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Sample records for dermis acelular porcina

  1. Conductivities of epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue at intermediate frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wake, K.; Sasaki, K.; Watanabe, S.

    2016-06-01

    Novel data for the conductivities of the tissues composing the skin, which are the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue, were obtained at intermediate frequencies by in vitro measurement. The conductivity of the epidermis was determined from those of the dermis and bulk skin. The conductivities of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue were almost constant from 10 kHz to 1 MHz. On the other hand, a frequency dependence was observed for the epidermis; the conductivity decreases with decreasing frequency. It was found that the conductivity of bulk skin is not determined by that of the dermis but by that of the epidermis. The presented data are expected to contribute to the assessment of safety and to the research and development of medical applications.

  2. Conductivities of epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue at intermediate frequencies.

    PubMed

    Wake, K; Sasaki, K; Watanabe, S

    2016-06-21

    Novel data for the conductivities of the tissues composing the skin, which are the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue, were obtained at intermediate frequencies by in vitro measurement. The conductivity of the epidermis was determined from those of the dermis and bulk skin. The conductivities of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue were almost constant from 10 kHz to 1 MHz. On the other hand, a frequency dependence was observed for the epidermis; the conductivity decreases with decreasing frequency. It was found that the conductivity of bulk skin is not determined by that of the dermis but by that of the epidermis. The presented data are expected to contribute to the assessment of safety and to the research and development of medical applications.

  3. Effect of fibroblast-seeded artificial dermis on wound healing.

    PubMed

    Jang, Joon Chul; Choi, Rak-Jun; Han, Seung-Kyu; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2015-04-01

    In covering wounds, efforts should include use of the safest and least invasive methods with a goal of achieving optimal functional and cosmetic outcome. The recent development of advanced technology in wound healing has triggered the use of cells and/or biological dermis to improve wound healing conditions. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of fibroblast-seeded artificial dermis on wound healing efficacy.Ten nude mice were used in this study. Four full-thickness 6-mm punch wounds were created on the dorsal surface of each mouse (total, 40 wounds). The wounds were randomly assigned to one of the following 4 treatments: topical application of Dulbecco phosphate-buffered saline (control), human fibroblasts (FB), artificial dermis (AD), and human fibroblast-seeded artificial dermis (AD with FB). On the 14th day after treatment, wound healing rate and wound contraction, which are the 2 main factors determining wound healing efficacy, were evaluated using a stereoimage optical topometer system, histomorphological analysis, and immunohistochemistry.The results of the stereoimage optical topometer system demonstrated that the FB group did not have significant influence on wound healing rate and wound contraction. The AD group showed reduced wound contraction, but wound healing was delayed. The AD with FB group showed decreased wound contraction without significantly delayed wound healing. Histomorphological analysis exhibited that more normal skin structure was regenerated in the AD with FB group. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the AD group and the AD with FB group produced less α-smooth muscle actin than the control group, but this was not shown in the FB group.Fibroblast-seeded artificial dermis may minimize wound contraction without significantly delaying wound healing in the treatment of skin and soft tissue defects.

  4. Phenotypic characterization of leukocytes in prenatal human dermis.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Christopher; Vaculik, Christine; Prior, Marion; Fiala, Christian; Mildner, Michael; Eppel, Wolfgang; Stingl, Georg; Elbe-Bürger, Adelheid

    2012-11-01

    The adult human skin harbors a variety of leukocytes providing immune surveillance and host defense, but knowledge about their ontogeny is scarce. In this study we investigated the number and phenotype of leukocytes in prenatal human skin (dermal dendritic cells (DDCs), macrophages, T cells (including FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells), and mast cells) to unravel their derivation and to get a clue as to their putative function in utero. By flow cytometry and immunofluorescence, we found a distinction between CD206(+)CD1c(+)CD11c(+) DDCs and CD206(+)CD209(+)CD1c(-) skin macrophages by 9 weeks estimated gestational age (EGA). T cells appear at the end of the first trimester, expressing CD3 intracytoplasmatically. During midgestation, CD3(+)FoxP3(-) and CD3(+)FoxP3(+) cells can exclusively be found in the dermis. Similarly, other leukocytes such as CD117(+) (c-kit) mast cells were not identified before 12-14 weeks EGA and only slowly acquire a mature phenotype during gestation. Our data show at which time point during gestation antigen-presenting cells, T cells, and mast cells populate the human dermis and provide a step forward to a better understanding of the development of the human skin immune system.

  5. Reduced dermis thickness and AGE accumulation in diabetic abdominal skin.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yiwen; Cao, Xiaozan; Song, Fei; Xie, Ting; Ji, Xiaoyun; Miao, Mingyuan; Dong, Jiaoyun; Tian, Ming; Lin, Yuan; Lu, Shuliang

    2012-09-01

    Dermatological problems in diabetes might play an important role in the spontaneous ulcers and impaired wound healing that are seen in diabetic patients. Investigation of the cause of diabetic skin disorders is critical for identifying effective treatment. The abdominal full-thickness skin tissues of 33 patients (14 nondiabetic and 19 diabetic) were analyzed. The cell viability and malondialdehyde (MDA) production of fibroblasts were measured after advanced glycosylation end product (AGE)-bovine serum albumin (BSA) exposure. Cutaneous histological observation showed reduced thickness of the diabetic abdominal dermis with morphological characteristics of obscured multilayer epithelium and shortened, thinned, and disorganized collagen fibrils with focal chronic inflammatory cell infiltration when compared with controls of the same age. Accumulation of AGEs in diabetic skin was prominent. Less hydroxyproline, higher myeloperoxidase activity, and increased MDA content were detected in diabetic skin. In vitro, the time- and dose-dependent inhibitory effects of AGE-BSA on fibroblast viability as well as the fact that AGE-BSA could promote MDA production of fibroblasts were shown. It is shown that the accumulation of AGEs in diabetic skin tissue induces an oxidative damage of fibroblasts and acts as an important contributor to the thinner diabetic abdominal dermis. The authors believe that diabetic cutaneous properties at baseline may increase the susceptibility to injury, and diabetic wounds possess atypical origin in the repair process.

  6. Irreversible optical clearing of rabbit dermis for autogenic corneal stroma transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuji; Shi, Dong; Kubota, Akira; Takano, Yoshimasa; Fuse, Nobuo; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo; Nishida, Kohji

    2011-10-01

    Tissue engineering and transplantation of autogenic grafts have been widely investigated for solving problems on current allograft treatments (i.g., donor shortage and rejection). However, it is difficult to obtain an autogenic corneal stromal replacement that is composed of transparent, tough, and thick collagen constructs by current cell culture-based tissue engineering. Aim of this study is to develop transparent dermis for an autogenic corneal stroma transplantation. This study examined dehydration at 4-8°C and carbodiimide cross-linking on cloudy rabbit dermis (approx. 1.8%-3.8% light transmittance at 550 nm) for dermis optical clearing. Transparency of dehydrated rabbit dermis was founded to be approx. 37.9%-41.4% at 550 nm. Additional cross-linking treatment on dehydrated dermis prevented from swelling and clouding in saline, and improved its transparency to be 56.9% at 550 nm. Rabbit corneal epithelium was found to regenerate on optically cleared dermis in vitro. Furthermore, no abnormal biological response (i.e., inflammation, vascularization, and the barrier defect of epithelia) or no optical functional change on optically cleared dermis was observed during its 4-week autogenic transplantation into rabbit corneal stromal pocket.

  7. Pesticide Uptake Across the Amphibian Dermis Through Soil and Overspray Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    For terrestrial amphibians, accumulation ofpesticides through dermal contact is a primary route ofexposure in agricultural landscapes and may be contributingto widespread amphibian declines. To show pesticidetransfer across the amphibian dermis at permitted labelapplication rates...

  8. Effects of mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells on generation and vascularisation of dermis-like tissue after artificial dermis grafting.

    PubMed

    Soejima, Kazutaka; Kashimura, Tsutomu; Asami, Takashi; Kazama, Tomohiko; Matsumoto, Taro; Nakazawa, Hiroaki

    2015-02-01

    Although artificial dermis (AD) is effective for skin reconstruction, it requires two separate procedures, because the AD must be vascularised before skin grafts. To shorten the period of the dermis-like tissue generation before the secondary skin grafting must be beneficial. Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells are isolated from mature adipose cell suspensions and have potential to differentiate into multiple cell types including endothelial cells. This study aimed to investigate effects of DFAT cells on dermal regeneration after AD grafts in rats. The effects of combination use of DFAT cells and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were also tested to mimic clinical situations. DFAT cells were isolated from SD rats. Full-thickness wounds were created on the back of rats followed by AD grafting. Five groups were established; Group I: control, Group II: treated with DFAT cells, Group III: treated with bFGF, Group IV: treated with both of DFAT cells and bFGF, and Group V: treated with Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled DFAT cells and bFGF. Histological evaluation was serially performed. Group IV showed markedly promoted vascularisation of dermis-like tissue. In particular, capillary infiltration into the dermis was obtained within 2 days. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that the transplanted DFAT cells had differentiated into endothelial cells and participated in angiogenesis. Group IV also showed a marked increase in the thickness of the dermis like tissue. The present results suggest that the use of DFAT cells under bFGF treatment could be beneficial to shorten the period required for dermal regeneration and vascularisation and contribute to use AD more effectively and safely.

  9. [Repair mechanisms of the wounds with exposed bone structures using an artificial dermis].

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Wang, C; Zhang, C; Huang, X; Cao, H S

    2017-01-24

    Objective: To investigate the repair mechanisms of the wounds with bone exposed by artificial dermis transplantation. Methods: Seventy two rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups of 24 rabbits, the wound model was made on the top of head. In the skin defect group (SD group), skin was removed and skull periosteum was retained. In the periosteal defect group (PD group), the skin and skull periosteum were both removed, and the skull was exposed. In the skull burn group (SB group), after the periosteum was removed, the exposed skull bone was burned out with electric iron to cause skull surface necrosis, then the artificial dermis transplantation were performed in each group. In 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after transplantation, 2 specimens including artificial dermis and the underlying tissue in each group were cut for biopsy with HE staining to observe the angiogenesis in artificial dermis. Evans Blue perfusion was performed in four animals from each group to quantify angiogenesis in artificial dermis. Results: One week after transplantation, in SD group, a few microvessels can be observed in artificial dermis, but in the rest of the two groups, only a small amount of inflammatory cells can be seen. Two weeks after transplantation, in SD group, a large number of new blood vessels and fibroblasts can be seen filling in the artificial dermis, but angiogenesis delayed obviously in the PD and SB group. Three weeks after transplantation, the angiogenesis of artificial dermis in the PD and SB group accelerated obviously, and a thin layer of blood rich tissue membrane can be seen over the burned skull. The Evans Blue perfusion showed that the content of dye perfusion in the artificial dermis was closed to the peek value at 2 weeks after transplantation in the SD group, which was significantly higher than that in PD and SB group [(2 741±976) vs (1 039±590) and (403±209) μg/g, P<0.01]. Three weeks after transplantation, the content of Evans Blue in artificial dermis reached

  10. The exclusion of human serum albumin by human dermal collagenous fibres and within human dermis.

    PubMed Central

    Bert, J L; Mathieson, J M; Pearce, R H

    1982-01-01

    Preparations of dermal collagenous fibres and slices of human dermis have been equilibrated with 125I-labelled monomeric human serum albumin. The space inaccessible to the albumin in the fibres and in the dermis was determined by subtraction of the accessible space, calculated from the radioactivity of the specimen, from its total fluid. For a fibre preparation examined in detail, the fluid exclusion was independent of the concentration of either albumin or collagen. Binding of albumin to the fibres was not demonstrable. Three fibre preparations excluded albumin from 3.75 +/- 0.96, 3.55 +/- 0.67, and 2.05 +/- 0.39 g of fluid/g of collagen (+/-S.D.). Slices from three specimens of dermis excluded albumin from 1.45 +/- 0.08 g of fluid/g of insoluble solids or 1.57 +/- 0.11 g of fluid/g of collagen (+/-S.D.). Thus the exclusion of albumin by dermis was much less than expected from its content of collagenous fibres. On the basis of these data and the published composition of dermis, the concentration of albumin in the accessible interstitial space was estimated to be close to that in the plasma. PMID:7082298

  11. Toward reliable retrieval of functional information of papillary dermis using spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Guo, Jun-Yen; Tzeng, Shih-Yu; Chou, Ting-Chun; Lin, Ming-Jen; Huang, Lynn Ling-Huei; Yang, Chao-Chun; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Tseng, Sheng-Hao

    2016-02-01

    Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (SRDRS) has been employed to quantify tissue optical properties and its interrogation volume is majorly controlled by the source-to-detector separations (SDSs). To noninvasively quantify properties of dermis, a SRDRS setup that includes SDS shorter than 1 mm is required. It will be demonstrated in this study that Monte Carlo simulations employing the Henyey-Greenstein phase function cannot always precisely predict experimentally measured diffuse reflectance at such short SDSs, and we speculated this could be caused by the non-negligible backward light scattering at short SDSs that cannot be properly modeled by the Henyey-Greenstein phase function. To accurately recover the optical properties and functional information of dermis using SRDRS, we proposed the use of the modified two-layer (MTL) geometry. Monte Carlo simulations and phantom experiment results revealed that the MTL probing geometry was capable of faithfully recovering the optical properties of upper dermis. The capability of the MTL geometry in probing the upper dermis properties was further verified through a swine study, and it was found that the measurement results were reasonably linked to histological findings. Finally, the MTL probe was utilized to study psoriatic lesions. Our results showed that the MTL probe was sensitive to the physiological condition of tissue volumes within the papillary dermis and could be used in studying the physiology of psoriasis.

  12. Reprogramming adult dermis to a neonatal state through epidermal activation of β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Charlotte A.; Kretzschmar, Kai; Watt, Fiona M.

    2011-01-01

    Hair follicle formation depends on reciprocal epidermal-dermal interactions and occurs during skin development, but not in adult life. This suggests that the properties of dermal fibroblasts change during postnatal development. To examine this, we used a PdgfraEGFP mouse line to isolate GFP-positive fibroblasts from neonatal skin, adult telogen and anagen skin and adult skin in which ectopic hair follicles had been induced by transgenic epidermal activation of β-catenin (EF skin). We also isolated epidermal cells from each mouse. The gene expression profile of EF epidermis was most similar to that of anagen epidermis, consistent with activation of β-catenin signalling. By contrast, adult dermis with ectopic hair follicles more closely resembled neonatal dermis than adult telogen or anagen dermis. In particular, genes associated with mitosis were upregulated and extracellular matrix-associated genes were downregulated in neonatal and EF fibroblasts. We confirmed that sustained epidermal β-catenin activation stimulated fibroblasts to proliferate to reach the high cell density of neonatal skin. In addition, the extracellular matrix was comprehensively remodelled, with mature collagen being replaced by collagen subtypes normally present only in developing skin. The changes in proliferation and extracellular matrix composition originated from a specific subpopulation of fibroblasts located beneath the sebaceous gland. Our results show that adult dermis is an unexpectedly plastic tissue that can be reprogrammed to acquire the molecular, cellular and structural characteristics of neonatal dermis in response to cues from the overlying epidermis. PMID:22031549

  13. Toward reliable retrieval of functional information of papillary dermis using spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Guo, Jun-Yen; Tzeng, Shih-Yu; Chou, Ting-Chun; Lin, Ming-Jen; Huang, Lynn Ling-Huei; Yang, Chao-Chun; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Tseng, Sheng-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (SRDRS) has been employed to quantify tissue optical properties and its interrogation volume is majorly controlled by the source-to-detector separations (SDSs). To noninvasively quantify properties of dermis, a SRDRS setup that includes SDS shorter than 1 mm is required. It will be demonstrated in this study that Monte Carlo simulations employing the Henyey-Greenstein phase function cannot always precisely predict experimentally measured diffuse reflectance at such short SDSs, and we speculated this could be caused by the non-negligible backward light scattering at short SDSs that cannot be properly modeled by the Henyey-Greenstein phase function. To accurately recover the optical properties and functional information of dermis using SRDRS, we proposed the use of the modified two-layer (MTL) geometry. Monte Carlo simulations and phantom experiment results revealed that the MTL probing geometry was capable of faithfully recovering the optical properties of upper dermis. The capability of the MTL geometry in probing the upper dermis properties was further verified through a swine study, and it was found that the measurement results were reasonably linked to histological findings. Finally, the MTL probe was utilized to study psoriatic lesions. Our results showed that the MTL probe was sensitive to the physiological condition of tissue volumes within the papillary dermis and could be used in studying the physiology of psoriasis. PMID:26977361

  14. β-catenin has sequential roles in the survival and specification of ventral dermis

    PubMed Central

    Ohtola, Jennifer; Myers, John; Akhtar-Zaidi, Batool; Zuzindlak, Diana; Sandesara, Pooja; Yeh, Karen; Mackem, Susan; Atit, Radhika

    2009-01-01

    The dermis promotes the development and maintains the functional components of skin such as hair follicles, sweat glands, nerves, and blood vessels. The dermis is also critical for wound healing and homeostasis of the skin. The dermis originates from the somites, the lateral plate mesoderm, and the cranial neural crest. Despite the importance of the dermis in the structural and functional integrity of the skin, genetic analysis of dermal development in different parts of the embryo is incomplete. The signaling requirements for ventral dermal cell development have not been established in either the chick or mammalian embryo. We have shown previously that Wnt signaling specifies the dorsal dermis from the somites. In this study, we demonstrate that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is necessary for the survival of early ventral dermal progenitors. In addition, we show that at later stagesWnt/β-catenin signaling is sufficient for ventral dermal cell specification. Consistent with the different origins of dorsal and ventral dermal cells, our results demonstrate both conserved and divergent roles of β-catenin/Wnt signaling in dermal development. PMID:18539925

  15. Glycerolized Reticular Dermis as a New Human Acellular Dermal Matrix: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, Pietro Maria; Balmativola, Davide; Cambieri, Irene; Scalzo, Maria Stella; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Annaratone, Laura; Casarin, Stefania; Fumagalli, Mara; Stella, Maurizio; Sapino, Anna; Castagnoli, Carlotta

    2016-01-01

    Human Acellular Dermal Matrices (HADM) are employed in various reconstructive surgery procedures as scaffolds for autologous tissue regeneration. The aim of this project was to develop a new type of HADM for clinical use, composed of glycerolized reticular dermis decellularized through incubation and tilting in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM). This manufacturing method was compared with a decellularization procedure already described in the literature, based on the use of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), on samples from 28 donors. Cell viability was assessed using an MTT assay and microbiological monitoring was performed on all samples processed after each step. Two surgeons evaluated the biomechanical characteristics of grafts of increasing thickness. The effects of the different decellularization protocols were assessed by means of histological examination and immunohistochemistry, and residual DNA after decellularization was quantified using a real-time TaqMan MGB probe. Finally, we compared the results of DMEM based decellularization protocol on reticular dermis derived samples with the results of the same protocol applied on papillary dermis derived grafts. Our experimental results indicated that the use of glycerolized reticular dermis after 5 weeks of treatment with DMEM results in an HADM with good handling and biocompatibility properties. PMID:26918526

  16. Two Crosslinking Technologies for Superficial Reticular Dermis Injection: A Comparative Ultrasound and Histologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Besse, Stéphanie; Sarazin, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Background: Few hyaluronic acid fillers have been developed for superficial injection. Objective: To compare the diffusion and integration properties of cohesive polydensified matrix and Vycross® technology hyaluronic acid fillers with lidocaine following injection into the superficial reticular dermis. Methods and materials: Two subjects received two injections each of cohesive polydensified matrix and Vycross® hyaluronic acid (0.2mL/site) in the superficial reticular dermis of the buttock under ultrasound control. Biopsies were obtained at Days 0, 15, and/or 90. Ultrasound and histologic analyses were performed, plus a series of simple rheological tests. Results: Day 0 ultrasound images showed cohesive polydensified matrix hyaluronic acid homogeneous with the surrounding dermis. Vycross® hyaluronic acid showed more heterogeneity and some leakage into the hypodermis. Day 15 and Day 90 images were similar to Day 0. Histologic examination of biopsy tissue showed cohesive polydensified matrix hyaluronic acid homogeneously distributed among collagen fibrils with no visible particles. Vycross® hyaluronic acid appeared as variable-sized pools with a particulate appearance. Neither gel was associated with an inflammatory reaction. Laboratory tests showed cohesive polydensified matrix hyaluronic acid to have greater cohesivity and resistance to traction forces than Vycross®. Conclusion: cohesive polydensified matrix gel with lidocaine is homogeneously distributed following injection in the superficial reticular dermis and may be particularly suited for aesthetic indications requiring superficial injection. PMID:28210379

  17. Wound healing effect of acellular artificial dermis containing extracellular matrix secreted by human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Seo, Young-Kwon; Song, Kye-Yong; Kim, Young-Jin; Park, Jung-Keug

    2007-07-01

    In this study, an acellular artificial dermis, composed of human collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) secreted by cultured human fibroblasts on a bovine collagen sponge, was developed. Much of the newly secreted extracellular matrix (ECM) remained after the cell removal process. The main theme of this study focused on the matrix, rather than the viable cell components of the skin, as the major dermal deficit in the wound. Both the acellular artificial and bioartificial dermises, containing viable cells with ECM, were significantly less soluble than the collagen sponge, and the relative GAG content in the bioartificial and acellular artificial dermises was approximately 115-120% of the chondroitin-6-sulfate (CS) content found in the collagen sponge. In the group receiving the collagen sponge, the wound area gradually decreased to approximately 10% of its original area, while in the groups receiving the bioartificial and acellular artificial dermises, the wound area also gradually decreased to approximately 60 and 50%, respectively, of the original size over the 5 weeks after grafting. Both the bioartificial and acellular artificial dermises formed thicker, denser collagen fibers; more new blood vessel formation was observed in both cases. The basement membrane of the regenerated epidermal-dermal junction was thicker and more linear in the acellular artificial dermis graft than in the collagen sponge graft. In conclusion, the wound healing effects of acellular artificial dermis are no less than those of the bioartificial dermis, and much better than the collagen sponge graft with respect to wound contraction, angiogenesis, collagen formation, and basement membrane repair.

  18. Yarrowia porcina sp. nov. and Yarrowia bubula f.a. sp. nov., two yeast species from meat and river sediment.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Edina; Dlauchy, Dénes; Medeiros, Adriana O; Péter, Gábor; Rosa, Carlos A

    2014-04-01

    Eleven yeast strains representing two hitherto undescribed species were isolated from different kinds of meat samples in Hungary and one from the sediment of a tropical freshwater river in Southeastern Brazil. The analysis of the sequences of their large subunit rRNA gene D1/D2 domain and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions placed the two new species in the Yarrowia clade. Some of the seven strains representing the first new species can mate and give rise to asci and form ascospores embedded in capsular material, which qualifies it as the third teleomorph species of the Yarrowia clade. The name Yarrowia porcina sp. nov. (type strain: NCAIM Y.02100(T) = CBS 12935(T) = NRRL Y-63669(T), allotype strain UFMG-RD131(A) = CBS 12932(A)) is proposed for this new yeast species, which, based on physiological characters, is indistinguishable from Yarrowia lipolytica and some other species of the genus. Considerable intraspecific variability was detected among the sequences of the large subunit rRNA gene D1/D2 domains of the seven strains. The variability among the D1/D2 sequences exceeded the divergence observed among the ITS sequences and in some cases more than 1 % substitution among the D1/D2 sequences was detected. The conspecificity of these strains was supported by the low (0-3 substitutions) sequence divergence among their ITS sequences, the result of a parsimony network analysis utilizing the concatenated ITS and D1/D2 sequences and also by the fingerprint patterns generated by microsatellite primed PCR. No ascospore formation was observed in the group of the other five strains representing the second new species. These strains shared identical D1/D2 and ITS sequences. Yarrowia bubula f.a., sp. nov. (type strain: NCAIM Y.01998(T) = CBS 12934(T) = NRRL Y-63668(T)) is proposed to accommodate these strains.

  19. Cellular response in the dermis of common wombats (Vombatus ursinus) infected with Sarcoptes scabiei var. wombati.

    PubMed

    Skerratt, Lee F

    2003-01-01

    The cellular response in the dermis of common wombats (Vombatus ursinus) with sarcoptic mange exhibited some typical aspects of an immune response to Sarcoptes scabiei. There was an induction phase for wombats experimentally infected with S. scabiei represented by absence of a dermal inflammatory infiltrate for at least 12 days after infection. T lymphocytes, plasma cells, mast cells, and neutrophils then entered the dermis, consistent with a type IV (delayed) hypersensitivity response. In free-living wombats with severe parakeratotic sarcoptic mange eosinophils were also present in the dermis suggesting that a type I (immediate) hypersensitivity response may develop after a type IV hypersensitivity response. Absence of plasma cells and B lymphocytes in free-living wombats with severe parakeratotic sarcoptic mange compared with their presence in wombats experimentally infected with S. scabiei suggested that some immune tolerance may develop with severe infections. A large proportion of cells in the dermal response were not identified but were possibly cells of connective tissue. The thickness of the epidermis increased within 4 days in response to S. scabiei infection. Some antibodies raised against human leucocyte antigens CD3, CD5, HLA-DP, DQ, DR, and CD79b cross-reacted with leucocyte antigens of common wombats and were used to identify cell types in inflammatory infiltrates using immunohistochemistry.

  20. Epidermal Wnt controls hair follicle induction by orchestrating dynamic signaling crosstalk between the epidermis and dermis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiang; Hsu, Wei

    2013-04-01

    A signal first arising in the dermis to initiate the development of hair follicles has been described for many decades. Wnt is the earliest signal known to be intimately involved in hair follicle induction. However, it is not clear whether the inductive signal of Wnt arises intradermally or intraepidermally. Whether Wnt acts as the first dermal signal to initiate hair follicle development also remains unclear. Here we report that Wnt production mediated by Gpr177, the mouse Wls ortholog, is essential for hair follicle induction. Gpr177, encoding a multipass transmembrane protein, regulates Wnt sorting and secretion. Cell type-specific abrogation of the signal reveals that only epidermal, but not dermal, production of Wnt is required. An intraepidermal Wnt signal is necessary and sufficient for hair follicle initiation. However, the subsequent development depends on reciprocal signaling crosstalk of epidermal and dermal cells. Wnt signals within the epidermis and dermis and crossing between the epidermis and dermis have distinct roles and specific functions in skin development. This study not only defines the cell type responsible for Wnt production, but also reveals a highly dynamic regulation of Wnt signaling at different steps of hair follicle morphogenesis. Our findings uncover a mechanism underlying hair follicle development orchestrated by the Wnt pathway.

  1. Treatment of postoperative lower extremity wounds using human fibroblast-derived dermis: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Russell M; Smith, Nicholas C; Dux, Katherine; Stuck, Rodney M

    2014-04-01

    Human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute is a well-studied treatment for diabetic foot ulcers; however, no case series currently exist for its use in healing postoperative wounds of the lower extremity. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 32 lower extremity postoperative wounds treated weekly with human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute. Postoperative wounds were defined as a wound resulting from an open partial foot amputation, surgical wound dehiscence, or nonhealing surgical wound of the lower extremity. Wound surface area was calculated at 4 and 12 weeks or until wound closure if prior to 12 weeks. Postoperative wounds treated with weekly applications showed mean improvement in surface area reduction of 63.6% at 4 weeks and 96.1% at 12 weeks. More than 56% of all wounds healed prior to the 12-week endpoint. Additionally, only one adverse event was noted in this group. This retrospective review supports the use of human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute in the treatment of postoperative lower extremity wounds. This advanced wound care therapy aids in decreased total healing time and increased rate of healing for not only diabetic foot wounds but also postoperative wounds of the lower extremity, as demonstrated by this retrospective review.

  2. Influence of the Dermis Thickness on the Results of the Skin Treatment with Monopolar and Bipolar Radiofrequency Currents

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Electrically layered tissue structure significantly modifies distribution of radiofrequency (RF) current in the dermis and in the subcutaneous adipose tissue comparing to that in a homogeneous medium. On the basis of the simple model of RF current distribution in a two-layer skin containing dermis and subcutis, we assess the influence of the dermal thickness on the current density in different skin layers. Under other equal conditions, current density in the dermis is higher for the skin having thinner dermis. This contradicts the main paradigm of the RF theory stating that treatment results are mainly dependent on the maximal temperature reached in a target tissue, since the best short- and long-term clinical results of RF application to the skin were reported in the areas having thicker dermis. To resolve this contradiction, it is proposed that the long-term effect of RF can be realized through a structural modification of the subcutaneous fat depot adjacent to the treated skin area. Stimulation of these cells located near the interface dermis/subcutis will demand the concentration of applied RF energy in this area and will require the optimal arrangement of RF electrodes on the skin surface. PMID:27493952

  3. Prevention of ultraviolet damage to the dermis of hairless mice by sunscreens

    SciTech Connect

    Kligman, L.H.; Akin, F.J.; Kligman, A.M.

    1982-02-01

    To assess the ability of sunscreens to protect connective tissue from actinic damage, hairless mice were irradiated with Westinghouse FS20 sunlamps thrice weekly for 30 weeks. Each exposure, consisting mainly of UV-B and the less energetic UV-A, was approximately 6 human minimal erythema doses under these lights. One group of animals received irradiation only. The other 2 groups were treated, prior to irradiation, with sunscreens of either low or high sun protection factors (SPF 2 and SPF 15, respectively). Skin biopsies were taken at 10-week intervals and were stained with various histochemical stains to reveal changes in the dermis. The unprotected, irradiated animals showed a great increase in the following: reticulin fibers, elastic fibers to the extent of elastosis, neutral and acid mucopolysaccharides and melanin production. The SPF 15 sunscreen completely prevented these changes. The SPF 2 sunscreen was less effective. These effects were substantiated by ultrastructural examination of the tissues by electron microscopy. A surprising histologic finding was the repair capability of the dermis in the post-irradiation period.

  4. Effects of argon, dye, and Nd:YAG lasers on epidermis, dermis, and venous vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Landthaler, M.; Haina, D.; Brunner, R.; Waidelich, W.; Braun-Falco, O.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of the present study, which was performed at the dorsal aspects of the ears of guinea pigs, was to compare effects of different lasers on epidermis, dermis, and small venous vessels. Irradiations were performed with argon, dye, and Nd:YAG lasers. In the first series tissue repair processes were studied after argon laser application. Laser defects were excised after 1, 4, 8, and 14 days and were prepared for routine histological examination. The breadth of epidermal defect and extent of dermal coagulation and occlusion of vessels by thrombus formation were examined histologically. In a second series parameters of irradiation (ie, exposure time, laser power) of the three different lasers were changed systematically. Laser-induced morphological tissue changes could be best observed 24 hours after irradiation. Each of the lasers led to occlusion of vessels by thrombus formation and also coagulated epidermis and dermis. The extent of dermal and epidermal coagulation was less pronounced after dye laser application. Using short exposure times it was possible to reduce the extent of epidermal damage caused by argon and Nd:YAG lasers. Only 50-msec dye laser pulses led to intravascular thrombus formation without epidermal and dermal damage.

  5. Characterization of skin dermis microcirculation in flow-mediated dilation using optical sensor with pressurization mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yamakoshi, Yoshiki; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Miwa, Takashi

    2013-05-01

    Blood flows out of microvessels in the dermis when pressure higher than arterial blood pressure is applied to the fingertip, and subsequently re-flows into the microcirculation when pressure is released. Both the blood outflow and the reflow characteristics of microcirculation under pressurization are associated with microvasculature, blood and blood pressure. This study describes a novel method of measuring blood inflow and outflow characteristics of dermis microcirculation. An optical sensor, which is furnished with a 571 nm wavelength light source and a photodetector, is pressed to the skin surface using a pressure higher than the human subject's systolic arterial pressure. Hemoglobin concentration by change of the blood flow amount is estimated by the Beer-Lambert law. This method is applied to the measurement of blood inflow and outflow characteristics of microcirculation caused by reactive hyperemia after ischemia with duration of 5 min. Among three parameters evaluated, the one relating to the amplitude of pulsation shows a close correlation with conventional plethysmography, while the other two show varying time responses. Our method provides a new and useful insight into pathophysiology in health and disease conditions and may help researchers better understand the underlying mechanisms of numerous microcirculation-influenced diseases and medical conditions.

  6. Psoriasiform architecture of murine epidermis overlying human psoriatic dermis transplanted onto SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Boehncke, W H; Sterry, W; Hainzl, A; Scheffold, W; Kaufmann, R

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary observations in a xenogeneic SCID mouse transplantation model indicated that murine epidermis overgrows human dermis from psoriatic skin but not that form normal skin. To investigate the effect of peripheral blood mononuclear cells on the differentiation of murine keratinocytes, we transplanted involved and uninvolved full-thickness skin from patients with psoriasis onto SCID mice and followed this with repeated subcutaneous injections of cells suspended in patient serum. After 6 weeks grafts were analysed morphologically and immunohistochemically. The epidermis in grafts from clinically uninvolved skin appeared normal. The persistence of a psoriasiform epidermis was noted in all grafts from affected sites despite a lack of lymphocytic infiltration. Staining for human and mouse MHC class I antigens revealed the murine origin of keratinocytes forming the psoriasiform epidermis, while the human dermis was retained. Our observations indicate that the defect underlying the pathogenesis of psoriasis is most likely located in the dermal rather than the epidermal compartment. This xenogeneic transplantation model may be useful for future studies of the pathogenesis and treatment of psoriasis.

  7. Decellularization of human dermis using non-denaturing anionic detergent and endonuclease: a review.

    PubMed

    Moore, Mark A; Samsell, Brian; Wallis, Glenna; Triplett, Sherry; Chen, Silvia; Jones, Alyce Linthurst; Qin, Xiaofei

    2015-06-01

    Decellularized human dermis has been used for a number of clinical applications including wound healing, soft tissue reconstruction, and sports medicine procedures. A variety of methods exist to prepare this useful class of biomaterial. Here, we describe a decellularization technology (MatrACELL(®)) utilizing a non-denaturing anionic detergent, N-Lauroyl sarcosinate, and endonuclease, which was developed to remove potentially immunogenic material while retaining biomechanical properties. Effective decellularization was demonstrated by a residual DNA content of ≤4 ng/mg of wet weight which represented >97 % DNA removal compared to unprocessed dermis. Two millimeter thick MatrACELL processed human acellular dermal matrix (MH-ADM) exhibited average ultimate tensile load to failure of 635.4 ± 199.9 N and average suture retention strength of 134.9 ± 55.1 N. Using an in vivo mouse skin excisional model, MH-ADM was shown to be biocompatible and capable of supporting cellular and vascular in-growth. Finally, clinical studies of MH-ADM in variety of applications suggest it can be an appropriate scaffold for wound healing, soft tissue reconstruction, and soft tissue augmentation.

  8. pH changes in the dermis during the course of the tuberculin skin test.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, D K; Spence, V A; Beck, J S; Lowe, J G; Walker, W F

    1986-01-01

    The response of six healthy young adults to tuberculin skin testing was studied. Five subjects developed a typical delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to PPD with a local rise in skin temperature, and the sixth showed a less intense response; a considerable increase in blood flow velocity was seen in all reactions. All subjects showed a fall in pH in the dermis during the course of the reaction: in four subjects the pH minimum occurred at the time when the changes of erythema and induration were most prominent, in one subject the pH fall preceded the maximal clinical changes, and in the remaining subject a substantial fall in pH occurred with only transient erythema. It was concluded that the local tissue acidosis had resulted from the greatly increased metabolic demand of the lymphocytes and monocytes attracted into the dermis as part of the type IV delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction, and that the concurrent reactive hyperaemia was insufficient to clear the acidic metabolic products of the greatly increased cell population. Images Figure 1 PMID:3804375

  9. Keloid and Hypertrophic Scars Are the Result of Chronic Inflammation in the Reticular Dermis

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Rei

    2017-01-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars are caused by cutaneous injury and irritation, including trauma, insect bite, burn, surgery, vaccination, skin piercing, acne, folliculitis, chicken pox, and herpes zoster infection. Notably, superficial injuries that do not reach the reticular dermis never cause keloidal and hypertrophic scarring. This suggests that these pathological scars are due to injury to this skin layer and the subsequent aberrant wound healing therein. The latter is characterized by continuous and histologically localized inflammation. As a result, the reticular layer of keloids and hypertrophic scars contains inflammatory cells, increased numbers of fibroblasts, newly formed blood vessels, and collagen deposits. Moreover, proinflammatory factors, such as interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α are upregulated in keloid tissues, which suggests that, in patients with keloids, proinflammatory genes in the skin are sensitive to trauma. This may promote chronic inflammation, which in turn may cause the invasive growth of keloids. In addition, the upregulation of proinflammatory factors in pathological scars suggests that, rather than being skin tumors, keloids and hypertrophic scars are inflammatory disorders of skin, specifically inflammatory disorders of the reticular dermis. Various external and internal post-wounding stimuli may promote reticular inflammation. The nature of these stimuli most likely shapes the characteristics, quantity, and course of keloids and hypertrophic scars. Specifically, it is likely that the intensity, frequency, and duration of these stimuli determine how quickly the scars appear, the direction and speed of growth, and the intensity of symptoms. These proinflammatory stimuli include a variety of local, systemic, and genetic factors. These observations together suggest that the clinical differences between keloids and hypertrophic scars merely reflect differences in the intensity, frequency, and duration of

  10. Imaging collagen remodeling and sensing transplanted autologous fibroblast metabolism in mouse dermis using multimode nonlinear optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin; Cao, Ning; Jiang, Xingshan; Xie, Shusen; Xiong, Shuyuan

    2008-06-01

    Collagen remodeling and transplanted autologous fibroblast metabolic states in mouse dermis after cellular injection are investigated using multimode nonlinear optical imaging. Our findings show that the technique can image the progress of collagen remodeling in mouse dermis. It can also image transplanted autologous fibroblasts in their collagen matrix environment in the dermis, because of metabolic activity. It was also found that the approach can provide two-photon ratiometric redox fluorometry based on autologous fibroblast fluorescence from reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide coenzyme and oxidized flavoproteins for sensing the autologous fibroblast metabolic state. These results show that the multimode nonlinear optical imaging technique may have potential in a clinical setting as an in vivo diagnostic and monitoring system for cellular therapy in plastic surgery.

  11. The Dermis as a Delivery Site of Trypanosoma brucei for Tsetse Flies

    PubMed Central

    Caljon, Guy; Van Reet, Nick; De Trez, Carl; Vermeersch, Marjorie; Pérez-Morga, David; Van Den Abbeele, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Tsetse flies are the sole vectors of Trypanosoma brucei parasites that cause sleeping sickness. Our knowledge on the early interface between the infective metacyclic forms and the mammalian host skin is currently highly limited. Glossina morsitans flies infected with fluorescently tagged T. brucei parasites were used in this study to initiate natural infections in mice. Metacyclic trypanosomes were found to be highly infectious through the intradermal route in sharp contrast with blood stream form trypanosomes. Parasite emigration from the dermal inoculation site resulted in detectable parasite levels in the draining lymph nodes within 18 hours and in the peripheral blood within 42 h. A subset of parasites remained and actively proliferated in the dermis. By initiating mixed infections with differentially labeled parasites, dermal parasites were unequivocally shown to arise from the initial inoculum and not from a re-invasion from the blood circulation. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated intricate interactions of these skin-residing parasites with adipocytes in the connective tissue, entanglement by reticular fibers of the periadipocytic baskets and embedment between collagen bundles. Experimental transmission experiments combined with molecular parasite detection in blood fed flies provided evidence that dermal trypanosomes can be acquired from the inoculation site immediately after the initial transmission. High resolution thermographic imaging also revealed that intradermal parasite expansion induces elevated skin surface temperatures. Collectively, the dermis represents a delivery site of the highly infective metacyclic trypanosomes from which the host is systemically colonized and where a proliferative subpopulation remains that is physically constrained by intricate interactions with adipocytes and collagen fibrous structures. PMID:27441553

  12. Sexual function in women after rectocele repair with acellular porcine dermis graft vs site-specific rectovaginal fascia repair.

    PubMed

    Novi, Joseph M; Bradley, Catherine S; Mahmoud, Najjia N; Morgan, Mark A; Arya, Lily A

    2007-10-01

    The objective of the study was to compare preoperative and postoperative sexual function between women undergoing rectocele repair with porcine dermis graft and women undergoing site-specific repair of rectovaginal fascia. A standardized, validated questionnaire (Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire [PISQ]) was used to collect preoperative sexual function data from 100 patients with rectocele pelvic organ prolapse quantification stage 2 or greater. Fifty women underwent rectocele repair utilizing porcine dermis graft (group 1) and 50 women underwent a site-specific repair of the rectovaginal fascia (group 2). The same questionnaire was administered to all subjects 6 months after surgery. The two groups were similar in age, race, parity, prior hysterectomy, and postmenopausal hormone use. Preoperative sexual function scores were similar in the two groups (group 1 81.4+/-7.3 and group 2: 83.6+/-8.2, p=1.0). Six months after surgery, PISQ scores in group 1 significantly increased (score increase 19.9+/-2.2, p=0.01). The mean increase in PISQ scores for group 2 was 6.9+/-3.1 (p=0.08). When compared with group 2, subjects undergoing rectocele repair with porcine dermis graft scored significantly higher on the PISQ 6 months after surgery (group 1 101.3+/-6.4 and group 2 89.7+/-7.1, p=0.01). We conclude that rectocele repair using porcine dermis graft is associated with improved sexual functioning when compared with site-specific rectovaginal fascia repair.

  13. PDGF signalling in the dermis and in dermal condensates is dispensable for hair follicle induction and formation.

    PubMed

    Rezza, Amélie; Sennett, Rachel; Tanguy, Manon; Clavel, Carlos; Rendl, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Embryonic hair follicle (HF) induction and formation is dependent on signalling crosstalk between the dermis and specialized dermal condensates on the mesenchymal side and epidermal cells and incipient placodes on the epithelial side, but the precise nature and succession of signals remain unclear. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signalling is involved in the development of several organs and the maintenance of adult tissues, including HF regeneration in the hair cycle. As both PDGF receptors, PDGFRα and PDGFRβ, are expressed in embryonic dermis and dermal condensates, we explored in this study the role of PDGF signalling in HF induction and formation in the developing skin mesenchyme. We conditionally ablated both PDGF receptors with Tbx18(Cre) in early dermal condensates before follicle formation, and with Prx1-Cre broadly in the ventral dermis prior to HF induction. In both PDGFR double mutants, HF induction and formation ensued normally, and the pattern of HF formation and HF numbers were unaffected. These data demonstrate that mesenchymal PDGF signalling, either in the specialized niche or broadly in the dermis, is dispensable for HF induction and formation.

  14. Imaging CD4+ T cell interstitial migration in the inflamed dermis

    PubMed Central

    Gaylo, Alison; Overstreet, Michael G.; Fowell, Deborah J.

    2017-01-01

    The ability of CD4+ T cells to carry out effector functions is dependent upon the rapid and efficient migration of these cells in inflamed peripheral tissues through an as-yet undefined mechanism. The application of multiphoton microscopy to the study of the immune system provides a tool to measure the dynamics of immune responses within intact tissues. Here we present a protocol for non-invasive intravital multiphoton imaging of CD4+ T cells in the inflamed mouse ear dermis. Use of a custom imaging platform and a venous catheter allows for the visualization of CD4+ T cell dynamics in the dermal interstitium, with the ability to interrogate these cells in real-time via the addition of blocking antibodies to key molecular components involved in motility. This system provides advantages over both in vitro models and surgically invasive imaging procedures. Understanding the pathways used by CD4+ T cells for motility may ultimately provide insight into the basic function of CD4+ T cells as well as the pathogenesis of both autoimmune diseases and pathology from chronic infections. PMID:27078264

  15. Differentiation of human labia minora dermis-derived fibroblasts into insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bona; Yoon, Byung Sun; Moon, Jai Hee; Kim, Jonggun; Jun, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Jung Han; Kim, Jun Sung; Baik, Cheong Soon; Kim, Aeree; Whang, Kwang Youn; You, Seungkwon

    2012-01-31

    Recent evidence has suggested that human skin fibroblasts may represent a novel source of therapeutic stem cells. In this study, we report a 3-stage method to induce the differentiation of skin fibroblasts into insulin- producing cells (IPCs). In stage 1, we establish the isolation, expansion and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells from human labia minora dermis- derived fibroblasts (hLMDFs) (stage 1: MSC expansion). hLMDFs express the typical mesenchymal stem cell marker proteins and can differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes or muscle cells. In stage 2, DMEM/F12 serum-free medium with ITS mix (insulin, transferrin, and selenite) is used to induce differentiation of hLMDFs into endoderm-like cells, as determined by the expression of the endoderm markers Sox17, Foxa2, and PDX1 (stage 2: mesenchymal-endoderm transition). In stage 3, cells in the mesenchymal- endoderm transition stage are treated with nicotinamide in order to further differentiate into self-assembled, 3-dimensional islet cell-like clusters that express multiple genes related to pancreatic β-cell development and function (stage 3: IPC). We also found that the transplantation of IPCs can normalize blood glucose levels and rescue glucose homeostasis in streptozotocin- induced diabetic mice. These results indicate that hLMDFs have the capacity to differentiate into functionally competent IPCs and represent a potential cell-based treatment for diabetes mellitus.

  16. In vivo degradation of 14C-labeled porcine dermis biologic scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Lisa E.; Dearth, Christopher L.; Johnson, Scott A.; Londono, Ricardo; Medberry, Christopher J.; Daly, Kerry A.; Badylak, Stephen F.

    2017-01-01

    Biologic scaffold materials are used for repair and reconstruction of injured or missing tissues. Such materials are often composed of allogeneic or xenogeneic extracellular matrix (ECM) manufactured by decellularization of source tissue, such as dermis. Dermal ECM (D-ECM) has been observed to degrade and remodel in vivo more slowly than other biologic scaffold materials, such as small intestinal submucosa (SIS-ECM). Histologic examination is a common method for evaluating material degradation, but it lacks sensitivity and is subject to observer bias. Utilization of 14C-proline labeled ECM is a quantitative alternative for measuring degradation of ECM scaffolds. Using both methods, the amount of degradation of D-ECM and SIS-ECM was determined at 2, 4, and 24 weeks post-implantation in a rodent model. Results utilizing 14C liquid scintillation counting (LSC) analysis showed distinct differences in degradation at the three time points. D-ECM material in situ stayed the same at 76% remaining from 2 to 4 weeks post-implantation, and then decreased to 44% remaining at 24 weeks. In the same time period, implanted SIS-ECM material decreased from 72% to 13% to 0%. Visual examination of device degradation by histology overestimated degradation at 2 weeks and underestimated device degradation at 24 weeks, compared to the 14C method. PMID:24997479

  17. [Structural reorganization of the dermis of dog tibia during its elongation by the method of transosseous distraction osteosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Gorbach, Ye N

    2014-01-01

    Using the methods of light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and morphometry the status of the various components of the dermis was studied in the experiment performed on 16 adult mongrel dogs that had their shank extended by 17% of its original length using the method of transosseous distraction osteosynthesis with a daily rate of 1 mm for 4 steps. During the period of distraction, a reduction in the thickness of the dermis, change of the architectonics of its fibrous component, active collageno- and elastogenesis, cell proliferation, and the expressiveness of heteromorphism of fibroblast and macrophage cell populations were detected. In postdistraction period, all the indices were gradually approaching the norm. The data obtained may serve as criteria for the estimation of the stages of the reparative process developing under the created conditions and should be considered in the development of new technologies aimed at optimizing reparative-regenerative processes during tibial lengthening.

  18. Pesticide Uptake Across the Amphibian Dermis Through Soil and Overspray Exposures.

    PubMed

    Van Meter, Robin J; Glinski, Donna A; Henderson, W Matthew; Garrison, A Wayne; Cyterski, Mike; Purucker, S Thomas

    2015-11-01

    For terrestrial amphibians, accumulation of pesticides through dermal contact is a primary route of exposure in agricultural landscapes and may be contributing to widespread amphibian declines. To show pesticide transfer across the amphibian dermis at permitted label application rates, our study was designed to measure pesticide body burdens after two simulated exposure scenarios. We compared direct exposures, where amphibians were present when spraying occurred, to indirect exposures, where amphibians were exposed to soils after pesticide application. During summer 2012, we reared barking (Hyla gratiosa) and green treefrogs (H. cinerea) through 60-90 days post-metamorphosis at a United States Environmental Protection Agency research laboratory. We tested exposure for 8 h to five pesticide active ingredients (imidacloprid, atrazine, triadimefon, fipronil, or pendimethalin) in glass aquaria lined with soil in the laboratory. We quantified total pesticide body burden and soil concentrations using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All individuals in both treatments had measurable body burdens at the end of the study. A randomized block design analysis of variance (n = 18) showed that body burdens (p = 0.03) and bioconcentration factors (BCFs) (p = 0.01) were significantly greater in the direct overspray treatment relative to the indirect soil spray treatment for both species and tested pesticides. BCFs ranged from 0.1 to 1.16 and from 0.013 to 0.78 in the direct and indirect treatments, respectively. Our study shows dermal uptake for multiple pesticides from both direct spray and indirect soil exposures and provides empirical support for the degree to which terrestrial phase amphibians have higher body burdens after overspray pesticide exposure.

  19. Matrix Gla protein is involved in elastic fiber calcification in the dermis of pseudoxanthoma elasticum patients.

    PubMed

    Gheduzzi, Dealba; Boraldi, Federica; Annovi, Giulia; DeVincenzi, Chiara Paolinelli; Schurgers, Leon J; Vermeer, Cees; Quaglino, Daniela; Ronchetti, Ivonne Pasquali

    2007-10-01

    Mature MGP (Matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid protein) is known to inhibit soft connective tissues calcification. We investigated its possible involvement in pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), a genetic disorder whose clinical manifestations are due to mineralization of elastic fibers. PXE patients have lower serum concentration of total MGP compared to controls (P<0.001). Antibodies specific for the noncarboxylated (Glu-MGP) and for the gamma-carboxylated (Gla-MGP) forms of MGP were assayed on ultrathin sections of dermis from controls and PXE patients. Normal elastic fibers in controls and patients were slightly positive for both forms of MGP, whereas Gla-MGP was more abundant within control's than within patient's elastic fibers (P<0.001). In patients' calcified elastic fibers, Glu-MGP intensively colocalized with mineral precipitates, whereas Gla-MGP precisely localized at the mineralization front. Data suggest that MGP is present within elastic fibers and is associated with calcification of dermal elastic fibers in PXE. To investigate whether local cells produce MGP, dermal fibroblasts were cultured in vitro and MGP was assayed at mRNA and protein levels. In spite of very similar MGP mRNA expression, cells from PXE patients produced 30% less of Gla-MGP compared to controls. Data were confirmed by immunocytochemistry on ultrathin sections. Normal fibroblasts in vitro were positive for both forms of MGP. PXE fibroblasts were positive for Glu-MGP and only barely positive for Gla-MGP (P<0.001). In conclusion, MGP is involved in elastic fiber calcification in PXE. The lower ratio of Gla-MGP over Glu-MGP in pathological fibroblasts compared to controls suggests these cells may play an important role in the ectopic calcification in PXE.

  20. Different wound healing properties of dermis, adipose, and gingiva mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Boink, Mireille A; van den Broek, Lenie J; Roffel, Sanne; Nazmi, Kamran; Bolscher, Jan G M; Gefen, Amit; Veerman, Enno C I; Gibbs, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Oral wounds heal faster and with better scar quality than skin wounds. Deep skin wounds where adipose tissue is exposed, have a greater risk of forming hypertrophic scars. Differences in wound healing and final scar quality might be related to differences in mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) and their ability to respond to intrinsic (autocrine) and extrinsic signals, such as human salivary histatin, epidermal growth factor, and transforming growth factor beta1. Dermis-, adipose-, and gingiva-derived MSC were compared for their regenerative potential with regards to proliferation, migration, and matrix contraction. Proliferation was assessed by cell counting and migration using a scratch wound assay. Matrix contraction and alpha smooth muscle actin was assessed in MSC populated collagen gels, and also in skin and gingival full thickness tissue engineered equivalents (reconstructed epithelium on MSC populated matrix). Compared to skin-derived MSC, gingiva MSC showed greater proliferation and migration capacity, and less matrix contraction in full thickness tissue equivalents, which may partly explain the superior oral wound healing. Epidermal keratinocytes were required for enhanced adipose MSC matrix contraction and alpha smooth muscle actin expression, and may therefore contribute to adverse scarring in deep cutaneous wounds. Histatin enhanced migration without influencing proliferation or matrix contraction in all three MSC, indicating that salivary peptides may have a beneficial effect on wound closure in general. Transforming growth factor beta1 enhanced contraction and alpha smooth muscle actin expression in all three MSC types when incorporated into collagen gels. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for the superior oral wound healing will aid us to develop advanced strategies for optimal skin regeneration, wound healing and scar formation.

  1. Measurement of the dielectric properties of the epidermis and dermis at frequencies from 0.5 GHz to 110 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, K.; Wake, K.; Watanabe, S.

    2014-08-01

    Numerous studies have reported the measurements of the dielectric properties of the skin. Clarifying the manner in which the human body interacts with electromagnetic waves is essential for medical research and development, as well as for the safety assessment of electromagnetic wave exposure. The skin comprises several layers: the epidermis, the dermis, and the subcutaneous fat. Each of these skin layers has a different constitution; however, the previous measurements of their dielectric properties were typically conducted on tissue which included all three layers of the skin. This study presents novel dielectric property data for the epidermis and dermis with in vitro measurement at frequencies ranging from 0.5 GHz to 110 GHz. Measured data was compared with literature values; in particular, the findings were compared with Gabriel’s widely used data on skin dielectric properties. The experimental results agreed with the data reported by Gabriel for the dermis of up to 20 GHz, which is the upper limit of the range of frequencies at which Gabriel reported measurements. For frequencies of 20-100 GHz, the experimental results indicated larger values than those extrapolated from Gabriel’s data using parametric expansion. For frequencies over 20 GHz, the dielectric properties provided by the parametric model tend toward the experimental results for the epidermis with increasing frequency.

  2. Human and murine dermis contain dendritic cells. Isolation by means of a novel method and phenotypical and functional characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, A; Heine, M; Schuler, G; Romani, N

    1993-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) comprise a system of cells in lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs that are specialized to present antigens and to initiate primary T cell responses. The Langerhans cell of the epidermis is used as a prototype for studies of DC in the skin. We have characterized a population of DC in human dermis, one of the first examples of these cells in nonlymphoid organs other than epidermis. To identify their distinct functions and phenotype, we relied upon the preparation of enriched populations that emigrate from organ explants of dermis. The dermal cells have the following key features of mature DC: (a) sheet-like processes, or veils, that are constantly moving; (b) very high levels of surface MHC products; (c) absence of markers for macrophages, lymphocytes, and endothelium; (d) substantial expression of adhesion/costimulatory molecules such as CD11/CD18, CD54 (ICAM-1), B7/BB1, CD40; and (e) powerful stimulatory function for resting T cells. Dermal DC are fully comparable to epidermis-derived DC, except for the lack of Birbeck granules, lower levels of CD1a, and higher levels of CD36. DC were also detected in explants of mouse dermis. We conclude that cutaneous DC include both epidermal and dermal components, and suggest that other human nonlymphoid tissues may also serve as sources of typical immunostimulatory DC. Images PMID:8254016

  3. Measurement of the dielectric properties of the epidermis and dermis at frequencies from 0.5 GHz to 110 GHz.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, K; Wake, K; Watanabe, S

    2014-08-21

    Numerous studies have reported the measurements of the dielectric properties of the skin. Clarifying the manner in which the human body interacts with electromagnetic waves is essential for medical research and development, as well as for the safety assessment of electromagnetic wave exposure. The skin comprises several layers: the epidermis, the dermis, and the subcutaneous fat. Each of these skin layers has a different constitution; however, the previous measurements of their dielectric properties were typically conducted on tissue which included all three layers of the skin. This study presents novel dielectric property data for the epidermis and dermis with in vitro measurement at frequencies ranging from 0.5 GHz to 110 GHz. Measured data was compared with literature values; in particular, the findings were compared with Gabriel's widely used data on skin dielectric properties. The experimental results agreed with the data reported by Gabriel for the dermis of up to 20 GHz, which is the upper limit of the range of frequencies at which Gabriel reported measurements. For frequencies of 20-100 GHz, the experimental results indicated larger values than those extrapolated from Gabriel's data using parametric expansion. For frequencies over 20 GHz, the dielectric properties provided by the parametric model tend toward the experimental results for the epidermis with increasing frequency.

  4. Concise Review: Human Dermis as an Autologous Source of Stem Cells for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Vapniarsky, Natalia; Arzi, Boaz; Hu, Jerry C.; Nolta, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    The exciting potential for regenerating organs from autologous stem cells is on the near horizon, and adult dermis stem cells (DSCs) are particularly appealing because of the ease and relative minimal invasiveness of skin collection. A substantial number of reports have described DSCs and their potential for regenerating tissues from mesenchymal, ectodermal, and endodermal lineages; however, the exact niches of these stem cells in various skin types and their antigenic surface makeup are not yet clearly defined. The multilineage potential of DSCs appears to be similar, despite great variability in isolation and in vitro propagation methods. Despite this great potential, only limited amounts of tissues and clinical applications for organ regeneration have been developed from DSCs. This review summarizes the literature on DSCs regarding their niches and the specific markers they express. The concept of the niches and the differentiation capacity of cells residing in them along particular lineages is discussed. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of widely used methods to demonstrate lineage differentiation are considered. In addition, safety considerations and the most recent advancements in the field of tissue engineering and regeneration using DSCs are discussed. This review concludes with thoughts on how to prospectively approach engineering of tissues and organ regeneration using DSCs. Our expectation is that implementation of the major points highlighted in this review will lead to major advancements in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Significance Autologous dermis-derived stem cells are generating great excitement and efforts in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. The substantial impact of this review lies in its critical coverage of the available literature and in providing insight regarding niches, characteristics, and isolation methods of stem cells derived from the human dermis. Furthermore, it

  5. Visualizing the neutrophil response to sterile tissue injury in mouse dermis reveals a three-phase cascade of events.

    PubMed

    Ng, Lai Guan; Qin, Jim S; Roediger, Ben; Wang, Yilin; Jain, Rohit; Cavanagh, Lois L; Smith, Adrian L; Jones, Cheryl A; de Veer, Michael; Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Meeusen, Els N; Weninger, Wolfgang

    2011-10-01

    Neutrophil granulocytes traffic into sites of organ injury in which they may not only participate in tissue repair and pathogen clearance but may also contribute to collateral cell damage through the release of noxious mediators. The dynamics and mechanisms of neutrophil migration in the extravascular space toward loci of tissue damage are not well understood. Here, we have used intravital multi-photon microscopy to dissect the behavior of neutrophils in response to tissue injury in the dermis of mice. We found that, following confined physical injury, initially rare scouting neutrophils migrated in a directional manner toward the damage focus. This was followed by the attraction of waves of additional neutrophils, and finally stabilization of the neutrophil cluster around the injury. Although neutrophil migration in the steady state and during the scouting phase depended on pertussis toxin-sensitive signals, the amplification phase was sensitive to interference with the cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose pathway. We finally demonstrated that neutrophil scouts also transit through the non-inflamed dermis, suggesting immunosurveillance function by these cells. Together, our data unravel a three-step cascade of events that mediates the specific accumulation of neutrophils at sites of sterile tissue injury in the interstitial space.

  6. Depth-resolved simplified characterization of collagen depletion in dermis with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography applicable to non-laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tougbaev, Vitali; Eom, Tae Joong; Shin, Woojin; Lee, Yeung Lak; Yu, Bong-Ahn; Kee, Chul-Sik; Ko, Do-Kyeong; Lee, Jongmin

    2007-07-01

    A further insight into the prior concept of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography system intended for non-laboratory conditions is brought forward and an experimental proof-of-concept is presented. A phenomenological model is adopted from the theory of light depolarization in crystalline polymers and modified to yield a simplified algorithm for mapping depolarization ratio in dermis. The algorithm could distinguish between dermal layers with depleted collagen content and normal dermis of normal perilesional skin. Dermis is simulated by bireringent lamellae of collagen arranged chaotically in multiple layers parallel to the skin surface. Both the design concept and the model imply the sub-millimeter tumor thickness as a proofed prognostic factor and an important criterion for complementary functional diagnostics of skin cancers at their early phase of vertical growth. Choice of the model is inspired by similarity of structural and optical properties between liquid-crystal collagen fibers in dermis and birefringent crystalline lamellae in polymer materials. The numerical computation based on the model allowing for real characteristics of dermis gives plausible interpreting of depolarization peculiarities caused by collagen depletion. Feasibility is discussed of exploiting fiber optic analogs of achromatic retarders. Fabrication of the fiber retarders is shown to be realistic by making use of the photonics technology possessed by the authors.

  7. What Lies Beneath: Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling and Cell Fate in the Lower Dermis.

    PubMed

    Jahoda, Colin A B; Gilmore, Adam C

    2016-06-01

    Dermal cell populations are markedly heterogeneous, and they have the capacity to differentiate into dynamic and complex dermal cell compartments. However, the regulatory processes that govern the establishment of each dermal subset remain unknown. Mastrogiannaki et al. provide evidence of Wnt/β-catenin signaling controlling adipogenic differentiation in the developing reticular dermis. They also show that overexpression of localized Wnt converts dermal adipose cells into a distinct fibroblast subtype, which leads to fibrosis and disrupted hair follicle cycling. These findings highlight the multifaceted roles of Wnt signaling in the normal development and pathology of skin, including the establishment of dermal identity. Further understanding of Wnt involvement and uncovering the roles of specific Wnt ligands could be useful for discovering new therapeutic targets in treating fibrosis-related disorders.

  8. HIV-Associated Facial Lipodystrophy: Experience of a Tertiary Referral Center With Fat and Dermis-Fat Compound Graft Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Casal, Diogo; Bexiga, Joaquim; Sousa, Juliana; Martins, João; Teófilo, Eugénio; Maltez, Fernando; Germano, Isabel; Videira e Castro, José

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: HIV-associated lipodystrophy is a common comorbidity in HIV-infected patients, having a profound impact on every aspect of patients’ lives, particularly when involving the face. Hence, it is of the utmost importance to evaluate the result of any potential therapies that may help solve HIV-associated facial lipodystrophy. The aim of this article was to evaluate the outcome of patients undergoing facial lipodystrophy correction surgery within our institution. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the clinical charts and iconographic information of patients regarding demographics, morphologic changes, surgical option, postoperative complications, results, and patient satisfaction assessed by a 1- to 10-point scale and by the Assessment of Body Change and Distress questionnaire. Results: Twenty-three patients were operated on from March 2011 to April 2015. Seventy-five percent of cases were treated with fat graft injection, whereas dermis-fat grafts were applied in 25% of patients. The former had their fat harvested more commonly from the abdomen, whereas in the latter case, the graft was harvested mostly from the inner aspect of arms. The mean volume of fat injected on each side of the face was 28.5 ± 22.7 mL. On a scale from 1 to 10, mean patient satisfaction was 7.7 ± 2.8. The Assessment of Body Change and Distress questionnaire revealed statistically significant improvements. Complications occurred in 25% of cases, the most frequent being significant reabsorption. No major complications occurred. Conclusions: Treatment of HIV-associated facial lipodystrophy with autologous fat or dermis-fat compound graft is a safe procedure with long-lasting results and unquestionable aesthetic and social benefits. PMID:28123628

  9. Random control trial of dermis-fat graft and interposition of temporalis fascia in the management of temporomandibular ankylosis in children.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, D; Pradhan, R; Mohammad, S; Jaiswara, C

    2008-10-01

    Temporomandibular ankylosis is a disabling condition that affects hygiene and cosmetic appearance. Several interpositional grafts such as meniscus, muscle, fascia, skin, cartilage, fat, dura, alloplastic materials and xenografts have been used to prevent recurrence of ankylosis. We studied the advantages and disadvantages of dermis fat graft as an interposition material after arthroplasty and compared it with temporalis fascia interposition. Seventeen patients with temporomandibular ankylosis involving 20 joints were randomly divided into two groups; the first group had operations for interposition of dermis-fat graft that was taken from the groin. Patients in control group had operations to interpose temporalis fascia and muscle from the same surgical site. All were assessed by age, sex, etiology, clinical features and post surgical complications. The groups were matched in age and the male: female ratio was 0.89:1.The median duration of ankylosis was 7.3 (range 2-11) years. Postoperative and follow up interincisal mouth opening was satisfactory with good healing of the dermis-fat graft donor site. We conclude that the use of dermis fat grafts has minimal donor site morbidity, and is a safe and effective interposition material to prevent the recurrence of temporomandibular ankylosis.

  10. Combined use of fenestrated-type artificial dermis and topical negative pressure wound therapy for the venous leg ulcer of a rheumatoid arthritis patient.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Naoki; Kuro, Atsuyuki; Yamauchi, Takashi; Horiuchi, Ai; Kakudo, Natsuko; Sakamoto, Michiharu; Suzuki, Kenji; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of circumferential venous leg ulcer in a rheumatoid arthritis patient. Mesh skin grafting was performed in another hospital, but the graft failed and the patient was referred to our hospital. This ulcer was treated by the combination therapy of a fenestrated-type artificial dermis with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) and secondary mesh grafting using our 'grip tape technique'. NPWT was started at -100 mmHg and continued until the formation of dermis-like tissue. A section stained using haematoxylin and eosin and an anti-αSMA (α smooth muscle actin) immunohistological section of the biopsy from dermis-like tissue showed an abundant infiltration of fibroblasts and capillary formation beneath the fenestration of the silicone sheet. Threefold mesh skin grafting was subsequently performed and it was taken up completely. The fenestrated-type artificial dermis in combination with NPWT produced good results without infection in the treatment of complex wounds. In addition, our 'grip tape technique' was useful to apply polyurethane foam to the entire surface of the lower leg.

  11. Proliferating cells in psoriatic dermis are comprised primarily of T cells, endothelial cells, and factor XIIIa+ perivascular dendritic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Morganroth, G.S.; Chan, L.S.; Weinstein, G.D.; Voorhees, J.J.; Cooper, K.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Determination of the cell types proliferating in the dermis of patients with psoriasis should identify those cells experiencing activation or responding to growth factors in the psoriatic dermal milieu. Toward that end, sections of formalin-fixed biopsies obtained from 3H-deoxyuridine (3H-dU)-injected skin of eight psoriatic patients were immunostained, followed by autoradiography. Proliferating dermal cells exhibit silver grains from tritium emissions. The identity of the proliferating cells could then be determined by simultaneous visualization with antibodies specific for various cell types. UCHL1+ (CD45RO+) T cells (recall antigen-reactive helper T-cell subset) constituted 36.6 +/- 3.1% (mean +/- SEM, n = 6) of the proliferating dermal cells in involved skin, whereas Leu 18+ (CD45RA+) T cells (recall antigen naive T-cell subsets) comprised only 8.7 +/- 1.5% (n = 6). The Factor XIIIa+ dermal perivascular dendritic cell subset (24.9 +/- 1.5% of proliferating dermal cells, n = 6) and Factor VIII+ endothelial cells represented the two other major proliferating populations in lesional psoriatic dermis. Differentiated tissue macrophages, identified by phase microscopy as melanophages or by immunostaining with antibodies to Leu M1 (CD15) or myeloid histiocyte antigen, comprised less than 5% of the proliferating population in either skin type. In addition to calculating the relative proportions of these cells to each other as percent, we also determined the density of cells, in cells/mm2 of tissue. The density of proliferating cells within these populations was increased in involved versus uninvolved skin: UCHL1+, 9.0 +/- 1.7 cells/mm2 versus 1.8 +/- 0.6 cells/mm2, p less than 0.01; Factor XIIIa+, 6.0 +/- 0.7 cells/mm2 versus 1.5 +/- 0.5 cells/mm2, p less than 0.01; Factor VIII+, 5.5 +/- 1.4 cells/mm2 versus 0.0 cells/mm2, p less than 0.05.

  12. Evaluation of wound healing effect on skin-defect nude mice by using human dermis-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Perng, C-K; Ku, H-H; Chiou, S-H; Chen, I-L; Tsai, F-T; Yang, Y-P; Chang, K Y; Kao, C-L

    2006-11-01

    We report that human dermis-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hDMSCs) possess differentiation potential of epidermis facilitating wound healing in skin-defect nude mice in combination with the treatment using gelatin/thermosensitive poly N-isopropylacrylamide (pNIPAAm)/polypropylene (PP). The results showed that the rate of cell growth and wound recovery in the hDMSC and gelatin/pNIPAAm/PP-treated group was significantly greater than those in the gelatin/pNIPAAm/PP-treated only group (P < .01). The reepithelialization marker of human pan-cytokeratin was also significantly increased on days 14 and day 21 in the wound site of hDMSCs and gelatin/pNIPAAm/PP-treated group. Furthermore, the stem cell marker of human CD13 gradually decreased during the period of wound healing. In sum, this novel method provided a transferring system for stem cell therapy, maintaining its temperature-sensitive property of easy peeling by lower temperature treatment.

  13. Histological study of cell migration in the dermis of hamsters after immunisation with two different vaccines against visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Nádia das Dores; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Vitoriano-Souza, Juliana; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2009-04-15

    Vaccine candidates, including live and/or killed parasites, Leishmania-purified fractions, defined recombinant antigens and antigen-encoding DNA-plasmids have been proposed to use as vaccine anti-Leishmania. More recently, the hamsters have been used to pre-selection of antigens candidate to apply in further experiments using canine model. In this report we evaluated the kinetics of cell migration in dermal inflammatory infiltrate, circulating leukocytes and the presence of nitric oxide (NO)/induced nitric oxide synthase during the early (1-24h) and late (48-168h) periods following inoculation of hamsters with antigenic components of anti-canine visceral leishmaniasis vaccines Leishmune and Leishmania braziliensis antigen (LB) with and without saponin (Sap) adjuvant. Our results show that LB caused an early reduction of lymphocytes in the dermis while Sap and LBSap triggered a late recruitment, suggesting the role of the adjuvant in the traffic of antigen-presenting cells and the induction of lymphocyte migration. In that manner our results suggest that the kinetics of cell migration on hamster model may be of value in the selection of vaccine antigens prior the tests in dogs particularly in respect of the toxicity of the preparations.

  14. Bioimaging assessment and effect of skin wound healing using bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells with the artificial dermis in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hirokazu; Murakami, Takashi; Ajiki, Takashi; Hara, Mayumi; Hoshino, Yuichi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between the fate and healing effect of transplanted mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in a rat diabetic skin wound model. Rats are treated with streptozotocin to induce diabetic conditions. A full-thickness skin defect is surgically made on the head of diabetic rats, and covered with an artificial dermis impregnated with either bone marrow cells (BMCs) or bone-marrow-derived MSCs from firefly luciferase (luc) transgenic (Tg) rats. Wound healing is evaluated using planimetry and immunohistochemistry, and the fate of transplanted MSCs is determined using in-vivo luminescent imaging. The diabetic wound treated with MSCs-impregnated artificial dermis is significantly smaller than that treated with artificial dermis alone at 1 week postoperation. Photons of luc+ MSCs are detected at the transplanted site during healing (3 weeks), whereas those of luc+ MSCs are depleted only after 1 week postimplantation. Immunohistochemistry at the healing site treated with MSCs demonstrates that CD31+ vessels increase with expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, suggesting that MSCs accelerate angiogenesis. These findings suggest that transplanted MSCs could be retained at wound sites during the healing process in a diabetic rat model, and subsequently promote wound healing through angiogenesis.

  15. Epidermis–dermis junction as a novel location for bone marrow-derived cells to reside in response to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Okano, Junko; Kojima, Hideto; Katagi, Miwako; Nakae, Yuki; Terashima, Tomoya; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Kurakane, Takeshi; Okamoto, Naoki; Morohashi, Keita; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Udagawa, Jun

    2015-06-12

    Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) can migrate into the various organs in the mice irradiated by ionizing radiation (IR). However, it may not be the case in the skin. While IR is used for bone marrow (BM) transplantation, studying with the epidermal sheets demonstrated that the BMDC recruitment is extraordinarily rare in epidermis in the mouse. Herein, using the chimera mice with BM from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice, we simply examined if BMDCs migrate into any layers in the total skin, as opposed to the epidermal sheets, in response to IR. Interestingly, we identified the presence of GFP-positive (GFP{sup +}) cells in the epidermis-dermis junction in the total skin sections although the epidermal cell sheets failed to have any GFP cells. To examine a possibility that the cells in the junction could be mechanically dissociated during separating epidermal sheets, we then salvaged such dissociated cells and examined its characteristics. Surprisingly, some GFP{sup +} cells were found in the salvaged cells, indicating that these cells could be derived from BM. In addition, such BMDCs were also associated with inflammation in the junction. In conclusion, BMDCs can migrate to and reside in the epidermis-dermis junction after IR. - Highlights: • Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) migrate in the epidermis due to ionizing radiation (IR). • BMDCs dissociate from the epidermis-dermis junction in preparing epidermal sheets. • The doses of IR determine the location and the number of migrating BMDCs in the skin.

  16. Multi-Center Pilot Study to Evaluate the Safety Pro le of High Energy Fractionated Radiofrequency With Insulated Microneedles to Multiple Levels of the Dermis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel L; Weiner, Steven F; Pozner, Jason N; Ibrahimi, Omar A; Vasily, David B; Ross, E Victor; Gabriel, Zena

    2016-11-01

    In this multi-center pilot study, the safety pro le of high intensity focused radiofrequency (RF) delivered to the dermis was evaluated for safety in the treatment of the aging neck and face. A newly designed insulated microneedle system delivers a signi cant coagulative thermal injury into the dermis while sparing the epidermis from RF injury. Thirty- ve healthy subjects from seven aesthetic practices were evaluated, and data from each were incorporated in this case report. The subjects received a single treatment using settings that delivered the highest RF energies suggested from the new recommended protocols. The depth of thermal delivery was adjusted before each pass and all subjects received a minimum of two to three passes to the treated areas. Before and after photographs along with adverse effects were recorded. This case report demonstrates the ability to deliver significant RF thermal injury to several layers of the dermis with insulated microneedles safely with little injury to the epidermis and minimum downtime. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(11):1308-1312..

  17. Extensive Characterization and Comparison of Endothelial Cells Derived from Dermis and Adipose Tissue: Potential Use in Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Monsuur, Hanneke N.; Weijers, Ester M.; Niessen, Frank B.; Gefen, Amit; Koolwijk, Pieter; Gibbs, Susan; van den Broek, Lenie J.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue-engineered constructs need to become quickly vascularized in order to ensure graft take. One way of achieving this is to incorporate endothelial cells (EC) into the construct. The adipose tissue stromal vascular fraction (adipose-SVF) might provide an alternative source for endothelial cells as adipose tissue can easily be obtained by liposuction. Since adipose-EC are now gaining more interest in tissue engineering, we aimed to extensively characterize endothelial cells from adipose tissue (adipose-EC) and compare them with endothelial cells from dermis (dermal-EC). The amount of endothelial cells before purification varied between 4–16% of the total stromal population. After MACS selection for CD31 positive cells, a >99% pure population of endothelial cells was obtained within two weeks of culture. Adipose- and dermal-EC expressed the typical endothelial markers PECAM-1, ICAM-1, Endoglin, VE-cadherin and VEGFR2 to a similar extent, with 80–99% of the cell population staining positive. With the exception of CXCR4, which was expressed on 29% of endothelial cells, all other chemokine receptors (CXCR1, 2, 3, and CCR2) were expressed on less than 5% of the endothelial cell populations. Adipose-EC proliferated similar to dermal-EC, but responded less to the mitogens bFGF and VEGF. A similar migration rate was found for both adipose-EC and dermal-EC in response to bFGF. Sprouting of adipose-EC and dermal-EC was induced by bFGF and VEGF in a 3D fibrin matrix. After stimulation of adipose-EC and dermal-EC with TNF-α an increased secretion was seen for PDGF-BB, but not uPA, PAI-1 or Angiopoietin-2. Furthermore, secretion of cytokines and chemokines (IL-6, CCL2, CCL5, CCL20, CXCL1, CXCL8 and CXCL10) was also upregulated by both adipose- and dermal-EC. The similar characteristics of adipose-EC compared to their dermal-derived counterpart make them particularly interesting for skin tissue engineering. In conclusion, we show here that adipose tissue provides for an

  18. Effect on the tensile strength of human acellular dermis (Epiflex®) of in-vitro incubation simulating an open abdomen setting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of human acellular dermis (hAD) to close open abdomen in the treatment process of severe peritonitis might be an alternative to standard care. This paper describes an investigation of the effects of fluids simulating an open abdomen environment on the biomechanical properties of Epiflex® a cell-free human dermis transplant. Methods hAD was incubated in Ringers solution, blood, urine, upper gastrointestinal (upper GI) secretion and a peritonitis-like bacterial solution in-vitro for 3 weeks. At day 0, 7, 14 and 21 breaking strength was measured, tensile strength was calculated and standard fluorescence microscopy was performed. Results hAD incubated in all five of the five fluids showed a decrease in mean breaking strength at day 21 when compared to day 0. However, upper GI secretion was the only incubation fluid that significantly reduced the mechanical strength of Epiflex after 21days of incubation when compared to incubation in Ringer’s solution. Conclusion hAD may be a suitable material for closure of the open abdomen in the absence of upper GI leakage and pancreatic fistulae. PMID:24468201

  19. The use of the artificial dermis (Integra) in combination with vacuum assisted closure for reconstruction of an extensive burn scar--a case report.

    PubMed

    Leffler, M; Horch, R E; Dragu, A; Bach, A D

    2010-01-01

    The artificial dermis Integra (Ethicon, Johnson & Johnson Medical, Norderstedt, Germany) is widely used in the treatment of excessive burn injuries. It is also used in reconstructive surgery when large soft-tissue defects could not be covered with local or free flaps. In this article a 25-year old patient who presented with an early childhood burn of the trunk and lower extremity was treated with Integra in combination with the vacuum assisted closure (V.A.C., KCI, Texas, U.S.A.) and split thickness skin grafting. The combination of the artificial dermal substitute with negative pressure therapy has lead to a complete healing of Integra and the skin graft. During the whole treatment sterile wound conditions were present and time-consuming dressing changes could be prevented. Hospital stay was shortened because the patient could be treated as an outpatient with an ambulant vacuum assisted closure device.

  20. Use of macroporous gelatine spheres as a biodegradable scaffold for guided tissue regeneration of healthy dermis in humans: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Huss, Fredrik R M; Nyman, Erika; Bolin, Johanna S C; Kratz, Gunnar

    2010-05-01

    If a biodegradable scaffold is applied, the dermis can be regenerated by guided tissue regeneration. Scaffolds can stimulate in-growth of cells from the surroundings that migrate into them and start to produce autologous extracellular matrix as the scaffold is degraded. Several materials are available, but most of them are in the form of sheets and need to be laid on an open wound surface. A number of injectable fillers have been developed to correct soft-tissue defects. However, none of these has been used for guided tissue regeneration. We present a new technique that could possibly be used to correct dermal defects by using macroporous gelatine spheres as a biodegradable scaffold for guided tissue regeneration. In eight healthy volunteers, intradermal injections of macroporous gelatine spheres were compared with injections of saline and hyaluronic acid (Restylane). Full-thickness skin biopsy specimens of the implants and surrounding tissue were removed 2, 8, 12 and 26 weeks after injection, and the (immuno)histological results were analysed. The Restylane merely occupied space. It shattered the dermal tissue and compressed collagen fibres and cells at the interface between the implant and the dermis. No regeneration of tissue was found with this material at any time. The macroporous gelatine spheres were populated with fibroblasts already after 2 weeks. After 8 weeks the spheres were completely populated by fibroblasts producing dermal tissue. After 12 and 26 weeks, the gelatine spheres had been more or less completely resorbed and replaced by vascularised neodermis. There were no signs of capsular formation, rejection or adverse events in any subject. Further in vivo studies in humans are needed to evaluate the effect of the macroporous spheres fully as a matrix for guided tissue regeneration with and without cellular pre-seeding. However, the results of this study indicate the possibility of using macroporous gelatine spheres as an injectable, three

  1. Role of Pinin in neural crest, dorsal dermis, and axial skeleton development and its involvement in the regulation of Tcf/Lef activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Joo, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Young Jae; Munguba, Gustavo C; Park, Sean; Taxter, Timothy J; Elsagga, Mohamed Y; Jackson, Moira R; Oh, S Paul; Sugrue, Stephen P

    2007-08-01

    Previous in vitro studies have indicated multiple and varied roles of Pinin (PNN); however, its in vivo role has remained unclear. Here, we report generation of null, hypomorphic, and conditional Pnn alleles in mice. We found that insertion of neomycin-resistance cassette into intron 8 of Pnn resulted in knockdown of Pnn, which allowed Pnn hypomorphic embryos to pass peri-implantation lethality. These mice are lethal at perinatal stages and exhibit defects in the cardiac outflow tract, palate, dorsal dermis, and axial skeleton. Since Wnt/beta-catenin signaling has been shown to play pivotal roles in development of all tissues affected by Pnn hypomorphism, we speculated that Pnn may affect Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Supporting this view, we demonstrate abnormal activities of Tcf/Lef transcription factors, and alterations in beta-catenin level in multiple Pnn hypomorphic tissues. Taken together, the data suggest that Pnn plays important roles during mouse development through its involvement in regulation of Tcf/Lef activity.

  2. Downregulation of let-7b promotes COL1A1 and COL1A2 expression in dermis and skin fibroblasts during heat wound repair.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinyan; Luo, Chengqun; Yin, Zhaoqi; Li, Ping; Wang, Shaohua; Chen, Jia; He, Quanyong; Zhou, Jianda

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs), a class of non‑coding RNAs 18‑25 nucleotides in length, generally serve suppressive role in the regulation of gene expression via directly binding to the 3'‑untranslated region (UTR) of their target mRNA. Previous studies have identified several miRs to be involved in thermal injury repair. However, the role of miR let‑7b during the recovery of thermal injury, in addition to the underlying mechanisms, has not previously been studied. In the present study, the expression of let‑7b was observed to be significantly increased in skin tissue shortly following thermal injury, however, gradually reduced during the recovery of thermal injury. Notably, similar findings were observed in heat‑denatured skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, collagen, type I, alpha 1 (COL1A1) and collagen, type I, alpha 2 (COL1A2), which are associated with the synthesis of type I collagen, were identified as two targets of let‑7b in skin fibroblasts. The overexpression of let‑7b was observed to upregulate the protein expression levels of COL1A1 and COL1A2, while knockdown of let‑7b reduced the levels of COL1A1 and COL1A2 in skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, COL1A1 and COL1A2 were significantly downregulated shortly following thermal injury, while gradually upregulated during healing, in heat‑damaged skin tissue and skin fibroblasts, with the expression profiles opposite to that of let‑7b. Taken together, this suggests that the downregulation of let‑7b in heat‑damaged dermis promotes the synthesis of type I collagen and thus aids in burn wound repair.

  3. S100A8 and S100A9 are messengers in the crosstalk between epidermis and dermis modulating a psoriatic milieu in human skin

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Young; Jang, Sunhyae; Min, Jeong-Ki; Lee, Kyungmin; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lim, Jong-Soon; Im, Myung; Lee, Hae-Eul; Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Chang-Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulated S100A8 and/or S100A9 in psoriasis epidermis induce cytokine production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulated S100A8 and/or S100A9 in psoriasis epidermis induce migration of immune cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulated S100A8 and/or S100A9 in psoriasis epidermis induce angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S100A8 and/or S100A9 may play a role in the crosstalk between epidermis and dermis in psoriasis. -- Abstract: S100A8 and S100A9 are members of the S100A8 protein family that exist as homodimers and heterodimers in neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages. Recent studies have shown the pivotal roles of S100A8 and S100A9 in the propagation of inflammation and keratinocyte proliferation in psoriasis. We found significant up-regulation of S100A8 and S100A9 secretion from keratinocytes in psoriatic lesions. To mimic the in vivo secretory conditions of S100A8 and S100A9 from psoriatic epidermal keratinocytes, we used the culture medium (CM) of S100A8 and S100A8/A9 adenovirus-transduced keratinocytes to investigate the functions of S100A8 and S100A9. We detected increased levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in the CM, including IL-8 and TNF-{alpha}, which are involved in aggravating psoriatic skin lesions, and IL-6 and members of the CXCL family of pro-angiogenic cytokines. The CM increased immune cell migration and increased angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In conclusion, we found that the upregulated production of S100A8 and S100A9 by psoriatic epidermal keratinocytes activated adjacent keratinocytes to produce several cytokines. Moreover, S100A8 and S100A9 themselves function as pro-angiogenic and chemotactic factors, generating a psoriatic milieu in skin.

  4. Permacol (porcine dermal collagen) and Alloderm (acellular cadaveric dermis) as a vascular patch repair for common carotid arteriotomy in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Tsai, John W; Ayubi, Farhan S; Rice, Robert D; Zhang, Zhou; Armstrong, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    Occult injuries to arteries are common in trauma and evolution of their repair has been observed throughout military conflicts. Currently, autogenous vein and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) are used as patch agents for arterial trauma. However, suitable vein is often lacking in multitrauma patients, and PTFE is prone to infection in the contaminated combat wound. The purpose of this study is to evaluate Permacol, porcine dermal collagen, and Alloderm, acellular cadaveric dermis, as suitable alternatives to PTFE with the potential benefit of being used in contaminated wounds. A New Zealand White rabbit common carotid arteriotomy model was used to compare Permacol (n = 12), Alloderm (n = 11), and PTFE (n = 13) for patch repair. Thrombin generation was examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for thrombin-antithrombin complex. Histological samples were taken to analyze vessel lumen area, vessel diameter, intimal thickness, and medial thickness. Pathological examinations were made to compare rates of intimal hyperplasia, aneurysm, patency, and thrombus formation. The Permacol group showed equivalent rates of thrombus, aneurysm, and patency compared with PTFE. Increased lumen area was seen in the Permacol group, 0.344 mm2 (p = 0.02) compared with the PTFE group, 0.204 mm2. Permacol also had decreased incidence of intimal hyperplasia compared with PTFE, 50.0% versus 92% (p < 0.05). Alloderm had increased rates of aneurysm formation, 63.6% (p = 0.004) compared with PTFE, 0.0%, and Permacol groups, 8.3%. Alloderm also had increased intimal thickness through the patch, 0.076 mm (p = 0.18), compared with PTFE, 0.026 mm, and Permacol groups, 0.024 mm. Vessel diameter through the patch showed the Alloderm group, 1.87 mm (p = 0.004), was significantly larger than both the Permacol, 1.41 mm, and PTFE groups, 1.28 mm. Furthermore, Alloderm showed leukocyte migration around the patch. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for thrombin-antithrombin complex was only elevated

  5. Effects of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate on the incorporation of labelled precursors into RNA, DNA and protein in epidermis, dermis and subcutis from precancerous mouse skin with reference to enhanced tumorigenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bhisey, R.A.; Ramchandani, A.G.; Sirsat, S.M.

    1984-02-01

    The effects of a single application of 1.8 nmol 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on precursor incorporation into RNA, DNA and protein in the epidermis, dermis and subcutis from 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) injected precancerous mouse skin were studied at various time points between 3 and 96 h. In the precancerous tissues, the rates of incorporation of (/sup 3/H)uridine into RNA did not alter appreciably from those in the control tissues; while the rates of (/sup 3/H)methylthymidine incorporation into DNA were elevated with peaks appearing between 6 and 12 h, at 24 h and at 72 h in epidermis, dermis and subcutis. The rate of incorporation of (/sup 14/C)leucine into protein was markedly elevated in all the three tissues which showed 3-4 sharp peaks. The maximum stimulation ranged between 14 and 20 times that of the control. A single application of TPA to the precancerous mouse skin induced early stimulation of precursor incorporation into all the three macromolecules in epidermis, dermis and subcutis. The increased stimulation was maintained for 36-72 h. The patterns of incorporation of (/sup 3/H)methylthymidine into DNA gave rise to 2-3 peaks of elevated uptake in each tissue up to 36-48 h. A lowered rate of DNA synthesis between 48 and 60 h was followed by a peak at 72 h. In each group, epidermal mitotic activity correlated well with spurts of precursor incorporation into cellular DNA. The observations indicate that TPA recruits more cells into the DNA synthetic phase and accelerates selective growth of preneoplastic cells during tumor progression.

  6. In vivo Quantification of the Effects of Radiation and Presence of Hair Follicle Pores on the Proliferation of Fibroblasts in an Acellular Human Dermis in a Dorsal Skinfold Chamber: Relevance for Tissue Reconstruction following Neoadjuvant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Patrick; Hohenberger, Peter; Roessner, Eric Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In neoadjuvant therapy, irradiation has a deleterious effect on neoangiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the post-implantation effects of neoadjuvant irradiation on the survival and proliferation of autologous cells seeded onto an acellular human dermis (hAD; Epiflex). Additionally, we examined the influence of dermal hair follicle pores on viability and proliferation. We used dorsal skinfold chambers implanted in rats and in-situ microscopy to quantify cell numbers over 9 days. Methods 24 rats received a skinfold chamber and were divided into 2 main groups; irradiated and unirradiated. In the irradiated groups 20Gy were applied epicutaneously at the dorsum. Epiflex pieces were cut to size 5x5mm such that each piece had either one or more visible hair follicle pores, or no such visible pores. Fibroblasts were transduced lentiviral with a fluorescent protein for cell tracking. Matrices were seeded statically with 2.5x104 fluorescent fibroblasts and implanted into the chambers. In each of the two main groups, half of the rats received Epiflex with hair follicle pores and half received Epiflex without pores. Scaffolds were examined in-situ at 0, 3, 6 and 9 days after transplantation. Visible cells on the surface were quantified using ImageJ. Results In all groups cell numbers were decreased on day 3. A treatment-dependent increase in cell numbers was observed at subsequent time points. Irradiation had an adverse effect on cell survival and proliferation. The number of cells detected in both irradiated and non-irradiated subjects was increased in those subjects that received transplants with hair follicle pores. Discussion This in-vivo study confirms that radiation negatively affects the survival and proliferation of fibroblasts seeded onto a human dermis transplant. The presence of hair follicle pores in the dermis transplants is shown to have a positive effect on cell survival and proliferation even in irradiated subjects. PMID:25955842

  7. DFT:B3LYP/3-21G theoretical insights on the confocal Raman experimental observations in skin dermis of healthy young, healthy elderly, and diabetic elderly women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Téllez Soto, Claudio Alberto; Pereira, Liliane; dos Santos, Laurita; Rajasekaran, Ramu; Fávero, Priscila; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2016-12-01

    In the confocal Raman spectra of skin dermis, the band area in the spectral region of proline and hydroxyproline varies according to the age and health condition of the volunteers, classified as healthy young women, healthy elderly women, and diabetic elderly women. Another observation refers to the intensity variation and negative Raman shift of the amide I band. To understand these effects, we adopted a model system using the DFT/B3LYP:3-21G procedure, considering the amino acid chain formed by glycine, hydroxyproline, proline, and alanine, which interacts with two and six water molecules. Through these systems, polarizability variations were analyzed to correlate its values with the observed Raman intensities of the three groups of volunteers and to assign the vibrational spectra of the skin dermis. As a way to correlate other experimental trends, we propose a model of chemical reaction of water interchange between the bonding amino acids, in which water molecules are attached with glucose by hydrogen bonds. The theoretical results are in accordance with the observed experimental trends.

  8. In vivo microdialysis for the investigation of drug levels in the dermis and the effect of barrier perturbation on cutaneous drug penetration. Studies in hairless rats and human subjects.

    PubMed

    Benfeldt, E

    1999-01-01

    The thesis opens with review chapters concerning theoretical and practical aspects of the investigation of drug contents in the skin. A discussion of the advantages and limitations of the established methods as well as the relatively new sampling method of microdialysis, which is employed in the experimental section, is given. Factors influencing the barrier function of the normal human skin are described as are the alterations in skin barrier function found in diseased and experimentally barrier perturbed skin. The microdialysis technique consists of introducing an ultra thin, semipermeable tube, a so-called probe, in the dermis. The tube is connected to a precision pump, which provides a steady flow of a tissue-compatible fluid through the probe at a very low flow. Smaller molecules in the tissue, among them the non-protein bound fraction of the drug content in the extracellular fluid, will passively diffuse across the surface of the membrane and thus enter the flow of the perfusate, which is sampled at regular intervals and analysed. Microdialysis is used for the determination of drug levels in the skin after topical as well as systemic drug delivery in the experimental part of the thesis. The method is not applicable to the investigation of all drugs or compounds, as we have shown that it is not feasible to sample highly protein-bound drugs or very lipophilic drugs by microdialysis without further development of the method. The investigation of topical drug administration consists of 2 studies of cutaneous penetration of a model drug, salicylic acid, initially investigated in hairless rats and subsequently in human volunteers. In both studies, barrier perturbation of the skin was undertaken by physical (removal of the stratum corneum by repeated tape stripping) or chemical (treatment with acetone) methods or by provocation of irritative dermatitis (by application of sodium lauryl sulphate, a detergent). Prior to the penetration experiment, the barrier damage

  9. A prospective, randomised, controlled, multicentre clinical trial examining healing rates, safety and cost to closure of an acellular reticular allogenic human dermis versus standard of care in the treatment of chronic diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Zelen, Charles M; Orgill, Dennis P; Serena, Thomas; Galiano, Robert; Carter, Marissa J; DiDomenico, Lawrence A; Keller, Jennifer; Kaufman, Jarrod; Li, William W

    2017-04-01

    Acellular dermal matrices can successfully heal wounds. This study's goal was to compare clinical outcomes of a novel, open-structure human reticular acellular dermis matrix (HR-ADM) to facilitate wound closure in non-healing diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) versus DFUs treated with standard of care (SOC). Following a 2-week screening period in which DFUs were treated with offloading and moist wound care, patients were randomised to either SOC alone or HR-ADM plus SOC applied weekly for up to 12 weeks. At 6 weeks, the primary outcome time, 65% of the HR-ADM-treated DFUs healed (13/20) compared with 5% (1/20) of DFUs that received SOC alone. At 12 weeks, the proportions of DFUs healed were 80% and 20%, respectively. Mean time to heal within 12 weeks was 40 days for the HR-ADM group compared with 77 days for the SOC group. There was no incidence of increased adverse or serious adverse events between groups or any adverse events related to the graft. Mean and median graft costs to closure per healed wound in the HR-ADM group were $1475 and $963, respectively. Weekly application of HR-ADM is an effective intervention for promoting closure of non-healing DFUs.

  10. Statistical Properties of Echosignal Obtained from Human Dermis In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrzkowska, Hanna; Litniewski, Jerzy; Nowicki, Andrzej; Szymańska, Elżbieta

    The paper presents the classification of the healthy skin and the skin lesions (basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis), basing on the statistical parameters of the envelope of ultrasonic echoes. The envelope was modeled using Rayleigh and non-Rayleigh (K-distribution) statistics. Furthermore, the characteristic parameter of the K-distribution, the effective number of scatterers was investigated. Also the attenuation coefficient was used for the skin lesion assessment.

  11. In Vitro Glucose Metabolism in the Epidermis and Dermis of the Pig

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    addition to these two components, there are several other structures including eccrine and apocrine sweat glands, sebaceous glands and hair follicles...isolated and purified from rat epidermis (2). It has a molecular weight of about 40,000 and its amino acid composition differs substantially from that of

  12. Proteins deposited in the dermis are rapidly captured and presented by epidermal Langerhans cells

    PubMed Central

    Flacher, Vincent; Tripp, Christoph H.; Stoitzner, Patrizia; Haid, Bernhard; Ebner, Susanne; Koch, Franz; Park, Chae Gyu; Steinman, Ralph M.; Idoyaga, Juliana; Romani, Nikolaus

    2010-01-01

    Antigen-presenting cells can capture antigens that are deposited in the skin, including vaccines given subcutaneously. These include different dendritic cells (DC) such as epidermal Langerhans cells (LC), dermal DC and dermal langerin+ DC. To evaluate access of dermal antigens to skin DC, we used mAb to two C-type lectin endocytic receptors, DEC-205/CD205 and langerin/CD207. When applied to murine and human skin explant cultures, these mAb were efficiently taken up by epidermal LC. Additionally, anti-DEC-205 targeted langerin+ CD103+ and langerin− CD103− mouse dermal DC. Unexpectedly, intradermal injection of either mAb, but not isotype control, resulted in strong and rapid labelling of LC in situ, implying that large molecules can diffuse through the basement membrane into the epidermis. Epidermal LC targeted in vivo by ovalbumin-coupled anti-DEC-205 potently presented antigen to CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Thus, epidermal LC play a major role in uptake of lectin-binding ligands under standard vaccination conditions. PMID:19890348

  13. Mechanobiological dysregulation of the epidermis and dermis in skin disorders and in degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Rei; Hsu, Chao-Kai

    2013-01-01

    During growth and development, the skin expands to cover the growing skeleton and soft tissues by constantly responding to the intrinsic forces of underlying skeletal growth as well as to the extrinsic mechanical forces from body movements and external supports. Mechanical forces can be perceived by two types of skin receptors: (1) cellular mechanoreceptors/mechanosensors, such as the cytoskeleton, cell adhesion molecules and mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels, and (2) sensory nerve fibres that produce the somatic sensation of mechanical force. Skin disorders in which there is an abnormality of collagen [e.g. Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS)] or elastic (e.g. cutis laxa) fibres or a malfunction of cutaneous nerve fibres (e.g. neurofibroma, leprosy and diabetes mellitus) are also characterized to some extent by deficiencies in mechanobiological processes. Recent studies have shown that mechanotransduction is crucial for skin development, especially hemidesmosome maturation, which implies that the pathogenesis of skin disorders such as bullous pemphigoid is related to skin mechanobiology. Similarly, autoimmune diseases, including scleroderma and mixed connective tissue disease, and pathological scarring in the form of keloids and hypertrophic scars would seem to be clearly associated with the mechanobiological dysfunction of the skin. Finally, skin ageing can also be considered as a degenerative process associated with mechanobiological dysfunction. Clinically, a therapeutic strategy involving mechanoreceptors or MS nociceptor inhibition or acceleration together with a reduction or augmentation in the relevant mechanical forces is likely to be successful. The development of novel approaches such as these will allow the treatment of a broad range of cutaneous diseases. PMID:23672502

  14. Neural-competent cells of adult human dermis belong to the Schwann lineage.

    PubMed

    Etxaniz, Usue; Pérez-San Vicente, Adrián; Gago-López, Nuria; García-Dominguez, Mario; Iribar, Haizea; Aduriz, Ariane; Pérez-López, Virginia; Burgoa, Izaskun; Irizar, Haritz; Muñoz-Culla, Maider; Vallejo-Illarramendi, Ainara; Leis, Olatz; Matheu, Ander; Martín, Angel G; Otaegui, David; López-Mato, María Paz; Gutiérrez-Rivera, Araika; MacLellan, Robb; Izeta, Ander

    2014-11-11

    Resident neural precursor cells (NPCs) have been reported for a number of adult tissues. Understanding their physiological function or, alternatively, their activation after tissue damage or in vitro manipulation remains an unsolved issue. Here, we investigated the source of human dermal NPCs in adult tissue. By following an unbiased, comprehensive approach employing cell-surface marker screening, cell separation, transcriptomic characterization, and in vivo fate analyses, we found that p75NTR(+) precursors of human foreskin can be ascribed to the Schwann (CD56(+)) and perivascular (CD56(-)) cell lineages. Moreover, neural differentiation potential was restricted to the p75NTR(+)CD56(+) Schwann cells and mediated by SOX2 expression levels. Double-positive NPCs were similarly obtained from human cardiospheres, indicating that this phenomenon might be widespread.

  15. Surgical Outcomes of Porcine Acellular Dermis Graft in Anophthalmic Socket: Comparison with Oral Mucosa Graft

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Livia; Woo, Young Jun; Kim, Dong Kyu; Kim, Chang Yeom

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We describe our experience with the Permacol graft in anophthalmic socket reconstruction, and compare it to the autologous buccal mucosal graft, emphasizing the postoperative vascularization and contraction of each graft. Methods This was a retrospective comparative study. We measured the time necessary for the graft surface to be completely vascularized, as well as the fornix depth of the conjunctival sac in anophthalmic patients. Results Ten patients underwent Permacol graft reconstruction, with 44 undergoing buccal mucosal graft reconstruction. Seven eyelids (70%) in the Permacol group had a good outcome, with improvement in lower eyelid position and prosthesis retention. Nine out of 10 eyelids (90%) in this group showed complete vascularization of the graft at 2.6 ± 1.9 months postoperatively, while the grafted buccal mucosa was fully vascularized at 1.1 ± 0.3 months postoperatively (p < 0.01). Postoperative fornix depth in the Permacol group was 9.1 ± 2.2 mm, compared to 14.9 ± 4.5 mm in the buccal mucosal graft group (p < 0.01). Mean increases in fornix depth were 33.1% and 67.9% of the mean vertical length of the implanted graft. Conclusions The Permacol graft can be useful as spacer graft material in anophthalmic socket patients. It takes longer to vascularize, and undergoes greater graft shrinkage with time, compared to the buccal mucosal graft. PMID:28243018

  16. Creeping hair: an isolated hair burrowing in the uppermost dermis resembling larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Rie; Higashi, Kushio; Ohta, Miyuki; Sugimoto, Yasushi; Ikoma, Yukiko; Horiguchi, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    A 55-year-old Japanese male presented with a slowly moving linear erythema that looked like an eruption of creeping disease, or cutaneous larva migrans. The eruption extended linearly along Langer's line of the lateral side of the abdomen to the lower back, leaving wave-like erythema. In the top third of the erythematous eruption, close examination demonstrated a black thin line, which was revealed to be a hair shaft by a shallow incision of the skin. After removal of the hair, the eruption diminished immediately, leaving a slight pigmentation. An ingrown pubic hair seemed to have migrated with the lower end forward along Langer's line, because of the arrangement of hair cuticle and the force of body motion. Linearly moving erythematous eruptions that look like that of larva migrans should be differentiated from creeping hair by close examination detecting burrowing hair.

  17. Neural-Competent Cells of Adult Human Dermis Belong to the Schwann Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Etxaniz, Usue; Pérez-San Vicente, Adrián; Gago-López, Nuria; García-Dominguez, Mario; Iribar, Haizea; Aduriz, Ariane; Pérez-López, Virginia; Burgoa, Izaskun; Irizar, Haritz; Muñoz-Culla, Maider; Vallejo-Illarramendi, Ainara; Leis, Olatz; Matheu, Ander; Martín, Angel G.; Otaegui, David; López-Mato, María Paz; Gutiérrez-Rivera, Araika; MacLellan, Robb; Izeta, Ander

    2014-01-01

    Summary Resident neural precursor cells (NPCs) have been reported for a number of adult tissues. Understanding their physiological function or, alternatively, their activation after tissue damage or in vitro manipulation remains an unsolved issue. Here, we investigated the source of human dermal NPCs in adult tissue. By following an unbiased, comprehensive approach employing cell-surface marker screening, cell separation, transcriptomic characterization, and in vivo fate analyses, we found that p75NTR+ precursors of human foreskin can be ascribed to the Schwann (CD56+) and perivascular (CD56−) cell lineages. Moreover, neural differentiation potential was restricted to the p75NTR+CD56+ Schwann cells and mediated by SOX2 expression levels. Double-positive NPCs were similarly obtained from human cardiospheres, indicating that this phenomenon might be widespread. PMID:25418723

  18. Comparison between fingerprints of the epidermis and dermis: Perspectives in the identifying of corpses.

    PubMed

    Mizokami, Leila Lopes; Silva, Lara Rosana Vieira; Kückelhaus, Selma Aparecida Souza

    2015-07-01

    In forensic science, the putrefaction, maceration, mummification or burning make it difficult to collect the fingerprints of the epidermis for identification purposes. In such cases, the comparison between fingerprints collected from the dermal surface and the ante mortem pattern of the epidermal surface archived in databases must be performed. Therefore, considering that the identification of corpses is done by comparison of fingerprints on different surfaces, this study aimed to compare the epidermal and the dermal fingerprints to determine the discrepancies between the minutiae of both surfaces. The study was conducted with excised fingers of 19 fresh adult corpses. Once selected, excised and photographed, the fingers were subjected to maceration with 0.5% acetic acid solution for the removal of the epidermal glove and for registering the dermal fingerprint. Then, an area of 1cm(2) in the epidermal and dermal photographies was selected and the minutiae of each were separately marked by an expert in identification. The comparison between minutiae of the epidermal and dermal surfaces showed that: (1) both surfaces maintained the patterns and characteristics of fingerprints (arch, whorl or loop) and the characteristics related to the systems and the disposal of the lines, meaning the formation or not of deltas; (2) the total number of marked minutiae did not differ between both surfaces for the group of individuals (paired t test, p=0.48); (3) the percentage of coincidences and divergences (minutiae present on only one surface) between minutiae were 63.0±20.0% and 37.0±20.0%, respectively; (4) identification was possible for 16 fingers/individuals, but not for 3 of them; (5) the increase in the number of marked minutiae does not affect the percentage of coincidences. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of the dermal surface for identification purposes due to the high percentage of matching minutiae, but considering the discrepancies and the inconclusive identification of 3 fingers/individuals, our study points to the use of more fingers per individual, as well as the possibility of further studies to improve on the techniques for increasing the identification of corpses, or even to deploy new technologies to ensure their rapid and safe identification.

  19. Mimicking the quasi-random assembly of protein fibers in the dermis by freeze-drying method.

    PubMed

    Ghaleh, Hakimeh; Abbasi, Farhang; Alizadeh, Mina; Khoshfetrat, Ali Baradar

    2015-04-01

    Freeze-drying is extensively used for fabrication of porous materials in tissue engineering and biomedical applications, due to its versatility and use of no toxic solvent. However, it has some significant drawbacks. Conventional freeze-drying technique leads to the production of heterogeneous porous structures with side orientated columnar pores. As the top and bottom surfaces of the sample are not in contact with similar environments, different rates of heat transfer in the surfaces and the temperature gradient across the sample establish the preferential direction of heat transfer. To achieve a scaffold with a desirable microstructure for skin tissue engineering, freeze-drying method was modified by controlling the rate of cooling and regulation of heat transfer across the sample during the freezing step. It could create a homogeneous porous structure with more equiaxed non-oriented pores. Freezing the polymeric solution in the aluminum mold enhanced pore interconnectivity relative to the polystyrene mold. Recrystallization process was discussed how to influence the mean pore size of the scaffold when the final freezing temperature varied. Higher final freezing temperature can easily provide the energy required for the recrystallization process, which lead to enlarged ice crystals and resulting pores.

  20. Human epithelial cells induce human melanocyte growth in vitro but only skin keratinocytes regulate its proper differentiation in the absence of dermis

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Human keratinocytes isolated from a skin biopsy and cultured in vitro reconstitute a stratified squamous epithelium suitable for grafting on burned patients. Melanocytes coisolated from the same skin biopsy also proliferate under these culture conditions and maintain differentiated functions (i.e., synthesize melanin granules, regularly intersperse in the basal layer of the cultured epidermis, and transfer melanosomes in the cytoplasm of contiguous keratinocytes) (De Luca, M., A. T. Franzi, F. D'Anna, A. Zicca, E. Albanese, S. Bondanza, and R. Cancedda. 1988. Eur. J. Cell Biol. 46:176-180). Isolated melanocytes in culture grow in the presence of specific growth factors with a mean population doubling time of 4-10 d. In this paper we show that (a) human keratinocytes and oral epithelial cells possess strong and specific melanocyte growth stimulating activity (doubling time, 24 h); (b) melanocyte growth is not autonomous but requires close keratinocyte contact and is regulated to maintain a physiological melanocytes/keratinocytes ratiol and (c) pure skin keratinocytes, but not oral epithelial cells, have all the information required for the proper physiological location and differentiation of melanocytes in the epidermis. PMID:2460471

  1. Comparison of pigment cell ultrastructure and organisation in the dermis of marble trout and brown trout, and first description of erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids.

    PubMed

    Djurdjevič, Ida; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Sušnik Bajec, Simona

    2015-11-01

    Skin pigmentation in animals is an important trait with many functions. The present study focused on two closely related salmonid species, marble trout (Salmo marmoratus) and brown trout (S. trutta), which display an uncommon labyrinthine (marble-like) and spot skin pattern, respectively. To determine the role of chromatophore type in the different formation of skin pigment patterns in the two species, the distribution and ultrastructure of chromatophores was examined with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The presence of three types of chromatophores in trout skin was confirmed: melanophores; xanthophores; and iridophores. In addition, using correlative microscopy, erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids was described for the first time. Two types of erythrophores are distinguished, both located exclusively in the skin of brown trout: type 1 in black spot skin sections similar to xanthophores; and type 2 with a unique ultrastructure, located only in red spot skin sections. Morphologically, the difference between the light and dark pigmentation of trout skin depends primarily on the position and density of melanophores, in the dark region covering other chromatophores, and in the light region with the iridophores and xanthophores usually exposed. With larger amounts of melanophores, absence of xanthophores and presence of erythrophores type 1 and type L iridophores in the black spot compared with the light regions and the presence of erythrophores type 2 in the red spot, a higher level of pigment cell organisation in the skin of brown trout compared with that of marble trout was demonstrated. Even though the skin regions with chromatophores were well defined, not all the chromatophores were in direct contact, either homophilically or heterophilically, with each other. In addition to short-range interactions, an important role of the cellular environment and long-range interactions between chromatophores in promoting adult pigment pattern formation of trout are proposed.

  2. Effects of a skin-massaging device on the ex-vivo expression of human dermis proteins and in-vivo facial wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Caberlotto, Elisa; Ruiz, Laetitia; Miller, Zane; Poletti, Mickael; Tadlock, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical and geometrical cues influence cell behaviour. At the tissue level, almost all organs exhibit immediate mechanical responsiveness, in particular by increasing their stiffness in direct proportion to an applied mechanical stress. It was recently shown in cultured-cell models, in particular with fibroblasts, that the frequency of the applied stress is a fundamental stimulating parameter. However, the influence of the stimulus frequency at the tissue level has remained elusive. Using a device to deliver an oscillating torque that generates cyclic strain at different frequencies, we studied the effect(s) of mild skin massage in an ex vivo model and in vivo. Skin explants were maintained ex vivo for 10 days and massaged twice daily for one minute at various frequencies within the range of 65-85 Hz. Biopsies were analysed at D0, D5 and D10 and processed for immuno-histological staining specific to various dermal proteins. As compared to untreated skin explants, the massaging procedure clearly led to higher rates of expression, in particular for decorin, fibrillin, tropoelastin, and procollagen-1. The mechanical stimulus thus evoked an anti-aging response. Strikingly, the expression was found to depend on the stimulus frequency with maximum expression at 75Hz. We then tested whether this mechanical stimulus had an anti-aging effect in vivo. Twenty Caucasian women (aged 65-75y) applied a commercial anti-aging cream to the face and neck, followed by daily treatments using the anti-aging massage device for 8 weeks. A control group of twenty-two women, with similar ages to the first group, applied the cream alone. At W0, W4 and W8, a blinded evaluator assessed the global facial wrinkles, skin texture, lip area, cheek wrinkles, neck sagging and neck texture using a clinical grading scale. We found that combining the massaging device with a skin anti-aging formulation amplified the beneficial effects of the cream.

  3. H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Protect Your Child and Family from the Flu this School Year English 本学年家长预防子女和家人感染流感应采取的措施 - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Spanish (español) Gripe H1N1 (gripe porcina) Characters not displaying ...

  4. Exposure of bovine dermal tissue to ultraviolet light under the Antarctic ozone hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Tetsuya; Ogura, Takayuki; Tanaka, Keisuke; Hattori, Shunji; Kudoh, Sakae; Imura, Satoshi

    2016-12-01

    Bovine dermis was exposed outdoors in the Antarctic in 2013 to study the skin damage caused by short-wavelength ultraviolet light under the ozone hole. Collagen was extracted from the exposed dermis with pepsin. The amount of solubilized collagen in the exposed dermis was only 20%-40% of that in dermis shielded from ultraviolet light. The dermis was most difficult to extract when exposed in summer, and then when exposed in spring. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine the melting endothermic behavior of the dermal tissue. The peak temperature was highest for the dermis exposed in summer. The exposed dermis was degraded with cyanogen bromide to determine whether cross-linking had occurred. Cross-linked peptides were detected in the dermis exposed in summer or spring, but the dermis exposed in autumn did not differ markedly from the light-shielded dermis. These data show that cross-linkages were readily formed in the collagen molecule chains in dermis exposed to ultraviolet light in summer, when solar elevation is highest and the period of sunshine is longest. A comparison of the dermis exposed in spring and that exposed in autumn showed that cross-linkages were formed more readily by ultraviolet light in spring, when the ozone hole occurred.

  5. Basic histological structure and functions of facial skin.

    PubMed

    Arda, Oktay; Göksügür, Nadir; Tüzün, Yalçın

    2014-01-01

    The skin and its appendages that derive from the epidermis (hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, nails, and mammary glands) establish the integumentary system. Histologically, skin has two main layers-the epidermis and the dermis-with a subcutaneous fascia called the hypodermis, which lies deep in the dermis. The epidermis is formed of four to five layers of cells made mostly out of keratinocytes, along with three other different and less abundant cells. The dermis underlies the epidermis. The hypodermis is a looser connective tissue that is located beneath the dermis. It blends to the dermis with an unclear boundary.

  6. A blanching technique for intradermal injection of the hyaluronic acid Belotero.

    PubMed

    Micheels, Patrick; Sarazin, Didier; Besse, Stéphanie; Sundaram, Hema; Flynn, Timothy C

    2013-10-01

    With the proliferation of dermal fillers in the aesthetic workplace have come instructions from various manufacturers regarding dermal placement. Determination of injection needle location in the dermis has in large part been based on physician expertise, product and needle familiarity, and patient-specific skin characteristics. An understanding of the precise depth of dermal structures may help practitioners improve injection specificity. Unlike other dermal fillers that suggest intradermal and deep dermal injection planes, a new hyaluronic acid with a cohesive polydensified matrix may be more appropriate for the superficial dermis because of its structure and its high degree of integration into the dermis. To that end, the authors designed a small study to quantify the depth of the superficial dermis by means of ultrasound and histology. Using ultrasound resources, the authors determined the depths of the epidermis, the dermis, and the reticular dermis in the buttocks of six patients; the authors then extrapolated the depth of the superficial reticular dermis. Histologic studies of two of the patients showed full integration of the product in the reticular dermis. Following determination of injection depths and filler integration, the authors describe a technique ("blanching") for injection of the cohesive polydensified matrix hyaluronic acid into the superficial dermis. At this time, blanching is appropriate only for injection of the cohesive polydensified matrix hyaluronic acid known as Belotero Balance in the United States, although it may have applications for other hyaluronic acid products outside of the United States.

  7. Softenin, a Novel Protein That Softens the Connective Tissue of Sea Cucumbers through Inhibiting Interaction between Collagen Fibrils

    PubMed Central

    Takehana, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Akira; Tamori, Masaki; Motokawa, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    The dermis in the holothurian body wall is a typical catch connective tissue or mutable collagenous tissue that shows rapid changes in stiffness. Some chemical factors that change the stiffness of the tissue were found in previous studies, but the molecular mechanisms of the changes are not yet fully understood. Detection of factors that change the stiffness by working directly on the extracellular matrix was vital to clarify the mechanisms of the change. We isolated from the body wall of the sea cucumber Stichopus chloronotus a novel protein, softenin, that softened the body-wall dermis. The apparent molecular mass was 20 kDa. The N-terminal sequence of 17 amino acids had low homology to that of known proteins. We performed sequential chemical and physical dissections of the dermis and tested the effects of softenin on each dissection stage by dynamic mechanical tests. Softenin softened Triton-treated dermis whose cells had been disrupted by detergent. The Triton-treated dermis was subjected to repetitive freeze-and-thawing to make Triton-Freeze-Thaw (TFT) dermis that was softer than the Triton-treated dermis, implying that some force-bearing structure had been disrupted by this treatment. TFT dermis was stiffened by tensilin, a stiffening protein of sea cucumbers. Softenin softened the tensilin-stiffened TFT dermis while it had no effect on the TFT dermis without tensilin treatment. We isolated collagen from the dermis. When tensilin was applied to the suspending solution of collagen fibrils, they made a large compact aggregate that was dissolved by the application of softenin or by repetitive freeze-and-thawing. These results strongly suggested that softenin decreased dermal stiffness through inhibiting cross-bridge formation between collagen fibrils; the formation was augmented by tensilin and the bridges were broken by the freeze-thaw treatment. Softenin is thus the first softener of catch connective tissue shown to work on the cross-bridges between

  8. Case study: Epidermoid cyst following percutaneous Topaz coblation for plantar fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kim; Thomson, Allan George; Moir, John Stuart

    2012-03-01

    An epidermoid cyst is formed when there is proliferation of epidermal cells within an area of the dermis. They may be formed by the traumatic implantation of epidermal cells within the dermis as well as many other mechanisms. We present a case of epidermoid cyst formation following Topaz coblation for plantar fasciitis; a complication we believe is yet to be reported in the literature.

  9. Monitoring process of human keloid formation based on second harmonic generation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X. S.; Chen, S.; Chen, J. X.; Zhu, X. Q.; Zheng, L. Q.; Zhuo, S. M.; Wang, D. J.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, the morphological variation of collagen among the whole dermis from keloid tissue was investigated using second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. In the deep dermis of keloids, collagen bundles show apparently regular gap. In the middle dermis, the collagen bundles are randomly oriented and loosely arranged in the pattern of fine mesh while the collagen bundles are organized in a parallel manner in the superficial dermis near the epidermis. The developed parameters COI and BD can be used to further quantitatively describe these changes. Our results demonstrate the potential of SHG microscopy to understand the formation process of human keloid scar at the cellular level through imaging collagen variations in different depth of dermis.

  10. Multiphoton microscopy study of the morphological and quantity changes of collagen and elastic fiber components in keloid disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianxin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Jiang, Xingshan; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zheng, Liqin; Xie, Shusen; Lin, Bifang; Zeng, Haishan

    2011-05-01

    Multiphoton microscopy was used to study the extracellular matrix of keloid at the molecular level without tissue fixation and staining. Direct imaging of collagen and elastin was achieved by second harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence, respectively. The morphology and quantity of collagen and elastin in keloid were characterized and quantitatively analyzed in comparison to normal skin. The study demonstrated that in keloid, collagen content increased in both the upper dermis and the deep dermis, while elastin mostly showed up in the deep dermis and its quantity is higher compared to normal skin. This suggests the possibility that abnormal fibroblasts synthesized an excessive amount of collagen and elastin at the beginning of keloid formation, corresponding to the observed deep dermis, while after a certain time point, the abnormal fibroblast produced mostly collagen, corresponding to the observed upper dermis. The morphology of collagen and elastin in keloid was disrupted and presented different variations. In the deep dermis, elastic fibers showed node structure, while collagen showed obviously regular gaps between adjacent bundles. In the upper dermis, collagen bundles aligned in a preferred direction, while elastin showed as sparse irregular granules. This new molecular information provided fresh insight about the development process of keloid.

  11. Dermascope assisted interactive patient interface for multiple reference optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dsouza, Roshan; Subhash, Hrebesh; Neuhaus, Kai; Hogan, Josh; Wilson, Carol; Leahy, Martin

    2014-02-01

    There has been a growing interest in the development of a low cost depth-resolved non-invasive dermis imaging tool for both clinical and fundamental investigations of skin diseases. Multiple reference optical coherence tomography (MR-OCT) is a recently developed miniature time-domain low coherence interferometeric imaging platform, which promises to fit into robust, cost-effective designs that are virtually solid state, typical of handheld devices. In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility of MR-OCT for dermis imaging applications by incorporating it in a dermascope, which provides simultaneous imaging of dermis and an interactive tool for beam steering and registration of the OCT imaging beam at the dermis area. This allows the user to interactively investigate the depth resolved information of any target position of interest on the dermis by pointing the mouse cursor within the dermis image or selecting the area on a touch screen. Image acquisition is controlled with software that displays both the dermis and MR-OCT axial-scan, and allows detailed information of the depth scan signal to screen for skin disease. We believe this approach will have a significant impact on medical care.

  12. Elemental analysis of tissue pellets for the differentiation of epidermal lesion and normal skin by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Youngmin; Han, Jung Hyun; Shin, Sungho; Kim, Yong-Chul; Jeong, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    By laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis of epidermal lesion and dermis tissue pellets of hairless mouse, it is shown that Ca intensity in the epidermal lesion is higher than that in dermis, whereas Na and K intensities have an opposite tendency. It is demonstrated that epidermal lesion and normal dermis can be differentiated with high selectivity either by univariate or multivariate analysis of LIBS spectra with an intensity ratio difference by factor of 8 or classification accuracy over 0.995, respectively. PMID:27231610

  13. Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... wear sunscreen and protective clothing, such as a hat, to prevent painful sunburns. Protecting your skin now ... happens in a split second, without you ever thinking about it. previous continue Dermis = Lots of Blood ...

  14. Burn, thermal - close-up (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... first degree burns cause only reddening of the epidermis (outer layer of the skin), as seen in this photograph. Second degree burns cause blistering and extend into the dermis (lower layer of skin). Third degree burns cause ...

  15. Oxyhemoglobin photodissociation efficiency in biological tissue exposed to laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barun, V. V.; Ivanov, A. P.

    2011-09-01

    We have obtained quantitative data on the differential (with respect to depth) and the integrated oxyhemoglobin photodissociation efficiency in the dermis when the skin surface is exposed to a light beam in the wavelength range 300-650 nm. With this aim, we have used our own previously developed optical model for skin tissue and analytical procedure for calculating the characteristics of optical fields in a medium. We have estimated the number of oxygen molecules formed at different depths in the medium, and also their integrated number over the entire thickness of the dermis as a function of the irradiation wavelength. We consider models for a dermis that is homogeneous with respect to depth and a dermis that has a layered structure. We show that the spectral photodissociation efficiency has a number of maxima associated with the absorption spectrum of oxyhemoglobin and the optical properties of all the layers of skin tissue. We discuss the effect of the epidermis on these maxima.

  16. Dermal penetration and systemic distribution of sup 14 C-labeled vitamin E human skin grafted athymic nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Klain, G.J.

    1989-03-13

    In vivo percutaneous penetration and tissue distribution of 14C-labeled vitamin E applied to human skin grafted onto athymic nude mice were determined. At 1 hr, mouse skin contained the highest level of radioactivity, followed by the muscle, blood, liver, lung, adipose tissue, spleen, kidney, brain, heart, and eyes. A linear increase with time in tissue radioactivity was observed throughout the 24 hr experimental period. At 4 and 24 hrs skin grafts were highly radioactive. At 4 hrs the epidermis and the upper portion of the dermis contained more radioactivity than the remaining portion of the dermis. In contrast, at 24 hrs the highest level of radioactivity was detected in the lower dermis. No radioactivity was detected in expired air while 0.2% of the dose was found in the urine. The data show that vitamin E does penetrate skin and that the dermis acts as a barrier or reservoir for this highly lipophilic compound.

  17. Fourteen-Day Subacute Intravenous Toxicity Study of Hypertonic Saline/ Dextran 70 and its Constituents in Beagle Dogs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    Skeletal Muscle -- Fasciitis , Chronic, with Mineralization: The epimysial fascia is fibrotic, mineralized, and infiltrated by macrophages and...ulcerated and covered by necrotic debris mixed with proteinaceous exudate. The dermis is infiltrated by neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes

  18. Ecthyma (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Ecthyma is a skin infection similar to impetigo, but more deeply invasive. Usually caused by a streptococcus infection, ecthyma goes through the outer layer (epidermis) to the deeper layer (dermis) of ...

  19. Papular dermatitis induced in guinea pigs by the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Histological, ultrastructural, and virological examinations were performed on abdominal skin from guinea pigs after a blood meal by colony-bred biting midges, Culicoides sonorensis. Small, superficial, cutaneous, crateriform ulcers with necrosis of superficial dermis developed at feeding sites and ...

  20. What Are Wrinkles?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a great job of stretching and holding in moisture. The dermis has an elastic quality thanks to ... skin gets thinner and has trouble getting enough moisture to the epidermis. The fat in the subcutaneous ...

  1. 40 CFR 157.22 - When required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... irritation persisting for 21 days or more; (5) The pesticide is corrosive to the skin (causes tissue destruction into the dermis and/or scarring) or causes severe skin irritation (severe erythema or edema) at...

  2. 40 CFR 157.22 - When required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... irritation persisting for 21 days or more; (5) The pesticide is corrosive to the skin (causes tissue destruction into the dermis and/or scarring) or causes severe skin irritation (severe erythema or edema) at...

  3. 40 CFR 157.22 - When required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... irritation persisting for 21 days or more; (5) The pesticide is corrosive to the skin (causes tissue destruction into the dermis and/or scarring) or causes severe skin irritation (severe erythema or edema) at...

  4. Ras-Independent Function of NF1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    hair follicles and when the skin function is disturbed, keratin 6 expresses in epidermis (9, 10). As shown in figure 1B, we observed epidermal...from postnatal 21 day wild-type (wt) and NF1 epidermal knockout mice (NF1 cKO). Epi: epidermis, der: dermis, hf: hair follicle . Figure 2...cells) for mast cells in an 8 month old NF1 epidermal knockout mouse and a wild-type control. Epi: epidermis, der: dermis, hf: hair follicle

  5. Study of diffusion of indocyanine green as a photodynamic dye into skin using backscattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genina, E. A.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2014-07-01

    One of the lines of development of modern medicine is theranostics consisting in simultaneous diagnosis and laser treatment with the use of multifunctional agents such as fluorescent indocyanine green that has photodynamic and photothermal properties. Diffusion of indocyanine green dissolved in water and aqueous solutions of alcohols (glycerol, propylene glycol and ethanol) into the dermis is studied by using backscattering spectroscopy. The coefficients of the dye diffusion into the dermis are obtained for the first time by using these solvents.

  6. Study of diffusion of indocyanine green as a photodynamic dye into skin using backscattering spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Genina, E A; Bashkatov, A N; Tuchin, V V

    2014-07-31

    One of the lines of development of modern medicine is theranostics consisting in simultaneous diagnosis and laser treatment with the use of multifunctional agents such as fluorescent indocyanine green that has photodynamic and photothermal properties. Diffusion of indocyanine green dissolved in water and aqueous solutions of alcohols (glycerol, propylene glycol and ethanol) into the dermis is studied by using backscattering spectroscopy. The coefficients of the dye diffusion into the dermis are obtained for the first time by using these solvents. (laser biophotonics)

  7. Targetoid hemosiderotic hemangioma - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Kakizaki, Priscila; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai; Paiva, Daniele Loureiro Mangueira; Dantas, Fernando Luiz Teixeira; Gonçalves, Sheila Viana Castelo Branco

    2014-01-01

    Targetoid Hemosiderotic Hemangioma, also known as Hobnail Hemangioma, is a lesion of vascular origin, probably lymphatic. The most common clinical feature is a solitary violaceous papule surrounded by a pale, thin area and a peripheral ecchymotic ring, simulating a target. Histopathologically, there is a biphasic pattern, with dilated vessels in the superficial dermis and pseudoangiosarcomatous pattern in the deep dermis, and endothelial cells with hobnail morphology. A simple excision is curative. We report a rare case of Targetoid Hemosiderotic Hemangioma. PMID:25387500

  8. The integumentary system: anatomy, physiology and function of skin.

    PubMed

    McLafferty, Ella

    2012-09-19

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, examines the anatomy and physiology of skin, also termed the integumentary system. Skin is composed of two main layers, the epidermis and dermis. The structure of the epidermis and dermis are described and their functions are discussed. Accessory structures, such as nails and hair are also considered. Although many diseases of the skin exist, two common conditions - psoriasis and decubitus ulcers - are described in this article.

  9. The integumentary system: anatomy, physiology and function of skin.

    PubMed

    McLafferty, Ella; Hendry, Charles; Alistair, Farley

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, examines the anatomy and physiology of skin, also termed the integumentary system. Skin is composed of two main layers, the epidermis and dermis. The structure of the epidermis and dermis are described and their functions are discussed. Accessory structures, such as nails and hair are also considered. Although many diseases of the skin exist, two common conditions--psoriasis and decubitus ulcers--are described in this article.

  10. Histological Comparison of the Human Trunk Skin Creases: The Role of the Elastic Fiber Component

    PubMed Central

    Kakagia, Despoina; Yiacoumettis, Andreas; Vasilakaki, Thivi; Drougou, Aggeliki; Lambropoulou, Maria; Simopoulos, Constantinos; Tsaroucha, Alexandra K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Skin creases are features of major anatomical, morphological, surgical, and functional interest. This study focuses on the histological comparison of creases of the trunk and participation of the elastic fibers in their formation. The histological structure is a key consideration for the reconstructive planning of the relevant area and its knowledge may contribute in such direction. Methods: Fresh cadaver specimens were collected from the inframammary (n = 15), infragluteal (n = 16), and inguinal creases (n = 14), the anterior axillary fold (n = 14), and the surrounding skin (n = 10). Specimens were fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde. Collagen and muscle fibers were stained by Masson Trichrome and Van Gieson stains, reticular and collagen type III fibers by Reticulin stain, and elastic fibers by Verhoef and Orcein stains. Results: Skin creases of the trunk present well-defined dense bundles of collagen fibers, creating a beehive pattern with broad attachment to the dermis and denser in deeper sites related to the fascia of the underlying muscle. The elastic fibers participate in the collagen pattern and radiate in a parallel pattern in the reticular dermis and in a perpendicular fashion in the papillary dermis. The skin surrounding the creases lacks such organization. Conclusions: Creases of the trunk are formed by well-organized collagen bundles in a beehive pattern, attached to the dermis and related to the underlying muscle fascia. The elastic fibers participate in this structure and radiate in a parallel fashion in the reticular dermis and perpendicularly in the papillary dermis. PMID:27081433

  11. Ultrastructural Changes Associated with Reversible Stiffening in Catch Connective Tissue of Sea Cucumbers

    PubMed Central

    Tamori, Masaki; Ishida, Kinji; Matsuura, Eri; Ogasawara, Katsutoshi; Hanasaka, Tomohito; Takehana, Yasuhiro; Motokawa, Tatsuo; Osawa, Tokuji

    2016-01-01

    The dermis of sea cucumbers is a catch connective tissue or a mutable collagenous tissue that shows rapid, large and reversible stiffness changes in response to stimulation. The main component of the dermis is the extracellular material composed of collagen fibrils embedded in a hydrogel of proteoglycans. The stiffness of the extracellular material determines that of the dermis. The dermis has three mechanical states: soft (Sa), standard (Sb) and stiff (Sc). We studied the ultrastructural changes associated with the stiffness changes. Transverse sections of collagen fibrils in the dermis showed irregular perimeters with electron-dense protrusions or arms that cross-bridged between fibrils. The number of cross-bridges increased in stiffer dermis. The distance between the fibrils was shorter in Sc than that in other states, which was in accord with the previous report that water exuded from the tissue in the transition Sb→Sc. The ultrastructure of collagen fibrils that had been isolated from the dermis was also studied. Fibrils aggregated by tensilin, which causes the transition Sa→Sb possibly through an increase in cohesive forces between fibrils, had larger diameter than those dispersed by softenin, which antagonizes the effect of tensilin. No cross-bridges were found in isolated collagen fibrils. From the present ultrastructural study we propose that three different mechanisms work together to increase the dermal stiffness. 1.Tensilin makes collagen fibrils stronger and stiffer in Sa→Sb through an increase in cohesive forces between subfibrils that constituted fibrils; 2. Cross-bridging by arms caused the fibrils to be a continuous network of bundles both in Sa→Sb and in Sb→Sc; 3. The matrix embedding the fibril network became stiffer in Sb→Sc, which was produced by bonding associated with water exudation. PMID:27192546

  12. Crude extract of Fusarium oxysporum induces apoptosis and structural alterations in the skin of healthy rats.

    PubMed

    de Paulo, Luis F; Coelho, Ana C; Svidzinski, Terezinha I E; Sato, Francielle; Rohling, Jurandir H; Natali, Maria Raquel M; Baesso, Mauro L; Hernandes, Luzmarina

    2013-09-01

    We evaluate the biological and physicochemical effects of a Fusarium oxysporum crude extract (CE) on the skin of healthy rats. The CE is topically applied and subsequently the skin is collected after 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. The samples are analyzed by Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) and histomorphometric analysis. Terminal dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay) is performed to detect both the cells in apoptosis and proliferation. There is a thickening of the epidermis after 6, 12, and 24 h and dermis after 12 and 24 h of CE application. A reduction of the dermis thickness is observed at 3 and 6 h. The treated skin shows higher labeling intensity by TUNEL at 3 h, while a higher intensity by proliferating cell nuclear antigen occurs at 3 and 12 h. FTIR-PAS data support the histology observations showing an increase in the absorption peaks in the dermis after the application of the CE. F. oxysporum CE permeated through the epidermis and the dermis, reaching the subcutaneous tissue, inducing cell apoptosis, and causing physicochemical changes in the organic molecules located in the dermis. This is the first known study associating histopathological and physical chemistry changes on healthy skin after the application of F. oxysporum CE.

  13. Technical parameters of vertical in vivo multiphoton microscopy: a critical evaluation of the flyscanning method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czekalla, C.; Schönborn, K. H.; Markworth, S.; Ulrich, M.; Göppner, D.; Gollnick, H.; Röwert-Huber, J.; Darvin, M. E.; Lademann, J.; Meinke, M. C.

    2015-08-01

    The optical biopsy could be a quick and painless support or alternative to a punch biopsy. In this letter the first in vivo vertical wide field two photon microscopy (2PM) images of healthy volunteers are shown. The 2PM images are fused images of two photon excited auto fluorescence (AF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) signals given as false-color images of 200 μm  ×  7 mm in size. By using these two nonlinear effects, the epidermis can be easily distinguished from the dermis at a glance. The auto fluorescence provides cellular resolution of the epidermal cells, and elastin fibers are partly visible in the dermis. Collagen, visible by SHG signal, is the dominant structure in the dermis. As contact agent water was evaluated to increase the AF signal, especially in the deeper layers of epidermis and dermis. For further improvement any terminal hairs should be removed by shaving and by taking tape strips of the first five layers of the stratum corneum. The first images illustrated that young skin compared to aged skin shows remarkably different dermal elastin and collagen signals in the dermis.

  14. Ultraviolet B radiation increases hairless mouse mast cells in a dose-dependent manner and alters distribution of UV-induced mast cell growth factor.

    PubMed

    Kligman, L H; Murphy, G F

    1996-01-01

    In studies of the effects of chronic UVB irradiation on dermal connective tissue in the hairless mouse, we observed that the number and size of mast cells was increased. Because mast cells are known to be associated with connective tissue remodeling, we examined and quantified the effect of increasing UVB (290-320 nm) doses on this cell. Groups of mice were exposed to filtered FS-40 Westinghouse lamps (290-400 nm: peak irradiance 313 nm) for 1-5 minimal erythema doses (MED) thrice weekly for 10 weeks. Appropriate controls were included. Biopsies, processed for light microscopy, were stained with toluidine blue. Mast cells were counted in 15 high-magnification fields per specimen with upper and lower dermis scored separately. Significant increases in large densely granular mast cells occurred at 2 MED in the lower dermis, in association with a UVB-exacerbated granulomatous reaction. In the upper dermis, mast cells were significantly increased with 3 MED. These findings suggest that mast cells may play a dual role in UV-irradiated skin with those in the lower dermis related to inflammation processes and those in the upper dermis involved in connective tissue modeling. To gain understanding of the mechanism of mast cell recruitment and maturation, we examined the effect of UVB on mast cell growth factor expression. This was enhanced in the epidermis by UVB, with a shift from cytoplasmic staining to membrane-associated or intercellular staining at 2 MED and higher. Dermal dendritic and mononuclear cells also showed increased reactivity.

  15. Up-regulation of cutaneous α1-adrenoceptors after a burn.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Peter D; Dawson, Linda F; Finch, Philip M; Drummond, Eleanor S; Wood, Fiona M; Fear, Mark W

    2015-09-01

    Stimulation of α1-adrenoceptors evokes inflammatory cytokine production, boosts neurogenic inflammation and pain, and influences cellular migration and proliferation. As expression of α1-adrenoceptors increases on dermal nerves and keratinocytes after peripheral nerve injury, the aim of this study was to determine whether another form of tissue injury (a cutaneous burn) triggered a similar response. In particular, changes in expression of α1-adrenoceptors were investigated on dermal nerve fibres, keratinocytes and fibroblast-like cells using immunohistochemistry 2-12 weeks after a full thickness burn in Wistar rats. Within two weeks of the burn, local increases in α1-adrenoceptor expression were seen in the re-forming epidermis, in dense bands of spindle-shaped cells in the upper dermis (putatively infiltrating immune cells and fibroblasts), and on nerve fibres in the deep dermis. In addition, nerve fibre density increased approximately three-fold in the deep dermis, and this response persisted for several more weeks. In contrast, α1-adrenoceptor labelled cells and staining intensity in the upper dermis decreased contralateral to the burn, as did nerve fibre density in the deep dermis. These findings suggest that inflammatory mediators and/or growth factors at the site of a burn trigger the synthesis of α1-adrenoceptors on resident epidermal cells and nerve fibres, and an influx of α1-adrenoceptor labelled cells. The heightened expression of α1-adrenoceptors in injured tissue could shape inflammatory and wound healing responses.

  16. Fibroblast heterogeneity: more than skin deep.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, J Michael; Caplan, Arnold I

    2004-02-15

    Dermal fibroblasts are a dynamic and diverse population of cells whose functions in skin in many respects remain unknown. Normal adult human skin contains at least three distinct subpopulations of fibroblasts, which occupy unique niches in the dermis. Fibroblasts from each of these niches exhibit distinctive differences when cultured separately. Specific differences in fibroblast physiology are evident in papillary dermal fibroblasts, which reside in the superficial dermis, and reticular fibroblasts, which reside in the deep dermis. Both of these subpopulations of fibroblasts differ from the fibroblasts that are associated with hair follicles. Fibroblasts engage in fibroblast-epidermal interactions during hair development and in interfollicular regions of skin. They also play an important role in cutaneous wound repair and an ever-increasing role in bioengineering of skin. Bioengineered skin currently performs important roles in providing (1) a basic understanding of skin biology, (2) a vehicle for testing topically applied products and (3) a resource for skin replacement.

  17. Monitoring collagen remodeling on opto-thermal response of photoaged skin irradiated by Er:YAG laser with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoman; Wu, Shulian; Li, Hui

    2010-11-01

    The Optical Coherence Tomography technology was used to perform noninvasive cross-sectional imaging of internal structures in photoaged mouse skin irradiated by Er:YAG laser. The mice were irradiated chronically with a steady dose of ultraviolet irradiation. Various laser light doses were irradiated on the back skins of the photoaged mouse. An OCT was used to observe the process of the collagen remodeling in dermis. The relationship between optical characteristic parameter such as attenuation coefficient and light dose was discovered. The total attenuation coefficient increased when the light dose increased. Our findings showed that Er:YAG laser could be used for the symptoms of the photoaged skin with some degree of thermal damage in the dermis, and the OCT could image the progress of collagen remodeling in photoaged mouse dermis. The OCT may be a useful tool for the determination of optimal parameters for laser skin treatment.

  18. Mineralization of elastic fibers and alterations of extracellular matrix in pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Ultrastructure, immunocytochemistry, and X-ray analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, E.R.; Frederickson, R.G.; Mayes, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    Histologic paraffin sections of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE)-involved skin of forearm and axilla were used for histochemistry and immunohistochemical and analytical electron microscopy to study the progressive mineralization in the dermis of patients with PXE. The von Kossa technique identified mineral deposits throughout the reticular PXE dermis. X-ray analysis revealed patterns of calcium and phosphorus deposition in the von Kossa-positive areas, and the immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies identified increased chondroitin-6-sulfate in these areas when compared with normal skin. Scanning transmission electron microscopy observation combined with X-ray dot mapping show calcium and phosphorus to be codistributed within the mineralized area. This study confirms by new methods the increase in chondroitin-6-sulfate, alterations in elastin and collagen, and a high calcium and phosphorus elemental distribution matching the mineralized area in the PXE dermis.

  19. Ability of transplanted cultured epithelium to respond to dermal papillae.

    PubMed

    Xing, L; Kobayashi, K

    2001-10-01

    Cultured epithelium has been used successfully in the treatment of extensive burns. Regenerated epidermis, however, lacks such as hair follicles and sweat glands that are common in mammalian skin. We attempted to determine whether cultured epithelium could be induced to form hair follicles by dermal papillae, which are most important for the morphogenesis and growth of hair follicles. We cultivated adult rat sole keratinocytes, obtained the cultured epithelium, and prepared recombinants consisting of cultured epithelium and fresh dermal papillae with or without the sole dermis. These recombinants were then transplanted underneath the dermis of the dorsal skin of syngeneic rats or athymic mice. Histologic examination revealed that the transplanted cultured epithelium formed the follicular structures with sebaceous gland-like structure following induction of the dermal papillae, especially when supported by the dermis. We concluded that transplanted cultured epithelium of adult rat sole keratinocytes can respond to growth signals from adult dermal papillae.

  20. Monte Carlo study of skin optical clearing to enhance light penetration in the tissue: implications for photodynamic therapy of acne vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Genina, Elina A.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Altshuler, Gregory B.; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V.

    2008-06-01

    Result of Monte Carlo simulations of skin optical clearing is presented. The model calculations were carried out with the aim of studying of spectral response of skin under immersion liquids action and calculation of enhancement of light penetration depth. In summary, we have shown that: 1) application of glucose, propylene glycol and glycerol produced significant decrease of light scattering in different skin layers; 2) maximal clearing effect will be obtained in case of optical clearing of skin dermis, however, absorbed light fraction in skin dermis changed insignificantly, independently on clearing agent and place it administration; 3) in contrast to it, the light absorbed fraction in skin adipose layer increased significantly in case of optical clearing of skin dermis. It is very important because it can be used for development of optical methods of obesity treatment; 4) optical clearing of superficial skin layers can be used for decreasing of power of light radiation used for treatment of acne vulgaris.

  1. Diffusion of (2-/sup 14/C)diazepam across isolated hairless mouse stratum corneum/epidermal tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, R.L.; Palicharla, P.; Groves, M.J.

    1988-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a method of preparing mouse stratum corneum/epidermal (SCE) tissue without the dermis for use in drug diffusion studies. The diffusion of radiolabeled diazepam across this new preparation has been studied and the effect of the dermis on diffusion evaluated. Incubation of large pieces of mouse skin in a 20mM EDTA, 15 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.2, in normal saline for 3-4 h at 37 degrees C resulted in a tissue which easily separated at the epidermal-dermal junction. The resulting tissue contains stratum corneum and epidermis, which are the same layers used in studies with human skin in vitro. The EDTA treatment did not effect diffusion of (2-/sup 14/C)diazepam across whole mouse skin (SCE and dermis) used as controls. The rate of drug diffusion was greater across SCE than SCE and dermis, however, 0.48-1.12 micrograms/cm2/h versus 0.11-0.52 microgram/cm/h, respectively. The permeability coefficients for mouse SCE ranged from 1.92-4.48 X 10(-2) cm/h. The lag times and diffusion coefficients were 0.36-0.91 h and 0.1-0.6 X 10(-6) cm2/h, respectively. The presence of the dermis decreased the diffusion rate or flux of diazepam. The dermis appears to accumulate drug until it is saturated and then the drug diffuses into the receiving chamber.

  2. Histochemical and immunohistochemical study in melasma: evidence of damage in the basal membrane.

    PubMed

    Torres-Álvarez, Bertha; Mesa-Garza, Iraida G; Castanedo-Cázares, Juan P; Fuentes-Ahumada, Cornelia; Oros-Ovalle, Cuauhtémoc; Navarrete-Solis, Josefina; Moncada, Benjamin

    2011-05-01

    The pathogenesis of melasma has not been clearly elucidated. Using Fontana Masson; diastase-resistant periodic acid-Schiff stains; and immunohistochemistry to stem cell factor (SCF), its receptor c-kit, anti-mast cell tryptase, and anti-collagen type IV antibody, we evaluated melasma lesions and compared them with perilesional skin and photoprotected skin. Samples were taken from lesional and photoprotected nonlesional skin in 24 patients. In other 24 patients, we took biopsies of lesional and perilesional skin. With Fontana Masson, we observed many pigmented basal cells protruding into the dermis of the melasma skin. Periodic acid-Schiff stain and anti-collagen type IV showed damage on the basal membrane in 95.5% and 83%, respectively, in melasma lesion. The immunoreactivity of SCF and the prevalence of mast cells were increased in the dermis of melasma compared with perilesional dermis. The expression of c-kit was significantly increased at lesional epidermis; a frequent protrusion of c-kit-positive basal cells into the dermis was evident in 70% versus that in 29% of perilesional skin. The expression of c-kit was increased at lesional dermis of melasma compared with perilesional skin. We found a low correlation between c-kit expression and prevalence of mast cells; these were increased in melasma skin. The results may suggest a role of SCF, c-kit, and mast cells in the pathogenesis of melasma. We were surprised by the unexpected evidence of damage to basal membrane (BM), which could facilitate the fall or the migration of active melanocytes and melanin into the dermis allowing the constant hyperpigmentation in melasma.

  3. On The Construction of Models for Electrical Conduction in Biological Tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Aguilar, F.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.; Cordova-Fraga, T.; Rosales-Garcia, J.; Guia-Calderon, M.

    2010-12-07

    Applying RC circuit theory, a theoretical representation for the electrical conduction in a biological multilayer system was developed. In particular an equivalent circuit for the epidermis, dermis and the subcutaneous tissue was constructed. This model includes an equivalent circuit, inside the dermis, in order to model a small formation like tumor. This work shows the feasibility to apply superficial electrodes to detect subcutaneous abnormalities. The behavior of the model is shown in the form of a frequency response chart. The Bode and Nyquist plots are also obtained. This theoretical frame is proposed to be a general treatment to describe the bioelectrical transport in a three layer bioelectrical system.

  4. On The Construction of Models for Electrical Conduction in Biological Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Aguilar, F.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.; Cordova-Fraga, T.; Rosales-García, J.; Guía-Calderón, M.

    2010-12-01

    Applying RC circuit theory, a theoretical representation for the electrical conduction in a biological multilayer system was developed. In particular an equivalent circuit for the epidermis, dermis and the subcutaneous tissue was constructed. This model includes an equivalent circuit, inside the dermis, in order to model a small formation like tumor. This work shows the feasibility to apply superficial electrodes to detect subcutaneous abnormalities. The behavior of the model is shown in the form of a frequency response chart. The Bode and Nyquist plots are also obtained. This theoretical frame is proposed to be a general treatment to describe the bioelectrical transport in a three layer bioelectrical system.

  5. Morphea Simulating Paucibacillary Leprosy Clinically and Histopathologically

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, José Saulo Torres; Cavalcanti, Marília Lopes; Kac, Bernard Kawa; Pires, Claudia Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Clinically and histopathologically paucibacillary leprosy shows similar features with initial morphea. In this case we report a 24 yr-old male patient who presented to our dermatology department with diagnosed paucibacillary leprosy by his local dermatologist, and confirmed by perineurovascular lymphocytic infiltrate in the histopathological exam. On physical examination we found new plaque lesions that were suggestive of morphea with alteration of sensitivity. A new biopsy was performed showing sclerotic superficial dermis with thickening of the collagen bundles in deep dermis and linear arrays lymphocytic infiltrate between the collagen bundles that confirm the diagnosis of morphea. PMID:23372229

  6. Linear hyperpigmentation with extensive epidermal apoptosis: a variant of linear lichen planus pigmentosus?

    PubMed

    Akagi, Atsushi; Ohnishi, Yoshihiro; Tajima, Shingo; Ishibashi, Akira

    2004-05-01

    We report 3 female patients who rapidly developed pigmented patches in a linear arrangement. Histologically there was minimum epidermal basal cell damage and bandlike lymphocyte infiltration in the dermis, but focal massive apoptotic materials positively stained with antikeratin antibody were prominently seen in the papillary and subpapillary dermis. We considered these cases as a variant of linear lichen planus pigmentosus with unique histologic change of severe epidermal apoptosis. These histologic features may represent a severe apoptotic change in the end stage of lichenoid tissue reaction.

  7. Terra Incognita: Potential Uses of Optical Spectroscopy for Combat Casualty Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    multilayered structure, primarily divided into the dermis and epidermis . The epidermis is composed of four stratified layers ranging between 50–1500 m... peeling by NIRS and fMRI. Neuroimage, 21, 1275–1288. (9) Toronov VY, Zhang X and Webb AG. (2007) A spatial and temporal comparison of hemodynamic

  8. An Assessment of Normalized Difference Skin Index Robustness in Aquatic Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    components of the skin also resides in the dermis, such as: blood vessels, capillaries nerve ending, sweat glands, and hair follicles . Subcutaneous tissue lies...encountered on this planet, also, at amounts vastly greater than the ones tested in the experiments. Since only distilled water was used, results could

  9. Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein Increases in Photodamaged Skin.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Kawabata, Keigo; Kusaka-Kikushima, Ayumi; Sugiyama, Yoshinori; Mabuchi, Tomotaka; Takekoshi, Susumu; Miyasaka, Muneo; Ozawa, Akira; Sakai, Shingo

    2016-06-01

    Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is a structural component of cartilage. Recent studies have described COMP as a pathogenic factor that promotes collagen deposition in fibrotic skin disorders such as scleroderma and keloid skin. Although collagen, a major dermis component, is thought to decrease in photoaged skin, recent reports have demonstrated the presence of tightly packed collagen fibrils with a structural resemblance to fibrosis in the papillary dermis of photoaged skin. Here we examined how photoaging damage relates to COMP expression and localization in photoaged skin. In situ hybridization revealed an increase in COMP-mRNA-positive cells with the progress of photoaging in preauricular skin (sun-exposed skin). The signal intensity of immunostaining for COMP increased with photoaging in not only the papillary dermis but also the reticular dermis affected by advancing solar elastosis. Immunoelectron microscopy detected the colocalization of COMP with both elastotic materials and collagen fibrils in photoaged skin. Ultraviolet light A irradiation of human dermal fibroblasts induced COMP expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Ultraviolet light A-induced COMP expression was inhibited by an anti-transforming growth factor-β antibody or SB431542, an activin receptor-like kinase 5 inhibitor. These results suggest that the transforming growth factor-β-mediated upregulation of COMP expression may contribute to the modulation of dermal extracellular matrix in the photoaging process.

  10. Skin structure in the snout of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Kemp, A

    2014-10-01

    Many fossil lungfish have a system of mineralised tubules in the dermis of the snout, branching extensively and radiating towards the epidermis. The tubules anastomose in the superficial layer of the dermis, forming a plexus consisting of two layers of vessels, with branches that expand into pore canals and flask organs, flanked by cosmine nodules where these are present. Traces of this system are found in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, consisting of branching tubules in the dermis, a double plexus below the epidermis and dermal papillae entering the epidermis without reaching the surface. In N. forsteri, the tubules, the plexus and the dermal papillae consist of thick, unmineralised connective tissue, enclosing fine blood vessels packed with lymphocytes. Tissues in the epidermis and the dermis of N. forsteri are not associated with deposits of calcium, which is below detectable limits in the skin of the snout at all stages of the life cycle. Canals of the sensory line system, with mechanoreceptors, are separate from the tubules, the plexus and the dermal papillae, as are the electroreceptors in the epidermis. The system of tubules, plexus, dermal papillae and lymphatic capillaries may function to protect the tissues of the snout from infection.

  11. Two Cases of Melasma with Unusual Histopathologic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Won-Hyoung

    2006-01-01

    We reported two cases of clinically typical melasma presenting with unusual histopathologic findings. In one case, the epidermal melanocytes were markedly increased in number and protruded into the dermis, and in the other case, increased epidermal pigmentation as well as dermal melanocytosis were found. We suggested that the various treatment modalities of melasma should be applied depend on its histopathologic finding. PMID:16614533

  12. Dermatopathology in historical perspective: the Montgomery giant cell of lichen simplex chronicus.

    PubMed

    Rubakovic, Svetlana; Steffen, Charles

    2010-01-01

    In this short historical review, we will discuss the origin and references to the giant cell that is sometimes histopathologically present in the dermis of lichen simplex chronicus that was first described by Hamilton Montgomery, MD. A photomicrograph of the giant cell was included by Montgomery in his text Dermatopathology published in 1967. We will then provide a short biography of Montgomery.

  13. Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa of lower limb: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kalafi, Amir; Vasaghi, Attiyeh

    2014-01-01

    Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa (ENV) is a rare condition in which hyperkeratosis, fibrosis and disfiguration of dermis occurs. It is caused mostly by non infectious diseases such as surgery, trauma, tumors, and venous obstructions. To our knowledge there is not any case report of ENV in Middle East region. In this patient, ENV caused by trauma and Patient presented with enlargement of right lower limb.

  14. Quantitative characterization of chitosan in the skin by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic imaging and ninhydrin assay: application in transdermal sciences.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, A; Wong, T W

    2016-07-01

    The chitosan has been used as the primary excipient in transdermal particulate dosage form design. Its distribution pattern across the epidermis and dermis is not easily accessible through chemical assay and limited to radiolabelled molecules via quantitative autoradiography. This study explored Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy imaging technique with built-in microscope as the means to examine chitosan molecular distribution over epidermis and dermis with the aid of histology operation. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy skin imaging was conducted using chitosan of varying molecular weights, deacetylation degrees, particle sizes and zeta potentials, obtained via microwave ligation of polymer chains at solution state. Both skin permeation and retention characteristics of chitosan increased with the use of smaller chitosan molecules with reduced acetyl content and size, and increased positive charge density. The ratio of epidermal to dermal chitosan content decreased with the use of these chitosan molecules as their accumulation in dermis (3.90% to 18.22%) was raised to a greater extent than epidermis (0.62% to 1.92%). A larger dermal chitosan accumulation nonetheless did not promote the transdermal polymer passage more than the epidermal chitosan. A small increase in epidermal chitosan content apparently could fluidize the stratum corneum and was more essential to dictate molecular permeation into dermis and systemic circulation. The histology technique aided Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy imaging approach introduces a new dimension to the mechanistic aspect of chitosan in transdermal delivery.

  15. Genetically Modified Porcine Skin Grafts for Treatment of Severe Burn Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    and a sloughed epidermis (pg. 22, Appendix 2, s lide 6, yellow arrow), while B267 shows an intact epiderm is and dermis with only a m odest lym...partial viability on day 14, although with considerable inflammation. The graft bed was visible in this sample, confirming that the viable epidermis was in

  16. Visualization of the microcirculatory network in skin by high frequency optoacoustic mesoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Mathias; Aguirre, Juan; Buehler, Andreas; Omar, Murad; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2015-07-01

    Optoacoustic (photoacoustic) imaging has a high potential for imaging melanin-rich structures in skin and the microvasculature of the dermis due to the natural chromophores (de)oxyhemoglobin, and melanin. The vascular network in human dermis comprises a large network of arterioles, capillaries, and venules, ranging from 5 μm to more than 100 μm in diameter. The frequency spectrum of the microcirculatory network in human skin is intrinsically broadband, due to the large variety in size of absorbers. In our group we have developed raster-scan optoacoustic mesoscopy (RSOM) that applies a 100 MHz transducer with ultra-wide bandwidth in raster-scan mode achieving lateral resolution of 18 μm. In this study, we applied high frequency RSOM to imaging human skin in a healthy volunteer. We analyzed the frequency spectrum of anatomical structures with respect to depth and show that frequencies >60 MHz contain valuable information of structures in the epidermis and the microvasculature of the papillary dermis. We illustrate that RSOM is capable of visualizing the fine vascular network at and beneath the epidermal-dermal junction, revealing the vascular fingerprint of glabrous skin, as well as the larger venules deeper inside the dermis. We evaluate the ability of the RSOM system in measuring epidermal thickness in both hairy and glabrous skin. Finally, we showcase the capability of RSOM in visualizing benign nevi that will potentially help in imaging the penetration depth of melanoma.

  17. The fine structure of the swine sweat gland. II. The coiled ducts.

    PubMed

    De Melo, V R; Valeri, V; Orsi, A M

    1985-03-01

    The duct of the swine sweat gland crosses the dermis and epidermis in sequence. The cells of the dermic segment seem to be related with cellular secretion and absorption. In the epidermic segment of the duct the whole morphology of the cells resembles the cellular morphology of the epidermic cells.

  18. Mucinous eccrine nevus: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Sun, Jian-fang; Zeng, Xue-si; Liu, Yi; Jiang, Yi-qun; Li, A-mei; Song, Ya-li

    2009-06-01

    Mucinous eccrine nevus (MEN) is a rare variant of eccrine nevus, characterized by a proliferation of normal eccrine structure surrounded by mucin deposits. We report herein the eighth case of mucinous eccrine nevus in the literature, with abundant mucin deposits not only in the stroma surrounding the eccrine glands but also in the superficial dermis. The literature is reviewed.

  19. Tinea corporis overlying the thyroid gland after radioiodine (131I) treatment of Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, A.J.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Yedinak, M.A.; Crooks, L.A.; Fox, B.J.

    1986-04-01

    A case of tinea corporis involving the skin overlying the thyroid gland is described in a 36-year-old man who had received radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease. The dermatophytosis mimicked a delayed roentgen erythema. Radiation to the dermis may have locally altered the cell-mediated immunity and predisposed this patient to the dermatophytosis.

  20. Papular Dermatitis Induced in Guinea Pig by Biting Midge Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidaie)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Histological, ultrastructural, and virological examinations were performed on abdominal skin from guinea pigs after a blood meal by colony-bred biting midges, Culicoides sonorensis. Small, superficial, cutaneous, crateriform ulcers with necrosis of superficial dermis developed at feeding sites and h...

  1. Exploration of the wound healing effect of topical administration of nicotine in combination with collagen scaffold in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Masuoka, Hiromu; Morimoto, Naoki; Sakamoto, Michiharu; Ogino, Shuichi; Suzuki, Shigehiko

    2016-06-01

    Nicotine has been reported to prolong the wound healing; however, we showed that the topical application of 10(-4) M nicotine promoted murine wound healing. The objective of this study was to explore the wound healing effects of nicotine in combination with collagen scaffold using skin defects in rabbit. Three full-thickness skin defects 8 mm in diameter were made on the rabbit auricle. Artificial dermis was applied to the defects, and 10 μl of nicotine solution (10(-5), 10(-4), and10(-3) M), bFGF solution (0.5 μg/10 μl), and both bFGF and 10(-4) M nicotine solutions were injected into the artificial dermis once daily for 7 days. Rabbits were sacrificed on day 10, 15, or 20, and the wound healing process was evaluated. bFGF was superior in the formation of the dermis-like tissue and capillaries. In nicotine groups, the epithelial length and the dermis-like tissue formations in the 10(-4) M group were superior, in contrast, those were inhibited in the 10(-3) M group. The synergistic effect of bFGF and 10(-4) M nicotine was not confirmed. This study suggests that the topical application of 10(-4) M nicotine promoted wound healing in rabbit, but the effect was not apparent compared with murine models.

  2. The Effect of Liquid Gun Propellant (LGP) on Skin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-27

    treated skin. In LGP-treated skin there was a multifocal, superficial, perivascular lymphoplasmacytic dermatitis with moderate perivascular infiltrate ...microscopic lesions observed in the LP-treated skin (Superficial perivascular lymphoplasmacytic dermatitis, edema and increased eosinophils) appeared to...Microscopic lesions in LP treated skin included superficial perivascular lymphoplasmacytic dermatitis, mild edema in the papillary dermis, mild increase

  3. Role of dermatopontin in re-epithelialization: implications on keratinocyte migration and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Krishnaswamy, Venkat Raghavan; Korrapati, Purna Sai

    2014-12-09

    Re-epithelialization is a key event in wound healing and any impairment in that process is associated with various pathological conditions. Epidermal keratinocyte migration and proliferation during re-epithelialization is largely regulated by the cytokines and growth factors from the provisional matrix and dermis. Extracellular matrix consists of numerous growth factors which mediate cell migration via cell membrane receptors. Dermatopontin (DPT), a non-collagenous matrix protein highly expressed in dermis is known for its striking ability to promote cell adhesion. DPT also enhances the biological activity of transforming growth factor beta 1 which plays a central role in the process of wound healing. This study was designed to envisage the role of DPT in keratinocyte migration and proliferation along with its mRNA and protein expression pattern in epidermis. The results showed that DPT promotes keratinocyte migration in a dose dependant fashion but fail to induce proliferation. Further, PCR and immunodetection studies revealed that the mRNA and protein expression of DPT is considerably negligible in the epidermis in contrast to the dermis. To conclude, DPT has a profound role in wound healing specifically during re-epithelialization by promoting keratinocyte migration via paracrine action from the underlying dermis.

  4. Response of chromoblastomycosis to voriconazole*

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Alexandre Moretti; Sacht, Gabriely Lessa; de Paula, Lauren Zogbi Pereira; Aseka, Gabriela Kimie; Goetz, Hermann Soares; Gheller, Maicon Felippe; Torraca, Pedro de Freitas Silva

    2016-01-01

    Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic fungal infection of the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue, in which the most common etiologic agent in Brazil is Fonsecaea pedrosoi. In more advanced cases we found many difficulties in their treatment, and therefore, we report a case of extensive and severe chromoblastomycosis, with therapeutical failure of first choice treatments, but good response to voriconazole. PMID:27828652

  5. Morphological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural characterization of the skin of turbot (Psetta maxima L.).

    PubMed

    Faílde, L D; Bermúdez, R; Vigliano, F; Coscelli, G A; Quiroga, M I

    2014-10-01

    This study was undertaken to identify the normal morphologic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of skin of the turbot (Psetta maxima L.). In the turbot skin, three morphologically distinct layers were identified: epidermis, dermis and hypodermis. The epidermis was non-keratinizing, stratified squamous epithelium that varies in thickness from 5 to 14 cells and 60 to 100μm in size. Goblet cells were seen randomly distributed between malpighian cells in the epidermal layer. These mucous cells were mainly located in the upper third of the epidermis and displayed a spherical to elongated morphology. Dermis was divided in two well-differentiated layers, the superficial stratum laxum and the deeper stratum compactum. Hypodermis was a loose layer mainly composed by adipocytes but we could observe variable amounts of fibroblast, collagen and blood vessels. In turbot two pigmentary layers could be identified: the pigmentary layer of dermis was located between basement membrane and dermis and the pigmentary layer of hypodermis immediately above the muscular layer. Three different types of chromatophores were present: melanophores, iridophores and xanthophores. The main differences observed between groups of fish with different colouration were in the amount of melanophores and xanthophores. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of normal cutaneous biology prior to consideration of specific cutaneous alterations and diseases in turbot.

  6. Fractional synthesis rates of DNA and protein in rabbit skin are not correlated.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-jun; Chinkes, David L; Wu, Zhanpin; Martini, Wenjun Z; Wolfe, Robert R

    2004-09-01

    We developed a method for measurement of skin DNA synthesis, reflecting cell division, in conscious rabbits by infusing D-[U-(13)C(6)]glucose and L-[(15)N]glycine. Cutaneous protein synthesis was simultaneously measured by infusion of L-[ring-(2)H(5)]phenylalanine. Rabbits were fitted with jugular venous and carotid arterial catheters, and were studied during the infusion of an amino acid solution (10% Travasol). The fractional synthetic rate (FSR) of DNA from the de novo nucleotide synthesis pathway, a reflection of total cell division, was 3.26 +/- 0.59%/d in whole skin and 3.08 +/- 1.86%/d in dermis (P = 0.38). The de novo base synthesis pathway accounted for 76 and 60% of the total DNA FSR in whole skin and dermis, respectively; the contribution from the base salvage pathway was 24% in whole skin and 40% in dermis. The FSR of protein in whole skin was 5.35 +/- 4.42%/d, which was greater (P < 0.05) than that in dermis (2.91 +/- 2.52%/d). The FSRs of DNA and protein were not correlated (P = 0.33), indicating that cell division and protein synthesis are likely regulated by different mechanisms. This new approach enables investigations of metabolic disorders of skin diseases and regulation of skin wound healing by distinguishing the 2 principal components of skin metabolism, which are cell division and protein synthesis.

  7. Immunohistochemical study of specialized nail mesenchyme containing onychofibroblasts in transverse sections of the nail unit.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Youn; Yang, Jun-Mo; Mun, Goo-Hyun; Jang, Kee-Taek; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2011-05-01

    In the frozen longitudinal section of the nail unit, CD10 was previously found in nail mesenchymal cells beneath nail matrix, and we proposed calling the nail mesenchymal cells onychofibroblasts. In this study, to further characterize nail mesenchyme containing onychofibroblasts, we examined the expression of several mesenchymal markers immunohistochemically in transverse paraffin sections of the nail unit. CD10 was strongly expressed in the nail mesenchyme containing onychofibroblasts beneath the nail matrix. However, CD10 was not observed in dermal fibroblasts and surrounding extracellular matrix of the lateral nail fold (LNF), except around blood vessels and eccrine structures. In addition, versican was expressed diffusely in the nail mesenchyme containing onychofibroblasts in contrast to the dermis of LNF. Fibrillin, which is a major component of elastic fiber in the dermis, was expressed very weakly on the nail mesenchyme below the nail matrix but was expressed strongly in the dermis of LNF. These findings support the existence of specialized nail mesenchyme containing onychofibroblasts that is distinguished from the dermis of LNF.

  8. Mechanism for transport of ivermectin to the stratum corneum in rats.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Atsushi; Kigure, Akira; Anata, Taichi; Hirota, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) is used as an oral medication for scabies, a skin infection caused by a mite, sarcoptes scabiei, which parasitizes in the stratum corneum. After oral administration IVM is absorbed from the intestine, and finally distributed to the stratum corneum to eliminate the mites. However its transport mechanism remains unclear. A pharmacokinetic study was performed using hairless Wistar Yagi (HWY) rats, which have no or atrophied sebaceous glands, and Wistar rats as a reference. After oral administration of IVM to both groups, the area under the concentration-time curve of IVM in the dermis and epidermis (dermis-epidermis) of HWY rats were about 60% lower than that of Wistar rats, even though the plasma concentration profiles were comparable in both groups. In addition at 12 h after the administration, IVM concentration in the outer stratum corneum, the shallower layer of the dermis-epidermis, was higher compared to that in the deeper layer. In the dermis-epidermis of the skin from various locations, the concentrations of IVM and squalene, the latter of which is secreted to the skin surface via the sebaceous gland, were positively well correlated. Those results suggest that IVM is transported to the stratum corneum via the sebaceous glands.

  9. [Temperature regime of biological tissue under photodynamic therapy].

    PubMed

    Barun, V V; Ivanov, A P

    2012-01-01

    An analytical model is proposed to calculate heating of human skin cover under laser light action of photodynamic therapy. A photosensitizer of "Fotolon" is taken as an example. Temperatures of skin surface and of deep dermis regions are studied as a function of time under pulsed and stationary irradiation of skin surface at the wavelength of 665 nm corresponding to the maximum of the photosensitizer absorption band. It is shown that, under the action of a short light pulse, the photosensitizer can lead to an essential temperature rise of dermis due to a considerable increase in its absorption coefficient. However, this rise does not destruct tissue cells because of the short action. Under stationary irradiation, the photosensitizer concentration has a low effect on the temperature regime of tissue. This is related with the specific features in heating of the medium by red light, where the main thermal process in skin is heat transfer over tissue volume from epidermis having a substantially larger absorption coefficient than that of dermis in the said spectral range. The role of blood perfusion in dermis and its effect on the temperature regime of tissue are evaluated.

  10. Investigation of age-related decline of microfibril-associated glycoprotein-1 in human skin through immunohistochemistry study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qian; Chen, Siming; Chen, Ying; Lyga, John; Wyborski, Russell; Santhanam, Uma

    2013-01-01

    During aging, the reduction of elastic and collagen fibers in dermis can lead to skin atrophy, fragility, and aged appearance, such as increased facial wrinkling and sagging. Microfibril-associated glycoprotein-1 (MAGP-1) is an extracellular matrix protein critical for elastic fiber assembly. It integrates and stabilizes the microfibril and elastin matrix network that helps the skin to endure mechanical stretch and recoil. However, the observation of MAGP-1 during skin aging and its function in the dermis has not been established. To better understand age-related changes in the dermis, we investigated MAGP-1 during skin aging and photoaging, using a combination of in vitro and in vivo studies. Gene expression by microarray was performed using human skin biopsies from young and aged female donors. In addition, immunofluorescence analysis on the MAGP-1 protein was performed in dermal fibroblast cultures and in human skin biopsies. Specific antibodies against MAGP-1 and fibrillin-1 were used to examine protein expression and extracellular matrix structure in the dermis via biopsies from donors of multiple age groups. A reduction of the MAGP-1 gene and protein levels were observed in human skin with increasing age and photoexposure, indicating a loss of the functional MAGP-1 fiber network and a lack of structural support in the dermis. Loss of MAGP-1 around the hair follicle/pore areas was also observed, suggesting a possible correlation between MAGP-1 loss and enlarged pores in aged skin. Our findings demonstrate that a critical "pre-elasticity" component, MAGP-1, declines with aging and photoaging. Such changes may contribute to age-related loss of dermal integrity and perifollicular structural support, which may lead to skin fragility, sagging, and enlarged pores.

  11. Studies on the conservation of epidermal specificies of skin and certain mucosas in adult mammals.

    PubMed

    Billingham, R E; Silvers, W K

    1967-03-01

    To determine whether the factor(s) responsible for the conservation of epidermal specificities in adult guinea pigs and hamsters resides in the germinal layer of the epidermis or in the dermis, thin grafts of skin, possessing qualitatively distinct regional characteristics, were separated into their superficial epidermal and dermal components with the aid of trypsin. Dermis of one type was combined with epidermis of another to produce "recombinant" grafts which were then transplanted to small, full thickness cutaneous sites on the thorax of geneticaily compatible hosts. A variant of this procedure involved transplanting sheets of superficial epidermis of various types to shallow split thickness recipient areas in the skin of the thorax. All grafts were maintained for 100 days before they were excised and examined histologically. The results indicate that, whereas the dermis determines the kind of epidermis produced in recombinant grafts involving the ear, the sole of the foot, and the trunk, this is not the case in recombinants which include tongue, esophageal, or cheek pouch epithelia. The one exception to this occurred when tongue or esophagus epithelia were transplanted to split thickness beds in trunk skin. Here they appeared to produce an epidermis characteristic of their new location. It is believed that this exception is probably due to the fact that the native follicular epidermis present in trunk dermis made such a substantial contribution to the new superficial epidermis that it behaved overtly as body skin epidermis. Taken together, these results suggest that basal layer cells of the superficial epidermis of sole of foot skin, ear skin, and the hair-bearing skin of the general integument behave as if they are equipotential, and that in adult life maintenance of these particular epidermal specificities is the outcome of persistent specific inductive stimuli from the underlying dermis. The results of subsidiary experiments are reported which indicate that

  12. [In vitro effect of the S3Pvac vaccine against cysticercosis in human mononucleate cells].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Orea, María Alicia; Mijares, José Miguel; Arcega, Raúl; Gómez-Conde, Eduardo; Castellanos-Sánchez, Víctor Omar; Briones-Rojas, Rosendo; Flores-Alonso, Juan Carlos; Marín-Briones, Miguel Ángel; Santos-López, Gerardo

    2013-05-01

    Introduccion. La neurocisticercosis (NCC) es una infeccion parasitaria generada por el establecimiento de cisticercos de Taenia solium en el sistema nervioso central. La fase larvaria del parasito tambien afecta al cerdo, que es el huesped intermediario indispensable para la transmision. Por tal motivo, muchos investigadores se han enfocado en identificar antigenos protectores para prevenir la cisticercosis porcina e interrumpir la transmision. Entre ellos figuran los antigenos de la vacuna S3Pvac, constituida por tres peptidos protectores: KETc1, KETc12 y GK1. Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de los peptidos vacunales KETc1, KETc12 y GK1 en celulas mononucleares de pacientes con NCC e individuos sanos. Sujetos y metodos. Estudio comparativo, prospectivo y transversal. Se analizo la proliferacion y el perfil de citocinas inducidos por los tres peptidos en celulas mononucleares de tres pacientes con NCC activa, 16 pacientes con NCC calcificada y 16 sujetos sanos. Resultados. KETc1 induce bajos niveles de proliferacion en las celulas de los pacientes con NCC activa y controlada, tanto en linfocitos como en monocitos. KETc12 y GK-1 inducen niveles positivos de proliferacion de monocitos en sujetos sanos. Conclusiones. El peptido KETc1 podria usarse como coadyuvante en el tratamiento de los pacientes con NCC activa, ya que indujo una respuesta Th2; y el peptido GK1, como estimulador del monocito/macrofago en inmunizaciones con otras proteinas.

  13. Cutaneous expression of Thy-1 in mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed Central

    Fivenson, D. P.; Douglass, M. C.; Nickoloff, B. J.

    1992-01-01

    Dermal dendritic cells from eleven cases of mycosis fungoides (MF) (six patch and five plaque stage), two cases of pre-MF, and five specimens of normal human skin, were characterized immunohistochemically using a panel of antibodies including anti-human Thy-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1; CD54), endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), CD1a, CD2, CD14, CD18, CD34, MAC387, KP-1, EBM-11, factor XIIIa, factor XIIIs, and S100. Thy-1 expression in normal skin was limited to the microvascular endothelium and perivascular dendritic cells. An extensive interstitial network of Thy-1+ dendritic cells was seen in the papillary dermis of all cases of MF, whereas no epidermal cells were Thy-1+. The mean +/- standard deviation of interstitial Thy-1+ cells per high power field in the dermis was: normal skin, 2.86 +/- 0.34; pre-MF, 15; patch stage MF, 13.4 +/- 7.08; plaque stage MF, 49.96 +/- 21.29. Thy-1+ dendritic cells morphologically resembled the factor XIIIa+ "dermal dendrocyte" (DD) and shared their VCAM-1+, ICAM-1+, CD1a, CD2-, CD14+, CD18+, EMB11+, factor XIIIa+, factor XI-IIs-, S100-, MAC387- and KP-1-immunophenotype in MF. Double labeling studies revealed up to 50% of Thy-1+DD were also factor XIIIa+ in MF. Immediately beneath these cells was a similar network of CD34+, Thy-1-, factor XIIIa- dendritic cells limited to the reticular dermis. Strong microvascular endothelial cell expression of Thy-1 and VCAM-1, and focal vascular ELAM-1 expression were also seen in MF. Distinct cellular compartmentalization (papillary dermis versus reticular dermis versus epidermis) of dendritic cells is demonstrated by the differential expression of Thy-1, factor XIIIa, and CD34 antigens. The extensive number and prominent dermal dendritic network in the papillary dermis juxtaposed between epidermal keratinocytes (KC) and dermal/epidermal T cells, suggests an important pathophysiologic role for this newly recognized and

  14. Reactivating the extracellular matrix synthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans to improve the human skin aspect and its mechanical properties

    PubMed Central

    Chajra, Hanane; Auriol, Daniel; Joly, Francine; Pagnon, Aurélie; Rodrigues, Magda; Allart, Sophie; Redziniak, Gérard; Lefevre, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to demonstrate that a defined cosmetic composition is able to induce an increase in the production of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) and/or proteoglycans and finally to demonstrate that the composition, through its combined action of enzyme production and synthesis of macromolecules, modulates organization and skin surface aspect with a benefit in antiaging applications. Materials and methods Gene expression was studied by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using normal human dermal fibroblasts isolated from a 45-year-old donor skin dermis. De novo synthesis of sGAGs and proteoglycans was determined using Blyscan™ assay and/or immunohistochemical techniques. These studies were performed on normal human dermal fibroblasts (41- and 62-year-old donors) and on human skin explants. Dermis organization was studied either ex vivo on skin explants using bi-photon microscopy and transmission electron microscopy or directly in vivo on human volunteers by ultrasound technique. Skin surface modification was investigated in vivo using silicone replicas coupled with macrophotography, and the mechanical properties of the skin were studied using Cutometer. Results It was first shown that mRNA expression of several genes involved in the synthesis pathway of sGAG was stimulated. An increase in the de novo synthesis of sGAGs was shown at the cellular level despite the age of cells, and this phenomenon was clearly related to the previously observed stimulation of mRNA expression of genes. An increase in the expression of the corresponding core protein of decorin, perlecan, and versican and a stimulation of their respective sGAGs, such as chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate, were found on skin explants. The biosynthesis of macromolecules seems to be correlated at the microscopic level to a better organization and quality of the dermis, with collagen fibrils having homogenous diameters. The dermis seems to be

  15. Scale development in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    SIRE, JEAN-YVES; ALLIZARD, FRANCOISE; BABIAR, OLIVIER; BOURGUIGNON, JACQUELINE; QUILHAC, ALEXANDRA

    1997-01-01

    In the course of an extensive comparative, structural and developmental study of the cranial and postcranial dermal skeleton (teeth and scales) in osteichthyan fishes, we have undertaken investigations on scale development in zebrafish (Danio (Brachydanio) rerio) using alizarin red staining, and light and transmission electron microscopy. The main goal was to know whether zebrafish scales can be used as a model for further research on the processes controlling the development of the dermal skeleton in general, especially epithelial–mesenchymal interactions. Growth series of laboratory bred specimens were used to study in detail: (1) the relationship of scale appearance with size and age; (2) the squamation pattern; and (3) the events taking place in the epidermis and in the dermis, before and during scale initiation and formation, with the aim of searching for morphological indications of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Scales form late in ontogeny, generally when zebrafish are more than 8.0 mm in standard length. Within a population of zebrafish of the same age scale appearance is related to standard length, but when comparing populations of different age the size of the fish at scale appearance is also related to age. Scales always appear first in the posterior region of the body and the squamation then extends anteriorly. Scales develop in the dermis but closely apposed to the epidermal–dermal boundary. Cellular modifications occurring in the basal layer of the epidermis and in the dermis before scale formation clearly indicate that the basal epidermal cells differentiate first, before any evidence of differentiation of the progenitors of the scale-forming cells in the dermis. This strongly suggests that scale differentiation could be initiated by the epidermal basal layer cells which probably produce a molecular signal towards the dermis below. Subsequently dermal cells accumulate close to the epidermis, and differentiate to form scale papillae. The

  16. Chemical peels: what's new and what isn't new but still works well.

    PubMed

    Fabbrocini, Gabriella; De Padova, Maria Pia; Tosti, Antonella

    2009-12-01

    Chemical peeling is becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of skin rejuvenation where it can improve damaged skin and fine wrinkles. The basic procedure aims at obtaining a controlled chemical burn of the epidermis and/or dermis. This results in epidermal regeneration and postinflammatory collagen neoformation with remodeling of collagen and elastic fibers and deposition of glycosaminoglycans in the dermis. Various chemicals have been used as peeling agents, of which the most used are the alpha-hydroxy acids, such as glycolic acid, or beta-hydroxy acids, such as salicylic acid. The choice of the compound is linked to the different indications and to the depth of the desired peeling. Phenol is still the best agent for deep peeling but requires specific indications, prescription, and post-peeling care. Combination of different compounds is one innovation in the field of chemical peelings. Further controlled studies are necessary to set up specific guidelines.

  17. Pellagra in a patient with primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ben Ghorbel, Imed; Litaiem, Noureddine; Chelly, Ines; Houman, Habib

    2014-06-18

    A 27-year-old woman presented with persistent dryness of the mouth and eyes. She presented with permanent photodistributed rash involving the face and distal extremities. Laboratory tests showed positive Sjögren's syndrome (SS)-A and SS-B antibodies. Histological examination of minor salivary gland biopsy revealed inflammatory infiltration grade 4 according to Chisholm's classification. Skin biopsy showed acanthosis, hyperkeratosis in the epidermis and little inflammatory infiltrate in the dermis. There was an infiltration of CD4 T lymphocytes in the dermis. Based on the characteristics of the dermatitis and on a rapid response to niacin replacement, the diagnosis of pellagra was carried out. A complete resolution of the dermatological signs was obtained within 2 months. To the best of our knowledge, the association between primary SS and pellagra has never been reported. We emphasise the possible mechanisms of this association.

  18. [Xeroderma pigmentosum: radical therapeutic procedure on the face using artificial skin].

    PubMed

    Herlin, C; Saunière, D; Huertas, D

    2009-12-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare and severe photodermatitis without cure. Skin cancers are inevitable and give rise to iterative skin resections often mutilating especially in the face. We report the case of two sisters suffering from severe forms of xeroderma pigmentosum. Given the rapid emergence of multicancerous lesions, we opted for a radical approach entailing successively all aesthetic sub-units of the face. The reconstruction uses an original method used initially in the great burned: the artificial dermis. This simple method, providing a quality sub-soil, has helped us in these two complex cases to ensure coverage of a large defect providing a tissue recovery of excellent trophic and aesthetics quality. Thanks to this treatment strategy, we were able to significantly delay the development of this disease. With a retreat of 35 months, the quality of reconstruction by artificial dermis is considered to be satisfactory for its elasticity and its trophicity.

  19. Study of Native Type I Collagen Fibrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, August

    2006-03-01

    Presented in this work is direct imaging and force microscopy of native, intact type I collagen fibrils extracted from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa dermis with affiliated proteoglycan molecules. The prototypical collagen fibril structure is well conserved through higher mammalian species and presents a model for study of the mechanical properties of the primary individual components of the dermis and skeletal ligature. Common practice is to use reconstituted fibrils which lack the precise conformal structure and affiliated proteoglycans. We have performed force microscopy to probe the mechanical properties of native fibrils and extract the elastic modulus under natural conditions. This knowledge is combined transmission and atomic force imaging, in conjunction with applied computation models, to demonstrate an inherent semitubular structure of these fibrils.

  20. Changes in collagenous tissue microstructures and distributions of cathepsin L in body wall of autolytic sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Xin; Zhou, Da-Yong; Ma, Dong-Dong; Liu, Yan-Fei; Li, Dong-Mei; Dong, Xiu-Ping; Tan, Ming-Qian; Du, Ming; Zhu, Bei-Wei

    2016-12-01

    The autolysis of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) was induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and the changes of microstructures of collagenous tissues and distributions of cathepsin L were investigated using histological and histochemical techniques. Intact collagen fibers in fresh S. japonicus dermis were disaggregated into collagen fibrils after UV stimuli. Cathepsin L was identified inside the surface of vacuoles in the fresh S. japonicus dermis cells. After the UV stimuli, the membranes of vacuoles and cells were fused together, and cathepsin L was released from cells and diffused into tissues. The density of cathepsin L was positively correlated with the speed and degree of autolysis in different layers of body wall. Our results revealed that lysosomal cathepsin L was released from cells in response to UV stimuli, which contacts and degrades the extracellular substrates such as collagen fibers, and thus participates in the autolysis of S. japonicus.

  1. Two-photon microscopy of dermal innervation in a human re-innervated model of skin.

    PubMed

    Sevrain, David; Le Grand, Yann; Buhé, Virginie; Jeanmaire, Christine; Pauly, Gilles; Carré, Jean-Luc; Misery, Laurent; Lebonvallet, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    When skin is injured, innervation can be severely disrupted. The subsequent re-innervation processes are poorly understood notably because of the inability to image the full meandering course of nerves with their ramifications and endings from histological slices. In this letter, we report on two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy of entire human skin explants re-innervated by rodent sensory neurons labelled with the styryl dye FM1-43. TPEF imaging of nerve fibres to a depth up to roughly 300 μm within the dermis was demonstrated, allowing three-dimensional reconstruction of the neural tree structure. Endogenous second-harmonic imaging of type I fibrillar collagen was performed in parallel to TPEF imaging using the same nonlinear microscope, revealing the path of the nerves through the dermis.

  2. Angiotropic syringomatous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Eri; Saruta, Hiroshi; Nanri, Aya; Nakama, Takekuni; Ohata, Chika

    2017-01-11

    Syringomatous carcinoma (SC) is a slow-growing malignant skin tumor that usually affects the face or scalp. An 83-year-old female developed SC on the sole, a rare location. Histopathologically, numerous ducts with few keratinizing cysts were seen in the upper dermis, and cords, strands and nests with sclerotic stroma were seen in the deep dermis and subcutis. In addition to the perineural and intraneural invasion of the tumor, the tumor cells had also invaded the vessel walls. There was no intravasation of tumor cells or interruption of the endothelium. Because melanoma with vascular wall invasion without intravasation of melanoma cells or interruption of the endothelium has been called angiotropic melanoma, we termed the present tumor angiotropic SC. Tumor cells showed wide local invasion.

  3. Heterogeneous Pathology of Melasma and Its Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Hyo; Hwang, Young-Ji; Lee, Soo-Keun; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2016-05-26

    Melasma is a commonly acquired hypermelanosis that affects sun-exposed areas of the skin, with frequent facial involvement. Its histologic manifestations are evident in the epidermis, extracellular matrix, and dermis. In addition to epidermal pigmentation, pathologic findings of melasma include extracellular matrix abnormality, especially solar elastosis. The disrupted basement membrane has been described in melasma with variable incidences. In the dermis, an increase in vascularity and an increase in the number of mast cells were observed, indicating that dermal factors have critical roles in the pathogenesis of melasma, despite the fact that melasma is characterized by epidermal hyperpigmentation. This review discusses such histologic characteristics of melasma, with consideration to their implications for melasma treatment.

  4. Heterogeneous Pathology of Melasma and Its Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soon-Hyo; Hwang, Young-Ji; Lee, Soo-Keun; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Melasma is a commonly acquired hypermelanosis that affects sun-exposed areas of the skin, with frequent facial involvement. Its histologic manifestations are evident in the epidermis, extracellular matrix, and dermis. In addition to epidermal pigmentation, pathologic findings of melasma include extracellular matrix abnormality, especially solar elastosis. The disrupted basement membrane has been described in melasma with variable incidences. In the dermis, an increase in vascularity and an increase in the number of mast cells were observed, indicating that dermal factors have critical roles in the pathogenesis of melasma, despite the fact that melasma is characterized by epidermal hyperpigmentation. This review discusses such histologic characteristics of melasma, with consideration to their implications for melasma treatment. PMID:27240341

  5. Development of a skin phantom of the epidermis and evaluation by using fluorescence techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Thorsten; Beer, Sebastian; Maeder, Ulf; Burg, Jan M.; Schlupp, Peggy; Schmidts, Thomas; Runkel, Frank; Fiebich, Martin

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this project was to develop a skin phantom that resembles the epidermis including the lipid matrix of the stratum corneum and the dermis. The main intent was to achieve optical properties similar to skin tissue. Therefore, two compartments of the skin, dermis and epidermis, were examined regarding their optical properties. Based on these results, the skin phantom was designed using relevant skin components. The scattering coefficient was measured by using Reflectance-based Confocal Microscopy (RCM) and the fluorescence spectrum was detected via confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM). Prospective, the skin phantom can be used to incorporate various fluorescing chemicals, such as fluorescent dyes and fluorescent-labeled drugs to perform calibration measurements in wide-field and laser-scanning microscopes to provide a basis for the quantification of skin penetration studies.

  6. LASER METHODS IN MEDICINE: Light absorption in blood during low-intensity laser irradiation of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barun, V. V.; Ivanov, A. P.

    2010-06-01

    An analytical procedure is proposed for describing optical fields in biological tissues inhomogeneous in the depth direction, such as human skin, with allowance for multiple scattering. The procedure is used to investigate the depth distribution of the optical power density in homogeneous and multilayer dermis when the skin is exposed to a laser beam. We calculate the absorbed laser power spectra for oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin at different depths in relation to the absorption selectivity of these haemoglobin derivatives and the spectral dependence of the optical power density and demonstrate that the spectra vary considerably with depth. A simple exponential approximation is proposed for the depth distribution of the power density in the epidermis and dermis.

  7. Spectrally resolved visualization of fluorescent dyes permeating into skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeder, Ulf; Bergmann, Thorsten; Beer, Sebastian; Burg, Jan Michael; Schmidts, Thomas; Runkel, Frank; Fiebich, Martin

    2012-03-01

    We present a spectrally resolved confocal imaging approach to qualitatively asses the overall uptake and the penetration depth of fluorescent dyes into biological tissue. We use a confocal microscope with a spectral resolution of 5 nm to measure porcine skin tissue after performing a Franz-Diffusion experiment with a submicron emulsion enriched with the fluorescent dye Nile Red. The evaluation uses linear unmixing of the dye and the tissue autofluorescence spectra. The results are combined with a manual segmentation of the skin's epidermis and dermis layers to assess the penetration behavior additionally to the overall uptake. The diffusion experiments, performed for 3h and 24h, show a 3-fold increased dye uptake in the epidermis and dermis for the 24h samples. As the method is based on spectral information it does not face the problem of superimposed dye and tissue spectra and therefore is more precise compared to intensity based evaluation methods.

  8. Computational models for the determination of depth-dependent mechanical properties of skin with a soft, flexible measurement device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jianghong; Dagdeviren, Canan; Shi, Yan; Ma, Yinji; Feng, Xue; Rogers, John A.; Huang, Yonggang

    2016-10-01

    Conformal modulus sensors (CMS) incorporate PZT nanoribbons as mechanical actuators and sensors to achieve reversible conformal contact with the human skin for non-invasive, in vivo measurements of skin modulus. An analytic model presented in this paper yields expressions that connect the sensor output voltage to the Young moduli of the epidermis and dermis, the thickness of the epidermis, as well as the material and geometrical parameters of the CMS device itself and its encapsulation layer. Results from the model agree well with in vitro experiments on bilayer structures of poly(dimethylsiloxane). These results provide a means to determine the skin moduli (epidermis and dermis) and the thickness of the epidermis from in vivo measurements of human skin.

  9. Blepharopigmentation: histopathologic observations and X-ray microanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, K.B.; Payne, C.M.; Heyde, R.R. )

    1988-01-01

    Blepharopigmentation or permanent eyeliner is a popular cosmetic procedure currently performed by a variety of methods. All methods attempt to implant ferrous oxide pigment into the dermis. We performed histopathologic studies on a series of three eyelid specimens, including two by a previously undescribed multi-needle pigment delivery system. Light microscopy revealed the epidermis to be pigment-free and the dermis to contain pigment in clumps. Transmission electron microscopy (EM) demonstrated that the pigment was largely in macrophages. Energy-dispersive x-ray micro-analysis showed that in addition to iron and talc, titanium particles were also present. These findings suggest that the pigment is tolerated by the eyelid despite the fact that current pigments are contaminated.

  10. Scanning electron microscopy of lichen sclerosus*

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Bicca, Eduardo de Barros Coelho; Breunig, Juliano de Avelar; Rocha, Nara Moreira; Silva, Ricardo Marques e

    2013-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is an acquired inflammatory condition characterized by whitish fibrotic plaques, with a predilection for the genital skin. We performed scanning electron microscopy of the dermis from a lesion of lichen sclerosus. Normal collagen fibers could be easily found in deeper layers of the specimen, as well as the transition to pathologic area, which seems homogenized. With higher magnifications in this transitional area collagen fibers are adherent to each other, and with very high magnifications a pearl chain aspect became evident along the collagen fibers. In the superficial dermis this homogenization is even more evident, collagen fibers are packed together and round structures are also observed. Rupture of collagen fibers and inflammatory cells were not found. These autoimmune changes of the extracellular matrix lead to the aggregation of immune complexes and/or changed matrix proteins along the collagen fibers, the reason why they seem hyalinized when examined by light microscopy. PMID:23739707

  11. Computed effects of sweat gland ducts on the propagation of 94 GHz waves in skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafirstein, Gal; Moros, Eduardo G.

    2011-03-01

    The effects of sweat gland ducts (SGD) on specific absorption rate and temperatures during millimeter wave irradiation of skin were investigated with a high resolution finite differences time domain model consisting of a 30 μm stratum corneum (SC), a 350 μm epidermis, 1000 μm dermis and five SGD (60 μm radius, 300 μm height, 370 μm separation). The source was a WR-10 waveguide irradiating at 94 GHz. Without SGD, specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature maximum were in the dermis near epidermis. With SGD, a higher SAR maximum was inside SGD in the epidermis while temperature maximum moved to the epidermis/stratumcorneum junction. SGD significantly affected how GHz waves were absorbed in the skin. Implications of these finding in nociceptive research will be discussed as well as other potential medical applications.

  12. Dowling Oration delivered at the Royal College of Physicians, London, Friday 5 June 1998. Retinoids: renaissance and reformation.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, C E

    1999-07-01

    There is confusion as to the cutaneous signs of ageing. For the most part the features of photoageing, namely actinic lentigines and wrinkling, are misinterpreted as features of ageing. Wrinkling is associated with a loss of collagens from the papillary dermis resulting from imperfect remodelling of the dermal extracellular matrix following sun exposure. Retinoids are either derivatives of vitamin A or synthetic ligands of nuclear retinoid receptors. Retinoid receptors, notably retinoic acid receptor gamma and retinoid X receptor alpha are present in human skin. Topically applied all-trans retinoic acid can repair and probably prevent photoageing of the skin by modulation of collagen synthesis in the dermis. There is emerging evidence that intrinsic ageing of the skin is also amenable to reversal by topical retinoids.

  13. Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma with paraproteinemia; an atypical case.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoshiyuki; Nishimura, Keisuke; Yamanaka, Kei-Ichi; Hakamada, Arata; Isoda, Ken-Ichi; Kurokawa, Ichiro; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    2008-01-01

    Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma (NXG) is a rare marker for paraproteinemia. An 86-year-old woman had a one year history of large red-yellow to brown annular plaques involving all limbs. Biopsies showed a non-palisading granuloma with numerous multinucleated giant cells showing prominent elastophagocytosis and extensive areas of necrobiosis throughout the entire dermis. Complete loss of elastic fibers was observed in the central atrophic area of an annular plaque. Small vascular thromboses were also present. Laboratory findings revealed paraproteinemia of IgG-lambda type. Immunohistochemical staining detected the presence of roughly equal numbers of IgG-lambda-and IgG-kappa-staining plasma cells in the dermis. We diagnosed NXG with paraproteinemia with monoclonal gammopathy (IgG-lambda type) of unknown significance.

  14. BMP-FGF signaling axis mediates Wnt-induced epidermal stratification in developing mammalian skin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao-Jing; Liu, YuDong; Dai, Zhong-Min; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Yang, XueQin; Li, Yan; Qiu, Mengsheng; Fu, Jiang; Hsu, Wei; Chen, YiPing; Zhang, Zunyi

    2014-10-01

    Epidermal stratification of the mammalian skin requires proliferative basal progenitors to generate intermediate cells that separate from the basal layer and are replaced by post-mitotic cells. Although Wnt signaling has been implicated in this developmental process, the mechanism underlying Wnt-mediated regulation of basal progenitors remains elusive. Here we show that Wnt secreted from proliferative basal cells is not required for their differentiation. However, epidermal production of Wnts is essential for the formation of the spinous layer through modulation of a BMP-FGF signaling cascade in the dermis. The spinous layer defects caused by disruption of Wnt secretion can be restored by transgenically expressed Bmp4. Non-cell autonomous BMP4 promotes activation of FGF7 and FGF10 signaling, leading to an increase in proliferative basal cell population. Our findings identify an essential BMP-FGF signaling axis in the dermis that responds to the epidermal Wnts and feedbacks to regulate basal progenitors during epidermal stratification.

  15. Light absorption in blood during low-intensity laser irradiation of skin

    SciTech Connect

    Barun, V V; Ivanov, A P

    2010-06-23

    An analytical procedure is proposed for describing optical fields in biological tissues inhomogeneous in the depth direction, such as human skin, with allowance for multiple scattering. The procedure is used to investigate the depth distribution of the optical power density in homogeneous and multilayer dermis when the skin is exposed to a laser beam. We calculate the absorbed laser power spectra for oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin at different depths in relation to the absorption selectivity of these haemoglobin derivatives and the spectral dependence of the optical power density and demonstrate that the spectra vary considerably with depth. A simple exponential approximation is proposed for the depth distribution of the power density in the epidermis and dermis. (laser methods in medicine)

  16. Two Cases of Unilateral Ashy Dermatosis

    PubMed Central

    Imanishi, Hisayoshi; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Ishii, Masamitsu; Nakagawa, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    Ashy dermatosis is a typically asymptomatic disease of unknown origin that causes symmetrical gray spots to appear on the trunk and extremities. We report 2 cases of ashy dermatosis with unilateral distribution. To our knowledge, only 5 cases of ashy dermatosis with unilateral lesion have been reported so far. Case 1: an 11-year-old woman presented with asymptomatic slate-gray pigmented plaques on the left trunk and left upper arm. The skin biopsy specimen demonstrated a mild lymphohistiocytotic infiltrate in the upper dermis with epidermal and dermal melanosis. Q-Switched ruby laser did not improve such lesions. Case 2: a 21-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of asymptomatic slate-gray pigmented plaques on the left trunk and left upper arm. Histopathological findings were compatible with a mild lymphocytic infiltration with melanin incontinence in the upper dermis. The mechanism that governs unilateral distribution of ashy dermatosis, including in our cases, remains unclear. PMID:21897817

  17. An unusual case of Sweet syndrome in a child: overlapping presentation with erythema elevatum diutinum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Liu, Hongjie; Wang, Lin; Guo, Zaipei; Li, Li

    2014-06-01

    In 1964, Sweet described an acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis. It is now widely accepted that Sweet syndrome is one of the associated neutrophilic dermatoses. Herein, we describe an unusual case of Sweet syndrome in a 5-year-old child who suffered from recurrent papules, plaques, and blisters on his face and trunk after the initial onset of fever without an obvious cause. Two skin biopsies were performed. The histopathological findings of the left arm biopsy showed a subepidermal blister with dense infiltrating neutrophils within the blister that were superficial to the middle layer of the dermis. The biopsy from a plaque on the left leg showed a dense infiltrate of neutrophils and a large number of infiltrating histiocytes superficial to the middle layer of the dermis. Direct immunofluorescence of a skin biopsy from the left arm confirmed that immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, IgA, and C3 expression were negative.

  18. Application of double-layered skin phantoms for optical flow imaging during laser tattoo treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byeong-il; Song, Woosub; Kim, Hyejin; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2016-05-01

    The feasible application of double-layered skin phantoms was evaluated to identify artificial blood flow with a Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) system for laser tattoo treatments. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used to fabricate the artificial phantoms with flow channels embedded. A double-integrating sphere system with an inverse adding-doubling method quantified both the absorption and the reduced scattering coefficients for epidermis and dermis phantoms. Both OCT and caliper measurements confirmed the double-layered phantom structure (epidermis = 136 ± 17 µm vs. dermis = 3.0 ± 0.1 mm). The DOCT method demonstrated that high flow rates were associated with high image contrast, visualizing the position and the shape of the flow channel. Application of the channel-embedded skin phantoms in conjunction with DOCT can be a reliable technique to assess dynamic variations in the blood flow during and after laser tattoo treatments.

  19. Photodamage in feline skin: clinical and histomorphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Almeida, E M P; Caraça, R A; Adam, R L; Souza, E M; Metze, K; Cintra, M L

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical and histomorphometric features of cat skin under long-term solar exposure. Ear skin of 34 Domestic Shorthair cats that were chronically exposed to sun was classified as follows: group 0, normal (n = 13); group 1, initial stage of photodamage (PD) (n = 10); group 2, advanced stage of PD (n = 11). Histologic sections were examined independently by 2 pathologists, and epidermal thickness, adnexal unit area, and dermal cellularity were assessed by morphometry. A positive correlation was obtained between age, degree of edema and sclerosis in the upper dermis, telangiectases, squamatization of basal keratinocytes, and epidermis thickness and the degree of PD. The area occupied by adnexal structures in the dermis diminished with increased PD. Dermal sclerosis and edema best separated the 3 groups. The results indicated a high level of skin hypersensitivity to sun rays in cats. The findings may be useful for clinical testing and in general veterinary pathology and dermatology.

  20. Collagen remodeling in photo-thermal damaged skin with optical coherence tomography and multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shu-lian; Li, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-man; Yu, Lili

    2009-08-01

    Cutaneous photo-thermal damage is the common damages in clinical medicine; it is a complex and dynamic process that follows an orderly sequence of events. The sequence can be roughly divided into three distinct, yet sequentially overlapping phases-inflammation, granulation tissue formation, and tissue remodeling. Characteristic structural changes associated with each phase could provide a basis for photo-thermal damage assessment with imaging technologies. Monitoring the skin tissue response during the skin after irradiated by laser and tracing the process of skin remodeling would help to understand the mechanism of photo-thermal. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and multiphoton microscopy (MPM) imaging were used to observe the process of the collagen remodeling in mouse dermis photo-thermal injured which after irradiated by intense pulsed light source (IPLs) in this paper. Our finding showed that the OCT and MPM techniques can image the process of collagen remodeling in mouse dermis.

  1. Histopathology of marine vibrio wound infections.

    PubMed

    Beckman, E N; Leonard, G L; Castillo, L E; Genre, C F; Pankey, G A

    1981-12-01

    Although marine vibrio wound infections and septicemia are being reported with increasing frequency, description of the histopathologic changes has been scanty. The histologic alterations in three patients with primary marine vibrio wound infections are presented. The lesions are characterized by intense acute cellulitis of the subcutis with much tissue destruction and extension into the adjacent dermis. The superficial dermis is devitalized and lacks an inflammatory cellular infiltrate. Subepidermal noninflammatory bullae are formed. Many organisms are seen both within the areas of intense acute inflammation and in devitalized areas. Organisms and inflammation are especially oriented around vessels, with associated acute vasculitis. It is concluded that the morphologic picture in marine vibrio wound infections is nonspecific yet characteristic.

  2. Clinically granulomatous cheilitis with plasma cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Somenath; Ghosh, Sarmistha; Sengupta, Dipayan

    2016-01-01

    Plasma cell cheilitis, also known as plasma cell orificial mucositis is a benign inflammatory condition clinically characterized by erythematous plaque on lips that may be ulcerated. Histopathologically it is characterized by dense plasma cell infiltrates in a band-like pattern in dermis, which corresponds to Zoon's plasma cell balanitis. On the other hand, granulomatous cheilitis, as a part of orofacial granulomatosis, manifests as sudden diffuse or nodular swelling involving lip and cheek. Initial swelling is soft to firm, but with recurrent episodes swelling gradually become firm rubbery in consistency. We hereby report a case of cheilitis in a 52-year-old man with diffuse swelling involving lower lip, which clinically resembles granulomatous cheilitis, but histopathological examination showed diffuse infiltrate of plasma cells predominantly in upper and mid-dermis. PMID:27057489

  3. Dual-effect laser handpiece for modification of tissue permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Kathleen

    2011-03-01

    A new approach for improving the availability of topically applied drugs by reducing the permeability of dermis has been evaluated. The premise of this work is that photothermal vascular injury will reduce vascular uptake of drug in the dermis. The dermal distribution of two topically applied drugs, 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C, is calculated, considering molecular diffusion and vascular uptake according to a distributed model, in the presence and absence of vascular injury. Intradermal drug exposures obtained are compared to exposures known to be effective in killing tumor cells. Combining the reduction in dermal permeability with fractional photothermal epidermal ablation to increase epidermal permeability may allow higher drug concentrations to be achieved in the skin. A newly developed laser handpiece for implementing the technique is described.

  4. Defining dermal adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Driskell, Ryan R; Jahoda, Colin A B; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Watt, Fiona M; Horsley, Valerie

    2014-09-01

    Here, we explore the evolution and development of skin-associated adipose tissue with the goal of establishing nomenclature for this tissue. Underlying the reticular dermis, a thick layer of adipocytes exists that encases mature hair follicles in rodents and humans. The association of lipid-filled cells with the skin is found in many invertebrate and vertebrate species. Historically, this layer of adipocytes has been termed subcutaneous adipose, hypodermis and subcutis. Recent data have revealed a common precursor for dermal fibroblasts and intradermal adipocytes during development. Furthermore, the development of adipocytes in the skin is independent from that of subcutaneous adipose tissue development. Finally, the role of adipocytes has been shown to be relevant for epidermal homoeostasis during hair follicle regeneration and wound healing. Thus, we propose a refined nomenclature for the cells and adipose tissue underlying the reticular dermis as intradermal adipocytes and dermal white adipose tissue, respectively.

  5. Quick analysis of optical spectra to quantify epidermal melanin and papillary dermal blood content of skin.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Steven L

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a practical approach for assessing the melanin and blood content of the skin from total diffuse reflectance spectra, R(λ), where λ is wavelength. A quick spectral analysis using just three wavelengths (585 nm, 700 nm and 800 nm) is presented, based on the 1985 work of Kollias and Baquer who documented epidermal melanin of skin using the slope of optical density (OD) between 620 nm and 720 nm. The paper describes the non-rectilinear character of such a quick analysis, and shows that almost any choice of two wavelengths in the 600-900 range can achieve the characterization of melanin. The extrapolation of the melanin slope to 585 nm serves as a baseline for subtraction from the OD (585 nm) to yield a blood perfusion score. Monte Carlo simulations created spectral data for a skin model with epidermis, papillary dermis and reticular dermis to illustrate the analysis.

  6. In vivo optical monitoring of transcutaneous delivery of calcium carbonate microcontainers

    PubMed Central

    Genina, Elina A.; Svenskaya, Yulia I.; Yanina, Irina Yu.; Dolotov, Leonid E.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Terentyuk, Georgy S.; Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Gorin, Dmitry A.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Sukhorukov, Gleb B.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a method for delivery of biocompatible CaCO3 microcontainers (4.0 ± 0.8 µm) containing Fe3O4 nanoparticles (14 ± 5 nm) into skin in vivo using fractional laser microablation (FLMA) provided by a pulsed Er:YAG laser system. Six laboratory rats have been used for the microcontainer delivery and weekly monitoring implemented using an optical coherence tomography and a standard histological analysis. The use of FLMA allowed for delivery of the microcontainers to the depth about 300 μm and creation of a depot in dermis. On the seventh day we have observed the dissolving of the microcontainers and the release of nanoparticles into dermis. PMID:27375927

  7. Theoretical Analysis of Cancer Detection in the Human Breast by Transillumination.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    the scattering coefficient S and the absorption coefficient K for human dermis in vitro. The coefficients S and K are calculated from the Kubelka - Munk theory...will be used in Chapter II in the development of the analytic and transport theories of scattering. The Kubelka - Munk theory is not employed in this...construed, however, to imply that the Kubelka - Munk theory does not give valid quantitative results (22:106). The data in Figure 6 indicate that absorption

  8. Experimental Characterization of Near-Infrared Laser Energy Absorption, Scattering, and Transmittance in Biological Tissue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    scalpel. The fat had to be pulled as the cut was made (as though it was going to be peeled off) in order to remove the maximum amount of fat. The...the dermatome was used to cut approximately 0.75 mm thick strips with the epidermis and the dermis. These strips were relatively thin, when...subsequently cut to twelve samples, which were ultimately tested. Six of these samples included tissue with epidermis (dark samples) and the other six were a

  9. Proof-of-Principle Dermal Decontamination Experiments: Swine Skin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    Desquamation The shedding or peeling of the epidermis in scales; sloughing off. Epidermis The outer, protective, nonvascular layer of the skin of...radionuclides are limited to the level of the epidermis , dermis and its vasculature. More soluble forms of the radionuclides may result in a small percentage...below the epidermis , containing nerve endings, sweat and sebaceous glands, and blood and lymph vessels. Dermatitis Inflammation of the skin

  10. Asynchronous Inflammation and Myogenic Cell Migration Limit Muscle Tissue Regeneration Mediated by a Cellular Scaffolds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-11

    muscle with volumetric muscle loss injury following the transplantation of muscle-ECM. Biomaterials 2013; 34:3324-3335. 4. Mase VJ, Jr., Hsu JR, Wolf... Biomaterials 2009; 30:1482-1491. 9. Wolf MT, Dearth CL, Sonnenberg SB, Loboa EGBadylak SF. Naturally derived and synthetic scaffolds for skeletal muscle...labeled porcine dermis biologic scaffold. Biomaterials 2014; 35:8297-8304. 11. Gilbert TW, Stewart-Akers AMBadylak SF. A quantitative method for

  11. Anthrax

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    surface and in the epidermis and hair follicles . Hair follicles had deeper foci of infe£tion, >200 11m below the skin surface. In animals inoculated with...2 x 108 spores onto unshaved skin, foci appeared only in the hair follicles and not in the epidermis or dermis (Hahn et aI., 2005). According to...have not been tested in animal models. Drugs with significant CNS penetration include ampicillin, meropenem, rifampicin, or vancomycin. Although

  12. Paratesticular angioleiomyoma with cytological atypia.

    PubMed

    Del Sordo, Rachele; Leite, Silvia; Petroni, Pietro Antonio; Sidoni, Angelo

    2008-04-01

    Angioleiomyomas are common benign smooth muscle neoplasms in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue of limbs. Very rarely have they been described in the external male genitalia with only two cases in the paratesticular tissues and another intratesticular. We report a case of a paratesticular angioleiomyoma with cytological atypia and a peculiar vascular pattern, found incidentally as a painless nodule in a 75-year-old man. The main clinicopathological features together with the differential diagnoses and the pertinent published reports are reviewed.

  13. Cerebrovascular Reactivity: Rat Studies in Rheoencephalography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-07

    position with the head in a stereotaxic frame. The skin was incised over the sutura sagittalis (30 mm in length), and the skull was exposed between the... sutura coronalis and the s. lambdoidea. The dermis, subdermal layers, periosteum and muscle over the parasagittal regions were removed; the bone was...electrodes was as follows: 3 mm lateral to the sutura sagittalis; 3 mm anterior to the coronal suture; 3 mm anterior to the lambdoid suture. These

  14. Determination of the elastic modulus of native collagen fibrils via radial indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, August J.; Matthews, William G.; Koob, Thomas J.

    2006-10-01

    The authors studied the elastic response of single, native collagen fibrils extracted from tissues of the inner dermis of the sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, via local nanoscale indentation with an atomic force microscope (AFM). AFM imaging of fibrils under ambient conditions are presented, demonstrating a peak-to-peak periodicity, the d band, of dehydrated, unfixed fibrils to be ˜64.5nm. Radial indentation experiments were performed, and the measured value for the reduced modulus is 1-2GPa.

  15. THE SKIN | Functional morphology of the integumentary system in fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, D.G.; Farrell, Anthony P.

    2011-01-01

    The integument that covers the outer surface of a fish’s body and fins is a multifunctional organ, with morphological features highly adapted to carry out these functions. The integument consists of two layers. The outer layer, the epidermis, is essentially cellular in structure, comprised of a multilayered epithelium that usually includes specialized cells. The inner layer, the dermis, is primarily a fibrous structure with relatively few cells, although it may contain scales, nerves, blood vessels, adipose tissue, and pigment cells.

  16. Clearance of experimental cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus infections in mice.

    PubMed

    Onunkwo, Charles C; Hahn, Beth L; Sohnle, Peter G

    2010-07-01

    Staphylococcal skin infections are quite common in human patients. These infections often clear spontaneously, but may also progress locally and/or disseminate to cause serious and sometimes fatal deep infections. The present studies were undertaken to examine the clearance phase of experimental cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus infections in a mouse model system. Previous work in this system has shown that staphylococci applied to the skin rapidly disseminate to the spleen and kidney. In the present experiments the bacteria were found to persist at the skin infection site at a time (8 days after inoculation) when they had disappeared from the spleen and kidney. Examination of the infected skin at earlier times revealed rapid (within 6 h) invasion into the stratum corneum, stratum Malpighii, and dermis, but subsequent redistribution of bacteria (at 1-2 days) to more superficial sites, particularly crusts located just above the skin surface. The crusts seen in these infections were of two distinct types, which were termed type 1 and type 2. Type 1 crusts appeared first, consisted of bacteria, inflammatory cells, and debris, and developed over an intact epidermis. Type 2 crusts arose from the process of dermal necrosis previously reported to take place at 2 days in this model system. In the latter situation the bacteria were not really cleared from the epidermis and dermis; rather those layers were transformed into a superficial crust that contained the bacteria. Deep hair follicle infections in the dermis were found in these infections, but they did not persist and did not seem to be a reservoir for organisms in the dermis. Resolution of these experimental infections appeared to involve redistribution of invading bacteria to more superficial locations in crusts above the skin surface, marked proliferation of the epidermis, loss of the bacteria-laden crusts from the skin, and eventual healing of the cutaneous damage.

  17. Inhomogeneous Monte Carlo simulations of dermoscopic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareau, Daniel S.; Li, Ting; Jacques, Steven; Krueger, James

    2012-03-01

    Clinical skin-lesion diagnosis uses dermoscopy: 10X epiluminescence microscopy. Skin appearance ranges from black to white with shades of blue, red, gray and orange. Color is an important diagnostic criteria for diseases including melanoma. Melanin and blood content and distribution impact the diffuse spectral remittance (300-1000nm). Skin layers: immersion medium, stratum corneum, spinous epidermis, basal epidermis and dermis as well as laterally asymmetric features (eg. melanocytic invasion) were modeled in an inhomogeneous Monte Carlo model.

  18. Evaluation of Carbohydrate-Derived Fulvic Acid (CHD-FA) as a Topical Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial for Drug-Resistant Wound Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    dermis denatured with minimal inflammation. There is hypodermal edema Cell and tissue death extends down through the muscle layer. The epidermis...hypodermal edema and degeneration of muscle cells/fibers. There is mild diffuse subdermal edema with increased numbers of fibroblasts and...inflammation. There is hypodermal edema and degeneration of muscle cells/fibers with an influx of lymphocytes and fewer numbers of macrophages and

  19. Nail apparatus melanoma initially diagnosed as nail matrix blue nevus: a case report with dermatoscopy and dermatopathology

    PubMed Central

    Akay, Bengu Nisa; Heper, Aylin Okcu; Thomas, Luc; Balme, Brigitte; Clark, Simon; Rosendahl, Cliff

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of nail apparatus melanoma in a 50-year-old woman presenting as new and changing longitudinal melanonychia of the right thumb. Very heavy melanin pigmentation involving both the epidermis and dermis interfered with dermatopathological assessment, which initially leads to a diagnosis of nail matrix blue nevus. After consultation with a specialist multidisciplinary clinic the diagnosis was revised to invasive melanoma, a diagnosis consistent with the clinical and dermatoscopic assessment. PMID:28243499

  20. Tumoral melanosis in an adolescent after trauma: a clinicopathological dilemma.

    PubMed

    Dogruk Kacar, Seval; Ozuguz, Pinar; Karaca, Semsettin; Aktepe, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Tumoral melanosis (TM) is a histologic term used to indicate a nodular accumulation of melanophages in the dermis clinically presenting as a pigmented lesion. It is usually associated with regression of melanoma and nonmelanoma melanocytic pigmented lesions. We present the case of a 16-year-old girl with a suspicious pigmented macule on her right knee that appeared after trauma. The lesion was completely excised and diagnosed as TM.

  1. [Trichogenic trichoblastoma].

    PubMed

    Imai, S; Nitto, H

    1982-11-01

    A case of rare follicular tumor, which occurred on nasal root of a 73-year-old man, is presented. Histologically one finds a tumor, localized in dermis and subcutaneous tissue, consisting of keratinous cysts, irregular shaped or antlerlike epithelial cell nests and surrounding stroma. The cell nest consists of basaloid cells. Moreover rudimentary hair matrix structures, sebaceous gland lobules and apocrine sweat ducts are observed. This tumor corresponds to trichogenic trichoblastoma as proposed by Headington.

  2. Lupus tumidus: a report of two cases*

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet Muylaert, Bianca Pinheiro; Braga, Bruna Backsmann; Esteves, Eduarda Braga; Garbelini, Luciana Elisa Barandas; Michalany, Alexandre Ozores; de Oliveira Filho, Jayme

    2016-01-01

    Lupus tumidus is considered a rare subtype of chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus, characterized by erythema and bright urticarial erythematous-violaceous lesions that leave no scars after regression. Histopathology reveals perivascular and periannexal lymphohistiocytic infiltrates in the papillary and reticular dermis and interstitial mucin deposition. Treatment is based on photoprotection, topical corticosteroids and antimalarials. We report two cases of lupus tumidus, which deserve attention for their low frequency in the literature, in addition to their relevance as a differential diagnosis among dermatologic disorders.

  3. Static procedures for the management of the midface and lower face.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuk Ming; Sherris, David A

    2008-05-01

    Facial reanimation for facial paralysis continues to be an evolving field in facial reconstruction. Static procedures in the management of mid and lower facial paralysis include the use of facial slings made from autologous tissue, freeze-dried acellular human dermis, and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene. A newly described suspension technique using a multivector suture suspension stands to expand the tools that can be used by the reconstructive surgeon. This article describes and contrasts each of these techniques.

  4. Multiphoton spectroscopy of human skin in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunig, Hans G.; Weinigel, Martin; König, Karsten

    2012-03-01

    In vivo multiphoton-intensity images and emission spectra of human skin are reported. Optical sections from different depths of the epidermis and dermis have been measured with near-infrared laser-pulse excitation. While the intensity images reveal information on the morphology, the spectra show emission characteristics of main endogenous skin fluorophores like keratin, NAD(P)H, melanin, elastin and collagen as well as of second harmonic generation induced by the excitation-light interaction with the dermal collagen network.

  5. Cutaneous amyloidosis associated with autoimmune hepatitis-primary biliary cirrhosis overlap syndrome.

    PubMed

    González-Moreno, Emmanuel I; Cámara-Lemarroy, Carlos R; Borjas-Almaguer, David O; Martínez-Cabriales, Sylvia A; Paz-Delgadillo, Jonathan; Gutiérrez-Udave, Rodrigo; Ayala-Cortés, Ana S; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Cortéz-Hernández, Carlos A; Maldonado-Garza, Héctor J

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous amyloidosis is a rare disease characterized by the deposition of amyloid in the dermis. It can be primary or secondary, depending on associated diseases. It has been linked to various autoimmune diseases, including primary biliary cirrhosis. We present the case of a patient with an autoimmune hepatitis-primary biliary cirrhosis overlap syndrome with concomitant cutaneous amyloidosis, a very unusual association, and discuss similar cases and possible pathophysiological implications.

  6. Skin simulation for minor surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Munro, A; Park, K G; Atkinson, D; Day, R P; Capperauld, I

    1994-06-01

    A simulated skin preparation is described which is made by bonding siliconized rubber to a latex foam base. This composite material, which simulates both the dermis/epidermis and subcutaneous fat, provides a realistic model which can be used to teach excision of skin lesions and a variety of suturing methods. We believe that this simulator is of value not only for surgeons in-training but also will allow general practitioners to improve their technical skills in performing minor surgical procedures.

  7. Dermal melanin concentration of yellow perch Perca flavescens in relation to water transparency.

    PubMed

    Rheault, G; Langevin, M; Cabana, G; Glémet, H

    2015-11-01

    A positive relationship was observed between Secchi disc depth and dermal melanin concentration in yellow perch Perca flavescens sampled from 11 humic lakes located on the Canadian Shield in southern Quebec (Canada). Secchi disc depth explained 23% of the variations of dermal melanin concentration. Secchi disc depth and thus water transparency appear to have a positive influence on melanin production in the dermis of P. flavescens.

  8. The beneficial effects of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) on wound healing of rabbit skin.

    PubMed

    Pişkin, Ahmet; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Tümentemur, Gamze; Kaplan, Süleyman; Yazıcı, Ozgür Bülent; Hökelek, Murat

    2014-08-01

    Momordica charantia (MC; bitter gourd) is a traditional herbal commonly used for its antidiabetic, antioxidant, contraceptive and antibacterial properties. In the current study, the authors aim to observe the topical effect of MC cream on the wound-healing process in rabbits. Moreover, they compare the healing potential with conventional creams used therapeutically. Towards this aim, 28 New Zealand rabbits were divided into four groups and excision wounds (7 cm²) were made on their backs. Open wound dressing was carried out daily for 28 days among the experimental groups with the application of dekspanthenol (Bepanthen®; BP group, n = 7), nitrofurazon (Furacin®; FR group, n = 7) and olive oil extract of MC (MC group, n = 7). No application was made to the control group. At the end of day 28, areas of the skin with initial wound area were en bloc dissected and prepared for histopathological and stereological analysis. Inflammatory cells were abundant in the control group and cream application led to a decrease in the number of these cells, especially in the MC group. The highest number of fibroblasts was detected in the MC group. Furthermore, the MC group displayed the highest fractions of epidermis to papillary dermis, fibroblasts to reticular dermis and collagen fibres to reticular dermis. The MC group also presented a high density of blood vessels, moderate density of collagen fibres and mature fibroblasts. The BP group showed better epithelialisation compared with the FR group, but the latter provided more effective reorganisation of the dermis. Different cream supplements caused healthy and fast wound healing according to untreated controls and the results show that administration of the MC extract improves and accelerates the process of wound healing in rabbits in comparison with the BP and FR extracts.

  9. Cutaneous Pythiosis in calves: An epidemiologic, pathologic, serologic and molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Konradt, Guilherme; Bassuino, Daniele Mariath; Bianchi, Matheus Viezzer; Castro, Lismara; Caprioli, Rafaela Albuquerque; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti; Santurio, Janio M; Azevedo, Maria Isabel; Jesus, Francielli P; Driemeier, David

    2016-12-01

    This study reports the epidemiological, pathological and mycological findings of cutaneous pythiosis in cattle in southern Brazil. 23 calves, that were kept next to a river with extensive marshy regions, presented ulcerated cutaneous lesions in thoracic and pelvic limbs, sometimes extending to the ventral thoracic region. Histopathological examination revealed multifocal pyogranulomas in the superficial and deep dermis. The Grocott-Methenamine silver, immunohistochemistry anti-Pythium insidiosum, ELISA serology and molecular characterization demonstrated the agent P. insidiosum in these cases.

  10. Elevated expression of type VII collagen in the skin of patients with systemic sclerosis. Regulation by transforming growth factor-beta.

    PubMed Central

    Rudnicka, L; Varga, J; Christiano, A M; Iozzo, R V; Jimenez, S A; Uitto, J

    1994-01-01

    A hallmark of systemic sclerosis (SSc) is the development of tissue fibrosis. Excessive production of several connective tissue components normally present in the dermis, including type I, III, V, and VI collagens as well as fibronectin and proteoglycans, is a consistent finding in the skin of SSc patients. Type VII collagen is a major constituent of anchoring fibrils, present in the skin at the dermal-epidermal basement membrane zone. TGF-beta has been shown to upregulate the expression of the type VII collagen gene. In this study, we assessed the expression of type VII collagen and TGF-beta in the skin of patients with SSc. Indirect immunofluorescence showed an abundance of type VII collagen in the patients' skin, including the dermis. Ultrastructural analysis of SSc skin revealed an abundance of fibrillar material, possibly representing type VII collagen. The increased expression of type VII collagen epitopes was accompanied by the elevated expression of immunodetectable TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2. Dermal fibroblasts cultured from the affected individuals showed a statistically significant (P < 0.02) increase in the expression of type VII collagen at the mRNA level, as detected by reverse transcription-PCR with a mutated cDNA as an internal standard, and increased deposition of the protein as assessed by indirect immunofluorescence. Thus, type VII collagen is abundantly present in SSc patients' dermis, a location not characteristic of its normal distribution, and its aberrant expression may relate to the presence of TGF-beta in the same topographic distribution. The presence of type VII collagen in the dermis may contribute to the tightly bound and indurated appearance of the affected skin in SSc patients. Images PMID:7512991

  11. Aging of human skin: review of a mechanistic model and first experimental data.

    PubMed

    Giacomoni, P U; Declercq, L; Hellemans, L; Maes, D

    2000-04-01

    The physical, chemical, and biochemical factors that accelerate skin aging have been proposed to activate a self-maintained microinflammatory process, one of the expected end results of which is an imbalance in the turnover of macromolecules in the dermis. Surface peroxides are recognized as controllable factors of skin aging, and their accumulation is attributed to environmentally induced impairment of defense enzymes. Topical application of antioxidants decreases the rate at which skin elasticity and skin thickness are modified.

  12. Inframammary fold: a histologic reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Muntan, C D; Sundine, M J; Rink, R D; Acland, R D

    2000-02-01

    The inframammary fold is a defining element in the shape and structure of the female breast. It should be preserved whenever possible in ablative procedures and recreated accurately when the breast is reconstructed after mastectomy. To date, no accurate anatomic description of this essential structure exists. Previous studies have suggested that the fold is produced by a supporting ligament running from the dermis in the fold region to a variety of locations on the rib cage. This clinic's experience with mastectomy, augmentation mammaplasty, and breast reconstruction does not support the existence of a ligamentous structure. To define the structure of the inframammary fold, 10 female and 2 male cadavers were studied. The anterior chest wall was removed en bloc and frozen in orthostatic position. Parasagittal sections were made of the inframammary fold with the chest wall intact. After decalcification of the ribs and routine histologic preparation, thin sections were stained with Gomori's trichrome. On light microscopic examination, no demonstrable ligamentous structure of dense regular connective tissue could be identified in the fold region in any of the 12 specimens. Superficial and deep fascial layers were uniformly observed anterior to the pectoralis major and serratus anterior muscles. The superficial fascia was connected to the dermis in the fold region in a variety of configurations. In some cases, the deep fascia fused with the superficial fascia and dermis at the fold level. In other cases, bundles of collagen fibers arising from the superficial fascial layer were found to insert into the dermis at the inframammary fold, slightly inferior to it, or both. These bundles were observed consistently in sections from the sternum to the middle axillary line. They were distinct from Cooper's suspensory ligaments, which are seen more superiorly in the glandular tissue.

  13. Pyoderma gangrenosum masquerading as Donovanosis

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Varadraj V.; Kikkeri, Naveen Narayanshetty; Athanikar, S. B.; Myageri, Anil; Rai, Vijetha

    2014-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology characterized by neutrophilic infiltration of the dermis and destruction of tissue. PG is diagnosed after excluding more commonly occurring condition presenting with similar manifestation. Though PG has been reported to occur over the genitalia, it rarely presents with concurrent involvement of the groin. Herein, we present a case of PG masquerading as Donovanosis. PMID:26396454

  14. DNA damage in human skin fibroblasts exposed to UVA light used in clinical PUVA treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Bredberg, A.

    1981-06-01

    Human skin fibroblasts were irradiated with a clinically used UVA light source. The doses (1.1 and 3 J/cm2) were similar to those reaching the dermis during clinical PUVA treatment of psoriasis. DNA strand breaks, as determined by alkaline elution, were formed in a dose-dependent way and disappeared within 1 hr of postincubation at 37 degrees C. These findings have clinical implications since UVA-induced DNA damage may be accompanied by mutagenic and tumor promoting effects.

  15. Effects of hair removal alexandrite laser on biometric parameters of the skin.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Shiva; Abolhasani, Ehsan; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammadali

    2016-04-01

    The effects of alexandrite laser (AL) on skin parameters such as melanin content, skin layer depth, elasticity, and density have not been investigated through biometric methods. We aim to assess the effect of AL on the skin parameters through biometric devices to determine whether it has positive effects on treated region. In this pretest-posttest study, we recruited patients who attended Laser Clinic of Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, from January through December 2014. Patients had to be free of any dermatologic conditions and lesion at the site of treatment or any contraindication to laser therapy. Baseline measurements were performed and patients received four sessions of AL therapy (spot size, 12 mm; fluence, 12 J/cm(2); and pulse width, 5 Hz) with 4-week intervals. Four weeks after the last treatment session, the same parameters were assessed that included skin color, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), dermis and epidermis density and depth (through skin ultrasonography), melanin content, erythema intensity, and skin elasticity. Biometric parameters of 33 patients (27 females [81.8%]), with mean (SD) age of 35.7 (9.5) years were evaluated. The mean percent changes of skin parameters were as follows: skin color, 5.88% through Visioface and by 56.8% through Colorimeter devices (became lighter); melanin content, -15.95%; TEWL, -2.96%; elasticity, +14.88%; dermis depth -19.01%; and dermis density, +1580.11% (P < 0.001 for changes in each parameter). AL could decrease melanin content of the skin and make the skin thinner while it could increase elasticity and density of epidermis and dermis, which might indicate increased collagen content of skin.

  16. Idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation in a Chinese child

    PubMed Central

    Wei-Feng, Zha; Ai-E, Xu; Jun-Fan, Chen

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a healthy 8-year-old boy who presented with disseminated asymptomatic brown macules on the face, neck, trunk, and proximal extremities for 3 months. Dermatologic examination revealed multiple, smooth, nonscaly, brown macules involving the face, neck, trunk, and proximal limbs. The Darier's sign was negative. Histopathologic study showed normal epidermis and basal membrane, and increasingly scattered melanophages in the papillary dermis. The final diagnosis was idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation. PMID:26225334

  17. THE AUTOIMMUNE CONSTELLATION IN LICHEN AMYLOIDOSIS.

    PubMed

    Andrese, Elena; Vâţă, D; Ciobanu, Delia; Stătescu, Laura; Solovăstru, Laura Gheucă

    2015-01-01

    Localized cutaneous amyloidosis is a rare disease among white people, being more common in South-Asia, China and South America. The disease is characterized by deposition of amyloid material in the papillary dermis without visceral involvement. Nevertheless, there is a growing list of immune-mediated disorders that have been linked to cutaneous amyloidosis. We present two cases of concomitant occurrence of lichen amyloidosis and autoimmune thyroiditis/atopic dermatitis in two Caucasian women.

  18. Topical distribution of acyclovir in normal equine skin and equine sarcoids: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Haspeslagh, M; Taevernier, L; Maes, A A; Vlaminck, L E M; De Spiegeleer, B; Croubels, S M; Martens, A M

    2016-06-01

    Topical acyclovir application is an owner-friendly treatment for occult equine sarcoids, without the caustic side-effects other topical treatments have. Variable clinical success rates have been described, but it is not known to what rate and extent acyclovir penetrates in and through equine skin from a topical formulation. In the current study, an in vitro Franz diffusion model was used to determine the permeation parameters for a generic 5% acyclovir cetomacrogol cream for both healthy and sarcoid equine skin. The distribution of acyclovir between different layers of both skin types was also evaluated. While acyclovir penetrated through both skin types, significantly less acyclovir permeated to the deep dermis of sarcoid skin (197.62ng/mm(3)) compared to normal skin (459.41ng/mm(3)). Within sarcoid skin samples, significantly higher acyclovir concentrations were found in the epidermis (983.59ng/mm(3)) compared to the superficial dermis (450.02ng/mm(3)) and the deep dermis. At each sample point, significantly more acyclovir permeated to the receptor fluid through normal skin compared to sarcoid skin, which is reflected in the significantly higher permeation parameters of normal skin. Normal skin was found to be more permissive for acyclovir, but even in sarcoid skin, enough acyclovir reached the deep dermis to treat a Herpes simplex virus infection. In the case of equine sarcoids, the treatment is aimed at the Bovine papillomavirus and no information is available on the susceptibility of the DNA polymerase of this virus for acyclovir. Therefore, further research is needed to determine the efficacy of acyclovir to treat equine sarcoids.

  19. Extragenital bullous lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Maxwell B; Linzon-Smith, Jaclyn; Beecker, Jennifer

    2014-11-01

    Lichen sclerosus is an inflammatory skin condition characterized by inflammation of the papillary dermis that leads to white scarlike plaques. It occurs classically in the genitals but also has extragenital manifestations with a variety of clinical presentations including a bullous variant. The purpose of this review is to characterize extragenital bullous lichen sclerosus, suggest that it may be more common than dermatologists realize, and discuss treatment of both routine and recalcitrant cases.

  20. High-definition optical coherence tomography intrinsic skin ageing assessment in women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Boone, M A L M; Suppa, M; Marneffe, A; Miyamoto, M; Jemec, G B E; Del Marmol, V

    2015-10-01

    Several non-invasive two-dimensional techniques with different lateral resolution and measurable depth range have proved to be useful in assessing and quantifying morphological changes in skin ageing. Among these, only in vivo microscopy techniques permit histometric measurements in vivo. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related (IAR) morphological changes of epidermis, dermo-epidermal junction (DEJ), papillary dermis (PD), papillary-reticular dermis junction and reticular dermis (RD) have been performed by high-definition optical coherence tomography in real time 3-D. HD-OCT images were taken at the internal site of the right upper arm. Qualitative HD-OCT IAR descriptors were reported at skin surface, at epidermal layer, DEJ, PD and upper RD. Quantitative evaluation of age-related compaction and backscattered intensity or brightness of different skin layers was performed by using the plugin plot z-axis profile of ImageJ(®) software permitting intensity assessment of HD-OCT (DICOM) images (3-D images). Analysis was in blind from all clinical information. Sixty, fair-skinned (Fitzpatrick types I-III) healthy females were analysed retrospectively in this study. The subjects belonged to three age groups: twenty in group I aged 20-39, twenty in group II aged 40-59 and twenty in group III aged 60-79. Only intrinsic ageing in women has been studied. Significant age-related qualitative and quantitative differences could be noticed. IAR changes in dermal matrix fibers morphology/organisation and in microvasculature were observed. The brightness and compaction of the different skin layers increased significantly with intrinsic skin ageing. The depth of visibility of fibers in RD increased significantly in the older age group. In conclusion, HD-OCT allows 3-D in vivo and real time qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related morphological skin changes at high resolution from skin surface to a depth

  1. In-vivo experimental evaluation of nonablative skin remodeling using a 1.54-μm laser with surface cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordon, Serge R.; Capon, Alexandre; Creusy, Collette; Fleurisse, Laurence; Buys, Bruno; Faucheux, Marc A.; Servell, Pascal

    2000-05-01

    Selective dermal remodeling using diode or 1.32 micrometer Nd:YAG lasers has been recently proposed for skin rejuvenation. This new technique consists in inducing collagen tightening and/or neocollagen synthesis without significant damage of the overlying epidermis. Such an approach requires (1) a cooling system in order to target dermal collagen with relatively good protection of the epidermal layer, (2) a specific wavelength for confining the thermal damage into the upper dermis (100 to 400 micrometer). Based on previous studies, demonstrating a better water absorption and a reduced melanin absorption at 1.54 micrometer compared to the 1.32 micrometer, this experimental study aimed to evaluate a new laser (co-doped Yb-Er:phosphate glass material, Aramis, Quantel-France) emitting at 1.54 micrometer. This laser was used in combination with the Dermacool system (Dermacool, Mableton, USA) in order to achieve epidermis cooling before, during and after irradiation. Male hairless rats were used for the study. Pulse train irradiation (1.1 J, 3 Hz, 30 pulses) and different cooling temperatures (+5 degree(s)C, 0 degree(s)C, -5 degree(s)C) were screened with clinical examination and histological evaluation at 1, 3, and 7 days after laser irradiation. The clinical effects showed that pulse train irradiation produced reproducible epidermal preservation and confinement of the thermal damage into the dermis. The different cooling temperatures did not provide detectable differences in terms of size and depth of thermal damage. New collagen synthesis was confirmed by a marked fibroblastic proliferation, detected in the lower dermis at D3 and clearly seen in the upper dermis at D7. This new laser appears to be a promising new tool for the treatment of skin laxity, solar elastosis, facial rhytids and mild reduction of wrinkles.

  2. MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells in human skin equivalents show differential migration and phenotypic plasticity after allergen or irritant exposure.

    PubMed

    Kosten, Ilona J; Spiekstra, Sander W; de Gruijl, Tanja D; Gibbs, Susan

    2015-08-15

    After allergen or irritant exposure, Langerhans cells (LC) undergo phenotypic changes and exit the epidermis. In this study we describe the unique ability of MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells (MUTZ-LC) to display similar phenotypic plasticity as their primary counterparts when incorporated into a physiologically relevant full-thickness skin equivalent model (SE-LC). We describe differences and similarities in the mechanisms regulating LC migration and plasticity upon allergen or irritant exposure. The skin equivalent consisted of a reconstructed epidermis containing primary differentiated keratinocytes and CD1a(+) MUTZ-LC on a primary fibroblast-populated dermis. Skin equivalents were exposed to a panel of allergens and irritants. Topical exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of allergens (nickel sulfate, resorcinol, cinnamaldehyde) and irritants (Triton X-100, SDS, Tween 80) resulted in LC migration out of the epidermis and into the dermis. Neutralizing antibody to CXCL12 blocked allergen-induced migration, whereas anti-CCL5 blocked irritant-induced migration. In contrast to allergen exposure, irritant exposure resulted in cells within the dermis becoming CD1a(-)/CD14(+)/CD68(+) which is characteristic of a phenotypic switch of MUTZ-LC to a macrophage-like cell in the dermis. This phenotypic switch was blocked with anti-IL-10. Mechanisms previously identified as being involved in LC activation and migration in native human skin could thus be reproduced in the in vitro constructed skin equivalent model containing functional LC. This model therefore provides a unique and relevant research tool to study human LC biology in situ under controlled in vitro conditions, and will provide a powerful tool for hazard identification, testing novel therapeutics and identifying new drug targets.

  3. Autologous Fat Transfer in a Patient with Lupus Erythematosus Profundus

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jimi; Kim, Hwa Mi; Kim, Tae-Heung; Kim, Chung-Won; Sun, Young-Woo; Yoon, Tae-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Lupus erythematosus profundus, a form of chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus, is a rare inflammatory disease involving in the lower dermis and subcutaneous tissues. It primarily affects the head, proximal upper arms, trunk, thighs, and presents as firm nodules, 1 to 3 cm in diameter. The overlying skin often becomes attached to the subcutaneous nodules and is drawn inward to produce deep, saucerized depressions. We present a rare case of lupus erythematosus profundus treated with autologous fat transfer. PMID:23139658

  4. Integra as a Dermal Replacement in a Meshed Composite Skin Graft in a Rat Model: A One-Step Operative Procedure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    one-step procedure in rats with full thickness skin injuries.7 Cryopre- served cellular and decellularized porcine allogeneic dermis, in conjunction...MATERIALS AND METHODS Experimental Animals White female Lewis rats (Harlan, Houston, TX) weigh- ing 220 25 g were used as experimental animals . In...conducting the research described in this report, the investi- gators adhered to the Animal Welfare Act and other federal statutes and regulations relating to

  5. [Forum: dermopigmentation or medical tattooing. Brief notes on technical aspects of dermopigmentation].

    PubMed

    Chavoin, J P; Oksman, B

    1992-08-01

    Tattooing is a very old procedure widespread throughout the world. Recently dermatologists and plastic surgeons have applied this procedure for medical dermography. Incarcerating a pigment in the depth of the dermis has caused no problems for professionals and aestheticiens performing tattoos. Medical ethics oblige us to specify the nature of the pigment used. The instrument used for injecting the pigment should be well adapted for safety, technically, ergonomically and for asepsis.

  6. Parry-Romberg syndrome in association with contralateral Poland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dintiman, B J; Shapiro, R S; Hood, A F; Guba, A M

    1990-02-01

    A 35-year-old woman had a 4-year history of skin depression on the right side of both the forehead and chin. A biopsy specimen showed a normal dermis and an absence of subcutaneous tissue. She also had Poland syndrome on the left side of the body, with loss of the sternocostal portion of the greater pectoral muscle. Significant cosmetic improvement was achieved with dermal fat grafts and silicone implants.

  7. In vivo assessment of optical properties of basal cell carcinoma and differentiation of BCC subtypes by high-definition optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Boone, Marc; Suppa, Mariano; Miyamoto, Makiko; Marneffe, Alice; Jemec, Gregor; Del Marmol, Veronique

    2016-01-01

    High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) features of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) have recently been defined. We assessed in vivo optical properties (IV-OP) of BCC, by HD-OCT. Moreover their critical values for BCC subtype differentiation were determined. The technique of semi-log plot whereby an exponential function becomes linear has been implemented on HD-OCT signals. The relative attenuation factor (µraf) at different skin layers could be assessed.. IV-OP of superficial BCC with high diagnostic accuracy (DA) and high negative predictive values (NPV) were (i) decreased µraf in lower part of epidermis and (ii) increased epidermal thickness (E-T). IV-OP of nodular BCC with good to high DA and NPV were (i) less negative µraf in papillary dermis compared to normal adjacent skin and (ii) significantly decreased E-T and papillary dermal thickness (PD-T). In infiltrative BCC (i) high µraf in reticular dermis compared to normal adjacent skin and (ii) presence of peaks and falls in reticular dermis had good DA and high NPV. HD-OCT seems to enable the combination of in vivo morphological analysis of cellular and 3-D micro-architectural structures with IV-OP analysis of BCC. This permits BCC sub-differentiation with higher accuracy than in vivo HD-OCT analysis of morphology alone. PMID:27375943

  8. Spatial frequency domain spectroscopy of two layer media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudovsky, Dmitry; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2011-10-01

    Monitoring of tissue blood volume and oxygen saturation using biomedical optics techniques has the potential to inform the assessment of tissue health, healing, and dysfunction. These quantities are typically estimated from the contribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to the absorption spectrum of the dermis. However, estimation of blood related absorption in superficial tissue such as the skin can be confounded by the strong absorption of melanin in the epidermis. Furthermore, epidermal thickness and pigmentation varies with anatomic location, race, gender, and degree of disease progression. This study describes a technique for decoupling the effect of melanin absorption in the epidermis from blood absorption in the dermis for a large range of skin types and thicknesses. An artificial neural network was used to map input optical properties to spatial frequency domain diffuse reflectance of two layer media. Then, iterative fitting was used to determine the optical properties from simulated spatial frequency domain diffuse reflectance. Additionally, an artificial neural network was trained to directly map spatial frequency domain reflectance to sets of optical properties of a two layer medium, thus bypassing the need for iteration. In both cases, the optical thickness of the epidermis and absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the dermis were determined independently. The accuracy and efficiency of the iterative fitting approach was compared with the direct neural network inversion.

  9. In vivo spatial frequency domain spectroscopy of two layer media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudovsky, Dmitry; Nguyen, John Quan M.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2012-10-01

    Monitoring of tissue blood volume and local oxygen saturation can inform the assessment of tissue health, healing, and dysfunction. These quantities can be estimated from the contribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to the absorption spectrum of the dermis. However, estimation of blood related absorption in skin can be confounded by the strong absorption of melanin in the epidermis and epidermal thickness and pigmentation varies with anatomic location, race, gender, and degree of disease progression. Therefore, a method is desired that decouples the effect of melanin absorption in the epidermis from blood absorption in the dermis for a large range of skin types and thicknesses. A previously developed inverse method based on a neural network forward model was applied to simulated spatial frequency domain reflectance of skin for multiple wavelengths in the near infrared. It is demonstrated that the optical thickness of the epidermis and absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the dermis can be determined independently and with minimal coupling. Then, the same inverse method was applied to reflectance measurements from a tissue simulating phantom and in vivo human skin. Oxygen saturation and total hemoglobin concentrations were estimated from the volar forearms of weakly and strongly pigmented subjects using a standard homogeneous model and the present two layer model.

  10. The chemical peel.

    PubMed

    Peters, W

    1991-06-01

    Chemical peeling of facial skin has become a valuable adjunct in the armamentarium of the facial aesthetic surgeon. Among the various techniques available, phenol solutions are the most commonly used. Peeling produces a controlled, partial-thickness chemical burn of the epidermis and the outer dermis. Several techniques are available to "fine tune" the depth of the peel. Regeneration of peeled skin results in a fresh, orderly, organized epidermis. In the dermis, a new 2- to 3-mm band of dense, compact, orderly collagen is formed between the epidermis and the underlying damaged dermis, which results in effective ablation of the fine wrinkles in the skin and a reduction of pigmentation. These clinical and histological changes are long lasting (15-20 years) and may be permanent in some patients. Because of the metabolism and systemic complications of phenol, patient selection should involve systemic evaluation of liver, renal, and cardiac function, as well as an evaluation of the skin quality and medication status of the patient. Because of potential cardiac arrhythmias, peeling must be performed in a medically supervised environment, with continuous cardiac monitoring. The local complications of peeling include pigmentation changes, scarring, milia, ectropion, infection, activation of herpes simplex, and toxic shock syndrome.

  11. Skin age testing criteria: characterization of human skin structures by 500 MHz MRI multiple contrast and image processing.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rakesh

    2010-07-21

    Ex vivo magnetic resonance microimaging (MRM) image characteristics are reported in human skin samples in different age groups. Human excised skin samples were imaged using a custom coil placed inside a 500 MHz NMR imager for high-resolution microimaging. Skin MRI images were processed for characterization of different skin structures. Contiguous cross-sectional T1-weighted 3D spin echo MRI, T2-weighted 3D spin echo MRI and proton density images were compared with skin histopathology and NMR peaks. In all skin specimens, epidermis and dermis thickening and hair follicle size were measured using MRM. Optimized parameters TE and TR and multicontrast enhancement generated better MRI visibility of different skin components. Within high MR signal regions near to the custom coil, MRI images with short echo time were comparable with digitized histological sections for skin structures of the epidermis, dermis and hair follicles in 6 (67%) of the nine specimens. Skin % tissue composition, measurement of the epidermis, dermis, sebaceous gland and hair follicle size, and skin NMR peaks were signatures of skin type. The image processing determined the dimensionality of skin tissue components and skin typing. The ex vivo MRI images and histopathology of the skin may be used to measure the skin structure and skin NMR peaks with image processing may be a tool for determining skin typing and skin composition.

  12. Skin age testing criteria: characterization of human skin structures by 500 MHz MRI multiple contrast and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rakesh

    2010-07-01

    Ex vivo magnetic resonance microimaging (MRM) image characteristics are reported in human skin samples in different age groups. Human excised skin samples were imaged using a custom coil placed inside a 500 MHz NMR imager for high-resolution microimaging. Skin MRI images were processed for characterization of different skin structures. Contiguous cross-sectional T1-weighted 3D spin echo MRI, T2-weighted 3D spin echo MRI and proton density images were compared with skin histopathology and NMR peaks. In all skin specimens, epidermis and dermis thickening and hair follicle size were measured using MRM. Optimized parameters TE and TR and multicontrast enhancement generated better MRI visibility of different skin components. Within high MR signal regions near to the custom coil, MRI images with short echo time were comparable with digitized histological sections for skin structures of the epidermis, dermis and hair follicles in 6 (67%) of the nine specimens. Skin % tissue composition, measurement of the epidermis, dermis, sebaceous gland and hair follicle size, and skin NMR peaks were signatures of skin type. The image processing determined the dimensionality of skin tissue components and skin typing. The ex vivo MRI images and histopathology of the skin may be used to measure the skin structure and skin NMR peaks with image processing may be a tool for determining skin typing and skin composition.

  13. Skin fragility in the wild-derived, inbred mouse strain Mus pahari/EiJ.

    PubMed

    Herbert Pratt, C; Potter, Christopher S; Kuiper, Raoul V; Karst, Son Yong; Dadras, Soheil S; Roopenian, Derry C; Sundberg, John P

    2017-02-01

    Mus pahari is a wild-derived, inbred mouse strain. M. pahari colony managers observed fragility of this strain's skin resulting in separation of tail skin from the mouse if handled incorrectly. Tail skin tension testing of M. pahari resulted in significantly lowered force threshold for caudal skin rupture and loss in comparison to closely related inbred mouse species and subspecies and even more than a model for junctional epidermolysis bullosa. Histologically, the tail skin separated at the subdermal level with the dermis firmly attached to the epidermis, excluding the epidermolysis bullosa complex of diseases. The dermal collagen bundles were abnormally thickened and branched. Elastin fiber deposition was focally altered in the dermis adjacent to the hair follicle. Collagens present in the skin could not be differentiated between the species in protein gels following digestion with pepsin. Together these data suggest that M. pahari have altered extracellular matrix development resulting in separation of the skin below the level of the dermis with moderate force similar to the African spiny mouse (Acomys spp.).

  14. An Essential Role for Dermal Primary Cilia in Hair Follicle Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Jonathan; Laag, Essam; Michaud, Edward J.; Yoder, Bradley K.

    2009-01-01

    The primary cilium is a microtubule-based organelle implicated as an essential component of a number of signaling pathways. It is present on cells throughout the mammalian body; however, its functions in most tissues remain largely unknown. Herein we demonstrate that primary cilia are present on cells in murine skin and hair follicles throughout morphogenesis and during hair follicle cycling in postnatal life. Using the Cre-lox system, we disrupted cilia assembly in the ventral dermis and evaluated the effects on hair follicle development. Mice with disrupted dermal cilia have severe hypotrichosis (lack of hair) in affected areas. Histological analyses reveal that most follicles in the mutants arrest at stage 2 of hair development and have small or absent dermal condensates. This phenotype is reminiscent of that seen in the skin of mice lacking Shh or Gli2. In situ hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicates that the hedgehog pathway is downregulated in the dermis of the cilia mutant hair follicles. Thus, these data establish cilia as a critical signaling component required for normal hair morphogenesis and suggest that this organelle is needed on cells in the dermis for reception of signals such as sonic hedgehog. PMID:18987668

  15. Ex vivo multiscale quantitation of skin biomechanics in wild-type and genetically-modified mice using multiphoton microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bancelin, Stéphane; Lynch, Barbara; Bonod-Bidaud, Christelle; Ducourthial, Guillaume; Psilodimitrakopoulos, Sotiris; Dokládal, Petr; Allain, Jean-Marc; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Ruggiero, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Soft connective tissues such as skin, tendon or cornea are made of about 90% of extracellular matrix proteins, fibrillar collagens being the major components. Decreased or aberrant collagen synthesis generally results in defective tissue mechanical properties as the classic form of Elhers-Danlos syndrome (cEDS). This connective tissue disorder is caused by mutations in collagen V genes and is mainly characterized by skin hyperextensibility. To investigate the relationship between the microstructure of normal and diseased skins and their macroscopic mechanical properties, we imaged and quantified the microstructure of dermis of ex vivo murine skin biopsies during uniaxial mechanical assay using multiphoton microscopy. We used two genetically-modified mouse lines for collagen V: a mouse model for cEDS harboring a Col5a2 deletion (a.k.a. pN allele) and the transgenic K14-COL5A1 mice which overexpress the human COL5A1 gene in skin. We showed that in normal skin, the collagen fibers continuously align with stretch, generating the observed increase in mechanical stress. Moreover, dermis from both transgenic lines exhibited altered collagen reorganization upon traction, which could be linked to microstructural modifications. These findings show that our multiscale approach provides new crucial information on the biomechanics of dermis that can be extended to all collagen-rich soft tissues. PMID:26631592

  16. S100a8/NF-κB signal pathway is involved in the 800-nm diode laser-induced skin collagen remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaolin; Ge, Minggai; Qin, Xiaofeng; Xu, Peng; Zhu, Pingya; Dang, Yongyan; Gu, Jun; Ye, Xiyun

    2016-05-01

    The 800-nm diode laser is widely used for hair removal and also promotes collagen synthesis, but the molecular mechanism by which dermis responses to the thermal damage induced by the 800-nm diode laser is still unclear. Ten 2-month-old mice were irradiated with the 800-nm diode laser at 20, 40, and 60 J/cm(2), respectively. Skin samples were taken for PCR, Western blot analysis, and histological study at day 3 or 30 after laser irradiation. The expression of S100a8 and its two receptors (advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptor, RAGE and toll-like receptor 4, TRL4) was upregulated at day 3 after laser treatments. P-p65 levels were also elevated, causing the increase of cytokine (tumor necrosis factor, TNF-α and interleukin 6, IL-6) and MMPs (MMP1a, MMP9). At day 30, PCR and Western blot analysis showed significant increase of type I and III procollagen in the dermis treated with laser. Importantly, skin structure was markedly improved in the laser-irradiated skin compared with the control. Thus, it seemed that S100a8 upregulation triggered NF-κB signal pathway through RAGE and TLR4, responding to laser-induced dermis wound healing. The involvement of the NF-κB pathway in MMP gene transcription promoted the turnover of collagen in the skin, accelerating new collagen synthesis.

  17. Ex vivo multiscale quantitation of skin biomechanics in wild-type and genetically-modified mice using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bancelin, Stéphane; Lynch, Barbara; Bonod-Bidaud, Christelle; Ducourthial, Guillaume; Psilodimitrakopoulos, Sotiris; Dokládal, Petr; Allain, Jean-Marc; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Ruggiero, Florence

    2015-12-01

    Soft connective tissues such as skin, tendon or cornea are made of about 90% of extracellular matrix proteins, fibrillar collagens being the major components. Decreased or aberrant collagen synthesis generally results in defective tissue mechanical properties as the classic form of Elhers-Danlos syndrome (cEDS). This connective tissue disorder is caused by mutations in collagen V genes and is mainly characterized by skin hyperextensibility. To investigate the relationship between the microstructure of normal and diseased skins and their macroscopic mechanical properties, we imaged and quantified the microstructure of dermis of ex vivo murine skin biopsies during uniaxial mechanical assay using multiphoton microscopy. We used two genetically-modified mouse lines for collagen V: a mouse model for cEDS harboring a Col5a2 deletion (a.k.a. pN allele) and the transgenic K14-COL5A1 mice which overexpress the human COL5A1 gene in skin. We showed that in normal skin, the collagen fibers continuously align with stretch, generating the observed increase in mechanical stress. Moreover, dermis from both transgenic lines exhibited altered collagen reorganization upon traction, which could be linked to microstructural modifications. These findings show that our multiscale approach provides new crucial information on the biomechanics of dermis that can be extended to all collagen-rich soft tissues.

  18. Different morphologic formation patterns of dark patches in the black-spotted frog (Pelophylax nigromaculata) and the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans).

    PubMed

    Guangming, Gan; Tao, Zhao; Chao, Li; Moyan, Zhao

    2017-01-01

    The black-spotted frog (Pelophylax nigromaculata) and Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans), two relatively distantly related species, live in different habitats with different adaptive dark patches. To explain the formation of dark patches, the distribution patterns of melanin granules were examined with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Melanin granules were produced and gathered into the "cap" structures on top of the nuclei in most epidermal cells. The "cap" structures may play a role in forming the dorsal dark patches coupled with three-layer melanophores, which can give rise to three layers of interconnected melanin networks in the dorsal dermis in P. nigromaculata. Epidermal melanocytes are rare and do not have a definitive role in forming dorsal dark patches in either P. nigromaculata or B. gargarizans. In B. gargarizans, the dermal melanophores only give rise to a single-layered melanin network, which hardly results in dark patches in the dorsal skin. However, the dermal melanophores migrate twice and form into pseudostratified networks, leading to dark patch formation in the ventral skin in B. gargarizans. The melanin granules precisely coregulate dark patches in the dermis and/or epidermis in P. nigromaculata and B. gargarizans. The dark patch formation depends on melanin granules in the epidermis or/and dermis in P. nigromaculata and B. gargarizans.

  19. Histomorphological Evaluation of Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Plantar Soft Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yak-Nam; Lee, Kara; Ledoux, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetic foot ulceration has a complex and multi-factorial etiology and can involve changes in the pathophysiology of the plantar soft tissue. In the current study, histomorphological analyses of diabetic and non-diabetic plantar tissue were performed. It was hypothesized that the diabetic tissue would have thicker skin (epidermis and dermis), less interdigitation between the dermis and epidermis, thicker elastic septa and decreased adipose cell size. Materials and Methods Two locations of the foot (the heel and the first metatarsal) were examined, both of which have been reported to be locations with a high incidence of ulceration. Stereological methods and quantitative morphological techniques were used to evaluate the skin thickness, interdigitation index, elastic septae thickness and adipocyte cell size. Results The diabetic donors had a greater body mass index (BMI) than the non-diabetic donors. The diabetic tissue had significantly thicker elastic septae and dermis. However, no significant difference was observed in the interdigitation index or adipocyte size. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that morphological changes can be evaluated histologically to give a better understanding of the pathological changes in the plantar soft tissue with diabetes. These evaluations can then be associated with biomechanical changes that occur in diabetes to provide new insight into how microstructural changes can alter macroscopic properties. Clinical Relevance An understanding of the histomorphological changes in the soft tissue in relationship to the location on the foot could help to explain the biomechanical changes that occur in diabetes and the subsequent increase in susceptibility to breakdown. PMID:22049867

  20. CenoDerm vs. Fascia lata for the Prevention of Dorsal Nasal Irregularities in Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Mohebbi, Alireza; Hamidian, Roghayeh; Poosti, Seyed-Behzad; Hosseini, Seyedeh-Simindokht

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Dorsal nasal irregularity is a complication of rhinoplasty surgery, mostly seen in patients with thin skin. Acellular dermis (CenoDerm) and homologous fascia lata covering the nasal bone cartilage structure have been used to achieve a smooth surface. In this study, we aimed to investigate clinical outcomes using these two materials. Materials and Methods: After a standard rhinoplasty procedure, a layer of the acellular dermis or homologous fascia lata was placed in the pocket of the dorsum. Patients were evaluated for clinical outcomes at 3, 6, and 12 months after the procedure. Results: Forty-two of 68 patients completed the follow-up period. Patient satisfaction was higher in the homologous fascia lata group. Similarly, nasal dorsum inspection and palpation results were better in the homologous fascia lata group compared with the CenoDerm group but was significant in palpation (P=0.00). There was no complete absorption in the homologous fascia lata group 6 months after surgery (P= 0.04 vs. CenoDerm) but no significant difference was observed at 12 months. Conclusion: Homologous fascia lata is better than acellular dermis in preventing dorsal nasal irregularity after rhinoplasty in thin-skinned patients. PMID:27602334

  1. Evaluation of the hazard from exposure to electron irradiation simulating that in the synchronous orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lippincott, S. W.; Foelsche, T.; Montour, J. L.; Bender, R.; Wilson, I. J.

    1972-01-01

    The electron spectrum predicted for the synchronous orbit was simulated to determine the effects that might occur to astroscientists exposed to such irradiation while on a prolonged space station mission in that region. Miniature pigs were exposed to monoenergetic and spectral-fractionated irradiations with 0.5 to 2.1 MeV electrons. Clinical and pathological alterations observed in biopsies were correlated with depth-dose pattern and length of post irradiation period up to one year. With monoenergetic electrons, the lowest dose causing a recognizable lesion was 1450 rad and with increasing dose lesions appeared earlier and were more severe. At the highest dose given, 2650 rad, ulceration extending into the dermis was present by twenty one days and required about four months for complete healing. Spectral-fractionated irradiations, in which the total dose range was essentially comparable to that of the monoenergetic series, resulted in very minimal outer dermis edema at 1790 rad and at no dose employed did necrosis of epidermis or ulceration into dermis occur.

  2. Influence of skin tissue properties on the radial reference point for glucose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yue; Xu, Kexin; Ding, Lijun; Shi, Zhenzhi; Chen, Wenliang

    2009-02-01

    A reference position where the diffuse reflectance light intensity is insensitive to the variation of glucose concentration exists in the radial detection space for glucose measurement in the scattering medium such as skin. The signal measured in this position could be used as an inside reference to evaluate the influence on spectrum caused by other interferential factors. The relationship between the position of radial reference point and the skin tissue property is studied in this paper. Three-layer skin models with different optical parameters are designed to get sample sets at 1200~1700nm. In these sets, μa, μs and g of dermis varies respectively, so does the depth of epidermis or dermis. The distribution rule of dispersion of diffuse reflectance light intensity in the radial space is confirmed with the glucose concentration changes. And the distribution property of the radial reference position in every sample set is obtained through Monte Carlo simulation. The result shows that the distance of radial reference position from light source is insensitive to the variation of absorption coefficient or the depth of dermis, but an increased scattering coefficient will shorten the distance; an increased anisotropy coefficient or depth of epidermis will lengthen it. On the basis of that, the optical probes with different structures are designed according to the skin tissue properties. So they could be used for the measurement of corresponding patients, which enhances the practicability of floating reference method greatly.

  3. Preventive effect of dietary astaxanthin on UVA-induced skin photoaging in hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Toshiyuki; Sasaki, Suguru; Manabe, Yuki; Hirata, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Astaxanthin, a carotenoid found mainly in seafood, has potential clinical applications due to its antioxidant activity. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dietary astaxanthin derived from Haematococcus pluvialis on skin photoaging in UVA-irradiated hairless mice by assessing various parameters of photoaging. After chronic ultraviolet A (UVA) exposure, a significant increase in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and wrinkle formation in the dorsal skin caused by UVA was observed, and dietary astaxanthin significantly suppressed these photoaging features. We found that the mRNA expression of lympho-epithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor, steroid sulfatase, and aquaporin 3 in the epidermis was significantly increased by UVA irradiation for 70 days, and dietary astaxanthin significantly suppressed these increases in mRNA expression to be comparable to control levels. In the dermis, the mRNA expression of matrix metalloprotease 13 was increased by UVA irradiation and significantly suppressed by dietary astaxanthin. In addition, HPLC-PDA analysis confirmed that dietary astaxanthin reached not only the dermis but also the epidermis. Our results indicate that dietary astaxanthin accumulates in the skin and appears to prevent the effects of UVA irradiation on filaggrin metabolism and desquamation in the epidermis and the extracellular matrix in the dermis. PMID:28170435

  4. A Comparison of Conventional Collagen Sponge and Collagen-Gelatin Sponge in Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Jinno, Chizuru; Morimoto, Naoki; Ito, Ran; Sakamoto, Michiharu; Ogino, Shuichi; Taira, Tsuguyoshi; Suzuki, Shigehiko

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the collagen-gelatin sponge (CGS) with that of the collagen sponge (CS) in dermis-like tissue regeneration. CGS, which achieves the sustained release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), is a promising material in wound healing. In the present study, we evaluated and compared CGSs and conventional CSs. We prepared 8 mm full-thickness skin defects on the backs of rats. Either CGSs or CSs were impregnated with normal saline solution (NSS) or 7 μg/cm2 of bFGF solution and implanted into the defects. At 1 and 2 weeks after implantation, tissue specimens were obtained from the rats of each group (n = 3, total n = 24). The wound area, neoepithelial length, dermis-like tissue area, and the number and area of capillaries were evaluated at 1 and 2 weeks after implantation. There were no significant differences in the CGS without bFGF and CS groups. Significant improvements were observed in the neoepithelial length, the dermis-like tissue area, and the number of newly formed capillaries in the group of rats that received CGSs impregnated with bFGF. The effects on epithelialization, granulation, and vascularization of wound healing demonstrated that, as a scaffold, CGSs are equal or superior to conventional CSs. PMID:27218103

  5. Modelling millimetre wave propagation and absorption in a high resolution skin model: the effect of sweat glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafirstein, Gal; Moros, Eduardo G.

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential effect of sweat gland ducts (SGD) on specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature distributions during mm-wave irradiation. High resolution electromagnetic and bio-heat transfer models of human skin with SGD were developed using a commercially available simulation software package (SEMCAD X™). The skin model consisted of a 30 µm stratum corneum, 350 µm epidermis and papillary dermis (EPD) and 1000 µm dermis. Five SGD of 60 µm radius and 300 µm height were embedded linearly with 370 µm separation. A WR-10 waveguide positioned 20 µm from the skin surface and delivering 94 GHz electromagnetic radiation was included in the model. Saline conductivity was assigned inside SGD. SAR and temperatures were computed with and without SGD. Despite their small scale, SAR was significantly higher within SGD than in the EPD without SGD. Without SGD, SAR and temperature maxima were in the dermis near EPD. With SGD, SAR maximum was inside SGD while temperature maximum moved to the EPD/stratum-corneum junction. Since the EPD participates actively in perception, the effect of SGD should be taken into account in nociceptive studies involving mm-waves. This research represents a significant step towards higher spatial resolution numerical modelling of the skin and shows that microstructures can play a significant role in mm-wave absorption and induced temperature distributions.

  6. Hyperspectral imaging for dermal hemoglobin spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, Peter J.; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    1999-10-01

    It has been shown previously that images collected at selected wavelengths in a sufficiently narrow bandwidth can be used to produce maps of the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in the dermis. A four-wavelength algorithm has been developed based on a two-layer model of the skin, in which the blood is contained in the lower layer (dermis), while the upper layer attenuates some of the reflection and adds a clutter term. In the present work, the algorithm is compared analytically to simpler algorithms using three wavelengths and based on a single-layer model. It is shown through Monte-Carlo models that, for typical skin, the single-layer model is adequate to analyze data from fiber-optical reflectance spectroscopy, but the two-layer model produces better results for imaging systems. Although the model does not address the full complexity of reflectance of a two-layer skin, it has proven to be sufficient to recover the oxygen saturation, and perhaps other medically relevant information. The algorithm is demonstrated on a suction blister, where the epidermis is removed to reveal the underlying dermis. Applications for this imaging modality exist in dermatology, in surgery, and in developing treatment plans for various diseases.

  7. In vitro activation of the neuro-transduction mechanism in sensitive organotypic human skin model.

    PubMed

    Martorina, Francesca; Casale, Costantino; Urciuolo, Francesco; Netti, Paolo A; Imparato, Giorgia

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in tissue engineering have encouraged researchers to endeavor the production of fully functional three-dimensional (3D) thick human tissues in vitro. Here, we report the fabrication of a fully innervated human skin tissue in vitro that recapitulates and replicates skin sensory function. Previous attempts to innervate in vitro 3D skin models did not demonstrate an effective functionality of the nerve network. In our approach, we initially engineer functional human skin tissue based on fibroblast-generated dermis and differentiated epidermis; then, we promote rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons axon ingrowth in the de-novo developed tissue. Neurofilaments network infiltrates the entire native dermis extracellular matrix (ECM), as demonstrated by immunofluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging. To prove sensing functionality of the tissue, we use topical applications of capsaicin, an agonist of transient receptor protein-vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel, and quantify calcium currents resulting from variations of Ca(++) concentration in DRG neurons innervating our model. Calcium currents generation demonstrates functional cross-talking between dermis and epidermis compartments. Moreover, through a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis, we set fluid dynamic conditions for a non-planar skin equivalent growth, as proof of potential application in creating skin grafts tailored on-demand for in vivo wound shape.

  8. In vivo assessment of optical properties of basal cell carcinoma and differentiation of BCC subtypes by high-definition optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Boone, Marc; Suppa, Mariano; Miyamoto, Makiko; Marneffe, Alice; Jemec, Gregor; Del Marmol, Veronique

    2016-06-01

    High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) features of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) have recently been defined. We assessed in vivo optical properties (IV-OP) of BCC, by HD-OCT. Moreover their critical values for BCC subtype differentiation were determined. The technique of semi-log plot whereby an exponential function becomes linear has been implemented on HD-OCT signals. The relative attenuation factor (µraf ) at different skin layers could be assessed.. IV-OP of superficial BCC with high diagnostic accuracy (DA) and high negative predictive values (NPV) were (i) decreased µraf in lower part of epidermis and (ii) increased epidermal thickness (E-T). IV-OP of nodular BCC with good to high DA and NPV were (i) less negative µraf in papillary dermis compared to normal adjacent skin and (ii) significantly decreased E-T and papillary dermal thickness (PD-T). In infiltrative BCC (i) high µraf in reticular dermis compared to normal adjacent skin and (ii) presence of peaks and falls in reticular dermis had good DA and high NPV. HD-OCT seems to enable the combination of in vivo morphological analysis of cellular and 3-D micro-architectural structures with IV-OP analysis of BCC. This permits BCC sub-differentiation with higher accuracy than in vivo HD-OCT analysis of morphology alone.

  9. Linear Lumbar Localized Lysis of Elastic Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Tschen, Jaime A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The absence or loss of elastic fibers in the skin is referred to as dermal elastolysis. Purpose: This paper describes a woman with a distinctive clinical presentation of mid-dermal elastolysis characterized morphologically by multiple horizontal raised bands on the lower back. Methods: A 20-year-old Filipino woman presented with multiple asymptomatic, flesh-colored, raised, firm, linear, cord-like bands on the lumbar area of her back. There were neither similar lesions elsewhere nor a family member with this condition. Results: Microscopic examination of the raised band showed nearly complete absence of elastic fibers in the mid dermis. In contrast, a biopsy of symmetrically located normal-appearing skin showed a uniform distribution of elastic fibers throughout the dermis. Linear lumbar localized elastolysis is a descriptive designation that accurately reflects a correlation of the clinical and pathological changes of this condition. Conclusion: The clinical differential of raised horizontal cord-like bands on the lower back (without a family history of an inherited elastic fiber disorder, a prior history of trauma, or a significant change in weight or exercise habit) includes linear focal elastosis and linear lumbar localized elastolysis. Microscopic evaluation of a Verhoeff-van Gieson stained lesion specimen (which may be accompanied by a biopsy of normal-appearing skin for comparison) will readily differentiate these conditions. The former is usually characterized by increased elastic fibers, whereas the latter, as in this patient, shows a paucity or absence of elastic fibers in the mid dermis. PMID:23882313

  10. Quantification of aortic and cutaneous elastin and collagen morphology in Marfan syndrome by multiphoton microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jason Z; Tehrani, Arash Y; Jett, Kimberly A; Bernatchez, Pascal; van Breemen, Cornelis; Esfandiarei, Mitra

    2014-09-01

    In a mouse model of Marfan syndrome, conventional Verhoeff-Van Gieson staining displays severe fragmentation, disorganization and loss of the aortic elastic fiber integrity. However, this method involves chemical fixatives and staining, which may alter the native morphology of elastin and collagen. Thus far, quantitative analysis of fiber damage in aorta and skin in Marfan syndrome has not yet been explored. In this study, we have used an advanced noninvasive and label-free imaging technique, multiphoton microscopy to quantify fiber fragmentation, disorganization, and total volumetric density of aortic and cutaneous elastin and collagen in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome. Aorta and skin samples were harvested from Marfan and control mice aged 3-, 6- and 9-month. Elastin and collagen were identified based on two-photon excitation fluorescence and second-harmonic-generation signals, respectively, without exogenous label. Measurement of fiber length indicated significant fragmentation in Marfan vs. control. Fast Fourier transform algorithm analysis demonstrated markedly lower fiber organization in Marfan mice. Significantly reduced volumetric density of elastin and collagen and thinner skin dermis were observed in Marfan mice. Cutaneous content of elastic fibers and thickness of dermis in 3-month Marfan resembled those in the oldest control mice. Our findings of early signs of fiber degradation and thinning of skin dermis support the potential development of a novel non-invasive approach for early diagnosis of Marfan syndrome.

  11. Treatment of port-wine stains: analysis

    SciTech Connect

    van Gemert, M.J.; Welch, A.J.

    1987-08-01

    Port-wine stains (PWS) are bluish red skin stains that are caused by enlarged, ectatic blood vessels in the dermis. Laser treatment of PWS is analyzed from computation of the spatial distribution of heat production by direct absorption of the laser light and subsequent heat conduction. The absorption and scattering caused by oxyhemoglobin, epidermis, and dermis as a function of wavelength are utilized in this analysis. Ideal treatment is defined as coagulating the ectatic blood vessels without irreversible damage to the epidermis and dermis. The analysis shows that a millisecond pulsed, yellow dye laser at 577 nm (one of the large absorption bands in blood) is the laser of choice to treat PWS, offering as close to the ''ideal treatment'' as possible. The blue-green argon laser, which is currently the most frequently used laser for this purpose, is strongly recommended with irradiation times in milliseconds. Other lasers that are in clinical use, such as the red ruby and near-infrared Nd-YAG lasers, can provide selective treatment only when the epidermis is cooled concurrently. The CO/sub 2/ laser, on the other hand, can coagulate the blood vessels only through heat conduction from the hot epidermis; hence, it has neither the treatment selectivity nor any other physical option to force this selectivity.

  12. PIXE analysis in different stages of psoriatic skin

    SciTech Connect

    Kurz, K.; Steigleder, G.K.; Bischof, W.; Gonsior, B.

    1987-02-01

    Elemental distribution in psoriatic skin varies with the functional state of the keratinocytes, e.g., electrolytes influence cell metabolism and cell proliferation, and trace elements play a crucial role in a great number of enzymes. Elemental distribution in pinpoint lesions, old plaques, and uninvolved skin of 5 psoriatic patients and 4 healthy controls was studied by means of PIXE (proton-induced x-ray emission) analysis. This technique allows the simultaneous detection of elements with an atomic number greater than or equal to 14 along the epidermis and dermis in freeze-dried skin biopsies. Trace elements such as Fe, Cu, and Zn were determined down to a level of 1 ppm. In comparison with uninvolved skin, concentrations of P and K were elevated in psoriatic epidermis. In addition, increased levels of K were correlated with the stage of the psoriatic lesion. Zinc concentrations were significantly elevated in pinpoint lesions. The Zn concentration profiles within the epidermis and upper dermis showed high correlation to the P concentration profiles. Iron levels were decreased in old psoriatic plaques, whereas Cu concentrations varied considerably. In comparison to the controls, Cl concentrations were markedly decreased in the dermis of involved and uninvolved psoriatic skin, whereas epidermal Cl levels were unaffected. As high K levels prevent the Ca-induced differentiation of keratinocytes, high K levels may be the cause of the high cell differentiation in psoriatic skin. Elevated DNA- and RNA-polymerases might be the cause of elevated Zn levels in pinpoint lesions.

  13. In-vivo optical investigation of psoriasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapsokalyvas, Dimitrios; Cicchi, Riccardo; Bruscino, Nicola; Alfieri, Domenico; Massi, Daniela; Lotti, Torello; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2011-03-01

    Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease of the skin characterized by hyperkeratosis, hyperproliferation of the epidermis, inflammatory cell accumulation and increased dilatation of dermal papillary blood vessels. Cases of psoriasis were investigated in vivo with optical means in order to evaluate the potential of in vivo optical biopsy. A Polarization Multispectral Dermoscope was employed for the macroscopic observation. Features such as the 'dotted' blood vessels pattern was observed with high contrast. The average size of dot vessels in Psoriasis was measured to be 974 μm2 which is much higher compared to healthy skin. High resolution image sections of the epidermis and the dermis were produced with a custom made Multiphoton Microscope. Imaging extended from the surface of the lesion down to the papillary dermis, at a depth of 200 μm. In the epidermis, a characteristic morphology of the stratum corneum found only in Psoriasis was revealed. Additionally, the cytoplasmic area of the cells in the stratum spinosum layer was found to be smaller than normal. In the dermis the morphological features were more pronounced, where the elongated dermal papillae dominated the papillary layer. Their length exceeds 100μm, which is a far greater value compared to that of healthy skin. These in vivo observations are consistent with the ex vivo histopathological observations, supporting both the applicability and potentiality of multispectral dermoscopy and multiphoton microscopy in the field of in vivo optical investigation and biopsy of skin.

  14. In-vivo morphologic and spectroscopic investigation of Psoriasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapsokalyvas, Dimitrios; Cicchi, Riccardo; Bruscino, Nicola; Alfieri, Domenico; Massi, Daniela; Lotti, Torello; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2011-07-01

    Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease of the skin characterized by hyperkeratosis, hyperproliferation of the epidermis, inflammatory cell accumulation and increased dilatation of dermal papillary blood vessels. Cases of psoriasis were investigated in vivo with optical means in order to evaluate the potential of in vivo optical biopsy. A Polarization Multispectral Dermoscope was employed for the macroscopic observation. Features such as the 'dotted' blood vessels pattern was observed with high contrast. High resolution image sections of the epidermis and the dermis were produced with a custom made Multiphoton Microscope. Imaging extended from the surface of the lesion down to the papillary dermis, at a depth of 200 μm. In the epidermis, a characteristic morphology of the stratum corneum found only in Psoriasis was revealed. Additionally, the cytoplasmic area of the cells in the stratum spinosum layer was found to be smaller than normal. In the dermis the morphological features were more pronounced, where the elongated dermal papillae dominated the papillary layer. Their length exceeds 100μm, which is a far greater value compared to that of healthy skin. These in vivo observations are consistent with the ex vivo histopathological observations, supporting both the applicability and potentiality of multispectral dermoscopy and multiphoton microscopy in the field of in vivo optical investigation and biopsy of skin.

  15. Do geese fully develop brood patches? A histological analysis of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and Ross's geese (C. rossii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.; Homberger, D.G.; Henk, W.G.; Alisauskas, R.T.

    2006-01-01

    Most birds develop brood patches before incubation; epidermis and dermis in the brood patch region thicken, and the dermal connective tissue becomes increasingly vascularized and infiltrated by leukocytes. However, current dogma states that waterfowl incubate without modifications of skin within the brood patch region. The incubation periods of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter called snow geese) and Ross's geese (C. rossii) are 2-6 days shorter than those of other goose species; only females incubate. Thus, we hypothesized that such short incubation periods would require fully developed brood patches for sufficient heat transfer from incubating parents to eggs. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the skin histology of abdominal regions of snow and Ross's geese collected at Karrak Lake, Nunavut, Canada. For female snow geese, we found that epidermis and dermis had thickened and vascularization of dermis was 14 times greater, on average, than that observed in males (n=5 pairs). Our results for Ross's geese (n=5 pairs) were more variable, wherein only one of five female Ross's geese fully developed a brood patch. Our results are consistent with three hypotheses about brood patch development and its relationship with different energetic cost-benefit relationships, resulting from differences in embryonic development and body size. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  16. Effects of chronic low-dose ultraviolet B radiation on DNA damage and repair in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, D L; Greinert, R; de Gruijl, F R; Guikers, K L; Breitbart, E W; Byrom, M; Gallmeier, M M; Lowery, M G; Volkmer, B

    1999-06-15

    Chronic exposure to sunlight causes skin cancer in humans, yet little is known about how habitual exposure to low doses of ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) affects DNA damage in the skin. We treated Skh-1 hairless mice with daily doses of suberythemal UVB for 40 days and analyzed the amount and distribution of DNA photodamage using RIAs and immunofluorescence micrography. We found that DNA damage accumulated in mouse skin as a result of chronic irradiation and that this damage persisted in the dermis and epidermis for several weeks after the chronic treatment was terminated. Although the persistent damage was evenly distributed throughout the dermis, it remained in the epidermis as a small number of heavily damaged cells at the dermal-epidermal boundary. Rates of DNA damage induction and repair were determined at different times over the course of chronic treatment in response to a higher challenge dose of UVB light. The amount of damage induced by the challenge dose increased in response to chronic exposure, and excision repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone dimers was significantly reduced. The sensitization of mouse epidermal DNA to photoproduct induction, the reduction in excision repair, and the accumulation of nonrepairable DNA damage in the dermis and epidermis suggest that chronic low-dose exposure to sunlight may significantly enhance the predisposition of mammalian skin to sunlight-induced carcinogenesis.

  17. [Study on the best detector-distance of noninvasive biochemical examination by Monte Carlo simulation].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan-Fei; Lu, Qi-Peng; Ding, Hai-Quan; Gao, Hong-Zhi

    2014-04-01

    The present paper studies the best detector-distance to improve the near-infrared spectrum signal intensity of the dermis layer and eliminate the interference of the epidermis and subcutaneous layer. First, we analyzed the organizational structure of the skin and calculated the tissue optical parameters of different layers. And we established the Monte Carlo model with the example of glucose absorption peak at 2 270 nm. Then, we used the Monte Carlo method to simulate the light transmission rules in the skin, obtaining the average path length, the average visit depth and the fractions of absorbed energy at each layer with the change in critical angle and detector-distance. The results show that when the photons are incident at an angle less than 45 degrees, you can ignore the effect of the incident angle on photon transmission path, and when the detector-distance is 1 mm, the fraction of absorbed photon energy by the dermis layer is the largest, while it can ensure more energy received by detector. We determined that the best detector-distance is 1mm, which successfully avoids the interference of the epidermis spectral information and obtains large amounts of blood in the dermis layer, which is conducive to the near-infrared non-invasive measurement of biochemical components and the subsequent experiments.

  18. Millimeter wave dosimetry of human skin.

    PubMed

    Alekseev, S I; Radzievsky, A A; Logani, M K; Ziskin, M C

    2008-01-01

    To identify the mechanisms of biological effects of mm waves it is important to develop accurate methods for evaluating absorption and penetration depth of mm waves in the epidermis and dermis. The main characteristics of mm wave skin dosimetry were calculated using a homogeneous unilayer model and two multilayer models of skin. These characteristics included reflection, power density (PD), penetration depth (delta), and specific absorption rate (SAR). The parameters of the models were found from fitting the models to the experimental data obtained from measurements of mm wave reflection from human skin. The forearm and palm data were used to model the skin with thin and thick stratum corneum (SC), respectively. The thin SC produced little influence on the interaction of mm waves with skin. On the contrary, the thick SC in the palm played the role of a matching layer and significantly reduced reflection. In addition, the palmar skin manifested a broad peak in reflection within the 83-277 GHz range. The viable epidermis plus dermis, containing a large amount of free water, greatly attenuated mm wave energy. Therefore, the deeper fat layer had little effect on the PD and SAR profiles. We observed the appearance of a moderate SAR peak in the therapeutic frequency range (42-62 GHz) within the skin at a depth of 0.3-0.4 mm. Millimeter waves penetrate into the human skin deep enough (delta = 0.65 mm at 42 GHz) to affect most skin structures located in the epidermis and dermis.

  19. Histology and Ultrastructure of Transitional Changes in Skin Morphology in the Juvenile and Adult Four-Striped Mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio)

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Eranée; Ajao, Moyosore Salihu

    2013-01-01

    The four-striped mouse has a grey to brown coloured coat with four characteristic dark stripes interspersed with three lighter stripes running along its back. The histological differences in the skin of the juvenile and adult mouse were investigated by Haematoxylin and Eosin and Masson Trichrome staining, while melanocytes in the skin were studied through melanin-specific Ferro-ferricyanide staining. The ultrastructure of the juvenile skin, hair follicles, and melanocytes was also explored. In both the juvenile and adult four-striped mouse, pigment-containing cells were observed in the dermis and were homogeneously dispersed throughout this layer. Apart from these cells, the histology of the skin of the adult four-striped mouse was similar to normal mammalian skin. In the juvenile four-striped mouse, abundant hair follicles of varying sizes were observed in the dermis and hypodermis, while hair follicles of similar size were only present in the dermis of adult four-striped mouse. Ultrastructural analysis of juvenile hair follicles revealed that the arrangement and differentiation of cellular layers were typical of a mammal. This study therefore provides unique transition pattern in the four-striped mouse skin morphology different from the textbook description of the normal mammalian skin. PMID:24288469

  20. Histology and ultrastructure of transitional changes in skin morphology in the juvenile and adult four-striped mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio).

    PubMed

    Stewart, Eranée; Ajao, Moyosore Salihu; Ihunwo, Amadi Ogonda

    2013-01-01

    The four-striped mouse has a grey to brown coloured coat with four characteristic dark stripes interspersed with three lighter stripes running along its back. The histological differences in the skin of the juvenile and adult mouse were investigated by Haematoxylin and Eosin and Masson Trichrome staining, while melanocytes in the skin were studied through melanin-specific Ferro-ferricyanide staining. The ultrastructure of the juvenile skin, hair follicles, and melanocytes was also explored. In both the juvenile and adult four-striped mouse, pigment-containing cells were observed in the dermis and were homogeneously dispersed throughout this layer. Apart from these cells, the histology of the skin of the adult four-striped mouse was similar to normal mammalian skin. In the juvenile four-striped mouse, abundant hair follicles of varying sizes were observed in the dermis and hypodermis, while hair follicles of similar size were only present in the dermis of adult four-striped mouse. Ultrastructural analysis of juvenile hair follicles revealed that the arrangement and differentiation of cellular layers were typical of a mammal. This study therefore provides unique transition pattern in the four-striped mouse skin morphology different from the textbook description of the normal mammalian skin.

  1. Do geese fully develop brood patches? A histological analysis of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and Ross's geese (C. rossii).

    PubMed

    Jónsson, Jón Einar; Afton, Alan D; Homberger, Dominique G; Henk, William G; Alisauskas, Ray T

    2006-06-01

    Most birds develop brood patches before incubation; epidermis and dermis in the brood patch region thicken, and the dermal connective tissue becomes increasingly vascularized and infiltrated by leukocytes. However, current dogma states that waterfowl incubate without modifications of skin within the brood patch region. The incubation periods of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter called snow geese) and Ross's geese (C. rossii) are 2-6 days shorter than those of other goose species; only females incubate. Thus, we hypothesized that such short incubation periods would require fully developed brood patches for sufficient heat transfer from incubating parents to eggs. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the skin histology of abdominal regions of snow and Ross's geese collected at Karrak Lake, Nunavut, Canada. For female snow geese, we found that epidermis and dermis had thickened and vascularization of dermis was 14 times greater, on average, than that observed in males (n=5 pairs). Our results for Ross's geese (n=5 pairs) were more variable, wherein only one of five female Ross's geese fully developed a brood patch. Our results are consistent with three hypotheses about brood patch development and its relationship with different energetic cost-benefit relationships, resulting from differences in embryonic development and body size.

  2. Comparative study of dermal components and plasma TGF-β1 levels in Slc39a13/Zip13-KO mice

    PubMed Central

    HIROSE, Takuya; OGURA, Takayuki; TANAKA, Keisuke; MINAGUCHI, Jun; YAMAUCHI, Takeshi; FUKADA, Toshiyuki; KOYAMA, Yoh-ichi; TAKEHANA, Kazushige

    2015-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a group of disorders caused by abnormalities that are identified in the extracellular matrix. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays a crucial role in formation of the extracellular matrix. It has been reported that the loss of function of zinc transporter ZRT/IRT-like protein 13 (ZIP13) causes the spondylocheiro dysplastic form of EDS (SCD-EDS: OMIM 612350), in which dysregulation of the TGF-β1 signaling pathway is observed, although the relationship between the dermis abnormalities and peripheral TGF-β1 level has been unclear. We investigated the characteristics of the dermis of the Zip13-knockout (KO) mouse, an animal model for SCD-EDS. Both the ratio of dermatan sulfate (DS) in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) components and the amount of collagen were decreased, and there were very few collagen fibrils with diameters of more than 150 nm in Zip13-KO mice dermis. We also found that the TGF-β1 level was significantly higher in Zip13-KO mice serum. These results suggest that collagen synthesis and collagen fibril fusion might be impaired in Zip13-KO mice and that the possible decrease of decorin level by reduction of the DS ratio probably caused an increase of free TGF-β1 in Zip13-KO mice. In conclusion, skin fragility due to defective ZIP13 protein may be attributable to impaired extracellular matrix synthesis accompanied by abnormal peripheral TGF-β homeostasis. PMID:26050750

  3. A study of the solar effect on actinic keratoses by quantification of elastic fibres using an image analysis system.

    PubMed

    Cho, C G; Jo, H Y; Choi, H C; Kim, I H; Song, H J; Oh, C H

    1999-07-01

    It is widely accepted that elastotic changes of the skin are primarily an indicator of cumulative sun exposure of the dermis and are a characteristic finding of actinic keratoses. To date, there have been few reports that measure the amount of elastic tissue objectively and quantitatively, especially in actinic keratoses. The computerized image analysis method has proved useful recently in determining the area of elastic fibres. Using this method, we objectively quantified the elastotic tissue in actinic keratoses and evaluated the relationship between the degree of dermal elastosis, epidermal atypia and histological types of actinic keratoses. Of the 28 actinic keratoses studied, the average percentage area of the elastic fibre was 40.48 +/- 14.48 (mean +/- SD) percentile. There was a 3.65-fold increase in the amount of elastic fibre in actinic keratoses compared with that of seborrhoeic keratoses occurring on the face (p < 0.00001). In addition, the more severe the atypia, the greater the area of elastic fibres in a representative section of the dermis. In conclusion, we observed that on quantitative assessment of elastic tissue in actinic keratoses, the percentage area of the elastic fibres in a representative section of the dermis ranges from 34.86 to 46.11%. This result may provide information for use in histological diagnosis of actinic keratoses and evidence for the possible role of sunlight in the pathogenesis of actinic keratosis.

  4. Nanoencapsulation of Clobetasol Propionate Decreases Its Penetration to Skin Layers Without Changing Its Relative Skin Distribution.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Diego Fontana; Fontana, Márcia Camponogara; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Guterres, Silvia Stanisçuaski; Carlos, Ruy; Beck, Ruver

    2015-01-01

    An immunosuppressive effect with drug release control and higher NTPDase activity in the treatment of contact dermatitis was previously reported for a hydrogel containing 0.05% clobetasol propionate-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (HG-LNC-CP) compared to a hydrogel containing the non-encapsulated drug (HG-CP). In order to investigate the factors underlying this different performance, we evaluated the in vitro skin permeation/penetration of CP from both formulations (HG-LNC-CP and HG-CP). CP did not permeate to the receptor medium during the experiment (24 h), but penetrated into the stratum corneum and viable skin (epidermis and dermis) in significant amounts after 24 h, regardless the type of the formulation. Comparing both formulations, although the relative amount of CP in each skin layer was not affected by the nanoencapsulation, HG-LNC-CP was able to reduce in 5.8, 6.9 and 3.7 times the amount of CP released into the stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis respectively. In this way, the higher effect of HG-LNC-CP previously observed could be due to the controlled drug penetration rate into the skin layers. Moreover, HG-LNC-CP reduces the chances of the corticosteroid to be absorbed systemically as the amount of CP reaching the dermis was reduced. The study reinforces the HG-LNC-CP as a promising dermatological nanomedicine for the treatment of skin disorders.

  5. Secondary Cutaneous Amyloidosis in a Patient with Mycosis Fungoides

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Chan Hee; Park, Min Kee; Choi, Mi Soo; Hong, Seung Phil; Park, Byung Cheol

    2017-01-01

    Secondary cutaneous amyloidosis refers to clinically unapparent amyloid deposits within the skin in association with a pre-existing skin condition or skin tumors, such as basal cell carcinoma, porokeratosis, solar elastosis, Bowen's disease, and mycosis fungoides. A 70-year-old woman presented with a 6-month history of asymptomatic multiple yellowish plaques on both legs. She had been diagnosed with mycosis fungoides 7 years ago and was treated with psoralen and ultraviolet A radiation (PUVA) therapy, narrow-band ultraviolet B (UVB) therapy, and acitretin for 5 years. Finally, she reached complete remission of mycosis fungoides. However, new yellowish lesions started to appear 1 year after discontinuing the phototherapy. A physical examination revealed multiple yellowish plaques on both extremities. The plaques were well circumscribed and slightly elevated. All laboratory tests were normal. A biopsy specimen showed multiple nodular deposits of eosinophilic amorphous material in papillary dermis and upper reticular dermis. The deposits represented apple green birefringence on Congo red stain viewed under polarized light. Acellular small nodules in the upper dermis consisted of randomly oriented, non-branching, 6.67~12.7 nm thick amyloid fibrils on electron microscopy. We report an interesting and rare case of secondary cutaneous amyloidosis after narrow-band UVB therapy and PUVA therapy in a patient with mycosis fungoides. PMID:28223751

  6. The process of ageing reflected by histological changes in the skin.

    PubMed

    Bonta, Marinela; Daina, Lucia; Muţiu, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Structural and functional alterations, as well as changes occurring in the aspect of the skin during the ageing process, are due to some complex mechanisms, determined by intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which act synergistically. This study aims to analyze the histological changes of collagen and elastic fibers and of skin vasculature that occur in time, during the process of ageing. Fragments of skin have been collected from subjects of both sexes and of different ages, totaling 121 samples from different body regions. The following stains were used: Modified Goldner's Masson trichrome, Ferric Orcein-Hematoxylin and the combined stains Orcein-Goldner's trichrome. As the process of ageing advances, collagen fibers become thinner and change their aspect; at advanced age, the lysis of collagen fibers and their thickening in the deep dermis is present, as they become more fibrous. Elastic fibers show the tendency of fragmentation at more advanced age, gradually change their tinctorial affinity and reduce in amount; in the deep dermis, they tend to thicken progressively, in the presence of discrete elastolysis processes that evolve steadily and irreversibly. Thus, processes of elastic fibers degeneration and lysis run faster by comparison with those of collagen fibers degeneration. With ageing, a progressive reduction of dermis vasculature is present, due to a reduction in the number and size of vascular vessels, which is in its turn associated with the progressive alterations of vascular walls components, changes that advance until the function of the vessel ceases.

  7. Secondary Cutaneous Amyloidosis in a Patient with Mycosis Fungoides.

    PubMed

    Nam, Chan Hee; Park, Min Kee; Choi, Mi Soo; Hong, Seung Phil; Park, Byung Cheol; Kim, Myung Hwa

    2017-02-01

    Secondary cutaneous amyloidosis refers to clinically unapparent amyloid deposits within the skin in association with a pre-existing skin condition or skin tumors, such as basal cell carcinoma, porokeratosis, solar elastosis, Bowen's disease, and mycosis fungoides. A 70-year-old woman presented with a 6-month history of asymptomatic multiple yellowish plaques on both legs. She had been diagnosed with mycosis fungoides 7 years ago and was treated with psoralen and ultraviolet A radiation (PUVA) therapy, narrow-band ultraviolet B (UVB) therapy, and acitretin for 5 years. Finally, she reached complete remission of mycosis fungoides. However, new yellowish lesions started to appear 1 year after discontinuing the phototherapy. A physical examination revealed multiple yellowish plaques on both extremities. The plaques were well circumscribed and slightly elevated. All laboratory tests were normal. A biopsy specimen showed multiple nodular deposits of eosinophilic amorphous material in papillary dermis and upper reticular dermis. The deposits represented apple green birefringence on Congo red stain viewed under polarized light. Acellular small nodules in the upper dermis consisted of randomly oriented, non-branching, 6.67~12.7 nm thick amyloid fibrils on electron microscopy. We report an interesting and rare case of secondary cutaneous amyloidosis after narrow-band UVB therapy and PUVA therapy in a patient with mycosis fungoides.

  8. Neutrophils rapidly migrate via lymphatics after Mycobacterium bovis BCG intradermal vaccination and shuttle live bacilli to the draining lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Abadie, Valérie; Badell, Edgar; Douillard, Patrice; Ensergueix, Danielle; Leenen, Pieter J M; Tanguy, Myriam; Fiette, Laurence; Saeland, Sem; Gicquel, Brigitte; Winter, Nathalie

    2005-09-01

    The early innate response after Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination is poorly characterized but probably decisive for subsequent protective immunity against tuberculosis. Therefore, we vaccinated mice with fluorescent BCG strains in the ear dorsum, as a surrogate of intradermal vaccination in humans. During the first 3 days, we tracked BCG host cells migrating out of the dermis to the auricular draining lymph nodes (ADLNs). Resident skin dendritic cells (DCs) or macrophages did not play a predominant role in early BCG capture and transport to ADLNs. The main BCG host cells rapidly recruited both in the dermis and ADLNs were neutrophils. Fluorescent green or red BCG strains injected into nonoverlapping sites were essentially sheltered by distinct neutrophils in the ADLN capsule, indicating that neutrophils had captured bacilli in peripheral tissue and transported them to the lymphoid organ. Strikingly, we observed BCG-infected neutrophils in the lumen of lymphatic vessels by confocal microscopy on ear dermis. Fluorescence-labeled neutrophils injected into the ears accumulated exclusively into the ipsilateral ADLN capsule after BCG vaccination. Thus, we provide in vivo evidence that neutrophils, like DCs or inflammatory monocytes, migrate via afferent lymphatics to lymphoid tissue and can shuttle live microorganisms.

  9. A Comparison of Conventional Collagen Sponge and Collagen-Gelatin Sponge in Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Jinno, Chizuru; Morimoto, Naoki; Ito, Ran; Sakamoto, Michiharu; Ogino, Shuichi; Taira, Tsuguyoshi; Suzuki, Shigehiko

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the collagen-gelatin sponge (CGS) with that of the collagen sponge (CS) in dermis-like tissue regeneration. CGS, which achieves the sustained release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), is a promising material in wound healing. In the present study, we evaluated and compared CGSs and conventional CSs. We prepared 8 mm full-thickness skin defects on the backs of rats. Either CGSs or CSs were impregnated with normal saline solution (NSS) or 7 μg/cm(2) of bFGF solution and implanted into the defects. At 1 and 2 weeks after implantation, tissue specimens were obtained from the rats of each group (n = 3, total n = 24). The wound area, neoepithelial length, dermis-like tissue area, and the number and area of capillaries were evaluated at 1 and 2 weeks after implantation. There were no significant differences in the CGS without bFGF and CS groups. Significant improvements were observed in the neoepithelial length, the dermis-like tissue area, and the number of newly formed capillaries in the group of rats that received CGSs impregnated with bFGF. The effects on epithelialization, granulation, and vascularization of wound healing demonstrated that, as a scaffold, CGSs are equal or superior to conventional CSs.

  10. Mechanical properties of an artificial vascularized human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passot, A.; Cabodevila, G.

    2011-05-01

    In order to make blood sample tests an artificial skin similar to that of the baby's heel is modeled and realized. The most superficial bloodstream and the two main layers of the skin -epidermis and dermis- have to be recreated. Studies and capillaroscopies of the baby's heel give characteristics of these layers and the bloodstream. The skin is viscohyperelastic, but the choice of materials that will be used is based on the Young's modulus. The epidermis layer is based on a stronger less adhesive silicon rubber Elastosil. The dermis layer is composed of a mixture based on a very soft sticky silicon rubber Silgel and Sylgard. The mixture of Silgel with 5% Sylgard has an elastic modulus of 48 kPa which is similar to that of the dermis. The artificial skin is an assembly of several layers including a layer of Sylgard that is structured by a mold representing the capillary network and adapted to manufacturing processes in a clean room. Each layer is deposited by spin coating and is combined with the other through adhesion. Mechanical tests such as tension are performed to verify the mechanical properties of the artificial skin.

  11. Evaluation of the transdermal permeation of different paraben combinations through a pig ear skin model.

    PubMed

    Caon, Thiago; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira

    2010-05-31

    Although parabens have several features of ideal preservatives, different studies have shown that they may affect human health due to their estrogenic activity. Therefore, various strategies have been applied to reduce their skin penetration. However, the effect of paraben combinations on transdermal permeation has not yet been investigated. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate paraben permeation in pig ear skin using a Franz diffusion cell system with capillary electrophoresis detection, in order to identify which paraben combinations (defined by a factorial design) have the lowest skin permeation. The permeation of isolated parabens was also evaluated and the permeation characteristics, obtained by the Moser model, confirmed that lipophilicity and molecular weight may influence the systemic absorption of these compounds. In previous tests using isolated parabens, methyl and ethyl parabens presented greater retention in the epidermis compared to the dermis, while propyl and butyl parabens had similar retention profiles in these layers. An increase in ethanol concentration and experimental time promoted greater parabens retention in the dermis compared to the epidermis. The binary combinations of methyl and ethyl parabens as well as of methyl and propyl parabens (added to several cosmetic products in order to increase the antimicrobial spectrum) reduced significantly their permeation rates through pig ear skin (with the exception of EP), probably due to the high retention of these parabens in the epidermis and dermis.

  12. Composite lymphoma of mycosis fungoides and cutaneous small B-cell lymphoma in a 73-year-old male patient.

    PubMed

    Whitling, Nicholas A; Shanesmith, Rebecca P; Jacob, Leah; McBurney, Elizabeth; Sebastian, Siby; Wang, Endi; Wang, Alun R

    2013-04-01

    Composite lymphoma of T-cell and B-cell type is uncommon, and the one occurring primarily on skin is extremely rare. Herein, we report a unique case of composite lymphoma of mycosis fungoides and cutaneous small B-cell lymphoma in a 73-year-old male patient. The patient presented with multiple erythematous patches, plaques, and nodules on the upper arms, scalp, and trunk. Four punch biopsies of arm and scalp lesions demonstrated lymphoid infiltrate in superficial to deep dermis with a characteristic zone distribution of T-cell and B-cell components. T cells were distributed in papillary and perifollicular dermis and displayed a larger size with convoluted nuclei, whereas B cells were small sized, assuming nodular infiltrate in mid-deep dermis with coexpression of CD5. Molecular test detected clonal rearrangement of both TCRG and IGH/K genes with identical amplicons for each gene in all 4 biopsies. Clinical staging revealed no extracutaneous lesions. A multidisplinary approach is emphasized to establish a definitive diagnosis.

  13. CD34-positive dendritic cells disappear from scars but are increased in pericicatricial tissue.

    PubMed

    Erdag, Gulsun; Qureshi, Hina S; Patterson, James W; Wick, Mark R

    2008-08-01

    CD34-positive stromal cells (CD34SC) are distributed throughout the body, including the dermis. They are thought to play a role in maturation and proliferation of adjacent mesenchymal and epithelial stem cells and in immune responses. To investigate the role of such cells in wound healing after excision of cutaneous lesions, we examined the distribution and quantity of CD34SC in scars from the sites of removal of malignant skin tumors and from reconstructive surgery, as well as in samples of normal skin. In normal skin, CD34 staining was confined to dendritic cells in the dermis, endothelial cells, perifollicular cells and eccrine glands. In cutaneous scars, the cicatricial tissue was totally devoid of CD34SC. However, the dermis adjacent to scar showed increased numbers of CD34SC as compared with normal skin [41.5 cells/mm(2) vs. 24.5 cells/mm(2) (p < 0.001)]. We conclude that CD34SC disappears from scars but are induced to proliferate in pericicatricial tissue. The cells in question may play a role in remodeling of scarred skin. One should be aware that augmented labeling for CD34SC around scars is common; it should not be interpreted as evidence for the persistence or recurrence of tumors that may also express CD34.

  14. MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells in human skin equivalents show differential migration and phenotypic plasticity after allergen or irritant exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Kosten, Ilona J.; Spiekstra, Sander W.; Gruijl, Tanja D. de; Gibbs, Susan

    2015-08-15

    After allergen or irritant exposure, Langerhans cells (LC) undergo phenotypic changes and exit the epidermis. In this study we describe the unique ability of MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells (MUTZ-LC) to display similar phenotypic plasticity as their primary counterparts when incorporated into a physiologically relevant full-thickness skin equivalent model (SE-LC). We describe differences and similarities in the mechanisms regulating LC migration and plasticity upon allergen or irritant exposure. The skin equivalent consisted of a reconstructed epidermis containing primary differentiated keratinocytes and CD1a{sup +} MUTZ-LC on a primary fibroblast-populated dermis. Skin equivalents were exposed to a panel of allergens and irritants. Topical exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of allergens (nickel sulfate, resorcinol, cinnamaldehyde) and irritants (Triton X-100, SDS, Tween 80) resulted in LC migration out of the epidermis and into the dermis. Neutralizing antibody to CXCL12 blocked allergen-induced migration, whereas anti-CCL5 blocked irritant-induced migration. In contrast to allergen exposure, irritant exposure resulted in cells within the dermis becoming CD1a{sup −}/CD14{sup +}/CD68{sup +} which is characteristic of a phenotypic switch of MUTZ-LC to a macrophage-like cell in the dermis. This phenotypic switch was blocked with anti-IL-10. Mechanisms previously identified as being involved in LC activation and migration in native human skin could thus be reproduced in the in vitro constructed skin equivalent model containing functional LC. This model therefore provides a unique and relevant research tool to study human LC biology in situ under controlled in vitro conditions, and will provide a powerful tool for hazard identification, testing novel therapeutics and identifying new drug targets. - Highlights: • MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells integrated into skin equivalents are fully functional. • Anti-CXCL12 blocks allergen-induced MUTZ-LC migration.

  15. Cellular immunophenotyping of exfoliative dermatitis in canine leishmaniosis (Leishmania infantum).

    PubMed

    Papadogiannakis, E I; Koutinas, A F; Saridomichelakis, M N; Vlemmas, J; Lekkas, S; Karameris, A; Fytianou, A

    2005-04-08

    Lymphocyte subsets, major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-II expressing cells and number of amastigotes in the epidermis and dermis were investigated immunohistochemically in 48 dogs with patent leishmaniosis, with or without exfoliative dermatitis (ED) to study the immunopathogenesis of this common cutaneous form of the disease. Skin biopsies were obtained and compared for ED sites (group A, n = 26), normal-appearing skin from the same animals (group B, n = 24), and leishmanial dogs not exhibiting ED (group C, n = 22), and normal controls (group D, n = 22). The CD3+, CD45RA+, CD4+, CD8+ (CD8a+), CD21+, and MHC-II+ cells and leishmania amastigotes were identified immunohistochemically and counted with the aid of an image analysis system. Pyogranulomatous to granulomatous dermatitis, expressed in various histopathological patterns, was noticed in all groups A and B and in half of group C dogs. In the epidermis, the low number of T-cells and their subsets did not differ significantly between groups A and B, but CD8+ outnumbered CD4+ lymphocytes in both groups. MHC-II+ expression on epidermal keratinocytes was intense in the skin with and without lesions from dogs with ED but not in group C dogs. CD3+, CD8+ and MHC-II+ cells were fewer in group C compared to group A and B dogs. In the dermis, CD3+ cells in group A animals were mainly represented by the CD8+. CD45RA+ and CD21+ cells were also seen in high numbers. MHC-II expression, potentially in lymphocytes, fibroblasts, dendritic cells, and macrophages was intense. The numbers of all cellular subpopulations in the dermis were significantly different between the groups, being highest in group A and lowest in group D. In sebaceous adenitis sites, CD4+ outnumbered CD8+ cells in contrast to the neighbouring dermis and the epidermis. The number of CD21+ and CD45RA+ cells was much lower in the inflamed sebaceous glands compared to the dermis. Finally, the number of amastigotes in the normal-appearing skin was

  16. Evaluating thermal damage induced by pulsed light with multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Wei; Xie, Shusen; Huang, Yimei

    2009-02-01

    Nonablative skin remodeling is a new light treatment approach for photodamaged skin. Compared to ablative CO2 or Er:YAG laser resurfacing, dermabrasion, and chemical peels, the clinical objective of nonablative skin remodeling is to maximize thermal damage to upper dermis while minimizing injury to the epidermis and surrounding tissue, consequently decreasing potential complications and shortening long recuperation periods. Histological analysis of preoperative and postoperative biopsies using H&E or special stains has indicated the dermal thermal injury, which resulting in collagen denaturation, is the most important mechanism of nonablative skin remodeling for improving skin situation. And the extent of improvement of skin situation corresponded to the formation of a new band of dense, compact collagen bundles in the papillary dermis. The diversity of individual skin condition influences the choice of pulsed light treatment parameters, and further influences the degree of dermal thermal damage, thus the efficacy of nonablative skin remodeling remains unstable. Recently, multiphoton microscopy has show a promising application for monitoring skin thermal damage, because collagen could produce strong second harmonic generation (SHG). And SHG intensity is presumably proportional to the percentage of collagen in dermis. In this paper, the auto-fluorescence (AF) intensity and SHG intensity of mice skin irradiated by pulsed Nd:YAG laser were measured and imaged with multiphoton microscope, and the results show the ratio of SHG to AF decreases with the increase of irradiation exposure dose, and could be a quantitative technique to assess dermal thermal damage, and could further benefit the choice of light treatment parameters.

  17. Human percutaneous absorption of a direct hair dye comparing in vitro and in vivo results: implications for safety assessment and animal testing.

    PubMed

    Lademann, J; Richter, H; Jacobi, U; Patzelt, A; Hueber-Becker, F; Ribaud, C; Benech-Kieffer, F; Dufour, E K; Sterry, W; Schaefer, H; Leclaire, J; Toutain, H; Nohynek, G J

    2008-06-01

    Although in vitro skin absorption studies often detect small residues of applied test material in the epidermis/dermis, it is uncertain whether the residue is within the living skin. We studied the dermal absorption of a hair dye hydroxyanthraquinone-aminopropyl methyl morpholinium methosulphate (HAM) in human skin in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, skin (back and scalp) received 0.5% HAM in a commercial formulation at 20microg/cm2 After 0.5 or 48h, skin was tape stripped, followed by cyanoacrylate biopsies (CAB). Sebum from scalp sites was collected for 48h. In vitro, skin was treated with 20mg/cm2 dye for 0.5h, penetration determined after 24h. In vivo, at 0.5h, total recovery (back) was 0.67microg/cm2 (tape strips+CAB). Fluorescence microscopy showed HAM in the hair follicle openings (HFO). At 0.5h, scalp tape strips contained 1.80microg/cm2, HFO 0.82microg/cm2. At 48h, HFO contained 0.21microg/cm2, sebum 0.80microg/cm2. In vivo, skin residues were in the non-living skin and eliminated via desquamation and sebum secretion. In vitro, the SC contained 1.50microg/cm2, epidermis/dermis 0.86microg/cm2, receptor fluid<0.04microg/cm2, a total of 0.90microg/cm2 was considered to be bioavailable. In vitro epidermis/dermis residues were nearly identical to those located in non-living skin in vivo. In conclusion, in vitro percutaneous penetration studies may produce seemingly bioavailable material , which raises the need for a Threshold of Skin Absorption (TSA) addressing a negligible dermal absorption in order to avoid unnecessary in vivo toxicity studies on substances that produce no significant human systemic exposure.

  18. Comparison of structural changes in skin and amnion tissue grafts for transplantation induced by gamma and electron beam irradiation for sterilization.

    PubMed

    Mrázová, H; Koller, J; Kubišová, K; Fujeríková, G; Klincová, E; Babál, P

    2016-06-01

    Sterilization is an important step in the preparation of biological material for transplantation. The aim of the study is to compare morphological changes in three types of biological tissues induced by different doses of gamma and electron beam radiation. Frozen biological tissues (porcine skin xenografts, human skin allografts and human amnion) were irradiated with different doses of gamma rays (12.5, 25, 35, 50 kGy) and electron beam (15, 25, 50 kGy). Not irradiated specimens served as controls. The tissue samples were then thawn and fixed in 10 % formalin, processed by routine paraffin technique and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, alcian blue at pH 2.5, orcein, periodic acid Schiff reaction, phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin, Sirius red and silver impregnation. The staining with hematoxylin and eosin showed vacuolar cytoplasmic changes of epidermal cells mainly in the samples of xenografts irradiated by the lowest doses of gamma and electron beam radiation. The staining with orcein revealed damage of fine elastic fibers in the xenograft dermis at the dose of 25 kGy of both radiation types. Disintegration of epithelial basement membrane, especially in the xenografts, was induced by the dose of 15 kGy of electron beam radiation. The silver impregnation disclosed nuclear chromatin condensation mainly in human amnion at the lowest doses of both radiation types and disintegration of the fine collagen fibers in the papillary dermis induced by the lowest dose of electron beam and by the higher doses of gamma radiation. Irradiation by both, gamma rays and the electron beam, causes similar changes on cells and extracellular matrix, with significant damage of the basement membrane and of the fine and elastic and collagen fibers in the papillary dermis, the last caused already by low dose electron beam radiation.

  19. Measuring changes in the scattering properties of Intralipid at different depths with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinnunen, Matti; Myllylä, Risto

    2007-07-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful tool for imaging tissue structure. The images provide information on a micrometer scale. By averaging depth scans, an intensity profile can be formed as a function of depth. The slope of a straight line fitted to the OCT signal depth profile contains information on light attenuation in the sample at different depths. This slope can be used to detect changes in the scattering properties of the sample, especially in a single scattering region. In this article, the effect of fitting the line at different depths on detection sensitivity was studied in Intralipid phantoms with different concentrations. Different glucose concentrations were also used with 5 % Intralipid samples. Different depths were studied because the depth of the dermis and the thicknesses of skin layers in human skin vary in different body locations. The results show that the sensitivity of detecting changes in the scattering properties of Intralipid is better at a depth corresponding to that of the dermis in the human arm (0.166 - 0.276 mm) than at a depth equaling the dermis in the forefinger (0.441 - 0.579 mm). For this reason, the applicability of the single scattering model for fitting the straight line to different depths of the OCT signal is limited, and a more comprehensive model for extracting changes in scattering is recommended at greater depths. This has to be kept in mind when determining the depth position for registering glucose-induced changes in vivo with an OCT-based glucose sensor.

  20. Extracellular matrix composition and interstitial pH modulate NHE1-mediated melanoma cell motility.

    PubMed

    Vahle, Anne-Kristin; Domikowsky, Britta; Schwöppe, Christian; Krähling, Hermann; Mally, Sabine; Schäfers, Michael; Hermann, Sven; Shahin, Victor; Haier, Jörg; Schwab, Albrecht; Stock, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The activity of the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 is required for human melanoma cell adhesion and migration. The goal of the present study was to suppress mouse melanoma (B16V) cell invasion in vivo by inhibiting NHE1. Intravital observations in mobilized left liver lobes of laparotomized male Sprague-Dawley rats disclosed that five minutes after intra-arterial administration of the B16V cell suspension, cells adhered to the endothelia of liver sinusoidal capillaries and started to migrate into the surrounding liver tissue. In the presence of the NHE1-specific inhibitor cariporide, migration/invasion was reduced by about 50% while adhesion was not lowered. Time-lapse video microscopy and adhesion/invasion assays revealed that in vitro, blockade of NHE1 by cariporide i) significantly decreased the migratory speed of the cells and ii) completely inhibited the invasive behavior of both an artificial, basement membrane-like and a dermis-like matrix. Cells were more motile on the basement membrane and more invasive on the dermis-like matrix. Small-animal PET (positron-emission tomography) analyses of B16V metastasis in female C57BL/6 mice showed that, although NHE1 inhibition hardly affected the percentage of animals developing metastases or relapses, metastases seem to get directed to the lungs in cariporide-treated animals while animals feeding on the standard diet show metastases spread all over the body. We conclude that i) B16V cells prefer to invade a dermis-like rather than a basement membrane-like matrix; ii) the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition strongly impacts on NHE1-dependent in vitro cell motility and invasion; and iii) the lungs are metastasis‑prone and impair the efficiency of cariporide due to their ECM composition and the pulmonary interstitial (extravascular) pH.

  1. Inhibition of β-catenin signalling in dermal fibroblasts enhances hair follicle regeneration during wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Celine; Pisco, Angela Oliveira; Rawlins, Emma L.; Simons, Ben D.

    2016-01-01

    New hair follicles (HFs) do not form in adult mammalian skin unless epidermal Wnt signalling is activated genetically or within large wounds. To understand the postnatal loss of hair forming ability we monitored HF formation at small circular (2 mm) wound sites. At P2, new HFs formed in back skin, but HF formation was markedly decreased by P21. Neonatal tail also formed wound-associated HFs, albeit in smaller numbers. Postnatal loss of HF neogenesis did not correlate with wound closure rate but with a reduction in Lrig1-positive papillary fibroblasts in wounds. Comparative gene expression profiling of back and tail dermis at P1 and dorsal fibroblasts at P2 and P50 showed a correlation between loss of HF formation and decreased expression of genes associated with proliferation and Wnt/β-catenin activity. Between P2 and P50, fibroblast density declined throughout the dermis and clones of fibroblasts became more dispersed. This correlated with a decline in fibroblasts expressing a TOPGFP reporter of Wnt activation. Surprisingly, between P2 and P50 there was no difference in fibroblast proliferation at the wound site but Wnt signalling was highly upregulated in healing dermis of P21 compared with P2 mice. Postnatal β-catenin ablation in fibroblasts promoted HF regeneration in neonatal and adult mouse wounds, whereas β-catenin activation reduced HF regeneration in neonatal wounds. Our data support a model whereby postnatal loss of hair forming ability in wounds reflects elevated dermal Wnt/β-catenin activation in the wound bed, increasing the abundance of fibroblasts that are unable to induce HF formation. PMID:27287810

  2. Induction of Skin-Derived Precursor Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama-Nakagiri, Yoriko; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Moriwaki, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    The generation of full thickness human skin from dissociated cells is an attractive approach not only for treating skin diseases, but also for treating many systemic disorders. However, it is currently not possible to obtain an unlimited number of skin dermal cells. The goal of this study was to develop a procedure to produce skin dermal stem cells from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Skin-derived precursor cells (SKPs) were isolated as adult dermal precursors that could differentiate into both neural and mesodermal progenies and could reconstitute the dermis. Thus, we attempted to generate SKPs from iPSCs that could reconstitute the skin dermis. Human iPSCs were initially cultured with recombinant noggin and SB431542, an inhibitor of activin/nodal and TGFβ signaling, to induce neural crest progenitor cells. Those cells were then treated with SKP medium that included CHIR99021, a WNT signal activator. The induction efficacy from neural crest progenitor cells to SKPs was more than 97%. No other modifiers tested were able to induce those cells. Those human iPSC-derived SKPs (hiPSC-SKPs) showed a similar gene expression signature to SKPs isolated from human skin dermis. Human iPSC-SKPs differentiated into neural and mesodermal progenies, including adipocytes, skeletogenic cell types and Schwann cells. Moreover, they could be induced to follicular type keratinization when co-cultured with human epidermal keratinocytes. We here provide a new efficient protocol to create human skin dermal stem cells from hiPSCs that could contribute to the treatment of various skin disorders. PMID:27992514

  3. Ablative skin resurfacing with a novel microablative CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Gotkin, Robert H; Sarnoff, Deborah S; Cannarozzo, Giovanni; Sadick, Neil S; Alexiades-Armenakas, Macrene

    2009-02-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser skin resurfacing has been a mainstay of facial rejuvenation since its introduction in the mid 1990s. Recently, a new generation of fractional or microablative CO2 lasers has been introduced to the marketplace. According to the concept of fractional photothermolysis, these lasers ablate only a fraction of the epidermal and dermal architecture in the treatment area. An array of microscopic thermal wounds is created that ablates the epidermis and dermis within very tiny zones; adjacent to these areas, the epidermis and dermis are spared. This microablative process of laser skin resurfacing has proven safe and effective not only for facial rejuvenation, but elsewhere on the body as well. It is capable of improving wrinkles, acne scars, and other types of atrophic scars and benign pigmented lesions associated with elastotic, sun-damaged skin. Because of the areas of spared epidermis and dermis inherent in a procedure that employs fractional photothermolysis, healing is more rapid compared to fully ablative CO2 laser skin resurfacing and downtime is proportionately reduced. A series of 32 consecutive patients underwent a single laser resurfacing procedure with the a new microablative CO2 laser. All patients were followed for a minimum of 6 months and were asked to complete patient satisfaction questionnaires; a 6 month postoperative photographic evaluation by an independent physician, not involved in the treatment, was also performed. Both sets of data were graded and reported on a quartile scale. Results demonstrated greater than 50% improvement in almost all patients with those undergoing treatment for wrinkles, epidermal pigment or solar elastosis deriving the greatest change for the better (>75%).

  4. Diffusion of (2-/sup 14/C)diazepam across hairless mouse skin and human skin

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, R.L.; Palicharla, P.; Groves, M.J.

    1987-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the absorption of diazepam applied topically to the hairless mouse in vivo and to determine the diffusion of diazepam across isolated hairless mouse skin and human skin. (/sup 14/C)Diazepam was readily absorbed after topical administration to the intact hairless mouse, a total of 75.8% of the /sup 14/C-label applied being recovered in urine and feces. Diazepam was found to diffuse across human and hairless mouse skin unchanged in experiments with twin-chambered diffusion cells. The variation in diffusion rate or the flux for both human and mouse tissues was greater among specimens than between duplicate or triplicate trials for a single specimen. Fluxes for mouse skin (stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis) were greater than for human skin (stratum corneum and epidermis): 0.35-0.61 microgram/cm2/h for mouse skin vs 0.24-0.42 microgram/cm2/h for human skin. The permeability coefficients for mouse skin ranged from 1.4-2.4 X 10(-2)cm/h compared with 0.8-1.4 X 10(-2)cm/h for human skin. Although human stratum corneum is almost twice the thickness of that of the hairless mouse, the diffusion coefficients for human skin were 3-12 times greater (0.76-3.31 X 10(-6) cm2/h for human skin vs 0.12-0.27 X 10(-6) cm2/h for hairless mouse) because of a shorter lag time for diffusion across human skin. These differences between the diffusion coefficients and diffusion rates (or permeability coefficients) suggest that the presence of the dermis may present some barrier properties. In vitro the dermis may require complete saturation before the diazepam can be detected in the receiving chamber.

  5. Systemic FasL and TRAIL Neutralisation Reduce Leishmaniasis Induced Skin Ulceration

    PubMed Central

    Lieke, Thorsten; Lemu, Befekadu; Meless, Hailu; Ruffin, Nicolas; Wolday, Dawit; Asseffa, Abraham; Yagita, Hideo; Britton, Sven; Akuffo, Hannah

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by Leishmania infection of dermal macrophages and is associated with chronic inflammation of the skin. L. aethiopica infection displays two clinical manifestations, firstly ulcerative disease, correlated to a relatively low parasite load in the skin, and secondly non-ulcerative disease in which massive parasite infiltration of the dermis occurs in the absence of ulceration of epidermis. Skin ulceration is linked to a vigorous local inflammatory response within the skin towards infected macrophages. Fas ligand (FasL) and Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) expressing cells are present in dermis in ulcerative CL and both death ligands cause apoptosis of keratinocytes in the context of Leishmania infection. In the present report we show a differential expression of FasL and TRAIL in ulcerative and non-ulcerative disease caused by L. aethiopica. In vitro experiments confirmed direct FasL- and TRAIL-induced killing of human keratinocytes in the context of Leishmania-induced inflammatory microenvironment. Systemic neutralisation of FasL and TRAIL reduced ulceration in a model of murine Leishmania infection with no effect on parasitic loads or dissemination. Interestingly, FasL neutralisation reduced neutrophil infiltration into the skin during established infection, suggesting an additional proinflammatory role of FasL in addition to direct keratinocyte killing in the context of parasite-induced skin inflammation. FasL signalling resulting in recruitment of activated neutrophils into dermis may lead to destruction of the basal membrane and thus allow direct FasL mediated killing of exposed keratinocytes in vivo. Based on our results we suggest that therapeutic inhibition of FasL and TRAIL could limit skin pathology during CL. PMID:20967287

  6. In situ CUTANEOUS CELLULAR IMMUNE RESPONSE IN DOGS NATURALLY AFFECTED BY VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS

    PubMed Central

    ROSSI, Claudio Nazaretian; TOMOKANE, Thaise Yumie; BATISTA, Luis Fábio da Silva; MARCONDES, Mary; LARSSON, Carlos Eduardo; LAURENTI, Márcia Dalastra

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Thirty-eight dogs naturally affected by visceral leishmaniasis were recruited in Araçatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil - an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis. The animals were distributed into one of two groups, according to their clinical and laboratory features, as either symptomatic or asymptomatic dogs. Correlations between clinical features and inflammatory patterns, cellular immune responses, and parasitism in the macroscopically uninjured skin of the ear were investigated. Histological skin patterns were similar in both groups, and were generally characterized by a mild to intense inflammatory infiltrate in the dermis, mainly consisting of mononuclear cells. There was no difference in the number of parasites in the skin (amastigotes/mm²) between the two groups. Concerning the characterization of the cellular immune response, the number of positive inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS+) cells was higher in the dermis of symptomatic than in asymptomatic dogs (p = 0.0368). A positive correlation between parasite density and macrophages density (p = 0.031), CD4+ T-cells (p = 0.015), and CD8+ T-cells (p = 0.023) was observed. Furthermore, a positive correlation between density of iNOS+ cells and CD3+ T-cells (p = 0.005), CD4+ T-cells (p = 0.001), and CD8+ T-cells (p = 0.0001) was also found. The results showed the existence of a non-specific chronic inflammatory infiltrate in the dermis of dogs affected by visceral leishmaniasis, characterized by the presence of activated macrophages and T-lymphocytes, associated to cutaneous parasitism, independent of clinical status. PMID:27410908

  7. Skin telocytes versus fibroblasts: two distinct dermal cell populations

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yuli; Zhu, Zaihua; Zheng, Yonghua; Wan, Weiguo; Manole, Catalin G; Zhang, Qiangqiang

    2015-01-01

    It is already accepted that telocytes (TCs) represent a new type of interstitial cells in human dermis. In normal skin, TCs have particular spatial relations with different dermal structures such as blood vessels, hair follicles, arrector pili muscles or segments of sebaceous and/or eccrine sweat glands. The distribution and the density of TCs is affected in various skin pathological conditions. Previous studies mentioned the particular (ultra)structure of TCs and also their immunophenotype, miR imprint or proteome, genome or secretome features. As fibroblast is the most common intersitital cell (also in human dermis), a dedicated comparison between human skin TCs and fibroblasts (Fbs) was required to be performed. In this study, using different techniques, we document several points of difference between human dermis TCs and Fbs. By transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we demonstrated TCs with their hallmark cellular prolongations – telopodes. Thus, we showed their ultrastructural distinctiveness from Fbs. By RayBio Human Cytokine Antibody Array V analyses performed on the supernatant from separately cultured TCs and Fbs, we detected the cytokine profile of both cell types, individually. Two of 79 detected cytokines – epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78 and granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 – were 1.5 times higher in the supernatant of TCs (comparing with Fbs). On the other hand, 37 cytokines were at least 1.5 higher in Fbs supernatant (comparing with TCs), and among them six cytokines – interleukin 5, monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3), MCP-4, macrophage inflammatory protein-3, angiogenin, thrombopoietin – being 9.5 times higher (results also confirmed by ELISA testing). In summary, using different techniques, we showed that human dermal TCs and Fbs are different in terms of ultrastructure and cytokine profile. PMID:26414534

  8. Origin of Infrared Light Modulation in Reflectance-Mode Photoplethysmography

    PubMed Central

    Sidorov, Igor S.; Romashko, Roman V.; Koval, Vasily T.; Giniatullin, Rashid

    2016-01-01

    We recently pointed out the important role of dermis deformation by pulsating arterial pressure in the formation of a photoplethysmographic signal at green light. The aim of this study was to explore the role of this novel finding in near-infrared (NIR) light. A light-emitting diode (LED)-based imaging photoplethysmography (IPPG) system was used to detect spatial distribution of blood pulsations under frame-to-frame switching green and NIR illumination in the palms of 34 healthy individuals. We observed a significant increase of light-intensity modulation at the heartbeat frequency for both illuminating wavelengths after a palm was contacted with a glass plate. Strong positive correlation between data measured at green and NIR light was found, suggesting that the same signal was read independently from the depth of penetration. Analysis of the data shows that an essential part of remitted NIR light is modulated in time as a result of elastic deformations of dermis caused by variable blood pressure in the arteries. Our observations suggest that in contrast with the classical model, photoplethysmographic waveform originates from the modulation of the density of capillaries caused by the variable pressure applied to the skin from large blood vessels. Particularly, beat-to-beat transmural pressure in arteries compresses/decompresses the dermis and deforms its connective-tissue components, thus affecting the distance between the capillaries, which results in the modulation of absorption and scattering coefficients of both green and NIR light. These findings are important for the correct interpretation of this widely used medical technique, which may have novel applications in diagnosis and treatment monitoring of aging and skin diseases. PMID:27768753

  9. Multiscale Mechanical Model of the Pacinian Corpuscle Shows Depth and Anisotropy Contribute to the Receptor's Characteristic Response to Indentation.

    PubMed

    Quindlen, Julia C; Lai, Victor K; Barocas, Victor H

    2015-09-01

    Cutaneous mechanoreceptors transduce different tactile stimuli into neural signals that produce distinct sensations of touch. The Pacinian corpuscle (PC), a cutaneous mechanoreceptor located deep within the dermis of the skin, detects high frequency vibrations that occur within its large receptive field. The PC is comprised of lamellae that surround the nerve fiber at its core. We hypothesized that a layered, anisotropic structure, embedded deep within the skin, would produce the nonlinear strain transmission and low spatial sensitivity characteristic of the PC. A multiscale finite-element model was used to model the equilibrium response of the PC to indentation. The first simulation considered an isolated PC with fiber networks aligned with the PC's surface. The PC was subjected to a 10 μm indentation by a 250 μm diameter indenter. The multiscale model captured the nonlinear strain transmission through the PC, predicting decreased compressive strain with proximity to the receptor's core, as seen experimentally by others. The second set of simulations considered a single PC embedded epidermally (shallow) or dermally (deep) to model the PC's location within the skin. The embedded models were subjected to 10 μm indentations at a series of locations on the surface of the skin. Strain along the long axis of the PC was calculated after indentation to simulate stretch along the nerve fiber at the center of the PC. Receptive fields for the epidermis and dermis models were constructed by mapping the long-axis strain after indentation at each point on the surface of the skin mesh. The dermis model resulted in a larger receptive field, as the calculated strain showed less indenter location dependence than in the epidermis model.

  10. Automated skin segmentation in ultrasonic evaluation of skin toxicity in breast cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yi; Tannenbaum, Allen; Chen, Hao; Torres, Mylin; Yoshida, Emi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yuefeng; Curran, Walter; Liu, Tian

    2013-11-01

    Skin toxicity is the most common side effect of breast cancer radiotherapy and impairs the quality of life of many breast cancer survivors. We, along with other researchers, have recently found quantitative ultrasound to be effective as a skin toxicity assessment tool. Although more reliable than standard clinical evaluations (visual observation and palpation), the current procedure for ultrasound-based skin toxicity measurements requires manual delineation of the skin layers (i.e., epidermis-dermis and dermis-hypodermis interfaces) on each ultrasound B-mode image. Manual skin segmentation is time consuming and subjective. Moreover, radiation-induced skin injury may decrease image contrast between the dermis and hypodermis, which increases the difficulty of delineation. Therefore, we have developed an automatic skin segmentation tool (ASST) based on the active contour model with two significant modifications: (i) The proposed algorithm introduces a novel dual-curve scheme for the double skin layer extraction, as opposed to the original single active contour method. (ii) The proposed algorithm is based on a geometric contour framework as opposed to the previous parametric algorithm. This ASST algorithm was tested on a breast cancer image database of 730 ultrasound breast images (73 ultrasound studies of 23 patients). We compared skin segmentation results obtained with the ASST with manual contours performed by two physicians. The average percentage differences in skin thickness between the ASST measurement and that of each physician were less than 5% (4.8 ± 17.8% and -3.8 ± 21.1%, respectively). In summary, we have developed an automatic skin segmentation method that ensures objective assessment of radiation-induced changes in skin thickness. Our ultrasound technology offers a unique opportunity to quantify tissue injury in a more meaningful and reproducible manner than the subjective assessments currently employed in the clinic.

  11. AUTOMATED SKIN SEGMENTATION IN ULTRASONIC EVALUATION OF SKIN TOXICITY IN BREAST CANCER RADIOTHERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yi; Tannenbaum, Allen; Chen, Hao; Torres, Mylin; Yoshida, Emi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yuefeng; Curran, Walter; Liu, Tian

    2013-01-01

    Skin toxicity is the most common side effect of breast cancer radiotherapy and impairs the quality of life of many breast cancer survivors. We, along with other researchers, have recently found quantitative ultrasound to be effective as a skin toxicity assessment tool. Although more reliable than standard clinical evaluations (visual observation and palpation), the current procedure for ultrasound-based skin toxicity measurements requires manual delineation of the skin layers (i.e., epidermis-dermis and dermis-hypodermis interfaces) on each ultrasound B-mode image. Manual skin segmentation is time consuming and subjective. Moreover, radiation-induced skin injury may decrease image contrast between the dermis and hypodermis, which increases the difficulty of delineation. Therefore, we have developed an automatic skin segmentation tool (ASST) based on the active contour model with two significant modifications: (i) The proposed algorithm introduces a novel dual-curve scheme for the double skin layer extraction, as opposed to the original single active contour method. (ii) The proposed algorithm is based on a geometric contour framework as opposed to the previous parametric algorithm. This ASST algorithm was tested on a breast cancer image database of 730 ultrasound breast images (73 ultrasound studies of 23 patients). We compared skin segmentation results obtained with the ASST with manual contours performed by two physicians. The average percentage differences in skin thickness between the ASST measurement and that of each physician were less than 5% (4.8 ± 17.8% and −3.8 ± 21.1%, respectively). In summary, we have developed an automatic skin segmentation method that ensures objective assessment of radiation-induced changes in skin thickness. Our ultrasound technology offers a unique opportunity to quantify tissue injury in a more meaningful and reproducible manner than the subjective assessments currently employed in the clinic. PMID:23993172

  12. Chitosan-decorated polystyrene-b-poly(acrylic acid) polymersomes as novel carriers for topical delivery of finasteride.

    PubMed

    Caon, Thiago; Porto, Ledilege Cucco; Granada, Andréa; Tagliari, Monika Piazzon; Silva, Marcos Antonio Segatto; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira; Borsali, Redouane; Soldi, Valdir

    2014-02-14

    In view of the fact that the oral administration of finasteride (FIN) has resulted in various undesirable systemic side effects, the topical application of polystyrene and poly(acrylic acid)-based polymersomes (underexplored system) was investigated. Undecorated PS139-b-PAA17 and PS404-b-PAA63 vesicles (C3 and C7, respectively) or vesicles decorated with chitosan samples of different molecular weight (C3/CS-oligo, C7/CS-oligo, C3/CS-37 and C7/CS-37) were prepared by the co-solvent self-assembly method and characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering,transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering techniques. In vitro release experiments and ex vivo permeation using Franz diffusion cells were carried out (through comparison with hydroethanolic finasteride solution). The ideal system should provide high finasteride retention in the dermis and epidermis while allowing some control of the drug release. The particle size and in vitro release were negatively correlated with the permeation coefficient and skin retention in both the epidermis and dermis. The findings that the longest lag time was obtained for the hydroethanolic drug solution and lowest permeation for the systems able to release the drug faster support the hypothesis that nanostructured systems may be required to enhance the penetration and permeation of the drug. Chitosan-decorated polymersomes interacted more strongly with the skin components than non-decorated samples, probably due to the positive surface charge, which increased the FIN retention and reduced the lag time. C7 polymersomes decorated with chitosan were more appropriate for topical applications (high retention in the dermis and epidermis and controlled drug delivery).

  13. GMP-compliant culture of human hair follicle cells for encapsulation and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Marazzi, Mario; Crovato, Francesca; Bucco, Massimo; Sironi, Maria Chiara; Tosca, Marta Cecilia; Antonioli, Barbara; Chlapanidas, Theodora; Lucconi, Giulia; Rapisarda, Vincenzo; Scalise, Alessandro; Vigo, Daniele; Faustini, Massimo; Torre, Maria Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Human hair follicle cells, both bulge and dermal papilla cells, were isolated and cultured in a GMP cell factory, in order to obtain an in vitro hair follicle source for encapsulation end transplantation in alopecia regenerative cell therapy. An in vitro model, constituted by organotypic cultures of human skin sample, was set up to simulate the dermal-epidermal interaction between bulge cells and dermal papilla cells, evaluating the possible new follicles formation and the regenerative potentiality of these hair follicle cells. Both the bulge and dermal papilla cells show an excellent cellular proliferation as well as an abundant extracellular matrix production. The immunofluorescence investigation revealed the positivity of both cell lines to CK15 and CD200, whereas both cell lines were negative to CD71 and Oct-4. The pool of cultured bulge and dermal papilla cells was injected into the deep dermis; at day 28 of culture, some organized areas with a higher cell density can be observed: the cells self-organize into papilla-like lengthened aggregates. In samples in which the follicular cells have been seeded on the dermis surface, an epidermis-like homogeneous monolayer on the dermis surface can be seen, therefore showing a potentiality of these cells for epidermis regeneration. These data show the efficacy of a cellular isolation and amplification approach to obtain an in vitro human hair follicle regenerative source on industrial scale in a GMP cell factory. The results also proved an intrinsic potentiality of follicular cells to in vitro recreate the epidermis for tissue engineering purposes. Thus, it is feasible to produce bioengineered hair follicles in a GMP cell factory, for encapsulation and transplantation in alopecic patients.

  14. The use of digital image speckle correlation to measure the mechanical properties of skin and facial muscular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staloff, Isabelle Afriat

    Skin mechanical properties have been extensively studied and have led to an understanding of the structure and role of the collagen and elastin fibers network in the dermis and their changes due to aging. All these techniques have either isolated the skin from its natural environment (in vitro), or, when studied in vivo, attempted to minimize the effect of the underlying tissues and muscles. The human facial region is unique compared to the other parts of the body in that the underlying musculature runs through the subcutaneous tissue and is directly connected to the dermis with collagen based fibrous tissues. These fibrous tissues comprise the superficial musculoaponeurotic system, commonly referred to as the SMAS layer. Retaining ligaments anchor the skin to the periosteum, and hold the dermis to the SMAS. In addition, traditional techniques generally collect an average response of the skin. Data gathered in this manner is incomplete as the skin is anisotropic and under constant tension. We therefore introduce the Digital Image Speckle Correlation (DISC) method that maps in two dimensions the skin deformation under the complex set of forces involved during muscular activity. DISC, a non-contact in vivo technique, generates spatial resolved information. By observing the detailed motion of the facial skin we can infer the manner in which the complex ensemble of forces induced by movement of the muscles distribute and dissipate on the skin. By analyzing the effect of aging on the distribution of these complex forces we can measure its impact on skin elasticity and quantify the efficacy of skin care products. In addition, we speculate on the mechanism of wrinkle formation. Furthermore, we investigate the use of DISC to map the mechanism of film formation on skin of various polymers. Finally, we show that DISC can detect the involuntary facial muscular activity induced by various fragrances.

  15. Experimental Treatment for Burn Victims in Field Hospitals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    have been published [2]. Samples for measurement of the peel strength (the force per unit length required to separate the silicone layer from the CG...control specimens (which are fabricated by the current procedure). The peel strength of control specimens was found to be 7.9 ± 1.9 g/cm compared to...cells [5]. The cells used as seed have so far been autologous cells [5]. The result is partial regeneration both of the dermis and the epidermis on

  16. Erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet ablative laser treatment for endogenous ochronosis.

    PubMed

    Chaptini, Cassandra; Huilgol, Shyamala C

    2015-08-01

    Ochronosis is a rare disease characterised clinically by bluish-grey skin discolouration and histologically by yellow-brown pigment deposits in the dermis. It occurs in endogenous and exogenous forms. Endogenous ochronosis, also known as alkaptonuria, is an autosomal recessive disease of tyrosine metabolism, resulting in the accumulation and deposition of homogentisic acid in connective tissue. We report a case of facial endogenous ochronosis and coexistent photodamage, which was successfully treated with erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser resurfacing and deep focal point treatment to remove areas of residual deep pigment.

  17. When Nothing Else Works: Fresh Frozen Plasma in the Treatment of Progressive, Refractory Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor-Induced Angioedema.

    PubMed

    Chaaya, Gerard; Afridi, Faraz; Faiz, Arfa; Ashraf, Ali; Ali, Mahrukh; Castiglioni, Analia

    2017-01-11

    Angioedema is a severe form of an allergic reaction characterized by the localized edematous swelling of the dermis and subcutaneous tissues. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced angioedema (ACEI-IA) is an allergic reaction that can be severe in some cases requiring advanced management measures. Fresh frozen plasma has been used off-labeled in some case reports to improve and to prevent worsening of the angioedema in a few cases of ACEI-IA. We are reporting this case to increase the awareness of physicians and to widen their therapeutic options when encountering this clinically significant condition.

  18. Identification of the Gene for Scleroderma in the Tsk/2 Mouse Strain: Implications for Human Scleroderma Pathogenesis and Subset Distinctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Immunofluorescence staining of CD3+ T cells showed a sig- nificant but small increase in CD3+ T cells in the epidermis and sur- rounding the hair follicle in...especially in hair follicle locations, in male Tsk2/+ mice. Interestingly, gene expression in skin samples from Tsk1/+ at 6 weeks of age and Tsk2...KI67 staining for proliferating cells in the hair follicles and dermis of Tsk2 mice at 2, 4, 10 and 23 weeks of age. We find a significant increase

  19. Identification of the Gene for Scleroderma in the Tsk/2 Mouse Strain: Implications for Human Scleroderma Pathogenesis and subset Distinctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    cells in the epidermis and sur- rounding the hair follicle in Tsk2/+ mice at four, 10 and 23 weeks of age but not at two weeks of age (Fig. 3B...blue). (D) and (E), KI67 staining for proliferating cells in the hair follicles and dermis of Tsk2 mice at 2, 4, 10 and 23 weeks of age. We find a...This)year,)we)have)added)a)task)to)the)project:)we)have)found)that)mouse) skin)samples)for)gene)expression)studies)need)to)be)stratified)for) hair )cycle

  20. Spectral characteristics of two-photon autofluorescence and second harmonic generation from human skin in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunig, Hans G.; König, Karsten

    2011-03-01

    We performed multiphoton imaging of human skin and recorded in combination the complete spectral content of the signals in vivo. The spectra represent the integration of multiphoton signals over the investigated regions of the epidermis and dermis. They are used to study depth-resolved in vivo emission characteristics of main endogenous skin fluorophores like keratin, NAD(P)H, collagen and elastin. The identification of the specific fluorophores is supported by analysis of additional in vivo fluorescence lifetime imaging. Furthermore, as a potential application of spectrally selective imaging the possibility to investigate the penetration of nanoparticles from sunscreen lotion into skin in vivo is discussed.

  1. Cutaneous ciliated cyst: a case report with focus on mullerian heterotopia and comparison with eccrine sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Bivin, William W; Heath, Jonathon E; Drachenberg, Cinthia B; Strauch, Eric D; Papadimitriou, John C

    2010-10-01

    Cutaneous ciliated cyst is an exceedingly rare, benign lesion most commonly found in the dermis or subcutis of the lower extremities of young female patients in their second and third decades. The pathogenesis of the cyst is unknown. We report a cutaneous ciliated cyst in the lower extremity of a 13-year-old female patient. On histologic examination, clusters of eccrine sweat glands were observed adjacent to the cyst. Upon comparison of the immunohistochemical profile of the cutaneous ciliated cyst and the eccrine sweat glands, they appeared almost completely unrelated. The histologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings of this case and the literature provide evidence in favor of the Mullerian heterotopia theory.

  2. [Lupus erythematosus panniculitis presenting as palpebral edema and parotiditis].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pastor, G; Valcuende, F; Tomás, G; Moreno, M

    2007-10-01

    Lupus erythematosus panniculitis or lupus erythematosus profundus is characterized by inflammation of the deep dermis and subcutaneous tissue. It can occur in isolation or associated with chronic systemic or discoid lupus erythematosus. It usually consists of nodules and hardened subcutaneous plaques on the forehead, cheeks, proximal extremities, and buttocks. Periorbital and parotid involvement are rare and can lead to misdiagnosis. We present the case of a patient with lupus erythematosus panniculitis who presented with palpebral edema and involvement of the periocular fat and parotid gland.

  3. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of skin lesions from sporotrichosis epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cassio Porto; Oliveira de Almeida, Ana Cristina; Corte-Real, Suzana

    2015-02-01

    Transmission electron microscopy can yield useful information in a range of scientific fields; it is capable of imaging at a significantly higher resolution than light microscopes and has been a very useful tool in the identification of morphological changes of the dermis as well as assessment of changes in the extracellular matrix. Our aim is to characterize by electron microscopy the cellular profile of lesions caused by Sporothrix schenckii from the sporotrichosis epidemic in its zoonotic form that occurs in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  4. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ICE IN FROZEN TISSUES OF FROGS AND MICE,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    and digit free of ice at all temperatures are the stratum corneum in both the frog and the mouse, the stratum compactum in the frog and the fibrous...sheath of the mouse tendon. (4) The epidermis is almost entirely free of ice in frog skin at -1C and in mouse skin at -2C. (5) When ice is formed, the...horizontal connective tissue of the dermis. (6) Ice is present in the tendon of the frog at -5C and -3C, and in that of the mouse at -5C. With excised

  5. Agminated blue nevus - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Lisboa, Alice Paixão; Silvestre, Keline Jácome; Pedreira, Renata Leite; Alves, Natália Ribeiro de Magalhães; Obadia, Daniel Lago; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2016-01-01

    Blue nevi are benign melanocytic lesions located in the deeper reticular dermis, consequence of failure of melanocytic migration into the dermal-epidermal junction from the neural crest. Lesions are usually asymptomatic and solitary, but may present in a multiple or agminated (grouped) pattern. The agminated subtype is formed when bluish-pigmented lesions cluster together in a well-defined area. Lesions can be flat or raised. We report the case of a patient who presented multiple bluish macules (1-3 mm in diameter) grouped on the left upper back. Dermoscopy and anatomic pathological examination were consistent with blue nevus. PMID:27828645

  6. Plasma Cell Pododermatitis in a Cat

    PubMed Central

    Drolet, R.; Bernard, J.

    1984-01-01

    Plasma cell pododermatitis, an uncommon disease of unknown etiology, is described in a six year old male domestic short-haired cat. The cat was referred with a history of lameness associated with swelling, softness and ulceration of the foot pads. The history suggested a seasonal occurrence of the condition. The dermis and subcutis of the foot pads were infiltrated by inflammatory cells which were mainly plasma cells. The large number of plasma cells present in the lesions suggests an immunological basis for the condition. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17422486

  7. Staphylococcal abscess caused by trauma with a rosebush aculeus (Plantae, Rosaceae): apropos of a case.

    PubMed

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Alves, Andreia Oliveira; Martins, Gustavo; Sasso, Letícia Soares; Gama, Carolina Mendonça; Cenci, Gardênia Borges

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous abscess is a localized collection of pus in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue usually caused by trauma. The authors report the case of a 30-year-old male patient, gardener, that presents an ulcerated plaque in the third right finger, caused by an aculeus plant wound. The examination of the lesion's exudate ruled out the existence of fungi and showed the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. The authors emphasize the sporotrichosis as an important differential diagnosis, especially in endemic areas, and the indication of the exudate culture is discussed.

  8. Dermato-neuro syndrome in a case of scleromyxedema.

    PubMed

    Savran, Yusuf; Akarsu, Sevgi

    2015-12-01

    Scleromyxedema is an uncommon connective tissue disease characterized by mucin deposits, fibrosis, and proliferation of fibroblasts in the dermis. Although it shares similar sclerodermoid features, it is a different clinical entity than scleroderma. A monoclonal gammopathy is almost always present; however, progression to multiple myeloma is rare. It may have many systemic manifestations, of which the most notable being the dermato-neuro syndrome because of its rarity and potential fatal outcome. We present a case of a 50-year-old woman with scleromyxedema in whom the dermato-neuro syndrome developed.

  9. When Nothing Else Works: Fresh Frozen Plasma in the Treatment of Progressive, Refractory Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor–Induced Angioedema

    PubMed Central

    Afridi, Faraz; Faiz, Arfa; Ashraf, Ali; Ali, Mahrukh; Castiglioni, Analia

    2017-01-01

    Angioedema is a severe form of an allergic reaction characterized by the localized edematous swelling of the dermis and subcutaneous tissues. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced angioedema (ACEI-IA) is an allergic reaction that can be severe in some cases requiring advanced management measures. Fresh frozen plasma has been used off-labeled in some case reports to improve and to prevent worsening of the angioedema in a few cases of ACEI-IA. We are reporting this case to increase the awareness of physicians and to widen their therapeutic options when encountering this clinically significant condition.  PMID:28191376

  10. arNOX: generator of reactive oxygen species in the skin and sera of aging individuals subject to external modulation.

    PubMed

    Morré, Dorothy M; Meadows, Christiaan; Morré, D James

    2010-01-01

    An aging-related cell-surface oxidase (aging-related NADH oxidase, arNOX) generating superoxide and other reactive oxygen species is shed from the cell surface and is found in saliva, urine, perspiration, and interstitial fluids that surround the collagen and elastin matrix underlying dermis. arNOX activity correlates with age and reaches a maximum at about age 65 in males and 55 in females. arNOX activities are highly correlated with values of human skin where a causal relationship is indicated. Ongoing efforts focus on cloning arNOX proteins and development of antiaging formulas based on arNOX inhibition (intervention).

  11. Two-photon excited spectroscopies of ex vivo human skin endogenous species irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianxin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Luo, Tianshu; Zhao, Jingjun

    2006-10-01

    Two-photon excited spectroscopies from ex vivo human skin are investigated by using a femtosecond laser and a confocal microscope (Zeiss LSM 510 META). In the dermis, collagen is responsible for second harmonic generation (SHG); elastin, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), melanin and porphyrin are the primary endogenous sources of two-photon excited autofluorescence. In the epidermis, keratin, NADH, melanin and porphyrins contribute to autofluorescence signals. The results also show that the SHG spectra have the ability to shift with the excitation wavelength and the autofluorescence spectra display a red shift of the spectral peaks when increasing the excitation wavelength. These results may have practical implications for diagnosis of skin diseases.

  12. Clinical applications of radiofrequency: nonsurgical skin tightening (thermage).

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, Darryl J

    2009-04-01

    Thermage is a nonsurgical treatment for sagging skin in the jowl, neck, and eyelids. Abdominal striae, loose upper arm skin and buttock sagging, and improvement of the appearance of cellulite have become amenable to the radiofrequency treatment. Radiofrequency passed through cooled epidermis allows for radiofrequency-induced thermal damage to the dermis and deep dermal collagen (fibrous septae). The remodeling of the collagen leads to clinically discernible improvement in the sagging skin and skin quality; the remodeling of deep dermal collagen (fibrous septae) allows modeling of contours and improvement of the cellulite appearance.

  13. Histopathology of chromoblastomycosis.

    PubMed

    Uribe, F; Zuluaga, A I; Leon, W; Restrepo, A

    1989-01-01

    A study aimed at determining the histopathologic appearance of chromoblastomycotic lesions was undertaken. Biopsies from 26 patients with the disease were examined. It was found that 23 cases (88.46%) exhibited the organized mixed mycotic granuloma - OMMA -, a granuloma modified by the presence polymorphonuclear neutrophils - PMN's. An equal proportion of cases exhibited pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, with the epithelium playing an important role in the transepidermic elimination of the fungus. Healing of the lesions took place by fibrosis which was observed in 21 (80.77%) patients; this type of reaction was more common in the deeper areas of the dermis.

  14. Cell Autonomous and Non-autonomous Effects of Senescent Cells in the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Demaria, Marco; Desprez, Pierre Yves; Campisi, Judith; Velarde, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Human and mouse skin accumulate senescent cells in both the epidermis and dermis during aging. When chronically present, senescent cells are thought to enhance the age-dependent deterioration of the skin during extrinsic and intrinsic aging. However, when transiently present, senescent cells promote optimal wound healing. Here, we review recent studies on how senescent cells and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) contribute to different physiological and pathophysiological conditions in the skin with a focus on some of the cell autonomous and non-autonomous functions of senescent cells in the context of skin aging and wound healing. PMID:25855157

  15. Controlling reactive oxygen species in skin at their source to reduce skin aging.

    PubMed

    Kern, Dale G; Draelos, Zoe D; Meadows, Christiaan; James Morré, D; Morré, Dorothy M

    2010-01-01

    Activity of an age-related, superoxide-forming, cell-surface oxidase (arNOX) comparing dermis, epidermis, serum, and saliva from female and male subjects ages 28-72 years measured spectrophotometrically using reduction of ferricytochrome c correlated with oxidative skin damage as estimated from autofluoresence of skin using an Advanced Glycation End products Reader (AGE-Reader; DiagnOptics B.V., Netherlands). By reducing arNOX activity in skin with arNOX-inhibitory ingredients (NuSkin's ageLOC technology), skin appearance was improved through decreased protein cross-linking and an accelerated increase in collagen.

  16. Perianal Tick-Bite Lesion Caused by a Fully Engorged Female Amblyomma testudinarium

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Haeng An; Kim, Sung Sun; Joo, Hyun Soo; Chong, Won Seog

    2014-01-01

    A perianal tick and the surrounding skin were surgically excised from a 73-year-old man residing in a southwestern costal area of the Korean Peninsula. Microscopically a deep penetrating lesion was formed beneath the attachment site. Dense and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrations occurred in the dermis and subcutaneous tissues around the feeding lesion. Amorphous eosinophilic cement was abundant in the center of the lesion. The tick had Y-shaped anal groove, long mouthparts, ornate scutum, comma-shaped spiracular plate, distinct eyes, and fastoons. It was morphologically identified as a fully engorged female Amblyomma testudinarium. This is the third human case of Amblyomma tick infection in Korea. PMID:25548423

  17. [Sonographic imaging of lymphatic vessels compared to other methods].

    PubMed

    Matter, D; Grosshans, E; Muller, J; Furderer, C; Mathelin, C; Warter, S; Bellocq, J P; Maillot, C

    2002-05-01

    This paper reviews for the first time the normal and abnormal appearances of lymphatic channels of the skin using ultrasound. After a review of anatomy and histology, the authors present the current imaging modalities available for lymph vessel imaging. The ultrasound examination is presented with a description of the author's technique as well as the technical requirements of the ultrasound unit (12 MHz linear probe with a resolution of 400 microns). They present the ultrasound appearance of normal lymphatic channels and their relationships to the dermis, hypodermis and lymph nodes, and at last the ultrasound appearance of abnormal lymphatic pathways

  18. Origin of Photoplethysmographic Waveform at Green Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamshilin, Alexei A.; Margaryants, Nikita B.

    In this article we analyze a number of observations obtained with the reflection-mode photoplethysmography (PPG), which can hardly be explained by commonly accepted model of the PPG-signal formation. It is shown that the physiologic model of light interaction with living tissue recently proposed by our group provides reasonable explanation of all observations. According to this model, it is pulsatile transmural pressure of the arteries, which compresses/decompresses the density of capillaries in the dermis, thus modulating the blood volume in the capillary bed, which in its turn modulates the power of remitted green light.

  19. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas consistently show histologic evidence of in situ changes: a clinicopathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, S T; Hurwitz, R M; Buckel, L J; Gray, H R

    1999-09-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma on sun-damaged skin is a malignant neoplasm that evolves from its inception as squamous cell carcinoma in situ, which is commonly referred to as an actinic keratosis. In this study, we reviewed 1011 squamous cell carcinomas on sun-damaged skin and found that nearly 100% of these lesions contained histopathologic changes consistent with squamous cell carcinoma in situ at the periphery or within the confines of the squamous cell carcinoma. These malignant changes began in single layer areas of the lower epidermis and evolved into the epidermis and dermis.

  20. Use of a locking compression plate as an external fixator for repair of a tarsometatarsal fracture in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Ronald D; Crandall, Elizabeth; Bellah, Jamie R

    2011-06-01

    We describe the successful treatment of a tarsometatarsal fracture in a mature bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) using a locking compression plate as an external fixator. The anatomy of the area (inelastic dermis and minimal subcutaneous space) and the high forces placed on a fracture at that site necessitated a unique approach to fixation. The unconventional use of a locking compression plate as an external fixator was minimally invasive, well tolerated by the eagle, and provided adequate stability in opposing fracture forces. This technique may serve as a method of fixation for tarsometatarsal fractures in other large avian species.

  1. Nutrition and aging skin: sugar and glycation.

    PubMed

    Danby, F William

    2010-01-01

    The effect of sugars on aging skin is governed by the simple act of covalently cross-linking two collagen fibers, which renders both of them incapable of easy repair. Glucose and fructose link the amino acids present in the collagen and elastin that support the dermis, producing advanced glycation end products or "AGEs." This process is accelerated in all body tissues when sugar is elevated and is further stimulated by ultraviolet light in the skin. The effect on vascular, renal, retinal, coronary, and cutaneous tissues is being defined, as are methods of reducing the glycation load through careful diet and use of supplements.

  2. Contactless diagnostics of biophysical parameters of skin and blood on the basis of approximating functions for radiation fluxes scattered by skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenko, S. A.; Kugeiko, M. M.

    2014-03-01

    Approximating expressions are derived to calculate spectral and spatial characteristics of diffuse reflection of light from a two-layer medium mimicking human skin. The effectiveness of the use of these expressions in the optical diagnosis of skin biophysical parameters (tissue scattering parameters, concentration of melanin in the epidermis, concentration of total haemoglobin and bilirubin in the tissues of the dermis) and content of haemoglobin derivatives in blood (oxy-, deoxy-, met-, carboxy- and sulfhaemoglobin) is analysed numerically. The methods are proposed to determine in realtime these parameters without contact of the measuring instrument with the patient's body.

  3. Use of fractional laser microablation and ultrasound to facilitate the delivery of gold nanoparticles into skin in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terentyuk, G. S.; Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Ryzhova, M. V.; Tsyganova, N. A.; Chumakov, D. S.; Khlebtsov, B. N.; Sazonov, A. A.; Dolotov, L. E.; Tuchin, Valerii V.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.; Inozemtseva, O. A.

    2012-06-01

    The delivery of gold nanoparticles (nanocages coated with a layer of silicon dioxide (40/20 nm)) dispersed in the solution (glycerol + polyethylene glycol-400, 1 : 1) into the skin tissue is studied experimentally in vivo. From the data of optical coherence tomography and histochemical analysis it follows that simple application of suspension of nanoparticles is not efficient enough for delivery of the particles into the skin as a result of passive diffusion. It is shown that fractional laser microablation of skin before the application of the suspension, followed by the topical treatment by ultrasound allows penetration through the epidermis layer and delivery of nanoparticles into dermis and hypodermis

  4. Optical tissue phantoms based on spin coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jihoon; Ha, Myungjin; Yu, Sung Kon; Radfar, Edalat; Jun, Eunkwon; Lee, Nara; Jung, Byungjo

    2015-03-01

    Fabrication of optical tissue phantom (OTP) simulating whole skin structure has been regarded as laborious and time consuming work. This study fabricated multilayer OTP optically and structurally simulating epidermis-dermis structure including blood vessel. Spin coating method was used to produce thin layer mimicking epidermal layer, then optimized for reference epoxy and silicone matrix. Adequacy of both materials in phantom fabrication was considered by comparison the fabrication results. In addition similarities between OTP and biological tissue in optical property and thickness was measured to evaluate this fabrication process.

  5. In vivo low-coherence spectroscopic measurements of local hemoglobin absorption spectra in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosschaart, Nienke; Faber, Dirk J.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2011-10-01

    Localized spectroscopic measurements of optical properties are invaluable for diagnostic applications that involve layered tissue structures, but conventional spectroscopic techniques lack exact control over the size and depth of the probed tissue volume. We show that low-coherence spectroscopy (LCS) overcomes these limitations by measuring local attenuation and absorption coefficient spectra in layered phantoms. In addition, we demonstrate the first in vivo LCS measurements of the human epidermis and dermis only. From the measured absorption in two distinct regions of the dermal microcirculation, we determine total hemoglobin concentration (3.0+/-0.5 g/l and 7.8+/-1.2 g/l) and oxygen saturation.

  6. Elemental concentrations in skin of patients with fibroeptelial polip using synchrotron radiation total reflection x-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Júlio C. A. C. R.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Canellas, Catarine G. L.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2012-05-01

    In this work, the concentrations of trace elements were measured in acrochordon, a skin lesion also known as skin tag or fibroepithelial polyp, as well as in normal skin from the same patient. The samples were analyzed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (SRTXRF) in the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (LNLS) in Campinas/São Paulo-Brazil. The collection of lesion and healthy skin samples, including papillary dermis and epidermis, has involved 17 patients. It was evaluated the presence of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in the paired samples, which were compared, and significant differences were found in some of them.

  7. Simulation of the effect of photoprotective titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on the thermal response and optical characteristics of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnikov, I. V.; Seteikin, A. Yu.; Popov, A. P.

    2015-04-01

    The thermal response of skin covered with a mixture of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles of optimal sizes and irradiated by sunlight has been calculated. The nanoparticles were rubbed into the skin for maximum protection against the incident radiation. The dependences of the temperature dynamics in different skin layers (corneal layer, epidermis, dermis) have been obtained and analyzed upon skin irradiation with light at a wavelength of 310-800 nm. It has been found that increasing light scattering and absorption due to the nanoparticles introduced into the corneal layer resulted in a decrease in the thermal load and penetration depth of the incident radiation.

  8. Actinic reticuloid

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, J.L.; Vale, M.; Dermer, P.; Ragaz, A.; Michaelides, P.; Gladstein, A.H.

    1982-09-01

    A 58-year-old man has his condition diagnosed as actinic reticuloid on the basis of clinical and histologic findings and phototesting data. He had clinical features resembling mycosis fungoides in light-exposed areas. Histologic findings disclosed a bandlike infiltrate with atypical mononuclear cells in the dermis and scattered atypical cells in the epidermis. Electron microscopy disclosed mononuclear cells with bizarre, convoluted nuclei, resembling cerebriform cells of Lutzner. Phototesting disclosed a diminished minimal erythemal threshold to UV-B and UV-A. Microscopic changes resembling actinic reticuloid were reproduced in this patient 24 and 72 hours after exposure to 15 minimal erythemal doses of UV-B.

  9. Use of fractional laser microablation and ultrasound to facilitate the delivery of gold nanoparticles into skin in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Terentyuk, G S; Genina, Elina A; Bashkatov, A N; Ryzhova, M V; Tsyganova, N A; Chumakov, D S; Khlebtsov, B N; Sazonov, A A; Dolotov, L E; Tuchin, Valerii V; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G; Inozemtseva, O A

    2012-06-30

    The delivery of gold nanoparticles (nanocages coated with a layer of silicon dioxide (40/20 nm)) dispersed in the solution (glycerol + polyethylene glycol-400, 1 : 1) into the skin tissue is studied experimentally in vivo. From the data of optical coherence tomography and histochemical analysis it follows that simple application of suspension of nanoparticles is not efficient enough for delivery of the particles into the skin as a result of passive diffusion. It is shown that fractional laser microablation of skin before the application of the suspension, followed by the topical treatment by ultrasound allows penetration through the epidermis layer and delivery of nanoparticles into dermis and hypodermis.

  10. Effects of low frequency pulsed electrical current on keratinocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Hinsenkamp, M.; Jercinovic, A.

    1997-05-01

    The effects of low frequency pulsed electrical current on epidermal repair in vitro were examined. Charge-balanced current stimuli proposed for chronic wound treatment were tested on skin keratinocytes cultured at an air-liquid interface on dead human dermis. Results imply that the balance between proliferation and differentiation in electrically treated samples is significantly modified in favor of differentiation. More advanced differentiation, shown through epidermal histology, was obtained in cultures exposed to electrical current, whereas the culture growth, the result of keratinocyte migration and proliferation, was greater in control samples.

  11. Solar elastosis in its papular form: uncommon, mistakable.

    PubMed

    Heng, Jun Khee; Aw, Derrick Chen Wee; Tan, Kong Bing

    2014-01-01

    Solar elastosis is a degenerative condition of elastic tissue in the dermis due to prolonged sun exposure. There are a variety of clinical manifestations of solar elastosis. In its most common form, solar elastosis manifests as yellow, thickened, coarsely wrinkled skin. We report two uncommon cases of severe solar elastosis with a papular morphology. Its presentation can closely mimic a host of cutaneous disorders and thus, although it is helpful to be cognizant of this entity, it is still crucial to biopsy these lesions to avoid missing a more sinister condition.

  12. Quantitative analysis on collagen morphology in aging skin based on multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shulian; Li, Hui; Yang, Hongqin; Zhang, Xiaoman; Li, Zhifang; Xu, Shufei

    2011-04-01

    Multiphoton microscopy was employed for monitoring the structure changes of mouse dermis collagen in the intrinsic- or the extrinsic-age-related processes in vivo. The characteristics of textures in different aging skins were uncovered by fast Fourier transform in which the orientation index and bundle packing of collagen were quantitatively analyzed. Some significant differences in collagen-related changes are found in different aging skins, which can be good indicators for the statuses of aging skins. The results are valuable to the study of aging skin and also of interest to biomedical photonics.

  13. ECM1 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    ECM1 is an extracellular protein containing motifs with a cysteine pattern characteristic of the cysteine pattern of the ligand-binding "double-loop" domains of the albumin protein family. It is involved in endochondral bone formation as negative regulator of bone mineralization. EMC1 stimulates the proliferation of endothelial cells and promotes angiogenesis. It also inhibits MMP9 proteolytic activity. ECM1 is expressed in breast cancer tissues, however little or no expression observed in normal breast tissues. It is also expressed in skin; wide expression is observed throughout the dermis with minimal expression in the epidermis.

  14. Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma in association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Rishi; Arunprasath, P.; Padmavathy, L.; Srivenkateswaran, K.

    2016-01-01

    Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma (AEGCG) is a rare granulomatous skin disease characterized clinically by annular plaques with elevated borders and atrophic centers found mainly on sun-exposed skin and histologically by diffuse granulomatous infiltrates composed of multinucleated giant cells, histiocytes and lymphocytes in the dermis along with phagocytosis of elastic fibers by multinucleated giant cells. We report a case of AEGCG in a 50-year-old woman and is highlighted for the classical clinical and histological findings of the disease and its rare co-existence with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID:27057492

  15. Asymptomatic Papulo-nodules Localized to One Finger

    PubMed Central

    Rambhia, Kinjal D; Khopkar, Uday S

    2015-01-01

    Subcutaneous or deep granuloma annulare is a benign asymptomatic condition characterized by firm asymptomatic nodules in deep subcutaneous tissues that may be associated with intradermal lesions. A 53-year-old female presented with asymptomatic skin-colored, firm nodules over the right ring finger. Histopathology revealed a palisading granuloma with central degenerated collagen and mucin deposition in the dermis suggestive of granuloma annulare. Isolated and unilateral involvement of a single digit with clusters of nodules of subcutaneous granuloma annulare (GA) in an adult is rare and differentiation from its simulator rheumatoid nodule is essential. PMID:26538728

  16. Nevus lipomatosus cutaneous superficialis*

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Gustavo de Sá Menezes; Cavalcanti, Silvana Maria de Morais; Herênio, Alzinira Souza; Teixeira, Márcia Almeida Galvão; de Alencar, Eliane Ruth Barbosa; Gonçalves, Sergio Paulo Mendes

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of nevus lipomatosus cutaneous superficialis of Hoffman-Zurhelle (NCLS), with multiple lesions, in a ten-year-old child. The NLCS is considered rare. The classical clinical presentation is characterized by multiple skin-colored or yellowish papules and nodules, which can have a linear distribution. Histologically, it is characterized by the presence of mature ectopic adipocytes in the dermis. The main therapeutic option is surgical excision. The classical Nevus lipomatosus cutaneous superficialis is reported in this case. PMID:28300914

  17. Dosimetry for lasers and light in dermatology: Monte Carlo simulations of 577 nm-pulsed laser penetration into cutaneous vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, Steven L.; Keijzer, Marleen

    1991-06-01

    The role of skin optics in planning proper dosimetry for radiant energy delivered by lasers and conventional light sources is presented. The optical properties of the epidermis, dermis, and cutaneous blood are summarized. The ability of laser pulses at 577-nm wavelength to penetrate into and around a large blood vessel is studied using Monte Carlo simulations. The variation in laser penetration for variable beam diameters and variable vessel depths in presented. The distinction between TOTAL PULSE ENERGY versus PULSE ENERGY DENSITY is illustrated. The topic of this paper is especially pertinent to laser therapy for portwine stain lesions.

  18. Cytokine production by blue tongue virus-infected fetal sheep cells.

    PubMed Central

    Enright, F M; Osburn, B I

    1979-01-01

    The migration inhibition of guinea pig peritoneal macrophages by a factor(s) from media obtained from blue tongue virus-infected monolayer cultures was studied. Medium from blue tongue virus-infected sheep fetal cell cultures inhibited migration of guinea pig macrophages from agarose droplets. Medium from control cultures and stock virus did not inhibit macrophage migration. Medium containing migration inhibiting factor(s) in vitro induced an inflammatory reaction in the skin of a newborn sheep. The inflammatory reaction was observed 20 h after intradermal inoculation. The skin reaction consisted of infiltrates of mononuclear leukocytes in the superficial dermis. Control medium and stock virus caused no skin reaction. Images PMID:225275

  19. Autologous Smashed Dermal Graft with Epidermal Re-closure: Modified Technique for Acne Scars

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraju, Umashankar; Chikkaiah, Mahesh K; Raju, Belliappa P; Agarwal, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Conventional technique of dermal grafting for acne scars where the source of filler material used is the patient's own dermis requires longer surgical time, recovery period and can result in unsightly scars at the donor area. Hence, it is not suitable for treating a larger number of scars. Furthermore, these dermal grafts are firm and cannot be contoured to fit all types of acne scars. Occurrence of epidermal cyst and secondary infection is another complication if epidermis is not completely removed. Enzymatic techniques need trypsinisation which is expensive and requires laboratory facilities. PMID:28163459

  20. In vivo low-coherence spectroscopic measurements of local hemoglobin absorption spectra in human skin.

    PubMed

    Bosschaart, Nienke; Faber, Dirk J; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G

    2011-10-01

    Localized spectroscopic measurements of optical properties are invaluable for diagnostic applications that involve layered tissue structures, but conventional spectroscopic techniques lack exact control over the size and depth of the probed tissue volume. We show that low-coherence spectroscopy (LCS) overcomes these limitations by measuring local attenuation and absorption coefficient spectra in layered phantoms. In addition, we demonstrate the first in vivo LCS measurements of the human epidermis and dermis only. From the measured absorption in two distinct regions of the dermal microcirculation, we determine total hemoglobin concentration (3.0±0.5 g∕l and 7.8±1.2 g∕l) and oxygen saturation.

  1. The most common mistakes on dermatoscopy of melanocytic lesions.

    PubMed

    Kamińska-Winciorek, Grażyna; Placek, Waldemar

    2015-02-01

    Dermatoscopy is a method of in vivo evaluation of the structures within the epidermis and dermis. Currently, it may be the most precise pre-surgical method of diagnosing melanocytic lesions. Diagnostic errors may result in unnecessary removal of benign lesions or what is even worse, they can cause early and very early melanomas to be overlooked. Errors in assessment of dermatoscopy can be divided into those arising from failure to maintain proper test procedures (procedural and technical errors) and knowledge based mistakes related to the lack of sufficient familiarity and experience in dermatoscopy. The article discusses the most common mistakes made by beginner or inexperienced dermatoscopists.

  2. [Normolipemic plane xanthomas and mycosis fungoides].

    PubMed

    García-Arpa, Mónica; Rodríguez-Vázquez, María; Vera, Elena; Romero, Guillermo; González-García, Jesús; Cortina, Pilar

    2005-06-01

    Diffuse normolipemic plane xanthomas are characterized by the presence of yellowish plaques on the eyelids, neck, upper trunk, buttocks and flexures. Histology shows foamy histiocytes in the dermis. Approximately half of all cases are associated with hematological disorders. On rare occasions, they have been described in the context of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. We present the case of a female patient with tumor-stage mycosis fungoides who developed normolipemic plane xanthomas coinciding with the appearance of new lymphoma lesions. We review English-language literature regarding the rare association of xanthomas and cutaneous T-cell lymphomas.

  3. Burn sepsis and burn toxin

    PubMed Central

    Allgöwer, Martin; Städtler, Karl; Schoenenberger, Guido A

    1974-01-01

    The salient steps of a 20-year programme of research into the nature of burn disease are described. By burn disease we mean the late mortality and morbidity following burns. We have isolated a burn toxin which is derived from a thermal polymerization of cell membrane lipoproteins within the dermis and have studied its influence on the effects of sepsis. We have also used it in the development of active and passive immunization therapy of severe burns. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:4429330

  4. Cherry Angiomas on the Scalp

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Park, Hwa-young; Ahn, Sung Ku

    2009-01-01

    Cherry angiomas are a common cutaneous vascular proliferation which manifests as single or multiple spots and occurs predominantly on the upper trunk and arms. They typically appear as round-to-oval, bright, red, dome-shaped papules and pinpoint macules measuring up to several millimeters in diameter. The histopathologic findings of a cherry angioma are consistent with a true capillary hemangioma, which is formed by numerous, newly developed capillaries with narrow lumens and prominent endothelial cells arranged in a lobular fashion in the papillary dermis. Herein, we report a case of multiple cherry angiomas on the scalp, an uncommon location for cherry angiomas. PMID:20652121

  5. Cherry Angiomas on the Scalp.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Park, Hwa-Young; Ahn, Sung Ku

    2009-11-11

    Cherry angiomas are a common cutaneous vascular proliferation which manifests as single or multiple spots and occurs predominantly on the upper trunk and arms. They typically appear as round-to-oval, bright, red, dome-shaped papules and pinpoint macules measuring up to several millimeters in diameter. The histopathologic findings of a cherry angioma are consistent with a true capillary hemangioma, which is formed by numerous, newly developed capillaries with narrow lumens and prominent endothelial cells arranged in a lobular fashion in the papillary dermis. Herein, we report a case of multiple cherry angiomas on the scalp, an uncommon location for cherry angiomas.

  6. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVIII: VII: results of scalp examination.

    PubMed

    Vogel, F S; Lloyd, B; Cruty, M R; Benton, E V

    1975-04-01

    The scalps of the four pocket mice that were recovered alive from the Apollo XVII flight contained acute focal lesions in the epidermis and an inflammatory reaction in the subjacent dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Hair follicles were focally damaged in three of the four mice. There were 13 scalp lesions singled out in the four flight mice because of histological features that distinguished them from changes observed in the scalps of the control mice. There was only one possible coincidence between a lesion and the trajectory of a cosmic ray particle registered in a subscalp dosimeter. There is, however, a possibility that at least some lesions were produced by unregistered particles.

  7. Fibrous hamartoma of infancy.

    PubMed

    Vinayak, Rohan S; Kumar, Sumit; Chandana, Sudhir; Trivedi, Priti

    2011-01-01

    Fibrous hamartoma of infancy (FHI) is a rare, benign tumor of the subcutis and lower dermis, which usually occurs within the first 2 years of life. Ninety one percent of the tumors occur in the first year of life. The histogenesis of FHI is unclear. The clinical course is typically benign and prognosis excellent. The physical characteristics of the subcutaneous mass in a child may suggest a malignant process; however, FHI should be included in the differential diagnosis. The prognosis of FHI is excellent with local surgical excision and it rarely recurs.

  8. Nevus Lipomatosus Cutaneous Superficialis - A Rare Hamartoma: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Wankhade, Vaishali Hainath; Mukhi, Jayesh Ishwardas; Singh, Rajesh Pratap

    2016-01-01

    Nevus Lipomatosus Cutaneous Superficialis (NLCS) is a rare benign hamartomatous disorder in which mature collection of adipocytes are present ectopically in the dermis. NLCS usually presents as multiple, soft, pedunculated, cerebriform, yellowish or skin colored papules, nodules, or plaques, mostly involving the pelvic or gluteal region. We herewith report two cases of adult onset classical NLCS. First case had a classical presentation with lesion on lower back while second case was associated with some unusual features like occurrence on pubic area and associated comedo-like lesions. PMID:27891437

  9. Junctional epidermolysis bullosa in two siblings: clinical observations, collagen studies and electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Oakley, C A; Wilson, N; Ross, J A; Barnetson, R S

    1984-11-01

    Two siblings with junctional epidermolysis bullosa are described: both survived beyond parturition. They were treated with the usual therapeutic doses of phenytoin, dapsone, prednisolone, and zinc supplements without effect. Investigation of the skin of one of the patients showed that his fibroblasts, collagen synthesis and collagenase levels were normal. In view of the normality of the collagenase levels, it is probably not surprising that phenytoin was ineffective. Electron microscopy demonstrated junctional cleavage without pathology in the dermis itself: abnormal hemidesmosomes were seen as described previously, though it is suggested that this is not the primary abnormality which results in the disease process.

  10. Localization of the defect in skin diseases analyzed in the human skin graft-nude mouse model.

    PubMed

    Briggaman, R A

    1980-01-01

    Human skin can be grown away from its donor for prolonged periods as grafts on congenitally athymic "nude" mice. This system has been used to analyze the defect in several skin diseases, specifically to localize the site of the defect to the skin itself or to the epidermal or dermal components of the skin. In order to validate the use of the nude mouse human skin graft system in the analysis of skin defects, we have demonstrated that a systemic metabolic defect which involves the skin, namely essential fatty acid deficiency, can be differentiated from a defect residing primarily in the skin itself. Skin-marker systems have been developed for use with the nude mouse-human skin graft model to document the identity of human skin grafts and epidermal and dermal components of the grafts after prolonged periods of growth on the nude athymic mice. Y-body, a small fluorescent segment of the Y-chromosome seen in interphase cells, is used as a sex marker and serves to distinguish sex differences between the graft and the mouse recipient or between skin components of the graft. The ABH "blood-group" antigens are present on differentiated epidermal cell surfaces and identify the grafted epidermis according to the blood groups of the donor. In previous studies, lamellar ichthyosis was shown to be well maintained after prolonged periods of growth on nude athymic mice, indicating that the defect in this disease resides in the skin itself. Recombinant grafts composed of normal and lamellar ichthyosis epidermis and dermis further localize the defect to lamellar ichthyosis epidermis. Psoriasis is well maintained on the nude mouse-skin graft model. The epidermal hyperplasia and hyperproliferative epidermal cell kinetics of psoriasis are manifested in the grafts of active psoriasis maintained for prolonged periods on the nude mice, but the inflammatory component of psoriasis is absent. Recombinant graft studies utilizing normal and psoriatic epidermis and dermis demonstrate psoriasis

  11. Immunohistochemical localization of irisin in skin, eye, and thyroid and pineal glands of the crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata).

    PubMed

    Gençer Tarakçı, B; Girgin, A; Timurkaan, S; Yalçın, M H; Gür, F M; Karan, M

    2016-08-01

    Irisin was first identified in muscle cells. We detected irisin immunoreactivity in various organs of the crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata). In the epidermis, irisin immunoreactivity was localized mainly in stratum basale, stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum layers; immunoreactivity was not observed in the stratum corneum. In the dermis, irisin was found in the external and internal root sheath, cortex and medulla of hair follicles, and in sebaceous glands. Irisin immunoreactivity was found in the neural retina and skeletal muscle fibers associated with the eye. The pineal and thyroid glands also exhibited irisin immunoreactivity.

  12. Cutaneous scar at anterior hair line in mother and child with associated frontal bone defect in child.

    PubMed

    Stratis, J P; Ramer, J C; Manders, E K; Lehman, R A; Ladda, R L

    1992-09-15

    A large frontal bone defect underlying a "V" shaped scar was noted in a newborn male whose mother had an identical "V" shaped scar at the same location in the anterior hairline. Both had hypertelorism and short palpebral fissures. The mother had no radiographic evidence of skull defect and neither mother nor child had other cutaneous or skeletal anomalies. Cranioplasty was performed on the child using the remaining frontal bones with an excellent cosmetic result. Biopsy performed at operation documented scar tissue extending through the dermis and underlain by thickened dura. Mother and child appear to have a variant form of aplasia cutis congenita, an autosomal dominant trait with wide variation in expression.

  13. Psoriasis-like lesions in a patient with familial Mediterranean fever.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Miwa; Koike, Yuta; Kuwatsuka, Sayaka; Ichinose, Kunihiro; Migita, Kiyoshi; Sano, Shigetoshi; Utani, Atsushi

    2016-03-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a rare hereditary autoinflammatory disorder that is caused by pyrin gene mutation associated with aberrance of the interleukin (IL)-1β pathway and characterized by recurrent, self-limiting attacks of fever and other inflammatory symptoms. We report a case of FMF with annular erythema and psoriasis-like lesions, the latter of which demonstrated parakeratosis with neutrophil microabscesses and mild inflammatory mononuclear cell infiltration in the upper dermis. Immunofluorescence staining showed IL-17-positive T-cells. Skin eruption with neutrophil migration in the epidermis may be provoked by T-helper 17 cell activation through the abnormal IL-1β cascade in FMF.

  14. Lipid functions in skin: Differential effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cutaneous ceramides, in a human skin organ culture model.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Alexandra C; Kiezel-Tsugunova, Magdalena; Brownbridge, Luke C; Harwood, John L; Nicolaou, Anna

    2017-03-21

    Ceramides are important for skin health, with a multitude of species found in both dermis and epidermis. The epidermis contains linoleic acid-Ester-linked Omega-hydroxylated ceramides of 6-Hydroxy-sphingosine, Sphingosine and Phytosphingosine bases (CER[EOH], CER[EOS] and CER[EOP], respectively), that are crucial for the formation of the epidermal barrier, conferring protection from environmental factors and preventing trans-epidermal water loss. Furthermore, a large number of ceramides, derivatives of the same sphingoid bases and various fatty acids, are produced by dermal and epidermal cells and perform signalling roles in cell functions ranging from differentiation to apoptosis. Supplementation with the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have shown promise as therapeutic agents in a number of inflammatory skin conditions, altering the lipid profile of the skin and production of bioactive lipids such as the eicosanoids, docosanoids and endocannabinoids. In this study we wished to investigate whether EPA and DHA could also affect the ceramide profile in epidermis and dermis, and, in this way, contribute to formation of a robust lipid barrier and ceramide-mediated regulation of skin functions. Ex vivo skin explants were cultured for 6days, and supplemented with EPA or DHA (50μM). Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation was used to assess the prevalence of 321 individual ceramide species, and a number of sphingoid bases, phosphorylated sphingoid bases, and phosphorylated ceramides, within the dermis and epidermis. EPA augmented dermal production of members of the ceramide families containing Non-hydroxy fatty acids and Sphingosine or Dihydrosphingosine bases (CER[NS] and CER[NDS], respectively), while epidermal CER[EOH], CER[EOS] and CER[EOP] ceramides were not affected. DHA did not significantly affect ceramide production. Ceramide-1-phosphate levels in

  15. Characterization of dermal structural assembly in normal and pathological connective tissues by intrinsic signal multiphoton optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubovitsky, Julia G.; Xu, Xiaoman; Sun, Chung-ho; Andersen, Bogi; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2008-02-01

    Employing a reflectance multi-photon microscopy (MPM) technique, we developed novel method to quantitatively study the three-dimensional assembly of structural proteins within bulk of dermal ECMs. Using a structurally simplified model of skin with enzymatically dissected epidermis, we find that low resolution MPM clearly discriminates between normal and pathological dermis. High-resolution images revealed that the backscattered MPM signals are affected by the assembly of collagen fibrils and fibers within this system. Exposure of tissues to high concentrations of potentially denaturing chemicals also resulted in the reduction of SHG signals from structural proteins which coincided with the appearance of aggregated fluorescent structures.

  16. Contactless diagnostics of biophysical parameters of skin and blood on the basis of approximating functions for radiation fluxes scattered by skin

    SciTech Connect

    Lisenko, S A; Kugeiko, M M

    2014-03-28

    Approximating expressions are derived to calculate spectral and spatial characteristics of diffuse reflection of light from a two-layer medium mimicking human skin. The effectiveness of the use of these expressions in the optical diagnosis of skin biophysical parameters (tissue scattering parameters, concentration of melanin in the epidermis, concentration of total haemoglobin and bilirubin in the tissues of the dermis) and content of haemoglobin derivatives in blood (oxy-, deoxy-, met-, carboxy- and sulfhaemoglobin) is analysed numerically. The methods are proposed to determine in realtime these parameters without contact of the measuring instrument with the patient's body. (biophotonics)

  17. Lichen planus pigmentosus.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Evan; Kaplan, Jennifer; Kamino, Hideko; Sanchez, Miguel; Pomeranz, Miriam Keltz

    2013-12-16

    Lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP) is an uncommon variant of lichen planus that tends to occur in middle-aged individuals with darker pigmented skin. Clinical findings include hyperpigmented, brown to gray-brown macules and patches in sun-exposed areas, typically on the head and neck. Histopathologic features include epidermal atrophy, vacuolar degeneration of the basal layer of the epidermis, perivascular lymphohistiocystic infiltrate in the upper dermis, and dermal melanophages. We present a unique case of LPP that was characterized by an atypical initial inflammatory phase and subsequent circinate lesions with central clearing.

  18. Lichen planus pigmentosus inversus*

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Hugo Rocha; de Almeida, José Roberto Paes; Dinato, Sandra Lopes Mattos e; Sementilli, Angelo; Romiti, Ney

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five year old male patient presenting with asymptomatic brown spots, on cervical, axillary, inguinal and popliteal regions, for the last nine months. Pathological examination showed hydropic degeneration of the basal layer, pigmentary incontinence and moderate inflammatory lymphocytic infiltrate in the dermis. Lichen planus pigmentosus inversus is a rare subtype of lichen planus characterized by hyperchromic, asymptomatic or mildly pruritic macules, measuring from millimeters to centimeters in diameter, with defined borders, affecting intertriginous areas, most commonly in the axillae and groin of Caucasian patients. It presents unique lichenoid histology. We report a case with typical clinical features, histology and evolution. PMID:24346904

  19. Lichen planus pigmentosus inversus.

    PubMed

    Barros, Hugo Rocha; Almeida, José Roberto Paes de; Mattos e Dinato, Sandra Lopes; Sementilli, Angelo; Romiti, Ney

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five year old male patient presenting with asymptomatic brown spots, on cervical, axillary, inguinal and popliteal regions, for the last nine months. Pathological examination showed hydropic degeneration of the basal layer, pigmentary incontinence and moderate inflammatory lymphocytic infiltrate in the dermis. Lichen planus pigmentosus inversus is a rare subtype of lichen planus characterized by hyperchromic, asymptomatic or mildly pruritic macules, measuring from millimeters to centimeters in diameter, with defined borders, affecting intertriginous areas, most commonly in the axillae and groin of Caucasian patients. It presents unique lichenoid histology. We report a case with typical clinical features, histology and evolution.

  20. Noninvasive, optical detection of diabetes: model studies with porcine skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, E. L.; Ediger, M. N.; Unione, A. H. T.; Deemer, E. K.; Stroman, M. L.; Baynes, J. W.

    2004-09-01

    An in vitro study was performed to evaluate noninvasive spectroscopic measurement of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) in skin collagen. A porcine dermis preparation was incubated in solutions simulating normal and hyperglycemic conditions. The AGEs kinetics of increase were determined by HPLC and GC/MS assays, and compared to near-infrared (NIR) and ultraviolet/visible fluorescence skin spectra. Multivariate analysis indicated that, although NIR did not discriminate between collagen samples exposed to different glucose concentrations, fluorescence changes were readily detected and correlated strongly with skin concentration of AGEs. These results suggest that measurement of skin AGEs by fluorescence spectroscopy may be useful for detection and diagnosis of type II diabetes.

  1. The usefulness of c-Kit in the immunohistochemical assessment of melanocytic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Pilloni, L.; Bianco, P.; Difelice, E.; Cabras, S.; Castellanos, M.E.; Atzori, L.; Ferreli, C.; Mulas, P.; Nemolato, S.; Faa, G.

    2011-01-01

    C-Kit (CD117), the receptor for the stem cell factor, a growth factor for melanocyte migration and proliferation, has shown differential immunostaining in various benign and malignant melanocytic lesions. The purpose of this study is to compare c-Kit immunostaining in benign nevi and in primary and metastatic malignant melanomas, to determine whether c-Kit can aid in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. c-Kit immunostaining was performed in 60 cases of pigmented lesions, including 39 benign nevi (5 blue nevi, 5 intra-dermal nevi, 3 junctional nevi, 15 cases of primary compound nevus, 11 cases of Spitz nevus), 18 cases of primary malignant melanoma and 3 cases of metastatic melanoma. The vast majority of nevi and melanomas examined in this study were positive for c-Kit, with minimal differences between benign and malignant lesions. C-Kit cytoplasmatic immunoreactivity in the intraepidermal proliferating nevus cells, was detected in benign pigmented lesions as well as in malignant melanoma, increasing with the age of patients (P=0.007) in both groups. The patient’s age at presentation appeared to be the variable able to cluster benign and malignant pigmented lesions. The percentage of c-Kit positive intraepidermal nevus cells was better associated with age despite other variables (P=0.014). The intensity and percentage of c-Kit positivity in the proliferating nevus cells in the dermis was significantly increased in malignant melanocytic lesions (P=0.015 and P=0.008) compared to benign lesions (compound melanocytic nevi, Spitz nevi, intradermal nevi, blue nevi). Immunostaning for c-Kit in metastatic melanomas was negative. Interestingly in two cases of melanoma occurring on a pre-existent nevus, the melanoma tumor cells showed strong cytoplasmatic and membranous positivity for c-kit, in contrast with the absence of any immunoreactivity in pre-existent intradermal nevus cells. C-Kit does not appear to be a strong immunohistochemical marker for distinguishing

  2. Acute localized exanthematous pustulosis caused by cefoperazone and sodium sulbactam*

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yan-Jing; Jin, Shu-Bin; Han, Xiang-Chun; Zheng, Li-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Acute localized exanthematous pustulosis is a localized variant of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, which is characterized by the eruption of multiple scattered pustules following drug administration. A 72-year-old woman presented with multiple erythematous pustules on her face, which had appeared two days after using cefoperazone and sodium sulbactam. Histopathological findings showed subcorneal pustules and mixed inflammatory cell infiltration in the dermis. The pustules resolved within about two weeks after the patient discontinued the antibiotics. This report discusses the case of a woman with a cutaneous drug reaction consistent with acute localized exanthematous pustulosis that occurred after cefoperazone and sodium sulbactam were administered. PMID:28099605

  3. [Eosinophilic cellulitis: About a new pediatric case].

    PubMed

    Makni, Saadia; Kallel, Rim; Chaabène, Hend; Bahloul, Emna; Bahri, Ibtissem; Turki, Hamida; Gouiaa, Naourez; Boudawara, Tahya

    2015-12-01

    Wells' syndrome or "eosinophilic cellulitis" is characterized by clinical features of cellulitis and histological pictures of eosinophils infiltrate of the dermis with some « flame » figures. This is a very rare disease in the pediatric age. We report the case of a 14-month-old boy, presented with two farms painful nodular brownish lesions in the thigh and back of the foot as well as multiple erythematous papular and vesicular lesions on the forehead, cheeks, limbs and trunk. Biological analysis and histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of Wells' syndrome. The outcome was favorable with dermocorticoid.

  4. Can cellulite be treated with low-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Angehrn, Fiorenzo; Kuhn, Christoph; Voss, Axel

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of low-energy defocused extracorporeal generated shock waves on collagen structure of cellulite afflicted skin. Cellulite measurement using high-resolution ultrasound technology was performed before and after low-energy defocused extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in 21 female subjects. ESWT was applied onto the skin at the lateral thigh twice a week for a period of six weeks. Results provide evidence that low-energy defocused ESWT caused remodeling of the collagen within the dermis of the tested region. Improving device-parameters and therapy regimes will be essential for future development of a scientific based approach to cellulite treatment. PMID:18225463

  5. Plasma cell cheilitis, successfully treated with topical 0.03% tacrolimus ointment.

    PubMed

    Jin, Seon Pil; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Huh, Chang Hun

    2010-05-01

    Plasma cell cheilitis is a rare, idiopathic mucosal condition. The treatment of plasma cell cheilitis is often disappointing. It is often resistant to various topical treatments. We present a 65-year-old woman who had a painful, eroded area on her lower lip, which responded poorly to various topical treatments. A biopsy revealed a band-like infiltration composed mainly of plasma cells in the dermis. She was diagnosed as having plasma cell cheilitis, and was successfully treated with 0.03% topical tacrolimus ointment.

  6. Dermal Influence on Epidermal Resurfacing during the Repair of Split Thickness Wounds.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-15

    RESOLUTION TEST CHART N~ATIONAL BU.REAU OF STANDAPOS -1465 AW 4/ % % R %. . - -. ’. - ., PHOTOGRAPH THIS SHEET i.&6MAi- 1jNrLL(AC~t o~j 6PIA6PJ4AL ~I~ 00...epidermal and dermal interrelationships during wound repair. Platelets contain a growth factor for dermal fibroblasts. We are testing the effects of...examine the effects on the epidermis of adding a factor that affects the dermis (factors from platelets). Two methods were used to test for a

  7. Novel method for preventing solar ultraviolet-radiation-induced skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Weimin; Cui, Ting; Sigel, George H., Jr.

    1991-06-01

    We used the Monte Carlo method to evaluate UV-A radiation penetration through human skin (epidermis and dermis). Calculations were performed for multilayered medium, refractive indices mismatch on boundaries of the sample and finite width of incident beam. The fluence rate distributions of UV-A radiation (wavelength 337 nm) within tissue are presented. In order to optimize the laser PUVA treatment of psoriasis were have developed the mathematical model of the dynamics of cell processed within epidermis. The task of optimal control for PUVA treatment is formulated

  8. The most common mistakes on dermatoscopy of melanocytic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kamińska-Winciorek, Grażyna

    2015-01-01

    Dermatoscopy is a method of in vivo evaluation of the structures within the epidermis and dermis. Currently, it may be the most precise pre-surgical method of diagnosing melanocytic lesions. Diagnostic errors may result in unnecessary removal of benign lesions or what is even worse, they can cause early and very early melanomas to be overlooked. Errors in assessment of dermatoscopy can be divided into those arising from failure to maintain proper test procedures (procedural and technical errors) and knowledge based mistakes related to the lack of sufficient familiarity and experience in dermatoscopy. The article discusses the most common mistakes made by beginner or inexperienced dermatoscopists. PMID:25821425

  9. Subepidermal calcified nodule in upper eyelid: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Samaka, Rehab Monir; Al-Madhani, Ali; Hussian, Shereen Ossman

    2015-01-01

    Calcinosis cutis involves the inappropriate deposition of calcium within the dermis layer of the skin and is often associated with autoimmune diseases. A 3-year-old healthy Omani child presented for evaluation of asymptomatic hard nodule on the left upper eyelid. Pathological examination identified the mass as subepidermal calcified nodule. The patient had no history of trauma or metabolic disturbances. Serum levels of calcium and phosphate were normal. Idiopathic calcinosis cutis should be included in the differential diagnosis for eye lid mass. PMID:25709278

  10. Simultaneous Larva Migrans and Larva Currens Caused by Strongyloides stercoralis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Corte, Liliam Dalla; da Silva, Mariana Vale Scribel; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins

    2013-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is an infectious disease caused by the Strongyloides stercoralis larvae, which penetrate the skin, go through the lymphatic circulation, and migrate to the lungs before reaching the intestines. They mature and may cause cutaneous strongyloidiasis, known as larva currens because of the quick migratory rate of the larva. The authors describe a case in which the larvae did not follow their natural lymph route, and after penetrating into the intertriginous area, they migrated to the dermis, developing larva migrans in the early phase, and later associated with the typical lesions of larva currens. The diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of larva in the skin biopsy. PMID:23476820

  11. The deep penetrating nevus.

    PubMed

    Strazzula, Lauren; Senna, Maryanne Makredes; Yasuda, Mariko; Belazarian, Leah

    2014-12-01

    The deep penetrating nevus (DPN), also known as the plexiform spindle cell nevus, is a pigmented lesion that commonly arises on the head and neck in the first few decades of life. Histopathologically, the DPN is wedge-shaped and contains melanocytes that exhibit deep infiltration into the dermis. Given these features, DPN may clinically and histopathologically mimic malignant melanoma, sparking confusion about the appropriate evaluation and management of these lesions. The goal of this review is to summarize the clinical and histopathological features of DPN and to discuss diagnostic and treatment strategies for dermatologists.

  12. Regression approach to non-invasive determination of bilirubin in neonatal blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysenko, S. A.; Kugeiko, M. M.

    2012-07-01

    A statistical ensemble of structural and biophysical parameters of neonatal skin was modeled based on experimental data. Diffuse scattering coefficients of the skin in the visible and infrared regions were calculated by applying a Monte-Carlo method to each realization of the ensemble. The potential accuracy of recovering the bilirubin concentration in dermis (which correlates closely with that in blood) was estimated from spatially resolved spectrometric measurements of diffuse scattering. The possibility to determine noninvasively the bilirubin concentration was shown by measurements of diffuse scattering at λ = 460, 500, and 660 nm at three source-detector separations under conditions of total variability of the skin biophysical parameters.

  13. Nine cases of Merkel cell tumour.

    PubMed Central

    Bose, A

    1997-01-01

    Merkel cell tumour is an aggressive neuroendocrine neoplasm arising in the dermis. Although only a few hundred cases have been reported worldwide, nine were seen in Nottingham between 1985 and early 1994. The patients were five women and four men age 63-88. One was the first Afro-Caribbean reported to have such a tumour. In no case was the diagnosis made clinically; histological and histochemical examination was necessary. Three of the patients died quickly with metastatic disease. The primary treatment is surgical excision. For advanced disease, radiotherapy is commonly beneficial. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9306997

  14. Myxofibrosarcoma - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Breno Augusto Campos; Piancastelli, André Costa Cruz; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Piancastelli, Patricia Mourthe; Ribeiro, Carlos Alberto; Miranda, Rubem Mateus Campos

    2016-01-01

    Myxofibrosarcoma is recognized as a malignant neoplasm of fibroblastic origin with increased prevalence in the elderly, presenting as nodules or tumors that may extend to the dermis and skeletal muscle, preferably in the lower limbs. Histologically it is characterized by a proliferation of spindle cells in a myxoid stroma. Myxofibrosarcoma has a high potential for local recurrence and metastasis, mainly when it presents a high or intermediate histological grade. We report the case of an eighty-four year old patient with a difficult diagnosis of a highly aggressive tumor. PMID:26982788

  15. Myxofibrosarcoma - Case report.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Breno Augusto Campos; Piancastelli, André Costa Cruz; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Piancastelli, Patricia Mourthe; Ribeiro, Carlos Alberto; Miranda, Rubem Mateus Campos

    2016-01-01

    Myxofibrosarcoma is recognized as a malignant neoplasm of fibroblastic origin with increased prevalence in the elderly, presenting as nodules or tumors that may extend to the dermis and skeletal muscle, preferably in the lower limbs. Histologically it is characterized by a proliferation of spindle cells in a myxoid stroma. Myxofibrosarcoma has a high potential for local recurrence and metastasis, mainly when it presents a high or intermediate histological grade. We report the case of an eighty-four year old patient with a difficult diagnosis of a highly aggressive tumor.

  16. Pseudo-Kaposi sarcoma (acroangiodermatitis): occurring after bullous erysipelas.

    PubMed

    Kutlubay, Zekayi; Yardimci, Gürkan; Engin, Burhan; Demirkesen, Cuyan; Aydin, Övgü; Khatib, Rashid; Tuzun, Yalçın

    2015-05-18

    Pseudo-Kaposi sarcoma is a benign reactive vascular proliferative disorder, which can be seen at any age. It occurs when the chronic venous pressure changes result in vascular proliferation in the upper and mid dermis. This disease is divided into two subtypes: the most frequent subtype is the Mali type and seen in early ages. The Mali type is seen in chronic venous insufficiency and in those patients with arteriovenous shunts. The rare subtype is the Stewart-Bluefarb type. This disease must be distinguished from Kaposi sarcoma because of their clinical resemblance. Herein, we present a patient with pseudo-Kaposi sarcoma, which developed after bullous erysipelas.

  17. Mid-infrared (λ = 8.4-9.9 μm) light scattering from porcine tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liakat, Sabbir; Michel, Anna P. M.; Bors, Kevin A.; Gmachl, Claire F.

    2012-08-01

    Back-scattering of mid-infrared light from porcine skin is studied versus wavelength and angle for a Quantum Cascade laser and a broadband infrared light source. Scattering is detected over 30° away from the specular angle for both sources, and modulation patterns with angle are seen when using the laser. A nonlinear increase in scattered light intensity versus input power indicates that directional scattering from within the skin is dominant. Collagen fibers in the dermis layer, over 200 μm deep into the skin, are conducive to such scattering. We conclude that mid-infrared light penetrates deep enough for potential glucose detection in dermal interstitial fluid.

  18. Proliferative Fasciitis in Childhood: A Review of Clinical Data Apropos of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Mouravas, Vassilios; Kepertis, Chrysostomos; Lambropoulos, Vassilios; Spyridakis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Proliferative Fasciitis (PF) is a benign lesion with histologic and clinical features overlapping with those of malignant soft tissue tumours. Its occurrence in children is considered very rare. We present a case of PF appearing as a painful, red, gradually increasing in size lesion, during a period of a few weeks, on the finger of a five-year-old boy compromising the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. We were able to locate literature on 20 paediatric PF cases, which we review. Only five of these focus on the clinical data, the rest describing mainly histological findings. It is the first reported paediatric case appearing on the finger. PMID:28384932

  19. Lipoid proteinosis in a 12-year-old child: a report from west India.

    PubMed

    Kini, Sangeeta; Jain, Ashok; Shet, Tanuja M; Bansode, Sangeeta; Vora, Ila M; Ghorpade, Kanchanmala

    2006-01-27

    A 12-year-old male child born of non-consanguineous parents presented with multiple skin lesions, hoarseness of voice, and episodes of epilepsy since early childhood. The findings of characteristic beaded eyelid margins, patchy alopecia of the scalp, hoarseness of voice, and epilepsy were consistent with a rare clinical diagnosis, lipoid proteinosis. Skin biopsies obtained from representative skin lesions were subjected to histology and electron microscopy. Light microscopy demonstrated PAS-positive diastase-resistant material in the papillary dermis of skin. Ultrastructure revealed granulo-filamentary aspect of the accumulated material. Although this rare autosomal recessive disorder has been described in the literature, its occurrence is rare in India.

  20. [Application of high-frequency ultrasound in dermabrasion of patients with deep partial-thickness burns].

    PubMed

    Zang, C Y; Cao, Y Q; Xue, W J; Zhao, R; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y H; Feng, Z; Wang, Y B

    2017-02-20

    Objective: To investigate the application of high-frequency ultrasound in dermabrasion of patients with deep partial-thickness burns. Methods: Twenty-six patients with deep partial-thickness burns conforming to the study criteria were hospitalized in our unit from March 2015 to March 2016. Patients were all performed with dermabrasion. The structure of skin tissue and blood flow signals of uninjured side and wounds before dermabrasion, and those of wounds immediately post dermabrasion and on post dermabrasion day (PDD) 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 21 were detected with high-frequency ultrasound, and the percentage of blood flow signals was calculated. According to the results of comparison between percentage of blood flow signals of wounds and that of normal skin before dermabrasion, patients were divided into no significant decrease group (NSD, n=19) and significant decrease group (SD, n=7). Wound healing time of patients in two groups was recorded. Data were processed with analysis of variance of repeated measurement, LSD test, t test and Chi-square test. The correlation between the percentage of blood flow signals of wounds before dermabrasion and wound healing time of 26 patients were analyzed by Spearman correlation analysis. Results: (1) Epidermis of normal skin of patients in two groups before dermabrasion showed continuous smooth linear hyperecho, which was stronger than that of dermis, and boundary of dermis and subcutaneous tissue showed stronger discontinuous linear echo than that of dermis, which gradually transited to subcutaneous tissue. In group NSD, epidermis of wound of patients before dermabrasion showed intermittent rough linear echo, which was weaker than that of normal skin epidermis, and there was no obvious abnormity of boundary between dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Immediately post dermabrasion and on PDD 1, no linear hyperecho of epidermis was observed, showing complete attrition of epidermis, and the echo of dermis and subcutaneous tissue had

  1. Sticktight fleas associated with fowl pox in a backyard chicken flock in California.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, C R; Bickford, A A; Cooper, G L; Charlton, B R

    1997-01-01

    A mixed breed rooster, from a backyard flock of 13 chickens, was received at California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System-Turlock Branch for postmortem examination. The bird presented with thickened, featherless, scab-encrusted skin around the head region. Numerous sticktight fleas were found attached to the encrusted skin. Microscopic evaluation of the skin revealed a lymphoplasmacytic reaction in the dermis with visible embedded flea mouthparts. Also noted histologically in this region were epidermal hyperplasia and ballooned epidermal cells containing intracytoplasmic inclusions indicative of fowl poxvirus.

  2. Impaired neurovascular repair in subjects with diabetes following experimental intracutaneous axotomy.

    PubMed

    Ebenezer, Gigi J; O'Donnell, Ryan; Hauer, Peter; Cimino, Nicholas P; McArthur, Justin C; Polydefkis, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Diabetic complications and vascular disease are closely intertwined. Diabetes mellitus is a well-established risk factor for both large and small vessel vascular changes, and conversely other vascular risk factors confer increased risk for diabetic complications such as peripheral neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy. Furthermore, axons and blood vessels share molecular signals for purposes of navigation, regeneration and terminal arborizations. We examined blood vessel, Schwann cell and axonal regeneration using validated axotomy models to study and compare patterns and the relationship of regeneration among these different structures. Ten subjects with diabetes mellitus complicated by neuropathy and 10 healthy controls underwent 3 mm distal thigh punch skin biopsies to create an intracutaneous excision axotomy followed by a concentric 4-mm overlapping biopsy at different time points. Serial sections were immunostained against a pan-axonal marker (PGP9.5), an axonal regenerative marker (GAP43), Schwann cells (p75) and blood vessels (CD31) to visualize regenerating structures in the dermis and epidermis. The regenerative and collateral axonal sprouting rates, blood vessel growth rate and Schwann cell density were quantified using established stereology techniques. Subjects also underwent a chemical 'axotomy' through the topical application of capsaicin, and regenerative sprouting was assessed by the return of intraepidermal nerve fibre density through regenerative regrowth. In the healed 3 mm biopsy sites, collateral and dermal regenerative axonal sprouts grew into the central denervated area in a stereotypic pattern with collateral sprouts growing along the dermal-epidermal junction while regenerative dermal axons, blood vessels and Schwann cells grew from their transected proximal stumps into the deep dermis. Vessel growth preceded axon and Schwann cell migration into the denervated region, perhaps acting as scaffolding for axon and Schwann cell growth. In

  3. Impaired neurovascular repair in subjects with diabetes following experimental intracutaneous axotomy

    PubMed Central

    Ebenezer, Gigi J.; O'Donnell, Ryan; Hauer, Peter; Cimino, Nicholas P.; McArthur, Justin C.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic complications and vascular disease are closely intertwined. Diabetes mellitus is a well-established risk factor for both large and small vessel vascular changes, and conversely other vascular risk factors confer increased risk for diabetic complications such as peripheral neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy. Furthermore, axons and blood vessels share molecular signals for purposes of navigation, regeneration and terminal arborizations. We examined blood vessel, Schwann cell and axonal regeneration using validated axotomy models to study and compare patterns and the relationship of regeneration among these different structures. Ten subjects with diabetes mellitus complicated by neuropathy and 10 healthy controls underwent 3 mm distal thigh punch skin biopsies to create an intracutaneous excision axotomy followed by a concentric 4-mm overlapping biopsy at different time points. Serial sections were immunostained against a pan-axonal marker (PGP9.5), an axonal regenerative marker (GAP43), Schwann cells (p75) and blood vessels (CD31) to visualize regenerating structures in the dermis and epidermis. The regenerative and collateral axonal sprouting rates, blood vessel growth rate and Schwann cell density were quantified using established stereology techniques. Subjects also underwent a chemical ‘axotomy’ through the topical application of capsaicin, and regenerative sprouting was assessed by the return of intraepidermal nerve fibre density through regenerative regrowth. In the healed 3 mm biopsy sites, collateral and dermal regenerative axonal sprouts grew into the central denervated area in a stereotypic pattern with collateral sprouts growing along the dermal–epidermal junction while regenerative dermal axons, blood vessels and Schwann cells grew from their transected proximal stumps into the deep dermis. Vessel growth preceded axon and Schwann cell migration into the denervated region, perhaps acting as scaffolding for axon and Schwann cell growth

  4. Langerin negative dendritic cells promote potent CD8+ T-cell priming by skin delivery of live adenovirus vaccine microneedle arrays

    PubMed Central

    Bachy, Veronique; Hervouet, Catherine; Becker, Pablo D.; Chorro, Laurent; Carlin, Leo M.; Herath, Shanthi; Papagatsias, Timos; Barbaroux, Jean-Baptiste; Oh, Sea-Jin; Benlahrech, Adel; Athanasopoulos, Takis; Dickson, George; Patterson, Steven; Kwon, Sung-Yun; Geissmann, Frederic; Klavinskis, Linda S.

    2013-01-01

    Stabilization of virus protein structure and nucleic acid integrity is challenging yet essential to preserve the transcriptional competence of live recombinant viral vaccine vectors in the absence of a cold chain. When coupled with needle-free skin delivery, such a platform would address an unmet need in global vaccine coverage against HIV and other global pathogens. Herein, we show that a simple dissolvable microneedle array (MA) delivery system preserves the immunogenicity of vaccines encoded by live recombinant human adenovirus type 5 (rAdHu5). Specifically, dried rAdHu5 MA immunization induced CD8+ T-cell expansion and multifunctional cytokine responses equipotent with conventional injectable routes of immunization. Intravital imaging demonstrated MA cargo distributed both in the epidermis and dermis, with acquisition by CD11c+ dendritic cells (DCs) in the dermis. The MA immunizing properties were attributable to CD11c+ MHCIIhi CD8αneg epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAMneg) CD11b+ langerin (Lang; CD207)neg DCs, but neither Langerhans cells nor Lang+ DCs were required for CD8+ T-cell priming. This study demonstrates an important technical advance for viral vaccine vectors progressing to the clinic and provides insights into the mechanism of CD8+ T-cell priming by live rAdHu5 MAs. PMID:23386724

  5. Gender variations in the optical properties of skin in murine animal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabro, Katherine; Curtis, Allison; Galarneau, Jean-Rene; Krucker, Thomas; Bigio, Irving J.

    2011-01-01

    Gender is identified as a significant source of variation in optical reflectance measurements on mouse skin, with variation in the thickness of the dermal layer being the key explanatory variable. For three different mouse strains, the thickness values of the epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis layers, as measured by histology, are correlated to optical reflectance measurements collected with elastic scattering spectroscopy (ESS). In all three strains, males are found to have up to a 50% increase in dermal thickness, resulting in increases of up to 80% in reflectance values and higher observed scattering coefficients, as compared to females. Collagen in the dermis is identified as the primary source of these differences due to its strong scattering nature; increased dermal thickness leads to a greater photon path length through the collagen, as compared to other layers, resulting in a larger scattering signal. A related increase in the observed absorption coefficient in females is also observed. These results emphasize the importance of considering gender during experimental design in studies that involve photon interaction with mouse skin. The results also elucidate the significant impact that relatively small thickness changes can have on observed optical measurements in layered tissue.

  6. Investigation of the piezoelectric thimble tactile device operating modes.

    PubMed

    Bansevicius, Ramutis; Dragasius, Egidijus; Grigas, Vytautas; Jurenas, Vytautas; Mazeika, Darius; Zvironas, Arunas

    2014-01-01

    A multifunctional device to transfer graphical or text information for blind or visually impaired is presented. The prototype using tactile perception has been designed where information displayed on the screen of electronic device (mobile phone, PC) is transferred by oscillating needle, touching the fingertip. Having the aim to define optimal parameters of the fingertip excitation by needle, the computational analysis of different excitation modes has been carried out. A 3D solid computational finite element model of the skin segment, comprising four main fingertip skin layers (stratum corneum, epidermis, dermis and hypodermis) was built by using ANSYS Workbench FEA software. Harmonic analysis of its stress-strain state under excitation with different frequency (up to 10000 Hz) and harmonic force (0.01 N), acting outer stratum corneum layer in normal direction at one, two or three points has been performed. The influence of the mode of dynamic loading of skin was evaluated (in terms of the tactile signal level) on the basis of the normal and shear elastic strain in dermis, where mechanoreceptors are placed. It is shown that the tactile perception of information, delivered by three vibrating pins, may be influenced by configuration of excitation points (their number and phase of loading) and the frequency of excitation.

  7. Evidence and considerations in the application of chemical peels in skin disorders and aesthetic resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Rendon, Marta I; Berson, Diane S; Cohen, Joel L; Roberts, Wendy E; Starker, Isaac; Wang, Beatrice

    2010-07-01

    Chemical peeling is a popular, relatively inexpensive, and generally safe method for treatment of some skin disorders and to refresh and rejuvenate skin. This article focuses on chemical peels and their use in routine clinical practice. Chemical peels are classified by the depth of action into superficial, medium, and deep peels. The depth of the peel is correlated with clinical changes, with the greatest change achieved by deep peels. However, the depth is also associated with longer healing times and the potential for complications. A wide variety of peels are available, utilizing various topical agents and concentrations, including a recent salicylic acid derivative, beta-lipohydroxy acid, which has properties that may expand the clinical use of peels. Superficial peels, penetrating only the epidermis, can be used to enhance treatment for a variety of conditions, including acne, melasma, dyschromias, photodamage, and actinic keratoses. Medium-depth peels, penetrating to the papillary dermis, may be used for dyschromia, multiple solar keratoses, superficial scars, and pigmentary disorders. Deep peels, affecting reticular dermis, may be used for severe photoaging, deep wrinkles, or scars. Peels can be combined with other in-office facial resurfacing techniques to optimize outcomes and enhance patient satisfaction and allow clinicians to tailor the treatment to individual patient needs. Successful outcomes are based on a careful patient selection as well as appropriate use of specific peeling agents. Used properly, the chemical peel has the potential to fill an important therapeutic need in the dermatologist's and plastic surgeon's armamentarium.

  8. Effects of alpha-hydroxy acids on the human skin of Japanese subjects: the rationale for chemical peeling.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuki; Uede, Koji; Yonei, Nozomi; Kishioka, Akiko; Ohtani, Toshio; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2006-01-01

    Alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA) agents, such as glycolic acid and lactic acid, have been used as therapeutic agents for more than a quarter of a century. Recently, they have been used as agents to rejuvenate photo-aged skin. It is believed that these AHA agents induce the epidermis to remodel and accelerate desquamation, thus exerting their therapeutic effects. In this study, we investigated the histological differences in skin treated with glycolic, lactic, citric and acetic acids once daily for 6 weeks. The melanin pigments in the basal layer were less prominent in the glycolic and lactic acid-treated skin than in the citric and acetic acid-treated skin. The melanin deposits in the horny layers were equal for all AHA. However, the melanin deposits in the squamous layers were less prominent in the glycolic and lactic acid-treated skins than in the citric and acetic acid-treated skins; this was analogous to observations of the basal layers. Collagen I and procollagen I were increased after treatment with glycolic, lactic and citric acid in the upper dermis, but were not increased with acetic acid treatment. However, the staining of the epidermis and dermis for matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) after treatment was not significantly different among the agents. Our data suggest that longer treatment intervals with glycolic and lactic acid can cause improvements in both the epidermal and dermal components and support the usefulness of AHA for rejuvenating photo-damaged skin.

  9. The use of glycolic acid as a peeling agent.

    PubMed

    Murad, H; Shamban, A T; Premo, P S

    1995-04-01

    Glycolic acid is a member of the AHA family, which occurs naturally in foods and has been used for centuries as a cutaneous rejuvenation treatment. Recently it has proved to be a versatile peeling agent and it is now widely used to treat many defects of the epidermis and papillary dermis in a variety of strengths, ranging from 20% to 70%, depending on the condition being treated. People of almost any skin type and color are candidates, and almost any area of the body can be peeled. Several weeks prior to a peel the skin may be prepared with topical tretinoin or glycolic acid, and immediately prior to the peel the skin may be degreased with a variety of agents. Following the peel the skin is carefully observed for any complications such as hyperpigmentation and infection. Results are maintained with serial peels and at-home use of tretinoin or glycolic acid, as well as sun avoidance. The glycolic acid can be applied simultaneously with TCA and is another technique for a medium-depth peel. Comparison of 35% TCA-treated skin with 70% glycolic acid-treated skin examined histologically at different times reveals similar changes in papillary dermis connective tissue proteins, epidermal necrosis seen only with TCA, and reversion at 2 years postpeel to pretreatment appearance.

  10. Ingestion of BioCell Collagen®, a novel hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage extract; enhanced blood microcirculation and reduced facial aging signs

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Stephen R; Park, Joosang

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging and its clinical manifestation is associated with altered molecular metabolism in the extracellular matrix of the dermis. In a pilot open-label study, we investigated the effect of a dietary supplement, BioCell Collagen® (BCC), which contains a naturally occurring matrix of hydrolyzed collagen type II and low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate, in 26 healthy females who displayed visible signs of natural and photoaging in the face. Daily supplementation with 1 g of BCC for 12 weeks led to a significant reduction of skin dryness/scaling (76%, P = 0.002) and global lines/wrinkles (13.2%, P = 0.028) as measured by visual/tactile score. Additionally, a significant increase in the content of hemoglobin (17.7%, P = 0.018) and collagen (6.3%, P = 0.002) in the skin dermis was observed after 6 weeks of supplementation. At the end of the study, the increase in hemoglobin remained significant (15%, P = 0.008), while the increase in collagen content was maintained, but the difference from baseline was not significant (3.5%, P = 0.134). This study provides preliminary data suggesting that dietary supplementation with BCC elicits several physiological events which can be harnessed to counteract natural photoaging processes to reduce visible aging signs in the human face. A controlled study is necessary to verify these observations. PMID:22956862

  11. Cutaneous presentation preceding acute monocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xianhua; Li, Fuqiu; Li, Xue; Zhu, Wenjing; Mou, Yan; Huang, Yang; Zhao, Huanyu; Gao, Wei; Xia, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Cutaneous presentation preceding acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is rare, and the prognosis is poor. Patient concerns: We report 4 cases of AML cutis, where skin infiltration precedes any blood or bone marrow evidence of leukemia. We also reviewed 13 cases reported in English and Chinese literature. The 4 cases all presented typical cutaneous lesions without any systemic evidence of leukemia. Histopathological examination found that dense monomorphous cell infiltration involved the dermis. Some cells surrounded blood vessels and skin appendages in a concentric manner or showed single-row arrangement in the collagen fiber bundles. Uninvolved papillary dermis was found to separate normal epidermis from dermal infiltration. Minor cells had a large kidney-shaped or oval nucleus with nucleoli and slightly eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical analysis was positive for CD4, CD56, while CD123 was negative in all cases. Diagnoses: AML-M5. Interventions: 2 patients received chemotherapy ,but others rejected treatment. Outcomes: Most patients died within 1 year after the onset of skin lesions. Lessons: These findings suggest that skin infiltration of AML may precede any systemic evidence, and typical cutaneous lesions in elderly individuals may be indicative for AML. PMID:28272239

  12. A new mechanism associated with compositae graft success.

    PubMed

    Son, Daegu; Jeong, Hoijoon; Choi, Taehyun; Kim, Junhyung; Han, Kihwan

    2010-11-01

    It is believed that the subcutaneous fat of the skin compositae grafts acts as a mechanical barrier limiting vascularisation. This study aims to determine a new mechanism associated with compositae graft take. Ten 3×3 cm rectangular full-thickness skin compositae grafts on the back of a pig were taken and then randomly changed to another place. Silicone sheets were then inserted between the graft and the recipient to block the direct contact of the dermis at the lateral surface of the graft and control the number of surface contacts. The take rate was measured using the digital VISITRAK(®). The microcirculation of the graft was evaluated by microangiograms using a latex-lead oxide solution. There was a 20.5% graft take in all four surface-blocked groups. The microangiograms showed vessel connections not only between the vessels of the dermis, but also between the subcutaneous fat of the graft and perforators from the basal surface of the wound. The subcutaneous layer does not produce a barrier but works as a significant source of vessel communication. Direct vessel-to-vessel anastomosis between the vessels of the subcutaneous fat at the graft and the basal surface of the recipient wound are another important mechanism for the success of compositae grafts.

  13. Defects in dermal Vγ4 γ δ T cells result in delayed wound healing in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhongyang; Xu, Yingbin; Zhang, Xiaorong; Liang, Guangping; Chen, Lei; Xie, Julin; Tang, Jinming; Zhao, Jingling; Shu, Bin; Qi, Shaohai; Chen, Jian; Luo, Gaoxing; Wu, Jun; He, Weifeng; Liu, Xusheng

    2016-01-01

    The skin serves as a physical and chemical barrier to provide an initial line of defense against environmental threats; however, this function is impaired in diabetes. Vγ4 γ δ T cells in the dermis are an important part of the resident cutaneous immunosurveillance program, but these cells have yet to be explored in the context of diabetes. In this study, we observed that the impaired maintenance of dermal Vγ4 γ δ T cells is caused by reduced production of IL-7 in the skin of diabetic mice, which was closely associated with weakened activation of the mTOR pathway in the epidermis of diabetic mice. Weakened CCL20/CCR6 chemokine signaling resulted in the impaired recruitment of dermal Vγ4 γ δ T cells following wounding in diabetic mice. Meanwhile, reduced levels of IL-23 and IL-1β in the dermis around the wounds of diabetic mice resulted in the impaired production of IL-17 by dermal Vγ4 γ δ T cells. Therefore, diminished dermal Vγ4 γ δ T cells and impaired IL-17 production by these cells were important factors in the markedly reduced IL-17 levels in the skin around the wounds of diabetic mice. Because reduced IL-17 levels at the wound edge have been closely associated with delayed wound closure in diabetic mice, defects in dermal Vγ4 γ δ T cells may be an important mechanism underlying delayed wound healing in diabetic mice. PMID:27398150

  14. Heparanase Inhibitors Facilitate the Assembly of the Basement Membrane in Artificial Skin

    PubMed Central

    Tsunenaga, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the basement membrane at the dermal-epidermal junction of the skin plays an important role in maintaining a healthy epidermis and dermis, and repeated damage to the skin can destabilize the skin and accelerate the aging process. Skin-equivalent models are suitable for studying the reconstruction of the basement membrane and its contribution to epidermal homeostasis because they lack the basement membrane and show abnormal expression of epidermal differentiation markers. By using these models, it has been shown that reconstruction of the basement membrane is enhanced not only by supplying basement membrane components, but also by inhibiting proteinases such as urokinase and matrix metalloproteinase. Although matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors assist in the reconstruction of the basement membrane structure, their action is not sufficient to promote its functional recovery. However, heparanase inhibitors stabilize the heparan sulfate chains of perlecan (a heparan sulfate proteoglycan) and promote the regulation of heparan sulfate binding growth factors in the basement membrane. Heparan sulfate promotes effective protein-protein interactions, thereby facilitating the assembly of type VII collagen anchoring fibrils and elastin-associated microfibrils. Using both matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors and heparanase inhibitors, the basement membrane in a skin-equivalent model comes close to recapitulating the structure and function of an in vivo basement membrane. Therefore, by using an appropriate dermis model and suitable protease inhibitors, it may be possible to produce skin-equivalent models that are more similar to natural skin PMID:27853671

  15. Ballistic impact of single particles into gelatin: experiments and modeling with application to transdermal pharmaceutical delivery.

    PubMed

    Guha, R A; Shear, N H; Papini, M

    2010-10-01

    The impact and penetration of high speed particles with the human skin is of interest for targeted drug delivery by transdermal powder injection. However, it is often difficult to perform penetration experiments on dermal tissue using micron scale particles. To address this, a finite element model of the impact and penetration of a 2 μm gold particle into the human dermis was developed and calibrated using experiments found in the literature. Using dimensional analysis, the model was linked to a larger scale steel ball-gelatin system in order to extract key material parameters for both systems and perform impact studies. In this manner, an elastic modulus of 2.25 MPa was found for skin, in good agreement with reported values from the literature. Further gelatin experiments were performed with steel, polymethyl methacrylate, titanium, and tungsten carbide balls in order to determine the effects of particle size and density on penetration depth. Both the finite element model and the steel-gelatin experiments were able to predict the penetration behavior that was found by other investigators in the study of the impact of typical particles used for vaccine delivery into the human dermis. It can therefore be concluded that scaled up systems utilizing ballistic gelatins can be used to investigate the performance of transdermal powder injection technology.

  16. Use of radiofrequency in cosmetic dermatology: focus on nonablative treatment of acne scars

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Brian J; Griffith, Robert D; Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre A; Nouri, Keyvan

    2014-01-01

    Acne is a common affliction among many teens and some adults that usually resolves over time. However, the severe sequela of acne scarring can lead to long-term psychological and psychiatric problems. There exists a multitude of modalities to treat acne scars such as more invasive surgical techniques, subcision, chemical peels, ablative lasers, fractional lasers, etc. A more recent technique for the treatment of acne scars is nonablative radiofrequency (RF) that works by passing a current through the dermis at a preset depth to produce small thermal wounds in the dermis which, in turn, stimulates dermal remodeling to produce new collagen and soften scar defects. This review article demonstrates that out of all RF modalities, microneedle bipolar RF and fractional bipolar RF treatments offers the best results for acne scarring. An improvement of 25%–75% can be expected after three to four treatment sessions using one to two passes per session. Treatment results are optimal approximately 3 months after final treatment. Common side effects can include transient pain, erythema, and scabbing. Further studies are needed to determine what RF treatment modalities work best for specific scar subtypes, so that further optimization of RF treatments for acne scars can be determined. PMID:25540589

  17. The characteristics of three-dimensional skin imaging system by full-colored optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bor-Wen; Chan, Li-Ming; Wang, Kai-Cheng

    2009-05-01

    In the present cosmetic market, the skin image obtained from a hand-held camera is two-dimensional (2-D). Due to insufficient penetration, only the skin surface can be detected, and thus phenomena in the dermis cannot be observed. To take the place of the conventional 2D camera, a new hand-held imaging system is proposed for three-dimensional (3-D) skin imaging. Featuring non-invasiveness, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become one of the popular medical imaging techniques. The dermal images shown in OCT-related reports were mainly single-colored because of the use of a monotonic light source. With three original-colored beams applied in OCT, a full-colored image can be derived for dermatology. The penetration depth of the system ranges from 0.43 to 0.78 mm, sufficient for imaging of main tissues in the dermis. Colorful and non-invasive perspectives of deep dermal structure help to advance skin science, dermatology and cosmetology.

  18. Localization of the neuropeptide NGIWYamide in the holothurian nervous system and its effects on muscular contraction

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, M.; Birenheide, R.; Koizumi, O.; Kobayakawa, Y.; Muneoka, Y.; Motokawa, T.

    1999-01-01

    NGIWYamide is a peptide recently isolated from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. It stiffens the connective tissue of the holothurian body wall. Localization of NGIWYamide was investigated by immunohistochemical staining with antiserum raised against NGIWYamide. In holothurian nervous systems NGIWYamide-like immunoreactivity (NGIWYa-LI) was observed in the hyponeural and ectoneural regions of the radial nerve cord, as well as in the circumoral nerve ring, podial nerves, tentacular nerves, the basiepithelial nerve plexus of the intestine and in cellular processes running through the body wall dermis. Labelled nerve fibres from the hyponeural part of the radial nerve running towards the circular muscle and from the podial nerve into the body wall dermis suggest that NGIWYamide controls both muscle and connective tissue. We examined the effect on muscle activity of the sea cucumber. NGIWYamide (10-7 to 10-4 M) caused contraction of the longitudinal body wall muscle. Tentacles showed contraction only at a higher dose (10-4 M). NGIWYamide (10-4 M) inhibited spontaneous contraction of the intestine.

  19. Histopathological findings in rabbits after experimental acute exposure to the Loxosceles intermedia (brown spider) venom

    PubMed Central

    Ospedal, Katia Zoghbi; Appel, Marcia Helena; Neto, José Fillus; Mangili, Oldemir Carlos; Veiga, Silvio Sanches; Gremski, Waldemiro

    2002-01-01

    Loxoscelism, the term used to describe envenomation with brown spiders, is characterized by a dermonecrotic lesion at the bite site. In the present investigation we submitted albino rabbits to an acute experimental envenomation protocol using Loxosceles intermedia (brown spider) venom, with in order to determine the pathogenesic features of the lesion induced by this spider, which is the cause of several accidents throughout the world. Rabbits received intradermal injections of the venom and were monitored over the first 4 h, and then at 12 h and 1, 2 and 5 days after envenomation. Histological specimens from 3 rabbits per time point were collected from euthanized animals and processed for histological examination by light microscopy. Major findings observed during the first 4 h were oedema, haemorrhage, degeneration of blood vessel walls, plasma exudation, thrombosis, neutrophil accumulation in and around blood vessels with an intensive diapedesis, a diffuse collection of inflammatory cells (polymorphonuclear leucocytes) in the dermis, and subcutaneous muscular oedema. Over the following hours and up to 5 days after envenomation the changes progressed to massive neutrophil infiltration (with no other leucocytes) into the dermis and even into subcutaneous muscle tissue, destruction of blood vessels, thrombosis, haemorrhage, myonecrosis, and coagulative necrosis on the 5th day. PMID:12657137

  20. MicroRNA 181b regulates decorin production by dermal fibroblasts and may be a potential therapy for hypertrophic scar.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Peter; Ding, Jie; Tredget, Edward E

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic scarring is a frequent fibroproliferative complication following deep dermal burns leading to impaired function and lifelong disfigurement. Decorin reduces fibrosis and induces regeneration in many tissues, and is significantly downregulated in hypertrophic scar and normal deep dermal fibroblasts. It was hypothesized that microRNAs in these fibroblasts downregulate decorin and blocking them would increase decorin and may prevent hypertrophic scarring. Lower decorin levels were found in hypertrophic scar as compared to normal skin, and in deep as compared to superficial dermis. A decorin 3' un-translated region reporter assay demonstrated microRNA decreased decorin in deep dermal fibroblasts, and microRNA screening predicted miR- 24, 181b, 421, 526b, or 543 as candidates. After finding increased levels of mir-181b in deep dermal fibroblasts, it was demonstrated that TGF-β1 stimulation decreased miR-24 but increased miR-181b and that hypertrophic scar and deep dermis contained increased levels of miR-181b. By blocking miR-181b with an antagomiR, it was possible to increase decorin protein expression in dermal fibroblasts. This suggests miR-181b is involved in the differential expression of decorin in skin and wound healing. Furthermore, blocking miR-181b reversed TGF-β1 induced decorin downregulation and myofibroblast differentiation in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts, suggesting a potential therapy for hypertrophic scar.

  1. Near-infrared optical properties of ex-vivo human skin and subcutaneous tissues using reflectance and transmittance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Rebecca; Laufer, Jan G.; Kohl-Bareis, Matthias; Essenpreis, Matthias; Cope, Mark

    1997-08-01

    The vast majority of 'non-invasive' measurements of human tissues using near infrared spectroscopy rely on passing light through the dermis and subdermis of the skin. Accurate knowledge of the optical properties of these tissues is essential to put into models of light transport and predict the effects of skin perfusion on measurements of deep tissue. Additionally, the skin could be a useful accessible organ for non-invasively determining the constituents of blood flowing through it. Samples of abdominal human skin (including subdermal tissue) were obtained from either post mortem examinations or plastic surgery. The samples were separated into a dermal layer (epidermis and dermis, 1.5 to 2 mm tick), and a sub-cutaneous layer comprised largely of fat. They were enclosed between two glass coverslips and placed in an integrating sphere to measure their reflectance and transmittance over a range of wavelengths from 600 to 1000 nm. The reflectance and transmittance values were converted into average absorption and reduced scattering coefficients by comparison with a Monte Carlo model of light transport. Improvements to the Monte Carlo model and measurement technique removed some previous uncertainties. The results show excellent separation of reduced scattering and absorption coefficient, with clear absorption peaks of hemoglobin, water and lipid. The effect of tissue storage upon measured optical properties was investigated.

  2. In vitro percutaneous permeation and skin accumulation of finasteride using vesicular ethosomal carriers.

    PubMed

    Rao, Yuefeng; Zheng, Feiyue; Zhang, Xingguo; Gao, Jianqing; Liang, Wenquan

    2008-01-01

    In order to develop a novel transdermal drug delivery system that facilitates the skin permeation of finasteride encapsulated in novel lipid-based vesicular carriers (ethosomes)finasteride ethosomes were constructed and the morphological characteristics were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The particle size, zeta potential and the entrapment capacity of ethosome were also determined. In contrast to liposomes ethosomes were of more condensed vesicular structure and they were found to be oppositely charged. Ethosomes were found to be more efficient delivery carriers with high encapsulation capacities. In vitro percutaneous permeation experiments demonstrated that the permeation of finasteride through human cadaver skin was significantly increased when ethosomes were used. The finasteride transdermal fluxes from ethosomes containing formulation (1.34 +/- 0.11 microg/cm(2)/h) were 7.4, 3.2 and 2.6 times higher than that of finasteride from aqueous solution, conventional liposomes and hydroethanolic solution respectively (P < 0.01).Furthermore, ethosomes produced a significant (P < 0.01) finasteride accumulation in the skin, especially in deeper layers, for instance in dermis it reached to 18.2 +/- 1.8 microg/cm(2). In contrast, the accumulation of finasteride in the dermis was only 2.8 +/- 1.3 microg/cm(2) with liposome formulation. The study demonstrated that ethosomes are promising vesicular carriers for enhancing percutaneous absorption of finasteride.

  3. Penetration profile and human cadaver skin distribution of finasteride from vesicular nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Rao, Yuefeng; Zheng, Feiyue; Liang, Xingguang; Wang, Huiyuan; Zhang, Jin; Lu, Xiaoyang

    2015-12-01

    The skin accumulation of therapeutic agents affects the efficiency of topical drug delivery. In this study, in vitro distribution of finasteride of ethosomes and liposomes in human cadaver skin after percutaneous delivery were investigated. Experiments were performed using modified Franz diffusion cells. Finasteride ethosomes, liposomes or hydroethanolic solutions were used as donor medium. Drug distribution at different skin layers and depths were studied by hotplate separation and frozen horizontal slicing technique. The result showed that the accumulation of finasteride in skin ranged from 9.7-24.3 μg/cm(2) at 12 or 24 hours. The ethosomes demonstrated better enhancing ability to deliver finasteride into the dermis layer than liposomes did. The finasteride concentration in the dermis layer from ethosomes was more than sevenfold higher than from liposomes. The finasteride accumulation in ethosomes group showed a distinctive reversed distribution profile. This distinctive reversed distribution profile is meaningful for exerting a favorable pharmacological effect for finasteride. The drug distribution profile in skin layers showed no significant difference between 12 and 24 hours application (p > 0.05). The study demonstrated that finasteride can be accumulated at target site more effectively and maintained at higher level through the application of novel ethosomal carriers.

  4. Anti-photoaging properties of the phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor cilostazol in ultraviolet B-irradiated hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ha Neui; Gil, Chan Hee; Kim, Yu Ri; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether cilostazol, an activator of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent intracellular signaling, could inhibit ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation-induced photoaging in HR-1 hairless mice. Cilostazol decreased wrinkle formation and skin thickness in UVB-irradiated mice, as well as increased staining of collagen fibers and inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in the skin. Moreover, the proteolytic activities of gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and collagenase MMP-3 were significantly decreased in UVB-irradiated mice treated with cilostazol. Western blotting showed that UVB-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB was significantly inhibited by cilostazol, whereas the activation of Akt was significantly enhanced by cilostazol. Confirmation of localized protein expression in the skin revealed marked p38 MAPK and NF-κB activation that was mainly detected in the dermis. Marked Akt activation was mainly detected in the epidermis. Our results suggest that cilostazol may have anti-photoaging effects on UVB-induced wrinkle formation by maintaining the extracellular matrix density in the dermis, which occurs via regulation of ROS and related p38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling, and subsequent down-regulation of MMPs. Therefore, cilostazol may protect against photoaging-induced wrinkle formation. PMID:27484958

  5. Quantitative analysis of tryptase- and chymase-containing mast cells in eosinophilic conditions of cats.

    PubMed

    Noli, C; Welle, M; Scarampella, F; Abramo, F

    2003-03-01

    The presence and density of tryptase-positive/chymase-positive mast cells (MCs) (MC(TC)), chymase-positive/tryptase-negative MCs (MCC), and tryptase-positive/chymase-negative MCs (MC(T)) in lesional skin from cats with eosinophilic conditions were investigated. Skin biopsy specimens from eight cats with eosinophilic plaque (three cats), eosinophilic granuloma (two cats), and eosinophilic dermatitis (three cats) were studied. Toluidine blue staining and a double-enzyme-immunohistochemical staining technique were performed to determine MC density and MC subtypes, respectively. MC density varied from 170.3 to 503 cells/mm2 (mean value of 314.9 cells/mm2). In the superficial dermis, 5.9% of the MC belonged to the MC(T), 12.8% to the MC(C), and 81.2% to the MC(TC) subtype. In the deep dermis, 12.8% belonged to the MC(T), 12.8% to the MC(C), and 73.8% to the MC(TC) subtype. It is the first time that MC(C) have been identified. The double-labeling procedure proved to be a reliable tool for identifying simultaneously the presence of MC subtypes in feline skin.

  6. Investigation of drug delivery by iontophoresis in a surgical wound utilizing microdialysis

    PubMed Central

    Holovics, Heidi J.; Anderson, Carter R.; Levine, Barry S.; Hui, Ho-Wah; Lunte, Craig E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the penetration of lidocaine around and through a sutured incision following the application of iontophoretic and passive patches in the CD Hairless rat. Methods: Concentrations in localized areas (suture, dermis, subcutaneous, and vascular) were determined using microdialysis sampling followed by analysis using liquid chromatography with UV detection. Results: Iontophoresis significantly enhanced the dermal penetration of lidocaine. In an intact skin model, dermal concentrations were 40 times greater following iontophoretic delivery compared to passive delivery. In a sutured incision model, iontophoresis enhanced localized concentrations in the dermis, suture, and subcutaneous regions by 6, 15, and 20 fold, respectively. Iontophoretic delivery to a region containing a sutured incision was focused to the incision resulting in a greater increase in the suture concentration and in the subcutaneous region directly below the incision. Conclusions: The four microdialysis probe design was successful in the determination of localized drug penetration in a sutured incision model. Iontophoresis enhanced skin penetration and allowed for site specific delivery when applied to a sutured incision. PMID:18080730

  7. Modeling of the Light Speckle Field Structure Inside a Multilayer Human Skin Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barun, V. V.; Dik, S. K.; Ivanov, A. P.; Abramovich, N. D.

    2013-11-01

    We present an analytic method and the results of investigating the characteristics of the interference pattern formed by multiply scattered light in a multilayer biological tissue of the type of human skin at the wavelengths of the visible and neat IR spectral regions under laser irradiation. Calculations were performed with the use of the known solutions of the equations of radiation transfer in the biotissue and the relation between the theory of propagation of light in a scattering medium and the coherence theory. The radial structure of the light field in the depth of the human skin formed by coherent and incoherent radiation depending on its biophysical parameters has been investigated. The characteristic sizes of speckles in each layer of the skin have been estimated. The biophysical factors connected with the volume concentration of blood in the dermis and the degree of its oxygenation influencing the contrast of the speckle pattern in the dermis have been discussed. The possibility of formulating and solving inverse problems of biomedical optics on the restoration of blood parameters from measurements of speckle characteristics has been shown.

  8. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy detects pigmentary changes in melasma at a cellular level resolution.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee Young; Bahadoran, Philippe; Suzuki, Itaru; Zugaj, Didier; Khemis, Abdallah; Passeron, Thierry; Andres, Philippe; Ortonne, Jean-Paul

    2010-08-01

    Melasma is a frequent pigmentary disorder caused by abnormal melanin deposits in the skin. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a repetitive imaging tool that provides real-time images of the skin at nearly histological resolution. As melanin is the strongest endogenous contrast in human skin, pigmentary disorders are the most suitable candidates for RCM examination but RCM features of melasma have never been reported. This study investigates the pilot use of RCM in melasma to provide a set of well-described morphological criteria with histological correlations. RCM images were acquired from melasma skin and compared to adjacent control skin in 26 patients. Skin biopsies were obtained from eight patients. In the epidermis, RCM showed in all patients a significant increase in hyperrefractile cobblestoning cells. These cells corresponded to hyperpigmented basal keratinocytes in histology. In six patients, dendritic cells corresponding to activated melanocytes were also found in the epidermis. In the dermis, RCM identified in nine patients plump bright cells corresponding to melanophages. Interestingly, for a given patient, the topographic distribution of melanophages in melasma lesions was very heterogeneous. RCM also showed a significant increase in solar elastosis and blood vessels in the dermis. RCM is a non-invasive technique that detects pigmentary changes in melasma at a cellular level resolution. Therefore, RCM provides an innovative way to classify melasma by pigment changes.

  9. Novel morphological study of solar lentigines by immunohistochemical and electron microscopic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tessin; Tahira, Makoto; Morino, Shinichi; Horie, Takashi; Adachi, Koji; Tsutsumi, Reiko; Yamada, Nanako; Yoshida, Yuich; Yamamoto, Osamu

    2013-07-01

    Solar lentigines (SL) are hyperpigmented lesions generally seen in elderly people. Their pathogenesis has not been completely elucidated. We examined 75 cases of SL using routine histopathology and immunohistochemistry. In addition, seven cases were evaluated by electron microscopy. Histopathologically, we observed vacuolar changes in the dermoepidermal junction in 85% of the cases. Dermal melanophages were seen in 77% of the cases. The immunohistochemical expression rates in the epidermis for cytokeratin (CK)15, CK14, CK10, p63 and nestin were 76%, 100%, 100%, 100% and 17%, respectively. In 58 cases showing dermal melanophages, expression rates of CD163 and factor XIIIa on melanophages were 79% and 83%, respectively. Double positivity for both proteins was identified in 44 cases (75%). Ultrastructurally, vacuolar structures were seen in the cytoplasm of basal cells and upper dermis in all cases examined. We observed elimination processes of damaged basal keratinocytes, which were probably produced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, into the papillary dermis. The segregated damaged cell bodies containing melanin granules seemed to be phagocytosed by poorly immunostimulatory macrophages labeled immunohistochemically by CD163 and factor X IIIa, contributing to prolonged pigmentation of SL. In addition, repeated basal keratinocyte damages may be in association with altered CK and p63 expression patterns in the constituent cells of SL.

  10. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and optical polarization imaging of in-vivo biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora-Núñez, A.; Castillejos, Y.; García-Torales, G.; Martínez-Ponce, G.

    2013-11-01

    A number of optical techniques have been reported in the scientific literature as accomplishable methodologies to diagnose diseases in biological tissue, for instance, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and optical polarization imaging (OPI). The skin is the largest organ in the body and consists of three primary layers, namely, the epidermis (the outermost layer exposed to the world), the dermis, and the hypodermis. The epidermis changes from to site to site, mainly because of difference in hydration. A lower water content increase light scattering and reduce the penetration depth of radiation. In this work, two hairless mice have been selected to evaluate their skin features by using DRS and OPI. Four areas of the specimen body were chosen to realize the comparison: back, abdomen, tail, and head. From DRS, it was possible to distinguish the skin nature because of different blood irrigation at dermis. In the other hand, OPI shows pseudo-depolarizing regions in the measured Mueller images related to a spatially varying propagation of the scattered light. This provides information about the cell size in the irradiated skin.

  11. Solar ultraviolet irradiation induces decorin degradation in human skin likely via neutrophil elastase.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Xia, Wei; Liu, Ying; Remmer, Henriette A; Voorhees, John; Fisher, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) activity, which degrades type I collagen fibrils. Type I collagen is the most abundant protein in skin and constitutes the majority of skin connective tissue (dermis). Degradation of collagen fibrils impairs the structure and function of skin that characterize skin aging. Decorin is the predominant proteoglycan in human dermis. In model systems, decorin binds to and protects type I collagen fibrils from proteolytic degradation by enzymes such as MMP-1. Little is known regarding alterations of decorin in response to UV irradiation. We found that solar-simulated UV irradiation of human skin in vivo stimulated substantial decorin degradation, with kinetics similar to infiltration of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells. Proteases that were released from isolated PMN cells degraded decorin in vitro. A highly selective inhibitor of neutrophil elastase blocked decorin breakdown by proteases released from PMN cells. Furthermore, purified neutrophil elastase cleaved decorin in vitro and generated fragments with similar molecular weights as those resulting from protease activity released from PMN cells, and as observed in UV-irradiated human skin. Cleavage of decorin by neutrophil elastase significantly augmented fragmentation of type I collagen fibrils by MMP-1. Taken together, these data indicate that PMN cell proteases, especially neutrophil elastase, degrade decorin, and this degradation renders collagen fibrils more susceptible to MMP-1 cleavage. These data identify decorin degradation and neutrophil elastase as potential therapeutic targets for mitigating sun exposure-induced collagen fibril degradation in human skin.

  12. Development of a Murine Infection Model with Leishmania killicki, Responsible for Cutaneous Leishmaniosis in Algeria: Application in Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Eddaikra, Naouel; Kherachi Djenad, Ihcene; Benbetka, Sihem; Benikhlef, Razika; Aït-Oudhia, Khatima; Moulti-Mati, Farida; Oury, Bruno; Sereno, Denis; Harrat, Zoubir

    2016-01-01

    In Algeria, Leishmania infantum, Leishmania major, and Leishmania killicki (Leishmania tropica) are responsible for cutaneous leishmaniosis. We established a murine model of L. killicki infection to investigate its infective capacity, some immunophysiopathological aspects, and its suitability for pharmacological purposes. Following the injection of L. major or L. killicki metacyclic promastigotes in the ear dermis of BALB/c mice, the course of infection was followed. The infection with L. killicki caused slower lesion formation than with L. major. The presence of L. killicki or L. major DNA and parasites was detected in the ear dermis and in lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Lesions induced by L. killicki were nonulcerative in their aspect, whereas those caused by L. major were highly ulcerative and necrotic, which matches well with the lesion phenotype reported in humans for L. killicki and L. major, respectively. The treatment of L. killicki lesions by injection of Glucantime® significantly reduced the lesion thickness and parasite burden. Ear dermal injection of BALB/c mice constitutes a model to study lesions physiopathology caused by L. killicki and presents interest for in vivo screening of new compounds against this pathogen, emerging in Algeria. PMID:26949705

  13. Lupus vulgaris: unusual presentation on face.

    PubMed

    Pilani, A; Vora, R V

    2014-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris is a variant of cutaneous tuberculosis. As the disease has potential to mutilate when left untreated, leaving deforming scars and disfigurement, an early diagnosis is of paramount importance. Though the common type is plaque type, rarely mutilating and vegetative forms also are found. A 28 year old female, labourer presented with progressive annular plaque over right side of cheek extending upto right lower lid and ala of nose. There were two satellite plaques near the right side of giant lesion. On diascopy apple jelly nodule was seen. There was no regional lymhadenopathy. Histopathological examination showed many granulomas in upper dermis extending to deep dermis comprising of epitheloid cells with langhans' type of giant cells, lymphocytic infiltration & focal necrosis suggestive of lupus vulgaris. The consequences of failing to make an early diagnosis can be disastrous for the patients, as the progression of the disease can lead to necrosis, destruction of bones and cartilage leading to permanent deformity. Thus it is vital for clinicians to have a high index of suspicion of such atypical forms and take biopsy samples for histological and bacteriological studies.

  14. [Burns and rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Rochet, J M; Hareb, F

    2002-03-01

    Necessary principles of rehabilitation for burn patient are based on empirical findings recently corroborated by discoveries about healing pathophysiology. Risks are assessable immediately from the extensive, depth and situation of the burns, problems appear only if the dermis is affected: retraction, hypertrophy and losses of substances. To cutaneous problems it is necessary to add those linked to the prolonged immobilization and to complications of the resuscitation. To be effective, re-education has to be precocious, continuously suited to cicatricial processing and to the different therapeutic steps: resuscitation, surgical treatment, processing in a re-education and rehabilitation center, steady at home and processing of the sequelae. The processing rests on the repressive cloth port 23/24 hours during more of a year, the port of orthesis of immobilization and segmental posture (to stretch the dermis permanently) and the mobilization of articulations to avoid their stiffening. The cooperation of the patient is essential, it needs the share of therapies as well as the totality of problems and difficulties met by the patient, that they are physical, psychological, social, family or occupational. The steady has to be insured by a pluridisciplinarity team during at least the two necessary years for the cicatricial maturation.

  15. Treatment of infraorbital dark circles using 694-nm fractional Q-switched ruby laser.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tian-Hua; Li, Yuan-Hong; Chen, John Z S; Gao, Xing-Hua; Chen, Hong-Duo

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using a 694-nm fractional Q-switched ruby laser to treat infraorbital dark circles. Thirty women with infraorbital dark circles (predominant color: dark/brown) participated in this open-labeled study. The participants received eight sessions of 694-nm fractional Q-switched ruby laser treatment using a fluence of 3.0-3.5 J/cm(2), at an interval of 7 days. The melanin deposition in the lesional skin was observed in vivo using reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). The morphological changes were evaluated using a global evaluation, an overall self-assessment, and a Mexameter. Twenty-eight of the 30 patients showed global improvements that they rated as excellent or good. Twenty-six patients rated their overall satisfaction as excellent or good. The melanin index indicated a substantial decrease from 240.44 (baseline) to 194.56 (P < 0.05). The RCM results showed a dramatic decrease in melanin deposition in the upper dermis. The adverse effects were minimal. The characteristic finding of dark/brown infraorbital dark circles is caused by increased melanin deposition in the upper dermis. The treatment of these infraorbital dark circles using a 694-nm fractional QSR laser is safe and effective.

  16. Variability of dermal elastin visualized ultrastructurally with iron hematoxylin.

    PubMed Central

    Spicer, S. S.; Brissie, R. M.; Thompson, N. T.

    1975-01-01

    The Verhoeff iron hematoxylin-lead citrate (VIH-LC) method demonstrated vertical elastic fibers that were often composed only of microfibrillar component extending into the epidermal basement membrane in human skin. These fibers connected with a network of trabeculae composed of microfibrils and elastin fibrils in varying proportions. The large elastic fibers in the deep two thirds of the dermis consited mainly of compact bundles of small elstin fibrils in infants and of solid elastin cores with a fimbriated periphery in adults; Dermis of a 6-month-old fetus contained very few small elastic fibrils except around blood vessels. Skin of an elderly subject revealed exteme proliferation of unusual reticulated elastic fibers in various areas and disclosed abnormal nodules of elastin or collagen fibrils in finely particulate matter. Small elastin fibrils, abundant microfibrils, and intermixed individual collagen fibrils comprised an adventitial collar between sweat glands and fibroblasts. Elastin fibrils were absent from this collar in the fetus and increased with the subject's age. A permanganate-high iron diamine sequence appeared to impart density to the microfibrillar component of elastic fibers. Images Figs 6-7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 Fig 13 Fig 14 Fig 15 Fig 16 Fig 17 Fig 18 Fig 19 Fig 20 Fig 21 Fig 22 Fig 23 Fig 24 Fig 25 Fig 26 Fig 27 Fig 1 Fig 2 Figs 3-5 Fig 28 Fig 29 Fig 30 Fig 31 Fig 32 Fig 33 PMID:49149

  17. Damage from periorbital ageing to the multilayered structures and resilience of the skin in Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chuh-Kai; Tsai, Feng-Chou; Fong, Tsorng-Harn; Hu, Chien-Ming; Wei, Po-Li; Su, Ching-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Ageing dynamically disrupts the multilayered supporting components of the skin that are held together by cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). Skin specimens from 33 female Chinese patients undergoing lower blepharoplasty were divided into three age groups and examined by haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Elastica-van Gieson (EVG) stains, western blotting, surface electron microscopy (SEM) and biomechanical tension analysis. The SEM density (skin surface topology) showed a negative linear relationship with age. The triangular pattern of the skin surface in the younger group gradually broke down into quadrangular and irregular patterns in the older group. Collagens and elastic fibres in the dermis showed anisotropy and decreased density in the older groups compared with the younger group, especially in the papillary dermis. Anisotropy means that physical properties differ according to the direction of measurement. E-cadherin and integrin αv (whose functions are to bind epidermal and dermal elements respectively) increased and decreased, respectively, in the oldest group. Skin resilience decreased significantly in this group under repetitive stress. In conclusion, a loss of skin surface textures, integrin αv expressions, epidermal-dermal connections and dermal compactness led to the multilayered structure of the skin becoming separated. This in turn decreased resilience during ageing. These findings may therefore explain why aged skins cannot tolerate repetitive facial expressions, and why this action produces further dynamic wrinkles. PMID:23441675

  18. Development of mechanisms associated with neurogenic-mediated skin inflammation during the growth of rats.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Mihoko; Miyake, Mio; Takeda, Masanori; Muto, Taichiro; Ueda, Norishi; Ito, Komei; Sakamoto, Tatsuo

    2010-04-01

    Neurogenic-mediated inflammation may be associated with several inflammatory skin diseases including atopic dermatitis. However, age-dependent differences in neurogenic-mediated skin responses are not fully understood. We compared skin plasma leakage in rats aged 2 and 8 wk, which was induced by topical capsaicin, topical formalin, and intracutaneous substance P, whose effects are mediated via tachykinin NK1 receptors. Evans blue dye extravasation served as an index of the increase in skin vascular permeability. Capsaicin, formalin, and substance P caused a skin response in a dose-dependent manner in both age groups. However, the skin response was much greater in adults than in pups. In addition, the localization of sensory C-fibers and tachykinin NK1 receptors in the skin was investigated by immunofluorescent staining with antisubstance P and antitachykinin NK1 receptor antibodies, respectively. Substance P-immunoreactive nerves were detected throughout the dermis and tachykinin NK1 receptors were mainly detected in blood vessel walls in the dermis in both age groups. However, they were more sparsely distributed in pups. In conclusion, the weak neurogenic-mediated skin inflammation in pups is probably because of immature neural mechanisms associated with skin inflammation such as reduced innervation of sensory C-fibers and low expression of tachykinin NK1 receptors.

  19. Phytosphingosine-1-phosphate represses the hydrogen peroxide-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase in human dermal fibroblasts through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Pyo; Cha, Hwa Jun; Lee, Kwang Sik; Lee, Kun Kook; Son, Ju Hyun; Kim, Kwang Nyeon; Lee, Dong Kyu; An, Sungkwan

    2012-10-01

    Dermal fibroblasts are differentiated mesenchymal cells that regulate the extracellular matrix through the production of dermis components. Dermal fibroblasts can be damaged by reactive oxygen species induced by ultraviolet rays and chemicals. In addition to its effects on the dermis, oxidative stress poses a major threat to organisms and is believed to play an essential role in many disease processes. In this study, we show that human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) express sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors S1P(1), S1P(2), and S1P(3). In addition, cell viability of HDFs is increased by phytosphingosine-1-phosphate (PhS1P) via regulation of the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/Akt pathway. Interestingly, regulation of the JNK/Akt pathway by PhS1P attenuated H(2)O(2)-induced cell growth arrest. Together, our data indicate that PhS1P attenuates H(2)O(2)-induced growth arrest through regulation of the signal molecules Akt and JNK, and suggest that PhS1P may have value as an anti-aging material in cosmetics and medicine.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of a Model Extracellular Matrix that Induces Partial Regeneration of Adult Mammalian Skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yannas, I. V.; Lee, E.; Orgill, D. P.; Skrabut, E. M.; Murphy, G. F.

    1989-02-01

    Regeneration of the dermis does not occur spontaneously in the adult mammal. The epidermis is regenerated spontaneously provided there is a dermal substrate over which it can migrate. Certain highly porous, crosslinked collagen--glycosaminoglycan copolymers have induced partial morphogenesis of skin when seeded with dermal and epidermal cells and then grafted on standard, full-thickness skin wounds in the adult guinea pig. A mature epidermis and a nearly physiological dermis, which lacked hair follicles but was demonstrably different from scar, were regenerated over areas as large as 16 cm2. These chemical analogs of extracellular matrices were morphogenetically active provided that the average pore diameter ranged between 20 and 125 μ m, the resistance to degradation by collagenase exceeded a critical limit, and the density of autologous dermal and epidermal cells inoculated therein was >5 × 104 cells per cm2 of wound area. Unseeded copolymers with physical structures that were within these limits delayed the onset of wound contraction by about 10 days but did not eventually prevent it. Seeded copolymers not only delayed contraction but eventually arrested and reversed it while new skin was being regenerated. The data identify a model extracellular matrix that acts as if it were an insoluble growth factor with narrowly specified physicochemical structure, functioning as a transient basal lamina during morphogenesis of skin.

  1. Cell culture from lizard skin: a tool for the study of epidermal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Polazzi, Elisabetta; Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2011-12-01

    An in vitro system of isolated skin cells has been developed in order to address the understanding on the factors that control the shedding cycle and differentiation of lizard epidermis. The skin from the regenerating lizard tail has been separated in epidermis and dermis, cells have been dissociated, cultivated in vitro, and studied ultrastructurally after 1-30 days of culture condition. Dissociated keratinocytes after 12 days in culture show numerous cell elongations and contain bundles of keratin or sparse keratin filaments. These cells often contain one to three 0.5-3 μm large and dense "keratinaceous bodies", an organelle representing tonofilament disassembling. Most keratinocytes have sparse tonofilaments in the cytoplasm and form shorter bundles of keratin in the cell periphery. The dissociated dermis mainly consists of mesenchymal cells containing sparse bundles of intermediate filaments. These cells proliferate and form multi-stratified layers and a dermal pellicle in about 2-3 weeks in vitro in our basic medium. Conversely, cultures of keratinocytes do not expand but eventually reduce to few viable cells within 2-3 weeks of in vitro condition. It is suggested that dermal cells sustain themselves through the production of growth factors but that epidermal cells requires specific growth factors still to be identified before setting-up an in vitro system that allows analyzing the control of the shedding cycle in lizards.

  2. Analysis of scleraxis and dermo-1 genes in a regenerating limb of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Akira; Nakada, Yasuaki; Suzuki, Makoto; Tamura, Koji; Ide, Hiroyuki

    2006-04-01

    Xenopus laevis larvae can regenerate an exact replica of the missing part of a limb after amputation at an early limb bud stage. However, this regenerative capacity gradually decreases during metamorphosis, and a froglet is only able to regenerate hypomorphic cartilage, resulting in a spike-like structure (spike). It has been reported that the spike has tissue deformities, e.g., a muscleless structure. However, our previous study demonstrated that the muscleless feature of the spike can be improved. The existence of other kinds of tissue, such as tendon, has not been clarified. In this study, we focused on the tendon and dermis, and we isolated the scleraxis and dermo-1 genes, which are known to be marker genes for the tendon and dermis, respectively. The expressions of these genes were investigated in both the developmental and regenerating processes of a Xenopus limb. Although muscle was needed to maintain scleraxis expression, scleraxis transcription was detectable in the muscleless spike. Additionally, although grafting of matured skin, including dermal tissue, inhibited limb regeneration, the expression of dermo-1, a dermal marker gene, was detected from the early stage of the froglet blastema. These results indicate that tendon precursor cells and dermal cells exist in the regenerating froglet blastema. Our results support the idea that spike formation in postmetamorphic Xenopus limbs is epimorphic regeneration.

  3. Cross-linking of the dermo-epidermal junction of skin regenerating from keratinocyte autografts. Anchoring fibrils are a target for tissue transglutaminase.

    PubMed

    Raghunath, M; Höpfner, B; Aeschlimann, D; Lüthi, U; Meuli, M; Altermatt, S; Gobet, R; Bruckner-Tuderman, L; Steinmann, B

    1996-09-01

    Since transglutaminases create covalent gamma-glutamyl-epsilon-lysine cross-links between extracellular matrix proteins they are prime candidates for stabilizing tissue during wound healing. Therefore, we studied the temporo-spatial expression of transglutaminase activity in skin regenerating from cultured epithelial autografts in severely burned children by the specific incorporation of monodansylcadaverine into cryostat sections from skin biopsies obtained between 5 d to 17 mo after grafting. The dansyl label was subsequently immunolocalized in the epidermis, dermal connective tissue, and along the basement membrane. Incubation of cryosections of normal and regenerating skin with purified tissue transglutaminase confirmed the dermo-epidermal junction and the papillary dermis as targets for this enzyme and revealed that in regenerating skin transamidation of the basement membrane zone was completed only 4-5 mo after grafting. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that three distinct regions on the central portion of anchoring fibrils were positive for monodansylcadaverine in normal skin which were negative during the initial phase of de novo formation of anchoring fibrils in regenerating skin. Biochemically, we identified collagen VII as potential substrate for tissue transglutaminase. Thus, tissue transglutaminase appears to play an important role not only in cross-linking of the papillary dermis but also of the dermo-epidermal junction in particular.

  4. Staphylococcus aureus exploits epidermal barrier defects in atopic dermatitis to trigger cytokine expression

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Chen, Tiffany H.; Two, Aimee M.; Chun, Kimberly A.; Narala, Saisindhu; Geha, Raif S.; Hata, Tissa R.; Gallo, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) have an abnormal skin barrier and are frequently colonized by S. aureus. In this study we investigated if S. aureus penetrates the epidermal barrier of subjects with AD and sought to understand the mechanism and functional significance of this entry. S. aureus was observed to be more abundant in the dermis of lesional skin from AD patients. Bacterial entry past the epidermis was observed in cultured human skin equivalents and in mice, but found to be increased in the skin of cathelicidin knockout (Camp−/−) and ovalbumin-sensitized filaggrin mutant (FLGft/ft) mice. S. aureus penetration through the epidermis was dependent on bacterial viability and protease activity as killed bacteria or a protease-null mutant strain of S. aureus was unable to penetrate. Entry of S. aureus directly correlated with increased expression of IL4, IL13, IL22, TSLP and other cytokines associated with AD, and with decreased expression of cathelicidin. These data illustrate how abnormalities of the epidermal barrier in AD can alter the balance of S. aureus entry into the dermis and provides an explanation for how such dermal dysbiosis results in increased inflammatory cytokines and exacerbation of disease. PMID:27381887

  5. Ccr6 is dispensable for the development of skin lesions induced by imiquimod despite its effect on epidermal homing of IL-22-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Cochez, Perrine M; Michiels, Camille; Hendrickx, Emilie; Dauguet, Nicolas; Warnier, Guy; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Dumoutier, Laure

    2017-01-20

    Expression of the chemokine receptor Ccr6 is shared by most IL-22 producing cells and Ccr6-deficient mice showed decreased IL-22 production and skin inflammation upon IL-23 intradermal injections. To determine whether this observation might be extended to another psoriasis model, we applied imiquimod on Ccr6-deficient mice. Whereas epidermal IL-22 production was decreased because of a deficient recruitment of γδ T cells in these mice, they were not protected against psoriatic lesions. When primary epidermis or dermis tissue culture cells from non-treated mice were stimulated ex vivo with IL-1α/IL-2/IL-23, we observed that Ccr6 is crucial for Il22 expression from epidermal but not dermal cultures. Taking advantage of Ccr6-LacZ-knock-in mice, we showed that Ccr6 is necessary for the homing of Ccr6-positive cells, probably a γδ T cell subset, which represents the main potential IL-22 source in the epidermis. Similar results were observed in Rag1(-/-) epidermis and dermis primary cultures, where a subset of innate lymphoid cells expressing Ccr6 represents the main potential source of IL-22. Taken together, our data show that Ccr6 is not required for the development of skin lesions induced by imiquimod despite its effect on epidermal homing of IL-22 producing cells.

  6. Time course of lesion development in the hairless guinea-pig model of sulfur mustard-induced dermal injury

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Janet M.; Seagrave, JeanClare; Weber, Waylon M.; Santistevan, Colleen D.; Grotendorst, Gary R.; Schultz, Gregory S.; March, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to provide detailed analyses of the time course of sulfur mustard (SM) vapor-induced clinical, histological, and biochemical changes following cutaneous exposure in hairless guinea-pigs. Three 6cm2 sites on the backs of each guinea-pig were exposed to SM vapor (314 mg3) for 6 minutes (low dose) or 12 minutes (high dose). Animals were killed at 6, 24, and 48 hours, or 2 weeks postexposure. Erythema, edema, histopathology, and analysis of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 content were evaluated. Erythema was observed by 6 hours, and edema by 24 hours postexposure. Vapor exposure caused epidermal necrosis with varying degrees of dermatitis, ulceration, hemorrhage, and separation of the dermis from the epidermis. Later changes included epidermal regeneration with hyperplasia and formation of granulation tissue in the dermis with loss of hair follicles and glandular structures. Relative amounts of pro and active MMP-2 and MMP-9 were significantly increased in the high-dose SM group at 2 weeks. Erythema, edema, and histologic changes are consistent with findings among human victims of SM attack. This model, with observations to 2 weeks, will be useful in assessing the efficacy of countermeasures against SM. PMID:21410818

  7. Dynamic multiphoton imaging of reversible and irreversible thermal changes in collagen tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovhannisyan, Vladimir A.; Su, Ping-Jung; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2011-07-01

    Collagen is the major component of skin, tendon, cartilage, cornea, and, as a main structural protein it is the key determinant of thermo-mechanical properties of collagen-rich tissues in mammals. Thermal damage of chicken dermis and tendon, bovine leg tendon, and other collagen contained tissues were investigated with the use of second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon excited auto-fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy. Samples were heating in a temperature-controlled water bath in the temperature range 18-90° C. SHG time-lapse imaging and analysis of intensity decay showed that the collagen thermal destruction depended on both temperature and heating time, and can be modeled by the Arrhenius equation. Temporal decay of SHG signal from the chicken dermis was single exponential during isothermal treatment at temperatures above 60º C that allowed to determine activation energy and frequency factor of skin collagen denaturation. Furthermore, two-exponential decay and partially reversible change in SHG intensity were registered during the tendon thermal treatment. A simple laser system and procedure is proposed for a real-time monitoring of collagen fiber thermal modification within a microscopic volume of 1 nl.

  8. Tissue-specific and SRSF1-dependent splicing of fibronectin, a matrix protein that controls host cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Mejia, Isabel Cristina; De Toledo, Marion; Della Seta, Flavio; Fafet, Patrick; Rebouissou, Cosette; Deleuze, Virginie; Blanchard, Jean Marie; Jorgensen, Christian; Tazi, Jamal; Vignais, Marie-Luce

    2013-01-01

    Cell invasion targets specific tissues in physiological placental implantation and pathological metastasis, which raises questions about how this process is controlled. We compare dermis and endometrium capacities to support trophoblast invasion, using matching sets of human primary fibroblasts in a coculture assay with human placental explants. Substituting endometrium, the natural trophoblast target, with dermis dramatically reduces trophoblast interstitial invasion. Our data reveal that endometrium expresses a higher rate of the fibronectin (FN) extra type III domain A+ (EDA+) splicing isoform, which displays stronger matrix incorporation capacity. We demonstrate that the high FN content of the endometrium matrix, and not specifically the EDA domain, supports trophoblast invasion by showing that forced incorporation of plasma FN (EDA–) promotes efficient trophoblast invasion. We further show that the serine/arginine-rich protein serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1) is more highly expressed in endometrium and, using RNA interference, that it is involved in the higher EDA exon inclusion rate in endometrium. Our data therefore show a mechanism by which tissues can be distinguished, for their capacity to support invasion, by their different rates of EDA inclusion, linked to their SRSF1 protein levels. In the broader context of cancer pathology, the results suggest that SRSF1 might play a central role not only in the tumor cells, but also in the surrounding stroma. PMID:23966470

  9. A unique cross section through the skin of the dinosaur Psittacosaurus from China showing a complex fibre architecture.

    PubMed

    Lingham-Soliar, Theagarten

    2008-04-07

    This paper reports on a unique preservation of soft tissues in the ventrolateral region of the plant-eating dinosaur Psittacosaurus from the Jehol biota of China. The preservation is of a deep cross section through the dermis, which includes multiple layers of collagenous fibres in excess of 25, among the highest recorded in vertebrates, with a further 15 more layers (poorly preserved) estimated for the entire height of the section. Also, for the first time in a dinosaur two fibre layers parallel to the skin surface are preserved deep within the dermis at the base of the cross section. These fibre layers comprise regularly disposed fibres arranged in left- and right-handed geodesic helices, matching the pattern at the surface and reasonably inferred for the entire section. As noted from the studies on modern-day animals, this fibre structure plays a critical part in the stresses and strains the skin may be subjected to and is ideally suited to providing support and protection. Psittacosaurus gives a remarkable, unprecedented understanding of the dinosaur skin.

  10. A three-dimensional atlas of human dermal leukocytes, lymphatics, and blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Nong; McGovern, Naomi; Gunawan, Merry; Richardson, Connor; Windebank, Martin; Siah, Tee-Wei; Lim, Hwee-Ying; Fink, Katja; Li, Jackson L Yao; Ng, Lai G; Ginhoux, Florent; Angeli, Veronique; Collin, Matthew; Haniffa, Muzlifah

    2014-04-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages (Mφ), and T cells are major components of the skin immune system, but their interstitial spatial organization is poorly characterized. Using four-channel whole-mount immunofluorescence staining of the human dermis, we demonstrated the three-dimensional distribution of CD31(+) blood capillaries, LYVE-1(+) lymphatics, discrete populations of CD11c(+) myeloid DCs, FXIIIa(+) Mφ, and lymphocytes. We showed phenotypic and morphological differences in situ between DCs and Mφ. DCs formed the first dermal cellular layer (0-20 μm beneath the dermoepidermal junction), Mφ were located deeper (40-60 μm), and CD3(+) lymphocytes were observed throughout (0-60 μm). Below this level, DCs, T cells, and the majority of Mφ formed stable perivascular sheaths. Whole-mount imaging revealed the true extent of dermal leukocytes previously underestimated from cross-section views. The total area of apical dermis (0-30 μm) contained approximately 10-fold more myeloid DCs than the entire blood volume of an average individual. Surprisingly, <1% of dermal DCs occupied lymphatics in freshly isolated skin. Dermal DCs rapidly accumulated within lymphatics, but Mφ remained fixed in skin explants cultured ex vivo. The leukocyte architecture observed in normal skin was distorted in inflammation and disease. These studies illustrate the micro-anatomy of dermal leukocytes and provide further insights into their functional organization.

  11. Analytical model of diffuse reflectance spectrum of skin tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenko, S. A.; Kugeiko, M. M.; Firago, V. A.; Sobchuk, A. N.

    2014-01-01

    We have derived simple analytical expressions that enable highly accurate calculation of diffusely reflected light signals of skin in the spectral range from 450 to 800 nm at a distance from the region of delivery of exciting radiation. The expressions, taking into account the dependence of the detected signals on the refractive index, transport scattering coefficient, absorption coefficient and anisotropy factor of the medium, have been obtained in the approximation of a two-layer medium model (epidermis and dermis) for the same parameters of light scattering but different absorption coefficients of layers. Numerical experiments on the retrieval of the skin biophysical parameters from the diffuse reflectance spectra simulated by the Monte Carlo method show that commercially available fibre-optic spectrophotometers with a fixed distance between the radiation source and detector can reliably determine the concentration of bilirubin, oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin in the dermis tissues and the tissue structure parameter characterising the size of its effective scatterers. We present the examples of quantitative analysis of the experimental data, confirming the correctness of estimates of biophysical parameters of skin using the obtained analytical expressions.

  12. Visualization of Microvessels in Skin by Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saijo, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Hozumi, N.; Tanaka, A.; Sakai, S.

    A non-invasive imaging technique capable of visualizing microvessels through epidermis to subdermis has been strongly desired. A PVDF ultrasonic transducer with the central frequency of 100 MHz and the focal length of 3.2 mm was mechanically scanned over the objects by two linear servo motors controlled by a personal computer. A microvessel model was made of a tungsten wire with a diameter of 100-microns and placed in the water tank. The microvessel model was clearly visualized by 3D ultrasound microscope. In cases of skin imaging, conventional echo gel was used as the coupling medium between transducer and skin surface. In vivo 3D skin morphology was also clearly visualized. In dermis, a microvessel may be shown as small, round, lucent echo areas continuously observed in the serial sections. 3D structure of hair-follicle was also visualized from the skin surface to the bud of hair-follicle in dermis. The 3D ultrasound microscope noninvasively provides important information on the distribution of microvessels in skin.

  13. Bioinspired Antifreeze Secreting Frost-Responsive Pagophobic Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoda; Damle, Viraj; Rykaczewski, Konrad

    2014-11-01

    Prevention of ice and frost accumulation is of interest to transportation, power generation, and agriculture industries. Superhydrophobic and lubricant impregnated pagophobic coatings have been proposed, however, they both fail in frosting conditions. Inspired by functional liquid secretion in natural systems, such as toxin secretion by poison dart frost in response to predator presence, we developed frost-responsive antifreeze secreting pagophobic coatings. These are bi-layered coatings with an inner superhydrophilic ``dermis'' infused with antifreeze and an outer permeable superhydrophobic ``epidermis.'' The superhydrophobic epidermis separates the antifreeze from the environment and prevents ice accumulation by repelling impinging water droplets. In frosting conditions, the antifreeze is secreted from the dermis through pores in the epidermis either due to contact with condensed droplets or temporary switch of the epidermis wettability from hydrophobic to hydrophilic caused by surface icing. Here we demonstrate superior performance of this multifunctional coating in simulated frosting, freezing mist/fog, and freezing spray/rain conditions. KR acknowledges startup funding from ASU.

  14. The analysis of aging skin based on multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shulian; Li, Hui; Zhang, Xiaoman; Li, Zhifang; Xu, Shufei

    2010-11-01

    Aging is a very important issue not only in dermatology, but also in cosmetic science. Cutaneous aging involves both chronological and photoaging aging process. The chronological aging is induced with the passage of time. And the photoaging skin is the extrinsic aging caused by sun exposure. The aim of this study is to use multiphoton microscopy (MPM) in vivo to assess intrinsic-age-related and photo-age-related difference. The changes of dermal collagen are measured in quantitively. The algorithm that we used automatically produced the transversal dermal map from MPM. Others, the texture of dermis are analyzed by Fourier transform and Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix. And the object extraction in textured images is proposed based on the method in object edge extraction, and the aim of it is to detect the object hidden in the skin texture in difference aging skin. The result demonstrates that the approach is effective in detecting the object in epidermis and dermis textured image in different aging skin. It could help to further understand the aging mechanism.

  15. Role of epidermis in the optics and thermal physics of human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barun, V. V.; Ivanov, A. P.

    2009-12-01

    Some engineering approaches to the problems of optics and thermophysics of biological tissues have been developed. The light fields both within and beyond biological medium have been studied. The role of the epidermis in the formation of these fields is revealed. It is shown that in the general case epidermis cannot be considered as a spectral filter that only absorbs and does not scatter light. A convenient approximation of the fluence rate in a two-layer (epidermis and dermis) tissue is proposed, which is the sum of two exponential functions of depth in the epidermis. This approximation made it possible to obtain an analytical solution to the problem of heating biological tissues by an external narrow light beam. It is found that epidermis only slightly affects the temperature fields under blue light irradiation. However, when an external source of red light is used, the epidermis works as a heater and can increase several times the dermis temperature in comparison with a single-layer tissue. The reasons for these heating features are discussed. Examples of corresponding calculations are given.

  16. Pilot study of semiautomated localization of the dermal/epidermal junction in reflectance confocal microscopy images of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurugol, Sila; Dy, Jennifer G.; Brooks, Dana H.; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2011-03-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) continues to be translated toward the detection of skin cancers in vivo. Automated image analysis may help clinicians and accelerate clinical acceptance of RCM. For screening and diagnosis of cancer, the dermal/epidermal junction (DEJ), at which melanomas and basal cell carcinomas originate, is an important feature in skin. In RCM images, the DEJ is marked by optically subtle changes and features and is difficult to detect purely by visual examination. Challenges for automation of DEJ detection include heterogeneity of skin tissue, high inter-, intra-subject variability, and low optical contrast. To cope with these challenges, we propose a semiautomated hybrid sequence segmentation/classification algorithm that partitions z-stacks of tiles into homogeneous segments by fitting a model of skin layer dynamics and then classifies tile segments as epidermis, dermis, or transitional DEJ region using texture features. We evaluate two different training scenarios: 1. training and testing on portions of the same stack; 2. training on one labeled stack and testing on one from a different subject with similar skin type. Initial results demonstrate the detectability of the DEJ in both scenarios with epidermis/dermis misclassification rates smaller than 10% and average distance from the expert labeled boundaries around 8.5 μm.

  17. Laser abrasion for cosmetic and medical treatment of facial actinic damage

    SciTech Connect

    David, L.M.; Lask, G.P.; Glassberg, E.; Jacoby, R.; Abergel, R.P.

    1989-06-01

    Previous studies have shown the carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) laser to be effective in the treatment of actinic cheilitis. After CO/sub 2/ laser abrasion, normal skin and marked cosmetic improvement of the lip were noted. In our study, twenty-three patients were treated with CO/sub 2/ laser abrasions for cosmetic improvement of facial lines and actinic changes. Pre- and postoperative histopathologic examinations were made on two patients. Preoperative examination of specimens from actinically damaged skin showed atypical keratinocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis, with overlying dense compact orthokeratosis and parakeratosis. Abundant solar elastosis was seen in the papillary dermis. Postoperative histologic specimens showed a normal-appearing epidermis with fibrosis in the papillary dermis and minimal solar elastosis (about four weeks after laser treatment). At present, various modalities are available for the regeneration of the aged skin, including chemical peels and dermabrasion. Significantly fewer complications were noted with CO/sub 2/ laser abrasion than with these methods. Thus, CO/sub 2/ laser abrasion can be useful in the cosmetic and medical treatment of the aged skin. Marked clinical and histologic improvement has been demonstrated.

  18. Specific affinity between fibronectin and the epidermolysis bullosa acquisita antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Woodley, D T; O'Keefe, E J; McDonald, J A; Reese, M J; Briggaman, R A; Gammon, W R

    1987-01-01

    Autoantibodies in the skin and sera of patients with epidermolysis bullosa acquisita bind to a large matrix molecule within the lamina densa region of skin basement membrane. At the site of these immune complexes, the epidermis separates from the dermis, which creates a subepidermal blister just below the lamina densa. The target molecule for the autoantibodies is in close apposition to fibronectin, a major extracellular matrix molecule that is abundant in the upper dermis of skin. In this report, we show specific affinity between fibronectin and the 290,000-D chain of the epidermolysis bullosa acquisita antigen, and that this affinity is mediated by the gelatin/collagen-binding domain of fibronectin (Mr = 60,000). Since blistering in epidermolysis bullosa acquisita often occurs in the absence of clinical and histological inflammation, a direct interruption in the fibronectin-epidermolysis bullosa acquisita antigen bond may be involved in the pathogenesis of epidermal-dermal disadherence that occurs in this bullous disease. Images PMID:3584471

  19. Collagen XII and XIV, new partners of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein in the skin extracellular matrix suprastructure.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Pallavi; Zwolanek, Daniela; Keene, Douglas R; Schulz, Jan-Niklas; Blumbach, Katrin; Heinegård, Dick; Zaucke, Frank; Paulsson, Mats; Krieg, Thomas; Koch, Manuel; Eckes, Beate

    2012-06-29

    The tensile and scaffolding properties of skin rely on the complex extracellular matrix (ECM) that surrounds cells, vasculature, nerves, and adnexus structures and supports the epidermis. In the skin, collagen I fibrils are the major structural component of the dermal ECM, decorated by proteoglycans and by fibril-associated collagens with interrupted triple helices such as collagens XII and XIV. Here we show that the cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), an abundant component of cartilage ECM, is expressed in healthy human skin. COMP expression is detected in the dermal compartment of skin and in cultured fibroblasts, whereas epidermis and HaCaT cells are negative. In addition to binding collagen I, COMP binds to collagens XII and XIV via their C-terminal collagenous domains. All three proteins codistribute in a characteristic narrow zone in the superficial papillary dermis of healthy human skin. Ultrastructural analysis by immunogold labeling confirmed colocalization and further revealed the presence of COMP along with collagens XII and XIV in anchoring plaques. On the basis of these observations, we postulate that COMP functions as an adapter protein in human skin, similar to its function in cartilage ECM, by organizing collagen I fibrils into a suprastructure, mainly in the vicinity of anchoring plaques that stabilize the cohesion between the upper dermis and the basement membrane zone.

  20. Lumican as a novel marker for differential diagnosis of Bowen disease and actinic keratosis.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Ryoko; Ishiwata, Toshiyuki; Ansai, Shin-ichi; Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Matsuda, Yoko; Naito, Zenya; Kawana, Seiji

    2013-12-01

    Lumican, a member of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan family, regulates the assembly and diameter of collagen fibers in the extracellular matrix of various tissues. Lumican expression correlates with pathological conditions, including skin fragility, corneal opacification, and corneal and cardiac wound healing. Lumican is overexpressed in tumor cells, including in the breast, colorectal, neuroendocrine cell, uterine cervical, and pancreatic cancers. Lumican expression also correlates with the growth and metastasis of various malignancies. For example, lumican expression is lower in the dermis of malignant melanoma cases than in early-stage melanomas. However, the expression patterns and roles of lumican in nonmelanoma skin cancer have not been elucidated. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to examine the expression patterns of lumican in normal skin, Bowen disease, and actinic keratosis. In normal skin, lumican was expressed in the collagen fibers in the dermis, acrosyringium, follicular epithelium, and sebocytes but not in epidermal keratinocytes. In Bowen disease, lumican was expressed in 34 (91.8%) of 37 patients. Notably, all cases of actinic keratosis were negative for lumican. These findings suggest that lumican plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Bowen disease and actinic keratosis and might be useful as an adjunct to the diagnosis for subtypes of 2 diseases: bowenoid actinic keratosis and Bowen disease in sun-exposed areas.

  1. Claw length recommendations for dairy cow foot trimming

    PubMed Central

    Archer, S. C.; Newsome, R.; Dibble, H.; Sturrock, C. J.; Chagunda, M. G. G.; Mason, C. S.; Huxley, J. N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to describe variation in length of the dorsal hoof wall in contact with the dermis for cows on a single farm, and hence, derive minimum appropriate claw lengths for routine foot trimming. The hind feet of 68 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were collected post mortem, and the internal structures were visualised using x-ray µCT. The internal distance from the proximal limit of the wall horn to the distal tip of the dermis was measured from cross-sectional sagittal images. A constant was added to allow for a minimum sole thickness of 5 mm and an average wall thickness of 8 mm. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics and two-level linear regression models with claw nested within cow. Based on 219 claws, the recommended dorsal wall length from the proximal limit of hoof horn was up to 90 mm for 96 per cent of claws, and the median value was 83 mm. Dorsal wall length increased by 1 mm per year of age, yet 85 per cent of the null model variance remained unexplained. Overtrimming can have severe consequences; the authors propose that the minimum recommended claw length stated in training materials for all Holstein-Friesian cows should be increased to 90 mm. PMID:26220848

  2. Synthesis and characterization of a model extracellular matrix that induces partial regeneration of adult mammalian skin.

    PubMed Central

    Yannas, I V; Lee, E; Orgill, D P; Skrabut, E M; Murphy, G F

    1989-01-01

    Regeneration of the dermis does not occur spontaneously in the adult mammal. The epidermis is regenerated spontaneously provided there is a dermal substrate over which it can migrate. Certain highly porous, crosslinked collagen-glycosaminoglycan copolymers have induced partial morphogenesis of skin when seeded with dermal and epidermal cells and then grafted on standard, full-thickness skin wounds in the adult guinea pig. A mature epidermis and a nearly physiological dermis, which lacked hair follicles but was demonstrably different from scar, were regenerated over areas as large as 16 cm2. These chemical analogs of extracellular matrices were morphogenetically active provided that the average pore diameter ranged between 20 and 125 microns, the resistance to degradation by collagenase exceeded a critical limit, and the density of autologous dermal and epidermal cells inoculated therein was greater than 5 x 10(4) cells per cm2 of wound area. Unseeded copolymers with physical structures that were within these limits delayed the onset of wound contraction by about 10 days but did not eventually prevent it. Seeded copolymers not only delayed contraction but eventually arrested and reversed it while new skin was being regenerated. The data identify a model extracellular matrix that acts as if it were an insoluble growth factor with narrowly specified physiochemical structure, functioning as a transient basal lamina during morphogenesis of skin. Images PMID:2915988

  3. Confocal mosaicing microscopy of human skin ex vivo: spectral analysis for digital staining to simulate histology-like appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Jason; Spain, James; Nehal, Kishwer; Hazelwood, Vikki; Dimarzio, Charles; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2011-07-01

    Confocal mosaicing microscopy enables rapid imaging of large areas of fresh tissue, without the processing that is necessary for conventional histology. Mosaicing may offer a means to perform rapid histology at the bedside. A possible barrier toward clinical acceptance is that the mosaics are based on a single mode of grayscale contrast and appear black and white, whereas histology is based on two stains (hematoxylin for nuclei, eosin for cellular cytoplasm and dermis) and appears purple and pink. Toward addressing this barrier, we report advances in digital staining: fluorescence mosaics that show only nuclei, are digitally stained purple and overlaid on reflectance mosaics, which show only cellular cytoplasm and dermis, and are digitally stained pink. With digital staining, the appearance of confocal mosaics mimics the appearance of histology. Using multispectral analysis and color matching functions, red, green, and blue (RGB) components of hematoxylin and eosin stains in tissue were determined. The resulting RGB components were then applied in a linear algorithm to transform fluorescence and reflectance contrast in confocal mosaics to the absorbance contrast seen in pathology. Optimization of staining with acridine orange showed improved quality of digitally stained mosaics, with good correlation to the corresponding histology.

  4. Confocal microscopy of excised human skin using acetic acid and crossed polarization: rapid detection of nonmelanoma skin cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajadhyaksha, Milind M.; Menaker, Gregg; Gonzalez, Salvador

    2000-05-01

    Moh's micrographic surgery for basal- and squamous-cell cancers (BCCs, SCCs) involves precise excision of the tumor with minimal damage to the surrounding normal skin. Precise excision is guided by histopathologic examination for tumor margins; typically, 2 - 4 slices of skin are excised, and there is a waiting time of 15 - 45 minutes for the surgeon and patient while each slice is being processed for histopathology. We can avoid the processing by using a confocal reflectance microscope; confocal detection of BCCs and SCCs is possible after staining the nuclei in the excised skin with 5% acetic acid, and imaging in crossed polarization. The cancerous nuclei appear bright against the dark surrounding normal dermis. The contrast is due to increased back-scattering as well as increased depolarization from the intra-nuclear structure relative to that from the surrounding normal dermis. As in conventional histopathology, the tumors are first detected at low resolution (section thickness 20 micrometer) in a wide field (1-2 mm); nuclear morphology is then viewed at high resolution (section thickness 2 micrometer) in a small field (0.25 - 0.50 mm). Mosaics of images are assembled to produce confocal maps of the BCCs or SCCs within large excised tissue. Rapid detection (within minutes) is possible.

  5. Feline atopic dermatitis. A model for Langerhans cell participation in disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Roosje, P J; Whitaker-Menezes, D; Goldschmidt, M H; Moore, P F; Willemse, T; Murphy, G F

    1997-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a disorder characterized by cutaneous exanthemata as a consequence of exaggerated eczematous reactions to topical and systemic allergens. Langerhans cells, expressing CD1a and HLA-DR, and dermal dendritic cells, expressing HLA-DR, are known to be potent antigen-presenting cells and are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. The immunophenotype of lesional skin in atopic dermatitis in humans involves increased numbers of CD1a+/MHC class II+ dendritic cells in addition to activated T cells, mast cells, and macrophages. To establish feline skin as a model for the study of human atopic dermatitis, and to elucidate the role of dendritic cells in feline atopic dermatitis, we investigated the presence of CD1a+ cells and MHC class II+ cells in the epidermis and dermis of lesional feline skin and in skin of healthy control animals. Immunohistochemistry revealed that MHC class II+ epidermal dendritic cells were CD1a+ in normal feline skin and significantly increased numbers of CD1a+ cells and MHC class II+ cells were present in the epidermis and dermis of lesional skin. These data provide the first correlative documentation of CD1a expression by feline dendritic cells containing Birbeck granules, and indicate the utility of feline skin in the study of human cutaneous atopy.

  6. Mullerian-Type Ciliated Cyst of the Thigh with PAX-8 and WT1 Positivity: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fabien-Dupuis, Corinthia; Cooper, Brian; Upperman, Jeffrey; Zhou, Shengmei

    2016-01-01

    Mullerian-type ciliated cysts are uncommon lesions usually found in the lower extremities and perineal region of young females. They have however been reported in males and in other anatomic sites. The cyst lining is typically positive for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), PAX-8, and WT1 immunohistochemical stains. This staining pattern has led to the notion that these cysts are of Müllerian origin. The vast majority of cases are located in the dermis where the preferred nomenclature is cutaneous ciliated cyst (CCC). We report a case of Müllerian-type ciliated cyst in the thigh of a 16-year-old girl. Unlike most of the cases reported in the English literature, this cyst was not centered in the dermis. Only a few other cases of Müllerian-type ciliated cysts with no cutaneous connection have been reported. We propose the term ectopic Müllerian cyst for this rare subset of lesions that are not skin based as is the current case. PMID:28070193

  7. In men at risk of HIV infection, IgM, IgG1, IgG3, and IgA reach the human foreskin epidermis.

    PubMed

    Lemos, M P; Karuna, S T; Mize, G J; Fong, Y; Montano, S M; Ganoza, C; Lama, J R; Sanchez, J; McElrath, M J

    2016-05-01

    We profiled the humoral response in the penis, an area that has been minimally explored but may be relevant for protecting insertive men against HIV and other sexually acquired infections. Comparing paired tissue samples from 20 men at risk of HIV infection, foreskin contains less immunoglobulin A (IgA) and more IgG2 than colon. Using foreskin dermal and epidermal explants and paired plasma from 17 men, we examined Ig accumulation by normalizing Ig to human serum albumin (HSA) transudation. Dermal IgM, IgG2, IgA, and IgE ratios were greater than that in plasma, suggesting there is local antibody secretion at the dermis. Local Ig transcription was concentrated at the inner rather than the outer foreskin, and inner foreskin Ig ratios did not correlate with blood, indicating that localized production can contribute to the foreskin response. IgM, IgG1, IgG3, and IgA have preferential access to the foreskin epidermis, whereas IgG2, IgG4, and IgE are restricted to the dermis. Lastly, Ad5-specific IgA was selectively present in the colon, whereas foreskin Ad5 IgG was mainly derived from blood, and reached the inner epidermis at higher ratios than the outer (P<0.002). In summary, the foreskin antibody response combines local and systemic sources, and there is selective isotype accumulation in the epidermis.

  8. Roles of Proteoglycans and Glycosaminoglycans in Wound Healing and Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ghatak, Shibnath; Maytin, Edward V.; Mack, Judith A.; Hascall, Vincent C.; Atanelishvili, Ilia; Moreno Rodriguez, Ricardo; Markwald, Roger R.; Misra, Suniti

    2015-01-01

    A wound is a type of injury that damages living tissues. In this review, we will be referring mainly to healing responses in the organs including skin and the lungs. Fibrosis is a process of dysregulated extracellular matrix (ECM) production that leads to a dense and functionally abnormal connective tissue compartment (dermis). In tissues such as the skin, the repair of the dermis after wounding requires not only the fibroblasts that produce the ECM molecules, but also the overlying epithelial layer (keratinocytes), the endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells of the blood vessel and white blood cells such as neutrophils and macrophages, which together orchestrate the cytokine-mediated signaling and paracrine interactions that are required to regulate the proper extent and timing of the repair process. This review will focus on the importance of extracellular molecules in the microenvironment, primarily the proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan, and their roles in wound healing. First, we will briefly summarize the physiological, cellular, and biochemical elements of wound healing, including the importance of cytokine cross-talk between cell types. Second, we will discuss the role of proteoglycans and hyaluronan in regulating these processes. Finally, approaches that utilize these concepts as potential therapies for fibrosis are discussed. PMID:26448760

  9. BMP-FGF Signaling Axis Mediates Wnt-Induced Epidermal Stratification in Developing Mammalian Skin

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao-Jing; Liu, YuDong; Dai, Zhong-Min; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Yang, XueQin; Li, Yan; Qiu, Mengsheng; Fu, Jiang; Hsu, Wei; Chen, YiPing; Zhang, Zunyi

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal stratification of the mammalian skin requires proliferative basal progenitors to generate intermediate cells that separate from the basal layer and are replaced by post-mitotic cells. Although Wnt signaling has been implicated in this developmental process, the mechanism underlying Wnt-mediated regulation of basal progenitors remains elusive. Here we show that Wnt secreted from proliferative basal cells is not required for their differentiation. However, epidermal production of Wnts is essential for the formation of the spinous layer through modulation of a BMP-FGF signaling cascade in the dermis. The spinous layer defects caused by disruption of Wnt secretion can be restored by transgenically expressed Bmp4. Non-cell autonomous BMP4 promotes activation of FGF7 and FGF10 signaling, leading to an increase in proliferative basal cell population. Our findings identify an essential BMP-FGF signaling axis in the dermis that responds to the epidermal Wnts and feedbacks to regulate basal progenitors during epidermal stratification. PMID:25329657

  10. Osteogenic potential of murine periosteum for critical-size cranial defects.

    PubMed

    Ruvalcaba-Paredes, E K; Hidalgo-Bastida, L A; Sesman-Bernal, A L; Garciadiego-Cazares, D; Pérez-Dosal, M R; Martínez-López, V; Vargas-Sandoval, B; Pichardo-Bahena, R; Ibarra, C; Velasquillo, C

    2016-09-01

    Tissue engineering of bone has combined bespoke scaffolds and osteoinductive factors to maintain functional osteoprogenitor cells, and the periosteum has been confirmed as a satisfactory source of osteoblasts. Suitable matrices have been identified that support cell proliferation and differentiation, including demineralised bone matrix (both compatible and osteoinductive) and acellular human dermis. We have evaluated the osteogenic potential of an osteogenic unit, developed by combining periosteum, demineralised bone matrix, and acellular human dermis, in rodents with critical-size cranial defects. Briefly, remnants from the superior maxillary periosteum were used to harvest cells, which were characterised by flow cytometry and reverse retrotranscriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cells were cultured into the osteogenic unit and assessed for viability before being implanted into 3 rodents, These were compared with the control group (n=3) after three months. Histological analyses were made after staining with haematoxylin and eosin and Von Kossa, and immunostaining, and confirmed viable cells that stained for CD90, CD73, CD166, runt-related transcription factor, osteopontin, and collagen type I in the experimental group, while in the control group there was only connective tissue on the edges of the bone in the injury zone. We conclude that osteogenic unit constructs have the osteogenic and regenerative potential for use in engineering bone tissue.

  11. [Hypertrophic adipose tissue transplantation secondary to a lipopenisculpture].

    PubMed

    Moullot, P; Nguyen, P-S; Philandrianos, C; Casanova, D

    2014-10-01

    Reconstruction of the penile skin requires a functional and esthetically perfect result, combining a high degree of skin elasticity to allow regular erections and a satisfactory cosmetic appearance. Demand for cosmetic surgery penile augmentation continues to increase for several years. The surgical technique most commonly used is now widening and lengthening lipopenisculpture (LPS), combining an adipocyte graft to a section of the suspensory ligament of the penis. A patient who underwent LPS presented several years after a major hypertrophy of the adipocyte graft, making it impossible to have sexual activities, imposing to perform liposuction. This liposuction was being complicated by necrosis of the penile skin. Reconstruction was required and consisted of an unexpanded thin skin graft associated with artificial dermis. Through technical adaptation of the skin graft on the erect penis, the use of artificial dermis and external stabilization by negative pressure therapy, reconstruction of the penile skin provides excellent aesthetic and functional results. Finally, it is rarely reported in the literature complications of lipofilling like alteration of the aesthetic result after weight gain.

  12. Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis: a case with preserved itch sensation to histamine and partial pain sensation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, T; Satoh, T; Tanaka, A; Yokozeki, H

    2012-04-01

    Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis is a rare autosomal recessive hereditary disorder that is characterized by having both sensory neuropathy and anhidrosis. A 6-year-old Japanese boy presented with recurrent fever, lack of sweating, occult bone fractures and impaired pain sensation without mental retardation. Genetic analyses revealed compound heterozygous mutations in the NTRK1 gene that encodes TrkA, which is a receptor for nerve growth factor. While there were no apparent changes in the patient's dermal eccrine glands, the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test with acetylcholine chloride revealed a complete loss of both the axon reflex-mediated and the directly activated sweat responses. On the other hand, the histamine prick test induced a normal weal response surrounded by a flare phenomenon. Notably, the patient felt both an itch sensation after histamine and a burning sensation after topical capsaicin application. Consistent with these findings, PGP9.5+ nerve fibre innervation of the papillary dermis was observed, although the fibres were completely absent around the eccrine glands. These findings suggest that there was a partial preservation of the nerve endings that express the H(1) receptor and/or TRPV1 in the upper dermis, even though there were mutations of the NTRK1 gene in this case.

  13. Collagen-based cell migration models in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Katarina; Alexander, Stephanie; Schacht, Vivien; Coussens, Lisa M.; von Andrian, Ulrich; van Rheenen, Jacco; Deryugina, Elena; Friedl, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Fibrillar collagen is the most abundant extracellular matrix (ECM) constituent which maintains the structure of most interstitial tissues and organs, including skin, gut, and breast. Density and spatial alignment of the three-dimensional (3D) collagen architecture define mechanical tissue properties, i.e. stiffness and porosity, which guide or oppose cell migration and positioning in different contexts, such as morphogenesis, regeneration, immune response, and cancer progression. To reproduce interstitial cell movement in vitro with high in vivo fidelity, 3D collagen lattices are being reconstituted from extracted collagen monomers, resulting in the reassembly of a fibrillar meshwork of defined porosity and stiffness. With a focus on tumor invasion studies, we here evaluate different in vitro collagen-based cell invasion models, employing either pepsinized or un-pepsinized collagen extracts, and compare their structure to connective tissue in vivo, including mouse dermis and mammary gland, chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), and human dermis. Using confocal reflection and two-photon-excited second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy, we here show that, depending on the collagen source, in vitro models yield homogeneous fibrillar texture with variable pore sizes, whereas all in vivo scaffolds comprise a range from low- to high-density fibrillar networks and heterogeneous pore sizes within the same tissue. Future in-depth comparison of structure and physical properties between 3D ECM-based models in vitro and in vivo are mandatory to better understand the mechanisms and limits of interstitial cell movements in distinct tissue environments. PMID:19682592

  14. Hoarseness as the Presenting Symptom of Visceral Leishmaniasis with Muco-Cutaneous Lesions: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    MORTAZAVI, Hossein; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; TASLIMI, Yasaman; SADEGHIPOUR, Pardis; ANSARI, Mahsa; KAMYAB, Kambiz; TALEBI, Marjan; KHAMESIPOUR, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Herein, a 28-year-old man with hoarseness, skin and oral lesions is presented. At the time of admission, the patient had an erythematous plaque on his chin near his lower lip and an erythematous-violaceous plaque on his palate near the opening of the pharynx and 20 kg weight lost in last one year. The biopsy of his skin lesions by hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed an infiltration of the dermis by lymphoplasma and histiocytic cells with a loose granuloma formation suggestive of leishmaniasis. Biopsy of mucosal lesions revealed Leishman bodies in dermis. PCR was performed on the specimens of skin, bone marrow, mucosa, and saliva, the results were positive. The pathogenic agent was identified as Leishmania major by the nested PCR. Serologic tests including direct agglutination test (DAT) and indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT) were positive with high titers of anti-L. infantum antibodies (1:102400 versus 1:800, respectively), indicative of visceral involvement. The patient responded to a combination of miltefosine and meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime®). Visceral involvement due to L. major is rarely reported. To the best of our knowledge, probably hoarseness due to L. major has not been previously reported from Iran. PMID:26246830

  15. Regressing basal-cell carcinoma masquerading as benign lichenoid keratosis

    PubMed Central

    Kulberg, Aleksandra; Weyers, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Background Benign lichenoid keratosis (BLK, LPLK) is often misdiagnosed clinically as superficial basal-cell carcinoma (BCC), especially when occurring on the trunk. However, BCCs undergoing regression may be associated with a lichenoid interface dermatitis that may be misinterpreted as BLK in histopathologic sections. Methods In order to assess the frequency of remnants of BCC in lesions interpreted as BLK, we performed step sections on 100 lesions from the trunk of male patients that had been diagnosed as BLK. Results Deeper sections revealed remnants of superficial BCC in five and remnants of a melanocytic nevus in two specimens. In the original sections of cases in which a BCC showed up, crusts tended to be more common, whereas vacuolar changes at the dermo-epidermal junction and melanophages in the papillary dermis tended to be less common and less pronounced. Conclusions Lesions from the trunk submitted as BCC and presenting histopathologically as a lichenoid interface dermatitis are not always BLKs. Although no confident recommendations can be given on the basis of this limited study, deeper sections may be warranted if lesions are crusted and/or associated with only minimal vacuolar changes at the dermo-epidermal junction and no or few melanophages in the papillary dermis. PMID:27867740

  16. Variability of dermal elastin visualized ultrastructurally with iron hematoxylin.

    PubMed

    Spicer, S S; Brissie, R M; Thompson, N T

    1975-06-01

    The Verhoeff iron hematoxylin-lead citrate (VIH-LC) method demonstrated vertical elastic fibers that were often composed only of microfibrillar component extending into the epidermal basement membrane in human skin. These fibers connected with a network of trabeculae composed of microfibrils and elastin fibrils in varying proportions. The large elastic fibers in the deep two thirds of the dermis consited mainly of compact bundles of small elstin fibrils in infants and of solid elastin cores with a fimbriated periphery in adults; Dermis of a 6-month-old fetus contained very few small elastic fibrils except around blood vessels. Skin of an elderly subject revealed exteme proliferation of unusual reticulated elastic fibers in various areas and disclosed abnormal nodules of elastin or collagen fibrils in finely particulate matter. Small elastin fibrils, abundant microfibrils, and intermixed individual collagen fibrils comprised an adventitial collar between sweat glands and fibroblasts. Elastin fibrils were absent from this collar in the fetus and increased with the subject's age. A permanganate-high iron diamine sequence appeared to impart density to the microfibrillar component of elastic fibers.

  17. Imaging Mass Spectrometry – a new and promising method to differentiate Spitz nevi from Spitzoid malignant melanomas

    PubMed Central

    Lazova, Rossitza; Seeley, Erin H; Keenan, Megan; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Caprioli, Richard M

    2011-01-01

    Background Differentiating Spitz nevus (SN) from Spitzoid malignant melanoma (SMM) is one the most difficult problems in Dermatopathology. Specific Aim To identify differences on proteomic level between SN and SMM. Methods We performed Imaging Mass Spectrometry (IMS) analysis on formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue samples (FFPE) to identify differences on proteomic level between SN and SMM. The diagnosis of SN and SMM was based on histopathologic criteria, clinical features, and follow up data, which confirmed that none of the lesions diagnosed as SN recurred or metastasized. The melanocytic component (tumor) and tumor microenvironment (dermis) from 114 cases of SN and SMM from the Yale Spitzoid Neoplasm Repository were analyzed. After obtaining mass spectra from each sample, classification models were built using a training set of biopsies from 26 SN and 25 SMM separately for tumor and for dermis. The classification algorithms developed on the training data set were validated on another set of 30 samples from SN and 33 from SMM. Results We found proteomic differences between the melanocytic components of SN and SMM and identified five peptides that were differentially expressed in the two groups. From these data, 29 out of 30 SN and 26 out of 29 SMM were recognized correctly based on tumor analysis in the validation set. This method correctly classified SN with 97% sensitivity and 90% specificity in the validation cohort. Conclusions IMS analysis can reliably differentiate SN from SMM in FFPE tissue based on proteomic differences. PMID:22197864

  18. Ultrastructural analysis between fetal and adult wound healing process of marsupial opossum skin.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, Kei; Ihara, Setsunosuke

    2015-01-01

    The opossum delivers a newborn baby equivalent to tremature fetus state by postpregnancy. The peculiarity is advantageous for studies of fetus, because operations to take out fetus from the uterus of a mother are not necessary. When mammalian skin is wounded by full-thickness excision, fetal and adult wound healing processes differ. Fetal-type wound healing does not leave a scar. However, studies of how the fetal wound healing process differs in detail from the adult type are not advanced. We first observed the normal skin development of the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) using an electron microscope. As for normal skin, an epidermis became multi-layered, and thickened from birth through to 7 days after birth. The quantity of extracellular matrix of the dermis increased thereafter, and several types of cells were found in the dermis. To examine the wound healing, we used material from a 1 day-old newborn baby, and from another 15 days after birth, and compared the wound healing style morphologically. Differences in the constitution of cells and fine structures of the skin were observed, it was obviously suggested that change in the wound healing style from fetal-type to adult-type occurred between 1 to 15 days after birth.

  19. Two cases of male nipple leiomyoma: idiopathic leiomyoma and gynecomastia-associated leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Yoshio; Takeda, Keiko; Nishi, Kaoru; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi; Mizumoto, Toshihiro; Iizuka, Hajime

    2012-05-01

    We describe 2 cases of male nipple leiomyoma. A 70-year-old man had a painful subcutaneous tumor on his left nipple of 6 months duration. Histopathology disclosed dermal spindle cells with oval-shaped nuclei forming interlacing bundles with irregular pattern. Glandular elements were absent. The spindle cells were positive to α-smooth muscle actin, desmin, and vimentin. Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PrR) were negative. We diagnosed this case as male leiomyoma of the nipple. Another patient was a 61-year-old man with gynecomastia induced by spironolactone of 6 months duration. He also had a painful nodule on his left nipple and histopathology disclosed spindle-shaped tumor cells as in the previous patient. The tumor was accompanied by glandular elements in the deep dermis and subcutaneous tissue, which showed apocrine secretion and were positive for α-smooth muscle actin, ER, and PrR. These glandular elements were interpreted as mammary gland. But ER and PrR stain did not show positive results for leiomyoma in the upper dermis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of male idiopathic and gynecomastia-induced leiomyoma with ER and PrR staining.

  20. Optimization of an ex vivo wound healing model in the adult human skin: Functional evaluation using photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Garcia, Jenifer; Sebastian, Anil; Alonso-Rasgado, Teresa; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2015-09-01

    Limited utility of in vitro tests and animal models of human repair, create a demand for alternative models of cutaneous healing capable of functional testing. The adult human skin Wound Healing Organ Culture (WHOC) provides a useful model, to study repair and enable evaluation of therapies such as the photodynamic therapy (PDT). Thus, the aim here was to identify the optimal WHOC model and to evaluate the role of PDT in repair. Wound geometry, system of support, and growth media, cellular and matrix biomarkers were investigated in WHOC models. Subsequently, cellular activity, extracellular matrix remodeling, and oxidative stress plus gene and protein levels of makers of wound repair measured the effect of PDT on the optimized WHOC. WHOCs embedded in collagen and supplemented DMEM were better organized showing stratified epidermis and compact dermis with developing neo-epidermis. Post-PDT, the advancing reepithelialization tongue was 3.5 folds longer, and was highly proliferative with CK-14 plus p16 increased (p < 0.05) compared to controls. The neo-epidermis was fully differentiated forming neo-collagen. Proliferating nuclear antigen, p16, COLI, COLIII, MMP3, MMP19, and α-SMA were significantly more expressed (p < 0.05) in dermis surrounding the healing wound. In conclusion, an optimal model of WHOC treated with PDT shows increased reepithelialization and extracellular matrix reconstruction and remodeling, supporting evidence toward development of an optimal ex vivo wound healing model.

  1. Differential localization of TGF-beta-precursor isotypes in normal human skin.

    PubMed

    Wataya-Kaneda, M; Hashimoto, K; Kato, M; Miyazono, K; Yoshikawa, K

    1994-08-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) can act as a multi-functional regulator of both cell growth and differentiation. Three isotypes of TGF-beta s namely TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2 and TGF-beta 3, have been found in human tissues. Up to now, little is known about the distribution patterns of the TGF-beta isotypes in human skin. Using the TGF-beta-precursor (latency-associated peptides) specific antibodies to confirm the specificity, we studied the immunohistochemical distribution of TGF-beta 1-3 in human skin. TGF-beta 2 was found mainly in the intercellular space of all the layers of the epidermis as well as in the cytoplasm with a weak staining. In contrast, TGF-beta 3 was present in the subepidermal area of the dermis. TGF-beta 1 was observed obviously in neither epidermis nor dermis. These results showed the differential localization of TGF-beta isotypes in human skin, suggesting that the TGF-beta 2 and TGF-beta 3 may regulate the human skin function in an epithelial autocrine or mesenchymal-epithelial interaction manner.

  2. The distribution, density and three-dimensional histomorphology of Pacinian corpuscles in the foot of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and their potential role in seismic communication.

    PubMed

    Bouley, D M; Alarcón, C N; Hildebrandt, T; O'Connell-Rodwell, C E

    2007-10-01

    Both Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants produce low-frequency, high-amplitude rumbles that travel well through the ground as seismic waves, and field studies have shown that elephants may utilize these seismic signals as one form of communication. Unique elephant postures observed in field studies suggest that the elephants use their feet to 'listen' to these seismic signals, but the exact sensory mechanisms used by the elephant have never been characterized. The distribution, morphology and tissue density of Pacinian corpuscles, specialized mechanoreceptors, were studied in a forefoot and hindfoot of Asian elephants. Pacinian corpuscles were located in the dermis and distal digital cushion and were most densely localized to the anterior, posterior, medial and lateral region of each foot, with the highest numbers in the anterior region of the forefoot (52.19%) and the posterior region of the hindfoot (47.09%). Pacinian corpuscles were encapsulated, had a typical lamellar structure and were most often observed in large clusters. Three-dimensional reconstruction through serial sections of the dermis revealed that individual Pacinian corpuscles may be part of a cluster. By studying the distribution and density of these mechanoreceptors, we propose that Pacinian corpuscles are one possible anatomic mechanism used by elephants to detect seismic waves.

  3. Full-thickness tissue engineered skin constructed with autogenic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    He, LiJuan; Nan, Xue; Wang, YunFang; Guan, LiDong; Bai, CiXian; Shi, ShuangShuang; Yuan, HongFeng; Chen, Lin; Liu, Daqing; Pei, Xuetao

    2007-08-01

    To explore the feasibility of repairing clinical cutaneous deficiency, autogenic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were isolated and differentiated into epidermal cells and fibroblasts in vitro supplemented with different inducing factors and biomaterials to construct functional tissueengineered skin. The results showed that after 72 h induction, BMSCs displayed morphologic changes such as typical epidermal cell arrangement, from spindle shape to round or oval; tonofibrils, melanosomes and keratohyaline granules were observed under a transmission electronic microscope. The differentiated cells expressed epidermal stem cell surface marker CK19 (59.66% +/- 4.2%) and epidermal cells differentiation marker CK10. In addition, the induced epidermal cells acquired the anti-radiation capacity featured by lowered apoptosis following exposure to UVB. On the other hand, the collagen microfibrils deposition was noticed under a transmission electronic microscope after differentiating into dermis fibroblasts; RT-PCR identified collagen type I mRNA expression in differentiated cells; radioimmunoassay detected the secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) (up to 115.06 pg/mL and 0.84 ng/mL, respectively). Further in vivo implanting BMSCs with scaffold material shortened skin wound repair significantly. In one word, autogenic BMSCs have the potential to differentiate into epidermal cells and fibroblasts in vitro, and show clinical feasibility acting as epidermis-like and dermis-like seed cells in skin engineering.

  4. Noninvasive intravital cellular diagnosis of atopic dermatitis by using harmonic optical virtual biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Szu-Yu; Lee, Jyh-Hong; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2007-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is now very common in people who live in cities, especially for babies and children. Since the cause of AD is still not completely understood and each person may have his own mixed symptoms that can change over time, diagnosis of AD can not be done precisely. Unlike some skin diseases, physical biopsy is rarely used in diagnosing AD on account of its low urgency. Thus, only indirect diagnoses, like asking for a medical history to learn about the symptoms and to rule out other diseases can be carried out. To gain insight into cellular details of AD for long-term diagnosing without physical biopsy, a noninvasive in vivo tool with a sub-micron subsurface resolution and high penetrability has to be used. In this presentation, we show that harmonic optical virtual biopsy can provide the required noninvasive cellular imaging, and is ideal for future clinical diagnosis of AD. Harmonic optical microscopy has been demonstrated to have the capability to reveal cellular morphology of human skin from epidermis to dermis layer. Third harmonic generation (THG), which is sensitive to inhomogeneous interfaces, can show the structures of skins, and can be used to reveal the morphological changes, for example, the thicken cuticle which is a common symptom of AD. Second harmonic generation (SHG), which occurs in non-centrosymmetric structures, has excellent contrast in collagen fibers and can show the pathological changes of dermis layer. Utilizing both THG and SHG, useful information may be given to facilitate the diagnosis of AD.

  5. Clinico-histopathologic and outcome features of cutaneous infundibular keratinizing acanthoma: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The infundibular keratinizing acanthoma (IKA) is a rare epithelial benign keratin-containing neoplasm of hair follicles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the defining histopathologic architecture of IKA. A typical IKA consisted of a keratin-filled crypt in the dermis and subcutis that opened to the skin surface. Most of this tumor occurred on the back, neck, head, and the shoulders. Microscopically, the dermal nodules were focally contiguous in both the dermis and subcutis. Furthermore, most histological lesions are consistent with a simple or multiloculated cyst filled with keratin and lined by a wall of stratified squamous epithelium; keratin appears as a concentric lamellar mass, with a keratotic pearly aspect. Histological examination of the cutaneous lesions revealed that the growths were comprised of IKA. IKA of man and dog were compared, and it was concluded that although they are similar in many respects, they are not identical entities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the prevalence of IKAs among the population of owned dogs in Iran. PMID:24890648

  6. Clinico-histopathologic and outcome features of cutaneous infundibular keratinizing acanthoma: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Tavasoly, Abbas; Gholami, Hossein; Rostami, Amir; Anissian, Ali; Touni, Seyed Rashid; Khaleghian, Pooyan; Mokarizadeh, Aram; Javanbakht, Javad; Nasoori, Alireza

    2014-06-03

    The infundibular keratinizing acanthoma (IKA) is a rare epithelial benign keratin-containing neoplasm of hair follicles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the defining histopathologic architecture of IKA. A typical IKA consisted of a keratin-filled crypt in the dermis and subcutis that opened to the skin surface. Most of this tumor occurred on the back, neck, head, and the shoulders. Microscopically, the dermal nodules were focally contiguous in both the dermis and subcutis. Furthermore, most histological lesions are consistent with a simple or multiloculated cyst filled with keratin and lined by a wall of stratified squamous epithelium; keratin appears as a concentric lamellar mass, with a keratotic pearly aspect. Histological examination of the cutaneous lesions revealed that the growths were comprised of IKA. IKA of man and dog were compared, and it was concluded that although they are similar in many respects, they are not identical entities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the prevalence of IKAs among the population of owned dogs in Iran.

  7. Acellular Dermal Matrices and Radiotherapy in Breast Reconstruction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Valdatta, Luigi; Scamoni, Stefano; Minuti, Anna; Cherubino, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of commercially available acellular dermis matrices for postmastectomy breast reconstruction seems to have simplified the surgical procedure and enhanced the outcome. These materials, generally considered to be highly safe or with only minor contraindications due to the necessary manipulation in preparatory phases, allow an easier one-phase surgical procedure, in comparison with autologous flaps, offering a high patient satisfaction. Unfortunately, the claim for a higher rate of complications associated with irradiation at the implant site, especially when the radiation therapy was given before the reconstructive surgery, suggested a careful behaviour when this technique is preferred. However, this hypothesis was never submitted to a crucial test, and data supporting it are often discordant or incomplete. To provide a comprehensive analysis of the field, we searched and systematically reviewed papers published after year 2005 and registered clinical trials. On the basis of a meta-analysis of data, we conclude that the negative effect of the radiotherapy on the breast reconstruction seems to be evident even in the case of acellular dermis matrices aided surgery. However, more trials are needed to make solid conclusions and clarify the poor comprehension of all the factors negatively influencing outcome. PMID:24987526

  8. Significance of the S100A4 protein in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Zibert, John R; Skov, Lone; Thyssen, Jacob P; Jacobsen, Grete K; Grigorian, Mariam

    2010-01-01

    The S100A4 protein is reported as a pivotal player in the tumor microenvironment with a metastasis-promoting function. Moreover, the upregulation of S100A4 is found in other non-malignant human disorders as cardiac and pulmonary systems and rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, we investigated the expression and significance of S100A4 in psoriasis. We found significant upregulation of S100A4 in the dermis of psoriatic skin compared with normal skin. This pattern of S100A4 expression differs considerably from that of other S100 proteins, S100A7 and S100A8/9, with predominant expression in the epidermis of psoriasis. Furthermore, we revealed a massive release of the biologically active forms of S100A4 from psoriatic skin. Interestingly, we found stabilization (increase) of p53 in the basal layer of epidermis in close proximity to cells expressing S100A4. To examine the possible implication of S100A4 in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, we analyzed the effect of S100A4 blocking antibodies in a human psoriasis xenograft SCID mouse model and observed a significant reduction of the epidermal thickness and impairment in cell proliferation and dermal vascularization. In conclusion, we showed strong upregulation and release of S100A4 in the upper dermis of psoriatic skin and found evidence indicating that S100A4 might actively contribute to the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  9. Influence of papain urea copper chlorophyllin on wound matrix remodeling.

    PubMed

    Telgenhoff, Dale; Lam, Kan; Ramsay, Sarah; Vasquez, Valerie; Villareal, Kristine; Slusarewicz, Paul; Attar, Paul; Shroot, Braham

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the dermal and epidermal alterations associated with wound healing in wounds treated with papain urea copper chlorophyllin (PUC), papain-urea, copper chlorophyllin, or urea base ointment and compare these with moist wound care using a porcine full-thickness infected wound model. All the wounds were evaluated postsurgery for erythema, transepidermal water loss, microscopic morphology, and changes in protein expression. Examination of stained paraffin sections revealed an increase in the number of keratinocytes present in the epidermis of the PUC and papain-treated pigs, relative to moist control. This increase in keratinocyte number corresponded to an increase in the movement of the keratinocytes into the underlying dermis in the form of rete pegs. In the dermis, there appeared to be an increase in blood vessel formation, collagen I deposition, and mature collagen in the papain and PUC treated tissues. The quality of healing appears to be enhanced based on the number of keratinocytes present in the epidermis, the extensive rete peg formation, the increase in vasculature, and the increase in collagen birefringence.

  10. Microscopic functional anatomy: Integumentary system: Chapter 17

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Diane G.; Ostrander, Gary K.

    2000-01-01

    Many of the features of the fish integument can only be observed microscopically. Because there are over 20,000 living fishes, mostly higher bony fishes (teleosts), a great diversity exists in the microscopic anatomy of the integument. This chapter presents several examples from varied taxonomic groups to illustrate the variation in morphological features. As in all vertebrate epidermis, the fundamental structural unit is the epithelial cell. This is the only constant feature, as a great diversity of cell types exists in the various fish taxa. Some of these include apocrine mucous cells and a variety of other secretory cells, ionocytes, sensory cells, and wandering cells such as leukocytes. The dermis consists essentially of two sets of collagen fibers arranged in opposing geodesic spirals around the body. The dermis of most fishes is divided into two major layers. The upper (outer) layer, the stratum spongiosum or stratum laxum, is a loose network of connective tissue, whereas the lower layer, the stratum compactum, is a dense layer consisting primarily of orthogonal collagen bands. There are also specialized dermal elements such as chromatophores scales, and fin rays.

  11. A survey of clearing techniques for 3D imaging of tissues with special reference to connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Azaripour, Adriano; Lagerweij, Tonny; Scharfbillig, Christina; Jadczak, Anna Elisabeth; Willershausen, Brita; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F

    2016-08-01

    For 3-dimensional (3D) imaging of a tissue, 3 methodological steps are essential and their successful application depends on specific characteristics of the type of tissue. The steps are 1° clearing of the opaque tissue to render it transparent for microscopy, 2° fluorescence labeling of the tissues and 3° 3D imaging. In the past decades, new methodologies were introduced for the clearing steps with their specific advantages and disadvantages. Most clearing techniques have been applied to the central nervous system and other organs that contain relatively low amounts of connective tissue including extracellular matrix. However, tissues that contain large amounts of extracellular matrix such as dermis in skin or gingiva are difficult to clear. The present survey lists methodologies that are available for clearing of tissues for 3D imaging. We report here that the BABB method using a mixture of benzyl alcohol and benzyl benzoate and iDISCO using dibenzylether (DBE) are the most successful methods for clearing connective tissue-rich gingiva and dermis of skin for 3D histochemistry and imaging of fluorescence using light-sheet microscopy.

  12. Evidence and Considerations in the Application of Chemical Peels in Skin Disorders and Aesthetic Resurfacing

    PubMed Central

    Berson, Diane S.; Cohen, Joel L.; Roberts, Wendy E.; Starker, Isaac; Wang, Beatrice

    2010-01-01

    Chemical peeling is a popular, relatively inexpensive, and generally safe method for treatment of some skin disorders and to refresh and rejuvenate skin. This article focuses on chemical peels and their use in routine clinical practice. Chemical peels are classified by the depth of action into superficial, medium, and deep peels. The depth of the peel is correlated with clinical changes, with the greatest change achieved by deep peels. However, the depth is also associated with longer healing times and the potential for complications. A wide variety of peels are available, utilizing various topical agents and concentrations, including a recent salicylic acid derivative, β-lipohydroxy acid, which has properties that may expand the clinical use of peels. Superficial peels, penetrating only the epidermis, can be used to enhance treatment for a variety of conditions, including acne, melasma, dyschromias, photodamage, and actinic keratoses. Medium-depth peels, penetrating to the papillary dermis, may be used for dyschromia, multiple solar keratoses, superficial scars, and pigmentary disorders. Deep peels, affecting reticular dermis, may be used for severe photoaging, deep wrinkles, or scars. Peels can be combined with other in-office facial resurfacing techniques to optimize outcomes and enhance patient satisfaction and allow clinicians to tailor the treatment to individual patient needs. Successful outcomes are based on a careful patient selection as well as appropriate use of specific peeling agents. Used properly, the chemical peel has the potential to fill an important therapeutic need in the dermatologist's and plastic surgeon's armamentarium. PMID:20725555

  13. Lymphocytes infiltrating primary cutaneous neoplasms selectively express the cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA).

    PubMed Central

    Gelb, A. B.; Smoller, B. R.; Warnke, R. A.; Picker, L. J.

    1993-01-01

    The cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA) is the T-cell ligand for E-selectin and is involved in tissue selective migration of memory/effector T cells to chronic inflammatory sites in skin. Here, we examine the hypothesis that CLA is also involved in the local host immune response to cutaneous neoplasms. Eleven primary cutaneous melanomas, nine primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas, and 11 assorted neoplasms metastatic to cutaneous and noncutaneous sites were immunostained with anti-CLA (HECA-452), as well as antibodies directed against B cells (CD20), T/NK cells (CD43), and memory/effector T cells (CD45RO). Essentially all of the lymphocytes surrounding and infiltrating both the cutaneous and noncutaneous tumors were CD43+/CD20-, and most expressed the memory/effector marker CD45RO. CLA was expressed on 10 to 80% (mean: 50%) of T cells associated with primary cutaneous neoplasms (including both melanomas and squamous cell carcinomas) but was essentially absent from noncutaneous primaries (including those metastatic to dermis) and from cutaneous primaries metastatic to dermis or other sites. Overall, the results suggest that CLA+memory T cells are a major component of the local host immune response to cutaneous neoplasms and are likely recruited to the skin by site-specific rather than tumor-specific mechanisms. The lack of a CLA+T-cell response to dermal metastases suggests that epidermal involvement may be required to attract this subset. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7684198

  14. Epicorneal polypoidal lipodermoid: lack of association of central corneal lesions with goldenhar syndrome verified with a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jakobiec, Frederick A; Pineda, Roberto; Rivera, Roxana; Hsu-Winges, Charlene; Cherwek, David

    2010-01-01

    It is remarkable to uncover a new aspect of congenital epibulbar solid dermoids and lipodermoids. We describe a dramatic central epicorneal polypoidal lipodermoid coloboma accompanied by an upper eyelid coloboma that was not associated with Goldenhar syndrome. Histopathologically the excised lesion displayed superficial layers of epidermis and a thin dermis with eccrine glands, vestigial hair structures, and bundles of arrector pili smooth muscle that extended from the undersurface of the epidermis to the bulge area of the primitive hairs. This last feature is not present in normal eyelid skin nor in the conjunctiva, and has not been previously documented to occur in epibulbar dermoids and lipodermoids. S-100-positive dendritic melanocytes and CD1a-positive Langerhans cells were both observed intraepidermally, indicating a complete complement of normal cells in this layer. Beneath the dermis was a massive collection of lobules of mature adipose tissue that fused with the corneal stroma. A virtually identical pedunculated limbal tumor has been previously reported that was associated with Goldenhar syndrome. Review of earlier published cases of epibulbar dermoids and lipodermoids establishes that central corneal lesions are not a stigma of Goldenhar syndrome, in contrast to limbal masses. Other epibulbar choristomas that can be confused with lipodermoids are described.

  15. Comparison of Alexandrite and Diode Lasers for Hair Removal in Dark and Medium Skin: Which is Better?

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Farhad Hamad; Jaafar, Mohamad Suhimi; Ismail, Asaad Hamid; Mutter, Kussay Nugamesh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: To improve laser hair removal (LHR) for dark skin, the fluence rate reaching the hair follicle in LHR is important. This paper presents the results of a comparative study examining the function of wavelength on dark skin types using 755 nm alexandrite and 810 nm diode lasers. Methods: The structure of the skin was created using a realistic skin model by the Advanced Systems Analysis Program. Result: In this study, the alexandrite laser (755 nm) and diode laser (810 nm) beam–skin tissue interactions were simulated. The simulation results for both lasers differed. The transmission ratio of the diode laser to the dark skin dermis was approximately 4% more than that of the alexandrite laser for the same skin type. For the diode laser at skin depth z = 0.67 mm, the average transmission ratios of both samples were 36% and 27.5%, but those for the alexandrite laser at the same skin depth were 32% and 25%. Conclusion: Both lasers were suitable in LHR for dark skin types, but the diode laser was better than the alexandrite laser because the former could penetrate deeper into the dermis layer. PMID:25653820

  16. Two Japanese cases of lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Aki; Tajiri, Akihiko; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asada, Yujiro; Setoyama, Mitsuru

    2007-07-01

    Case 1 was a 51-year-old Japanese woman. She presented with an asymptomatic brown macule located on the right axilla of 2 months' duration. The smooth macule was 2 cm in diameter with a sharp demarcation (Fig. 1A). Case 2 was a 62-year-old Japanese man. He presented with asymptomatic, symmetric, gray-brown macules located on the groin, axillae, and popliteal region of 6 months' duration. The smooth macules were several millimeters to centimeters in diameter and sharply demarcated (Fig. 1B). Oral or nail lesions, previous inflammatory processes in affected areas, and internal malignancies were absent. A causal relationship with drugs, recent sun exposure, or trauma could not be identified. Findings for work-up, including blood cell count, fasting blood sugar levels, liver function, serum electrolyte levels, serum electrophoresis, urinalysis, antinuclear antibodies, and serological examinations for human hepatitis viruses and syphilis, were within normal limits or negative. The lesions gradually disappeared without medication within 6 months. Biopsy specimens showed a lymphocytic infiltrate with basal vacuolar changes and prominent melanin incontinence in the upper dermis (Fig. 2A). The band-like lymphocytic infiltrate was moderate in Case 1 and mild in Case 2. Immunohistochemistry showed infiltrative CD8(+) T lymphocytes with keratinocytic damage, indicating cytotoxic injury of the keratinocytes (Fig. 2B). Both the epidermis and the upper dermis contained CD1a(+) cells (Fig. 2C). The keratinocytes focally and weakly expressed HLA-DR (Fig. 2D). These findings were identical in samples from both patients.

  17. Measurements of the thermal coefficient of optical attenuation at different depth regions of in vivo human skins using optical coherence tomography: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Su, Ya; Yao, X Steve; Li, Zhihong; Meng, Zhuo; Liu, Tiegen; Wang, Longzhi

    2015-02-01

    We present detailed measurement results of optical attenuation's thermal coefficients (referenced to the temperature of the skin surface) in different depth regions of in vivo human forearm skins using optical coherence tomography (OCT). We first design a temperature control module with an integrated optical probe to precisely control the surface temperature of a section of human skin. We propose a method of using the correlation map to identify regions in the skin having strong correlations with the surface temperature of the skin and find that the attenuation coefficient in these regions closely follows the variation of the surface temperature without any hysteresis. We observe a negative thermal coefficient of attenuation in the epidermis. While in dermis, the slope signs of the thermal coefficient of attenuation are different at different depth regions for a particular subject, however, the depth regions with a positive (or negative) slope are different in different subjects. We further find that the magnitude of the thermal coefficient of attenuation coefficient is greater in epidermis than in dermis. We believe the knowledge of such thermal properties of skins is important for several noninvasive diagnostic applications, such as OCT glucose monitoring, and the method demonstrated in this paper is effective in studying the optical and biological properties in different regions of skin.

  18. Paederus fuscipes dermatitis: a report of nine cases observed in Italy and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Veraldi, Stefano; Cuka, Ermira; Chiaratti, Anna; Nazzaro, Gianluca; Gianotti, Raffaele; Süss, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Paederus sp. is a beetle belonging to Staphylinidae family and Coleoptera order. Its distribution is worldwide, especially in hot climates. Over 600 species of Paederus are known, approximately 50 are able to cause an irritant contact dermatitis. When the beetle is accidentally crushed on the skin, it releases pederin, a potent toxin with vesicating action. In Europe, only anecdotical cases of Paederus sp. dermatitis have been reported. Since 1993, we have observed approximately 25 patients with suspected Paederus sp. dermatitis. In 9 the clinical diagnosis was confirmed because Paederus fuscipes were found. The case list includes 6 males and 3 females, ages ranging from 6 to 53 years (mean age: 26.3 years). Six patients presented with one lesion and 3 with 2 lesions. Eyelids (3 patients), shoulders (3), neck (2), cheek (1), breast (1), back (1) and calf (1) were involved. All patients showed erythema, 2 oedema, 2 blisters, 1 vesicles, 1 pustules and 1 crusts. In the patient with pustules, bacteriological examinations were negative. A biopsy was carried out in 4 patients. In the early stages, spongiosis with exocytosis of neutrophils was observed. Vesicles with neutrophils and necrosis of the epidermis were typical of the advanced stage. Oedema of the dermis and a mixed infiltrate, with eosinophils, neutrophils and lymphocytes, in the papillary and upper reticular dermis, were also observed. Direct immunofluorescence was negative in all patients. Paederus sp. should also be considered in temperate climates as a possible aetiological agent in cases of acute dermatitis.

  19. Comparison of in vivo and ex vivo laser scanning microscopy and multiphoton tomography application for human and porcine skin imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvin, M. E.; Richter, H.; Zhu, Y. J.; Meinke, M. C.; Knorr, F.; Gonchukov, S. A.; Koenig, K.; Lademann, J.

    2014-07-01

    Two state-of-the-art microscopic optical methods, namely, confocal laser scanning microscopy in the fluorescence and reflectance regimes and multiphoton tomography in the autofluorescence and second harmonic generation regimes, are compared for porcine skin ex vivo and healthy human skin in vivo. All skin layers such as stratum corneum (SC), stratum spinosum (SS), stratum basale (SB), papillary dermis (PD) and reticular dermis (RD) as well as transition zones between these skin layers are measured noninvasively at a high resolution, using the above mentioned microscopic methods. In the case of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), measurements in the fluorescence regime were performed by using a fluorescent dye whose topical application on the surface is well suited for the investigation of superficial SC and characterisation of the skin barrier function. For investigations of deeply located skin layers, such as SS, SB and PD, the fluorescent dye must be injected into the skin, which markedly limits fluorescence measurements using CLSM. In the case of reflection CLSM measurements, the obtained results can be compared to the results of multiphoton tomography (MPT) for all skin layers excluding RD. CLSM cannot distinguish between dermal collagen and elastin measuring their superposition in the RD. By using MPT, it is possible to analyse the collagen and elastin structures separately, which is important for the investigation of anti-aging processes. The resolution of MPT is superior to CLSM. The advantages and limitations of both methods are discussed and the differences and similarities between human and porcine skin are highlighted.

  20. Histopathological and clinical traps in lichen sclerosus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Brănişteanu, Daciana Elena; Brănişteanu, Daniel Constantin; Stoleriu, Gabriela; Ferariu, Dan; Voicu, Cătălina Maria; Stoica, Loredana Elena; Căruntu, Constantin; Boda, Daniel; Filip-Ciubotaru, Florina Mihaela; Dimitriu, Andreea; Radu, Cezar Doru

    2016-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and limited systemic scleroderma (acrosclerosis) are inflammatory skin diseases that ultimately evolve into two distinct modes of atrophic scar formation, but which can easily be confused clinically. They are very rarely associated. The literature has reported cases in which lichen sclerosus was associated with various forms of scleroderma, but often with localized morphea. The characteristic histopathological picture of lichen sclerosus includes a thin epidermis, with orthohyperkeratosis and vascular degeneration in the basal layer, loss of elastic fibers, and band-like inflammatory infiltrate in the papillary dermis, while systemic sclerosis is characterized by excessive deposition of collagen in the dermis, accompanied by reduction in adnexal structures and their entrapment in collagen, and the presence of perivascular lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate. We present the case of a 40-year-old female patient clinically diagnosed with systemic scleroderma and lichen sclerosus involving the genital mucosa. Physical examination in conjunction with laboratory findings (elevated antinuclear, anti-Scl-70, anti-SSA antibodies and immunogram) induced the supposition of the coexistence of lichen sclerosus and systemic scleroderma, fact confirmed by pathological examination. Systemic therapy with corticosteroids, immunosuppressive and phlebotropic drugs, peripheral vasodilators and other tropic adjuvants and topically potent topical corticosteroids was initiated. The course was favorable under therapy, the hardened skin slightly regaining elasticity, relief of itching and disappearance of lichen sclerosus lesions. Our case reaffirms the uncommon association of these two disorders. The importance of history, physical and laboratory examinations in making a diagnosis of certainty in emphasized.

  1. Bilateral zosteriform extragenital lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Piyush; Jha, Abhijeet Kumar; Mallik, Sambeet Kumar; Raihan, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    A 35-year-old man presented with asymptomatic eruption on both forearms and lower aspects of the legs for 6 months. The lesions first appeared on his inner aspects of the wrist, the dorsal surface of the hands, and legs and progressed to involve proximal aspects of the extremities. There was no significant past history. On examination, multiple pearly white papules and depigmented atrophic plaques were found bilaterally on the flexors of the arms and the extensors of the legs. The lesions were arranged in a linear manner, following the lines of Blaschko (Figures 1 and 2). The surface of the atrophic plaques was notable for prominent telangiectasia, giving an erythematous appearance. The genitalia, oral cavity, palms, and soles were spared. Systemic examination was noncontributory. Lichen striatus and extragenital lichen sclerosus (ELS) were considered the differential diagnosis. Clinically, the age of the patient, the absence of scaling, and the presence of atrophic plaques and telangiectasia were in favor of ELS. A punch biopsy from an atrophic plaque was performed, and it revealed hyperkeratosis, atrophic epidermis, basal layer vacuolar degeneration, mild lymphocytic infiltration in the dermis, edema, and homogenization of collagen of the upper portion of the dermis (Figures 3 and Figure 4). Histopathologic findings were consistent with lichen sclerosus. A diagnosis of bilateral zosteriform ELS was made.

  2. Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of cyproterone acetate in human skin.

    PubMed

    Henry de Hassonville, Sandrine; Chiap, Patrice; Liégeois, Jean-François; Evrard, Brigitte; Delattre, Luc; Crommen, Jacques; Piel, Géraldine; Hubert, Philippe

    2004-09-21

    In the framework of a preliminary study on the transdermal penetration of cyproterone acetate (CPA), a simple and rapid procedure involving an extraction step coupled to a HPLC-UV determination has been developed for the separation and quantification of CPA in the two main skin layers-epidermis and dermis-after local application. The separation of epidermis and dermis layers was carefully carried out by means of a sharp spatula after skin immersion in heated water at 65 degrees C. The two skin layers were then treated separately according to the same process: (1) sample homogenization by vibration after freezing with liquid nitrogen in a Mikro-Dismembrator; (2) CPA extraction with methanol after addition of the internal standard (betamethasone dipropionate); (3) centrifugation; (4) evaporation of a supernatant aliquot; (5) dissolution of the dry residue in methanol and addition of water; (6) centrifugation; (7) injection of a supernatant aliquot into the HPLC system. The separation was achieved on octadecylsilica stationary phase using a mobile phase consisting in a mixture of acetonitrile and water (40:60 (v/v)). The method was then validated using a new approach based on accuracy profiles over a CPA concentration range from 33 to 667 ng/ml for each skin layer. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the determination of CPA to several skin samples after topical application of different gel formulations containing CPA.

  3. A case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma misdiagnosed as an erysipelas of the face

    PubMed Central

    Szymańska, Magdalena; Czarnecka-Operacz, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a woman with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Primary cutaneous lymphomas (PCLs) represent distinct clinical and histopathologic subtypes of extranodal T- and B-cell lymphomas. Cutaneous B-cell lymphomas comprise 20–25% of all primary cutaneous lymphomas. The patient presented an erythematous tumour mass of the left nasolabial fold, nose and left cheek as well as disseminated infiltrative plagues on the trunk, arms and left lower leg. Skin biopsy revealed a diffuse infiltrate of lymphocytes around hair follicles and blood vessels within dermis and subcutaneous tissue. An immunohistochemistry showed a diffuse infiltrate of large non-cleaved B-cells, with a high proportion of centroblast-like cells within dermis. Tumor cells expressed CD20, bcl-2 protein and did not express CD10. The patient was misdiagnosed as the erysipelas of the face and unsuccessfully treated with long-term antibiotic therapy by a laryngologist and a dermatologist. The correct diagnosis was delayed and established after 6 months’ history of DLBCL lesions. Therefore, we would like to strongly stress the importance of considering diagnosis of cutaneous lymphomas in chronic skin lesions non-responsive to adequate therapies. PMID:24278087

  4. Mast cells and eosinophils in feline allergic dermatitis: a qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Roosje, P J; Koeman, J P; Thepen, T; Willemse, T

    2004-07-01

    Mast cells (MCs) and eosinophils are prominent in the perivascular infiltrate of cats with allergic dermatitis. In the skin of allergic cats MCs were mainly observed diffusely in the superficial dermis, while eosinophils were found mainly in the deep dermis in a perivascular pattern. MC counts were significantly higher in cats with allergic dermatitis (P < 0.05) than in healthy control cats, but the number varied widely. Moreover, the numbers of eosinophils in the skin of allergic and control cats differed significantly (P < 0.05) none being found in the latter. There was no significant correlation between numbers of mast cells and eosinophils in the same biopsy sample. In the allergic cats, a significantly lower number of MCs was detected by staining for tryptase than by staining for chymase or by Astra blue staining. Additionally, the chymase: tryptase ratio in healthy cats was reversed in cats with allergic dermatitis. These changes were observed in lesional and nonlesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis. The findings indicate a generalized effect on MCs in allergic dermatitis. In addition, eosinophils are an important indicator of allergic dermatitis.

  5. In Men at Risk of HIV Infection, IgM, IgG1, IgG3 and IgA Reach the Human Foreskin Epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Maria P.; Karuna, Shelly T.; Mize, Gregory J.; Fong, Youyi; Montano, Silvia M.; Ganoza, Carmela; Lama, Javier R.; Sanchez, Jorge; McElrath, M. Juliana

    2015-01-01

    We profiled the humoral response in the penis, an area that has been minimally explored but may be relevant for protecting insertive men against HIV and other sexually-acquired infections. Comparing paired tissue samples from 20 men at risk of HIV infection, foreskin contains less IgA and more IgG2 than colon. Using foreskin dermal and epidermal explants and paired plasma from 17 men, we examined Ig accumulation by normalizing Ig to human serum albumin (HSA) transudation. Dermal IgM, IgG2, IgA, and IgE ratios were greater than in plasma, suggesting there is local antibody secretion at the dermis. Local Ig transcription was concentrated at the inner rather than the outer foreskin, and inner foreskin Ig ratios did not correlate with blood, indicating that localized production can contribute to the foreskin response. IgM, IgG1, IgG3, and IgA have preferential access to the foreskin epidermis, whereas IgG2, IgG4, and IgE are restricted to the dermis. Lastly, Ad5-specific IgA was selectively in the colon; whereas foreskin Ad5 IgG was mainly derived from blood, and reached the inner epidermis at higher ratios than the outer (p<0.002). In summary, the foreskin antibody response combines local and systemic sources and there is selective isotype accumulation in the epidermis. PMID:26509877

  6. Hair follicle units promote re-epithelialization in chronic cutaneous wounds: A clinical case series study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Qi; Zhao, Kong-Bo; Feng, Zi-Hao; Qi, Fa-Zhi

    2015-07-01

    Chronic cutaneous wounds are one of the most unfavorable pathophysiological processes in routine practice. However, developments in hair follicle unit therapy may aid the treatment of these wounds. The aim of the present study was to investigate the function of hair follicle units in chronic cutaneous wound re-epithelialization and to develop an effective protocol for wound treatment. A total of 14 patients, of which nine were male and five were female, with a mean age of 60.71 years (range, 19-76 years) and a mean wound area of 74.14 cm(2), were treated in the study. The hair follicle units were dissected from a scalp graft and transplanted into the chronic cutaneous wound bed, after which clinical evaluation was performed. Images of the recipient site were captured at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8 and 14 weeks following transplantation. In addition, histological examinations were conducted postoperatively at week 16. Total wound re-epithelialization was observed in all the patients. Histological analysis revealed that the epidermis and papillary dermis were present in the wound area. Adnexal structures and the reticular dermis were also observed. Therefore, the present study demonstrated the ability of hair follicle units to promote chronic cutaneous wound healing.

  7. MicroCT detection of gunshot residue in fresh and decomposed firearm wounds.

    PubMed

    Cecchetto, Giovanni; Amagliani, Alessandro; Giraudo, Chiara; Fais, Paolo; Cavarzeran, Fabiano; Montisci, Massimo; Feltrin, Giampietro; Viel, Guido; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2012-05-01

    Gunshot residue (GSR) evidence may be altered or obscured by after-death events such as putrefaction, autolysis, and/or damage by animals. The present study aimed at evaluating and comparing the amount and differential distribution of GSR utilizing microcomputed tomography (microCT) analysis of fresh and decomposed gunshot wounds. A total of 60 experimental shootings at three different firing distances (5, 15, and 30 cm) were performed on human calves surgically amputated for medical reasons. Thirty specimens (10 for each tested distance) were immediately formalin-fixed, while the other 30 specimens were enclosed in a cowshed for 15 days, before formalin fixation (air temperature ranging from 11°C to 38°C). MicroCT analysis with three-dimensional image reconstruction detected GSR particles in all the investigated entrance wounds. In fresh specimens, GSR was concentrated on the skin surface around the entrance hole and in the epidermis and dermis layers around the cavity, while in decomposed specimens, the high density particles were detected only in the dermis layer. No GSR was detected in exit wounds of both fresh and decomposed specimens regardless of the tested firing distance. Statistical analysis demonstrated that also in decomposed wounds the amount of GSR roughly correlated with the distance from which the gun was fired, exhibiting, however, a higher variability than in fresh samples. The obtained results suggest that microCT analysis can be a valid screening tool for differentiating decomposed entrance and exit gunshot wounds.

  8. A new mechanochemical model: coupled Ginzburg-Landau and Swift-Hohenberg equations in biological patterns of marine animals.

    PubMed

    Morales, M A; Rojas, J F; Oliveros, J; Hernández S, A A

    2015-03-07

    In this work the skin coating of some vertebrate marine animals is modeled considering only dermis, epidermis and basal layers. The biological process takes into account: cellular diffusion of the epidermis, diffusion inhibition and long-range spatial interaction (nonlocal effect on diffusive dispersal) for cells of dermal tissue. The chemical and physical interactions between dermis and epidermis are represented by coupling quadratic terms and nonlinear terms additional. The model presents an interesting property associated with their gradient form: a connection between some physical, chemical and biological systems. The model equations proposed are solved with numerical methods to study the spatially stable emergent configurations. The spatiotemporal dynamic obtained of the numerical solution of these equations, present similarity with biological behaviors that have been found recently in the cellular movement of chromatophores (as contact-dependent depolarization and repulsion movement between melanophores, xanthophores and iridophores). The numerical solution of the model shows a great variety of beautiful patterns that are robust to changes of boundary condition. The resultant patterns are very similar to the pigmentation of some fish.

  9. Voluntary exercise improves murine dermal connective tissue status in high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Lőrincz, Kende; Haluszka, Dóra; Kiss, Norbert; Gyöngyösi, Nóra; Bánvölgyi, András; Szipőcs, Róbert; Wikonkál, Norbert M

    2017-04-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for several cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Its influence on the skin is less obvious, yet certain negative effects of adipose tissue inflammation on the dermis have been suggested. Excess weight is closely associated with sedentary behavior, so any increase in physical activity is considered beneficial against obesity. To investigate the effects of obesity and physical exercise on the skin, we established a mouse model in which mice were kept either on a high-fat diet or received standard chow. After the two groups achieved a significant weight difference, physical exercise was introduced to both. Animals were given the opportunity to perform voluntary exercise for 40 min daily in a hamster wheel for a period of 8 weeks. We evaluated the status of the dermis at the beginning and at the end of the exercise period by in vivo nonlinear microscopy. Obese mice kept on high-fat diet lost weight steadily after they started to exercise. In the high-fat diet group, we could detect significantly larger adipocytes and a thicker layer of subcutaneous tissue; both changes started to normalize after exercise. Nonlinear microscopy revealed an impaired collagen structure in obese mice that improved considerably after physical activity was introduced. With the ability to detect damage on collagen structure, we set out to address the question whether this process is reversible. With the use of a novel imaging method, we were able to show the reversibility of connective tissue deterioration as a benefit of physical exercise.

  10. Telocytes in human skin – are they involved in skin regeneration?

    PubMed Central

    Ceafalan, Laura; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Popescu, L M; Simionescu, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Telocytes (TCs), a particular interstitial cell type, have been recently described in a wide variety of mammalian organs (www.telocytes.com). The TCs are identified morphologically by a small cell body and extremely long (tens to hundreds of μm), thin prolongations (less than 100 nm in diameter, below the resolving power of light microscopy) called telopodes. Here, we demonstrated with electron microscopy and immunofluorescence that TCs were present in human dermis. In particular, TCs were found in the reticular dermis, around blood vessels, in the perifollicular sheath, outside the glassy membrane and surrounding sebaceous glands, arrector pili muscles and both the secretory and excretory portions of eccrine sweat glands. Immunofluorescence screening and laser scanning confocal microscopy showed two subpopulations of dermal TCs; one expressed c-kit/CD117 and the other was positive for CD34. Both subpopulations were also positive for vimentin. The TCs were connected to each other by homocellular junctions, and they formed an interstitial 3D network. We also found TCs adjoined to stem cells in the bulge region of hair follicles. Moreover, TCs established atypical heterocellular junctions with stem cells (clusters of undifferentiated cells). Given the frequency of allergic skin pathologies, we would like to emphasize the finding that close, planar junctions were frequently observed between TCs and mast cells. In conclusion, based on TC distribution and intercellular connections, our results suggested that TCs might be involved in skin homeostasis, skin remodelling, skin regeneration and skin repair. PMID:22500885

  11. Modeling of optimal conditions for oxyhemoglobin photodissociation in laser-irradiated biotissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barun, V. V.; Ivanov, A. P.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Genina, E. A.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2013-08-01

    Based on the theory of radiation transfer and a model that describes the structure and optical properties of biotissues, we have found spectral conditions of irradiation of the skin surface that ensure efficient generation of molecular oxygen O2 in the dermis due to the photodissociation of blood oxyhemoglobin. We show that, for maximal local O2 formation at depths z ≤ 0.2 mm, 0.2 mm < z ≤ 0.9 mm, 0.9 mm < z ≤ 2.5 mm, and z > 2.5 mm, it is more effective to use wavelengths in the intervals 418 ± 5, 575 ± 5, 585 ± 5, and 600 ± 5 nm, respectively. Physical reasons for the shift of optimal wavelengths toward the red range of the spectrum are described. We show that they are based on the selectivity of optical properties of the skin biotissue, which acts as of a kind of spectral filter the transmission curve of which depends on the depth. It is found that irradiation at a wavelength near 575 nm is optimal for the generation of a maximal amount of O2 in the intire bulk of the dermis.

  12. Impact of extracorporeal shock waves on the human skin with cellulite: A case study of an unique instance

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Christoph; Angehrn, Fiorenzo; Sonnabend, Ortrud; Voss, Axel

    2008-01-01

    In this case study of an unique instance, effects of medium-energy, high-focused extracorporeal generated shock waves (ESW) onto the skin and the underlying fat tissue of a cellulite afflicted, 50-year-old woman were investigated. The treatment consisted of four ESW applications within 21 days. Diagnostic high-resolution ultrasound (Collagenoson) was performed before and after treatment. Directly after the last ESW application, skin samples were taken for histopathological analysis from the treated and from the contra-lateral untreated area of skin with cellulite. No damage to the treated skin tissue, in particular no mechanical destruction to the subcutaneous fat, could be demonstrated by histopathological analysis. However an astounding induction of neocollageno- and neoelastino-genesis within the scaffolding fabric of the dermis and subcutis was observed. The dermis increased in thickness as well as the scaffolding within the subcutaneous fat-tissue. Optimization of critical application parameters may turn ESW into a noninvasive cellulite therapy. PMID:18488890

  13. Cosmeceutical product consisting of biomimetic peptides: antiaging effects in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gazitaeva, Zarema I; Drobintseva, Anna O; Chung, Yongji; Polyakova, Victoria O; Kvetnoy, Igor M

    2017-01-01

    Background Biomimetic peptides are synthetic compounds that are identical to amino acid sequence synthesized by an organism and can interact with growth factor receptors and provide antiaging clinical effects. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of biomimetic peptides on the repair processes in the dermis using a model of cell cultures and in vivo. Patients and methods Five female volunteers were subjected to the injection of biomimetic peptides 1 month prior to the abdominoplasty procedure. Cell culture, immunocytochemistry, and confocal microscopy methods were used in this study. Results Biomimetic peptides regulate the synthesis of proteins Ki-67, type I procollagen, AP-1, and SIRT6 in cell cultures of human fibroblasts. They contribute to the activation of regeneration processes and initiation of mechanisms that prevent aging. Intradermal administration of complex of biomimetic peptides produces a more dense arrangement of collagen fibers in the dermis and increased size of the fibers after 2 weeks. The complex of biomimetic peptides was effective in the in vivo experiments, where an increase in the proliferative and synthetic activities of fibroblasts was observed. Conclusion This investigation showed that the studied peptides have biological effects, testifying the stimulation of reparative processes in the skin under their control. PMID:28123310

  14. Plasma-cell cheilitis: successful treatment with intralesional injections of corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Tseng, J T-P; Cheng, C-J; Lee, W-R; Wang, K-H

    2009-03-01

    Plasma-cell cheilitis is a rare inflammatory disorder of the lip characterized histologically by a band-like infiltrate of plasma cells in the upper dermis. It is considered an oral counterpart of plasma-cell balanitis. Clinically, it presents as a circumscribed, flat to slightly raised, eroded area of the lip. The cause of plasma-cell cheilitis is unknown, and the treatment is often disappointing. We describe a 55-year-old woman who had a long-lasting painful, swollen, and eroded area on her lips, which responded poorly to various topical treatments. Biopsy showed a band-like infiltrate composed mainly of mature plasma cells in the dermis. A diagnosis of plasma-cell cheilitis was made after excluding contact dermatitis, lichen planus, bacterial, fungal and spirochaete infections, and an extramedullary plasmacytoma. Dramatic improvements were observed after intralesional injections of corticosteroids. The lesion cleared up after two treatments, and there has been no recurrence in 1 year of follow-up.

  15. Quantitative changes in human epithelial cancers and osteogenesis imperfecta disease detected using nonlinear multicontrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adur, Javier; Pelegati, Vitor B.; de Thomaz, Andre A.; D'Souza-Li, Lilia; Assunção, Maria do Carmo; Bottcher-Luiz, Fátima; Andrade, Liliana A. L. A.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2012-08-01

    We show that combined multimodal nonlinear optical (NLO) microscopies, including two-photon excitation fluorescence, second-harmonic generation (SHG), third harmonic generation, and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) can be used to detect morphological and metabolic changes associated with stroma and epithelial transformation during the progression of cancer and osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) disease. NLO microscopes provide complementary information about tissue microstructure, showing distinctive patterns for different types of human breast cancer, mucinous ovarian tumors, and skin dermis of patients with OI. Using a set of scoring methods (anisotropy, correlation, uniformity, entropy, and lifetime components), we found significant differences in the content, distribution and organization of collagen fibrils in the stroma of breast and ovary as well as in the dermis of skin. We suggest that our results provide a framework for using NLO techniques as a clinical diagnostic tool for human cancer and OI. We further suggest that the SHG and FLIM metrics described could be applied to other connective or epithelial tissue disorders that are characterized by abnormal cells proliferation and collagen assembly.

  16. Sunscreens promote repair of ultraviolet radiation-induced dermal damage.

    PubMed

    Kligman, L H; Akin, F J; Kligman, A M

    1983-08-01

    Chronic UV irradiation profoundly damages the dermis of human and animal skin. These alterations were thought to be irreversible. Recently, we showed that substantial repair occurred in hairless mice after stopping UV exposure. A band of new connective tissue was laid down subepidermally. The present study focussed on whether repair would occur if animals were protected by sunscreens after dermal damage was induced and irradiation was continued. Albino hairless mice were exposed to Westinghouse FS20 sunlamps thrice weekly for 30 weeks. The daily dose of UV (UVB + UVA) was 0.17 J/cm2. Sunscreens of sun protection factors (SPF) 6 and 15 were applied after 10 and 20 weeks of irradiation. Biopsies were taken at 10, 20, 30, and 45 weeks of the experiment. With both sunscreens, especially SPF-15, previously damaged dermis was repaired during continued irradiation. Repair occurred in situ and, in severely damaged skin, in the novel form of subepidermal reconstruction zones of new connective tissue with parallel collagen bundles and a network of fine elastic fibers.

  17. Real-time PCR analysis of a 3895 bp mitochondrial DNA deletion in nonmelanoma skin cancer and its use as a quantitative marker for sunlight exposure in human skin.

    PubMed

    Harbottle, A; Birch-Machin, M A

    2006-06-19

    Previous findings from our own laboratory have shown that the frequency of occurrence (i.e. the simple presence or absence) of the 3895 bp mitochondrial DNA deletion is increased with increasing sun exposure. The present study has significantly extended this work by developing, validating and then using a quantitative real-time PCR assay to investigate for the first time the actual level (as opposed to the frequency of occurrence) of the 3895 bp deletion in human skin from different sun-exposed body sites and tumours from nonmelanoma skin cancer patients. We investigated the 3895 bp deletion in 104 age-matched split human skin samples taken from various sun-exposed sites defined as usually exposed (n = 60) and occasionally exposed (n = 44) when outdoors. The results clearly show an increased level of the 3895 bp deletion with increasing sun exposure. Specifically, there was a significantly higher level of the deletion in the usually sun-exposed compared to the occasionally sun-exposed skin (P = 0.0009 for dermis, P = 0.008 for epidermis; two-tailed t-test). Our study has also extended previous findings by showing that the level of the 3895 bp deletion is significantly higher in the dermis compared with the epidermis both in the occasionally sun-exposed samples (P = 0.0143) and in the usually sun-exposed skin. (P = 0.0007).

  18. Infrared fiber optic evanescent wave spectroscopy for the study of diffusion in the human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raichlin, Yosef; Goldberg, I.; Brenner, Sarah; Shulzinger, Evgeny; Katzir, Abraham

    2002-03-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic systems make use of Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) elements for the study of skin in dermatology. FTIR - ATR allows real time and reagent-less analysis of several components, simultaneously. The potential for skin studies is increased by the development of the flexible fiber optic sensor made from infrared transparent polycrystalline silver halide. Segments of fibers can replace the ATR sensing elements inside an FTIR system. Moreover a Fiberoptic Evanescent Wave Spectroscopy (FEWS) can also be used for real time in vivo measurement on skin, in situ. We used FEWS to study the diffusion of UV sunscreen lotions from the outer skin layer into the dermis and epidermis, and used the various absorption bands to differentiate between the behavior of the organic and the water molecules in the lotion. FEWS can be a powerful tool for studying the transport of drugs and cosmetic creams through the skin from the stratum corneum to the dermis and epidermis and for studying the lateral diffusion of various molecules into the skin, in vivo and in real time.

  19. Dermal pharmacokinetics of Terpinen-4-ol following topical administration of Zingiber cassumunar (plai) oil.

    PubMed

    Chooluck, Kotchaphan; Singh, Rajendra P; Sathirakul, Korbtham; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate dermal pharmacokinetics of terpinen-4-ol in rats following topical administration of plai oil derived from the rhizomes of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. Unbound terpinen-4-ol concentrations in dermal tissue were measured by microdialysis. The dermal pharmacokinetic study of terpinen-4-ol was performed under non-occlusive conditions. The oil was topically applied at a dose of 2, 4, and 8 mg/cm2 plai oil corresponding to the amount of 1.0, 1.9, and 3.8 mg/cm2 terpinen-4-ol, respectively. Following topical application of the oil, terpinen-4-ol rapidly distributed into the dermis and demonstrated linear pharmacokinetics with no changes in the dose-normalized area under the concentration-time curves across the investigated dosage range. The mean percentages of free terpinen-4-ol distributed in the dermis per amount of administered were 0.39 ± 0.06 %, 0.41 ± 0.08 %, and 0.30 ± 0.03 % for 2, 4, and 8 mg/cm2 doses, respectively. The dermal pharmacokinetics of terpinen-4-ol could provide information for its further formulation development and therapy schedules.

  20. Plasma and dermal pharmacokinetics of terpinen-4-ol in rats following intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Chooluck, K; Singh, R P; Sathirakul, K; Derendorf, H

    2013-02-01

    Terpinen-4-ol, a naturally occurring monoterpene, has been shown to possess antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Furthermore, recent reports have demonstrated that terpinen-4-ol could be developed as new therapies against melanoma either in systemic administration or targeted drug delivery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of terpinen-4-ol in rat plasma and dermal tissue following intravenous (i.v.) bolus injection of terpinen-4-ol at a dose of 2 mg/kg. Unbound concentrations of terpinen-4-ol in dermis were continuously determined by dermal microdialysis. Simultaneously, a conventional blood sampling was performed. The concentrations of terpinen-4-ol in plasma and microdialysates were determined by validated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Following i.v. bolus administration, terpinen-4-ol rapidly distributed into the dermis and reached relatively low levels with an average maximum concentration (Cmax) of 0.10 +/- 0.06 microg/ml in comparison with a plasma Cmax of 6.30 +/- 1.90 microg/ml. The free terpinen-4-ol concentrations in dermal tissue were lower than the corresponding total and free plasma concentrations for the entire length of study, indicating that plasma levels do not provide information of actual terpinen-4-ol concentrations in the skin. This study demonstrates that dermal microdialysis is an effective and minimally invasive tool to evaluate the dermal pharmacokinetics of terpinen-4-ol following systemic administration.