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Sample records for des personnes victimes

  1. Soins primaires des personnes victimes d’une lésion médullaire

    PubMed Central

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; McColl, Alexander; Sakakibara, Brodie; Smith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Effectuer une étude de la portée des données empiriques, entre 1980 et 2009, concernant les soins primaires aux adultes victimes d’une lésion médullaire (LME). Sources des données Une recension dans des revues révisées par des pairs de1980 à 2009 à l’aide de CINAHL, PubMed-MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Abstracts et Social Work Abstracts. Sélection des études La recherche électronique au moyen de mots-clés a permis de cerner 42 articles sur les soins primaires et les LME. Des critères d’inclusion ont servi à réduire la liste à un ensemble de 21 articles publiés en anglais qui portaient sur un échantillon de plus de 3 et présentaient une analyse empirique. Synthèse Environ 90 % des personnes atteintes d’une LME ont identifié leur médecin de famille comme étant leur docteur habituel; 63 % avaient un spécialiste des LME. Les personnes vivant à long terme avec une LME développent des rubriques complexes pour naviguer dans leurs systèmes de soins de santé personnels. Les données scientifiques ne sont pas unanimes quant à l’efficacité des programmes d’intervention directe pour le maintien de la santé et la prévention des complications à la suite d’une LME. Les données appuient cependant le suivi périodique par une équipe spécialisée et un bilan de santé annuel complet. La recherche fait valoir un fort degré d’uniformité dans l’identification des problèmes les plus courants soulevés par les personnes atteintes d’une LME en soins primaires, dont la plupart concernent l’incapacité, plus précisément les complications secondaires, comme la dysfonction intestinale ou vésicale et la douleur. Il existe aussi de bonnes données probantes à l’effet que de nombreux problèmes de santé généraux exigent de l’attention dans une telle population, comme les problèmes de la densité osseuse, la dépression et les questions entourant la santé sexuelle et la reproduction. Il y a

  2. Trajet de soins des personnes âgées à Bobo-Dioulasso, au Burkina Faso: une enquête transversale

    PubMed Central

    Hien, Hervé; Berthé, Abdramane; Konaté, Blahima; Drabo, Maxime koiné; Tou, Fatoumata; Somda, Désiré; Badini-Kinda, Fatoumata; Macq, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Introduction En Afrique, il y n'a pas encore une maitrise du trajet de soins des personnes âgées pour construire des modèles de soins adaptés afin d'améliorer leur prise en charge. L'objectif de cette étude était de décrire le trajet de soins des personnes âgées à Bobo-Dioulasso. Méthodes Nous avons réalisé une étude transversale à prédominance qualitative avec des personnes âgées vivant dans les ménages dans la ville de Bobo-Dioulasso de septembre à novembre 2012. Nous avons sélectionné 30 personnes âgées de manière raisonnée dans 22 secteurs. Des entretiens qualitatifs ont été réalisés. Le recours aux soins formels, informels et mixtes a été analysé. Résultats Le trajet de soins des personnes âgées à Bobo-Dioulasso était à prédominance mixte: elles utilisaient à la fois pour le même épisode de maladie les services publics et privés l'automédication à domicile, la médecine traditionnelle, l'utilisation des médicaments du marche informel de la rue. Les premiers recours aux soins étaient à l'initiative des personnes âgées elles-mêmes. Les recours aux soins formels étaient largement utilisés par les personnes âgées qui avaient un revenu de pension. Conclusion Devant la complexité de la prise en charge des personnes âgées présentant plusieurs pathologies et ayant différents recours des soins il y a une nécessité d'orienter le système d'offre de soins vers une coordination dite « collective ». PMID:26097632

  3. Approche pour les comportements sexuels inappropriés chez des personnes atteintes de démence

    PubMed Central

    Joller, Petra; Gupta, Neeraj; Seitz, Dallas P.; Frank, Christopher; Gibson, Michelle; Gill, Sudeep S.

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille une mise à jour sur l’approche au diagnostic et à la prise en charge des comportements sexuels inappropriés (CSI) chez les personnes atteintes de démence. Sources des données On a fait une recherche dans MEDLINE et EMBASE pour cerner des articles pertinents publiés avant juin 2012. On n’a trouvé aucune étude de niveau I; la plupart des articles fournissaient des données probantes de niveau III. Message principal Les comportements sexuels inappropriés sont fréquents chez les personnes atteintes de démence. Divers facteurs (p. ex., culturels, religieux, perspectives sociétales de la sexualité gériatrique, questions médicolégales) pourraient compliquer l’évaluation de tels comportements et doivent être pris en compte pour permettre une prise en charge appropriée à chaque patient. Il existe des outils pour documenter les CSI. Des interventions créatives non pharmacologiques pour les CSI pourraient être efficaces quand elles sont adaptées à chaque patient. Certaines pharmacothérapies (p. ex., antidépresseurs, antiandrogènes, antipsychotiques et anticonvulsifs) ont été proposées pour les symptômes qui ne répondent pas aux interventions non pharmacologiques. Par ailleurs, les données probantes à l’appui des traitements à l’aide de médicaments sont limitées, les effets secondaires demeurent un aspect important à considérer et il est incertain s’ils devraient être utilisés comme traitement de première ou de deuxième intention. Conclusion Quoiqu’il n’y ait pas d’algorithme de traitements empiriquement établi pour les CSI reliés à la démence, les ouvrages actuels offrent certaines données probantes concernant diverses thérapies pharmacologiques et non pharmacologiques. Des recherches de grande qualité plus approfondies sont nécessaires de toute urgence pour guider les médecins de famille qui prennent en charge des patients qui ont des CSI reliés à la

  4. L’évaluation systématique des instruments pour mesurer la douleur chez les personnes âgées ayant des capacités réduites à communiquer*

    PubMed Central

    Aubin, Michèle; Giguère, Anik; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Verreault, René

    2007-01-01

    La douleur chronique est souvent sous-détectée et insuffisamment traitée dans les milieux de soins de longue durée. Les outils d’autorapport (ou autoévaluation) de la douleur, comme l’échelle visuelle analogique, n’ont été validés que partiellement chez les populations âgées, en raison de la prévalence élevée de déficits visuels, auditifs, moteurs et cognitifs que l’on y trouve. Des outils d’observation des patients ont été développés pour pallier ces difficultés d’utilisation des échelles d’autorapport de la douleur. Le présent projet vise l’identification de ces échelles et leur évaluation sur la base de la validité de contenu (12 questions), de la validité de construit (12 questions), de la fiabilité (13 questions) et de l’utilité clinique (10 questions). Parmi les 24 instruments recensés, plusieurs apparaissent prometteurs pour évaluer la douleur chez les personnes âgées atteintes de démence sévère. Des efforts additionnels de validation sont cependant requis avant leur intégration à la pratique régulière en soins de longue durée. PMID:17717611

  5. La teneur en iode du sel de cuisine consommé à Lubumbashi et le statut iode des personnes vulnérables: cas de femmes enceintes de milieux défavorisés

    PubMed Central

    Banza, Bienvenue Ilunga; Lumbu, Jean Baptiste Simbi; Donnen, Philippe; Twite, Eugène Kabange; Kwete, Daniel Mikobi; Kazadi, Costa Mwadianvita; Ozoza, Jean Okolonken; Habimana, Laurence; Kalenga, Prosper Muenze Kayamba; Robert, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction La consommation du sel faiblement iodé peut engendrer des troubles divers liés à la carence iodée Ce travail a pour objectif d’évaluer la teneur en iode du sel consommé à Lubumbashi et de déterminer le statut iodé des femmes enceintes, cible privilégiée de la carence iodée. Méthodes Une étude transversale descriptive a été consacrée à une analyse iodométrique d'iode dans 739 échantillons de sel collectés dans les ménages et marchés de Lubumbashi en 2014. Précédemment, l'iode urinaire a été déterminé par la technique de minéralisation au persulfate d'ammonium chez 225 femmes enceintes reçues en consultation du 15 mars 2009 au 25 avril 2011. Résultats Notre enquête a révélé 47,5% des échantillons de sels de cuisine adéquatement iodés (15 à 40 ppm), 36,9% d’échantillons faiblement iodés, 7,4% d’échantillons trop riches en iode et 8,1% des échantillons non iodés. La disponibilité en iode du sel de cuisine analysé était globalement de 54,9%, se trouvant nettement en dessous des normes OMS (90%). En mesurant l'iode urinaire chez la femme enceinte, la carence iodée (iode urinaire <150 µg/l) a été observée dans une proportion de 52%. Conclusion La faible disponibilité en iode du sel consommé à Lubumbashi pourrait être responsable d'une grande proportion de la carence iodée observée chez la femme enceinte, ce qui expose celle-ci aux risques majeurs des troubles dus à la carence en iode. PMID:27279956

  6. Ressources pour les personnes atteintes de démence

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Christopher; Feldman, Sid; Schulz, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Résumer les services offerts par la Société Alzheimer et discuter des autres sources de soutien et d’information à la disposition des personnes atteintes de démence. Sources de l’information On a fait une recension dans Ovid MEDLINE à l’aide des expressions dementia, Alzheimer disease, community health services utilization et caregiver stress. Message principal Il a été démontré qu’il est bénéfique aux patients et aux aidants si le diagnostic de la démence est posé tôt dans la maladie. Une consultation auprès de la Société Alzheimer peut aider dans la prise en charge non pharmacologique de la démence au moment du diagnostic et en tout temps durant l’évolution de la maladie. Parmi les services offerts, on peut mentionner des renseignements au sujet de la démence, le soutien aux aidants, la coordination des services communautaires et une grande diversité de ressources écrites à l’intention des patients et des aidants. Là où il est offert, le programme Premier lien peut aider avec l’orientation vers des services en minimisant la nécessité pour les patients ou les aidants de communiquer eux-mêmes avec les filiales locales de la Société. On discute aussi d’autres ressources, y compris les soins de répit et les approches technologiques pour prendre en charge l’errance. Conclusion La Société Alzheimer joue un rôle important dans la prise en charge de la démence et les médecins de famille devraient toujours envisager d’y référer leurs patients au moment du diagnostic, quelle que soit la gravité de l’état. Premier lien, quand il est accessible, peut faciliter le contact avec les services. Des ressources comme les soins de répit et les programmes de jour devraient toujours être considérés lorsqu’ils sont disponibles.

  7. Profil comparatif et évolutif des personnes infectées par le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine traitées aux antirétroviraux à Kinshasa, République Démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Koy, Tshingani; Mukumbi, Henri; Malandala, Ghislain Lubangi Muteba; Donnen, Philippe; Wilmet–Dramaix, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A trithérapie (ARV) introduite en R.D.Congo en 1996, a permis l′amélioration substantielle de la qualité de vie des PVVIH et a réduit la morbimortalité liée au sida en R.D. Congo. L'objectif de cette étude est de présenter le profil épidémiologique comparatif, clinique, ainsi que l’évolution anthropométrique des PVVIH sous ARV à Kinshasa. Méthodes Etude de cohorte sur 438 PVVIH, de 18 ans et plus, suivies entre mai 2010 à 2011 à Amo Congo à Kinshasa. Une comparaison a été faite entre les patients suivis pendant un an et ceux perdus de vue. Le Chi carré de Mc Nemar et l'analyse de variance pour mesures répétées ont été appliqués pour étudier l’évolution. Résultats Près 12 mois de suivi, 11,4% de patients ont été perdus de vue. Parmi eux, on observait des proportions significativement plus élevées de personnes de niveau socioéconomique bas, d'indice de masse corporelle (IMC) bas, présentant de l'anorexie, des affections opportunistes. Les proportions de patients aux stades OMS 3 & 4 et naïfs étaient également significativement plus élevées et la durée sous ARV plus courte. Les gains moyens des paramètres anthropométriques au 12ème mois, étaient importants: de 3,6 [3,2 - 4,0] kg pour le poids, 1,8 (1,4 - 2,3) cm pour le périmètre abdominal, 0,9 (0,8 - 1,2) cm pour le périmètre brachial, 1,4 (1,2 - 1,5) kg/m2 pour l'IMC. La proportion de patients avec un IMC <18,5 kg/m2 a significativement plus baissé entre l'admission et le 12ème mois parmi les patients sans stomatite que parmi ceux avec stomatite. L'IMC moyen évoluait significativement différemment entre l'admission et le 12ème mois selon l’âge et la taille de ménage. Conclusion Les facteurs fragilisant la rétention des patients sous antirétroviraux et une évolution progressive de l’état nutritionnel ont été observés. PMID:25995784

  8. LE MAINTIEN DU POUVOIR CHEZ LA PERSONNE ÂGÉE HÉBERGÉE SOUFFRANT DE DÉFICITS COGNITIFS

    PubMed Central

    Vézina, Aline; Pelletier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Cet article théorique interpelle à la fois la recherche et l’intervention, à l’égard du mieux-être des personnes âgées hébergées présentant des troubles cognitifs associés à des démences dégénératives. Appuyé par la perspective de l’interactionnisme symbolique, il met l’accent sur les interactions entre le personnel soignant (infirmière, infirmière auxiliaire, préposée, ergothérapeute, personnel de réadaptation et des loisirs, travailleuse sociale, etc.) et les proches aidants, dans un objectif de maintien du pouvoir pour et par la personne âgée. Sous l’angle de l’approche centrée sur la personne, qui affirme l’importance de dépasser l’âgisme et l’impuissance quant à la démence, il aborde deux approches : l’approche prothétique élargie et l’approche biographique qui permettent de soutenir l’identité et l’affirmation de soi de la personne âgée hébergée souffrant de déficits cognitifs. PMID:24795486

  9. Etude des connaissances, attitudes et pratiques en matière de réintégration sociale des femmes victimes de fistule obstétricale: région de l'Extrême-nord, Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sanou Sobze; Adogaye, Sali Ben Béchir; Rodrigue, Mabvouna Biguioh; Maurice, Douryang; Vivaldi, Teikeu Tessa Vladimir; Amede, Saah Fopa Michael; Marie, Ovaga Eyenga Landry; Meriam, Ausseil Sandra; Colizzi, Vittorio; Gianluca, Russo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La fistule obstétricale est un orifice entre le vagin et la vessie ou le rectum, voire les deux. Ses impacts sont des conséquences anatomo-fonctionnelles et sociales. On estime à plus de 19 000 le nombre de femmes qui souffrent de fistule obstétricale au Cameroun. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale descriptive conduite dans trois districts de santé de la région de l'Extrême-nord. Vingt-huit femmes victimes de fistules obstétricales, quarante-deux membres de leur entourage et vingt-quatre agents de santé ont été interviewés entre Novembre et Décembre 2013. Trois types de questionnaires ont été utilisés. Les données ont été analysées dans Epi Info version 7.1.4.0. Les moyennes et les fréquences ont été calculées avec un intervalle de confiance à 95%. Résultats 46,4% des femmes victimes de fistule obstétricales interviewées avaient subi une intervention chirurgicale réparatrice parmi lesquelles, 61,5% bénéficiaient de la réintégration. Le fonds de commerce (62,5%) était l'aide la plus reçue. Vingt-deux membres de l'entourage savaient pourquoi on fait la réintégration. Selon eux, les considérations socioculturelles (68,2%), sont la principale barrière de la réintégration. D'après les agents de santé, le suivi psychosocial (58,3%) est la principale activité de la réintégration dans les centres de prise en charge de la fistule. Conclusion La prise en charge des fistules obstétricales au Cameroun souffre de manque de réintégration sociale. Ceci expliquerait en partie la persistance de cette pathologie. Un accent devrait être mis sur l'appui matériel, financier et sur le suivi psychosocial des femmes victimes de fistule obstétricale. PMID:26113915

  10. Perceptions des jeunes victimes de violence sexuelle au sein de leurs relations amoureuses sur leur pire expérience

    PubMed Central

    Van Camp, Tinneke; Hébert, Martine; Fernet, Mylène; Blais, Martin; Lavoie, Francine

    2016-01-01

    Cette étude explore les pires expériences vécues dans les relations amoureuses de jeunes qui ont rapporté avoir vécu de la violence sexuelle dans une relation de couple récente. Quelles sont les situations perçues comme étant les plus difficiles par les jeunes et est-ce que celles-ci se limitent à des incidents violents? Le questionnaire sur les parcours amoureux des jeunes (PAJ) a été complété par des jeunes Québécois âgés de 14 à 18 ans. Au total, plus de 600 participants ont rapporté au moins un épisode de violence sexuelle (souvent en combinaison avec d’autres formes de violence). Nous présentons les résultats de l’analyse qualitative inductive fondée sur une question ouverte concernant la pire expérience vécue. Les observations suggèrent que, en plus des expériences de violence, les difficultés relationnelles, les ruptures amoureuses et les sentiments amoureux non réciproques sont des situations particulièrement difficiles selon les propos des jeunes. Ces différents enjeux vécus par les jeunes devraient être pris en considération dans l’offre de services d’intervention à leur intention. PMID:28191266

  11. Childhood Victimization and Crime Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away,…

  12. Childhood victimization and crime victimization.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away, homelessness, criminal history, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse) increase a person's risk for crime victimization? (c) Do lifestyle characteristics mediate the relationship between child abuse/ neglect and crime victimization? (d) Do these relationships vary by a person's sex or race/ethnicity? Using data from a prospective cohort design study, children with documented histories of physical and sexual abuse and/or neglect (n = 497) were matched with nonabused and nonneglected children (n = 395), followed up, and interviewed in middle adulthood (approximate age 39.5). Logistic and ordinary least square regressions were conducted to assess risk for crime victimization and test for mediation. Child abuse and/ or neglect increased a person's risk for physical (OR = 2.56, p < .001) and sexual (OR = 2.28, p < .001) but not for property crime victimization. For the sample overall, running away served as a partial mediator between child abuse and neglect and physical and sexual crime victimization. In addition, results revealed sex and race/ethnicity differences in patterns of mediation. Implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed.

  13. Prévalence de l'hépatite B chez les personnes infectées par le VIH à Parakou au Bénin

    PubMed Central

    Dovonou, Comlan Albert; Amidou, Salimanou Ariyoh; Kpangon, Amadohoué Arsène; Traoré, Yacoubou Adam; Godjedo, Togbemabou Primous Martial; Satondji, Assongba Joseph; Wachinou, Ablo Prudence; Issa-Djibril, Fatioulaye Mahamadi; Fourn, Léonard; Zannou, Djimon Marcel; Gandaho, Prosper

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La co-infection avec l'hépatite B est l'un des défis majeurs de la prise en charge du VIH depuis l'amélioration de l'accès aux antirétroviraux en Afrique. La présente étude visait à estimer la prévalence de l'hépatite B chez les personnes séropositives au VIH à Parakou et décrire les facteurs associés. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude transversale menée de Mai 2011 à Juin 2012 dans le service de Médecine du CHU de Parakou. Ont été inclus tous les adultes séropositifs au VIH vus en consultation ou hospitalisés. Les données ont été collectées par interviews et dépouillement de dossiers médicaux. L'antigène HBs a été recherché par un test rapide et l'ALAT a été dosé. L'analyse des données a été faite avec le logiciel EpiInfo 3.5.1. Les proportions ont été comparées grâce au test de Chi-deux ou au test de Fisher au seuil de significativité de 5%. Un modèle de régression logistique multivariable a permis d'expliquer la prévalence de l'hépatite B. Résultats Sur les 744 sujets inclus on a dénombré 555 femmes. L’âge moyen était de 35,5 + 10,1 ans. La prévalence de l'hépatite B a été estimée à 16,9% (IC95: 14,3%-19,9%). Cette prévalence était plus élevée chez les sujets originaires du Borgou/Alibori et ceux au stade 4 de l'OMS. Conclusion La prévalence de la co-infection VIH/VHB au CHU Parakou est élevée. Le dispositif national de prise en charge et de prévention de l'hépatite B chez les personnes séropositives au VIH doit être renforcé. PMID:26097629

  14. Counseling Victims of Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra L.

    This book provides counselors with a look at the effects of violence and offers strategies for assisting victims and survivors of that violence to cope, recover, and grow. Chapter 1 tells the story of a victim of sexual abuse. Chapter 2 examines the psychodynamics of trauma, including posttraumatic stress. Chapter 3 discusses effective therapies…

  15. Victimization of Obese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…

  16. Victim/Witness Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Robert H.; Blew, Carol Holliday

    This monograph highlights the elements of four victim-assistance programs which demonstrate the range of services currently being offered. It provides a preliminary look at the impact of such programs and points out where more information is needed. Major topics include victim and witness services and monitoring thereof. The two goals of…

  17. Sexual Victimization of Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Kevonne; Zweig, Janine M.

    2007-01-01

    An estimated 7.0% to 8.1% of American youth report being sexually victimized at some point in their life time. This article presents a background to youth sexual victimization, focusing on prevalence data, challenging issues when studying this problem, risk factors, and common characteristics of perpetrators. Additionally, a type of sexual…

  18. Criminal Victimization 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Kelly H.; DeBerry, Marshall M.

    1988-01-01

    This bulletin presents National Crime Survey (NCS) data updating the preliminary estimates of crime victimization in 1987, which were released in March, 1988. Statistics are presented which show that the overall level of crime increased marginally, while the victimization rate remained stable over the year. The NCS practice of measuring both…

  19. Victim-induced criminality.

    PubMed

    Fooner, M

    1966-09-02

    In summary, there are certain issues that need to be dealt with if a coherent system of victim compensation is to be created. 1) Is the victim's entitlement to compensation qualified by his behavior in connection with the crime? If a Texas tycoon visits a clip joint, flashes a fat roll of bills, and gets hit on the head and rolled, is he entitled to compensation? If a man enters into a liaison with another's wife and gets shot by the husband, should his dependents be compensated? If a woman goes walking alone in a disreputable neighborhood and is assaulted, is she entitled to compensation? Unless the answer to such questions is a flat "yes," the adjudication of victim compensation as a "right" would be embarkation upon a vast sea of confusion. On the surface it may seem simpler to bypass the issue of "right" and declare for victim compensation as a matter of social policy-a logical extension of the welfare state approach. But the apparent simplicity may quickly prove illusory, in light of the second issue. 2) Is the victim's entitlement to compensation on the basis of indigency to be qualified by the requirement that an offender be apprehended and his guilt determined by a court? There are two levels to this problem. First, if a severely injured man reports to police that he has been mugged and robbed and if the police cannot apprehend a suspect, how is the administrator of compensation to know that the man is in fact the victim of a crime? The administrator of compensation must determine whether the episode was a criminal act or an argument-and who started it, and who precipitated the violence. What shall be the role of the witnesses, and of investigators? More important is the second level of the problem: How will law-enforcement of ficials and the courts evaluate the testimony of the victim if compensation of the victim may be at stake? In the evaluation of proposals for victim compensation, criminologists may need to think very hard about such questions and

  20. Victim assistance - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Rape - resources; Resources - rape ... The following organizations are good resources for information on domestic violence and rape : Administration for Children and Families -- www.acf.hhs.gov The National Center for Victims ...

  1. [False victimization syndrome].

    PubMed

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2011-04-03

    Criminology and criminal-psychology are sciences dealing mostly with the personality of the criminals as well as the interconnections of crime and deviance. The other player of the crimes - the victim - has recently come into focus posing the question why and how somebody is becoming a victim, and what effect can the victim have when the crime is being committed. The first international publications appeared at the beginning of the third millennium on so-called victims who are convinced to suffer from material, moral or other damages and, accordingly, who would pursue "justice" at any rate. They often appeal against decisions. Considering these facts the procedures are rather thorough and circumspect. A significant part of the law-enforcement staff is heavily involved for long periods. On the other side there is the person considered criminal being actually the real victim. These people are getting alienated from the society because of their reckoned deeds and, because of the distorting influence of the media they are condemned morally. The present study describes the syndromes of fake-victim, their occurrence as well as psychiatric considerations, social appearance and impact. The authors are drawing attention to the existence and significance of this medical-legal problem.

  2. Men victim of sexual assault of concern into the first Emergency Medical Unit for Victims of Assaults in France.

    PubMed

    Hiquet, J; Gromb-Monnoyeur, S

    2013-10-01

    Although it accounts for only a small part of activity in the field of victimology, the provision of support for male victims of sexual assault is regularly discussed in the literature. Authors, English-speaking for the most part, all agree that this phenomenon has been largely underestimated, owing to the stigmatization victims suffer after the facts have been disclosed. The same authors agree that this type of assault is far from being inconsequential, from both a physical and a psychological perspective. The following retrospective and descriptive study, conducted at the Bordeaux CHU (Bordeaux University Hospital), aims to draw a comparison between the distinctive characteristics of male sexual assault victims treated at the CAUVA (Centre d'Accueil en Urgence des Victimes d'Agression - Emergency Medical Unit for Victims of Assaults) on the one hand, and, on the other hand, those identified in the existing scientific literature. The victims are predominantly young men, unconnected with their attackers, and more often than not the attacks take place on the public highway. Forensic treatment is provided within the seven days following the assault, which raises the question of the assessment of infection risks, including HIV transmission. Most of the time, the victims will not undergo a full psychological appraisal, though authors are unanimous that such assaults do indeed have heavy repercussions. Improving our services for such victims will require suitable training for staff, covering initial reception, general assessment and the drafting of the forensic medical report, as well as encouragement to lodge a complaint. This process should give priority to multidisciplinary centers, especially dedicated to shelter-providing, information, counseling and victim support. This will also entail information and awareness campaigns for the general population, and the homosexual community in particular. Finally, we should not be afraid to envisage an investigation into this

  3. Des agents de santé communautaires pour la promotion de la santé des pasteurs nomades au Mali.

    PubMed

    Ag Ahmed, Mohamed Ali

    2016-12-01

    Au Mali, les nomades (des Maures, Touaregs et Peulhs) représentent environ 1,25 million de personnes. Les services de santé leur sont peu accessibles en raison de leur mobilité, liée à leur activité d'élevage. La question que se posent plusieurs intervenants en santé publique des pays où vivent ces nomades est de savoir comment améliorer leur santé. Dans ce commentaire, après un bref exposé des problèmes liés à l'accès aux services de santé, nous proposons une approche innovante et holistique de la santé, qui soutient que des agents de santé communautaires (ASC) pourraient contribuer à améliorer la santé des nomades en offrant conjointement des services de santé aux nomades et à leurs animaux (le concept « One Health » [d'Une Seule Santé]). Des pistes de réflexion sont dégagées, quant aux principaux défis pour leur efficacité et durabilité, qui sont la conception et gestion du programme, leur soutien par les communautés et leur intégration aux services de santé publique et vétérinaire.

  4. Poly-Victimization: A Neglected Component in Child Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the role of multiple victimization, or what is termed in this article "poly-victimization," in explaining trauma symptomatology. Method: In a nationally representative sample of 2,030 children ages 2-17, assessment was made of the past year's victimization experiences and recent trauma symptoms. Results: Children experiencing…

  5. Women as torture victims.

    PubMed

    Allodi, F; Stiasny, S

    1990-03-01

    This paper reports a retrospective study of the frequency, severity, modalities and mental health consequences of torture in 28 Latin American refugee women in Toronto. The data on these women and a comparison group of male torture victims were retrieved from case records in a hospital outpatient clinic. The results support the hypotheses implicit in the scanty literature available that the frequency and effects of torture in women differ from those found in men. In female victims, as in their male counterparts, the severity of the torture was related to the degree of their political involvement. However, torture was more frequently sexual, and its consequences more often affected the women's sexual adaptation.

  6. Attracting Assault: Victims' Nonverbal Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Betty; Stein, Morris I.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a study in which prison inmates convicted of assault identified potential victims from videotapes. A lab analysis code was used to determine which nonverbal body movement categories differentiated victims and nonvictims. (JMF)

  7. Childhood Victimization and Lifetime Revictimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J.; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the fundamental hypothesis that childhood victimization leads to increased vulnerability for subsequent (re)victimization in adolescence and adulthood and, if so, whether there are differences in rates of experiencing traumas and victimizations by gender, race/ethnicity, and type of childhood abuse and/or neglect. Methods:…

  8. [Sexual victimization in old age].

    PubMed

    Görgen, T; Nägele, B

    2006-10-01

    A study on the underresearched topic of elderly sexual victimization combined multiple data sources: German police crime statistics, 122 public prosecutor files on sexual victimization of people above age 60, survey data from 76 institutions assisting victims of sexual violence/domestic violence, in-depth interviews with 22 practitioners who had worked with sexually victimized elderly. The study shows that few cases of sexual victimization in old age are known to law enforcement agencies or victim services. Offences dealt with by the criminal justice system differ significantly from those known to battered women's shelters and victim services. The majority of incidents prosecuted by the criminal justice system are hands-off offences; hands-on offences are typically single incidents committed by strangers or loose acquaintances of the victim. Battered women's shelters and institutions of victim assistance are confronted with severe forms of sexual violence in intimate relationships, the prototypical case being an older woman who is repeatedly victimized by her husband over a considerable period of time and within a relationship characterized by a comprehensive system of violence, humiliation, and control (corresponding to Johnson's concept of intimate terrorism). The study demonstrates how small numbers of recorded cases of sexual violence in old age may reflect age-specific detection rates. It provides evidence on older victims' help-seeking behavior and on ways to improve victim services.

  9. Age and Terrorist Victimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trela, James; Hewitt, Christopher

    While research has examined how age-related factors structure the probability of experiencing a particular event or suffering a particular kind of injury, one issue which has not been empirically addressed is the age structure of victimization from terrorist activity and civil strife. To explore the relationship between age and terrorist…

  10. Counseling Torture Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Shaun R.

    1988-01-01

    Addresses the psychological effects of torture (including solitary confinement) and the implications of torture for counseling and the counseling psychology profession. Discusses counseling issues related to diagnosis of torture victims, treatment, special considerations for counselors, use of testimony as counseling technique, and prognosis.…

  11. Victim Simulator for Victim Detection Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux, James P.; Haque, Salman

    2013-01-01

    Testing of victim detection radars has traditionally used human subjects who volunteer to be buried in, or climb into a space within, a rubble pile. This is not only uncomfortable, but can be hazardous or impractical when typical disaster scenarios are considered, including fire, mud, or liquid waste. Human subjects are also inconsistent from day to day (i.e., they do not have the same radar properties), so quantitative performance testing is difficult. Finally, testing a multiple-victim scenario is difficult and expensive because of the need for multiple human subjects who must all be coordinated. The solution is an anthropomorphic dummy with dielectric properties that replicate those of a human, and that has motions comparable to human motions for breathing and heartbeat. Two airfilled bladders filled and drained by solenoid valves provide the underlying motion for vinyl bags filled with a dielectric gel with realistic properties. The entire assembly is contained within a neoprene wetsuit serving as a "skin." The solenoids are controlled by a microcontroller, which can generate a variety of heart and breathing patterns, as well as being reprogrammable for more complex activities. Previous electromagnetic simulators or RF phantoms have been oriented towards assessing RF safety, e.g., the measurement of specific absorption rate (SAR) from a cell phone signal, or to provide a calibration target for diagnostic techniques (e.g., MRI). They are optimized for precise dielectric performance, and are typically rigid and immovable. This device is movable and "positionable," and has motion that replicates the small-scale motion of humans. It is soft (much as human tissue is) and has programmable motions.

  12. Gender, bullying victimization, and education.

    PubMed

    Popp, Ann Marie; Peguero, Anthony A; Day, Kristin R; Kahle, Lindsay L

    2014-01-01

    School bullying has detrimental consequences for its victims, including undermining students' educational outcomes. Furthermore, gender has been shown to play a significant role in determining the type of bullying victimization experienced and educational outcomes. This research examines whether an interaction between gender and bullying victimization exists as well as its impact on educational outcomes (i.e., academic self-efficacy and educational achievement). Multivariate regression analyses, drawing on the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002, reveal that the interaction between gender and bullying victimization is linked to disparate educational outcomes. The findings and their implications are discussed regarding understanding the relationship between gender, bullying victimization, and education.

  13. Canadian Forces Education and Training for Interagency Operational Contexts (Education et Instruction des Forces Canadiennes Pour les Contextes Operationnels Interorganisationnels)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    psychologiques de la confiance et de la collaboration interorganisationnelles . Ce PRA exige notamment d’établir une base de référence pour les efforts...et programmes actuels d’éducation et d’instruction des FC afin de pouvoir travailler dans un contexte opérationnel interorganisationnel . À cette fin... interorganisationnel ; 2) avec l’aide des EM, examiner les compétences potentielles de base qui seraient exigées d’une personne pour qu’elle puisse travailler dans

  14. [Examining victims of interpersonal violence].

    PubMed

    Laberke, Patrick J; Martinez, Rosa Maria; Mauf, Sabrina; Bartsch, Christine

    2015-01-14

    Interpersonal violence represents a widespread phenomenon with a high prevalence. Consequences of these acts of violence are serious and extensive to the victims and from a socio-economic point of view. Physical examination of the victims is a key aspect in the medic-legal expertise. This article describes the basic principles and the standard procedures in conjunction with the examination of violent crime victims.

  15. Dating violence: comparing victims who are also perpetrators with victims who are not.

    PubMed

    Amar, Angela Frederick

    2007-01-01

    Dating violence is accepted as bi-directional with both genders as victims and perpetrators. While researchers have studied perpetration and victimization, limited research has explored differences in young women who are victims and perpetrators with those who are victims only. This study compares injury and mental health symptoms of victims who reported perpetrating violence with victims who did not.

  16. Korean atomic bomb victims.

    PubMed

    Sasamoto, Yukuo

    2009-01-01

    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).

  17. Lignes directrices pour le suivi des cardiostimulateurs au canada : consensus du groupe de travail canadien sur la cardiostimulation

    PubMed

    D Fraser JD; M Gillis AM; Irwin; Nishimura; Tyers; Philippon

    2000-03-01

    Un sondage sur les pratiques de cardiostimulation au Canada effectue en 1997 a revele un profond desir pour des lignes directrices nationales sur le suivi des cardiostimulateurs. Ces lignes directrices sur le suivi des cardiostimulateurs representent une declaration de consensus du Groupe de travail canadien sur la cardiostimulation. Le suivi des patients en personne plutot que par moyens transtelephoniques est preferable. Les patients devraient etre examines au minimum dans les 72 heures suivant l'implantation, 2 a 12 semaines et 6 mois apres l'implantation, et annuellement par la suite. Des examens plus frequents peuvent etre requis pour certains patients. Ceci dependra des problemes cardiovasculaires associes et des appareils en particulier. Une visite de suivi typique devrait comprendre un examen cardiovasculaire oriente, l'interrogation du systeme de cardiostimulation et une revue des donnees de telemetrie, un examen du rythme sous-jacent, un examen des seuils de stimulation et de detection et une reprogrammation adequate des parametres pour optimaliser le fonctionnement et la longevite de l'appareil.

  18. Le contrôle des infections au cabinet du pédiatre

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ La transmission des infections au cabinet du pédiatre est de plus en plus préoccupante. Le présent document expose les voies de transmission des infections et les principes sous-jacents aux mesures actuelles pour contrôler les infections. Pour prévenir les infections, il faut bien concevoir le cabinet et adopter des politiques administratives et de triage convenables, de même que des pratiques de base pour les soins de tous les patients (p. ex., hygiène des mains, port de gants, de masques, de lunettes de protection et d’une blouse d’hôpital pour des interventions précises; nettoyage, désinfection et stérilisation convenables des surfaces et du matériel, y compris les jouets, et techniques d’asepsie en cas d’interventions effractives) et des précautions additionnelles en cas d’infections précises. Le personnel doit avoir reçu les vaccins pertinents, et les personnes infectées doivent respecter les politiques de restriction au travail.

  19. Victims of Bullying in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current research on bullying (peer victimization, peer harassment) in school, with a focus on victims of such bullying. The 1st section provides a working definition of bullying and its many forms. The 2nd section describes some of the known consequences of being bullied for mental health, physical health, and…

  20. Management of the choking victim.

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, D

    1986-01-01

    Current recommendations for the management of the choking victim have arisen from a long history of anecdotal experience and controversial experimental and clinical data. The author reviews the available literature on the various maneuvers and discusses the existing controversies. He also gives brief recommendations for the management of the choking victim. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3730995

  1. Gestion de la douleur chronique par les infirmières des Groupes de médecine de famille

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Dave A; Bourgault, Patricia; Gallagher, Frances

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION : Des milliers de personnes souffrent actuellement de douleur chronique (DC) pour laquelle la prise en charge s’avère souvent inadéquate. Au Québec, les infirmières qui oeuvrent dans les Groupes de médecine de famille (GMF) jouent un rôle clé dans le suivi des personnes aux prises avec des problèmes de santé chroniques dont la DC. OBJECTIFS : Cette étude a pour objectifs de décrire les activités réalisées par les infirmières œuvrant en GMF en lien avec la gestion de la douleur chez la clientèle souffrant de DC, ainsi que les barrières à ces activités. MÉTHODE : Un dispositif descriptif corrélationnel transversal de type enquête postale a été utilisé. La population accessible à l’étude comprend les infirmières qui figurent sur la liste des membres de l’Ordre des infirmières et infirmiers du Québec travaillant en GMF. L’ensemble des infirmières figurant sur cette liste ayant consenti à être contactées à leur domicile pour des fins de recherche ont été contactées. Un questionnaire postal auto-administré (Pain Management Activities Questionnaire) a été complété par 53 infirmières travaillant en GMF. RÉSULTATS : Les trois activités le plus souvent réalisées par les infirmières sont d’établir une relation thérapeutique avec le client; de discuter avec le médecin de l’efficacité des mesures thérapeutiques et de faire un enseignement personnalisé au client. Les infirmières ont la perception qu’elles rencontrent en moyenne 2,68 personnes par semaine qui souffrent de DC. La méconnaissance des interventions possibles en douleur (71,7%) et la non-disponibilité de l’information sur la gestion de la douleur (52,8%) constituent les principales barrières selon les infirmières sondées. CONCLUSION : Les infirmières au sein des GMF font actuellement peu d’activités en gestion de la DC probablement en raison du manque de reconnaissance de la DC. PMID:25848847

  2. Écologie des soins de santé au Canada

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Moira; Ryan, Bridget

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter un profil populationnel pancanadien des besoins en soins de santé et de leur utilisation, facile d’accès et permettant des comparaisons entre les provinces et avec d’autres instances internationales. Conception Une comparaison des taux d’utilisation des soins de santé entre les provinces en utilisant des données d’enquêtes et des renseignements administratifs sur la santé. Contexte Les provinces du Canada. Principaux paramètres à l’étude Les taux canadiens et provinciaux de personnes en mauvaise santé (présence de problèmes chroniques) et d’utilisation des soins de santé (contacts avec des médecins de famille, avec d’autres médecins spécialistes, avec des infirmières et hospitalisations) sous forme de proportions mensuelles par 1000 habitants normalisées en fonction de l’âge et du genre. Résultats La proportion mensuelle par 1000 habitants de personnes souffrant d’au moins 1 problème chronique variait de 524 au Québec à 638 en Nouvelle-Écosse; les contacts avec un médecin de famille se situaient entre 158 au Québec et 295 en Colombie-Britannique; les contacts avec d’autres médecins spécialistes variaient entre 53 en Saskatchewan et 79 en Ontario; et le nombre de contacts avec des infirmières se situait entre 23 en Colombie-Britannique et 41 au Québec. Le nombre de séjours à l’hôpital variait entre 8 et 11 par 1000 habitants et les proportions étaient semblables d’une province à l’autre. Conclusion Il est essentiel de reconnaître les distinctions entre les provinces pour éclairer les politiques sur la santé dans l’ensemble du pays. Les différences persistaient lorsque les taux étaient normalisés en fonction de la composition démographique variable selon l’âge et le genre dans les provinces. Cet article présente une méthodologie simple à l’aide de données publiquement accessibles qui peut servir dans chaque province à examiner, à l’avenir, l

  3. The Scope of Sexual Victimization in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kury, Helmut; Chouaf, Silvia; Obergfell-Fuchs, Joachim; Woessner, Gunda

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the sexual victimization of 309 female students in Germany. The results indicate that the majority of the subjects have been victims of minor offenses and that a minority of subjects was severely victimized. As to the relation of victim and perpetrator, the milder offenses are more likely to be committed by strangers. In…

  4. Juvenile delinquency and victimization: a theoretical typology.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Carlos A; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather A; Ormrod, Richard K

    2007-12-01

    It is a widely voiced notion that juvenile delinquency and victimization co-occur extensively in the youth population, in particular because delinquent youth engage in risky activities. But theory from the bullying and traumatic stress literatures suggests that there may be additional pathways by which delinquency and victimization are connected. This analysis looks for possible subtypes of delinquents and victims consistent with such pathways. Using the Developmental Victimization Survey, a national sample of 1,000 youth aged 10 to 17 were interviewed over the phone. Support emerges for three distinct types of delinquent-victims, who are termed bully-victims, delinquent sex/maltreatment- victims, and property delinquent-victims. There is also evidence for substantial groups of youth who are primarily delinquent but not seriously victimized, as well as youth who are primarily victimized but not delinquent.

  5. Punishment goals of crime victims.

    PubMed

    Orth, Uli

    2003-04-01

    Research on subjective punishment goals has focused on the perspective of third-party observers of criminal offenses and neglected the perspective of victims. This study investigates punishment goals among 174 adult crime victims (rape and nonsexual assault) for each participant's real criminal case. Scales measuring support for punishment goals are constructed by factor analysis of an 18-item list. Results show that 5 highly supported goals can be distinguished: retaliation, recognition of victim status, confirmation of societal values, victim security, and societal security. Analysis of relations between punishment goal scales and personal variables, situational variables, and demanded punishment severity corroborates the view that the punishment goals revealed can be classified according to the two independent dichotomies of moral versus instrumental goals, and micro versus macro goals.

  6. [Health consequence of stalking victimization].

    PubMed

    Will, R; Hintz, E; Blättner, B

    2012-05-01

    Life time prevalence of stalking is about 12-20%, while females are more often affected than male. Stalking is a statutory offense. However, it is not an assault of victims' law. For the purpose of health consequences for stalking victims, research in following database were conducted: EMBASE, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Social Science Index. English and German published studies of the years 2002-2010 were included. 17 primary studies and 2 meta-analyses were identified. Direct physiological consequences are relatively rare; however stalking victims report a poorer physiological health status. Almost every second stalking victim shows impairments on his/her psychical well-being. Impairments of social well-being are common, too. As a result, there is still a lot of research, especially in long-term studies, required. Socio-legal reassessment of stalking will probably benefit only a few of the affected people.

  7. Evaluation des indicateurs d’alerte précoce de la résistance du VIH aux ARV en Côte d’Ivoire en 2011

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Kouadio Jean; Damey, Néto Florence; Konan, Diby Jean Paul; Aka, Joseph; Aka-Konan, Sandrine; Ani, Alex; Bonle, Marguerite Te; Kouassi, Dinard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction En 2001, l'Organisation des Nations Unies recommandait de rendre disponible les médicaments antirétroviraux dans les pays à ressources limitées. Cependant, l'utilisation de ces médicaments à grande échelle s'accompagne du développement de résistance du virus. En Côte d'Ivoire, plusieurs sites prescrivent les antirétroviraux. Cette étude avait pour objectif d'évaluer les facteurs programmatiques associés à un risque élevé d'émergence de résistance du VIH aux antirétroviraux. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une cohorte rétrospective sur 20 sites de prise en charge des personnes vivant avec le VIH. La population d'étude était constituée des personnes ayant initié leur traitement antirétroviral sur les sites en 2008-2009. L'estimation de la taille de l'échantillon a été faite à partir de la stratégie d'échantillonnage de l'OMS. Résultats Sur 20 sites, 98% des prescriptions initiales étaient conformes aux directives nationales et 20% des sites avaient 100% de prescriptions conformes. Au total, 33% des patients étaient perdus de vue au cours des 12 premiers mois de traitement antirétroviral et 20% des sites avaient moins de 20% de perdus de vue. A 12 mois, 51% des patients demeuraient sous traitement de première intention approprié et 11% des sites ont atteint le seuil d'au moins 70% de patients sous traitement de première intention approprié. Un seul site n'a pas connu de rupture d'antirétroviraux sur les 12 mois. Conclusion Des insuffisances relevées dans la prise en charge des personnes vivant avec le VIH traduisent l'existence d'un risque important de résistance du virus aux antirétroviraux en 2008-2009. Pour minimiser ce risque les pratiques de prescription devraient être améliorées, un système de recherche des absents aux rendez-vous devrait être mis en place et la disponibilité constante des antirétroviraux devraient être assurée. PMID:28250876

  8. L’expérience d’une patiente qui reçoit des soins pour la démence

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Christopher; Forbes, Rev Faye

    2017-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Permettre aux médecins de famille de comprendre « l’expérience vécue » de la démence de la bouche d’une personne atteinte de démence—Faye Forbes, ministre anglicane de 64 ans atteinte de la maladie d’Alzheimer, qui donne son point de vue sur comment vivre avec la démence—et utiliser cette information pour améliorer les soins et les résultats. Sources d’information Une recherche a été effectuée dans MEDLINE sur Ovid entre janvier 2005 et février 2015, à l’aide des mots-clés anglais suivants : dementia, caregiver, perspectives et quality of health care. Les articles qui s’adressaient aux médecins de famille ont été sélectionnés. Des revues pertinentes et des articles de recherche originaux ont été utilisés, le cas échéant, s’ils s’appliquaient aux personnes atteintes de démence et à leurs soignants. Message principal Plusieurs cadres de référence organisent les principales expériences décrites par les patients et leurs soignants. Nous avons utilisé une revue de la littérature qualitative pour fournir un cadre de référence résumant l’expérience de Faye, en fonction des thèmes suivants : tenter d’obtenir un diagnostic, accéder au soutien et aux services, besoins en matière d’information, prise en charge de la maladie, et communication et attitudes. Conclusion Les médecins doivent tenir compte de ces thèmes lorsqu’ils planifient la prise en charge des personnes atteintes de démence. Il importe de tenter de comprendre l’expérience et le point de vue des personnes atteintes de démence et de leurs soignants afin de pouvoir dispenser des soins optimaux. PMID:28115451

  9. Victimization experiences and the stabilization of victim sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Gollwitzer, Mario; Süssenbach, Philipp; Hannuschke, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    People reliably differ in the extent to which they are sensitive to being victimized by others. Importantly, “victim sensitivity” predicts how people behave in social dilemma situations: Victim-sensitive individuals are less likely to trust others and more likely to behave uncooperatively—especially in socially uncertain situations. This pattern can be explained with the sensitivity to mean intentions (SeMI) model, according to which victim sensitivity entails a specific and asymmetric sensitivity to contextual cues that are associated with untrustworthiness. Recent research is largely in line with the model’s prediction, but some issues have remained conceptually unresolved so far. For instance, it is unclear why and how victim sensitivity becomes a stable trait and which developmental and cognitive processes are involved in such stabilization. In the present article, we will discuss the psychological processes that contribute to a stabilization of victim sensitivity within persons, both across the life span (“ontogenetic stabilization”) and across social situations (“actual-genetic stabilization”). Our theoretical framework starts from the assumption that experiences of being exploited threaten a basic need, the need to trust. This need is so fundamental that experiences that threaten it receive a considerable amount of attention and trigger strong affective reactions. Associative learning processes can then explain (a) how certain contextual cues (e.g., facial expressions) become conditioned stimuli that elicit equally strong responses, (b) why these contextual untrustworthiness cues receive much more attention than, for instance, trustworthiness cues, and (c) how these cues shape spontaneous social expectations (regarding other people’s intentions). Finally, avoidance learning can explain why these cognitive processes gradually stabilize and become a trait: the trait which is referred to as victim sensitivity. PMID:25926806

  10. Prise en charge des troubles de consommation d’opioïdes en première ligne

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Anita; Kahan, Meldon; Nader, Maya

    2017-01-01

    obligations familiales les empêchent de se rendre à la pharmacie tous les jours, s’ils ont une affection médicale ou psychiatrique exigeant des soins réguliers de première ligne (données de niveau IV), ou encore si leur emploi exige une fonction cognitive ou un rendement psychomoteur élevés (données de niveau III). La buprénorphine-naloxone est aussi recommandée chez les patients qui présentent un risque élevé de toxicité à la méthadone, tels que les personnes âgées, les personnes qui prennent de fortes doses de benzodiazépines ou d’autres sédatifs, les gros buveurs, les personnes dont la tolérance aux opioïdes est faible et les personnes à risque de prolongement de l’intervalle QT (données de niveau III). Conclusion Il faut tenir compte des caractéristiques et des préférences individuelles des patients lors de la sélection d’un traitement de première intention par un agoniste des opioïdes. Chez les patients qui présentent un risque élevé d’abandon (adolescents et patients socialement instables), la rétention en traitement doit avoir préséance sur les autres considérations cliniques. Chez les patients qui présentent un risque élevé de toxicité (comme les usagers abusifs d’alcool ou de benzodiazépines), la sécurité a sans doute préséance. Ce qu’il importe le plus de considérer toutefois, c’est que le traitement par un agoniste des opioïdes est beaucoup plus efficace que l’approche axée sur l’abstinence. PMID:28292811

  11. Bullying and Victimization Among Children

    PubMed Central

    Shetgiri, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Bullying among children is a significant public health problem world-wide. Bullying is most commonly defined as repeated, intentional aggression, perpetrated by a more powerful individual or group against a less powerful victim. Trends in victimization and moderate to frequent bullying may be decreasing slightly in the United States, but over 20% of children continue to be involved in bullying. Direct bullying consists of physical and verbal aggression, whereas indirect bullying involves relational aggression. Cyber bullying is an emerging problem which may be more difficult to identify and intervene with than traditional bullying. Bullies, victims, and bully-victims are at risk for negative short and long-term consequences such as depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and delinquency. Various individual, parental, and peer factors increase the risk for involvement in bullying. Anti-bullying interventions are predominantly school-based and demonstrate variable results. Healthcare providers can intervene in bullying by identifying potential bullies or victims, screening them for co-morbidities, providing counseling and resources, and advocating for bullying prevention. PMID:24007839

  12. Deviant lifestyles and violent victimization at school.

    PubMed

    Nofziger, Stacey

    2009-09-01

    This study examines how the lifestyles of juveniles influence violent victimization at school. Using data from the National Survey of Adolescents, this study demonstrates that both indirect victimization, through witnessing violence, and sexual and physical assaults of students are pervasive problems at schools. Although a number of individual and structural characteristics predict the risk of becoming a victim at school, the most consistent predictor of violent victimization is the juvenile's own deviant lifestyle. Those who participate in a deviant lifestyle substantially increase their odds of all three forms of victimization. Therefore, even within the relatively controlled setting of schools, juveniles who participate in deviant lifestyles are at a high risk for victimization.

  13. Des Moines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

  14. The Violent Victimization of Children, Adolescents, Adults, and the Elderly: Situational Characteristics and Victim Injury.

    PubMed

    Kelsay, James D; Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Tillyer, Rob; Ward, Jeffrey T

    2017-04-01

    This study explores the nature and outcome of violent incidents experienced by child, adolescent, adult, and elderly victims. Data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) are used to determine whether there are differences in the situational characteristics-including location, time of day, weapons, and the victim-offender relationship-of violent victimization experiences across the 4 age groups, including whether situational characteristics influence the likelihood of victim injury. Results indicate that victim injury is most prevalent among adult victims and that the situational characteristics of violent incidents vary by victim age, as do the correlates of victim injury. These findings suggest that of the nature of violent victimization should be examined within the context of victim age, and supports research by scholars who have proposed a model of developmental victimology to identify age-specific victimization patterns.

  15. Nouvelle approche à la prise en charge des condylomes

    PubMed Central

    Lopaschuk, Catharine C.

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Faire le résumé des anciens et des nouveaux moyens de traitement des verrues génitales ou condylomes et déterminer comment les utiliser de manière appropriée. Sources des données Une recherche documentaire a été effectuée dans les bases de données suivantes: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, base de données des synthèses systématiques et registre central des études contrôlées de la Collaboration Cochrane (en anglais), ACP Journal Club et Trip. Les bibliographies des articles extraits ont aussi été examinées. Les études cliniques, les articles de révision qualitative, les rapports consensuels et les guides de pratique clinique ont été retenus. Message principal Les verrues symptomatiques sont présentes chez au moins 1 % des personnes âgées entre 15 et 49 ans et on estime que jusqu’à 50 % des gens sont infectés par le virus du papillome humain à un moment donné de leur vie. L’imiquimod et la podophyllotoxine sont 2 nouveaux traitements pour les verrues génitales externes qui sont moins douloureux et peuvent être appliqués par les patients à la maison. De plus, il a été démontré que le vaccin quadrivalent contre le virus du papillome humain est efficace pour prévenir les condylomes et le cancer du col. Les plus anciennes méthodes thérapeutiques ont aussi leur place dans certaines situations, comme les verrues intravaginales, urétrales, anales ou récalcitrantes ou encore pour les patientes enceintes. Conclusion Les nouveaux traitements des verrues génitales externes peuvent réduire la douleur causée par la thérapie et le nombre de visites au cabinet. Les autres méthodes thérapeutiques demeurent utiles dans certaines situations.

  16. Les conditions d’hébergement favorables au rétablissement : perspective des usagers et usagères

    PubMed Central

    Piat, Myra; Boyer, Richard; Cloutier, Simon; Fleury, Marie-Josée; Lesage, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Cette recherche vise à mieux comprendre le rôle de l’hébergement dans le rétablissement des personnes vivant avec une maladie mentale grave. Quarante résidents et résidentes de différents types d’hébergement communautaire structuré ont été interrogés sur les conditions d’hébergement qui favorisent leur rétablissement. Les résultats indiquent qu’aux yeux des résidents et résidentes, les conditions matérielles d’existence ont une influence déterminante sur le rétablissement. Leurs préoccupations s’articulent autour des besoins de base tels que l’alimentation, le coût, les commodités et la qualité de leur hébergement. Les relations sociales avec leur entourage immédiat ont également une grande influence sur le rétablissement des personnes, lesquelles souhaitent d’abord conserver leurs modestes acquis, tant matériels que sociaux. Cette stabilité est prérequise à leur rétablissement. PMID:27099410

  17. Men as Victims: "Victim" Identities, Gay Identities, and Masculinities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The impact and meanings of homophobic violence on gay men's identities are explored with a particular focus on their identities as men and as gay men. Homosexuality can pose a challenge to conventional masculinities, and for some gay men, being victimized on account of sexual orientation reawakens conflicts about their masculinity that they…

  18. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Victims, Bullies and Bully-Victims in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Harriet A.; Arseneault, Louise; Taylor, Alan; Maughan, Barbara; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Three groups of children are involved in bullying: victims, bullies and bully-victims who are both bullies and victims of bullying. Understanding the origins of these groups is important since they have elevated emotional and behavioural problems, especially the bully-victims. No research has examined the genetic and environmental…

  19. Stalking Victimization, Labeling, and Reporting: Findings From the NCVS Stalking Victimization Supplement.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Kim S; Cox, Amanda K

    2016-05-01

    Using the National Crime Victimization Survey 2006 Stalking Victimization Supplement (NCVS-SVS) and guided by Greenberg and Ruback's social influence model, this study examines the effects of individual (e.g., severity, sex, victim-offender relationship) and contextual (e.g., location) factors on stalking victimization risk, victim labeling and help seeking, and victim and third-party police contacts. Logistic regression results suggest individual and contextual characteristics matter. Consistent with prior research and the theoretical model, the positive effects of severity and sex (female) were significant across all dependent variables, whereas the interaction effect of victim-offender relationship and location held only for third-party police contacts.

  20. College Students' Perception of AIDS Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Roger C.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated college students' (N=60) perceptions of victims of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) based on how the victim contracted the disease. Found in nondeterioration condition victims contracting AIDS via sexual encounters or illicit drug injection were perceived as less trustworthy, less moral, and less desirable as a prospective…

  1. Systemic Patterns in Bullying and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, John H. F.

    2006-01-01

    Using a new non-anonymous questionnaire and a nomination method by which victims were asked to name their aggressors, Chan (2002) collated the responses from individual victims to produce name-clusters that were studied for systemic patterns of bullying and victimization within the whole-school community. Three such patterns emerged: serial…

  2. Sexual Assault of the Elderly Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muram, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Evaluated elderly victims of rape and determined the variables affected solely by the patient's age. It was found that 71.7 percent of these assaults took place at the victim's home, and most were by an unknown assailant. Genital injury was more prevalent among elderly victims. Physical intimidation was all that was necessary to subdue the victims…

  3. Social Network Predictors of Bullying and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouttapa, Michele; Valente, Tom; Gallaher, Peggy; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined whether bullies, victims, and aggressive victims (those who are both bullies and victims) differed on classroom social network variables, gender, and ethnicity. Survey data were collected from a primarily Latino and Asian sample of 1,368 Southern California 6th graders (mean age = 11.3 years). Logistic regression analyses were…

  4. Attribution of Fault to Rape Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinman, Saul

    An experimental design, the impact of the marital status, physical attractiveness, amount of victim resistance, and immediate reaction of the victim as well as sex of observer on attributions of fault to hypothetical rape victims were investigated. Participants were 440 undergraduate students at the University of Wyoming. Each participant was…

  5. Emotional Problems in Traditional and Cyber Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjursø, Ida Risanger; Fandrem, Hildegunn; Roland, Erling

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies show an association between traditional and cyber victimization. However, there seem to be differences in how these forms of being bullied relates to emotional problems in the victims. Few studies focus on symptoms of general anxiety and depression as separate variables when comparing traditional and cyber victimization.…

  6. The Psychological Impact of Rape Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This review article examines rape victims' experiences seeking postassault assistance from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and how those interactions impact their psychological well-being. This literature suggests that although some rape victims have positive, helpful experiences with social system personnel, for many victims,…

  7. Victim/Witness Assistance: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Anthony A., Comp.; Kravitz, Marjorie, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography highlights the literature available on two important aspects of assistance to victims and witnesses of crime. The first section, victim and witness services, covers the need, function and implementation of services to assist victims, elements of effective programs and evaluation of specific programs. The second section,…

  8. Approche aux soins en milieu communautaire à des adultes ayant une déficience développementale

    PubMed Central

    Osmun, W.E.; Chan, Nelson; Solomon, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les obligations d’ordre médical, éthique et juridique dans les soins aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale (DD) qui vivent dans la communauté. Sources des données Des recherches ont été faites dans Google et MEDLINE à l’aide des mots disabled, disability, vulnerable et community. Les lois pertinentes ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Message principal Le traitement d’un patient ayant une DD varie en fonction de facteurs comme la pathogenèse du problème actuel du patient, ses affections concomitantes, la gravité de ses déficiences et ses soutiens sociaux habituels. Bien que l’on s’entende sur les bienfaits du transfert des soins institutionnels vers des soins communautaires pour les patients ayant une DD, il s’est révélé difficile de leur dispenser des soins de grande qualité en milieu communautaire. Par ailleurs, il existe peu de travaux de recherche sur les façons d’offrir efficacement des soins aux adultes ayant une DD. En tant que professionnels des soins primaires, les médecins de famille sont souvent le premier point de contact pour les patients et sont à la fois responsables de la coordination et de la continuité des soins. Compte tenu de l’importance accrue accordée aux soins préventifs et à la détection précoce des maladies, la participation active du patient revêt aussi une grande importance. Les valeurs et les objectifs du patient sont des éléments essentiels à prendre en compte, même s’ils vont à l’encontre de la bonne santé du patient ou des propres valeurs du clinicien. Les lois s’appliquant aux personnes vulnérables varient d’une province à l’autre. Par conséquent, l’obligation de signaler des mauvais traitements suspectés pourrait différer selon que la personne vulnérable habite dans un centre de soins ou la communauté, que la personne qui soupçonne le comportement abusif est un fournisseur de services ou un professionnel de la santé ou

  9. Nurses' attributions about rape victims.

    PubMed

    Damrosch, S P; Gallo, B; Kulak, D; Whitaker, C M

    1987-08-01

    In an evaluation experiment, 80 registered nurses (64% of whom had cared for at least one rape victim) read an account of a rape involving a woman who drove to a drugstore on her way home from work. By random assignment, the nurses read one of four versions of the rape which varied in terms of whether or not the victim locked her car door (carelessness manipulation) and time of attack (5:00 p.m. or midnight). Subjects evaluated the victim on a series of 0 to 9 bipolar adjective scales. MANOVA showed a significant main effect for the locked/unlocked conditions: Nurses who read the unlocked version, as compared to those reading the locked version, showed differences in terms of more negative ratings of the victim on such variables as less liking for her, less identification with her, and assigning greater responsibility for the rape to her (p less than or equal to .005). Time of attack and the interaction were not significant.

  10. Handbook for Domestic Violence Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Coalition Against Domestic Violence, Springfield.

    This handbook provides guidance for women in Illinois who are victims of domestic violence and spouse abuse. It consists of facts about domestic violence, a survival sheet telling what to do before, during, and after incidents of domestic violence, and advice on seeking emergency assistance and shelter. It then provides advice and resources on…

  11. Rape: Counseling the Traumatized Victim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, P. Paul; Heppner, Mary

    1977-01-01

    There are at least three goals of intensive rape counseling: identifying and accepting feelings, reorienting perceptions, attributions, and self-statements, and resuming a normal lifestyle. Various counseling techniques can be employed to help rape victims restructure cognitions to reduce negative self-evaluations, physical distress, and loss of…

  12. Bullying Victimization and Extracurricular Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peguero, Anthony A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between bullying victimization and students' extracurricular activity and misbehavior. This research examined whether students' engagement in particular school activities increased or decreased the likelihood of being bullied while at school. Data for this research were drawn from the Educational…

  13. AIDS Victims and Heterosexual Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Knud S.; And Others

    This study reports on the development of a Likert scale measuring attitudes toward Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) victims (ATAV) in five phases. Participants included a total of 215 male and 268 female undergraduates at Oregon State University. The results for phase 1 yielded a scale with high part-whole correlations, corrected…

  14. Victimization, polyvictimization, and health in Swedish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Aho, Nikolas; Proczkowska-Björklund, Marie; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization) and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16–20 years, standard deviation =0.652), of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV]) proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization. PMID:27616895

  15. De la Representation Sociale a l'Identite des Personnes Handicapees Physiques = From Social Representation to the Identity of Physically Handicapped People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravaud, Jean-Francois; Ville, Isabelle

    1986-01-01

    Using a questionnaire, the study examined the social self-perceptions of 41 physically disabled and 50 nonhandicapped adults in France, as well as perceptions of the disabled by the nonhandicapped. On certain response items, the disabled subjects manifested a tendency to see themselves as they were perceived by the nonhandicapped. (JW)

  16. Health Problems of Partner Violence Victims

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Denise A.; Douglas, Emily M.

    2014-01-01

    Background National population-based studies show that 40%–50% of physical partner violence victims in a 1-year time period are men. However, studies assessing the health concerns related to partner violence victimization tend to focus on women, and none have assessed the health of male physical partner violence victims who sought help for their victimization. Purpose To understand men’s mental and physical health concerns that may be related to partner violence victimization. Methods In 2012–2013, two samples of men—611 physical partner violence victims who sought help and 1,601 men from a population-based sample – completed online questionnaires on their demographics, various types of partner violence victimization, physical health, mental health, and other risks. Data were analyzed using logistic regression, log binomial models, and robust Poisson models in 2013. Results In comparison to the population-based sample of men, male partner violence victims who sought help had significantly poorer health, particularly with regard to post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, high blood pressure, sexually transmitted diseases, and asthma. These differences remained after controlling for sample differences in demographics, substance use, previous traumatic exposure, and social support. Conclusions Practitioners should assess for health problems among partner violence victims and for partner violence victimization among men presenting with health problems. PMID:25442232

  17. Etude du processus de changement vecu par des familles ayant decide d'adopter volontairement des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, Michel T.

    Les activites humaines energivores telles l'utilisation intensive de l'automobile, la surconsommation de biens et l'usage excessif d'electricite contribuent aux changements climatiques et autres problemes environnementaux. Bien que plusieurs recherches rapportent que l'etre humain est de plus en plus conscient de ses impacts sur le climat de la planete, ces memes recherches indiquent qu'en general, les gens continuent a se comporter de facon non ecologique. Que ce soit a l'ecole ou dans la communaute, plusieurs chercheurs en education relative a l'environnement estiment qu'une personne bien intentionnee est capable d'adopter des comportements plus respectueux de l'environnement. Le but de cette these etait de comprendre le processus d'integration de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. A cette fin, nous nous sommes fixe deux objectifs : 1) decrire les competences et les procedes qui favorisent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles et 2) decrire les facteurs et les dynamiques familiales qui facilitent et limitent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. Des familles ont ete invitees a essayer des comportements personnels et collectifs d'attenuation des changements climatiques de sorte a integrer des modes de vie plus ecologiques. Sur une periode de huit mois, nous avons suivi leur experience de changement afin de mieux comprendre comment se produit le processus de changement dans des familles qui decident volontairement d'adopter des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques. Apres leur avoir fourni quelques connaissances de base sur les changements climatiques, nous avons observe le vecu de changement des familles durant huit mois d'essais a l'aide de journaux reflexifs, d'entretiens d'explicitation et du journal du chercheur. La these comporte trois articles scientifiques. Dans le premier article, nous presentons une

  18. Mean ages of homicide victims and victims of homicide-suicide.

    PubMed

    Bridges, F Stephen; Tankersley, William B

    2010-02-01

    Using Riedel and Zahn's 1994 reformatted version of an FBI database, the mean age of homicide victims in 2,175 homicide-suicides (4,350 deaths) was compared with that of all other victims of homicides reported for the USA from 1968 to 1975. The overall mean age of homicide victims in homicide-suicides was 1 yr. greater than for victims of homicides not followed by suicides, whereas the mean age for both male and female homicide-suicide victims was, respectively, 3 yr. less and greater than the other homicide victims. The mean age of Black homicide victims of homicide-suicides was 2.4 yr. less than that for Black victims of other homicides, whereas the means for Black and White male homicide victims in homicide-suicides were, respectively, about 4 and 5 yr. less than for victims of other homicides. Also, the mean age of White female homicide victims in homicide-suicides was more than two years greater than for female victims of homicides not followed by suicides. When both sex and race were considered, the mean age for those killed in homicide-suicides relative to those killed in homicides not followed by suicides may represent subpopulations with different mean ages of victims.

  19. Etude critique de la prise en charge de 159 personnes âgées en consultation de psychiatrie

    PubMed Central

    Ben Thabet, Jihène; Ammar, Yousra; Charfi, Nada; Zouari, Lobna; Zouari, Nasreddine; Gaha, Lotfi; Maalej, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le phénomène de vieillissement des populations est associé à une augmentation de la prévalence de la morbidité liée à l’âge. La prescription des psychotropes chez le sujet âgé est de plus en plus fréquente dans les institutions, les doses sont de plus en plus élevées, avec un recours fréquent à une poly pharmacothérapie. Nous nous sommes proposé de décrire les conduites thérapeutiques chez le sujet âgé consultant en psychiatrie, en vue de les confronter aux dernières recommandations en la matière. Méthodes L’étude était de type rétrospectif et descriptif. Elle a concerné les sujets âgés d'au moins 60 ans ayant consulté pour la première fois en psychiatrie, au CHU Hédi Chaker à Sfax, en 2010 ou 2011. Résultats Nous avons colligé 159 dossiers. L’âge moyen était de 73 ans. La démence et les troubles de l'humeur étaient les diagnostics les plus fréquents. Sur le plan thérapeutique, une poly thérapie faite d'au moins deux psychotropes de familles différentes a été prescrite pour 55,9%. Chez 60.3% des sujets, le traitement a été prescrit d'emblée à dose complète. Aucun dossier ne faisait état d'une prise en charge psychothérapeutique. Conclusion La prise en charge des malades de notre étude n’était pas conforme aux recommandations, notamment en matière d'association médicamenteuse, de progression des doses et d'association de la psychothérapie à la pharmacothérapie. L'information des médecins et leur sensibilisation aux particularités du sujet âgé contribuerait à optimiser les soins qui leur sont prodigués, y compris en psychiatrie. PMID:25120873

  20. Contrôler la douleur et réduire l’usage abusif d’opioïdes

    PubMed Central

    Kotalik, Jaro

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Aider les médecins de famille à faire un juste équilibre sur le plan de l’éthique dans leurs pratiques de prescription d’opioïdes. Source des données Une recension des articles en anglais publiés entre 1985 et 2011 a été effectuée dans MEDLINE. La majorité des données probantes étaient de niveau III. Message principal Il est essentiel de suivre les guides de pratique clinique quand on prescrit des opioïdes, sauf s’il est démontré qu’une autre option est justifiée. De plus, quand on réfléchit à la pertinence de prescrire des opioïdes et aux nombreuses implications sur le plan de l’éthique, il est utile de fonder sa décision sur l’application des principes éthiques de la bienfaisance, de la non-malfaisance, du respect de l’autonomie et de la justice. En outre, il est essentiel de se tenir au fait des changements dans les lois et la règlementation, ainsi qu’à propos des registres électroniques provinciaux des ordonnances d’opioïdes. Conclusion Les médecins doivent s’assurer que la douleur de leurs patients est bien évaluée et prise en charge. Le contrôle optimal de la douleur peut exiger la prescription d’opioïdes. Cependant, l’obligation de soulager la douleur doit être exercée en juste équilibre avec l’acquittement de la responsabilité tout aussi importante de ne pas exposer les patients au risque de dépendance et de ne pas créer de possibilités de détournement de drogues, de trafic et de dépendance chez d’autres personnes. Les principes éthiques fondamentaux offrent un cadre de réflexion qui peut aider les médecins à prendre des décisions appropriées sur le plan de l’éthique au sujet de la prescription d’opioïdes.

  1. Variables influencing victim selection in genocide.

    PubMed

    Komar, Debra A

    2008-01-01

    While victims of racially motivated violence may be identified through observation of morphological features, those targeted because of their ethnic, religious, or national identity are not easily recognized. This study examines how perpetrators of genocide recognize their victims. Court documents, including indictments, witness statements, and testimony from the International Criminal Tribunals for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia (FY) detail the interactions between victim and assailant. A total of 6012 decedents were included in the study; only 20.8% had been positively identified. Variables influencing victim selection in Rwanda included location, segregation, incitement, and prior relationship, while significant factors in FY were segregation, location, age/gender, and social data. Additional contributing factors in both countries included self-identification, victim behavior, linguistic or clothing evidence, and morphological features. Understanding the system of recognition used by perpetrators aids investigators tasked with establishing victim identity in such prosecutions.

  2. Le domaine des co-infections et des maladies concomitantes du Réseau canadien pour les essais VIH des IRSC : lignes directrices canadiennes pour la prise en charge et le traitement de la co-infection par le VIH et l’hépatite C chez les adultes

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Mark; Giguère, Pierre; Klein, Marina; Shafran, Stephen; Tseng, Alice; Côté, Pierre; Poliquin, Marc; Cooper, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    HISTORIQUE : De 20 % à 30 % des Canadiens qui vivent avec le VIH sont co-infectés par le virus de l’hépatite C (VHC), lequel est responsable d’une morbidité et d’une mortalité importantes. La prise en charge du VIH et du VHC est plus complexe en raison de l’évolution accélérée de la maladie hépatique, du choix et des critères d’initiation de la thérapie antirétrovirale et du traitement anti-VHC, de la prise en charge de la santé mentale et des toxicomanies, des obstacles socioéconomiques et des interactions entre les nouvelles thérapies antivirales à action directe du VHC et les antirétroviraux OBJECTIF : Élaborer des normes nationales de prise en charge des adultes co-infectés par le VHC et le VIH dans le contexte canadien. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Le Réseau canadien pour les essais VIH des Instituts de recherche en santé du Canada a réuni un groupe d’experts possédant des compétences cliniques en co-infection par le VIH et le VHC pour réviser les publications à jour ainsi que les lignes directrices et les protocoles en place. Après une vaste sollicitation afin d’obtenir des points de vue, le groupe de travail a approuvé des recommandations consensuelles, qu’il a caractérisées au moyen d’une échelle de qualité des preuves fondée sur la classe (bienfaits par rapport aux préjudices) et sur la catégorie (degré de certitude). RÉSULTATS : Toutes les personnes co-infectées par le VIH et le VHC devraient subir une évaluation en vue de recevoir un traitement du VHC. Les personnes qui ne sont pas en mesure d’entreprendre un traitement du VHC devraient être soignées pour le VIH afin de ralentir l’évolution de la maladie hépatique. La norme de traitement du VHC de génotype 1 est un régime comprenant de l’interféron pégylé et de la ribavirine dosée en fonction du poids, associés à un inhibiteur de la protéase du VHC. Pour les génotypes 2 ou 3, une bithérapie classique est recommandée pendant 24 semaines s

  3. Moral Reasoning and Emotion Attributions of Adolescent Bullies, Victims, and Bully-Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perren, Sonja; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline; Malti, Tina; Hymel, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated different facets of moral development in bullies, victims, and bully-victims among Swiss adolescents. Extending previous research, we focused on both bullying and victimization in relation to adolescents' morally disengaged and morally responsible reasoning as well as moral emotion attributions. A total of 516 adolescents…

  4. Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually…

  5. Peer Relations of Bullies, Bully-Victims, and Victims: The Two Social Worlds of Bullying in Second-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Petrin, Robert A.; Robertson, Dylan L.; Fraser, Mark W.; Hall, Cristin M.; Day, Steven H.; Dadisman, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the social relations of bullies, victims, and bully-victims in second-grade classrooms. Bully-victims are identified as both bullies and victims. The sample consisted of 537 ethnically diverse second-grade students (247 boys, 290 girls) from 37 classrooms across 11 participating schools. Bullies, bully-victims, and victims…

  6. Technology-based interpersonal victimization: predictors of patterns of victimization over time.

    PubMed

    Korchmaros, Josephine D; Mitchell, Kimberly J; Ybarra, Michele L

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that could predict youth's future technology-based interpersonal victimization and the pattern of that future victimization over time. Data from Growing up With Media, a national, longitudinal, online study were analyzed. At baseline, participants (N = 1,018) were 10- to 15-year-old English speakers who had used the Internet at least once in the last 6 months. Twenty-nine percent reported repeat technology-based interpersonal victimization over a 2-year period (re-victimized group); 10% were victims during only Year 1 (desisted victimized group); and 17% reported victimization during only Year 2 (later victimized group). Of the individual risk factors examined, prior technology-based interpersonal victimization and current amount of Internet use had the strongest overall associations with pattern of technology-based interpersonal victimization over the subsequent 2-year period. There was substantial overlap among the individual risk factors. Thus, they could be thought of more simply in terms of four latent risk and three individual risk factors. On average, across these seven risk factors, repeat victims had the greatest average risk score (0.21) and the not victimized group had the lowest (-0.16). Repeat victims were more likely to be female and older and had more prior experience with problem behaviors, substance use, and negative parent-child relationships as compared with the other three groups. Being female, prior experience with problem behavior, prior substance use, and prior negative parent-child relationships were also associated with frequency of technology-based interpersonal victimization in the near (Year 1) and more distant (Year 2) future. Many of these risk factors related to technology-based victimization over time are malleable, suggesting opportunities for effective targeting of future prevention efforts.

  7. Reporting Crime Victimizations to the Police and the Incidence of Future Victimizations: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Ranapurwala, Shabbar I.; Berg, Mark T.; Casteel, Carri

    2016-01-01

    Background Law enforcement depends on cooperation from the public and crime victims to protect citizens and maintain public safety; however, many crimes are not reported to police because of fear of repercussions or because the crime is considered trivial. It is unclear how police reporting affects the incidence of future victimization. Objective To evaluate the association between reporting victimization to police and incident future victimization. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using National Crime Victimization Survey 2008–2012 data. Participants were 12+ years old household members who may or may not be victimized, were followed biannually for 3 years, and who completed at least one follow-up survey after their first reported victimization between 2008 and 2012. Crude and adjusted generalized linear mixed regression for survey data with Poisson link were used to compare rates of future victimization. Results Out of 18,657 eligible participants, 41% participants reported to their initial victimization to police and had a future victimization rate of 42.8/100 person-years (PY) (95% CI: 40.7, 44.8). The future victimization rate of those who did not report to the police (59%) was 55.0/100 PY (95% CI: 53.0, 57.0). The adjusted rate ratio comparing police reporting to not reporting was 0.78 (95%CI: 0.72, 0.84) for all future victimizations, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.90) for interpersonal violence, 0.73 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.78) for thefts, and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.07) for burglaries. Conclusions Reporting victimization to police is associated with fewer future victimization, underscoring the importance of police reporting in crime prevention. This association may be attributed to police action and victim services provisions resulting from reporting. PMID:27466811

  8. School Crime & Violence: Victim's Rights. Revised 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, James A.; And Others

    This comprehensive guide for protecting school crime victims provides a concise, central source for quickly accessing and utilizing new legal authorities pertinent to the inalienable right to safe schools and tort principles relating to the rights of campus crime victims. Intended for school officials and trial lawyers, the book can also be used…

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Sibling Victimization Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Finkelhor, David; Shattuck, Anne M.; Turner, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to document the prevalence and correlates of any past year sibling victimization, including physical, property, and psychological victimization, by a co-residing juvenile sibling across the spectrum of childhood from one month to 17 years of age. Methods: The National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence…

  10. Gender Differences in Victimized Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Kouzekanani, Kamiar

    2006-01-01

    Most of what we know about sexual abuse comes from efforts to examine female children victimized by men. Although some researchers have identified similarities between male and female victims of sexual abuse, few studies have examined gender-specific factors associated with sexual health practices among homeless adolescents. The aim of this study…

  11. Sleep Loss and Partner Violence Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Robert; Shannon, Lisa; Logan, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    Intimate partner violence victimization has been associated with serious health problems among women, including many disorders that involve sleep disturbances. However, there has been only limited examination of sleep duration among women with victimization experiences. A total of 756 women with a domestic violence order (DVO) against a male…

  12. A Transactional Model of Bullying and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, Stelios N.; Fanti, Kostas A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and test a transactional model, based on longitudinal data, capable to describe the existing interrelation between maternal behavior and child bullying and victimization experiences over time. The results confirmed the existence of such a model for bullying, but not for victimization in terms of…

  13. Peer Victimization, Depression, and Suicidiality in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2008-01-01

    The association between specific types of peer victimization with depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts among adolescents was examined. A self-report survey was completed by 2,342 high-school students. Regression analyses indicated that frequent exposure to all types of peer victimization was related to high risk of depression,…

  14. Persecutors, Victims and Rescuers in Harlequin Romances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassencahl, Fran

    Based on a pattern of interaction, in which the interactants fulfill the roles of victim, persecutor, or rescuer, a study of ten Harlequin romantic novels was undertaken to determine what factors provided for the readers' identification with the Harlequin characters. It was found that Harlequin heroines manifested their status as victims by…

  15. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD…

  16. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-01-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  17. Relational Aggression and Victimization in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy

    2013-01-01

    For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…

  18. Juvenile Delinquency and Victimization: A Theoretical Typology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Carlos A.; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather A.; Ormrod, Richard K.

    2007-01-01

    It is a widely voiced notion that juvenile delinquency and victimization co-occur extensively in the youth population, in particular because delinquent youth engage in risky activities. But theory from the bullying and traumatic stress literatures suggests that there may be additional pathways by which delinquency and victimization are connected.…

  19. Emergency Care of the Snakebite Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Carol N.

    1994-01-01

    Describes emergency care of snakebite victims, including noting signs and symptoms of venomous snakebites, keeping the victim calm, and seeking immediate medical attention. Provides information on variables that affect the amount of injected venom and how to distinguish nonpoisonous from poisonous snakes. (LP)

  20. Teenage Victims: A National Crime Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Catherine J.

    The information in this report on teenage victims of crime is based on data obtained from the National Crime Survey for the years 1982 through 1984. The introduction summarizes crimes against teenagers, highlighting numbers, rates of victimization, and differences in crimes against teenagers and adults. These topics are discussed in detail: (1)…

  1. Associations between Peer Victimization and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Hong, Jun Sung; Rao, Mrinalini A.; Low, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the extant literature on the links between peer victimization and academic performance and engagement among children and adolescents. Although most of the research on this association is based on cross-sectional investigations, research using longitudinal designs is starting to point to the fact that peer victimization does…

  2. Victimization and Suicidality among Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Janel M.; Carroll, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the predictive role of victimization in suicidality among college women. Participants: Female respondents to the American College Health Association National College Health Assessment II (N = 258). Methods: Multivariate logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between victimization and suicidality. Results:…

  3. Measuring Victimization inside Prisons: Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing; Bachman, Ronet

    2008-01-01

    Violence and victimization inside the prison setting are accepted as facts, although the facts about their prevalence remain uncertain. Variation in the methods used to estimate rates of sexual and physical victimization contribute to the wide range in estimates appearing in the prison literature. This article focuses on the questions used in the…

  4. Sexual minority youth victimization and social support: the intersection of sexuality, gender, race, and victimization.

    PubMed

    Button, Deeanna M; O'Connell, Daniel J; Gealt, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    In comparison to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth are more likely to experience victimization. Multiple studies have connected anti-gay prejudice and anti-gay victimization to negative outcomes. Research shows that social support may protect sexual minorities from the harmful effects of anti-gay victimization. However, rates of victimization and the negative outcomes linked to sexual identity within the sexual minority community have been relatively unexplored. Using data from three years of statewide data from heterosexual and sexual minority adolescents in grades 9-12, this study examines victimization, substance use, suicidality, and access to social support by sexuality. Results indicate that sexual minority youth are at increased risk for victimization, substance use, suicidality, and social isolation compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Results also indicate that there is very little bivariate difference within the sexual minority community. Multivariate results indicate differences among sexual minorities' experiences with victimization and substance use.

  5. Workplace victimization: aggression from the target's perspective.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Karl; Thau, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews research on workplace victimization, which we define as acts of aggression perpetrated by one or more members of an organization that cause psychological, emotional, or physical harm to their intended target. We compare several types of victimizing behaviors that have been introduced into the organizational psychology literature to illustrate differences and similarities among them. We then review studies looking at who is likely to become a victim of aggression. Predictors include personality, demographic, behavioral, structural, and organizational variables. We also review research on coping strategies for victimization, which include problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies. We conclude with a summary of challenges for victimization research. These include addressing the proliferation of constructs and terms into the literature, attempting to clarify inconclusive findings, and using theory to guide the selection of study variables.

  6. Lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Wilson, Lynn; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Srivastava, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille un résumé clinique pratique sur la prescription d’opioïdes à des populations particulières en se fondant sur les recommandations faites dans les lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse. Qualité des données Pour produire les lignes directrices, les chercheurs ont effectué une synthèse critique de la littérature médicale en insistant plus précisément sur les études de l’efficacité et de la sécurité des opioïdes dans des populations particulières. Message principal Les médecins de famille peuvent atténuer les risques de surdose, de sédation, d’usage abusif et de dépendance grâce à des stratégies adaptées à l’âge et à l’état de santé des patients. Dans le cas de patients à risque de dépendance, on devrait réserver les opioïdes aux douleurs nociceptives ou neuropathiques bien définies qui n’ont pas répondu aux traitements de première intention. Il faut procéder lentement au titrage des opioïdes, avec des dispensations fréquentes et une étroite surveillance pour dépister tout signe d’usage abusif. Une dépendance aux opioïdes suspectée est prise en charge au moyen d’une thérapie structurée aux opioïdes, d’un traitement à la méthadone ou à la buprénorphine ou encore d’un traitement fondé sur l’abstinence. Les patients souffrant de troubles de l’humeur ou d’anxiété ont tendance à avoir une réponse analgésique atténuée aux opioïdes, sont à risque plus élevé d’usage abusif et prennent souvent des sédatifs qui interagissent défavorablement avec les opioïdes. Il faut prendre des précautions semblables à celles utilisées avec d’autres patients à risque élevé. Il faut faire un sevrage progressif si la douleur du patient demeure sévère même avec un essai adéquat de thérapie aux opioïdes. Chez les personnes âgées, la s

  7. Moral reasoning and emotion attributions of adolescent bullies, victims, and bully-victims.

    PubMed

    Perren, Sonja; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline; Malti, Tina; Hymel, Shelley

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated different facets of moral development in bullies, victims, and bully-victims among Swiss adolescents. Extending previous research, we focused on both bullying and victimization in relation to adolescents' morally disengaged and morally responsible reasoning as well as moral emotion attributions. A total of 516 adolescents aged 12-18 (57% females) reported the frequency of involvement in bullying and victimization. Participants were categorized as bullies (14.3%), bully-victims (3.9%), and victims (9.7%). Moral judgment, moral justifications, and emotion attributions to a hypothetical perpetrator of a moral transgression (relational aggression) were assessed. Bullies showed more morally disengaged reasoning than non-involved students. Bully-victims more frequently indicated that violating moral rules is right. Victims produced more victim-oriented justifications (i.e., more empathy) but fewer moral rules. Among victims, the frequency of morally responsible justifications decreased and the frequency of deviant rules increased with age. The findings are discussed from an integrative moral developmental perspective.

  8. Family dynamics and young children's sibling victimization.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather; Shattuck, Anne M

    2014-10-01

    This research examines how family dynamics like interparental conflict, family violence, and quality of parenting are associated with young children's experiences of sibling victimization. We use nationally representative data from interviews with caregivers of 1,726 children aged 2 to 9 years of age. We hypothesized different family dynamics predictors for a composite of common types of sibling victimization (property, psychological, and mild physical aggression) in comparison to severe physical sibling victimization (victimization that includes physical aggression with a weapon and/or injury). Multinomial regression results showed that sibling victimization in general was associated with negative family dynamics but that children in the severe group had even less parental warmth, poor parental supervision, and greater exposure to interparental conflict and family violence than children in the common types victimization group. Different aspects of family dynamics contribute to sibling victimization, but possibly in different ways and with different consequences. The findings underscore the importance of a family systems theory approach to clinical and intervention work.

  9. Prioritizing Child Pornography Notifications: Predicting Direct Victimization.

    PubMed

    Smid, Wineke; Schepers, Klaartje; Kamphuis, Jan Henk; van Linden, Sabine; Bartling, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    The growing number of notifications for child pornography (CP) possession constitutes a capacity problem for police forces entrusted with the investigation of these offenses. Notifications of CP offenses in which the investigation reveals concurrent direct victimization, in the form of contact offenses, grooming, online offending, or the production of CP material, form a potential target group for prioritization. The first of the twofold aims of this study was to validate the occurring distinction between mixed suspects (i.e., CP possession suspects who were also ever associated with direct victimization) and CP-only suspects (i.e., CP possession suspects who were never associated with direct victimization) to predict an outcome of the investigation including direct victimization. The second aim was to explore variables related to direct victimization among CP-only suspects. A total of 150 files of police investigations into notifications for CP offenses were studied. Findings confirmed significantly greater prevalence of direct victimization as an outcome of the investigation among mixed suspects than CP-only suspects (90% vs. 10%). Among CP-only suspects, direct victimization was predicted by (a) prior police contacts, charges, or convictions concerning noncontact sexual offending, (b) the confiscation of more than two computers during the house search, and (c) a more serious nature of the CP material that formed the basis for the notification in terms of younger victims and more extreme content. These variables may point to a small subgroup of heavily invested CP offenders who are at a higher risk to cross the line to direct victimization. Cross-validation of these preliminary findings is indicated.

  10. Enhancing victim empathy for sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Carich, Mark S; Metzger, Carole K; Baig, Mirza S A; Harper, Joseph J

    2003-01-01

    Victim empathy is a widely used component of sex offender treatment throughout North America and Great Britain. Yet, it has been controversial over the past few years. One of the complications involves giving empathy a solid definition. Empathy was defined as the capacity to express compassion for victims. A multi-level system was developed to help specify the definition. The second issue concerns which methods to use in enhancing victim empathy. A variety of techniques are provided as specific ways in which clinicians can help enhance an offender's empathy level.

  11. Victim advocates' perceptions of legal work.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Kenneth H

    2011-12-01

    Past scholarship has weighed the risks and rewards of legal remedies for victims of domestic violence and sexual assault. Missing from this debate, however, is an analysis of the social incentives for victim advocates to offer legal options to their clients. Preliminary findings show that victim advocates perceive that outsiders respect legal work more than their care work with clients (listening, caring, and empathizing). This study offers three explanations for this phenomenon: (1) the devaluation of women's care work in general, (2) the confidentiality constraints on communicating the value of their care work, and (3) popular assumptions that care work requires professional credentials in order to be legitimate.

  12. The family of the trauma victim.

    PubMed

    Solursh, D S

    1990-03-01

    Emergency room and trauma unit work offers unique challenges to the nurse, both professionally and personally. One of these challenges is understanding and dealing with the behavior of victims' families. Some of the factors that impact on the behavior of families include (1) the sudden and unpredictable nature of trauma; (2) the nature of the relationship of the specific family member and the trauma victim; (3) the issues of responsibility, anger, and guilt; (4) religious beliefs; and (5) trauma sequelae. The development of organ and tissue donor programs and of psychotraumatology as ways to help ease the plight of trauma victims' families are also discussed.

  13. A victim-centered approach to justice? Victim satisfaction effects on third-party punishments.

    PubMed

    Gromet, Dena M; Okimoto, Tyler G; Wenzel, Michael; Darley, John M

    2012-10-01

    Three studies investigated whether victims' satisfaction with a restorative justice process influenced third-party assignments of punishment. Participants evaluated criminal offenses and victims' reactions to an initial restorative justice conference, and were later asked to indicate their support for additional punishment of the offender. Across the three studies, we found that victim satisfaction (relative to dissatisfaction) attenuates people's desire to seek offender punishment, regardless of offense severity (Study 2) or conflicting reports from a third-party observer (Study 3). This relationship was explained by the informational value of victim satisfaction: Participants inferred that victims felt closure and that offenders experienced value reform, both of which elevated participants' satisfaction with the restorative justice outcome. The informational value communicated by victim satisfaction, and its criminal justice implications, are discussed.

  14. Assessing victim empathy in sexual offenders using the victim letter task.

    PubMed

    Webster, Stephen D

    2002-10-01

    In attempting to enhance victim empathy, it is common to have sexual offenders write an apology letter to their victim. This task is thought to reveal the level of empathy that the sexual offender has for his victim. However, until now there has been no reliable method for judging the quality of empathy revealed in the victim letter. This paper reports the development and evaluation of 2 templates to score letters written to child victims and adult victims, respectively. An acceptable level of interrater reliability was obtained for the templates. Deficits revealed by the templates did not correlate with scores on a generic empathy measure but did correlate with scales measuring minimization and denial. The measures were also sensitive to change following empathy training.

  15. Effects of offender motivation, victim gender, and participant gender on perceptions of rape victims and offenders.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Damon; Angelone, D J; Kohlberger, Brittany; Hirschman, Richard

    2009-09-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to examine whether knowledge of the motivation of an offender can influence participant perceptions of victim and perpetrator responsibility for a sexual assault. In addition, the synergistic influence of victim gender and participant gender with offender motivation was explored. Participants were 171 men and women from a small Northeastern college exposed to a stimulus in which a rapist's motivation was varied as either sexual or violent. Participants were more certain that the stimulus described a rape, recommended a longer prison sentence for the offender, and assigned less blame to the victim when exposed to an offender motivated by violence as opposed to an offender motivated by sex. Offender motivation also interacted with participant gender and victim gender on participants' perceptions of victim blame and offender responsibility. The results suggest that an offender's motivation for rape can influence perceptions of the offender's and victim's responsibility for the assault.

  16. Bullies and Victims at School: Are They the Same Pupils?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solberg, Mona E.; Olweus, Dan; Endresen, Inger M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The reported prevalence of bully-victims and aggressive/provocative victims varies quite considerably in previous research, and only a few studies have reported prevalence rates across grades. There is also a lack of detailed analyses of the extent to which victims are also bullies, and bullies are also victims. Aims: To study the…

  17. Multiple Victimization of Spanish Adolescents: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lila, Marisol; Herrero, Juan; Gracia, Enrique

    2008-01-01

    Multiple victimization in adolescence is an issue that has received little research attention. Furthermore, adolescents are particularly vulnerable to victimization in different contexts. The aim of this study is to analyze correlates of multiple victimization in three contexts (home, school, and street). The following forms of victimization were…

  18. The Dimensionality of Social Victimization: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Jamilia J.; Kim, Eun Sook; Sohn McCormick, Anita L.; Hayes, DeMarquis

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the dimensionality of social victimization and to assess the relation between social victimization and classmate social support in a sample of 260 students. Confirmatory factor analyses yielded four dimensions of peer victimization: overt, verbal social, and nonverbal social victimization and peer…

  19. Cyber Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Sexual Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Jaimi L.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; McCrary, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last…

  20. Another Look at School Crime: Student as Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Dale A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Though no significant sex and race differences were found between victims and nonvictims of crime in K-8 schools, in junior highs, Whites and males were most likely to be victimized. Social psychological consequences of victimization included lowered self-esteem and perception of anonymity, especially among victims in White junior highs.…

  1. A Longitudinal Assessment of the Victim-Offender Overlap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Higgins, George E.; Tewksbury, Richard; Gover, Angela R.; Piquero, Alex R.

    2010-01-01

    Although research has established an offending/victimization overlap and that offenders and victims share similar characteristics, much less work has examined the longitudinal sequencing of victimization and offending in the same developmental period and whether key risk/protective factors significantly distinguish both offenders and victims. This…

  2. Mental health in violent crime victims: Does sexual orientation matter?

    PubMed

    Cramer, Robert J; McNiel, Dale E; Holley, Sarah R; Shumway, Martha; Boccellari, Alicia

    2012-04-01

    The present study investigates victim sexual orientation in a sample of 641 violent crime victims seeking emergency medical treatment at a public-sector hospital. Victim sexual orientation was examined as it: (a) varies by type of violent crime and demographic characteristics, (b) directly relates to psychological symptoms, and (c) moderates the relationship between victim and crime characteristics (i.e., victim gender, victim trauma history, and type of crime) and psychological symptoms (i.e., symptoms of acute stress, depression, panic, and general anxiety). Results showed that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) victims were more likely to be victims of sexual assault. Heterosexual victims were more likely to be victims of general assault and shootings. LGBT victims demonstrated significantly higher levels of acute stress and general anxiety. Moreover, victim sexual orientation moderated the association of type of crime with experience of panic symptoms. Also, victim sexual orientation moderated the relation of victim trauma history and general anxiety symptoms. Results are discussed in relation to victimization prevalence rates, sexual prejudice theory, and assessment and treatment of violent crime victims.

  3. Delinquent Behavior, Violent Victimization, and Coping Strategies among Latino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Zina T.; Barber, Asha; Joseph, Ebone'; Dudley, Jocelyn; Howell, Robyn

    2005-01-01

    This study examines differences in reported problems such as peer victimization, indirect victimization, direct victimization, internal symptoms, and external symptoms among Latino youth exposed to violence. Findings suggest that female adolescents display higher levels of indirect victimization (i.e., witnessing violence) and internal symptoms…

  4. Get Smarty Pants: Cognitive Ability, Personality, and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eugene; Glomb, Theresa M.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the victim precipitation model, this study provides an empirical investigation of the relationship between cognitive ability and victimization at work. We propose that people high in cognitive ability are more prone to victimization. In this study, we also examine the direct and moderating effects of victims' personality traits,…

  5. Quand la réadaptation blesse? Éducateurs victimes de violence

    PubMed Central

    Geoffrion, Steve; Ouellet, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Cette étude vise à comprendre le phénomène de la violence physique vécue par les éducateurs œuvrant dans dix Centres Jeunesse (CJ) du Québec. Pour ce faire, un sondage de victimisation a été administré à 586 éducateurs en internat. En premier lieu, la prévalence de cette problématique sera établie. Par la suite, les facteurs individuels et environnementaux prédisposant aux agressions physiques seront identifiés. Des édu-cateurs sondés, 53,9 % rapportent avoir été victimes de violence physique au cours de la dernière année. Sur le plan individuel, être affecté par les manifestations agressives des clients et la fréquence des violences psychologiques subies augmentent les risques de victimisation physique. Quant au contexte, l’âge de la clientèle et le motif de l’interven-tion (basé sur la loi justifiant le placement) auprès de l’enfant ou de l’adolescent influencent l’occurrence des actes violents dirigés contre les éducateurs. Nos analyses montrent également que les violences physiques dont sont victimes les éducateurs affectent autant l’individu que l’institution. L’identification de facteurs permettant de prédire les risques de victimisation pourrait notamment servir à orienter les programmes de prévention de la violence dans les CJ, mais aussi à cibler les éducateurs les plus à risque afin de leur fournir un soutien adapté. PMID:24976673

  6. Coping Behavior of Elderly Flood Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta, Faye; Horton, Robert

    1978-01-01

    A study of the effects of the Teton Dam Disaster in 1976 suggests that elderly persons cope quite well with disaster situations and tend to report fewer adverse emotional effects and feelings of relative deprivation than younger victims. (Author)

  7. 78 FR 52877 - VOCA Victim Assistance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... an individual incarcerated for illegal distribution of drugs who is a victim of sexual assault while... in an equitable manner the proceeds from sales of illegal drugs. It is important to note that...

  8. [Avalanche accidents and treatment of avalanche victims].

    PubMed

    Skaiaa, Sven Christjar; Thomassen, Øyvind

    2016-03-15

    Avalanches may be provoked spontaneously or as a result of human activity, and they trigger the need for considerable rescue resources. Avalanche search and rescue operations are complex and characterised by physical and mental stress. The guidelines for resuscitation of avalanche victims may be perceived as complex and abstruse, which can lead to suboptimal treatment and an increased strain on rescue teams. The purpose of this article is to summarise the principles for medical treatment of avalanche victims.

  9. Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation*

    PubMed Central

    C. Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F.; Wilczak, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about “precocious exits” from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization (“street” violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation—differentiating between marriage and cohabitation—in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance. PMID:24431471

  10. Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation.

    PubMed

    C Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F; Wilczak, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about "precocious exits" from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization ("street" violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation-differentiating between marriage and cohabitation-in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance.

  11. Factors which predict violence victimization in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Lincoln J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Violence is a major public health issue, globally as well as in the African continent. This paper looks at Nigeria and begins the process of identifying the factors that predict interpersonal violence in that country. The purpose is to interpret the implications of the results presented here for violence prevention programmes in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study is based on the responses of 2324 Nigerians included in Round Four of the Afrobarometer surveys. The study concentrates on 579 respondents who reported either they or someone else in their family had been the victim of violence, defined as being physically attacked, in the past year. Results: A logistical regression analysis revealed five significant factors that predicted interpersonal violence: being the victim of a property crime, the fear of crime, the respondents faith, whethera police station was in the local area and poverty. The findings revealed that 43.7% of the sample had been victimised within the past year and 18.8% had been the victim of both violent and property crimes. One surprising findingwas the number of respondents who were re-victimised; 75% of violence victims also had been property crime victims. Conclusions: These findings suggest that target hardening should be the basis to plan, implement and evaluate violence prevention programmes in Nigeria. Prevention personnel and/or law enforcement need to respond to reported incidents of property and/or violence victimisation and attempt to prepare victims to protect both their premises and their persons in the future. PMID:24970968

  12. Schizophrenia—A Victim's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Pushpa, K.

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on my own personal experience of having undergone “coma treatment” and being given approximately 37 coma injections between the period 1983–1993 despite the fact that I was not psychotic and was normal in every way. The experiences I had following the injections and the forcible administration of innumerable antipsychotics and drugs have shaped my perspective of what it is to be a victim of “iatrogenic” psychiatric treatment—iatrogenic because it induced symptoms of schizophrenia or at the least schizoidism in a normal person like me—an inability to think, feel, and reason, over time. I have also with my own eyes seen at least 7 or 8 women who look me (my clones) that has reinforced my belief that the injections split me. The British psychiatrist, Richard David Laing (Encyclopedia Britannica 2004 DVD [DVD]) also theorized that it is the division of the self that leads to the symptoms of schizophrenia such as splitting and fragmentation of the mind. PMID:18775845

  13. Expérience de fréquentation des lieux publics par des personnes âgées ayant subi un TCC en présence d'un accompagnateur-citoyen: projet pilote.

    PubMed

    Levert, Marie-Josée; Lefebvre, Hélène; Gélinas, Isabelle; McKerall, Michelle; Roy, Odette; Proulx, Michelle

    2016-06-01

    This pilot project aims to test and see the relevance of the direct observation method to collect data on the barriers and facilitators to attending public places by seniors with TBI. The study is based on the conceptual framework VADA WHO which focuses on the development of friendly built and technological environments for seniors. Three elderly people participated in the study, recruited from an ongoing project, The Citizen Intervention in Community Living (APIC), in the presence of their personalized attendant. The study shows the feasibility of the method in terms of its acceptability and resources mobilized. It shows its relevance to access additional data that would have been difficult to obtain using others methods (e.g., semi-structured interview), such as the identification of the strategies used by the participants to address the obstacles encountered (avoidance, travel planning, use of physical and preventative support of the personalized attendant).

  14. Comprendre le processus d'adaptation des demarches d'enseignement en classe de sciences et technologies a l'ecole secondaire: Analyse des besoins percus par les personnes enseignantes en milieu defavorise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houde, Sylvie

    Since the implementation of the latest reform in the education programs of Quebec, the adaptation of teaching has taken on an important place in the concerns of all actors in education. However, this adjustment towards the adoption of teaching practices that require more participation on the part of the pupil is not accomplished so easily, particularly in the field of science and technology (ST). In order to gain a better understanding of these processes of adaptation, it is opportune to question ourselves on the factors and dynamics of interest at stake, especially in disadvantaged environments. Such environments are faced with situations where other difficulties coexist: integration of pupils, lack of interest, problems in classroom management, multi-ethnicity, etc. As a result, such difficulties give rise to particular limitations, expressed in the form of needs, by pupils and teachers, likely to have a restrictive effect on the adaptation of teaching practices. Accordingly, our research focuses on the needs perceived by teachers in high school ST classrooms in disadvantaged school environments, since they present a privileged means to better understand the processes involved in the adaptation of practices. The adoption of an ecosystemic perspective, centered on these needs and their contribution towards the dynamics of decision-making, enabled us to better apprehend the complexity of these processes in ST classrooms. We were able to identify the needs perceived by teachers by following the methodology of conceptanalysis of needs, and by combining focus groups with the DRAP software. The results account for the large variety of needs to be considered in the equation of adaptation of teaching practices. These needs generally belong to the classroom system (microsystem). For pupils, they are mainly cognitive needs, but for teachers, they pertain to organization and structure. The influence of these needs on the adaptation processes depends on the interpretation by teachers of teaching situations, so much so that a same need can at times be assumed as negative pressure, generating obstacles, or at other times as a positive impulse, facilitating adaptation. Keywords: teaching practices; science and technology education; high school education; adaptation processes; needs assessment; disadvantaged environments.

  15. Simulation Technologies for C2IS Development & Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    habituels de destruction ou blessure. Une simulation virtuelle implique des personnes reelles faisant fonctionner des systemes simules; les humains ...susceptibles de beneficier d’une implementation repartie. Une simulation n!elle implique des personnes reelles faisant fonctionner des systemes...constructive, enfin, implique des personnes simulees faisant fonctionner des systemes simules. Dans certaines conditions, les simulations constructives

  16. Social Behavior and Peer Relationships of Victims, Bully-Victims, and Bullies in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perren, Sonja; Alsaker, Francoise D.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Although the prevalence of bully/victim problems in school-age children and adolescents has been investigated in many countries, only a few studies have been carried out among younger children. This study examines social behaviors and peer relationships of children involved in bully/victim problems in kindergarten. Methods: Three…

  17. Effects of Offender Motivation, Victim Gender, and Participant Gender on Perceptions of Rape Victims and Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Damon; Angelone, D. J.; Kohlberger, Brittany; Hirschman, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to examine whether knowledge of the motivation of an offender can influence participant perceptions of victim and perpetrator responsibility for a sexual assault. In addition, the synergistic influence of victim gender and participant gender with offender motivation was explored. Participants were 171…

  18. Help-Seeking in a National Sample of Victimized Latino Women: The Influence of Victimization Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Schally, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine formal and informal help-seeking responses to interpersonal victimization among a national sample of Latino women. In addition, an examination of help-seeking by victimization type was undertaken. Data came from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas (SALAS) study that obtained help-seeking rates among a victimized…

  19. Keeping Victims Informed: Service Providers' and Victims' Experiences Using Automated Notification Systems.

    PubMed

    Irazola, Seri P; Williamson, Erin J; Niedzwiecki, Emily; Debus-Sherrill, Sara; Sun, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Automated victim notification is often touted as an effective and efficient means for providing victims timely and accurate information of their offenders' court events and status changes at reduced burden to the criminal justice system. Today, 47 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have some form of automated notification system. Researchers surveyed 1,246 service providers and 723 victims to examine their awareness and use of, satisfaction with, and experiences using automated notification systems. Findings indicate that service providers are aware of and use automated notification; however, less than one-quarter of victim respondents were registered for automated notification services. Service providers and victims who use automated notification services report high overall satisfaction; however, they also report challenges in using these systems. Service providers offer several recommendations for improving automated notification systems.

  20. Teachers' victimization-related beliefs and strategies: associations with students' aggressive behavior and peer victimization.

    PubMed

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Ladd, Gary W

    2015-01-01

    Although teachers are often called upon to reduce children's bullying and aggression, little is known regarding teachers' responses to students' harassment of peers or the beliefs which may inform their response strategies. To address this limitation, data were collected from 170 6th- and 7th-grade teachers (33 men; 137 women) and 2,938 (1,413 girls; 1,525 boys) of their students. Teachers beliefs regarding peer victimization were predictive of their efforts to advice victims how to cope with peer harassment. In particular, teachers who held more normative views of peer victimization were less likely to report reprimanding aggressive students and were more likely to utilize passive response strategies. Specific links emerged between teachers' beliefs and strategies and classroom-levels of aggression and peer victimization in the fall and in the spring, as well as changes in students' aggressive behavior and victimization over the course of the school year. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  1. The Association between Peer Victimization, PTSD, and Dissociation in Child Victims of Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hébert, Martine; Langevin, Rachel; Daigneault, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Sexually abused children present a host of psychological difficulties, including dissociation and post-traumatic stress (PTSD) symptoms. Negative repercussions associated with sexual abuse may interfere with children’s ability to interact competently with their peers, and might put them at risk for peer victimization. The aims of the study were 1) to describe peer victimization experiences of sexually abused children using a multi-informant approach (self, parents, teachers), and 2) to examine if peer victimization experiences are associated with clinical levels of PTSD and dissociation after controlling for relevant variables. Method Participants were 158 children (104 girls and 54 boys; Mean age = 9.10) and their non-offending parent consulting after the disclosure of sexual abuse. Children, parents, and teachers completed a measure assessing peer victimization (Self-Report Victimization Scale). Measures of trauma-related symptoms (PTSD and dissociation) were used as outcome variables. Results More than half (60%) of sexually abused children reported being picked on, 51% reported sustaining verbal victimization and a third (35%) physical victimization by peers in the school context. Inter-informant agreement was higher between parents and teachers than between self-reports and adults’ reports. Peer victimization experiences increased the odds by up to threefold for clinical levels of dissociation and PTSD symptoms. Limitations Our findings are based on cross-sectional data, and therefore, causal relationships cannot be inferred. No control group was included in the study. Conclusions Results have significant relevance for prevention and intervention. Clinicians should include assessment of peer victimization experiences when evaluating sexually abused school-aged children. Prevention initiatives in terms of peer victimization could indirectly prevent worsening of symptoms in abused children. PMID:26773922

  2. Psychosocial Profile of Bullies, Victims, and Bully-Victims: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Leiner, Marie; Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Villanos, Maria Theresa; Singh, Namrata; Blunk, Dan; Peinado, Jesus

    2014-01-01

    While adverse conditions in a child’s life do not excuse inappropriate behavior, they may cause emotional and behavioral problems that require treatment as a preventive measure to reduce the likelihood of bullying. We aimed to identify differences in the psychosocial profiles of adolescents who classified themselves as bullies, victims, or bully-victims. We performed a cross-sectional study in which data were collected between January 2009 and January 2010 from seven university-based clinics in a large metropolitan area with a predominantly Mexican-American population. We collected data on physical aggression among adolescents who self-categorized into the following groups: uninvolved, bullies, victims, and bully-victims. We determined the psychosocial profiles of the adolescents based on responses to the Youth Self Report (YSR) and parent’s responses to the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). A one-way analysis of variance and multivariate regression analyses were performed to compare the various components of the psychosocial profiles among the groups. Our analysis of the CBCL and the YSR assessments identified differences between the uninvolved group and one or more of the other groups. No significant differences were observed among the bully, victim, and bully-victim groups based on the CBCL. We did find significant differences among those groups based on the YSR, however. Our results suggest that emotional and behavioral problems exist among bullies, victims, and bully-victims. Therefore, treatment should not focus only on the victims of bullying; treatment is equally important for the other groups (bullies and bully-victims). Failure to adequately treat the underlying problems experienced by all three groups of individuals could allow the problems of bullying to continue. PMID:24459665

  3. Body image among victims of sexual and physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Inbar; Orbach, Israel; Rosenbloom, Tova

    2013-01-01

    This study tries to understand the differences in body experience between victims of sexual abuse and physical abuse. Ninety-eight women completed questionnaires that measured personal information, body-image aberration, body sensitivity and control, and body investment. Findings indicated that victims of sexual abuse demonstrate less body maintenance and protection in addition to greater injury to body sensitivity and control than victims of physical abuse. Moreover, comparing victims of sexual abuse to physical abuse, findings revealed that only victims of sexual abuse report body-image aberrations. Thus, sexual and physical abuse should be addressed discretely because each has differential effects on bodily attitudes of victims.

  4. Mental Findings in Trauma Victims

    PubMed Central

    CAN, İsmail Özgür; DEMİROĞLU UYANIKER, Zehra; ULAŞ, Halis; KARABAĞ, Gökmen; CİMİLLİ, Can; SALAÇİN, Serpil

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In medico-legal evaluation of trauma patients, the bio-psychological effects of the trauma and the severity of the injuries require to be evaluated. In this study, assuming the fact that psychiatric assessment is not taken into consideration in physical trauma cases, we planned to show the presence of psychological trauma in our medico-legally evaluated patients who presented with different types of traumas and to review the mental findings and diagnoses in trauma victims. Method We retrospectively analyzed the hospital records of 1975 patients aged 18 years or older who presented to the Department of Forensic Medicine at Dokuz Eylül University School of Medicine for medico-legal evaluation between 1999 and 2009. Psychiatric assessment was performed in 142 patients by the Department of Psychiatry. The data contained in medico-legal reports and patient records were then examined with respect to patients’ age, gender, nature of traumatic events, psychiatric diagnoses, descriptive characteristics of the patients, severity of trauma and past history of mental disorder and trauma experience. Results of the medicolegal evaluations were also analyzed. Result Of the 142 patients, 80 (56.3%) were female and their average age was 40.30±17.17 years. The most frequent traumatic events were traffic accidents (29.6%) and violence-related blunt force trauma (28.9%). When the distribution of the most common psychiatric diagnoses was examined, it was found that anxiety disorders were found in 69 cases (48.6%), adjustment disorders were found in 16 cases (11.3%) and mood disorders were found in 12 cases (8.5%). Among anxiety disorders, acute stress disorder (n=39) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (n=27) were the most common ones. In 27 cases of the 142, it was determined that, psychiatric symptoms and findings did not meet the diagnostic criteria of any psychiatric disorder. Diagnosis of psychiatric disorder was not significantly related with traumatic

  5. Perceptions of blame and credibility toward victims of childhood sexual abuse: differences across victim age, victim-perpetrator relationship, and respondent gender in a depicted case.

    PubMed

    Davies, Michelle; Rogers, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated victim culpability, credibility, and assault severity in a hypothetical sexual abuse case. A 2 (respondent gender) x 3 (victim age) x 3 (perpetrator type) between-subjects design was employed. Members (391) of the U.K. general public read the depiction of a female child assaulted by an adult male perpetrator. Respondents then completed an attributions questionnaire. Findings showed that male respondents were less positive toward victims and considered the victim less credible than female respondents. Younger victims (aged five years) were considered more credible than older children (aged 15 years). Victims of strangers were considered more positively and more credible than victims of someone known to them (their father or a family friend). Suggestions for future work are proposed.

  6. Brûlologie et médecine légale: les victimes d’incendie

    PubMed Central

    Costagliola, R.; Campana, J-P.; Costagliola, M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Lors d’une enquête judiciaire, le médecin légiste est fréquemment requis pour examiner la victime d’incendie hospitalisée. Il doit établir un certificat descriptif des brûlures en précisant leur origine, leur gravité et le pronostic vital. L’évaluation des séquelles en vue de leur indemnisation ne peut s’effectuer qu’au terme d’une longue période de soins nécessaire à la cicatrisation. L’expertise nécessite de connaître les règles médico-légales qui permettent d’apprécier les spécificités des séquelles cutanées chez les victimes de brûlure grave. Lors de la découverte d’un cadavre sur les lieux d’un incendie, le but de l’autopsie médico-légale est de vérifier que les brûlures sont bien la cause du décès. Les lésions les plus fréquemment observées sont des brûlures graves d’origine thermique. Elles sont souvent associées à une inhalation de fumées. La carbonisation du corps étant souvent utilisée pour dissimuler un homicide, la confrontation des constatations post mortem aux données de l’enquête de police est alors indispensable. Les modifications entraînées par le feu impliquent l’utilisation d’un protocole précis pour l’identification, notamment en situation de catastrophe. PMID:28289365

  7. Validation d’indicateurs de la prise en charge des atteintes des fonctions cognitives dans les unités d’évaluation gériatrique

    PubMed Central

    Payot, Isabelle; Latour, Judith; Massoud, Fadi; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne

    2007-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ OBJECTIF Analyser et adapter des indicateurs de qualité pour l’évaluation et la prise en charge des personnes avec atteinte des fonctions cognitives, dont la prévalence est très élevée dans les unités d’évaluation gériatrique au Québec. DEVIS Une méthode de type Delphi-modifiée. CONTEXTE Province de Québec. PARTICIPANTS Sept praticiens de milieux hospitaliers affiliés à 3 universités du Québec choisis pour leur compétence reconnue en démence et soins gériatriques. MÉTHODE Parmi les indicateurs développés en 2001 par la méthode RAND, 22 items sélectionnés pour leur pertinence au cours du processus d’évaluation et de prise en charge d’une atteinte des fonctions cognitives ont été adaptés aux conditions de pratique du milieu hospitalier québécois. Les indicateurs, accompagnés d’évidences de la littérature, ont été soumis, par la poste, à un panel d’experts. Chaque expert a coté, sur une échelle de 1 à 9, son degré d’accord à des affirmations concernant la validité, la qualité et la nécessité d’être inscrit dans le dossier médical. Pour qu’un indicateur soit retenu, il devait faire consensus selon les valeurs médianes, être situé dans le tertile supérieur et recevoir l’agrément des experts. Les indicateurs incertains étaient modifiés en fonction des commentaires des experts, puis soumis au même panel pour un second tour. RÉSULTATS Des 22 indicateurs soumis au premier tour, 21 ont été validés. Ils prenaient en compte le dépistage, l’investigation, l’évaluation, le traitement et le suivi. L’indicateur considéré comme incertain a été modifié puis accepté lors du second tour. CONCLUSION Cette étude a identifié 22 indicateurs pertinents pour l’évaluation et la prise en charge de l’atteinte des fonctions cognitives dans une unité d’évaluation gériatrique. Ils serviront de base à l’appréciation de la problématique de la démence, dans une étude ayant cours

  8. CPS: client violence and client victims.

    PubMed

    Ringstad, Robin

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a study that explored the extent and nature of workplace violence in child protective services (CPS). A total of 68 workers and clients reported on their experiences. Of workers, 70% reported being the victim of client violence, and 22% reported they had perpetrated a violent act toward a client. Of clients, 55% reported being a victim of assault by a CPS worker, while 42% acknowledged perpetrating violence. Future research needs and recommendations for practice including training, reporting, and policy development are discussed.

  9. Identification of victims in extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talipova, Yu.; Polukhina, O.

    2009-04-01

    Catastrophic natural disasters including tsunami events are increased the frequency in last years. One of very important problems here is the identification of personality of the victims. Due to difficult identification of the dead bodies lied into water for a long time the analysis of tooth-jaw system is proposed to apply because teeth are extremely stable to the destructive actions of environment. The method of identification of the age, sex and race of victims based on the mathematic model of pattern recognition and collected database is described. Some examples from extreme sea wave events are analyzed.

  10. Approche à l’endroit des blessures traumatiques à la main en soins primaires

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Kevin; Hatchell, Alexandra; Thoma, Achilleas

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue la prise en charge initiale des blessures traumatiques communes à la main que voient les médecins de soins primaires. Sources des données Nous avons examiné les données cliniques probantes et les ouvrages spécialisés récents cernés par des recherches dans la base de données électronique MEDLINE. Nous avons utilisé l’opinion d’experts pour compléter les recommandations dans les domaines où les données scientifiques étaient rares. Message principal Les médecins de soins primaires sont couramment appelés à prendre en charge des patients victimes de blessures traumatiques à la main. Dans le contexte d’un cas clinique, nous examinons l’évaluation, le diagnostic et la prise en charge initiale des traumatismes communs à la main. La présentation et la prise en charge des blessures au lit de l’ongle, des amputations de l’extrémité du doigt, des doigts en maillet, des fractures à la main, des lacérations de tendons, des morsures et de la ténosynovite infectieuse seront aussi discutées. Les principes de la prise en charge des blessures traumatiques à la main comportent la réduction et l’immobilisation des fractures, la prescription d’imagerie radiographique post-réduction, l’obtention d’un recouvrement par les tissus mous, la prévention et le traitement des infections et l’assurance d’une prophylaxie antitétanique. Conclusion Il est essentiel d’assurer une évaluation et une prise en charge appropriées des blessures traumatiques à la main pour prévenir une morbidité considérable à long terme dans une population autrement en santé. La reconnaissance sans délai des blessures qui nécessitent une demande de consultation urgente ou rapide auprès d’un chirurgien spécialiste de la main est également critique.

  11. Des ballons pour demain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régipa, R.

    A partir d'une théorie sur la détermination des formes et des contraintes globales d'un ballon de révolution, ou s'en rapprochant, une nouvelle famille de ballons a été définie. Les ballons actuels, dits de ``forme naturelle'', sont calculés en général pour une tension circonférencielle nulle. Ainsi, pour une mission donnée, la tension longitudinale et la forme de l'enveloppe sont strictement imposées. Les ballons de la nouvelle génération sont globalement cylindriques et leurs pôles sont réunis par un câble axial, chargé de transmettre une partie des efforts depuis le crochet (pôle inférieur), directement au pôle supérieur. De plus, la zone latérale cylindrique est soumise à un faible champ de tensions circonférencielles. Ainsi, deux paramètres permettent de faire évoluer la distribution des tensions et la forme de l'enveloppe: - la tension du câble de liaison entre pôles (ou la longueur de ce câble) - la tension circonférencielle moyenne désirée (ou le rayon du ballon). On peut donc calculer et réaliser: - soit des ballons de forme adaptée, comme les ballons à fond plat pour le bon fonctionnement des montgolfières infrarouge (projet MIR); - soit des ballons optimisés pour une bonne répartition des contraintes et une meilleure utilisation des matériaux d'enveloppe, pour l'ensemble des programmes stratosphériques. Il s'ensuit une économie sensible des coûts de fabrication, une fiabilité accrue du fonctionnement de ces ballons et une rendement opérationnel bien supérieur, permettant entre autres, d'envisager des vols à très haute altitude en matériaux très légers.

  12. La stigmatisation des PVVIH en Afrique: analyse de ses formes et manifestations au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Desclaux, Alice; Asmar, Khalil El; Makhlouf-Obermeyer, Carla; Msellati, Philippe; Somé, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Introduction l’impact négatif de la stigmatisation sur la prévention du VIH et la prise en charge a été documenté. La stigmatisation a été analysée au plan qualitatif au Burkina Faso, où la prévalence VIH est faible (1 %). Des mesures quantitatives sont encore nécessaires pour identifier les formes et manifestations majeures de la stigmatisation. Méthodologie dans le cadre de l’étude MATCH (Multi-country African Study on Testing and Counselling for HIV), une étude transversale a été conduite auprès de personnes ayant déjà fait le test VIH. Les personnes séropositives ont été interrogées sur les conséquences du résultat VIH+. Leur vécu de la stigmatisation a été évalué à travers 20 indicateurs de manifestations de la stigmatisation, regroupés en trois formes de stigmatisation/discrimination. Résultats au total 219 PVVIH ont été recrutées. L’autostigmatisation est la forme majeure de stigmatisation. Elle est estimée dans cette étude à 46 % comparativement à la stigmatisation dans les relations interpersonnelles évaluée à 40 % et la stigmatisation dans les services de santé qui est de 11 %. L’expérience de la stigmatisation dans les relations interpersonnelles est davantage rapportée par les PVVIH qui ont partagé leur résultat, celles qui ont un faible niveau de scolarisation, les veufs/veuves ou séparés, et les membres d’association. La stigmatisation dans les services de santé est rapportée plus souvent par les membres d’associations. Conclusion les programmes de prise en charge doivent, parallèlement à l’extension des antirétroviraux, intégrer un volet psychologique plus adapté aux besoins. Les activités d’appui psychosocial ciblant davantage l’individu doivent être développées, surtout au sein des associations. PMID:25291886

  13. Maladjustment of Bully-Victims: Validation with Three Identification Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, An; Li, Xiang; Salmivalli, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Although knowledge on the psychosocial (mal)adjustment of bully-victims, children who bully others and are victimised by others, has been increasing, the findings have been principally gained utilising a single method to identify bully-victims. The present study examined the psychosocial adjustment of bully-victims (as compared with pure bullies…

  14. Children's Tendency to Defend Victims of School Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, James R.; Smith-Adcock, Sondra

    2016-01-01

    Defenders, or children who help victims, are studied less often than children who bully or are victims of bullying. In this study, the authors examined middle schools students' perceived normative pressure from significant others to help victims. Findings suggest that normative pressure from best friends mediated gender and defending, and the…

  15. 76 FR 19909 - International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... of Justice Programs 28 CFR Part 94 RIN 1121-AA78 International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement... Victims of Crime (OVC) is promulgating this interim-final rule for its International Terrorism Victim... as an incident of international terrorism. DATES: Effective date: This interim-final rule...

  16. Students' Perceptions of Their Own Victimization: A Youth Voice Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corby, Emma-Kate; Campbell, Marilyn; Spears, Barbara; Slee, Phillip; Butler, Des; Kift, Sally

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the perceptions of 156 students who were victims of both traditional and cyberbullying (117 female, 45 male), ages 10 to 17 years, as to which form of bullying was more hurtful. Overall, students perceived traditional victimization to be more hurtful than cyber victimization. Reasons identified in the data to explain the…

  17. Social Information Processing Mechanisms and Victimization: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    van Reemst, Lisa; Fischer, Tamar F C; Zwirs, Barbara W C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current literature review, which is based on 64 empirical studies, was to assess to what extent mechanisms of the Social Information Processing (SIP) model of Crick and Dodge (1994) are related to victimization. The reviewed studies have provided support for the relation between victimization and several social information processing mechanisms, especially the interpretation of cues and self-efficacy (as part of the response decision). The relationship between victimization and other mechanisms, such as the response generation, was only studied in a few articles. Until now research has often focused on just one step of the model, instead of attempting to measure the associations between multiple mechanisms and victimization in multivariate analyses. Such analyses would be interesting to gain more insight into the SIP model and its relationship with victimization. The few available longitudinal studies show that mechanisms both predict victimization (internal locus of control, negative self-evaluations and less assertive response selection) and are predicted by victimization (hostile attribution of intent and negative evaluations of others). Associations between victimization and SIP mechanisms vary across different types and severity of victimization (stronger in personal and severe victimization), and different populations (stronger among young victims). Practice could focus on these stronger associations and the interpretation of cues. More research is needed however, to investigate whether intervention programs that address SIP mechanisms are suitable for victimization and all relevant populations.

  18. From Victim to Taking Control: Support Group for Bullied Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Aabø, Liv Sandnes; Saeteren, Berit

    2016-01-01

    School bullying is a serious problem affecting the victims in their daily lives at school. The aim of this study was to investigate whether support groups were able to help the victims of bullying to overcome their victim status and to explore what it means to be a member of a support group. An exploratory qualitative design, with individual and…

  19. Routine Activities and Victimization at School: The Significance of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Ann Marie; Peguero, Anthony A.

    2011-01-01

    Routine activities theory has not fully considered the role of gender in shaping victimization and yet, the research literature clearly demonstrates that gender is associated with an individual's risk of victimization. In addition to the pervasive effect of gender on victimization, gender shapes an individual's daily routines and thus may create a…

  20. Relationship between Perceptions of Control and Victimization of Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Bi; Lei, Li

    2006-01-01

    This study explores perceptions of control in victims of school bullying, by surveying 108 adolescents with questionnaires. The result shows that there are significant gender differences in external control in general, internal control of sociality, and victimization of physical bullying. Physical victimization decreases as subjects grow older,…

  1. 28 CFR 0.91 - Office for Victims of Crime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Office for Victims of Crime. 0.91 Section...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.91 Office for Victims of Crime. The Office for Victims of Crime is headed by a Director appointed by the Assistant Attorney General, Office of...

  2. 28 CFR 0.91 - Office for Victims of Crime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Office for Victims of Crime. 0.91 Section...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.91 Office for Victims of Crime. The Office for Victims of Crime is headed by a Director appointed by the Assistant Attorney General, Office of...

  3. 28 CFR 0.91 - Office for Victims of Crime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Office for Victims of Crime. 0.91 Section...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.91 Office for Victims of Crime. The Office for Victims of Crime is headed by a Director appointed by the Assistant Attorney General, Office of...

  4. 28 CFR 0.91 - Office for Victims of Crime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Office for Victims of Crime. 0.91 Section...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.91 Office for Victims of Crime. The Office for Victims of Crime is headed by a Director appointed by the Assistant Attorney General, Office of...

  5. Occurrence of Stalking Victimization among Female and Male Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Rachel K.; Nelson, Deborah B.; Forke, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the occurrence of stalking victimization among female and male undergraduate students attending three urban colleges. Specifically, we explored the proportion of students who experienced only stalking victimization and the relationship to the perpetrator identified by victims of stalking. Our findings suggest that stalking…

  6. The Sexual Victimization of College Women. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Bonnie S.; Cullen, Francis T.; Turner, Michael G.

    The National College Women Sexual Victimization (NCVS) study attempted to build on and surmount the limitations of existing research on the sexual victimization of college students. In addition to the study of sexual victimization, the study investigated how rape estimates that use the two-stage process of behaviorally specific questions and…

  7. Factors that Influence Children's Responses to Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terranova, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Children's responses to peer victimization are associated with whether the victimization continues, and its impact on adjustment. Yet little longitudinal research has examined the factors influencing children's responses to peer victimization. In a sample of 140 late elementary school children (n = 140, Mean age = 10 years, 2 months, 55% female,…

  8. History of Peer Victimization and Children's Response to School Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elledge, L. Christian; Cavell, Timothy A.; Ogle, Nick T.; Malcolm, Kenya T.; Newgent, Rebecca A.; Faith, Melissa A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the degree to which children with and without a history of stable peer victimization differentially endorse strategies for dealing with school bullies. Participants were 323 children, 58 of whom met criteria for chronic peer victimization. Children with a history of stable peer victimization differed from comparison children in how…

  9. An Experimental Analysis of Children's Dislike of Aggressors and Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Mary Lynne; Cohen, Robert; Deptula, Daneen P.; Kitzmann, Katherine M.

    2003-01-01

    Examined contextual factors influencing fourth- to sixth-graders' dislike for aggressors and their victims, by varying aggressor's and victim's behavior in scenarios describing camp experiences. Found that children disliked aggressors the most, followed by victims, and by other children in the scenarios. Aggressors were liked more if their victim…

  10. Victimization and Health Risk Factors among Weapon-Carrying Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stayton, Catherine; McVeigh, Katharine H.; Olson, E. Carolyn; Perkins, Krystal; Kerker, Bonnie D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare health risks of 2 subgroups of weapon carriers: victimized and nonvictimized youth. Methods: 2003-2007 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression. Results: Among NYC teens, 7.5% reported weapon carrying without victimization; 6.9% reported it with victimization.…

  11. Intergenerational Transmission of Sexual Victimization Vulnerability as Mediated via Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Maria; Hoffman, Joseph H.; Livingston, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Previous research suggests that women's early sexual victimization experiences may influence their parenting behaviors and increase the vulnerability of their children to being sexually victimized. The current study considered whether mother's sexual victimization experiences, in childhood and after age 14, were associated with the…

  12. Relations among School Connectedness, Hope, Life Satisfaction, and Bully Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Sukkyung; Furlong, Michael J.; Felix, Erika; Sharkey, Jill D.; Tanigawa, Diane; Green, Jennifer Greif

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the role of school connectedness in mediating the relation between students' sense of hope and life satisfaction for three groups: Bullied Victims, Peer Victims, and Nonvictims. Students in grades 5 to 12 (N = 866) completed the California Bully/Victim Scale, School Connectedness Scale, Children's Hope Scale, and Students'…

  13. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.; Sickmund, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    This report presents comprehensive information on juvenile crime, violence, and victimization and on the juvenile justice system. This report brings together the latest available statistics from a variety of sources and includes numerous tables, graphs, and maps, accompanied by analyses in clear, nontechnical language. The report offers Congress,…

  14. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1999 National Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.; Sickmund, Melissa

    This report offers the Congress, state legislators, and other state and local policymakers, professors and teachers, juvenile justice professionals, and concerned citizens solid answers to the most frequently asked questions about the nature of juvenile crime and victimization and about the justice system's response. Citing FBI and other data…

  15. School Crime and Violence: Victims' Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, James A.; And Others

    While schools at one time appeared to be immune from criminal liability and courtroom litigation, cases involving virtually every aspect of education have been, or are currently, in court at some level. This monograph is designed to help school lawyers, trial lawyers who represent victims of campus crimes, and educators and administrators engaged…

  16. Sexual Coercion among Adolescents: Victims and Perpetrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacasse, Anne; Mendelson, Morton J.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescence is a transitional period when the pressure to engage in romantic and sexual relationships can leave teenagers feeling confused and at risk for sexual coercion. Our studies investigated characteristics of male and female perpetrators and victims of peer sexual coercion, focusing on self-esteem, sexist attitudes, and involvement in…

  17. Pubertal Development and Physical Victimization in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynie, Dana L.; Piquero, Alex R.

    2006-01-01

    Although much research has established a link between pubertal development and adolescent involvement in offending, drug use, and other adverse outcomes, no research has examined whether puberty is associated with experiences of violent physical victimization. This is an unfortunate oversight because researchers are only beginning to understand…

  18. Media-Cultivated Perceptions of Criminal Victimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogles, Robert M.

    Many television viewers construct their social reality from media content as well as from sensory and interpersonally communicated information. One aspect of this media-influenced social reality is television viewers' estimates of crime in society, or their fear of criminal victimization. Several media-effects studies have demonstrated the…

  19. Teenagers as Victims in the Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Gunvor; Lundstrom, Tommy

    2007-01-01

    Research into press reporting on young people has tended to concentrate on young people as offenders. In contrast, this article focuses on press coverage of teenagers as victims. Reports in two Swedish newspapers (a morning broadsheet and an evening tabloid) were studied over a period of four months and subjected to a qualitative analysis of…

  20. EMERGENCY VICTIM CARE AND RESCUE, INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MORANDO, ROCCO V.; STOVER, WILBUR F.

    DEVELOPED AT THE STATE LEVEL BY SQUADMEN AND TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL PERSONNEL, THIS MANUAL IS FOR USE BY A QUALIFIED SQUADMAN IN TEACHING FULL-TIME AND VOLUNTEER EMERGENCY AND RESCUE WORKERS IN AN EMERGENCY SQUAD STATION OR TRAINING CENTER. TEACHING GUIDES ARE PROVIDED FOR A 30-HOUR COURSE ON EMERGENCY VICTIM CARE AND A 20-HOUR COURSE ON VICTIM…

  1. The Social Contexts of Bullying and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parault, Susan J.; Davis, Heather A.; Pellegrini, Anthony D.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the amount of middle school students' bullying and nonbullying behaviors observed in three less-structured school venues: the monthly school dance, the cafeteria, and the locker/hall area. Two questions guided our analysis: (a) How do students' bullying and victimization behaviors and nonbullying social behaviors vary by…

  2. A Fresh Approach to Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, John

    2013-01-01

    Bullying often persists in spite of formal programs targeting this problem. Supportive school and classroom communities enlist brave peers in consoling, encouraging, and befriending victims, which removes the status that fuels bullies. For the past 18 years, this author has worked in multiple children's agencies and schools, studying bullying…

  3. Violence Exposure and Victimization among Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mykota, David B.; Laye, Adele

    2015-01-01

    Violence exposure is a serious public health concern for adolescents in schools today. Violence exposure can be quite severe and frequent with multiple acts of indirect and direct victimization having lasting effects on the physical, emotional, and intellectual well-being of adolescents. The purpose of the present study is to examine the rates of…

  4. Racial and Ethnic Stereotypes and Bullying Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peguero, Anthony A.; Williams, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem within the U.S. school system. Prior research suggests that victimization is stratified by race and ethnicity. However, few studies consider factors that may moderate this relationship. This article extends research on this topic by considering whether stereotypes moderate bullying among racial and ethnic youth. Youth…

  5. The Perception of Cyberbullying in Adolescent Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcikova, Anna; Smahel, David; Otavova, Mlada

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore how victims of cyberbullying perceive online aggressive attacks and when they see them as harmful. Interviews were carried out with 16 cybervictimised participants aged 15-17 years. The findings showed differences in the perception of online victimisation when perpetrated by an anonymous Internet user versus…

  6. Bullying Victims: The Effects Last into College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Frank D.; Lawrence, Gloria J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether those bullied in schools continued to show the effects of being bullied after they enrolled in an institution of higher education. There were 269 undergraduate students participating in the study. Previous studies (2006; 2008) conducted by the authors suggested the effects of bullying upon both the victim and bully are…

  7. Connections to Rescue Our Victims of Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on the Washington, D.C. school system and Antonio, a child victim of violence, to discuss the background problems that affect the school performance of children from troubled neighborhoods. People who work in schools know that children--even kindergarten and preschool children--don't come to them as blank slates…

  8. Gender Differences in Coping with Potential Victimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, John M.; Habermeier, Wendy M.

    Individuals utilize many cues from their environments in order to assess their status. A person's status may be conceptualized as being made up of the roles the individual plays. One role individuals may play at some point in their life is the role of victim. This study sought to determine whether or not individuals possess a veridical assessment…

  9. Treating the Adolescent Victim-Turned-Offender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muster, Nori J.

    1992-01-01

    Many juvenile sex offenders are also victims of sexual abuse. Treatment primarily focuses on juvenile's criminal acts in confrontational, nonsympathetic manner. Surveyed 18 professionals in sexual abuse treatment field to assess attitudes toward juvenile sex offender treatment. Those in corrections field were greatest supporters of confrontational…

  10. Criminal Consequences of Childhood Sexual Victimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Ames, M. Ashley

    1994-01-01

    Using a prospective cohorts design, this study assessed the long-term criminal consequences of childhood abuse/neglect in 908 cases. Early childhood sexual abuse did not uniquely increase risk for later delinquent and criminal behavior, compared to other types of abuse/neglect. Child abuse victims were at higher risk of adult arrest for sex crimes…

  11. The Other Victims of the Nazis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Ina R.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, 50 years after World War II, few people are aware that Jews were not the only Nazi victims. Describes Nazi persecution against Gypsies, homosexuals, blacks, political dissenters, and other groups. Contends that every new generation of students should learn about the devastating effects of prejudice. (CFR)

  12. Examining Variation in Attitudes toward Aggressive Retaliation and Perceptions of Safety among Bullies, Victims, and Bully/Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; Sawyer, Anne L.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the link between involvement in bullying, as either a bully, victim, or bully/victim, and attitudes toward violence and perceptions of safety among 16,012 middle and high school students. Analyses indicated that 37.6% were frequently involved in bullying. Bully/victims were the most likely to report feeling unsafe and…

  13. Post-traumatic stress problems among poly-victimized Spanish youth: time effect of past vs. recent interpersonal victimizations.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Teresa; Forns, Maria; Soler, Laia; Planellas, Irina

    2014-08-01

    The cumulative effect of lifetime interpersonal victimization experiences (e.g., child maltreatment, sexual victimizations, conventional crime, witnessing indirect victimization, peer and sibling victimizations) on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms is an important topic in the scientific literature. The objectives of the present study were: (a) to analyze the relationship between lifetime interpersonal victimizations and PTS symptoms, (b) to determine the most prevalent specific PTS symptoms among poly-victimized adolescents, and (c) to establish the time-based effect of interpersonal victimization experiences that occurred in the last year versus those that occurred years before on current level of PTS symptoms. Gender differences were taken into account for each of these objectives. Participants were 823 Spanish adolescents (63% girls and 37% boys) between 14 and 18 years of age recruited from May 2010 to November 2011 from schools in Barcelona, Spain. The majority (87.6%) was of Spanish nationality. The results highlighted the cumulative effect of interpersonal victimizations on PTS symptoms. Among poly-victims adolescents, the most prevalent PTS symptom was intrusive thoughts, but some differences were observed according to gender. The time-based effect of interpersonal victimizations showed a different pattern for girls and boys. For girls, the victimizing events occurring in past years had more explanatory power of the current PTS symptoms than those that occurred more recently. In boys, the interpersonal victimizing events occurring in the last year had the greater explanatory power. These results may have clinical and therapeutic value.

  14. Victims' Influence on Intimate Partner Violence Revictimization: An Empirical Test of Dynamic Victim-Related Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuijpers, Karlijn F.; Van der Knaap, Leontien M.; Winkel, Frans Willem

    2012-01-01

    Research has reported that not only characteristics of the perpetrator but also characteristics of the victim influence risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). This would suggest that prevention of repeat abuse could benefit from a focus on both perpetrator and victim characteristics. Knowledge on factors that are within victims' sphere of…

  15. Sexual victimization and associated risks among lesbian and bisexual women.

    PubMed

    Hequembourg, Amy L; Livingston, Jennifer A; Parks, Kathleen A

    2013-05-01

    This study examines relationships among childhood sexual abuse (CSA), risky alcohol use, and adult sexual victimization among bisexual and lesbian women. Half (51.2%) of women reported CSA and 71.2% reported adult sexual victimization. Perpetrators were generally male, and 56.4% of women's most recent adult sexual victimization incidents occurred after coming out. Regression results indicated that adult sexual victimization severity was associated with a bisexual identity, more severe CSA history, more lifetime sexual partners, and higher alcohol severity scores. Compared to lesbians, bisexual women reported more severe adult sexual victimization experiences, greater revictimization, riskier drinking patterns, and more lifetime male sexual partners.

  16. Child victims and poly-victims in China: are they more at-risk of family violence?

    PubMed

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2014-11-01

    Multiple forms of violence may co-occur on a child. These may include various forms of child victimization and different types of family violence. However, evidence that child victims are more likely to witness other types of family violence has been lacking in China. Using data of a large and diverse sample of children recruited from 6 regions in China during 2009 and 2010 (N=18,341; 47% girls; mean age=15.9 years), the associations between child victimization and family violence witnessed were examined. Descriptive statistics and the associations between child victimization, demographic characteristics, and family violence witnessed were analyzed. Lifetime and preceding-year rates were 71.7% and 60.0% for any form of child victimization and 14.0% and 9.2% for poly-victimization (having four or more types of victimization), respectively. Family disadvantages (i.e., lower socio-economic status, single parents, and having more than one child in the family) were associated with child victimization and poly-victimization. Witnessing of parental intimate partner violence, elder abuse, and in-law conflict also increased the likelihood of child victimization and poly-victimization, even after the adjustment of demographic factors. Possible mechanisms for the links between family violence and child victimization are discussed. The current findings indicated the need for focusing on the whole family rather than the victim only. For example, screening for different types of family violence when child victims are identified may help early detection of other victims within the family.

  17. Gender differences in sexual assault victimization among college students.

    PubMed

    Hines, Denise A; Armstrong, Jessica L; Reed, Kathleen Palm; Cameron, Amy Y

    2012-01-01

    College students are at particular risk for sexual assault victimization, yet research tends to focus on women as victims and men as perpetrators. The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in the prevalence, context, and predictors of sexual assault victimization among college students. Results showed that women were significantly more likely to have been sexually assaulted in a 2-month time period, but the context of victimization varied little by gender. Victimization was predicted by sexual orientation, time spent socializing and partying, and severe dating violence victimization for men and by year in school, time spent on the Internet, drinking and using drugs, and being a stalking and dating violence victim for women. Results are discussed in the context of routine activities theory and implications for prevention and future research.

  18. From Victim to Taking Control: Support Group for Bullied Schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Aabø, Liv Sandnes; Sæteren, Berit

    2016-04-01

    School bullying is a serious problem affecting the victims in their daily lives at school. The aim of this study was to investigate whether support groups were able to help the victims of bullying to overcome their victim status and to explore what it means to be a member of a support group. An exploratory qualitative design, with individual and focus group interviews, was used. The sample consisted of 19 schoolchildren, aged 12-13 years, 3 of whom were victimized. Six individual interviews and three focus group interviews were conducted. Findings show that support groups contribute to the cessation of bullying and improvements remain 3 months later. The support groups experience feeling important and helping others. It is important for the school nurse and teachers to follow up with victimized children, in collaboration with their parents, to help the victim to no longer be a victim and to take control.

  19. The concentration of criminal victimization and patterns of routine activities.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Shih-Ya; Cuvelier, Steven J; Sheu, Chuen-Jim; Zhao, Jihong Solomon

    2012-06-01

    Although many repeat victimization studies have focused on describing the prevalence of the phenomenon, this study attempted to explain variations in the concentration of victimization by applying routine activities as a theoretical model. A multivariate analysis of repeat victimization based on the 2005 Taiwan criminal victimization data supported the general applicability of the routine activity model developed in Western culture for predicting repeat victimization. Findings that diverged from Western patterns included family income to assault, gender to robbery, and marital status, family income, and major activity to larceny incidents. These disparities illustrated the importance of considering the broader sociocultural context in the association between risk predictors and the concentration of criminal victimization. The contradictory results and nonsignificant variance also reflected untapped information on respondents' biological features and psychological tendencies. Future victimization research would do well to integrate measurements that are sensitive to salient sociocultural elements of the society being studied and individuals' biological and psychological traits.

  20. Sexual orientation, child abuse, and intimate partner violence victimization.

    PubMed

    Koeppel, Maria D H; Bouffard, Leana

    2014-01-01

    Research has consistently found rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) in nonheterosexual relationships to be comparable or higher than rates of IPV in heterosexual relationship. Less is understood about the relationship between child abuse, sexual orientation, and IPV victimization. The role of sexual orientation in the relationship between child abuse and IPV victimization is important to consider given research has found higher rates of childhood abuse among nonheterosexual individuals. In addition, the relationship between child abuse victimization and IPV victimization in adulthood has also been documented. This research extends the literature on IPV by comparing child abuse victimization as a predictor for IPV between heterosexual and nonheterosexual IPV victims. Using the National Violence Against Women Survey, this study used logistic regression models to find partial support for the hypothesis that nonheterosexuals who experience child abuse will be more likely to be IPV victims as adults than similarly situated heterosexuals.

  1. Intergenerational Links in Victimization: Prosocial Friends as a Buffer.

    PubMed

    Han, Sohyun C; Margolin, Gayla

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated whether having friends who engaged in more prosocial than antisocial behaviors buffered the associations between family-of-origin aggression and later victimization. Adolescent participants (N=125) and their parents reported on different types of family aggression in early adolescence. Approximately 5 years later, adolescents reported on their victimization experiences with dating partners and friends, and their friends' prosocial and antisocial behaviors. Only father-to-child aggression was significantly associated with dating and friend victimization, with stronger risk for females' dating victimization. Moreover, having friends who engaged in more prosocial than antisocial behaviors had both a direct inverse relationship with dating partner victimization. This also buffered the risk for dating victimization associated with father-daughter aggression. Findings suggest that greater attention be paid to the father-daughter relationship and to the importance of having friends who engage in prosocial behaviors in the prevention of adolescents' victimization.

  2. Workplace mobbing: How the victim's coping behavior influences bystander responses.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Roelie; Bos, Arjan E R; Pouwelse, Mieneke; van Dam, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Victims of workplace mobbing show diverse coping behavior. We investigated the impact of this behavior on bystander cognitions, emotions, and helping toward the victim, integrating coping literature with attribution theory. Adult part-time university students (N = 161) working at various organizations participated in a study with a 3(Coping: approach/avoidance/neutral) × 2(Gender Victim: male/female) × 2(Gender Bystander: male/female) design. Victims showing approach (vs. avoidance) coping were considered to be more self-reliant and less responsible for the continuation of the mobbing, and they elicited less anger. Continuation responsibility and self-reliance mediated the relationship between the victim's coping behavior and bystanders' helping intentions. Female (vs. male) participants reported more sympathy for the victim and greater willingness to help, and female (vs. male) victims elicited less anger. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  3. Maladie des vibrations

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shixin (Cindy); House, Ronald A.

    2017-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Permettre aux médecins de famille de comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, les symptômes, le diagnostic et la prise en charge de la maladie des vibrations, une maladie professionnelle importante et courante au Canada. Sources d’information Une recherche a été effectuée sur MEDLINE afin de relever les recherches et comptes rendus portant sur la maladie des vibrations. Une recherche a été effectuée sur Google dans le but d’obtenir la littérature grise qui convient au contexte canadien. D’autres références ont été tirées des articles relevés. Message principal La maladie des vibrations est une maladie professionnelle répandue touchant les travailleurs de diverses industries qui utilisent des outils vibrants. La maladie est cependant sous-diagnostiquée au Canada. Elle compte 3 éléments : vasculaire, sous la forme d’un phénomène de Raynaud secondaire; neurosensoriel; et musculosquelettique. Aux stades les plus avancés, la maladie des vibrations entraîne une invalidité importante et une piètre qualité de vie. Son diagnostic exige une anamnèse minutieuse, en particulier des antécédents professionnels, un examen physique, des analyses de laboratoire afin d’éliminer les autres diagnostics, et la recommandation en médecine du travail aux fins d’investigations plus poussées. La prise en charge consiste à réduire l’exposition aux vibrations, éviter les températures froides, abandonner le tabac et administrer des médicaments. Conclusion Pour assurer un diagnostic rapide de la maladie des vibrations et améliorer le pronostic et la qualité de vie, les médecins de famille devraient connaître cette maladie professionnelle courante, et pouvoir obtenir les détails pertinents durant l’anamnèse, recommander les patients aux cliniques de médecine du travail et débuter les demandes d’indemnisation de manière appropriée. PMID:28292812

  4. Victimization and Violent Offending: An Assessment of the Victim-Offender Overlap Among Native American Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Reingle, Jennifer M; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the victim-offender overlap among a nationally representative sample of Native American adolescents and young adults. Data for this study were obtained from 338 Native American youth who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Waves I-IV. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to estimate trajectories of violence and victimization separately. Bivariate tests were used to assess the overlap between victimization and violent trajectory groups. Multinomial regression procedures were used to assess the predictors of victimization, offending, and the overlap category of both victimization and offending. Three trajectory groups were found for violence (nonviolent, escalators, and desistors) and victimization (nonvictim, decreasing victimization, and increasing victimization). We found substantial evidence of an overlap between victimization and offending among Native Americans, as 27.5% of the sample reported both victimization and offending. Those in the overlap group had greater number of risk factors present at baseline. These results suggest that the victim-offender overlap is present in Native American adolescents. Explanations and implications are discussed.

  5. Des Vents et des Jets Astrophysiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauty, C.

    well expected result from the theory. Although, collimation may be conical, paraboloidal or cylindrical (Part 4), cylindrical collimation is the more likely to occur. The shape of outflows may then be used as a tool to predict physical conditions on the flows or on their source. L'éjection continue de plasma autour d'objets massifs est un phénomène largement répandu en astrophysique, que ce soit sous la forme du vent solaire, de vents stellaires, de jets d'étoiles en formation, de jets stellaires autour d'objets compacts ou de jets extra-galactiques. Cette zoologie diversifiée fait pourtant l'objet d'un commun effort de modélisation. Le but de cette revue est d'abord de présenter qualitativement le développement, depuis leur origine, des diverses théories de vents (Partie 1) et l'inter disciplinarité dans ce domaine. Il s'agit d'une énumération, plus ou moins exhaustive, des idées proposées pour expliquer l'accélération et la morphologie des vents et des jets, accompagnée d'une présentation sommaire des aspects observationnels. Cette partie s'abstient de tout aspect faisant appel au formalisme mathématique. Ces écoulements peuvent être décrits, au moins partiellement, en résolvant les équations magnétohydrodynamiques, axisymétriques et stationnaires. Ce formalisme, à la base de la plupart des théories, est exposé dans la Partie 2. Il permet d'introduire quantitativement les intégrales premières qu'un tel système possède. Ces dernières sont amenées à jouer un rôle important dans la compréhension des phénomènes d'accélération ou de collimation, en particulier le taux de perte de masse, le taux de perte de moment angulaire ou l'énergie du rotateur magnétique. La difficulté de modélisation réside dans l'existence de points critiques, propres aux équations non linéaires, qu'il faut franchir. La nature physique et la localisation de ces points critiques fait l'objet d'un débat important car ils sont la clef de voute de la r

  6. Fire victims: medical outcomes and demographic characteristics.

    PubMed Central

    Levine, M S; Radford, E P

    1977-01-01

    The medical outcomes and demographic characteristics of all victims of fires identified by The Baltimore Fire Department during a 14-month period in Baltimore City were studied. Fifty-nine per cent of victims suffered minor injuries, 25 per cent required hospitalization and 16 per cent were fatalities. The majority of survivable injuries were due to burns, while the majority of deaths were due to pulmonary injury and carbon monoxide intoxication. Deaths occurring at the scene of the fire or during the first 24 hours were predominantly due to carbon monoxide. Exposure to fires was more likely to result in deaths in the very young and very old. Evidence from autopsy protocols suggests that alcohol was a contributory factor. PMID:911020

  7. The prehospital management of avalanche victims.

    PubMed

    Kornhall, Daniel K; Martens-Nielsen, Julie

    2016-12-01

    Avalanche accidents are frequently lethal events with an overall mortality of 23%. Mortality increases dramatically to 50% in instances of complete burial. With modern day dense networks of ambulance services and rescue helicopters, health workers often become involved during the early stages of avalanche rescue. Historically, some of the most devastating avalanche accidents have involved military personnel. Armed forces are frequently deployed to mountain regions in order to train for mountain warfare or as part of ongoing conflicts. Furthermore, military units are frequently called to assist civilian organised rescue in avalanche rescue operations. It is therefore important that clinicians associated with units operating in mountain regions have an understanding of, the medical management of avalanche victims, and of the preceding rescue phase. The ensuing review of the available literature aims to describe the pathophysiology particular to avalanche victims and to outline a structured approach to the search, rescue and prehospital medical management.

  8. Forensic odontology involvement in disaster victim identification.

    PubMed

    Berketa, John William; James, Helen; Lake, Anthony W

    2012-06-01

    Forensic odontology is one of three primary identifiers designated by Interpol to identify victims of mass casualty events. Forensic odontology is involved in all five phases-Scene, Postmortem, Antemortem, Reconciliation and Debrief. Forward planning, adequate funding, international cooperation and standardization are essential to guarantee an effective response. A Standard Operation Procedure should be utilized to maximize quality, facilitate occupation and health issues, maintain security and form a structure to the relief program. Issues that must be considered in the management of the forensic odontology component of disaster victim identification are given in "Appendix 1". Each stage of the disaster, from initial notification to debrief, is analyzed and a comprehensive checklist of actions suggested.

  9. Compensation of victims exposed to environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Kimbrough, R D; Simonds, M

    1986-01-01

    The sponsors of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), also known as "Superfund," agreed that more information was needed regarding legal remedies for injuries to persons from exposures to hazardous wastes. There has been a rush in Congress and some states to introduce "victims' compensation" bills to facilitate recovery for personal injury from exposure to hazardous waste sites. Such approaches are overly simplistic and totally disregard the reach and shortfall of scientific data.

  10. Identifying murder victims with endodontic radiographs.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rhonan Ferreira; Franco, Ademir; Mendes, Solon Diego Santos Carvalho; Picoli, Fernando Fortes; Nunes, Fernando Gomes; Estrela, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Endodontics is a special branch of dentistry constantly guided by imaging examinations. From a forensic scope, endodontics plays a valuable role providing solid antemortem (AM) radiographic evidence for comparison with postmortem findings in human identifications. This study illustrates the interface between endodontics and forensic odontology describing three cases of human identification based on radiographic endodontic records. From 2009 to 2012, three unknown male victims of murder were examined in a local Brazilian medico-legal institute to retrieve identity and potential cause of death. Specifically, when asked for AM data, a relative of the three victims provided periapical radiographs of endodontic treatments. Based on that, forensic dentists reproduced the same imaging acquisition techniques obtaining similar periapical radiographs, enabling a comparative dental identification. All the victims were positively identified based on patterns of dental morphology and treatment intervention. This study draws the attention of general and forensic dentists highlight the importance of properly recording dental treatments and searching for evidence in AM endodontic data, respectively.

  11. Identifying murder victims with endodontic radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rhonan Ferreira; Franco, Ademir; Mendes, Solon Diego Santos Carvalho; Picoli, Fernando Fortes; Nunes, Fernando Gomes; Estrela, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Endodontics is a special branch of dentistry constantly guided by imaging examinations. From a forensic scope, endodontics plays a valuable role providing solid antemortem (AM) radiographic evidence for comparison with postmortem findings in human identifications. This study illustrates the interface between endodontics and forensic odontology describing three cases of human identification based on radiographic endodontic records. From 2009 to 2012, three unknown male victims of murder were examined in a local Brazilian medico-legal institute to retrieve identity and potential cause of death. Specifically, when asked for AM data, a relative of the three victims provided periapical radiographs of endodontic treatments. Based on that, forensic dentists reproduced the same imaging acquisition techniques obtaining similar periapical radiographs, enabling a comparative dental identification. All the victims were positively identified based on patterns of dental morphology and treatment intervention. This study draws the attention of general and forensic dentists highlight the importance of properly recording dental treatments and searching for evidence in AM endodontic data, respectively. PMID:28123272

  12. A TODAY VICTIM OF SECOND WORLD WAR.

    PubMed

    Hăisan, Anca; Dumea, Mihaela; Ursaru, Manuela; Bulat, C; Cimpoeşu, Diana Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Emergency medicine as a medical specialty has to deal with all kind of emergency situations, from medical to post traumatic acute eyents and from new born to the elderly persons, but also with particular situations like explosions. In Romania nowadays these are accidental explosions and rare like frequency, but may be dramatic due to numbers of victims and multisystem injury that may occur. We present a case of a single victim of accidental detonated bomb, a projectile from the Second World War, which unfortunately still may be found in some areas. The management of the case from first call to 112 until the victim is discharge-involves high professional team work. We use these opportunity to make a brief review of the mechanism through the lesions may appear and also to renew the fact that the most impressive lesion may not be the most severe, and we have to examine carefully in order to find the real life threatening injury of the patient.

  13. Childhood victimization experiences of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    PubMed

    Bogolyubova, Olga; Skochilov, Roman; Smykalo, Lyubov

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of childhood victimization experiences in a sample of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia. The study sample included 743 students aged 19 to 25 from 15 universities in St. Petersburg, Russia. All of the study participants completed a reliable questionnaire assessing the following types of childhood victimization: conventional crime, child maltreatment, peer victimization, sexual victimization, and witnessing violence. Participation in the study was anonymous. High rates of victimization and exposure to violence were reported by the study participants. The majority of the sample experienced at least one type of victimization during childhood or adolescence, and poly-victimization was reported frequently. The most common type of victimization reported was peer or sibling assault (66.94%), followed by witnessing an assault without weapon (63.91%), personal theft (56.19%), vandalism (56.06%), and emotional bullying (49.99%). Sexual assault by a known adult was reported by 1.45% males and 5.16% of females. This study provides new information on the scope of childhood victimization experiences in Russia. Further research is warranted, including epidemiological research with representative data across the country and studies of the impact of trauma and victimization on mental health and well-being of Russian adults and children.

  14. School Victimization and Substance Use among Adolescents in California

    PubMed Central

    Astor, Ron A.; Estrada, Joey N.; Benbenishty, Rami; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2016-01-01

    Substance use and violence co-occur among adolescents. However, the extant literature focuses on the substance use behaviors of perpetrators of violence and not on victims. This study identifies patterns of school victimization and substance use and how they co-occur. The California Healthy Kids Survey was used to identify latent classes/clusters of school victimization patterns and lifetime and frequency of recent (past month) alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use (N =419,698). Demographic characteristics (age, gender, and race/ethnicity) were included as predictors of latent class membership. Analyses revealed four latent classes of school victimization: low victimization (44.4 %), moderate victimization (22.3 %), verbal/relational victimization (20.8 %), and high victimization (with physical threats; 12.5 %). There were also four classes of substance use: non-users (58.5 %), alcohol experimenters (some recent alcohol use; 25.8 %), mild poly-substance users (lifetime use of all substances with few days of recent use; 9.1 %), and frequent poly-substance users (used all substances several times in the past month; 6.5 %). Those in the high victimization class were twice as likely to be frequent poly-substance users, and mild poly-substance use was most salient for those in the verbal victimization class. Few studies have explored latent patterns of substance use and violence victimization concurrently. The findings indicate substantial heterogeneity in victimization and substance use among youth in California schools with implications for targeted and tailored interventions. Understanding how certain types of victimization are associated with particular patterns of substance use will provide schools with opportunities to screen for concurrent behavioral health problems among youth. PMID:24482139

  15. Violent crime and victim compensation: implications for social justice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Hayden P

    2006-06-01

    Restorative justice offers several innovative methods designed to heal the injury that the offender may have caused to the victim. One of these innovative methods is victim compensation, a form of income redistribution designed to redistribute wealth from offenders to victims of crime. Restitution, particularly through the Victim of Crime Act (VOCA), is a needs-based form of justice designed to assist the most needy victims of violent crime. Recent studies suggest that while state-level compensation programs may target poor, young, African American men, compensation at the national level tends to be received more by older, White women who experienced domestic violence. The author suggests that this disparity between state and local resource distribution in the allocation of victim compensation is a reflection of the ideological differences between the established theoretical frameworks of liberalism and radical feminism.

  16. Bullies, Victims, and Antipathy: The Feeling is Mutual

    PubMed Central

    Hafen, Christopher A.; Laursen, Brett; Nurmi, Jari-Eri; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2013-01-01

    In this study we consider whether bullies and victims are disliked by most of their classmates, or whether antipathy is concentrated among the occupants of these roles. Antipathy nominations were collected from a community sample of 699 Finnish adolescents (14 to 17 years of age), who described their own bullying and victimization, as well as problem behaviors and school engagement. Victimization was associated with antipathy, but the strength of the association differed according to characteristics of the nominator. Victimization was related to antipathy when the nominator was high on bullying but not low. Similarly, bullying was related to antipathy when the nominator was high on victimization, but not low. The findings indicate that although bullies and victims have elevated mean levels of rejection, they are not disliked by most peers but rather by those who report themselves to be high on these attributes. PMID:23344703

  17. Bullies, victims, and antipathy: the feeling is mutual.

    PubMed

    Hafen, Christopher A; Laursen, Brett; Nurmi, Jari-Eri; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2013-07-01

    In this study we consider whether bullies and victims are disliked by most of their classmates, or whether antipathy is concentrated among the occupants of these roles. Antipathy nominations were collected from a community sample of 699 Finnish adolescents (14 to 17 years of age), who described their own bullying and victimization, as well as problem behaviors and school engagement. Victimization was associated with antipathy, but the strength of the association differed according to characteristics of the nominator. Victimization was related to antipathy when the nominator was high on bullying but not low. Similarly, bullying was related to antipathy when the nominator was high on victimization, but not low. The findings indicate that although bullies and victims have elevated mean levels of rejection, they are not disliked by most peers but rather by those who report themselves to be high on these attributes.

  18. When are victims unlikely to cooperate with the police?

    PubMed

    Felson, Richard B; Lantz, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    Data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) are used to examine the tendency for victims of physical assault, sexual assault, and robbery to refuse to cooperate with the police (N= 3,856,171). Analyses of physical assaults involving homosexual and heterosexual couples did not support the hypothesis that women attacked by their male partners are less likely to cooperate than victims of other assaults. Analyses of violent offenses more generally showed that victims of violence were more likely to refuse to cooperate if they knew the offender in any way than if the offender was a stranger. In the case of physical and sexual assault, these effects were mainly observed for minor incidents. Finally, victims of sexual assault were more likely to cooperate with the police than victims of physical assault. The findings suggest the importance of comparing the victim's reactions to intimate partner violence and sexual assault to their reactions to other offenses.

  19. Peer Victimization and Adolescent Adjustment: Does School Belonging Matter?

    PubMed Central

    WORMINGTON, STEPHANIE V.; ANDERSON, KRISTEN G.; SCHNEIDER, ASHLEY; TOMLINSON, KRISTIN L.; BROWN, SANDRA A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research highlights the role of peer victimization in students’ adjustment across a variety of domains (e.g., academic, social), but less often identifies potential mediating variables. In the current study, we tested for direct effects from peer victimization to adolescents’ academic behavior and alcohol use, as well as indirect effects through school belonging. Adolescents from two large samples (middle school: N = 2,808; high school: N = 6,821) self-reported on peer victimization, school belonging, academic outcomes (GPA, school truancy), and alcohol use (lifetime, past 30 days). Two-group structural equation models revealed (a) direct and indirect paths from peer victimization to academic functioning; (b) indirect, but not direct, effects through school belonging for lifetime drinking; and (c) direct and indirect effects from peer victimization to current drinking. Findings implicate school belonging as a mediator between peer victimization and important outcomes in adolescence. PMID:27087793

  20. The relation between bullying, victimization, and adolescents' level of hopelessness.

    PubMed

    Siyahhan, Sinem; Aricak, O Tolga; Cayirdag-Acar, Nur

    2012-08-01

    In this study, 419 Turkish middle school students (203 girls, 216 boys) were surveyed on their exposure to and engagement in bullying, and their level of hopelessness. Our findings suggest that girls were victims of indirect (e.g. gossiping) bullying more than boys. Boys reported being victims of physical (e.g. damaging property) and verbal (e.g. teasing) bullying more than girls. While the level of hopelessness among victims of physical and verbal bullying was higher than non-victims, no difference was found between the victims of indirect bullying and non-victims. Students who never talked to their teachers and parents about bullying reported higher levels of hopelessness than others. The implications of the study for intervention and prevention programs are discussed.

  1. Physician-patient relationship and medical accident victim compensation: some insights into the French regulatory system.

    PubMed

    Ancelot, Lydie; Oros, Cornel

    2015-06-01

    Given the growing amount of medical litigation heard by courts, the 2002 Kouchner law in France has created the Office National d'Indemnisation des Accidents Médicaux (ONIAM), whose main aim is to encourage out-of-court settlements when a conflict between a physician and the victim of a medical accident occurs. More than 10 years after the implementation of this law, the statistics analysing its effectiveness are contradictory, which raises the question of the potential negative effects of the ONIAM on the compensation system. In order to address this question, the article analyses the impact of the ONIAM on the nature of settlement negotiations between the physician and the victim. Using a dynamic game within incomplete information, we develop a comparative analysis of two types of compensation systems in case of medical accidents: socialised financing granted by the ONIAM and private financing provided by the physician. We show that the ONIAM could encourage out-of-court settlements provided that the hypothesis of judicial error is relevant. On the contrary, in the case of a low probability of judicial errors, the ONIAM could be effective only for severe medical accidents.

  2. Psychological processes in young bullies versus bully-victims.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Anouk; Poorthuis, Astrid M G; Malti, Tina

    2017-02-08

    Some children who bully others are also victimized themselves ("bully-victims") whereas others are not victimized themselves ("bullies"). These subgroups have been shown to differ in their social functioning as early as in kindergarten. What is less clear are the motives that underlie the bullying behavior of young bullies and bully-victims. The present study examined whether bullies have proactive motives for aggression and anticipate to feel happy after victimizing others, whereas bully-victims have reactive motives for aggression, poor theory of mind skills, and attribute hostile intent to others. This "distinct processes hypothesis" was contrasted with the "shared processes hypothesis," predicting that bullies and bully-victims do not differ on these psychological processes. Children (n = 283, age 4-9) were classified as bully, bully-victim, or noninvolved using peer-nominations. Theory of mind, hostile intent attributions, and happy victimizer emotions were assessed using standard vignettes and false-belief tasks; reactive and proactive motives were assessed using teacher-reports. We tested our hypotheses using Bayesian model selection, enabling us to directly compare the distinct processes model (predicting that bullies and bully-victims deviate from noninvolved children on different psychological processes) against the shared processes model (predicting that bullies and bully-victims deviate from noninvolved children on all psychological processes alike). Overall, the shared processes model received more support than the distinct processes model. These results suggest that in early childhood, bullies and bully-victims have shared, rather than distinct psychological processes underlying their bullying behavior.

  3. Victim countries of transnational terrorism: an empirical characteristics analysis.

    PubMed

    Elbakidze, Levan; Jin, Yanhong

    2012-12-01

    This study empirically investigates the association between country-level socioeconomic characteristics and risk of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. We find that a country's annual financial contribution to the U.N. general operating budget has a positive association with the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. In addition, per capita GDP, political freedom, and openness to trade are nonlinearly related to the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events.

  4. [The victim as object of the medico-legal intervention].

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    We present a reflection about the victim as the object of the medico-legal intervention, that opens perspectives not only to the evidence research (as a techno-scientific contribute to support Justice in what concerns bio-psycho-social questions), but also to the support of victims which, in a last analysis, is no more than another aspect of this the social contribution of this science to ensure the best interest of the victim. This reflection aims to contribute to a better knowledge of the victim in his/her various perspectives. Accordingly, during the exposition, we refer some contributes of Victimology towards the understanding of the victims' behaviour's. Afterwards, we focus on the problems related to the aetiologies (with a particular reference to trauma), levels and consequences (physical, psychological and socio-economical) of victimization, as well as the methodologies of victims approach, medico-legal evaluation and reparation. Considering victims as being not only those who suffer directly the consequences of the victimizing phenomena, but also those that suffer from it indirectly and even secondarily, we shall approach the topic regarding both perspectives. We highlight the importance of understanding the victim as a person, not just understanding him/her confined to the organic aspect (as it used to be until recently in certain fields of medico-legal intervention, and as it still happens due to some legal obligations, for instance in the Labour Law), but considering the person in a global way (body, capacities, life situations and subjectivity). In conclusion, we highlight the importance of this topic to the medico-legal mission, while taking part in various multidisciplinary interventions and being involved in strategies and measures which purpose is to prevent violence, promote safety, avoid secondary victimization and revictimization as well as guarantee the victims' protection and reintegration, in a work attitude that should happen, even more and

  5. Effect of Childhood Victimization on Occupational Prestige and Income Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Cristina A.; Christ, Sharon L.; LeBlanc, William G.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Dietz, Noella A.; McCollister, Kathyrn E.; Fleming, Lora E.; Muntaner, Carles; Muennig, Peter; Lee, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Violence toward children (childhood victimization) is a major public health problem, with long-term consequences on economic well-being. The purpose of this study was to determine whether childhood victimization affects occupational prestige and income in young adulthood. We hypothesized that young adults who experienced more childhood victimizations would have less prestigious jobs and lower incomes relative to those with no victimization history. We also explored the pathways in which childhood victimization mediates the relationships between background variables, such as parent’s educational impact on the socioeconomic transition into adulthood. Methods A nationally representative sample of 8,901 young adults aged 18–28 surveyed between 1999–2009 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY) were analyzed. Covariate-adjusted multivariate linear regression and path models were used to estimate the effects of victimization and covariates on income and prestige levels and on income and prestige trajectories. After each participant turned 18, their annual 2002 Census job code was assigned a yearly prestige score based on the 1989 General Social Survey, and their annual income was calculated via self-reports. Occupational prestige and annual income are time-varying variables measured from 1999–2009. Victimization effects were tested for moderation by sex, race, and ethnicity in the multivariate models. Results Approximately half of our sample reported at least one instance of childhood victimization before the age of 18. Major findings include 1) childhood victimization resulted in slower income and prestige growth over time, and 2) mediation analyses suggested that this slower prestige and earnings arose because victims did not get the same amount of education as non-victims. Conclusions Results indicated that the consequences of victimization negatively affected economic success throughout young adulthood, primarily by slowing the

  6. Peer Victimization and Adolescent Adjustment: The Moderating Role of Sleep.

    PubMed

    Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined multiple indices of sleep as moderators of the association between peer victimization and adjustment among typically developing adolescents. Participants included 252 adolescents (M = 15.79 years; 66 % European American, 34 % African American) and their parents. A multi-method, multi-informant design was employed to address the research questions. Sleep was assessed objectively with actigraphy (sleep minutes and sleep efficiency) and subjectively with self-reports. Adolescents reported on peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. Externalizing behaviors were examined with mother and father reports. Subjective sleep/wake problems moderated the associations between peer victimization and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. A stronger relation emerged between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms among adolescents who reported higher versus lower levels of sleep/wake problems. Adolescents with elevated sleep/wake problems had higher levels of externalizing symptoms across the range of peer victimization. However, for those with fewer sleep/wake problems, a positive relation between peer victimization and externalizing symptoms was observed. Actigraphy-based sleep minutes and sleep efficiency also moderated the relations between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. Although peer victimization was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms for all youth, those who reported the lowest levels of such symptoms had longer and more efficient sleep in conjunction with low levels of peer victimization. Findings are novel and highlight the importance of considering both bioregulatory processes and peer relations in the prediction of adolescents' adjustment.

  7. The Polish Genetic Database of Victims of Totalitarianisms.

    PubMed

    Ossowski, A; Kuś, M; Kupiec, T; Bykowska, M; Zielińska, G; Jasiński, M E; March, A L

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the creation of the Polish Genetic Database of Victims of Totalitarianism and the first research conducted under this project. On September 28th 2012, the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin and the Institute of National Remembrance-Commission for Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation agreed to support the creation of the Polish Genetic Database of Victims of Totalitarianism (PBGOT, www.pbgot.pl). The purpose was to employ state-of-the-art methods of forensic genetics to identify the remains of unidentified victims of Communist and Nazi totalitarian regimes. The database was designed to serve as a central repository of genetic information of the victim's DNA and that of the victim's nearest living relatives, with the goal of making a positive identification of the victim. Along the way, PGBOT encountered several challenges. First, extracting useable DNA samples from the remains of individuals who had been buried for over half a century required forensic geneticists to create special procedures and protocols. Second, obtaining genetic reference material and historical information from the victim's closest relatives was both problematic and urgent. The victim's nearest living relatives were part of a dying generation, and the opportunity to obtain the best genetic and historical information about the victims would soon die with them. For this undertaking, PGBOT assembled a team of historians, archaeologists, forensic anthropologists, and forensic geneticists from several European research institutions. The field work was divided into five broad categories: (1) exhumation of victim remains and storing their biological material for later genetic testing; (2) researching archives and historical data for a more complete profile of those killed or missing and the families that lost them; (3) locating the victim's nearest relatives to obtain genetic reference samples (swabs), (4) entering the genetic data from both victims and family

  8. Modeling the mental health effects of victimization among homeless persons

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Brian Edward; Alexander-Eitzman, Ben; Gillespie, David F.; Pollio, David

    2014-01-01

    Homeless persons are victims of violent and non-violent crime at higher rates than housed populations. While studies have suggested that victimization can induce or exacerbate mental health problems, there is very little known about factors that may buffer the effects of victimization. This cross-sectional study examined the influence of victimization on depressive symptoms in over 9600 homeless and mentally ill adults participating in the Access to Community Care and Effective Services and Supports study (ACCESS) conducted in multiple cities across the USA relationships between victimization, depressive symptoms, and perceived safety were tested within a structural equation modeling framework using data collected at the baseline interview. The overall model exhibited a good fit with the data. Non-physical victimization was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, and physical victimization was associated with lower levels of perceived safety. As hypothesized, perceived safety was a significant partial mediator of depressive symptoms. These results underscore the complexity of the relationships between victimization and depression in homeless adults and the importance of addressing different types of victimization in homeless and mentally ill adults. PMID:18703266

  9. Violence education in nursing: critical reflection on victims' stories.

    PubMed

    Amar, Angela Frederick

    2008-01-01

    Violence against women is a major public health concern. This paper describes an educational strategy to increase nursing students' understanding of the experience of violence and to foster recognition and intervention with victims of violence. Students in an elective course were asked to critically reflect on the personal stories of victims/survivors of violence. The assignment provided four learning opportunities that include examination of societal myths on sexual victimization, understanding the lived experience of the victim, exploration of personal beliefs and values, and the relationship of the individual's experience to theoretical content of the course. Students gave permission for the use of quotes from papers to illustrate the learning opportunities.

  10. Modeling the mental health effects of victimization among homeless persons.

    PubMed

    Perron, Brian Edward; Alexander-Eitzman, Ben; Gillespie, David F; Pollio, David

    2008-11-01

    Homeless persons are victims of violent and non-violent crime at higher rates than housed populations. While studies have suggested that victimization can induce or exacerbate mental health problems, there is very little known about factors that may buffer the effects of victimization. This cross-sectional study examined the influence of victimization on depressive symptoms in over 9600 homeless and mentally ill adults participating in the Access to Community Care and Effective Services and Supports study (ACCESS) conducted in multiple cities across the USA relationships between victimization, depressive symptoms, and perceived safety were tested within a structural equation modeling framework using data collected at the baseline interview. The overall model exhibited a good fit with the data. Non-physical victimization was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, and physical victimization was associated with lower levels of perceived safety. As hypothesized, perceived safety was a significant partial mediator of depressive symptoms. These results underscore the complexity of the relationships between victimization and depression in homeless adults and the importance of addressing different types of victimization in homeless and mentally ill adults.

  11. Peer Victimization and Adolescent Adjustment: The Moderating Role of Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined multiple indices of sleep as moderators of the association between peer victimization and adjustment among typically developing adolescents. Participants included 252 adolescents (M = 15.79 years; 66% European American, 34% African American) and their parents. A multi-method, multi-informant design was employed to address the research questions. Sleep was assessed objectively with actigraphy (sleep minutes and sleep efficiency) and subjectively with self-reports. Adolescents reported on peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. Externalizing behaviors were examined with mother and father reports. Subjective sleep/wake problems moderated the associations between peer victimization and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. A stronger relation emerged between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms among adolescents who reported higher versus lower levels of sleep/wake problems. Adolescents with elevated sleep/wake problems had higher levels of externalizing symptoms across the range of peer victimization. However, for those with fewer sleep/wake problems, a positive relation between peer victimization and externalizing symptoms was observed. Actigraphy-based sleep minutes and sleep efficiency also moderated the relations between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. Although peer victimization was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms for all youth, those who reported the lowest levels of such symptoms had longer and more efficient sleep in conjunction with low levels of peer victimization. Findings are novel and highlight the importance of considering both bioregulatory processes and peer relations in the prediction of adolescents’ adjustment. PMID:26002848

  12. Latent classes of childhood poly-victimization and associations with suicidal behavior among adult trauma victims: Moderating role of anger.

    PubMed

    Charak, Ruby; Byllesby, Brianna M; Roley, Michelle E; Claycomb, Meredith A; Durham, Tory A; Ross, Jana; Armour, Cherie; Elhai, Jon D

    2016-12-01

    The aims of the present study were first to identify discrete patterns of childhood victimization experiences including crime, child maltreatment, peer/sibling victimization, sexual violence, and witnessing violence among adult trauma victims using latent class analysis; second, to examine the association between class-membership and suicidal behavior, and third to investigate the differential role of dispositional anger on the association between class-membership and suicidal behavior. We hypothesized that those classes with accumulating exposure to different types of childhood victimization (e.g., poly-victimization) would endorse higher suicidal behavior, than the other less severe classes, and those in the most severe class with higher anger trait would have stronger association with suicidal behavior. Respondents were 346 adults (N=346; Mage=35.0years; 55.9% female) who had experienced a lifetime traumatic event. Sixty four percent had experienced poly-victimization (four or more victimization experiences) and 38.8% met the cut-off score for suicidal behavior. Three distinct classes emerged namely, the Least victimization (Class 1), the Predominantly crime and sibling/peer victimization (Class 2), and the Poly-victimization (Class 3) classes. Regression analysis controlling for age and gender indicated that only the main effect of anger was significantly associated with suicidal behavior. The interaction term suggested that those in the Poly-victimization class were higher on suicidal behavior as a result of a stronger association between anger and suicidal behavior in contrast to the association found in Class 2. Clinical implications of findings entail imparting anger management skills to facilitate wellbeing among adult with childhood poly-victimization experiences.

  13. There are no "innocent victims": the influence of just world beliefs and prior victimization on rape myth acceptance.

    PubMed

    Vonderhaar, Rebecca L; Carmody, Dianne Cyr

    2015-06-01

    Utilizing data from an online survey of 979 university students, this study explores the relationship between prior sexual assault victimization experiences, belief in a just world, and acceptance of rape myths. Results indicated that men, younger respondents, and those with less education were more likely to support rape myths. Support for just world beliefs and rape myths were also positively associated, while rape victims exhibited less support for rape myths than non-victims. Implications for future studies are discussed.

  14. Injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans des milieux fissures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mnif, Thameur

    Le travail presente ici est un bilan du travaux de recherche effectues sur l'injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans lu milieux fissures. Un certain nombre de coulis a base de ciment Portland et microfin ont ete selectionnes afin de caracteriser leur capacite a penetrer des milieux fissures. Une partie des essais a ete menee en laboratoire. L'etude rheologique des differents melanges a permis de tester l'influence de l'ajout de superplastifiant et/ou de fumee de silice sur la distribution granulometrique des coulis et par consequent sur leur capacite a injecter des colonnes de sable simulant un milieu fissure donne. La classe granulometrique d'un coulis, sa stabilite et sa fluidite sont apparus comme les trois facteurs principaux pour la reussite d'une injection. Un facteur de finesse a ete defini au cours de cette etude: base sur la classe granulometrique du ciment et sa stabilite, il peut entrer dans la formulation theorique du debit d'injection avant application sur chantier. La deuxieme et derniere partie de l'etude presente les resultats de deux projets de recherche sur l'injection realises sur chantier. L'injection de dalles de beton fissurees a permis le suivi de l'evolution des pressions avec la distance au point d'injection. L'injection de murs de maconnerie a caractere historique a montre l'importance de la definition de criteres de performance des coulis a utiliser pour traiter un milieu donne et pour un objectif donne. Plusieurs melanges peuvent ainsi etre predefinis et mis a disposition sur le chantier. La complementarite des ciments traditionnels et des ciments microfins devient alors un atout important. Le choix d'utilisation de ces melanges est fonction du terrain rencontre. En conclusion, cette recherche etablit une methodologie pour la selection des coulis a base de ciment et des pressions d'injection en fonction de l'ouverture des fissures ou joints de construction.

  15. Effectiveness of the KiVa Antibullying Programme on Bully-Victims, Bullies and Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, An; Salmivalli, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bullying is a widespread problem in schools. Although several effective school-based bullying intervention programmes have been developed to reduce bullying and victimisation, it has rarely been investigated whether intervention programmes are also effective in helping bully-victims. Purpose: This study investigates the effectiveness…

  16. The Professionalization of Victim Assistance: Implications for the Field of Victim Assistance and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Responses from 179 prosecutor-based and domestic violence victim assistance programs indicated that 67% of practitioners had college degrees, 68% belonged to professional associations, and more than one-third participated substantially in continuing education. Type of organization, gender, and age were not related to professional attitudes;…

  17. The Joint Development of Traditional Bullying and Victimization with Cyber Bullying and Victimization in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jose, Paul E.; Kljakovic, Moja; Scheib, Emma; Notter, Olivia

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the stabilities of and interrelationships among traditional (i.e., face-to-face) bullying, traditional victimhood, cyber bullying, and cyber victimhood among adolescents over time. About 1,700 adolescents aged 11-16 years at Time 1 self-reported levels of both bullying and victimization in four contexts (in school,…

  18. Child Sexual Abuse and Psychological Impairment in Victims: Results of an Online Study Initiated by Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Gerard A.; Mundt, Ingrid A.; Ahlers, Christoph J.; Bahls, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse of children has been a topic of scientific investigation for the past few decades. Research in this area, however, is rarely initiated, conceptualized, and conducted by victims themselves. Apart from possibly having painted a one-sided picture of sexual abuse, this presumed dominance of nonvictims might also have marginalized victims…

  19. Student Victimization in U.S. Schools: Results from the 2009 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. NCES 2012-314

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoe, Jill Fleury; Bauer, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This report provides estimates of student criminal victimization as defined by the 2009 School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the 2009 National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The NCVS is the nation's primary source of information on criminal victimization and the victims of crime in the United States. The SCS is a supplement to the NCVS that was…

  20. Gender differences in acknowledgment of stalking victimization: results from the NCVS stalking supplement.

    PubMed

    Englebrecht, Christine M; Reyns, Bradford W

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that a significant portion of victims of interpersonal violence do not acknowledge or label their experience as a criminal victimization. Studies exploring unacknowledged victimizations have found that individuals are more likely to acknowledge victimization when the experience meets certain, often stereotypical criteria. This study addressed this issue by integrating literature on victim acknowledgment and stalking victimization to identify correlates of victimization acknowledgment among stalking victims. Data were drawn from the 2006 stalking supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), and the sample included both female and male victims of stalking. Findings revealed support for a "classic stalking script," which included a reliance on stereotypical types of stalking behavior (i.e., being spied on) that were shown to increase acknowledgment for victims of stalking. Results also described gender based correlates of victimization acknowledgment.

  1. Fire fatality study: demographics of fire victims.

    PubMed

    Barillo, D J; Goode, R

    1996-03-01

    Injury or death caused by fire is frequent and largely preventable. This study was undertaken to define the populations, locations, times and behaviours associated with fatal fires. Seven hundred and twenty-seven fatalities occurring within the State of New Jersey, between the years 1985 and 1991, were examined retrospectively. Most deaths were attributed to a combination of smoke inhalation and burn injury. Five hundred and seventy-four fatalities occurred in residential fires. Smoking materials were the most common source of ignition for residential fires. More than half of the fatal residential fires started between the hours of 11 p.m. and 7 a.m. Children and the elderly represented a disproportionate percentage of fire victims. Victims under the age of 11 years or over the age of 70 years constituted 22.1 per cent of the state population but 39.5 per cent of all fire fatalities. Fire-prevention efforts should target home fire safety, and should concentrate on children and the elderly. The development of fire-safe smoking materials should be encouraged.

  2. La dermoscopie pour la détection des mélanomes en pratique familiale

    PubMed Central

    Herschorn, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Évaluer l’exactitude diagnostique et l’utilité clinique de la dermoscopie pour la détection de mélanomes en pratique familiale. Sources des données Nous avons fait une recension dans les bases de données Ovid MEDLINE (de 1946 à juin 2011), EMBASE, PubMed et Cochrane à l’aide des expressions suivantes en anglais: dermoscopy, dermatoscopy, epiluminescence microscopy, family practice, general practice, primary health care, melanoma, skin neoplasms et pigmented nevus. Pour être prises en considération, les études devaient être des articles de recherche primaire ayant pour sujets des médecins de famille, ainsi que la formation en dermoscopie et son utilisation en tant qu’intervention. La recherche a produit 4 articles qui répondaient aux critères d’inclusion et présentaient des données probantes de niveau I selon la définition du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs. Message principal Dans le milieu de la pratique familiale, la dermoscopie a une sensibilité plus élevée que l’examen à l’œil nu pour la détection des mélanomes sans avoir, généralement, une spécificité moins grande. La dermoscopie aide aussi à accroître le degré de confiance des médecins de famille dans leur diagnostic préliminaire des lésions. L’utilisation de la dermoscopie plutôt que l’examen à l’œil nu augmente la probabilité qu’une lésion jugée cancéreuse le soit de fait et qu’une lésion jugée bénigne le soit en réalité. Conclusion Il est démontré que la dermoscopie est un outil utile et relativement peu coûteux pour la détection des mélanomes en pratique familiale. Cette technique rend les médecins de famille plus confiants dans l’exactitude de leurs demandes de consultations auprès de dermatologues et contribue à diminuer les biopsies inutiles. La dermoscopie peut se révéler plus particulièrement utile dans l’examen des patients à risque élevé de mélanomes, étant donn

  3. Victimization in the Peer Group and Children's Academic Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, David; Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer; Nakamoto, Jonathan; Toblin, Robin L.

    2005-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal investigation focused on associations between victimization in the peer group and academic functioning over a 1-year period. The authors used a multi-informant approach to assess peer victimization, symptoms of depression, and academic outcomes for 199 elementary school children (average age of 9.0 years; 105 boys, 94…

  4. Attachment Styles among Bullies, Victims and Uninvolved Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koiv, Kristi

    2012-01-01

    Attachment theory provides a frame for understanding the role of attachment styles in the development of bullying behaviour in adolescence. The present study examined attachment styles (secure, avoidant and anxious/ambivalent) that differentiated bullies, victims, bully/victims and uninvolved adolescents. A total of 1,921 students (1,006 girls and…

  5. Hurt People Hurt People: Female Bully-Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Lynne; Zeman, Laura Dreuth

    2009-01-01

    Common in the research literature on bullying is the dichotomy of bullying and victim behavior. The present definition of a bully is a person who has engaged in repeated acts of aggression or harm to persons over whom he or she has power. The literature on bullies examines gender differences at length. However, the bully-victim literature has yet…

  6. Abused Elders: Victims of Villains or of Circumstances?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengstock, Mary C.; And Others

    Theorists have suggested that domestic abuse may be a result of psychopathology in the abuser or the result of severe stress. To determine whether the families of aged victims exhibit an inordinate number of stressful situations, 20 elderly abuse victims were interviewed about family relationships and problems, and completed a modified version of…

  7. Peer Victimization and Mental Health during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Sandra; Bellmore, Amy D.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe recent research on peer victimization and its mental health consequences during early adolescence. They begin with a working definition of peer victimization that distinguishes it from lethal school violence and from simple conflict between peers. They then present a psychosocial profile of youth who are…

  8. A Latent Class Approach to Examining Forms of Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Waasdorp, Tracy E.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in gender differences in the experience of various forms of peer victimization; however, much of the work to date has used traditional variable-centered approaches by focusing on scales or individual forms of victimization in isolation. The current study explored whether there were discrete groups of adolescents who…

  9. Peer Victimization within the Ethnic Context of High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix, Erika D.; You, Sukkyung

    2011-01-01

    Risk for peer victimization varies by ethnicity, but few studies explore how the ethnic context of the school can affect this. Using a large sample of schools and high school students, we used hierarchical linear modeling to explore victimization risk by ethnicity within the ethnic context of the school. Models predicted total, physical, verbal,…

  10. Peer Victimization and School Safety: The Role of Coping Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Christopher R.; Parris, Leandra N.; Henrich, Christopher C.; Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Peer victimization is a documented antecedent of poor mental health outcomes for children and adolescents. This article explored the role of coping effectiveness in the association between victimization and perceived school safety. A sample of urban middle school students (N = 509) in the southeastern United States were surveyed regarding…

  11. Prevalence of Dating Violence and Victimization: Regional and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquart, Beverly S.; Nannini, Dawn K.; Edwards, Ruth W.; Stanley, Linda R.; Wayman, Jeffrey C.

    2007-01-01

    This report examines (1) the prevalence of dating violence victimization from a national sample of rural adolescents and (2) patterns by gender and region. Analyses are based on 20,274 adolescents who reported violence victimization using the Community Drug and Alcohol Survey. The relationship of dating violence with gender and region was assessed…

  12. 76 FR 20827 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... April 13, 2011 Part II The President Proclamation 8650--National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2011 Proclamation 8651--Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2011 Proclamation 8652--National Former Prisoner of... ] Proclamation 8650 of April 8, 2011 National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2011 By the President of the...

  13. 77 FR 25345 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... April 27, 2012 Part V The President Proclamation 8804--National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2012 #0; #0... Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation For... they need, we know we must do more. This week, we rededicate ourselves to securing the full measure...

  14. Women Who Are Murdered: An Analysis of 912 Consecutive Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, John A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes all female homicide victims (N=912) in North Carolina from 1972-1976. Investigates Verkko's static and dynamic laws of the relationship between sex and homocide victimization, but findings do not support either of Verkko's laws. Suggests a consequence of converging sex roles may be an increasing tendency to fatal assault. (Author/JAC)

  15. Responding to Terrorism Victims: Oklahoma City and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinsmore, Janet

    This report identifies the special measures needed to protect the rights and meet the needs of victims of a large-scale terrorist attack involving mass casualties. In particular, it demonstrates efforts required to ensure an effective response to victims' rights and their short- and long-term emotional and psychological needs as an integral part…

  16. Close Relationships and Attributions for Peer Victimization among Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiaochen; Graham, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of close relationships (best friendship and romantic relationship) on late adolescents' casual attributions for peer victimization. A total of 1106 twelfth grade students completed self-report measures of perceived peer victimization, self-blame attribution, psychological maladjustment (loneliness and social…

  17. Student-, classroom-, and school-level risk factors for victimization.

    PubMed

    Saarento, Silja; Kärnä, Antti; Hodges, Ernest V E; Salmivalli, Christina

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to simultaneously investigate student-, classroom-, and school-level risk factors for victimization. Both peer nominations and students' self-reports of victimization were utilized. The sample consisted of 6731 Finnish elementary school students (3386 girls and 3345 boys) nested in 358 classrooms in 74 schools. The participants were from Grades 3, 4, and 5 (mean age 11years). The results of multilevel analyses indicated that there was considerable variability in, and distinctive risk factors associated with, both peer- and self-reported victimization at all the three levels investigated. Social anxiety and peer rejection synergistically predicted victimization at the student level. At the classroom level, negative social outcome expectations of defending the victim were associated with an increased risk of a student being bullied. Victimization was also common in classrooms and schools where students perceived their teachers to have less disapproving attitudes toward bullying. Furthermore, the effects of the student-level predictors were found to vary across classrooms, and classroom size moderated the effects of social anxiety and peer rejection on victimization. By identifying the risk factors at the multiple levels, and looking into cross-level interactions among these factors, research can help to target interventions at the key ecological factors contributing to victimization, making it possible to maximize the effectiveness of interventions.

  18. Patterns of Violent Behavior and Victimization among African American Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Zina T.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews types of reported problems among African American youth exposed to violence and victimization. A substantial number of African American youth reported being exposed to direct victimization while in transit to and from school. Discusses the impact of violence on mental health status, in that subjects exposed to violence exhibited…

  19. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1997 Update on Violence. Statistics Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sickmund, Melissa; Snyder, Howard N.; Poe-Yamagata, Eileen

    This report is the second update to "Juvenile Offenders and Victims: A National Report" published in 1995. Drawing on new analysis of statistical series developed by various Federal agencies, it provides answers to the questions most often asked about trends in youth violence and victimization. This report provides information that the wave of…

  20. Decreased interpretation of nonverbal cues in rape victims.

    PubMed

    Giannini, A J; Price, W A; Kniepple, J L

    The ability to receive nonverbal facial cues was tested in twelve female victims of multiple nonserial rapes and matched controls. Subjects attempted to interpret nonverbal messages transmitted by male and female senders who were covertly taped while involved in a gambling task. Rape victims had significantly decreased ability to interpret the nonverbal facial cues of both male and female senders.

  1. Victim Confidentiality on Sexual Assault Response Teams (SART)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how professionals and paraprofessionals involved with a Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) understand and navigate different professional statutory requirements for victim confidentiality. Telephone surveys are conducted with 78 professionals: medical (27.8%), criminal justice (44.3%), and victim advocacy…

  2. What Actually Makes Bullying Stop? Reports from Former Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisen, Ann; Hasselblad, Tove; Holmqvist, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    School bullying is a serious, worldwide problem which is not easily counteracted. The present study focuses on the perspective of former victims, asking them what it was that made the bullying stop in their case. Participants were 273 18-year-old former victims in Sweden, a country in which schools are doing extensive work against bullying and the…

  3. Elderly Multiple Victims: More Frequent than Commonly Thought?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengstock, Mary C.; And Others

    It has been suggested that surveys dealing with the incidence of crime among the elderly do not take into account the varying individual and group levels of fear and exposure to threat of victimization. Data from Law Enforcement Assistance Administration surveys were used to review the personal victimization of older persons, incorporating the…

  4. Tracking Offenders: The Child Victim. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manson, Donald A.; Sedgwick, Jeffrey L., Ed.

    This research focused on the criminal justice system's handling of offenders against children, comparing it with the processing of offenders against all victims. Data were obtained from California, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Utah, and Virginia for offenses against children and against all victims in the areas of kidnapping, sexual assault,…

  5. The interrelation between victimization and bullying inside young offender institutions.

    PubMed

    Häufle, Jenny; Wolter, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bullying and victimization are serious problems within prisons. Young Offender Institutions (YOIs), in particular, suffer from high rates of inmate-on-inmate violence. More recent theories about the development of bullying in closed custody institutions imply a relationship between the experience of victimization and the usage of bullying. In our study, we test this linkage using longitudinal survey data taken at two time-points from 473 inmates (aged 15-24) inside three YOIs in Germany. We first analyze the extent of bullying and victimization, and then used a longitudinal structural equation model to predict inmate bullying behavior at time 2 based on victimization that occurred at time 1. Age is used as a predictor variable to account for differences in the amount of victimization and bullying. Results suggest that bullying and victimization are high in the YOIs, which were subject to research. Most inmates reported being a bully and a victim at the same time. Younger inmates use more direct physical bullying but not psychological bullying. An increase in psychological bullying over time can significantly be explained by victimization at an earlier measurement time point. Our study therefore supports recent theoretical assumptions about the development of bullying behavior. Possible implications for prevention and intervention are discussed.

  6. Distress and Coping among Caregivers of Victims of Alzheimer's Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dundon, Margaret M.; And Others

    Alzheimer's disease is an insidious, progressively destructive brain disease which leads to the loss of judgment, communication skills, and psychomotor control preventing the victim from living independently. The consequences of caring for victims include emotional, physical, and familial strain as the caregiver is faced with the progressive…

  7. Violent online games exposure and cyberbullying/victimization among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lam, Lawrence T; Cheng, Zaohuo; Liu, Xinmin

    2013-03-01

    This population-based cross-sectional survey examined the association between exposure to violent online games and cyberbullying and victimization in adolescents recruited from two large cities utilizing a stratified two-stage random cluster sampling technique. Cyberbullying and victimization were assessed by the E-victimization and E-bullying scales validated in a previous study. Exposure to violent online games was measured by self-nomination of the degree of violent content in the games played. Results indicated that the majority (74.3 percent) of respondents did not experience any cyberbullying or victimization in the last 7 days before the survey, 14.4 percent reported to be victimized via cyberspace, 2.9 percent admitted that they had bullied others, and 8.4 percent reported to be both perpetrators- and- victims. One hundred and eighty seven (15.3 percent) considered games they were playing were of moderate to severe violence. Students who had been involved in cyberbullying as well as being victimized were two times as likely to have been exposed to violent online games, and nearly four times as likely for those involved in bullying others. Exposure to violent online games was associated with being a perpetrator as well as a perpetrator-and-victim of cyberbullying. Parents and clinicians need to be aware of the potential harm of these exposures. The policy implications of results were also discussed.

  8. How School Counselors Can Help Prevent Online Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J.; Call, Megan E.; Zheng, Robert; Drew, Clifford J.

    2011-01-01

    Although the Internet is a beneficial tool, some youth are at risk for being victimized by Internet predators. School counselors are in a unique position to assist in efforts to prevent online victimizations because of their continual interaction with students, parents, and other school faculty. This article provides school counselors with…

  9. Peer Victimization in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Judith; Mak, Meghan

    2009-01-01

    This study explored peer victimization in 9- to 14-year-old children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The sample comprised 104 children, 52 of whom had a previous ADHD diagnosis. Children with ADHD had higher overall rates of self-reported victimization by peers and parent- and teacher-reported bullying behavior…

  10. Sexual Assault Victims' Acknowledgment Status and Revictimization Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Heather; Axsom, Danny; Grills-Taquechel, Amie

    2009-01-01

    How a victim of rape characterizes her assault has potential implications for her postassault experiences and revictimization risk. Prior research has identified several potential benefits to not conceptualizing one's experience as a form of victimization. The current study sought to identify whether there are costs to not acknowledging rape as…

  11. Peer victimization and peer rejection during early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Godleski, Stephanie A.; Kamper, Kimberly E.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Hart, Emily J.; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bi-directional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3- to 5- years-old) were investigated in an integrated model. Method The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the US. Using observations, research assistant report and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Results Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Conclusions Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress. PMID:25133659

  12. The Role of Cognitive Coping in Female Victims of Stalking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraaij, Vivian; Arensman, Ella; Garnefski, Nadia; Kremers, Ismay

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the role of cognitive coping in a sample of 47 female victims of stalking. Stalking victims who blamed themselves more for the stalking report significantly higher symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Respondents who ruminated more about the stalking experience, or…

  13. Identifying Predictors of Negative Psychological Reactions to Stalking Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Matthew C.; Kercher, Glen A.

    2009-01-01

    Victims of stalking often experience a number of negative psychological problems including such things as fear, symptoms of depression, and anger. However, research on factors that lead to these outcomes is limited. The goal of this study was to first identify distinct subgroups of stalking victims based on measures of psychological problems…

  14. 22 CFR 41.84 - Victims of trafficking in persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Victims of trafficking in persons. 41.84 Section 41.84 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Fiance(e)s and Other Nonimmigrants § 41.84 Victims of...

  15. 22 CFR 41.84 - Victims of trafficking in persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Victims of trafficking in persons. 41.84 Section 41.84 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Fiance(e)s and Other Nonimmigrants § 41.84 Victims of...

  16. 22 CFR 41.84 - Victims of trafficking in persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Victims of trafficking in persons. 41.84 Section 41.84 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Fiance(e)s and Other Nonimmigrants § 41.84 Victims of...

  17. 22 CFR 41.84 - Victims of trafficking in persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Victims of trafficking in persons. 41.84 Section 41.84 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Fiance(e)s and Other Nonimmigrants § 41.84 Victims of...

  18. 22 CFR 41.84 - Victims of trafficking in persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Victims of trafficking in persons. 41.84 Section 41.84 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Fiance(e)s and Other Nonimmigrants § 41.84 Victims of...

  19. Cyberbullying Perpetration and Victimization Among Middle-School Students

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Goldbach, Jeremy; Plant, Aaron; Montoya, Jorge; Kordic, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined correlations between gender, race, sexual identity, and technology use, and patterns of cyberbullying experiences and behaviors among middle-school students. Methods. We collected a probability sample of 1285 students alongside the 2012 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Los Angeles Unified School District middle schools. We used logistic regressions to assess the correlates of being a cyberbully perpetrator, victim, and perpetrator–victim (i.e., bidirectional cyberbullying behavior). Results. In this sample, 6.6% reported being a cyberbully victim, 5.0% reported being a perpetrator, and 4.3% reported being a perpetrator–victim. Cyberbullying behavior frequently occurred on Facebook or via text messaging. Cyberbully perpetrators, victims, and perpetrators–victims all were more likely to report using the Internet for at least 3 hours per day. Sexual-minority students and students who texted at least 50 times per day were more likely to report cyberbullying victimization. Girls were more likely to report being perpetrators–victims. Conclusions. Cyberbullying interventions should account for gender and sexual identity, as well as the possible benefits of educational interventions for intensive Internet users and frequent texters. PMID:25602905

  20. Social Distance and Immediate Informal Responses to Violent Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacques, Scott; Rennison, Callie Marie

    2013-01-01

    There are a number of ways that victims of violence informally handle attacks as they unfold. Their responses range in severity from physical resistance, to talking it out with the offender, to running away, to cooperating. Why do victims respond in a more or less severe manner? Cooney (2009) suggests that social distance is part of the answer:…

  1. Who Bullies Whom? Social Status Asymmetries by Victim Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodkin, Philip C.; Berger, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This study asks whether bullies have higher social status than their victims. Social status was measured by social preference, popularity, and physical competence as perceived by children and teachers. A survey instrument was introduced to enable identification of specific victims associated with specific bullies. The sample was 508 fourth and…

  2. Black and Blue: The Impact of Nonfatal Teacher Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Cedric B.; Robles-Pina, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    Because violence in public schools is seen by many as a growing problem, several studies have been conducted to look at the impact of nonfatal teacher victimization. However, a large number of these studies have focused exclusively on students as victims and failed to investigate the impact that school-related crime has on school personnel. The…

  3. The Relation between Bullying, Victimization, and Adolescents' Level of Hopelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siyahhan, Sinem; Aricak, O. Tolga; Cayirdag-Acar, Nur

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 419 Turkish middle school students (203 girls, 216 boys) were surveyed on their exposure to and engagement in bullying, and their level of hopelessness. Our findings suggest that girls were victims of indirect (e.g. gossiping) bullying more than boys. Boys reported being victims of physical (e.g. damaging property) and verbal (e.g.…

  4. Adolescent risk correlates of bullying and different types of victimization.

    PubMed

    Volk, Anthony; Craig, Wendy; Boyce, William; King, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    This study examined correlates of different types of bullying and victimization relevant to the adolescent context. Of particular interest was the importance of risk factors that emerge and/or undergo significant changes during adolescence. Logistic regressions were performed using a representative sample of approximately 6,500 Canadian adolescents. We found that high-levels of victimization (7.6%), bullying (6.1%), and bully-victimization (0.9%) were quite prevalent amongst adolescents. The patterns of risk associated with each of these labels were different from each group. An examination of the different sub-types of victimization revealed that there were differences in both the prevalence and the risk patterns associated with each sub-type. Physical, verbal, and rumor victimization (the most common types) had similar risk patterns, while sexual victimization and ethnic victimization (the least most common type) each had a unique risk pattern. We conclude that emerging and/or changing risk factors associated with adolescent development are significantly related to bullying and victimization, with the specific relationships depending on the specific type of activity examined. These findings suggest that successful intervention strategies should try to be sensitive to the variations in prevalence and relationships with the risk factors.

  5. Characteristics of Child Sexual Abuse Victims According to Perpetrator Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudin, Margaret M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of 87 child abuse victims of lone female perpetrators with 93 victims of lone male perpetrators found that female perpetrators abused children 3.3 years younger than male perpetrators. Both female and male perpetrators abused more girls than boys and did not differ in severity of abuse. (Author/DB)

  6. Age Diversity Among Victims of Hebephilic Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Skye; Seto, Michael C; Goodwill, Alasdair M; Cantor, James M

    2016-08-25

    Hebephilia refers to sexual interest in pubescent children who are beginning to show early signs of sexual development but are sexually immature. The present study examined the relationship between hebephilia and victim age choice in a sample of 2,238 adult male sexual offenders. On average, offenders were 39 years old at the time of their assessments, and approximately half (48%) were referred by probation or parole offices. Assessment data included self-report, sexual arousal measured by volumetric phallometry, and victims' ages. Results suggested that, similar to pedophilia, hebephilia had a medium sized association with a greater number of victims under age 11 and a small sized association with a greater number of victims ages 11 to 14. Unlike pedophilia, a small positive association was consistently found between hebephilia and a greater number of victims ages 15 or 16. Furthermore, a small positive association was observed between victim age polymorphism and hebephilia and pedophilia. The present results suggested that hebephilia was associated with a greater number of victims age 14 or younger and had similar victim age correlates to pedophiles.

  7. Acculturation and Dating Violence Victimization among Filipino and Samoan Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung-Do, Jane J.; Goebert, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    Dating violence victimization is an important public health issue. Recent studies on minority youths have found higher risks of dating violence victimization compared to White youths. This study examined the influence of acculturation components on youths' experiences of dating violence by utilizing data from a survey of 193 Samoan and Filipino…

  8. Predicting Psychosocial Consequences of Homophobic Victimization in Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteat, V. Paul; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation examined the extent to which homophobic victimization predicted multiple indicators of psychological and social distress for middle school students (n = 143) during a 1-year assessment period. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that homophobic victimization significantly predicted increased anxiety and depression,…

  9. Social-Cognitive Correlates of Aggression and Victimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Elizabeth; Perry, David G.

    The goal of this study was to investigate the social-cognitive functioning of aggressive and victimized elementary school children. A total of 149 fourth- through seventh-graders responded to a peer nomination inventory designed to assess children's tendencies toward aggression and victimization. Self-report questionnaires were then administered…

  10. Siblings of Oedipus: Brothers and Sisters of Incest Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Young, Mary

    1981-01-01

    Investigates the roles and problems of siblings of incest victims, describes the dynamics of the incestuous family, and identifies some behavior problems of children whose siblings were incest victims. Data from two siblings' lives are presented to illustrate points. (Author/DB)

  11. Peer victimization and peer rejection during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Godleski, Stephanie A; Kamper, Kimberly E; Ostrov, Jamie M; Hart, Emily J; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bidirectional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3 to 5 years old) were investigated in an integrated model. The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the United States. Using observations, research assistant report, and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress.

  12. A Longitudinal Investigation of Peer Sexual Harassment Victimization in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2009-01-01

    The current study describes longitudinal trends in sexual harassment by adolescent peers and highlights gender, pubertal status, attractiveness, and power as predictors of harassment victimization. At the end of 5th, 7th, and 9th grades, 242 adolescents completed questionnaires about sexual harassment victimization, pubertal status, and perceived…

  13. 28 CFR 0.91 - Office for Victims of Crime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Programs. Under a delegation by the Attorney General (DOJ Order No. 1079-84, Dec. 14, 1984), the Assistant... and the Federal Crime Victim Assistance Program, established under the Victims of Crime Act of 1984, title II, chapter XIV, of Public Law 98-473, 42 U.S.C. 10601 et seq., 98 Stat. 2170 (Oct. 12, 1984)....

  14. Expressed sexual assault legal context and victim culpability attributions.

    PubMed

    Miller, Audrey K; Markman, Keith D; Amacker, Amanda M; Menaker, Tasha A

    2012-04-01

    Legal scholars have argued that laws have an expressive function, specifically that sexual assault laws may convey social-level messages that victims are culpable for crimes against them. In a university sample, we conducted the first experimental test of legal scholars' proposal, hypothesizing that legal messages-specifically their clarity and effectiveness in conveying that sexual assault is a crime-affect victim culpability attributions. Results demonstrated that greater culpability was attributed to a victim of sexual assault within a context expressing unclear and ineffective sexual assault law than within a context clearly and effectively expressing that sexual assault is a crime. We also garnered empirical support for a mediation model, that is, negative affective reactions to a victim statistically accounted for the relationship between expressed legal context and victim culpability attributions. Implications for future psycholegal research and potential legal reforms are discussed.

  15. Police officers' collaboration with rape victim advocates: barriers and facilitators.

    PubMed

    Rich, Karen; Seffrin, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Secondary victimization may occur when rape victims make police reports. This can compromise the quality of official statements and jeopardize criminal cases. Rape reporters receive better treatment by police officers when advocates are involved and best practice police work includes such collaboration. Studies of advocates have described tension, role confusion, and poor communication with police officers. Many variables, including rape myth acceptance (RMA) and training on sexual assault dynamics, may affect officers' collaboration with advocates. There were 429 police officers who responded to a survey measuring their victim interviewing skill, formal training about rape, years on the job, number of victims known personally, number of recent rape cases, RMA, and collaboration with advocates. Results suggest that officers' interviewing skill, years on the job, and specific training are related to collaboration with victim advocates on rape cases. Professional, rather than personal, variables were most predictive of collaboration. Implications for officer selection and training are explored.

  16. Developing the Cyber Victimization Experiences and Cyberbullying Behaviors Scales.

    PubMed

    Betts, Lucy R; Spenser, Karin A

    2017-04-12

    The reported prevalence rates of cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors vary. Part of this variation is likely due to the diverse definitions and operationalizations of the constructs adopted in previous research and the lack of psychometrically robust measures. Through 2 studies, the authors developed (Study 1) and evaluated (Study 2) the cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors scales. Participants in Study 1 were 393 (122 boys, 171 girls) and in Study 2 were 345 (153 boys, 192 girls) 11-15-year-olds who completed measures of cyber victimization experiences, cyberbullying behaviors, face-to-face victimization experiences, face-to-face bullying behaviors, and social desirability. The 3-factor cyber victimization experiences scale comprised threat, shared images, and personal attack. The 3-factor cyberbullying behaviors scale comprised sharing images, gossip, and personal attack. Both scales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and convergent validity.

  17. Child human trafficking victims: challenges for the child welfare system.

    PubMed

    Fong, Rowena; Berger Cardoso, Jodi

    2010-08-01

    Since the passing of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act in 2000 and its reauthorization by President George Bush in 2008, federal, state and community efforts in identifying and providing services for victims of human trafficking have significantly improved. However, most of the research and resources for trafficking victims have been directed towards adults rather than children. Researchers agree that there is a growing number of sexually exploited and trafficked children in the United States yet few programs emphasize the unique experiences and special needs of this population. This article examines commercial sexual exploitation of children; differentiates the needs and problems between child prostitution and victims of human trafficking; reviews and critiques current treatment practices; and summarizes challenges and successes in working with child victims of human trafficking, offering practice and policy recommendations.

  18. Peer victimization and prospective changes in children's inferential styles.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Brandon E; Stone, Lindsey B; Crossett, Sarah E

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that the cognitive vulnerabilities featured in the hopelessness theory of depression-inferential styles for the causes, consequences, and self-worth implications of negative events-increase risk for depression. Given this, it is important to understand how these inferential styles develop. In this study, we examined the impact of overt and relational peer victimization in a multiwave prospective study of 100 children (8-12 years of age) with peer victimization and inferential styles assessed every 2 months for 6 months (4 assessments total). Overt victimization uniquely predicted prospective changes in children's inferential styles for consequences and relational victimization uniquely predicted changes in inferential styles for self-characteristics. It is important to note that these relations were maintained even after controlling for the impact of concurrent depressive symptoms. These results add to a growing body of research suggesting that peer victimization may increase risk for the development of cognitive vulnerability to depression in children.

  19. The new sexual assault law: the victim's experience in court.

    PubMed

    Sahjpaul, S; Renner, K E

    1988-08-01

    The questions asked of victims of sexual and physical assault by the prosecutor and defense were recorded and coded by courtroom observers. The defense in comparison to the prosecution treated both types of victims in a negative way. Sexual assault victims were subjected to more negative questions and required to give a more personal form of testimony than physical assault victims due to the strategies used by both the prosecution and the defense. Sexual assault cases were convicted less often than physical assault cases. It was concluded that the new law in Canada which replaced the offense of rape with one of "sexual assault" has not had its intended effect of reducing the burden on a victim when she testifies in court.

  20. Sexual knowledge and victimization in adults with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Brown-Lavoie, S M; Viecili, M A; Weiss, J A

    2014-09-01

    There is a significant gap in understanding the risk of sexual victimization in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and the variables that contribute to risk. Age appropriate sexual interest, limited sexual knowledge and experiences, and social deficits, may place adults with ASD at increased risk. Ninety-five adults with ASD and 117 adults without ASD completed questionnaires regarding sexual knowledge sources, actual knowledge, perceived knowledge, and sexual victimization. Individuals with ASD obtained less of their sexual knowledge from social sources, more sexual knowledge from non-social sources, had less perceived and actual knowledge, and experienced more sexual victimization than controls. The increased risk of victimization by individuals with ASD was partially mediated by their actual knowledge. The link between knowledge and victimization has important clinical implications for interventions.

  1. The difficulty in measuring suitable targets when modeling victimization.

    PubMed

    Popp, Ann Marie

    2012-01-01

    Target suitability is a critical theoretical concept for opportunity theory. Previous research has primarily measured this concept using demographic characteristics of the study participant, which is problematic. This study corrects the measurement problem by employing bullying variables as alternative measures of target suitability because they are arguably better at capturing the social and psychological vulnerability of the individual that is attracting motivated offenders. Using three waves (1999, 2001, & 2003) of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) School Crime Supplement (SCS), this research explores the impact of the bullying measures along with demographic characteristics and lifestyle measures on the likelihood that a student will experience victimization in school. The findings suggest that the bullying measures are better predictors of victimization over the demographic characteristics and lifestyle measures for all three waves. The findings highlight the need for better measures of target suitability, which capture the social and psychological vulnerability of victims to explain victimization.

  2. The Cycle of Abuse: When Victims Become Offenders.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Malory; Cossins, Annie

    2016-07-19

    Various psychological theories exist in the literature to explain the behavior of men who commit child sex offences, including the belief that child sexual abuse (CSA) is a predisposing factor for the transition from victim to offender. These theories are, however, unable to explain the fact that while most victims of CSA are female, most perpetrators of CSA are male. The sex specificity of CSA in terms of victims and offenders suggests that the experience of CSA and its psychosocial effects may be different for boys, compared to girls. We hypothesize that CSA experiences may involve risk factors that affect the development of sexually abusive behavior for boys, rather than girls. Our aim was to determine whether the literature provides evidence of a cycle of abuse from victim to offender, and, if so, to document its characteristics. We undertook a comprehensive literature review of studies on both victims and offenders, including studies which revealed the following: age of onset of CSA, duration of abuse, gender of the abuser, the relationship between victim and abuser, grooming behaviors, the types and severity of abuse, and disclosure of abuse. While we found no evidence for the existence of a cycle of abuse for female CSA victims, we discovered evidence to support the existence of a cycle of abuse for male CSA victims who had experienced particular abuse characteristics. As an original contribution to the literature, we identified four factors that may be associated with a boy's transition from victim to offender as well as the methodological issues to be addressed in future research. Based on criminological theories, we argue that these four factors share a common theme, that is, that they represent experiences of power (for the abuser) and powerlessness (for the victim).

  3. La campagne s'urbanise: résultats d'un dépistage du diabète et des dysglycémies dans une zone rurale de la région de Marrakech

    PubMed Central

    Ennazk, Laila; El M'ghari, Ghizlane; El Ansari, Nawal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le diabète constitue un problème de santé publique au Maroc. L'augmentation de sa prévalence se fait en parallèle avec l'augmentation des chiffres de l'obésité et de l'hypertension artérielle (HTA). Les facteurs environnementaux dont l'urbanisation influencent avec force cet état des lieux. En milieu rural, la tendance tend à s'inverser du fait du changement des habitudes de vie. Notre travail avait comme but de dépister la dysglycémie dans une commune rurale de la région de Marrakech. Méthodes Ce travail de dépistage fait sur une journée a concerné une population tout-venant de 200 personnes. La glycémie capillaire à jeun, la tension artérielle, le poids, la taille, l'indice de masse corporelle et le tour de taille ont été mesurés pour toutes les personnes qui se sont présentées. Résultats Deux cent sujets ont été examinés. 31% des sujets examinés étaient diabétiques. Chez les non diabétiques, 57,9% avaient une glycémie capillaire à jeun au-delà de 1,1g/l, 51,2% entre 1,1 g/l et 1,26 g/l et 48,7% au-delà de 1,26 g/l. Sur le plan tensionnel, 95% des patients examinés n'étaient pas connus hypertendus. L'obésité androïde touche 63,7% des patients examinés. Conclusion Les chiffres retrouvés lors de cette caravane médicale sont supérieurs à nos attentes. L'urbanisation du milieu rural a un impact sur le profil métabolique et tensionnel de cette population; ce qui devrait impliquer une démarche préventive de santé publique. PMID:25667693

  4. The bidirectional relationships between online victimization and psychosocial problems in adolescents: a comparison with real-life victimization.

    PubMed

    van den Eijnden, Regina; Vermulst, Ad; van Rooij, Antonius J; Scholte, Ron; van de Mheen, Dike

    2014-05-01

    Although peer victimization is of major concern and adolescents spend increasing amounts of time on the Internet, relatively little is known about the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of online victimization. The main aim of this study was to compare the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of online versus real-life victimization. More specifically, the bidirectional relationship between online and real-life victimization on the one hand and psychosocial problems (i.e., loneliness and social anxiety) on the other was examined. In addition, the moderating role of online aggression in the relationship between online victimization and subsequent psychosocial problems was studied. This prospective study, consisting of three annual measurements, was conducted among a sample of 831 adolescents (50.3 % girls) aged 11-15, of which most (80.2 %) had a Dutch ethnic background. The results indicate a unidirectional relationship whereby loneliness and social anxiety predict an increase in latter online victimization rather than the reverse. A bidirectional relationship was found for real-life victimization: loneliness (but not social anxiety) predicted an increase in latter real-life victimization, which in turn predicted an increase in subsequent social anxiety (but not loneliness). No moderating effects of online aggression were found. The findings of the present study suggest that negative online and in real life peer interactions have a differential meaning for, and impact on adolescents' well-being.

  5. The Victim-Offender Overlap and Fear of In-School Victimization: A Longitudinal Examination of Risk Assessment Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melde, Chris; Esbensen, Finn-Aage

    2009-01-01

    Reports of serious violence in schools have raised general awareness and concern about safety in America's schools. In this article, the authors examine the extent to which in-school victimization is associated with students' perceived risk and fear of victimization. By expanding on Ferraro's risk assessment framework, the current study explores…

  6. Grundlagen des Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Jörg; Blum, Janaki; Wintermantel, Erich

    Die Organtransplantation stellt eine verbreitete Therapie dar, um bei krankheitsoder unfallbedingter Schädigung eines Organs die Gesamtheit seiner Funktionen wieder herzustellen, indem es durch ein Spenderorgan ersetzt wird. Organtransplantationen werden für die Leber, die Niere, die Lunge, das Herz oder bei schweren grossflächigen Verbrennungen der Haut vorgenommen. Der grosse apparative, personelle und logistische Aufwand und die Risiken der Transplantationschirurgie (Abstossungsreaktionen) sowie die mangelnde Verfügbarkeit von immunologisch kompatiblen Spenderorganen führen jedoch dazu, dass der Bedarf an Organtransplantaten nur zu einem sehr geringen Teil gedeckt werden kann. Sind Spenderorgane nicht verfügbar, können in einzelnen Fällen lebenswichtige Teilfunktionen, wie beispielsweise die Filtrationsfunktion der Niere durch die Blutreinigung mittels Dialyse ersetzt oder, bei mangelnder Funktion der Bauchspeicheldrüse (Diabetes), durch die Verabreichung von Insulin ein normaler Zustand des Gesamtorganismus auch über Jahre hinweg erhalten werden. Bei der notwendigen lebenslangen Anwendung apparativer oder medikamentöser Therapie können für den Patienten jedoch häufig schwerwiegende, möglicherweise lebensverkürzende Nebenwirkungen entstehen. Daher werden in der Forschung Alternativen gesucht, um die Funktionen des ausgefallenen Organs durch die Implantation von Zellen oder in vitro gezüchteten Geweben möglichst umfassend wieder herzustellen. Dies erfordert biologisch aktive Implantate, welche die für den Stoffwechsel des Organs wichtigen Zellen enthalten und einen organtypischen Stoffwechsel entfalten.

  7. Victimizations of Mexican youth (12-17 years old): A 2014 national survey.

    PubMed

    Frías, Sonia M; Finkelhor, David

    2017-02-24

    Victimization of Mexican youth (aged 12-17) has received little attention compared to that of adults. Using the 2014 Social Survey on Social Cohesion for the Prevention of Violence and Delinquency, we examine prevalence and types of victimization; describe the characteristics of incidents in terms of relationship with perpetrator(s) and places where took place; and study significant correlates of forms of victimization and poly-victimization. During 2014 alone, more than 2.8 million minors were victims of bullying, cyberbullying, theft, sexual abuse, physical assault, threats, robbery, or extortion. About 10% of these were poly-victims-experienced at least four different types of victimization by at least four types of perpetrators. Youth tended to be victimized by people in their inner circle. The factors associated with victimization tended to vary by victimization type, but proximity to crime and peer delinquency increased the risk of experiencing all types of victimization. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

  8. La prévention des blessures chez les enfants et les adolescents : une démarche de santé publique

    PubMed Central

    Yanchar, Natalie L; Warda, Lynne J; Fuselli, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ La majorité des blessures dont sont victimes les enfants et les adolescents sont évitables. Le présent document de principes contient des renseignements généraux, des conseils et une déclaration d’engagement à l’égard de la prévention des blessures au Canada. Il sert de base sur laquelle construire en s’attardant d’abord aux définitions, à l’étendue et aux priorités en matière de prévention des blessures. Il contient également une description du fardeau et du profil des blessures non intentionnelles, de même que les principes d’interventions de prévention efficaces. La version intégrale renferme une liste de ressources en vue d’obtenir des données et de l’information probante (www.cps.ca). Enfin, le présent document de principes peut être utilisé pour la défense généralisée de la prévention des blessures.

  9. Reticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landrevy, Christel

    Pour faire face à la crise économique la conception de papier à valeur ajoutée est développée par les industries papetières. Le but de se projet est l'amélioration des techniques actuelles de réticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques de la pâte à papier visant à produire un papier plus résistant. En effet, lors des réactions de réticulation traditionnelles, de nombreuses liaisons intra-fibres se forment ce qui affecte négativement l'amélioration anticipée des propriétés physiques du papier ou du matériau produit. Pour éviter la formation de ces liaisons intra-fibres, un greffage sur les fibres de groupements ne pouvant pas réagir entre eux est nécessaire. La réticulation des fibres par une réaction de « click chemistry » appelée cycloaddition de Huisgen entre un azide et un alcyne vrai, catalysée par du cuivre (CuAAC) a été l'une des solutions trouvée pour remédier à ce problème. De plus, une adaptation de cette réaction en milieux aqueux pourrait favoriser son utilisation en milieu industriel. L'étude que nous désirons entreprendre lors de ce projet vise à optimiser la réaction de CuAAC et les réactions intermédiaires (propargylation, tosylation et azidation) sur la pâte kraft, en milieu aqueux. Pour cela, les réactions ont été adaptées en milieu aqueux sur la cellulose microcristalline afin de vérifier sa faisabilité, puis transférée à la pâte kraft et l'influence de différents paramètres comme le temps de réaction ou la quantité de réactifs utilisée a été étudiée. Dans un second temps, une étude des différentes propriétés conférées au papier par les réactions a été réalisée à partir d'une série de tests papetiers optiques et physiques. Mots Clés Click chemistry, Huisgen, CuAAC, propargylation, tosylation, azidation, cellulose, pâte kraft, milieu aqueux, papier.

  10. Corruption: Engineers are Victims, Perpetrators or Both?

    PubMed

    Pecujlija, M; Cosic, I; Nesic-Grubic, L; Drobnjak, S

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted in Serbian companies on licensed engineers and in its first part included a total of 336 licensed engineers who voluntarily completed the questionnaires about their ethical orientation and attitudes toward corruption and in the second part 214 engineers who participated in the first survey, who voluntarily evaluated their company's business operations characteristics. This study has clearly shown that there is a direct significant influence of the engineer's ethical orientations and attitudes toward corruption on their evaluation of the characteristics of their respective companies regarding business operations. This research also clearly shows that only engineers with a strong deontological orientation, low ethical subjectivity, and strong readiness to fight corruption, low corruption acceptance and high awareness of corruption can successfully fight corruption, improve the business operations of their companies and make beneficial changes to society. Otherwise, they should be considered as corruption perpetrators, not just as its victims.

  11. Women in conflict zones first victims.

    PubMed

    Prakash, S

    1996-06-12

    In areas of the world plagued by armed conflict, women are often forced to engage in sexual intercourse to obtain food and shelter. The magnitude of the problem can be seen by the fact that in 1995, 30 major civil conflicts created 15 million refugees and 26.5 million internally displaced citizens. Emergency food supplies are so vulnerable to diversion by military groups that aid agencies now reserve a portion of the supplies for diversion. In certain part of Africa, only 12% of food aid reached its intended beneficiaries, and scores of feeding centers were attacked. In Bosnia, 20,000-50,000 women have been the victims of mass rape. In Uganda, the exchange of sex for security has contributed to the high rate of HIV infection. With women stripped of their traditional protective mechanisms, refugee camps must be carefully designed to avoid creating further opportunities for sexual or physical aggression.

  12. Eulogy for the Iowa shooting victims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Allen, James A.

    On November 1, three distinguished faculty members of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Iowa were among the victims of a murderous assault.Each of these individuals was at the height of his professional career. Each was devoted to teaching and advising students at all academic levels ranging from undergraduate freshmen to doctoral candidates and postdoctoral associates. Each was of national and international stature. All were specializing in the study of complex properties of ionized gases or plasma, the so-called fourth state of matter. This field is known technically as theoretical plasma physics. It is estimated that over 99% of matter in the universe is in the form of plasma—hence its central importance in the upper atmospheres and magnetospheres of planets, the Sun, the interplanetary medium, and in almost all large astrophysical systems.

  13. The odontology victim identification skill assessment system.

    PubMed

    Zohn, Harry K; Dashkow, Sheila; Aschheim, Kenneth W; Dobrin, Lawrence A; Glazer, Howard S; Kirschbaum, Mitchell; Levitt, Daniel; Feldman, Cecile A

    2010-05-01

    Mass fatality identification efforts involving forensic odontology can involve hundreds of dental volunteers. A literature review was conducted and forensic odontologists and dental educators consulted to identify lessons learned from past mass fatality identification efforts. As a result, the authors propose a skill assessment system, the Odontology Victim Identification Skill Assessment System (OVID-SAS), which details qualifications required to participate on the Antemortem, Postmortem, Ante/Postmortem Comparison, Field, and Shift Leader/Initial Response Teams. For each qualification, specific skills have been identified along with suggested educational pedagogy and skill assessment methods. Courses and assessments can be developed by dental schools, professional associations, or forensic organizations to teach and test for the skills required for dental volunteers to participate on each team. By implementing a system, such as OVID-SAS, forensic odontologists responsible for organizing and managing a forensic odontology mass fatality identification effort will be able to optimally utilize individuals presenting with proven skills.

  14. From victim to heroine: children's stories revisited.

    PubMed

    Turkel, Ann Ruth

    2002-01-01

    The need to escape reality and the taste for adventure with the unknown fills a universal need for both adults and children. Fairy tales have a powerful grip on the imagination because they are homespun versions of myths and have passionate intensity without epic grandeur. The happy ending of fairy tales reflects gender stereotyping because the heroine usually does very little except sit, wish, and wait for marriage. She has no control over her destiny and no active involvement in selecting or planning her future. These heroines are really passive victims. Sexism was once rampant in children's books. The Oz books, with their independent, courageous, and active heroine were way ahead of their time. The advent of women's liberation has led to a reappraisal of the female in folk literature. Anthropologists have now discovered stories of admirable women who were strong characters in their own epic dramas.

  15. Sexual abuse: a comparison between resilient victims and drug-addicted victims.

    PubMed

    Dufour, M H; Nadeau, L

    2001-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine which variables distinguish resilient victims from drug-addicted victims, who were sexually abused during their childhood--in addition, to measure the contribution of these variables to the level of distress experienced by the victims. There were two groups of 20 women interviewed. The resilient group showed no clinically significant symptoms of mental distress, and the addicted group were undergoing treatment for drug dependency. They all completed a semi-structured interview and a questionnaire regarding the type and severity of their sexual abuse, mental health status, self-esteem, locus of control, support and cognitive factors from Finkelhor's model. Both of these groups were equally and severely abused. Resilient and addicted women both received a moderate level of support. These women also reported the same sense of betrayal and powerlessness. Furthermore, both groups believe, to a large degree, that they now control what happens to them (internal locus of control). There were three distinguishing variables among the two groups, they were stigmatization, self-blame, and hazard for the locus of control. In comparison, resilient women had less self-blame for having been abused and they also felt less stigmatized than addicted women. In fact, stigmatization and self-blame account for 65% of the TSC-40 variance. These results suggest that cognitive strategies, particularly those that are linked to the interpretation of the event, may have some importance in the recovery.

  16. Brain Resuscitation in the Drowning Victim

    PubMed Central

    Topjian, Alexis A.; Berg, Robert A.; Bierens, Joost J. L. M.; Branche, Christine M.; Clark, Robert S.; Friberg, Hans; Hoedemaekers, Cornelia W. E.; Holzer, Michael; Katz, Laurence M.; Knape, Johannes T. A.; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Nadkarni, Vinay; van der Hoeven, Johannes G.

    2013-01-01

    Drowning is a leading cause of accidental death. Survivors may sustain severe neurologic morbidity. There is negligible research specific to brain injury in drowning making current clinical management non-specific to this disorder. This review represents an evidence-based consensus effort to provide recommendations for management and investigation of the drowning victim. Epidemiology, brain-oriented prehospital and intensive care, therapeutic hypothermia, neuroimaging/monitoring, biomarkers, and neuroresuscitative pharmacology are addressed. When cardiac arrest is present, chest compressions with rescue breathing are recommended due to the asphyxial insult. In the comatose patient with restoration of spontaneous circulation, hypoxemia and hyperoxemia should be avoided, hyperthermia treated, and induced hypothermia (32–34 °C) considered. Arterial hypotension/hypertension should be recognized and treated. Prevent hypoglycemia and treat hyperglycemia. Treat clinical seizures and consider treating non-convulsive status epilepticus. Serial neurologic examinations should be provided. Brain imaging and serial biomarker measurement may aid prognostication. Continuous electroencephalography and N20 somatosensory evoked potential monitoring may be considered. Serial biomarker measurement (e.g., neuron specific enolase) may aid prognostication. There is insufficient evidence to recommend use of any specific brain-oriented neuroresuscitative pharmacologic therapy other than that required to restore and maintain normal physiology. Following initial stabilization, victims should be transferred to centers with expertise in age-specific post-resuscitation neurocritical care. Care should be documented, reviewed, and quality improvement assessment performed. Preclinical research should focus on models of asphyxial cardiac arrest. Clinical research should focus on improved cardiopulmonary resuscitation, re-oxygenation/reperfusion strategies, therapeutic hypothermia

  17. La diffraction des neutrons et des rayons X pour l'étude structurale des liquides et des verres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, H. E.; Salmon, P. S.; Barnes, A. C.

    2003-02-01

    La compréhension de mainte propriété physique d'un verre ou d'un liquide nécessite la connaissance des facteurs de structure partiels (PSFs) qui décrivent chacun la distribution d'une espèce atomique autour d'une autre. La technique de diffraction des neutrons avec substitution isotopique (NDIS) [1,2,3], ayant bien réussi a déterminer les PSFs de certains composés [4,5], est pourtant restreinte aux isotopes présentant un contraste suffisant en longueur de diffusion. D'un autre cote, la technique de diffusion anomale des rayons X (AXS ou AXD) [6] permet de faire varier la longueur de diffusion d'une espèce atomique pourvu que son énergie d'absorption soit à la fois accessible et suffisamment élevée pour donner un assez grand transfert du moment. La combinaison des techniques de diffraction des neutrons (avec ou sans substitution isotopique) et de diffraction des rayons X (avec ou sans diffusion anomale) peut donc permettre d'obtenir un meilleur contraste en longueurs de diffusion pour un système donné, mais exige une analyse de données plus soignée pour pouvoir bien tenir compte des erreurs systématiques qui sont différentes pour les 2 techniques [7]. Pour les atomes ayant des distributions électroniques quasi-sphériques, e.g. dans le cas d'un alliage liquide, la combinaison des techniques de NDIS et de diffraction des rayons X s'est déjà montrée très avantageuse pour la détermination des PSFs [8,9]. Dans le cas des verres ayant d'importantes liaisons covalentes, l'effective combinaison des 2 techniques peut être moins directe mais facilitée lorsqu'il s'agit des atomes de grand Z [10,11]. Nous présentons ici un sommaire du méthode et quelques exemples des résultats.

  18. [A sociography of elderly victims of family violence in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Gil, Ana Paula; Santos, Ana João; Kislaya, Irina; Santos, César; Mascoli, Luísa; Ferreira, Alexandra Inácio; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2015-06-01

    This article presents data on violence against persons aged 60 years or older and living in Portugal for at least 12 months. The cross-sectional descriptive study collected data with a face-to-face questionnaire applied to victims that had sought assistance at three government institutions and one non-governmental support service for victims. The non-probabilistic sample included 510 victims of violence in family settings. Physical and psychological violence were the most common (87.8% and 69.6%, respectively). Financial violence was reported by 47.5% of the victims, followed by sexual assault (7.5%) and neglect (6.5%). The majority of victims (74.1%) reported more than one type of violence. Victims were mostly women, and mean age was 70.7 years. Most of the perpetrators belonged to the nuclear family, namely spouses or partners, sons/sons-in-law, and daughters/daughters-in-law. However, differences were observed according to victim's gender. The results indicate that violence is not a uniform phenomenon, presenting different configurations.

  19. Victim blame in a hate crime motivated by sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Plumm, Karyn M; Terrance, Cheryl A; Henderson, Vanessa R; Ellingson, Heather

    2010-01-01

    A jury simulation paradigm was employed for two studies exploring levels of victim blame in a case of bias-motivated assault based on sexual orientation. In the first study, participants were grouped according to their score on the Index of Homophobia (IHP) scale as either reporting high or low support for gay and lesbian community members. The label of the crime (i.e., bias-motivated assault versus first-degree assault) as well as the gender of the victim were systematically varied. Results indicated that attributions of blame against the victim varied as a function of participants' attitudes toward minority sexual orientation. As extra-legal factors likely contribute to victim blame in these cases, the second study explored such factors as location and "provocation." Jurors in the second study read a transcript depicting an attack on a gay man by a man in either a local bar (i.e., not a gay bar) or a gay bar. Within location conditions, jurors were presented with either "provocation" by the victim (i.e., asking the perpetrator to dance and putting his arm around him) or alternatively no provocation was presented. Results revealed significant differences of victim blame depending on condition. Participants in both the local bar and provocation present conditions were more likely to blame the victim for the attack than those in the gay bar or provocation-absent conditions. Implications for hate crime law and attribution theory within the courtroom are discussed.

  20. Why Definitions Matter: Stalking Victimization in the United States.

    PubMed

    Owens, Jennifer Gatewood

    2016-07-01

    Although there is a growing understanding of stalking victimization, it remains difficult to define, and characterizations of the phenomenon vary within the literature. As such, research is needed to understand how variations in the definition of stalking may change who is defined as a victim and thereby limit the generalizability of findings across previous studies. The focus of this study is the inclusion or exclusion of subjective and reasonable measures of fear for 1,430 victims identified by the 2006 Supplemental Victimization Survey. Results suggest that the definition of stalking is important, and prior research has potentially excluded stalking victims due to restrictive operationalizations. Victims who report different types of fear appear to be similar to each other in some respects but differ in others, particularly with regard for gender representation, suggesting some definitions of stalking may be gendered and under-represent male stalking victims. Finally, using complex stratified survey weights, the impact of these varying operationalizations is examined. Using the same data but different definitions resulted in estimates of just over 1 to 5.3 million persons who are stalked in the United States each year.

  1. Bullying and Victimization: The Effect of Close Companionship.

    PubMed

    Veldkamp, Sabine A M; van Bergen, Elsje; de Zeeuw, Eveline L; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bartels, Meike

    2017-02-01

    Peer bullying and victimization are a widespread phenomenon among school-age children and can have detrimental effects on the development of children. To examine whether having a close companion during childhood increases or decreases risk of victimization and bullying, this study compared twins to singleton children. A large group of twins (n = 9,909) were included who were compared to their related non-twin siblings (n = 1,534) aged 7-12 from the Netherlands Twin Register, thus creating optimal matching between twins and non-twins. Bullying and victimization were each based on a four-item scale filled out by their teachers. Prevalence rates for either bullying or victimization did not differ between twins and singletons. In total, in the past couple of months, 36% of children bullied peers moderately to severely, and 35% suffered moderately to severely from victimization. Boys were more likely to bully and were more prone to becoming a victim than girls. The most notable finding is that female twin pairs placed together in the same classroom did not bully more often, but were victimized less often, thus pointing to a protective effect of having a close companion in the classroom.

  2. Missile Aerodynamics (Aerodynamique des Missiles)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-11-01

    guerre froide la production des missiles a baisse’, avec pour consequence une diminution des budgets de d6veloppement. Les nouveaux types de conflits ...Roma) Directeur - Gestion de l’information LUXEMBOURG (Recherche et developpement) - DRDGI 3 Voir Belgique Ministbre de la Difense nationale NORVEGE

  3. Gestion des déchets ménagers dans l’aire de santé Bulaska à Mbuji-Mayi en République Démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Kangoy, Kasangye; Ngoyi, John; Mudimbiyi, Olive

    2016-01-01

    Introduction La présence des déchets ménagers dans les voies publiques a une influence sur l’hygiène de l’environnement, ils entrainent l’insalubrité et peuvent être facteurs des certaines maladies dont quelques-unes peuvent être épidémiques. Au cours des deux dernières décennies, la question de la gestion des déchets est devenue de plus en plus complexe autant pour les pays développés que ceux sous-développés. L’objectif de cette étude était de déterminer les types de déchets et le mode de gestion des déchets génère par les ménages. Méthodes Cette étude est descriptive transversale, réalisée dans l’aire de sante Bulaska, Kasaï oriental, c’est une approche prospective appuyée par l’interview et l’observation active. Le questionnaire a été adressé au responsable du ménage ou au délègue, du 21 au 25 juin 2010, sur 170 ménages ce qui constituent un échantillon de convenance. Résultats Cette étude a révélé ce qui suit: 94,7% des enquêtes qui avaient répondu a notre questionnaire étaient de sexe féminin; 47% des enquêtes avaient un niveau d’étude primaire; 41,1% des enquêtes étaient des ménagères; la taille médiane de ménage était de 7 personnes par ménage; dans 83,5% des cas les déchets génères étaient solides; 50% des ménages de l’aire de sante utilisent la voie publique comme poubelle. Conclusion Eu égard au résultat de cette étude, développer plus les programmes de sensibilisation sur l’assainissement de l’environnement s’avère nécessaire. PMID:27800105

  4. Blame of victim and perpetrator in rape versus theft.

    PubMed

    Brems, C; Wagner, P

    1994-06-01

    Variables that may affect attribution of responsibility and blame were explored to assess whether societal stereotypes about rape victims still exist among students in Alaska. In ambiguous crime situations, more blame was attributed to victims and less responsibility to perpetrators if the subjects had traditional views about women's roles. The victims were rated as being more responsible for a theft than for a rape, but the perpetrators were rated as being more responsible for a rape than for a theft. Overall, type of crime affected social judgments. Attitudes toward women affected the attribution of blame, but not fault, in ambiguous crime situations.

  5. Negative Responses to Disclosure of Sexual Victimization and Victims' Symptoms of PTSD and Depression: The Protective Role of Ethnic Identity.

    PubMed

    Nikulina, Valentina; Bautista, Adrian; Brown, Elissa J

    2016-11-03

    College-aged women experience high rates of sexual victimization. Their postassault symptoms are associated with the types of responses they receive from the people to whom they disclose these experiences. Negative responses are pervasive and associated with poorer outcomes. The current study examined whether a strong sense of ethnic identity and comfort with the mainstream culture moderate the association between negative responses to the first disclosure of sexual victimization and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. A diverse sample (10% Black/African American, 51% White, 39% Other, and 66% Hispanic) of undergraduate women was recruited from two urban, Eastern United States universities for this online study. Participants reported histories of sexual victimization, demographics, responses to sexual assault disclosure (i.e., victim blame, treating the victim differently, taking control, distraction, and egocentric reactions), symptoms of PTSD and depression, and their ethnic identity and mainstream cultural comfort. Thirty-seven percent (n = 221) endorsed an experience of sexual victimization, and 165 disclosed it to someone. Hierarchical ordinary least squares regressions revealed that a stronger sense of ethnic identity was associated with fewer symptoms of PTSD for those women who experienced higher levels of control, distraction, and egocentric responses from the first disclosure recipient. A strong sense of affiliation with the mainstream culture did not protect survivors who reported receiving negative responses to disclosure against symptoms of PTSD or depression. Ethnic affiliation may protect women against PTSD when they receive high levels of negative messages about sexual victimization experiences.

  6. Perceptions of teachers' support, safety, and absence from school because of fear among victims, bullies, and bully-victims.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Ruth; Benbenishty, Rami

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the distribution of the types of involvement in school violence (bullies, victims, bully-victims, and students not involved in violence) among the general population of Israeli school students. The prevalence of these different types of involvement was also examined according to gender, age or school level (junior high vs. high school), and ethnicity (Jewish vs. Arab). Further, the study examines the relationships between type of involvement in school violence and students' perceptions of teachers' support, safety, and absence from school because of fear. Data were obtained from a nationally representative, stratified sample of 13,262 students in grades 7-11 who responded to a self-report questionnaire on victimization by, and perpetration of, school violence and on perceptions of school climate. Data revealed that 3.6% of all students were victims of bullying (18.5% of those involved in violence). The proportion of bully-victims among male students was 6.4% (21.9% of all involved) compared with 1.1% (11.2% of all involved) among females. Bully-victims reported the lowest levels of teacher support and feelings of security and missed school because of fear significantly more often. The results point to the uniqueness of the bully-victim group. This group presents multiple challenges for school staff with these students needing special attention.

  7. Disability in Relation to Different Peer-Victimization Groups and Psychosomatic Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Linda; Stenbeck, Magnus; Hagquist, Curt

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between disability, victims, perpetrators, and so-called "bully-victims" (someone reporting being both a victim and a perpetrator) of traditional, cyber, or combined victimization or perpetration and psychosomatic health among adolescents. Authors analyzed cross-sectional data…

  8. The prevalence of childhood victimization experienced outside of the family: Findings from an English prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Vicki; Browne, Kevin; Joseph, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    There has been little research carried out in the United Kingdom (UK) aimed at providing a holistic exploration of the victim experiences of young people within the school and community environments (extrafamilial victimization). This study therefore examined the prevalence of 24 different types of extrafamilial victimization experienced by a sample of 730 young people, aged 13-16 years (mean 13.8 years), from one county in the UK. The findings show that the vast majority of young people experienced some form of extrafamilial victimization over their lifetime (84.1%) and past year (67.2%). Looking at individual categories of victimization experienced over the lifetime, 7 out of 10 young people witnessed or experienced indirect victimization, 1 in 3 experienced property victimization, more than 1 in 4 physical victimization, almost 1 in 2 experienced bullying, 1 in 28 dating violence and 1 in 7 experienced sexual victimization. The findings also suggest that victimization is not an isolated event; participants experienced an average 2.8 different types of victimization across their lifetime. These research findings are compared to those from national victimization surveys in the USA and UK to compile a picture of the victimization prevalence rates across studies. The findings highlight the importance of adopting a holistic approach to the exploration of extrafamilial victimization in future research, assessment of victim experiences, and prevention of extrafamilial victimization.

  9. Victimizing Behaviour among Juvenile and Young Offenders: How Different Are Perpetrators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Emma J.; Farmer, Sam

    2002-01-01

    Examines the victimizing behaviors of incarcerated juvenile and young offenders. It was found that 50.9% of all respondents reported victimizing others, with verbal assaults and threats being the most common form of such behaviors. Furthermore, staff-identified "victimizers" were significantly more likely to report victimizing behavior…

  10. Repeat Offending and Repeat Victimization: Assessing Similarities and Differences in Psychosocial Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Abigail A.; Mazerolle, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The overlap between victims and offenders is increasingly being recognized, with mounting evidence that victims and offenders have similar demographic characteristics, that victimization increases the likelihood of offending, and that offenders are at high risk for becoming victims of crime. Despite this evidence, there is limited research…

  11. Victimisation and Suicide Ideation in the TRAILS Study: Specific Vulnerabilities of Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herba, Catherine M.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Stijnen, Theo; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Scientific studies have provided some support for a link between being a victim of bullying and suicide ideation. We examine whether (1) parental psychopathology and (2) feelings of rejection (at home and at school) exacerbate vulnerability to suicide ideation in victims of bullying (pure victims and bully-victims). Method: Data were…

  12. Reasons for Not Reporting Victimizations to the Police: Do They Vary for Physical and Sexual Incidents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Martie; Sitterle, Dylan; Clay, George; Kingree, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Victimization is a significant problem among college students, but it is less likely to be reported to the police than are victimizations in the general population. Objective: In this study, the authors examined (1) whether reasons for not reporting varied by type of victimization (sexual or physical) and (2) victim-, offender-, and…

  13. Understanding Risk-taking Behavior in Bullies, Victims, and Bully Victims Using Cognitive- and Emotion-Focused Approaches.

    PubMed

    Poon, Kean

    2016-01-01

    Bullying and risky behavior are two common problems among adolescents and can strongly affect a youth's overall functioning when both coexist. Some studies suggest that bullying in adolescence may promote risky behavior as a coping strategy to deal with victimization related stress. Other studies consider bullying as an outcome of high-risk behavior. Despite the association between the two is well-established, no study has examined the risk-taking patterns among bullying groups (i.e., bully, victim, and bully victim). This study attempted to elucidate the potential relationships between bullying and risk-taking by addressing the two models: a cognitive-focused model and an emotion-focused model of risk taking, and to clarify how adolescents' characteristics in risk taking associate with bullying outcomes. Method: 136 Chinese adolescents (Mean Age = 14.5, M = 65, F = 71) were recruited and grouped according to bullying identity: Bully (n = 27), Victim (n = 20), Bully victim (n = 37) and Control (n = 52). Cognitive Appraisal of Risky Events (CARE) questionnaire was used to measure participants' expectancies about the risks, benefits and involvement associated with risky activities. Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT) was administered to capture the emotion-laden process in risk taking. Results: Cognitively, Bully was associated with an overestimation of risk while Victim was associated with an underestimation of risk and overrated benefit. Bully victim exhibited a unique pattern with an overestimation of benefit and risk. All study groups projected higher involvement in risky behavior. Behaviorally, both Bully and Bully victim were associated with high risk modulation whereas Victim was associated with impulsive decision-making. Interestingly, compared with bully, bully victim had significantly higher bullying scores, suggesting a wider range and more frequent bullying activities. In conclusion, Bully maybe a group of adolescents that is vigilant in situational

  14. Understanding Risk-taking Behavior in Bullies, Victims, and Bully Victims Using Cognitive- and Emotion-Focused Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Kean

    2016-01-01

    Bullying and risky behavior are two common problems among adolescents and can strongly affect a youth’s overall functioning when both coexist. Some studies suggest that bullying in adolescence may promote risky behavior as a coping strategy to deal with victimization related stress. Other studies consider bullying as an outcome of high-risk behavior. Despite the association between the two is well-established, no study has examined the risk-taking patterns among bullying groups (i.e., bully, victim, and bully victim). This study attempted to elucidate the potential relationships between bullying and risk-taking by addressing the two models: a cognitive-focused model and an emotion-focused model of risk taking, and to clarify how adolescents’ characteristics in risk taking associate with bullying outcomes. Method: 136 Chinese adolescents (Mean Age = 14.5, M = 65, F = 71) were recruited and grouped according to bullying identity: Bully (n = 27), Victim (n = 20), Bully victim (n = 37) and Control (n = 52). Cognitive Appraisal of Risky Events (CARE) questionnaire was used to measure participants’ expectancies about the risks, benefits and involvement associated with risky activities. Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT) was administered to capture the emotion-laden process in risk taking. Results: Cognitively, Bully was associated with an overestimation of risk while Victim was associated with an underestimation of risk and overrated benefit. Bully victim exhibited a unique pattern with an overestimation of benefit and risk. All study groups projected higher involvement in risky behavior. Behaviorally, both Bully and Bully victim were associated with high risk modulation whereas Victim was associated with impulsive decision-making. Interestingly, compared with bully, bully victim had significantly higher bullying scores, suggesting a wider range and more frequent bullying activities. In conclusion, Bully maybe a group of adolescents that is vigilant in situational

  15. College students' electronic victimization in friendships and dating relationships: anticipated distress and associations with risky behaviors.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Diana C; Guran, Elyse L; Ramos, Michelle C; Margolin, Gayla

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated college students' reports of electronic victimization in friendships and dating relationships. We examined 22 items representing four categories of electronic victimization: hostility, humiliation, exclusion, and intrusiveness. Nearly all participants (92%) reported some electronic victimization in the past year, with males reporting more victimization and females anticipating more distress. Both females and males anticipated more distress from electronic victimization in dating relationships than friendships. More actual experience with electronic victimization related to lower anticipated distress. Electronic victimization was associated with females' alcohol use, even after controlling for other victimization experiences. Discussion focuses on the contextualized nature of electronic victimization, and on the importance of understanding what makes electronic victimization highly distressing for some individuals.

  16. Prospective linkages between peer victimization and externalizing problems in children: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Reijntjes, Albert; Kamphuis, Jan H; Prinzie, Peter; Boelen, Paul A; van der Schoot, Menno; Telch, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Previous meta-analytic research has shown both concurrent and prospective linkages between peer victimization and internalizing problems in youth. However, the linkages between peer victimization and externalizing problems over time have not been systematically examined, and it is therefore unknown if externalizing problems are antecedents of victimization, consequences of victimization, both, or neither. This study provides a meta-analysis of 14 longitudinal studies examining prospective linkages between peer victimization and externalizing problems (n = 7,821). Two prospective paths were examined: the extent to which peer victimization at baseline predicts future residualized changes in externalizing problems, as well as the extent to which externalizing problems at baseline predict future residualized changes in peer victimization. Results revealed significant associations between peer victimization and subsequent residualized changes in externalizing problems, as well as significant associations between externalizing problems and subsequent residualized changes in peer victimization. Hence, externalizing problems function as both antecedents and consequences of peer victimization.

  17. Victims of violence: an Asian scenario.

    PubMed

    Nadesan, K

    2000-12-01

    The term 'violence' is difficult to define. Aggressive behaviour with actual use of physical force may result in some form of physical and emotional trauma to an individual and this could be considered as violence against the person. The trauma may range from minimal physical injury to death. It is also relevant to note that in some jurisdictions if members of the law enforcement agencies with appropriate authority resort to certain acts of 'violence' for lawful purposes, then such acts of violence may be excluded from this category. However, if the law enforcement personnel exceed their limits of authority, or resort to various unacceptable and unauthorized methods of violence, then certainly such acts will become violence against the person. In today's context the word violence has expanded to encompass many issues, besides the usual physical violence such as assault. Rape, child sexual abuse, other forms of sexual abuse, non-accidental injury to children, battered wife, assault in custody, torture, victims of war, civil unrest and ethnic violence are all considered under 'violence'. While general violence is almost endemic in many countries, assault in custody, torture, political and ethnic violence are serious problems in some of the developing world. In these countries, particularly, the law enforcement agencies and other unlawful groups who are backed by politicians may inflict politically motivated violence against its citizens. In such cases attempts are often made to cover up such crimes. Forensic physicians and forensic pathologists who examine these cases may be placed in difficult positions at times owing to various 'pressures' being brought upon them to issue 'favourable' reports. On the other hand there is also a general dearth of suitably trained forensic physicians and forensic pathologists in many of these countries. Medical officers without any training in forensic medicine often undertake the examination of victims of violence, both living and

  18. Recognizing victims of human trafficking in the pediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Becker, Heather J; Bechtel, Kirsten

    2015-02-01

    Human trafficking is a form of modern-day slavery that is rapidly expanding in the United States and throughout the world. It is a crime under both the United States and international law. The child and adult victims of human trafficking are denied their basic human rights and subjected to unspeakable physical and emotional harm. Traffickers exert complete control over their victims and are proficient at hiding their condition from authorities. Healthcare practitioners may be the only professionals who come into contact with victims if they present for medical care. This article will describe human trafficking and its potential victims, as well as guide medical management and access to services that will ensure their safety and restore their freedom.

  19. Mental health service utilization by victims of crime.

    PubMed

    New, M; Berliner, L

    2000-10-01

    Records of 318 adult and 608 child victims of crime, eligible for Crime Victims Compensation (CVC) in Washington State, were examined. Demographic, crime, and mental health information was collected. A majority of child victims had experienced sexual assault (88%); adults were victims of both sexual (38%) and physical assault (40%). The median number of mental health sessions used by children was 23 sessions, at an average cost of $975 per case to the CVC program. Adults used a median of 15 mental health sessions at a cost of $905. Patterns of treatment utilization were associated with some demographic, crime, and psychological variables. Sexual assault and PTSD diagnosis were associated with greater use for both children and adults. Therapist variables were unrelated to use. Findings are discussed in light of concerns about coverage of mental health services.

  20. Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims ... in the recent Advances in molecular biology and genetics," says team member Stephen Sherry, Ph.D., of ...

  1. The nurse-patient relationship and victims of violence.

    PubMed

    Hartman, C R

    1995-01-01

    Vicarious traumatization is a phenomenon that recognizes that the exposure of persons, other than the victim, to the specifics of trauma material or the reenactment of traumatic experiences transmits the emotionally laden aspects of the original violence and thus is a source of emotional arousal and distress for the nurse working with victims of violence. This source of emotional arousal shapes the underlying approach--avoidance dynamic of countertransference responses that strain the empathic connection necessary for a safe and constructive nurse-patient relationship. Case consultation and supervision are necessary to protect the integrity of the nurse-patient relationship. The current isolating changes in the work setting cut the nurse off from needed support and guidance in working with victims of violence. The emotional risks inherent in working with victims of violence require that the nurse seek professional support for the interpersonal aspects of practice.

  2. Task Force Report on Care for Victims of Sexual Assault

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    is defined, as any sort of sexual activity in which one person is involved against his or her will, with or without physical force. Of the almost 3...deployed environment, is not currently a consideration in force planning. For example, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners (SANE) exist in the active and...risks and actively engage in preventive measures xii DoD Care for Victims of Sexual Assault Task Force Report all responders treat victims with

  3. Coping with peer victimization: the role of children's attributions.

    PubMed

    Visconti, Kari Jeanne; Sechler, Casey M; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky

    2013-06-01

    A social-cognitive framework was used to generate and test hypotheses regarding the role of children's causal attributions for peer victimization in predicting how they cope with such experiences. It was hypothesized that attributions would be differentially associated with coping as a function of the direction (i.e., upward, horizontal, or downward) of the social comparison reflected in children's perceived cause for their peer victimization. Self- and peer-reports were collected on 224 (97 boys, 127 girls) fourth- and sixth-grade ethnically diverse students (M age = 10.6 years, SD = 1.08 years). Only children who had been targeted for peer aggression within the preceding two months were included to ensure they had a basis for answering questions regarding the cause of their victimization and how they coped. Data were gathered in the fall and spring of the academic school year and included reports of causal attributions, victimization, aggression, peer acceptance, and coping with victimization. Multiple regression analyses provided preliminary evidence that children's attributions were differentially predictive of changes in coping responses. For example, attributing victimization to one's race predicted decreases in seeking friend support and increases in nonchalance, whereas attributing it to not being as "cool" as others was associated with increases in seeking teacher and friend support, but decreases in nonchalance. Results suggest that children's attributions may reflect the resources they have available to them to cope with victimization. Such resources may be due to social status, or they may be due to the extent to which children blame themselves for the victimization (e.g., the degree to which they expect sympathy and help). Implications of these differential patterns of attributions and coping strategies for children's adjustment are discussed.

  4. Victim empathy, social self-esteem, and psychopathy in rapists.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Yolanda M; Marshall, W L

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the responses of 27 incarcerated rapists and 27 incarcerated nonsexual offenders using the Rapist Empathy Measure (targeting victim specific empathy deficits) and to examine the relationship between empathy with self-esteem and psychopathy for both groups. The Social Self-Esteem Inventory was used as a measure of perceived social competence and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991) was used as a measure of psychopathy. All participants completed the two self-report questionnaires on empathy and self-esteem; in addition, the rapists were required to complete an extra section of the empathy measure that assessed their empathic responses to their own victims. Demographic information and psychopathy scores were obtained by reviewing institutional files. When psychopathy scores were not available, subjects participated in a semi-structured interview and were scored on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised by the researcher. Rapists demonstrated more empathy than the nonsexual offenders toward women in general and the same degree of empathy as the nonsexual offenders toward a woman who had been a victim of a sexual assault by another male. Of particular importance were the within-group comparisons across victim type for the rapists which revealed significant empathy deficits toward their own victim(s). Interestingly, no differences were found between the rapists and nonsexual offenders in terms of self-esteem and psychopathy, and neither self-esteem nor psychopathy significantly predicted empathy for either group. It was concluded from the present study that rapists may suppress empathy primarily toward their own victim rather than suffer from a generalized empathy deficit. It is suggested that empathy deficits in rapists might better be construed as cognitive distortions specific to their victims and should be addressed in that manner in treatment.

  5. Consent to forensic radiologic examinations by living crime victims.

    PubMed

    Scheurer, Eva; Schoelzke, Stefanie

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate whether people approve radiological examinations specifically for the documentation of findings for the use in criminal proceedings. Forty two crime victims and 42 controls without a history of sustained violence were asked via telephone interview whether they would agree to forensic radiological examinations and if radiation exposure and the duration of the examination were factors influencing their consent. The consent to specifically forensic radiological examinations was high in both groups, however, higher in victims than in controls (85-96% compared to 64-77%, respectively, depending on the imaging modality). All of the victims and 93% of the controls consented to at least one of the proposed imaging modalities, i.e. X-ray, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Most of the interviewees did not consider the duration of the examination to be relevant to their consent (79% of the crime victims and 93% of the controls); however, the radiation exposure associated with the examination was relevant for 55% of the controls but only for 19% of the victims. These results show that there is a great consent to the application of radiological methods for forensic purposes. This is important for the growing field of forensic radiology as the approval of the examination by the victim is a legal prerequisite.

  6. Interparental Conflict, Parenting Behavior, and Children's Friendship Quality as Correlates of Peer Aggression and Peer Victimization Among Aggressor/Victim Subgroups in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-Hee; Hong, Jun Sung; Yoon, Jina; Espelage, Dorothy L

    2014-07-01

    The focus of this study was to examine whether interparental conflict, maternal parenting behaviors, and children's friendship quality varied as a function of peer aggression/victim subgroups among a sample of 227 elementary school children and their mothers in South Korea. Both self-report and peer-report data indicated that the majority of the students were uninvolved in peer aggression situations, and the number of participants in the subgroups (aggressors, victims, and aggressor-victims) varied depending on the source of report. According to the self-report data, victims and aggressor-victims reported a higher level of maternal rejection than uninvolved youth. Aggressors, victims, and aggressor-victims reported higher maternal neglect than uninvolved youth. The highest level of interparental conflict was reported by victims, followed by aggressors. Interestingly, no significant differences were found in positive functioning of friendship quality among the subgroups, although results indicated a significant difference among groups in negative friendship quality.

  7. Integrating forensic anthropology into Disaster Victim Identification.

    PubMed

    Mundorff, Amy Z

    2012-06-01

    This paper will provide mass fatality emergency planners, police, medical examiners, coroners and other Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) personnel ways to integrate forensic anthropologists into DVI operations and demonstrate how anthropological contributions have improved DVI projects. In mass disaster situations, anthropologists have traditionally been limited to developing biological profiles from skeletal remains. Over the past decade, however, anthropologists' involvement in DVI has extended well beyond this traditional role as they have taken on increasingly diverse tasks and responsibilities. Anthropological involvement in DVI operations is often dictated by an incident's specific characteristics, particularly events involving extensive fragmentation, commingling, or other forms of compromised remains. This paper will provide examples from recent DVI incidents to illustrate the operational utility of anthropologists in the DVI context. The points where it is most beneficial to integrate anthropologists into the DVI process include: (1) during recovery at the disaster scene; (2) at the triage station as remains are brought into the mortuary; and (3) in conducting the reconciliation process. Particular attention will be paid to quality control and quality assurance measures anthropologists have developed and implemented for DVI projects. Overall, this paper will explain how anthropological expertise can be used to increase accuracy in DVI while reducing the project's cost and duration.

  8. Adolescent Peer Victimization and Physical Health Problems

    PubMed Central

    La Greca, Annette M.; Chan, Sherilynn F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Peer victimization (PV) is a key interpersonal stressor that can be traumatizing for youth. This study evaluated the relationships between overt, relational, reputational, and cyber PV and adolescents’ somatic complaints and sleep problems. Symptoms of depression and social anxiety were examined as potential mediators. Method Adolescents (N = 1,162; M age = 15.80 years; 57% female; 80% Hispanic) were assessed at three time points, 6 weeks apart, using standardized measures of PV, depression, social anxiety, sleep problems, and somatic complaints. Structural equation modeling evaluated key study aims. Results Relational, reputational, and cyber PV, but not overt PV, were directly or indirectly associated with subsequent somatic complaints and/or sleep problems. Depression and social anxiety mediated relationships between relational PV and health outcomes, whereas reputational PV was indirectly associated with somatic complaints via depression only. Discussion The stress of PV may contribute to adolescents’ sleep problems and somatic complaints and has implications for pediatric psychologists. PMID:26050245

  9. Victims from volcanic eruptions: a revised database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanguy, J.-C.; Ribière, C.; Scarth, A.; Tjetjep, W. S.

    The number of victims from volcanism and the primary cause(s) of death reported in the literature show considerable uncertainty. We present the results of investigations carried out either in contemporary accounts or in specific studies of eruptions that occurred since A.D. 1783. More than 220 000 people died because of volcanic activity during this period, which includes approximately 90% of the recorded deaths throughout history. Most of the fatalities resulted from post-eruption famine and epidemic disease (30.3%), nuées ardentes or pyroclastic flows and surges (26.8%), mudflows or lahars (17.1%), and volcanogenic tsunamis (16.9%). At present, however, international relief efforts might reduce the effects of post-eruption crop failure and disease, and at least some of the lahars could be anticipated in time by adequate scientific and social response. Thus, mitigation of hazards from pyroclastic flows and tsunamis will become of paramount importance to volcanologists and civil authorities.

  10. Substance abuse in victims of fire.

    PubMed

    Barillo, D J; Goode, R

    1996-01-01

    Ethanol or drug use may increase the risk of fire-related injury or death. This study was performed to quantify the role of substance abuse in fatal fires occurring in New Jersey over a 7-year period. Records of all the fatalities of fire reported to the State Medical Examiners Office between 1985 and 1991 were retrospectively examined. Blood assay results for ethanol were positive in 215 of the 727 (29.5%) fatalities of fire tested. For this group, the mean blood-ethanol level was 193.9 mg/dl. Blood or urine assay results for substances of abuse were positive in 78 of the 534 (14.6%) fatalities tested. The most commonly detected illicit substances were cocaine, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and cannabinoids. The test results were positive for both ethanol and drug use in 36 victims. Forty percent of all the fatalities of fire were aged younger than 11 or older than 70. In contradistinction, 75% of drug-positive fatalities of fire and 58% of ethanol-positive fatalities of fire were between the ages of 21 and 50, suggesting that inebriation may impair the ability to escape from fire. Substance abusers in middle life are a previously unrecognized group at higher risk of injury or death in a fire.

  11. Molecular autopsy in victims of inherited arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Semsarian, Christopher; Ingles, Jodie

    2016-10-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a rare but devastating complication of a number of underlying cardiovascular diseases. While coronary artery disease and acute myocardial infarction are the most common causes of SCD in older populations, inherited cardiac disorders comprise a substantial proportion of SCD cases aged less than 40 years. Inherited cardiac disorders include primary inherited arrhythmogenic disorders such as familial long QT syndrome (LQTS), Brugada syndrome (BrS), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), and inherited cardiomyopathies, most commonly hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). In up to 40% of young SCD victims (defined as 1-40 years old, excluding sudden unexplained death in infancy from 0 to 1 years, referred to as SIDS), no cause of death is identified at postmortem [so-called "autopsy negative" or "sudden arrhythmic death syndrome" (SADS)]. Management of families following a SCD includes the identification of the cause of death, based either on premorbid clinical details or the pathological findings at the postmortem. When no cause of death is identified, genetic testing of DNA extracted from postmortem tissue (the molecular autopsy) may identify a cause of death in up to 30% of SADS cases. Targeted clinical testing in a specialized multidisciplinary clinic in surviving family members combined with the results from genetic testing, provide the optimal setting for the identification of relatives who may be at risk of having the same inherited heart disease and are therefore also predisposed to an increased risk of SCD.

  12. Sex worker victimization, modes of working, and location in New South Wales, Australia: a geography of victimization.

    PubMed

    Prior, Jason; Hubbard, Phil; Birch, Philip

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the association among victimization, modes of sex working, and the locations used by sex workers through an analysis of "Ugly Mug" reports detailing 528 crime acts in 333 reported incidents in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. These forms, voluntarily lodged between 2000 and 2008 by members of NSW's estimated 10,000 sex worker population, suggest that street-based work has a higher victimization rate than other modes of working, including escort work, work in commercial premises, and private work. Although this ostensibly supports the commonly held view that "outdoor" working is more dangerous than "indoor" work, this analysis suggests that most instances of victimization actually occur in private spaces. Hence, it is argued that risks of victimization in sex work are influenced by a variety of environmental characteristics relating to concealment, control, and isolation, suggesting that not all off-street locations are equally safe. We conclude with recommendations for policy regarding sex work.

  13. Interpretation biases in victims and non-victims of interpersonal trauma and their relation to symptom development.

    PubMed

    Elwood, Lisa S; Williams, Nathan L; Olatunji, Bunmi O; Lohr, Jeffrey M

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies examining information processing in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have focused on attention and memory biases, with few studies examining interpretive biases. The majority of these studies have employed lexically based methodologies, rather than examining the processing of visual information. In the present study, victims (N=40) and non-victims (N=41) of interpersonal trauma viewed a series of short positive, neutral, and threatening filmstrips of social situations with ambiguous endings. Participants were then asked about their perceptions and interpretations of the situations. Victims perceived threatening situations as more predictable and more quickly increasing in risk than non-victims. Trauma status interacted with the perceived predictability of positive situations and the perceived speed with which neutral situations reached their conclusion to predict anxious symptoms. In addition, trauma status interacted with the perceived increase in risk of positive situations to predict PTSD symptoms. The implications of these findings for theories of PTSD are discussed.

  14. Médecine des voyages

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Définir la pratique de la médecine des voyages, présenter les éléments fondamentaux d’une consultation complète préalable aux voyages à des voyageurs internationaux et aider à identifier les patients qu’il vaudrait mieux envoyer en consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages. Sources des données Les lignes directrices et les recommandations sur la médecine des voyages et les maladies liées aux voyages publiées par les autorités sanitaires nationales et internationales ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Une recension des ouvrages connexes dans MEDLINE et EMBASE a aussi été effectuée. Message principal La médecine des voyages est une spécialité très dynamique qui se concentre sur les soins préventifs avant un voyage. Une évaluation exhaustive du risque pour chaque voyageur est essentielle pour mesurer avec exactitude les risques particuliers au voyageur, à son itinéraire et à sa destination et pour offrir des conseils sur les interventions les plus appropriées en gestion du risque afin de promouvoir la santé et prévenir les problèmes médicaux indésirables durant le voyage. Des vaccins peuvent aussi être nécessaires et doivent être personnalisés en fonction des antécédents d’immunisation du voyageur, de son itinéraire et du temps qu’il reste avant son départ. Conclusion La santé et la sécurité d’un voyageur dépendent du degré d’expertise du médecin qui offre le counseling préalable à son voyage et les vaccins, au besoin. On recommande à ceux qui donnent des conseils aux voyageurs d’être conscients de l’ampleur de cette responsabilité et de demander si possible une consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages pour tous les voyageurs à risque élevé.

  15. Revue systématique sur la contribution des femmes distributeurs communautaires dans la lutte contre l'onchocercose en Afrique sub-saharienne

    PubMed Central

    Vouking, Marius Zambou; Tadenfok, Carine Nouboudem; Evina, Christine Danielle; Nsangou, Moustapha; Bonono, Cécile-Renée; Yondo, David

    2014-01-01

    Le Programme Africain de lutte contre l'Onchocercose (APOC) fut lancé en 1995, comme complément au brillant programme de lutte contre l'onchocercose en Afrique de l'Ouest. En 2011, plus de 80 millions de personnes ont bénéficié de cette intervention grâce à la contribution de 268 718 Distributeurs Communautaires (DC). Ses résultats significatifs occultent le rôle des femmes DC dans cette lutte cette maladie. L'objectif de cette analyse est de déterminer la contribution des femmes DC dans le traitement de l'onchocercose sous directive communautaire en Afrique sub-saharienne, et d’évaluer leur acceptation dans ledit programme. Comme stratégie de recherche, nous avons identifié toutes les études pertinentes de Janvier 1995 à Décembre 2012. Des recherches ont été effectuées dans les bases de données suivantes: Medline, Embase (Excerpta Medica Database), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), LILAS (Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences). Nous avons également consulté les sites d'APOC et de l'OMS AFRO. Deux auteurs ont indépendamment évalué la pertinence des articles potentiels à l'aide des critères d'inclusion et d'exclusion bien définis. Six (6) des 25 études ont rempli les critères d'inclusion. Une étude a montré que 81% des populations où il y avait des femmes DC ont reçu l'Ivermectine par rapport à 78% des villages où n'exerçaient pas de femmes DC. Une autre étude a montré qu'il y a eu une prise de conscience croissante dans les IDC en faveur de l'acceptation de la participation des femmes à la distribution communautaire de l'Ivermectine. De plus, 70% des membres de la communauté interrogés dans certaines zones endémiques, ont déclaré que les femmes étaient plus engagées, persuasives et plus patientes que les hommes dans la distribution de l'Ivermectine. Au terme de cette étude, les évaluations qui ont été effectuées donnent à penser que les femmes peuvent jouer

  16. Part II: Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers and Delinquent Youth--Further Group Comparisons of Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibowitz, George S.; Burton, David L.; Howard, Alan

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper published in the "Journal of Child Sexual Abuse," we assessed the differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers (Burton, Duty, & Leibowitz, 2011). We found that the sexually victimized group had more severe developmental antecedents (e.g., trauma and early exposure to…

  17. Frequency of Victimization Experiences and Well-Being Among Online, Offline, and Combined Victims on Social Online Network Sites of German Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Glüer, Michael; Lohaus, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Victimization is associated with negative developmental outcomes in childhood and adolescence. However, previous studies have provided mixed results regarding the association between offline and online victimization and indicators of social, psychological, and somatic well-being. In this study, we investigated 1,890 German children and adolescents (grades 5–10, mean age = 13.9; SD = 2.1) with and without offline or online victimization experiences who participated in a social online network (SNS). Online questionnaires were used to assess previous victimization (offline, online, combined, and without), somatic and psychological symptoms, self-esteem, and social self-concept (social competence, resistance to peer influence, esteem by others). In total, 1,362 (72.1%) children and adolescents reported being a member of at least one SNS, and 377 students (28.8%) reported previous victimization. Most children and adolescents had offline victimization experiences (17.5%), whereas 2.7% reported online victimization, and 8.6% reported combined experiences. Girls reported more online and combined victimization, and boys reported more offline victimization. The type of victimization (offline, online, combined) was associated with increased reports of psychological and somatic symptoms, lower self-esteem and esteem by others, and lower resistance to peer influences. The effects were comparable for the groups with offline and online victimization. They were, however, increased in the combined group in comparison to victims with offline experiences alone. PMID:26734598

  18. Relations among Multiple Types of Peer Victimization, Reactivity to Peer Victimization, and Academic Achievement in Fifth-Grade Goys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Michael T.; Hubbard, Julie A.; Swift, Lauren E.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relations between multiple types of peer victimization, affective reactivity to victimization, and academic achievement. Participants (179 fifth-grade boys and girls) completed repeated daily measures of peer victimization and negative affect; a standardized measure of achievement was collected concurrently. The daily…

  19. Towards a Dynamic DES model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbareddy, Pramod; Candler, Graham

    2009-11-01

    Hybrid RANS/LES methods are being increasingly used for turbulent flow simulations in complex geometries. Spalart's detached eddy simulation (DES) model is one of the more popular ones. We are interested in examining the behavior of the Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) model in its ``LES mode.'' The role of the near-wall functions present in the equations is analyzed and an explicit analogy between the S-A and a one-equation LES model based on the sub-grid kinetic energy is presented. A dynamic version of the S-A DES model is proposed based on this connection. Validation studies and results from DES and LES applications will be presented and the effect of the proposed modification will be discussed.

  20. Rape against Brazilian Women: Characteristics of Victims and Sex Offenders

    PubMed Central

    SOUTO, Rafaella Q.; ARAÚJO, Francisco K. C. D.; XAVIER, Alidianne F. C.; CAVALCANTI, Alessandro L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Violence against women is a serious social problem and affects mainly young women. This study aimed to evaluate sexual violence against women in Campina Grande, Brazil. Methods: A retrospective study with analysis of 886 forensic medical reports of sexual violence from the Institute of Legal Medicine of Campina Grande, Brazil, was conducted between January 2005 and December 2009. Sociodemographic variables related to victims, offenders and aggressions were analyzed. Significance level of 5% was adopted. Results: Two hundred and ninety-one cases of rape (32.8%) were confirmed, the majority of victims aged between 0 and 19 years (89.9%), were single (98.8%) and had low educational level (86.9%), with association with marital status (P = 0.02). The sex offender was known to the victim in 84.2% of cases and in 93.8% of cases, he acted alone. There was an association between rape and the relationship with the offenders (P = 0.01) and the age of the offenders (P = 0.03). The rape occurred in most cases at the home of victims (49.3%), with the use of violence in 72.3% of cases, but only 5.7% of the victims exhibited physical injuries. There was an association between rape and variables date of occurrence (P = 0.001), previous virginity (P = 0.001) and violence during practice (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Over one third of women were victims of rape, predominantly adolescents, unmarried and with low educational level. The offenders were known to the victims, and acted alone in most situations, making use of physical violence. PMID:26811812

  1. Individual-level risk factors for gun victimization in a sample of probationers.

    PubMed

    Wells, William; Chermak, Steven

    2011-07-01

    Interventions aimed at preventing the important problem of gun injuries could be improved with an understanding of whether there are unique factors that place individuals at an increased risk of gun victimization. Much remains to be known about the victims of gun violence. The purpose of this article is to assess whether there are individual-level variables uniquely related to the likelihood of experiencing a gun victimization in a sample of probationers, individuals already at a heightened risk for criminal victimization. Self-report data were collected from 235 felony probationers about, for instance, gun and nongun victimization, gang involvement, and drug sales. Results show different variables are related to nongun victimization and gun victimization. In the current sample, involvement in gun crimes are linked to an increased risk of gun victimization. Violent offending and residential stability are associated with an increased chance of crime victimization.

  2. What Works to Reduce Victimization? Synthesizing What We Know and Where to Go From Here.

    PubMed

    Fox, Kathleen A; Shjarback, John A

    2016-01-01

    While some attention has been paid to "what works" to reduce crime, little is known about the effectiveness of programs designed to reduce victimization. This study systematically reviews 83 program evaluations to identify what works to (a) reduce victimization, (b) enhance beliefs/attitudes about victims, and (c) improve knowledge/awareness of victimization issues. Evidence-based findings are organized around 4 major forms of victimization, including bullying, intimate partner violence, sexual abuse, and other general forms of victimization. Determining whether certain types of programs can reduce the risk of victimization has important implications for improving people's quality of life. Based on our findings, we offer several promising directions for the next generation of research on evaluating victimization programs. The goal of this study is to improve the strength of future program evaluations, replications, and other systematic reviews as researchers and practitioners continue to learn what works to reduce victimization.

  3. Familial support as perceived by adult victims of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Stroud, D D

    1999-04-01

    With the increasing popularity of family therapies in cases of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), many studies have discussed the importance of familial support in the successful recovery of victims. Therefore, a systematic study exploring family support of victims was undertaken to shed light on the level of family support perceived by adult victims of CSA. It was anticipated that victims of intrafamilial CSA would report more family dissatisfaction and perceive less family support than extrafamilial victims. As hypothesized, intrafamilial victims reported significantly more general family dissatisfaction and specifically, perceived significantly less father, parent, and brother support. Additionally, the gender of the victim played a significant role: Male victims reported less father, parent and sister support and less family protectiveness after disclosure when compared to female victims. Based on the results, clinicians should be aware that issues of gender and relatedness may play a significant part in the effectiveness of their CSA clients' family support systems.

  4. The Relationships Between Victim Age, Gender, and Relationship Polymorphism and Sexual Recidivism.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Skye; Seto, Michael C; Goodwill, Alasdair M; Cantor, James M

    2016-02-19

    Victim choice polymorphism refers to victim inconsistency in a series of offenses by the same perpetrator, such as in the domains of victim age, victim gender, and victim-offender relationship. Past studies have found that victim age polymorphic offenders have higher rates of sexual recidivism than offenders against adults only and offenders against children only. Few studies, however, have examined gender and relationship polymorphism, or accounted for the impact of the number of past victims. The present study analyzed the relationship between polymorphism and sexual recidivism, while controlling for the number of victims. The sample consisted of 751 male adult sexual offenders followed for an average of 10 years, 311 of whom were polymorphic (41% of the total sample). The main finding suggested that there was an association between sexual recidivism and age and relationship polymorphism; however, these associations were no longer significant after controlling for the number of victims.

  5. Do targets of workplace bullying portray a general victim personality profile?

    PubMed

    Glasø, Lars; Matthiesen, Stig Berge; Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Einarsen, Ståle

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study is to examine differences in personality between a group of bullied victims and a non-bullied group. The 144 participants, comprising of 72 victims and a matched contrast group of 72 respondents, completed Goldberg's (1999) International Personality Item Pool (IPIP). Significant differences emerged between victims and non-victims on four out of five personality dimensions. Victims tended to be more neurotic and less agreeable, conscientious and extravert than non-victims. However, a cluster analysis revealed that the victim sample can be divided into two personality groups. One cluster, which comprised 64% of the victim sample, do not differ from non-victims as far as personality is concerned. Hence, the results indicate that there is no such thing as a general victim personality profile. However, a small cluster of victims tended to be less extrovert, less agreeable, less conscientious, and less open to experience but more emotional unstable than victims in the major cluster and the control group. Further, both clusters of victims scored higher than non-victims on emotional instability, indicating that personality should not be neglected as being a factor in understanding the bullying phenomenon.

  6. The significance of reciprocal and unilateral friendships for peer victimization in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Scholte, Ron H J; Overbeek, Geertjan; ten Brink, Giovanni; Rommes, Els; de Kemp, Raymond A T; Goossens, Luc; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined to what extent the number of friends and their social and personal characteristics were related to peer victimization in adolescence. Participants were 2,180 adolescents (1,143 girls), aged 11-18 (M = 14.2), who were classified as victims, bully-victims, or non-involved (i.e., adolescents who neither bullied others nor were victimized by others). Three types of friends were distinguished: reciprocal friends, desired friends (who were unilaterally nominated by a target adolescent) and choosing friends (who unilaterally nominated a target adolescent). Between-group comparisons of the three types of friends showed that victims had fewer reciprocal and choosing friends than non-involved adolescents. Compared to bully-victims and non-involved adolescents, victims had reciprocal friends who were socially less well adjusted. No differences existed with respect to the characteristics of the desired friends. In general, victims' choosing friends scored less positive on the personal characteristics than bully-victims' and non-involved adolescents' choosing friends. Within-group comparisons revealed that victims' reciprocal friends showed lower adjustment than victims' desired friends, but higher adjustment than their choosing friends. For bully-victims and non-involved adolescents, such differences between their three types of friends were largely absent. Our findings seem to suggest that victims' reciprocal friendships may not be totally default associations and that out of all possible friends, victims might tend to select those who score most positive on personal or social factors.

  7. Blaming the victim: the effects of extraversion and information disclosure on guilt attributions in cyberbullying.

    PubMed

    Weber, Mathias; Ziegele, Marc; Schnauber, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Cyberbullying victims' success in coping with bullying largely depends on schoolmates and other bystanders' social support. However, factors influencing the degree of social support have as yet not been investigated. In this article, the concept of victim blaming is applied to cyberbullying incidents. It is assumed that a cyberbullying victim receives less social support when the victim's behavior is perceived as very overt. It is further assumed that this effect's underlying process is the partial attribution of responsibility for the incident to the victim and not to the bully. The hypotheses are tested with a 2×2 online experiment. In this experiment, varying online self-presentations of a fictitious female cyberbullying victim were presented to 586 Germans aged 16-22. The victim's public Facebook profile was manipulated in terms of the victim's extraversion and the amount of personal information disclosed. The results support the hypotheses. Participants attributed more responsibility for the bullying incident to the victim when the victim was presented as extraverted and very open in revealing personal information. This diminished social support for the victim. The effect was partially mediated by the victim's perceived attractiveness. The study implies that concepts from victimization research can enhance our understanding of cyberbullying incidents. Among other factors, the victim's specific personal characteristics deserve more consideration--not only with regard to the incident itself but also regarding subsequent social dynamics and coping mechanisms.

  8. Measuring adolescents’ exposure to victimization: The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Helen L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Wertz, Jasmin; Gray, Rebecca; Newbury, Joanne; Ambler, Antony; Zavos, Helena; Danese, Andrea; Mill, Jonathan; Odgers, Candice L.; Pariante, Carmine; Wong, Chloe C.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents mutlilevel findings on adolescents’ victimization exposure from a large longitudinal cohort of twins. Data were obtained from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological study of 2,232 children (1,116 twin pairs) followed to 18 years of age (with 93% retention). To assess adolescent victimization we combined best practices in survey research on victimization with optimal approaches to measuring life stress and traumatic experiences, and introduce a reliable system for coding severe victimization. One in three children experienced at least one type of severe victimization during adolescence (crime victimization, peer/sibling victimization, internet/mobile phone victimization, sexual victimization, family violence, maltreatment, or neglect), and most types of victimization were more prevalent amongst children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Exposure to multiple victimization types was common, as was re-victimization; over half of those physically maltreated in childhood were also exposed to severe physical violence in adolescence. Biometric twin analyses revealed that environmental factors had the greatest influence on most types of victimization, while severe physical maltreatment from caregivers during adolescence was predominantly influenced by heritable factors. The findings from this study showcase how distinct levels of victimization measurement can be harmonized in large-scale studies of health and development. PMID:26535933

  9. The dynamics of friendships and victimization in adolescence: a longitudinal social network perspective.

    PubMed

    Sentse, Miranda; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Salmivalli, Christina; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the development of relational and physical victimization in adolescent friendship networks over time. Using longitudinal social network analysis (SIENA) it was simultaneously tested whether similarity in victimization contributed to friendship formation (selection effects) and whether victimization of friends contributed to changes in victimization (influence effects). This was done for peer-reported relational and physical victimization separately in two middle schools (total N = 480; N = 220, 47% girls, in School 1; N = 260, 52% girls, in School 2) across three time points (Grades 6 through 8; M ages 11.5-13.5). Gender, ethnicity, and baseline aggression were controlled as individual predictors of victimization. Similarity in physical victimization predicted friendship formation, whereas physical victimization was not influenced by friends' victimization but rather by adolescents' own physical aggression. Peer influence effects existed for relational victimization, in that adolescents with victimized friends were more likely to increase in victimization over time as well, over and above the effect of adolescents' own relational aggression. These selection and influence effects were not further qualified by gender. The results suggested that both selection and influence processes as well as individual characteristics play a role in the co-evolution of friendships and victimization, but that these processes are specific for different types of victimization.

  10. Child and context characteristics in trajectories of physical and relational victimization among early elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Leadbeater, Bonnie J; Macdonald, Stuart W S

    2011-02-01

    Transactional models suggest that peer victimization results from both individual and context differences, and understanding these differences may point to important targets for prevention and interventions that reduce victimization. Multilevel modeling was used to examine within-person (aggression and emotional dysregulation), between-person (sex and age), and between-school (participation in a victimization prevention program) factors that influence changes in physical and relational victimization over the first three years of elementary school. Children (n = 423) reported their experiences of peer victimization at entry into Grade 1 and at the end of Grade 1, Grade 2, and Grade 3. On average, trajectories of both physical and relational victimization declined. However, for individual children, teacher-rated aggression was associated with increases in physical and relational victimization, while emotional dysregulation was associated with attenuation of longitudinal declines in physical victimization and increases in relational victimization. Individual differences in sex and age at entry into Grade 1 did not significantly influence victimization trajectories over Grades 1 to 3. Children who participated in the WITS® victimization prevention program showed significant declines in physical and relational victimization. Levels of victimization among nonparticipants remained stable. Implications of child and context characteristics for preventing peer victimization in elementary school are discussed.

  11. Sexual victimization and family violence among urban African American adolescent women: do violence cluster profiles predict partner violence victimization and sex trade exposure?

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah; Kulkarni, Shanti J; Archer, Gretchen

    2012-11-01

    Guided by an intersectional feminist perspective, we examined sexual victimization, witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) in the family, and familial physical abuse among a sample of 180 urban African American adolescent women. We used cluster analysis to better understand the profiles of cumulative victimization, and the relationships between profiles and IPV victimization and personal exposure to the sex trade. Just under one third of the sample reported sexual victimization, with cooccurrence with both forms of family violence common. The cluster profile with high levels of severe family violence was associated with the highest rate of IPV victimization and sex trade exposure.

  12. Impact of Materials Defects on Engine Structures Integrity (L’Impact des Defauts des Materiaux sur l’Integrite des Structures des Moteurs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    participants ont fait le point des aspects traitement et contr6le des mat~riaux. en mettant I’accent sur les materiaux constitutifs des disques moteur en...adapte. Pour le physicien. un -d~faur’" peut tres bien se resumer A une imperfection de Ia structure rericulaire d’un materiau. En science des materiaux ... materiaux sur l~integrite des structures des moteurs Defence Research Ag~ency Matenials & Structures Department Farnborough. Hants GUt 14 fITD Rovaume-Uni

  13. Observing Social Exclusion Leads to Dehumanizing the Victim

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yeong O.; Park, Sang H.

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that observing social exclusion would influence observers’ judgments of the humanness of its victims and perpetrators. Specifically, we speculated that people would attribute victims and perpetrators to lower and higher mental capacities, respectively. Participants observed a simulated computer-based ball tossing game in which one of the players was either ostracized or not. They then rated the game players on traits associated with two dimensions of humanness, namely Human Nature (HN) and Human Uniqueness (HU). Overall, participants who witnessed an exclusion game judged the victim as less human on both domains compared to one of the perpetrators as well as to a player in the control condition. The perpetrator was attributed higher HN, but not significantly higher HU, compared to the control player. In addition, the less HN attributes a target was assigned, the more she was expected to be vulnerable to exploitation. On most of the other measures of target impression, however, the victim was rated more favorably than the perpetrator. The findings imply that social exclusion victims are often subtly derogated compared to the perpetrators, even while they are also more positively evaluated otherwise. PMID:26635705

  14. [Victimization by peers as a developmental risk factor].

    PubMed

    Klicpera, B G; Klicpera, C

    2001-05-01

    The phenomenon of victimization in the peer group has received considerable attention in recent years. This review examines the current state of research in this area. About 10% of all students are affected by peer victimization and are repeatedly verbally or physically attacked by one or more of their fellow students. The causes are to be sought in the social context as well as in individual deficits in social skills, but also in the social-cognitive attributional patterns of the children. The parent-child relationship is another important risk factor. The stability of victimization is relatively high. Its short-term consequences consist of a negative mood and low self-esteem. In the long-term children feel lonely, helpless and sad. Recent research underscores a connection between victimization and the development of depressive disorders. Protective factors are composure in conflict situations, and especially the availability of at least one good friend. Therapeutic interventions are to be considered at the individual level as well as at the level of the classroom unit. Training in certain areas of social competence would be helpful for the children, but consultation for their parents and teachers is important in order to interrupt certain group dynamic processes in the classroom. Future research should address the topic of peer victimization in clinical samples.

  15. Targeting Lynch Victims: Social Marginality or Status Transgressions?*

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Amy Kate; Tolnay, Stewart E.; Beck, E.M.; Laird, Jennifer D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first evidence yielded by a newly-compiled database of known lynch victims. Using information from the original census enumerators’ manuscripts, we identify the individual- and household-level characteristics of more than 900 black males lynched in ten southern states between 1882 and 1930. First, we use the information gathered for successfully linked cases to present a profile of individual-level and household-level characteristics of a large sample of lynch victims. Second, we compare these characteristics to a randomly-generated sample of black men living in the counties where lynchings occurred. We use our findings from this comparative analysis to assess the empirical support for alternative theoretical perspectives on the selection of individuals as victims of southern mob violence. Third, we consider whether the individual-level risk factors for being targeted as a lynch victim varied substantially over time or across space. Our results demonstrate that victims were generally less embedded within the social and economic fabric of their communities than were other black men, suggesting that social marginality increased the likelihood of being targeted for lynching. These findings were generally consistent across decades, and within different socio-demographic contexts. PMID:25067845

  16. Social bonds and the role of school-based victimization.

    PubMed

    Popp, Ann Marie; Peguero, Anthony A

    2012-11-01

    This study explores the impact of school-based victimization on the adolescent's social bond. Previous research has provided empirical support for Hirschi's social control theory that the strength of the adolescent's social bond is associated with the probability that he or she will engage in criminal offending. However, research identifying what factors influence the strength of the adolescent's social bond is limited. In addition, research has established that school-based victimization is associated with numerous negative outcomes, including diminished educational outcomes and criminal offending. Therefore, it is plausible that school-based victimization undermines the adolescent's social bonds to school. Using a sample of 10th-grade students from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002, HLM models were developed to explore the relationship between school-based victimization and the adolescent's social bond to school. The results suggest that school-based victimization has a negative association with three elements of the adolescent's social bond to school: attachment, commitment, and belief. This study demonstrates the need for further research to identify the determinants of the strength of the adolescent's social bond to school.

  17. Risk and Protective Factors Associated to Peer School Victimization.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Inmaculada; Ruiz-Esteban, Cecilia; López-García, J J

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between peer school victimization and some risk and protection factors and to compare the differences by role in victimization with those of non-involved bystanders. Our participants were 1,264 secondary students (M = 14.41, SD = 1.43) who participated voluntarily, although an informed consent was requested. A logistic regression model (LR) was used in order to identify the victim's potential risks and protective factors related to non-involved bystanders. A multiple LR and a forward stepwise LR (Wald) were used. The results showed the variables related to the victim profile were: individual features (to be male, to be at the first cycle of compulsory Secondary Education and a few challenging behaviors), school environments (i.e., school adjustment), family environment (parental styles like authoritarianism) and social environment (i.e., friends who occasionally show a positive attitude toward drug consumption and easy access to drugs, access to drugs perceived as easy, rejection by peers or lack of social acceptance and social maladjustment). The results of the study will allow tackling prevention and intervention actions in schools, families, and social environment in order to improve coexistence at school and to assist the victimized students in the classroom.

  18. Nazi Medical Research in Neuroscience: Medical Procedures, Victims, and Perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Loewenau, Aleksandra; Weindling, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Issues relating to the euthanasia killings of the mentally ill, the medical research conducted on collected body parts, and the clinical investigations on living victims under National Socialism are among the best-known abuses in medical history. But to date, there have been no statistics compiled regarding the extent and number of the victims and perpetrators, or regarding their identities in terms of age, nationality, and gender. "Victims of Unethical Human Experiments and Coerced Research under National Socialism," a research project based at Oxford Brookes University, has established an evidence-based documentation of the overall numbers of victims and perpetrators through specific record linkages of the evidence from the period of National Socialism, as well as from post-WWII trials and other records. This article examines the level and extent of these unethical medical procedures as they relate to the field of neuroscience. It presents statistical information regarding the victims, as well as detailing the involvement of the perpetrators and Nazi physicians with respect to their post-war activities and subsequent court trials.

  19. Evaluation and Management of Female Victims of Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Vrees, Roxanne A

    2017-01-01

    Sexual assault is characterized by any sexual contact or behavior that occurs without explicit consent. Classifications vary based on the status of the perpetrator's relationship to the victim (eg, stranger, acquaintance) and characteristics of the victim herself (eg, child, elder adult, mentally disabled adult). Regardless of the classification, sexual assault is a significant individual as well as public health issue affecting women of all ages. While the majority of sexual assault cases are not initially reported to law enforcement, the best available data suggest the lifetime prevalence of sexual assault in the United States is approximately 20% among adult women. With such a significant proportion of women affected by sexual assault, women's health care providers in both ambulatory and emergency care settings play key roles in the evaluation, management, and advocacy of these victims. Establishing standard protocols based on state laws and on victim-centered practices to avoid revictimization of the patient is critical. The primary goals of care include the assessment and treatment of physical injuries, psychological assessment and support, pregnancy assessment and prevention, and therapy for prevention of sexually transmitted infections. In addition, evidentiary collection is a critical component of the sexual assault evaluation and subsequent legal proceedings. This report focuses specifically on the immediate evaluation and management of adult female victims of sexual assault. Best practices include the utility of the Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner and Sexual Assault Forensic Examiner programs, as well as standardized treatment protocols.

  20. Perpetration and Victimization of Intimate Partner Aggression Among Rural Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Schwab Reese, Laura M.; Harland, Karisa; Smithart, Kelsey

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intimate partner aggression is a leading cause of injury among women of child-bearing age. Research suggests that pregnancy and the postpartum period are times of increased vulnerability to aggression. Since rural women are at an increased risk of intimate partner aggression, research is needed to examine the role of pregnancy and the presence of children on intimate partner aggression among this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between young children and intimate partner aggression victimization and perpetration among a rural sample. This analysis utilized data from biologic females of child-bearing age from the Keokuk County Rural Health Study, a cohort study of over 1,000 rural families conducted from 1994 to 2011. Crude and adjusted logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between having a young child and experiencing four forms of intimate partner aggression: verbal aggression perpetration, verbal aggression victimization, physical aggression perpetration, and physical aggression victimization. Having young children was significantly associated with increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression but not victimization of verbal aggression or perpetration and victimization of physical aggression. This significant relationship persisted after adjustment for education, employment, or location of residence but not age or marital status. The increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression among mothers in a rural area highlight the need for interventions designed for rural parents. One method of reducing intimate partner aggression may be to incorporate intimate partner aggression prevention activities into existing child abuse intervention activities. PMID:27626037

  1. Victimization and Polyvictimization of Spanish Youth Involved in Juvenile Justice.

    PubMed

    Pereda, Noemí; Abad, Judit; Guilera, Georgina

    2015-07-30

    Multiple victimization, or polyvictimization, is closely related to delinquency and crime, although few studies have studied these experiences in juvenile offenders. Therefore, the aim of this study is to present victimization rates in young offenders from a Southwestern European country. The sample consisted of 101 youth aged between 14 and 17 years, who were mainly recruited from detention centers (77.2%). From a lifetime perspective, the majority had suffered a criminal offense against the person (93.1%), exposure to community violence (95.0%), and peer victimization (86.1%). Prevalence rates for direct and indirect family violence were also high (63.4% and 43.6%). Electronic victimization reached a rate of 40.6% and sexual victimization of 15.8%. Past year experiences showed lower but similar patterns. Based on a community population criterion to define polyvictimization, 65.3% of the sample were considered lifetime polyvictims, while 41.6% were defined as past year polyvictims. Interventions to address multiple, concurrent forms of exposure to violence should be implemented in the justice system as polyvictimization has been revealed as a frequent reality in young offenders, which may result in antisocial behavior.

  2. Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and Romantic Relationship Distress Among White and Mexican Newlyweds.

    PubMed

    Hammett, Julia F; Ulloa, Emilio C; Castañeda, Donna M; Hokoda, Audrey

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and romantic relationship distress in a sample of 100 heterosexual White and Mexican American couples. Data were collected during the first and during the third year of marriage. In the overall sample, wives' own IPV victimization was associated with wives' increased distress and husbands' IPV victimization was associated with wives' decreased distress. Among Mexican Americans, wives' IPV victimization was related to husbands' increased distress, whereas among White Americans, wives' IPV victimization was related to husbands' decreased distress. These results indicate that the association between IPV victimization and relationship distress may not only differ by gender but also by ethnicity.

  3. Forgiveness as a moderator of the association between victimization and suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqun; Lu, Dali; Zhou, Lihua; Su, Linyan

    2013-07-01

    The present study examined the relationships between victimization, suicidal ideation and forgiveness. 962 Chinese middle school students were evaluated using the Chinese versions of the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (OBVQ), the Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation scale (PANSI) and the Forgiveness Questionnaire (FQ). High victimization and low forgiveness were found to predict increased suicidal ideation. Victimized students with high level of forgiveness reported less suicidal ideation than students with low level of forgiveness. Forgiveness was found to moderate the association between victimization and suicidal ideation and could be a protective factor against suicidal ideation in victimized students.

  4. A dopamine gene (DRD2) distinguishes between offenders who have and have not been violently victimized.

    PubMed

    Vaske, Jamie; Wright, John Paul; Beaver, Kevin M

    2011-04-01

    Research has shown that offenders, on average, are more likely to be violently victimized than nonoffenders. However, a substantial percentage of offenders are not violently victimized. The current study uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to investigate whether variants of a polymorphism in the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) distinguish between offenders who are violently victimized and offenders who are not violently victimized. The results show that offenders who are violently victimized are more likely to carry the DRD2 (A1) risk allele than offenders who have not been violently victimized.

  5. Rape Myth Consistency and Gender Differences in Perceiving Rape Victims: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hockett, Jericho M; Smith, Sara J; Klausing, Cathleen D; Saucier, Donald A

    2016-02-01

    An overview discusses feminist analyses of oppression, attitudes toward rape victims, and previously studied predictors of individuals' attitudes toward rape victims. To better understand such attitudes, this meta-analysis examines the moderating influences of various rape victim, perpetrator, and crime characteristics' rape myth consistency on gender differences in individuals' perceptions of rape victims (i.e., victim responsibility and blame attributions and rape minimizing attitudes). Consistent with feminist theoretical predictions, results indicated that, overall, men perceived rape victims more negatively than women did. However, this sex difference was moderated by the rape myth consistency within the rape vignettes. Implications for research are discussed.

  6. The effects of victim of bullying reputation on adolescents' choice of friends: mediation by fear of becoming a victim of bullying, moderation by victim status, and implications for befriending interventions.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that victims of bullying fare less well on measures of peer affiliation than nonvictims, but less is known about the direction of effects and the mechanisms involved. Three linked studies addressed the latter two issues using an experimental paradigm with hypothetical vignettes (N=360). In Experiment 1, among both boys and girls and pupils in Years 7, 8, and 9 (n=120), participants were significantly less likely to (a) agree to act as a formal befriender to, (ii) believe that they would attempt to form a friendship with, and (iii) think that their peers would form friendships with a pupil new to their school if the description of the new pupil signaled that he or she had (vs. had not) been the victim of bullying in previous schools. Experiment 2 confirmed this "victim reputation" effect with a different sample (n=120) and found support for the hypothesis that it was mediated by the belief that associating with victims leads to an increased risk of becoming a victim (the "associating with victims is risky" effect). Experiment 3 (n=120) further replicated the original victim reputation effect and showed that the associating with victims is risky mediation effect was itself moderated by participants' current victim status; the effect was stronger among participants that were high (vs. low) in current victimization. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  7. Le risque de détresse morale dans la pratique contemporaine des soins de santé.

    PubMed

    Austin, Wendy

    2016-05-01

    Les professionnels de la santé sont des agents moraux dont la relation fiduciaire avec le public est animée par la responsabilité et la promesse de puiser dans leurs connaissances et leurs habiletés pour aider les personnes sous leurs soins. Lorsque leur capacité à tenir cette promesse est freinée ou compromise, ils risquent de souffrir de détresse morale. Le concept de détresse morale est défini et mis en contexte dans le milieu de la santé. Les contraintes et les facteurs qui en sont à l'origine sont présentés, de même que les moyens utilisés par les professionnels de la santé et les organisations de santé pour la soulager. Un changement transformateur s'impose pour vaincre la culture du silence et maintenir un système de santé où il est possible de vivre avec sa conscience.

  8. Lead Toxicity Risks in Gunshot Victims

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Gabriel Costa Serrão; Mourão, Natália Teixeira; Pinheiro, Igor Natário; Xavier, Analúcia Rampazzo; Gameiro, Vinicius Schott

    2015-01-01

    Background Gunshot wounds require surgeons to decide whether to remove or leave bullet fragments in the body. Surgeons also decide how to follow up with patients who have lead fragments retained in their body. Current literature recommends to remove only intra-articular fragments without the need for a follow-up for patients with the metal retained. Therefore, this study investigates chronic lead toxicity for gunshot wounds. Methods The study was performed in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil, between 2013 and 2015. It was a case-control study that included 45 victims of gunshot lesions with metallic fragments retained for more than 6 months. The 45 controls were matched for gender, age, and race. We compared the lead blood levels and frequency of symptoms. Results The control group had average blood lead levels of 2.17 μg/dL (95% Confidence Interval [CI]; 1.71–2.63) and median 2.1 μg/dL. The case group had average values of 9.01 μg/dL (CI; 6.07–11.96) and median values of 6.5 μg/dL with p-values < = 0.001. The case group reported the following more frequently: irritancy, bad mood, headache, memory losses, daylight drowsiness, myalgia, weakness, abdominal pain, joint pain, trembling, tingling limbs. There was statistical significance for the differences of symptoms frequencies and for odds ratio between groups. Conclusions Although the mean lead levels found were lower than the current laboratory references, low levels have been associated with both rising morbidity and mortality. The WHO stated: “There is no known level of lead exposure that is considered safe”. In conclusion, this work showed that bullets retained in the body are not innocuous. There are impacts in the blood lead levels and symptoms related to it, even with few fragments, extra-articular located or existing with low blood lead levels. PMID:26509498

  9. Measuring adolescents' exposure to victimization: The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Helen L; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Wertz, Jasmin; Gray, Rebecca; Newbury, Joanne; Ambler, Antony; Zavos, Helena; Danese, Andrea; Mill, Jonathan; Odgers, Candice L; Pariante, Carmine; Wong, Chloe C Y; Arseneault, Louise

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents multilevel findings on adolescents' victimization exposure from a large longitudinal cohort of twins. Data were obtained from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological study of 2,232 children (1,116 twin pairs) followed to 18 years of age (with 93% retention). To assess adolescent victimization, we combined best practices in survey research on victimization with optimal approaches to measuring life stress and traumatic experiences, and introduce a reliable system for coding severity of victimization. One in three children experienced at least one type of severe victimization during adolescence (crime victimization, peer/sibling victimization, Internet/mobile phone victimization, sexual victimization, family violence, maltreatment, or neglect), and most types of victimization were more prevalent among children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Exposure to multiple victimization types was common, as was revictimization; over half of those physically maltreated in childhood were also exposed to severe physical violence in adolescence. Biometric twin analyses revealed that environmental factors had the greatest influence on most types of victimization, while severe physical maltreatment from caregivers during adolescence was predominantly influenced by heritable factors. The findings from this study showcase how distinct levels of victimization measurement can be harmonized in large-scale studies of health and development.

  10. Victims' Responses to Stalking: An Examination of Fear Levels and Coping Strategies.

    PubMed

    Podaná, Zuzana; Imríšková, Romana

    2016-03-01

    Fear for the stalking victim's own safety or the safety of people close to them is of primary research interest due to the fact that fear is often required as a necessary condition for repetitive intrusive behavior to be defined as stalking. This study examines factors that increase levels of fear in stalking victims and analyzes their coping strategies, making use of data from a victimization survey among citizens of the Czech Republic (N = 2,503). Overall, 147 stalking victims were identified in the sample. Results show that female victims, those stalked by male offenders, and victims pursued over a long period of time, are most fearful. Higher levels of fear are elicited by strangers as opposed to partners or acquaintances. Among stalking practices, only direct aggression is significantly associated with fear, whereas monitoring the victim (comprising typical stalking behavior such as following the victim) increases the perception of the seriousness of stalking, but does not influence the victim's fear. In addition, three behavioral coping strategies have been identified: proactive behavior (47% of victims), avoidance (30%), and passivity (23%). The examination of the association between these coping strategies and victims' fear reveals that female victims, whose behavior is proactive, express higher levels of fear than male victims and than those choosing avoidance or passivity strategies. Overall, the study confirms gender differences in both the level of fear and coping strategies, and lends further support to appeals for eliminating the fear requirement from the stalking definition.

  11. Dysregulated negative emotional reactivity as a predictor of chronic peer victimization in childhood.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Paul J; Milich, Richard; Harris, Monica J

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations of dysregulated negative emotional reactivity, emotional distress, and chronic peer victimization in childhood. A model was proposed whereby dysregulated reactivity was directly and indirectly related to concurrent peer victimization through victimization-related emotional distress. The model further proposed that dysregulated reactivity directly incrementally predicted longitudinal peer victimization above and beyond the effect of concurrent victimization. Two hundred thirteen 9- to 13-year-old children and their parents completed measures of dysregulated reactivity and victimization experiences at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Children also related narratives of personal victimization experiences at baseline that were coded to assess victimization-related emotional distress. Model testing strongly supported the direct association of dysregulated reactivity with concurrent victimization and incremental predictive effects of dysregulated reactivity on peer victimization over time. Model testing also provided support for an indirect effect of dysregulated reactivity on concurrent peer victimization through victimization-related emotional distress. This study demonstrated the powerful role that dysregulated negative emotional reactivity plays in the development of chronic peer victimization over time.

  12. Preventing victimization among young women: The SafeNights intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kelley-Baker, Tara; Johnson, Mark B.; Romano, Eduardo; Mumford, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Brenda A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We examined the effect of a brief intervention, titled SafeNights, to reduce victimization among young college-aged females. Participants A total of 1,048 women participated; 496 participants in the control and 552 in the experimental condition. Method Young Americans crossing the U.S. border to patronize Tijuana bars were randomly assigned to an intervention as they traveled into Tijuana. Upon returning to the United States, participants provided a breath sample and were interviewed. Results SafeNights was significantly associated with reductions in reported victimization independent of alcohol consumption. Conclusions The intervention will be refined for a broader spectrum of collegiate settings at high risk for heavy drinking and potential victimization. PMID:24634576

  13. Typological Analysis of Victimization Profiles of Young Children.

    PubMed

    Robert-Mazaye, Christelle; Clément, Marie-Ève; Cyr, Katie; Chamberland, Claire

    2017-04-01

    Although the scope of violence against children has been well documented, the reality of this phenomenon remains to be examined. Using data collected during a populationbased survey on the polyvictimization of children between 2 and 11 years old, this study explores the profiles of 972 children who are victims of many forms of violence (in family, school, and/or community). Cluster analyses identified 4 groups (minimal victimization, generalized victimization, threatening environment, aggressive environment), which differ according to the forms and extent of the violence experienced. The role of age, gender, and adverse life events in forming groups is also examined, as are the links with mental health disorders. Fostering the examination of the phenomenon of violence against children in all its diversity, this taxonomy presents advantages for researchers and professionals, which are discussed.

  14. Base rates of hate crime victimization among college students.

    PubMed

    Rayburn, Nadine Recker; Earleywine, Mitchell; Davison, Gerald C

    2003-10-01

    This study uses the unmatched count technique (UCT) to estimate base rates for hate crime victimization in college students and compares the results with estimates found using conventional methods. Hate crimes, criminal acts perpetrated against individuals or members of specific stigmatized groups, intend to express condemnation, hate, disapproval, dislike, or distrust for a group. The UCT is a promising tool in the investigation of hate crime because it does not require participants to directly answer sensitive questions. This may provide more accurate responses than other methods. The UCT revealed higher estimates for a variety of serious hate crimes, including physical and sexual assault. These higher estimates provide a better feel for the level of hate crime victimization and point to the increased need for hate crime victims' assistance programs on college campuses.

  15. Characteristics of fire victims in different sorts of fires.

    PubMed

    Rogde, S; Olving, J H

    1996-01-12

    We studied retrospectively 286 cases of fire deaths from a 10 year period. The victims were classified according to the type of fire. Among the victims of smouldering fire, 80% had lethal HbCO saturations, whereas only 30% had such saturations when an accelerant had been used. The third group consisted of victims of fires in which the type of fire was, for various reasons, undetermined. HbCO saturations were not influenced by sex, age, concomitant disease or blood alcohol concentration. In eight cases neither respiratory soot nor HbCO was detected in spite of evidence that the deceased was alive as the fire broke out. The material included nine cases of homicide and 22 cases of suicide.

  16. Verbal victimization and changes in hopelessness among elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Andrea J; Gibb, Brandon E

    2011-01-01

    Hopelessness is a known risk factor for a number of negative outcomes including suicide attempts and deaths. However, little is known about how hopelessness may develop. The goal of this study was to examine the impact of verbal victimization on changes in children's levels of hopelessness. Participants were 448 fourth- and fifth-grade children who were assessed twice, 6 months apart. As hypothesized, reports of verbal victimization occurring during the follow-up period predicted residual change in children's levels of hopelessness. This relation was maintained even after statistically controlling for children's depressive symptoms. Together, these findings suggest that verbal victimization is associated with a greater risk for developing hopelessness in elementary school children, an effect that appears at least partially independent of concurrent depressive symptoms.

  17. Identifying and targeting risk for involvement in bullying and victimization.

    PubMed

    Craig, Wendy M; Pepler, Debra J

    2003-10-01

    Bullying is a relationship problem in which power and aggression are used to cause distress to a vulnerable person. To assess and address bullying and victimization, we need to understand the nature of the problem, how the problem changes with age and differs for boys and girls, the relevant risk factors (those individual or environmental indicators that may lead to bullying and victimization), and the protective factors that buffer the impact of risk. For children involved in bullying, we need to assess its extent and the associated social, emotional, psychological, educational, and physical problems. Bullying is a systemic problem; therefore, assessments of bullying need to extend beyond the individual child to encompass the family, peer group, school, and community. We recommend that assessments at each of these levels reflect the scientific research on bullying and victimization. With attention to the problems associated with bullying, we can work collectively to make schools and communities safer for children and youth.

  18. Risk of violent crime victimization during major daily activities.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Andrew M; Felson, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to risk of violent crime is best understood after considering where people are, what they do, and for how long they do it. This article calculates Americans' exposure to violent attack per 10 million person-hours spent in different activities. Numerator data are from the National Crime Victimization Survey (2003-2008) estimates of violent incidents occurring during nine major everyday activities. Comparable denominator data are derived from the American Time Use Survey. The resulting time-based rates give a very different picture of violent crime victimization risk. Hour-for-hour, the greatest risk occurs during travel between activities. This general result holds for demographic subgroups and each type of violent crime victimization.

  19. Interpretations of bullying by bullies, victims, and bully-victims in interactions at different levels of abstraction.

    PubMed

    Pouwels, J Loes; Scholte, Ron H J; van Noorden, Tirza H J; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2016-01-01

    According to the Social Information Processing Model of children's adjustment, children develop general interpretation styles for future social events based on past social experiences. Previous research has shown associations between interpretations of social situations and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. This study investigated whether bullies, victims, bully-victims, and uninvolved children interpreted ambiguous human interactions differently in terms of bullying and whether these interpretations generalized to abstract non-human interactions. Participants were 390 children (49% girls, Mage  = 10.3 years) who completed self-report measures of bullying and victimization. In addition, they indicated whether video fragments of positive, negative, or ambiguous interactions between humans, animals, and abstract figures depicted bullying situations. Bully-victims reported more bullying than victims and uninvolved children in ambiguous abstract figure, animal, and human fragments and in positive animal fragments. Children who bully did not differ from the other groups. These findings indicate that interpretations of bullying generalized from ambiguous human interactions to more abstract ambiguous animal and abstract figure interactions. Implications for further research and practice were discussed.

  20. Les campagnes communautaires de promotion du depistage VIH en Afrique de l’Ouest : perceptions des usagers au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Desclaux, Alice; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Somé, Jean-François; Makhlouf-Obermeyer, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Résumé La politique actuelle de lutte contre le sida qui repose sur l’extension de l’accès aux traitements et à la prévention exige qu’une proportion élevée de la population connaisse son statut en matière de VIH. Pour cela, l’OMS a proposé le développement de stratégies communautaires délivrant le dépistage et le conseil au-delà des services de soins, comme le test à domicile ou les campagnes de sensibilisation et dépistage de grande envergure, appliqués en Afrique australe et de l’Est. Pour définir les stratégies pertinentes dans des régions de basse prévalence comme l’Afrique de l’Ouest, les expériences communautaires de promotion du dépistage doivent y être évaluées. Cet article présente une évaluation des campagnes au Burkina Faso du point de vue des usagers. Dans le cadre d’un projet sur les pratiques et l’éthique du dépistage dans quatre pays africains (MATCH), une enquête qualitative spécifique a été menée pendant la campagne de 2008, auprès de personnes ayant fait le test pendant la campagne, ayant fait le test hors campagne ou n’ayant pas fait le test. Les appréciations sont globalement très favorables aux campagnes, notamment à cause de l’information dispensée, l’accessibilité des sites, la gratuité du test, la qualité des services et l’effet d’entrainement. Les limites ou critiques sont essentiellement liées à l’affluence ou à la crainte de ne pas être soutenu en cas de résultat positif. La démarche de recours au test ne fait plus l’objet de suspicion, au moins pendant la campagne. Cette « normalisation » du recours au test et la mobilisation collective facilitent des pratiques en groupe, ce qui peut rendre difficile de garder son statut VIH secret. L’évaluation des campagnes par les usagers les présente comme une opportunité pour accéder facilement au test et pour communiquer à ce sujet dans divers espaces sociaux à partir des informations délivrées sur le VIH

  1. Peste des petits ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Parida, S.; Muniraju, M.; Mahapatra, M.; Muthuchelvan, D.; Buczkowski, H.; Banyard, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants. PMID:26443889

  2. Peste des petits ruminants.

    PubMed

    Parida, S; Muniraju, M; Mahapatra, M; Muthuchelvan, D; Buczkowski, H; Banyard, A C

    2015-12-14

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants.

  3. Epidemiological profile of extremity fractures in victims of motorcycle accidents

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Flamarion dos Santos; Silveira, Leandro Oliveira; Castillo, Jesús José André Quintana; de Pontes, Jady Elen; Villalobos, Luz Delícia Castillo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Show the epidemiological profile of limb fractures in victim of motorcycle accident seen at the Emergency Department of Hospital Universitário Evangélico de Curitiba (HUEC), Curitiba, PR, Brazil, from January 2007 to December 2013, as well as to compare the results with data from the literature. Methods: This is a retrospective, descriptive, observational study. The information was obtained from the analysis of all the medical records from January 2007 to December 2013 belonging to the hospital archives. Only extremity fractures cases from motorcycle accident victims were analyzed, according to the medical records and radiological reports. The ICD-10 was used as classification criterion, and the fractures were grouped depending on the topography of the injury. The following variables were considered: number of victims, gender, age and fracture site, in order to create a database to contrast with the literature. Results: During seven years, 3,528 motorcycle accident victims have been identified, 88.29% being male, whereas 11.71% being female. The average age of the victims was 29.7 years old, observing a strong inverse correlation between the number of victims and their ages. There has been 4,365 fractures, being 59.66% in lower limbs and 40.34% in upper limbs. From that total, 18.14% were leg fractures, 11.57% were hand fractures and 10.65% were wrist fractures. Conclusion: This study has met its objectives and the results were similar to the national literature. Level of Evidence II, Retropective Study. PMID:26327795

  4. Legal issues in treating perpetrators and victims of violence.

    PubMed

    Resnick, P J; Scott, C L

    1997-06-01

    Psychiatrists are faced increasingly with the difficult responsibility of evaluating perpetrators and victims of violence. The following guidelines will help the clinician avoid legal difficulty: 1. Become knowledgeable about your state statutes regarding civil commitment and duty to third parties. 2. Document thoroughly your risk assessment and the factors you considered in reaching your judgment. 3. Consider obtaining a second opinion in difficult cases. 4. Follow hospital policies regarding seclusion, restraints, and emergency medication of the patient. 5. Adhere to mandatory reporting requirements for victims of abuse.

  5. [Cyberbullying: adolescent victimization through mobile phone and internet].

    PubMed

    Buelga, Sofía; Cava, María Jesús; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of victimization through mobile phone and internet. The differences of gender and academic year in the type of electronic aggression were also examined. The sample comprised 2001 adolescents of both genders and ages between 11 and 17 years. Results indicated that 24.6% of the adolescents had been bullied by mobile phone during the last year, and 29% through internet. In most of the electronic aggressions, girls were more bullied than boys. It was also observed that students attending the first two years of secondary education tended to be more victimized.

  6. Current research knowledge about adolescent victimization via the Internet.

    PubMed

    Wolak, Janis; Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly; Finkelhor, David

    2007-08-01

    We review current knowledge about adolescent Internet-mediated victimization, including Internet-initiated sex crimes in which offenders use the Internet to meet victims, unwanted online sexual solicitations, Internet harassment, and unwanted and wanted exposure to online pornography. Internet-initiated sex crimes have received considerable publicity, but the media stories have contributed to stereotypes that do not accurately portray adolescent Internet experience. Adults' concerns are valid but need to be supported with information that illuminates the real safety issues and targets the specific population of youth impacted.

  7. Substance Use Among Victimized Women on Probation and Parole

    PubMed Central

    Golder, Seana; Hall, Martin T.; Logan, TK; Higgins, George; Dishon, Amanda; Renn, Tanya; Winham, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Victimized women within the criminal justice system are an important group and understanding their substance use is critical. Substance use was examined among 406 victimized women on probation and parole in an urban community from 2010 to 2013. Ninety-three percent reported lifetime use of an illicit substance, while 58% and 45% reported use of at least one illicit substance in the past two years and 12 months, respectively. Among probationers, having been in a controlled environment was associated with a higher prevalence of illicit substance use as compared to parolees. Implications for practice, policy and future research are discussed. PMID:24138096

  8. Bullying victimization among college students: Negative consequences for alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Richman, Judith A.; Wolff, Jennifer M.; Burke, Larisa A.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on the prevalence of bullying victimization at school and work among college freshmen, and the relationships between victimization and changes in alcohol consumption and alcohol problems. Web survey data at two points in time from a sample of 2118 freshmen from eight colleges and universities in the Midwestern United States indicated that 43% of students experienced bullying at school, and 33% of students experienced bullying at work. Bullying, particularly at school, consistently predicted alcohol consumption and problematic drinking, controlling for baseline drinking and other school and work stressors. PMID:24325767

  9. [Triage and initial treatment of house fire victims].

    PubMed

    Gremion, C; Wicky, R; Niquille, M

    2005-08-10

    Medical teams are often confronted to the numerous victims due to house fires. The time course of these disasters is difficult to predict and requires an excellent rescue organization as well as good cooperation with the fire brigades and appropriate matching and raising of means to the magnitude of the disaster. Victims usually present with three types of injuries: thermal, traumatic and toxic. In order to avoid an overflow of patients in surrounding hospitals, adequate triage and treatment are required on the field. Triage is best relized by history and physical examination and the main treatment remains maximal oxygen therapy. In case of severe monoxide intoxication, cyanide poisoning should be highly suspected.

  10. Substance use among victimized women on probation and parole.

    PubMed

    Golder, Seana; Hall, Martin T; Logan, T K; Higgins, George E; Dishon, Amanda; Renn, Tanya; Winham, Katherine M

    2014-03-01

    Victimized women within the criminal justice system are an important group and understanding their substance use is critical. Substance use was examined among 406 victimized women on probation and parole in an urban community from 2010 to 2013. Ninety-three percent reported lifetime use of an illicit substance, whereas 58% and 45% reported use of at least one illicit substance in the past 2 years and 12 months, respectively. Among probationers, having been in a controlled environment was associated with a higher prevalence of illicit substance use as compared to parolees. Implications for practice, policy, and future research are discussed.

  11. Bullying victimization among college students: negative consequences for alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Rospenda, Kathleen M; Richman, Judith A; Wolff, Jennifer M; Burke, Larisa A

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the prevalence of bullying victimization at school and work among college freshmen and the relationships between victimization and changes in alcohol consumption and alcohol problems. Web survey data at 2 time points from a sample of 2118 freshmen from 8 colleges and universities in the Midwestern United States indicated that 43% of students experienced bullying at school and that 33% of students experienced bullying at work. Bullying, particularly at school, consistently predicted alcohol consumption and problematic drinking, after controlling for baseline drinking and other school and work stressors.

  12. Sexual harassment victimization and perpetration among high school students.

    PubMed

    Clear, Emily R; Coker, Ann L; Cook-Craig, Patricia G; Bush, Heather M; Garcia, Lisandra S; Williams, Corrine M; Lewis, Alysha M; Fisher, Bonnie S

    2014-10-01

    This large, population-based study is one of the few to examine prevalence rates of sexual harassment occurring during the past 12 months by victimization and perpetration among adolescents. In this large, cross-sectional survey of students attending 26 high schools, sexual harassment was defined using three questions from the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire. Among 18,090 students completing the survey, 30% disclosed sexual harassment victimization (37% of females, 21% of males) and 8.5% reported perpetration (5% of females, 12% of males). Sexual harassment perpetration was highly correlated with male sex, minority race/ethnicity, same-sex attraction, bullying, alcohol binge drinking, and intraparental partner violence.

  13. Victim empathy intervention with sexual offenders: rehabilitation, punishment, or correctional quackery?

    PubMed

    Mann, Ruth E; Barnett, Georgia D

    2013-06-01

    A sexual offender is thought to have victim empathy when he has a cognitive and emotional understanding of the experience of the victim of his sexual offense. Most sex offender treatment programs devote significant time to developing victim empathy. The authors examine three meta-analytic studies and some individual studies that suggest victim empathy work is unnecessary, or even harmful. Service user studies, however, report positive reactions to victim empathy work. The authors conclude that the enthusiasm for victim empathy work as a rehabilitative endeavor is disproportionate given the weak evidence base and the lack of a coherent theoretical model of change. However, because the research is inconclusive, it is not possible to conclude that victim empathy work is "correctional quackery." We suggest a research program to clarify whether or not victim empathy intervention for sexual offenders has value.

  14. The effect of victims' responses to overt bullying on same-sex peer bystander reactions.

    PubMed

    Sokol, Nicole; Bussey, Kay; Rapee, Ronald M

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the impact of victims' responses to overt bullying on peer bystanders' attitudes and reactions. Fifth- and seventh-grade students (N = 206; M(age) = 11.13 and 13.18 years, respectively) completed online questionnaires about gender-consistent videotaped hypothetical bullying scenarios in which the victims' responses (angry, sad, confident, ignoring) were experimentally manipulated. Victims' responses significantly influenced bystanders' attitudes towards the victim, perceptions of the victimization, emotional reactions, and behavioral intentions. In general, angry victims elicited more negative reactions, sad victims elicited greater intentions to act, while incidents involving confident victims were perceived as less serious. Several variations depending on the bullying type and students' grade, gender, and personal experiences with bullying were evident. Implications for individual-level and peer-level anti-bullying interventions are discussed.

  15. Males’ Reactions to Participating in Research on Dating Violence Victimization and Childhood Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Zucosky, Heather; Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood abuse and dating violence victimization are prevalent and devastating problems. While there has been an abundance of research on these topics in recent years, researchers and Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) often struggle with determining whether asking respondents questions on previous violence will result in increased emotional distress or other negative research outcomes. Empirical data is therefore needed that examines the research reactions of individuals who participate in research on childhood abuse and dating violence. The current study examined this topic among a sample of male college students (N = 193). Results showed that victims of childhood sexual abuse had more negative emotional reactions and victims of physical dating violence had more negative perceived drawbacks to research participation than non-victims. However, victims and non-victims did not differ on positive research reactions. These findings suggest that there are few differences between victims and non-victims on research reactions. PMID:23741174

  16. Of virtual victims and victimized virtues: differential effects of experienced aggression in video games on social cooperation.

    PubMed

    Rothmund, Tobias; Gollwitzer, Mario; Klimmt, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Two experimental studies were used to investigate how interacting with aggressive virtual characters in video games affects trust and cooperation of players. Study 1 demonstrates that experiencing virtual aggression from a victim's perspective can impair players' investments in a subsequent common goods dilemma situation. This effect is mediated by reduced expectations of trust in the cooperativeness of interaction partners. In Study 2 the same effect was replicated by using a different cooperation task and by investigating the moderating role of justice sensitivity from a victim's perspective as a dispositional factor. Participants transferred less money to an unknown partner in a trust game after exposure to aggressive nonplayer characters in a video game. This effect was stronger for people high in victim sensitivity. Results of both studies can be interpreted in line with the sensitivity to mean intentions model and add to the body of research on violent media effects.

  17. A Spatial Analysis of Heterogeneity in the Link Between Alcohol Outlets and Assault Victimization: Differences Across Victim Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Goldstick, Jason E.; Brenner, Allison B.; Lipton, Robert I.; Mistry, Ritesh; Aiyer, Sophie M.; Reischl, Thomas M.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    The positive association between alcohol outlet density and assault rates is well established, but little is known about how this association differs across victim subpopulations. We use spatial point process models on police data from Flint, Michigan, to test how the link between alcohol outlet density and assault rates changes as a function of three victim characteristics: age, gender, and race. We found that, although both on-premises and package outlet densities consistently emerge as risk factors for victimization, their relative effects are markedly larger in Whites than in African Americans. No analogous age- or gender-based differences were found. These results suggest the racial effects arise more from relative differences in the atmosphere in and around alcohol outlets than differences in drinking behavior alone. PMID:26159914

  18. AVOID BECOMING A VICTIM OF COUNTERFEIT ITEMS

    SciTech Connect

    WARRINER RD

    2011-07-13

    In today's globalized economy, we cannot live without imported products. Most people do not realize how thin the safety net of regulation and inspection really is. Less than three percent of imported products receive any form of government inspection prior to sale. Avoid flea markets, street vendors and deep discount stores. The sellers of counterfeit wares know where to market their products. They look for individuals who are hungry for a brand name item but do not want to pay a brand name price for it. The internet provides anonymity to the sellers of counterfeit products. Unlike Europe, U.S. law does not hold internet-marketing organizations, responsible for the quality of the products sold on their websites. These organizations will remove an individual vendor when a sufficient number of complaints are lodged, but they will not take responsibility for the counterfeit products you may have purchased. EBay has a number of counterfeit product guides to help you avoid being a victim of the sellers of these products. Ten percent of all medications taken worldwide are counterfeit. If you do buy medications on-line, be sure that the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy Verified Internet Pharmacy Practice Sites (VIPPS) recommends the pharmacy you choose to use. Inspect all medication purchases and report any change in color, shape, imprinting or odor to your pharmacist. If you take generic medications these attributes may change from one manufacturer to another. Your pharmacist should inform you of any changes when you refill your prescription. If they do not, get clarification prior to taking the medication. Please note that the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate supplements. The FDA only steps in when a specific supplement proves to cause physical harm or contains a regulated ingredient. Due to counterfeiting, Underwriters Laboratories (UL) changed their label design three times since 1996. The new gold label should be attached to the cord or

  19. L’opinion des étudiants en médecine de Québec sur les punitions corporelles

    PubMed Central

    Labbé, Jean; Laflamme, Nathalie; Makosso-Kallyth, Sun

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIF : L’objectif de la présente étude est de décrire l’opinion des étudiants en médecine de l’Université Laval sur le sujet controversé des punitions corporelles envers les enfants. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Un sondage a été réalisé auprès des étudiants en quatrième année de médecine de l’Université Laval pendant cinq années consécutives, soit de l’année scolaire 2006–2007 jusqu’à celle de 2010–2011 inclusivement, à l’occasion d’un séminaire portant sur la maltraitance envers les enfants. RÉSULTATS : Sur les 712 étudiants interrogés, 74 % étaient de sexe féminin et 91 % étaient âgés de moins de 30 ans. Concernant les punitions corporelles envers les enfants, 22 % des répondants s’y sont déclarés favorables. Plus de garçons que de filles se sont prononcés en faveur de cette pratique disciplinaire, soit 31 % des garçons par rapport à 18 % des filles respectivement (RC rajusté = 2,2, IC 95 % :1,4 à 3,4; p=0,0003). Près de 36 % des étudiants ayant eu des punitions corporelles y étaient favorables, comparativement à seulement 4 % de ceux qui n’avaient pas connu cette forme de discipline (RC rajusté = 16,5, IC 95 % :8,6 à 31,4; p<0,0001). Parmi ceux qui ont mentionné avoir été victimes d’abus physique, 25 % se sont déclarés en faveur de cette pratique, ce qui est similaire au 21 % observés chez ceux qui n’en ont pas été victimes (p=0,52). CONCLUSION : Alors que plusieurs organismes médicaux se sont prononcés contre l’utilisation des punitions corporelles, plus d’un futur médecin sur cinq à Québec se déclare favorable à cette méthode disciplinaire et pourrait influencer la conduite des parents en ce sens. PMID:24179417

  20. Psychopathological characteristics of child pornographers and their victims: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Prat, Sebastien; Jonas, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Child pornography is a form of child sexual exploitation which has been modified by the use of the Internet. The use of child pornography does not necessarily lead to actual child abuse. Victims of child pornography can be classified as direct victims, who have been sexually abused, and indirect victims, who receive images to groom them for actual abuse in the future. Based on a review of the literature, we present the psychopathological characteristics of child pornographers and their victims.

  1. Violent Victimization in the Community and Children's Subsequent Peer Rejection: The Mediating Role of Emotion Dysregulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Brynn M.; Schwartz, David; Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer; Nakamoto, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a short-term longitudinal study of the relation between violent victimization in the community and peer rejection among 199 children (mean age = 9.02 years) attending two urban Los Angeles area elementary schools. We used a multi-informant approach to assess victimization by community violence, peer group victimization, peer…

  2. Let's Talk about It: Peer Victimization Experiences as Reported by Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Marisa H.; Taylor, Julie Lounds

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder experience high rates of peer victimization; yet, their personal experiences and perceptions of such victimization are not well understood. In this qualitative investigation, responses to questions about bullying and teasing were examined to gain insight into the perception of peer victimization as…

  3. Cultural Barriers to Help-Seeking among Taiwanese Female Victims of Dating Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative analysis regarding the help-seeking behaviors of female dating-violence victims from a cultural perspective. A semistructured, in-depth interview was used to collect data from 10 female victims (aged 20-28). Findings indicate that Taiwanese dating-violence victims tend to seek informal help rather than formal…

  4. 24 CFR 982.53 - Equal opportunity requirements and protection for victims of domestic violence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... protection for victims of domestic violence. 982.53 Section 982.53 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... requirements and protection for victims of domestic violence. (a) The tenant-based program requires compliance...) Protection for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking. The PHA must apply 24 CFR part...

  5. A longitudinal analysis of drinking and victimization in college women: Is there a reciprocal relationship?

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Kathleen A.; Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Taggart, Caroline; Bradizza, Clara M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the relationship between drinking and severe physical and sexual victimization in a sample of 989 college women over five years. Participants completed a web-based survey each fall semester, beginning as first time incoming freshman, and continuing each year for five years. The survey was comprehensive in assessing drinking, victimization, and relevant covariates. Women were followed whether they remained at university or not. Prior year same type of severe victimization predicted current year victimization, both severe physical and sexual. However, prior year drinking did not predict current year severe victimization. Prior year severe sexual victimization predicted current year drinking. Our findings of a longitudinal relationship between severe sexual victimization and subsequent increases in drinking suggests that college women may be drinking to cope with negative sequelae that they experience as a result of the victimization. We did not find the same longitudinal relationship between drinking and severe physical or sexual victimization, suggesting that a reciprocal relationship does not exist between drinking and victimization among college women. We did find that severe sexual victimization decreased across college, suggesting that the year prior to and the first year of college may be a critical period for intervening to reduce risk for severe victimization. PMID:25134028

  6. INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE RISK AMONG VICTIMS OF YOUTH VIOLENCE: ARE EARLY UNIONS BAD, BENEFICIAL, OR BENIGN?

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Danielle C; Warner, David F; Warner, Tara D

    2015-08-01

    Youth violent victimization (YVV) is a risk factor for precocious exits from adolescence via early coresidential union formation. It remains unclear, however, whether these early unions 1) are associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, 2) interrupt victim continuity or victim-offender overlap through protective and prosocial bonds, or 3) are inconsequential. By using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 11,928; 18-34 years of age), we examine competing hypotheses for the effect of early union timing among victims of youth violence (n = 2,479)-differentiating across victimization only, perpetration only, and mutually combative relationships and considering variation by gender. The results from multinomial logistic regression models indicate that YVV increases the risk of IPV victimization in first unions, regardless of union timing; the null effect of timing indicates that delaying union formation would not reduce youth victims' increased risk of continued victimization. Gender-stratified analyses reveal that earlier unions can protect women against IPV perpetration, but this is partly the result of an increased risk of IPV victimization. The findings suggest that YVV has significant transformative consequences, leading to subsequent victimization by coresidential partners, and this association might be exacerbated among female victims who form early unions. We conclude by discussing directions for future research.

  7. Teachers' Experiences with Multiple Victimization: Identifying Demographic, Cognitive, and Contextual Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Andrew; McMahon, Susan D.; Espelage, Dorothy; Anderman, Eric M.; Reddy, Linda A.; Sanchez, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    Extant scholarship has primarily examined demographic predictors of teacher victimization. Teacher multiple victimization, or the extent to which teachers experience multiple types of violence, has not been examined. Using social-ecological theory, we examine correlates of violence among 2,324 teachers who reported having been victimized at least…

  8. Help-Seeking among Male Victims of Partner Abuse: Men's Hard Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsui, Venus; Cheung, Monit; Leung, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Sixty-eight agency representatives in the United States completed a survey to identify issues of male victims in partner abuse: half referenced responses from male clients and the other half responses from male victims who were their family members, friends, colleagues, or themselves. Almost 25% revealed that male victims did not utilize social…

  9. Overlooked Victims: Working with Non-Offending Caregivers in Child Sexual Abuse Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Deborah Dillon

    2006-01-01

    The national statistics for child sexual abuse are staggering. In 2004, there were 209,880 victims of rape, attempted rape or sexual assaults according to the National Crime Victimization Survey. While effective treatment alternatives for victims are being provided, non-offending caregivers can be easily overlooked. Mason and Erooga (1990) have…

  10. Comparing Victim Attributions and Outcomes for Workplace Aggression and Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershcovis, M. Sandy; Barling, Julian

    2010-01-01

    In 2 studies, we investigated victim attributions (Study 1) and outcomes (Study 2) for workplace aggression and sexual harassment. Drawing on social categorization theory, we argue that victims of workplace aggression and sexual harassment may make different attributions about their mistreatment. In Study 1, we investigated victim attributions in…

  11. Social Support as a Moderator between Victimization and Internalizing-Externalizing Distress from Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa M.; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick

    2007-01-01

    Although it is important to study the negative outcomes experienced by victims of bullying, it is equally important to study the factors that may buffer victims from distress. Thus, the relationship among social support, victimization, and internalizing-externalizing distress from bullying was investigated. Participants were 355 middle school…

  12. Household Structure, Coupling Constraints, and the Nonpartner Victimization Risks of Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yule, Carolyn; Griffiths, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Victimization studies consistently find that household structure influences the risk of personal and property victimization among adult household members, with those in "traditional" homes enjoying the most protection from victimization and lone parents experiencing the greatest vulnerability. Drawing on the concept of "coupling…

  13. Victims of Domestic Violence and Front-Line Workers: A Helping Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Scott W.; Trepal, Heather C.; de Vries, Sabina M.; Day, Sally W.; Leeth, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Victims of domestic violence present a challenge to law enforcement and emergency room personnel. The authors propose a helping approach to assist these professionals. This paradigm is composed of: active and empathetic listening, acceptance without judgment, identifying victims' strengths, honoring victims as experts, and the process of leaving…

  14. Joint Development of Bullying and Victimization in Adolescence: Relations to Delinquency and Self-Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Edward D.; Arseneault, Louise; Brendgen, Mara; Fontaine, Nathalie; Maughan, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    The study measures the development of bullying and victimization in early to mid-adolescence, the relations between the developmental trajectories, and their associations with delinquency and self-harm. Evidence suggests youths victimized by peers are at increased risk of victimizing others.

  15. 77 FR 12079 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Crime Victim...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Crime Victim... Department of Justice (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Office for Victims of Crime (OVC) will be... the form/collection: Crime Victim Compensation State Certification Form. (3) Agency form number,...

  16. 76 FR 79219 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Crime Victim...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ...: Crime Victim Compensation State Certification Form Request ACTION: 60-Day notice of information... Victims of Crime (OVC) will be submitting the following information collection request to the Office of...-3612, Office for Victims of Crime, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, 810...

  17. Black Female Homicide Offenders and Victims: Are They from the Same Population?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Paula D.

    1982-01-01

    Explores the social and environmental characteristics of Black female homicide victims and offenders. Assembled data on 661 Black female homicide victims and 119 Black female homicide offenders. Analyses indicated that Black female homicide victims and offenders exhibit low socioeconomic status and essentially similar behavior patterns. (Author)

  18. Short-term prospective effects of homophobic victimization on the mental health of heterosexual adolescents.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul; Scheer, Jillian R; DiGiovanni, Craig D; Mereish, Ethan H

    2014-08-01

    Many heterosexual youth report homophobic victimization but there is little longitudinal research to examine its mental health consequences for them. In a 7-month study across an academic school year among 572 heterosexual high school students (55% females), we tested the short-term effects of homophobic victimization on anxiety and depressive symptoms with attention to gender differences. Homophobic victimization at the beginning of the school year predicted higher levels of concurrent anxiety over and above levels attributable to general victimization. Further, when controlling for initial anxiety and general victimization, homophobic victimization at the beginning of the school year predicted increased anxiety at the end of the school year for males, but not for females. Homophobic victimization across time points was more strongly associated for males than females, and this accounted for why initial homophobic victimization predicted increased anxiety for males but not females (i.e., it was indicative of mediated moderation). In contrast, homophobic victimization at the beginning of the school year did not predict concurrent depressive symptoms over and above general victimization. Similarly, although it predicted increased depressive symptoms at the end of the school year for males but not for females, the effect was weaker than for anxiety. These findings underscore that the effects of homophobic victimization are not temporary, particularly as they pertain to anxiety, and underscore the need to consider the nature of the victimization that youth experience, including for heterosexual youth.

  19. Beyond Rape Myths: A More Complex View of Perceptions of Rape Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddie, Amy M.; Miller, Arthur G.

    2001-01-01

    Examined personal beliefs and perceptions of cultural stereotypes surrounding rape victims. Primarily white college students listed their beliefs and perceptions and rated a specific rape victim accordingly. Students' personal beliefs tended to focus more on perceptions of victim reactions to the rape rather than rape myths. However, their…

  20. 28 CFR 115.141 - Screening for risk of victimization and abusiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Screening for risk of victimization and... ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Screening for Risk of Sexual Victimization and Abusiveness § 115.141 Screening for risk of victimization and abusiveness. (a) In lockups that are...

  1. Research on the Sexual Victimization of Women: Implications for Counselor Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Patricia A.; Cohen, B. Beth

    1992-01-01

    Reviews research on prevalence and effects of three types of victimization of women: child sexual abuse; sexual assault; and sexual harassment. Claims this research suggests victimization is quite common among women and has serious detrimental effects on their mental health. Presents data indicating victimization experiences are common among…

  2. Traditional and Cyber Aggressors and Victims: A Comparison of Psychosocial Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sontag, Lisa M.; Clemans, Katherine H.; Graber, Julia A.; Lyndon, Sarah T.

    2011-01-01

    To date, relatively little is known about differences between perpetrators and victims of cyber and traditional forms of aggression. Hence, this study investigated differences among traditional and cyber aggressors and victims on psychosocial characteristics typically examined in research on traditional aggression and victimization, specifically…

  3. Virtual Learning Intervention to Reduce Bullying Victimization in Primary School: A Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapouna, Maria; Wolke, Dieter; Vannini, Natalie; Watson, Scott; Woods, Sarah; Schneider, Wolfgang; Enz, Sibylle; Hall, Lynne; Paiva, Ana; Andre, Elizabeth; Dautenhahn, Kerstin; Aylett, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Background: Anti-bullying interventions to date have shown limited success in reducing victimization and have rarely been evaluated using a controlled trial design. This study examined the effects of the FearNot! anti-bullying virtual learning intervention on escaping victimization, and reducing overall victimization rates among primary school…

  4. Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners' Perceptions of Their Relationship with Doctors, Rape Victim Advocates, Police, and Prosecutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Shana L.

    2012-01-01

    In response to the negative and inefficient treatment of rape victims by emergency room personnel, the first Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs began in the late 1970s. While SANEs, doctors, rape victim advocates, police officers and prosecutors work together to ensure the most comprehensive and sensitive care of rape victims, they all…

  5. Gender Differences and Social Support: Mediators or Moderators between Peer Victimization and Depressive Feelings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouwelse, Mieneke; Bolman, Catherine; Lodewijkx, Hein; Spaa, Marguerite

    2011-01-01

    Using self-report questionnaires, a survey among 606 Dutch primary school children aged 10 to 12 years examined relationships among social support, gender, victimization, and depressive feelings. Hierarchical regression analyses confirmed that victims and bully/victims would report more depressive feelings than uninvolved children. There was no…

  6. Victims of Bullying: Whom They Seek Help from and Why--An Australian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Mitchell J.; Carey, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    It is critically important to understand why victims of bullying decide to seek help when they do, particularly from adults, because this reduces the probability of being victimized in the future. This study sought to understand more clearly the patterns of help-seeking by students who reported being victims of bullying. Participants were students…

  7. Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the Criminal Justice System. The Female Victim's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashworth, Clark D.; Feldman-Summers, Shirley

    1978-01-01

    Female rape victims, assault victims, and appropriately matched non-victimized controls completed a questionnaire at several time periods during a one-year interval. The questionnaires assessed the participants' perceptions of the effectiveness of the police, judiciary, and penal system in handling several types of crimes. (Author)

  8. The Power of Friendship: Protection against an Escalating Cycle of Peer Victimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Boivin, Michel; Vitaro, Frank; Bukowski, William M.

    1999-01-01

    Examined role of friendship aspects in moderating behavioral antecedents and outcomes of peer victimization among fourth and fifth graders. Teacher-reported internalizing and externalizing behaviors predicted increases in peer-reported victimization; relation of internalizing behaviors to increases in victimization was attenuated for children with…

  9. Classroom Victimization: Consequences for Social and Academic Adjustment in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuland, Meg M.; Mikami, Amori Yee

    2014-01-01

    Peer victimization is a well-established risk factor for children's adjustment, but it has rarely been studied as a feature of classroom climate. This study examines the consequences of classroom victimization for children's social and academic adjustment. Classroom victimization, social functioning, and academic adjustment were assessed…

  10. Bullying Perpetration and Victimization in Special Education: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Chad A.; Monda-Amaya, Lisa E.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2011-01-01

    Bullying perpetration and victimization have become pervasive problems in American schools. Recent research suggests a causal association between prolonged periods of victimization and overt acts of school violence. These findings are germane to students with disabilities in light of evidence suggesting these students are victimized more often…

  11. Explaining Victim Self-Protective Behavior Effects on Crime Incident Outcomes: A Test of Opportunity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerette, Rob T.; Santana, Shannon A.

    2010-01-01

    Prior research on victim self-protective behavior (VSPB) has largely been void of a theoretical basis. Accordingly, it remains unclear why it would be expected that victim actions might mitigate crime incident outcomes or under which circumstances such actions might be most successful. Using data from the National Crime Victimization Survey for…

  12. Impact of Physical and Relational Peer Victimization on Depressive Cognitions in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Keneisha R.; Cole, David A.; Dukewich, Tammy; Felton, Julia; Weitlauf, Amy S.; Maxwell, Melissa A.; Tilghman-Osborne, Carlos; Jacky, Amy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find longitudinal evidence of the effect of targeted peer victimization (TPV) on depressive cognitions as a function of victimization type and gender. Prospective relations of physical and relational peer victimization to positive and negative self-cognitions were examined in a 1-year, 2-wave longitudinal study.…

  13. Individual and Contextual Factors Associated with Patterns of Aggression and Peer Victimization during Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettencourt, Amie F.; Farrell, Albert D.

    2013-01-01

    Peer victimization is a common problem among adolescents that has been linked to a variety of adjustment problems. Youth involved in peer victimization represent a heterogeneous group who may differ not only in their levels of victimization and perpetration, but also in the factors that influence their behavior. The current study used latent class…

  14. Alexithymia in victims of sexual assault: an effect of repeated traumatization?

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, S B; McNally, R J; Cassiday, K L

    1993-04-01

    The authors compared scores on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale of 12 rape victims with PTSD, 12 rape victims without PTSD, and 12 nontraumatized comparison subjects. Rape victims were more alexithymic than were nontraumatized comparison subjects, and subjects with a history of more than one episode of rape were more alexithymic than were subjects with a single episode.

  15. The Effects of Victim-Related Contextual Factors on the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Stacy Hoskins

    2011-01-01

    Despite numerous reforms designed to integrate the needs and concerns of crime victims into the criminal justice system, which include expanding programs for compensation and restitution, providing counseling and other services to victims, and increasing victims' involvement in the criminal justice process, critics have argued that these reforms…

  16. Older People in Disaster: A Comparison of Black and White Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolin, Robert; Klenow, Daniel J.

    1988-01-01

    Examined differential vulnerability to environmental stressors among White and Black elderly and nonelderly disaster victims by interviewing 431 families who were victims of a tornado. Presents path model of determinants of psychosocial recovery and makes observations regarding intervention strategies for older disaster victims. (Author/nB)

  17. From Survivor to Thriver: A Pilot Study of an Online Program for Rape Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Heather; Buck, Katherine; Rosman, Lindsey; Grills-Taquechel, Amie

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 15% to 20% of women have been victims of rape and close to a third report current rape-related PTSD or clinically significant depression or anxiety. Unfortunately, very few distressed rape victims seek formal help. This suggests a need to develop alternative ways to assist the many distressed victims of sexual violence. Online…

  18. Attitudes Toward Victims of Rape: Effects of Gender, Race, Religion, and Social Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Barbara; Matsuo, Hisako; McIntyre, Kevin P.; Morrison, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Although previous literature focusing on perceptions of victims of rape has examined how gender, race, and culture influence the attitudes one holds toward victims, these studies have yielded mixed results. This study compared perceptions of victims of rape across a wide range of ages, educational backgrounds, religions, and income levels, while…

  19. Empowering the "Victim"? Gender, Development, and Women in China under Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartier, Carolyn; Rothenberg-Aalami, Jessica

    1999-01-01

    Explores the origins and significance of the "victim" debate within global feminism. Focuses on the divide produced by the victim debate by examining the evolution of two development planning platforms. Discusses issues facing women in a China under reform and the relevance of the victim debate in the Chinese context. (CMK)

  20. 5-HTTLPR Moderates the Effect of Relational Peer Victimization on Depressive Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjet, Corina; Thompson, Renee J.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Relational peer victimization is associated with internalizing symptoms. Compared to boys, girls are more likely to be both relationally victimized by peers and distressed by the victimization. While previous studies have reported that a functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR)…

  1. A longitudinal analysis of drinking and victimization in college women: is there a reciprocal relationship?

    PubMed

    Parks, Kathleen A; Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Taggart, Caroline; Bradizza, Clara M

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the relationship between drinking and severe physical and sexual victimization in a sample of 989 college women over 5 years. Participants completed a Web-based survey each fall semester, beginning as first-time incoming freshman, and continuing each year for 5 years. The survey was comprehensive in assessing drinking, victimization, and relevant covariates. Women were followed whether they remained at university or not. Prior year same type of severe victimization predicted current year victimization, both severe physical and sexual. However, prior year drinking did not predict current year severe victimization. Prior year severe sexual victimization predicted current year drinking. Our findings of a longitudinal relationship between severe sexual victimization and subsequent increases in drinking suggests that college women may be drinking to cope with negative sequelae that they experience as a result of the victimization. We did not find the same longitudinal relationship between drinking and severe physical or sexual victimization, suggesting that a reciprocal relationship does not exist between drinking and victimization among college women. We did find that severe sexual victimization decreased across college, suggesting that the year prior to and the first year of college may be a critical period for intervening to reduce risk for severe victimization.

  2. Poly-victimization and psychopathology among Spanish adolescents in residential care.

    PubMed

    Segura, Anna; Pereda, Noemí; Guilera, Georgina; Abad, Judit

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of poly-victimization on symptom severity among adolescents being cared for by the child welfare system in a southwestern European country. The sample consisted of 127 youths (62 males and 65 females) aged 12-17 years (M=14.60, SD=1.61) who were recruited from short- and long-term residential centers. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (Finkelhor, Hamby, Ormrod, & Turner, 2005) and the Youth Self-Report (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) were used to assess interpersonal victimization experiences and psychopathology, respectively. Victim (n=68), low poly-victim (n=48), and high poly-victim (n=18) groups had comparable rates of psychopathology severity, with the exception of rule-breaking behavior, which was more severe among those with more victimization experiences (Cramer's V=.342). Poly-victimization was shown to be a significant predictor of clinically severe rule-breaking behavior, thought problems, and anxiety/depression symptoms. Among victimization types, sexual and electronic victimization significantly predicted withdrawn/depressed and aggressive behavior, and attention problems, respectively. The results of this study highlight the importance of assessing a wide range of victimization experiences among adolescents in care, since poly-victimization seems to underlie the serious psychological problems these youth present.

  3. Peer Victimization in Youth from Immigrant and Non-Immigrant US Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulkowski, Michael L.; Bauman, Sheri; Wright, Savannah; Nixon, Charisse; Davis, Stan

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenology of peer victimization in youth from immigrant and non-immigrant US families was investigated in the current study. Specifically, differences in how youth were victimized, their responses to being victimized, and how peer bystanders responded to peer aggression incidents involving youth from these respective groups were…

  4. New Directions from the Field: Victims' Rights and Services for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Office of Justice Programs.

    This book contains a comprehensive report and set of recommendations on victims' rights and services. Section 1, "New Directions in Victims' Rights," reviews the nation's progress over the past two decades toward establishing state and federal rights for victims of crime. In Section 2, "New Directions for Criminal and Juvenile…

  5. Assessing the Anomalous Research on Hispanic Victimization: A Methodological Critique of a Victimological Enigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ben

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview and critique of the research on Hispanic victimization. Analyses of data gathered prior to the mid- to late 1990s consistently show Hispanics were victimized at disproportionately high rates, but numerous recent studies indicate Hispanics were not victimized at disproportionately high rates. Given that research…

  6. Etude des Abondances de MG et de fe dans la Composante Stellaire des Disques des Galaxies Spirales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchamp, Dominique

    Je presente ici une technique d'observation par imagerie des disques stellaires des galaxies spirales. Je tente, a l'aide d'un modele evolutif multiphase, de determiner les abondances de fer et de magnesium dans les disques. Dans ce but, je mesure les indices Mg2 et Fe5270 du systeme de Lick. Ces elements representent un choix judicieux d'indicateurs car ils sont formes par des supernovae de deux types differents ayant des durees de vie differentes. Le rapport d'abondances de ces deux elements est un indicateur du taux de formation des populations stellaires. Je decris, en premier lieu, les observations, la technique de mesure, ainsi que son application. J'analyse ensuite les indices mesures. A partir du modele multiphase, j'explore differents parametres physiques des spirales comme le taux de formation stellaire, l'evolution des abondances, les effets possibles de la presence de la barre, etc.

  7. Victims Deserve More: The Building of a Forensics Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lili K.

    2007-01-01

    Because victims deserve more, The American Academy of Applied Forensics at Central Piedmont Community College was created to link cutting-edge forensics research to its field applications. It does this by enhancing the knowledge, skill, and ability levels of crime scene investigators, thereby increasing the likelihood that truth will be revealed…

  8. Coping with Peer Victimization: The Role of Children's Attributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visconti, Kari Jeanne; Sechler, Casey M.; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky

    2013-01-01

    A social-cognitive framework was used to generate and test hypotheses regarding the role of children's causal attributions for peer victimization in predicting how they cope with such experiences. It was hypothesized that attributions would be differentially associated with coping as a function of the direction (i.e., upward, horizontal, or…

  9. Predictors of School Victimization: Individual, Familial, and School Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynne, Susan L.; Joo, Hee-Jong

    2011-01-01

    Recent deadly school crime incidents have caused great concern regarding school safety. From criminal acts to bullying and verbal abuse, school disorder compromises student safety and the learning environment. Using a series of logistic regression analyses and data from the National Crime Victimization Survey's School Crime Supplement of 2003,…

  10. [Establishing the personal identity of the victims in aviation catastrophes].

    PubMed

    Abramov, S S; Alekseev, I V; Gedygushev, I A; Zaĭtsev, A B; Isaev, Iu S; Nedel'ko, N F; Miller, V V; Proskurin, V N; Khaĭrulin, E G; Shilin, A V

    1999-01-01

    Algorithm of organization measures and expert investigations is proposed, based on experience gained in expert studies during liquidation of aircraft catastrophes. It permits effective classification, differentiation, and identification of victims and is based on traditional and high technological methods of investigation.

  11. 78 FR 24319 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8959 of April 19, 2013 National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2013 By the...' Rights Week, we reaffirm our solemn obligation to ensure they get the services they need--from care and... fellow citizens and the basic values that unite us. Let us renew that common cause this week, and let...

  12. Effects of Teacher Avoidance of School Policies on Student Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marachi, Roxana; Avi Astor, Ron; Benbenishty, Rami

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines relations between school policy, teacher responses to violence and students' victimization outcomes as reported by teachers in a nationally representative sample of schools in Israel. Data were analysed using Structural Equations Modeling for the full sample of teachers, as well as group comparisons by school level,…

  13. Cyprus Health Education Curriculum from "Victim Blaming to Empowerment"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannou, Soula; Kouta, Christiana; Andreou, Angeliki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Health promotion can fall into a victim blaming approach and put social pressure on particular students who could be marginalized due to their personal, economical, cultural, social or ethnic characteristics, for example, students who are obese, drug users or HIV carriers. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss ways in which…

  14. Urban Inequality and Racial Differences in Risk for Violent Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Like, Toya Z.

    2011-01-01

    Past research has shown that racial inequality in urban areas--Black and White residential segregation and economic inequality--is associated with increased levels of homicide offending and that victimization among Blacks yet serves as a protection mechanism against such violence among Whites. However, few studies have considered alternative…

  15. Helping Victims of Terrorism: What Makes Social Work Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itzhaky, Haya; Dekel, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    This study examined factors that contribute to effectiveness of social work for victims of terrorism, as reflected by a reduction of mental distress and promotion of personal growth in clients. Participants were 148 pairs of social workers and clients. Social workers completed questionnaires that assessed the intervention characteristics (micro-…

  16. 75 FR 20889 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8499 of April 16, 2010 National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2010 By the... families and our communities. Our Nation's prosperity depends on the safety and security of all Americans...'s landmark American Recovery and Reinvestment Act included funding for crime prevention...

  17. Psychological Profile of the Female Adolescent Incest Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German, Don-Nee E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Forty female incest victims, ages 12-18, were administered personality and self-concept assessments. Subjects were found to be shy, expedient, guilt-prone, aggressive, realistic, and withdrawn and to have low overall self-concept. Subjects showed more confidence about physical appearance and intellectual and school status than other aspects of…

  18. Trauma Symptoms and Life Skill Needs of Domestic Violence Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorde, Mrugaya W.; Helfrich, Christine A.; Finlayson, Marcia L.

    2004-01-01

    This study identified the trauma symptoms and life skill needs of 84 domestic violence victims from three domestic violence programs. Women completed two self-report tools: Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) and Occupational Self Assessment (OSA). Staff members participated in focus groups regarding their perceptions of the womens needs. Women scored…

  19. Cyberbullying Victimization among College Students: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivituso, Jack

    2014-01-01

    This interpretive phenomenological analysis explored the lived experiences and the psychological impact of victimization from cyberbullying among college students. Two theories, Bandura's Theory of Triadic Reciprocal Determinism and the General Strain Theory, guided the primary research questions used for this exploration. Each of these…

  20. 12 CFR 1075.108 - Distributing payments to victims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 1075.108 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION CONSUMER FINANCIAL CIVIL.... Upon allocating Civil Penalty Fund funds to a class of victims pursuant to § 1075.106, the Fund... under paragraph (b) of this section and subject to the Fund Administrator's supervision. (e)...

  1. Assessing Peer Victimization across Adolescence: Measurement Invariance and Developmental Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Lisa H.; Beron, Kurt J.; Underwood, Marion K.

    2013-01-01

    An upward extension of the Revised Social Experience Questionnaire (Paquette & Underwood, 1999) was tested in a sample of adolescents followed longitudinally from 7th through 10th grade. We hypothesized that a 2-factor model with overt and social victimization factors would fit the data better than would a unidimensional model (a single…

  2. Neighborhood, family and individual influences on school physical victimization.

    PubMed

    Foster, Holly; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2013-10-01

    Few studies on the correlates of school violence include school and neighborhood influences. We use ecological systems theory and social disorganization theory to simultaneously incorporate neighborhood (e.g., concentrated poverty, residential instability, and immigrant concentration), school, family, and individual predictors of physical school victimization longitudinally among a large socio-economically and ethnically diverse (49 % Hispanic; 34 % African American) sample of 6 and 9 year olds (49 % female) from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. These children were followed up at Wave II at ages 8 and 11 (n = 1,425). Results of Hierarchical Generalized Linear Models reveal neighborhood residential instability increases school victimization net of family and individual correlates. Furthermore, cross-level interactions were also supported where residential family mobility has a stronger risk influence in areas of high residential instability. Also, the influence of residential family mobility is decreased in areas with higher levels of immigrant concentration. We also found cross-context connections where parent-to-child aggression in the home is connected to a higher risk of victimization at school. The role of neighborhood and family residential instability on victimization warrants further research.

  3. Student Victimization by Teachers in Taiwan: Prevalence and Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Wei, Hsi-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This paper reports on the prevalence of student victimization by teachers in junior high schools in a Chinese cultural context (Taiwan) and examines how student demographic variables (gender, grade level, and family socioeconomic status) and school social experiences (student-teacher relationships and involvement with at-risk peers)…

  4. Popular Culture, the "Victim" Trope and Queer Youth Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This article offers a joint reading of two cultural texts that reflect the contest over victim-oriented characterizations of queer youth in contemporary culture. The first text is a representation of queer youth taken from the popular UK television series "Shameless" (2004). The second text is an online discussion about representations…

  5. Predictors of Latent Trajectory Classes of Physical Dating Violence Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    This study identified classes of developmental trajectories of physical dating violence victimization from grades 8 to 12 and examined theoretically-based risk factors that distinguished among trajectory classes. Data were from a multi-wave longitudinal study spanning 8th through 12th grade (n = 2,566; 51.9 % female). Growth mixture models were…

  6. Victimization, Friendship and Resilience: Crossing the Land In-Between

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Stephen; MacLean, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the victimization of young people immediately before and after the school day. This is a unique time when most young people of secondary school age, from a range of backgrounds, with different interests and standards of behaviour, are constrained to mix at some point on the journey to school. For most young people this a…

  7. Sexual Victimization and Physical Health: An Examination of Explanatory Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palm, Kathleen M.; Follette, Victoria M.

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing body of research illustrating a significant relationship between a history of sexual victimization and the development of physical health problems; however, few researchers have examined variables that mediate this relationship. The present study examined two potential mediating variables: experiential avoidance and current…

  8. Peer Victimization and Pediatric Obesity: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Wendy N.; Kahhan, Nicole A.; Janicke, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with a variety of medical and psychosocial consequences. Children who are obese are at an increased risk of being victims of weight-based stigmatization by their peers. Negative views toward obese individuals may be expressed through children's friendship selections and expressed levels of overt (e.g., pushing,…

  9. Social Bonds and the Role of School-Based Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Ann Marie; Peguero, Anthony A.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the impact of school-based victimization on the adolescent's social bond. Previous research has provided empirical support for Hirschi's social control theory that the strength of the adolescent's social bond is associated with the probability that he or she will engage in criminal offending. However, research identifying what…

  10. Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) Students' Prior Sexual Abuse Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Michele T.; Black, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports findings of an exploratory study surveying 61 students about their prior child sexual abuse victimization. Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) students were surveyed at the beginning and end of a child abuse course and results indicated that 19.7 % of the students reported being sexually abused during childhood. Results also indicated…

  11. Language disorders in victims of domestic violence in children's homes.

    PubMed

    Cobos-Cali, Martha; Ladera, Valentina; Perea, María Victoria; García, Ricardo

    2017-03-07

    Studies that deal with child maltreatment have become relevant during these past years. One important aspect to consider is the impact of maltreatment on the cognitive functioning and more precisely on language. Our objective is to analyze the different components in the comprehension and production of language in children victims of domestic abuse in Childreńs Homes.

  12. Emotions and Young Offenders' Suitability for Victim-Offender Mediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieira, Tracey A.

    Although evidence indicates that Victim-Offender Mediation (VOM) provides an effective alternative to traditional sanctioning for young offenders, research investigating suitable candidates for VOM is lacking. Reintegrative shaming is theorized to be the mechanism underlying successful mediation; however, it is difficult to determine whether shame…

  13. Management of flood victims: Chainat Province, central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wisitwong, Anchaleeporn; McMillan, Margaret

    2010-03-01

    This article focuses on the processes of flood management and the experiences of flood victims in Chainat Province, central Thailand, so as to develop knowledge about the future handling of such disasters. A phenomenological qualitative approach was used to describe the processes of providing assistance to flood victims. In-depth interviews and observation were used to collect the data. Criterion sampling was used to select 23 participants. Content analysis of the data revealed that some flood victims could predict flooding based on prior experiences, so they prepared themselves. The data revealed six themes that demonstrated that those who could not predict how floods would impact on them were unprepared and suffered losses and disruption to their daily life. Damaged routes meant people could not go to work, resulting in the loss of income. There was a lack of sanitary appliances and clean drinking water, people were sick, and experienced stress. At the community level, people helped one another, making sandbags and building walls as a defense against water. They formed support groups to enable the processing of stressful experiences. However, later, the water became stagnant and contaminated, creating an offensive smell. The government provided assistance to cut off electricity services, food and water, toilets and health services, and water drainage. In the recovery phase, the victims needed money for investment, employment opportunities, books for children, extra time to pay off loans, reconnection of electricity, surveys of damage, and pensions to deal with damage and recovery.

  14. [The hospital care of victims of terrorist attacks].

    PubMed

    Bouhaddou, Assena; Nion, Nathalie; Riou, Bruno; Blandeau, Fanny; Moreau, Pilar; Guemache, Sofia

    2017-04-01

    The treatment of victims of terrorist attacks in a trauma centre requires the putting in place of plans, training and simulation exercises. Previous experiences have highlighted the areas which require improvement. As exceptional health situations are unpredictable, it is essential to always be vigilant and prepared for an unforeseen event.

  15. Predicting the Impact of a Stressful Life Experience: Criminal Victimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Dean G.; And Others

    Because violent crime may produce persistent stress-related problems for many victims, it is important to determine what factors best predict development and persistence of stress-related problems. A study was conducted to examine the extent to which development and persistence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) could be predicted on the…

  16. Mental Health Consequences of Criminal Victimization: A Random Community Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Dean G.; And Others

    Crime victims and their problems have become the focus of considerable attention. In order to determine the effects of sexual assault versus other types of violent crime, and of completed crimes versus those attempted but not completed, 2,004 adult women (a response rate of 84.1%) completed telephone inteviews with female interviewers. Subjects…

  17. Rights Consciousness: Victimization Prevention through Personal Defense and Assertiveness Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidder, Louise H.; And Others

    Anger and consciousness of rights may play a significant role in victimization prevention. In an attempt to examine how personal defense and assertiveness training would alter women's feelings of fear, helplessness, and anger, as well as their judgments of what rights they have, three studies were conducted. The first study, a participant…

  18. Risk and Protective Factors Associated to Peer School Victimization

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, Inmaculada; Ruiz-Esteban, Cecilia; López-García, J. J.

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between peer school victimization and some risk and protection factors and to compare the differences by role in victimization with those of non-involved bystanders. Our participants were 1,264 secondary students (M = 14.41, SD = 1.43) who participated voluntarily, although an informed consent was requested. A logistic regression model (LR) was used in order to identify the victim’s potential risks and protective factors related to non-involved bystanders. A multiple LR and a forward stepwise LR (Wald) were used. The results showed the variables related to the victim profile were: individual features (to be male, to be at the first cycle of compulsory Secondary Education and a few challenging behaviors), school environments (i.e., school adjustment), family environment (parental styles like authoritarianism) and social environment (i.e., friends who occasionally show a positive attitude toward drug consumption and easy access to drugs, access to drugs perceived as easy, rejection by peers or lack of social acceptance and social maladjustment). The results of the study will allow tackling prevention and intervention actions in schools, families, and social environment in order to improve coexistence at school and to assist the victimized students in the classroom. PMID:28382016

  19. Cyberbully and Victim Experiences of Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosun, Nilgün

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of different types of cyber bullying, the ways in which cyber bullying occurred, whether the identity of cyber bullies were known, and reaction to being cyber bullied among pre-service teachers. Relationships between gender and likelihood of being a cyber bully/victim were also investigated.…

  20. Examining Victimization and Psychological Distress in Transgender College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Effrig, Jessica C.; Bieschke, Kathleen J.; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2011-01-01

    Treatment-seeking and non-treatment-seeking transgender college students were examined with regard to victimization and psychological distress. Findings showed that transgender college students had elevated rates of distress as compared with college students who identified as men or women. Results indicated that treatment-seeking and non-treatment…