5 μm respectively. The probabilities predicted by the classifier in the test set showed that the classifier learned an effective model of the anatomy of human skin. PMID:27088865

  9. Detectability of contrast agents for video-rate confocal reflectance microscopy of skin and microcirculation in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajadhyaksha, Milind M.; Gonzalez, Salvador

    2003-06-01

    The lack of structure-specific contrast limits the usefulness of confocal reflectance microscopy to morphologic investigations at the cellular- and nuclear-level in human and animal skin in vivo. Morphologic and functional imaging at specific organelle- and ultrastructure-levels will require contrast agents that may be used and detected in vivo. High-resolution confocal reflectance imaging is based on the detection of singly back-scattered photons, where contrast is provided by variations in the refractive indices of microstructures. We carried out a quantitative Mie back-scatter analysis and imaging experiments to understand signal detectability of reflectance contrast agents for visualizing human skin and animal microcirculation. When imaging at video-rate with illumination of 10 milliwatts at 1064 nm, we detect 100-104 photons/pixel from the epidermis to dermis, relative to a background of 100 photons; this provides a signal-to-noise ratio of 3-40 and signal-to-background of 1-100. Organelles of size (d) 0.1-1.0 μm with refractive indices (n) of 1.34-1.45 (relative to n=1.34 for epidermis, n=1.38 for dermis) back-scatter 10-104 photons/pixel. Exogenous contrast agents such as liposomes (n=1.41, d=0.7 μm) and polystyrene microspheres (d=0.2-1.0 μm, n=1.57; 100-105 photons/pixel) are detectable and they strongly enhance the contrast of microcirculation in the dermis of Sprague-Dawley rats. Topically applied 5% acetic acid causes the intra-nuclear 30-100 nm-thin chromatin filaments to condense into 1-5 μm-thick strands, increasing back-scattered signal from 100 to 104 photons/pixels, making the nuclei appear bright and easily detectable in basal cell cancers. Such analyses provide a basis for optimizing confocal microscope design for detectability of contrast agents in vivo.

  10. Effects of incubation temperatures and trace mineral sources on chicken live performance and footpad skin development.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, M J; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Wineland, M J; Claassen, K; Osborne, J

    2016-04-01

    One experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of two incubation temperature profiles (TEM) and two trace mineral (TM) sources with their inclusion levels on performance and footpad skin development of Ross 708 chickens. A total of 1,000 eggs from 29-wk-old breeders were incubated following two TEM profiles: a standard (S) eggshell temperature (37.8±0.2°C) for 21 d of incubation and an early-low late-high (LH) TEM. The second profile had low (37.2±0.2°C) temperature for the first 3 d, and S until the last 3 d when eggshell temperature was 39.2±0.2°C. At hatch, 15 male and 15 female chicks from each TEM were selected, and footpads sampled. Additionally, 168 males per TEM were placed in 24 battery cages with 7 chickens each. The 48 cages were assigned to two TM dietary treatments: one with inorganic (ITM) sources of Zn (120 ppm), Cu (10 ppm), and Mn (120 ppm) and the other with chelated (CTM) mineral sources using lower inclusion levels of Zn (32 ppm), Cu (8 ppm), and Mn (32 ppm). At 7 and 21 d, BW gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained and chicks sampled for footpads. Histological analysis assessed thickness and area ofstratus corneum(SC), epidermis, and dermis. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized block design in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments with TEM and sex as main factors for hatch data and TEM and TM diets for 7 and 21 d data. The LH chicks were heavier than S chicks at hatch, but had more residual yolk. However, S TEM male chickens were heavier at 7 and 21 d. The S TEM had better FCR than LH TEM.Papillaedermis parameters at hatch were higher in the S TEM. At 7 d, SC height and area were increased by the S TEM. At 21 d CTM increased dermis height and area. In conclusion, TEM affected footpad skin development and broiler performance. Replacing ITM with reduced levels of CTM increased dermis development without affecting live performance or other skin layers. PMID:26908890

  11. The application of new biosynthetic artificial skin for long-term temporary wound coverage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsian-Jenn; Chou, Trong-Duo; Tsou, Tai-Li; Chen, Tim-Mo; Chen, Shao-Liang; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Wei, Lin-Gwei; Yeh, Kuan-Jeh; Ko, Yao-Huang; Wang, Chi-Shyran; Lee, Wei-Hwa

    2005-12-01

    Temporary dressings protect wounds from desiccation and infection. In our previous study, we used meshed acellular porcine dermis (APD) to enhance wound healing and decrease wound contraction; however, the wounds showed meshed scar. In this study, we produced an artificial skin composed of a cross-linked silicon sheet on the surface of APD which we have called silicone acellular porcine dermis (SAPD). This new artificial skin can protect the wound long enough to promote wound healing either by second intention or covered long enough until cultured epithelium autograft (CEA) or autologous skin graft can be harvested for permanent coverage. We delivered 4 cm x 5 cm full-thickness wound on the back of 350 g Sprague-Dawley rats. Thirty-six rats were divided into two groups. Eighteen rats had SAPD and the other 18 were covered with Biobrane. The wounds were first examined 2 weeks after grafting and followed weekly for an additional 4 weeks to evaluate the wound and study pathological changes by using H.E. and Masson's stains. Wound size was calculated by ruler and analyzed by Student's t-test. At the 2-week inspection, both SAPD and Biobrane showed tight adherence to the wound with no change of wound size. Both the SAPD and Biobrane dermal templates were pink. In the Biobrane-covered group, the wounds contracted soon after the tie-over dressing was removed. Its dermal layer is a layer of thin porcine dermal substance, which was promptly digested by tissue hyaluronidase and provides no real dermal template. In the SAPD-covered group however, the wound size was maintained significantly from third to sixth week after grafting (p<0.001). SAPD was designed with thick epidermal silicone and a well-organized porcine dermis so that it incorporates into the recipient wound. Clinically the silicone layer of SAPD dislodged from APD about 6-7 weeks after grafting and was followed by dermal matrix exposure and infection. In pathological examination, much like a human skin graft, new

  12. T lymphocytes in skin lesions of psoriasis and mycosis fungoides express B7-1: a ligand for CD28.

    PubMed

    Nickoloff, B J; Nestle, F O; Zheng, X G; Turka, L A

    1994-05-01

    The activation of T cells requires two distinct signals. One signal involves interaction of the antigen-specific T-cell receptor with major histocompatibility complex molecules plus antigenic peptide; a second signal, which is antigen nonspecific, is the interaction of CD28 with its natural ligands B7-1 and B7-2/B70. CD28 is expressed on 80% of T cells, is upregulated after activation, and binds to B7 gene-family members, found on antigen-presenting cells. Because of our interest in the immunologic basis of benign and malignant T-cell-mediated disorders of the skin, we investigated the cellular distribution of CD28 and B7 family members in lesions of psoriasis and mycosis fungoides. By immunostaining cryostat sections of skin, CD28 was found to be expressed on virtually all lymphocytes in the epidermis and dermis of both skin diseases. Surprisingly, B7-1 was also found to be expressed on virtually all lymphocytes in the epidermis and dermis of both skin diseases. B7-1 expression was confirmed on CD3+ T lymphocytes using flow cytometry of single cell suspensions of fresh, unfixed psoriatic lesional tissue. To exclude the possibility that this result was caused by a second reagent contaminating the monoclonal antibody (MoAb) preparation, two different lots were used, and the MoAb was absorbed onto Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) transfectants expressing B7-1, or vector-only transfected CHO cells. These procedures confirmed that a B7-1-like epitope was being recognized on psoriatic lesional T cells. In contrast to B7-1 expression on lymphocytes, B7-3, as defined by anti-BB-1 MoAb reactivity, was found primarily on epidermal keratinocytes in both skin diseases and was not found on T cells. These results indicate that within two common skin disorders, lesional T cells accumulate in the dermis and epidermis, which express B7-1. Such expression may permit self-costimulation involving the CD28-mediated activation pathway, and thereby contribute to the ongoing T

  13. Comparison of injuries caused by the pistols Tokarev, Makarov and Glock 19 at firing distances of 10, 15 and 25cm.

    PubMed

    Lepik, Delia; Vasiliev, Vitaly

    2005-06-30

    Firings at cloth targets and at human skin from autopsy material were performed from the pistols 7.62 mm Tokarev (TT), 9 mm Makarov (PM) and 9 x 19 mm Glock 19 with common ammunition. The differences were in the soot deposit pattern, the degree of scorching of the synthetic fibres on the edges of the entrance hole and in the findings of the soot and the gunpowder particles. The results were similar on the cloth and on the skin targets. In the case of the TT and the PM, the soot deposit patterns reminded of a blossom or shafts of rays or fans, or the bullet wipe had four narrow and four wide sections regarding the number of lands and grooves. The TT left a large amount of soot and many gunpowder particles and caused the melting of the synthetic fibres on the edges of the entrance hole, producing a defect of the material 0.1-0.3 cm in diameter and defects of textile fibres around the entrance hole. In the skin the TT caused many intraepithelial tears, folds of the epidermis and recesses of the epidermis containing soot. Firings from the PM and the Glock 19 caused the melting only of the ends of individual synthetic fibres on the edges of the entrance hole. The PM left a large amount of soot and only a few gunpowder particles. The Glock 19 gave the least soot and the greatest number of gunpowder particles and also caused tears and recesses in the epidermis. Only in the case of the Glock 19, hexagonal or polygonal zones were seen in the soot deposit pattern. The differences in the soot pattern were more distinct at the firing distance of 10 cm. By increasing the distance from 10 to 15 cm, the intensity of soot diminished and began to disappear at 25cm, but remained more visible in the case of the TT. The gunpowder particles could be found in the epidermis and deeper in both layers of the dermis at all distances fired from the TT and the Glock 19. In the case of firings from the PM, at the distance 10 cm some of the gunpowder particles had penetrated into the dermis and

  14. Comparison of gunshot injuries caused from Tokarev, Makarov and Glock 19 pistols at firing distances of 1, 3 and 5 cm.

    PubMed

    Lepik, Delia; Vassiljev, Vitali

    2010-11-01

    Test shots at cloth and at human skin from autopsy material were performed with 7.62 mm Tokarev (TT), 9 mm Makarov (PM) and 9 × 19 mm Glock 19 pistols, using common ammunition. The largest central material defects, with fibre deformation in cotton, the largest burn holes in polyester, and also many fibre defects caused by the perforation of powder, were produced in shots from the TT at all distances. Tears in the cloth were longest in the case of the TT at 1 cm and were present at 3 cm, whereas the shots from the PM and the Glock 19 did not leave tears. There were small tears of the edges of the skin defect from shots fired from the TT at 1 and 3 cm. On cloth-soot deposits at 3 and 5 cm, the radial structures of soot resembled a cobweb (the TT), and radial branching structures (the PM) of soot were seen. Some shots from the PM left four shafts of rays of soot and formed the bullet wipe with four narrow and four wide sections, indicating the form of rifling. In the soot deposit from the Glock 19 with hexagonal rifling, hexagonal or polygonal or petal-like areas were visible. On skin, the soot zones were less distinct. The Glock 19 (at 3 and 5 cm) left a lot of gunpowder particles densely around the cloth and skin defect. The least powder left on the cloth and skin was by the PM. On histological tissue sections, in shots from the TT, a lot of soot and gunpowder residue particles in the epidermis and in both layers of the dermis, and intraepithelial tears and recesses containing soot, were seen. The PM left fine soot and only a few gunpowder particles in the epidermis and in the papillary layer of the dermis. The Glock 19 produced the least soot and a lot of gunpowder particles. The soot and most of the gunpowder particles were present on the tissue sections, which originated from the central area around the skin defect and were detected in the epidermis and in both layers of the dermis. Some tears and recesses in the epidermis were also seen. The further

  15. Excised porcine skin experimental systems to validate quantitative microdialysis methods for determination of drugs in skin after topical application.

    PubMed

    Seki, Toshinobu; Wang, Aiping; Yuan, Dan; Saso, Yuko; Hosoya, Osamu; Chono, Sumio; Morimoto, Kazuhiro

    2004-11-24

    Microdialysis is useful as a method to evaluate the disposition of drugs in the skin to design improved transdermal delivery systems (TDDSs). In this study, quantitative microdialysis methods were validated in excised porcine skin experimental systems in vitro. Flurbiprofen (FP), used as a model drug, showed high affinity for the skin tissues in equilibrium states between the medium and skin. The membrane clearances of FP for permeation through the membrane of a dialysis fiber placed in the skin (CL(m in S)) were lower than that in the medium. The adsorption of components in the skin to the membrane surface of the dialysis fiber and accumulation of FP near the dialysis fiber are the most likely reasons for this. When CL(m in S) was used to predict the extracellular FP concentration in skin (C(T)), the value obtained was lower than that expected from the FP concentration in the medium on the dermis side, which should be equal to C(T) at equilibrium. In the zero net flux (ZNF) method, in which the concentration difference of perfusate (DeltaC) between the inflow and outflow were used to obtain C(T), the predicted C(T) was similar to the expected value. In an in vitro skin permeation experiment, the ZNF method was used for the prediction of C(T) near the dialysis fiber. The predicted C(T) was over 10 times higher than the FP concentration in the medium on the dermis side, suggesting a concentration gradient in the dermis. Although the ZNF method is good for predicting the C(T) in skin, the mass balance has to be considered for the quantitative evaluation of the skin permeation of drugs. In this study, the effect of the mass transfer of FP from the perfusate to the skin on the cumulative amount of FP passing through the skin was relatively low because of the use of suitable solutions as perfusate. The perfusion conditions and schedules should be designed carefully for quantitative evaluations using the ZNF method. These results provide useful information for the in

  16. [Findings in the detection of fibronectin in skin burns].

    PubMed

    Dao, T Q; Hirt, M; Zelený, M; Pexa, T

    2001-11-01

    Occurrence of fibronectin was detected in paraffin sections of burn skin samples, excised from surviving patients, as well as skin samples removed from the death persons, who succumbed burn wounds. The other groups of samples, used for comparison with the previous one, consisted of the intact skin excisions and skin samples post-mortem exposed to thermic changes. Indirect immunoperoxidase reaction was the immunohistochemical method used in all examinations. In post-mortem burn skin samples there was a loss of fibronectin activity in the epidermo-dermal junction area as well as in the papillary dermis. In burn skin samples, excised from patients who only survived for very short time their (serious skin) burns, no evidence of any fibronectin activity was seen. Also in two other cases, when patients--due to their severe burns--survived for several hours only, there were no conspicuous differences in the intensity of fibronectin activity seen in comparison with features found in the intact skin samples. Fibronectin activity was, however, increased in all other burn skin samples, where the survival time of patients was from 30 minutes to 5 weeks and there were following differences in its intensity and also in its pattern of distribution. In the 1st-degree and in a superficial 2nd-degree skin burn wounds, fibronectin was also present in the epidermis. In the papillary dermis, fibronectin was distributed rather diffusely or in a spot-like pattern while in the reticular dermis, there was a tendency to form net-like structures among collagen fibers. In deeper 2nd-degree and in the 3rd-degree burn wounds, fibronectin was deposited in vicinity of blood vessels and skin appendages in a fibrillar pattern. In 6 out of 11 samples, where the survival time ranged from 7 to 21 days, fibroblasts were arranged among fine collagen fibers and some of these cells exhibited positive fibronectin activity on their surface. Numerous fibroblasts with finely scattered fibronectin spots and

  17. Antioxidant cosmeto-textiles: skin assessment.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Cristina; Martí, Meritxell; Martínez, Vanessa; Rubio, Laia; Parra, José L; Coderch, Luisa

    2013-05-01

    Resveratrol, a natural product, has been reported to have antioxidant activities such as the scavenging of free radicals. This compound could be used in the dermocosmetic field to protect the skin from oxidative stress. In this work, the percutaneous profile of resveratrol in ethanol solutions through pig skin was determinated by an in vitro methodology. The percutaneous absorption of resveratrol was measured and compared with trolox, an analogous of Vitamin E. Both antioxidants were found in all skin sections (stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis). Besides, the free radical scavenging activity of resveratrol and trolox has been evaluated using DPPH method. The effective dose (ED₅₀) of compounds and DPPH radical inhibition in each skin layer were evaluated. Under the conditions used for these experiments, it can be deduced that resveratrol is more efficient than trolox as an antioxidant, also in the inner skin layers. The cosmeto-textiles with an active substance incorporated into their structure are increasingly used in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. The action of several cosmeto-textiles on the skin was assessed by in vitro and in vivo methodologies. Samples of these cosmeto-textiles were prepared with resveratrol incorporated into cotton and polyamide fabrics. An in vitro percutaneous absorption was used to demonstrate the delivery of the resveratrol from the textile to the different skin layers (stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis). Additionally, these cosmeto-textiles containing the antioxidant were applied onto the forearms of volunteers to evaluate the textiles' efficacy in skin penetration. The antioxidant's antiradical capacity was evaluated using the DPPH method. Results showed that resveratrol could be detected in the dermis, epidermis, and stratum corneum (SC) by an in vitro percutaneous absorption method and was also detected in the outermost layers of the SC by an in vivo method (stripping). A smaller amount of resveratrol was

  18. In vivo assessment of optical properties of melanocytic skin lesions and differentiation of melanoma from non-malignant lesions by high-definition optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Boone, M A L M; Suppa, M; Dhaenens, F; Miyamoto, M; Marneffe, A; Jemec, G B E; Del Marmol, V; Nebosis, R

    2016-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems in clinical dermatology is the early detection of melanoma. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is an added tool to dermoscopy improving considerably diagnostic accuracy. However, diagnosis strongly depends on the experience of physicians. High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) appears to offer additional structural and cellular information on melanocytic lesions complementary to that of RCM. However, the diagnostic potential of HD-OCT seems to be not high enough for ruling out the diagnosis of melanoma if based on morphology analysis. The aim of this paper is first to quantify in vivo optical properties such as light attenuation in melanocytic lesions by HD-OCT. The second objective is to determine the best critical value of these optical properties for melanoma diagnosis. The technique of semi-log plot whereby an exponential function becomes a straight line has been implemented on HD-OCT signals coming from four successive skin layers (epidermis, upper papillary dermis, deeper papillary dermis and superficial reticular dermis). This permitted the HD-OCT in vivo measurement of skin entrance signal (SES), relative attenuation factor normalized for the skin entrance signal (µ raf1) and half value layer (z 1/2). The diagnostic accuracy of HD-OCT for melanoma detection based on the optical properties, µ raf1 , SES and z 1/2 was high (95.6, 82.2 and 88.9 %, respectively). High negative predictive values could be found for these optical properties (96.7, 89.3 and 96.3 %, respectively) compared to morphologic assessment alone (89.9 %), reducing the risk of mistreating a malignant lesion to a more acceptable level (3.3 % instead of 11.1 %). HD-OCT seems to enable the combination of in vivo morphological analysis of cellular and 3-D micro-architectural structures with in vivo analysis of optical properties of tissue scatterers in melanocytic lesions. In vivo HD-OCT analysis of optical properties permits melanoma

  19. Treatment of traumatic tattoo with the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Gorouhi, Farzam; Davari, Parastoo; Kashani, Mansour Nassiri; Firooz, Alireza

    2007-12-01

    Traumatic tattoos are undesirable tattoos caused by different foreign bodies such as fireworks' particles, sand, metals, glass, gunpowder, asphalt, dust, or petroleum products embedded forcefully in the dermis. We report the case of a 54-year-old man who presented with sand and asphalt tattooing on his face following a bomb explosion 15 years ago. Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 1064 nm with a spot size of 4 mm and a fluence of 7.96 J/cm(2) were applied to treat the patient. The patient tolerated the treatment very well. Most of the blue dots became whitened immediately after the procedure and remained almost clear after a 6-month follow-up. PMID:18236246

  20. Microdistribution of tetrodotoxin in two species of blue-ringed octopuses (Hapalochlaena lunulata and Hapalochlaena fasciata) detected by fluorescent immunolabeling.

    PubMed

    Williams, Becky L; Stark, Michael R; Caldwell, Roy L

    2012-12-01

    Blue-ringed octopuses (genus Hapalochlaena) possess the potent neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX). We examined the microdistribution of TTX in ten tissues of Hapalochlaena lunulata and Hapalochlaena fasciata by immunolabeling for fluorescent light microscopy (FLM). We visualized TTX throughout the posterior salivary gland, but the toxin was concentrated in cells lining the secretory tubules within the gland. Tetrodotoxin was present just beneath the epidermis of the integument (mantle and arms) and also concentrated in channels running through the dermis. This was suggestive of a TTX transport mechanism in the blood of the octopus, which would also explain the presence of the toxin in the blood-rich brachial hearts, gills, nephridia, and highly vascularized Needham's sac (testes contents). We also present the first report of TTX in any cephalopod outside of the genus Hapalochlaena. A specimen of Octopus bocki from French Polynesia contained a small amount of TTX in the digestive gland.