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Sample records for desastre sus consecuencias

  1. Salud mental en desastres naturales: estrategias interventivas con adultos mayores en sectores rurales de Chile.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Parraguez, Paulina; Espinoza, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    En el presente artículo se da a conocer una estrategia de intervención llevada a cabo con adultos mayores en la comuna de Paredones, sexta región de Chile, con posterioridad al terremoto y tsunami del 27 de febrero 2010 en Chile, en el contexto de una investigación sobre fortalezas y vulnerabilidades desplegadas por este grupo etario, con posterioridad a un desastre natural. Se presenta una descripción del desarrollo metodológico de la intervención y de los sustentos teóricos y conceptuales en los que se basa. Como resultado de este proceso, se propone una estrategia que trabaje a través de la identificación de las propias experiencias y fortalezas de los sujetos. De tal forma se minimizan los efectos negativos de los determinantes sociales de la salud (como la edad y el lugar de residencia) en contexto de crisis; permitiendo a los adultos mayores fortalecer sus recursos individuales y colectivos, en pro de su bienestar psicosocial.

  2. Salud mental en desastres naturales: estrategias interventivas con adultos mayores en sectores rurales de Chile.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Parraguez, Paulina; Espinoza, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    En el presente artículo se da a conocer una estrategia de intervención llevada a cabo con adultos mayores en la comuna de Paredones, sexta región de Chile, con posterioridad al terremoto y tsunami del 27 de febrero 2010 en Chile, en el contexto de una investigación sobre fortalezas y vulnerabilidades desplegadas por este grupo etario, con posterioridad a un desastre natural. Se presenta una descripción del desarrollo metodológico de la intervención y de los sustentos teóricos y conceptuales en los que se basa. Como resultado de este proceso, se propone una estrategia que trabaje a través de la identificación de las propias experiencias y fortalezas de los sujetos. De tal forma se minimizan los efectos negativos de los determinantes sociales de la salud (como la edad y el lugar de residencia) en contexto de crisis; permitiendo a los adultos mayores fortalecer sus recursos individuales y colectivos, en pro de su bienestar psicosocial. PMID:25724751

  3. Preparación de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos para hacer frente a los desastres naturales: encuesta a escala nacional*

    PubMed Central

    Al-rousan, Tala M.; Rubenstein, Linda M.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Nos propusimos determinar el grado de preparación frente a los desastres naturales de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos y evaluar los factores que pueden afectar negativamente la salud y la seguridad durante este tipo de incidentes. Métodos. Obtuvimos una muestra de adultos de 50 años en adelante (n = 1 304) de la encuesta del 2010 del Estudio de la Salud y la Jubilación (HRS por su sigla en inglés). La encuesta recogió datos sobre las características demográficas generales, el estado de discapacidad o las limitaciones funcionales, y también sobre factores y comportamientos relacionados con la preparación frente a los desastres. Calculamos una puntuación global de preparación mediante indicadores individuales a fin de evaluar el grado de preparación general. Resultados. La media de la edad de los participantes (n = 1 304) fue de 70 años (desviación estándar [DE] = 9,3). Solo 34,3% informaron que habían participado en un programa formativo o que habían leído materiales sobre la preparación para los desastres. Casi 15% indicaron que usaban dispositivos médicos eléctricos que podían correr riesgo de no funcionar si se interrumpiera el suministro eléctrico. La puntuación de preparación indicó que la edad más avanzada, la discapacidad física y el menor nivel de escolaridad y de ingresos se asociaban independiente y significativamente a un grado de preparación general inferior. Conclusiones. A pesar de la mayor vulnerabilidad ante los desastres y del número cada vez mayor de adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos, muchos de los problemas sustanciales que encontramos son remediables y requieren atención en los sectores de la sociedad dedicados a la atención clínica, a la salud pública y al manejo de situaciones de emergencia.

  4. 2014 Higher Education Summit/SUS Data Workshop Proceedings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board of Governors, State University System of Florida, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Information Resource Management--State University System of Florida (IRM-SUS) is the primary collector and provider of data concerning state universities that is used to make sound education policy decisions. The office provides technical assistance to those using the information, state and federal reporting support, those supplying information,…

  5. Nuevos escenarios de la migración México-Estados Unidos. Las consecuencias de la guerra antiinmigrante

    PubMed Central

    MASSEY, Douglas S.; PREN, Karen A.; DURAND, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    La historia de la migración México-Estados Unidos se caracteriza por una serie de periodos durante los cuales los patrones migratorios se transforman y evolucionan como respuesta a los cambios en la política migratoria de Estados Unidos. En la década de 1990 se dio uno de estos cambios, lo que provocó el paso de la ‘era de la contradicción’ a la ‘era de la marginalización’. Actualmente, un gran número de migrantes indocumentados permanecen al margen de la ley, precisamente en un periodo en el que las penas se han incrementado y la persecución ha alcanzado niveles récord. De manera cada vez más notoria, los migrantes indocumentados, por la represión interna y fronteriza, quedan obligados a romper los lazos que los vinculaban con sus lugares de destino, pero al mismo tiempo se sienten cada vez más extraños en una tierra donde la aplicación de políticas antiinmigrantes es cosa de todos los días, lo que los sitúa en una posición de marginalización y gran vulnerabilidad. PMID:21209790

  6. Intestinal protozoa in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in western Iran.

    PubMed

    Solaymani-Mohammadi, S; Rezaian, M; Hooshyar, H; Mowlavi, G R; Babaei, Z; Anwar, M A

    2004-10-01

    A total of 12 gastrointestinal tracts of wild boars (Sus scrofa) from western Iran (Luristan) were examined for protozoan infection between September 2000 and November 2001. Of 12 boars examined, 67% harbored one or more species of the following protozoa: Balantidium coli (25%), Tritrichomonas suis (25%), Blastocystis sp. (25%), Entamoeba polecki (17%), Entamoeba suis (8%), Iodamoeba butschlii (17%), and Chilomastix mesnili (8%). Four of these protozoan species also are reported in humans, and persons living in rural areas where wild boars are abundant should take precaution to avoid infection. PMID:15650104

  7. Serological anthrax surveillance in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Bagamian, Karoun H; Skrypnyk, Artem; Rodina, Yana; Bezymennyi, Maksym; Nevolko, Oleg; Skrypnyk, Valeriy; Blackburn, Jason K

    2014-08-01

    Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, is an acute disease affecting wildlife, livestock, and humans worldwide, although its impact on these populations is underappreciated. In Ukraine, surveillance is passive, and anthrax is often detected in livestock. However, wildlife is not subject to surveillance, although anthrax deaths (such as in wild boar, Sus scrofa) have been documented. The wild boar is a plentiful and widespread species in Ukraine and is frequently hunted. We initiated a screening study testing Ukrainian wild boar blood samples for antibodies to B. anthracis. We mapped results relative to known livestock anthrax hotspots. We discovered evidence of exposure in wild boar up to 35 km from livestock anthrax hotspots and over 400 km from previous anthrax reports in boars. We make recommendations about using wildlife species as biosentinels for anthrax in Ukraine.

  8. An intronic RNA structure modulates expression of the mRNA biogenesis factor Sus1.

    PubMed

    AbuQattam, Ali; Gallego, José; Rodríguez-Navarro, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Sus1 is a conserved protein involved in chromatin remodeling and mRNA biogenesis. Unlike most yeast genes, the SUS1 pre-mRNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two introns and is alternatively spliced, retaining one or both introns in response to changes in environmental conditions. SUS1 splicing may allow the cell to control Sus1 expression, but the mechanisms that regulate this process remain unknown. Using in silico analyses together with NMR spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis, and UV thermal denaturation experiments, we show that the downstream intron (I2) of SUS1 forms a weakly stable, 37-nucleotide stem-loop structure containing the branch site near its apical loop and the 3' splice site after the stem terminus. A cellular assay revealed that two of four mutants containing altered I2 structures had significantly impaired SUS1 expression. Semiquantitative RT-PCR experiments indicated that all mutants accumulated unspliced SUS1 pre-mRNA and/or induced distorted levels of fully spliced mRNA relative to wild type. Concomitantly, Sus1 cellular functions in histone H2B deubiquitination and mRNA export were affected in I2 hairpin mutants that inhibited splicing. This work demonstrates that I2 structure is relevant for SUS1 expression, and that this effect is likely exerted through modulation of splicing.

  9. An intronic RNA structure modulates expression of the mRNA biogenesis factor Sus1

    PubMed Central

    AbuQattam, Ali; Gallego, José; Rodríguez-Navarro, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Sus1 is a conserved protein involved in chromatin remodeling and mRNA biogenesis. Unlike most yeast genes, the SUS1 pre-mRNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two introns and is alternatively spliced, retaining one or both introns in response to changes in environmental conditions. SUS1 splicing may allow the cell to control Sus1 expression, but the mechanisms that regulate this process remain unknown. Using in silico analyses together with NMR spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis, and UV thermal denaturation experiments, we show that the downstream intron (I2) of SUS1 forms a weakly stable, 37-nucleotide stem–loop structure containing the branch site near its apical loop and the 3′ splice site after the stem terminus. A cellular assay revealed that two of four mutants containing altered I2 structures had significantly impaired SUS1 expression. Semiquantitative RT-PCR experiments indicated that all mutants accumulated unspliced SUS1 pre-mRNA and/or induced distorted levels of fully spliced mRNA relative to wild type. Concomitantly, Sus1 cellular functions in histone H2B deubiquitination and mRNA export were affected in I2 hairpin mutants that inhibited splicing. This work demonstrates that I2 structure is relevant for SUS1 expression, and that this effect is likely exerted through modulation of splicing. PMID:26546116

  10. Results of fracture mechanics tests on PNC SUS 304 plate

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, W.J.; James, L.A.; Blackburn, L.D.

    1985-08-01

    PNC provided SUS 304 plate to be irradiated in FFTF at about 400/sup 0/C to a target fluence of 5 x 10/sup 21/ n/cm/sup 2/ (E > 0.1 MeV). The actual irradiation included two basically different exposure levels to assure that information would be available for the exposure of interest. After irradiation, tensile properties, fatigue-crack growth rates and J-integral fracture toughness response were determined. These same properties were also measured for the unirradiated material so radiation damage effects could be characterized. This report presents the results of this program. It is expected that these results would be applicable for detailed fracture analysis of reactor components. Recent advances in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics enable reasonably accurate predictions of failure conditions for flawed stainless steel components. Extensive research has focused on the development of J-integral-based engineering approach for assessing the load carrying capacity of low-strength, high-toughness structural materials. Furthermore, Kanninen, et al., have demonstrated that J-integral concepts can accurately predict the fracture response for full-scale cracked structures manufactured from Type 304 stainless steel.

  11. Serosurvey of leptospirosis in feral hogs (Sus scrofa) in Florida.

    PubMed

    Chatfield, Jenifer; Milleson, Michael; Stoddard, Robyn; Bui, Duy M; Galloway, Renee

    2013-06-01

    Leptospira is a global pathogen of emerging public health importance in both developing and industrialized nations and can infect almost all mammalian species, including humans. As suburbanization and the popularity of outdoor recreational activities increases, so do human-wildlife and companion animal-wildlife interfaces. Florida offers a tropical climate favorable for outdoor activities and a semirural landscape that sustains an abundant feral hog population. Because no survey ofleptospirosis in feral hogs (Sus scrofa) in Florida has been published to our knowledge, we sought to establish preliminary seroprevalence ofleptospirosis exposure in feral hogs in Florida. Blood samples were collected opportunistically from 158 male and 166 female feral hogs taken at managed hunts and by permitted trappers in the northern, central, and southern regions of Florida. Samples were then analyzed using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for antibody titers to 20 Leptospira serovars representing 17 serogroups. A titer of > 1:100 was considered positive; 33% (107/324 total samples) were positive to at least one serovar, and 46% of those were positive to multiple serovars. Antibodies to L. interrogans serovar Bratislava strain Jez Bratislava (serogroup Australis) was the most common, with 18% (58/324) testing positive for antibodies. These initial data indicate that there is a significant possibility of feral hogs having a larger role in the complex etiology of leptospirosis in Florida than historically estimated and that further investigation is warranted.

  12. ViSUS: Visualization Streams for Ultimate Scalability

    SciTech Connect

    Pascucci, V

    2005-02-14

    In this project we developed a suite of progressive visualization algorithms and a data-streaming infrastructure that enable interactive exploration of scientific datasets of unprecedented size. The methodology aims to globally optimize the data flow in a pipeline of processing modules. Each module reads a multi-resolution representation of the input while producing a multi-resolution representation of the output. The use of multi-resolution representations provides the necessary flexibility to trade speed for accuracy in the visualization process. Maximum coherency and minimum delay in the data-flow is achieved by extensive use of progressive algorithms that continuously map local geometric updates of the input stream into immediate updates of the output stream. We implemented a prototype software infrastructure that demonstrated the flexibility and scalability of this approach by allowing large data visualization on single desktop computers, on PC clusters, and on heterogeneous computing resources distributed over a wide area network. When processing terabytes of scientific data, we have achieved an effective increase in visualization performance of several orders of magnitude in two major settings: (i) interactive visualization on desktop workstations of large datasets that cannot be stored locally; (ii) real-time monitoring of a large scientific simulation with negligible impact on the computing resources available. The ViSUS streaming infrastructure enabled the real-time execution and visualization of the two LLNL simulation codes (Miranda and Raptor) run at Supercomputing 2004 on Blue Gene/L at its presentation as the fastest supercomputer in the world. In addition to SC04, we have run live demonstrations at the IEEE VIS conference and at invited talks at the DOE MICS office, DOE computer graphics forum, UC Riverside, and the University of Maryland. In all cases we have shown the capability to stream and visualize interactively data stored remotely at the San

  13. Antisense suppression of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) sucrose synthase 3 (CsSUS3) reduces hypoxic stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyun; Sui, Xiaolei; Guo, Jinju; Wang, Zhenyu; Cheng, Jintao; Ma, Si; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Zhenxian

    2014-03-01

    Sucrose synthase (SUS; EC 2.4.1.13) plays important roles in sugar metabolism and abiotic stress response. But the genes encoding SUS in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) have not been well studied. Here, we isolated four cucumber sucrose synthase genes (CsSUS). Among them, CsSUS3, which highly expressed in the roots, was chosen for further study. Immunolocalization and subcellular localization analysis indicated that CsSUS3 localized in the cytosol and the plasma membrane, and mainly existed in the companion cells of phloem in the roots. When suffering hypoxia stress from flooding, CsSUS3 expression and SUS activity in roots increased, especially in the lateral roots; moreover, the soluble SUS activity increased clearly, but the membrane fraction hardly changed. Compared with the wild-type cucumbers, the transgenic lines with antisense expression of CsSUS3 were more sensitive to flooding. After 6 d of flooding, the SUS activity, soluble sugar and uridine 5'-diphosphate glucose (UDPG) content and the ratio of ATP/ADP in the roots of transgenic plants were significantly lower than that in wild-type plants. Moreover, the transgenic lines grew more slowly with more yellow necrosis in the leaves. These findings suggested CsSUS3 participated in resisting hypoxic stress. Furthermore, the mechanism of CsSUS3 in resisting hypoxic stress was also discussed.

  14. [The construction of the 'SUS problem' in the newspaper Folha de S. Paulo].

    PubMed

    Silva, Gabriela Martins; Rasera, Emerson Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The article examines the process of discursive construction of the 'SUS problem' in reports published in the newspaper Folha de S. Paulo in 2008. Through an online search of the Folha archives, 667 news items were selected and then studied from the perspectives of critical discourse analysis and contributions from social constructionism. In methodological terms, at the text practice level of analysis, the investigation sought to determine what linguistic resources had been used to construct the SUS problem. At the discursive practice level of analysis, it further explored how the newspaper medium and the journalistic style influenced the production of these meanings. The article concludes that as this production constructs the SUS problem, it fosters a limited, negative view of the the Sistema Único de Saúde (Unified Healthcare System, or SUS) based on mistrust and on the notion that it is impossible to improve the system.

  15. Identification and Characterization of the Sucrose Synthase 2 Gene (Sus2) in Durum Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Volpicella, Mariateresa; Fanizza, Immacolata; Leoni, Claudia; Gadaleta, Agata; Nigro, Domenica; Gattulli, Bruno; Mangini, Giacomo; Blanco, Antonio; Ceci, Luigi R.

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose transport is the central system for the allocation of carbon resources in vascular plants. Sucrose synthase (SUS), which reversibly catalyzes sucrose synthesis and cleavage, represents a key enzyme in the control of the flow of carbon into starch biosynthesis. In the present study the genomic identification and characterization of the Sus2-2A and Sus2-2B genes coding for SUS in durum wheat (cultivars Ciccio and Svevo) is reported. The genes were analyzed for their expression in different tissues and at different seed maturation stages, in four tetraploid wheat genotypes (Svevo, Ciccio, Primadur, and 5-BIL42). The activity of the encoded proteins was evaluated by specific activity assays on endosperm extracts and their structure established by modeling approaches. The combined results of sucrose synthase 2 expression and activity levels were then considered in the light of their possible involvement in starch yield. PMID:27014292

  16. Development of nanostructured SUS316L-2%TiC with superior tensile properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Kurishita, H.; Matsuo, S.; Arakawa, H.; Takahashi, S.; Tsuchida, M.; Kobayashi, S.; Nakai, K.; Terasawa, M.; Yamasaki, T.; Kawai, M.

    2015-11-01

    Structural materials used in radiation environments require radiation tolerance and sufficient mechanical properties in the controlled state. In order to offer SUS316L austenitic stainless steel with the assumed requirements, nanostructured SUS316L with TiC addition of 2% (SUS316L-2TiC) that is capable of exhibiting enhanced tensile ductility and flow strength sufficient for structural applications was fabricated by advanced powder metallurgical methods. The methods include MA (Mechanical Alloying), HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing), GSMM (Grain boundary Sliding Microstructural Modification) for ductility enhancement, cold rolling at temperatures below Md (the temperature where the martensite phase occurs by plastic deformation) for phase transformation from austenite to martensite and heat treatment for reverse transformation from martensite to austenite. It is shown that the developed SUS316L-2TiC exhibits ultrafine grains with sizes of 90-270 nm, accompanied by TiC precipitates with 20-50 nm in grain interior and 70-110 nm at grain boundaries, yield strengths of 1850 to 900 MPa, tensile strengths of 1920 to 1100 MPa and uniform elongations of 0.6-21%, respectively, depending on the heat treatment temperature after rolling at -196 °C.

  17. 2013 Higher Education Summit/SUS Data Workshop Proceedings. Session: IRM Data Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board of Governors, State University System of Florida, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Information Resource Management--State University System of Florida (IRM-SUS) is the primary collector and provider of data concerning state universities that is used to make sound education policy decisions. The office provides technical assistance to those using the information, state and federal reporting support, those supplying information,…

  18. A Study of Instructional Faculty Salaries at USF, SUS and National Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micceri, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates 10-year trends in instructional faculty salaries by sex and rank for USF, five SUS Peers (UF, FSU, FIU, UCF, FAU) and eight National Peers (North Carolina State, Alabama-Birmingham, Illinois-Chicago, California-Irvine, SUNY-Stony Brook, SUNY-Buffalo, Cincinnati, Rutgers). Methods: Historical instructional faculty salary…

  19. Biochemical and molecular characterization of RcSUS1, a cytosolic sucrose synthase phosphorylated in vivo at serine 11 in developing castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Fedosejevs, Eric T; Ying, Sheng; Park, Joonho; Anderson, Erin M; Mullen, Robert T; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C

    2014-11-28

    Sucrose synthase (SUS) catalyzes the UDP-dependent cleavage of sucrose into UDP-glucose and fructose and has become an important target for improving seed crops via metabolic engineering. A UDP-specific SUS homotetramer composed of 93-kDa subunits was purified to homogeneity from the triacylglyceride-rich endosperm of developing castor oil seeds (COS) and identified as RcSUS1 by mass spectrometry. RcSUS1 transcripts peaked during early development, whereas levels of SUS activity and immunoreactive 93-kDa SUS polypeptides maximized during mid-development, becoming undetectable in fully mature COS. The cytosolic location of the enzyme was established following transient expression of RcSUS1-enhanced YFP in tobacco suspension cells and fluorescence microscopy. Immunological studies using anti-phosphosite-specific antibodies revealed dynamic and high stoichiometric in vivo phosphorylation of RcSUS1 at its conserved Ser-11 residue during COS development. Incorporation of (32)P(i) from [γ-(32)P]ATP into a RcSUS1 peptide substrate, alongside a phosphosite-specific ELISA assay, established the presence of calcium-dependent RcSUS1 (Ser-11) kinase activity. Approximately 10% of RcSUS1 was associated with COS microsomal membranes and was hypophosphorylated relative to the remainder of RcSUS1 that partitioned into the soluble, cytosolic fraction. Elimination of sucrose supply caused by excision of intact pods of developing COS abolished RcSUS1 transcription while triggering the progressive dephosphorylation of RcSUS1 in planta. This did not influence the proportion of RcSUS1 associated with microsomal membranes but instead correlated with a subsequent marked decline in SUS activity and immunoreactive RcSUS1 polypeptides. Phosphorylation at Ser-11 appears to protect RcSUS1 from proteolysis, rather than influence its kinetic properties or partitioning between the soluble cytosol and microsomal membranes.

  20. Effect of Pulse Current on the Tensile Deformation of SUS304 Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xifeng; Wang, Shen; Zhao, Shuangjun; Ding, Wei; Chen, Jun; Wu, Guohong

    2015-12-01

    The effect of pulse current on the mechanical properties of SUS304 metastable austenitic stainless steel was studied by tension test with and without air-cooling under different current densities. The microstructural variations at different conditions were also studied by SEM, TEM, and Feritscope. A negative effect on the plasticity was observed when current pulse was applied without air-cooling. But when Joule heating resulting from current pulse was excluded by air-cooling, the elongation of SUS304 stainless steel was increased to 72.4% at a current density of 2.95 A/mm2, which is 23.3% higher than that tested without pulse current at room temperature. Pulse current can decrease the dislocation density and dislocation pile-ups. Furthermore, EP effect from pulse current can accelerate martensitic transformation and enhance TRIP effect. The mechanism of current-induced martensitic transformation was discussed from Gibbs free energy change.

  1. Residual stress and fracture characteristics of zirconia/metal(Ni, SUS304) functionally gradient materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Yeon-Gil; Choi, Sung-Churl; Paik, Un-Gyu

    1995-09-01

    To analyze the residual stress and the fracture behavior of FGMs. disc-type TZP/Ni- and TZP/SUS304-FGM were hot passed, and compared with MM& The continuous interface and the microstructure of FGMs were characterized with EPMA, optical microscopy and SEM. The defect-like cracks in the FGMs induced by the preferential shear stress have been shown to cause fracture. This fact has well corresponded to the analysis of the residual stress distribution by FEM.

  2. [Whose is SUS? About the social representation of the users of the Family Health Program].

    PubMed

    Martins, Poliana Cardoso; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre; Mendes, Fábio Farias; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschinni, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Cazal, Mariana de Melo; Batista, Rodrigo Siqueira

    2011-03-01

    The present study analyzes the representation of the users of SUS and PSF, presenting data obtained by semi-structured interviews, using the theoretical referential of the qualitative research. The results show a social representation marked by a focused vision and assistance, pointing to the concentration of public resources in poor segments of the society and centered in the biomedical model of attention. It stands out that PSF did not reach their objectives to provide changes in the praxis in health. In relation to the social control, it is observed that only 5.9% of the interviewees know the CMS. The presented data show a great ignorance by the studied population on the sanitary system and conquered social laws, and many people still see SUS as a "health plan for the poor". Due to the lived reality, the need of the implementation of strategies is emphasized for the reach of larger powerment/liberation of the population, seeking to build effective possibilities so that their actors will be active participant of the process of construction of a common project, actually based on the democratic ideals of SUS, being PSF strategically important in the accomplishment of these actions.

  3. SUS in nuclear medicine in Brazil: analysis and comparison of data provided by Datasus and CNEN*

    PubMed Central

    Pozzo, Lorena; Coura Filho, George; Osso Júnior, João Alberto; Squair, Peterson Lima

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the outpatient access to nuclear medicine procedures by means of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), analyzing the correspondence between data provided by this system and those from Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) (National Commission of Nuclear Energy). Materials and Methods Data provided by Datasus regarding number of scintillation chambers, outpatient procedures performed from 2008 to 2012, administrative responsibility for such procedures, type of service providers and outsourced services were retrieved and evaluated. Also, such data were compared with those from institutions certified by CNEN. Results The present study demonstrated that the system still lacks maturity in terms of correct data input, particularly regarding equipment available. It was possible to list the most common procedures and check the growth of the specialty along the study period. Private centers are responsible for most of the procedures covered and reimbursed by SUS. However, many healthcare facilities are not certified by CNEN. Conclusion Datasus provides relevant data for analysis as done in the present study, although some issues still require attention. The present study has quantitatively depicted the Brazilian reality regarding access to nuclear medicine procedures offered by/for SUS. PMID:25741070

  4. [The Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) is universal, but quotas are the norm].

    PubMed

    Viegas, Selma Maria da Fonseca; Penna, Cláudia Maria de Mattos

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the Unified Health System (SUS), health actions and services constitute a social right to be guaranteed by the State and managed under the responsibility of three autonomous spheres of government. This is a holistic multiple case study with a qualitative approach based on the assumptions of Comprehensive Everyday Sociology, which originated from a PhD thesis. It sought to understand the construction of comprehensive health practices in the daily work of family health teams and managers of the cities in Vale do Jequitinhonha - Minas Gerais, Brazil. The individuals studied were professionals from the Family Health Teams, support staff and managers with a total of 48 participants. In order to reveal the construction of the whole, the data show that "SUS is universal, but quotas are the norm." Bearing in mind its limitations, it is difficult to ensure that SUS is a right for all. Thus, regulation is essential to order, guide, define and optimize the use of resources available for comprehensive care and also guarantee public access to actions and services in a timely and equitable manner. PMID:23338508

  5. A Serosurvey for Brucellosis in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pilo, Cristian; Addis, Giuseppe; Deidda, Manuela; Tedde, Maria Tania; Liciardi, Manuele

    2015-10-01

    Porcine brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella suis and hosted by pigs (Sus scrofa). Both domestic pigs and wild boars are affected. We measured the prevalence of antibody to Brucella spp. in wild boars in Sardinia, Italy. During 1 November 2009 to 31 January 2010, we collected 570 serum samples from legally hunted wild boars and tested them using a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sex and age class of the sampled wild boars were also recorded. Thirty-five samples were positive for an apparent antibody prevalence of 6.1%. Antibody prevalences did not differ between sexes or among age classes.

  6. The Use of Genomics in Conservation Management of the Endangered Visayan Warty Pig (Sus cebifrons).

    PubMed

    Nuijten, Rascha J M; Bosse, Mirte; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Madsen, Ole; Schaftenaar, Willem; Ryder, Oliver A; Groenen, Martien A M; Megens, Hendrik-Jan

    2016-01-01

    The list of threatened and endangered species is growing rapidly, due to various anthropogenic causes. Many endangered species are present in captivity and actively managed in breeding programs in which often little is known about the founder individuals. Recent developments in genetic research techniques have made it possible to sequence and study whole genomes. In this study we used the critically endangered Visayan warty pig (Sus cebifrons) as a case study to test the use of genomic information as a tool in conservation management. Two captive populations of S. cebifrons exist, which originated from two different Philippine islands. We found some evidence for a recent split between the two island populations; however all individuals that were sequenced show a similar demographic history. Evidence for both past and recent inbreeding indicated that the founders were at least to some extent related. Together with this, the low level of nucleotide diversity compared to other Sus species potentially poses a threat to the viability of the captive populations. In conclusion, genomic techniques answered some important questions about this critically endangered mammal and can be a valuable toolset to inform future conservation management in other species as well. PMID:27069913

  7. The Use of Genomics in Conservation Management of the Endangered Visayan Warty Pig (Sus cebifrons).

    PubMed

    Nuijten, Rascha J M; Bosse, Mirte; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Madsen, Ole; Schaftenaar, Willem; Ryder, Oliver A; Groenen, Martien A M; Megens, Hendrik-Jan

    2016-01-01

    The list of threatened and endangered species is growing rapidly, due to various anthropogenic causes. Many endangered species are present in captivity and actively managed in breeding programs in which often little is known about the founder individuals. Recent developments in genetic research techniques have made it possible to sequence and study whole genomes. In this study we used the critically endangered Visayan warty pig (Sus cebifrons) as a case study to test the use of genomic information as a tool in conservation management. Two captive populations of S. cebifrons exist, which originated from two different Philippine islands. We found some evidence for a recent split between the two island populations; however all individuals that were sequenced show a similar demographic history. Evidence for both past and recent inbreeding indicated that the founders were at least to some extent related. Together with this, the low level of nucleotide diversity compared to other Sus species potentially poses a threat to the viability of the captive populations. In conclusion, genomic techniques answered some important questions about this critically endangered mammal and can be a valuable toolset to inform future conservation management in other species as well.

  8. The Use of Genomics in Conservation Management of the Endangered Visayan Warty Pig (Sus cebifrons)

    PubMed Central

    Bosse, Mirte; Crooijmans, Richard P. M. A.; Madsen, Ole; Schaftenaar, Willem; Ryder, Oliver A.; Megens, Hendrik-Jan

    2016-01-01

    The list of threatened and endangered species is growing rapidly, due to various anthropogenic causes. Many endangered species are present in captivity and actively managed in breeding programs in which often little is known about the founder individuals. Recent developments in genetic research techniques have made it possible to sequence and study whole genomes. In this study we used the critically endangered Visayan warty pig (Sus cebifrons) as a case study to test the use of genomic information as a tool in conservation management. Two captive populations of S. cebifrons exist, which originated from two different Philippine islands. We found some evidence for a recent split between the two island populations; however all individuals that were sequenced show a similar demographic history. Evidence for both past and recent inbreeding indicated that the founders were at least to some extent related. Together with this, the low level of nucleotide diversity compared to other Sus species potentially poses a threat to the viability of the captive populations. In conclusion, genomic techniques answered some important questions about this critically endangered mammal and can be a valuable toolset to inform future conservation management in other species as well. PMID:27069913

  9. Comparison of two codon optimization strategies enhancing recombinant Sus scrofa lysozyme production in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhu, D; Cai, G; Wu, D; Lu, J

    2015-01-01

    Lysozyme has played an important role in animal feed additive industry, food additive industry and biological engineering. For improving expression efficiency of recombinant lysozyme from Sus scrofa, two genes respectively designed by the most used codon optimization strategies, "one amino acid one codon" and "codon randomization", were synthesized and expressed in Pichia pastoris X—33. At shaking flask level, Sus scrofa lysozyme (SSL) under two conditions had a highest activity of 153.33±10.41 and 538.33±15.18 U/mL after a 5 days induction of 1% methanol, with secreted protein concentration 80.03±1.94 and 239.60±4.16 mg/L, respectively. Compared with the original SSL gene, the expression of optimized SSL gene by the second strategy showed a 2.6 fold higher level, while the first method had no obvious improvement in production. In total secreted protein, the proportions of recombinant SSL encoded by the original gene, first method optimized gene and the second—strategy optimized one were 75.06±0.25%, 74.56±0.14% and 79.00±0.14%, respectively, with the same molecular weight about 18 kDa, optimum acidity pH 6.0 and optimum temperature 35degC. PMID:26025401

  10. [SUS management and monitoring and evaluation practices: possibilities and challenges for building a strategic agenda].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, André Luis Bonifácio de; Souza, Maria de Fátima; Shimizu, Helena Eri; Senra, Isabel Maria Vilas Boas; Oliveira, Kátia Cristina de

    2012-04-01

    This paper deals with the challenges involved in institutionalizing Monitoring and Evaluation practices within the scope of management of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), based on the creation of a strategic agenda. This is structured around actions by the Federal Administration, from the perspective of defining the scope of the federative relationship. A summarized literature review is thus presented, placing into context the current SUS management process, which is based on the Pact for Health as well as theoretical and operational aspects inherent to monitoring and evaluation practices. The approach related to the strategic agenda highlights the creation of mechanisms that underpin the political and institutional decision, namely the creation of financial incentives and the development of technical mechanisms. These include organizational strategies for qualifying management teams and conducting studies and research and the dissemination of strategic information. These processes are based on the concept of providing for the management specificities in the different spheres of management based on a broad cooperation process involving teaching and research institutions and international organizations as well as the managers themselves.

  11. Structural basis for the interaction between yeast Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex components Sgf11 and Sus1.

    PubMed

    Ellisdon, Andrew M; Jani, Divyang; Köhler, Alwin; Hurt, Ed; Stewart, Murray

    2010-02-01

    Sus1 is a central component of the yeast gene gating machinery, the process by which actively transcribing genes such as GAL1 become associated with nuclear pore complexes. Sus1 is a component of both the SAGA transcriptional co-activator complex and the TREX-2 complex that binds to nuclear pore complexes. TREX-2 contains two Sus1 chains that have an articulated helical hairpin fold, enabling them to wrap around an extended alpha-helix in Sac3, following a helical hydrophobic stripe. In SAGA, Sus1 binds to Sgf11 and has been proposed to provide a link between SAGA and TREX-2. We present here the crystal structure of the complex between Sus1 and the N-terminal region of Sgf11 that forms an extended alpha-helix around which Sus1 wraps in a manner that shares some similarities with the Sus1-Sac3 interface in TREX-2. However, the Sus1-binding site on Sgf11 is somewhat shorter than on Sac3 and is based on a narrower hydrophobic stripe. Engineered mutants that disrupt the Sgf11-Sus1 interaction in vitro confirm the importance of the hydrophobic helical stripe in molecular recognition. Helix alpha1 of the Sus1-articulated hairpin does not bind directly to Sgf11 and adopts a wide range of conformations within and between crystal forms, consistent with the presence of a flexible hinge and also with results from previous extensive mutagenesis studies (Klöckner, C., Schneider, M., Lutz, S., Jani, D., Kressler, D., Stewart, M., Hurt, E., and Köhler, A. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284, 12049-12056). A single Sus1 molecule cannot bind Sgf11 and Sac3 simultaneously and this, combined with the structure of the Sus1-Sgf11 complex, indicates that Sus1 forms separate subcomplexes within SAGA and TREX-2.

  12. [The Citizen Constitution and the 25th anniversary of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS)].

    PubMed

    Paim, Jairnilson Silva

    2013-10-01

    This article, celebrating the 25th anniversary of Brazil's 1988 Constitution, aims to review the country's social policy development, discuss political projects, and analyze challenges for the sustainability of the Unified National Health System (SUS). Based on public policymaking studies, the article revisits the origins of liberal social policy, focused on social assistance, and analyzes the hegemony of U.S. policies targeting poverty and their repercussions for universal policies. After identifying the formulation of political projects in Brazil's democratic transition, it discusses their implications during the various Administrations since 1988, along with the difficulties faced by the National Health System. The article concludes that the political forces occupying government in the last two decades have failed to present a project for the country on the same level as those who drafted the Citizen Constitution. PMID:24127081

  13. Microsatellite markers for identification and parentage analysis in the European wild boar (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is among the most widespread mammal species throughout the old world. Presently, studies concerning microsatellites in domestic pigs and wild boars have been carried out in order to investigate domestication, social behavior and general diversity patterns among either populations or breeds. The purpose of the current study is to develop a robust set of microsatellites markers for parentage analyses and individual identification. Findings A set of 14 previously reported microsatellites markers have been optimized and tested in three populations from Hungary, Portugal and Spain, in a total of 167 samples. The results indicate high probabilities of exclusion (0.99999), low probability of identity (2.0E-13 – 2.5E-9) and a parentage assignment of 100%. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that this set of markers is a useful and efficient tool for the individual identification and parentage assignment in wild boars. PMID:22943565

  14. Caries, Periodontal Disease, Supernumerary Teeth and Other Dental Disorders in Swedish Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Malmsten, A; Dalin, A-M; Pettersson, A

    2015-07-01

    Between January and December 2013, the dental and periodontal health of 99 Swedish wild boars (Sus scrofa) was investigated. Sampling occurred in conjunction with routine hunting at six large estates in the southern and middle parts of Sweden. All six of the estates use supplemental feeding. The weight of the animals, their sex and their dates of death were noted. Age was estimated using tooth eruption and tooth replacement patterns. The oral cavity was inspected and abnormalities were recorded on a dental chart modified for wild boars. The findings included supernumerary teeth, absence of teeth, mild class II malocclusion, severe tooth wear, periodontitis, calculus, caries, tooth fractures and the presence of enamel defects. Swedish wild boars suffer from different dental lesions and the impact of supplemental feeding on dental and periodontal health is still to be investigated.

  15. Lead and cadmium in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Sierra Nevada Natural Space (southern Spain).

    PubMed

    Mulero, Rocío; Cano-Manuel, Javier; Ráez-Bravo, Arián; Pérez, Jesús M; Espinosa, José; Soriguer, Ramón; Fandos, Paulino; Granados, José E; Romero, Diego

    2016-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate Pb and Cd levels in tissues of wild boar (Sus scrofa) from the Sierra Nevada Natural Space (SNNS) (southern Spain). Heavy metal concentrations in livers, kidneys and bones from 111 animals were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Bones and kidneys were the most Pb- and Cd-contaminated tissues, respectively; Cd concentrations were 5.6 times higher in kidneys than in livers. This is the first biomonitoring study of these pollutants in wild boar tissues in the SNNS, and findings indicate that this population is chronically exposed to these heavy metals. The detected Pb and Cd concentrations were lower than those found in many studies performed in Europe on the same species. PMID:27178294

  16. FATAL CASE OF STREPTOCOCCUS SUIS INFECTION IN A YOUNG WILD BOAR (SUS SCROFA) FROM SOUTHWESTERN SPAIN.

    PubMed

    Risco, David; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M; García-Jiménez, Waldo L; Gonçalves, Pilar; Martínez, Remigio; García, Alfredo; Rosales, Rubén; Gómez, Luis; de Mendoza, Javier Hermoso

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcus suis is a recognized pathogen that may cause important diseases in pigs and humans. This microorganism has been repeatedly isolated from wild boar (Sus scrofa). However, its health implications for this wild species are still unknown. This article reports a detailed description of a fatal case of septicemia by S. suis affecting a young wild boar. The affected animal, about 15 days old, was found near death and exhibiting neurologic signs at a wild boar estate in southwestern Spain. Postmortem examination showed generalized congestion, brain hemorrhages and lobular pneumonia. Histopathological evaluation demonstrated the presence of meningitis and encephalitis with marked congestion and suppurative bronchopneumonia. Streptococcus suis serotype 2 isolates exhibiting important virulence factors (extracellular factor, muramidase-released protein, and suylisin) were isolated from the affected animal. This study confirms the presence of potentially virulent and zoonotic strains of S. suis in wild boar from Spain. PMID:26056897

  17. The first description of gastric Helicobacter in free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) from Poland.

    PubMed

    Fabisiak, M; Sapierzyński, R; Salamaszyńska-Guz, A; Kizerwetter-Swida, M

    2010-01-01

    Specimens of gastric mucosa of 17 free-ranging wild boars (Sus scrofa) shot in the Central Poland during 2007/2008 hunting season were investigated for the presence of Helicobacter species. Histopathology, Helicobacter genus-specific 16S rRNA PCR, and DNA sequence analysis were employed. In PCR analysis the presence of Helicobacter's DNA was detected in one stomach. Obtained sequence analysis showed its relatedness to Helicobacter heilmannii type 2. In histopathology of the PCR-positive sample the presence of tightly coiled spiral bacteria was detected on the surface of the antral mucosa, in gastric pits and lumen of the upper parts of antral glands. Potential pathologic significance of the presence of Helicobacter in the stomach of free-ranging wild boars was obscured by the parasitic invasion-caused gastritis, and remains unknown.

  18. Absence of Mycobacterium bovis in feral swine (Sus scrofa) from the southern Texas border region.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Tyler A; Long, David B; Bazan, Luis R; Thomsen, Bruce V; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Davey, Ronald B; Soliz, Liza A; Swafford, Seth R; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2011-10-01

    Free-ranging wildlife, such as feral swine (Sus scrofa), harbor a variety of diseases that are transmissible to livestock and could negatively impact agricultural production. Information is needed regarding the exposure and infection rates of Mycobacterium bovis and many other diseases and parasites in feral swine occurring in the Texas border region. Our main objective was to determine exposure rates and possible infection rates of M. bovis in feral swine by opportunistically sampling animals from the Texas border region. From June to September 2010, we obtained samples from 396 feral swine and tested 98 samples for M. bovis by histopathology and mycobacteriologic culture. We found no evidence of M. bovis infection. We believe that it is important to periodically and strategically sample feral swine for M. bovis in high-risk areas of the United States because they are capable of becoming reservoirs of the disease.

  19. [The Citizen Constitution and the 25th anniversary of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS)].

    PubMed

    Paim, Jairnilson Silva

    2013-10-01

    This article, celebrating the 25th anniversary of Brazil's 1988 Constitution, aims to review the country's social policy development, discuss political projects, and analyze challenges for the sustainability of the Unified National Health System (SUS). Based on public policymaking studies, the article revisits the origins of liberal social policy, focused on social assistance, and analyzes the hegemony of U.S. policies targeting poverty and their repercussions for universal policies. After identifying the formulation of political projects in Brazil's democratic transition, it discusses their implications during the various Administrations since 1988, along with the difficulties faced by the National Health System. The article concludes that the political forces occupying government in the last two decades have failed to present a project for the country on the same level as those who drafted the Citizen Constitution.

  20. Lead and cadmium in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Sierra Nevada Natural Space (southern Spain).

    PubMed

    Mulero, Rocío; Cano-Manuel, Javier; Ráez-Bravo, Arián; Pérez, Jesús M; Espinosa, José; Soriguer, Ramón; Fandos, Paulino; Granados, José E; Romero, Diego

    2016-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate Pb and Cd levels in tissues of wild boar (Sus scrofa) from the Sierra Nevada Natural Space (SNNS) (southern Spain). Heavy metal concentrations in livers, kidneys and bones from 111 animals were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Bones and kidneys were the most Pb- and Cd-contaminated tissues, respectively; Cd concentrations were 5.6 times higher in kidneys than in livers. This is the first biomonitoring study of these pollutants in wild boar tissues in the SNNS, and findings indicate that this population is chronically exposed to these heavy metals. The detected Pb and Cd concentrations were lower than those found in many studies performed in Europe on the same species.

  1. The Effect of Clothing on the Rate of Decomposition and Diptera Colonization on Sus scrofa Carcasses.

    PubMed

    Card, Allison; Cross, Peter; Moffatt, Colin; Simmons, Tal

    2015-07-01

    Twenty Sus scrofa carcasses were used to study the effect the presence of clothing had on decomposition rate and colonization locations of Diptera species; 10 unclothed control carcasses were compared to 10 clothed experimental carcasses over 58 days. Data collection occurred at regular accumulated degree day intervals; the level of decomposition as Total Body Score (TBSsurf ), pattern of decomposition, and Diptera present was documented. Results indicated a statistically significant difference in the rate of decomposition, (t427  = 2.59, p = 0.010), with unclothed carcasses decomposing faster than clothed carcasses. However, the overall decomposition rates from each carcass group are too similar to separate when applying a 95% CI, which means that, although statistically significant, from a practical forensic point of view they are not sufficiently dissimilar as to warrant the application of different formulae to estimate the postmortem interval. Further results demonstrated clothing provided blow flies with additional colonization locations.

  2. First reports of Trichinella pseudospiralis in wild boars (Sus scrofa) of Italy.

    PubMed

    Merialdi, Giuseppe; Bardasi, Lia; Fontana, Maria Cristina; Spaggiari, Brunella; Maioli, Giulia; Conedera, Gabriella; Vio, Denis; Londero, Mauro; Marucci, Gianluca; Ludovisi, Alessandra; Pozio, Edoardo; Capelli, Gioia

    2011-06-10

    Trichinella pseudospiralis is a non-encapsulated species infecting both mammals and birds. In Italy, this parasite was reported only in two night-birds of prey of Central Italy. In January 2010, Trichinella larvae were detected in three wild boars (Sus scrofa) of two regions of Northern Italy by enzymatic digestion. The parasites were identified as T. pseudospiralis by multiplex-PCR. The first infected wild boar was hunted in the Emilia Romagna region and the other two infected wild boars were bred outdoors in a small family farm of the Friuli Venezia Giulia region. These new epidemiological data reinforce the role of the wild boar as the main reservoir of T. pseudospiralis in Europe. PMID:21296503

  3. Caries, Periodontal Disease, Supernumerary Teeth and Other Dental Disorders in Swedish Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Malmsten, A; Dalin, A-M; Pettersson, A

    2015-07-01

    Between January and December 2013, the dental and periodontal health of 99 Swedish wild boars (Sus scrofa) was investigated. Sampling occurred in conjunction with routine hunting at six large estates in the southern and middle parts of Sweden. All six of the estates use supplemental feeding. The weight of the animals, their sex and their dates of death were noted. Age was estimated using tooth eruption and tooth replacement patterns. The oral cavity was inspected and abnormalities were recorded on a dental chart modified for wild boars. The findings included supernumerary teeth, absence of teeth, mild class II malocclusion, severe tooth wear, periodontitis, calculus, caries, tooth fractures and the presence of enamel defects. Swedish wild boars suffer from different dental lesions and the impact of supplemental feeding on dental and periodontal health is still to be investigated. PMID:25979683

  4. Fracture toughness of partially welded joints of SUS316 in high magnetic field at 4K

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, A.; Yamamoto, J.; Motojima, O.

    1997-06-01

    Two kinds of partially welded austenitic stainless steel joints were prepared using SUS 316, 75 mm thick. One joint was fabricated using tungsten inert gas welding and metal arc gas welding, and the other was electron beam welded. Compact tension specimens for fracture toughness tests were machined out from these welded plates in the thickness direction. The fracture toughness tests of these specimens with natural cracks were carried out in 0, 8, and 14 T fields at 4 K. The test results show that there is no strong effect of the high magnetic field on the fracture toughness of these joints, and the electron beam welded joints give a very low toughness in any case because of the complicated natural crack front shape.

  5. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira-Cézar, Camila K; Pedersen, Kerri; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Kwok, Oliver C; Villena, Isabelle; Dubey, Jitender P

    2016-08-15

    The protozoon Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids (Canis familiaris, Canis latrans, Canis lupus) are definitive hosts whereas many other animal species, including pigs, are intermediate hosts for the parasite. Between 2012 and 2014, serum samples from 1059 feral swine (Sus scrofa) from 29 states of the USA were tested for N. caninum antibodies, using the N. caninum agglutination test (NAT). Of these, 159 (15.0%) feral pigs from 21 states tested positive, with a range of titers of 1:25 (cut-off) (n=153), 1:200 (1), 1:400 (1), 1:800 (3) and 1:3200 (1). Results indicate widespread exposure of feral swine to N. caninum infection across the USA. PMID:27514880

  6. An Analysis of Recent Enrollment, Discipline and Graduation Trends among Females and Underrepresented Minorities at SUS Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micceri, Theodore; Borman, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    Increased numbers of minority students as well as increased numbers of Florida high school graduates entering higher education in Florida have influenced Florida SUS [State University System] enrollment and graduation characteristics. This study of 510,952 undergraduate students shows that between the years 1996 and 2003, the number of entering…

  7. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of microflora colonizing feral pig (Sus scrofa) of Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed Central

    Lessa, SS; Paes, RCS; Santoro, PN; Mauro, RA; Vieira-da-Motta, O

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is a worldwide problem affecting wild life by living with resistant bacteria in the environment. This study presents a discussion of outside factors environment on microflora of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) from Brazilian Pantanal. Animals had samples collected from six different body sites coming from two separated geographic areas, Nhecolandia and Rio Negro regions. With routine biochemical tests and commercial kits 516 bacteria were identified, with 240 Gram-positive, predominantly staphylococci (36) and enterococci (186) strains. Among Gram-negative (GN) bacteria the predominant specimens of Enterobacteriaceae (247) mainly represented by Serratia spp. (105), Escherichia coli (50), and Enterobacter spp. (40) and specimens not identified (7). Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against 17 drugs by agar diffusion method. Staphylococci were negative to production of enterotoxins and TSST-1, with all strains sensitive towards four drugs and highest resistance toward ampicillin (17%). Enterococci presented the highest sensitivity against vancomycin (98%), ampicillin (94%) and tetracycline (90%), and highest resistance pattern toward oxacillin (99%), clindamycin (83%), and cotrimoxazole (54%). In GN the highest resistance was observed with Serratia marcescens against CFL (98%), AMC (66%) and AMP (60%) and all drugs was most effective against E. coli SUT, TET (100%), AMP, TOB (98%), GEN, CLO (95%), CFO, CIP (93%). The results show a new profile of oxacillin-resistant enterococci from Brazilian feral pigs and suggest a limited residue and spreading of antimicrobials in the environment, possibly because of low anthropogenic impact reflected by the drug susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated. PMID:24031689

  8. A Novel Bonding Method of Pure Aluminum and SUS304 Stainless Steel Using Barrel Nitriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jung Hyun; Okumiya, Masahiro; Tsunekawa, Yoshiki; Yun, Ky Youl; Kim, Sang Gweon; Yoshida, Masashi

    2014-09-01

    A great deal of research is being carried out on welding or bonding methods between iron and aluminum. However, it is not so easy to make Fe-Al bonding materials with both high strength and light weight. Recently, a new nitriding process has been proposed to produce aluminum nitride on an aluminum surface using a barrel. This study proposes a new concept in the production of a multilayer which has an AlN and Fe-Al intermetallic compound layer between the aluminum and steel using a barrel nitriding process. The bonding process was carried out from 893 K to 913 K (620 °C to 640 °C) for 18, 25.2, and 36 ks with Al2O3 powder and Al-Mg alloy powder. After the process, an aluminum nitride (AlN) layer and a Fe-Al intermetallic compound (Fe2Al5.4) layer were formed at the interface between the pure aluminum and SUS304 austenitic stainless steel. The thicknesses of the AlN layer and the intermetallic compound layer increased with increasing treatment temperature and time. The maximum hardnesses of the AlN layer and Fe2Al5.4 layers were found to be 377HV and 910HV, respectively, after barrel nitriding at 893 K (620 °C) for 18 ks.

  9. Prevalence of Leptospira antibodies in wild boars (Sus scrofa) from Northern Portugal: risk factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Vale-Gonçalves, H M; Cabral, J A; Faria, M C; Nunes-Pereira, M; Faria, A S; Veloso, O; Vieira, M L; Paiva-Cardoso, Md N

    2015-07-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, caused by infection with pathogenic spirochaetes of the genus Leptospira. The wild boar (Sus scrofa), an important hunting species in Europe, seems to play a significant role in the epidemiological cycle of leptospirosis. A total of 101 serum samples from wild boar hunted in Northern Portugal were analysed for leptospiral antibodies detection by microscopic agglutination test. Sera were collected during hunting seasons (2011-2013) and tested with 17 different pathogenic serovars of Leptospira. Antibodies against nine serovars were detected in 66 (65·4%) of these sera. Serovars Tarassovi and Altodouro exhibited the highest seroreactivity rates (23·8% and 16·8%, respectively), followed by Autumnalis (7·9%) and Bratislava (6·9%). Age and district of origin were found to be risk factors for the presence of leptospiral antibodies in contrast to gender. From a One Health perspective, this study revealed that wild boar should be considered as a potential source of leptospirosis dissemination for humans and animal species (domestic and wild) in shared environments, particularly in the Trás-os-Montes region.

  10. Decision making and senior management: the implementation of change projects covering clinical management in SUS hospitals.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, José Márcio da Cunha; Gomes, Romeu

    2016-08-01

    This paper analyses the decision making process for senior management in public hospitals that are a part of the National Health Service in Brazil (hereafter SUS) in relation to projects aimed at changing clinical management. The methodological design of this study is qualitative in nature taking a hermeneutics-dialectics perspective in terms of results. Hospital directors noted that clinical management projects changed the state of hospitals through: improving their organizations, mobilizing their staff in order to increase a sense of order and systemizing actions and available resources. Technical rationality was the principal basis used in the decision making process for managers. Due to the reality of many hospitals having fragmented organizations, this fact impeded the use of aspects related to rationality, such as economic and financial factors in the decision making process. The incremental model and general politics also play a role in this area. We concluded that the decision making process embraces a large array of factors including rational aspects such as the use of management techniques and the ability to analyze, interpret and summarize. It also incorporates subjective elements such as how to select values and dealing with people's working experiences. We recognized that management problems are wide in scope, ambiguous, complex and do not come with a lot of structure in practice.

  11. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in a Vietnamese pot-bellied pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Swenson, Julie; Carpenter, James W; Ragsdale, John; Kuroki, Kei; Ketz-Riley, Cornelia; Brinkman, Erin; Cole, Gretchen

    2009-11-01

    An 18-year-old, neutered, male Vietnamese pot-bellied pig (Sus scrofa) was treated for chronic, intermittent nasal discharge and sneezing. The animal was diagnosed with severe periodontal disease (grade IV), an oronasal fistula, and multiple tooth root abscesses via dental examination and computed tomography of the skull. Dentistry was performed, including multiple tooth extractions, and antibiotic therapy was initiated. Eighteen months later, the animal was evaluated for lethargy, anorexia, and a firm, 12 cm x 12 cm mass between the 2 rami of the mandible. Laboratory testing revealed moderate anemia, severe leukocytosis, and hyperglobulinemia. Skull radiographs indicated osteomyelitis of the mandible and soft-tissue swelling. A fine-needle aspirate and biopsy were taken, and results were consistent with squamous cell carcinoma. Treatment with piroxicam and antibiotics was initiated as needed to control signs of pain and secondary infection, respectively. Three months after diagnosis, the pig was euthanized due to cachexia and severe depression secondary to squamous cell carcinoma. On postmortem examination, the right mandibular area contained multiple, coalescing, irregular masses extending from the ramus rostrally to the mandibular canine teeth and ventrally within the intermandibular space, completely obliterating the normal anatomy. An open midshaft fracture was present on the right mandible. On histopathology, the masses were confirmed as locally invasive and destructive squamous cell carcinoma. No evidence of metastasis was noted in regional lymph nodes or in any of the distant sites evaluated.

  12. Functional Cues in the Development of Osseous Tooth Support in the Pig, Sus scrofa

    PubMed Central

    Popowics, T.; Yeh, K.; Rafferty, K.; Herring, S.

    2009-01-01

    Alveolar bone supports teeth during chewing through a ligamentous interface with tooth roots. Although tooth loads are presumed to direct the development and adaptation of these tissues, strain distribution in the alveolar bone at different stages of tooth eruption and periodontal development is unknown. This study investigates the biomechanical effects of tooth loading on developing alveolar bone as a tooth erupts into occlusion. Mandibular segments from miniature pigs, Sus scrofa, containing M1 either erupting or in functional occlusion, were loaded in compression. Simultaneous recordings were made from rosette strain gages affixed to the lingual alveolar bone and the M2 crypt. Overall, specimens with erupting M1's were more deformable than specimens with occluding M1's (mean stiffness of 246 vs. 944 Mpa, respectively, p=0.004). The major difference in alveolar strain between the two stages was in orientation. The vertically applied compressive loads were more directly reflected in the alveolar bone strains of erupting M1's, than those of occluding M1's, presumably because of the mediation of a more mature periodontal ligament (PDL) in the latter. The PDL interface between occluding teeth and alveolar bone is likely to stiffen the system, allowing transmission of occlusal loads. Alveolar strains may provide a stimulus for bone growth in the alveolar process and crest. PMID:19501361

  13. Shifts in soil biodiversity-A forensic comparison between Sus scrofa domesticus and vegetation decomposition.

    PubMed

    Olakanye, Ayodeji O; Thompson, Tim; Ralebitso-Senior, T Komang

    2015-12-01

    In a forensic context, microbial-mediated cadaver decomposition and nutrient recycling cannot be overlooked. As a result, forensic ecogenomics research has intensified to gain a better understanding of cadaver/soil ecology interactions as a powerful potential tool for forensic practitioners. For this study, domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) (4g) and grass (Agrostis/Festuca spp) cuttings (4g) were buried (July 2013 to July 2014) in sandy clay loam (80 g) triplicates in sealed microcosms (127 ml; 50 × 70 cm) with parallel soil only controls. The effects of the two carbon sources were determined by monitoring key environmental factors and changes in soil bacterial (16S rRNA gene) and fungal (18S rRNA gene) biodiversity. Soil pH changes showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between the treatments. The measured ecological diversity indices (Shannon-Wiener, HꞋ; Simpson, D; and richness, S) of the 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene profiles also revealed differences between the treatments, with bacterial and fungal community dominance recorded in the presence of S. scrofa domesticus and grass trimming decomposition, respectively. In contrast, no statistically significant difference in evenness (p>0.05) was observed between the treatments.

  14. Effect of Ultrasonic Shot Peening on the Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of SUS304

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Deokgi; Shin, Keesam; Dong, Jiling; Jung, Jinesung; Kim, Doosoo

    2011-06-01

    Shot peening is a mechanical surface modification technology, which can extend the fatigue life of materials by introducing work hardening, compressive stress, and/or some additional microstructural change in surface layer resulting in a restraint of crack initiation and propagation on the surface. In this study, SUS304, which has high formability and corrosion resistance, was shot peened and fatigued for the determination of their effect on the evolution of microstructures. The fatigue of the specimens were carried out at three different cycles, followed by second shot peening and finish fatigue of 106 cycles. The microstructures of the specimens were investigated using OM, EBSD, SED and EDS. The resulting mechanical property such as microhardness and residual stress was also investigated. Deformed layer of ~100μm and mechanical twins were observed after fatigue and shot peening test. The top surface layer of shot peened specimen showed the highest twin density and microhardness. The increase of the fatigue before shot peening caused increase and deepening of the compressive residual stress. However, the finish fatigue of 106 cycles decreased overall compressive residual stress.

  15. Fatigue Properties of SUS304 Stainless Steel after Ultrasonic Nanocrystal Surface Modification (unsm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K. Y.; Pyoun, Y. S.; Cao, X. J.; Wu, B.; Murakami, R.

    The changing of materials surface properties method always was taken into improving the fatigue strength. In this paper, an ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification(UNSM) technique was used on the SUS 304 stainless steel to form a nanostructured surface layer with different static load(70N, 90N, 110N, 130N) and the vibration strike number was about 20,000times/mm2. The untreated and different condition specimens fatigue strength was all tested by a dual-spindle rotating bending fatigue test machine. SPring-8(a large synchrotron radiation facility) was used to test the surface nanocrystallization components. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscope and a micro-Vickers hardness tester (MVK-E3, Akashi) were separately used to get the surface residual stresses, fracture surface after fatigue testing, metallographic structure and the microhardness of the nanostructured surface layer. The result showed that martensite transformation took place on the surface of specimens, the surface residual stresses had only a small increase and some cracks occurred between the martensite layer and the austenite layer, but the fatigue strength of 90N improved 81%.

  16. Thermal fatigue behavior of a SUS304 pipe under longitudinal cyclic movement of axial temperature distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, Masafumi; Ohtani, Tomomi; Takahashi, Yukio

    1996-12-31

    In a structural thermal fatigue test which imposed an oscillating axial temperature distribution on a SUS 304 pipe specimens, different crack initiation lives were observed between the inner and the outer surfaces, although the values of the von-Mises equivalent strain range calculated by FEM inelastic analysis were almost the same for both surfaces. The outer surface condition was an in-phase thermal cycle and an almost uniaxial cyclic stress (low hydrostatic stress). The inner surface condition was an out-of-phase thermal cycle and an almost equibiaxial cyclic stress (high hydrostatic stress). A uniaxial thermal fatigue test was performed under the simulated conditions of the outer and inner surfaces of the pipe specimen. The in-phase uniaxial thermal fatigue test result was in good agreement with the test result of the pipe specimen for the outer surface. The out-of-phase uniaxial thermal fatigue test which simulated the inner surface condition, showed a longer life than the in-phase uniaxial test, and thus contradicted the result of the structural model test. However, the structural model test life for the inner surface agreed well with the uniaxial experimental measurement when the strain range of the inner surface was corrected by a triaxiality factor.

  17. Plastic deformation of SUS304 under in situ and post-irradiation fatigue loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Y.; Nagakawa, Johsei; Yamamoto, N.

    2007-08-01

    Side-notched subsize specimens of SUS304 were fatigued in the unirradiated condition, during in situ irradiation with 17 MeV protons at 300 °C and post-irradiation conditions. Nano-indentation tests were conducted on the specimens fatigued for 6, 24, 100 and 200 h in the unirradiated condition, for 24 h in the in situ irradiation condition and for 200 h in the post-irradiation condition. When comparing the distribution maps of nano-hardness for the specimens fatigued for 24 h during in situ irradiation and unirradiated conditions, less significant change of hardness was detected at the notch tip for the in situ irradiation specimen. As for the post-irradiation specimen fatigued for 200 h, the area of higher nano-hardness at the notch tip was smaller than that of the unirradiated specimen fatigued for 200 h. The mechanism of the irradiation effect on fatigue behavior is discussed in terms of the plastic deformation under in situ and post-irradiation fatigue loadings.

  18. Genome sequencing reveals fine scale diversification and reticulation history during speciation in Sus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Elucidating the process of speciation requires an in-depth understanding of the evolutionary history of the species in question. Studies that rely upon a limited number of genetic loci do not always reveal actual evolutionary history, and often confuse inferences related to phylogeny and speciation. Whole-genome data, however, can overcome this issue by providing a nearly unbiased window into the patterns and processes of speciation. In order to reveal the complexity of the speciation process, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of 10 wild pigs, representing morphologically or geographically well-defined species and subspecies of the genus Sus from insular and mainland Southeast Asia, and one African common warthog. Results Our data highlight the importance of past cyclical climatic fluctuations in facilitating the dispersal and isolation of populations, thus leading to the diversification of suids in one of the most species-rich regions of the world. Moreover, admixture analyses revealed extensive, intra- and inter-specific gene-flow that explains previous conflicting results obtained from a limited number of loci. We show that these multiple episodes of gene-flow resulted from both natural and human-mediated dispersal. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the importance of past climatic fluctuations and human mediated translocations in driving and complicating the process of speciation in island Southeast Asia. This case study demonstrates that genomics is a powerful tool to decipher the evolutionary history of a genus, and reveals the complexity of the process of speciation. PMID:24070215

  19. Neospora caninum exposure in overlapping populations of coyotes (Canis latrans) and feral swine (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Bevins, Sarah; Blizzard, Emily; Bazan, Luis; Whitley, Pat

    2013-10-01

    Limited information exists on Neospora caninum transmission dynamics in wildlife. This coccidian parasite, whose presence can lead to substantial economic losses in cattle operations, requires a canid definitive host for reproduction. We examined exposure in a definitive host, coyotes (Canis latrans), and in overlapping populations of feral swine (Sus scrofa) to determine if spatial proximity between a definitive and incidental host influences the likelihood of parasite exposure. Eighteen percent of coyotes (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.2-21.8) and 15.8% of feral swine (95% CI = 12.5-19.2) had been exposed to N. caninum, and this is the first report of exposure in US feral swine populations. Analyses suggest that the parasite is present throughout the environment and that exposure is not temporally or spatially linked to antibody-positive coyotes. Antibody-positive feral swine were found in an area where the only definitive host is domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), indicating that wild canids are not required to maintain the parasite in the environment.

  20. [The contemporary relationship between work, qualification and recognition: repercussions on the Unified Health System (SUS) workers].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Monica; Chinelli, Filippina

    2013-06-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between work, qualification and recognition as it occurs in the field of health today, specifically considering the employability of technical workers in the Unified Health System, the way they perceive the employment relationship with respect to their self-esteem regarding their subjectivities. Based on a review of the relevant literature, the subject is treated in the wider context of ongoing changes in the workplace, which are associated with intensification, flexibility and precariousness of labor relations, with repercussions on the specific aspects mentioned. An attempt is made to establish a critical dialogue with the analytical aspect that emphasizes daily work as a privileged forum for overcoming the contradictions that characterize the field of work and education in the SUS nowadays. The text emphasizes the following issues: analysis of the relationship between work and education from the perspective of the concept of skill; the broadening of the meaning of health work; and a critical evaluation of policies that end up making the workers liable for the quality of services rendered.

  1. In Vitro Study of Caecal and Colon Microbial Fermentation Patterns in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa scrofa).

    PubMed

    Pecka-Kiełb, Ewa; Bujok, Jolanta; Miśta, Dorota; Króliczewska, Bozena; Górecka, Justyna; Zawadzki, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) caecal and colon products of microbial activity including short chain fatty acids (SCFA), ammonia and methane concentrations. The in vitro method was applied to caecal and colon contents after 12 and 24-hour incubation with the substrate (wheat bran), or without any additive (control samples). The pH was also measured in each sample. In samples incubated with the substrate, a lower pH was noted as compared to the control (P < 0.001). In terms of the total SCFA concentration, the hindgut microbial fermentation pattern of wild boar was characterized by a high acetate level, followed by propionate and then butyrate at a ratio of 7:1.5:1. Substrate addition decreased acetate molar proportions (P < 0.001) and increased those of butyrate (P < 0.001) as well as propionate (P < 0.05). The total SCFA level in fresh, unincubated caecal samples (128 mmol/kg) was similar to that in the colon (111 mmol/kg). The ammonia concentrations were at the level of 0.8-1.5 mmol/kg of hindgut content and did not differ between the two investigated hindgut parts. Methanogenesis was also similar in the caecum and colon and after 24h was 2.69 mmol/kg and 2.27 for caecal colon control samples, respectively. The substrate increased total gas production and methane concentration (P < 0.001). PMID:27172710

  2. Immobilization of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) and feral hogs (Sus scrofa) with Telazol and xylazine.

    PubMed

    Gabor, T M; Hellgren, E C; Silvy, N J

    1997-01-01

    A 1:1 mg mixture of Telazol and xylazine hydrochloride (100 mg of Telazol and 100 mg of xylazine per ml) was used to immobilize wild collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) and feral hogs (Sus scrofa); mean (+/-SD) intramuscular dosage rate was 4.73 +/- 0.86 mg/kg and 4.35 +/- 0.68 mg/kg for peccaries (n = 107) and hogs (n = 49), respectively. Mean (+/-SD) induction time (time from injection until complete immobilization) was 4.6 +/- 2.5 minutes for collared peccaries and 4.4 +/- 1.9 for hogs. Peccaries became conscious at 64 +/- 29 minutes and first stood at 92 +/- 33 minutes after initial injection. Hogs became conscious at 54 +/- 26 minutes and first stood at 78 +/- 38 minutes after initial injection. A 1:1 mg mixture of Telazol and xylazine provided an effective and safe method to immobilize both species and provided adequate analgesia and anesthesia for short surgical procedures.

  3. Decision making and senior management: the implementation of change projects covering clinical management in SUS hospitals.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, José Márcio da Cunha; Gomes, Romeu

    2016-08-01

    This paper analyses the decision making process for senior management in public hospitals that are a part of the National Health Service in Brazil (hereafter SUS) in relation to projects aimed at changing clinical management. The methodological design of this study is qualitative in nature taking a hermeneutics-dialectics perspective in terms of results. Hospital directors noted that clinical management projects changed the state of hospitals through: improving their organizations, mobilizing their staff in order to increase a sense of order and systemizing actions and available resources. Technical rationality was the principal basis used in the decision making process for managers. Due to the reality of many hospitals having fragmented organizations, this fact impeded the use of aspects related to rationality, such as economic and financial factors in the decision making process. The incremental model and general politics also play a role in this area. We concluded that the decision making process embraces a large array of factors including rational aspects such as the use of management techniques and the ability to analyze, interpret and summarize. It also incorporates subjective elements such as how to select values and dealing with people's working experiences. We recognized that management problems are wide in scope, ambiguous, complex and do not come with a lot of structure in practice. PMID:27557021

  4. Isolation and characterization of a novel Rhabdovirus from a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kouji; Hagiwara, Katsuro; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Hamasaki, Chinami; Kuwata, Ryusei; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kazuo; Endoh, Daiji; Nagata, Noriyo; Nagai, Makoto; Katayama, Yukie; Oba, Mami; Kurane, Ichiro; Saijo, Masayuki; Morikawa, Shigeru; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Maeda, Ken

    2015-09-30

    A novel rhabdovirus was isolated from the serum of a healthy Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) and identified using the rapid determination system for viral nucleic acid sequences (RDV), next-generation sequencing, and electron microscopy. The virus was tentatively named wild boar rhabdovirus 1 (WBRV1). Phylogenetic analysis of the entire genome sequence indicated that WBRV1 is closely related to Tupaia rhabdovirus (TRV), which was isolated from cultured cells of hepatocellular carcinoma tissue of tree shrew. TRV has not been assigned to any genus of Rhabdoviridae till date. Analysis of the L gene indicated that WBRV1 belongs to the genus Vesiculovirus. These observations suggest that both TRV and WBRV1 belong to a new genus of Rhabdoviridae. Next-generation genome sequencing of WBRV1 revealed 5 open reading frames of 1329, 765, 627, 1629, and 6336 bases in length. The WBRV1 gene sequences are similar to those of other rhabdoviruses. Epizootiological analysis of a population of wild boars in Wakayama prefecture in Japan indicated that 6.5% were positive for the WBRV1 gene and 52% were positive for WBRV1-neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, such viral neutralizing antibodies were found in domestic pigs in another prefecture. WBRV1 was inoculated intranasally and intraperitoneally into SCID and BALB/c mice and viral RNA was detected in SCID mice, suggesting that WBRV1 can replicate in immunocompromised mice. These results indicate this novel virus is endemic in wild animals and livestock in Japan.

  5. Seroepidemiologic survey for Chlamydia suis in wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Francesco, Antonietta; Donati, Manuela; Morandi, Federico; Renzi, Maria; Masia, Marco Antonio; Ostanello, Fabio; Salvatore, Daniela; Cevenini, Roberto; Baldelli, Raffaella

    2011-07-01

    We used serology to estimate the prevalence of exposure to chlamydiae in Italian populations of wild boars (Sus scrofa). Sera from 173 hunter-killed wild boars harvested during the 2006-2009 hunting seasons in three Italian regions were tested for antibodies to Chlamydia suis, Chlamydophila pecorum, Chlamydophila abortus, and Chlamydophila psittaci by the microimmunofluorescence test. Antibody titers to chlamydiae ≥ 1:32 were detected in 110 of the 173 samples tested (63.6%). Specific reactivity could be assessed only in 44 sera with antibody titers to C. suis that were two- to threefold higher than antibody titers against the other chlamydial species; the other 66 sera had similar reactivity against all the chlamydia species tested. Antibody to C. suis was detected in sera from wild boar populations with rare or no known contact with domestic pigs. These results suggest that the wild boar could be a chlamydia reservoir and may acquire chlamydiae independent of contacts with the domestic pig. PMID:21719838

  6. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Fatigue Damage for SUS316 by Using Electromagnetic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, M.; Tsuchida, Y.; Yakushiji, T.; Enokizono, M.

    2009-03-01

    There are some fatigue damage estimation methods for an austenitic stainless steel that uses martensitic transformation. For instance, those are the remanent magnetization method, the excitation method using the differential pick-up coil, and so on. We are researching also those two methods in our laboratory now. In the remanent magnetization method, it is well known that the relationship between fatigue damage and the remanent magnetization is simple, clear, and reproducible. In addition, the excitation method can be easily used at the job site because the special magnetizer is unnecessary. But, these methods have some disadvantages shown as follows. For instance, the former needs a special magnetizer and the latter's output signal is small. On the other hand, it is well known that the inductance of a pancake type coil put on the metallic specimen changes according to the electromagnetic properties of the metallic specimen. In this paper, the assessment method of fatigue of an austenitic stainless steel (SUS316) that uses the change by fatigue of the inductance of the pancake type coil measured with the LCR meter is shown. In addition, the fatigue evaluation performance of this method is described.

  7. Estimation of Fatigue Damage for AN Austenitic Stainless Steel (SUS304) Using a Pancake Type Coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, M.; Tsuchida, Y.; Nagato, S.; Yakushiji, T.; Enokizono, M.

    2008-02-01

    There are some fatigue damage estimation methods of an austenitic stainless steel that uses martensitic transformation. For instance, those are the remanent magnetization method, the excitation method, and so on. Those two methods are researched also in our laboratory now. In the remanent magnetization method, it is well known that the relationship between fatigue damage and the remanent magnetization is simple, clear, and reproducible. However, this method has the disadvantage to need a special magnetizer. Then, this method cannot be easily used at the job site such as the factory. On the other hand, as the special magnetizer is unnecessary, the excitation method can be easily used at the job site. But, this method has some disadvantages shown as follows. For instance, the output signal of this method is small. And the surface state of the specimen strongly influences the noise component of the output signal. It is well known that the inductance of a pancake type coil put on the metallic specimen changes according to the electromagnetic properties of the metallic specimen. In this paper, the method of evaluation of fatigue damage of an austenitic stainless steel (SUS304) by using a change of an inductance of a pancake type coil is shown. In addition, the fatigue evaluation performance of this method is described.

  8. Experimental taphonomy: post-mortem microstructural modifications in Sus scrofa domesticus bone.

    PubMed

    Kontopoulos, Ioannis; Nystrom, Pia; White, Lorraine

    2016-09-01

    Bone is a highly specialised form of hard and rigid connective tissue whose histological structure undergoes post-mortem modifications. In taphonomic research, histological examination of bone thin sections is used to investigate these post-mortem microstructural changes in skeletal tissues. In this study, diagenetic modifications in pig skeletal remains (Sus scrofa domesticus) which were exposed to different taphonomic conditions as part of a long-term, real-time experiment were examined under light microscope (i.e. plain and cross polarized light). This experiment demonstrated that macroscopic appearance and microscopic preservation of bone may significantly differ. Early microbial attack was identified as enlarged osteocyte lacunae that later coalesce to constitute larger foci. Additionally, microscopic preservation of different skeletal elements varied intra-individually, while within bone differential preservation (i.e. proximal versus distal ends) was also observed. However, no specific patterns of early histological attack (e.g. endosteal and periosteal destruction) and no clear relationship between histological preservation and proximity to the abdominal area were detected. Lastly, the presence and composition of protective textiles had a clear effect on bone preservation. This research project, therefore, provided important evidence for the better understanding of the diagenetic processes that occur within bones whilst buried or exposed on the ground surface. PMID:27368073

  9. Light-absorbing Aerosol Properties in the Kathmandu Valley during SusKat-ABC Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Yoon, S.; Kim, J.; Cho, C.; Jung, J.

    2013-12-01

    Light-absorbing aerosols, such as black carbon (BC), are major contributors to the atmospheric heating and the reduction of solar radiation reaching at the earth's surface. In this study, we investigate light-absorption and scattering properties of aerosols (i.e., BC mass concentration, aerosol solar-absorption/scattering efficiency) in the Kathmandu valley during Sustainable atmosphere for the Kathmandu valley (SusKat)-ABC campaign, from December 2012 to February 2013. Kathmandu City is among the most polluted cities in the world. However, there are only few past studies that provide basic understanding of air pollution in the Kathmandu Valley, which is not sufficient for designing effective mitigation measures (e.g., technological, financial, regulatory, legal and political measures, planning strategies). A distinct diurnal variation of BC mass concentration with two high peaks observed during wintertime dry monsoon period. BC mass concentration was found to be maximum around 09:00 and 20:00 local standard time (LST). Increased cars and cooking activities including substantial burning of wood and other biomass in the morning and in the evening contributed to high BC concentration. Low BC concentrations during the daytime can be explain by reduced vehicular movement and cooking activities. Also, the developmements of the boundary layer height and mountain-valley winds in the Kathmandu Valley paly a crucial role in the temproal variation of BC mass concentrations. Detailed radiative effects of light-absorbing aerosols will be presented.

  10. Human perception of vocalizations of domestic piglets and modulation by experience with domestic pigs (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Tallet, Céline; Spinka, Marek; Maruscáková, Iva; Simecek, Petr

    2010-02-01

    Interspecific communication between humans and pets is possible through vocal cues. We studied how humans with differing experience with domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) interpret pig vocalizations. Forty-eight ethologists studying pigs, 31 pig-caretakers and 54 naive students evaluated the emotional intensity and valence (negative/positive) of recordings from two negative (castration, isolation) and two positive (reunion with the sow, postsuckling) contexts. They also identified the context in which the recordings were made. Castration vocalizations were evaluated as highly intense and unpleasant. The positive contexts were evaluated as low in intensity and positive in valence, and isolation fell in the middle for both intensity and valence. Compared with the other two groups, pig-caretakers evaluated the intensity of vocalizations as lower, and ethologists evaluated the valence as more negative. The level of successful classification exceeded that expected by chance for all four contexts but was especially accurate for castration. Ethologists achieved better recognition than students. Classifying (right context) and understanding the emotional content (valence, intensity) of pig vocalizations is thus a general ability of humans, although it varies according to an individual's experience with pigs. PMID:20175599

  11. Snaring to control feral pigs sus scrofa in a remote Hawaiian rain forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Stephen J.; Stone, Charles P.

    1993-01-01

    Feral pig Sus scrofa control in Kipahulu Valley, a remote rain forest in Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaiian Islands, has been achieved with snares over a 45-month period. Initial pig densities in fenced management units of 6·2 km2 and 7·8 km2were estimated at 6 animals/km2 and 14·3 animals/km2 for the two units, based on population reconstruction from animals killed and aged. During the 45 months of the study, 1978 snares were set, and 1·6 million snare nights were logged. Snare density reached 96/km2 and 200/km2 for the two management units by the end of the study. A mean effort of 43 worker hours/pig was used to remove 53 pigs from the upper management unit, and a mean of 7 worker hours/pig to remove 175 animals from the more densely populated lower unit. Pig activity monitoring along transects provided a good measure of control effectiveness until densities of about 1 pig/km2 were achieved, after which transects became less useful than scouting for determining pig activity.

  12. Serologic and molecular survey for hepatitis E virus in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Central Italy

    PubMed Central

    Mazzei, M.; Nardini, R.; Verin, R.; Forzan, M.; Poli, A.; Tolari, F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to further investigate the role of wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a reservoir for hepatitis E virus (HEV). Sixty-four blood and faecal samples collected from wild boar hunted in Central Italy in 2011–2012 were examined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and RT-PCR analysis. Positive RT-PCR samples were further examined by nucleotide sequence determination and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. Thirty-six sera (56.2%) were positive for HEV-specific antibodies, and six (9.4%) faecal samples scored RT-PCR-positive results. Four animals were positive by both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the detected wild boar–derived HEV sequences clustered within genotype 3, with similarity to sequences of human origin collected in a nearby area in 2012. Our data confirm that HEV is endemic in the wild boar population in the research area and that these wild animals could play an important role in the epidemiology of HEV infection. PMID:26199731

  13. Technological incorporation in the Unified Health System (SUS): the problem and ensuing challenges.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Reinaldo

    2014-12-01

    Technological incorporation is a central topic among the concerns regarding health care systems. This paper discusses the role of technology dynamics in health systems' cost increases, suggesting two different approaches - a 'pragmatic-economic' approach and a 'rational-defensive' approach - as guidelines to explain the reasons for this centrality. The paper shows how judicialization results from this situation and discusses two doctrinal views - 'reserve for contingencies' and 'rational use' - as the views that usually guide the debates in the courts and among health policy makers. The paper suggests that the attitude currently prevalent in the Brazilian judiciary system can prejudice the principle of equity by improperly evaluating the principle of integrality. We present a brief genealogy of HTA and a timeline of HTA in Brazil. We also discuss the relevance and the impact of Law 12401/2011, which regulates the principle of integrality in the Unified Health System (SUS) and propose three challenges to the development of HTA actions aiming at technology incorporation in Brazil. Finally, we discuss the entry and the role of private health insurance companies, emphasizing changes in the scenario and in their position. PMID:25388198

  14. Epidemiological study of hepatitis E virus infection in European wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Spain.

    PubMed

    de Deus, Nilsa; Peralta, Bibiana; Pina, Sonia; Allepuz, Alberto; Mateu, Enric; Vidal, Dolors; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Martín, Marga; Gortázar, Christian; Segalés, Joaquim

    2008-05-25

    Evidence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in Spanish domestic pig has been reported and hence it was advisable to search for this zoonotic pathogen in wild boar populations. A total of 150 wild boar serum samples from eight geographic areas from South-Central Spain were used to investigate HEV infection in European wild boar (Sus scrofa) by means of serology and PCR and its distribution by age, region and management system. Anti-HEV IgG, IgM and IgA were determined by an in-house ELISA. The overall seroprevalence was 42.7% (range 30.63-55.65%) and 19.6% (range 13.53-27.40%) of the animals tested positive for HEV RNA. Wild boar sequences were clustered within the genotype 3. This is the first description of HEV infection in Spanish wild boar and the results obtained may suggest a possible role of wild boar as a HEV reservoir for both domestic animals and humans. PMID:18082340

  15. Mandibular molar teeth and the development of mastication in the miniature pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Obrez, A

    1996-01-01

    The only components of the orofacial complex that are fully developed as soon as they establish function are the occlusal surfaces of teeth. It is usually assumed that the occlusal surface of the molar teeth influences the orientation of the power stroke in spite of the fact that the data supporting this claim are lacking. The purpose of this longitudinal study was therefore to determine whether or not this hypothetical form-function relationship existed during development and whether or not it was related to growth. Serial dorsoventral and lateral radiography, and dorsoventral cineradiography were performed during natural feeding of 5 Hanford miniature pigs (Sus scrofa) of both genders between their 8th and 18th weeks. Sequences of power strokes were analyzed frame by frame and compared between sessions, and related to the position of the fourth primary mandibular molar (dm4). The changes in direction of the power stroke and in position of the dm4 relative to the midline were subsequently related to growth. The results of this study indicate that changes in orientation of the power stroke, though significant only on the balancing side, occur independently of the repositioning working and balancing side mandibular molars, as well as of skeletal growth. The null hypothesis that the mandibular primary molars influence the transverse orientation of the power stroke during growth is therefore refuted.

  16. The morphology of the inner ear from the domestic pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Lovell, J M; Harper, G M

    2007-12-01

    The morphology of the hair cells of the inner ear end organs from the domestic pig (Sus scrofa) have been studied using a combination of Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy (SEM and TEM), revealing hair cells from the cochlea and vestibule using a novel surgical and technical approach. This is the first time that the inner ear hair cells from S. scrofa have been studied, thus providing useful anatomical information on the morphology of the hair cells from the cochlea, saccule and utricle from a large mammal. Anatomical information in relation to the morphology of the inner ear is of considerable importance, both in the pathological diagnosis of trauma and in the development of cochlea implants and other biotechnological systems associated with the enhancement of hearing. Standard fixation protocols using cardiac perfusion was not employed in this study as this method cannot always be applied, such as the pathological examination of the human ear, or the study of animals protected by endangered species legislation. With the exception of a very few countries, cetaceans cannot be killed for research purposes, yet physiological information on the inner ear from these species is urgently required for ecological assessment reasons. Supporting the use of S. scrofa as a model for cetacean hearing research is that this animal is a member of the order Artiodactyla, which includes both the hippopotamus and cetaceans. Being of a similar size, the pig is an ideal subject for developing protocols and surgical techniques required to investigate both the human and small cetacean auditory systems. PMID:18045329

  17. Genetic structure of wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations from East Asia based on microsatellite loci analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wild boar, Sus scrofa, is an extant wild ancestor of the domestic pig as an agro-economically important mammal. Wild boar has a worldwide distribution with its geographic origin in Southeast Asia, but genetic diversity and genetic structure of wild boar in East Asia are poorly understood. To characterize the pattern and amount of genetic variation and population structure of wild boar in East Asia, we genotyped and analyzed microsatellite loci for a total of 238 wild boar specimens from ten locations across six countries in East and Southeast Asia. Results Our data indicated that wild boar populations in East Asia are genetically diverse and structured, showing a significant correlation of genetic distance with geographic distance and implying a low level of gene flow at a regional scale. Bayesian-based clustering analysis was indicative of seven inferred genetic clusters in which wild boars in East Asia are geographically structured. The level of genetic diversity was relatively high in wild boars from Southeast Asia, compared with those from Northeast Asia. This gradient pattern of genetic diversity is consistent with an assumed ancestral population of wild boar in Southeast Asia. Genetic evidences from a relationship tree and structure analysis suggest that wild boar in Jeju Island, South Korea have a distinct genetic background from those in mainland Korea. Conclusions Our results reveal a diverse pattern of genetic diversity and the existence of genetic differentiation among wild boar populations inhabiting East Asia. This study highlights the potential contribution of genetic variation of wild boar to the high genetic diversity of local domestic pigs during domestication in East Asia. PMID:25034725

  18. Clean Technique for Prolonged Nonsurvival Cardiothoracic Surgery in Swine (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Maia M; Rabkin, David G; Washington, Ida M

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory animal regulations provide little guidance regarding duration of nonsurvival surgery requiring aseptic technique. We hypothesized that swine would experience no sepsis during nonsurvival cardiothoracic surgery accomplished by using clean technique and lasting 8 h or less. Incision sites of 5 male farm pigs (Sus scrofa) were shaved and then cleaned with alcohol and povidone–iodine. The surgeon wore sterile gloves, clean scrubs, and hair bonnet; assistants wore clean scrubs and nonsterile gloves; most instruments were autoclaved. A median sternotomy incision was used for thoracic cavity exposure, and the skull was exposed to allow induction of brain death. Heart rate, body temperature, and blood samples were obtained before surgery (0 h; baseline) and at 2, 4, 5 or 6, and 7 or 8 h thereafter. Statistical analysis by t tests showed that heart rate was unchanged and body temperature increased after the 0-h (baseline) time point. Aerobic blood cultures were negative except for 2 samples that were positive for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. at 4 h. RBC, Hgb, and Hct levels were decreased at 2 and 4 h, but WBC and platelets were unchanged. Other alterations included decreased glucose (at 7 or 8 h), increased BUN (at 5 or 6 h and 7 or 8 h) and creatinine (at 5 or 6 h), decreased Na+ and Ca and increased K+ (most time points), decreased total protein and albumin (most time points), and decreased globulin (at 7 or 8 h). Liver enzymes and bilirubin typically were unchanged, and cholesterol consistently was decreased. Together our results indicate a lack of sepsis for 8 h or less in pigs undergoing cardiothoracic surgery by using clean technique. These findings provide new and specific data regarding the use of aseptic technique during prolonged nonsurvival surgeries. PMID:23562035

  19. Vaccination of pigs reduces Torque teno sus virus viremia during natural infection.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Melsió, Alexandra; Rodriguez, Fernando; Darji, Ayub; Segalés, Joaquim; Cornelissen-Keijsers, Vivian; van den Born, Erwin; Kekarainen, Tuija

    2015-07-01

    Anelloviruses are a group of single-stranded circular DNA viruses infecting several vertebrate species. Four species have been found to infect swine, namely Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) 1a and 1b (TTSuV1a, TTSuV1b; genus Iotatorquevirus), TTSuVk2a and TTSuVk2b (genus Kappatorquevirus). TTSuV infection in pigs is distributed worldwide, and is characterized by a persistent viremia. However, the real impact, if any, on the pig health is still under debate. In the present study, the impact of pig immunization on TTSuVk2a loads was evaluated. For this, three-week old conventional pigs were primed with DNA vaccines encoding the ORF2 gene and the ORF1-A, ORF1-B, and ORF1-C splicing variants and boosted with purified ORF1-A and ORF2 Escherichia coli proteins, while another group served as unvaccinated control animals, and the viral load dynamics during natural infection was observed. Immunization led to delayed onset of TTSuVk2a infection and at the end of the study when the animals were 15 weeks of age, a number of animals in the immunized group had cleared the TTSuVk2a viremia, which was not the case in the control group. This study demonstrated for the first time that TTSuV viremia can be controlled by a combined DNA and protein immunization, especially apparent two weeks after the first DNA immunization before seroconversion was observed. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms behind this and its impact for pig producers.

  20. Genomic Diversity in Pig (Sus scrofa) and its Comparison with Human and other Livestock

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunyan; Plastow, Graham

    2011-01-01

    We have reviewed the current pig (Sus scrofa) genomic diversity within and between sites and compared them with human and other livestock. The current Porcine 60K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel has an average SNP distance in a range of 30 - 40 kb. Most of genetic variation was distributed within populations, and only a small proportion of them existed between populations. The average heterozygosity was lower in pig than in human and other livestock. Genetic inbreeding coefficient (FIS), population differentiation (FST), and Nei’s genetic distance between populations were much larger in pig than in human and other livestock. Higher average genetic distance existed between European and Asian populations than between European or between Asian populations. Asian breeds harboured much larger variability and higher average heterozygosity than European breeds. The samples of wild boar that have been analyzed displayed more extensive genetic variation than domestic breeds. The average linkage disequilibrium (LD) in improved pig breeds extended to 1 - 3 cM, much larger than that in human (~ 30 kb) and cattle (~ 100 kb), but smaller than that in sheep (~ 10 cM). European breeds showed greater LD that decayed more slowly than Asian breeds. We briefly discuss some processes for maintaining genomic diversity in pig, including migration, introgression, selection, and drift. We conclude that, due to the long time of domestication, the pig possesses lower heterozygosity, higher FIS, and larger LD compared with human and cattle. This implies that a smaller effective population size and less informative markers are needed in pig for genome wide association studies. PMID:21966252

  1. Cyclic oxidation of Mn-Co spinel coated SUS 430 alloy in the cathodic atmosphere of solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Bin; Pu, Jian; Gong, Wei; Zhang, Jianfu; Lu, Fengshuang; Jian, Li

    In order to improve oxidation resistance and long-term stability of the metallic interconnects and prevent the cathode of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) from Cr-poisoning, an effective, relatively dense and well adherent Mn-Co spinel protection coating with a nominal composition of MnCo 2O 4 is applied onto the surfaces of the SUS 430 ferritic stainless steel by a cost-effective sol-gel process. The long-term thermally cyclic oxidation kinetics and oxide scale structures as well as the composition of the coated SUS 430 alloy are investigated. The Mn-Co spinel protection layer demonstrates an excellent structural and thermomechanical stability, and effectively acts as a mass barrier to the outward diffusion of cations, especially Cr, and a lowered parabolic rate constant of k p = 1.951 × 10 -15 g 2 cm -4 s -1 is obtained.

  2. Cross-Reactivity of Porcine Immunoglobulin A Antibodies with Fecal Immunoglobulins of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) and Other Animal Species

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sang won; Yoo, Sung J.; Sunwoo, Sunyoung; Hyun, Bang hun

    2016-01-01

    Fecal samples obtained from wild boar habitats are useful for the surveillance of diseases in wild boar populations; however, it is difficult to determine the species of origin of feces collected in natural habitats. In this study, a fecal IgA ELISA was evaluated as a method for identifying the porcine species from fecal samples. Both domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) and wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) showed significantly higher levels of fecal IgA than other animal species. Additionally, age dependent changes in the level of Ig A in wild boars and domestic pigs were identified; Titers of Ig A were highest in suckling period and lowest in weanling period. PMID:27340389

  3. Phylogeny and ancient DNA of Sus provides insights into neolithic expansion in Island Southeast Asia and Oceania

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Greger; Cucchi, Thomas; Fujita, Masakatsu; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Robins, Judith; Anderson, Atholl; Rolett, Barry; Spriggs, Matthew; Dolman, Gaynor; Kim, Tae-Hun; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Dieu; Randi, Ettore; Doherty, Moira; Due, Rokus Awe; Bollt, Robert; Djubiantono, Tony; Griffin, Bion; Intoh, Michiko; Keane, Emile; Kirch, Patrick; Li, Kuang-Ti; Morwood, Michael; Pedriña, Lolita M.; Piper, Philip J.; Rabett, Ryan J.; Shooter, Peter; Van den Bergh, Gert; West, Eric; Wickler, Stephen; Yuan, Jing; Cooper, Alan; Dobney, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Human settlement of Oceania marked the culmination of a global colonization process that began when humans first left Africa at least 90,000 years ago. The precise origins and dispersal routes of the Austronesian peoples and the associated Lapita culture remain contentious, and numerous disparate models of dispersal (based primarily on linguistic, genetic, and archeological data) have been proposed. Here, through the use of mtDNA from 781 modern and ancient Sus specimens, we provide evidence for an early human-mediated translocation of the Sulawesi warty pig (Sus celebensis) to Flores and Timor and two later separate human-mediated dispersals of domestic pig (Sus scrofa) through Island Southeast Asia into Oceania. Of the later dispersal routes, one is unequivocally associated with the Neolithic (Lapita) and later Polynesian migrations and links modern and archeological Javan, Sumatran, Wallacean, and Oceanic pigs with mainland Southeast Asian S. scrofa. Archeological and genetic evidence shows these pigs were certainly introduced to islands east of the Wallace Line, including New Guinea, and that so-called “wild” pigs within this region are most likely feral descendants of domestic pigs introduced by early agriculturalists. The other later pig dispersal links mainland East Asian pigs to western Micronesia, Taiwan, and the Philippines. These results provide important data with which to test current models for human dispersal in the region. PMID:17360400

  4. Residual stress in the cylindrical drawing cup of SUS304 stainless steel evaluated by split-ring test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Liang-Hong; Yuan, Dao-He; Xiang, Jun-Zhong; Liu, Jin-Gang; Zhou, Yi-Chun

    2016-02-01

    The residual stresses in the wall of a SUS304 stainless steel cylindrical drawing cup were evaluated by split-ring tests, and the influences of stamping die parameters on the residual stress were investigated. A new theoretical model of a split-ring test was developed to evaluate the residual stress in a ring, which was verified to be reasonable and reliable by numerical simulations with ABAQUS code and by nanoindentation tests. Seven groups of split-ring tests were completed, and the residual stresses were calculated according to the theoretical model. The split-ring test results showed that the circumferential residual stress in the wall of the SUS304 stainless steel cylindrical drawing cup was very large and did not change with the different die corner radius. The circumferential residual stress first increased with the increase of drawing punch-die clearance, then was almost unchanged when the clearance increased greater than blank thickness 1 mm. Thus, a smaller clearance was suggested to be chosen to reduce the residual stress in the wall of the SUS304 stainless steel drawing cup.

  5. Scanning Ultrasound (SUS) Causes No Changes to Neuronal Excitability and Prevents Age-Related Reductions in Hippocampal CA1 Dendritic Structure in Wild-Type Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, Robert John; Leinenga, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Scanning ultrasound (SUS) is a noninvasive approach that has recently been shown to ameliorate histopathological changes and restore memory functions in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model. Although no overt neuronal damage was reported, the short- and long-term effects of SUS on neuronal excitability and dendritic tree morphology had not been investigated. To address this, we performed patch-clamp recordings from hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in wild-type mice 2 and 24 hours after a single SUS treatment, and one week and 3 months after six weekly SUS treatments, including sham treatments as controls. In both treatment regimes, no changes in CA1 neuronal excitability were observed in SUS-treated neurons when compared to sham-treated neurons at any time-point. For the multiple treatment groups, we also determined the dendritic morphology and spine densities of the neurons from which we had recorded. The apical trees of sham-treated neurons were reduced at the 3 month time-point when compared to one week; however, surprisingly, no longitudinal change was detected in the apical dendritic trees of SUS-treated neurons. In contrast, the length and complexity of the basal dendritic trees were not affected by SUS treatment at either time-point. The apical dendritic spine densities were reduced, independent of the treatment group, at 3 months compared to one week. Collectively, these data suggest that ultrasound can be employed to prevent an age-associated loss of dendritic structure without impairing neuronal excitability. PMID:27727310

  6. SusG: A Unique Cell-Membrane-Associated [alpha]-Amylase from a Prominent Human Gut Symbiont Targets Complex Starch Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2010-09-21

    SusG is an {alpha}-amylase and part of a large protein complex on the outer surface of the bacterial cell and plays a major role in carbohydrate acquisition by the animal gut microbiota. Presented here, the atomic structure of SusG has an unusual extended, bilobed structure composed of amylase at one end and an unprecedented internal carbohydrate-binding motif at the other. Structural studies further demonstrate that the carbohydrate-binding motif binds maltooligosaccharide distal to, and on the opposite side of, the amylase catalytic site. SusG has an additional starch-binding site on the amylase domain immediately adjacent to the active cleft. Mutagenesis analysis demonstrates that these two additional starch-binding sites appear to play a role in catabolism of insoluble starch. However, elimination of these sites has only a limited effect, suggesting that they may have a more important role in product exchange with other Sus components.

  7. One-dimensional migration of interstitial clusters in SUS316L and its model alloys at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Y.; Abe, H.; Matsukawa, Y.; Matsunaga, T.; Kano, S.; Arai, S.; Yamamoto, Y.; Tanaka, N.

    2015-05-01

    For self-interstitial atom (SIA) clusters in various concentrated alloys, one-dimensional (1D) migration is induced by electron irradiation around 300 K. But at elevated temperatures, the 1D migration frequency decreases to less than one-tenth of that around 300 K in iron-based bcc alloys. In this study, we examined mechanisms of 1D migration at elevated temperatures using in situ observation of SUS316L and its model alloys with high-voltage electron microscopy. First, for elevated temperatures, we examined the effects of annealing and short-term electron irradiation of SIA clusters on their subsequent 1D migration. In annealed SUS316L, 1D migration was suppressed and then recovered by prolonged irradiation at 300 K. In high-purity model alloy Fe-18Cr-13Ni, annealing or irradiation had no effect. Addition of carbon or oxygen to the model alloy suppressed 1D migration after annealing. Manganese and silicon did not suppress 1D migration after annealing but after short-term electron irradiation. The suppression was attributable to the pinning of SIA clusters by segregated solute elements, and the recovery was to the dissolution of the segregation by interatomic mixing under electron irradiation. Next, we examined 1D migration of SIA clusters in SUS316L under continuous electron irradiation at elevated temperatures. The 1D migration frequency at 673 K was proportional to the irradiation intensity. It was as high as half of that at 300 K. We proposed that 1D migration is controlled by the competition of two effects: induction of 1D migration by interatomic mixing and suppression by solute segregation.

  8. New Middle Miocene Bryozoa from Gârbova de Sus (Romania) and their relationship to the sedimentary environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zágoršek, Kamil; Filipescu, Sorin; Holcová, Katarína

    2010-12-01

    The section of Gârbova de Sus contains diverse fossil groups and rich bryozoan assemblages, with 77 species altogether. Several taxa have been recognized as very important in the assemblage and two new taxa are described in detail: Poricella garbovensis sp. nov. and Therenia transylvanica sp. nov. Foraminifera and calcareous nannofossil assemblages were used for biostratigraphic and paleoenvironmental interpretations. On the basis of sedimentological features and micropaleontological data, the sequence of paleoenvironments can be subdivided into two intervals indicating slightly different climatic conditions.

  9. Mechanical transmission of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus by Simulium vittatum (Diptera: Simuliidae) to domestic swine (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Smith, Paul F; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Carter, Deborah; Gray, Elmer W; Noblet, Raymond; Mead, Daniel G

    2009-11-01

    Biting flies have been suggested as mechanical vectors of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey Virus (family Rhabdoviridae, genus Vesiculovirus, VSNJV) in livestock populations during epidemic outbreaks in the western United States. We conducted a proof-of-concept study to determine whether biting flies could mechanically transmit VSNJV to livestock by using a black fly, Simulium vittatum Zetterstedt (Diptera: Simuliidae), domestic swine, Sus scrofa L., model. Black flies mechanically transmitted VSNJV to a naive host after interrupted feeding on a vesicular lesion on a previously infected host. Transmission resulted in clinical disease in the naïve host. This is the first demonstration of mechanical transmission of VSNJV to livestock by insects.

  10. [Research program for the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS): the contribution to health management and services in Paraiba State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Celino, Suely Deysny de Matos; Costa, Gabriela Maria Cavalcanti; França, Inácia Sátiro Xavier de; Araújo, Ednaldo Cavalcante de

    2013-01-01

    The shared management in health of the Research Program for the Unified Health System (PPSUS) has the purpose of funding research in priority areas for the health of the Brazilian population. The scope of this qualitative study is to understand the researchers' perception of the contribution of research funded by the PPSUS invitations to bid in the State of Paraiba, for resolving the priority health problems of the Paraiba population, for reducing regional inequalities in health and for bolstering the management of SUS. A documentary survey of the bids and final reports of research and a semi-structured interview with 28 coordinators of these studies was conducted. Triangulation strategy of data was used and subsequently subjected to content analysis, which converged with the categories: solving the health problems; reducing regional inequalities; contribution to management. Paraiba state needs adjustments such that the PPSUS can be fully implemented, ensuring that the knowledge generated can be converted into health policies and actions, since the research funded respond to the health needs of the population and difficulties in SUS management. PMID:23338510

  11. A cephalometric comparative study of class II correction with Sabbagh Universal Spring (SUS2) and Forsus FRD appliances

    PubMed Central

    Oztoprak, Mehmet Oguz; Nalbantgil, Didem; Uyanlar, Ayhan; Arun, Tulin

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this clinical prospective study was to compare the dentofacial changes produced by the Sabbagh Universal Spring (SUS2) and Forsus FRD appliances in late adolescent patients with Class II malocclusion, and quantify them in comparison with an untreated group. Method: The study was carried out on 59 patients with skeletal and dental Class II malocclusion due to retrognatic mandible. Among these, 20 were treated with SUS2, 20 were treated with FRD, and no treatment was done to 19 subjects as the control group. 36 cephalometric landmarks were identified on each lateral cephalometric radiograph. Results: The effects of both appliances were dentoalveolar and no significant vertical and sagittal skeletal effect on maxilla and mandible was achieved. The retrusion and extrusion of the maxillary incisors as well as the protrusion and intrusion of mandibular incisors were found to be statistically significant in both treatment groups. Soft tissue profile improvement was limited in both treatment groups. Conclusions: Both appliances corrected Class II discrepancies through dentoalveolar changes; however lower incisor proclination was more prominent with the Forsus FRD. PMID:22904659

  12. Analysis of 6-pyruvyl tetrahydropterin synthase, a target gene product of su(s) suppressor in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, J.J.; Park, Y.S.; Kim, J.H.; Jacobson, K.B. . Dept. of Microbiology; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-01-01

    Of the 20 suppressor mutants listed in Drosophila, su(s){sup 2} has been studied for the biochemical characterization of the suppression. In su(s){sup 2} suppression, some mutants at vermilion (v, 1-33.0), sable (s, 1-43.0), speck (sp, 2-107.0), and purple (pr, 2-54.5) are suppressible by mutants at the suppressor of sable (su(s)) locus. There have been many reports of suppression mechanism studies in purple led to purple loci. The biochemical studies in purple led to in vitro demonstration of a su(s){sup +} gene product as a negative effector against suppressed purple PPH{sub 4} synthase, which has been also demonstrated in the gene product of vermilion more recently. Both studies led to a proposal for a posttranslational mechanism in which the su(s){sup +} gene produces a substance that interferes with the function of the target enzymes from the purple and vermilion mutant. In contrast to the transcriptional regulation of the su(s) locus the posttranslational mechanism is based on qualitative differences between wild and suppressed enzyme. Therefore this investigation was to determine if any quantitative or qualitative differences exist between the mutant and wild type target enzymes. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  13. The evolution of the federal funding policies for the public health surveillance component of Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS).

    PubMed

    Pinto, Vitor Laerte; Cerbino Neto, José; Penna, Gerson Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Health surveillance (HS) is one of the key components of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). This article describes recent changes in health surveillance funding models and the role these changes have had in the reorganization and decentralization of health actions. Federal law no. 8.080 of 1990 defined health surveillance as a fundamental pillar of the SUS, and an exclusive fund with equitable distribution criteria was created in the Basic Operational Norm of 1996 to pay for health surveillance actions. This step facilitated the decentralization of health care at the municipal level, giving local authorities autonomy to plan and provide services. The Health Pact of 2006 and its regulation under federal decree No. 3252 in 2009 bolstered the processes of decentralization, regionalization and integration of health care. Further changes in the basic concepts of health surveillance around the world and in the funding policies negotiated by different spheres of government in Brazil have been catalysts for the process of HS institutionalization in recent years. PMID:25388192

  14. The mRNA export factor Sus1 is involved in Spt/Ada/Gcn5 acetyltransferase-mediated H2B deubiquitinylation through its interaction with Ubp8 and Sgf11.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Alwin; Pascual-García, Pau; Llopis, Ana; Zapater, Meritxell; Posas, Francesc; Hurt, Ed; Rodríguez-Navarro, Susana

    2006-10-01

    Sus1 acts in nuclear mRNA export via its association with the nuclear pore-associated Sac3-Thp1-Cdc31 complex. In addition, Sus1 plays a role in transcription through its interaction with the Spt/Ada/Gcn5 acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex. Here, we have analyzed function and interaction of Sus1 within the SAGA complex. We demonstrate that Sus1 is involved in the SAGA-dependent histone H2B deubiquitinylation and maintenance of normal H3 methylation levels. By deletion analyses, we show that binding of Sus1 to SAGA depends on the deubiquitinylating enzyme Ubp8 and Sgf11. Moreover, a stable subcomplex between Sus1, Sgf11, and Ubp8 could be dissociated from SAGA under high salt conditions. In vivo recruitment of Sus1 to the activated GAL1 promoter depends on Ubp8 and vice versa. In addition, histones coenrich during SAGA purification in a Sus1-Sgf11-Ubp8-dependent way. Interestingly, sgf11 deletion enhances the mRNA export defect observed in sus1delta cells. Thus, the Sus1-Sgf11-Ubp8 module could work at the junction between SAGA-dependent transcription and nuclear mRNA export.

  15. Spargana in a Weasel, Mustela sibirica manchurica, and a Wild Boar, Sus scrofa, from Gangwon-do, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Ha; Choe, Eun-Yoon; Shin, Hyun-Duk

    2013-01-01

    To know the status of sparganum (plerocercoid of Spirometra erinacei) infection in the Korean wild life, several species of wild animals were captured in Gangwon-do and examined for their status of infection with spargana. From February to December 2011, a total of 62 wild boars, 5 badgers, 1 weasel, 1 Siberian chipmunk, and 53 wild rodents were captured, and their whole muscles were examined with naked eyes for the presence of spargana worms. From the weasel and 1 wild boar, a total of 5 spargana specimens were extracted. The weasel was for the first time recorded as an intermediate or paratenic/transport host of S. erinacei in Korea, and both the weasel (Mustela sibirica manchurica) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) were added to the list of wild animals carrying spargana. PMID:23864753

  16. Seroprevalence of Trichinella sp. in Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) from Yanggu-gun, Gangwon-do, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Jung; Chung, Ok-Sik; Kim, Jae-Lip; Lee, Seung-Ha; Yoo, Young-Bok; Seo, Min

    2015-01-01

    A total 7 outbreaks of trichinellosis have occurred in Korea, mostly as a result of consumption of raw wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat. Since only 1 serological survey on wild boars had yet been performed in Korea, the present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of trichinellosis in wild boars and some species of rodents by artificial digestion and serological examinations in Yanggu-gun, Gangwon-do, the endemic area of trichinellosis. Both the wild boar and rodent muscle samples revealed no Trichinella larvae by direct examination and artificial digestion method. However, serological examinations revealed that 4 wild boar sera samples out of 118 (3.4%) were positive to Trichinella antigen. Although the recovery of Trichinella larvae ended in a failure, it is proved for the first time that the sylvatic cycle of Trichinella has been maintained in wild boars of Gangwon-do, Korea. PMID:25925185

  17. δ18O values of Sus scrofa blood water and bone phosphate; a marked discrepancy between domestic and wild specimens.

    PubMed

    Longinelli, Antonio; Selmo, Enrico

    2011-12-30

    δ¹⁸O analyses of water in the blood of domestic and wild pigs indicated that large isotopic differences exist between domestic and wild specimens of the same species (Sus scrofa) living in the same area. Similar isotopic differences are found between the δ¹⁸O(PO₄³⁻) values of bones from the two groups of animals. When δ¹⁸O values obtained from recent wild boar bones are introduced in the equation of the isotopic scale determined for domestic pigs, totally unreliable δ¹⁸O values of local meteoric water are obtained. The δ¹⁸O(PO₄³⁻) values measured in three groups of modern wild boar specimens allow the calculation of a first approximate equation which is quite different from that of domestic pigs. This isotopic scale should be accurately re-calibrated for wild animals.

  18. Volatile emission of decomposing pig carcasses (Sus scrofa domesticus L.) as an indicator for the postmortem interval.

    PubMed

    Paczkowski, Sebastian; Nicke, Sara; Ziegenhagen, Henrik; Schütz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at correlating selected carcass borne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with the postmortem interval (PMI). Selected volatiles should 1st be reliably emitted during vertebrate decay, 2nd be emitted at high concentrations, and 3rd show a reproducible quantitative dynamic during the decaying process. Four pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus L.) were placed in a deciduous forest in different seasons and volatiles emitted during the decaying process were sampled. Seventeen compounds were identified and quantified by GC-MS. Electrophysiological experiments on the antenna of female Calliphora vicina and additional data of Dermestes maculans were used as an evolutionary tuned information filter to evaluate the 1st criterion. The relative quantitative emission of hexanal, nonanal, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, 1-butanol, and phenol were correlated with the PMI, and the observed stages of decay and the limitations of this model were discussed.

  19. Experiment and numerical simulation on cross-die forming of SUS304 metastable austenitic stainless using a modified Johnson-Cook model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xifeng; Ding, Wei; Ye, Liyan; Chen, Jun

    2013-12-01

    True stress-strain curves of SUS304 metastable austenitic stainless steel at various strain rates were fitted by a modified Johnson-Cook material model. The effect of blank-holder force on Cross-die forming of SUS304 stainless steel was studied. The forming process was also simulated by the software Marc based on this model. Major strain distribution, thickness distribution and load-displacement were compared between experiment and simulation. The results indicated the modified Johnson-Cook model could well predict the deformation behavior of SUS304 stainless steel. The martensitie volume fraction at different positions of the formed part was in good agreement with what can be expected.

  20. Analysis of the bovine rumen microbiome reveals a diversity of Sus-like polysaccharide utilization loci from the bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes.

    PubMed

    Rosewarne, Carly P; Pope, Phillip B; Cheung, Jane L; Morrison, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Several unique Sus-like polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs) were identified from bacteria resident in bovine rumen microbiomes through functional screening of a fosmid library. The loci were phylogenetically assigned to the genus Prevotella within the phylum Bacteroidetes. These findings were augmented by a bioinformatic re-evaluation of ruminal Prevotella genomes, revealing additional loci not previously reported in the literature. Analysis of Bacteroidales-affiliated genomes reconstructed from a bovine rumen metagenome in a previous study further expanded the diversity of Sus-like PULs resident in this microbiome. Our findings suggest that Sus-like systems represent an important mechanism for degradation of a range of plant-derived glycans in ruminants. PMID:24448980

  1. ¿Cómo puede usted contribuir a la investigación médica? Done su sangre, sus tejidos y otras muestras

    Cancer.gov

    Explica la importancia de la donación de tejidos, responde a posibles preocupaciones y anima a los pacientes a que hablen con sus proveedores de cuidados para la salud acerca de la donación de muestras biológicas.

  2. Investigating Characteristics that Typify Engineering, Computer and Biological Sciences Graduates, the Differences that Occur among and between these Disciplines and the General Population of SUS Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micceri, Theodore

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this exercise was to determine whether any of the available demographic or academic variables show distinct trends in three specific discipline areas that differ from those of other areas: (1) Engineering, (2) Computer Sciences, and (3) Biological Sciences. Using data from 39,087 SUS graduates in 2002-03 and of 324,164 science…

  3. Suppressor of sable [Su(s)] and Wdr82 down-regulate RNA from heat-shock-inducible repetitive elements by a mechanism that involves transcription termination.

    PubMed

    Brewer-Jensen, Paul; Wilson, Carrie B; Abernethy, John; Mollison, Lonna; Card, Samantha; Searles, Lillie L

    2016-01-01

    Although RNA polymerase II (Pol II) productively transcribes very long genes in vivo, transcription through extragenic sequences often terminates in the promoter-proximal region and the nascent RNA is degraded. Mechanisms that induce early termination and RNA degradation are not well understood in multicellular organisms. Here, we present evidence that the suppressor of sable [su(s)] regulatory pathway of Drosophila melanogaster plays a role in this process. We previously showed that Su(s) promotes exosome-mediated degradation of transcripts from endogenous repeated elements at an Hsp70 locus (Hsp70-αβ elements). In this report, we identify Wdr82 as a component of this process and show that it works with Su(s) to inhibit Pol II elongation through Hsp70-αβ elements. Furthermore, we show that the unstable transcripts produced during this process are polyadenylated at heterogeneous sites that lack canonical polyadenylation signals. We define two distinct regions that mediate this regulation. These results indicate that the Su(s) pathway promotes RNA degradation and transcription termination through a novel mechanism.

  4. Morphological aspects and physical properties of enamel and dentine of Sus domesticus: A tooth model in laboratory research.

    PubMed

    Fagundes, Nathalia Carolina Fernandes; Cardoso, Miquéias André Gomes; Miranda, Mayara Sabrina Luz; Silva, Raira de Brito; Teixeira, Francisco Bruno; Nogueira, Bárbara Catarina Lima; Nogueira, Brenna Magdalena Lima; de Melo, Sara Elisama Silva; da Costa, Natacha Malu Miranda; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to describe and analyze morphological and physical properties of deciduous teeth of Sus domesticus. Ultrastructural analysis, mineral composition and microhardness of enamel and dentine tissues were performed on 10 skulls of S. domesticus. External anatomic characteristics and the internal anatomy of the teeth were also described. Data regarding microhardness and ultrastructural analysis were subjected to statistical tests. For ultrastructural analysis, we used the analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey's post hoc (p≤0.05) test. In the analysis of microhardness, the difference between the enamel and dentine tissues was analyzed by a Student's t test. Values were expressed as mean with standard error. The results of ultrastructural analysis showed the presence of an enamel prism pattern. A dentinal tubule pattern was also observed, with a larger diameter in the pulp chamber and the cervical third, in comparison to middle and apical thirds. We observed an average microhardness of 259.2kgf/mm(2) for enamel and 55.17kgf/mm(2) for dentine. In porcine enamel and dentine, the chemical elements Ca and P showed the highest concentration. The analysis of internal anatomy revealed the presence of a simple root canal system and the occurrence of main canals in the roots. The observed features are compatible with the functional demand of these animals, following a pattern very similar to that seen in other groups of mammals, which can encourage the development of research using dental elements from the pig as a substitute for human teeth in laboratory research.

  5. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2 infections in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in southwestern Germany.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Ralf; Ritzmann, Mathias; Palzer, Andreas; Lang, Christiane; Hammer, Birgit; Pesch, Stefan; Ladinig, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Samples were collected from 203 wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in Baden-Wurtemburg, Germany from November-January 2008 and 2009. Samples from the lung and tonsil were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) type 1 (European type) and type 2 (American type). A qPCR to detect porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-specific genome was performed on tissue homogenates including lung, tonsils, and inguinal lymph nodes. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against PRRSV and PCV2 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No PRRSV was detected in any of the 203 samples and one sample had detectable antibodies against PRRSV. We detected PCV2 in organ materials from 103 wild boars with a prevalence of 50.7%. The number of wild boars positive for PCV2 by PCR varied according to the population density of wild boars among woodlands. More positive samples were detected in woodlands with a high density of wild boars. We found no correlation between the number of PCV2-positive wild boars and the density of domestic pigs in the surrounding area. The number of wild boars positive for antibodies against PCV2 by the INGEZIM Circovirus IgG/IgM test kit was low (53 sera positive for IgG- and three sera positive for IgM-antibodies) in comparison to the higher positive results from the INGEZIM CIRCO IgG test kit (102 positive and 12 inconclusive results).

  6. Characterization of glutathione S-transferases from Sus scrofa, Cydia pomonella and Triticum aestivum: their responses to cantharidin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Ya-Lin

    2015-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a key role in detoxification of xenobiotics in organisms. However, their other functions, especially response to the natural toxin cantharidin produced by beetles in the Meloidae and Oedemeridae families, are less known. We obtained GST cDNAs from three sources: Cydia pomonella (CpGSTd1), Sus scrofa (SsGSTα1), and Triticum aestivum (TaGSTf3). The predicted molecular mass is 24.19, 25.28 and 24.49 kDa, respectively. These proteins contain typical N-terminal and C-terminal domains. Recombinant GSTs were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as soluble fusion proteins. Their optimal activities are exhibited at pH 7.0-7.5 at 30 °C. Activity of CpGSTd1 is strongly inhibited by cantharidin and cantharidic acid, but is only slightly suppressed by the demethylated analog of cantharidin and cantharidic acid. Enzymatic assays revealed that cantharidin has no effect on SsGSTα1 activity, while it significantly stimulates TaGSTf3 activity, with an EC50 value of 0.3852 mM. Activities of these proteins are potently inhibited by the known GST competitive inhibitor: S-hexylglutathione (GTX). Our results suggest that these GSTs from different sources share similar structural and biochemical characteristics. Our results also suggest that CpGSTd1 might act as a binding protein with cantharidin and its analogs.

  7. [Development and validation of a social vulnerability index applied to public policies of the Unified Health System (SUS)].

    PubMed

    Drachler, Maria de Lourdes; Lobato, Marcos Antônio de Oliveira; Lermen, José Inácio; Fagundes, Sandra; Ferla, Alcindo Antonio; Drachler, Carlos Wietzke; Teixeira, Luciana Barcellos; Leite, José Carlos de Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    The article outlines the development and initial validation of a Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) including five social determinants of risk to health and demonstrates its application in the financing of primary care by the Unified Health System (SUS) in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Municipal indicators of vulnerability relating to poverty and population dispersion were obtained from the 2010 population census of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis suggests that the five items can constitute a reliable and acceptable measurement scale. The SVI-5 was then generated based on the first main component, measuring municipal inequalities in social vulnerability relating to poverty and population in the territory in Z-scores. The external validity of SVI-5 was examined in relation to health outcomes using DATASUS 2007-2011 data, revealing that infant mortality and hospitalizations for conditions treatable by primary care are greater in more vulnerable municipalities The results suggest that the SVI-5 is a valid measure of inequalities in social vulnerability between municipalities, applicable to socially equitable policies in health.

  8. Molecular detection of Anaplasma spp. in pangolins (Manis javanica) and wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Koh, Fui Xian; Kho, Kai Ling; Panchadcharam, Chandrawathani; Sitam, Frankie Thomas; Tay, Sun Tee

    2016-08-30

    Anaplasma spp. infects a wide variety of wildlife and domestic animals. This study describes the identification of a novel species of Anaplasma (Candidatus Anaplasma pangolinii) from pangolins (Manis javanica) and Anaplasma bovis from wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Malaysia. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, Candidatus Anaplasma pangolinii is identified in a distinct branch within the family Anaplasmataceae, exhibiting the closest sequence similarity with the type strains of Anaplasma bovis (97.7%) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (97.6%). The sequence also aligned closely (99.9%) with that of an Anaplasma spp. (strain AnAj360) detected from Amblyomma javanense ticks. The nearly full length sequence of the 16S rRNA gene derived from two wild boars in this study demonstrated the highest sequence similarity (99.7%) to the A. bovis type strain. Partial 16S rRNA gene fragments of A. bovis were also detected from a small population of Haemaphysalis bispinosa cattle ticks in this study. Our finding suggests a possible spread of two Anaplasma species in the Malaysian wildlife and ticks. The zoonotic potential of the Anaplasma species identified in this study is yet to be determined. PMID:27523941

  9. Pseudorabies Virus and Brucella abortus from an Expanding Wild Pig ( Sus scrofa ) Population in Southern Oklahoma, USA.

    PubMed

    Gaskamp, Joshua A; Gee, Kenneth L; Campbell, Tyler A; Silvy, Nova J; Webb, Stephen L

    2016-04-28

    Wild pigs ( Sus scrofa ) are causing increasing ecologic and economic damage at a global scale. Because wild pigs can carry ≥65 diseases that affect livestock, their widespread expansion threatens native wildlife and livestock. We screened wild pigs from south-central Oklahoma, US for antibodies against Brucella abortus , pseudorabies virus (PRV), and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRS). These pathogens were chosen because they are part of eradication programs in the US and could have large economic impacts on domestic livestock if transmitted from wild animals. We tested 282 serum samples during spring 2010 (n=149) and 2011 (n=133) and found an overall exposure rate to PRV of 24.1% (n=68); PRV was detected at two of three study sites. Two wild pigs had detectable antibody to B. abortus , and one had detectable antibody to PRRS. On average, 27% of wild pigs within a sounder were positive for PRV antibody, with 44% of the sounders (16/36) having at least one positive individual. These data highlight that wild pigs could carry pathogens that affect domestic livestock. Because the US is free of these pathogens in commercial livestock operations, continued surveillance and vaccination of domestic livestock are needed. Commercial livestock producers at the wildlife-livestock interface may benefit from spatial prioritization of risk zones to facilitate strategic control efforts.

  10. Globalisation and global trade influence molecular viral population genetics of Torque Teno Sus Viruses 1 and 2 in pigs.

    PubMed

    Cortey, Martí; Pileri, Emanuela; Segalés, Joaquim; Kekarainen, Tuija

    2012-04-23

    Globalisation, in terms of the rapid and free movement of people, animals and food, has created a new paradigm, increasing the range and rate of distribution of many pathogens. In the present study, Torque teno sus viruses (TTSuVs) have been used as a model to evaluate the effects of global trade on viral heterogeneity, and how the movement of live pigs can affect the distribution and composition of virus populations. Seventeen countries from different parts of the world have been screened for TTSuV1 and TTSuvV2. High levels of genetic diversity have been found as well as two new TTSuV subtypes. A small fraction of this diversity (<5%) was related with spatial structure; however the majority (>50%) was best explained by the exchange of live pigs among countries, pointing to the direct relationship between the movement of hosts and the diversity of their accompanying viruses. Taking TTSuVs as sentinels, this study revealed that the distribution and diversity of comensal microflora in live animals subjected to global trade is shaped by the commercial movements among countries. In the case of TTSuVs, it appears that commercial movements of animals are eroding the genetic composition of the virus populations that may have been present in pig herds since their domestication. PMID:22101091

  11. Wild Pigs (Sus scrofa) Mediate Large-Scale Edge Effects in a Lowland Tropical Rainforest in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Fujinuma, Junichi; Harrison, Rhett D.

    2012-01-01

    Edge-effects greatly extend the area of tropical forests degraded through human activities. At Pasoh, Peninsular Malaysia, it has been suggested that soil disturbance by highly abundant wild pigs (Sus scrofa), which feed in adjacent Oil Palm plantations, may have mediated the invasion of Clidemia hirta (Melastomataceae) into the diverse tropical lowland rain forest. To investigate this hypothesis, we established three 1 km transects from the forest/Oil Palm plantation boundary into the forest interior. We recorded the distribution of soil disturbance by wild pigs, C. hirta abundance, and environmental variables. These data were analyzed using a hierarchical Bayesian model that incorporated spatial auto-correlation in the environmental variables. As predicted, soil disturbance by wild pigs declined with distance from forest edge and C. hirta abundance was correlated with the level of soil disturbance. Importantly there was no effect of distance on C. hirta abundance, after controlling for the effect of soil disturbance. Clidemia hirta abundance was also correlated with the presence of canopy openings, but there was no significant association between the occurrence of canopy openings and distance from the edge. Increased levels of soil disturbance and C. hirta abundance were still detectable approximately 1 km from the edge, demonstrating the potential for exceptionally large-scale animal mediated edge effects. PMID:22615977

  12. Encoding of Situations in the Vocal Repertoire of Piglets (Sus scrofa): A Comparison of Discrete and Graded Classifications

    PubMed Central

    Tallet, Céline; Linhart, Pavel; Policht, Richard; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Šimeček, Petr; Kratinova, Petra; Špinka, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Two important questions in bioacoustics are whether vocal repertoires of animals are graded or discrete and how the vocal expressions are linked to the context of emission. Here we address these questions in an ungulate species. The vocal repertoire of young domestic pigs, Sus scrofa, was quantitatively described based on 1513 calls recorded in 11 situations. We described the acoustic quality of calls with 8 acoustic parameters. Based on these parameters, the k-means clustering method showed a possibility to distinguish either two or five clusters although the call types are rather blurred than strictly discrete. The division of the vocal repertoire of piglets into two call types has previously been used in many experimental studies into pig acoustic communication and the five call types correspond well to previously published partial repertoires in specific situations. Clear links exist between the type of situation, its putative valence, and the vocal expression in that situation. These links can be described adequately both with a set of quantitative acoustic variables and through categorisation into call types. The information about the situation of emission of the calls is encoded through five call types almost as accurately as through the full quantitative description. PMID:23967251

  13. Globalisation and global trade influence molecular viral population genetics of Torque Teno Sus Viruses 1 and 2 in pigs.

    PubMed

    Cortey, Martí; Pileri, Emanuela; Segalés, Joaquim; Kekarainen, Tuija

    2012-04-23

    Globalisation, in terms of the rapid and free movement of people, animals and food, has created a new paradigm, increasing the range and rate of distribution of many pathogens. In the present study, Torque teno sus viruses (TTSuVs) have been used as a model to evaluate the effects of global trade on viral heterogeneity, and how the movement of live pigs can affect the distribution and composition of virus populations. Seventeen countries from different parts of the world have been screened for TTSuV1 and TTSuvV2. High levels of genetic diversity have been found as well as two new TTSuV subtypes. A small fraction of this diversity (<5%) was related with spatial structure; however the majority (>50%) was best explained by the exchange of live pigs among countries, pointing to the direct relationship between the movement of hosts and the diversity of their accompanying viruses. Taking TTSuVs as sentinels, this study revealed that the distribution and diversity of comensal microflora in live animals subjected to global trade is shaped by the commercial movements among countries. In the case of TTSuVs, it appears that commercial movements of animals are eroding the genetic composition of the virus populations that may have been present in pig herds since their domestication.

  14. [The trajectory of the national policy for the reorientation of professional training in health in the Unified Health System (SUS)].

    PubMed

    Dias, Henrique Sant'anna; Lima, Luciana Dias de; Teixeira, Márcia

    2013-06-01

    This paper examines the national policy and its antecedents for reorientation of professional health training implemented after 2003. It highlights landmarks and transformations in the course of policies between 1980 and 2010, elements of continuity and change and the connections between past and current policy initiatives. The study involved a review of the literature on the subject and document analysis supported by theoretical analysis of public policies, particularly historical institutionalism. The results point to four different moments during the trajectory of the policy, marked by changes in the initiatives of reorientation of higher education in health: antecedents; initial experiences; university protagonism; broadening and enhancement. As an element of continuity, there is the permanence of objects in the guiding principles advocated in the policies. The evidence of implementation expresses prospects of enhancement, with diversification of mobilized actors and organizations, and more projects implemented. The accumulated experience suggests structural maturity of the structural bases of action and the main changes relate to the enhancement of decision-making bodies of the SUS and the approximation to the process of decentralization and regionalization of national health policy. PMID:23752528

  15. Vegetable and animal food sorts found in the gastric content of Sardinian Wild Boar (Sus scrofa meridionalis).

    PubMed

    Pinna, W; Nieddu, G; Moniello, G; Cappai, M G

    2007-06-01

    Authors report results emerging from gastric content analysis from n. 96 wild boars hunted in Sardinia isle, during the hunting tide (2001-2005), from November to January. Mean pH of the gastric content was 3.77 +/- 0.69. Mean total capacity (TC) of each stomach was 1702 +/- 680 g. Mean Stuff ratio (CW/TC) between the content weight (CW) and stomachs TC was 0.45. Food categories found in animal stomachs were: 19 categories of vegetal species (Allium spp., Arbutus unedo, Arisarum vulgare, Avena fatua, Avena sativa, Castanea sativa, Ceratonia siliqua, Chamaerops umilis, Cichorium intybus, Hordeum sativum, Juniperus oxycedrus, Myrtus communis, Olea europea, Pirus amygdaliformis, Pistacia lentiscus, Quercus spp., Rhamnus alaternus, Triticum durum, Zea mais); 11 categories of animal species (Agriotes lineatus, Apodemus sylvaticus dicrurus, Chalcides chalcides, Chalcides ocellatus tiligugu, Crematogaster scutellaris, Forficula auricularia, Helix aspersa, Lumbricus terrestris, Ovis aries, Podarcis tiliguerta tiliguerta, Scolopendra cingulata); three categories were identified in general terms (insects larvae, hairs of mammals, feathers of birds). Food categories found in the stomach contents of Sus scrofa meridionalis confirm observations by other researchers who report the prevalence of vegetables in spite of animal food sorts in the wild boar diet in Italian regions.

  16. Molecular detection of Anaplasma spp. in pangolins (Manis javanica) and wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Koh, Fui Xian; Kho, Kai Ling; Panchadcharam, Chandrawathani; Sitam, Frankie Thomas; Tay, Sun Tee

    2016-08-30

    Anaplasma spp. infects a wide variety of wildlife and domestic animals. This study describes the identification of a novel species of Anaplasma (Candidatus Anaplasma pangolinii) from pangolins (Manis javanica) and Anaplasma bovis from wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Malaysia. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, Candidatus Anaplasma pangolinii is identified in a distinct branch within the family Anaplasmataceae, exhibiting the closest sequence similarity with the type strains of Anaplasma bovis (97.7%) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (97.6%). The sequence also aligned closely (99.9%) with that of an Anaplasma spp. (strain AnAj360) detected from Amblyomma javanense ticks. The nearly full length sequence of the 16S rRNA gene derived from two wild boars in this study demonstrated the highest sequence similarity (99.7%) to the A. bovis type strain. Partial 16S rRNA gene fragments of A. bovis were also detected from a small population of Haemaphysalis bispinosa cattle ticks in this study. Our finding suggests a possible spread of two Anaplasma species in the Malaysian wildlife and ticks. The zoonotic potential of the Anaplasma species identified in this study is yet to be determined.

  17. Survey of Feral Swine ( Sus scrofa ) Infection with the Agent of Chagas Disease ( Trypanosoma cruzi ) in Texas, 2013-14.

    PubMed

    Comeaux, Juliette M; Curtis-Robles, Rachel; Lewis, Barbara C; Cummings, Kevin J; Mesenbrink, Brian T; Leland, Bruce R; Bodenchuk, Michael J; Hamer, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    : Feral swine ( Sus scrofa ) are an invasive species and reservoir of numerous zoonotic pathogens in the US, and Texas leads the nation in the estimated population size of feral hogs. Texas also harbors enzootic transmission cycles of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi , agent of Chagas disease. Given previous evidence that swine can serve as reservoirs of T. cruzi in Latin America and new evidence of triatomines (kissing bugs) feeding on swine in Texas, we measured the prevalence of T. cruzi infection in feral swine in Texas. From 2013 to 2014, we sampled blood and/or cardiac tissue from 78 feral swine across 14 Texas counties (seven with and seven without prior documentation of kissing bug occurrence) and used PCR and histopathology to detect T. cruzi infection. We determined an overall infection prevalence of 6% (3 of 54) based on PCR evaluation of cardiac tissue, and no blood samples were positive (n=72). All three positive pigs were from counties where kissing bugs are documented. No T. cruzi amastigotes were noted on histopathology (n=54). Sarcocysts were observed in 10 (18%) of the samples, five of which also had mild focal areas of degeneration and inflammatory cell infiltration. Eco-epidemiologic investigations can provide an assessment of contributions of feral hogs to maintenance of T. cruzi across a landscape to help protect human and animal health. PMID:27224214

  18. Survey of Feral Swine ( Sus scrofa ) Infection with the Agent of Chagas Disease ( Trypanosoma cruzi ) in Texas, 2013-14.

    PubMed

    Comeaux, Juliette M; Curtis-Robles, Rachel; Lewis, Barbara C; Cummings, Kevin J; Mesenbrink, Brian T; Leland, Bruce R; Bodenchuk, Michael J; Hamer, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    : Feral swine ( Sus scrofa ) are an invasive species and reservoir of numerous zoonotic pathogens in the US, and Texas leads the nation in the estimated population size of feral hogs. Texas also harbors enzootic transmission cycles of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi , agent of Chagas disease. Given previous evidence that swine can serve as reservoirs of T. cruzi in Latin America and new evidence of triatomines (kissing bugs) feeding on swine in Texas, we measured the prevalence of T. cruzi infection in feral swine in Texas. From 2013 to 2014, we sampled blood and/or cardiac tissue from 78 feral swine across 14 Texas counties (seven with and seven without prior documentation of kissing bug occurrence) and used PCR and histopathology to detect T. cruzi infection. We determined an overall infection prevalence of 6% (3 of 54) based on PCR evaluation of cardiac tissue, and no blood samples were positive (n=72). All three positive pigs were from counties where kissing bugs are documented. No T. cruzi amastigotes were noted on histopathology (n=54). Sarcocysts were observed in 10 (18%) of the samples, five of which also had mild focal areas of degeneration and inflammatory cell infiltration. Eco-epidemiologic investigations can provide an assessment of contributions of feral hogs to maintenance of T. cruzi across a landscape to help protect human and animal health.

  19. Novel Technique for Retroperitoneal Implantation of Telemetry Transmitters for Physiologic Monitoring in Göttingen Minipigs (Sus scrofa domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Willens, Scott; Cox, David M; Braue, Ernest H; Myers, Todd M; Wegner, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Telemetric monitoring of physiologic parameters in animal models is a critical component of chemical and biologic agent studies. The long-term collection of neurobehavioral and other physiologic data can require larger telemetry devices. Furthermore, such devices must be implanted in a location that is safe, well-tolerated, and functional. Göttingen minipigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) present an ideal large animal model for chemical agent studies due to their relatively small size, characterized health status, and ease of training and handling. We report an effective approach to implanting a novel device to measure transthoracic impedance to approximate respiratory tidal volume and rate in Suidae. We tested the approach using 24 male Göttingen minipigs. A ventral midline abdominal incision extending from the umbilicus to the prepuce was followed by a paramedian incision of the parietal peritoneum and dorsal blunt dissection to create a retroperitoneal pocket. The device was anchored inside the pocket to the internal abdominal musculature with 3-0 nonabsorbable suture, biopotential leads were routed through the abdominal musculature, and the pocket was closed with 3-0 absorbable suture. Paired biopotential leads were anchored intermuscularly at the level of the seventh rib midway between spine and sternum bilaterally to provide surrogate data for respiratory function. Postoperative recovery and gross pathology findings at necropsy were used to assess safety and refine the surgical procedure. Results demonstrated that this procedure permitted effective monitoring of complex physiologic data, including transthoracic impedance, without negatively affecting the health and behavior of the animals. PMID:25527027

  20. [The Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), State Public Policy: its institutionalized and future development and the search for solutions].

    PubMed

    Santos, Nelson Rodrigues Dos

    2013-01-01

    This paper redeems the significance of the health reform movement and the municipal healthcare movement in the context of the 1970s and 1980s, and its social, politic and innovative power in the democratic reconstruction of the day. It then notes that the implementation of the constitutional guidelines, regulated in 1990 by Laws 8080/90 and 8142/90, has been characterized in the last 22 years by four major and mounting obstacles imposed by State policy on all governments: federal underfunding; federal subsidies to the private health plan market; resistance to reform of the State management structure of service provision; and the handing over of administration of public facilities to private entities. The Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) included half the population that was once excluded in the public health system, though these obstacles keep the coverage of primary care focused below the poverty line and with poor resolution. The conclusion drawn is that the real policy of the state for healthcare in the past 22 years has prioritized the creation and expansion of the private health plan market for consumer rights, and relegated the effectiveness of constitutional guidelines for civic human rights to second place. PMID:23338517

  1. [The trajectory of the national policy for the reorientation of professional training in health in the Unified Health System (SUS)].

    PubMed

    Dias, Henrique Sant'anna; Lima, Luciana Dias de; Teixeira, Márcia

    2013-06-01

    This paper examines the national policy and its antecedents for reorientation of professional health training implemented after 2003. It highlights landmarks and transformations in the course of policies between 1980 and 2010, elements of continuity and change and the connections between past and current policy initiatives. The study involved a review of the literature on the subject and document analysis supported by theoretical analysis of public policies, particularly historical institutionalism. The results point to four different moments during the trajectory of the policy, marked by changes in the initiatives of reorientation of higher education in health: antecedents; initial experiences; university protagonism; broadening and enhancement. As an element of continuity, there is the permanence of objects in the guiding principles advocated in the policies. The evidence of implementation expresses prospects of enhancement, with diversification of mobilized actors and organizations, and more projects implemented. The accumulated experience suggests structural maturity of the structural bases of action and the main changes relate to the enhancement of decision-making bodies of the SUS and the approximation to the process of decentralization and regionalization of national health policy.

  2. Honest signaling in domestic piglets (Sus scrofa domesticus): vocal allometry and the information content of grunt calls

    PubMed Central

    Wondrak, Marianne; Huber, Ludwig; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The information conveyed in acoustic signals is a central topic in mammal vocal communication research. Body size is one form of information that can be encoded in calls. Acoustic allometry aims to identify the specific acoustic correlates of body size within the vocalizations of a given species, and formants are often a useful acoustic cue in this context. We conducted a longitudinal investigation of acoustic allometry in domestic piglets (Sus scrofa domesticus), asking whether formants of grunt vocalizations provide information concerning the caller's body size over time. On four occasions, we recorded grunts from 20 kunekune piglets, measured their vocal tract length by means of radiographs (X-rays) and weighed them. Controlling for effects of age and sex, we found that body weight strongly predicts vocal tract length, which in turn determines formant frequencies. We conclude that grunt formant frequencies could allow domestic pigs to assess a signaler's body size as it grows. Further research using playback experiments is needed to determine the perceptual role of formants in domestic pig communication. PMID:27059064

  3. Honest signaling in domestic piglets (Sus scrofa domesticus): vocal allometry and the information content of grunt calls.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Maxime; Wondrak, Marianne; Huber, Ludwig; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2016-06-15

    The information conveyed in acoustic signals is a central topic in mammal vocal communication research. Body size is one form of information that can be encoded in calls. Acoustic allometry aims to identify the specific acoustic correlates of body size within the vocalizations of a given species, and formants are often a useful acoustic cue in this context. We conducted a longitudinal investigation of acoustic allometry in domestic piglets (Sus scrofa domesticus), asking whether formants of grunt vocalizations provide information concerning the caller's body size over time. On four occasions, we recorded grunts from 20 kunekune piglets, measured their vocal tract length by means of radiographs (X-rays) and weighed them. Controlling for effects of age and sex, we found that body weight strongly predicts vocal tract length, which in turn determines formant frequencies. We conclude that grunt formant frequencies could allow domestic pigs to assess a signaler's body size as it grows. Further research using playback experiments is needed to determine the perceptual role of formants in domestic pig communication. PMID:27059064

  4. Evaluation of a Commercial ELISA for the Detection of Antibodies to Sarcoptes scabiei in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Haas, Chloé; Rossi, Sophie; Meier, Roman; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Sarcoptic mange occurs in free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) but has been poorly described in this species. We evaluated the performance of a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serodiagnosis of sarcoptic mange in domestic swine when applied to wild boar sera. We tested 96 sera from wild boar in populations without mange history ("truly noninfected") collected in Switzerland between December 2012 and February 2014, and 141 sera from free-ranging wild boar presenting mange-like lesions, including 50 live animals captured and sampled multiple times in France between May and August 2006 and three cases submitted to necropsy in Switzerland between April 2010 and February 2014. Mite infestation was confirmed by skin scraping in 20 of them ("truly infected"). We defined sensitivity of the test as the proportion of truly infected that were found ELISA-positive, and specificity as the proportion of truly noninfected that were found negative. Sensitivity and specificity were 75% and 80%, respectively. Success of antibody detection increased with the chronicity of lesions, and seroconversion was documented in 19 of 27 wild boar sampled multiple times that were initially negative or doubtful. In conclusion, the evaluated ELISA has been successfully applied to wild boar sera. It appears to be unreliable for early detection in individual animals but may represent a useful tool for population surveys. PMID:26161723

  5. Vegetable and animal food sorts found in the gastric content of Sardinian Wild Boar (Sus scrofa meridionalis).

    PubMed

    Pinna, W; Nieddu, G; Moniello, G; Cappai, M G

    2007-06-01

    Authors report results emerging from gastric content analysis from n. 96 wild boars hunted in Sardinia isle, during the hunting tide (2001-2005), from November to January. Mean pH of the gastric content was 3.77 +/- 0.69. Mean total capacity (TC) of each stomach was 1702 +/- 680 g. Mean Stuff ratio (CW/TC) between the content weight (CW) and stomachs TC was 0.45. Food categories found in animal stomachs were: 19 categories of vegetal species (Allium spp., Arbutus unedo, Arisarum vulgare, Avena fatua, Avena sativa, Castanea sativa, Ceratonia siliqua, Chamaerops umilis, Cichorium intybus, Hordeum sativum, Juniperus oxycedrus, Myrtus communis, Olea europea, Pirus amygdaliformis, Pistacia lentiscus, Quercus spp., Rhamnus alaternus, Triticum durum, Zea mais); 11 categories of animal species (Agriotes lineatus, Apodemus sylvaticus dicrurus, Chalcides chalcides, Chalcides ocellatus tiligugu, Crematogaster scutellaris, Forficula auricularia, Helix aspersa, Lumbricus terrestris, Ovis aries, Podarcis tiliguerta tiliguerta, Scolopendra cingulata); three categories were identified in general terms (insects larvae, hairs of mammals, feathers of birds). Food categories found in the stomach contents of Sus scrofa meridionalis confirm observations by other researchers who report the prevalence of vegetables in spite of animal food sorts in the wild boar diet in Italian regions. PMID:17516948

  6. Relative age of proviral porcine endogenous retrovirus sequences in Sus scrofa based on the molecular clock hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Tönjes, Ralf R; Niebert, Marcus

    2003-11-01

    Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) are discussed as putative infectious agents in xenotransplantation. PERV classes A, B, and C harbor different envelope proteins. Two different types of long terminal repeat (LTR) structures exist, of which both are present only in PERV-A. One type of LTR contains a distinct repeat structure in U3, while the other is repeatless, conferring a lower level of transcriptional activity. Since the different LTR structures are distributed unequally among the proviruses and, apparently, PERV is the only virus harboring two different LTR structures, we were interested in determining which LTR is the ancestor. Replication-competent viruses can still be found today, suggesting an evolutionary recent origin. Our studies revealed that the age of PERV is at most 7.6 x 10(6) years, whereas the repeatless LTR type evolved approximately 3.4 x 10(6) years ago, being the phylogenetically younger structure. The age determined for PERV correlates with the time of separation between pigs (Suidae, Sus scrofa) and their closest relatives, American-born peccaries (Tayassuidae, Pecari tajacu), 7.4 x 10(6) years ago.

  7. Relative Age of Proviral Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus Sequences in Sus scrofa Based on the Molecular Clock Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Tönjes, Ralf R.; Niebert, Marcus

    2003-01-01

    Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) are discussed as putative infectious agents in xenotransplantation. PERV classes A, B, and C harbor different envelope proteins. Two different types of long terminal repeat (LTR) structures exist, of which both are present only in PERV-A. One type of LTR contains a distinct repeat structure in U3, while the other is repeatless, conferring a lower level of transcriptional activity. Since the different LTR structures are distributed unequally among the proviruses and, apparently, PERV is the only virus harboring two different LTR structures, we were interested in determining which LTR is the ancestor. Replication-competent viruses can still be found today, suggesting an evolutionary recent origin. Our studies revealed that the age of PERV is at most 7.6 × 106 years, whereas the repeatless LTR type evolved approximately 3.4 × 106 years ago, being the phylogenetically younger structure. The age determined for PERV correlates with the time of separation between pigs (Suidae, Sus scrofa) and their closest relatives, American-born peccaries (Tayassuidae, Pecari tajacu), 7.4 × 106 years ago. PMID:14581574

  8. Characterization of glutathione S-transferases from Sus scrofa, Cydia pomonella and Triticum aestivum: their responses to cantharidin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Ya-Lin

    2015-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a key role in detoxification of xenobiotics in organisms. However, their other functions, especially response to the natural toxin cantharidin produced by beetles in the Meloidae and Oedemeridae families, are less known. We obtained GST cDNAs from three sources: Cydia pomonella (CpGSTd1), Sus scrofa (SsGSTα1), and Triticum aestivum (TaGSTf3). The predicted molecular mass is 24.19, 25.28 and 24.49 kDa, respectively. These proteins contain typical N-terminal and C-terminal domains. Recombinant GSTs were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as soluble fusion proteins. Their optimal activities are exhibited at pH 7.0-7.5 at 30 °C. Activity of CpGSTd1 is strongly inhibited by cantharidin and cantharidic acid, but is only slightly suppressed by the demethylated analog of cantharidin and cantharidic acid. Enzymatic assays revealed that cantharidin has no effect on SsGSTα1 activity, while it significantly stimulates TaGSTf3 activity, with an EC50 value of 0.3852 mM. Activities of these proteins are potently inhibited by the known GST competitive inhibitor: S-hexylglutathione (GTX). Our results suggest that these GSTs from different sources share similar structural and biochemical characteristics. Our results also suggest that CpGSTd1 might act as a binding protein with cantharidin and its analogs. PMID:25640718

  9. [The profile of hospitalizations and associated factors among elderly users of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS)].

    PubMed

    Pagotto, Valéria; Silveira, Erika Aparecida; Velasco, Wisley Donizetti

    2013-10-01

    This article seeks to establish the causes of hospitalizations among the elderly and identify the prevalence and associated factors. It is a cross-sectional study with 418 elderly users of SUS selected by multistage proportional sampling in the nine Sanitary Districts of Goiânia. Hospitalization was defined as a positive response to the question: "Were you hospitalized in the past year?" The independent variables were collected on a standardized questionnaire. Associations were explored through the prevalence ratio and the respective 95% CI. Multivariate analysis was conducted using hierarchical Poisson regression. The prevalence of hospitalizations was 24.4% and the major causes were circulatory (28.4%), respiratory (9.8%) and infectious and parasitic diseases (9.8%). In multivariate analysis, the following variables continued to be associated with hospitalizations: A/B economic class, reports of five or more diseases and weight loss. The results revealed a high prevalence of hospitalizations and that factors involved are mainly related to socioeconomic issues and health status, which demonstrates that it is necessary to monitor these cases in primary health care to prevent unnecessary hospitalization. PMID:24061033

  10. First Ecological Study of the Bawean Warty Pig (Sus blouchi), One of the Rarest Pigs on Earth

    PubMed Central

    Rademaker, Mark; Meijaard, Erik; Semiadi, Gono; Blokland, Simen; Neilson, Eric W.; Rode-Margono, Eva Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Bawean warty pig (Sus blouchi) is an endemic pig species confined to the 192 km2 large island of Bawean in the Java Sea, Indonesia. Due to a lack of quantitative ecological research, understanding of natural history and conservation requirements have so far been based solely on anecdotal information from interviews with local people and study of captive and museum specimens. In this study we provide the first assessment of population and habitat preferences for S. blouchi by using camera trapping. From the 4th of November 2014 to January 8th 2015, we placed camera traps at 100 locations in the forested protected areas on Bawean. In 690.31 camera days (16567.45 hours) we captured 92 independent videos showing S. blouchi. Variation in S. blouchi trapping rates with cumulative trap effort stabilized after 500 camera days. An important outcome is that, in contrast to the suggestion of previous assessments, only S. blouchi was detected and no S. scrofa was found, which excludes hybridization threats. We fitted a Random Encounter Model, which does not require the identification of individual animals, to our camera-trapping data and estimated 172–377 individuals to be present on the island. Activity patterns and habitat data indicate that S. blouchi is mainly nocturnal and prefers community forests and areas near forest borders. Next to this, we found a positive relationship between S. blouchi occupancy, distance to nearest border, litter depth and tree density in the highest ranking occupancy models. Although these relationships proved non-significant based on model averaging, their presence in the top ranking models suggests that these covariables do play a role in predicting S. blouchi occurrence on Bawean. The estimated amount of sites occupied reached 58%. Based on our results, especially the estimation of the population size and area of occupancy, we determine that the species is Endangered according to the IUCN/SSC Red List criteria. PMID:27049756

  11. Two agricultural production data libraries for risk assessment models. [Ovis aries; Capra hircus; Sus scrofa; Gallus domesticus; Meleagris gallopavo

    SciTech Connect

    Baes, C.F. III; Shor, R.W.; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Two data libraries based on the 1974 US Census of Agriculture are described. The data packages (AGDATC and AGDATG) are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831. Agricultural production and land-use information by county (AGDATC) or by 1/2 by 1/2 degree longitude-latitude grid cell (AGDATG) provide geographical resolution of the data. The libraries were designed for use in risk assessment models that simulate the transport of radionuclides from sources of airborne release through food chains to man. However, they are also suitable for use in the assessment of other airborne pollutants that can affect man from a food ingestion pathway such as effluents from synfuels or coal-fired power plants. The principal significance of the data libraries is that they provide default location-specific food-chain transport parameters when site-specific information are unavailable. Plant food categories in the data libraries include leafy vegetables, vegetables and fruits exposed to direct deposition of airborne pollutants, vegetables and fruits protected from direct deposition, and grains. Livestock feeds are also tabulated in four categories: pasture, grain, hay, and silage. Pasture was estimated by a material balance of cattle and sheep inventories, forage feed requirements, and reported harvested forage. Cattle (Bos spp.), sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), hog (Sus scrofa), chicken (Gallus domesticus), and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) inventories or sales are also tabulated in the data libraries and can be used to provide estimates of meat, eggs, and milk production. Honey production also is given. Population, irrigation, and meteorological information are also listed.

  12. The stress response and exploratory behaviour in Yucatan minipigs (Sus scrofa): Relations to sex and social rank.

    PubMed

    Adcock, Sarah J J; Martin, Gerard M; Walsh, Carolyn J

    2015-12-01

    According to the coping styles hypothesis, an individual demonstrates an integrated behavioural and physiological response to environmental challenge that is consistent over time and across situations. Individual consistency in behavioural responses to challenge has been documented across the animal kingdom. Comparatively few studies, however, have examined inter-individual variation in the physiological response, namely glucocorticoid and catecholamine levels, the stress hormones secreted by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system, respectively. Variation in coping styles between individuals may be explained in part by differences in social rank and sex. Using 20 Yucatan minipigs (Sus scrofa) we: (1) investigated the existence of consistent inter-individual variation in exploratory behaviour and the hormonal stress response, and tested for correlations as predicted by the coping styles hypothesis; and (2) evaluated whether inter-individual behavioural and hormonal variation is related to social rank and sex. Salivary stress biomarkers (cortisol, alpha-amylase, chromogranin A) were assessed in the presence and absence of a stressor consisting of social isolation in a crate for 10 min. Principal components analysis on a set of behavioural variables revealed two traits, which we labelled exploratory tendency and neophobia. Neither exploratory tendency nor neophobia predicted the physiological stress response. Subordinate pigs exhibited higher catecholamine levels compared to dominant conspecifics. We observed sex differences in the repeatability of salivary stress markers and reactivity of the stress systems. The results do not provide support for the existence of behavioural-physiological coping styles in pigs. Sex is an important determinant of the physiological stress response and warrants consideration in research addressing behavioural and hormonal variation.

  13. Mercury and selenium binding biomolecules in terrestrial mammals (Cervus elaphus and Sus scrofa) from a mercury exposed area.

    PubMed

    Ropero, M J Patiño; Fariñas, N Rodríguez; Krupp, E; Mateo, R; Nevado, J J Berzas; Martín-Doimeadios, R C Rodríguez

    2016-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) is likely bound to large biomolecules (e.g. proteins) in living organisms, and in order to assess Hg metabolic pathways and possible toxicological effects, it is essential to study these Hg containing biomolecules. However, the exact nature of most metal binding biomolecules is unknown. Such studies are still in their infancy and information on this topic is scarce because the analysis is challenging, mainly due to their lability upon digestion or extraction from the tissue. New analytical methods that allow complex Hg-biomolecules to be analysed intact are needed and only few very recent studies deal with this approach. Therefore, as an initial step towards the characterization of Hg containing biomolecules, an analytical procedure has been optimised using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. We applied this technique to elucidate the distribution and elution profile of Hg and Se, and some physiological important elements such as Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu, to assess metal binding profiles in liver and kidney samples of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) who roam freely within the largest Hg mining district on Earth, Almadén in Spain. Elemental fractionation profiles of the extracts from different tissues were obtained using two different SEC columns (BioSep-SEC-S2000 GL 300-1kDa and Superdex 75 10/300 GL 70-3kDa). Similar profiles of Hg were observed in red deer and wild boar; however, significant differences were evident for liver and kidney. Moreover, the profiles of Se showed a single peak at high-medium molecular weight in all investigated tissues, while co-elution of Hg with Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu was observed. PMID:27093497

  14. Contemporary Genetic Structure, Phylogeography and Past Demographic Processes of Wild Boar Sus scrofa Population in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kusza, Szilvia; Podgórski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Jávor, András; Sidorovich, Vadim E.; Bunevich, Aleksei N.; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all known from previous studies in Europe; 14 of them belonged to European 1 (E1) clade, including 13 haplotypes from E1-C and one from E1-A lineages. Two haplotypes belonged respectively to the East Asian and the Near Eastern clade. Both haplotypes were found in Russia and most probably originated from the documented translocations of wild boar. The studied populations showed moderate haplotype (0.714±0.023) and low nucleotide diversity (0.003±0.002). SAMOVA grouped the genetic structuring of Central and Eastern European wild boar into three subpopulations, comprising of: (1) north-eastern Belarus and the European part of Russia, (2) Poland, Ukraine, Moldova and most of Belarus, and (3) Hungary. The multimodal mismatch distribution, Fu's Fs index, Bayesian skyline plot and the high occurrence of shared haplotypes among populations did not suggest strong demographic fluctuations in wild boar numbers in the Holocene and pre-Holocene times. This study showed relatively weak genetic diversity and structure in Central and Eastern European wild boar populations and underlined gaps in our knowledge on the role of southern refugia and demographic processes shaping genetic diversity of wild boar in this part of Europe. PMID:24622149

  15. First Ecological Study of the Bawean Warty Pig (Sus blouchi), One of the Rarest Pigs on Earth.

    PubMed

    Rademaker, Mark; Meijaard, Erik; Semiadi, Gono; Blokland, Simen; Neilson, Eric W; Rode-Margono, Eva Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Bawean warty pig (Sus blouchi) is an endemic pig species confined to the 192 km(2) large island of Bawean in the Java Sea, Indonesia. Due to a lack of quantitative ecological research, understanding of natural history and conservation requirements have so far been based solely on anecdotal information from interviews with local people and study of captive and museum specimens. In this study we provide the first assessment of population and habitat preferences for S. blouchi by using camera trapping. From the 4th of November 2014 to January 8th 2015, we placed camera traps at 100 locations in the forested protected areas on Bawean. In 690.31 camera days (16567.45 hours) we captured 92 independent videos showing S. blouchi. Variation in S. blouchi trapping rates with cumulative trap effort stabilized after 500 camera days. An important outcome is that, in contrast to the suggestion of previous assessments, only S. blouchi was detected and no S. scrofa was found, which excludes hybridization threats. We fitted a Random Encounter Model, which does not require the identification of individual animals, to our camera-trapping data and estimated 172-377 individuals to be present on the island. Activity patterns and habitat data indicate that S. blouchi is mainly nocturnal and prefers community forests and areas near forest borders. Next to this, we found a positive relationship between S. blouchi occupancy, distance to nearest border, litter depth and tree density in the highest ranking occupancy models. Although these relationships proved non-significant based on model averaging, their presence in the top ranking models suggests that these covariables do play a role in predicting S. blouchi occurrence on Bawean. The estimated amount of sites occupied reached 58%. Based on our results, especially the estimation of the population size and area of occupancy, we determine that the species is Endangered according to the IUCN/SSC Red List criteria.

  16. First Ecological Study of the Bawean Warty Pig (Sus blouchi), One of the Rarest Pigs on Earth.

    PubMed

    Rademaker, Mark; Meijaard, Erik; Semiadi, Gono; Blokland, Simen; Neilson, Eric W; Rode-Margono, Eva Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Bawean warty pig (Sus blouchi) is an endemic pig species confined to the 192 km(2) large island of Bawean in the Java Sea, Indonesia. Due to a lack of quantitative ecological research, understanding of natural history and conservation requirements have so far been based solely on anecdotal information from interviews with local people and study of captive and museum specimens. In this study we provide the first assessment of population and habitat preferences for S. blouchi by using camera trapping. From the 4th of November 2014 to January 8th 2015, we placed camera traps at 100 locations in the forested protected areas on Bawean. In 690.31 camera days (16567.45 hours) we captured 92 independent videos showing S. blouchi. Variation in S. blouchi trapping rates with cumulative trap effort stabilized after 500 camera days. An important outcome is that, in contrast to the suggestion of previous assessments, only S. blouchi was detected and no S. scrofa was found, which excludes hybridization threats. We fitted a Random Encounter Model, which does not require the identification of individual animals, to our camera-trapping data and estimated 172-377 individuals to be present on the island. Activity patterns and habitat data indicate that S. blouchi is mainly nocturnal and prefers community forests and areas near forest borders. Next to this, we found a positive relationship between S. blouchi occupancy, distance to nearest border, litter depth and tree density in the highest ranking occupancy models. Although these relationships proved non-significant based on model averaging, their presence in the top ranking models suggests that these covariables do play a role in predicting S. blouchi occurrence on Bawean. The estimated amount of sites occupied reached 58%. Based on our results, especially the estimation of the population size and area of occupancy, we determine that the species is Endangered according to the IUCN/SSC Red List criteria. PMID:27049756

  17. Serologic tests for detecting antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa).

    PubMed

    Boadella, Mariana; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Greenwald, Reena; Esfandiari, Javan; Jaroso, Raquel; Carta, Tania; Garrido, Joseba M; Vicente, Joaquín; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian

    2011-01-01

    New tools to detect exposure of free-range Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) to pathogenic mycobacteria would be valuable for improved disease surveillance and wildlife management. Two hundred sera from wild boar of known Mycobacterium bovis infection status were used to evaluate test suitability for the detection of antibodies against M. bovis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (or cross-reacting members of the M. avium complex). Two traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were evaluated using M. bovis purified protein derivative (bPPD) and paratuberculosis protoplasmatic antigen 3 (PPA3) as antigens, respectively, and a new point-of-care test format for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) that uses the innovative dual-path platform (DPP TB) test. The effect of individual factors (sex, age, lesions) on the diagnostic performance of the serologic tests was also determined. Although the DPP had a sensitivity of 89.6% and a specificity of 90.4%, for bPPD, the sensitivity was 79.2% and the specificity 100%. Both tests had a kappa agreement of 0.80. Sixty-five of 68 (95.6%) wild boar sera with antibodies against the PPA3 antigen corresponded to known M. bovis-infected wild boar. Significant differences were not observed in the bPPD and DPP readings among lesion categories or between age classes. A slight sex-related difference in sensitivity toward males in the DPP was found, but it was not detected in the bPPD enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results support the use of antibody-based diagnostic tests for both large-scale and individual bTB testing of Eurasian wild boar and suggest that wild boar cannot be used as sentinels for infections caused by M. avium complex members.

  18. Long-term monitoring of 10 selected pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Sierra Nevada National Park, southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Cano-Manuel, Francisco J; López-Olvera, Jorge; Fandos, Paulino; Soriguer, Ramón C; Pérez, Jesús M; Granados, José E

    2014-11-01

    Wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations are increasing in the Iberian Peninsula, and population management must include disease management and control. In this study, the epidemiology of 10 selected pathogens (Aujeszky's disease virus - ADV, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus - PRRSV, porcine influenza virus, porcine circovirus, porcine parvovirus, Erysipelotrix rhusiopathiae, Leptospira pomona, Chlamydia/Chlamydiaceae sp., Salmonella sp. and Mycobacterium bovis) in the wild boar population in Sierra Nevada National Park (SNNP), an open unfenced area, is reported, taking into account wild boar population abundance variation in space and time in an open unfenced environment. A total of 1103 wild boar were sampled in 141 hunting events randomly carried out for sampling in seven hunting seasons (October to February from 2002-2003 to 2009-2010 (except 2007-2008). Prevalence was overall lower than those previously reported for fenced wild boar populations in Spain, but all the pathogens analyzed except PRRSV were considered endemic in the SNNP. ADV, E. rhusiopathiae and total pathogen prevalence were positively correlated to wild boar density. Prevalence in the positive areas was significantly higher in females for ADV, E. rhusiopathiae, L. pomona, Chlamydia/Chlamydiaceae sp. and Salmonella sp., and in males for M. bovis. This longitudinal study provides the first data on the health status of the relatively unmanaged and low density wild boar population of SNNP. It is concluded that non-intensively managed wild boar populations are able to maintain the circulation of several pathogens, even in low prevalences and in open unfenced areas with natural density variation both in time and space.

  19. Identification and Prevalence of Globocephalus samoensis (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) among Wild Boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) from Southwestern Regions of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Ahn, Ah-Jin; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Joo, Kyoung-Woong; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the first record of Globocephalus samoensis (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) recovered in wild boars from southwestern regions of Korea. Gastrointestinal tracts of 111 Korean wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) hunted from mountains in Suncheon-si, Gwangyang-si, and Boseong-gun between 2009 and 2012 were examined for their visceral helminths. G. samoensis, as identified by morphological characteristics of the head and tail, were recovered from the small intestine of 51 (45.9%) wild boars. Worms were found from 7 of 28 wild boars (25.0%) from Suncheon-si, 40 of 79 (50.6%) from Gwangyang-si, and all 4 (100%) from Boseong-gun. The length of adult females was 7.2±0.5 mm, and the thickest part of the body measured the average 0.47±0.03 mm, while those of males were 6.52±0.19 and 0.37±0.02 mm, respectively. The buccal cavity was equipped with a pair of large and bicuspid subventral lancets near the base of the capsule. The average length of spicules of males was 0.45±0.02 mm. By the present study, G. samoensis is recorded for the first time in southwestern regions of Korea. Additionally, morphological characteristics and identification keys provided in the present study will be helpful in the faunistic and taxonomic studies for strongylid nematodes in both domestic and wild pigs. The infection of G. samoensis apparently did not elicit pathologic lesions, as revealed by macroscopic observation during the autopsy of all wild boars in this study. PMID:26537041

  20. Effects of beam offset on mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Alloy 690-SUS 304L EBW joints for nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yong-Ding; Lee, Hwa-Teng; Kuo, Tsung-Yuan; Jeng, Sheng-Long; Wu, Jia-Lin

    2010-06-01

    The current study investigates the effect of the beam offset (BOF) on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and the corrosion resistance of the fusion zone (FZ) of Alloy 690-SUS 304L stainless steel (SS) dissimilar metal butt joints formed by electron beam welding (EBW). The experimental results showed that as the value of the BOF increased from 0 to 0.30 mm, i.e. the electron beam shifted progressively toward the Alloy 690 base metal (BM), the tensile strength of the FZ fell from 582.1 to 541.2 MPa. However, the modified Huey test results indicated that the interdendritic corrosion resistance of the FZ was significantly enhanced. Pit nucleation potential value ( Enp) was raised from 385 to 1050 mV. An offset of 0.30 mm appears to be the optimal BOF setting when fabricating Alloy 690-SUS 304L SS dissimilar metal butt joints using the EBW technique.

  1. EcoTILLING revealed SNPs in GhSus genes that are associated with fiber- and seed-related traits in upland cotton.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan-Da; Sun, Jun-Ling; Bu, Su-Hong; Deng, Kang-Sheng; Tao, Tao; Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Zhang, Tian-Zhen; Du, Xiong-Ming; Zhou, Bao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Cotton is the most important textile crop in the world due to its cellulose-enriched fibers. Sucrose synthase genes (Sus) play pivotal roles in cotton fiber and seed development. To mine and pyramid more favorable alleles for cotton molecular breeding, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of GhSus family genes were investigated across 277 upland cotton accessions by EcoTILLING. As a result, a total of 24 SNPs in the amplified regions of eight GhSus genes were identified. These SNPs were significantly associated with at least one fiber- or seed-related trait measured in Nanjing, Anyang and Kuche in 2007-2009. Four main-effect quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) and five epistatic QTNs, with 0.76-3.56% of phenotypic variances explained by each QTN (PVE), were found to be associated with yield-related traits; six epistatic QTNs, with the 0.43-3.48% PVE, were found to be associated with fiber quality-related traits; and one main-effect QTN and one epistatic QTN, with the PVE of 1.96% and 2.53%, were found to be associated with seed oil content and protein content, respectively. Therefore, this study provides new information for molecular breeding in cotton. PMID:27385639

  2. EcoTILLING revealed SNPs in GhSus genes that are associated with fiber- and seed-related traits in upland cotton

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yan-Da; Sun, Jun-Ling; Bu, Su-Hong; Deng, Kang-Sheng; Tao, Tao; Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Zhang, Tian-Zhen; Du, Xiong-Ming; Zhou, Bao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Cotton is the most important textile crop in the world due to its cellulose-enriched fibers. Sucrose synthase genes (Sus) play pivotal roles in cotton fiber and seed development. To mine and pyramid more favorable alleles for cotton molecular breeding, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of GhSus family genes were investigated across 277 upland cotton accessions by EcoTILLING. As a result, a total of 24 SNPs in the amplified regions of eight GhSus genes were identified. These SNPs were significantly associated with at least one fiber- or seed-related trait measured in Nanjing, Anyang and Kuche in 2007–2009. Four main-effect quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) and five epistatic QTNs, with 0.76–3.56% of phenotypic variances explained by each QTN (PVE), were found to be associated with yield-related traits; six epistatic QTNs, with the 0.43–3.48% PVE, were found to be associated with fiber quality-related traits; and one main-effect QTN and one epistatic QTN, with the PVE of 1.96% and 2.53%, were found to be associated with seed oil content and protein content, respectively. Therefore, this study provides new information for molecular breeding in cotton. PMID:27385639

  3. Grubbing by wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) and its impact on hardwood forest soil carbon dioxide emissions in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Risch, Anita C; Wirthner, Sven; Busse, Matt D; Page-Dumroese, Deborah S; Schütz, Martin

    2010-11-01

    Interest in soil C storage and release has increased in recent years. In addition to factors such as climate/land-use change, vertebrate animals can have a considerable impact on soil CO(2) emissions. To date, most research has considered herbivores, while the impact of omnivorous animals has rarely been investigated. Our goal was to determine how European wild boars (Sus scrofa L.), large omnivores that consume soil-inhabiting animals and belowground plant parts by grubbing in the soil, affect soil C dynamics. We measured soil respiration (CO(2)), temperature, and moisture on paired grubbed and non-grubbed plots in six hardwood forest stands for a 3-year period and sampled fine root and microbial biomass at the beginning and after 2 years of the study. We also measured the percentage of freshly disturbed forest soil within the larger surroundings of each stand and used this information together with hunting statistics and forest cover data to model the total amount of CO(2) released from Swiss forest soils due to grubbing during 1 year. Soil CO(2) emissions were significantly higher on grubbed compared to non-grubbed plots during the study. On average 23.1% more CO(2) was released from these plots, which we associated with potential alterations in CO(2) diffusion rates, incorporation of litter into the mineral soil and higher fine root/microbial biomass. Thus, wild boars considerably increased the small-scale heterogeneity of soil properties. Roughly 1% of Switzerland's surface area is similar to our sites (boar density/forest cover). Given the range of forest soil disturbance of 27-54% at our sites, the geographic information system model predicted that boar grubbing would lead to the release of an additional 49,731.10-98,454.74 t CO(2) year(-1). These values are relatively small compared to total soil emissions estimated for Swiss hardwood forests and suggest that boars will have little effect on large-scale emissions unless their numbers increase and their

  4. Structure of a SusD Homologue, BT1043, Involved in Mucin O-Glycan Utilization in a Prominent Human Gut Symbiont

    SciTech Connect

    Koropatkin, Nicole; Martens, Eric C.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2009-05-21

    Mammalian distal gut bacteria have an expanded capacity to utilize glycans. In the absence of dietary sources, some species rely on host-derived mucosal glycans. The ability of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a prominent human gut symbiont, to forage host glycans contributes to both its ability to persist within an individual host and its ability to be transmitted naturally to new hosts at birth. The molecular basis of host glycan recognition by this species is still unknown but likely occurs through an expanded suite of outermembrane glycan-binding proteins that are the primary interface between B. thetaiotaomicron and its environment. Presented here is the atomic structure of the B. thetaiotaomicron protein BT1043, an outer membrane lipoprotein involved in host glycan metabolism. Despite a lack of detectable amino acid sequence similarity, BT1043 is a structural homologue of the B. thetaiotaomicron starch-binding protein SusD. Both structures are dominated by tetratrico peptide repeats that may facilitate association with outer membrane {beta}-barrel transporters required for glycan uptake. The structure of BT1043 complexed with N-acetyllactosamine reveals that recognition is mediated via hydrogen bonding interactions with the reducing end of {beta}-N-acetylglucosamine, suggesting a role in binding glycans liberated from the mucin polypeptide. This is in contrast to CBM 32 family members that target the terminal nonreducing galactose residue of mucin glycans. The highly articulated glycan-binding pocket of BT1043 suggests that binding of ligands to BT1043 relies more upon interactions with the composite sugar residues than upon overall ligand conformation as previously observed for SusD. The diversity in amino acid sequence level likely reflects early divergence from a common ancestor, while the unique and conserved {alpha}-helical fold the SusD family suggests a similar function in glycan uptake.

  5. Alloimmunisation fœto-maternelle Rhésus grave à propos d'un cas et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Zineb, Benkerroum; Boutaina, Lachiri; Ikram, Lazrak; Driss, Moussaoui Rahali; Mohammed, Dehayni

    2015-01-01

    L'incompatibilité fœto-maternelle Rhésus peut être à l'origine d'un syndrome hémolytique dont l'expression clinique est l′anémie fœtale éventuellement compliquée par une anasarque fœto-placentaire ou à l'extrême une mort fœtale in utéro. Nous rapportons l'observation d'un cas d'allo immunisation Rhésus à 34 SA ayant aboutit un hydrops foetalis, l'extraction fœtale par césarienne en vue d'une exsanguino-transfusion a été réalisée, mais le nouveau né est décédé au cours de l'exsanguino-transfusion. Le dépistage des femmes à risque et l'utilisation d'Immunoglobulines anti D ont permis une réduction importante de l′incidence des accidents d'incompatibilité. La mesure du pic systolique de vélocité dans l'artère cérébrale moyenne a bouleversé la surveillance et la prise en charge prénatale des anémies fœtales secondaires à une allo-immunisation Rhésus. Son utilisation dans la surveillance des cas d'allo-immunisation Rhésus permettrait ainsi de réserver les procédures invasives (cordocentèse) comme geste thérapeutique qui permet la transfusion fœtale in utéro. Grâce à une collaboration multidisciplinaire cohérente, l'extraction fœtale peut être programmée, ce qui permet une prise en charge adéquate et rigoureuse, même des nouveaux nés avec atteinte sévère. PMID:26889318

  6. SusHi: A program for the calculation of Higgs production in gluon fusion and bottom-quark annihilation in the Standard Model and the MSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlander, Robert V.; Liebler, Stefan; Mantler, Hendrik

    2013-06-01

    This article describes the code SusHi (for "Supersymmetric Higgs") [108] which calculates the cross sections pp/pp ¯ →ϕ+X in gluon fusion and bottom-quark annihilation in the SM and the MSSM, where ϕ is any of the neutral Higgs bosons within these models. Apart from inclusive cross sections up to NNLO QCD, differential cross sections with respect to the Higgs transverse momentum pT and (pseudo-)rapidity y(η) can be calculated through NLO QCD. In the case of gluon fusion, SusHi contains NLO QCD contributions from the third family of quarks and squarks, NNLO corrections due to top-quarks, approximate NNLO corrections due to top-squarks, and electro-weak effects. It supports various renormalization schemes for the sbottom sector and the bottom Yukawa coupling, as well as resummation effects of higher order tanβ-enhanced sbottom contributions. SusHi provides a link to FeynHiggs for the calculation of the Higgs masses. Program SummaryProgram title: SusHi Catalogue identifier: AEOY_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOY_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 47725 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 338380 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77. Computer: Personal computer. Operating system: Unix/Linux, Mac OS. RAM: A few 100 MB Classification: 11.1. External routines: LHAPDF (http://lhapdf.hepforge.org), FeynHiggs (http://www.feynhiggs.de) Nature of problem: Calculation of inclusive and exclusive Higgs production cross sections in gluon fusion and bottom-quark annihilation in the Standard Model and the MSSM through next-to-leading order QCD, includes next-to-next-to-leading order top-(s)quark contributions and electro-weak effects Solution method: Numerical Monte Carlo integration

  7. [Contradictions of public health policies geared to rare disorders: the example of the Osteogenesis Imperfecta Treatment Program in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS)].

    PubMed

    Lima, Maria Angelica de Faria Domingues de; Horovitz, Dafne Dain Gandelman

    2014-02-01

    The scope of this paper is to examine the process of consolidation of a public health policy in Brazil geared to a rare disorder, namely osteogenesis imperfecta, the treatment for which has fallen under the responsibility of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) after the publication of Ministerial Ruling GM/MS2305/2001. The implementation of this law has been accompanied by many contradictions, especially with respect to therapeutic decisions and the strengthening of the specialized network for addressing this condition. These attitudes are clearly shown both by the drafting process and the final text of the new law (Ministerial Ruling 714/2010). PMID:24863824

  8. Testing models of speciation from genome sequences: divergence and asymmetric admixture in Island South-East Asian Sus species during the Plio-Pleistocene climatic fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Frantz, Laurent A F; Madsen, Ole; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Groenen, Martien A M; Lohse, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    In many temperate regions, ice ages promoted range contractions into refugia resulting in divergence (and potentially speciation), while warmer periods led to range expansions and hybridization. However, the impact these climatic oscillations had in many parts of the tropics remains elusive. Here, we investigate this issue using genome sequences of three pig (Sus) species, two of which are found on islands of the Sunda-shelf shallow seas in Island South-East Asia (ISEA). A previous study revealed signatures of interspecific admixture between these Sus species (Genome biology,14, 2013, R107). However, the timing, directionality and extent of this admixture remain unknown. Here, we use a likelihood-based model comparison to more finely resolve this admixture history and test whether it was mediated by humans or occurred naturally. Our analyses suggest that interspecific admixture between Sunda-shelf species was most likely asymmetric and occurred long before the arrival of humans in the region. More precisely, we show that these species diverged during the late Pliocene but around 23% of their genomes have been affected by admixture during the later Pleistocene climatic transition. In addition, we show that our method provides a significant improvement over D-statistics which are uninformative about the direction of admixture. PMID:25294645

  9. Matrix Support in the SUS of Campinas: how an inter-professional practice has developed and consolidated in the health networkIntroduction.

    PubMed

    Castro, Cristiane Pereira de; Oliveira, Mônica Martins de; Campos, Gastão Wagner de Sousa

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to characterize the teams and the inter-professional work process of Matrix Support developed and practiced in primary healthcare provided by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. This is an exploratory descriptive study involving a questionnaire that was applied to 232 professionals who practice Matrix Support for primary healthcare. For analysis, the data were grouped into four categories: Identification of the professional; Work links to the Campinas SUS; Organization of the Matrix Support work; and the Support practice. The study indicates that the methodology of support for inter-professional work has achieved an important degree of consolidation in the municipality, in spite of the restricted investment. The reduced working time dedicated to support, and the large number of teams supported by each Matrix Support team were identified as the principal points of fragility in the work process. In turn, strong points that emerged were the multiplicity of tools used, the possibility of shared construction of work guidelines, and the flexibility in the composition of the support teams. Both the fragilities and the potentialities found can offer inputs for reflection and full creation of Matrix Support in other contexts.

  10. [Differences between neonatal mortality and stillbirth rates in Brazil: a study based on the Unified Health System (SIH/SUS) Hospital Information System].

    PubMed

    de Andrade Schramm, J M; Szwarcwald, C L

    2000-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to estimate stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates in Brazilian States based upon the country's Hospital Information System. Analysis of 1995 data reveals contrasting rates between the various regions of the country. In order to elucidate the States' different rates, we focused on the association between indicators of coverage, utilization, and access to the Unified Health System (SUS). The results for the neonatal period mostly showed higher early neonatal mortality rates when compared to late neonatal mortality rates, higher neonatal mortality rates in the States comprising the South and Southeast regions, less variable rates between those States, and extremely low rates in some States of the North, Central-West, and Northeast regions. The limited supply of SUS services and low access to same are relevant constraints on health care for the population in the North and Northeast. Aspects related to quality of childbirth and neonatal care are also reflected in the rates studied. The findings suggest that spatial and temporal monitoring of these rates could provide analytical support for organizing the Maternal and Child Health Program. PMID:11175526

  11. Serological Investigation of Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) and Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) As Indicator Animals for Circulation of Francisella tularensis in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Chaignat, Valerie; Klimpel, Diana; Diller, Roland; Melzer, Falk; Müller, Wolfgang; Tomaso, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tularemia outbreaks in humans have recently been reported in many European countries, but data on the occurrence in the animal population are scarce. In North America, seroconversion of omnivores and carnivores was used as indicator for the presence of tularemia, for the European fauna, however, data are barely available. Therefore, the suitability of wild boars (Sus scrofa) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as indicators for the circulation of F. tularensis in Germany was evaluated. Serum samples from 566 wild boars and 457 red foxes were collected between 1995 and 2012 in three federal states in Central Germany (Hesse, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia). The overall rate of seropositive animals was 1.1% in wild boars and 7.4% in red foxes. In conclusion, serological examination of red foxes is recommended, because they can be reliably used as indicator animals for the presence of F. tularensis in the environment. PMID:24359418

  12. A Sealers Midden Provides Evidence a Live Pig ( Sus scrofa) was Taken Ashore at Heard Island During the "Elephanting" Industry (1855-1882)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Hoff, John; Burton, Harry; Robins, Judith

    2012-12-01

    Livestock was often released onto remote Southern Ocean islands as a food source for shipwreck survivors during the industrial whaling and sealing era. Although animals were put ashore at nearby Isles Kerguelen and Crozet, the historical records make no mention of domesticated livestock ever being set ashore at Heard Island between 1855 and 1882. Here we report a pig ( Sus scrofa) mandible discovered amongst other bones and artefacts in an `elephanters' midden found at Spit Bay, Heard Island. The find provides very strong evidence a live pig was shipped ashore and eaten as part of the sealers meagre provisions. Archaeological investigations of middens at other sealing locations could produce new insights into the dietary habits of these men.

  13. [Education and competences for the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS): is it possible to find alternatives to the logic of late capitalism?].

    PubMed

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Albuquerque, Verônica Santos; Cavalcanti, Felipe de Oliveira Lopes; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre

    2013-01-01

    The transformations that have revolutionized the labor market in contemporary society make it necessary to think of new alternatives for training health care professionals, thereby establishing a new approach to the health problems of individuals and collectives. Based on these considerations, this paper sets out to discuss training in health--based on the concept of competence--with a focus on education for the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), using attempts to analyze and propose an alternative to the system entrenched in the logic of late capitalism as a theoretical benchmark. It is thus a reflection on the subject, correlating theory and praxis, in constant and relentless movement of construction, deconstruction and (re)construction of propositions.

  14. Serological investigation of wild boars (Sus scrofa) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as indicator animals for circulation of Francisella tularensis in Germany.

    PubMed

    Otto, Peter; Chaignat, Valerie; Klimpel, Diana; Diller, Roland; Melzer, Falk; Müller, Wolfgang; Tomaso, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Tularemia outbreaks in humans have recently been reported in many European countries, but data on the occurrence in the animal population are scarce. In North America, seroconversion of omnivores and carnivores was used as indicator for the presence of tularemia, for the European fauna, however, data are barely available. Therefore, the suitability of wild boars (Sus scrofa) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as indicators for the circulation of F. tularensis in Germany was evaluated. Serum samples from 566 wild boars and 457 red foxes were collected between 1995 and 2012 in three federal states in Central Germany (Hesse, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia). The overall rate of seropositive animals was 1.1% in wild boars and 7.4% in red foxes. In conclusion, serological examination of red foxes is recommended, because they can be reliably used as indicator animals for the presence of F. tularensis in the environment.

  15. Identification of chromosomal locations associated with tail biting and being a victim of tail-biting behaviour in the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kaitlin; Zanella, Ricardo; Ventura, Carlos; Johansen, Hanne Lind; Framstad, Tore; Janczak, Andrew; Zanella, Adroaldo J; Neibergs, Holly Louise

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify loci associated with tail biting or being a victim of tail biting in Norwegian crossbred pigs using a genome-wide association study with PLINK case-control analysis. DNA was extracted from hair or blood samples collected from 98 trios of crossbred pigs located across Norway. Each trio came from the same pen and consisted of one pig observed to initiate tail biting, one pig which was the victim of tail biting and a control pig which was not involved in either behaviour. DNA was genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay. After quality assurance filtering, 53,952 SNPs remained comprising 74 animals (37 pairs) for the tail biter versus control comparison and 53,419 SNPs remained comprising 80 animals (40 pairs) for the victim of tail biting versus control comparison. An association with being a tail biter was observed on Sus scrofa chromosome 16 (SSC16; p = 1.6 × 10(-5)) and an unassigned chromosome (p = 3.9 × 10(-5)). An association with being the victim of tail biting was observed on Sus scrofa chromosomes 1 (SSC1; p = 4.7 × 10(-5)), 9 (SSC9; p = 3.9 × 10(-5)), 18 (SSC18; p = 7 × 10(-5) for 9,602,511 bp, p = 3.4 × 10(-5) for 9,653,881 bp and p = 5.3 × 10(-5) for 29,577,783 bp) and an unassigned chromosome (p = 6.1 × 10(-5)). An r(2) = 0.96 and a D' = 1 between the two SNPs at 9 Mb on SSC18 indicated extremely high linkage disequilibrium, suggesting that these two markers represent a single locus. These results provide evidence of a moderate genetic association between the propensity to participate in tail-biting behaviour and the likelihood of becoming a victim of this behaviour. PMID:22941514

  16. Influence of the particle size and phase type of ZrO{sub 2} on the fabrication and residual stress of ZrO{sub 2}SUS304 FGM

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Yeon-Gil; Choi, Sung-Churl; Paik, U.

    1997-12-31

    TZP/SUS304- and ZT/SUS304-FGM were fabricated by pressureless sintering. The defects originating from the different shrinkage and sintering behavior of ceramic and metal could be controlled by the adjustments in terms of the particle size and phase type of ZrO{sub 2}. The residual stresses in TZP/SUS304-FGM have irregular patterns resulting from sintering defects and thermal expansion mismatch. In ZT/SUS304-FGM, compressive stress is induced on the ceramic regions by the volume expansion of MZP. Also, compressive stress is induced on the metal regions by the constraint of warping and frustum formation which must be created to the metal direction caused by the difference of CTEs. As a consequence, it has been verified that the residual stresses generated on FGM are dominantly influenced by the thickness and number of compositional gradient layers, and the sintering defects and residual stress can be controlled by the decrease of the difference of the shrinkage and sintering behavior of each component.

  17. [Primary health care--the "apple of the eye" of SUS: about social representations of the protagonists of the Unified Health System].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Karine de Oliveira; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre; Araújo, Raquel Maria Amaral; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal; Martins, Tatiana de Castro Pereira

    2011-01-01

    The Primary Health Care (PHC) is the first contact level with the health system. In Brazil, the Family Health Program (PSF) is the main implementation and organization strategy of the PHC. The objective of this study is to evaluate the actions and services of health offered by the PSF, starting from the social representations of the interviewee on the exclusive dimensions of PHC - attention to the first contact, longitudinality, integrality and coordination. It is a quali-quantitative research, accomplished in Cajuri, Minas Gerais State. Municipal managers, PSF professionals and pregnant women assisted by PSF were interviewed. Regarding social representations on SUS, it was observed an inadequate level of apprehension and knowledge of their principles and guidelines. As for PSF, several positive connotations were expressed and the set of perceptions of the protagonists identified it as a restructuring strategy of PHC in the municipality. In spite of this, strong influences of the biomedical model and the challenge of the integration with the other levels of attention were noticed, indicating the need of investments in the professional's training and in the organization of the other levels of attention to health.

  18. Development of a two-parameter slit-scan flow cytometer for screening of normal and aberrant chromosomes: application to a karyotype of Sus scrofa domestica (pig)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, Michael; Doelle, Juergen; Arnold, Armin; Stepanow, Boris; Wickert, Burkhard; Boscher, Jeannine; Popescu, Paul C.; Cremer, Christoph

    1992-07-01

    Laser fluorescence activated slit-scan flow cytometry offers an approach to a fast, quantitative characterization of chromosomes due to morphological features. It can be applied for screening of chromosomal abnormalities. We give a preliminary report on the development of the Heidelberg slit-scan flow cytometer. Time-resolved measurement of the fluorescence intensity along the chromosome axis can be registered simultaneously for two parameters when the chromosome axis can be registered simultaneously for two parameters when the chromosome passes perpendicularly through a narrowly focused laser beam combined by a detection slit in the image plane. So far automated data analysis has been performed off-line on a PC. In its final performance, the Heidelberg slit-scan flow cytometer will achieve on-line data analysis that allows an electro-acoustical sorting of chromosomes of interest. Interest is high in the agriculture field to study chromosome aberrations that influence the size of litters in pig (Sus scrofa domestica) breeding. Slit-scan measurements have been performed to characterize chromosomes of pigs; we present results for chromosome 1 and a translocation chromosome 6/15.

  19. Comparison of post-thaw DNA integrity of boar spermatozoa assessed with the neutral comet assay and Sperm-Sus Halomax test kit.

    PubMed

    Fraser, L; Parda, A; Filipowicz, K; Strzeżek, J

    2010-10-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis whether the neutral Comet assay (NCA) and the Sperm-Sus-Halomax (SSH) test kit could provide similar measurements of post-thaw DNA fragmentation of boar spermatozoa. Whole ejaculates or sperm-rich fractions of boar semen were frozen in an extender containing lactose, lipoprotein fractions isolated from ostrich egg yolk (LPFo), glycerol (lactose-LPFo-G) or in a standard boar semen extender (K3), without the addition of cryoprotective substances. In all boars, both the NCA and SSH test showed similar levels of post-thaw sperm DNA fragmentation in samples of the same ejaculates, regardless of the ejaculate collection procedure and extender. Yet, the levels of post-thaw sperm DNA damage, detected by the NCA and SSH test, were more accentuated in spermatozoa frozen in the absence of cryoprotective substances. Both the NCA and SSH detected variations among individual boars in terms of post-thaw sperm DNA fragmentation. Agreement between the measurements of the NCA and SSH was confirmed by scatter plots of differences, suggesting that the DNA integrity tests could detect the same sperm populations, which were susceptible to cryo-induced DNA damage. The findings of this study indicate that the NCA and the SSH test are effective in detecting similar levels of sperm DNA fragmentation and reinforce their importance in the assessment of frozen-thawed boar semen quality.

  20. First detection of Sarcoptes scabiei from domesticated pig (Sus scrofa) and genetic characterization of S. scabiei from pet, farm and wild hosts in Israel.

    PubMed

    Erster, Oran; Roth, Asael; Pozzi, Paolo S; Bouznach, Arieli; Shkap, Varda

    2015-08-01

    In this report we describe for the first time the detection of Sarcoptes scabiei type suis mites on domestic pigs in Israel and examine its genetic variation compared with S. sabiei from other hosts. Microscopic examination of skin samples from S. scabiei-infested pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) revealed all developmental stages of S. scabiei. To detect genetic differences between S. scabiei from different hosts, samples obtained from pig, rabbits (Orictolagus cuniculus), fox (Vulpes vulpes), jackal (Canis aureus) and hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor) were compared with GenBank-annotated sequences of three genetic markers. Segments from the following genes were examined: cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (COX1), glutathione-S-transferase 1 (GST1), and voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC). COX1 analysis did not show correlation between host preference and genetic identity. However, GST1 and VSSC had a higher percentage of identical sites within S. scabiei type suis sequences, compared with samples from other hosts. Taking into account the limited numbers of GST1 and VSSC sequences available for comparison, this high similarity between sequences of geographically-distant, but host-related populations, may suggest that different host preference is at least partially correlated with genetic differences. This finding may help in future studies of the factors that drive host preferences in this parasite. PMID:26002310

  1. The bioaccumulation of lead in the organs of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.), red deer (Cervus elaphus L.), and wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) from Poland.

    PubMed

    Bąkowska, Małgorzata; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Udała, Jan; Pilarczyk, Renata

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of lead (Pb) in the livers and kidneys of free-living animals from Poland, with regard to the differences in tissue Pb content between the species. The research material consisted of liver and kidney samples collected from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) that had been hunted in 16 voivodeships of Poland. The concentration of lead had been measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) method. The results show that differences in lead concentration in the organs depended on the geographic location. In roe deer and red deer, the highest mean lead concentrations in the livers and kidneys, observed in the central region of Poland, were twice as high as the lowest concentration of Pb in these animals from the northeastern region of the country. In wild boar, the highest mean concentration of Pb was noted in the livers of animals from the central region of Poland and in the kidneys of animals from the northwestern region, while the lowest lead concentrations in both organs were typical for wild boar from the southeast part of the country. Our results show that areas located in the center and in the north of Poland carry most of the burden of lead bioaccumulation. PMID:27068893

  2. Towards harmonised procedures in wildlife epidemiological investigations: a serosurvey of infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related agents in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Beerli, Olivia; Blatter, Sohvi; Boadella, Mariana; Schöning, Janne; Schmitt, Sarah; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a (re-)emerging disease in European countries, including Switzerland. This study assesses the seroprevalence of infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related agents in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland, because wild boar are potential maintenance hosts of these pathogens. The study employs harmonised laboratory methods to facilitate comparison with the situation in other countries. Eighteen out of 743 blood samples tested seropositive (2.4%, CI: 1.5-3.9%) by ELISA, and the results for 61 animals previously assessed using culture and PCR indicated that this serological test was not 100% specific for M. bovis, cross-reacting with M. microti. Nevertheless, serology appears to be an appropriate test methodology in the harmonisation of wild boar testing throughout Europe. In accordance with previous findings, the low seroprevalence found in wild boar suggests wildlife is an unlikely source of the M. bovis infections recently detected in cattle in Switzerland. This finding contrasts with the epidemiological situation pertaining in southern Spain.

  3. Determination of quarantine period in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed with pig (Sus sp.) offal to assure compliance with halal standards.

    PubMed

    Wan Norhana, M N; Dykes, G A; Padilah, B; Ahmad Hazizi, A A; Masazurah, A R

    2012-12-01

    Pig (Sus sp.) and pig by-products are considered as najasa (impurities) in Islam and forbidden in Muslim consumer products. Animals fed on najasa are categorised as al-jallālah (contaminated animals) which are allowed to be consumed as long as they have been quarantined for a certain period of time. During this quarantine period the animals will have undergone a natural purification process or istihālah. African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) are commonly consumed in Malaysia and may be fed on najasa. This study was carried out to estimate the istihālah period for catfish after feeding with pig offal, based on the absence of pig DNA in catfish gut and to suggest the quarantine period in catfish fed with pig offal. The results indicated that the maximum istihālah period could reach 36h in the stomach, 6h in the midgut and less than 2h in the hindgut although in many cases shorter periods were observed. Based on these results it is estimated that the minimum quarantine period for catfish fed with pig offal is 1.5days.

  4. Determining the persistence of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Danish in select tissues of orally vaccinated feral swine (Sus scrofa ssp.).

    PubMed

    Nol, Pauline; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Rhyan, Jack C; McCollum, Matt P; Triantis, Joni M; Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Salman, Mo D

    2016-02-01

    Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is being considered for vaccination of feral swine (Sus scrofa ssp.). Since BCG is a live bacterium, evaluation of its safety and persistence in tissues is important. Fifteen feral swine received approximately 4.5 × 10(6) colony forming units of BCG Danish via oral bait. Four animals received bait without BCG. At 1, 3, 6, and 9 months post-vaccination, four vaccinates were euthanized. Non-vaccinates were euthanized at 9 months. Clinical signs were not noted in vaccinated pigs at any time. Tissues from all 20 pigs were culture-negative for mycobacteria. Based on our data, BCG is safe and appears not to persist in feral swine tissues after one month post-oral vaccination. However, further work must be performed at higher doses, and on a larger number of animals representing the target population, and further evaluation of persistence in tissues within the first month post-vaccination is needed. PMID:26850536

  5. Exposures of Sus scrofa to a TASER(®) conducted electrical weapon: no effects on 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis patterns of plasma proteins.

    PubMed

    Jauchem, James R; Cerna, Cesario Z; Lim, Tiffany Y; Seaman, Ronald L

    2014-12-01

    In an earlier study, we found significant changes in red-blood-cell, leukocyte, and platelet counts, and in red-blood-cell membrane proteins, following exposures of anesthetized pigs to a conducted electrical weapon. In the current study, we examined potential changes in plasma proteins [analyzed via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE)] following two 30 s exposures of anesthetized pigs (Sus scrofa) to a TASER (®) C2 conducted electrical weapon. Patterns of proteins, separated by 2-DGE, were consistent and reproducible between animals and between times of sampling. We determined that the blood plasma collection, handling, storage, and processing techniques we used are suitable for swine blood. There were no statistically significant changes in plasma proteins following the conducted-electrical-weapon exposures. Overall gel patterns of fibrinogen were similar to results of other studies of both pigs and humans (in control settings, not exposed to conducted electrical weapons). The lack of significant changes in plasma proteins may be added to the body of evidence regarding relative safety of TASER C2 device exposures.

  6. Development of a rapid high-efficiency scalable process for acetylated Sus scrofa cationic trypsin production from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingzhi; Wu, Feilin; Xu, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Trypsin is one of the most important enzymatic tools in proteomics and biopharmaceutical studies. Here, we describe the complete recombinant expression and purification from a trypsinogen expression vector construct. The Sus scrofa cationic trypsin gene with a propeptide sequence was optimized according to Escherichia coli codon-usage bias and chemically synthesized. The gene was inserted into pET-11c plasmid to yield an expression vector. Using high-density E. coli fed-batch fermentation, trypsinogen was expressed in inclusion bodies at 1.47 g/L. The inclusion body was refolded with a high yield of 36%. The purified trypsinogen was then activated to produce trypsin. To address stability problems, the trypsin thus produced was acetylated. The final product was generated upon gel filtration. The final yield of acetylated trypsin was 182 mg/L from a 5-L fermenter. Our acetylated trypsin product demonstrated higher BAEE activity (30,100 BAEE unit/mg) than a commercial product (9500 BAEE unit/mg, Promega). It also demonstrated resistance to autolysis. This is the first report of production of acetylated recombinant trypsin that is stable and suitable for scale-up.

  7. La Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios: El caso de Chile y sus perspectivas para Trabajo Social

    PubMed Central

    Sanhueza, Guillermo E.; Delva, Jorge; Andrade, Fernando H.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    El estudio acerca de las características de los vecindarios y sus efectos sobre las personas ha llegado a ser un área de creciente atención por parte de investigadores de diversas disciplinas en países desarrollados. Aunque actualmente existen diversas metodologías para estudiar efectos del vecindario, una de las más utilizadas es la Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios –Systematic Social Observation SSO, en inglés—porque permite recolectar información acerca de diversas características del entorno físico, social, ambiental y económico de los vecindarios donde se aplica. El objetivo de este artículo es (i) dar a conocer sumariamente algunas investigaciones influyentes sobre efectos del vecindario en Estados Unidos, ii) describir cómo se diseñó e implementó la Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios en la ciudad de Santiago de Chile, iii) señalar algunos facilitadores y obstaculizadores de la implementación del proyecto y, finalmente iv) enunciar posibles contribuciones y limitaciones que esta metodología ofrecería al trabajo social en Chile. PMID:24791060

  8. Attitudes, awareness and barriers regarding evidence-based orthopedic surgery between health professionals from a Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) hospital: Study of 400 patients

    PubMed Central

    Imbelloni, Luiz Eduardo; de Morais Filho, Geraldo Borges

    2016-01-01

    Background: The fast-track concept refers to all phases of perioperative care: Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative strategies. Although most research has focused on adherence to medication, adherence also encompasses numerous health-related behaviors. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the attitudes and awareness among health professionals involved in the treatment of elderly patients with fractures of the femur and the results of 400 patients. Methods: The postoperative protocol acceleration was presented to various hospital departments through four seminars. Questionnaire with four ex-residents in the Department of Anesthesiology was conducted. Every 6 months, the results of project implementation to all departments were presented. It was considered adherence to the project when the professionals agreed with all the steps and routines of the project. Patients underwent spinal anesthesia with postoperative analgesia by lumbar plexus block. Results: All departments involved in the treatment of elderly patients’ adhered completely to the project and reported the importance of preanesthetic visit, the explanations of design, and reduction of fasting period. Just one anesthetist completely adhered to the project. No former resident of anesthesia joined the program. All parameters studied in 400 patients compared with the data before the project showed a reduction from 21.38% to 100%. Conclusion: Improving adherence requires a continuous and dynamic process. We can be inferred that the implementation of fast-track project Brazilian Public Health System (Sistema Único Saúde, SUS) costs decreased with elderly patients with hip fractures. The anesthesiologist was the major obstacle to deployment to all patients. PMID:27746549

  9. Utilization of sugarcane habitat by feral pig (Sus scrofa) in northern tropical Queensland: evidence from the stable isotope composition of hair.

    PubMed

    Wurster, Christopher M; Robertson, Jack; Westcott, David A; Dryden, Bart; Zazzo, Antoine; Bird, Michael I

    2012-01-01

    Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species that disrupt ecosystem functioning throughout their introduced range. In tropical environments, feral pigs are associated with predation and displacement of endangered species, modification of habitat, and act as a vector for the spread of exotic vegetation and disease. Across many parts of their introduced range, the diet of feral pigs is poorly known. Although the remote location and difficult terrain of far north Queensland makes observing feral pig behavior difficult, feral pigs are perceived to seek refuge in World Heritage tropical rainforests and seasonally 'crop raid' into lowland sugarcane crops. Thus, identifying how feral pigs are using different components of the landscape is important to the design of management strategies. We used the stable isotope composition of captured feral pigs to determine the extent of rainforest and sugarcane habitat usage. Recently grown hair (basal hair) from feral pigs captured in remote rainforest indicated pigs met their dietary needs solely within this habitat. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of basal hair from feral pigs captured near sugarcane plantations were more variable, with some individuals estimated to consume over 85% of their diet within a sugarcane habitat, while a few consumed as much as 90% of their diet from adjacent forested environments. We estimated whether feral pigs switch habitats by sequentially sampling δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of long tail hair from a subset of seven captured animals, and demonstrate that four of these individuals moved between habitats. Our results indicate that feral pigs utilize both sugarcane and forest habitats, and can switch between these resources. PMID:22957029

  10. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (Mirounga angustirostris), semi-aquatic (Lontra longicaudis annectens) and terrestrial (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Barjau Pérez-Milicua, Myrna; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Crocker, Daniel E; Gallo-Reynoso, Juan P

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have the capacity of breath hold (apnea) diving. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) have the ability to perform deep and long duration dives; during a routine dive, adults can hold their breath for 25 min. Neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis annectens) can hold their breath for about 30 s. Such periods of apnea may result in reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxia) and reduced blood supply (ischemia) to tissues. Production of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) requires oxygen, and most mammalian species, like the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), are not adapted to tolerate hypoxia and ischemia, conditions that result in ATP degradation. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in purine synthesis and recycling in erythrocytes and plasma of three mammalian species adapted to different environments: aquatic (northern elephant seal) (n = 11), semiaquatic (neotropical river otter) (n = 4), and terrestrial (domestic pig) (n = 11). Enzymatic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) was determined by spectrophotometry, and activity of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and the concentration of hypoxanthine (HX), inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), ATP, guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP), guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP), and xanthosine 5'-monophosphate (XMP) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activities of HGPRT and IMPDH and the concentration of HX, IMP, AMP, ADP, ATP, GTP, and XMP in erythrocytes of domestic pigs were higher than in erythrocytes of northern elephant seals and river otters. These results suggest that under basal conditions (no diving, sleep apnea or exercise), aquatic, and semiaquatic mammals have less purine mobilization than their terrestrial counterparts.

  11. Linkage disequilibria and the site frequency spectra in the su(s) and su(w(a)) regions of the Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Langley, C H; Lazzaro, B P; Phillips, W; Heikkinen, E; Braverman, J M

    2000-01-01

    Over the last decade, surveys of DNA sequence variation in natural populations of several Drosophila species and other taxa have established that polymorphism is reduced in genomic regions characterized by low rates of crossing over per physical length. Parallel studies have also established that divergence between species is not reduced in these same genomic regions, thus eliminating explanations that rely on a correlation between the rates of mutation and crossing over. Several theoretical models (directional hitchhiking, background selection, and random environment) have been proposed as population genetic explanations. In this study samples from an African population (n = 50) and a European population (n = 51) were surveyed at the su(s) (1955 bp) and su(w(a)) (3213 bp) loci for DNA sequence polymorphism, utilizing a stratified SSCP/DNA sequencing protocol. These loci are located near the telomere of the X chromosome, in a region of reduced crossing over per physical length, and exhibit a significant reduction in DNA sequence polymorphism. Unlike most previously surveyed, these loci reveal substantial skews toward rare site frequencies, consistent with the predictions of directional hitchhiking and random environment models and inconsistent with the general predictions of the background selection model (or neutral theory). No evidence for excess geographic differentiation at these loci is observed. Although linkage disequilibrium is observed between closely linked sites within these loci, many recombination events in the genealogy of the sampled alleles can be inferred and the genomic scale of linkage disequilibrium, measured in base pairs between sites, is the same as that observed for loci in regions of normal crossing over. We conclude that gene conversion must be high in these regions of low crossing over. PMID:11102378

  12. Utilization of sugarcane habitat by feral pig (Sus scrofa) in northern tropical Queensland: evidence from the stable isotope composition of hair.

    PubMed

    Wurster, Christopher M; Robertson, Jack; Westcott, David A; Dryden, Bart; Zazzo, Antoine; Bird, Michael I

    2012-01-01

    Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species that disrupt ecosystem functioning throughout their introduced range. In tropical environments, feral pigs are associated with predation and displacement of endangered species, modification of habitat, and act as a vector for the spread of exotic vegetation and disease. Across many parts of their introduced range, the diet of feral pigs is poorly known. Although the remote location and difficult terrain of far north Queensland makes observing feral pig behavior difficult, feral pigs are perceived to seek refuge in World Heritage tropical rainforests and seasonally 'crop raid' into lowland sugarcane crops. Thus, identifying how feral pigs are using different components of the landscape is important to the design of management strategies. We used the stable isotope composition of captured feral pigs to determine the extent of rainforest and sugarcane habitat usage. Recently grown hair (basal hair) from feral pigs captured in remote rainforest indicated pigs met their dietary needs solely within this habitat. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of basal hair from feral pigs captured near sugarcane plantations were more variable, with some individuals estimated to consume over 85% of their diet within a sugarcane habitat, while a few consumed as much as 90% of their diet from adjacent forested environments. We estimated whether feral pigs switch habitats by sequentially sampling δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of long tail hair from a subset of seven captured animals, and demonstrate that four of these individuals moved between habitats. Our results indicate that feral pigs utilize both sugarcane and forest habitats, and can switch between these resources.

  13. Utilization of Sugarcane Habitat by Feral Pig (Sus scrofa) in Northern Tropical Queensland: Evidence from the Stable Isotope Composition of Hair

    PubMed Central

    Wurster, Christopher M.; Robertson, Jack; Westcott, David A.; Dryden, Bart; Zazzo, Antoine; Bird, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species that disrupt ecosystem functioning throughout their introduced range. In tropical environments, feral pigs are associated with predation and displacement of endangered species, modification of habitat, and act as a vector for the spread of exotic vegetation and disease. Across many parts of their introduced range, the diet of feral pigs is poorly known. Although the remote location and difficult terrain of far north Queensland makes observing feral pig behavior difficult, feral pigs are perceived to seek refuge in World Heritage tropical rainforests and seasonally ‘crop raid’ into lowland sugarcane crops. Thus, identifying how feral pigs are using different components of the landscape is important to the design of management strategies. We used the stable isotope composition of captured feral pigs to determine the extent of rainforest and sugarcane habitat usage. Recently grown hair (basal hair) from feral pigs captured in remote rainforest indicated pigs met their dietary needs solely within this habitat. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of basal hair from feral pigs captured near sugarcane plantations were more variable, with some individuals estimated to consume over 85% of their diet within a sugarcane habitat, while a few consumed as much as 90% of their diet from adjacent forested environments. We estimated whether feral pigs switch habitats by sequentially sampling δ13C and δ15N values of long tail hair from a subset of seven captured animals, and demonstrate that four of these individuals moved between habitats. Our results indicate that feral pigs utilize both sugarcane and forest habitats, and can switch between these resources. PMID:22957029

  14. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (Mirounga angustirostris), semi-aquatic (Lontra longicaudis annectens) and terrestrial (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Barjau Pérez-Milicua, Myrna; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Crocker, Daniel E; Gallo-Reynoso, Juan P

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have the capacity of breath hold (apnea) diving. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) have the ability to perform deep and long duration dives; during a routine dive, adults can hold their breath for 25 min. Neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis annectens) can hold their breath for about 30 s. Such periods of apnea may result in reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxia) and reduced blood supply (ischemia) to tissues. Production of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) requires oxygen, and most mammalian species, like the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), are not adapted to tolerate hypoxia and ischemia, conditions that result in ATP degradation. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in purine synthesis and recycling in erythrocytes and plasma of three mammalian species adapted to different environments: aquatic (northern elephant seal) (n = 11), semiaquatic (neotropical river otter) (n = 4), and terrestrial (domestic pig) (n = 11). Enzymatic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) was determined by spectrophotometry, and activity of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and the concentration of hypoxanthine (HX), inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), ATP, guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP), guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP), and xanthosine 5'-monophosphate (XMP) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activities of HGPRT and IMPDH and the concentration of HX, IMP, AMP, ADP, ATP, GTP, and XMP in erythrocytes of domestic pigs were higher than in erythrocytes of northern elephant seals and river otters. These results suggest that under basal conditions (no diving, sleep apnea or exercise), aquatic, and semiaquatic mammals have less purine mobilization than their terrestrial counterparts. PMID:26283971

  15. Effects of a TASER® conducted energy weapon on the circulating red-blood-cell population and other factors in Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Jauchem, James R; Bernhard, Joshua A; Cerna, Cesario Z; Lim, Tiffany Y; Seaman, Ronald L; Tarango, Melissa

    2013-09-01

    In previous studies hematocrit has been consistently increased in an anesthetized animal model after exposures to TASER(®) conducted energy weapons (CEWs). In the present study we analyzed changes in blood cell counts and red blood cell membrane proteins following two 30-s applications of a TASER C2 device (which is designed for civilian use). Hematocrit increased significantly from 33.2 ± 2.4 (mean ± SD) to 42.8 ± 4.6 % immediately after CEW exposure of eleven pigs (Sus scrofa). Red blood cell count increased significantly from 6.10 ± 0.55 × 10(12)/L to 7.45 ± 0.94 × 10(12)/L, and mean corpuscular volume increased significantly from 54.5 ± 2.4 fl to 57.8 ± 2.6 fl. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration decreased significantly from 20.5 ± 0.7 to 18.5 ± 0.6 mM. Thirty protein spots (from two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, selected for detailed comparison) exhibited greater densities 30-min post-exposure compared with pre-exposure values. A greater number of echinocytes were observed following CEW exposure. On the basis of these results it appears that, during the strong muscle contractions produced by TASER CEWs, a specific population of red blood cells (RBCs) may be released from the spleen or other reservoirs within the body. The total time of CEW exposure in the present study was relatively long compared with exposures in common law-enforcement scenarios. Despite statistically significant changes in red blood cell counts (and other measures directly related to RBCs), the alterations were short-lived. The transient nature of the changes would be likely to counteract any potentially detrimental effects.

  16. Comparative mapping of Homo sapiens chromosome 4 (HSA4) and Sus scrofa chromosome 8 (SSC8) using orthologous genes representing different cytogenetic bands as landmarks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhihua; He, Hong; Hamasima, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Hideaki; Verrinder, GibbinsAnnM

    2002-02-01

    The recently published draft sequence of the human genome will provide a basic reference for the comparative mapping of genomes among mammals. In this study, we selected 214 genes with complete coding sequences on Homo sapiens chromosome 4 (HSA4) to search for orthologs and expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences in eight other mammalian species (cattle, pig, sheep, goat, horse, dog, cat, and rabbit). In particular, 46 of these genes were used as landmarks for comparative mapping of HSA4 and Sus scrofa chromosome 8 (SSC8); most of HSA4 is homologous to SSC8, which is of particular interest because of its association with genes affecting the reproductive performance of pigs. As a reference framework, the 46 genes were selected to represent different cytogenetic bands on HSA4. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products amplified from pig DNA were directly sequenced and their orthologous status was confirmed by a BLAST search. These 46 genes, plus 11 microsatellite markers for SSC8, were typed against DNA from a pig-mouse radiation hybrid (RH) panel with 110 lines. RHMAP analysis assigned these 57 markers to 3 linkage groups in the porcine genome, 52 to SSC8, 4 to SSC15, and 1 to SSC17. By comparing the order and orientation of orthologous landmark genes on the porcine RH maps with those on the human sequence map, HSA4 was recognized as being split into nine conserved segments with respect to the porcine genome, seven with SSC8, one with SSC15, and one with SSC17. With 41 orthologous gene loci mapped, this report provides the largest functional gene map of SSC8, with 30 of these loci representing new single-gene assignments to SSC8. PMID:11908657

  17. Identification of 5alpha-androst-1-ene-3beta,17beta-diol in the fat of Sus scrofa L.: a "nutritional supplement" not found previously in the food supply.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Stephen J; Erickson, Andrew J

    2003-09-01

    5alpha-Androst-1-ene-3beta,17beta-diol (1) was detected in extracts from fat of Sus scrofa L. (pig) by comparison with the commercially available synthetic compound, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This observation is unprecedented because 1 is currently sold as a nutritional supplement, yet has not been previously reported as naturally occurring in the food supply. PMID:14510586

  18. [Reliability of the diagnoses of hospital admissions for external causes financed by the Brazilian Unified Health System-SUS in two cities in the State of Paraná, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Tomimatsu, Maria de Fátima Akemi Iwakura; Soares, Dorotéia Fátima Pelissari de Paula; Sapata, Maria da Penha Marques; Frascarelli, Andressa Suellen; de Souza, Regina Kazue Tanno

    2014-10-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze the reliability of the diagnoses of hospital admissions for external causes financed by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). The diagnoses for hospital admissions from the Hospital Information System (SIH-SUS) data were compared with those from the research panel created from information culled from authorizations for hospital admission (AIH) complemented with information from other sources. The reliability was analyzed in groups using crude agreement and Kappa statistics. The crude agreement was 41.1% in Londrina and 15.8% in Maringá and the highest reliability was found for groupings for self-inflicted lesions and traffic accidents in Londrina (Kappa 0.57 and 0.56) while in Maringá reliability was acceptable for self-inflicted lesions (Kappa 0.28). The low agreement with differentiated standards according to groupings of causes and according to the municipalities highlight the fact that efforts must be made to improve the quality and use of the SIH-SUS in order to understand and intervene in accidents and violence in Brazil.

  19. The pathogenic role of torque teno sus virus 1 and 2 and their correlations with various viral pathogens and host immunocytes in wasting pigs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yao; Lin, Chun-Ming; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Chang, Hui-Wen; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Pang, Victor Fei

    2015-11-18

    The pathogenic role of torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) in swine is controversial among different studies. The present study intended to evaluate the potential pathogenicity of TTSuV based on its correlations with the histopathological changes, various common concurrently infected viral pathogens including porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and porcine parvovirus (PPV), as well as changes in the distribution and population of host immunocytes such as B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, and macrophages by using the superficial inguinal lymph nodes (siLNs) of wasting pigs. A tissue microarray consisting of 270 available siLNs collected from 262 clinically wasting and 8 healthy pigs, respectively, were used for the detection of TTSuV1, TTSuV2, PCV2, PRRSV, and PPV by either in situ hybridization (ISH) or immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, and for the detection of various subsets of immunocytes by IHC staining with monoclonal antibodies to CD3, CD79a, and lysozyme. The slides were then subject to digital scanning followed by a semi-quantitative positive pixel evaluation for further statistical analysis. Although a high prevalence of TTSuV1 and/or TTSuV2 infection was noted in both wasting and healthy pigs, the wasting pigs had a significantly higher intensity in both TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 ISH-positive signals than healthy ones did. In the wasting pigs, a significant positive correlation in the tissue viral load was noted between TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 and between TTSuV2 and PCV2, but not between TTSuV1 and PCV2. Conversely, a significant negative correlation in the tissue viral load was revealed between TTSuV2, but not TTSuV1, and PRRSV. The tissue viral load of TTSuV1 was significantly correlated with B cell hyperplasia, while the tissue viral load of TTSuV2 was significantly correlated with increased macrophage population. The ISH positivity of TTSuV2 was significantly correlated with lymphoid depletion and granulomatous

  20. Simulating the Distribution of Individual Livestock Farms and Their Populations in the United States: An Example Using Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) Farms

    PubMed Central

    Garza, Sarah J.; Miller, Ryan S.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock distribution in the United States (U.S.) can only be mapped at a county-level or worse resolution. We developed a spatial microsimulation model called the Farm Location and Agricultural Production Simulator (FLAPS) that simulated the distribution and populations of individual livestock farms throughout the conterminous U.S. Using domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) as an example species, we customized iterative proportional-fitting algorithms for the hierarchical structure of the U.S. Census of Agriculture and imputed unpublished state- or county-level livestock population totals that were redacted to ensure confidentiality. We used a weighted sampling design to collect data on the presence and absence of farms and used them to develop a national-scale distribution model that predicted the distribution of individual farms at a 100 m resolution. We implemented microsimulation algorithms that simulated the populations and locations of individual farms using output from our imputed Census of Agriculture dataset and distribution model. Approximately 19% of county-level pig population totals were unpublished in the 2012 Census of Agriculture and needed to be imputed. Using aerial photography, we confirmed the presence or absence of livestock farms at 10,238 locations and found livestock farms were correlated with open areas, cropland, and roads, and also areas with cooler temperatures and gentler topography. The distribution of swine farms was highly variable, but cross-validation of our distribution model produced an area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve value of 0.78, which indicated good predictive performance. Verification analyses showed FLAPS accurately imputed and simulated Census of Agriculture data based on absolute percent difference values of < 0.01% at the state-to-national scale, 3.26% for the county-to-state scale, and 0.03% for the individual farm-to-county scale. Our output data have many applications for risk management of

  1. Simulating the Distribution of Individual Livestock Farms and Their Populations in the United States: An Example Using Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) Farms.

    PubMed

    Burdett, Christopher L; Kraus, Brian R; Garza, Sarah J; Miller, Ryan S; Bjork, Kathe E

    2015-01-01

    Livestock distribution in the United States (U.S.) can only be mapped at a county-level or worse resolution. We developed a spatial microsimulation model called the Farm Location and Agricultural Production Simulator (FLAPS) that simulated the distribution and populations of individual livestock farms throughout the conterminous U.S. Using domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) as an example species, we customized iterative proportional-fitting algorithms for the hierarchical structure of the U.S. Census of Agriculture and imputed unpublished state- or county-level livestock population totals that were redacted to ensure confidentiality. We used a weighted sampling design to collect data on the presence and absence of farms and used them to develop a national-scale distribution model that predicted the distribution of individual farms at a 100 m resolution. We implemented microsimulation algorithms that simulated the populations and locations of individual farms using output from our imputed Census of Agriculture dataset and distribution model. Approximately 19% of county-level pig population totals were unpublished in the 2012 Census of Agriculture and needed to be imputed. Using aerial photography, we confirmed the presence or absence of livestock farms at 10,238 locations and found livestock farms were correlated with open areas, cropland, and roads, and also areas with cooler temperatures and gentler topography. The distribution of swine farms was highly variable, but cross-validation of our distribution model produced an area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve value of 0.78, which indicated good predictive performance. Verification analyses showed FLAPS accurately imputed and simulated Census of Agriculture data based on absolute percent difference values of < 0.01% at the state-to-national scale, 3.26% for the county-to-state scale, and 0.03% for the individual farm-to-county scale. Our output data have many applications for risk management of

  2. Estudio comparativo de las moléculas isovalentes de interés atmosférico CF3Cl y CF3Br y sus correspondientes halógenos aislados Cl y Br.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, E.; Velasco, A. M.; Martín, I.; Lavín, C.

    Los estados Rydberg moleculares han suscitado en los últimos años un creciente interés entre los espectroscopistas experimentales, motivado en parte por el desarrollo de nuevas técnicas espectroscópicas capaces de investigar estos estados altamente excitados electrónicamente. Los procesos de fotoabsorción que implican estados Rydberg en los derivados halogenados del metano son de gran importancia, debido a su abundancia en la atmósfera y a sus implicaciones medioambientales. Por ello, la obtención de datos relativos a sus fuerzas de oscilador es de gran interés. En este trabajo se aborda el estudio de dichas propiedades para las moléculas isovalentes CF3Cl y CF3Br. Ambas moléculas presentan idéntica estructura electrónica para el estado fundamental por lo que se espera que sus espectros Rydberg presenten grandes similitudes, en ausencia de perturbaciones. Por ello y dada la escasez de datos relativos a fuerzas de oscilador, hemos establecido la corrección de nuestros resultados en base a las analogías esperadas en las intensidades espectrales correspondientes a transiciones análogas. Por otro lado, Novak y col. [1] han encontrado experimentalmente un marcado carácter atómico en el espectro correspondiente a estas moléculas, siendo muy similar a los de los átomos de Cl y Br. Por ello en el presente trabajo, además de establecer la comparación entre ambas moléculas hemos buscado las similitudes con sus respectivos halógenos. Los cálculos relativos a las especies moleculares se han realizado utilizando la Metodología Molécular de Orbítales de Defecto Cuántico (MQDO) [2], mientras que para el estudio de los átomos de Cl y Br se empleó la versión relativista del método (RQDO) [3].

  3. Muscle fibre characteristics, enzyme activity and meat colour of wild boar (Sus scrofa s. L.) muscle with 2n=36 compared to those of phenotypically similar crossbreeds (2n=37 and 2n=38).

    PubMed

    Skewes, Oscar; Cádiz, Patricia; Merino, Victoria; Islas, Armando; Morales, Rodrigo

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate European wild boar (Sus scrofa s. L.) of chromosomal number 2n=36 in comparison with phenotypically similar crossbreeds (2n=37 and 2n=38) with respect to the muscle fibre characteristics and enzyme activity as well as meat colour in the longissimus dorsi (LD) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles. Differences in the proportion of IIA fibre in the LD muscle between karyotypes 2n=37 and 2n=38 were found. The 2n=36 group showed a lower muscle fibre cross-section area than the 2n=38 karyotype. The meat colour of the 2n=36 karyotype group was redder than 2n=37 and 2n=38. The muscle fibre cross-section area might explain the differences in colour of the meat of wild boar.

  4. The role played by sympatric collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), and feral pig (Sus scrofa) as maintenance hosts for Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma cruzi in a sylvatic area of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Herrera, H M; Abreu, U G P; Keuroghlian, A; Freitas, T P; Jansen, A M

    2008-08-01

    The Brazilian Pantanal has been considered one of the richest and most diverse wetland ecosystems in the world. It is occupied by cattle ranching, and a variety of wildlife species share the same habitats with domestic livestock. We investigated infections of Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma cruzi in the sympatric suiformes-collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), and feral pig (Sus scrofa) by parasitological, serological, and molecular tests. Additionally, we evaluated the health status of both positive and negative suiformes by hematological and biochemical parameters. The results show that peccaries and feral pigs play an important role on the maintenance of both T. evansi and T. cruzi in the Brazilian Pantanal. Health impairment was observed only in the white-lipped peccary infected with T. evansi. Despite presenting low T. evansi parasitemia, all infected white-lipped peccaries displayed low hematocrit values and marked leucopenia. The hematological values showed that the T. evansi infection is more severe in young white-lipped peccaries. The presented data show that feral pigs and peccaries are immersed in the transmission net of both trypanosome species, T. cruzi and T. evansi, in the Pantanal region.

  5. Comparative chromosome painting between the domestic pig (Sus scrofa) and two species of peccary, the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) and the white-lipped peccary (T. pecari): a phylogenetic perspective.

    PubMed

    Bosma, A A; de Haan, N A; Arkesteijn, G J A; Yang, F; Yerle, M; Zijlstra, C

    2004-01-01

    The Suidae and the Dicotylidae (or Tayassuidae) are related mammalian families, both belonging to the artiodactyl suborder Suiformes, which diverged more than 37 million years ago. Cross-species chromosome painting was performed between the domestic pig (Sus scrofa; 2n = 38), a representative of the Suidae, and two species of the Dicotylidae: the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu; 2n = 30) and the white-lipped peccary (T. pecari; 2n = 26). G-banded metaphase chromosomes of the two peccaries were hybridized with whole chromosome painting probes derived from domestic pig chromosomes 1-18 and X. For both peccary species, a total of 31 autosomal segments that are conserved between pig and peccary could be identified. The painting results confirm conclusions inferred from G-band analyses that the karyotypes of the collared peccary and the white-lipped peccary are largely different. The karyotypic heterogeneity of the Dicotylidae contrasts with the relative homogeneity among the karyotypes of the Suidae. For this difference between the Dicotylidae and the Suidae, a number of explanations are being postulated: 1) the extant peccaries are phylogenetically less closely related than is usually assumed; 2) the peccary genome is less stable than the genome of the pigs; and 3) special (e.g. biogeographical or biosocial) circumstances have facilitated the fixation of chromosome rearrangements in ancestral dicotylid populations.

  6. Reducing Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) population density as a measure for bovine tuberculosis control: effects in wild boar and a sympatric fallow deer (Dama dama) population in Central Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Jiménez, W L; Fernández-Llario, P; Benítez-Medina, J M; Cerrato, R; Cuesta, J; García-Sánchez, A; Gonçalves, P; Martínez, R; Risco, D; Salguero, F J; Serrano, E; Gómez, L; Hermoso-de-Mendoza, J

    2013-07-01

    Research on management of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in wildlife reservoir hosts is crucial for the implementation of effective disease control measures and the generation of practical bTB management recommendations. Among the management methods carried out on wild species to reduce bTB prevalence, the control of population density has been frequently used, with hunting pressure a practical strategy to reduce bTB prevalence. However, despite the number of articles about population density control in different bTB wildlife reservoirs, there is little information regarding the application of such measures on the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), which is considered the main bTB wildlife reservoir within Mediterranean ecosystems. This study shows the effects of a management measure leading to a radical decrease in wild boar population density at a large hunting estate in Central Spain, in order to assess the evolution of bTB prevalence in both the wild boar population and the sympatric fallow deer population. The evolution of bTB prevalence was monitored in populations of the two wild ungulate species over a 5-year study period (2007-2012). The results showed that bTB prevalence decreased in fallow deer, corresponding to an important reduction in the wild boar population. However, this decrease was not homogeneous: in the last season of study there was an increase in bTB-infected male animals. Moreover, bTB prevalence remained high in the remnant wild boar population.

  7. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (Mirounga angustirostris), semi-aquatic (Lontra longicaudis annectens) and terrestrial (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Barjau Pérez-Milicua, Myrna; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Crocker, Daniel E.; Gallo-Reynoso, Juan P.

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have the capacity of breath hold (apnea) diving. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) have the ability to perform deep and long duration dives; during a routine dive, adults can hold their breath for 25 min. Neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis annectens) can hold their breath for about 30 s. Such periods of apnea may result in reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxia) and reduced blood supply (ischemia) to tissues. Production of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) requires oxygen, and most mammalian species, like the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), are not adapted to tolerate hypoxia and ischemia, conditions that result in ATP degradation. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in purine synthesis and recycling in erythrocytes and plasma of three mammalian species adapted to different environments: aquatic (northern elephant seal) (n = 11), semiaquatic (neotropical river otter) (n = 4), and terrestrial (domestic pig) (n = 11). Enzymatic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) was determined by spectrophotometry, and activity of inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and the concentration of hypoxanthine (HX), inosine 5′-monophosphate (IMP), adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP), adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP), ATP, guanosine 5′-diphosphate (GDP), guanosine 5′-triphosphate (GTP), and xanthosine 5′-monophosphate (XMP) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activities of HGPRT and IMPDH and the concentration of HX, IMP, AMP, ADP, ATP, GTP, and XMP in erythrocytes of domestic pigs were higher than in erythrocytes of northern elephant seals and river otters. These results suggest that under basal conditions (no diving, sleep apnea or exercise), aquatic, and semiaquatic mammals have less purine mobilization than their terrestrial counterparts. PMID:26283971

  8. Investigating the Role of Free-Ranging Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in the Re-Emergence of Enzootic Pneumonia in Domestic Pig Herds: A Pathological, Prevalence and Risk-Factor Study

    PubMed Central

    Batista Linhares, Mainity; Belloy, Luc; Origgi, Francesco C.; Lechner, Isabel; Segner, Helmut; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Enzootic pneumonia (EP) caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has a significant economic impact on domestic pig production. A control program carried out from 1999 to 2003 successfully reduced disease occurrence in domestic pigs in Switzerland, but recurrent outbreaks suggested a potential role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a source of re-infection. Since little is known on the epidemiology of EP in wild boar populations, our aims were: (1) to estimate the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in wild boar in Switzerland; (2) to identify risk factors for infection in wild boar; and (3) to assess whether infection in wild boar is associated with the same gross and microscopic lesions typical of EP in domestic pigs. Nasal swabs, bronchial swabs and lung samples were collected from 978 wild boar from five study areas in Switzerland between October 2011 and May 2013. Swabs were analyzed by qualitative real time PCR and a histopathological study was conducted on lung tissues. Risk factor analysis was performed using multivariable logistic regression modeling. Overall prevalence in nasal swabs was 26.2% (95% CI 23.3–29.3%) but significant geographical differences were observed. Wild boar density, occurrence of EP outbreaks in domestic pigs and young age were identified as risk factors for infection. There was a significant association between infection and lesions consistent with EP in domestic pigs. We have concluded that M. hyopneumoniae is widespread in the Swiss wild boar population, that the same risk factors for infection of domestic pigs also act as risk factors for infection of wild boar, and that infected wild boar develop lesions similar to those found in domestic pigs. However, based on our data and the outbreak pattern in domestic pigs, we propose that spillover from domestic pigs to wild boar is more likely than transmission from wild boar to pigs. PMID:25747151

  9. Overview of VOC emissions and chemistry from PTR-TOF-MS measurements during the SusKat-ABC campaign: high acetaldehyde, ketene, isoprene and isocyanic acid in wintertime air of the Kathmandu Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, C.; Sinha, V.; Kumar, V.; Rupakheti, M.; Panday, A. K.; Mahata, K.; Rupakheti, D.; Kathayat, B.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    During SusKat-ABC (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley-Atmospheric Brown Clouds) field campaign conducted in the winter of 2012-2013, a comprehensive study was carried out to characterize the chemical composition of ambient Kathmandu air for speciated VOCs by deploying a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS), the first time to be deployed in South Asia. Due to its high mass resolution (m/Δm > 4200) and temporal resolution (1 minute), 71 ion peaks were detected in the PTR-TOF-MS mass scan data, highlighting the chemical complexity of ambient air in the Valley. Of the 71, 38 species were found to have campaign average concentrations > 200 ppt and were identified based on their spectral characteristics, ambient diel profiles and correlation with specific emission tracers. Distinct diel profiles were observed for the nominal isobaric compounds isoprene (m/z=69.070) and furan (m/z=69.033). Comparison with several sites elsewhere in the world showed mixing ratios of acetaldehyde (~ 9 ppb), acetonitrile (~1 ppb) and isoprene (~ 1 ppb) to be among the highest measured anywhere in the world. Two "new" ambient compounds namely, methanamide (m/z = 46.029) and acetamide (m/z=60.051) which can photochemically produce isocyanic acid in the atmosphere, are reported in this study alongwith nitromethane (a tracer for diesel exhaust) and ketene (a very reactive compound). Two distinct periods were identified during the campaign based on high daytime biogenic emissions of isoprene even in winter and biomass fired brick kiln emissions of acetonitrile, benzene and isocyanic acid. Biomass burning and biomass fired brick kiln emissions were found to be the dominant source for compounds such as propyne, propene, benzene and propanenitrile which correlated strongly with biomass burning tracer acetonitrile (r2 > 0.7). The calculated total VOC OH reactivity was dominated by acetaldehyde (20.1%), ketene (ethenone) (17.1%), isoprene (16.8 %) and

  10. Detection of Torque teno sus virus types 1 and 2 by nested polymerase chain reaction in sera of sows at parturition and of their newborn piglets immediately after birth without suckling colostrum and at 24 hr after suckling colostrum.

    PubMed

    Tshering, Chenga; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Deguchi, Eisaburo

    2012-03-01

    This study was performed to clarify the sow-to-fetus transmission pathway of Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) types 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2). For this purpose, detection of TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 (TTSuVs) in sera of 6 sows (Sows 1-6) at parturition and in sera of their newborn piglets immediately after birth without suckling colostrum was performed by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). These sows were bred using semen that had tested negative for TTSuVs. In a TTSuV1- and TTSuV2-positive sow (Sow 1), TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 were detected in 4 and 5 of 12 newborn littermates, respectively. In a TTSuV1-positive sow (Sow 2), TTSuV1 was detected in 1 of 8 newborn littermates. In 4 TTSuV1- and TTSuV2-negative sows (Sows 3-6), TTSuV1 was detected in 6 out of the 25 newborn piglets of 3 sows (Sows 3-5), while TTSuVs were not detected in all 13 piglets of 1 sow (Sow 6). In addition, to investigate the possibility of a sow-to-piglet transmission pathway of TTSuV via colostrum, TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 in sera of 12 newborn piglets from Sows 1-3 were examined by nPCR. Immediately after birth without suckling colostrum, TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 were not detected in 10 and 8 of 12 newborn piglets, respectively; however, at 24 hr after suckling colostrum, TTSuV1 was detected in 6 piglets, while TTSuV2 was not detected in any piglets. These results confirmed the existence of a sow-to-fetus transmission pathway of TTSuV during normal pregnancy and suggested a possibility of sow-to-piglet transmission of TTSuV via colostrum.

  11. Overview of VOC emissions and chemistry from PTR-TOF-MS measurements during the SusKat-ABC campaign: high acetaldehyde, isoprene and isocyanic acid in wintertime air of the Kathmandu Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, C.; Sinha, V.; Kumar, V.; Rupakheti, M.; Panday, A.; Mahata, K. S.; Rupakheti, D.; Kathayat, B.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2015-09-01

    The Kathmandu Valley in Nepal suffers from severe wintertime air pollution. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are key constituents of air pollution, though their specific role in the Valley is poorly understood due to insufficient data. During the SusKat-ABC (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley-Atmospheric Brown Clouds) field campaign conducted in Nepal in the winter of 2012-2013, a comprehensive study was carried out to characterize the chemical composition of ambient Kathmandu air, including the determination of speciated VOCs by deploying a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS)-the first such deployment in South Asia. 71 ion peaks (for which measured ambient concentrations exceeded the 2 σ detection limit) were detected in the PTR-TOF-MS mass scan data, highlighting the chemical complexity of ambient air in the Valley. Of the 71 species, 37 were found to have campaign average concentrations greater than 200 ppt and were identified based on their spectral characteristics, ambient diel profiles and correlation with specific emission tracers as a result of the high mass resolution (m/Δm > 4200) and temporal resolution (1 min) of the PTR-TOF-MS. The highest average VOC mixing ratios during the measurement period were (in rank order): acetaldehyde (8.8 ppb), methanol (7.4 ppb), acetone (4.2 ppb), benzene (2.7 ppb), toluene (1.5 ppb), isoprene (1.1 ppb), acetonitrile (1.1 ppb), C8-aromatics (~ 1 ppb), furan (~ 0.5 ppb), and C9-aromatics (0.4 ppb). Distinct diel profiles were observed for the nominal isobaric compounds isoprene (m/z = 69.070) and furan (m/z = 69.033). Comparison with wintertime measurements from several locations elsewhere in the world showed mixing ratios of acetaldehyde (~ 9 ppb), acetonitrile (~ 1 ppb) and isoprene (~ 1 ppb) to be among the highest reported till date. Two "new" ambient compounds namely, formamide (m/z = 46.029) and acetamide (m/z = 60.051), which can photochemically produce isocyanic

  12. Overview of VOC emissions and chemistry from PTR-TOF-MS measurements during the SusKat-ABC campaign: high acetaldehyde, isoprene and isocyanic acid in wintertime air of the Kathmandu Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Chinmoy; Sinha, Vinayak; Kumar, Vinod; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Panday, Arnico; Mahata, Khadak S.; Rupakheti, Dipesh; Kathayat, Bhogendra; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2016-03-01

    The Kathmandu Valley in Nepal suffers from severe wintertime air pollution. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are key constituents of air pollution, though their specific role in the valley is poorly understood due to insufficient data. During the SusKat-ABC (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley-Atmospheric Brown Clouds) field campaign conducted in Nepal in the winter of 2012-2013, a comprehensive study was carried out to characterise the chemical composition of ambient Kathmandu air, including the determination of speciated VOCs, by deploying a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) - the first such deployment in South Asia. In the study, 71 ion peaks (for which measured ambient concentrations exceeded the 2σ detection limit) were detected in the PTR-TOF-MS mass scan data, highlighting the chemical complexity of ambient air in the valley. Of the 71 species, 37 were found to have campaign average concentrations greater than 200 ppt and were identified based on their spectral characteristics, ambient diel profiles and correlation with specific emission tracers as a result of the high mass resolution (m / Δm > 4200) and temporal resolution (1 min) of the PTR-TOF-MS. The concentration ranking in the average VOC mixing ratios during our wintertime deployment was acetaldehyde (8.8 ppb) > methanol (7.4 ppb) > acetone + propanal (4.2 ppb) > benzene (2.7 ppb) > toluene (1.5 ppb) > isoprene (1.1 ppb) > acetonitrile (1.1 ppb) > C8-aromatics ( ˜ 1 ppb) > furan ( ˜ 0.5 ppb) > C9-aromatics (0.4 ppb). Distinct diel profiles were observed for the nominal isobaric compounds isoprene (m / z = 69.070) and furan (m / z = 69.033). Comparison with wintertime measurements from several locations elsewhere in the world showed mixing ratios of acetaldehyde ( ˜ 9 ppb), acetonitrile ( ˜ 1 ppb) and isoprene ( ˜ 1 ppb) to be among the highest reported to date. Two "new" ambient compounds, namely formamide (m / z = 46.029) and acetamide (m / z

  13. Informe del NCI y los CDC sobre el tabaco sin humo

    Cancer.gov

    El primer informe sobre el consumo mundial del tabaco sin humo y sus consecuencias en la salud pública reveló que más de 300 millones de personas en al menos 70 países usan estos productos dañinos.

  14. Prevalencia y Consecuencias del Abuso Sexual al Menor en Espana (Prevalence and Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse in Spain).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Felix; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The prevalence and effects of child sexual abuse in Spain were studied, using interview and survey responses from 1,821 individuals. Results indicated a high prevalence of sexual abuse prior to age 17 (15 percent of males and 22 percent of females) and a number of short-term and long-term effects, including a tendency toward mental health…

  15. 78 FR 62643 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Disaster...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ...), Solicitud en Papel/Registro Para Asistencia De Desastre; FEMA Form 009-0-1S (English) Smartphone, Disaster Assistance Registration; FEMA Form 009-0-2S (Spanish) Smartphone, Registro Para Asistencia De Desastre;...

  16. Shedding patterns of endemic Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) pathogens.

    PubMed

    González-Barrio, David; Martín-Hernando, María Paz; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco

    2015-10-01

    The Eurasianwild boar has experienced aworldwide demographic explosion that increases awareness on shared pathogens. However, shedding routes of relevant wild boar pathogens are unknown. Previous observations on sex- and age-related differences in Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) exposure led us to hypothesize that shedding patterns of endemicwild boar pathogens may be influenced by individual traits.We investigated shedding routes of ADV, porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Coxiella burnetii and analysed the effect of host sex and age on pathogen shedding patterns. The presence of pathogen antibodies in serumand of pathogen DNA in oral, nasal, genital and rectal swabswas analysed by ELISA and PCR, respectively. The influence of sex and age in pathogen shedding prevalencewas tested statistically.Main routes of ADV, PPV, PCV2 and C. burnetii shedding were identified but the hypothesis of sex- and/or age-related shedding patterns couldn't be confirmed. PMID:26412545

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of Java warty pig (Sus verrucosus).

    PubMed

    Fan, Jie; Li, Chun-Hong; Shi, Wei

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Java warty pig was reported for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,479 bp. It contained the typical structure, including 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region (D-loop region) as that of most other pigs. The overall composition of the mitogenome was estimated to be 34.9% for A, 26.1% for T, 26.0% for C and 13.0% for G showing an A-T (61.0%)-rich feature. The mitochondrial genome analyzed here will provide new genetic resource to uncover pigs' evolution.

  18. Biological Characteristics of Captive Chinese Wuzhishan Minipigs (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jinchun; Wang, Xilong; Chen, Rui'ai; Wang, Fengguo; Luo, Shuming; Ye, Jiancong

    2014-01-01

    In order to meet the demands of experimental minipigs for biomedical researches, we have aimed at cultivating grazing Chinese Wuzhishan (WZS) minipigs and trying to make them useful and affordable since the 1990s. After more than ten years of captive cultivation following sound management practices and a rigorous selection program for fertility and litter size, we established an outbred WZS minipigs colony with a core group (14 males and 30 females) and an expanding group (20 males and 40 females). In 2010–2013 periods, extensive background data of this colony were recorded and analyzed. This paper was written to provide pertinent information about outbred WZS minipigs for producers, users, and others concerned with WZS minipigs. It contains physical characteristics, growth performance, productive performance, hematology and blood biochemistry, microsatellite analysis, organ coefficients, and carcass properties. Results show that WZS minipigs have characteristics of small body size, slow growth rate, long life cycle, high reproductive rate, and maintaining original genetic diversity. All data present that outbred WZS minipigs are suitable laboratory animal and model animal. PMID:27433533

  19. Serological Profile of Torque Teno Sus Virus Species 1 (TTSuV1) in Pigs and Antigenic Relationships between Two TTSuV1 Genotypes (1a and 1b), between Two Species (TTSuV1 and -2), and between Porcine and Human Anelloviruses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yao-Wei; Harrall, Kylie K.; Dryman, Barbara A.; Opriessnig, Tanja; Vaughn, Eric M.; Roof, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    The family Anelloviridae includes human and animal torque teno viruses (TTVs) with extensive genetic diversity. The antigenic diversity among anelloviruses has never been assessed. Using torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) as a model, we describe here the first investigation of the antigenic relationships among different anelloviruses. Using a TTSuV genotype 1a (TTSuV1a) or TTSuV1b enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the respective putative ORF1 capsid antigen and TTSuV1-specific real-time PCR, the combined serological and virological profile of TTSuV1 infection in pigs was determined and compared with that of TTSuV2. TTSuV1 is likely not associated with porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD), because both the viral loads and antibody levels were not different between affected and unaffected pigs and because there was no synergistic effect of concurrent PCV2/TTSuV1 infections. We did observe a higher correlation of IgG antibody levels between anti-TTSuV1a and -TTSuV1b than between anti-TTSuV1a or -1b and anti-TTSuV2 antibodies in these sera, implying potential antigenic cross-reactivity. To confirm this, rabbit antisera against the putative capsid proteins of TTSuV1a, TTSuV1b, or TTSuV2 were generated, and the antigenic relationships among these TTSuVs were analyzed by an ELISA and by an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using PK-15 cells transfected with one of the three TTSuV ORF1 constructs. The results demonstrate antigenic cross-reactivity between the two genotypes TTSuV1a and TTSuV1b but not between the two species TTSuV1a or -1b and TTSuV2. Furthermore, an anti-genogroup 1 human TTV antiserum did not react with any of the three TTSuV antigens. These results have important implications for an understanding of the diversity of anelloviruses as well as for the classification and vaccine development of TTSuVs. PMID:22811540

  20. Different Cultures in Astronomy Education and Their Meanings in the Classroom. (Spanish Title: Las Diferentes Culturas en la Educación en Astronomía y Sus Significados EN EL Aula. ) As Diferentes Culturas na Educação em Astronomia E Seus Significados em Sala de Aula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira de Barros, Vicente; Bovolenta Ovigli, Daniel Fernando

    2014-12-01

    el trabajo con Astronomía(s) en la clase. Se observó que los participantes todavía no habían presentado estos temas en sus clases y tampoco habían participado en cursos de formación que abordaran estos temas. O presente trabalho apresenta uma reflexão acerca da utilização da História da Ciência no currículo da educação formal, por meio da discussão relativa ao emprego de elementos culturais de grupos étnicos em ações voltadas à educação em Astronomia. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no âmbito de um curso de extensão e a análise aqui empreendida refere-se a um encontro que abordou sequências didáticas relativas àquele tema, com fundamento na lei 11.645/2008 e a obrigatoriedade de abordagem da temática "História e Cultura Afro-Brasileira e Indígena" no currículo oficial. A ação de extensão ocorreu junto a professores que ensinam Ciências da Natureza, no interior do estado de São Paulo, discutindo-se temas relativos ao uso de História da Ciência e o relacionamento com cosmogonias oriundas dos povos Iorubá e Tupi, evidenciando como podem enriquecer o trabalho com a(s) Astronomia(s) em sala de aula. Observou-se que os participantes ainda não haviam apresentado estes temas em suas aulas e, igualmente, não participaram de cursos de formação que contemplassem a referida temática.

  1. How To Talk to Your Teens and Children about AIDS = Como hablar con sus adolescentes y sus ninos sobre el SIDA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    Two brochures, one in English and one in Spanish, provide parents with basic information that will enable them to educate their children about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Contents address 11 questions: (1) What is AIDS? (2) How do you get AIDS? (3) How is AIDS not spread? (4) Who can get AIDS? (5) How can you tell if someone has…

  2. PREVENCIÓN DEL VIH/SIDA EN LOS CIRCUITOS DE LEVANTE HSH: UNA ASIGNATURA PENDIENTE.

    PubMed

    Barreda, Victoria; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén; Balán, Iván; Pando, María Ángeles; Avila, María Mercedes

    2010-12-01

    A partir de un relevamiento de tipo etnográfico, se describen lugares de encuentro de HSH en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y sus prácticas sexuales. El reconocimiento de tales espacios, así como las características que asumen en ellos los encuentros sexuales entre los HSH, plantean obstáculos específicos en la adopción de comportamientos preventivos y, asimismo, generan nuevos desafíos para las actividades de prevención. Se plantean las dificultades y debates conceptuales que la misma categoría presenta, y sus consecuencias en el abordaje preventivo y teórico-metodológico para las ciencias sociales. Además, se proponen nuevos interrogantes acerca de los alcances y las limitaciones del modelo preventivo del VIH/Sida para HSH.

  3. PREVENCIÓN DEL VIH/SIDA EN LOS CIRCUITOS DE LEVANTE HSH: UNA ASIGNATURA PENDIENTE1

    PubMed Central

    Barreda, Victoria; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén; Balán, Iván; Pando, María Ángeles; Ávila, María Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Resumen A partir de un relevamiento de tipo etnográfico, se describen lugares de encuentro de HSH en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y sus prácticas sexuales. El reconocimiento de tales espacios, así como las características que asumen en ellos los encuentros sexuales entre los HSH, plantean obstáculos específicos en la adopción de comportamientos preventivos y, asimismo, generan nuevos desafíos para las actividades de prevención. Se plantean las dificultades y debates conceptuales que la misma categoría presenta, y sus consecuencias en el abordaje preventivo y teórico-metodológico para las ciencias sociales. Además, se proponen nuevos interrogantes acerca de los alcances y las limitaciones del modelo preventivo del VIH/Sida para HSH. PMID:21874154

  4. PREVENCIÓN DEL VIH/SIDA EN LOS CIRCUITOS DE LEVANTE HSH: UNA ASIGNATURA PENDIENTE.

    PubMed

    Barreda, Victoria; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén; Balán, Iván; Pando, María Ángeles; Avila, María Mercedes

    2010-12-01

    A partir de un relevamiento de tipo etnográfico, se describen lugares de encuentro de HSH en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y sus prácticas sexuales. El reconocimiento de tales espacios, así como las características que asumen en ellos los encuentros sexuales entre los HSH, plantean obstáculos específicos en la adopción de comportamientos preventivos y, asimismo, generan nuevos desafíos para las actividades de prevención. Se plantean las dificultades y debates conceptuales que la misma categoría presenta, y sus consecuencias en el abordaje preventivo y teórico-metodológico para las ciencias sociales. Además, se proponen nuevos interrogantes acerca de los alcances y las limitaciones del modelo preventivo del VIH/Sida para HSH. PMID:21874154

  5. Effects of acute dietary iron overload in pigs (Sus scrofa) with induced type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, A; Morales, S; Arredondo, M

    2014-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported an association between high iron (Fe) levels and elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). It is believed that the formation of Fe-catalyzed hydroxyl radicals may contribute to the development of diabetes. Our goal was to determine the effect of a diet with a high Fe content on type 2 diabetic pigs. Four groups of piglets were studied: (1) control group, basal diet; (2) Fe group, basal diet with 3,000 ppm ferrous sulfate; (3) diabetic group (streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes) with basal diet; (4) diabetic/Fe group, diabetic animals/3,000 ppm ferrous sulfate. For 2 months, biochemical and hematological parameters were evaluated. Tissue samples of liver and duodenum were obtained to determine mRNA relative abundance of DMT1, ferroportin (Fpn), ferritin (Fn), hepcidin (Hpc), and transferrin receptor by qRT-PCR. Fe group presented increased levels of hematological (erythrocytes, hematocrit, and hemoglobin) and iron parameters. Diabetic/Fe group showed similar behavior as Fe group but in lesser extent. The relative abundance of different genes in the four study groups yielded a different expression pattern. DMT1 showed a lower expression in the two iron groups compared with control and diabetic animals, and Hpc showed an increased on its expression in Fe and diabetic/Fe groups. Diabetic/Fe group presents greater expression of Fn and Fpn. These results suggest that there is an interaction between Fe nutrition, inflammation, and oxidative stress in the diabetes development.

  6. Some aspects of the craniofacial indices and macro neurometrics of the Nigerian local pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Olopade, James O; Igado, O O; Nwafor, C I; Alamu, A O; Onwuka, S K

    2011-01-01

    This study is about the craniofacial indices and neuromorphometrics of the Nigerian local pig and has been performed on twelve males and fourteen females of ages one and a half to two years. The average values obtained for the tongue length, tongue weight, rasp length, left pinna length, right pinna length, left pinna width, right pinna width, height of left external nares, height of right external nares and the rima oris length were 17 +/- 1.3 cm, 90 +/- 16 g, 4.6 +/- 0.58 cm, 13 +/- 1.3 cm, 13 +/- 1.3 cm, 8.7 +/- 1.5 cm, 8.7 +/- 1.4 cm, 0.98 +/- 0.12 cm, 0.96 +/- 0.13 cm and 19.51 +/- 2.89 cm respectively, while the mean brain weight, mean brain length, cerebrum and cerebellum lengths, brain and cerebellar heights were 84 +/- 12 g, 6.9 +/- 1.5 cm, 4.9 +/- 1.7 cm, 2.2 +/- 1.0 cm, 5.2 +/- 0.88 cm and 3.0 +/- 1.1 cm respectively. There was a negative correlation between the weight of the animal and the height of the cerebellum, the length of cerebrum and length of the cerebellum and between the weight of the head and height of the cerebellum. A positive correlation was however observed between the length of brain and the weight of brain, and between the length of the cerebrum and weight of brain. The cerebral length was statistically longer (P < 0.01) in the males than the females. The data obtained from this study will provide added information in the field of comparative anatomy and porcine neuroanatomy research. PMID:21898972

  7. Development of a porcine (Sus scofa) embryo-specific microarray: array annotation and validation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The domestic pig is an important livestock species and there is strong interest in the factors that affect the development of viable embryos and offspring in this species. A limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in early embryonic development has inhibited our ability to fully elucidate these factors. Next generation deep sequencing and microarray technologies are powerful tools for delineation of molecular pathways involved in the developing embryo. Results Here we present the development of a porcine-embryo-specific microarray platform created from a large expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis generated by Roche/454 next-generation sequencing of cDNAs constructed from critical stages of in vivo or in vitro porcine preimplantation embryos. Two cDNA libraries constructed from in vitro and in vivo produced preimplantation porcine embryos were normalized and sequenced using 454 Titanium pyrosequencing technology. Over one million high-quality EST sequences were obtained and used to develop the EMbryogene Porcine Version 1 (EMPV1) microarray composed of 43,795 probes. Based on an initial probe sequence annotation, the EMPV1 features 17,409 protein-coding, 473 pseudogenes, 46 retrotransposed, 2,359 non-coding RNA, 4,121 splice variants in 2,862 genes and a total of 12,324 Novel Transcript Regions (NTR). After re-annotation, the total unique genes increased from 11,961 to 16,281 and 1.9% of them belonged to a large olfactory receptor (OR) gene family. Quality control on the EMPV1 was performed and revealed an even distribution of ten clusters of spiked-in control spots and array to array (dye-swap) correlation was 0.97. Conclusions Using next-generation deep sequencing we have produced a large EST dataset to allow for the selection of probe sequences for the development of the EMPV1 microarray platform. The quality of this embryo-specific array was confirmed with a high-level of reproducibility using current Agilent microarray technology. With more than an estimated 20,000 unique genes represented on the EMPV1, this platform will provide the foundation for future research into the in vivo and in vitro factors that affect the viability of porcine embryos, as well as the effects of these factors on the live offspring that result from these embryos. PMID:22863022

  8. [HELMINTH FAUNA OF WILD BOARS (SUS SCROFA L.1758) IN AZERBAIJAN].

    PubMed

    Fataliev, Q H

    2015-01-01

    A total of 41 wild boar specimens, including 19, 10, 10, and 2 specimens from the Lesser-Caucasus, the Greater Caucasus, the Kura-Araks lowland, and Lankaran natural region were studied. On the whole, 16 helminth species were revealed, including 2, 2, 1, and 11 species of trematodes, cestodes, acanthocephalans, and nematodes. The distribution of helminths in landscape-ecological zones of Azerbaijan is analyzed. PMID:27055329

  9. Las ideologias, las ciencias naturales y sus implicaciones en la educacion cientifica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozada Roldan, Sandra

    Este estudio ausculto las concepciones epistemologicas de los docentes de ciencia del nivel secundario con relacion a las ideologias y las ciencias naturales. Tambien examino las posiciones de los docentes ante asuntos publicos relacionados a la ciencia. Para propositos de este estudio se diseno y se valido el cuestionario con el cual se obtuvieron los resultados. La investigacion es de tipo cuantitativa y se utilizo como diseno la encuesta. El cuestionario se administro en varias actividades de desarrollo profesional para maestros de ciencia. Un total de 78 maestros del nivel secundario respondieron el cuestionario. Para analizar los datos obtenidos se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas como la distribucion de frecuencia y el porciento. Ademas se establecieron codigos y categorias para describir las posiciones de los maestros ante asuntos publicos relacionados a la ciencia. Los analisis demostraron que entre los docentes participantes de este estudio prevalecen ciertas concepciones epistemologicas adecuadas acerca de las ciencias naturales, a la luz de la literatura consultada. Entre estas concepciones se destacan las siguientes: a) la filosofia materialista de las ciencias naturales, b) la naturaleza tentativa y constructivista del conocimiento cientifico, c) el uso de una metodologia que garantiza cierto grado de objetividad y con el que se justifican y validan los enunciados cientificos y d) la funcion instrumental del conocimiento cientifico. Sin embargo, entre los docentes participantes de este estudio prevalecen ciertas concepciones epistemologicas erroneas acerca de las ciencias naturales, a la luz de la literatura consultada. Entre estas concepciones se destacan las siguientes: a) tendencia inductivista en el que las teorias cientificas comienzan con observaciones que establecen generalizaciones, b) secuencia jerarquica de la metodologia cientifica. Ademas, entre los docentes participantes de este estudio prevalecen concepciones epistemologicas adecuadas acerca de las ideologias, a la luz de la literatura consultada. Entre estas concepciones se destacan las siguientes: a) la funcion de las ideologias y b) la ausencia de validez ante el conocimiento cientifico. Sin embargo, en cuanto a considerar las ciencias naturales como una ideologia mas conocida como cientificismo, no hubo consistencia en las respuestas de los participantes por lo que no es posible afirmarlo o negarlo. Los hallazgos tambien revelaron que entre los docentes participantes hubo posiciones a favor y en contra para las dos situaciones sobre asuntos publicos relacionados a la ciencia que se presentaron. Estas posiciones fueron justificadas con argumentos cientificos y argumentos ideologicos, entre estos, los morales y los economicos. Con este dato se puede afirmar el uso de las ideologias en asuntos publicos relacionados a la ciencia.

  10. Como Ayudar a sus Hijos a Aprender Ciencia (Helping Your Child Learn Science).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulu, Nancy; Martin, Margery

    Because most parents say they do not or cannot help their children with science, this booklet was designed to help them do so, easily and with pleasure for both parent and child. The introduction presents information on why and how parents should help their children and provides a general orientation to the ideas and activities offered in the…

  11. La problematica de la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia y sus implicaciones en la educacion cientifica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez Tolentino, Dinorah

    2011-12-01

    En la sociedad prevalece una tendencia generalizada hacia la inclusion de creencias y practicas pseudocientificas. Esta investigacion responde a la necesidad de analizar como la proliferacion de las pseudociencias afecta la vision que tienen los estudiantes universitarios sobre las ciencias naturales. A tales efectos, la investigadora describe las concepciones epistemologicas que tienen los estudiantes sobre las ciencias y las pseudociencias e identifica los criterios de demarcacion, entre un area y otra, que se derivan de estas concepciones. De igual modo, esta identifica las creencias y practicas pseudocientificas de mayor arraigo entre los estudiantes, destacando, a su vez, la razon de ser de las mismas. Por ultimo, la investigadora analiza las implicaciones educativas de la problematica de la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia. La investigacion es de naturaleza mixta, enmarcada en los paradigmas empirico- analitico y cualitativo. El proceso investigativo se llevo a cabo mediante la administracion del cuestionario Criterios para la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia. La parte cualitativa estuvo enmarcada en el diseno de estudio de caso, recopilando informacion mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas en dos grupos focales. La poblacion de estudio estuvo constituida por estudiantes universitarios del nivel subgraduado de la Universidad Central de Bayamon. Los resultados del estudio reflejaron las concepciones erroneas de los estudiantes sobre la naturaleza de las ciencias y las pseudociencias. Con respecto a la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia, el criterio imperante entre los universitarios es el de la verificabilidad, considerando la aplicacion del metodo cientifico como el metodo para demostrar la veracidad de las teorias cientificas. Las creencias y practicas pseudocientificas no son muy frecuentes entre los universitarios. Estos atribuyen las mismas a la prevalencia de elementos supersticiosos y al engano a que es sometida la poblacion por quienes promueven estas practicas. A partir de los resultados, la investigadora concluye que la problematica sobre la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia esta influenciada por unos procesos de ensenanza enfocados en una vision distorsionada de la ciencia, producto de la no integracion de los aspectos filosoficos, historicos y sociales de la misma.

  12. Microstructure analysis for chemical interaction between cesium and SUS 316 steel in fast breeder reactor application

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, K.; Fukumoto, K. I.; Oshima, T.; Tanigaki, T.; Masayoshi, U.

    2012-07-01

    In this study the corrosion products on a surface after cesium corrosion examination at 650 deg. C for 100 hrs were characterized by TEM observation around the corroded area on the surface in order to understand the corrosion mechanism of cesium fission product for cladding materials in fast reactor. The experimental results suggest the main corrosion mechanism occurred in the process of the separation of cesium chromate and metal (Fe, Ni). The main reaction of corrosion process was considered to be equation, 2Cs + 7/2 O{sub 2} + 2Cr {yields} Cs{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}(L). (authors)

  13. Occurrence of Ochratoxin A in the Wild Boar (Sus scrofa): Chemical and Histological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bozzo, Giancarlo; Ceci, Edmondo; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Di Pinto, Angela; Tantillo, Giuseppina; De Giglio, Elvira

    2012-01-01

    Ochratoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that may contaminate a broad variety of foodstuffs, such as grains, vegetables, coffee, dried fruits, beer, wine and meats. Ochratoxins are nephrotoxins, carcinogens, teratogens and immunotoxins in rats and are also likely to be in humans. In 2009/2010, a survey of the presence of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in regularly hunted wild boars in the Calabria region of southern Italy detected OTA in 23 animals in the kidney, urinary bladder, liver and muscles: 1.1 ± 1.15, 0.6 ± 0.58, 0.5 ± 0.54 and 0.3 ± 0.26 μg/kg, respectively. Twelve tissue samples showed levels of OTA higher than the guideline level (1 μg/kg) established by the Italian Ministry of Health. In five wild boars, gross-microscopic lesions were described for the organs displaying the highest concentrations of OTA determined by HPLC-FLD analysis, i.e., the kidney, liver and urinary bladder. PMID:23211797

  14. Liposarcoma in animals: literature review and case report in a domestic pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Doria-Torra, Georgina; Martínez, Jorge; Domingo, Mariano; Vidaña, Beatriz; Isidoro-Ayza, Marcos; Casanova, María Isabel; Vidal, Enric

    2015-03-01

    Liposarcomas are malignant tumors of adipocytes. The current report describes a liposarcoma in a 2.5-year-old, mixed-breed commercial sow that was detected during meat inspection. On gross examination, a firm, whitish, multinodular, 20 cm ×10 cm mass was observed in the perirenal area along with smaller nodules multifocally scattered within the renal parenchyma. Histological examination revealed an anaplastic sarcoma with clear intracytoplasmic lipidic vacuoles that were positive for Sudan black staining. Most of the cells were also positive for S100 and vimentin immunohistochemistry. Based on these results, a diagnosis of a perirenal liposarcoma was established. To the authors' knowledge, no previous reports of liposarcomas in pigs have been published. This report also includes a review of the literature published on animal liposarcomas.

  15. Evidence for a link between tail biting and central monoamine metabolism in pigs (Sus scrofa domestica).

    PubMed

    Valros, Anna; Palander, Pälvi; Heinonen, Mari; Munsterhjelm, Camilla; Brunberg, Emma; Keeling, Linda; Piepponen, Petteri

    2015-05-01

    Tail biting in pigs is a major welfare problem within the swine industry. Even though there is plenty of information on housing and management-related risk factors, the biological bases of this behavioral problem are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible link between tail biting, based on behavioral recordings of pigs during an ongoing outbreak, and certain neurotransmitters in different brain regions of these pigs. We used a total of 33 pigs at a farm with a long-standing problem of tail biting. Three equally big behavioral phenotypic groups, balanced for gender and age were selected, the data thus consisting of 11 trios of pigs. Two of the pigs in each trio originated from the same pen: one tail biter (TB) and one tail biting victim (V). A control (C) pig was selected from a pen without significant tail biting in the same farm room. We found an effect of tail biting behavioral phenotype on the metabolism of serotonin and dopamine, with a tendency for a higher 5-HIAA level in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of TB compared to the other groups, while V pigs showed changes in both serotonin and dopamine metabolism in the striatum (ST) and limbic cortex (LC). Trp:BCAA and Trp:LNAA correlated positively with serotonin and 5-HIAA in the PFC, but only in TB pigs. Furthermore, in both ST and LC, several of the neurotransmitters and their metabolites correlated positively with the frequency of bites received by the pig. This is the first study indicating a link between brain neurotransmission and tail biting behavior in pigs with TB pigs showing a tendency for increased PFC serotonin metabolism and V pigs showing several changes in central dopamine and serotonin metabolism in their ST and LC, possibly due to the acute stress caused by being bitten. PMID:25728243

  16. [Social control in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS): discourse, action and reaction].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana Maria Caldeira; Ianni, Aurea Maria Zöllner; Dallari, Sueli Gandolfi

    2013-08-01

    This article seeks to describe and analyze the dynamics of social participation, from the standpoint of the social representations of the City Health Councillors of Belo Horizonte on the significance of social control. A methodological approach was used, backed by qualitative research techniques: semi-structured interviews and participant observation. Three years after the survey, documentary research was conducted to check for signs of institutional reaction seeking to minimize or even to overcome the difficulties reported. It was ascertained that the City Health Council political institution activated several mechanisms to improve their techniques of action and organization and also the commitment of stakeholders to this forum. PMID:23896915

  17. Eyecciones coronales de masa observadas en cuadratura exhibiendo sus perspectivas axial y lateral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabello, I.; Cremades, H.; Balmaceda, L.; Dohmen, I.

    2016-08-01

    Observations from different viewpoints provided by STEREO and SOHO allow us to simultaneously study the lateral and axial perspectives of a given coronal mass ejection. Following the exhaustive analysis of a case study, this work focuses on the analysis of similar events which exhibit the two perspectives as seen by the different instruments. Angular width estimates for both, the lateral and axial directions obtained in an indirect way, i.e. applying the graduated cylindrical shell model, allowed us to obtain a ratio / in agreement with results previously obtained in a direct way, i.e. when and were measured either separately for different events or when they were estimated for a single event from multi-point observations.

  18. [Intramural chronotopography of depolarization of myocardium of heart ventricles of pig (Sus scrofa domesticus)].

    PubMed

    Gulyaeva, A S; Roshchecskaya, I M; Roshchevsky, M P

    2014-01-01

    Sequence of depolarization of myocardium of pig heart ventricles was studied by the method of multichannel synchronous cardioelectrotopography. There is established formation of areas of early depolarization in subendocardium of interventricular septum and in the base of left ventricle papillary muscles; of multiple foci--in the depth of walls; of areas of late depolarization--in subepicardium of the left ventricle dorsolateral side. As compared with other species of ungulate animals (reindeer and sheep, in pig heart ventricles, differences are revealed in locations of early and late depolarization, a breakdown of the excitation wave into subepicardium.

  19. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Sweden and evaluation of ELISA test performance.

    PubMed

    Wallander, C; Frössling, J; Vågsholm, I; Uggla, A; Lundén, A

    2015-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite, infecting a wide range of warm-blooded animals. The Swedish wild boar population is expanding and increased hunting provides its meat to a growing group of consumers. We performed a spatio-temporal investigation of T. gondii seroprevalence in Swedish wild boars. An ELISA was set up and evaluated against a commercial direct agglutination test, using Bayesian latent class analysis. The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were estimated to 79% and 85%, respectively. Of 1327 serum samples, 50% were positive. Thirty-four per cent of young wild boars and 55% of adults were positive (P < 0.001). The total seroprevalence ranged from 72% in 2005 to 38% in 2011 (P < 0.001), suggesting a declining trend. The highest seroprevalence, 65%, was recorded in South Sweden. In other regions it varied from 29% in Stockholm to 46% in East Middle Sweden.

  20. Laparoscopic-assisted cryptorchidectomy in 2 Vietnamese pot-bellied pigs (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Rosanova, Nadia; Singh, Ameet; Cribb, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    This report describes laparoscopic-assisted cryptorchidectomy in 2 Vietnamese pot-bellied pigs. Abdominal access was obtained by a modified-Hasson technique allowing for placement of a 6 mm laparoscopic trocar-cannula assembly. Following carbon dioxide insufflation, 2 para-preputial 6 mm instrument portals were established. The cryptorchid testicle was extracted from the abdomen following enlargement of the para-preputial instrument portal and cryptorchidectomy was performed extra-corporeally. PMID:25694664

  1. Mycobacterium bovis infection in a wild sow (Sus scrofa): the first case in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Myung; Jang, Young-Boo; Jang, Yunho; Yu, So Yoon; Kim, Jiro; Moon, Oun Kyung; Jung, Suk Chan; Lee, Min Kwon; Jeong, Tae Nam

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium (M.) bovis causes tuberculosis and has a broad host range, including humans, livestock, and wild animals. M. bovis infection of wild boar has been reported in several European countries. We report here the first case of M. bovis infection in a domesticated wild sow in Korea. Granulomatous and necrotizing lesions with small numbers of acid-fast bacilli were observed in nodules of the lung of wild sow. Furthermore, the M. bovis isolate from the wild sow had spoligotype SB0140 and a novel MIRU-VNTR allelic profile, which is not found in cattle and deer in Korea. PMID:26726026

  2. Growth pattern of the maxillary sinus in the miniature pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Koppe, T; Klauke, T; Lee, S H; Schumacher, G

    2000-01-01

    The biological role of the paranasal sinuses is obscure, can be elucidated through a cross-sectional growth study of the maxillary sinus in miniature pigs. The maxillary sinus area was obtained from lateral cephalograms of left skull halves of 103 female miniature pigs of known ages, from newborn to 24 months. Out of several nonlinear models, the growth of the maxillary sinus was best described with the Gompertz model. The first derivative of the Gompertz curve revealed an increase in the growth rates of the maxillary sinus until 4 months, after which sinus growth slowed down. The eruption of the permanent molars did not seem to have a significant influence on this growth pattern. Furthermore, growth in maxillary sinus size in the miniature pig does not follow growth in skull size closely, which showed the highest growth rates in newborn animals. In addition, a correlation analysis revealed that the relationship between maxillary sinus area and different characteristics of the masticatory apparatus (including linear cranial dimensions, and the dry weight of the masseter and zygomatico-mandibularis muscles) were influenced greatly by skull size. These results suggest that the existence of pneumatic cavities within the mammalian skull is not satisfactorily explained solely by an architectural theory. Epigenetic factors are likely to influence the final shape of the maxillary sinus.

  3. Innate Immunity Correlates with Host Fitness in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) Exposed to Classical Swine Fever

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Sophie; Doucelin, Anaïs; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Eraud, Cyril; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    Constitutive humoral immunity (CHI) is thought to be a first-line of protection against pathogens invading vertebrate hosts. However, clear evidence that CHI correlates with host fitness in natural conditions is still lacking. This study explores the relationship between CHI, measured using a haemagglutination-haemolysis assay (HAHL), and resistance to classical swine fever virus (CSFV) among wild boar piglets. The individual dynamics of HAHL during piglet growth was analysed, using 423 serum samples from 92 piglets repeatedly captured in the absence of CSFV (in 2006) within two areas showing contrasting food availability. Natural antibody levels increased with age, but, in the youngest piglets antibody levels were higher in individuals from areas with the highest food availability. Complement activity depended on natural antibody levels and piglets' body condition. In the presence of CSFV (i.e., in 2005 within one area), serum samples from piglets that were repeatedly captured were used to assess whether piglet HAHL levels affected CSFV status at a later capture. The correlation between CHI and resistance to CSFV was tested using 79 HAHL measures from 23 piglets captured during a CSFV outbreak. Both natural antibodies and complement activity levels measured at a given time correlated negatively to the subsequent probability of becoming viremic. Finally, capture-mark-recapture models showed that piglets with medium/high average complement activity, independently of their age, were significantly less at risk of becoming viremic and more likely to develop a specific immune response than piglets with low complement activity. Additionally, piglets with high average complement activity showed the highest survival prospects. This study provides evidence linking CHI to individual fitness within a natural mammal population. The results also highlight the potential of HAHL assays to explore the dynamics and co-evolution between wildlife mammal hosts and blood-borne parasites interacting with the CHI. PMID:24260286

  4. Estimation of Fatigue Damage for an Austenitic Stainless Steel (SUS304) Using Magnetic Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, M.; Yakushiji, T.; Tsuchida, Y.; Enokizono, M.

    2007-03-21

    There are some fatigue damage estimation methods of the austenitic stainless steel that uses the martensitic transformation. For instance, they are the remanent magnetization method, the excitation method, and so on. Those two methods are being researched also in our laboratory now. In the remanent magnetization method, it is well known that the relation between fatigue damage and the remanent magnetization is simple, clear, and reproducible. However, this method has the disadvantage to need a special magnetizer. This method cannot be easily used on the site such as the factory. On the other hand, because the special magnetizer is unnecessary, the excitation method can use easily on the site. The output signal of this method is small. In this paper, two fatigue evaluation methods such as the remanent magnetization method and the excitation method are introduced. In addition, we report on the result of comparing the fatigue evaluation performances of two methods.

  5. Estimation of Fatigue Damage for an Austenitic Stainless Steel (SUS304) Using Magnetic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, M.; Yakushiji, T.; Tsuchida, Y.; Enokizono, M.

    2007-03-01

    There are some fatigue damage estimation methods of the austenitic stainless steel that uses the martensitic transformation. For instance, they are the remanent magnetization method, the excitation method, and so on. Those two methods are being researched also in our laboratory now. In the remanent magnetization method, it is well known that the relation between fatigue damage and the remanent magnetization is simple, clear, and reproducible. However, this method has the disadvantage to need a special magnetizer. This method cannot be easily used on the site such as the factory. On the other hand, because the special magnetizer is unnecessary, the excitation method can use easily on the site. The output signal of this method is small. In this paper, two fatigue evaluation methods such as the remanent magnetization method and the excitation method are introduced. In addition, we report on the result of comparing the fatigue evaluation performances of two methods.

  6. Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of porcine cysticercosis in naturally infected pigs (Sus scrofa) in Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Chawhan, P; Singh, B; Sharma, R; Gill, P S

    2015-12-01

    Porcine cysticercosis is a serious zoonosis in resource-poor countries. Despite the evidence showing that the disease is endemic in the Punjab region of India, molecular characterisation of Taenia solium cysticercosis from naturally infected pigs has not been carried out. The authors examined a total of 519 pigs slaughtered in small slaughter shops (shops that sell meat from animals that are slaughtered on the premises as the customer waits) in the urban slums of Punjab state in northern India. The expected polymerase chain reaction products with molecular sizes of 286 bp, 420 bp, 1150 bp and 333 bp corresponding to the targeted large subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA), cytochrome oxidase 1, internal transcribed spacer 1, and diagnostic antigen Ts14 genes, respectively, were amplified from the cysts collected from all 22 infected carcasses. The detection limits for the respective primers (except those targeting the Ts14 gene) were estimated. The analytical sensitivities of both the TBR and JB primers (targeting the rRNA and cytochrome oxidase genes, respectively) were found to be higher (10 pg) than that of the internal transcribed spacer 1 gene (1 ng) primers. Ten representative samples from cytochrome oxidase 1 gene amplified products were sequenced in both directions for phylogenetic analysis. Sequencing demonstrated that all cysticerci were of the Asian genotype of T. solium and not of the African/Latin American genotype or T. asiatica. The results confirm the presence of T. solium porcine cysticercosis in Punjab state and there is therefore an urgent need for science-based policies for prevention and control of this serious zoonosis. PMID:27044164

  7. Genetic Resources, Genome Mapping and Evolutionary Genomics of the Pig (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kefei; Baxter, Tara; Muir, William M.; Groenen, Martien A.; Schook, Lawrence B.

    2007-01-01

    The pig, a representative of the artiodactyla clade, is one of the first animals domesticated, and has become an important agriculture animal as one of the major human nutritional sources of animal based protein. The pig is also a valuable biomedical model organism for human health. The pig's importance to human health and nutrition is reflected in the decision to sequence its genome (3X). As an animal species with its wild ancestors present in the world, the pig provides a unique opportunity for tracing mammalian evolutionary history and defining signatures of selection resulting from both domestication and natural selection. Completion of the pig genome sequencing project will have significant impacts on both agriculture and human health. Following the pig whole genome sequence drafts, along with large-scale polymorphism data, it will be possible to conduct genome sweeps using association mapping, and identify signatures of selection. Here, we provide a description of the pig genome sequencing project and perspectives on utilizing genomic technologies to exploit pig genome evolution and the molecular basis for phenotypic traits for improving pig production and health. PMID:17384734

  8. Salmonella serotypes in wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Salmonella species (spp.) are zoonotic enteric bacteria able to infect humans, livestock and wildlife. However, little is known about the prevalence and the presence of the different serovars in wildlife. Considering the wide distribution of wild boars and the feeding behaviour (omnivorous scavengers), wild boars may be a good indicator for environmental presence of Salmonella spp. The aims of this study were to determine the presence of Salmonella spp. in hunted wild boars and to determine the serotype the isolated strains. Findings Over three hunting seasons, the intestinal contents of 1,313 boars hunted in northern Italy were sampled and cultured. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 326 boars (24.82%). Thirty different serovars belonging to three different S. enterica spp. were found. Twenty-one serovars of S. enterica subsp. Enterica were found including the human pathogens S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. In addition, nine serovars belonging to S.enterica subsp. diarizonae and S. enterica subsp. houtenae were detected. Conclusions Considering the widespread occurrence of wild boars in Europe, the epidemiological role of this species in relation to salmonellosis might be relevant and should be further investigated. Wild boars may act as healthy carriers of a wide range of Salmonella serotypes. PMID:23692883

  9. Spatiotemporal Effects of Supplementary Feeding of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) on Artificial Ground Nest Depredation

    PubMed Central

    Oja, Ragne; Zilmer, Karoline; Valdmann, Harri

    2015-01-01

    Supplementary feeding of ungulates, being widely used in game management, may have unwanted consequences. Its role in agricultural damage is well-studied, but few studies have considered the potential for the practice to attract ground nest predators. Our goal was to identify the factors influencing ground nest predation in the vicinity of year-round supplementary feeding sites for wild boar and to characterise their spatiotemporal scope. We conducted two separate artificial ground nest experiments in five different hunting districts in south-eastern Estonia. The quantity of food provided and distance of a nest from the feeding site were the most important factors determining predation risk. Larger quantities of food resulted in higher predation risk, while predation risk responded in a non-linear fashion to distance from the feeding site. Although predation risk eventually decreases if supplementary feeding is ceased for at least four years, recently abandoned feeding sites still pose a high predation risk. PMID:26244659

  10. Review of Practices Reported for Preoperative Food and Water Restriction of Laboratory Pigs (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, A Guenevere; Clutton, R Eddie

    2016-01-01

    The traditionally cited recommendations for the preoperative restriction of food (including bedding) and water in pigs do not appear to be evidence-based. As a preliminary step in elucidating a rationale for and standardizing preoperative food and water restriction (PFWR), this structured review recorded recent reported practices in PFWR in laboratory pigs and its consequences. Medline, Google Scholar and Web of Science databases were searched for recently published (2012 – 2014) recovery surgery procedures in pigs. Information pertaining to PFWR practices, as delineated in the ARRIVE guidelines, was extracted from the 233 articles retrieved. Food withdrawal was described in 73 of the 233 (31%) papers evaluated, bedding withdrawal in 5 articles (2%), and water withholding in 13 publications (6%) papers. Food, bedding, and water withdrawal regimens had a median (range) duration of 12 (4 to 48), 48 (48 to 72), and 12 (2 to 12) h, respectively. Compared with other types of procedures, articles describing gastrointestinal or abdominal surgery were more likely to report fasting regimes. Liquid diets were described in 11 of the 233 (5%) publications evaluated. Adverse effects of PFWR effects were not reported. These data reveal considerable variation in PFWR practices. The stress of fasting coupled with the absence of evidence for current recommendations makes the rationale and standards for PFWR in pigs worthy of further study. PMID:26817978

  11. Promoting the Use of Life Cycle Assessment for a Sus-tainable Agri-Food Industry

    EPA Science Inventory

    The number of studies that address the holistic human health and environmental impacts related to food, feed, and bio-based fuel roduction has steadily increased in recent years. Studies on agricultural systems have identified environmental issues ranging from greenhouse gas emis...

  12. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) - reservoir host of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Reiterová, Katarína; Špilovská, Silvia; Blaňarová, Lucia; Derdáková, Markéta; Čobádiová, Andrea; Hisira, Vladimír

    2016-03-01

    In Central Europe the wild boar population is permanently growing and consequently Cf foodborne infections. In this study serological and molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in wild boars was evaluated. Moreover, same samples were screened for the presence and genetic variability of tick-borne bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Blood samples collected from 113 wild boars from Southern Slovakia were examined for antibodies to T. gondii by indirect and to N. caninum by competitive ELISA. The presence of parasitic DNA in blood samples was determined by standard or real time PCR techniques. Antibodies against T. gondii and N. caninum were detected in 45 (39.8%) and 38 (33.6%) animals, respectively. Females were more frequently infected for both pathogens than males. The high seropositivity against both coccidia indicates a permanent occurrence of these pathogens in the studied locality. T. gondii DNA was confirmed in five seropositive boars (4.4%) and N. caninum in 23 blood samples (20.4%). Three out of 23 N. caninum PCR positive animals did not show seropositivity. Three out of 113 blood samples of wild boars were positive for A. phagocytophilum (2.7%). The obtained A. phagocytophilum sequences were 100% identical with GenBankTM isolates from Slovak dog (KC985242); German horse (JF893938) or wild boar (EF143810) and red deer (EF143808) from Poland. Coinfections of T. gondii with N. caninum and N. caninum with A. phagocytophilum were detected in single cases. Results suggest a potential zoonotic risk of toxoplasmosis transmission to humans and the spread of neosporosis to farm animals. PMID:27078648

  13. First detection of Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boars (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) from Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Riehn, K; Lalkovski, N; Hamedy, A; Lücker, Ernst

    2014-06-01

    The trematode Alaria alata, an intestinal parasite of different carnivore species is widely distributed throughout Europe. The mesocercarial stages of Alaria spp. may infect almost all vertebrate species, including humans, and, in particular, omnivorous scavengers such as wild boars serve as paratenic hosts for the parasite. The introduction of the A. alata mesocercariae migration technique (AMT) opened the way to a reliable detection of Alaria spp. mesocercariae in different body tissues of their paratenic hosts. For the first time, it was possible to detect vital A. alata mesocercariae from two Bulgarian wild boars by means of this new method. In addition, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) examination of the respective parasitic DNA allowed the unequivocal species identification of the parasites as A. alata. Isolation and molecular biological identification of the parasite's developmental stages make significant contributions to completion of data on both the distribution of Alaria spp. in stocks of European game and the relationship between different Eurasian Alaria spp. isolates. PMID:23374251

  14. The spatial ecology of free-ranging domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In many parts of the developing world, pigs are kept under low-input systems where they roam freely to scavenge food. These systems allow poor farmers the opportunity to enter into livestock keeping without large capital investments. This, combined with a growing demand for pork, especially in urban areas, has led to an increase in the number of small-holder farmers keeping free range pigs as a commercial enterprise. Despite the benefits which pig production can bring to a household, keeping pigs under a free range system increases the risk of the pig acquiring diseases, either production-limiting or zoonotic in nature. This study used Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to track free range domestic pigs in rural western Kenya, in order to understand their movement patterns and interactions with elements of the peri-domestic environment. Results We found that these pigs travel an average of 4,340 m in a 12 hr period and had a mean home range of 10,343 m2 (range 2,937–32,759 m2) within which the core utilisation distribution was found to be 964 m2 (range 246–3,289 m2) with pigs spending on average 47% of their time outside their homestead of origin. Conclusion These are the first data available on the home range of domestic pigs kept under a free range system: the data show that pigs in these systems spend much of their time scavenging outside their homesteads, suggesting that these pigs may be exposed to infectious agents over a wide area. Control policies for diseases such as Taenia solium, Trypanosomiasis, Trichinellosis, Toxoplasmosis or African Swine Fever therefore require a community-wide focus and pig farmers require education on the inherent risks of keeping pigs under a free range system. The work presented here will enable future research to incorporate movement data into studies of disease transmission, for example for the understanding of transmission of African Swine Fever between individuals, or in relation to the life-cycle of parasites including Taenia solium. PMID:23497587

  15. 1973/74 Interinstitutional Salary of Professional Librarians Employed by the SUS of Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spyers-Duran, Peter

    A survey was conducted of the salaries paid to the professional librarians staffing the various libraries of the Florida State University System. The data collected indicated the following average salaries for the seven major types of positions: 1) directors- $24,500; 2) assistant directors-$16,549; 3) branch heads-$14,432; 4) department…

  16. Sparganosis in wild boar (Sus scrofa) - Implications for veterinarians, hunters, and consumers.

    PubMed

    Kołodziej-Sobocińska, Marta; Miniuk, Mariusz; Ruczyńska, Iwona; Tokarska, Małgorzata

    2016-08-30

    From February to March 2016 we found plerocercoids of Spirometra sp. in four wild boar hunted in Białowieża Primeval Forest, north-eastern Poland. Plerocercoids were located subcutaneously and in muscle tissue. A sequence of a nuclear 18S rRNA gene was used for genetic specification of the samples. The analyzed gene fragment showed 100% identity with the Spirometra erinacei sequence. Thus, the emerge of human sparganosis due to consumption of undercooked or smoked wild boar meat is likely in the areas where wild boar is an approved food source, especially in the absence of routine guidelines for vets. It has become a priority to inform the public about possibilities and consequences of this zoonosis. PMID:27523946

  17. Spatiotemporal Effects of Supplementary Feeding of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) on Artificial Ground Nest Depredation.

    PubMed

    Oja, Ragne; Zilmer, Karoline; Valdmann, Harri

    2015-01-01

    Supplementary feeding of ungulates, being widely used in game management, may have unwanted consequences. Its role in agricultural damage is well-studied, but few studies have considered the potential for the practice to attract ground nest predators. Our goal was to identify the factors influencing ground nest predation in the vicinity of year-round supplementary feeding sites for wild boar and to characterise their spatiotemporal scope. We conducted two separate artificial ground nest experiments in five different hunting districts in south-eastern Estonia. The quantity of food provided and distance of a nest from the feeding site were the most important factors determining predation risk. Larger quantities of food resulted in higher predation risk, while predation risk responded in a non-linear fashion to distance from the feeding site. Although predation risk eventually decreases if supplementary feeding is ceased for at least four years, recently abandoned feeding sites still pose a high predation risk.

  18. [Social control in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS): discourse, action and reaction].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana Maria Caldeira; Ianni, Aurea Maria Zöllner; Dallari, Sueli Gandolfi

    2013-08-01

    This article seeks to describe and analyze the dynamics of social participation, from the standpoint of the social representations of the City Health Councillors of Belo Horizonte on the significance of social control. A methodological approach was used, backed by qualitative research techniques: semi-structured interviews and participant observation. Three years after the survey, documentary research was conducted to check for signs of institutional reaction seeking to minimize or even to overcome the difficulties reported. It was ascertained that the City Health Council political institution activated several mechanisms to improve their techniques of action and organization and also the commitment of stakeholders to this forum.

  19. La historia de la Literatura: sus problemas y methodos (The History of Literature: Problems and Methods)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dopico, Blanca

    1975-01-01

    In order to achieve its goals, the study of literary history should follow a "programmed process." Such a process would help solve problems in the following areas: bibliography, text criticism, interpretation and explanation, dates and chronology, authenticity, source and origin etc. (Text is in Spanish.) (DS)

  20. Trichinella species circulating in wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations in Poland☆

    PubMed Central

    Bilska-Zając, Ewa; Różycki, Mirosław; Chmurzyńska, Ewa; Marucci, Gianluca; Cencek, Tomasz; Karamon, Jacek; Bocian, Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    Hunting in Poland has a long tradition and became more popular after 1990. Each year over 60,000 wild boar are hunted. Some of them may act as Trichinella carriers thus all carcasses of wild boar are systematically sampled in game-handling establishments as part of the post-mortem examination. The aim of the study was to determine the species of Trichinella and to evaluate the year to year differences in the occurrence of those species in the populations of wild boar in Poland. Samples for the study were provided by the Veterinary Inspection Service. Wild boar carcasses were examined using a digestion method. Only samples recognized as positive for Trichinella in these examinations were sent to the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for confirmation of genus identity. Samples from 450 animals were obtained for the study (380 muscle samples and 70 larval isolates preserved in 90% ethyl alcohol). Tissue samples were digested to isolate larvae. Extracted larval DNA was amplified using a modified multiplex PCR protocol to identify the species of Trichinella. Five larvae from each sample were examined by PCR. The study revealed that Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi are present in wild boar in Poland in a ratio of 3:1. Mixed infections with T. spiralis and T. britovi were found in 1% of the animals. PMID:24533337

  1. Promotores Comunitarios: sus aportes y difficultades (Community Facilitators: Their Contributions and Difficulties.) Occasional Paper No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwer, Jani; Martinic, Sergio

    The Bernard van Leer Foundation sponsors nontraditional, nonschool programs designed to improve the chances that preschoolers will enroll in school. In these programs and other informal education efforts, the community facilitator plays an important role. Typically, the facilitator is a member of the community who works without remuneration as a…

  2. Sistemas binarios viuda negra: conectando sus orígenes con su estado final

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; De Vito, M. A.; Horvath, J. E.

    ``Black widow'' systems are located in a well determined region of the plane (where is the mass of the pulsar companion and is the orbital period of the system). An attempt has been made to understand which are the mechanisms that lead to companions of ``black widows'' to be located in this region; since standard binary evolution does not provide a satisfactory response. From our evolutionary calculations; we study the path performed in the plane by a binary system to reach the state of ``black widow''. We also discuss whether there is a connection between ``redbacks'' and ``black widows''. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  3. Mycobacterium bovis infection in a wild sow (Sus scrofa): first case in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ku, Bok Kyung; Jeon, Bo-Young; Kim, Jae Myung; Jang, Young-Boo; Jang, Yunho; Yu, So Yoon; Kim, Jiro; Moon, Oun Kyung; Jung, Suk Chan; Lee, Min Kwon; Jeong, Tae Nam

    2016-09-30

    Mycobacterium (M.) bovis causes tuberculosis and has a broad host range, including humans, livestock, and wild animals. M. bovis infection of wild boar has been reported in several European countries. We report here the first case of M. bovis infection in a domesticated wild sow in Korea. Granulomatous and necrotizing lesions with small numbers of acid-fast bacilli were observed in nodules of the lung of wild sow. Furthermore, the M. bovis isolate from the wild sow had spoligotype SB0140 and a novel MIRU-VNTR allelic profile, which is not found in cattle and deer in Korea.

  4. Single nucleotide markers of D-loop for identification of Indian wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus)

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Gaurav Kumar; Rajput, Nidhi; Jadav, Kajal Kumar; Shrivastav, Avadh Bihari; Joshi, Himanshu R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Partial fragment of D-loop region extending from 35 to 770 were compared with corresponding sequences of 16 wild pigs and 9 domestic pig breeds from different parts of the world for detection of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in the region. The paper also reappraises SNP markers from two fragments of cytochrome b gene and a fragment 12S rRNA gene distinguishing the Indian wild pig from other pig species of the world. Materials and Methods: Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was isolated from 14 and 12 tissue samples of Indian wild and domestic pigs, respectively, collected from Central India for characterization of the D-loop DNA sequences using universal primers. The sequences obtained were aligned along with the retrieved sequences to analyze species-specific SNP marker. Results: A total of 58 mitochondrial D-loop gene sequences of pig races were aligned to identify 1349 polymorphic sites in the fragment from nucleotide positions 35-770 bp and four SNP markers were identified to differentiate Indian wild pig from all the sequences investigated in this study. With the inclusion of cytochrome b gene and 12S rRNA gene fragments, the present study contributes to the total 15 SNP markers, which have been identified in the mitochondrial fragment of 1936 bp for identification of Indian wild pig. Conclusion: SNP markers have advantages over other marker types and do not require subsequent standardization to compare data across studies or laboratories. PMID:27047129

  5. Urano y sus dos satélites irregulares recientemente descubiertos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, M. G.; Brunini, A.

    Hasta hace poco tiempo, Urano era el único de los Planetas Gigantes que no poseía satélites irregulares. Esto lo diferenciaba del resto de los planetas Gigantes, al igual que la peculiar oblicuidad de su eje de spin. La gran inclinación de su eje de rotación se debe probablemente a una colisión que sufrió el planeta con otro embrión planetario al final del proceso de formación. Esta colisión habría desligado satélites exteriores preexistentes del planeta. Recientemente se han descubierto dos satélites irregulares de Urano, lo que introduce algunas nuevas cotas y condiciones en el escenario de la "Hipótesis de la Gran Colisión" . Los satélites irregulares de Urano tuvieron que ser capturados en una etapa posterior a la del escenario de la Gran Colisión, de no ser así, hubieran sido eyectados del sistema por el impulso impartido con ese gran impacto. En este trabajo, se discuten los posibles mecanismos de captura de los satélites irregulares y se presenta un nuevo posible mecanismo para dicha captura.

  6. [Perception of prenatal care among clients of the Brazilian National Health System (SUS): a comparative study].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, José Mendes; Costa, Nílson do Rosário; Pinto, Luiz Felipe da Silva; Silva, Pedro Luiz Barros

    2004-01-01

    This was a comparative cross-sectional study among public prenatal care users in conventional outpatient health services and family health services, aimed at assessing perception and quality differences between the two models of health services organization according to Ministry of Health guidelines. A total of 203 pregnant women from 22 municipalities in five regions of the country were interviewed while waiting for prenatal consultation. Besides soliciting the women's opinions, we checked for possible advantages in innovative family care services in issues like access and commitment. Data revealed approval by users for key aspects related to care and consultation in both types of public facilities and suggest consistent primary care policies. Low coverage in dentistry (18.9%), gynecological preventive tests (39.6%), and HIV tests (52.6%) indicates policy obstacles. Comparatively, family health services received significantly greater approval by women on issues like quality of the last visit (p = 0.0432), maternity hospital access (p = 0.0106), vaccination schedules (p = 0.0023), drug delivery (p = 0.0053), blood glucose tests (p = 0.0309), nursing visit (p = 0.0469), and home visits (p < 0.0001).

  7. [Intramural chronotopography of depolarization of myocardium of heart ventricles of pig (Sus scrofa domesticus)].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Sequence of depolarization of myocardium of pig heart ventricles was studied by the method of multichannel synchronous cardioelectrotopography. There is established formation of areas of early depolarization in subendocardium of interventricular septum and in the base of left ventricle papillary muscles; of multiple foci--in the depth of walls; of areas of late depolarization--in subepicardium of the left ventricle dorsolateral side. As compared with other species of ungulate animals (reindeer and sheep, in pig heart ventricles, differences are revealed in locations of early and late depolarization, a breakdown of the excitation wave into subepicardium. PMID:25508945

  8. [Intramural chronotopography of depolarization of myocardium of heart ventricles of pig (Sus scrofa domesticus)].

    PubMed

    Gulyaeva, A S; Roshchecskaya, I M; Roshchevsky, M P

    2014-01-01

    Sequence of depolarization of myocardium of pig heart ventricles was studied by the method of multichannel synchronous cardioelectrotopography. There is established formation of areas of early depolarization in subendocardium of interventricular septum and in the base of left ventricle papillary muscles; of multiple foci--in the depth of walls; of areas of late depolarization--in subepicardium of the left ventricle dorsolateral side. As compared with other species of ungulate animals (reindeer and sheep, in pig heart ventricles, differences are revealed in locations of early and late depolarization, a breakdown of the excitation wave into subepicardium. PMID:25486814

  9. Occurrence of Ochratoxin A in the wild boar (Sus scrofa): chemical and histological analysis.

    PubMed

    Bozzo, Giancarlo; Ceci, Edmondo; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Di Pinto, Angela; Tantillo, Giuseppina; De Giglio, Elvira

    2012-12-04

    Ochratoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that may contaminate a broad variety of foodstuffs, such as grains, vegetables, coffee, dried fruits, beer, wine and meats. Ochratoxins are nephrotoxins, carcinogens, teratogens and immunotoxins in rats and are also likely to be in humans. In 2009/2010, a survey of the presence of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in regularly hunted wild boars in the Calabria region of southern Italy detected OTA in 23 animals in the kidney, urinary bladder, liver and muscles: 1.1 ± 1.15, 0.6 ± 0.58, 0.5 ± 0.54 and 0.3 ± 0.26 μg/kg, respectively. Twelve tissue samples showed levels of OTA higher than the guideline level (1 μg/kg) established by the Italian Ministry of Health. In five wild boars, gross-microscopic lesions were described for the organs displaying the highest concentrations of OTA determined by HPLC-FLD analysis, i.e., the kidney, liver and urinary bladder.

  10. SUS users’ knowledge of and attitude to HPV virus and vaccines available in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Osis, Maria José Duarte; Duarte, Graciana Alves; de Sousa, Maria Helena

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccines in men and women, users of the Brazilian Unified Health System, and the intention to get themselves and their teenage children vaccinated. METHODS A descriptive, cross-sectional study with 286 women (18-49 years old) and 252 men (18-60 years old), users of five primary health units and two polyclinics in Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil, was carried out. Participants were interviewed in 2011 using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and Poisson regression analysis were performed to identify variables associated with knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccines, and participants vaccination intentions. RESULTS Almost 40.0% of the participants reported having heard of HPV and 28.9% mentioned adequate information. The main information source was the media (41.7%). Only 8.6% of the participants had heard of the HPV vaccines. Once the participants were informed of the existence of HPV vaccines about 94% of them said they would get vaccinated and/or vaccinate their teenage children, if the vaccines were available in the public health system. Schooling of over 8 years and being female were the variables independently associated with having heard of HPV, the vaccines and having adequate knowledge of the virus. Advanced age was associated with having heard of HPV vaccines. There were no variables associated with the vaccination intentions. CONCLUSIONS These results reinforce the need for educational activities that provide the population with adequate information on HPV and preventive measures. PMID:24789645

  11. [Basic values of blood coagulation parameters in pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus)].

    PubMed

    Hahn, N; Popov-Cenic, S; Dorer, A

    1996-01-01

    On 23 clinical healthy pigs (2-4 months of age, body weight 13-42 kg) under ketamin-pentobarbital anaesthesia blood plasma coagulation parameters have been investigated. To obtain basic values 26 parameters were measured: number of thrombocytes, parameters of thrombelastogram and resonance-thrombogram, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, reptilase time, factors I, II, V, VII, VIII, X, antithrombin III, plasminogen, alpha 1-antitrypsin, alpha 2-antiplasmin, alpha 2-macroglobulin, fibrin degradation products D and E and euglobulin lysis-time. Parameters calculated in percent should be measured against a pig plasma pool. Measurement against a human plasma pool are hardly valid in values higher than 100%. In comparison to man the results indicate modifications of fibrinogenesis and fibrinolysis in pigs.

  12. Brain Mass and Encephalization Quotients in the Domestic Industrial Pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Minervini, Serena; Accogli, Gianluca; Pirone, Andrea; Graïc, Jean-Marie; Cozzi, Bruno; Desantis, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we examined the brain of fetal, newborn, and adult pigs raised for meat production. The fresh and formalin-fixed weights of the brain have been recorded and used, together with body weight, to calculate the Encephalization Quotient (EQ). The weight of the cerebellum has been used to calculate the Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). The results have been discussed together with analogue data obtained in other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla (including the domestic bovine, sheep, goat, and camel), domesticated Carnivora, Proboscidata, and Primates. Our study, based on a relatively large experimental series, corrects former observations present in the literature based on smaller samples, and emphasizes that the domestic pig has a small brain relative to its body size (EQ = 0.38 for adults), possibly due to factors linked to the necessity of meat production and improved body weight. Comparison with other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla indicates a similar trend for all domesticated species. PMID:27351807

  13. Crystal Structure of Sus scrofa Quinolinate Phosphoribosyltransferase in Complex with Nicotinate Mononucleotide

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Hyung-Seop; Kim, Mun-Kyoung; Kang, Gil Bu; Kim, Tae Gyun; Lee, Jung-Gyu; An, Jun Yop; Park, Kyoung Ryoung; Lee, Youngjin; Kang, Jung Youn; Song, Hye-Eun; Park, Inju; Cho, Chunghee; Fukuoka, Shin-Ichi; Eom, Soo Hyun

    2013-01-01

    We have determined the crystal structure of porcine quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase (QAPRTase) in complex with nicotinate mononucleotide (NAMN), which is the first crystal structure of a mammalian QAPRTase with its reaction product. The structure was determined from protein obtained from the porcine kidney. Because the full protein sequence of porcine QAPRTase was not available in either protein or nucleotide databases, cDNA was synthesized using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to determine the porcine QAPRTase amino acid sequence. The crystal structure revealed that porcine QAPRTases have a hexameric structure that is similar to other eukaryotic QAPRTases, such as the human and yeast enzymes. However, the interaction between NAMN and porcine QAPRTase was different from the interaction found in prokaryotic enzymes, such as those of Helicobacter pylori and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The crystal structure of porcine QAPRTase in complex with NAMN provides a structural framework for understanding the unique properties of the mammalian QAPRTase active site and designing new antibiotics that are selective for the QAPRTases of pathogenic bacteria, such as H. pylori and M. tuberculosis. PMID:23626766

  14. Cryptosporidium scrofarum n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Kváč, Martin; Kestřánová, Michaela; Pinková, Martina; Květoňová, Dana; Kalinová, Jana; Wagnerová, Pavla; Kotková, Michaela; Vítovec, Jiří; Ditrich, Oleg; McEvoy, John; Stenger, Brianna; Sak, Bohumil

    2012-01-01

    We describe the morphological, biological, and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium pig genotype II and propose the species name Cryptosporidium scrofarum n. sp. to reflect its prevalence in adult pigs worldwide. Oocysts of C. scrofarum are morphologically indistinguishable from C. parvum, measuring 4.81–5.96 µm (mean = 5.16) × 4.23–5.29 µm (mean = 4.83) with a length to width ratio of 1.07 ± 0.06 (n = 400). Oocysts of C. scrofarum obtained from a naturally infected pig were infectious for 8-week-old pigs but not 4-week-old pigs. The prepatent period in 8-week-old Cryptosporidium-naive pigs was 4–6 days and the patent period was longer than 30 days. The infection intensity of C. scrofarum in pigs was generally low, in the range 250-4000 oocysts per gram of faeces. Infected pigs showed no clinical signs of cryptosporidiosis and no pathology was detected. Cryptosporidium scrofarum was not infectious for adult SCID mice, adult BALB c mice, Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), southern multimammate mice (Mastomys coucha), yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis), or guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Phylogenetic analyses based on Small subunit rRNA, actin, and heat shock protein 70 gene sequences revealed that C. scrofarum is genetically distinct from all known Cryptosporidium species. PMID:23021264

  15. Pharmacokinetics of Sustained-Release and Transdermal Buprenorphine in Göttingen Minipigs (Sus scrofa domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Thiede, Allison J; Garcia, Kelly D; Stolarik, DeAnne F; Ma, Junli; Jenkins, Gary J; Nunamaker, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    The opioid buprenorphine has been shown to provide adequate postoperative analgesia in both companion and laboratory animals. However, its use is still hindered by the need for multiple parenteral injections to achieve continuous analgesia. The purpose of the current study was to conduct a pharmacokinetic analysis of 2 new long-acting formulations of buprenorphine—an injectable sustained-release buprenorphine (SRB) and a transdermal buprenorphine (TDB) patch—in healthy Göttingen minipigs by using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry. Administration of 0.18 mg/kg SC SRB and 30 μg/h TDB achieved AUC0-Tlast of 221.6 ± 26.8 and 25.2 ± 3.9 ng × h/mL, respectively, compared with 9.7 ± 1.4 ng*h/mL for 0.02 mg/kg IV buprenorphine. By using a hypothesized therapeutic plasma buprenorphine concentration threshold of 0.1 ng/mL, therapeutic concentrations were achieved at the first study time point (5 to 30 min) and lasted an average of 8.0 ± 1.3 h for intravenous buprenorphine and 264.0 ± 32.2 h for SRB. TDB achieved therapeutic concentrations in 12 to 24 h after patch application, which lasted until the patch was removed at 72 h. The results of this study suggest that SRB and TDB are long-acting alternatives for pain management, and their use could decrease animal handling and stress, thereby simplifying pain management and improving welfare in laboratory swine. PMID:25650977

  16. First detection of sarcoptic mange in free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Haas, C; Origgi, F C; Akdesir, E; Batista Linhares, M; Giovannini, S; Mavrot, F; Casaubon, J; Ryser-Degiorgis, M-P

    2015-05-01

    In Switzerland sarcoptic mange is frequent in free-ranging wild carnivores but until recent years no cases had been recorded in wild ungulates. Since 2010, cases have been observed in wild boar in the cantons of Solothurn, Tessin and Thurgau. Here, we report the detection of mange-like skin lesions in wild boars by photo-trapping and the post-mortem findings in 6 culled animals presenting different stages of the disease. Potential sources of infection include mangy red foxes, outdoor domestic pigs and wild boars from surrounding countries. Disease spread in the wild boar population may become relevant not only for wildlife but also for domestic pig health in the future if piggeries' biosecurity is insufficient to prevent interactions with wild boar. PMID:26753342

  17. Cadaveric volatile organic compounds released by decaying pig carcasses (Sus domesticus L.) in different biotopes.

    PubMed

    Dekeirsschieter, J; Verheggen, F J; Gohy, M; Hubrecht, F; Bourguignon, L; Lognay, G; Haubruge, E

    2009-08-10

    Forensic entomology uses pig carcasses to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal colonization. Insects communicate with their environment through the use of chemical mediators, which in the case of necrophagous insects, may consist in the cadaveric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by the corpse under decomposition. Previous studies have focused on cadaveric VOCs released from human corpses. Nevertheless, studies on human corpses are restricted for many reasons, including ethics. Forensic entomologists use pig as animal model but very few information are available about the decompositional VOCs released by a decaying pig carcass. We here tested a passive sampling technique, the Radiello diffusive sampler, to monitor the cadaveric VOCs released by decomposing pig carcasses in three biotopes (crop field, forest, urban site). A total of 104 chemical compounds, exclusively produced by the decompositional process, were identified by thermal desorption interfaced with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (TDS-GC-MS). Ninety, 85 and 57 cadaveric VOCs were identified on pig carcasses laying on the agricultural site, the forest biotope and in the urban site, respectively. The main cadaveric VOCs are acids, cyclic hydrocarbons, oxygenated compounds, sulfur and nitrogen compounds. A better knowledge of the smell of death and their volatile constituents may have many applications in forensic sciences.

  18. Brain Mass and Encephalization Quotients in the Domestic Industrial Pig (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Minervini, Serena; Accogli, Gianluca; Pirone, Andrea; Graïc, Jean-Marie; Cozzi, Bruno; Desantis, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we examined the brain of fetal, newborn, and adult pigs raised for meat production. The fresh and formalin-fixed weights of the brain have been recorded and used, together with body weight, to calculate the Encephalization Quotient (EQ). The weight of the cerebellum has been used to calculate the Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). The results have been discussed together with analogue data obtained in other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla (including the domestic bovine, sheep, goat, and camel), domesticated Carnivora, Proboscidata, and Primates. Our study, based on a relatively large experimental series, corrects former observations present in the literature based on smaller samples, and emphasizes that the domestic pig has a small brain relative to its body size (EQ = 0.38 for adults), possibly due to factors linked to the necessity of meat production and improved body weight. Comparison with other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla indicates a similar trend for all domesticated species. PMID:27351807

  19. Como ayudar a sus hijos a usar la biblioteca (Helping Your Child Use the Library).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkinson, Kathryn

    Focusing on the cooperative role of parents and public libraries in stimulating reading interests in children of all ages, this booklet addresses the following issues: (1) getting children interested in reading (reading aloud to children; encouraging children to read to you; starting a home library; showing children that you enjoy reading;…

  20. Helminth infections of wild boars (Sus scrofa) in the Bursa province of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Senlik, B; Cirak, V Y; Girisgin, O; Akyol, C V

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the status of helminth infections in wild boars in the Bursa province of Turkey. For this purpose, during 2007-2008, 27 wild boars were necropsied and examined for helminths. Individual samples of tongue and diaphragm from 27 necropsied wild boars and an additional 22 tongue and diaphragm samples provided by hunters were examined by trichinoscopy and artificial digestion for Trichinella spp. larvae. Twenty animals (74%) were identified as being infected with at least one helminth species. Twelve species of helminths were detected, with the following prevalence rates: Metastrongylus apri (59%), Metastrongylus salmi (52%), Metastrongylus pudendotectus (52%), Dicrocoelium dendriticum (33%), Globocephalus urosubulatus (22%), Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (19%), Gongylonema pulchrum (11%), Physocephalus sexalatus (7%), Trichuris suis (7%), Ascarops strongylina (4%), Hyostrongylus rubidus (4%) and Taenia hydatigena larvae (4%). Generally, lungworms were the predominant helminths. The highest mean abundance was observed for M. pudendotectus, and the lowest was determined for T. hydatigena larvae. Significant differences in the prevalence and intensity were found for D. dendriticum with respect to host age and sex, respectively. The mean intensity of M. pudendotectus was significantly influenced by the sex and age of the wild boars. This study is the first report describing the presence of M. salmi, M. pudendotectus, D. dendriticum, G. urosubulatus, M. hirudinaceus, P. sexalatus, A. strongylina and H. rubidus in wild boars in Turkey. All analysed muscle samples were negative for Trichinella spp. larvae.

  1. [The histogenesis of interrenal primordium of the adrenal gland in pig (Sus domestica)].

    PubMed

    Sokolov, V I; Chumasov, E I; Atagimov, M Z

    2006-01-01

    Using light, electron microscopy and cytochemistry, the early (embryonic week 4-8) stages of adrenal gland (AG) development were studied in domestic pig. The interrelations between the cells of the fetal cortex (FC) and chromaffin cells (CC) were traced. At week 5, AG primordium is represented by FC, which consists of the epithelioid cells, with the ingrowing neural cords containing CC islets. Starting at the early embryonic period and up to fetal period, CC and interrenal cells of FC are closely interrelated with each other and sinusoidal capillaries. Both cellular types are at different stages of differentiation, including the functionally active elements. At weeks 7-8, FC cells undergo involution, while those ones, left at periphery, form definitive cortex. CC are located in the central part of the organ and form suprarenal tissue. Authors hypothesize, that CC, migrating into AG primordium, initially induce the development of interrenal primordium, and later cause the involution of FC. This, possibly, may be explained by the fact that further antenatal and postnatal development of the organism requires more corticosteroids than the amount produced by FC.

  2. Gastrointestinal Acute Radiation Syndrome in Göttingen Minipigs (Sus Scrofa Domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Thomas B; Deutz, Nicolaas E; Gulani, Jatinder; Koch, Amory; Olsen, Cara H; Christensen, Christine; Chappell, Mark; Whitnall, Mark H; Moroni, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of supportive care, exposing Göttingen minipigs to γ-radiation doses of less than 2 Gy achieves lethality due to hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome. Doses of 2 to 5 Gy are associated with an accelerated hematopoietic syndrome, characterized by villus blunting and fusion, the beginning of sepsis, and a mild transient reduction in plasma citrulline concentration. We exposed male Göttingen minipigs (age, 5 mo; weight, 9 to 11 kg) to γ-radiation doses of 5 to 12 Gy (total body; 60Co, 0.6 Gy/min) to test whether these animals exhibit classic gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome (GI-ARS). After exposure, the minipigs were monitored for 10 d by using clinical signs, CBC counts, and parameters associated with the development of the gastrointestinal syndrome. Göttingen minipigs exposed to γ radiation of 5 to 12 Gy demonstrate a dose-dependent occurrence of all parameters classically associated with acute GI-ARS. These results suggest that Göttingen minipigs may be a suitable model for studying GI-ARS after total body irradiation, but the use of supportive care to extend survival beyond 10 d is recommended. This study is the first step toward determining the feasibility of using Göttingen minipigs in testing the efficacy of candidate drugs for the treatment of GI-ARS after total body irradiation. PMID:25527026

  3. Como Trabajar y Vivir en la Realidad: Pasos Basicos Para Jovenes con Incapacidades, sus Padres y sus Profesores (How to Work and Live in the Real World: Basic Steps for Youth with Handicaps and Their Parents and Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Patricia L.; And Others

    This Spanish version of "How to Work and Live in the Real World: Basic Steps for Youth with Handicaps and Their Parents and Teachers" is for young people with handicaps who are getting ready to graduate from high school and begin working and living in the adult world. The booklet places a special focus on individuals with cultural differences. It…

  4. An Effective and Reproducible Model of Ventricular Fibrillation in Crossbred Yorkshire Swine (Sus scrofa) for Use in Physiologic Research

    PubMed Central

    Burgert, James M; Johnson, Arthur D; Garcia-Blanco, Jose C; Craig, W John; O'Sullivan, Joseph C

    2015-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical induction (TCEI) has been used to induce ventricular fibrillation (VF) in laboratory swine for physiologic and resuscitation research. Many studies do not describe the method of TCEI in detail, thus making replication by future investigators difficult. Here we describe a detailed method of electrically inducing VF that was used successfully in a prospective, experimental resuscitation study. Specifically, an electrical current was passed through the heart to induce VF in crossbred Yorkshire swine (n = 30); the current was generated by using two 22-gauge spinal needles, with one placed above and one below the heart, and three 9V batteries connected in series. VF developed in 28 of the 30 pigs (93%) within 10 s of beginning the procedure. In the remaining 2 swine, VF was induced successfully after medial redirection of the superior parasternal needle. The TCEI method is simple, reproducible, and cost-effective. TCEI may be especially valuable to researchers with limited access to funding, sophisticated equipment, or colleagues experienced in interventional cardiology techniques. The TCEI method might be most appropriate for pharmacologic studies requiring VF, VF resulting from the R-on-T phenomenon (as in prolonged QT syndrome), and VF arising from other ectopic or reentrant causes. However, the TCEI method does not accurately model the most common cause of VF, acute coronary occlusive disease. Researchers must consider the limitations of TCEI that may affect internal and external validity of collected data, when designing experiments using this model of VF. PMID:26473349

  5. Intravenous Cobinamide Versus Hydroxocobalamin for Acute Treatment of Severe Cyanide Poisoning in a Swine (Sus scrofa) Model

    PubMed Central

    Bebarta, Lt Col Vikhyat S.; Tanen, David A.; Boudreau, Susan; Castaneda, Maria; Zarzabal, Lee A.; Vargas, Toni; Boss, Gerry R.

    2015-01-01

    Study objective Hydroxocobalamin is a Food and Drug Administration–approved antidote for cyanide poisoning. Cobinamide is a potential antidote that contains 2 cyanide-binding sites. To our knowledge, no study has directly compared hydroxocobalamin with cobinamide in a severe, cyanide-toxic large-animal model. Our objective is to compare the time to return of spontaneous breathing in swine with acute cyanide-induced apnea treated with intravenous hydroxocobalamin, intravenous cobinamide, or saline solution (control). Methods Thirty-three swine (45 to 55 kg) were intubated, anesthetized, and instrumented (continuous mean arterial pressure and cardiac output monitoring). Anesthesia was adjusted to allow spontaneous breathing with FiO2 of 21% during the experiment. Cyanide was continuously infused intravenously until apnea occurred and lasted for 1 minute (time zero). Animals were then randomly assigned to receive intravenous hydroxocobalamin (65 mg/kg), cobinamide (12.5 mg/kg), or saline solution and monitored for 60 minutes. A sample size of 11 animals per group was selected according to obtaining a power of 80%, an α of .05, and an SD of 0.17 in mean time to detect a 20% difference in time to spontaneous breathing. We assessed differences in time to death among groups, using Kaplan-Meier estimation methods, and compared serum lactate, blood pH, cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, respiratory rate, and minute ventilation time curves with repeated-measures ANOVA. Results Baseline weights and vital signs were similar among groups. The time to apnea and cyanide dose required to achieve apnea were similar. At time zero, mean cyanide blood and lactate concentrations and reduction in mean arterial pressure from baseline were similar. In the saline solution group, 2 of 11 animals survived compared with 10 of 11 in the hydroxocobalamin and cobinamide groups (P<.001 between the 2 treated groups and the saline solution group). Time to return of spontaneous breathing after antidote was similar between hydroxocobalamin and cobinamide (1 minute 48 seconds versus 1 minute 49 seconds, respectively). Blood cyanide concentrations became undetectable at the end of the study in both antidote-treated groups, and no statistically significant differences were detected between the 2 groups for mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, respiratory rate, lactate, or pH. Conclusion Both hydroxocobalamin and cobinamide rescued severely cyanide-poisoned swine from apnea in the absence of assisted ventilation. The dose of cobinamide was one fifth that of hydroxocobalamin. PMID:24746273

  6. Modulation of porcine (Sus scrofa domestica) and pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) carbonyl reducing enzymes by anthelmintic therapy with flubendazole.

    PubMed

    Szotáková, Barbora; Nobilis, Milan; Lamka, Jirí; Krízová, Veronika; Savlík, Michal; Skálová, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    Flubendazole (FLU) is a widely administered benzimidazole anthelmintic indicated for the control of parasitic diseases in farm animals including pigs and pheasants. This study was designed to test the biotransformation of FLU in control animals and animals treated with FLU in recommended therapeutic doses. The activities of several pheasant and porcine hepatic and intestinal carbonyl reducing enzymes and their modulation by FLU were also studied. Twelve adult pheasant hens, approximately 1 year old, were divided into two groups and treated for 7 days with placebo or 6 mg of FLU/kg of body weight. Eight male hog weaners, approximately 3 month old, were divided into two groups and treated for 5 days with placebo or 1.57 mg of FLU/kg of body weight. Subcellular fractions, prepared from livers and small intestines of control and FLU treated animals, were incubated with FLU. In vitro formation of two main FLU metabolites, reduced FLU, and hydrolyzed FLU were analyzed using HPLC. While FLU was reduced significantly more intensively in FLU-treated pheasants than in control animals, no differences were observed in pigs. These results were confirmed by measuring the enzyme activities: carbonyl reducing enzyme activities were increased in pheasants treated by FLU, whereas FLU did not affect these enzymes in pigs.

  7. Untangling the hybrid nature of modern pig genomes: a mosaic derived from biogeographically distinct and highly divergent Sus scrofa populations

    PubMed Central

    Bosse, Mirte; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Madsen, Ole; Frantz, Laurent A.F.; Paudel, Yogesh; Crooijmans, Richard P.M.A.; Groenen, Martien A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The merging of populations after an extended period of isolation and divergence is a common phenomenon, in natural settings as well as due to human interference. Individuals with such hybrid origins contain genomes that essentially form a mosaic of different histories and demographies. Pigs are an excellent model species to study hybridization because European and Asian wild boars diverged ~1.2 Mya and pigs were domesticated independently in Europe and Asia. During the Industrial Revolution in England, pigs were imported from China to improve the local pigs. This study utilizes the latest genomics tools to identify the origin of haplotypes in European domesticated pigs that are descendant from Asian and European populations. Our results reveal fine-scale haplotype structure representing different ancient demographic events, as well as a mosaic composition of those distinct histories due to recently introgressed haplotypes in the pig genome. As a consequence, nucleotide diversity in the genome of European domesticated pigs is higher when at least one haplotype of Asian origin is present, and haplotype length correlates negatively with recombination frequency and nucleotide diversity. Another consequence is that the inference of past effective population size is influenced by the background of the haplotypes in an individual, but we demonstrate that by careful sorting based on the origin of haplotypes both distinct demographic histories can be reconstructed. Future detailed mapping of the genomic distribution of variation will enable a targeted approach to increase genetic diversity of captive and wild populations, thus facilitating conservation efforts in the near future. PMID:24863459

  8. Evaluation of ELISA coupled with Western blot as a surveillance tool for Trichinella infection in wild boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Cuttell, Leigh; Gómez-Morales, Maria Angeles; Cookson, Beth; Adams, Peter J; Reid, Simon A; Vanderlinde, Paul B; Jackson, Louise A; Gray, C; Traub, Rebecca J

    2014-01-31

    Trichinella surveillance in wildlife relies on muscle digestion of large samples which are logistically difficult to store and transport in remote and tropical regions as well as labour-intensive to process. Serological methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) offer rapid, cost-effective alternatives for surveillance but should be paired with additional tests because of the high false-positive rates encountered in wildlife. We investigated the utility of ELISAs coupled with Western blot (WB) in providing evidence of Trichinella exposure or infection in wild boar. Serum samples were collected from 673 wild boar from a high- and low-risk region for Trichinella introduction within mainland Australia, which is considered Trichinella-free. Sera were examined using both an 'in-house' and a commercially available indirect-ELISA that used excretory-secretory (E/S) antigens. Cut-off values for positive results were determined using sera from the low-risk population. All wild boar from the high-risk region (352) and 139/321 (43.3%) of the wild boar from the low-risk region were tested by artificial digestion. Testing by Western blot using E/S antigens, and a Trichinella-specific real-time PCR was also carried out on all ELISA-positive samples. The two ELISAs correctly classified all positive controls as well as one naturally infected wild boar from Gabba Island in the Torres Strait. In both the high- and low-risk populations, the ELISA results showed substantial agreement (k-value=0.66) that increased to very good (k-value=0.82) when WB-positive only samples were compared. The results of testing sera collected from the Australian mainland showed the Trichinella seroprevalence was 3.5% (95% C.I. 0.0-8.0) and 2.3% (95% C.I. 0.0-5.6) using the in-house and commercial ELISA coupled with WB respectively. These estimates were significantly higher (P<0.05) than the artificial digestion estimate of 0.0% (95% C.I. 0.0-1.1). Real-time PCR testing of muscle from seropositive animals did not detect Trichinella DNA in any mainland animals, but did reveal the presence of a second larvae-positive wild boar on Gabba Island, supporting its utility as an alternative, highly sensitive method in muscle examination. The serology results suggest Australian wildlife may have been exposed to Trichinella parasites. However, because of the possibility of non-specific reactions with other parasitic infections, more work using well-defined cohorts of positive and negative samples is required. Even if the specificity of the ELISAs is proven to be low, their ability to correctly classify the small number of true positive sera in this study indicates utility in screening wild boar populations for reactive sera which can be followed up with additional testing.

  9. The effect of selected environmental Fusarium mycotoxins on the ovaries in the female wild boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Zielonka, Ł; Gajęcka, M; Żmudzki, J; Gajęcki, M

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of agricultural crops with Fusarium mycotoxins poses one of the greatest problems in food production. Wild boars live in specific habitats and are physiologically sensitive to Fusarium mycotoxins, therefore, they are an interesting model for studies investigating the effects of the discussed toxin, in particular under low-dose exposure. The objective of this study was to determine potential effects of Fusarium mycotoxins ingested with naturally contaminated food on reproductive function based on the proliferation and apoptotic indices of ovarian follicles in female wild boars. The experiment was conducted on 40 wild boars inhabiting north-eastern Poland. The effect of seasonal variations in the quantity and quality of ingested food on the concentrations of Fusarium mycotoxins and their metabolites in the blood of wild boars was analyzed. The observed differences in toxin levels were accompanied by changes in proliferation and apoptotic indices. Proliferation processes were most intense in autumn-winter and were least advanced in winter-spring. The intensity of apoptotic processes was inversely correlated with proliferation.

  10. The first pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3 strain isolated from a hunted wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bancerz-Kisiel, A; Platt-Samoraj, A; Szczerba-Turek, A; Syczyło, K; Szweda, W

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the bioserotypes and virulence markers of Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from wild boars in Poland. Bacteriological examination of 302 rectal swabs from 151 wild boars resulted in the isolation of 40 Y. enterocolitica strains. The majority of the examined strains (n = 30), belonged to bioserotype 1A/NI. The presence of individual Y. enterocolitica strains belonging to bioserotypes 1B/NI (3), 1A/O:8 (2), 1A/O:27 (2), 2/NI (1), 2/O:9 (1) and 4/O:3 (1) was also demonstrated. Amplicons corresponding to ail and ystA genes were observed only in one Y. enterocolitica strain--bioserotype 4/O:3. The ail and ystB gene amplicons were noted in 11 Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains, although single amplicons of ystB gene were found in 28 of the tested samples. In four out of eight cases when two Y. enterocolitica strains were isolated from the same animal, the strains differed in biotype, serotype or virulence markers. The European population of wild boars continues to grow and spread to new areas, therefore, wild boars harbouring potentially pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains pose a challenge to public health.

  11. Genomewide Scan for Anal Atresia in Swine Identifies Linkage and Association With a Chromosome Region on Sus scrofa Chromosome 1

    PubMed Central

    Wiedemann, Sabine; Fries, Ruedi; Thaller, Georg

    2005-01-01

    Anal atresia is a rare and severe disorder in swine occurring with an incidence of 0.1–1.0%. A whole-genome scan based on affected half-sibs was performed to identify susceptibility loci for anal atresia. The analysis included 27 families with a total of 95 animals and 65 affected piglets among them. Animals were genotyped for 126 microsatellite markers distributed across the 18 autosomal porcine chromosomes and the X chromosome, covering an estimated 2080 cM. Single-point and multipoint nonparametric linkage scores were calculated using the computer package ALLEGRO 1.0. Significant linkage results were obtained for chromosomes 1, 3, and 12. Markers on these chromosomes and additionally on chromosomes for which candidate genes have been postulated in previous studies were subjected to the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT). The test statistic exceeded the genomewide significance level for adjacent markers SW1621 (P = 7 × 10−7) and SW1902 (P = 3 × 10−3) on chromosome 1, supporting the results of the linkage analysis. A specific haplotype associated with anal atresia that could prove useful for selection against the disorder was revealed. Suggestive linkage and association were also found for markers S0081 on chromosome 9 and SW957 on chromosome 12. PMID:16020797

  12. Closed-loop glycaemic control using an implantable artificial pancreas in diabetic domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

    PubMed

    Taylor, M J; Gregory, R; Tomlins, P; Jacob, D; Hubble, J; Sahota, T S

    2016-03-16

    The performance of a completely implantable peritoneal artificial pancreas (AP) has been demonstrated in principle in a live diabetic domestic pig. The device consists of a smart glucose-sensitive gel that forms a gateway to an insulin reservoir and is designed to both sense glucose and deliver insulin in the peritoneal cavity. It can be refilled with insulin via subcutaneous ports and surgery was developed to insert the AP. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (STZ), the device filled with insulin (Humulin(®) R U-500) in situ and the animal observed for several weeks, during which time there was normal access to food and water and several oral glucose challenges. Blood glucose (BG) levels were brought down from >30 mmol/L (540 mg/dL) to non-fasted values between 7 and 13 mmol/L (126-234 mg/dL) about five days after filling the device. Glucose challenge responses improved ultimately so that, starting at 10 mmol/L (180 mg/dL), the BG peak was 18 mmol/L (324 mg/dL) and fell to 7 mmol/L (126 mg/dL) after 30 min, contrasting with intravenous attempts. The reservoir solution was removed after 8 days of blood glucose levels during which they had been increasingly better controlled. A rapid return to diabetic BG levels (30 mmol/L) occurred only after a further 24 days implying some insulin had remained in the device after removal of the reservoir solution. Thus, the closed loop system appeared to have particular influence on the basal and bolus needs for the 8 days in which the reservoir solution was in place and substantial impact for a further 3 weeks. No additional insulin manual adjustment was given during this period. PMID:26691655

  13. Sistema Solar: de la observación de La Tierra a los planetas gigantes y sus lunas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo, R.

    La fotoquímica tiene un papel principal en la composición de las atmósferas planetarias. Se examinan diferentes procesos fotoquímicos tanto para atmósferas oxidadas como reductoras, poniendo un especial énfasis en los ciclos químicos más importantes. En este sentido, se presentan diferentes ciclos químicos capaces de producir hidrocarbonos y nitrilos en atmósferas reductoras, así como aquellos capaces de mantener las proporciones de mezcla de las moléculas que contienen oxígeno, tales como CO2, O2 y H2O. También se analizan otros procesos importantes tales como la condensación y procesos de sputtering y de sublimación que han de tenerse en cuenta cuando se realizan modelos sobre la composición atmosférica.

  14. Molecular and structural assessment of alveolar bone during tooth eruption and function in the miniature pig, Sus scrofa

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Kuang-Dah; Popowics, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Summary The development of alveolar bone adjacent to the tooth root during tooth eruption is not well understood. This study tested the hypothesis that predominantly woven bone forms adjacent to tooth roots during tooth eruption, but that this immature structure transitions to lamellar bone when the tooth comes into function. Additionally, bone resorption was predicted to play a key role in transitioning immature bone to more mature, load-bearing tissue. Miniature pigs were compared at two occlusal stages, 13 weeks (n=3), corresponding with the mucosal penetration stage of M1 tooth eruption, and 23 weeks (n=3), corresponding with early occlusion of M1/M1. Bone samples for RNA extraction and qRT-PCR analysis were harvested from the diastema and adjacent to M1 roots on one side. Following euthanasia, bone samples for hematoxylin and eosin and TRAP staining were harvested from these regions on the other side. In contrast to expectations, both erupting and functioning molars had reticular fibrolamellar structure in alveolar bone adjacent to M1. However, the woven bone matrix in older pigs was thicker and had denser primary osteons. Gene expression data and osteoclast cell counts showed a tendency for more bone resorptive activity near the molars than at distant sites, but no differences between eruptive stages. Thus, although resorption does occur, it is not a primary mechanism in the transition in alveolar bone from eruption to function. Incremental growth of existing woven bone and filling in of primary osteons within the mineralized scaffold generated the fortification necessary to support an erupted and functioning tooth. PMID:21434979

  15. "En Sus Proprias Palabras" ("In Their Own Words"): Latina Women's Perspectives on Enablers of HIV Testing Using Freelisting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Sharon D.; Sudha, S.; Herrera, Samantha; Ruiz, Carolina; Thomas, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Comprehensive information on the facilitators of HIV testing in Latino women (Latinas) in the Southeastern USA is lacking. Efforts to rectify this should include Latina perspectives on the issue. This study aimed to (1) solicit Latina perspectives using qualitative methodology and (2) characterise enablers of HIV testing follow-through.…

  16. Social Complexification and Pig (Sus scrofa) Husbandry in Ancient China: A Combined Geometric Morphometric and Isotopic Approach.

    PubMed

    Cucchi, Thomas; Dai, Lingling; Balasse, Marie; Zhao, Chunqing; Gao, Jiangtao; Hu, Yaowu; Yuan, Jing; Vigne, Jean-Denis

    2016-01-01

    Pigs have played a major role in the economic, social and symbolic systems of China since the Early Neolithic more than 8,000 years ago. However, the interaction between the history of pig domestication and transformations in Chinese society since then, have not been fully explored. In this paper, we investigated the co-evolution from the earliest farming communities through to the new political and economic models of state-like societies, up to the Chinese Empire, using 5,000 years of archaeological records from the Xiawanggang (XWG) and Xinzhai (XZ) sites (Henan Province). To trace the changes of pig populations against husbandry practices, we combined the geometric morphometric analysis of dental traits with a study of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios from bone collagen. The domestication process intensified during the Neolithic Yangshao, prompted by greater selective pressure and/or better herd control against wild introgression. After that, pig farming, in XWG, relied on local livestock and a gradual change of husbandry practices overtime. This was characterized by a gentle increase in millet foddering and animal protein intake, until a complete change over to household management during the Han dynasty. The only rupture in this steady trend of husbandry occurred during the Longshan period, with the appearance of small sized and idiosyncratic pigs with specific feeding practices (relying on millet and household scraps). From three exploratory hypothesis, we explored the possibility of anti-elite pig production in XWG during the Longshan period, as a means to resist incorporation into a new economic model promoting intensified domestic production. This exploratory hypothesis is the most suitable to our dataset; however, numerous areas need to be explored further in order to adequately document the role of pigs in the rise of China's complex societies.

  17. Familias Latinas: Participando en la educacion de sus hijos (Latino Families: Getting Involved in Your Children's Education). Early Childhood Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Eliot

    Noting that many Latino parents have questions about parent participation in their children's education and how to go about getting involved, this Spanish-language early childhood digest answers some of those questions by providing suggestions for ways parents can involve themselves in a child's education both at school and at home. Following a…

  18. Innovation in the role of the Office of the Ombudsman of the Unified Health System (SUS) - reflections and potential benefits.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Fernando Manuel Bessa; Moreira, Marcelo Rasga; Ribeiro, José Mendes; Ouverney, Assis Mafort; Oliveira, Flávio José Fonseca de; Moro, Maria Francisca Abritta

    2016-08-01

    This article seeks to reflect on the potential of innovative practices in the design and work of the government bodies that comprise the National System of Offices of the Ombudsman of the Unified Health System. It is divided into two parts, seeking to answer the following question: How to think of and implement innovative practices - which include sustainability - when the people are voicing their urgent demands and these are being heard by the public authorities? These grievances are all the more urgent as they involve the area of Health and can they be promptly discussed, attended and resolved? In the first part, the article discusses the polysemic concept of innovation, focusing on its application in the three spheres of public administration, and highlights the importance of its close correlation with the different notions of information and knowledge in a society such as the one we live in. In the second, it develops a task-force of ideas for the office of the ombudsman and based on this, a draft operational concept of innovation in the role of the office of the ombudsman, considering the context of high speed change and transformations and the complexity inherent to contemporary life and the need for resource management and expertise development in information management. PMID:27557027

  19. Social Complexification and Pig (Sus scrofa) Husbandry in Ancient China: A Combined Geometric Morphometric and Isotopic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Balasse, Marie; Zhao, Chunqing; Gao, Jiangtao; Hu, Yaowu; Yuan, Jing; Vigne, Jean-Denis

    2016-01-01

    Pigs have played a major role in the economic, social and symbolic systems of China since the Early Neolithic more than 8,000 years ago. However, the interaction between the history of pig domestication and transformations in Chinese society since then, have not been fully explored. In this paper, we investigated the co-evolution from the earliest farming communities through to the new political and economic models of state-like societies, up to the Chinese Empire, using 5,000 years of archaeological records from the Xiawanggang (XWG) and Xinzhai (XZ) sites (Henan Province). To trace the changes of pig populations against husbandry practices, we combined the geometric morphometric analysis of dental traits with a study of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios from bone collagen. The domestication process intensified during the Neolithic Yangshao, prompted by greater selective pressure and/or better herd control against wild introgression. After that, pig farming, in XWG, relied on local livestock and a gradual change of husbandry practices overtime. This was characterized by a gentle increase in millet foddering and animal protein intake, until a complete change over to household management during the Han dynasty. The only rupture in this steady trend of husbandry occurred during the Longshan period, with the appearance of small sized and idiosyncratic pigs with specific feeding practices (relying on millet and household scraps). From three exploratory hypothesis, we explored the possibility of anti-elite pig production in XWG during the Longshan period, as a means to resist incorporation into a new economic model promoting intensified domestic production. This exploratory hypothesis is the most suitable to our dataset; however, numerous areas need to be explored further in order to adequately document the role of pigs in the rise of China’s complex societies. PMID:27384523

  20. [Social representations of municipal counselors regarding social control in health in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS)].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Helena Eri; Pereira, Marcio Florentino; Cardoso, Antonio José Costa; Bermudez, Ximena Pamela Claudia Dias

    2013-08-01

    This study seeks to analyze the social representations of municipal health counselors regarding social control in health. Sixty interviews were conducted with counselors of nineteen counties within the Integrated Federal District Region and Surrounding Areas (RIDE-DF). Data analysis was conducted with the use of French Alceste software, which included two thematic groups. The first dealt with the weaknesses of health councils, consisting of four categories: limitations in decision-making powers, bureaucratization of everyday practices, weaknesses in social participation and limitations in the practice of representation. The second dealt with the health system in RIDE-DF, consisting of only one category that expresses the precarious organization of health care in RIDE-DF. Social representation of social control, with a focus on social participation appears to be constrained by a ritual, namely the bureaucratization of policies and practices in the councils. This form of hierarchical and bureaucratic organization and operation of the council, based on a centralizing management model, has distanced the counselors from discussing health needs geared to the construction of public Health Projects. PMID:23896909

  1. Molecular characterization and seroprevalence of Echinococcus granulosus in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in south-western Iran.

    PubMed

    Sarkari, Bahador; Mansouri, Majid; Khabisi, Samaneh Abdolahi; Mowlavi, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the first molecular and serological evaluation of Echinococcus granulosus infections in wild boars in Iran. Twenty five wild boars were collected in south-western Iran, during authorized hunting program, from March to October 2013, necropsied and examined for E. granulosus infection. Furthermore, seroprevalence of cystic echinococcosis in hunted boars was evaluated by an ELISA system. A fertile hydatid cyst due to E. granulosus was detected in the lung of one of the animals. Genotype analysis of the isolate was determined by analyzing a mitochondrial gene, cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (co1). DNA was extracted from the cyst sample and polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sequencing of the specific region of the co1 gene was performed. Molecular evaluation confirmed the presence of a sheep strain, the G1 genotype, in the wild boar in south-western Iran. This is the first report of the presence of G1 genotype of E. granulosus in wild boar in Iran. Serological evaluation of hydatid cyst by antigen-B ELISA revealed E. granulosus antibodies in 5 (20%) of 25 wild boars. A statistically significant difference was observed between the prevalence of E. granulosus antibodies and gender while the difference between the seroprevalence of E. granulosus and age was insignificant. Findings of this study might have important implications for the prevention and control of cystic echinococcosis. PMID:26878625

  2. Social Complexification and Pig (Sus scrofa) Husbandry in Ancient China: A Combined Geometric Morphometric and Isotopic Approach.

    PubMed

    Cucchi, Thomas; Dai, Lingling; Balasse, Marie; Zhao, Chunqing; Gao, Jiangtao; Hu, Yaowu; Yuan, Jing; Vigne, Jean-Denis

    2016-01-01

    Pigs have played a major role in the economic, social and symbolic systems of China since the Early Neolithic more than 8,000 years ago. However, the interaction between the history of pig domestication and transformations in Chinese society since then, have not been fully explored. In this paper, we investigated the co-evolution from the earliest farming communities through to the new political and economic models of state-like societies, up to the Chinese Empire, using 5,000 years of archaeological records from the Xiawanggang (XWG) and Xinzhai (XZ) sites (Henan Province). To trace the changes of pig populations against husbandry practices, we combined the geometric morphometric analysis of dental traits with a study of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios from bone collagen. The domestication process intensified during the Neolithic Yangshao, prompted by greater selective pressure and/or better herd control against wild introgression. After that, pig farming, in XWG, relied on local livestock and a gradual change of husbandry practices overtime. This was characterized by a gentle increase in millet foddering and animal protein intake, until a complete change over to household management during the Han dynasty. The only rupture in this steady trend of husbandry occurred during the Longshan period, with the appearance of small sized and idiosyncratic pigs with specific feeding practices (relying on millet and household scraps). From three exploratory hypothesis, we explored the possibility of anti-elite pig production in XWG during the Longshan period, as a means to resist incorporation into a new economic model promoting intensified domestic production. This exploratory hypothesis is the most suitable to our dataset; however, numerous areas need to be explored further in order to adequately document the role of pigs in the rise of China's complex societies. PMID:27384523

  3. Untangling the hybrid nature of modern pig genomes: a mosaic derived from biogeographically distinct and highly divergent Sus scrofa populations.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Mirte; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Madsen, Ole; Frantz, Laurent A F; Paudel, Yogesh; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Groenen, Martien A M

    2014-08-01

    The merging of populations after an extended period of isolation and divergence is a common phenomenon, in natural settings as well as due to human interference. Individuals with such hybrid origins contain genomes that essentially form a mosaic of different histories and demographies. Pigs are an excellent model species to study hybridization because European and Asian wild boars diverged ~1.2 Mya, and pigs were domesticated independently in Europe and Asia. During the Industrial Revolution in England, pigs were imported from China to improve the local pigs. This study utilizes the latest genomics tools to identify the origin of haplotypes in European domesticated pigs that are descendant from Asian and European populations. Our results reveal fine-scale haplotype structure representing different ancient demographic events, as well as a mosaic composition of those distinct histories due to recently introgressed haplotypes in the pig genome. As a consequence, nucleotide diversity in the genome of European domesticated pigs is higher when at least one haplotype of Asian origin is present, and haplotype length correlates negatively with recombination frequency and nucleotide diversity. Another consequence is that the inference of past effective population size is influenced by the background of the haplotypes in an individual, but we demonstrate that by careful sorting based on the origin of haplotypes, both distinct demographic histories can be reconstructed. Future detailed mapping of the genomic distribution of variation will enable a targeted approach to increase genetic diversity of captive and wild populations, thus facilitating conservation efforts in the near future. PMID:24863459

  4. An in vivo three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging-based averaged brain collection of the neonatal piglet (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Conrad, Matthew S; Sutton, Bradley P; Dilger, Ryan N; Johnson, Rodney W

    2014-01-01

    Due to the fact that morphology and perinatal growth of the piglet brain is similar to humans, use of the piglet as a translational animal model for neurodevelopmental studies is increasing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be a powerful tool to study neurodevelopment in piglets, but many of the MRI resources have been produced for adult humans. Here, we present an average in vivo MRI-based atlas specific for the 4-week-old piglet. In addition, we have developed probabilistic tissue classification maps. These tools can be used with brain mapping software packages (e.g. SPM and FSL) to aid in voxel-based morphometry and image analysis techniques. The atlas enables efficient study of neurodevelopment in a highly tractable translational animal with brain growth and development similar to humans.

  5. 137Cs concentration in meat of wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Croatia a decade and half after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Vilic, M; Barisic, D; Kraljevic, P; Lulic, S

    2005-01-01

    Gamma-spectrometric measurements of 137Cs activities in meat of wild boars collected in Croatia at several locations with different levels of 137Cs contamination are presented. Samples were collected during the period between 2000 and 2002, about 15 years after the Chernobyl accident. 137Cs concentrations ranged over three orders of magnitude: 0.4-611.5 Bq kg(-1). On the basis of these results, 137Cs concentrations at researched areas could be categorized into three groups: (i) the area of Slavonski Brod, Lipik and Slunj with 137Cs concentrations in meat of only a few Bq kg(-1); (ii) the area of Vrbovsko and Sirac with 137Cs concentrations of a few tens of Bq kg(-1); and (iii) the Fuzine area with 137Cs values in wild boar meat of a few hundreds of Bq kg(-1). In areas with approximately equal contamination level, 137Cs concentrations in wild boar meat varied over two orders of magnitude. This fact suggests that the main reason for high 137Cs values in wild boar meat could be due to food consumed by wild boars, and only secondarily in contamination level of area where they live. Intensive mushroom consumption during autumn months could be one of the factors responsible for high 137Cs values in wild boar meat. An average dose arising from 137Cs due to ingestion of wild boar meat in Croatia is below radiological health concern except in the area of Fuzine, and only in cases of high annual wild boar meat intake, probably by hunters or members of their families.

  6. Molecular characterization and seroprevalence of Echinococcus granulosus in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in south-western Iran.

    PubMed

    Sarkari, Bahador; Mansouri, Majid; Khabisi, Samaneh Abdolahi; Mowlavi, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the first molecular and serological evaluation of Echinococcus granulosus infections in wild boars in Iran. Twenty five wild boars were collected in south-western Iran, during authorized hunting program, from March to October 2013, necropsied and examined for E. granulosus infection. Furthermore, seroprevalence of cystic echinococcosis in hunted boars was evaluated by an ELISA system. A fertile hydatid cyst due to E. granulosus was detected in the lung of one of the animals. Genotype analysis of the isolate was determined by analyzing a mitochondrial gene, cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (co1). DNA was extracted from the cyst sample and polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sequencing of the specific region of the co1 gene was performed. Molecular evaluation confirmed the presence of a sheep strain, the G1 genotype, in the wild boar in south-western Iran. This is the first report of the presence of G1 genotype of E. granulosus in wild boar in Iran. Serological evaluation of hydatid cyst by antigen-B ELISA revealed E. granulosus antibodies in 5 (20%) of 25 wild boars. A statistically significant difference was observed between the prevalence of E. granulosus antibodies and gender while the difference between the seroprevalence of E. granulosus and age was insignificant. Findings of this study might have important implications for the prevention and control of cystic echinococcosis.

  7. Comparison of Microchip Transponder and Noncontact Infrared Thermometry with Rectal Thermometry in Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domestica).

    PubMed

    Jara, Amanda L; Hanson, Jarod M; Gabbard, Jon D; Johnson, Scott K; Register, Emery T; He, Biao; Tompkins, S Mark

    2016-01-01

    During disease outbreaks, core temperature is a useful health metric in swine, due to the presence of pyrexia especially during the acute phase of infection. Despite technologic advances in other facets of swine production and health management, rectal thermometry continues to be the 'gold standard' for measuring core body temperature. However, for various reasons, collecting rectal temperatures can be difficult and unsafe depending on the housing modality. In addition, the delay between insertion of the rectal thermometer and obtaining a reading can affect measurement accuracy, especially when the pig requires physical restraint. Clearly safer, faster, and more accurate and precise temperature acquisition methods that necessitate minimal or no handling of swine are needed. We therefore compared rectal thermometers, subcutaneous microchips, and an inexpensive handheld infrared thermometer by measuring the core body temperature of 24 male castrated piglets at random intervals over a 5-wk period. The core body temperature (mean ± 1 SD) was 39.3±0.5 °C by rectal thermometry, 39.0±0.7 °C by microchip transponder, and 34.3±1.0 °C by infrared thermometry; these 3 values differed significantly. Although the readings obtain by using infrared thermometry were numerically lower than those from the other methods, it is arguably the safest method for assessing the core temperature of swine and showed strong relative correlation with rectal temperature.

  8. Detection of Rickettsia tamurae DNA in ticks and wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) skins in Shimane Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Motoi, Yuta; Asano, Makoto; Inokuma, Hisashi; Ando, Shuji; Kawabata, Hiroki; Takano, Ai; Suzuki, Masatsugu

    2013-01-01

    We used 24 wild boars trapped from December 2009 to January 2010 and a further 65 from July 2010 to August 2010 in Misato Town, Shimane Prefecture, Japan. We collected blood, spleens, skins and ticks from the wild boars, which were examined for rickettsial infections using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for the genes rickettsial 17-kDa antigen and citrate synthase (gltA). We amplified Rickettsia tamurae AT-1 DNA from the tick Amblyomma testudinarium and from wild boar skins where ticks attached. Antibodies against spotted fever group Rickettsia were detected in wild boar sera using immunofluorescence, whereas blood and spleen samples contained no rickettsial DNA. This study suggests that wild boars have a role as an amplifier and a transporter of A. testudinarium, which harbor R. tamurae. One case of R. tamurae infection in humans was reported in Shimane Prefecture. Therefore, R. tamurae infections in humans might increase, if wild boar populations and their habitats expand.

  9. Origen social de los estudiantes y sus posibilidades de exito (The Social Origin of Students and Their Chances for Success).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eduplan Informa, 1971

    1971-01-01

    The recommendation contained in this document is a product of the 1971 International Conference on Education sponsored by UNESCO and calls for an interdisciplinary study of social, economic, political, cultural, geographic, demographic, and scholastic factors that contribute to unequal educational opportunities. The report suggests steps that…

  10. You Can Help Your Young Child Learn Mathematics = Usted puede ayudar a sus hijos a aprender mathematicas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. Office of Research.

    These two booklets (one in English and one in Spanish) are designed to help parents become more involved in their children's mathematics education. The booklets are divided into two sections. The first section explains why mathematics is an important subject for children to learn as they prepare themselves for a place in today's society. The…

  11. Domestic pigs' (Sus scrofa domestica) use of direct and indirect visual and auditory cues in an object choice task.

    PubMed

    Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard

    2015-05-01

    Recently, foraging strategies have been linked to the ability to use indirect visual information. More selective feeders should express a higher aversion against losses compared to non-selective feeders and should therefore be more prone to avoid empty food locations. To extend these findings, in this study, we present a series of studies investigating the use of direct and indirect visual and auditory information by an omnivorous but selective feeder-the domestic pig. Subjects had to choose between two buckets, with only one containing a reward. Before making a choice, the subjects in Experiment 1 (N = 8) received full information regarding both the baited and non-baited location, either in a visual or auditory domain. In this experiment, the subjects were able to use visual but not auditory cues to infer the location of the reward spontaneously. Additionally, four individuals learned to use auditory cues after a period of training. In Experiment 2 (N = 8), the pigs were given different amounts of visual information about the content of the buckets-lifting either both of the buckets (full information), the baited bucket (direct information), the empty bucket (indirect information) or no bucket at all (no information). The subjects as a group were able to use direct and indirect visual cues. However, over the course of the experiment, the performance dropped to chance level when indirect information was provided. A final experiment (N = 3) provided preliminary results for pigs' use of indirect auditory information to infer the location of a reward. We conclude that pigs at a very young age are able to make decisions based on indirect information in the visual domain, whereas their performance in the use of indirect auditory information warrants further investigation. PMID:25650328

  12. Comparison of Microchip Transponder and Noncontact Infrared Thermometry with Rectal Thermometry in Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domestica).

    PubMed

    Jara, Amanda L; Hanson, Jarod M; Gabbard, Jon D; Johnson, Scott K; Register, Emery T; He, Biao; Tompkins, S Mark

    2016-01-01

    During disease outbreaks, core temperature is a useful health metric in swine, due to the presence of pyrexia especially during the acute phase of infection. Despite technologic advances in other facets of swine production and health management, rectal thermometry continues to be the 'gold standard' for measuring core body temperature. However, for various reasons, collecting rectal temperatures can be difficult and unsafe depending on the housing modality. In addition, the delay between insertion of the rectal thermometer and obtaining a reading can affect measurement accuracy, especially when the pig requires physical restraint. Clearly safer, faster, and more accurate and precise temperature acquisition methods that necessitate minimal or no handling of swine are needed. We therefore compared rectal thermometers, subcutaneous microchips, and an inexpensive handheld infrared thermometer by measuring the core body temperature of 24 male castrated piglets at random intervals over a 5-wk period. The core body temperature (mean ± 1 SD) was 39.3±0.5 °C by rectal thermometry, 39.0±0.7 °C by microchip transponder, and 34.3±1.0 °C by infrared thermometry; these 3 values differed significantly. Although the readings obtain by using infrared thermometry were numerically lower than those from the other methods, it is arguably the safest method for assessing the core temperature of swine and showed strong relative correlation with rectal temperature. PMID:27657715

  13. Lack of strong anti-viral immune gene stimulation in Torque Teno Sus Virus1 infected macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, P; Ramamoorthy, S

    2016-08-01

    While recent findings suggest that swine TTVs (TTSuVs) can act as primary or co-infecting pathogens, very little is known about viral immunity. To determine whether TTSuVs downregulate key host immune responses to facilitate their own survival, a swine macrophage cell line, 3D4/31, was used to over-express recombinant TTSuV1 viral particles or the ORF3 protein. Immune gene expression profiles were assessed by a quantitative PCR panel consisting of 22 immune genes, in cell samples collected at 6, 12, 24 and 48h post-transfection. Despite the upregulation of IFN-β and TLR9, interferon stimulated innate genes and pro-inflammatory genes were not upregulated in virally infected cells. The adaptive immune genes, IL-4 and IL-13, were significantly downregulated at 6h post-transfection. The ORF3 protein did not appear do not have a major immuno-suppressive effect, nor did it stimulate anti-viral immunity. Data from this study warrants further investigation into the mechanisms of TTV related immuno-pathogenesis. PMID:27179346

  14. College Choices Guide for Migrant Students and Parents = Guia de Elecciones de Universidades para Estudiantes Migrantes y sus Padres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy/Northeast Health, Troy, NY.

    This brief guide is a planning outline to help migrant students and parents prepare for, choose, and apply to college. The first section, "Thinking About College," offers specific tips for each grade from 9-12; discusses high school graduation requirements and college admission requirements, using Johnston County (North Carolina) schools and the…

  15. Como los colegios asignan y utilizan sus recursos? (How Schools Allocate and Use Their Resources). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picus, Lawrence O.

    School finance has traditionally concentrated on the distribution of resources to school districts, focusing primarily on the equitable distribution of funds within a state. In recent years, more attention has been paid to the issue of productivity--how effectively school districts use the funds they receive to provide education to students. This…

  16. Responses of single taste fibers and whole chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerve in the domestic pig, Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Danilova, V; Roberts, T; Hellekant, G

    1999-06-01

    Whole nerve, as well as single fiber, responses in the chorda tympani proper (CT) and glossopharyngeal (NG) nerves of 1- to 7-week-old pigs were recorded during taste stimulation. In the CT acids and in the NG bitter compounds gave the largest responses. Both nerves exhibited large responses to monosodium glutamate (MSG), MSG with guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP) and MSG with inositine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) as well as to glycine, xylitol, sucrose, fructose and glucose. Alitame, aspartame, betaine, neohesperedin dihydrochalcone (NHDHC), super-aspartame, saccharin and thaumatin elicited no or little response. Hierarchical cluster analysis of 49 CT fibers separated four major clusters. The M cluster, comprising 28.5% of all fibers, is characterized by strong responses to MSG, KCl, LiCl and NaCl. The responses to NaCl and LiCl were unaffected by amiloride. The H cluster (24.5%) includes units responding principally to acids. The Q cluster (18.5%) responds to quinine hydrochloride (QHCl), sucrose octaacetate (SOA) and salts with amiloride. The S cluster (28.5%) exhibits strong responses to xylitol, glycine and the carbohydrates as well as to MSG alone and to MSG with GMP or IMP. In 31 NG fibers, hierarchical cluster analysis revealed four clusters: the M cluster (10%), responding to MSG and MSG with GMP or IMP; the H cluster (13%), responding to acids; the Q cluster (29%), responding strongly to QHCl, SOA and tilmicosinR; and the S cluster (48%), responding best to xylitol, carbohydrates and glycine but also to the umami compounds. Multidimensional scaling analysis across fiber responses to all stimuli showed the best separation between compounds with different taste qualities when information from both nerves was utilized.

  17. Untangling the hybrid nature of modern pig genomes: a mosaic derived from biogeographically distinct and highly divergent Sus scrofa populations.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Mirte; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Madsen, Ole; Frantz, Laurent A F; Paudel, Yogesh; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Groenen, Martien A M

    2014-08-01

    The merging of populations after an extended period of isolation and divergence is a common phenomenon, in natural settings as well as due to human interference. Individuals with such hybrid origins contain genomes that essentially form a mosaic of different histories and demographies. Pigs are an excellent model species to study hybridization because European and Asian wild boars diverged ~1.2 Mya, and pigs were domesticated independently in Europe and Asia. During the Industrial Revolution in England, pigs were imported from China to improve the local pigs. This study utilizes the latest genomics tools to identify the origin of haplotypes in European domesticated pigs that are descendant from Asian and European populations. Our results reveal fine-scale haplotype structure representing different ancient demographic events, as well as a mosaic composition of those distinct histories due to recently introgressed haplotypes in the pig genome. As a consequence, nucleotide diversity in the genome of European domesticated pigs is higher when at least one haplotype of Asian origin is present, and haplotype length correlates negatively with recombination frequency and nucleotide diversity. Another consequence is that the inference of past effective population size is influenced by the background of the haplotypes in an individual, but we demonstrate that by careful sorting based on the origin of haplotypes, both distinct demographic histories can be reconstructed. Future detailed mapping of the genomic distribution of variation will enable a targeted approach to increase genetic diversity of captive and wild populations, thus facilitating conservation efforts in the near future.

  18. Vascular Access Port Implantation and Serial Blood Sampling in a Gottingen Minipig (Sus scrofa domestica) Model of Acute Radiation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Moroni, Maria; Coolbaugh, Thea V; Mitchell, Jennifer M; Lombardini, Eric; Moccia, Krinon D; Shelton, Larry J; Nagy, Vitaly; Whitnall, Mark H

    2011-01-01

    Threats of nuclear and other radiologic exposures have been increasing, but no countermeasure for acute radiation syndrome has been approved by regulatory authorities. Because of their similarity to humans in regard to physiology and anatomy, we are characterizing Gottingen minipigs as a model to aid the development of radiation countermeasures. Irradiated minipigs exhibit immunosuppression, severe thrombocytopenia, vascular leakage, and acute inflammation. These complications render serial acquisition of blood samples problematic. Vascular access ports (VAP) facilitate serial sampling, but their use often is complicated by infections and fibrin deposition. We demonstrate here the successful use of VAP for multiple blood samplings in irradiated minipigs. Device design and limited postoperative prophylactic antimicrobial therapy before irradiation were key to obtaining serial sampling, reducing swelling, and eliminating infection and skin necrosis at the implantation site. Modifications of previous protocols included the use of polydioxanone sutures instead of silk; eliminating chronic port access; single-use, sterile, antireflux prefilled syringes for flushing; strict aseptic weekly maintenance of the device, and acclimating animals to reduce stress. VAP remained functional in 19 of 20 irradiated animals for as long as 3 mo. The remaining VAP failed due to a small leak in the catheter, leading to clot formation. VAP-related sepsis occurred in 2 minipigs. Blood sampling did not cause detectable stress in nonanesthetized sham-irradiated animals, according to leukograms and clinical signs. PMID:21333166

  19. El Universo a Sus Pies: Actividades y Recursos para Astronomia (Universe at Your Fingertips: An Astronomy Activity and Resource Notebook).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew, Ed.; Schatz, Dennis, Ed.

    The goal of this resource notebook is to provide activities selected by astronomers and classroom teachers, comprehensive resource lists and bibliographies, background material on astronomical topics, and teaching ideas from experienced astronomy educators. Activities are grouped into several major areas of study in astronomy including lunar…

  20. Innovation in the role of the Office of the Ombudsman of the Unified Health System (SUS) - reflections and potential benefits.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Fernando Manuel Bessa; Moreira, Marcelo Rasga; Ribeiro, José Mendes; Ouverney, Assis Mafort; Oliveira, Flávio José Fonseca de; Moro, Maria Francisca Abritta

    2016-08-01

    This article seeks to reflect on the potential of innovative practices in the design and work of the government bodies that comprise the National System of Offices of the Ombudsman of the Unified Health System. It is divided into two parts, seeking to answer the following question: How to think of and implement innovative practices - which include sustainability - when the people are voicing their urgent demands and these are being heard by the public authorities? These grievances are all the more urgent as they involve the area of Health and can they be promptly discussed, attended and resolved? In the first part, the article discusses the polysemic concept of innovation, focusing on its application in the three spheres of public administration, and highlights the importance of its close correlation with the different notions of information and knowledge in a society such as the one we live in. In the second, it develops a task-force of ideas for the office of the ombudsman and based on this, a draft operational concept of innovation in the role of the office of the ombudsman, considering the context of high speed change and transformations and the complexity inherent to contemporary life and the need for resource management and expertise development in information management.

  1. Consentimiento informado: una praxis dialogica para la investigacion

    PubMed Central

    Mondragon-Barrios, Liliana

    2009-01-01

    El consentimiento informado es un proceso, en el que una persona acepta participar en una investigation, conociendo los riesgos, beneficios, consecuencias o problemas que se puedan presenter durante el desarrollo de la misma. El objetivo de este trabajo es reunir las caracteristicas del proceso de consentimiento informado (PCI) pare que su discernimiento y cumplimiento posibilite el ejercicio etc° dialogico, reflexivo y responsable del investigador. Se presentan los resultados de una extensa revision de les elementos del PCI, desde sus cornponentes hasta su fundamento etico y legal, incluyendo los mites y realidades que existen sobre el formato de consentimiento informado come recurso legal de protection. El consentimiento informado no es un formato establecido que los investigadores repliquen, se trata de que la praxis del PCI sea una tarea cotidiana dentro de la investigation con seres humanos, como comunicaciOn deliberative y critica, responsable y comprometida entre dos agentes morales, investigador-investigado. PMID:19507477

  2. DNA extraction from skins of wild (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris and Pecari tajacu) and domestic (Sus scrofa domestica) species using a novel protocol.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, G N; Amavet, P S; Rueda, E C; Siroski, P A

    2012-03-19

    Sometimes, commercial products obtained from wild animals are sold as if they were from domestic animals and vice versa. At this point of the productive chain, legal control of possible wildlife products is difficult. Common in the commerce of northern Argentina, skins of two wild species, the carpincho and the collared peccary, look very similar to each other and to those of the domestic pig; it is extremely difficult to differentiate them after they have been tanned. Because there was no an adequate methodology to discriminate between leather of these three species, we developed a new methodology of DNA extraction from skin and leather. This new method involves digesting a leather sample using proteinase K, followed by precipitation of proteins with 5 M NaCl, cleaning with absolute isopropanol and DNA precipitation with 70% ethanol. DNA is hydrated in Tris-EDTA buffer. This protocol provided good-quality DNA suitable for analysis with molecular markers. This new protocol has potential for use in identifying leather products of these species using molecular markers based on RAPDs.

  3. DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) induced delay of blowfly landing and oviposition rates on treated pig carrion (Sus scrofa L.).

    PubMed

    Shelomi, Matan; Matern, Leia M; Dinstell, Jenna M; Harris, Daren W; Kimsey, Robert B

    2012-11-01

    The question of whether the insect repellent N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) affected fly attraction, oviposition, and larval development was investigated; in part, to determine whether the common habit of wearing DEET as a repellent could affect the rate of human decomposition. Experiments using pig surrogates of human decedents were carried out in a rural environment. Dead piglets were sprayed with DEET, and fly behavior, colonization levels, and maggot development were compared with those in nonsprayed controls. Piglets treated with DEET experienced significant delays in fly visitation and oviposition and delayed appearance of each larval instar, as well as reduced total larval numbers (p < 0.01 for all variables), with subsequently reduced decomposition (p < 0.05). Such changes in fly behavior and larval population development would significantly impact the estimation of the period following the death from entomological evidence in decedents wearing DEET at the time of their death.

  4. Ixodid ticks parasitizing Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) and European wild boar (Sus scrofa) from Spain: geographical and temporal distribution.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Fernández-de-Mera, Isabel G; Acevedo, Pelayo; Höfle, Ursula; Vicente, Joaquín; de la Fuente, José; Gortazár, Christian

    2006-08-31

    Commercial hunting of Spanish wild ungulates has made them an important economic resource. Wild ungulates may have an important role in the maintenance of ixodid tick populations, and also as reservoirs of pathogens. We studied the ixodid ticks that parasitize Iberian red deer and European wild boar from Spain. Ixodid ticks (n=6,336) were collected from 431 Iberian red deer and 142 wild boar in different regions of Spain. We found 10 different ixodid tick species parasitizing Iberian red deer, mainly Hyalomma marginatum marginatum (63.7%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (7.9%) and R. bursa (7.5%). R. (Boophilus) annulatus was only collected in the province of Cádiz (southern Spain). We found 8 ixodid tick species on the wild boar, mainly Hy. m. marginatum (68.7%), R. bursa (14.6%) and Dermacentor marginatus (9.3%). We found one adult Hy. marginatum rufipes and one adult Hy. anatolicum excavatum parasitizing wild boar from south-central Spain. Mean prevalence of ixodid ticks was 41.3+/-0.08% (n=475) and 31+/-0.09% (n=284) and intensity of parasitization was 13.9+/-0.2 (n=283) and 13.6+/-0.3 (n=130) ticks/animal for Iberian red deer and wild boar, respectively. Only 5 of the 13 ixodid tick species found were shared by Iberian red deer and wild boar. This finding could indicate a host preference when Iberian red deer and wild boar share common habitats. In both Iberian red deer and wild boar from south-central Spain the monthly relative frequencies of Hy. m. marginatum and R. bursa presented an inverse pattern. The highest Hy. m. marginatum relative frequencies coincided with the lowest R. bursa relative frequencies along the year. R. bursa and I. ricinus were present in areas from northern to southern Spain while Hyalomma sp. and D. marginatus were exclusively collected in the two southern thirds of Spain. Haemaphysalis sp. and D. reticulatus were collected in northern Spain. Hy. m. marginatum and R. bursa were present during the whole year in red deer and wild boar from south-central Spain, showing more than one life cycle per year. These results are important for understanding the role of wild ungulates in the maintenance of tick infestations and to improve tick control programmes. PMID:16675125

  5. Does feed restriction and re-alimentation differently affect lipid content and metabolism according to muscle type in pigs (Sus scrofa)?

    PubMed

    Gondret, Florence; Lebret, Bénédicte

    2007-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether feed restriction and re-alimentation differently affect lipid content and activities of lipogenic or catabolic enzymes according to muscle types in pigs. At around 28 kg body mass (BW), sixty pigs (n=30 per group) were allocated to either ad libitum (AL) or restricted/re-feeding (RA) regimens. After feed restriction (80 kg BW), lipid content was reduced (P<0.01) in the oxidative rhomboideus (RH) as in the glycolytic biceps femoris (BF) muscles of RA pigs compared with AL pigs. Lower activities (P<0.05) of the lipogenic enzymes fatty acid synthase (FAS) and malic enzyme (ME) were observed in the RH but not in the BF of RA vs. AL pigs. After re-feeding (110 kg BW), lipid content was restored in the RH, but was still 12% lower (P<0.05) in the BF of RA compared with AL pigs. In the RH, the trend for an enhanced FAS activity and for a smaller weight-related decrease of ME activity in RA pigs than AL pigs during re-feeding, may have contributed to the muscle fat recovery observed in the RA pigs. In the BF, higher oxidative enzyme activities (P<0.10) in RA pigs compared to AL pigs might explain the incomplete lipid recovery observed after re-feeding in the former animals. In conclusion, metabolic activities in response to restriction and re-feeding differed according to muscle metabolic type.

  6. A Family Guide to Systems of Care for Children with Mental Health Needs = Guia para la familia de "Systems of Care" para la salud mental de sus hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Janice; Harris, Pam; Hawes, Janet; Shepler, Rick; Tolin, Canice; Truman, Connie

    This bilingual (English-Spanish) guide is intended to assist parents and caregivers in seeking help for children with mental health problems. As part of the system of care, parents and caregivers need to work together to help the child in need. Caregivers and counselors can help families define their strengths, determine the things they want to…

  7. [Conceptions and typology of conflicts between workers and managers in the context of primary healthcare in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS)].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Brígida Gimenez; Peduzzi, Marina; Ayres, José Ricardo de Carvalho Mesquita

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze perceptions of conflict between workers and managers in primary healthcare units and to present a typology of conflicts on the job. This was a comprehensive interpretive case study with a critical hermeneutic approach. Data collection techniques included: focus group with managers, workplace observation, and worker interviews, conducted from April to November 2011. The results were triangulated and indicated the coexistence of distinct concepts of conflict, typified in six modalities: lack of collaboration at work; disrespect resulting from asymmetrical relations between workers; problematic employee behavior; personal problems; asymmetry with other management levels; and inadequate work infrastructure. The relevance of (non)mutual recognition, as proposed by Axel Honneth, stood out in the interpretation of the causes and practical implications of these conflicts.

  8. The Socio-Cultural and Leadership Experiences of Latina Four-Year College and University Presidents: A Traves de sus Voces (Through Their Voices)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maes, Johanna B.

    2012-01-01

    The Latina population in the United States is one of the largest of all racial and ethnic groups, and it is expected to grow exponentially within the next forty years. Despite these large numbers of Latinas in the U.S., there is a disparity with this population who are leading our nation's four-year colleges and universities. A reason for…

  9. Effect of cattle on Salmonella carriage, diversity and antimicrobial resistance in free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) in northeastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Gonzalez, Nora; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Porrero, Concepción M; Serrano, Emmanuel; Mateos, Ana; López-Martín, José M; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella is distributed worldwide and is a pathogen of economic and public health importance. As a multi-host pathogen with a long environmental persistence, it is a suitable model for the study of wildlife-livestock interactions. In this work, we aim to explore the spill-over of Salmonella between free-ranging wild boar and livestock in a protected natural area in NE Spain and the presence of antimicrobial resistance. Salmonella prevalence, serotypes and diversity were compared between wild boars, sympatric cattle and wild boars from cattle-free areas. The effect of age, sex, cattle presence and cattle herd size on Salmonella probability of infection in wild boars was explored by means of Generalized Linear Models and a model selection based on the Akaike's Information Criterion. Prevalence was higher in wild boars co-habiting with cattle (35.67%, CI 95% 28.19-43.70) than in wild boar from cattle-free areas (17.54%, CI 95% 8.74-29.91). Probability of a wild boar being a Salmonella carrier increased with cattle herd size but decreased with the host age. Serotypes Meleagridis, Anatum and Othmarschen were isolated concurrently from cattle and sympatric wild boars. Apart from serotypes shared with cattle, wild boars appear to have their own serotypes, which are also found in wild boars from cattle-free areas (Enteritidis, Mikawasima, 4:b:- and 35:r:z35). Serotype richness (diversity) was higher in wild boars co-habiting with cattle, but evenness was not altered by the introduction of serotypes from cattle. The finding of a S. Mbandaka strain resistant to sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin and chloramphenicol and a S. Enteritidis strain resistant to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid in wild boars is cause for public health concern.

  10. Effect of Cattle on Salmonella Carriage, Diversity and Antimicrobial Resistance in Free-Ranging Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in Northeastern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Gonzalez, Nora; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Porrero, Concepción M.; Serrano, Emmanuel; Mateos, Ana; López-Martín, José M.; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella is distributed worldwide and is a pathogen of economic and public health importance. As a multi-host pathogen with a long environmental persistence, it is a suitable model for the study of wildlife-livestock interactions. In this work, we aim to explore the spill-over of Salmonella between free-ranging wild boar and livestock in a protected natural area in NE Spain and the presence of antimicrobial resistance. Salmonella prevalence, serotypes and diversity were compared between wild boars, sympatric cattle and wild boars from cattle-free areas. The effect of age, sex, cattle presence and cattle herd size on Salmonella probability of infection in wild boars was explored by means of Generalized Linear Models and a model selection based on the Akaike’s Information Criterion. Prevalence was higher in wild boars co-habiting with cattle (35.67%, CI 95% 28.19–43.70) than in wild boar from cattle-free areas (17.54%, CI 95% 8.74–29.91). Probability of a wild boar being a Salmonella carrier increased with cattle herd size but decreased with the host age. Serotypes Meleagridis, Anatum and Othmarschen were isolated concurrently from cattle and sympatric wild boars. Apart from serotypes shared with cattle, wild boars appear to have their own serotypes, which are also found in wild boars from cattle-free areas (Enteritidis, Mikawasima, 4:b:- and 35:r:z35). Serotype richness (diversity) was higher in wild boars co-habiting with cattle, but evenness was not altered by the introduction of serotypes from cattle. The finding of a S. Mbandaka strain resistant to sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin and chloramphenicol and a S. Enteritidis strain resistant to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid in wild boars is cause for public health concern. PMID:23284725

  11. Measurement methods for surface oxides on SUS 316L in simulated light water reactor coolant environments using synchrotron XRD and XRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Masashi; Yonezawa, Toshio; Shobu, Takahisa; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2013-03-01

    Synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescent (XRF) measurement techniques have been used for non-destructive characterization of surface oxide films on Type 316L austenitic stainless steels that were exposed to simulated primary water environments of pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water reactors (BWR). The layer structures of the surface spinel oxides were revealed ex situ after oxidation by measurements made as a function of depth. The layer structure of spinel oxides formed in simulated PWR primary water should normally be different from that formed in simulated BWR water. After oxidation in the simulated BWR environment, the spinel oxide was observed to contain NiFe2O4 at shallow depths, and FeCr2O4 and Fe3O4 at deeper depths. By contrast, after oxidation in the simulated PWR primary water environment, a Fe3O4 type spinel was observed near the surface and FeCr2O4 type spinel near the interface with the metal substrate. Furthermore, by in situ measurements during oxidation in the simulated BWR environment, it was also demonstrated that the ratio between spinel and hematite Fe2O3 can be changed depending on the water condition such as BWR normal water chemistry or BWR hydrogen water chemistry.

  12. Efficacy of the blizzard blanket or blizzard blanket plus thermal angel in preventing hypothermia in a hemorrhagic shock victim (Sus scrofa) under operational conditions.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Elizabeth; Schmelz, Joseph; Evers, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The prevention of hypothermia in military casualties under field conditions is challenging. The efficacy of a baffled reflective Blanket (Blizzard Blanket), a portable intravenous fluid warmer (Thermal Angel), and wool Blankets (control) in preventing hypothermia was tested under military field conditions in a swine hemorrhagic shock model. Fifteen pigs were bled at 10 degrees C. After 45 minutes, Hextend was administered (groups 1 and 3, at 10 degrees C; group 2, via Thermal Angel); groups 2 and 3 were encircled with a Blizzard Blanket. After 120 minutes, the pigs were moved to 21 degrees C to simulate a field hospital; group 1 was covered with Blankets. Blood was administered (groups 1 and 3, at 4 degrees C; group 2, via Thermal Angel) with 180 minutes of monitoring. The core temperature was <35 degrees C in five of five control pigs, four of five Blizzard-only pigs, and one of five Thermal Angel plus Blizzard Blanket pigs. The Blizzard Blanket limited but did not prevent hypothermia. The Thermal Angel plus Blizzard Blanket combination prevented hypothermia. The Thermal Angel is useful for bolus administration when electricity is limited; its military field use is constrained by battery weight and battery life. PMID:17274259

  13. Como los padres ocupados pueden ayudar a sus hijos a aprender y desarrollarse (How Busy Parents Can Help Their Children Learn and Develop). Early Childhood Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Ellen; Kreider, Holly; Vaughan, Peggy

    Although parents are often very busy with work and family responsibilities, there are many things they can do to help their school-age children learn and develop. This Spanish-language early childhood digest for parents provides tips obtained from parents of first and second graders in the School Transition Study on creative ways to stay involved…

  14. Hable con sus hijos: Antes de que lo hagan todos los demas (Talk with Your Kids...before Everyone Else Does: Talking with Kids about Tough Issues).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, Oakland, CA.

    Parents are challenged daily with a wide range of disturbing issues that are difficult for children to understand and for adults to explain. This Spanish-language booklet offers practical, concrete tips and techniques for talking easily and openly with 8- to 12-year-olds about sex, HIV/AIDS, violence, drugs, and alcohol. The book is divided into…

  15. The prey pathway: a regional history of cattle (Bos taurus) and pig (Sus scrofa) domestication in the northern Jordan Valley, Israel.

    PubMed

    Marom, Nimrod; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The faunal assemblage from the 9(th)-8(th) millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8(th) millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored.

  16. The influence of environmental and physiological factors on the litter size of wild boar (Sus scrofa) in an agriculture dominated area in Germany.

    PubMed

    Frauendorf, Magali; Gethöffer, Friederike; Siebert, Ursula; Keuling, Oliver

    2016-01-15

    The wild boar population has increased enormously in all of Europe over the last decades and caused problems like crop damage, transmission of diseases, and vehicle accidents. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the underlying causes of this increase in order to be able to manage populations effectively. The purpose of this study was to analyse how environmental (food and climate) and physiological factors (maternal weight and age) as well as hunting and population density influence the litter size of wild boar populations in Northern Germany. The mean litter size in the studied population for the whole period was 6.6 (range 1–12), which is one of the highest in all of Europe. Litter size was positively influenced by maternal body weight, higher mast yield of oak as well as higher temperature in combination with higher precipitation in summer. Only higher temperature or only higher precipitation in summer however had a negative effect on litter size production. Probably,weather and food conditions act via maternal bodyweight on the litter size variation in wild boar. Hunting as well a s population density did not affect the litter size variation in this study which might indicate that wild boar population did not reach carrying capacity yet.

  17. Proteomic Analysis of Pig (Sus scrofa) Olfactory Soluble Proteome Reveals O-Linked-N-Acetylglucosaminylation of Secreted Odorant-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nagnan-Le Meillour, Patricia; Vercoutter-Edouart, Anne-Sophie; Hilliou, Frédérique; Le Danvic, Chrystelle; Lévy, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of olfactory binding proteins (OBPs) is a key point to understand their role in molecular olfaction. Since only few different sequences were characterized in each mammalian species, they have been considered as passive carriers of odors and pheromones. We have explored the soluble proteome of pig nasal mucus, taking benefit of the powerful tools of proteomics. Combining two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and western-blot with specific antibodies, our analyses revealed for the first time that the pig nasal mucus is mainly composed of secreted OBP isoforms, some of them being potentially modified by O-GlcNAcylation. An ortholog gene of the glycosyltransferase responsible of the O-GlcNAc linking on extracellular proteins in Drosophila and Mouse (EOGT) was amplified from tissues of pigs of different ages and sex. The sequence was used in a phylogenetic analysis, which evidenced conservation of EOGT in insect and mammalian models studied in molecular olfaction. Extracellular O-GlcNAcylation of secreted OBPs could finely modulate their binding specificities to odors and pheromones. This constitutes a new mechanism for extracellular signaling by OBPs, suggesting that they act as the first step of odor discrimination. PMID:25538681

  18. Isolation of Campylobacter from feral swine (Sus scrofa) on the ranch associated with the 2006 Escherichia coli O157:H7 spinach outbreak investigation in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the isolation of Campylobacter species from the same population of feral swine that was investigated in San Benito County, California during the 2006 spinach-related Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak. This is the first survey of Campylobacter in a free-ranging feral swine population in the...

  19. Humans (Homo sapiens) judge the emotional content of piglet (Sus scrofa domestica) calls based on simple acoustic parameters, not personality, empathy, nor attitude toward animals.

    PubMed

    Maruščáková, Iva L; Linhart, Pavel; Ratcliffe, Victoria F; Tallet, Céline; Reby, David; Špinka, Marek

    2015-05-01

    The vocal expression of emotion is likely driven by shared physiological principles among species. However, which acoustic features promote decoding of emotional state and how the decoding is affected by their listener's psychology remain poorly understood. Here we tested how acoustic features of piglet vocalizations interact with psychological profiles of human listeners to affect judgments of emotional content of heterospecific vocalizations. We played back 48 piglet call sequences recorded in four different contexts (castration, isolation, reunion, nursing) to 60 listeners. Listeners judged the emotional intensity and valence of the recordings and were further asked to attribute a context of emission from four proposed contexts. Furthermore, listeners completed a series of questionnaires assessing their personality (NEO-FFI personality inventory), empathy [Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI)] and attitudes to animals (Animal Attitudes Scale). None of the listeners' psychological traits affected the judgments. On the contrary, acoustic properties of recordings had a substantial effect on ratings. Recordings were rated as more intense with increasing pitch (mean fundamental frequency) and increasing proportion of vocalized sound within each stimulus recording and more negative with increasing pitch and increasing duration of the calls within the recording. More complex acoustic properties (jitter, harmonic-to-noise ratio, and presence of subharmonics) did not seem to affect the judgments. The probability of correct context recognition correlated positively with the assessed emotion intensity for castration and reunion calls, and negatively for nursing calls. In conclusion, listeners judged emotions from pig calls using simple acoustic properties and the perceived emotional intensity might guide the identification of the context.

  20. Tissue concentrations of sulfamethazine and tetracycline hydrochloride of swine (Sus scrofa domestica) as it relates to withdrawal methods for international export.

    PubMed

    Mason, Sharon E; Wu, Huali; Yeatts, Jim E; Baynes, Ronald E

    2015-04-01

    The use of water medications is a common practice in the US swine industry to treat and prevent infections in swine herds with minimal labor and without risk of needle breakage. There are concerns that FDA-approved withdrawal times (WDT) may be inadequate for several water medications when exporting pork products to countries where MRLs (maximum residue limits) are lower than US tolerance levels. In this study, withdrawal intervals (WDI) were estimated for pigs when dosed with tetracycline and sulfamethazine in water. The WDI were calculated using the FDA tolerance method (TLM) and a population-based pharmacokinetic method (PopPK). The estimated WDIs (14-16 days using TLM) were similar to the approved WDT of 15 days for sulfamethazine. However, the PopPK method extended WDIs for both sulfamethazine (19-20 days) and tetracycline (12 days) compared to the currently approved WDTs in the U.S. This study also identified potential differences in WDI between weanling and finisher pigs. In conclusion, the TLM may not always provide adequate WDT for foreign export markets especially when MRLs differ from tolerance levels approved for US markets. However, PopPK methods can provide conservative WDIs in situations with considerable variability in medication exposure such as with administration in water.

  1. How to survey classical swine fever in wild boar (Sus scrofa) after the completion of oral vaccination? Chasing away the ghost of infection at different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Saubusse, Thibault; Masson, Jean-Daniel; Le Dimma, Mireille; Abrial, David; Marcé, Clara; Martin-Schaller, Regine; Dupire, Anne; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Rossi, Sophie

    2016-01-25

    Oral mass vaccination (OMV) is considered as an efficient strategy for controlling classical swine fever (CSF) in wild boar. After the completion of vaccination, the presence of antibodies in 6-12 month-old hunted wild boars was expected to reflect a recent CSF circulation. Nevertheless, antibodies could also correspond to the long-lasting of maternal antibodies. This paper relates an experience of surveillance which lasted 4 years after the completion of OMV in a formerly vaccinated area, in north-eastern France (2010-2014). First, we conducted a retrospective analysis of the serological data collected in 6-12 month-old hunted wild boars from 2010 up to 2013, using a spatial Bayesian model accounting for hunting data autocorrelation and heterogeneity. At the level of the whole area, seroprevalence in juvenile boars decreased from 28% in 2010-2011 down to 1% in 2012-2013, but remained locally high (above 5%). The model revealed the existence of one particular seroprevalence hot-spot where a longitudinal survey of marked animals was conducted in 2013-2014, for deciphering the origin of antibodies. Eleven out of 107 captured piglets were seropositive when 3-4 months-old, but their antibody titres progressively decreased until 6-7 months of age. These results suggest piglets were carrying maternal antibodies, few of them carrying maternal antibodies lasting until the hunting season. Our study shows that OMV may generate confusion in the CSF surveillance several years after the completion of vaccination. We recommend using quantitative serological tools, hunting data modelling and capture approaches for better interpreting serological results after vaccination completion. Surveillance perspectives are further discussed.

  2. Estudiantes con discapacidades preparandose para la educacion postsecundaria: Conozca sus derechos y responsabilidades (Students with Disabilities Preparing for Postsecondary Education: Know Your Rights and Responsibilities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet, in Spanish, intended for postsecondary students with disabilities, explains the rights and responsibilities of these students and the obligations of a postsecondary school to provide academic adjustments. The federal legislation on which the information is based is described. Information for students is presented in question and…

  3. Keep It Safe. FDIC Money Smart Financial Education Curriculum = Conozca sus Derechos. FDIC Money Smart Plan de Educacion para Capacitacion en Finanzas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corp., Washington, DC.

    This module on one's rights as a consumer is one of ten in the Money Smart curriculum, and includes an instructor guide and a take-home guide. It was developed to help adults outside the financial mainstream enhance their money skills and create positive banking relationships. It is designed to enable participants to become familiar with their…

  4. Identification and differential expression of microRNAs in the ovaries of pigs (Sus scrofa) with high and low litter sizes.

    PubMed

    Huang, L; Yin, Z J; Feng, Y F; Zhang, X D; Wu, T; Ding, Y Y; Ye, P F; Fu, K; Zhang, M Q

    2016-10-01

    Litter size affects profitability in the swine industry. Mammalian ovaries play important roles during reproduction, including ovulation and hormone secretion, which are tightly regulated by specific microRNAs (miRNAs). In this study, we investigated the effects of specific miRNAs on porcine litter size. We compared the ovarian miRNAs of Yorkshire pigs with high (YH) and low (YL) litter sizes using Solexa sequencing technology. We identified 327 and 320 miRNAs in the ovaries of YH and YL pigs respectively. A total of 297 miRNAs were co-expressed; 30 and 23 miRNAs respectively were specifically expressed in the two libraries. A total of 83 novel miRNAs were predicted; 37 specific miRNAs were obtained, of which 21 miRNAs were upregulated and 16 miRNAs were downregulated in YH compared with YL. Additionally, 19 628 and 19 250 target genes were predicted in the two libraries respectively. The results revealed that specific miRNAs (i.e., miR-224, miR-99a, let-7c, miR-181c, miR-214 and miR-21) may affect porcine litter size. The results of this study will help in gaining understanding of the role of miRNAs in porcine litter size regulation. PMID:27435155

  5. The Prey Pathway: A Regional History of Cattle (Bos taurus) and Pig (Sus scrofa) Domestication in the Northern Jordan Valley, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Marom, Nimrod; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The faunal assemblage from the 9th-8th millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8th millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored. PMID:23405240

  6. The influence of environmental and physiological factors on the litter size of wild boar (Sus scrofa) in an agriculture dominated area in Germany.

    PubMed

    Frauendorf, Magali; Gethöffer, Friederike; Siebert, Ursula; Keuling, Oliver

    2016-01-15

    The wild boar population has increased enormously in all of Europe over the last decades and caused problems like crop damage, transmission of diseases, and vehicle accidents. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the underlying causes of this increase in order to be able to manage populations effectively. The purpose of this study was to analyse how environmental (food and climate) and physiological factors (maternal weight and age) as well as hunting and population density influence the litter size of wild boar populations in Northern Germany. The mean litter size in the studied population for the whole period was 6.6 (range 1–12), which is one of the highest in all of Europe. Litter size was positively influenced by maternal body weight, higher mast yield of oak as well as higher temperature in combination with higher precipitation in summer. Only higher temperature or only higher precipitation in summer however had a negative effect on litter size production. Probably,weather and food conditions act via maternal bodyweight on the litter size variation in wild boar. Hunting as well a s population density did not affect the litter size variation in this study which might indicate that wild boar population did not reach carrying capacity yet. PMID:26437356

  7. Producción masiva automatizada de la broca del café Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleóptera: Scolytidae) y de sus parasitoides sobre dietas artificiales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article reviews the current state of knowledge concerning the mass rearing system of the coffee berry borer, cbb, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), and its African parasitoids: the ectoparasitoids Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Betrem) and Prorops nasuta ((Waterston) (Hymenop...

  8. Characterization of Rhodococcus equi isolates from submaxillary lymph nodes of wild boars (Sus scrofa), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    PubMed

    Rzewuska, Magdalena; Witkowski, Lucjan; Cisek, Agata A; Stefańska, Ilona; Chrobak, Dorota; Stefaniuk, Elżbieta; Kizerwetter-Świda, Magdalena; Takai, Shinji

    2014-08-01

    Rhodococcus equi is a soil saprophyte and an opportunistic pathogen causing infections in animals, and rarely in humans. The presence of R. equi in tissues and faeces of some wild animal species was demonstrated previously. In this study we characterized R. equi isolates from submaxillary lymph nodes of free-living wild boars (n=23), red deer (n=2) and roe deer (n=2). This is the first description of R. equi strains isolated from tissues of the Cervidae. All isolates were initially recognized as R. equi based on the phenotypic properties. Their identification was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, detection of the choE gene and by sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes. The presence of three plasmidic genes (traA, vapA and vapB) associated with R. equi virulence was investigated by PCR. In 16 wild boar isolates the traA and vapB genes were detected and they were located on virulence plasmids type 5, 7 or 11. The isolates from cervids and the remaining wild boar isolates were classified as avirulent based on a genotype traA(-)/vapA(-)B(-). In summary, these results confirm that wild boars can be a source of intermediately virulent R. equi strains, and indicate that red deer and roe deer can be a reservoir of avirulent R. equi strains. PMID:24878324

  9. A preliminary study of the effects of individual response to challenge tests and stress induced by humans on learning performance of weaned piglets (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Brajon, Sophie; Laforest, Jean-Paul; Schmitt, Océane; Devillers, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated whether individual behavioural characteristics of piglets and stress induced by experience with humans can influence learning performance. After weaning, piglets received a chronic experience with humans to modulate their emotional state: rough (ROU), gentle (GEN), or minimal (MIN) experience. Simultaneously, they were trained on a discrimination task. Afterward, their behaviour during challenge tests was assessed. The first learning step of the task involved associating a positive sound cue with a response (approach a trough) and success of piglets depended mostly on motivation to seek for reward. Although the experience with humans did not have direct effect, the degree of fear of handler, measured based on their reactivity to a human approach test, was related to motivation to seek rewards and learning speed of this first step in stressed ROU piglets, but not in MIN and GEN piglets. In contrast, the second learning step was more cognitively challenging, since it involved discrimination learning, including negative cues during which piglets had to learn to avoid the trough. Locomotion activity, measured during an open-field test, was associated with performance of the discrimination learning. To conclude, fearfulness towards humans and locomotion activity are linked with learning performance in relation to task complexity, highlighting the necessity to take into account these factors in animal research and management. PMID:27246576

  10. [Conceptions and typology of conflicts between workers and managers in the context of primary healthcare in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS)].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Brígida Gimenez; Peduzzi, Marina; Ayres, José Ricardo de Carvalho Mesquita

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze perceptions of conflict between workers and managers in primary healthcare units and to present a typology of conflicts on the job. This was a comprehensive interpretive case study with a critical hermeneutic approach. Data collection techniques included: focus group with managers, workplace observation, and worker interviews, conducted from April to November 2011. The results were triangulated and indicated the coexistence of distinct concepts of conflict, typified in six modalities: lack of collaboration at work; disrespect resulting from asymmetrical relations between workers; problematic employee behavior; personal problems; asymmetry with other management levels; and inadequate work infrastructure. The relevance of (non)mutual recognition, as proposed by Axel Honneth, stood out in the interpretation of the causes and practical implications of these conflicts. PMID:25166942

  11. Potential risk of zoonotic infections in recreational areas visited by Sus scrofa and Vulpes vulpes. Case study--Wolin Island, Poland.

    PubMed

    Mizgajska-Wiktor, Hanna; Jarosz, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    The relation between intestinal parasite prevalence in wild boars and red foxes and the sanitary condition of the soil in recreational estates were determined. The analysis was made based on 36 samples of boar faeces and 22 samples of fox faeces, collected in their habitat as well as 60 samples of soil from two recreational areas. Two methods were used for faecal samples--flotation and direct faecal smear; and flotation in NaNO3 for soil samples examination. Zoonotic nematode eggs were recovered from 25.5% of boar faecal samples; they were Ascaris suum (22.2%) and Trichuris suis (5.6%). Other parasites found were: Metastrongylus sp. (69.4%), Oesophagostomum sp., Strongyloides sp. (36.6%) and Physocephalus sp. (8.6%) as well as coccidia (69.4%). In fox faeces, zoonotic nematode eggs were recovered from 31.8% of samples, and they were Toxocara canis (27.2%) and Ancylostoma caninum (18.2%). Tapeworm eggs were found in 36.4% of samples including Taenia sp. (22.7%). The presence of Uncinaria stenocephala (45.5%), Capillaria sp. (36.4%), Trichuris vulpis (4.5%) and coccidia (40.1%) was also detected. It was shown that both, flotation and faecal smear, as mutually complementary should be used for higher rate of detection of parasites in faeces. No eggs of zoonotic helminths in soil from recreational areas were found despite these areas were accessible to wild animals and pets. This could be explained by characteristics of the soil (loose sand soil) as well as by behaviour of the parasite hosts in the examined areas. PMID:21174955

  12. The Influence of Antral Ulcers on Intramural Gastric Nerve Projections Supplying the Pyloric Sphincter in the Pig (Sus scrofa domestica)—Neuronal Tracing Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zalecki, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Background Gastric ulcerations in the region of antrum pylori represent a serious medical problem in humans and animals. Such localization of ulcers can influence the intrinsic descending nerve supply to the pyloric sphincter. The pyloric function is precisely regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic nerves. Impaired neural regulation could result in pyloric sphincter dysfunction and gastric emptying malfunction. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of gastric antral ulcerations on the density and distribution of intramural gastric descending neurons supplying the pyloric sphincter in pigs. Methodology/Principal Findings The experiment was performed on 2 groups of pigs: healthy gilts (n=6) and gilts with experimentally induced peptic ulcers in the region of antrum pylori (n=6). Gastric neurons supplying pyloric sphincter were labeled using the retrograde neuronal tracing technique (20μl of Fast Blue tracer injected into the pyloric sphincter muscle). After a week survival period the animals were sacrificed and the stomachs were collected. Then, the stomach wall was cross-cut into 0.5cm thick sections taken in specified intervals (section I - 1.5cm; section II - 3.5cm; section III - 5.5cm; section IV – 7.5cm) starting from the sphincter. Consecutive microscopic slices prepared from each section were analyzed under fluorescent microscope to count traced neurons. Obtained data were statistically analyzed. The total number of FB-positive perikarya observed within all studied sections significantly decreased from 903.3 ± 130.7 in control to 243.8 ± 67.3 in experimental animals. In healthy pigs 76.1 ± 6.7% of labeled neurons were observed within the section I, 23.53 ± 6.5% in section II and only occasional cells in section III. In experimental animals, as many as 93.8 ± 2.1% of labeled cells were observed within the section I and only 6.2 ± 2.2% in section II, while section III was devoid of such neurons. There were no traced perikarya in section IV observed in both groups of pigs. Conclusions/Significance Obtained results revealed for the first time significant impact of antral ulcerations on intramural descending nerve pathways supplying the pyloric sphincter in pigs, animals of increasing value in biomedical research and great economic importance. PMID:25962176

  13. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for patients of the Brazilian unified health system (SUS): an analysis of 508 treatments two years after the technique implementation.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Harley Francisco; Trevisan, Felipe Amstalden; Bighetti, Viviane Marques; Guimarães, Flávio da Silva; Amaral, Leonardo Lira; Barbi, Gustavo Lázaro; Borges, Leandro Federiche; Peria, Fernanda Maris

    2014-01-01

    The Bosniak classification for renal cysts was developed in the late 1980s in an attempt to standardize the description and management of complex cystic renal lesions. Alterations were made to such a classification in the 1990s and, the last one, in 2005. Currently, five categories of cystic renal lesions are defined - namely, I, II, II-F, III and IV -, according to their degree of complexity and likelihood of malignancy. Despite being initially described for computed tomography, this classification has been also utilized with some advantages also for magnetic resonance imaging. The present article reviews the different phases of this classification, its diagnostic efficacy and the most controversial features of its use.

  14. Prepare Your Child For Reading Tests: Tips for Parents = Prepare a sus hijos para tomar pruebas de lectura: Ideas para padres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Tori Mello

    Parents can help their children prepare for reading tests in a number of ways, not only just before the test, but also with everyday activities. There are generally two types of reading tests given to students: tests given by teachers throughout the year to see what information students have retained, and more formal, often standardized, tests…

  15. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Hunted Wild Boars (Sus scrofa): Heart Meat Juice as an Alternative Sample to Serum for the Detection of Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Catarina; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Mesquita, João Rodrigo; Cardoso, Luís; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a global zoonosis caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Detection of antibodies to T. gondii in serum samples from hunted animals may represent a key step for public health protection. It is also important to assess the circulation of this parasite in wild boar population. However, in hunted animals, collection of blood is not feasible and meat juice may represent an alternative sample. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate heart meat juice of hunted wild boars as an alternative sample for post-mortem detection of antibodies to T. gondii by modified agglutination test (MAT). The agreement beyond chance between results from meat juice assessed with Cohen's kappa coefficient revealed that the 1:20 meat juice dilution provided the highest agreement. McNemars's test further revealed 1:10 as the most suitable meat juice dilution, as the proportion of positive paired samples (serum and meat juice from the same animal) did not differ at this dilution. All together, these results suggest a reasonable accuracy of heart meat juice to detect antibodies to T. gondii by MAT and support it as an alternative sample in post-mortem analysis in hunted wild boars.

  16. How to survey classical swine fever in wild boar (Sus scrofa) after the completion of oral vaccination? Chasing away the ghost of infection at different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Saubusse, Thibault; Masson, Jean-Daniel; Le Dimma, Mireille; Abrial, David; Marcé, Clara; Martin-Schaller, Regine; Dupire, Anne; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Rossi, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Oral mass vaccination (OMV) is considered as an efficient strategy for controlling classical swine fever (CSF) in wild boar. After the completion of vaccination, the presence of antibodies in 6-12 month-old hunted wild boars was expected to reflect a recent CSF circulation. Nevertheless, antibodies could also correspond to the long-lasting of maternal antibodies. This paper relates an experience of surveillance which lasted 4 years after the completion of OMV in a formerly vaccinated area, in north-eastern France (2010-2014). First, we conducted a retrospective analysis of the serological data collected in 6-12 month-old hunted wild boars from 2010 up to 2013, using a spatial Bayesian model accounting for hunting data autocorrelation and heterogeneity. At the level of the whole area, seroprevalence in juvenile boars decreased from 28% in 2010-2011 down to 1% in 2012-2013, but remained locally high (above 5%). The model revealed the existence of one particular seroprevalence hot-spot where a longitudinal survey of marked animals was conducted in 2013-2014, for deciphering the origin of antibodies. Eleven out of 107 captured piglets were seropositive when 3-4 months-old, but their antibody titres progressively decreased until 6-7 months of age. These results suggest piglets were carrying maternal antibodies, few of them carrying maternal antibodies lasting until the hunting season. Our study shows that OMV may generate confusion in the CSF surveillance several years after the completion of vaccination. We recommend using quantitative serological tools, hunting data modelling and capture approaches for better interpreting serological results after vaccination completion. Surveillance perspectives are further discussed. PMID:26810218

  17. Ciencia, Sociedad, Soluciones: Una Introduccion al USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2001-01-01

    El USGS sirve a la nacion de los Estados Unidos proveyendo informacion fidedigna para ? Describir y comprender la Tierra; ? Minimizar la perdida de vidas y propiedades por desastres naturales; ? Manejar los recursos hidrologicos, biologicos, energeticos y minerales; y ? Mejorar y proteger nuestra calidad de vida.

  18. Mapa de Vulnerabilidad en Honduras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, A. A.

    2013-05-01

    Dado que Honduras geográficamente se encuentra en una zona que esta expuesta a diferentes fenómenos sísmicos y climatológicos. Investigamos cuales son las zonas mas propensas a desastres naturales, la vulnerabilidad y el factor de resiliencia de la población de acuerdo a diferentes parámetros de estudio.

  19. 76 FR 62429 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request, OMB No. 1660-0002...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... 009-0-1S (English) Smartphone, Disaster Assistance Registration; FEMA Form 009-0-2S (Spanish) Smartphone, Registro Para Asistencia De Desastre; FEMA Form 009-0-3 (English), Declaration and Release; FEMA... 009-0-1 and 009-0-2. Individuals or Households Smartphone Application for 192,447.20 1 192,447.20...

  20. 77 FR 2306 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request, Disaster...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... (Spanish), Solicitud en Papel/Registro Para Asistencia De Desastre; FEMA Form 009-0-1S (English) Smartphone, Disaster Assistance Registration; FEMA Form 009-0-2S (Spanish) Smartphone, Registro Para Asistencia De... and Spanish), FEMA Forms 009-0-1 and 009-0-2, 18 minutes; Smartphone Application for...

  1. [TEEN MOTHER AND NEWBORN NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN A GROUP OF TEENAGERS OF THE CITY OF MEDELLIN].

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Mesa, Sandra Lucia; Zapata López, Natalia; Parra Sosa, Beatriz Elena; Escudero Vásquez, Luz Estela; Betancur Arrovaye, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: en los países en vía de desarrollo, entre ellos Colombia, el embarazo adolescente es un problema de salud pública por sus consecuencias sociales, de salud y nutrición para el binomio madre-hijo. Objetivo: evaluar las características demográficas, socioeconómicas, de seguridad alimentaria, de salud y el estado nutricional en un grupo de gestantes adolescentes y sus recién nacidos. Métodos: se realizó un estudio analítico de corte transversal con 294 embarazadas adolescentes en el tercer trimestre de gestación del programa de control prenatal de la Red Pública Hospitalaria de Medellín-Colombia, durante 2011-2012. Se buscó la asociación del índice de masa corporal materno, estado nutritivo del hierro y peso al nacer del neonato con variables explicativas. Resultados: los ingresos económicos mensuales inferiores a un salario mínimo se asociaron con bajo peso materno y con recién nacidos pequeños para la edad gestacional. El bajo peso gestacional se presentó en mayor proporción en las gestantes de 15 años o menos y con una edad ginecológica inferior a cinco años. La prevalencia de anemia fue baja en el primer trimestre y aumentó significativamente al final del embarazo; 90% presentaron reservas inadecuadas de hierro. El bajo peso al nacer se asoció con la presencia de infecciones y el bajo peso materno en el tercer trimestre de gestación. Conclusión: la gestación adolescente es un problema complejo que se asocia con efectos negativos en el estado nutricional, de salud y social de la mujer y su recién nacido.

  2. PREVALENCE AND COSTS OF MALNUTRITION IN HOSPITALIZED DYSPHAGIC PATIENTS: A SUBANALYSIS OF THE PREDYCES STUDY.

    PubMed

    Álvarez Hernández, Julia; León Sanz, Miguel; Planas Vilá, Mercè; Araujo, Krysmarú; García de Lorenzo, Abelardo; Celaya Pérez, Sebastián

    2015-10-01

    Introducción: la disfagia y la desnutrición son condiciones que con frecuencia aparecen juntas en los pacientes hospitalizados. Objetivos: el objetivo principal de este estudio fue analizar la prevalencia de desnutrición en pacientes con disfagia incluidos en el estudio PREDyCES®, así como para determinar sus consecuencias clínicas y económicas. Métodos: se trata de un subestudio de un estudio observacional, transversal realizado en 31 hospitales de toda España. Resultados: se incluyeron 352 pacientes con disfagia. El 45,7% de los pacientes presentaron desnutrición (NRS®-2002 ≥ 3) al ingreso y el 42,2% al alta. En pacientes de edad avanzada (≥ 70 años) la prevalencia de la desnutrición fue aún mayor: 54,6% al ingreso y el 57,5% al alta. Además, la prevalencia de la desnutrición fue mayor en los ingresos urgentes frente a las programados (45,7% vs 33,3%; p.

  3. [Cognitive assessment in children who presented gastroschisis: a case-control study].

    PubMed

    Villasenor-Cabrera, Teresita; Pacheco-Sanchez, Ilude; Rizo-Curiel, Genoveva; Nuno-Romero, Ricardo; Garcia-Estrada, Joaquín

    2016-04-16

    Introduccion. La gastrosquisis es una malformacion de la pared abdominal que se corrige mediante cirugia y requiere cuidados hospitalarios especiales, como inmovilizacion, restriccion alimenticia y separacion de la madre durante tiempo variable, entre otros; para analizar las posibles repercusiones cognitivas se aplico la prueba de Bayley III a 14 niños. Sujetos y metodos. Siete casos (nacidos con gastrosquisis) y siete controles, en los hospitales civiles de Guadalajara, en el periodo enero-abril de 2013. Resultados. Los casos no evidenciaron retraso en las evaluaciones relacionadas con la cognicion, el lenguaje y la conducta motora, en tanto que en las asociadas a la conducta socioemocional y adaptativa las puntuaciones favorecieron al grupo control, lo que refleja que poseen mejores estrategias de adaptacion e interaccion respecto al grupo de casos. Conclusiones. La gastrosquisis no afectara el neurodesarrollo ulterior, por lo menos en este grupo que presento esta unica anormalidad y deficits explicables por sus circunstancias perinatales, sin que este pronostico pueda generalizarse a otros casos con un cuadro clinico mas grave, mayor duracion de la estancia hospitalaria y comorbilidad asociada. De cualquier forma, es importante informar a los padres desde la etapa prenatal respecto a las consecuencias esperadas de esta patologia.

  4. [Pathogenesis of spinal cord injuries and mechanisms of repair induced by olfactory ensheathing cells].

    PubMed

    Botero, Lucía; Gomez, Rosa Margarita; Chaparro, Orlando

    2013-05-16

    Introduccion. La lesion medular es un evento catastrofico, cuyas consecuencias persisten durante toda la vida del paciente. La investigacion en tratamiento se ha basado principalmente en el desarrollo de terapias que reduzcan la discapacidad, pero desde los anos noventa hay un avance significativo y se han probado varios trasplantes celulares en modelos animales de lesion medular, celulas de Schwann, astrocitos y celulas de la glia envolvente olfatoria (CGEO). Objetivo. Hacer un recuento detallado de la patogenia de la lesion medular primaria y secundaria y de los mecanismos por los cuales las CGEO inducirian sus posibles efectos regenerativos descritos en la bibliografia. Desarrollo. Despues del traumatismo, la lesion se desarrolla en dos fases, la primaria se caracteriza por las lesiones de compresion y la secundaria se produce por una serie de factores que se dan en paralelo y que incluyen factores vasculares, celulares, moleculares y formacion de cicatriz glial. La mayoria de los modelos de lesion medular y trasplante con CGEO han comunicado recuperacion funcional, remielinizacion y regeneracion axonal. Estas celulas ejercen su accion de manera indirecta a traves de la produccion de factores de crecimiento y de manera directa induciendo regeneracion neuronal, axonal y remielinizacion. Conclusiones. Las CGEO son una opcion terapeutica en pacientes con lesion medular debido a que inducen de modo directo o indirecto regeneracion neuronal, axonal, remielinizacion de axones, disminucion de cicatriz glial y otros efectos que conducen a la recuperacion funcional.

  5. Del sujeto que ha intentado suicidarse y el Otro: la Institución Psiquiátrica

    PubMed Central

    Liliana, Mondragón B.; Miguel Ángel, Caballero G.

    2009-01-01

    El hospital psiquiátrico se ha constituido como un lugar donde se posibilita legitimar la exclusión y la radicalidad de ese otro “que no es igual”, como es el caso del sujeto que atenta contra su propia vida. En consecuencia, el intento de suicidio desde el pensamiento foucaultiano, es una resistencia que desmantela la estructura de dominación a través de un acto de poder, el cual se ejerce sobre el propio cuerpo. Así, la intención de este texto es mostrar que la relación Otro-otro es un lugar en la estructura subjetiva, que se deposita en la institución psiquiátrica, la cual representa el poder, la ley, y es aquello a lo que se le quiere agredir, resistir, abatir con un intento de suicidio. Para demostrar como se materializan estos hechos, se exponen los testimonios de tres adolescentes atendidas en un hospital psiquiátrico por intentos suicidas, en los cuales se señalan los diferentes significados que le atribuyen a la institución psiquiátrica en tanto que representa un Otro en sus actos autoinfligidos. PMID:25400324

  6. Dietary potential renal Acid load in venezuelan children.

    PubMed

    López-Sayers, Mayerling; Bernal, Jennifer; López, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    Objetivo: Determinar y analizar la carga acida potencial renal de la dieta (Potential Renal Acid Load PRAL) y el patron de alimentacion de ninos entre 1 a 6 anos aparentemente sanos. Métodos: Se seleccionaron segun conveniencia a padres de 52 ninos asistentes a una consulta de ninos sanos. La calidad de la dieta y el patron de alimentacion se evaluo mediante un recordatorio de 24 horas y un cuestionario de frecuencia de alimentos. Se calculo la ingesta de macronutrientes y grupos de alimentos, como carnes, lacteos, frutas y verduras. La ingesta de nutrientes se comparo con las recomendaciones de energia y nutrientes. El PRAL se determino segun el metodo de Remer y Manz, para determinar la carga acida de la dieta. Se aplico estadistica descriptiva y correlaciones entre el PRAL, nutrientes y grupos de alimentos. Resultados: La ingesta de proteinas, de leche y de carnes fue elevada, mientras que la ingesta de rutas y hortalizas fue baja. El PRAL fue positivo en 92% de los ninos, se asocio con mayor ingesta de energia, proteinas, grasas, carne y lacteos. La ingesta de proteinas fue > 2,5 g/kg/ dia en 46,2% de los ninos. Los grupos de alimentos con mayor desequilibrio debido a exceso fueron la carne y los productos lacteos, mientras que por deficit fue el grupo de frutas y hortalizas. Conclusión: La dieta se caracteriza por una elevada carga de acido o PRAL, lo que aumenta el riesgo de acidosis sistemica y sus consecuencias metabolicas.

  7. [Prefrontal Symptoms Inventory (PSI): ecological validity and convergence with neuropsychological measures].

    PubMed

    Pedrero-Perez, E J; Ruiz-Sanchez de Leon, J M; Rojo-Mota, G; Morales-Alonso, S; Pedrero-Aguilar, J; Lorenzo, I; Gonzalez, A

    2016-09-16

    Introduccion. El inventario de sintomas prefrontales (ISP) es un cuestionario autoinformado creado en España que interroga sobre alteraciones cognitivas, emocionales y comportamentales en las actividades de la vida diaria y que resulta aplicable tanto en poblacion general como en multiples poblaciones clinicas. Existe una version abreviada de 20 items (ISP-20) con excelentes propiedades psicometricas para el cribado. Objetivo. Estudiar la validez convergente y divergente del ISP e ISP-20, analizando como sus escalas reflejan las consecuencias cotidianas de deficits reales hallados en evaluacion neuropsicologica mediante pruebas de ejecucion. Pacientes y metodos. Se estudiaron 52 personas con adiccion a sustancias en tratamiento (31 varones y 21 mujeres) a las que se administro el ISP junto con una bateria de exploracion neuropsicologica abreviada centrada en describir procesos atencionales, mnemicos y ejecutivos. Resultados. Ambas versiones del ISP presentan optimas propiedades psicometricas (0,78 > alfa > 0,94 para la version completa de 46 items y 0,7 > alfa > 0,89 para la version abreviada de 20 items). Los resultados confirman las hipotesis sobre su validez: la escala de problemas en la ejecucion se relaciona con la capacidad para resolver tests que presumiblemente valoran funciones ejecutivas de origen prefrontal (validez convergente), mientras que las escalas de problemas en el control emocional y problemas en la conducta social no se relacionan con dichas capacidades cognitivas (validez discriminante). Conclusiones. El ISP es una prueba clinicamente util, psicometricamente valida y aplicable en multiples poblaciones clinicas.

  8. [Value of electroencephalography in the early detection of neonatal leucinosis].

    PubMed

    Pardal-Fernandez, J M; Carrascosa-Romero, M C; Grande, A; Martinez-Gonzalez, M; Godes-Medrano, B

    2016-08-16

    Introduccion. La leucinosis es una metabolopatia neonatal grave. Es consecuencia del deficit enzimatico determinado geneticamente del complejo descarboxilasa-dihidrolipoil transacilasa y dihidrolipoil deshidrogenasa, y del acumulo consecuente de los metabolitos precursores, aminoacidos ramificados de cadena larga y sus alfa-cetoacidos. Son potentes neurotoxicos, responsables del rapido establecimiento de edema y desmielinizacion cerebral difusa. La demora en el diagnostico suele provocar graves secuelas psicomotoras o incluso la muerte. Caso clinico. Se presenta una paciente neonata con encefalopatia neonatal grave, crisis epilepticas y un electroencefalograma (EEG) con unas caracteristicas especiales que oriento el diagnostico hacia una posible leucinosis. El diagnostico temprano permitio instaurar rapidamente el tratamiento especifico y conseguir una evolucion favorable de la paciente. Conclusiones. El EEG en pacientes con sospecha de encefalopatia neonatal ofrece informacion funcional de alta rentabilidad con un bajo coste, en especial por promover diagnosticos y tratamientos tempranos. El EEG en la leucinosis presenta signos peculiares, reconocibles en periodos tempranos en la mayor parte de los afectados, como ocurrio en el caso descrito. Parece recomendable integrar el EEG en el cribado de encefalopatias neonatales por ser una tecnica diagnostica valiosa, inocua y, por lo general, accesible y especialmente de ayuda en metabolopatias tratables, como la leucinosis.

  9. Developing Academic Literacy and Voice: Challenges Faced by a Mature ESL Student and Her Instructors (Desarrollo del discurso académico y la voz: retos de una estudiante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correa, Doris

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General…

  10. Host-Parasite Relationship of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae and Argasidae) and Feral Pigs (Sus scrofa) in the Nhecolândia Region of the Pantanal Wetlands in Mato Grosso do Sul

    PubMed Central

    Cançado, P. H. D.; Faccini, J. L. H.; Herrera, H. M.; Tavares, L. E. R.; Mourão, G. M.; Piranda, E. M.; Paes, R. C. S.; Ribeiro, C. C. D. U.; Borghesan, T. C.; Piacenti, A. K.; Kinas, M. A.; Santos, C. C.; Ono, T. M.; Paiva, F.

    2013-01-01

    Feral pigs (S. scrofa) were introduced to the Pantanal region around 200 years ago and the population appears to be in expansion. Its eradication is considered to be impossible. The population of feral pigs in the Pantanal wetlands is currently estimated at one million. Two scientific excursions were organized. The first was conducted during the dry season, when 21 feral pigs were captured and the second was during the wet season, when 23 feral pigs were captured. Ticks were collected and the oviposition and hatching process were studied to confirm the biological success of each tick species. Three tick species were found to be feeding on feral pigs: Amblyomma cajennense, A. parvum, and Ornithodoros rostratus. During the dry season, 178 adult A. cajennense were collected, contrasting with 127 A. cajennense specimens in the wet season. This suggests that the seasonality of these ticks in the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands could be different from other regions. The results indicate that A. parvum and A. cajennense are biologically successful parasites in relation to feral pigs. A. cajennense appears to have adapted to this tick-host relationship, as well as the areas where feral pigs are abundant, and could play a role in the amplification of this tick population. PMID:27335855

  11. La mejora de la educacion infantil desde el analisis del pensamiento practico de sus educadores. [The Improvement of Early Childhood Education from an Analysis of the Practical Thinking of Early Childhood Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argos, Javier

    2000-01-01

    Discusses proposals for the innovation and development of early childhood education practice, based on findings from case studies on the practical knowledge of four experienced female early childhood educators. Argues that improving early childhood education should be based on its reasons and purposes rather than content or method. (JPB)

  12. La Exploracion Del Contexto Social y Sus Efectos en el Programa de Espanol en Mexico Rural. (Exploring the Social Context Affecting a Pre-School Spanish Program in Rural Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finegold, Lynda

    A major stumbling block for the implementation of Mexico's Global Development Plan has been the country's large rural population of Indians. One government strategy to integrate this sector into the mainstream of society has been to teach Spanish, the official language, as a second language, while at the same time fostering ethnic pride. The…

  13. Percepcion de los profesores universitarios acerca del concepto cultura cientifica y de sus implicaciones en el nuevo bachillerato del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Pastrana, Nilsa

    El Senado Academico del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico aprobo en el ano academico 2005-2006 la Certificacion 46, que contiene los lineamientos de un nuevo bachillerato. Este nuevo bachillerato introdujo cambios significativos en el curriculo tradicional. Entre ellos se encuentra la reduccion del componente de educacion general y el de Ciencias Biologicas en particular. La reduccion de creditos en el componente de Ciencias Biologicas ha obligado a reevaluar el concepto de cultura cientifica que desarrollan esos cursos. El proposito del estudio consistio en auscultar las percepciones de los profesores de las Facultades de Administracion de Empresas, Humanidades, Ciencias Sociales, Ciencias Naturales, Educacion y Estudios Generales del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico en torno al concepto de cultura cientifica, los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas y la reduccion de creditos en el nuevo bachillerato. Las preguntas que guiaron la investigacion fueron: ¿cuales son las percepciones que tienen los profesores de las Facultades de Administracion de Empresas, Ciencias Sociales, Estudios Generales, Ciencias Naturales, Humanidades y Educacion, en torno al concepto de cultura cientifica y los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas? ¿cuales son las percepciones que tienen los profesores de Ciencias Biologicas en torno al concepto cultura cientifica y los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas? ¿existen diferencias significativas por facultad, genero, experiencia, rango y nombramiento en las percepciones que tienen los profesores del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico sobre los elementos que caracterizan la cultura cientifica y los contenidos biologicos que deben tener los egresados del Recinto? ¿que implicaciones curriculares tienen estos testimonios en el desarrollo del concepto de cultura cientifica en el nuevo bachillerato? Para realizar la investigacion se utilizo una metodologia cuantitativa y la herramienta para lograrlo fue una encuesta. La encuesta se analizo estadisticamente mediante analisis de frecuencias y por cientos, prueba ANOVA, prueba t, pruebas Post Hoc de Tukey y de Levene. Tambien se realizo nuevamente una prueba de confiabilidad mediante el alfa de Cronbach. Los resultados reflejaron que los profesores de las Facultades de Administracion de Empresas, Ciencias Sociales, Ciencias Naturales, Educacion, Humanidades, Estudios Generales y el Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas tienen una percepcion muy positiva del concepto de cultura cientifica, los contenidos curriculares de Ciencias Biologicas y del nuevo bachillerato.

  14. Retrograde and destination transfer of sex steroid hormones in the spermatic cord vessels of the mature boar (Sus scrofa) in short-daylight and long-daylight periods, as well as vernal and autumnal equinox.

    PubMed

    Tabęcka-Łonczyńska, Anna; Kulpa, Magdalena; Grzesiak, Małgorzata; Koziorowski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the seasonal changes in concentration of steroid hormones in the spermatic cord vessels of the mature boar. Cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) was also localized in the arteries and veins of the spermatic cord. Arterial blood was collected from the common carotid artery and from two branches of the testicular artery supplying the testis and epididymis to determine progesterone (P4), androstenedione (A2), testosterone (T2) and estradiol (E2) plasma concentrations. The greatest concentration of P4 was found in testicular artery during December (P<0.001), when compared with other periods and vessels. In contrast, the greatest A2 concentration was observed in the epididymal artery during the same season (P<0.001). Greater T2 concentrations were found in both testis and epididymal arteries than in common artery in March (P<0.001, P<0.001; respectively) and in September (P<0.01, P<0.001; respectively). The E2 concentration was weakly affected by seasonal periods, but greater E2 concentrations were found within vessels in the testis and epididymis than in the common artery. The P450arom was immunolocalized in all layers of the arteries and veins of the testicular spermatic cord. The intensity of P450arom staining was greater in December than in June (P<0.001). There were greater steroid concentrations in arterial vessels during December in comparison to June and this may explain the summer infertility in boars and may be related to the local retrograde and destination transfer into the spermatic cord area. The P450arom gene expression in this area seems to be involved in the conversion of T2 into E2 to enrich the testes and epididymis. PMID:26608934

  15. Investigacion educativa. El sistema escolar en sus diferentes niveles, factores que favorecen o frenan su eficacia y medidas de superacion (Educational Research. The Educational System at Different Levels; Factors Promoting or Hindering Its Efficiency; Possible Improvements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez Lozano, Blanca; And Others

    This document is an English-language abstract (Approximately 1,500 words) of a study on educational research in Mexico. Chapter one discusses the importance of educational research, in terms of its role both in scientific and technical development; it should use scientific methods so that it will have solid foundations. Chapter two is a survey of…

  16. La lectura literaria como arte de "performance": la teoria transaccional de Louise Rosenblatt y sus implicaciones pedagogicas (The Use of Literature as Performance Art: The Transactional Theory of Louise Rosenblatt and Its Pedagogical Implications).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee

    This paper focuses on the work that Louise Rosenblatt and her followers in the United States have done to improve the teaching and learning of literature at all educational levels. Although these researchers have focused almost exclusively on the use of literature in the native language, the paper uses transactional theory as a basis for teaching…

  17. La columna, el circulo y sus variantes en la poesia primera de Pedro Salinas (The Vertical Line, the Circle, and other Geometric Varieties in the Early Poetry of Pedro Salinas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Armas, Jose R.

    1970-01-01

    Interprets Salinas' use of geometric figures for depicting concepts of time and infinity, and for portraying idealism and realism (the vertical line is idealism, perfection; the circle stands for reality and imperfection). (DS)

  18. Learning & Growing Together: Understanding and Supporting Your Child's Development = Aprender y crecer juntos: Como comprender y fomentar el desarrollo de sus hijos [with] Tip Sheets: Ideas for Professionals in Programs That Serve Young Children and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Claire; Dombro, Amy Laura; Powers, Stefanie

    Based on the view that the primary caregivers for infants and toddlers are their own best resource for understanding and caring for their child and that parenting is a lifelong learning process, this book provides information and tools to help caregivers build a strong foundation for their child's development. The book, both in English and…

  19. Attention Immigrant Parents: Send Your Children to School = Atencion Padres Immigrantes: Manden sus Ninos a la Esucela = Nhung Cha Me Di Dan De Y: Dem Con Ban Toi Truong Hoc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Multicultural Education, Training and Advocacy (META), Inc., San Francisco, CA.

    This one page notice to parents, printed on separate pages in English, Spanish, Vietnamese, and Chinese, emphasizes that all children have the legal right to a free public education, regardless of their immigration status. Immigrant children do not need a green card, visa, passport, or any other proof of citizenship or immigration status in order…

  20. The Science Teachers and Their way of Thinking about Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Los Profesores de Ciencias y Sus Formas de Pensar la Astronomía.) Os Professores de Ciências e Suas Formas de Pensar a Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, Cristina; Hosoume, Yassuko

    2007-12-01

    The research presented in this article is about the way science teachers from Elementary School think about astronomical elements. Its methodology is based on semi-structured interviews, which were video recorded. The research is centered in a three-dimensional perspective of astronomical Earth, the Sun, the Moon, the planets and the stars, and also the conceptions about sky and Universe. The esults indicate a Universe that contains: Sun, stars, planets and Moon; where the Solar System is a little part of the whole. Sometimes they think that the Solar System is the Universe. The objects are in the sky or in the Universe, which, for many of them, is only the space above the Earth. The flat shape of astronomical objects and the spatial structure of the Universe are striking features. Many of them think that Sun and stars are different: the Sun is a hot object and the stars are cold ones. These results worry us and they certainly indicate how urgent it is to plan Professional Development in Astronomy for teachers, after all the PCN's emphasize that this subject is important to be taught. El objeto de investigación de este artículo es la manera de pensar sobre los elementos de la Astronomía de los profesores de Ciencias en la enseñanza fundamental. La metodología consiste en entrevistas semi-estructuradas, filmadas en video y centradas en la tridimensionalidad de los elementos astronómicos, para posibilitar un mapeamiento de las concepciones sobre las formas y dimensiones de la Tierra, del Sol, de la Luna, de los planetas y de las estrellas, como también de la concepción de cielo y de Universo en su totalidad. Los resultados indican un Universo conteniendo: Sol, estrellas, planetas y Luna, donde el Sistema Solar se ubica como parte. Algunas veces, el Universo es concebido como el propio Sistema Solar. Los objetos están en el cielo o en el Universo, que, para muchos, se restringe al espacio que está arriba de la Tierra. La forma plana de los objetos astronómicos y la estructura espacial del montaje del Universo son características fundamentales. Muchos indican Sol y estrellas como cosas distintas: el Sol es un objeto caliente y las estrellas son frías. Esos resultados nos preocupan y ciertamente señalan una urgencia de programas de formación continuada para profesores en el contenido de astronomía, pues los PCN's (Parámetros Curriculares Nacionales) recomiendan con énfasis la enseñanza de este contenido. O modo de pensar dos professores de Ciências do ensino fundamental sobre os elementos da Astronomia é o objeto de pesquisa presente neste artigo, cuja metodologia consiste em entrevistas semiestruturadas, filmadas em vídeo e centradas numa perspectiva tridimensional dos elementos astronômicos, possibilitando um mapeamento das concepções das formas e das dimensões da Terra, do Sol, da Lua, dos planetas e das estrelas, bem como da concepção de céu e de Universo como um todo. Os resultados indicam um Universo contendo: Sol, estrelas, planetas e Lua, onde o Sistema Solar é parte do todo. Algumas vezes o Universo é concebido como o próprio Sistema Solar. Os objetos estão no céu ou no Universo o qual, para muitos, se restringe ao espaço que está acima da Terra. A forma plana dos objetos astronômicos e a estrutura espacial da montagem do Universo são características marcantes. Muitos indicam Sol e estrelas como coisas diferentes: Sol é um objeto quente e as estrelas são frias. Esses resultados nos preocupam e certamente sinalizam uma urgência de programas de formação continuada para professores no conteúdo de astronomia, uma vez que os PCN's indicam fortemente o ensino desse conteúdo.

  1. Head Start Service Guide for Children and Families with HIV or AIDS = Guia de Servicios para Ninos con V.I.H. Positivo y con Sindrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (S.I.D.A.) y sus Familias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico Commonwealth Office of Children's Services and Community Development, Old San Juan.

    This document provides guidelines and procedures, in Spanish and English, for Head Start teachers in taking care of children with AIDS, or children who are HIV positive, and their families. The goal of the guide is to maximize participation of infected children in the Head Start program. The guide presents activities in three main stages:…

  2. Release of copper from embedded solid copper bullets into muscle and fat tissues of fallow deer (Dama dama), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) and effect of copper content on oxidative stability of heat-processed meat.

    PubMed

    Schuhmann-Irschik, I; Sager, M; Paulsen, P; Tichy, A; Bauer, F

    2015-10-01

    When venison with embedded copper bullets was subjected to different culinary processing procedures, the amount of copper released from the embedded bullet was affected more by the retention period of the bullet in the meat during cool storage, than by the different heating protocols. The presence of copper fragments had no significant effect on levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Conversely, TBARS in lean meat (fallow deer, wild boar, roe deer) were significantly affected by culinary treatment (higher TBARS in boiled and boiled-stored meat than in meat barbecued or boiled in brine). In pork-beef patties doped with up to 28mg/kg Cu, TBARS increased after dry-heating and subsequently storing the meat patties. The amount of copper doping had no effect on TBARS for 0 and 7days of storage, but a significant effect at day 14 (fat oxidation retarded at higher Cu doses). Evidence is presented that wild boar meat may be more sensitive to fat oxidation than pork-beef.

  3. Parents as Partners: Planning Early for Your Children's School Success and College Attendance = Los Padres como Socios: Planificando para el Exito Escolar y la Asistencia al Colegio de Sus Ninos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Long Beach.

    Presented in both the English and Spanish Language versions is a booklet which describes what parents can do at home and in the school to support and encourage their children's success in school and college. Discussion emphasizes the extent to which parents influence their children's attitudes about learning and school, and points out that parent…

  4. Supportive Practices among Low-Income Parents of Academically Successful Elementary Students in Even Start Programs = Practicas Efectivas que Apoyan el Exito Academico en Ninos Hispanos a Traves de la Participacion de sus Padres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebener, Richard; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Irby, Beverly J.

    This study (reported in separate English and Spanish versions) used a qualitative approach to identify the supportive parental behaviors of academically successful children from low income families in Even Start programs, from the parents', teachers', and children's perspectives. The sample contained 12 low income parents who had one or more…

  5. Cuidado de ninos con necesidades especiales en el hogar: Manual de referencia para las personas que cuidan ninos en sus hogares (Children with Special Needs in Family Day Care Homes: A Handbook for Family Day Care Home Providers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Brosse, Beatrice

    The Spanish translation of this guide offers information to Spanish-speaking family day care providers who desire to expand their knowledge of early childhood development in order to work with infants and young children with special needs in their day care settings. The first of four chapters answers common questions and concerns of day care…

  6. Parents as Partners: Planning Early for Your Children's School Success and College Attendance. Revised Edition = Los Padres como Socios: Planificando para el Exito Escolar y la Asistencia al Colegio de Sus Ninos. Edicion Revisada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Maria; Rothman, Donald

    This booklet, available in English and Spanish, describes what California parents can do at home and in the school to support and encourage their children's success in school and college. Discussion emphasizes the extent to which parents influence their children's attitudes about learning and school, and points out that parent involvement is…

  7. Un Manual para Padres y Madres Immigrantes. Proteja los Derechos de Educacion para Sus Hijos e Hijas (A Handbook for Immigrant Parents: Protect the Educational Rights of Your Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Multicultural Education, Training and Advocacy (META), Inc., San Francisco, CA.

    This handbook for Spanish-speaking immigrant parents outlines the legal rights of immigrant children to educational services. All children in the United States have a right to attend school. Schools may require proof of residency and vaccination before enrollment, but a signed sworn statement attesting to the child's age may be substituted for a…

  8. Nine Tips To Help Faith Leaders and Their Communities Address Teen Pregnancy = Nueve consejos para ayudar a lideres espirituales y sus comunidades a hacerle frente al problema del embarazo en la adolescencia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    To support faith communities in protecting teenage boys and girls from too-early sexual activity and teen pregnancy, the National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy's Task Force on Religion and Public Values has compiled these nine tips which summarize a wealth of experience and advice from faith leaders around the country. The members of the Task…

  9. Heart to Heart: Parents of Blind and Partially Sighted Children Talk about Their Feelings = De Corazon a Corazon: Padres de Ninos Ciegos y Parcialmente Ciegos Hablan acerca de Sus Sentimientos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blind Childrens Center, Los Angeles, CA.

    English and Spanish versions of this booklet describe typical feelings experienced by parents of blind and partially sighted children. Experiences are cited including first feelings of shock and confusion, days of dramatic ups and downs, need to find a reason for the blindness, self doubts and anxiety, and reactions from strangers. In closing, the…

  10. A Guide for Reading: How Parents Can Help Their Children Be Ready To Read and Ready To Learn = Guia Para Leer: Como los padres pueden preparar a sus hijos a leer y aprender desde la infancia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans, Washington, DC.

    As part of the White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans, this brochure (in English and Spanish) provides a guide to assist parents in helping their children become ready to read and to learn. The suggestions include: (1) talking to infants/toddlers to help them learn to speak and understand the meaning of words; (2)…

  11. The use of a hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test on sperm of the pig (Sus scrofa domesticus), emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas hamadryas), and central rock rat (Zyzomys pedunculatus).

    PubMed

    Matson, Phillip; Kappelle, Wendy; Malecki, Irek

    2009-07-01

    A hypo-osmotic swelling test using TALP-HEPES medium over a range of 50 to 300 mOsm/kg was applied to sperm from domestic and endangered species. Maximal responses of curling of the sperm tails were seen over a range of osmolalities for epididymal sperm from the pig (100 mOsm/kg), hamadryas baboon (range 50-125 mOsm/kg), and central rock rat (range 50-100 mOsm/kg), and the ejaculated sperm from the emu (50 mOsm/kg) and the Asian elephant (range 75-150 mOsm/kg). A solution of TALP-HEPES medium at 100 mOsm/kg would be suitable to obtain the maximal response in this range of mammals tested, though it would need to be diluted to at least 50 mOsm/kg when testing the viability of the emu sperm.

  12. Distribution patterns of the glucose transporters GLUT4 and GLUT1 in skeletal muscles of rats (Rattus norvegicus), pigs (Sus scrofa), cows (Bos taurus), adult goats, goat kids (Capra hircus), and camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Duehlmeier, R; Sammet, K; Widdel, A; von Engelhardt, W; Wernery, U; Kinne, J; Sallmann, H-P

    2007-02-01

    Earlier studies demonstrated that forestomach herbivores are less insulin sensitive than monogastric omnivores. The present study was carried out to determine if different distribution patterns of the glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4 may contribute to these different insulin sensitivities. Western blotting was used to measure GLUT1 and GLUT4 protein contents in oxidative (masseter, diaphragm) and glycolytic (longissimus lumborum, semitendinosus) skeletal muscle membranes of monogastric omnivores (rats and pigs), and of forestomach herbivores (cows, adult goats, goat kids, and camels). Muscles were characterized biochemically. Comparing red and white muscles, the isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) activity was 1.5-15-times higher in oxidative muscles of all species, whereas lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was 1.4-4.4-times higher in glycolytic muscles except in adult goats. GLUT4 levels were 1.5-6.3-times higher in oxidative muscles. GLUT1 levels were 2.2-8.3-times higher in glycolytic muscles in forestomach herbivores but not in monogastric animals. We conclude that GLUT1 may be the predominant glucose transporter in glycolytic muscles of ruminating animals. The GLUT1 distribution patterns were identical in adult and pre-ruminant goats, indicating that GLUT1 expression among these muscles is determined genetically. The high blood glucose levels of camels cited in literature may be due to an "NIDDM-like" impaired GLUT4 activity in skeletal muscle.

  13. [Prevalence of malnutrition in Spanish institutionalized older people: a multicentric nationwide analysis].

    PubMed

    Vaca Bermejo, Raúl; Ancizu García, Iciar; Moya Galera, David; de las Heras Rodríguez, Mónica; Pascual Torramadé, Josep

    2014-10-06

    Introducción: Un estado nutricional deficitario tiene importantes consecuencias en la salud de los colectivos en situación de especial vulnerabilidad, como las personas con enfermedades crónicas o personas mayores en situación de dependencia. Objetivo: Conocer el estado nutricional al ingreso de usuarios en centros SARquavitae. Material y Método: Se estudió el estado de salud, cognitivo y funcional de las personas que ingresaron durante el año 2012 en algún centro de la compañía. El estado nutricional fue evaluado mediante la versión corta del Mini Nutritional Assessment. Asimismo, se realizó un análisis para conocer las variables con mayor influencia en el estado nutricional de la muestra objeto de estudio. Resultados: Se analizaron las historias clínicas de 4.297 ingresos. La edad media fue de 82,08 años. Un 66,1% eran mujeres con una alta pluripatología. Al ingreso, un 30,4% de la muestra se encuentra en situación de desnutrición y un 49,4% en riesgo de desnutrición. Se observa una mayor prevalencia de desnutrición en mujeres, en aquellas personas que son derivadas por un hospital de agudos o por sus consultas externas, con peor estado funcional y cognitivo y en aquellas con procesos patológicos como demencia, enfermedades cerebrovasculares o disfagia. Conclusiones: Los resultados de este estudio ponen de manifiesto la alta complejidad clínica de las personas que ingresan en los centros residenciales estudiados, evidenciando la necesidad de realizar valoraciones integrales que permitan establecer planes de cuidados específicos para los perfiles atendidos.

  14. EVOLUTION OF THE INTAKE AND NUTRITIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS OF CALCIUM AND VITAMIN D FOR THE LAST 14 YEARS IN SPAIN.

    PubMed

    Collado Yurrita, Luis; Grande Oyarzábal, Graciela; Garicano-Vilar, Elena; Ciudad Cabañas, María José; San Mauro Martín, Ismael

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: el calcio y la vitamina D son esenciales para el ser humano. La evidencia científica apoya la correlación entre ambos nutrientes y sus procesos esenciales en el correcto funcionamiento del organismo del ser humano, que es lo que justifica el aumento de la ingesta recomendada en España, desde 2001 hasta hoy en día. Objetivos: analizar la evolución en la ingesta del calcio y la vitamina D en relación con la evolución de las Ingestas Diarios Recomendadas, así como su repercusión, desde 2001 hasta hoy en día. Diseño: revisión bibliográfica en las principales bases de datos científicas, PubMed, SciELO y EMBASE. Se realizó una revisión centrada en la literatura científica sobre la vitamina D y el calcio, la evolución de su ingesta, cambios en las recomendaciones nutricionales y la importancia y las consecuencias de estos aspectos. Resultados: la ingestión real de calcio y vitamina D, durante este período de tiempo, ha disminuido en España, alcanzando valores medios de consumo por debajo recomendado. Conclusión: es posible que sea necesario aumentar el consumo de suplementos y alimentos fortificados, en algunos casos específicos, a fin de lograr la Ingesta Diaria Recomendada.

  15. [Impact of acquired brain injury towards the community integration: employment outcome, disability and dependence two years after injury].

    PubMed

    Luna-Lario, P; Ojeda, N; Tirapu-Ustarroz, J; Pena, J

    2016-06-16

    Objetivos. Analizar el impacto del daño cerebral adquirido en la integracion comunitaria (trayectoria laboral, discapacidad y dependencia) en una muestra de sujetos con daño cerebral adquirido de etiologia vascular, traumatica y tumoral, durante un periodo de dos años tras la lesion original, y examinar que variables sociodemograficas, datos clinicos premorbidos y relacionados con la lesion predicen la integracion en la comunidad. Pacientes y metodos. Muestra de 106 sujetos adultos con daño cerebral adquirido, atendidos en el Area de Neuropsicologia y Neuropsiquiatria del Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, con deficit de memoria como secuela principal. Las diferencias entre grupos se analizan con los tests t de Student, chi al cuadrado y U de Mann-Whitney. Resultados. De los participantes que antes de la lesion se encontraban activos laboralmente, el 19% y 29% recuperaron su estatus previo al año y a los dos años, respectivamente; a un 45% de la muestra total se le reconocio la discapacidad, y a un 17%, la dependencia. No se hallo relacion entre las variables sociodemograficas y clinicas y los parametros funcionales contemplados. Conclusiones. La lesion cerebral adquirida impacta con intensidad en la trayectoria vital de los afectados, aunque no se han estudiado antes en España sus consecuencias en el ajuste sociolaboral en los dos años siguientes al daño a traves de parametros funcionales valorados con instrumentos oficiales estatales en una muestra de etiologia vascular, traumatica y tumoral.

  16. [The association between dietary macronutrients intake and obesity among children and adolescents; a case-control study].

    PubMed

    Martín-Calvo, Nerea; Ochoa, María Carmen; Marti, Amelia; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La alta de prevalencia de obesidad infantil en España y sus posibles consecuencias hacen de esta enfermedad un problema prioritario de salud pública. Objetivo: Valorar, mediante un estudio epidemiológico analítico de casos y controles, la asociación entre la composición en macronutrientes de la dieta y la obesidad en una muestra de niños y adolescentes navarros de 5,5 a 18,8 años. Método: Se reclutaron 178 casos, niños y adolescentes obesos (índice de masa corporal > percentil 97) en Navarra. Los controles fueron emparejados individualmente según edad y sexo. Las medidas antropométricas fueron tomadas por personal entrenado utilizando métodos estandarizados. Se realizaron entrevistas individuales para recoger información sobre la frecuencia de consumo de alimentos mediante un cuestionario previamente validado a partir del que se calculó la ingesta de macronutrientes (hidratos de carbono, proteínas y grasas) y de los subtipos de grasas. Estos resultados se dividieron en quintiles de macronutrientes ajustados por ingesta energética total. Se realizó una regresión logística condicional para estimar odds ratios ajustadas de obesidad para cada uno de los cuatro quintiles superiores de consumo, usando el quintil inferior como referencia. Resultados: La composición de macronutrientes de la dieta era similar en casos y controles, excepto para las grasas poliinsaturadas, que se asociaron inversamente a la obesidad (p tendencia lineal < 0,01) con una odds ratio ajustada de 0,34 (IC 95%: 0,15 a 0,77) para el quinto quintil. Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados sugieren una asociación inversa entre una mayor ingesta de grasas poliinsaturadas y el riesgo de obesidad.

  17. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la

  18. Analyses of the sucrose synthase gene family in cotton: structure, phylogeny and expression patterns

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In plants, sucrose synthase (Sus) is widely considered as a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism. Several paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of Sus have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, while limited information of Sus genes is available to date for cotton. Results Here, we report the molecular cloning, structural organization, phylogenetic evolution and expression profiles of seven Sus genes (GaSus1 to 7) identified from diploid fiber cotton (Gossypium arboreum). Comparisons between cDNA and genomic sequences revealed that the cotton GaSus genes were interrupted by multiple introns. Comparative screening of introns in homologous genes demonstrated that the number and position of Sus introns are highly conserved among Sus genes in cotton and other more distantly related plant species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that GaSus1, GaSus2, GaSus3, GaSus4 and GaSus5 could be clustered together into a dicot Sus group, while GaSus6 and GaSus7 were separated evenly into other two groups, with members from both dicot and monocot species. Expression profiles analyses of the seven Sus genes indicated that except GaSus2, of which the transcripts was undetectable in all tissues examined, and GaSus7, which was only expressed in stem and petal, the other five paralogues were differentially expressed in a wide ranges of tissues, and showed development-dependent expression profiles in cotton fiber cells. Conclusions This is a comprehensive study of the Sus gene family in cotton plant. The results presented in this work provide new insights into the evolutionary conservation and sub-functional divergence of the cotton Sus gene family in response to cotton fiber growth and development. PMID:22694895

  19. [DIETARY HABITS AND FEEDING BELIEFS OF PEOPLE WITH CROHN'S DISEASE].

    PubMed

    García-Sanjuán, Sofía; Lillo-Crespo, Manuel; Sanjuán-Quiles, Ángela; Richart-Martínez, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: la enfermedad de Crohn es una enfermedad crónica de etiopatogenia desconocida. Las consecuencias que esta enfermedad provoca a nivel nutricional dependen de varios factores. Sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre las prácticas nutricionales que adoptan estos pacientes una vez diagnosticados. Objetivo: explorar la experiencia de los afectados en relación con la ingesta alimentaria, con el objetivo futuro de comprender dichas experiencias y diseñar intervenciones eficaces y adecuadas. Metodología y sujetos: se empleó un diseño cualitativo basado en el enfoque etnográfico. Se realizaron 19 entrevistas semiestructuradas, hasta conseguir la saturación de la información, a afectados por la enfermedad de Crohn, en la provincia de Alicante y, posteriormente, se realizó el análisis temático. Resultados: cinco categorías con sus respectivas subcategorías de análisis fueron identificadas a partir de los datos sobre la experiencia de alimentación de las personas entrevistadas. 1) Creencias sobre nutrición y EC, 2) Modificación de los hábitos alimentarios, 3) Búsqueda de información sobre alimentación y EC, 4) El papel de los profesionales, 5) Autogestión. Conclusiones: el conocimiento de los hábitos dietéticos de la persona con EC en una población en la que su dieta se presupone que culturalmente es reconocida como saludable, nos puede dar pautas de abordaje o apoyo profesional tanto en materia de prevención, promoción y educación para la salud, así como sobre su nivel organizativo en las instituciones sanitarias, cosas que actualmente no se tienen en cuenta, puesto que el abordaje de la EC es meramente clínico y con enfoque patológico, pero no desde una perspectiva de salud, fomentando hábitos saludables desde la multidisciplinariedad.

  20. A Reappraising of Cosmography: the Interface Between Astronomical and Geographic Studies. (Breton Title: Releitura do Conceito de Cosmografia: a Interface Entre os Estudos Astronômicos e Geográficos.) Una Relectura del Concepto de Cosmografía: la Interfase Entre los Estudios Astronómicos y Geográficos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Sobreira, Paulo Henrique

    2012-12-01

    el conjunto de conocimientos y habilidades es predominantemente escolar. Estudia la interfase entre los conocimientos terrestres y los celestes, dándoles un significado geográfico. Analiza las relaciones humanas y naturales con el Espacio Sideral y sus consecuencias para la sociedad y la naturaleza.

  1. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Baena González, Marta; Molina Recio, Guillermo

    2016-06-30

    Introducción: la disfagia es un síntoma que se refiere a la dificultad para mover el bolo alimentario desde la boca al estómago. A pesar de su relevancia y de la gravedad de sus posibles complicaciones, es poco conocida y estudiada. La prevalencia de la disfagia orofaríngea en enfermosde alzhéimer es de un 84% y puede originar complicaciones de gran trascendencia clínica como consecuencia de las alteraciones en la eficacia de la deglución, y en la seguridad de la misma.Objetivo: conocer el estado actual del conocimiento en relación al abordaje de la disfagia en enfermos de alzhéimer, localizando aquellos factores que permitan un diagnóstico precoz que facilite la prevención de complicaciones y la elección de la pauta de actuación más adecuada.Metodología: revisión sistemática. Estudios publicados entre 2005 y 2014 en inglés y castellano. Bases de datos: PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, Elsevier, Scielo y Dialnet. Términos MeSH empleados: disfagia, dysphagia, alzheimer, modified y texture food.Resultados: el diagnóstico en los pacientes de alzhéimer se realiza mediante métodos clínicos y exploraciones complementarias como la videofluoroscopia, considerada como el estándar para el estudio de la disfagia orofaríngea, ya que permite identificar entre 1/3 y 1/4 de los pacientes que presentan aspiraciones silentes no diagnosticables clínicamente. Existen estrategias terapéuticas que incluyen cambios en el volumen y viscosidad del bolo, cambios posturales, maniobras deglutorias, procedimientos de rehabilitación y técnicas de incremento sensorial que han demostrado su eficacia, pero se trata de una labor compleja que exige un abordaje multidisciplinar para un correctodiagnóstico y tratamiento.Conclusiones: existe una escasa evidencia científica en el abordaje de la disfagia y un gran desconocimiento en cuanto a la alimentación de los enfermos de alzhéimer. Esta patología necesita una intervención multidisciplinar en la cual las medidas

  2. HOSPITAL NUTRITIONAL CARE: PROPOSITIONS ENDORSED BY THE SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY.

    PubMed

    Diez-Garcia, Rosa Wanda; Zangiacomi Martinez, Edson; Penaforte, Fernanda Rodrigues de Oliveira; Japur, Camila Cremonezi

    2015-09-01

    Antecedentes/objetivos: la incidencia de desnutrición hospitalaria y sus consecuencias tanto para el paciente como para el hospital ha exigido procedimientos que aseguren un servicio de atención nutricional hospitalaria de buena calidad. Basado en los informes de la literatura, este estudio tuvo como objetivo construir proposiciones sobre los cuidados nutricionales hospitalarios, que después fueran evaluados y aprobados por la comunidad científica. Métodos: fueron desarrolladas cuarenta y una proposiciones relativas a la atención nutricional clínica del paciente y a la gestión del servicio de alimentación por el Servicio de Alimentación y Nutrición Hospitalaria. Un total de cien profesionales, investigadores y profesores evaluaron las proposiciones. Para analizar si los evaluadores estaban de acuerdo con las proposiciones se utilizó una escala Likert de cinco puntos (estoy en total desacuerdo, estoy parcialmente en desacuerdo, no tengo opinión, estoy parcialmente de acuerdo, estoy totalmente de acuerdo) asociada a cada proposición. Fue considerada concordancia cuando el 70% o más de los evaluadores estaban de acuerdo (totalmente o parcialmente) con la proposición. Para el análisis estadístico fue utilizado el procedimiento Proc Corresp del software SAS 10, versión 8, estadística descriptiva y análisis de correspondencias. Resultados: más del 90% de los entrevistados estaban total o parcialmente de acuerdo con el 85% (35) de las 41 proposiciones; entre el 80 y 90% de los entrevistados estaban total o parcialmente de acuerdo con el 15% (6) de las 41 proposiciones. Todos los criterios propuestos tuvieron más del 70% de concordancia (total y parcial). El menor valor de concordancia total fue del 70%, atribuido a la proposición que sugiere la participación del paciente en la intervención nutricional. Conclusiones: la comunidad científica presentó alto nivel de concordancia con las proposiciones para la atención nutricional hospitalaria, lo

  3. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Baena González, Marta; Molina Recio, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la disfagia es un síntoma que se refiere a la dificultad para mover el bolo alimentario desde la boca al estómago. A pesar de su relevancia y de la gravedad de sus posibles complicaciones, es poco conocida y estudiada. La prevalencia de la disfagia orofaríngea en enfermosde alzhéimer es de un 84% y puede originar complicaciones de gran trascendencia clínica como consecuencia de las alteraciones en la eficacia de la deglución, y en la seguridad de la misma.Objetivo: conocer el estado actual del conocimiento en relación al abordaje de la disfagia en enfermos de alzhéimer, localizando aquellos factores que permitan un diagnóstico precoz que facilite la prevención de complicaciones y la elección de la pauta de actuación más adecuada.Metodología: revisión sistemática. Estudios publicados entre 2005 y 2014 en inglés y castellano. Bases de datos: PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, Elsevier, Scielo y Dialnet. Términos MeSH empleados: disfagia, dysphagia, alzheimer, modified y texture food.Resultados: el diagnóstico en los pacientes de alzhéimer se realiza mediante métodos clínicos y exploraciones complementarias como la videofluoroscopia, considerada como el estándar para el estudio de la disfagia orofaríngea, ya que permite identificar entre 1/3 y 1/4 de los pacientes que presentan aspiraciones silentes no diagnosticables clínicamente. Existen estrategias terapéuticas que incluyen cambios en el volumen y viscosidad del bolo, cambios posturales, maniobras deglutorias, procedimientos de rehabilitación y técnicas de incremento sensorial que han demostrado su eficacia, pero se trata de una labor compleja que exige un abordaje multidisciplinar para un correctodiagnóstico y tratamiento.Conclusiones: existe una escasa evidencia científica en el abordaje de la disfagia y un gran desconocimiento en cuanto a la alimentación de los enfermos de alzhéimer. Esta patología necesita una intervención multidisciplinar en la cual las medidas

  4. [Food insecurity among elderly people in 15 districts of the Great Santiago area; an unresolved issue].

    PubMed

    Vargas Puello, Vianny; Alvarado Orellana, Sergio; Atalah Samur, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Experimentar inseguridad alimentaria determina consecuencias negativas en la nutrición, salud y bienestar general de los adultos mayores y sus familias. En Chile prácticamente no existe información al respecto, a pesar de ser un importante problema de salud pública en otros países de la región. Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de inseguridad alimentaria y su relación con factores sociodemográficos, económicos y nutricionales en Adultos Mayores residentes en comunas del nivel socioeconómico medio-bajo y bajo del Gran Santiago. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional transversal en 344 adultos mayores de 65 a 74 años; encuesta socioeconómica, demográfica, nutricional y de inseguridad alimentaria en el hogar (HFIAS). Se determinó prevalencia de inseguridad alimentaria y su relación con las variables independientes por modelos de regresión logística multivariados. Resultados: El 40,4% de muestra presentaba inseguridad alimentaria (95% IC 35,2-45,6%), predominantemente de tipo leve, con una proporción mayor en mujeres, en el límite de la significación estadística. La probabilidad de percibir inseguridad alimentaria se asoció significativamente con bajos ingresos familiares (OR 4,2 IC 2,1-8,6), con mayor número de personas en el hogar (OR 2,4), malnutrición por déficit o exceso (OR 2,0), no ser propietario de la vivienda (OR 2,0) y menores ingresos personales (OR 1,8). Conclusiones: Existe una alta prevalencia de inseguridad alimentaria en esta población, la que se asocia con variables sociodemográficas, económicas y nutricionales. La seguridad alimentaria es un importante tema de salud pública y nutrición en el país, que debe ser investigado en mayor profundidad.

  5. Genome-wide identification and expression profile analysis of citrus sucrose synthase genes: investigation of possible roles in the regulation of sugar accumulation.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Zahidul; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Jin, Long-Fei; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Peng, Shu-Ang

    2014-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (Sus) (EC 2.4.1.13) is a key enzyme for the sugar accumulation that is critical to form fruit quality. In this study, extensive data-mining and PCR amplification confirmed that there are at least six Sus genes (CitSus1-6) in the citrus genome. Gene structure and phylogeny analysis showed an evolutionary consistency with other plant species. The six Sus genes contain 12-15 exons and 11-14 introns and were evenly distributed into the three plant Sus groups (CitSus1 and CitSus2 in the Sus I group, CitSus3 and CitSus6 in the Sus II group, and CitSus4 and CitSus5 in the Sus III group). Transcripts of these six CitSus genes were subsequently examined. For tissues and organs, CitSus1 and 2 were predominantly expressed in fruit juice sacs (JS) whereas CitSus3 and 4 were predominantly expressed in early leaves (immature leaves), and CitSus5 and 6 were predominantly expressed in fruit JS and in mature leaves. During fruit development, CitSus5 transcript increased significantly and CitSus6 transcript decreased significantly in fruit JS. In the fruit segment membrane (SM), the transcript levels of CitSus2 and 5 were markedly higher and the abundant levels of CitSus3 and 6 gradually decreased. Moreover, transcript levels of CitSus1-4 examined were higher and the CitSus5 transcript level was lower in the fruit SM than in fruit JS, while CitSus6 had a similar transcript level in fruit JS and SM. In addition, transcripts of CitSus1-6 responded differently to dehydration in mature leaves or to mild drought stress in fruit JS and SM. Finally, the possible roles of Sus genes in the regulation of sugar accumulation are discussed; however, further study is required.

  6. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profile Analysis of Citrus Sucrose Synthase Genes: Investigation of Possible Roles in the Regulation of Sugar Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammad Zahidul; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Jin, Long-Fei; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Peng, Shu-Ang

    2014-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (Sus) (EC 2.4.1.13) is a key enzyme for the sugar accumulation that is critical to form fruit quality. In this study, extensive data-mining and PCR amplification confirmed that there are at least six Sus genes (CitSus1-6) in the citrus genome. Gene structure and phylogeny analysis showed an evolutionary consistency with other plant species. The six Sus genes contain 12–15 exons and 11–14 introns and were evenly distributed into the three plant Sus groups (CitSus1 and CitSus2 in the Sus I group, CitSus3 and CitSus6 in the Sus II group, and CitSus4 and CitSus5 in the Sus III group). Transcripts of these six CitSus genes were subsequently examined. For tissues and organs, CitSus1 and 2 were predominantly expressed in fruit juice sacs (JS) whereas CitSus3 and 4 were predominantly expressed in early leaves (immature leaves), and CitSus5 and 6 were predominantly expressed in fruit JS and in mature leaves. During fruit development, CitSus5 transcript increased significantly and CitSus6 transcript decreased significantly in fruit JS. In the fruit segment membrane (SM), the transcript levels of CitSus2 and 5 were markedly higher and the abundant levels of CitSus3 and 6 gradually decreased. Moreover, transcript levels of CitSus1-4 examined were higher and the CitSus5 transcript level was lower in the fruit SM than in fruit JS, while CitSus6 had a similar transcript level in fruit JS and SM. In addition, transcripts of CitSus1-6 responded differently to dehydration in mature leaves or to mild drought stress in fruit JS and SM. Finally, the possible roles of Sus genes in the regulation of sugar accumulation are discussed; however, further study is required. PMID:25420091

  7. Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose synthase gene family in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Fupeng; Hao, Chaoyun; Yan, Lin; Wu, Baoduo; Qin, Xiaowei; Lai, Jianxiong; Song, Yinghui

    2015-09-01

    In higher plants, sucrose synthase (Sus, EC 2.4.1.13) is widely considered as a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism. Although, several paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of Sus have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, to date detailed information about the Sus genes is lacking for cacao. This study reports the identification of six novel Sus genes from economically important cacao tree. Analyses of the gene structure and phylogeny of the Sus genes demonstrated evolutionary conservation in the Sus family across cacao and other plant species. The expression of cacao Sus genes was investigated via real-time PCR in various tissues, different developmental phases of leaf, flower bud and pod. The Sus genes exhibited distinct but partially redundant expression profiles in cacao, with TcSus1, TcSus5 and TcSus6, being the predominant genes in the bark with phloem, TcSus2 predominantly expressing in the seed during the stereotype stage. TcSus3 and TcSus4 were significantly detected more in the pod husk and seed coat along the pod development, and showed development dependent expression profiles in the cacao pod. These results provide new insights into the evolution, and basic information that will assist in elucidating the functions of cacao Sus gene family.

  8. Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose synthase gene family in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Fupeng; Hao, Chaoyun; Yan, Lin; Wu, Baoduo; Qin, Xiaowei; Lai, Jianxiong; Song, Yinghui

    2015-09-01

    In higher plants, sucrose synthase (Sus, EC 2.4.1.13) is widely considered as a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism. Although, several paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of Sus have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, to date detailed information about the Sus genes is lacking for cacao. This study reports the identification of six novel Sus genes from economically important cacao tree. Analyses of the gene structure and phylogeny of the Sus genes demonstrated evolutionary conservation in the Sus family across cacao and other plant species. The expression of cacao Sus genes was investigated via real-time PCR in various tissues, different developmental phases of leaf, flower bud and pod. The Sus genes exhibited distinct but partially redundant expression profiles in cacao, with TcSus1, TcSus5 and TcSus6, being the predominant genes in the bark with phloem, TcSus2 predominantly expressing in the seed during the stereotype stage. TcSus3 and TcSus4 were significantly detected more in the pod husk and seed coat along the pod development, and showed development dependent expression profiles in the cacao pod. These results provide new insights into the evolution, and basic information that will assist in elucidating the functions of cacao Sus gene family. PMID:26440085

  9. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 11th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Grado 11 Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  10. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 2nd Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 2do Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  11. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 1st Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 1er Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  12. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 6th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 6to Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  13. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 7th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Septimo Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  14. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 5th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 5to Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  15. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 9th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Noveno Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  16. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 4th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 4to Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  17. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 3rd Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 3er Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  18. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 8th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Octavo Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  19. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 12th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Grado 12 Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Education Oversight Committee, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  20. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 10th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Decimo Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Education Oversight Committee, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  1. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your Kindergartner Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Jardin Infantil (Kindergarten) Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  2. Hispanic Children and Their Families: A Key to Our Nation's Future = Los Ninos Latinos y Sus Familias: La Llave al Futuro de Nuestro Pais. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    This document comprises testimony presented at a hearing on Hispanic children and their families. Nine witnesses included educators, social scientists, community leaders, and elected officials from Hispanic communities. The following testimony was presented: (1) reports citing the growing Hispanic dropout rate and declining economic progress…

  3. En sus marcas--Listos--A leer! Para las familias: Actividades de lenguaje para la primera infancia y ninez entre el nacimiento y los 5 anos. El reto: A leer, America! (Ready--Set--Read! For Families: Early Childhood Language Activities for Children from Birth through Age Five. America Reads Challenge).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This Ready--Set--Read Kit includes an activity guide for families, a 1997-98 early childhood activity calendar, and an early childhood growth wallchart. The activity guide presents activities and ideas that families (adults who have nurturing relationships with a child--a mother, father, grandparent, other relative, or close friend) can use to…

  4. En sus marcas--Listos--A leer! Para los cuidadores de ninos pequenos: Actividades de lenguaje para la primera infancia y ninez entre el nacimiento y los 5 anos. El reto: A leer, America! (Ready--Set--Read! For Caregivers: Early Childhood Language Activities for Children from Birth through Age Five. America Reads Challenge).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This Ready--Set--Read Kit includes an activity guide for caregivers, a 1997-98 early childhood activity calendar, and an early childhood growth chart. The activity guide presents activities and ideas that caregivers (family child care providers and the teachers, staff, and volunteers in child development programs) can use to help young children…

  5. Los Hispanos: Problemas y Oportunidades. Resumen de la Actual Situacion Demografica, Economica, Social y Politica de los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos y de las Iniciativas Tomadas por la Fundacion Ford Para Hacer Frente a las Necesidades de esta Poblacion en Aumento y Determinar sus Efectos Sobre la Sociedad Estadounidense. Documento de Trabajo de la Fundacion Ford, No. 436.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The Hispanic population's growing impact on American society has caused the Ford Foundation to explore new Foundation initiatives. The 1980 census revealed 14.6 million Hispanics: 60% Mexican American; 14% Puerto Rican; 6% Cuban, and 20% Other. The Hispanic population in the United States is growing and is characterized by diversity; rapid growth…

  6. Cuidado de Ninos con Necesidades Especiales en el Hogar: Manual de Estrategias y Actividades para Proveedores que Cuidan Ninos en Sus Hogares (Children with Special Needs in Family Day Care Homes: A Handbook of Approaches and Activities for Family Day Care Home Providers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Brosse, Beatrice

    Practical information and sample teaching activities for child caregivers who work with young developmentally disabled children in family day care settings are provided in this manual. Each chapter shares a typical experience a caregiver may have with a particular child. Chapter 1 focuses on getting to know a new child, initial expectations, and…

  7. SUCROSE SYNTHASE: ELUCIDATION OF COMPLEX POST-TRANSLATIONAL REGULATORY MECHANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    Steven C. Huber

    2009-05-12

    Studies have focused on the enzyme sucrose synthase, which plays an important role in the metabolism of sucrose in seeds and tubers. There are three isoforms of SUS in maize, referred to as SUS1, SUS-SH1, and SUS2. SUS is generally considered to be tetrameric protein but recent evidence suggests that SUS can also occur as a dimeric protein. The formation of tetrameric SUS is regulated by sucrose concentration in vitro and this could also be an important factor in the cellular localization of the protein. We found that high sucrose concentrations, which promote tetramer formation, also inhibit the binding of SUS1 to actin filaments in vitro. Previously, high sucrose concentrations were shown to promote SUS association with the plasma membrane. The specific regions of the SUS molecule involved in oligomerization are not known, but we identified a region of the SUS1 moelcule by bioinformatic analysis that was predicted to form a coiled coil. We demonstrated that this sequence could, in fact, self-associate as predicted for a coiled coil, but truncation analysis with the full-length recombinant protein suggested that it was not responsible for formation of dimers or tetramers. However, the coiled coil may function in binding of other proteins to SUS1. Overall, sugar availability may differentially influence the binding of SUS to cellular structures, and these effects may be mediated by changes in the oligomeric nature of the enzyme.

  8. A Novel Isoform of Sucrose Synthase Is Targeted to the Cell Wall during Secondary Cell Wall Synthesis in Cotton Fiber[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Brill, Elizabeth; van Thournout, Michel; White, Rosemary G.; Llewellyn, Danny; Campbell, Peter M.; Engelen, Steven; Ruan, Yong-Ling; Arioli, Tony; Furbank, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Sucrose (Suc) synthase (Sus) is the major enzyme of Suc breakdown for cellulose biosynthesis in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber, an important source of fiber for the textile industry. This study examines the tissue-specific expression, relative abundance, and temporal expression of various Sus transcripts and proteins present in cotton. A novel isoform of Sus (SusC) is identified that is expressed at high levels during secondary cell wall synthesis in fiber and is present in the cell wall fraction. The phylogenetic relationships of the deduced amino acid sequences indicate two ancestral groups of Sus proteins predating the divergence of monocots and dicots and that SusC sequences form a distinct branch in the phylogeny within the dicot-specific clade. The subcellular location of the Sus isoforms is determined, and it is proposed that cell wall-localized SusC may provide UDP-glucose for cellulose and callose synthesis from extracellular sugars. PMID:21757635

  9. Stainless-Steel Ball-Milling Method for Hydro-/Deutero-genation using H2O/D2O as a Hydrogen/Deuterium Source.

    PubMed

    Sawama, Yoshinari; Kawajiri, Takahiro; Niikawa, Miki; Goto, Ryota; Yabe, Yuki; Takahashi, Tohru; Marumoto, Takahisa; Itoh, Miki; Kimura, Yuuichi; Monguchi, Yasunari; Kondo, Shin-ichi; Sajiki, Hironao

    2015-11-01

    A one-pot continuous-flow method for hydrogen (deuterium) generation and subsequent hydrogenation (deuterogenation) was developed using a stainless-steel (SUS304)-mediated ball-milling approach. SUS304, especially zero-valent Cr and Ni as constituents of the SUS304, and mechanochemical processing played crucial roles in the development of the reactions. PMID:26493945

  10. Improving supplementary feeding in species conservation

    PubMed Central

    Ewen, John G; Walker, Leila; Canessa, Stefano; Groombridge, Jim J

    2015-01-01

    ón suplementaria con frecuencia es una reacción instintiva a la declinación de poblaciones y su aplicación no se evalúa críticamente, lo que lleva a opiniones polarizadas sobre su uso entre los manejadores. Aquí abogamos por una estrategia más decisiva para la alimentación suplementaria para que la opción de usarla esté claramente justificada sobre, o en combinación con, otras acciones de manejo y las consecuencias pronosticadas sean entonces evaluadas críticamente después de su implementación. Proponemos combinar métodos de otro conjunto de disciplinas especialistas que permitirán la evaluación crítica de la necesidad, el beneficio y los riesgos de la alimentación suplementaria. Por medio del uso de la ecología nutricional, la ecología de poblaciones y la toma de decisiones estructuradas, quienes manejan la conservación pueden tomar mejores decisiones sobre qué y cómo alimentar al estimar las consecuencias de la recuperación poblacional a través de un rango de acciones posibles. Esta estrategia estructurada también informa al monitoreo enfocado y permite con mayor claridad la integración de la alimentación suplementaria a los planes de recuperación y reduce el riesgo de decisiones ineficientes. En Nueva Zelanda, los manejadores del hihi (Notiomystis cincta) que se encuentra en peligro de extinción, con frecuencia dependen de la alimentación suplementaria para apoyar a las poblaciones reintroducidas. En la isla de Kapiti, la población reintroducida de hihis ha respondido de buena manera a la alimentación suplementaria, pero la logística de proporcionar a una demanda en crecimiento recientemente sobrepasó la capacidad de manejo. Para decidir si el régimen alimentario debería revisarse y cómo hacerlo, los manejadores usaron una estrategia estructurada de toma de decisiones con información sobre las respuestas de la población a regímenes alternativos de alimentación. La decisión se hizo para reducir la distribución espacial de los

  11. [METABOLIC SYNDROME AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK IN PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA, BIPOLAR DISORDER AND SCHIZOAFFECTIVE DISORDER].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Calero Franco, Paloma; Sánchez Sánchez, Blanca; Rodríguez Criado, Natalia; Pinilla Santos, Berta; Bravo Herrero, Sandra; Cruz Fourcade, José Fernando; Martín Aragón, Rubén

    2015-12-01

    cardiovascular mayor del 10% en los próximos 10 años. Conclusiones: el estilo de vida, las desigualdades en el acceso a la salud, el curso de la enfermedad y la toma de psicofármacos en los pacientes con trastorno mental grave favorecen el sobrepeso y sus consecuencias derivadas. Las estrategias diseñadas para promover la salud física de estos pacientes en el sistema sanitario español son insuficientes.

  12. Los manuales de quimica en Espana (1788--1845): Protagonistas, terminologia, clasificaciones y orden pedagogico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz Bello, Maria Rosa

    La presente tesis doctoral es una investigacion sobre los manuales de quimica utilizados en Espana de 1788 a 1845. Este trabajo proporciona una perspectiva general de un tema relevante en las ultimas decadas en Historia de la Ciencia, el estudio de los libros de texto. De acuerdo con las ultimas investigaciones realizadas en este terreno, el acto pedagogico es considerado como un proceso creativo, como espacio de encuentro de actores e intereses muy diversos, matizando las ideas defendidas por Thomas S. Kuhn. Recordemos que segun Kuhn, los libros de texto ofrecen una vision consensuada y normalizada del estado de la ciencia de su epoca, por lo que sus autores eliminan deliberadamente toda controversia y presentan asi una imagen distorsionada de la actividad cientifica. En cambio, se ha mostrado, por ejemplo, que en la ensenanza participan no solamente profesores y alumnos sino tambien otros muchos actores y todos ellos no unicamente con intereses puramente pedagogicos sino tambien con diversos intereses politicos y economicos que pueden conocerse a traves del estudio de los manuales. En esta tesis se pretende analizar los manuales de quimica en Espana desde 1788 hasta 1845. Para poder llevar a cabo la investigacion ha sido necesario precisar el objeto de estudio (libro de texto de quimica) durante el periodo estudiado (1788-1845) ya que no es adecuado adoptar la imagen actual de una disciplina que sufrio sustanciales cambios durante la epoca estudiada. Esta investigacion se centra en un momento especialmente importante para la quimica y que algunos historiadores han llegado a considerar "revolucionario". Durante estos anos se produjo un cambio importante en las teorias quimicas sobre la combustion y el concepto de elemento, asi como una reforma terminologica que originaron la aparicion de importantes controversias. Ademas, debido a la relacion de la quimica con otras disciplinas como la historia natural o la fisica ha sido necesario restringir el objeto de estudio

  13. Condiciones Físicas en Nebulosas Gaseosas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luridiana, V.

    1999-03-01

    El presente trabajo se ha enfocado a determinar y entender las condiciones físicas en una variedad de objetos nebulares, prestando particular atención al problema de la determinación de las abundancias químicas. Para este fin, hemos utilizado métodos analíticos en algunos casos, y modelos numéricos de fotoionización en otros. El objetivo general del trabajo es proveer de una visión amplia de las herramientas teórico-observacionales que se utilizan para la determinación de la estructura de temperatura y densidad de las regiones fotoionizadas, poniendo en evidencia posibles fuentes de errores sistemáticos y sus consecuencias para la determinación de las abundancias químicas, y proponiendo métodos para corregirlos. Los resultados principales de este trabajo est´n listados a continuación: a) Se discute el problema de la discrepancia entre T(C III) y T(O III) en las nebulosas planetarias, y se muestra como tal discrepancia implica probablemente la presencia de fluctuaciones de temperatura. Debido a que la temperatura de O++ es muy afectada por fluctuaciones de temperatura, se recomienda usar la temperatura de C++ para determinar la abundancia de carbono. b) Presentamos dos nuevos métodos para determinar la temperatura electrónica en nebulosas planetarias, basados en la medición de las intensidades de las líneas de He I. Las temperaturas que se obtienen a partir de estos métodos son menores que aquellas que se obtienen a partir de las líneas de [O III], implicando la presencia de fluctuaciones espaciales de temperatura. Despreciando las fluctuaciones de temperatura, se obtienen valores sesgados de las abundancias químicas. Determinamos las abundancias en las nebulosas planetarias de tipo I de algunos de los elementos más importantes, tomando en cuenta las fluctuaciones de temperatura. c) Presentamos modelos numéricos de las dos regiones H II extragalácticas gigantes NGC 2363 y NGC 5461. Con el modelaje numérico, pretendemos acotar las car

  14. Lexical Connection: Semiterm Grammatical Patterns in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrero, Carmen Lopez

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the grammatical patterns of a set of nouns frequently used in Spanish specialized discourse: the so-called "semiterms". The following nouns were selected for the study: "problema" "problem", "resultado" "result", "motivo" "motive/reason", "razon" "reason", and "consecuencia" "consequence". Apart from…

  15. A Spectrum Access Based on Quality of Service (QoS) in Cognitive Radio Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Linbo; Wang, Hua; Gao, Chuangen

    2016-01-01

    The quality of service (QoS) is important issue for cognitive radio networks. In the cognitive radio system, the licensed users, also called primary users (PUs), are authorized to utilize the wireless spectrum, while unlicensed users, also called secondary users (SUs), are not authorized to use the wireless spectrum. SUs access the wireless spectrum opportunistically when the spectrum is idle. While SUs use an idle channel, the instance that PUs come back makes SUs terminate their communications and leave the current channel. Therefore, quality of service (QoS) is difficult to be ensured for SUs. In this paper, we first propose an analysis model to obtain QoS for cognitive radio networks such as blocking probability, completed traffic and termination probability of SUs. When the primary users use the channels frequently, QoS of SUs is difficult to be ensured, especially the termination probability. Then, we propose a channel reservation scheme to improve QoS of SUs. The scheme makes the terminated SUs move to the reserved channels and keep on communications. Simulation results show that our scheme can improve QoS of SUs especially the termination probability with a little cost of blocking probability in dynamic environment. PMID:27171196

  16. A Spectrum Access Based on Quality of Service (QoS) in Cognitive Radio Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Linbo; Wang, Hua; Gao, Chuangen

    2016-01-01

    The quality of service (QoS) is important issue for cognitive radio networks. In the cognitive radio system, the licensed users, also called primary users (PUs), are authorized to utilize the wireless spectrum, while unlicensed users, also called secondary users (SUs), are not authorized to use the wireless spectrum. SUs access the wireless spectrum opportunistically when the spectrum is idle. While SUs use an idle channel, the instance that PUs come back makes SUs terminate their communications and leave the current channel. Therefore, quality of service (QoS) is difficult to be ensured for SUs. In this paper, we first propose an analysis model to obtain QoS for cognitive radio networks such as blocking probability, completed traffic and termination probability of SUs. When the primary users use the channels frequently, QoS of SUs is difficult to be ensured, especially the termination probability. Then, we propose a channel reservation scheme to improve QoS of SUs. The scheme makes the terminated SUs move to the reserved channels and keep on communications. Simulation results show that our scheme can improve QoS of SUs especially the termination probability with a little cost of blocking probability in dynamic environment. PMID:27171196

  17. The Idealized Brazilian Health System versus the real one: contributions from the nursing field1

    PubMed Central

    Backes, Dirce Stein; de Souza, Martha Helena Teixeira; Marchiori, Mara Teixeira Caino; Colomé, Juliana Silveira; Backes, Marli Terezinha Stein; Lunardi, Wilson Danilo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the perceptions of professionals working in a facility connected with the Brazilian Unified Health System - SUS in regard to what they know, think and talk about public health policy. METHOD: this exploratory-descriptive study with a qualitative nature was conducted with 28 professionals working in a facility connected with the SUS. Data were collected through interviews with guiding questions and analyzed through the thematic content analysis technique. RESULTS: coded and interpreted data resulted in three thematic axes: The SUS - perfect web that does not work in practice; The recurrent habit of complaining about the SUS; The need to rethink the way of thinking about, acting in and managing the SUS. CONCLUSION: the professionals working for the SUS are aware of the principles and guidelines that govern the Brazilian health system, however, they reproduce a dichotomous and linear model of conception and practice strongly linked to the thinking of society in general. PMID:25591099

  18. Is gliclazide a sulfonylurea with difference? A review in 2016.

    PubMed

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Singh, Ritu

    2016-06-01

    Sulfonylureas (SUs) remain the most commonly prescribed drug after metformin in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), despite the availability of several newer agents. The primary reason of SUs being most popular is their quick glycemic response, time-tested experience and least cost. Although SUs are one amongst the several other second line agents after metformin in all major guidelines, the new Dutch type 2 guidelines specifically advise gliclazide as the preferred second line drug instead of SUs as a class. The World Health Organization (WHO) has also included gliclazide in their Model List of Essential Medicines 2013 motivated by its safety data in elderly patients. Specifically advising gliclazide may have been based on emerging evidence suggesting cardiovascular neutrality of gliclazide over other SUs. This prompted us to do a literature review of gliclazide efficacy and safety data compared to other SUs as well as oral anti-diabetic drugs. PMID:26924475

  19. Small upper stage - An orbit enabling hydrazine propulsion stage for the small satellite community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitan, Thane

    1992-03-01

    The small upper stage (SUS) study aimed at creating a generic, low-cost propulsion stage design capable of being integrated to different launch vehicles (LVs) and providing a mission with an orbit transfer function to a variety of different small satellite missions is presented. The preliminary SUS design was developed taking into account the SUS specification requirements. The SUS design makes it possible to provide small satellites with several orbit transfer maneuvers from a LEO parking orbit, including Hohmann transfer, circularization, plane change, and deorbit. The propulsion system design encompasses a single delta V thruster, a single hydrazine propellant tank, and a pressurized nitrogen gas storage system. It is concluded that with the SUS generic design, the software and fuel loads are tailorable to enable a variety of different missions in a cost-effective manner. The SUS will eliminate the need for a custom propulsion stage for future small satellite missions.

  20. Geographic range size and extinction risk assessment in nomadic species

    PubMed Central

    Runge, Claire A; Tulloch, Ayesha; Hammill, Edd; Possingham, Hugh P; Fuller, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    planning. Tamaño de Extensión Geográfica y Evaluación de Riesgo de Extinción en Especies Nómadas Resumen El tamaño de extensión geográfica se conceptualiza frecuentemente como un atributo fijo de las especies y se trata como tal para los propósitos de cuantificación de riesgo de extinción; se asume que las especies que ocupan extensiones geográficas más pequeñas tienen un riesgo de extinción más alto, cuando todo lo demás es igual. Sin embargo, muchas especies son móviles y sus movimientos varían desde migraciones de ida y vuelta relativamente predecibles hasta movimientos irregulares complejos, como los que muestran las especies nómadas. Estos movimientos pueden llevar a expansiones sustanciales temporales y a una reducción de las extensiones geográficas, todo esto con el potencial de llegar a niveles que pueden presentar un riesgo de extinción. Al enlazar los datos de presencia con las condiciones ambientales al momento de la observación de las especies nómadas pudimos modelar las distribuciones dinámicas de 43 especies de aves de zonas áridas a lo largo de la isla de Australia durante cada mes a lo largo de once años y calculamos el tamaño de extensión mínima y el alcance de las fluctuaciones en el tamaño de extensión geográfica a partir de estos modelos. Hubo una enorme variabilidad en la distribución espacial pronosticada a lo largo del tiempo: diez especies variaron en el tamaño de extensión geográfica por más de una orden de magnitud y dos especies variaron por más de dos órdenes de magnitud. Durante situaciones de condiciones ambientales pobres, varias especies que actualmente no se encuentran clasificadas como amenazadas a nivel global redujeron sus extensiones a áreas muy pequeñas, esto a pesar de su gran tamaño de extensión geográfica normal. Este hallazgo genera preguntas sobre lo idóneo de las evaluaciones convencionales del riesgo de extinción con base en el tamaño estático de extensión geográfica (p. ej

  1. Epistatic interaction and functional compensation between the two tissue- and cell-specific sucrose synthase genes in maize.

    PubMed Central

    Chourey, P S; Taliercio, E W

    1994-01-01

    A tissue-specific epistatic mode of gene interaction was observed between molecularly homologous genes Sh1 and Sus1 (hereafter, Sh and Sus), encoding the sucrose synthase (SS) isozymes, SS1 and SS2, respectively. In Sh Sus genotype, both SS genes were expressed simultaneously and approximately equally in young seedlings; however, only the Sus-encoded SS2 protein was seen in the developing embryos. By contrast, the mutant sus genotype, lacking detectable levels of the SS2 protein in various tissues tested, showed expression of the Sh locus as judged by the detection of the SS1 protein in such embryos. Ectopic expression in embryos was seen from two separate Sh alleles, Sh-W22 and Sh'-5 (a revertant allele derived upon Ds excision from sh-m5933). In each case, the Sh expression at the protein level in embryos was unique to genotypes with the mutant sus gene. Based on the observed lack of phenotypic change in the sus mutant, we suggest that the ectopic expression of the Sh in otherwise Sus-specific tissues leads to functional compensation. There was no epistatic interaction of Sh and Sus at the RNA level as SS1 transcripts were detectable in both Sus and sus embryos. Thus, embryo specificity between the two SS genes was determined at posttranscriptional or at translational level of control. We surmise on the basis of these data that metabolic regulatory controls seem to override the normal constraints of tissue and cell specificity of the nonallelic isozyme genes to maintain efficient use of the pathways. Images PMID:8058735

  2. El efecto de los neutrinos degenerados en la transición de materia nuclear a materia de quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugones, G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Se estudia la transicion de materia nuclear a materia de quarks en presencia de un gas degenerado de neutrinos electrónicos y muónicos. Se muestra que la presencia de los neutrinos hace que las densidades de desconfinamiento de quarks sean notablemente mayores que las encontradas en el caso en que no haya neutrinos presentes. Se discuten las posibles consecuencias de este efecto en explosiones de supernova y evolución de proto estrellas de neutrones.

  3. Drought in the Southern United States over the 20th century: Variability and its impacts on terrestrial ecosystem productivity and carbon storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is one of the most devastating natural hazards faced by the Southern United States (SUS) today. Although precipitation in the SUS as a whole has been found to increase during 1895-2007, drought events and their adverse impacts on the economy, society and environment have been extensively rep...

  4. El pronóstico del cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Tres pacientes con cáncer y su médico, el doctor Anthony L. Back, un oncólogo quien también es experto a nivel nacional en la comunicación entre médicos y pacientes, comparten sus puntos de vista sobre sus pronósticos de cáncer.

  5. Ten-years of bariatric surgery in Brazil: in-hospital mortality rates for patients assisted by universal health system or a health maintenance organization

    PubMed Central

    KELLES, Silvana Márcia Bruschi; MACHADO, Carla Jorge; BARRETO, Sandhi Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery is an option for sustained weight loss for the morbidly obese patient. In Brazil coexists the Unified Health System (SUS) with universal coverage and from which depend 150 million Brazilians and supplemental health security, predominantly private, with 50 million beneficiaries. Aim To compare access, in-hospital mortality, length of stay and costs for patients undergoing bariatric surgery, assisted in one or another system. Methods Data from DATASUS and IBGE were used for SUS patients' and database from one health plan of southeastern Brazil for the health insurance patients. Results Between 2001 and 2010 there were 24,342 and 4,356 surgeries performed in SUS and in the health insurance company, respectively. The coverage rates for surgeries performed in 2010 were 5.3 and 91/100.000 individuals in SUS and health insurance respectively. The rate of in-hospital mortality in SUS, considering the entire country, was 0.55 %, 0.44 % considering SUS Southeast, and 0.30 % for the health insurance. The costs of surgery in the SUS and in the health insurance trend to equalization over the years. Conclusion Despite differences in access and characteristics that may compromise the outcome of bariatric surgery, patients treated at the Southeast SUS had similar rate of in-hospital mortality compared to the health insurance patients. PMID:25626935

  6. Mensaje para alumnos y padres

    NASA Video Gallery

    El astronauta de la NASA José Hernández alienta a los estudiantes a que sigan sus sueños. Hernández también habla acerca del papel que juegan los padres para ayudar a que sus hijos hagan realidad s...

  7. Highly flexible TiO2-coated stainless steel fabric electrode prepared by liquid-phase deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Hong Seo; Lee, Jeong Beom; Jung, Jiwon; Lee, Seyoung; Ryu, Ji Heon; Oh, Seung M.

    2016-10-01

    In order to construct flexible lithium-ion batteries, stainless steel (SUS) fabric is used as a current collector for the negative electrode of lithium-ion batteries. TiO2 is coated onto the SUS fabric by liquid-phase deposition to construct an electrode consisting of an SUS wire core and a TiO2 shell. A folding test is then conducted to assess the robustness of TiO2-coated SUS fabric, during which no detachment of TiO2 particles from the SUS current collector is observed; the negative electrode shows a consistent electrochemical cycle performance even under severe physical duress. The TiO2-SUS fabric integration shows excellent flexibility without loss of electrochemical efficacy under mechanical stress, which occurs owing to three main factors. First, the mechanical stress imposed by folding is effectively dissipated by the 3-dimensional structure of the SUS fabric. Secondly, the TiO2 electrode itself is free from mechanical stress owing to negligible volume change during electrochemical cycling. Thirdly, the high interfacial adhesion strength between TiO2 and SUS fabric due to covalent bond formation during liquid-phase deposition prevents the loss of active material from the negative electrode during the folding tests.

  8. How We Justify and Maintain the White, Male Academic Status Quo through the Use of Biased College Admissions Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micceri, Theodore

    2007-01-01

    Prompted by a puzzling recent growth in the proportions of minority entrants from Community Colleges (CCTs) into the Florida State University System (SUS), the current study analyzed over one million SUS applicants to determine whether any biases in entrance test scores tended to favor either whites over minorities, or males over females. Today,…

  9. Transgene silencing of sucrose synthase in alfalfa stem vascular tissue by a truncated phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase: sucrose synthase construct

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important role of sucrose synthase (SUS, EC 2.4.1.13) in plants is to provide UDP-glucose needed for cellulose synthesis in cell walls. We examined if over-expressing SUS in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) would increase cellulose content of stem cell walls. Alfalfa plants were transformed with two ...

  10. Perceived Usability Evaluation of Learning Management Systems: Empirical Evaluation of the System Usability Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfanou, Konstantina; Tselios, Nikolaos; Katsanos, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Perceived usability affects greatly student's learning effectiveness and overall learning experience, and thus is an important requirement of educational software. The System Usability Scale (SUS) is a well-researched and widely used questionnaire for perceived usability evaluation. However, surprisingly few studies have used SUS to evaluate the…

  11. Impact of Projected State University System Retirements. Information Brief. Volume 2, Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Board of Governors, State University System, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The likely retirement age of "baby boomers" among the tenured faculty in the State University System (SUS) will coincide with a steep increase in the population of traditional college-age students over the next ten years. The majority (53.5%) of SUS faculty were born in the baby boom years between 1943 and 1959. This group is already beginning to…

  12. Effect of anabolic steroids on overloaded and overloaded suspended skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsika, R. W.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of treatment with an anabolic steroid (nandrolone decanoate) on the muscle mass, the subcellular protein content, and the myosin patterns of normal overloaded and suspended overloaded plantaris muscle in female rat was investigated, dividing rats into six groups: normal control (NC), overload (OV), OV steroid (OV-S), normal suspended (N-sus), OV suspended (OV-sus), and OV suspended steroid (OV-sus-S). Relative to control values, overload produced a sparing effect on the muscle weight of the OV-sus group as well as increases of muscle weight of the OV group; increased protein content; and an increased expression of slow myosin in both OV and OV-sus groups. Steroid treatment of OV animals did not after the response of any parameter analyzed for the OV group, but in the OV-sus group steroid treatment induced increases in muscle weight and in protein content of the OV-sus-S group. The treatment did not alter the pattern of isomyosin expression observed in the OV or the OV-sus groups. These result suggest that the steroid acts synergistically with functional overload only under conditions in which the effect of overload is minimized by suspension.

  13. Influence of high pressure hydrogen environment on tensile and fatigue properties of stainless steels at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, T.

    2012-06-01

    Hydrogen environment embrittlement (HEE) of stainless steels in the environment of high pressure and low temperature hydrogen gas was evaluated using a very simple mechanical properties testing procedure. In the method, the high-pressure hydrogen environment is produced just inside the hole in the specimen. In this work, the effects of HEE on fatigue properties for austenitic stainless steels SUS304L and SUS316L were evaluated at 298 and 190 K. The effects of HEE on the tensile properties of higher strength stainless steels, such as strain-hardened 316, SUS630, and other alloys, SUH660 and Alloy 718 were also examined. The less effect of HEE on fatigue properties of SUS316L and tensile properties of strain-hardened 316 were observed compared with SUS304L and other steels at room temperature and 190 K.

  14. Overexpression of a potato sucrose synthase gene in cotton accelerates leaf expansion, reduces seed abortion, and enhances fiber production.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shou-Min; Brill, Elizabeth; Llewellyn, Danny J; Furbank, Robert T; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2012-03-01

    Sucrose synthase (Sus) is a key enzyme in the breakdown of sucrose and is considered a biochemical marker for sink strength, especially in crop species, based on mutational and gene suppression studies. It remains elusive, however, whether, or to what extent, increase in Sus activity may enhance sink development. We aimed to address this question by expressing a potato Sus gene in cotton where Sus expression has been previously shown to be critical for normal seed and fiber development. Segregation analyses at T1 generation followed by studies in homozygous progeny lines revealed that increased Sus activity in cotton (1) enhanced leaf expansion with the effect evident from young leaves emerging from shoot apex; (2) improved early seed development, which reduced seed abortion, hence enhanced seed set, and (3) promoted fiber elongation. In young leaves of Sus overexpressing lines, fructose concentrations were significantly increased whereas, in elongating fibers, both fructose and glucose levels were increased. Since hexoses contribute little to osmolality in leaves, in contrast to developing fibers, it is concluded that high Sus activity promotes leaf development independently of osmotic regulation, probably through sugar signaling. The analyses also showed that doubling the Sus activity in 0-d cotton seeds increased their fresh weight by about 30%. However, further increase in Sus activity did not lead to any further increase in seed weight, indicating an upper limit for the Sus overexpression effect. Finally, based on the observed additive effect on fiber yield from increased fiber length and seed number, a new strategy is proposed to increase cotton fiber yield by improving seed development as a whole, rather than solely focusing on manipulating fiber growth.

  15. [Market and public policy network failures: challenges and possibilities for the Brazilian Unified Health System].

    PubMed

    Pinheiro Filho, Francisco Percival; Sarti, Flávia Mori

    2012-11-01

    The principles and guidelines of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) impose a healthcare service structure based on public policy networks which, combined with the financing model adopted, leads to market failings. This imposes barriers to the management of the public health system and the enactment of SUS objectives. The institutional characteristics and the heterogeneity of players, allied to the existence of different healthcare approaches, generate analytical complexity in the study of the global dynamics of the SUS network. There are limitations in the use of quantitative methods based on static analysis of retrospective SUS data. Thus, an approach taking SUS as a complex system using innovative quantitative methodology based on computational simulation is proposed. This paper sought to analyze challenges and possibilities of the combined application of cellular automata modeling and agent-based modeling for simulation of the evolution of the SUS healthcare service network. This approach should permit better understanding of the organization, heterogeneity and structural dynamics of the SUS service network and a minimization of the effects of market failings on the Brazilian health system. PMID:23175305

  16. [Market and public policy network failures: challenges and possibilities for the Brazilian Unified Health System].

    PubMed

    Pinheiro Filho, Francisco Percival; Sarti, Flávia Mori

    2012-11-01

    The principles and guidelines of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) impose a healthcare service structure based on public policy networks which, combined with the financing model adopted, leads to market failings. This imposes barriers to the management of the public health system and the enactment of SUS objectives. The institutional characteristics and the heterogeneity of players, allied to the existence of different healthcare approaches, generate analytical complexity in the study of the global dynamics of the SUS network. There are limitations in the use of quantitative methods based on static analysis of retrospective SUS data. Thus, an approach taking SUS as a complex system using innovative quantitative methodology based on computational simulation is proposed. This paper sought to analyze challenges and possibilities of the combined application of cellular automata modeling and agent-based modeling for simulation of the evolution of the SUS healthcare service network. This approach should permit better understanding of the organization, heterogeneity and structural dynamics of the SUS service network and a minimization of the effects of market failings on the Brazilian health system.

  17. Smoking patterns and predictors of smoking cessation in elderly populations in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Chaaya, M.; Mehio-Sibai, A.; El-Chemaly, S.

    2006-01-01

    presencia de por lo menos una enfermedad crónica y de discapacidad funcional aumentó en forma significativa las probabilidades de abandono del tabaquismo. Además, el antecedente de tabaquismo aumentó el riesgo de hospitalización. CONCLUSIÓN El presente estudio reviste una importancia particular, pues sus implicaciones son amplias para comunidades similares de escasos ingresos y de refugiados en esta y otras regiones. Pone en evidencia la necesidad de iniciativas más coordinadas por parte de los funcionarios de salud pública, destinadas a enfocar las campañas de abandono del tabaquismo en la población de edad mayor ; aún más hoy, cuando se ha demostrado la utilidad del abandono en términos de disminución de la mortalidad y consecuencias positivas para la salud. PMID:16898378

  18. ‘Everybody knows’, but the rest of the world: the case of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome in dromedary camels observed by Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    índrome de pérdida reproductiva en dromedarios transmitido por orugas y observado por pastores nómadas saharauis del Sáhara Occidental. Antecedentes Los conocimientos tradicionales de las comunidades locales de todo el mundo son una valiosa fuente de nuevas ideas e información para la ciencia. En este estudio, se utilizaron los conocimientos de etnoveterinaria de pastores saharauis del Sáhara Occidental con el fin de proponer una hipótesis científica sobre las interacciones competitivas entre los camellos y las orugas en el ecosistema del Sáhara. Métodos Entre los años 2005 y 2009, se realizaron 44 entrevistas semi-estructuradas a los pastores saharauis en los territorios administrados por la República Árabe Saharaui Democrática, Sáhara Occidental, mediante un diseño de muestreo por bola de nieve. Resultados Los pastores nómadas saharauis describieron un síndrome reproductivo transmitido por orugas, llamado duda, entre sus camellas. Sobre la base de los conocimientos saharauis sobre el duda y una revisión literaria exhaustiva, se propuso la siguiente hipótesis: 1) brotes esporádico de orugas de la familia Lasiocampidae (géneros Lasiocampa, Psilogaster o Streblote) en árboles de Acacia se pueden presentar después de fuertes lluvias en el ecosistema del Sáhara Occidental; 2) durante estos brotes, los camellos ingieren las orugas durante el pastoreo; 3) como consecuencia de esta ingestión, se producen abortos repentinos o partos de crías debilitadas. Apoyamos esta hipótesis mediante razonamiento inductivo basado en evidencia circunstancial y razonamiento analógico con síndromes similares en yeguas de los Estados Unidos y Australia. Conclusiones Este es el primer reporte de la posible existencia de un síndrome de pérdida reproductiva en camellos, transmitido por orugas. Se insinúa que estos síndromes son más comunes que lo que actualmente se conoce. Se sugieren investigaciones adicionales p

  19. Los manuales de quimica en Espana (1788--1845): Protagonistas, terminologia, clasificaciones y orden pedagogico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz Bello, Maria Rosa

    La presente tesis doctoral es una investigacion sobre los manuales de quimica utilizados en Espana de 1788 a 1845. Este trabajo proporciona una perspectiva general de un tema relevante en las ultimas decadas en Historia de la Ciencia, el estudio de los libros de texto. De acuerdo con las ultimas investigaciones realizadas en este terreno, el acto pedagogico es considerado como un proceso creativo, como espacio de encuentro de actores e intereses muy diversos, matizando las ideas defendidas por Thomas S. Kuhn. Recordemos que segun Kuhn, los libros de texto ofrecen una vision consensuada y normalizada del estado de la ciencia de su epoca, por lo que sus autores eliminan deliberadamente toda controversia y presentan asi una imagen distorsionada de la actividad cientifica. En cambio, se ha mostrado, por ejemplo, que en la ensenanza participan no solamente profesores y alumnos sino tambien otros muchos actores y todos ellos no unicamente con intereses puramente pedagogicos sino tambien con diversos intereses politicos y economicos que pueden conocerse a traves del estudio de los manuales. En esta tesis se pretende analizar los manuales de quimica en Espana desde 1788 hasta 1845. Para poder llevar a cabo la investigacion ha sido necesario precisar el objeto de estudio (libro de texto de quimica) durante el periodo estudiado (1788-1845) ya que no es adecuado adoptar la imagen actual de una disciplina que sufrio sustanciales cambios durante la epoca estudiada. Esta investigacion se centra en un momento especialmente importante para la quimica y que algunos historiadores han llegado a considerar "revolucionario". Durante estos anos se produjo un cambio importante en las teorias quimicas sobre la combustion y el concepto de elemento, asi como una reforma terminologica que originaron la aparicion de importantes controversias. Ademas, debido a la relacion de la quimica con otras disciplinas como la historia natural o la fisica ha sido necesario restringir el objeto de estudio

  20. ‘Everybody knows’, but the rest of the world: the case of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome in dromedary camels observed by Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    índrome de pérdida reproductiva en dromedarios transmitido por orugas y observado por pastores nómadas saharauis del Sáhara Occidental. Antecedentes Los conocimientos tradicionales de las comunidades locales de todo el mundo son una valiosa fuente de nuevas ideas e información para la ciencia. En este estudio, se utilizaron los conocimientos de etnoveterinaria de pastores saharauis del Sáhara Occidental con el fin de proponer una hipótesis científica sobre las interacciones competitivas entre los camellos y las orugas en el ecosistema del Sáhara. Métodos Entre los años 2005 y 2009, se realizaron 44 entrevistas semi-estructuradas a los pastores saharauis en los territorios administrados por la República Árabe Saharaui Democrática, Sáhara Occidental, mediante un diseño de muestreo por bola de nieve. Resultados Los pastores nómadas saharauis describieron un síndrome reproductivo transmitido por orugas, llamado duda, entre sus camellas. Sobre la base de los conocimientos saharauis sobre el duda y una revisión literaria exhaustiva, se propuso la siguiente hipótesis: 1) brotes esporádico de orugas de la familia Lasiocampidae (géneros Lasiocampa, Psilogaster o Streblote) en árboles de Acacia se pueden presentar después de fuertes lluvias en el ecosistema del Sáhara Occidental; 2) durante estos brotes, los camellos ingieren las orugas durante el pastoreo; 3) como consecuencia de esta ingestión, se producen abortos repentinos o partos de crías debilitadas. Apoyamos esta hipótesis mediante razonamiento inductivo basado en evidencia circunstancial y razonamiento analógico con síndromes similares en yeguas de los Estados Unidos y Australia. Conclusiones Este es el primer reporte de la posible existencia de un síndrome de pérdida reproductiva en camellos, transmitido por orugas. Se insinúa que estos síndromes son más comunes que lo que actualmente se conoce. Se sugieren investigaciones adicionales para poner a prueba nuestra hipótesis. Finalmente, se

  1. The Spanish diet: an update.

    PubMed

    Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ruiz, Emma; Valero, Teresa; Avila, José Manuel; del Pozo, Susana

    2013-09-01

    árnicos (181 g/día), pescado (88,6 g/persona/día), aceites y grasas (41,6 g/persona/ día), azúcar y derivados (25,6 g/persona/día), huevos (27,1 g/persona/día), legumbres (13,9 g/persona/día) . También un consumo elevado de bebidas no alcohólicas (437 g/persona/día) y un descenso del consumo de bebidas alcohólicas (192 g/persona/día) en comparación con las encuestas previas. En consecuencia, el consumo de carne y productos cárnicos fue superior al recomendado mientras que el consumo de cereales y sus derivados, verduras y hortalizas, fruta y legumbres estaba por debajo de las recomendaciones para la población española (GRUNUMUR, 2004; SENC, 2007). Algunos alimentos mediterráneos de consumo habitual y tradicionales (pan, patatas y aceite de oliva) mostraron un declive notable en comparación con los datos de las Encuestas de Economía Doméstica de 1964. El consumo de energía mostró un marcado declive en comparación con el consumo medio de los años sesenta y mostró marcadas diferencias para los distintos grupos de alimentos contribuyentes. El perfil de energía mostró que una gran parte procedía de los lípidos, frente a los hidratos de carbono y algo superior con respecto a las proteínas. Conclusión: Los patrones de consumo de alimentos en España y los consumos de energía y nutrientes han cambiado notablemente en los últimos 40 años, difiriendo algo en la actualidad de la dieta mediterránea tradicional y saludable.

  2. Multifunctional Nutrient-Binding Proteins Adapt Human Symbiotic Bacteria for Glycan Competition in the Gut by Separately Promoting Enhanced Sensing and Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Elizabeth A.; Kwiatkowski, Kurt J.; Lee, Byung-Hoo; Hamaker, Bruce R.; Koropatkin, Nicole M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT To compete for the dynamic stream of nutrients flowing into their ecosystem, colonic bacteria must respond rapidly to new resources and then catabolize them efficiently once they are detected. The Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron starch utilization system (Sus) is a model for nutrient acquisition by symbiotic gut bacteria, which harbor thousands of related Sus-like systems. Structural investigation of the four Sus outer membrane proteins (SusD, -E, -F, and -G) revealed that they contain a total of eight starch-binding sites that we demonstrated, using genetic and biochemical approaches, to play distinct roles in starch metabolism in vitro and in vivo in gnotobiotic mice. SusD, whose homologs are abundant in the human microbiome, is critical for the initial sensing of available starch, allowing sus transcriptional activation at much lower concentrations than without this function. In contrast, seven additional binding sites across SusE, -F, and -G are dispensable for sus activation. However, they optimize the rate of growth on starch in a manner dependent on the expression of the bacterial polysaccharide capsule, suggesting that they have evolved to offset the diffusion barrier created by this structure. These findings demonstrate how proteins with similar biochemical behavior can serve orthogonal functions during different stages of cellular adaptation to nutrients. Finally, we demonstrated in gnotobiotic mice fed a starch-rich diet that the Sus binding sites confer a competitive advantage to B. thetaiotaomicron in vivo in a manner that is dependent on other colonizing microbes. This study reveals how numerically dominant families of carbohydrate-binding proteins in the human microbiome fulfill separate and sometimes cooperative roles to optimize gut commensal bacteria for nutrient acquisition. PMID:25205092

  3. Effects of simulated weightlessness on the intestinal mucosal barrier of rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Yang, Chun-min; Mao, Gao-ping; Liu, Qing-sen; Guo, Ming-zhou

    2011-07-01

    This study employed a rat tail-suspension model to investigate the effects of simulated weightlessness on the intestinal mucosal barrier. Twenty-four Wistar rats were randomly divided into control (CON), 14-day tail-suspension (SUS-14d), and 21-day tail-suspension (SUS-21d) groups ( n = 8 per group). Expression of occludin and zonula occludins-1 (ZO-1), proteins of the tight junction (TJ), in the intestinal mucosa was measured by immunohistochemical analysis, Western blotting, and mRNA fluorescent quantitation PCR. Plasma concentrations of diamine oxidase (DAO) and D-lactate were determined using an enzymatic spectrophotometric assay. Expression of occludin and ZO-1 was reduced in the SUS-14d and SUS-21d groups as compared to the CON group, with lowest expression observed in the SUS-21d group ( P < 0.01). Examination by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the jejunal epithelium revealed increased intercellular space, decreased TJ and desmosome densities, and destruction of microvilli in the SUS-14d and SUS-21d groups. Plasma DAO and D-lactate concentrations in the SUS-21d group were higher than those in SUS-14d group and significantly higher than those in the CON group ( P < 0.01). In all three groups, the expression of occludin and ZO-1 was found to correlate negatively with DAO ( P < 0.01) and D-lactate ( P < 0.01) concentrations. It is concluded that simulated weightless results in down-regulation of expression of TJ proteins in the rat intestinal mucosa. Simulated weightlessness is proposed to increase intestinal permeability through damage to the TJ.

  4. [Public policy and rights of Single Health System's users with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Santos, Ellen Cristina Barbosa dos; Teixeira, Carla Regina de Souza; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia; Santos, Manoel Antônio dos; Pereira, Marta Cristiane Alves

    2011-01-01

    This study approaches the relationship between public policies and the rights of SUS (Single Health System) users with diabetes mellitus regarding the supplies used in the treatment of diabetes, under the view of legal rules and procedures for support of this population. Health professionals should be a link between users and current health model, actively assuming a role of defending the rights of SUS users with diabetes mellitus. This posture is an ideal to be achieved and consolidated in daily practices. The educational process needs to be strengthened, including the ethical-political dimension during actions implemented with SUS users.

  5. Large-strain cyclic response and martensitic transformation of austenitic stainless steel at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamasaki, H.; Nakano, T.; Ishimaru, E.; Yoshida, F.

    2016-08-01

    Cyclic tension-compression tests were carried out for austenitic stainless steel (SUS304) at elevated temperatures. The significant Bauschinger effect was found in the obtained stress-strain curve. In addition, stagnation of deformation induced martensitic transformation was observed just after stress reversal until the equivalent stress reached the maximum value in the course of experiment. The constitutive model for SUS304 at room temperature was developed, in which homogenized stress of SUS304 was expressed by the weighed summation of stresses of austenite and martensite phases. The calculated stress-strain curves and predicted martensite volume fraction were well correlated with those experimental results.

  6. Effects of insulin and exercise on rat hindlimb muscles after simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stump, Craig S.; Balon, Thomas W.; Tipton, Charles M.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of simulated microgravity on the insulin- and exercise-stimulated glucose uptake and metabolism in the hindlimb muscles of rats was investigated using three groups of rats suspended at 45 head-down tilt (SUS) for 14 days: (1) cage control, (2) exercising (treadmill running) control, and (3) rats subjected to suspension followed by exercise (SUS-E). It was found that the suspension of rats with hindlimbs non-weight bearing led to enhanced muscle responses to insulin and exercise, when these stimuli were applied separately. However, the insulin affect appeared to be impaired after exercise for the SUS-E rats, especially for the soleus muscle.

  7. 78 FR 59010 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ....regulations.gov . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Federal Docket Management System... historical records, but are routed seamlessly to the SUS module for invoice data entry referencing the...

  8. Explore medicamentos | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Aprenda sobre los medicamentos que lo ayudarán a dejar de fumar, incluso el tratamiento de reemplazo de la nicotina. El uso de estos medicamentos puede duplicar sus probabilidades de dejar de fumar definitivamente.

  9. Cellulose nanowhiskers from coconut husk fibers: effect of preparation conditions on their thermal and morphological behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cellulose nanowhiskers were prepared by sulfuric acid hydrolysis from coconut husk fibers which had previously been submitted to a delignification process. The effects of preparation conditions on the thermal and morphological behavior of the nanocrystals were investigated. Cellulose nanowhisker sus...

  10. COMPARISON OF SCANNING ELECTRON AND ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY OF SURFACE FINISHES ON STAINLESS STEEL THAT REDUCE BACTERIAL ATTACHMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacteria adhere to food products and processing surfaces that can cross-contaminate other products and work surfaces (Arnold, 1998). Using materials for food processing surfaces that are resistant to bacterial contamination could enhance food safety. Stainless steel, although sus...

  11. Reaction behavior between B4C, 304 grade of stainless steel and Zircaloy at 1473 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Ryosuke; Ueda, Shigeru; Kim, Sun-Joong; Gao, Xu; Kitamura, Shin-ya

    2016-08-01

    For a better understanding of the decommissioning of the Fukushima-daiichi nuclear power plant, the melting behavior of the control blade and the channel box should be clarified. In Fukushima nuclear reactor, the channel box was made of Zircaloy-4, and the control rode is made of B4C together with stainless steel cladding and sheath. In the study, the interaction among B4C, stainless steel (SUS), and Zircaloy-4 was investigated at 1473 K in either argon or air atmosphere. In argon, Zircaloy is melted by the diffusion of elements from SUS, and SUS was melted at 1473 K by the diffusion of C and B. In air, SUS reacted with B2O3 and formed an oxides melt firstly. Then, the oxidized Zircaloy contacted with this melt and fused. Moreover, the progress of core melting process during severe accident under different atmospheres was firstly discussed.

  12. Are Steroids Worth the Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... esteroides, a pesar de sus riesgos? Dominic has baseball on the brain. Just being good isn't ... premature balding or hair loss weight gain mood swings aggression problems sleeping high blood pressure greater chance ...

  13. Effect of anabolic steroids on skeletal muscle mass during hindlimb suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsika, R. W.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of treatment with an anabolic steroid (nandrolone decanoate) on the muscle mass of plantaris and soleus of a rats in hindlimb suspension, and on the isomyosin expression in these muscles, was investigated in young female rats divided into four groups: normal control (NC), normal steroid (NS), normal suspension (N-sus), and suspension steroid (sus-S). Steroid treatment of suspended animals (sus-S vs N-sus) was found to partially spare body weight and muscle weight, as well as myofibril content of plantaris (but not soleus), but did not modify the isomyosin pattern induced by suspension. In normal rats (NS vs NC), steroid treatment did enhance body weight and plantaris muscle weight; the treatment did not alter isomyosin expression in either muscle type.

  14. Las características más fascinantes del nuevo Robot

    NASA Video Gallery

    impresionante es la palabra que describe perfectamente al nuevo robot Curiosity por su tamaño, sus instrumentos científicos y la manera en que la NASA planifica hacerlo aterrizar en Marte de forma ...

  15. [FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE THE LEAN MASS LOSS IN CANCER PATIENTS].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Sánchez, Eduardo; Muñoz Alferez, Maria José

    2015-10-01

    Introducción: el cáncer es una enfermedad de gran importancia sanitaria debido a las consecuencias físicas y funcionales que conlleva. Entre estas consecuencias está la desnutrición, que puede provocar una pérdida de masa magra y con ello una disminución de la calidad de vida, aumento de las estancias hospitalarias, costes sanitarios, etc. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer qué factores influyen en la pérdida de masa magra. Material y métodos: se trata de un estudio transversal en una muestra de 72 pacientes que reciben tratamiento radioterápico con finalidad curativa en un período comprendido entre el 7 de febrero y el 14 de mayo de 2014. Resultados: del total de pacientes se estudiaron 64, de los cuales el 43,7% presentan pérdida de masa magra, siendo el porcentaje de 21,8% los pacientes que pierden < 2%, el 4,7% los que presentan una pérdida entre el 2-5% y > 5%, el 17,2% de los pacientes. De entre los factores estudiados que pueden influir en la pérdida de masa magra, solo la presencia de síntomas digestivos poseen significación estadísitca (OR = 3,3 o 6,6, según tomemos como referencia el porcentaje de pérdida). Conclusiones: el objetivo del personal sanitario que trabaja con estos pacientes de evitar las consecuencias que acompañan a la pérdida de masa magra. Por todo esto, es importante actuar antes de la aparición de síntomas digestivos, mediante la prevención de los mismos, o la aplicación precoz de una intervención nutricional individualizada.

  16. Effective dominance of resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt maize and cotton varieties: implications for resistance management

    PubMed Central

    Horikoshi, Renato J.; Bernardi, Daniel; Bernardi, Oderlei; Malaquias, José B.; Okuma, Daniela M.; Miraldo, Leonardo L.; Amaral, Fernando S. de A. e; Omoto, Celso

    2016-01-01

    The resistance of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, has been characterized to some Cry and Vip3A proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) expressed in transgenic maize in Brazil. Here we evaluated the effective dominance of resistance based on the survival of neonates from selected Bt-resistant, heterozygous, and susceptible (Sus) strains of FAW on different Bt maize and cotton varieties. High survival of strains resistant to the Cry1F (HX-R), Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab (VT-R) and Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab/Cry1F (PW-R) proteins was detected on Herculex, YieldGard VT PRO and PowerCore maize. Our Vip3A-resistant strain (Vip-R) exhibited high survival on Herculex, Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3 maize. However, the heterozygous from HX-R × Sus, VT-R × Sus, PW-R × Sus and Vip-R × Sus had complete mortality on YieldGard VT PRO, PowerCore, Agrisure Viptera, and Agrisure Viptera 3, whereas the HX-R × Sus and Vip-R × Sus strains survived on Herculex maize. On Bt cotton, the HX-R, VT-R and PW-R strains exhibited high survival on Bollgard II. All resistant strains survived on WideStrike, but only PW-R and Vip-R × Sus survived on TwinLink. Our study provides useful data to aid in the understanding of the effectiveness of the refuge strategy for Insect Resistance Management of Bt plants. PMID:27721425

  17. Effective dominance of resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt maize and cotton varieties: implications for resistance management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikoshi, Renato J.; Bernardi, Daniel; Bernardi, Oderlei; Malaquias, José B.; Okuma, Daniela M.; Miraldo, Leonardo L.; Amaral, Fernando S. De A. E.; Omoto, Celso

    2016-10-01

    The resistance of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, has been characterized to some Cry and Vip3A proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) expressed in transgenic maize in Brazil. Here we evaluated the effective dominance of resistance based on the survival of neonates from selected Bt-resistant, heterozygous, and susceptible (Sus) strains of FAW on different Bt maize and cotton varieties. High survival of strains resistant to the Cry1F (HX-R), Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab (VT-R) and Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab/Cry1F (PW-R) proteins was detected on Herculex, YieldGard VT PRO and PowerCore maize. Our Vip3A-resistant strain (Vip-R) exhibited high survival on Herculex, Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3 maize. However, the heterozygous from HX-R × Sus, VT-R × Sus, PW-R × Sus and Vip-R × Sus had complete mortality on YieldGard VT PRO, PowerCore, Agrisure Viptera, and Agrisure Viptera 3, whereas the HX-R × Sus and Vip-R × Sus strains survived on Herculex maize. On Bt cotton, the HX-R, VT-R and PW-R strains exhibited high survival on Bollgard II. All resistant strains survived on WideStrike, but only PW-R and Vip-R × Sus survived on TwinLink. Our study provides useful data to aid in the understanding of the effectiveness of the refuge strategy for Insect Resistance Management of Bt plants.

  18. [An automated registry program for nosocomial infections].

    PubMed

    Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Polanco-González, Carlos; Samaniego-Mendoza, José Lino; Buhse, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Las infecciones nosocomiales presentan un gran reto para la medicina hospitalaria, en general, y para las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos, en particular. Su elevada prevalencia, la gran morbilidad y mortalidad asociadas, el incremento de la estancia hospitalaria y, en consecuencia, los costos de la atención médica han hecho que los programas de vigilancia, control y prevención de infecciones nosocomiales sean una parte toral de los protocolos de seguridad para el paciente y un indicador de calidad de la atención médica. PMID:25643679

  19. [An automated registry program for nosocomial infections].

    PubMed

    Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Polanco-González, Carlos; Samaniego-Mendoza, José Lino; Buhse, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Las infecciones nosocomiales presentan un gran reto para la medicina hospitalaria, en general, y para las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos, en particular. Su elevada prevalencia, la gran morbilidad y mortalidad asociadas, el incremento de la estancia hospitalaria y, en consecuencia, los costos de la atención médica han hecho que los programas de vigilancia, control y prevención de infecciones nosocomiales sean una parte toral de los protocolos de seguridad para el paciente y un indicador de calidad de la atención médica.

  20. Confrontando teorías físicas con la Cosmología

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucetich, H.

    Hay numerosas teorías físicas que no pueden contrastarse con el experimento en laboratorio y eso las hace poco interesantes como descripción de la naturaleza. Sin embargo, algunas de estas teorías tienen consecuencias cosmológicas observables y se abre la posibilidad de contrastación a través de la observación. Se discuten las observaciones capaces de poner a prueba tales teorías y se examinan ejemplos de teorías limitadas por la observación.

  1. UV irradiation enhances the bonding strength between citric acid-crosslinked gelatin and stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Motoki; Sasaki, Makoto; Katada, Yasuyuki; Taguchi, Tetsushi

    2011-11-01

    The effect of ultraviolet ray (UV) irradiation on the bonding strength between low carbon stainless steel 316 (SUS316L) and trisuccinimidyl citrate (TSC)-crosslinked alkali-treated gelatin (AlGelatin-TSC) was investigated. The UV irradiation effectively generated hydroxyl groups on the surface of SUS316L. The bonding strength between AlGelatin-TSC and SUS316L before UV irradiation was 0.345±0.007 MPa, and upon UV irradiation it increased to 0.750±0.069 MPa. In order to explain this enhanced bonding strength, the surface of SUS316L was examined using its water contact angle and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Furthermore, the N 1s peaks derived from the TSC succinimidyl group were assigned to the surface of SUS316L after the immobilization of the TSC. This indicates that ester bond formation between the TSC active esters and the SUS316L hydroxyl groups contributed to the enhanced bonding strength. Therefore, UV irradiation and subsequent TSC immobilization is a simple way to functionalize biometal surfaces with various structures. This has practical applications for medical devices such as drug-eluting stents, dental implants, and metallic artificial bone.

  2. Enhanced production of β-glucosides by in-situ UDP-glucose regeneration.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fong-Chin; Hinkelmann, Jens; Hermenau, Alexandra; Schwab, Wilfried

    2016-04-20

    Glycosyltransferase (GT)-mediated methodology is recognized as one of the most practical approaches for large-scale production of glycosides. However, GT enzymes require a sugar nucleotide as donor substrate that must be generated in situ for preparative applications by recycling of the nucleotide moiety, e.g. by sucrose synthase (SUS). Three plant GT genes CaUGT2, VvGT14a, and VvGT15c and the fungal SbUGTA1 were successfully co-expressed with GmSUS from soybean in Escherichia coli BL21 and W cells. In vitro, the crude protein extracts prepared from four GT genes and GmSUS co-expressing cells were able to convert several small molecules to the corresponding glucosides, when sucrose and UDP were supplied. In addition, GmSUS was able to enhance the glucosylation efficiency and reduced the amount of supplying UDP-glucose. In the biotransformation system, co-expression of VvGT15c with GmSUS also improved the glucosylation of geraniol and enhanced the resistance of the cells against the toxic terpenol. GT-EcW and GTSUS-EcW cells tolerated up to 2mM geraniol and converted more than 99% of the substrate into the glucoside at production rates exceeding 40μgml(-1)h(-1). The results confirm that co-expression of SUS allows in situ regeneration of UDP-sugars and avoids product inhibition by UDP. PMID:26912290

  3. Isolate Specificity and Polygenic Inheritance of Resistance in Barley to the Heterologous Rust Pathogen Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae.

    PubMed

    Dracatos, P M; Nansamba, M; Berlin, A; Park, R F; Niks, R E

    2016-09-01

    Barley is a near-nonhost to numerous heterologous (nonadapted) rust pathogens because a small proportion of genotypes are somewhat susceptible. We assessed 66 barley accessions and three mapping populations (Vada × SusPtrit, Cebada Capa × SusPtrit, and SusPtrit × Golden Promise) for response to three Swedish oat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae) fungal isolates and determined that barley is a near-nonhost to P. graminis f. sp. avenae and that resistance was polygenically inherited. The parental genotypes Vada and Golden Promise were immune to all three isolates, whereas Cebada Capa was immune to two isolates and moderately resistant to the third. Phenotypic data from the Vada × SusPtrit mapping population and the barley accessions tested also demonstrated isolate-specific resistance. In particular, the SusPtrit parent and several other accessions allowed sporulation by isolate Ingeberga but were resistant to isolate Evertsholm. Nine chromosomal regions carried quantitative trait loci (QTL) (Rpgaq1 to Rpgaq9) of varying effect, most of which colocated to previously identified QTL for resistance to other heterologous rust pathogens. Rpgaq1 on chromosome 1H (Vada and Golden Promise) was effective toward all isolates tested. Microscopic examination indicated that resistance was prehaustorial in Vada whereas, in SusPtrit, both pre- and posthaustorial mechanisms play a role. PMID:27111801

  4. Enhanced relapse prevention for bipolar disorder: a qualitative investigation of value perceived for service users and care coordinators

    PubMed Central

    Pontin, Eleanor; Peters, Sarah; Lobban, Fiona; Rogers, Anne; Morriss, Richard K

    2009-01-01

    Background Enhanced relapse prevention (ERP) is a psychological intervention delivered by mental health professionals to help individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) recognise and manage early warning signs for mania and depression. ERP has an emerging evidence base and is recommended as good practice for mental health professionals. However, without highly perceived value to both those receiving (services users) or delivering it (health professionals), implementation will not occur. The aim of this study is to determine what values of ERP are perceived by service users (SUs) and mental health professionals (care coordinators, CCs) providing community case management. Methods A nested qualitative study design was employed as part of a randomised controlled trial of ERP. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sub-sample of 21 CCs and 21 SUs, and an iterative approach used to develop a framework of conceptual categories that was applied systematically to the data. Results The process of implementing and receiving ERP was valued by both SUs and CCs for three similar sets of reasons: improved understanding of BD (where a knowledge deficit of BD was perceived), enhanced working relationships, and improved ways of managing the condition. There were some differences in the implications these had for both CCs and SUs who also held some reservations. Conclusion CCs and SUs perceive similar value in early warning signs interventions to prevent relapse, and these have particular benefits to them. If this perceived value is maintained, CCs and SUs in routine practice may use ERP long-term. PMID:19203373

  5. Isolate Specificity and Polygenic Inheritance of Resistance in Barley to the Heterologous Rust Pathogen Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae.

    PubMed

    Dracatos, P M; Nansamba, M; Berlin, A; Park, R F; Niks, R E

    2016-09-01

    Barley is a near-nonhost to numerous heterologous (nonadapted) rust pathogens because a small proportion of genotypes are somewhat susceptible. We assessed 66 barley accessions and three mapping populations (Vada × SusPtrit, Cebada Capa × SusPtrit, and SusPtrit × Golden Promise) for response to three Swedish oat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae) fungal isolates and determined that barley is a near-nonhost to P. graminis f. sp. avenae and that resistance was polygenically inherited. The parental genotypes Vada and Golden Promise were immune to all three isolates, whereas Cebada Capa was immune to two isolates and moderately resistant to the third. Phenotypic data from the Vada × SusPtrit mapping population and the barley accessions tested also demonstrated isolate-specific resistance. In particular, the SusPtrit parent and several other accessions allowed sporulation by isolate Ingeberga but were resistant to isolate Evertsholm. Nine chromosomal regions carried quantitative trait loci (QTL) (Rpgaq1 to Rpgaq9) of varying effect, most of which colocated to previously identified QTL for resistance to other heterologous rust pathogens. Rpgaq1 on chromosome 1H (Vada and Golden Promise) was effective toward all isolates tested. Microscopic examination indicated that resistance was prehaustorial in Vada whereas, in SusPtrit, both pre- and posthaustorial mechanisms play a role.

  6. Towards a National Hazard Map of Landslides: Juan de Grijalva, Chiapas, and Mitlatongo, Oaxaca, two catastrophic landslides on southeastern of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez-M, L.; Castañeda, A.; Ramirez, A.; González, A. E.

    2013-05-01

    and represent two of the most outstanding and representative events in southeastern Mexico. Domínguez L., 2008 "El deslizamiento del 4 de noviembre de 2007 en la comunidad Juan de Grijalva, municipio de Ostuacán, Chiapas, y su relación con el Frente Frio no. 4" Report prepared to the General Coordination of Civil Protection, Ministry of the Interior, Mexico Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres, 2009 "Características e impacto socioeconómico de los principales desastres ocurridos en la República Mexicana en el año 2007" Socieconomic Impact by Disasters in Mexico Serie, National System of Civil Protection, Ministry of the Interior, Mexico. Domínguez L., 2011 "Deslizamiento de suelos y rocas en las comunidades de Santiago Mitlatongo, municipio de Nochixtlán, y Santa Cruz Mitlatongo, municipio de Magdalena Jaltepec, Oaxaca" Report prepared to the General Coordination of Civil Protection, Ministry of the Interior, Mexico.

  7. Locus coeruleus neuronal activity determines proclivity to consume alcohol in a selectively-bred line of rats that readily consumes alcohol.

    PubMed

    West, Charles H K; Boss-Williams, Katherine A; Ritchie, James C; Weiss, Jay M

    2015-11-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats selectively-bred for susceptibility to stress in our laboratory (Susceptible, or SUS rats) voluntarily consume large amounts of alcohol, and amounts that have, as shown here, pharmacological effects, which normal rats will not do. In this paper, we explore neural events in the brain that underlie this propensity to readily consume alcohol. Activity of locus coeruleus neurons (LC), the major noradrenergic cell body concentration in the brain, influences firing of ventral tegmentum dopaminergic cell bodies of the mesocorticolimbic system (VTA-DA neurons), which mediate rewarding aspects of alcohol. We tested the hypothesis that in SUS rats alcohol potently suppresses LC activity to markedly diminish LC-mediated inhibition of VTA-DA neurons, which permits alcohol to greatly increase VTA-DA activity and rewarding aspects of alcohol. Electrophysiological single-unit recording of LC and VTA-DA activity showed that in SUS rats alcohol decreased LC burst firing much more than in normal rats and as a result markedly increased VTA-DA activity in SUS rats while having no such effect in normal rats. Consistent with this, in a behavioral test for reward using conditioned place preference (CPP), SUS rats showed alcohol, given by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, to be rewarding. Next, manipulation of LC activity by microinfusion of drugs into the LC region of SUS rats showed that (a) decreasing LC activity increased alcohol intake and increasing LC activity decreased alcohol intake in accord with the formulation described above, and (b) increasing LC activity blocked both the rewarding effect of alcohol in the CPP test and the usual alcohol-induced increase in VTA-DA single-unit activity seen in SUS rats. An important ancillary finding in the CPP test was that an increase in LC activity was rewarding by itself, while a decrease in LC activity was aversive; consequently, effects of LC manipulations on alcohol-related reward in the CPP test were perhaps even

  8. Evolving Hazard Monitoring and Communication at San Vicente Volcano, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, L. J.; Gierke, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    El Salvador has 20 potentially active volcanoes, four of which have erupted in the last 100 years. Since San Vicente Volcano has had no historic eruptions, monitoring is not a high priority; especially given the current eruptive crisis at San Miguel Volcano. Though probability of eruptive hazards remains low at San Vicente, it is arguably one of the most hazardous volcanoes in the country due to rainfall-induced landslides and debris-flow risk. At least 250 deaths occurred in November 2009 from landslides and debris flows triggered by Hurricane Ida. This disaster caused the Universidad de El Salvador - Facultad Multidisciplinaria Paracentral (UES-FMP, San Vicente, El Salvador) to partner with governmental and nongovernmental organizations (including the U.S. Peace Corps, U.S. Fulbright Program, Korean International Cooperation Agency, Protección Civil and the Centro de Protección para Desastres (CEPRODE)) to focus its faculty and student research toward hazard monitoring and risk studies. Newly established monitoring efforts include: measurement of surface cracks and localized rainfall by Protección Civil and local residents using crude extensometers and rain gauges; installation of six weather stations that operate within the most at-risk municipalities; seismic refraction surveys to better characterize stratigraphy and seasonal water table changes; and most recently, a USAID/NSF-funded initiative partnered with the UES-FMP to monitor seasonal hydrologic conditions related to flooding and groundwater recharge. The information from these initiatives is now used to communicate current conditions and warnings through a network of two-way radios established by CEPRODE and Protección Civil. Representatives from the multi-institutional team also communicate the data to authorities who make better-informed decisions regarding warnings and evacuations, as well as determine suitable areas for population relocation in the event of a crisis. Data will eventually be used

  9. Enhancing Diversity In The Geosciences; Intensive Field Experience In USA And Mexico For Middle And High School Teachers Serving Large Hispanic Populations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal-Bautista, R. M.; Kitts, K. B.; Velazquez Oliman, G.; Perry, E. C.

    2008-12-01

    To encourage Hispanic participation and enrolment in the geosciences and ultimately enhance diversity within the discipline, we recruited ten middle and high school science teachers serving large Hispanic populations (60-97%) for a paid three-week field experience supported by an NSF Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences grant. In 2006, the field experiences focused on volcanic events and the water problems of the Central part of Mexico. In 2008, the field experiences focused on karstic and hydrogeological conditions of the Yucatan Peninsula. In addition to the geological aspects of the fieldwork experience, the trip to Mexico exposed the teachers to a social environment outside of their community where they interacted with a diverse group of scientists from the Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Centro de Investigacion Cientifica de Yucatan (CICY) and Centro Nacional de Desastres (CENAPRED). A key part of this project was the encounter between American and Mexican teachers that included a day of presentations, panel discussion and some class-room activities. Direct interaction between the cooperating teachers and the American and Mexican geoscientists provided actual scientific research experiences to educate and to help dispel misconceptions the teachers themselves may have had about who geoscientists really are and what they do. Teachers of the 2006 group produced educational materials from their field experiences and presented these materials at professional conferences. We measured the efficacy of these activities quantitatively via pre- and post-tests assessing confidence levels, preconceptions and biases, NIU staff observations of participants in their home institutions, and evaluations of participants' field books and pedagogical materials. We present these data here and identify specific activities that are both effective and efficient in changing teacher behaviours and attitudes enabling them to better connect with their

  10. Informing the Design and Evaluation of Superuser Care Management Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Cantor, Joel C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health care spending is concentrated among a small number of high-cost patients, and the popularity of initiatives to improve care and reduce cost among such “superusers” (SUs) is growing. However, SU costs decline naturally over time, even without intervention, a statistical phenomenon known as regression-to-the-mean (RTM). Objectives: We assess the magnitude of RTM in hospital costs for cohorts of hospital SUs identified on the basis of high inpatient (IP) or emergency department (ED) utilization. We further examine how cost and RTM are associated with patient characteristics including behavioral health (BH) problems, multiple chronic conditions, and indicators of vulnerability. Study Design: Using longitudinally linked all-payer hospital billing data, we selected patient cohorts with ≥2 IP stays (IP SUs) or ≥6 ED visits (ED SUs) during a 6-month baseline period, and additional subgroups defined by combinations of IP and ED superuse. Population Studied: A total of 289,060 NJ hospital IP and treat-and-release ED patients over 2009–2011. Results: Hospital costs among IP and ED SUs declined 70% and 38%, respectively, over 8 quarters following the baseline period. The decrease occurs more quickly for IP SUs compared with ED SUs. Presence of BH problems was positively associated with costs among patients overall, but the relationship varied by SU cohort. Conclusions: Understanding patterns of RTM among SU populations is important for designing intervention strategies, as there is greater potential for savings among patients with more persistent costs (less RTM). Further, as many SU initiatives lack resources for rigorous evaluation, quantifying the extent of RTM is vital for interpreting program outcomes. PMID:27219632

  11. Soybean Yield and Heterodera glycines Responses to Liquid Swine Manure in Nematode Suppressive Soil and Conducive Soil.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yong; Chen, Senyu; Vetsch, Jeffery; Randall, Gyles

    2013-03-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is a major factor limiting soybean yield. Experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2010 to determine the effects of liquid swine manure and chemical fertilizer PK on soybean and corn yields, and on SCN population in an SCN-suppressive field (S-Site) and an SCN-conducive field (C-Site) in Minnesota. The experiment was a split-plot design with crop sequences as main plots and fertilizer treatments as subplots. The 2-yr crop sequences were Sus-Sus, Res-Sus, and Corn-Sus, where Sus was SCN-susceptible soybean, and Res was SCN-resistant soybean. The fertilizer treatments were manure, PK, and a nonfertilizer as control. Manure did not reduce SCN egg population density but resulted in 31% lower SCN second-stage juvenile (J2) population density at the S-Site at 45 d after planting (DAP) in 2009. Manure also reduced spiral nematode (Helicotylenchus spp.) population density by 52% compared with PK and nonfertilizer treatments at S-Site at 45 DAP in 2009. The crop sequence of Corn-Sus and Res-Sus reduced the SCN egg and J2 but increased spiral nematode population density at both sites. An increase of 1.4 Mg/ha and 0.5 Mg/ha in yield of susceptible soybean was observed in manure and PK treatments, respectively, at the C-Site in 2009. Corn yield was 2.8 Mg/ha and 5.0 Mg/ha greater when treated with manure than nonfertilizer at the S-Site and C-Site, respectively. This study suggests that soil fertility management may be a useful strategy to alleviate the SCN damage to soybean.

  12. Violencia de Pareja en Mujeres Hispanas: Implicaciones para la Investigación y la Práctica

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Becerra, Maria Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    Las investigaciones sobre la violencia entre parejas sugieren que las mujeres hispanas están siendo afectadas desproporcionadamente por la ocurrencia y consecuencias de este problema de salud pública. El objetivo del presente artículo es dar a conocer el estado del arte en relación a la epidemiologia, consecuencias y factores de riesgo para VP entre mujeres Hispanas, discutiendo las implicaciones para la investigación y la práctica. Investigaciones han demostrado una fuerte asociación del status socioeconómico, abuso de droga y el alcohol, la salud mental, aculturación, inmigración, comportamientos sexuales riesgosos e historia de abuso con la violencia entre parejas. Sin embargo, más estudios se deben llevar a cabo para identificar otros factores de riesgos y de protección a poblaciones hispanas no clínicas. Mientras que el conocimiento sobre la etiología de la VP entre mujeres Hispanas se expanda, enfermeras y otros profesionales de la salud deben desarrollar, implementar y evaluar estrategias culturalmente adecuadas para la prevención primaria y secundaria de la violencia entre pareja. PMID:26166938

  13. Rare disease landscape in Brazil: report of a successful experience in inborn errors of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Giugliani, Roberto; Vairo, Filippo P; Riegel, Mariluce; de Souza, Carolina F M; Schwartz, Ida V D; Pena, Sérgio D J

    2016-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions, with many social inequalities. The latter are reflected on its health system, which comprises a large public component called SUS, a small paid health insurance component and a third very small private component, in which patients pay personally for medical services. Seventy five percent of the population depends on SUS, which thus far does not provide adequate coverage for genetic medical procedures. In 2014, SUS introduced the "Policy for the Integral Attention to Subjects with Rare Diseases", establishing guidelines for offering diagnosis and treatment. The policy defines the two main axes, genetic and non-genetic rare diseases. In this fashion, public genetic services in SUS will be installed and funded not by themselves, but as part of the more general policy of rare diseases. Unfortunately, up to now this policy is still depending on financial allowances to be effectively launched. In this article, our intention was to describe activities developed in the area of inborn errors of metabolism by a Brazilian reference center. In spite of the lack of support of SUS, thousands of Brazilian families affected by rare genetic metabolic disorders, and many health professionals from all regions of Brazil, already have benefited from the services, training programs and research projects provided by this comprehensive center. PMID:27282290

  14. Scanning ultrasound removes amyloid-β and restores memory in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Leinenga, Gerhard; Götz, Jürgen

    2015-03-11

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We present a nonpharmacological approach for removing Aβ and restoring memory function in a mouse model of AD in which Aβ is deposited in the brain. We used repeated scanning ultrasound (SUS) treatments of the mouse brain to remove Aβ, without the need for any additional therapeutic agent such as anti-Aβ antibody. Spinning disk confocal microscopy and high-resolution three-dimensional reconstruction revealed extensive internalization of Aβ into the lysosomes of activated microglia in mouse brains subjected to SUS, with no concomitant increase observed in the number of microglia. Plaque burden was reduced in SUS-treated AD mice compared to sham-treated animals, and cleared plaques were observed in 75% of SUS-treated mice. Treated AD mice also displayed improved performance on three memory tasks: the Y-maze, the novel object recognition test, and the active place avoidance task. Our findings suggest that repeated SUS is useful for removing Aβ in the mouse brain without causing overt damage, and should be explored further as a noninvasive method with therapeutic potential in AD. PMID:25761889

  15. Increased GABAB receptor signaling in a rat model for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Selten, Martijn M.; Meyer, Francisca; Ba, Wei; Vallès, Astrid; Maas, Dorien A.; Negwer, Moritz; Eijsink, Vivian D.; van Vugt, Ruben W. M.; van Hulten, Josephus A.; van Bakel, Nick H. M.; Roosen, Joey; van der Linden, Robert J.; Schubert, Dirk; Verheij, Michel M. M.; Kasri, Nael Nadif; Martens, Gerard J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex disorder that affects cognitive function and has been linked, both in patients and animal models, to dysfunction of the GABAergic system. However, the pathophysiological consequences of this dysfunction are not well understood. Here, we examined the GABAergic system in an animal model displaying schizophrenia-relevant features, the apomorphine-susceptible (APO-SUS) rat and its phenotypic counterpart, the apomorphine-unsusceptible (APO-UNSUS) rat at postnatal day 20–22. We found changes in the expression of the GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD67 specifically in the prelimbic- but not the infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), indicative of reduced inhibitory function in this region in APO-SUS rats. While we did not observe changes in basal synaptic transmission onto LII/III pyramidal cells in the mPFC of APO-SUS compared to APO-UNSUS rats, we report reduced paired-pulse ratios at longer inter-stimulus intervals. The GABAB receptor antagonist CGP 55845 abolished this reduction, indicating that the decreased paired-pulse ratio was caused by increased GABAB signaling. Consistently, we find an increased expression of the GABAB1 receptor subunit in APO-SUS rats. Our data provide physiological evidence for increased presynaptic GABAB signaling in the mPFC of APO-SUS rats, further supporting an important role for the GABAergic system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. PMID:27687783

  16. [The evolution of the Brazilian National Health System, strategic courses of action and strategies to understand these actions].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Nelson Rodrigues

    2007-01-01

    The author has the intention to propose to the Brazilian health care management and sanitary reform managers an examination and positioning on the course of action in the implementation of SUS (Brazilian National Health System). The findings underscore two non-convergent set of policies that have affected the course of action in the implementation of the SUS in the 1990s: the first and 'main' course of action derives from policies created in 1988 in the so-called Citizen Constitution, of which the SUS is the most important achievement. The second and "additional" course of action derives from the prevailing macro-economic model and its related policies, implemented since the 1990s, besides advocating a social inclusion measure while leaving out all the related improvements of SUS such as Universality, Integrity and Equity. In addition, the second course of action is in opposition to the model based on social protection, besides raising the importance of market-based individualistic values and actions in general, it carries them into the health care system. The author suggests that a clarification on the desirable and on the deviant courses of action of SUS may be a vital contribution to guaranteeing social rights in health care, while preserving its integrity, equity and universal nature.

  17. Guard cell-specific upregulation of sucrose synthase 3 reveals that the role of sucrose in stomatal function is primarily energetic.

    PubMed

    Daloso, Danilo M; Williams, Thomas C R; Antunes, Werner C; Pinheiro, Daniela P; Müller, Caroline; Loureiro, Marcelo E; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2016-03-01

    Isoform 3 of sucrose synthase (SUS3) is highly expressed in guard cells; however, the precise function of SUS3 in this cell type remains to be elucidated. Here, we characterized transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants overexpressing SUS3 under the control of the stomatal-specific KST1 promoter, and investigated the changes in guard cell metabolism during the dark to light transition. Guard cell-specific SUS3 overexpression led to increased SUS activity, stomatal aperture, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, net photosynthetic rate and growth. Although only minor changes were observed in the metabolite profile in whole leaves, an increased fructose level and decreased organic acid levels and sucrose to fructose ratio were observed in guard cells of transgenic lines. Furthermore, guard cell sucrose content was lower during light-induced stomatal opening. In a complementary approach, we incubated guard cell-enriched epidermal fragments in (13) C-NaHCO3 and followed the redistribution of label during dark to light transitions; this revealed increased labeling in metabolites of, or associated with, the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The results suggest that sucrose breakdown is a mechanism to provide substrate for the provision of organic acids for respiration, and imply that manipulation of guard cell metabolism may represent an effective strategy for plant growth improvement. PMID:26467445

  18. A robust cooperative spectrum sensing scheme based on Dempster-Shafer theory and trustworthiness degree calculation in cognitive radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinlong; Feng, Shuo; Wu, Qihui; Zheng, Xueqiang; Xu, Yuhua; Ding, Guoru

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) is a promising technology that brings about remarkable improvement in spectrum utilization. To tackle the hidden terminal problem, cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) which benefits from the spatial diversity has been studied extensively. Since CSS is vulnerable to the attacks initiated by malicious secondary users (SUs), several secure CSS schemes based on Dempster-Shafer theory have been proposed. However, the existing works only utilize the current difference of SUs, such as the difference in SNR or similarity degree, to evaluate the trustworthiness of each SU. As the current difference is only one-sided and sometimes inaccurate, the statistical information contained in each SU's historical behavior should not be overlooked. In this article, we propose a robust CSS scheme based on Dempster-Shafer theory and trustworthiness degree calculation. It is carried out in four successive steps, which are basic probability assignment (BPA), trustworthiness degree calculation, selection and adjustment of BPA, and combination by Dempster-Shafer rule, respectively. Our proposed scheme evaluates the trustworthiness degree of SUs from both current difference aspect and historical behavior aspect and exploits Dempster-Shafer theory's potential to establish a `soft update' approach for the reputation value maintenance. It can not only differentiate malicious SUs from honest ones based on their historical behaviors but also reserve the current difference for each SU to achieve a better real-time performance. Abundant simulation results have validated that the proposed scheme outperforms the existing ones under the impact of different attack patterns and different number of malicious SUs.

  19. Place of sulfonylureas in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in South Asia: A consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Aamir, A H; Raza, Abbas; Das, A K; Azad Khan, A K; Shrestha, Dina; Qureshi, Md Faisal; Md Fariduddin; Pathan, Md Faruque; Jawad, Fatema; Bhattarai, Jyoti; Tandon, Nikhil; Somasundaram, Noel; Katulanda, Prasad; Sahay, Rakesh; Dhungel, Sanjib; Bajaj, Sarita; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Ghosh, Sujoy; Madhu, S V; Ahmed, Tofail; Bulughapitiya, Uditha

    2015-01-01

    Since their introduction in clinical practice in the 1950's, Sulfonylureas (SUs) have remained the main-stay of pharmacotherapy in the management of type 2 diabetes. Despite their well-established benefits, their place in therapy is inappropriately being overshadowed by newer therapies. Many of the clinical issues associated with the use of SUs are agent-specific, and do not pertain to the class as such. Modern SUs (glimepiride, gliclazide MR) are backed by a large body of evidence, experience, and most importantly, outcome data, which supports their role in managing patients with diabetes. Person-centred care, i.e., careful choice of SU, appropriate dosage, timing of administration, and adequate patient counseling, will ensure that deserving patients are not deprived of the advantages of this well-established class of anti-diabetic agents. Considering their efficacy, safety, pleiotropic benefits, and low cost of therapy, SUs should be considered as recommended therapy for the treatment of diabetes in South Asia. This initiative by SAFES aims to encourage rational, safe and smart prescription of SUs, and includes appropriate medication counseling. PMID:26425465

  20. Nickel-free stainless steel avoids neointima formation following coronary stent implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiu, Katsuhito; Manabe, Ichiro; Sasaki, Makoto; Inoue, Motoki; Iwata, Hiroshi; Hasumi, Eriko; Komuro, Issei; Katada, Yasuyuki; Taguchi, Tetsushi; Nagai, Ryozo

    2012-12-01

    SUS316L stainless steel and cobalt-chromium and platinum-chromium alloys are widely used platforms for coronary stents. These alloys also contain nickel (Ni), which reportedly induces allergic reactions in some subjects and is known to have various cellular effects. The effects of Ni on neointima formation after stent implantation remain unknown, however. We developed coronary stents made of Ni-free high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel prepared using a N2-gas pressurized electroslag remelting (P-ESR) process. Neointima formation and inflammatory responses following stent implantation in porcine coronary arteries were then compared between the Ni-free and SUS316L stainless steel stents. We found significantly less neointima formation and inflammation in arteries implanted with Ni-free stents, as compared to SUS316L stents. Notably, Ni2+ was eluted into the medium from SUS316L but not from Ni-free stainless steel. Mechanistically, Ni2+ increased levels of hypoxia inducible factor protein-1α (HIF-1α) and its target genes in cultured smooth muscle cells. HIF-1α and their target gene levels were also increased in the vascular wall at SUS316L stent sites but not at Ni-free stent sites. The Ni-free stainless steel coronary stent reduces neointima formation, in part by avoiding activation of inflammatory processes via the Ni-HIF pathway. The Ni-free-stainless steel stent is a promising new coronary stent platform.

  1. Scanning ultrasound removes amyloid-β and restores memory in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Leinenga, Gerhard; Götz, Jürgen

    2015-03-11

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We present a nonpharmacological approach for removing Aβ and restoring memory function in a mouse model of AD in which Aβ is deposited in the brain. We used repeated scanning ultrasound (SUS) treatments of the mouse brain to remove Aβ, without the need for any additional therapeutic agent such as anti-Aβ antibody. Spinning disk confocal microscopy and high-resolution three-dimensional reconstruction revealed extensive internalization of Aβ into the lysosomes of activated microglia in mouse brains subjected to SUS, with no concomitant increase observed in the number of microglia. Plaque burden was reduced in SUS-treated AD mice compared to sham-treated animals, and cleared plaques were observed in 75% of SUS-treated mice. Treated AD mice also displayed improved performance on three memory tasks: the Y-maze, the novel object recognition test, and the active place avoidance task. Our findings suggest that repeated SUS is useful for removing Aβ in the mouse brain without causing overt damage, and should be explored further as a noninvasive method with therapeutic potential in AD.

  2. Development of a UK Online 24-h Dietary Assessment Tool: myfood24.

    PubMed

    Carter, Michelle C; Albar, Salwa A; Morris, Michelle A; Mulla, Umme Z; Hancock, Neil; Evans, Charlotte E; Alwan, Nisreen A; Greenwood, Darren C; Hardie, Laura J; Frost, Gary S; Wark, Petra A; Cade, Janet E

    2015-06-01

    Assessment of diet in large epidemiological studies can be costly and time consuming. An automated dietary assessment system could potentially reduce researcher burden by automatically coding food records. myfood24 (Measure Your Food on One Day) an online 24-h dietary assessment tool (with the flexibility to be used for multiple 24 h-dietary recalls or as a food diary), has been developed for use in the UK population. Development of myfood24 was a multi-stage process. Focus groups conducted with three age groups, adolescents (11-18 years) (n = 28), adults (19-64 years) (n = 24) and older adults (≥ 65 years) (n = 5) informed the development of the tool, and usability testing was conducted with beta (adolescents n = 14, adults n = 8, older adults n = 1) and live (adolescents n = 70, adults n = 20, older adults n = 4) versions. Median system usability scale (SUS) scores (measured on a scale of 0-100) in adolescents and adults were marginal for the beta version (adolescents median SUS = 66, interquartile range (IQR) = 20; adults median SUS = 68, IQR = 40) and good for the live version (adolescents median SUS = 73, IQR = 22; adults median SUS = 80, IQR = 25). Myfood24 is the first online 24-h dietary recall tool for use with different age groups in the UK. Usability testing indicates that myfood24 is suitable for use in UK adolescents and adults. PMID:26024292

  3. [The evolution of the Brazilian National Health System, strategic courses of action and strategies to understand these actions].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Nelson Rodrigues

    2007-01-01

    The author has the intention to propose to the Brazilian health care management and sanitary reform managers an examination and positioning on the course of action in the implementation of SUS (Brazilian National Health System). The findings underscore two non-convergent set of policies that have affected the course of action in the implementation of the SUS in the 1990s: the first and 'main' course of action derives from policies created in 1988 in the so-called Citizen Constitution, of which the SUS is the most important achievement. The second and "additional" course of action derives from the prevailing macro-economic model and its related policies, implemented since the 1990s, besides advocating a social inclusion measure while leaving out all the related improvements of SUS such as Universality, Integrity and Equity. In addition, the second course of action is in opposition to the model based on social protection, besides raising the importance of market-based individualistic values and actions in general, it carries them into the health care system. The author suggests that a clarification on the desirable and on the deviant courses of action of SUS may be a vital contribution to guaranteeing social rights in health care, while preserving its integrity, equity and universal nature. PMID:17680098

  4. Guard cell-specific upregulation of sucrose synthase 3 reveals that the role of sucrose in stomatal function is primarily energetic.

    PubMed

    Daloso, Danilo M; Williams, Thomas C R; Antunes, Werner C; Pinheiro, Daniela P; Müller, Caroline; Loureiro, Marcelo E; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2016-03-01

    Isoform 3 of sucrose synthase (SUS3) is highly expressed in guard cells; however, the precise function of SUS3 in this cell type remains to be elucidated. Here, we characterized transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants overexpressing SUS3 under the control of the stomatal-specific KST1 promoter, and investigated the changes in guard cell metabolism during the dark to light transition. Guard cell-specific SUS3 overexpression led to increased SUS activity, stomatal aperture, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, net photosynthetic rate and growth. Although only minor changes were observed in the metabolite profile in whole leaves, an increased fructose level and decreased organic acid levels and sucrose to fructose ratio were observed in guard cells of transgenic lines. Furthermore, guard cell sucrose content was lower during light-induced stomatal opening. In a complementary approach, we incubated guard cell-enriched epidermal fragments in (13) C-NaHCO3 and followed the redistribution of label during dark to light transitions; this revealed increased labeling in metabolites of, or associated with, the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The results suggest that sucrose breakdown is a mechanism to provide substrate for the provision of organic acids for respiration, and imply that manipulation of guard cell metabolism may represent an effective strategy for plant growth improvement.

  5. Fabrication of Stainless Steel Mold Using Electrochemical Fabrication Method for Microfluidic Biochip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Min-Soo; Lim, Hyun-Woo; Sunyong Lee, Caroline; Cho, Byung-Ki; Park, Jin-Goo

    2008-06-01

    Imprinting method mechanically transfers patterns from a stamp onto a substrate. In imprinting process, the mold is one of the most important factors. A new micro fabrication method termed electrochemical fabrication (ECF) is introduced to overcome conventional problems of electrical discharge machining (EDM), FeCl3 Wet etching, laser method, electro plating, such as low reliability and reproducibility, high cost. This ECF method defines micro patterns using a conventional photolithography, allowing it to produce micro-scale patterns with an excellent surface roughness and of excellent quality. In this paper, a 150 mm stainless steel (SUS 304, 5 mm in thickness) mold was fabricated using both ECF method and FeCl3-etchant method, respectively. As a result, the ECF mold resulted 10 times better surface roughness values than that of mold using FeCl3 etchant. Also, metal surface of the ECF-SUS mold was cleaner and smoother than that the FeCl3 etched SUS mold. Therefore, SUS mold was successfully fabricated for the first time in micro-scale and multi-step patterns. Plastic replica was fabricated successfully using the ECF-SUS mold.

  6. [Progress and challenges facing user acceptance in the implementation and qualification of the Unified Health System in Primary Healthcare: a review of the bibliographical output in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mitre, Sandra Minardi; Andrade, Eli Iola Gurgel; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre

    2012-08-01

    The public policies adopted by the Unified Health System (SUS) in Brazil have gone through successive transformations, striving to reassert health as a universal right. The user acceptance of the guidelines of the National Humanization Policy for Care and Management of the SUS - Humanize SUS - is taking shape and relevance in Primary Healthcare (PHC) to ensure humanized access and resolution of the health demands of users and communities in Brazil. A critical analysis of the bibliographical output in Brazil from 1989 to 2009 was conducted regarding acceptance of implementation and qualification of SUS in PHC. The databases consulted were SciELO, Lilacs and Medline. The results revealed progress in broadening access to PHC services and health professionals more sensitive to the needs of users and communities. However, lack of coordination in integrated networks, excess demand, the hegemonic biomedical model, lack of training and democratic and reflexive spaces to reorganize the work process have been raising increasingly more incisive questions about the potential of this guideline for the implementation and qualification of SUS.

  7. Development of a UK Online 24-h Dietary Assessment Tool: myfood24

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Michelle C.; Albar, Salwa A.; Morris, Michelle A.; Mulla, Umme Z.; Hancock, Neil; Evans, Charlotte E.; Alwan, Nisreen A.; Greenwood, Darren C.; Hardie, Laura J.; Frost, Gary S.; Wark, Petra A.; Cade, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of diet in large epidemiological studies can be costly and time consuming. An automated dietary assessment system could potentially reduce researcher burden by automatically coding food records. myfood24 (Measure Your Food on One Day) an online 24-h dietary assessment tool (with the flexibility to be used for multiple 24 h-dietary recalls or as a food diary), has been developed for use in the UK population. Development of myfood24 was a multi-stage process. Focus groups conducted with three age groups, adolescents (11–18 years) (n = 28), adults (19–64 years) (n = 24) and older adults (≥65 years) (n = 5) informed the development of the tool, and usability testing was conducted with beta (adolescents n = 14, adults n = 8, older adults n = 1) and live (adolescents n = 70, adults n = 20, older adults n = 4) versions. Median system usability scale (SUS) scores (measured on a scale of 0–100) in adolescents and adults were marginal for the beta version (adolescents median SUS = 66, interquartile range (IQR) = 20; adults median SUS = 68, IQR = 40) and good for the live version (adolescents median SUS = 73, IQR = 22; adults median SUS = 80, IQR = 25). Myfood24 is the first online 24-h dietary recall tool for use with different age groups in the UK. Usability testing indicates that myfood24 is suitable for use in UK adolescents and adults. PMID:26024292

  8. Place of sulfonylureas in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in South Asia: A consensus statement

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Aamir, A. H.; Raza, Abbas; Das, A. K.; Azad Khan, A. K.; Shrestha, Dina; Qureshi, Md Faisal; Md Fariduddin; Pathan, Md Faruque; Jawad, Fatema; Bhattarai, Jyoti; Tandon, Nikhil; Somasundaram, Noel; Katulanda, Prasad; Sahay, Rakesh; Dhungel, Sanjib; Bajaj, Sarita; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Ghosh, Sujoy; Madhu, S. V.; Ahmed, Tofail; Bulughapitiya, Uditha

    2015-01-01

    Since their introduction in clinical practice in the 1950's, Sulfonylureas (SUs) have remained the main-stay of pharmacotherapy in the management of type 2 diabetes. Despite their well-established benefits, their place in therapy is inappropriately being overshadowed by newer therapies. Many of the clinical issues associated with the use of SUs are agent-specific, and do not pertain to the class as such. Modern SUs (glimepiride, gliclazide MR) are backed by a large body of evidence, experience, and most importantly, outcome data, which supports their role in managing patients with diabetes. Person-centred care, i.e., careful choice of SU, appropriate dosage, timing of administration, and adequate patient counseling, will ensure that deserving patients are not deprived of the advantages of this well-established class of anti-diabetic agents. Considering their efficacy, safety, pleiotropic benefits, and low cost of therapy, SUs should be considered as recommended therapy for the treatment of diabetes in South Asia. This initiative by SAFES aims to encourage rational, safe and smart prescription of SUs, and includes appropriate medication counseling. PMID:26425465

  9. Graphene grown on stainless steel as a high-performance and ecofriendly anti-corrosion coating for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell bipolar plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Nen-Wen; Shi, Gia-Nan; Liu, Yih-Ming; Sun, Xueliang; Chang, Jeng-Kuei; Sun, Chia-Liang; Ger, Ming-Der; Chen, Chun-Yu; Wang, Po-Chiang; Peng, You-Yu; Wu, Chia-Hung; Lawes, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the growth of graphene by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on SUS304 stainless steel and on a catalyzing Ni/SUS304 double-layered structure was investigated. The results indicated that a thin and multilayered graphene film can be continuously grown across the metal grain boundaries of the Ni/SUS304 stainless steel and significantly enhance its corrosion resistance. A 3.5 wt% saline polarization test demonstrated that the corrosion currents in graphene-covered SUS304 were improved fivefold relative to the corrosion currents in non-graphene-covered SUS304. In addition to enhancing the corrosion resistance of stainless steel, a graphene coating also ameliorates another shortcoming of stainless steel in a corrosive environment: the formation of a passive oxidation layer on the stainless steel surface that decreases conductivity. After a corrosion test, the graphene-covered stainless steel continued to exhibit not only an excellent low interfacial contact resistance (ICR) of 36 mΩ cm2 but also outstanding drainage characteristics. The above results suggest that an extremely thin, lightweight protective coating of graphene on stainless steel can act as the next-generation bipolar plates of fuel cells.

  10. cDNA-AFLP transcriptional profiling reveals genes expressed during flower development in Oncidium Milliongolds.

    PubMed

    Qian, X; Gong, M J; Wang, C X; Tian, M

    2014-01-01

    The flower developmental process, which is crucial to the whole lifecycle of higher plants, is influenced by both environmental and endogenous factors. The genus Oncidium is commercially important for cut flower and houseplant industry and is ideal for flower development studies. Using cDNA-amplified restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, we profiled transcripts that are differentially expressed during flower development of Oncidium Milliongolds. A total of 15,960 transcript-derived fragments were generated, with 114 primer sets. Of these, 1248 were sequenced, producing 993 readable sequences. BLASTX/N analysis showed that 833 of the 993 transcripts showed homology to genes in the NCBI databases, exhibiting functions involved in various processes, such as signal transduction, energy conversion, metabolism, and gene expression regulation. The full-length mRNAs of SUCROSE SYNTHASE 1 (SUS1) and LEAFY (LFY) were cloned, and their expression patterns were characterized. The results showed that the expression levels of SUS1 and LFY were similar during flower development. To confirm the function of SUS1 in flower buds, carbohydrate content and sucrose synthase activity were determined. The results showed that changes in sucrose content and sucrose synthase activity reflected SUS1 expression levels. Collectively, these results indicate that SUS1 influences flower development by regulating LFY expression levels through changing the sucrose content of flower buds.

  11. [Involvement of workers from municipal outpatient services in Uberaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in the reorganization of services under the Unified National Health System].

    PubMed

    Goulart, Bethania Ferreira; Freitas, Maria Imaculada de Fátima

    2008-09-01

    This study was conducted in two specialized municipal outpatient clinics in the city of Uberaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study analyzes the involvement of professionals in their work and the reorganization of health services from their perspective, considering the participatory management recommended by the Unified National Health System (SUS). The study included nine workers with or without specific health training, all involved in health sector activities. Participants were selected according to profession or job (groups: dentistry, infrastructure, medicine, social work, psychology, coordination, nursing, pharmacy, and biochemistry), with one participant per "category" for each clinic. The content was submitted to structural narrative analysis. Three analytical categories were identified: management, involvement in work, and involvement in the SUS proposals. The study was not intended to generalize results on health workers' involvement, but it does highlight the importance of understanding the interaction between the management model and the reorganization of services as recommended under the SUS.

  12. [The history of the public health reform in Brazil and of the Sistema Único de Saúde: changes, continuities, and the current agenda].

    PubMed

    Menicucci, Telma Maria Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    The paper offers a historical retrospective of Brazil's Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), including its background and its legacy on its current design. It begins describing some of the system's structural problems, especially the co-existence of a public system alongside a private one. It identifies problems that have hampered a firmer solidification of SUS, while it also highlights the immense import of establishing a unified, universal system in a country the size of Brazil. The discussion includes the effects of the system, which has represented a major change in the field of social rights, introducing new actors, and internalizing the notion of health as a right. Lastly, recent developments that have put SUS on the public agenda are discussed.

  13. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of orthodontic metallic appliances.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Takashi; Oda, Hirotake; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Sano, Natsuki; Batbayar, Nomintsetseg; Terashima, Yukari; Sato, Soh; Terada, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    Biocorrosion (microbiologically influenced corrosion; MIC) occur in aquatic habitats varying in nutrient content, temperature, stress and pH. The oral environment of organisms, including humans, should be one of the most hospitable for MIC. Corrosion of metallic appliances in the oral region is one cause of metal allergy in patients. In this study, an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer revealed elution of Fe, Cr and Ni from stainless steel (SUS) appliances incubated with oral bacteria. Three-dimensional laser confocal microscopy also revealed that oral bacterial culture promoted increased surface roughness and corrosion pits in SUS appliances. The pH of the supernatant was lowered after co-culture of appliances and oral bacteria in any combinations, but not reached at the level of depassivation pH of their metallic materials. This study showed that Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis which easily created biofilm on the surfaces of teeth and appliances, did corrode orthodontic SUS appliances.

  14. [Considerations on the Sistema Único de Saúde in the twenty-first century: an interview with Lígia Bahia].

    PubMed

    Bahia, Lígia; Cueto, Marcos; Benchimol, Jaime; Teixeira, Luiz Antonio; Cerqueira, Roberta C

    2014-01-01

    This interview with Lígia Bahia explores evaluations of the first 25 years of Brazil's Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) and analyzes the project's progress, impasses, and missteps. Bahia is critical of both tendencies currently found within SUS: the one that sees the system as aimed at equity and the other posing equality as its goal. She criticizes the ambivalence that various spheres of government have displayed in their decisions regarding large corporate groups and private health insurance plans, which conflict with the ideas of SUS. She evaluates the participation of doctors and other healthcare professionals in the system. Lastly, she analyzes the emergence of identity politics, which are missing from the public health reform project, whose emphasis was on equality.

  15. [Strategies by civil society organizations for access to breast cancer drugs in the Brazilian Unified National Health System].

    PubMed

    Deprá, Aline Scaramussa; Ribeiro, Carlos Dimas Martins; Maksud, Ivia

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to identify and analyze strategies by civil society organizations working with breast cancer (CSOs) on access to drugs in Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) and the main social actors. A qualitative approach used the snowball technique, semi-structured interviews, and participant observation. Thematic analysis was based on the following categories: access to drugs for breast cancer treatment, relationship between CSOs and government, relationship between CSOs and the pharmaceutical industry, and other strategies used by CSOs. The results showed that civil society organizations have influenced access to drugs for breast cancer in the SUS and that their main strategies have focused on pressuring government at all levels. Meanwhile, the pharmaceutical industry sponsors some CSOs in order to strengthen them and expand its own market. The main difficulties in access to such drugs involve insufficient services, unequal treatment, and inclusion of technology in the SUS.

  16. Starch Catabolism by a Prominent Human Gut Symbiont Is Directed by the Recognition of Amylose Helices

    SciTech Connect

    Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Martens, Eric C.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2009-01-12

    The human gut microbiota performs functions that are not encoded in our Homo sapiens genome, including the processing of otherwise undigestible dietary polysaccharides. Defining the structures of proteins involved in the import and degradation of specific glycans by saccharolytic bacteria complements genomic analysis of the nutrient-processing capabilities of gut communities. Here, we describe the atomic structure of one such protein, SusD, required for starch binding and utilization by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a prominent adaptive forager of glycans in the distal human gut microbiota. The binding pocket of this unique {alpha}-helical protein contains an arc of aromatic residues that complements the natural helical structure of starch and imposes this conformation on bound maltoheptaose. Furthermore, SusD binds cyclic oligosaccharides with higher affinity than linear forms. The structures of several SusD/oligosaccharide complexes reveal an inherent ligand recognition plasticity dominated by the three-dimensional conformation of the oligosaccharides rather than specific interactions with the composite sugars.

  17. Análisis de abundancias de estrellas δ Sct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, E.; Pintado, O. I.

    Las estrellas δ Sct se encuentran en la parte inferior de la franja de inestabilidad, su tipo espectral está entre A y F y sus luminosidades se extienden entre la Secuencia Principal y 2 magnitudes por encima de ella. Sus períodos son menores que 0d.3 y sus amplitudes varían entre milésimas y décimas de magnitud. En este trabajo se realiza un análisis detallado de las abundancias de un grupo de estrellas δ Sct observadas en el CASLEO con el espectrógrafo REOSC. Este trabajo forma parte de un proyecto destinado a estudiar las relaciones existentes entre los parámetros de pulsación (período y amplitudes) y parámetros físicos tales como velocidad de rotación, temperatura efectiva, metalicidades de este tipo de estrellas.

  18. The principles of the Brazilian Unified Health System, studied based on similitude analysis

    PubMed Central

    de Pontes, Ana Paula Munhen; de Oliveira, Denize Cristina; Gomes, Antonio Marcos Tosoli

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to analyze and compare the incorporation of the ethical-doctrinal and organizational principles into the social representations of the Unified Health System (SUS) among health professionals. Method a study grounded in Social Representations Theory, undertaken with 125 subjects, in eight health institutions in Rio de Janeiro. The free word association technique was applied to the induction term "SUS", the words evoked being analyzed using the techniques of the Vergès matrix and similitude analysis. Results it was identified that the professionals' social representations vary depending on their level of education, and that those with higher education represent a subgroup responsible for the process of representational change identified. This result was confirmed through similitude analysis. Conclusion a process of representational change is ongoing, in which it was ascertained that the professionals incorporated the principles of the SUS into their symbolic constructions. The similitude analysis was shown to be a fruitful technique for research in nursing. PMID:24553704

  19. [Strategies by civil society organizations for access to breast cancer drugs in the Brazilian Unified National Health System].

    PubMed

    Deprá, Aline Scaramussa; Ribeiro, Carlos Dimas Martins; Maksud, Ivia

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to identify and analyze strategies by civil society organizations working with breast cancer (CSOs) on access to drugs in Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) and the main social actors. A qualitative approach used the snowball technique, semi-structured interviews, and participant observation. Thematic analysis was based on the following categories: access to drugs for breast cancer treatment, relationship between CSOs and government, relationship between CSOs and the pharmaceutical industry, and other strategies used by CSOs. The results showed that civil society organizations have influenced access to drugs for breast cancer in the SUS and that their main strategies have focused on pressuring government at all levels. Meanwhile, the pharmaceutical industry sponsors some CSOs in order to strengthen them and expand its own market. The main difficulties in access to such drugs involve insufficient services, unequal treatment, and inclusion of technology in the SUS. PMID:26248106

  20. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Jon C; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A; Steffensen, John F

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; U crit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3) there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (U sus) and minimum cost of transport (COTmin); and (4) variation in U sus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (U opt; i.e., the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance traveled). Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e., EPOC) increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg(-1). Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis), a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between U crit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced U crit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between U sus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between U sus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high U sus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between U sus and U opt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming