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Sample records for descriptive epidemiologic study

  1. Descriptive epidemiological study of equine laminitis.

    PubMed

    Slater, M R; Hood, D M; Carter, G K

    1995-09-01

    A descriptive and matched case-control study of laminitis was conducted in 7 private practices and at the Texas Veterinary Medical Centre (TVMC) between May 1992 and July 1993. Out of 108 horses with laminitis, 19 acute (49%) and 20 chronic (51%) cases were seen in private practice and 16 acute (23%) and 53 (77%) cases at the TVMC. Gastrointestinal disease was the most common problem in 19/35 horses (54%), occurring just prior to the onset of acute laminitis in all hospitals. Among all horses in the study, most commonly used drugs were phenylbutazone (68%), acepromazine (34%), dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) (27%), antibiotics of various types (19%) and flunixin meglumine (19%). Acepromazine, DMSO and flunixin meglumine were used more commonly in acute cases of laminitis compared to chronic cases. In acutely affected horses, DMSO and flunixin meglumine were used significantly more often at the TVMC. In chronic cases, phenylbutazone and antibiotics were used more often in private practice. Shoeing and trimming were more commonly part of the treatment protocol for chronic cases. There were no significant associations between age, breed, sex or weight and the occurrence of acute laminitis. Horses with chronic laminitis were significantly older (P=0.04) and more females tended to be affected (P=0.08).

  2. Genotyping of Giardia isolates in Scotland: a descriptive epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Alexander, C; Jones, B; Inverarity, D; Pollock, K G J

    2014-08-01

    Giardiasis, caused by the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis (synonyms: G. lamblia, G. duodenalis), is one of the most frequent parasites to infect the Scottish population. Transmission of the infective cysts in faecal matter is commonly via food and/or water. Giardia is subdivided into assemblages, where clinical and epidemiological differences have been described between assemblages A and B. This snapshot descriptive epidemiological study examines 30 positive cases of Giardia of which 72% (n = 21) were shown to be assemblage A, 14% (n = 4) assemblage B and 10% (n = 3) mixed assemblages (A and B). There was a 2:3 female:male ratio of affected individuals with foreign travel recorded in 22 of these cases. The commonest symptom was diarrhoea which was reported in 80% of cases followed by tiredness. Five cases required hospitalization emphasizing the importance of gaining a greater understanding of how Giardia assemblages influence clinical outcomes to assist in formulating guidelines to manage potential Giardia outbreaks.

  3. A Descriptive Epidemiology Study of Oral Cleft in Sergipe, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Luiza, Andrea; Noronha de Góis, Diego; Santos, Jadson Alípio Santana de Sousa; Brito de Oliveira, Rosany Larissa; Ferreira da Silva, Luiz Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The nonsyndromic orofacial cleft is the fourth most common birth defect, but in Brazil, data about the cleft epidemiology are not accurate. Objective This study aimed to describe the epidemiologic characteristics of oral cleft cases at Specialized Society Attending Cleft Patient in Sergipe State. Methods Data were obtained from patients' medical records in relation to the following characteristics: age; gender; race; origin; cleft type; additional malformations and/or complications; prenatal accomplishment; treatment applied. For diagnosis analysis, it was noted if mothers had received prenatal care and if they had ultrasonography performed and if the cleft was viewed in it. Results We observed a prevalence of male gender (54%). Age between 0 and 4 years old was most prevalent (53%), and pheoderma race was observed in 47%. Transincisive foramen cleft was found in 52.3% of the individuals. The prevalence of pre- and transincisive foramen cleft was higher in men (66.3 and 55.7%), women accounted for 65.0% of postincisive foramen, and atypical facial cleft (0.3%) occurred in one case. Associated malformations and complications were present in 12% of patients. Prenatal care was reported by 48% of the mothers. Conclusion In this study male gender was the most affected, and 0 to 4 years was the most frequent age group. Transincisive foramen cleft type was most frequently encountered. Prenatal care was reported by most mothers. So, this study found that early treatment is a reality in SEAFESE (Service Specializing in Cleft Care of Sergipe), and consequently the chances of successful integration of the child to society will be better. PMID:25992043

  4. Descriptive Epidemiology of Somatising Tendency: Findings from the CUPID Study

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Walker-Bone, Karen; Palmer, Keith T.; Felli, Vanda E.; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H.; Felknor, Sarah A.; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R.; Sadeghian, Farideh; Kadir, M. Masood; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S. P.; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R.; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Sarquis, Leila M. M.; Marziale, Maria H.; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V.; Quintana, Leonardo A.; Rojas, Marianela; Harris, E. Clare; Serra, Consol; Martinez, J. Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G.; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M.; Pesatori, Angela C.; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Freimann, Tiina; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J.; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A. Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kelsall, Helen L.; Hoe, Victor C. W.; Urquhart, Donna M.; Derrett, Sarah; McBride, David; Herbison, Peter; Gray, Andrew; Vega, Eduardo J. Salazar

    2016-01-01

    Somatising tendency, defined as a predisposition to worry about common somatic symptoms, is importantly associated with various aspects of health and health-related behaviour, including musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. To explore its epidemiological characteristics, and how it can be specified most efficiently, we analysed data from an international longitudinal study. A baseline questionnaire, which included questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory about seven common symptoms, was completed by 12,072 participants aged 20–59 from 46 occupational groups in 18 countries (response rate 70%). The seven symptoms were all mutually associated (odds ratios for pairwise associations 3.4 to 9.3), and each contributed to a measure of somatising tendency that exhibited an exposure-response relationship both with multi-site pain (prevalence rate ratios up to six), and also with sickness absence for non-musculoskeletal reasons. In most participants, the level of somatising tendency was little changed when reassessed after a mean interval of 14 months (75% having a change of 0 or 1 in their symptom count), although the specific symptoms reported at follow-up often differed from those at baseline. Somatising tendency was more common in women than men, especially at older ages, and varied markedly across the 46 occupational groups studied, with higher rates in South and Central America. It was weakly associated with smoking, but not with level of education. Our study supports the use of questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory as a method for measuring somatising tendency, and suggests that in adults of working age, it is a fairly stable trait. PMID:27128094

  5. Descriptive Epidemiology of Somatising Tendency: Findings from the CUPID Study.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Walker-Bone, Karen; Palmer, Keith T; Felli, Vanda E; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H; Felknor, Sarah A; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R; Sadeghian, Farideh; Kadir, M Masood; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S P; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Sarquis, Leila M M; Marziale, Maria H; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V; Quintana, Leonardo A; Rojas, Marianela; Harris, E Clare; Serra, Consol; Martinez, J Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M; Pesatori, Angela C; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Freimann, Tiina; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kelsall, Helen L; Hoe, Victor C W; Urquhart, Donna M; Derrett, Sarah; McBride, David; Herbison, Peter; Gray, Andrew; Vega, Eduardo J Salazar

    2016-01-01

    Somatising tendency, defined as a predisposition to worry about common somatic symptoms, is importantly associated with various aspects of health and health-related behaviour, including musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. To explore its epidemiological characteristics, and how it can be specified most efficiently, we analysed data from an international longitudinal study. A baseline questionnaire, which included questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory about seven common symptoms, was completed by 12,072 participants aged 20-59 from 46 occupational groups in 18 countries (response rate 70%). The seven symptoms were all mutually associated (odds ratios for pairwise associations 3.4 to 9.3), and each contributed to a measure of somatising tendency that exhibited an exposure-response relationship both with multi-site pain (prevalence rate ratios up to six), and also with sickness absence for non-musculoskeletal reasons. In most participants, the level of somatising tendency was little changed when reassessed after a mean interval of 14 months (75% having a change of 0 or 1 in their symptom count), although the specific symptoms reported at follow-up often differed from those at baseline. Somatising tendency was more common in women than men, especially at older ages, and varied markedly across the 46 occupational groups studied, with higher rates in South and Central America. It was weakly associated with smoking, but not with level of education. Our study supports the use of questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory as a method for measuring somatising tendency, and suggests that in adults of working age, it is a fairly stable trait.

  6. Descriptive Epidemiology of Clubfoot in Vietnam: A Clinic-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Michelle C.; Nhi, Huynh Manh; Nam, Vo Quang Dinh; Thanh, Do Van; Romitti, Paul; Morcuende, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of congenital talipes equinovarus (clubfoot) in Vietnam is estimated to be approximately one in 1000 births. To date, no epidemiological studies have been conducted in this country to assess risk factors associated with this deformity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate specific environmental and socioeconomic factors that may increase the risk of an infant being born with clubfoot. A descriptive clinic-based study was conducted using structured questionnaires given to biological mothers of clinically confirmed clubfoot subjects (n=99) and biological mothers of children between ages 0–18 with no first or second degree family history of clubfoot as controls (n=97). Phenotypic data from clubfoot subjects was also collected. We found that males were twice as likely to have clubfoot and half of clubfoot subjects were affected bilaterally. There was no significant difference in the rate of left versus right clubfoot. Infant and maternal characteristics showing a strong association with clubfoot included breech presentation at birth (p=0.026) and young maternal age (p=0.033). Although there were no strong correlations with any sociodemographic paternal characteristics, a higher percentage of case fathers were younger at the age of conception compared to control fathers. The information from this preliminary study provides a framework for future epidemiologic studies in this population. An understanding of the risk factors associated with clubfoot will play an important role in understanding the pathophysiology of this disabling deformity. PMID:23576932

  7. The National Veteran Sleep Disorder Study: Descriptive Epidemiology and Secular Trends, 2000–2010

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Melannie; Ray, Meredith A.; Hébert, James R.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.; Zhang, Hongmei; Steck, Susan E.; Bogan, Richard K.; Burch, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: A large proportion of individuals affected by sleep disorders are untreated and susceptible to accidents, injuries, long-term sequelae (e.g., risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, psychiatric disorders), and increased mortality risk. Few studies have examined the scope and magnitude of sleep disorder diagnoses in the United States (US) or factors influencing them. Veterans are particularly vulnerable to factors that elicit or exacerbate sleep disorders. Methods: This serial cross-sectional study characterized secular trends in diagnosed sleep disorders among veterans seeking care in US Veterans Health Administration facilities over an eleven-year span (FY2000–2010, n = 9,786,778). Electronic medical records from the national Veterans Administration Informatics and Computing Infrastructure database were accessed. Cases were defined using diagnostic codes specified by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Age-adjusted annual prevalence was summarized by sex, race, combat exposure, body mass index, and comorbid diagnoses (cardiovascular disease, cancer, mental disorders). Results: Sleep apnea (47%) and insomnia (26%) were the most common diagnoses among patients with any sleep disorder. There was a six-fold relative increase in total sleep disorder prevalence over the study period. Posttraumatic stress disorder, which tripled over the same time period, was associated with the highest prevalence of sleep disorders (16%) among the comorbid conditions evaluated. Conclusions: The results indicate a growing need for integration of sleep disorder management with patient care and health care planning among US veterans. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1331. Citation: Alexander M, Ray MA, Hébert JR, Youngstedt SD, Zhang H, Steck SE, Bogan RK, Burch JB. The National Veteran Sleep Disorder Study: descriptive epidemiology and secular trends, 2000–2010. SLEEP 2016;39(7):1399–1410. PMID:27091538

  8. Descriptive Epidemiology of Clubfoot in Peru: A Clinic-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Melissa; Cook, Thomas; Segura, Julio; Pecho, Augustin; Morcuende, Jose A

    2013-01-01

    congenital clubfoot is the most common birth defect of the musculoskeletal system and affects 1 in every 1000 live births each year.1 Although there have been numerous studies of investigation, the etiology and pathogenesis of clubfoot remains unknown. To date, no epidemiological studies have been conducted in Peru to assess possible genetic and environmental risk factors associated with this deformity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate specific environmental and socioeconomic factors that may increase the risk of clubfoot. A descriptive clinic-based study was conducted using structured questionnaires given to biological mothers of clinically confirmed clubfoot patients (n=72) and biological mothers of children between ages 0-18 with no first or second degree family history of clubfoot as controls (n=103). Phenotypic data from clubfoot subjects were also collected. We found that males were twice as likely to have clubfoot as females, and half of all clubfoot patients had bilateral clubfoot. There was no significant difference in the rate of left vs. right clubfoot. Infant birth in the winter months correlated with an increased risk of clubfoot (p=0.01476). Maternal characteristics found to be significantly associated with increased risk of clubfoot were young maternal age at conception (p=0.04369) and low maternal education (p=0.003245). Young paternal age also had a correlation with increased risk of clubfoot in the child (p=0.0371). Both paternal smoking (p=0.00001) and the presence of any household smoking (p=0.00003) were strongly associated with an increased risk of clubfoot. PMID:24027478

  9. Trends in gestational age and birth weight in Chile, 1991–2008. A descriptive epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gestational age and birth weight are the principal determinants of newborn’s health status. Chile, a middle income country traditionally has public policies that promote maternal and child health. The availability of an exhaustive database of live births has allows us to monitor over time indicators of newborns health. Methods This descriptive epidemiological study included all live births in Chile, both singleton and multiple, from 1991 through 2008. Trends in gestational age affected the rate of prevalence (%) of preterm births (<37 weeks, including the categories < 32 and 32–36 weeks), term births (37–41) and postterm births (42 weeks or more). Trends in birth weight affected the prevalence of births < 1500 g, 1500–2499 g, 2500–3999 g, and 4000 g or more. Results Data from an exhaustive register of live births showed that the number of term and postterm births decreased and the number of multiple births increased significantly. Birth weights exceeding 4000 g did not vary. Total preterm births rose from 5.0% to 6.6%, with increases of 28% for the singletons and 31% for multiple births (p for trend < 0.0001). Some categories increased even more: specifically preterm birth < 32 weeks increased 32.3% for singletons and 50.6% for multiple births (p for trend 0.0001). The overall rate of low birth weight infants (<2500 g) increased from 4.6% to 5.3%. This variation was not statistically significant for singletons (p for trend = 0.06), but specific analyses exhibited an important increase in the category weighing <1500 g (42%) similar to that observed in multiple births (43%). Conclusions The gestational age and birth weight of live born child have significantly changed over the past two decades in Chile. Monitoring only overall rates of preterm births and low-birth-weight could provide restricted information of this important problem to public health. Monitoring them by specific categories provides a solid

  10. Descriptive Epidemiology of Cervical Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Defazio, Giovanni; Jankovic, Joseph; Giel, Jennifer L.; Papapetropoulos, Spyridon

    2013-01-01

    Background Cervical dystonia (CD), the most common form of adult-onset focal dystonia, has a heterogeneous clinical presentation with variable clinical features, leading to difficulties and delays in diagnosis. Owing to the lack of reviews specifically focusing on the frequency of primary CD in the general population, we performed a systematic literature search to examine its prevalence/incidence and analyze methodological differences among studies. Methods We performed a systematic literature search to examine the prevalence data of primary focal CD. Sixteen articles met our methodological criteria. Because the reported prevalence estimates were found to vary widely across studies, we analyzed methodological differences and other factors to determine whether true differences exist in prevalence rates among geographic areas (and by gender and age distributions), as well as to facilitate recommendations for future studies. Results Prevalence estimates ranged from 20–4,100 cases/million. Generally, studies that relied on service-based and record-linkage system data likely underestimated the prevalence of CD, whereas population-based studies suffered from over-ascertainment. The more methodologically robust studies yielded a range of estimates of 28–183 cases/million. Despite the varying prevalence estimates, an approximate 2:1 female:male ratio was consistent among many studies. Three studies estimated incidence, ranging from 8–12 cases/million person-years. Discussion Although several studies have attempted to estimate the prevalence and incidence of CD, there is a need for additional well-designed epidemiological studies on primary CD that include large populations; use defined CD diagnostic criteria; and stratify for factors such as age, gender, and ethnicity. PMID:24255801

  11. Epidemiologic study of residential proximity to transmission lines and childhood cancer in California: description of design, epidemiologic methods and study population.

    PubMed

    Kheifets, Leeka; Crespi, Catherine M; Hooper, Chris; Oksuzyan, Sona; Cockburn, Myles; Ly, Thomas; Mezei, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a large epidemiologic case-control study in California to examine the association between childhood cancer risk and distance from the home address at birth to the nearest high-voltage overhead transmission line as a replication of the study of Draper et al. in the United Kingdom. We present a detailed description of the study design, methods of case ascertainment, control selection, exposure assessment and data analysis plan. A total of 5788 childhood leukemia cases and 3308 childhood central nervous system cancer cases (included for comparison) and matched controls were available for analysis. Birth and diagnosis addresses of cases and birth addresses of controls were geocoded. Distance from the home to nearby overhead transmission lines was ascertained on the basis of the electric power companies' geographic information system (GIS) databases, additional Google Earth aerial evaluation and site visits to selected residences. We evaluated distances to power lines up to 2000 m and included consideration of lower voltages (60-69 kV). Distance measures based on GIS and Google Earth evaluation showed close agreement (Pearson correlation >0.99). Our three-tiered approach to exposure assessment allowed us to achieve high specificity, which is crucial for studies of rare diseases with low exposure prevalence.

  12. The INTERPHONE study: design, epidemiological methods, and description of the study population.

    PubMed

    Cardis, Elisabeth; Richardson, Lesley; Deltour, Isabelle; Armstrong, Bruce; Feychting, Maria; Johansen, Christoffer; Kilkenny, Monique; McKinney, Patricia; Modan, Baruch; Sadetzki, Siegal; Schüz, Joachim; Swerdlow, Anthony; Vrijheid, Martine; Auvinen, Anssi; Berg, Gabriele; Blettner, Maria; Bowman, Joseph; Brown, Julianne; Chetrit, Angela; Christensen, Helle Collatz; Cook, Angus; Hepworth, Sarah; Giles, Graham; Hours, Martine; Iavarone, Ivano; Jarus-Hakak, Avital; Klaeboe, Lars; Krewski, Daniel; Lagorio, Susanna; Lönn, Stefan; Mann, Simon; McBride, Mary; Muir, Kenneth; Nadon, Louise; Parent, Marie-Elise; Pearce, Neil; Salminen, Tiina; Schoemaker, Minouk; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Siemiatycki, Jack; Taki, Masao; Takebayashi, Toru; Tynes, Tore; van Tongeren, Martie; Vecchia, Paolo; Wiart, Joe; Woodward, Alistair; Yamaguchi, Naohito

    2007-01-01

    The very rapid worldwide increase in mobile phone use in the last decade has generated considerable interest in the possible health effects of exposure to radio frequency (RF) fields. A multinational case-control study, INTERPHONE, was set-up to investigate whether mobile phone use increases the risk of cancer and, more specifically, whether the RF fields emitted by mobile phones are carcinogenic. The study focused on tumours arising in the tissues most exposed to RF fields from mobile phones: glioma, meningioma, acoustic neurinoma and parotid gland tumours. In addition to a detailed history of mobile phone use, information was collected on a number of known and potential risk factors for these tumours. The study was conducted in 13 countries. Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, and the UK using a common core protocol. This paper describes the study design and methods and the main characteristics of the study population. INTERPHONE is the largest case-control study to date investigating risks related to mobile phone use and to other potential risk factors for the tumours of interest and includes 2,765 glioma, 2,425 meningioma, 1,121 acoustic neurinoma, 109 malignant parotid gland tumour cases and 7,658 controls. Particular attention was paid to estimating the amount and direction of potential recall and participation biases and their impact on the study results.

  13. Descriptive Epidemiology of Traumatic Injuries in 18890 Adults: a 5-Year-Study in a Tertiary Trauma Center in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mehrpour, Saeed Reza; Nabian, Mohammad Hossein; Oryadi Zanjani, Leila; Foroughmand-Araabi, Mohammad-Hadi; Shahryar Kamrani, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Basic epidemiological data can provide estimates when discussing disease burden and in the planning and provision of healthcare strategies. There is little quantitative information in the literature regarding prevalence of traumatic injuries from developing countries. Objectives: The aim of the current preliminary study was to reveal the prevalence and age and gender distribution of various traumatic injuries in a tertiary referral orthopedic hospital in Iran. Patients and Methods: In a prospective descriptive study, all traumatic injured patients attending the Orthopedic Trauma Unit of our center in a five year period were included. Demographic details, the cause of injury, injury classification and treatment were recorded. For each of the five-year age groups and each gender we calculated the numbers with fractures, dislocations, soft tissue injuries, ligamentous injuries and lacerations and derived average age and gender-specific prevalence as well as seasonal variations. Results: A total of 18890 adults were admitted, 13870 (73.4%) males and 5020 (26.6%) females. There were 8204 (43.4%) fractures. The male fracture age distribution curve was unimodal and there was a detectable bimodal pattern in females. Under 65 years males are 3 times more likely to sustain a fracture than females which decreases to equal risk over the age of 65. The most common fracture site was distal radius/ulna (13.8%), followed by tibial diaphysis (8.8%), proximal femur (7.8%), finger phalanges (6.4%), metacarpals (6%) and metatarsals (5.9%). There were seasonal variations in fracture incidence with peaks in February, March and October. The least number of fractures occurred in June. Conclusions: The risk of traumatic injuries is higher among specific age groups with different patterns emerging for men and women. Thus, the descriptive epidemiology will provide useful information for treatment or injury prevention strategies, resource allocation, and training priorities. PMID

  14. Descriptive epidemiology of idiopathic clubfoot.

    PubMed

    Werler, Martha M; Yazdy, Mahsa M; Mitchell, Allen A; Meyer, Robert E; Druschel, Charlotte M; Anderka, Marlene; Kasser, James R; Mahan, Susan T

    2013-07-01

    Clubfoot is a common structural malformation, occurring in approximately 1/1,000 live births. Previous studies of sociodemographic and pregnancy-related risk factors have been inconsistent, with the exception of the strong male preponderance and association with primiparity. Hypotheses for clubfoot pathogenesis include fetal constraint, Mendelian-inheritance, and vascular disruption, but its etiology remains elusive. We conducted a population-based case-control study of clubfoot in North Carolina, Massachusetts, and New York from 2007 to 2011. Mothers of 677 clubfoot cases and 2,037 non-malformed controls were interviewed within 1 year of delivery about socio-demographic and reproductive factors. Cases and controls were compared for child's sex, maternal age, education, cohabitation status, race/ethnicity, state, gravidity, parity, body mass index (BMI), and these pregnancy-related conditions: oligohydramnios, breech delivery, bicornuate uterus, plural birth, early amniocentesis (<16 weeks), chorionic villous sampling (CVS), and plural gestation with fetal loss. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were adjusted for state. Cases were more likely to be male (OR: 2.7; 2.2-3.3) and born to primiparous mothers (1.4; 1.2-1.7) and mothers with BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) (1.4; 1.1-1.8). These associations were greatest in isolated and bilateral cases. ORs for the pregnancy-related conditions ranged from 1.3 (breech delivery) to 5.6 (early amniocentesis). Positive associations with high BMI were confined to cases with a marker of fetal constraint (oligohydramnios, breech delivery, bicornuate uterus, plural birth), inheritance (family history in 1st degree relative), or vascular disruption (early amniocentesis, CVS, plural gestation with fetal loss). Pathogenetic factors associated with obesity may be in the causal pathway for clubfoot.

  15. Descriptive Epidemiology of Idiopathic Clubfoot

    PubMed Central

    Werler, Martha M.; Yazdy, Mahsa M.; Mitchell, Allen A.; Meyer, Robert E.; Druschel, Charlotte M.; Anderka, Marlene; Kasser, James R.; Mahan, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Clubfoot is a common structural malformation, occurring in approximately 1/1000 live births. Previous studies of sociodemographic and pregnancy-related risk factors have been inconsistent, with the exception of the strong male preponderance and association with primiparity. Hypotheses for clubfoot pathogenesis include fetal constraint, Mendelian-inheritance, and vascular disruption, but its etiology remains elusive. We conducted a population-based case-control study of clubfoot in North Carolina, Massachusetts, and New York from 2007 to 2011. Mothers of 677 clubfoot cases and 2,037 non-malformed controls were interviewed within one year of delivery about socio-demographic and reproductive factors. Cases and controls were compared for child’s sex, maternal age, education, cohabitation status, race/ethnicity, state, gravidity, parity, body mass index (BMI), and these pregnancy-related conditions: oligohydramnios, breech delivery, bicornuate uterus, plural birth, early amniocentesis (<16 weeks), chorionic villous sampling (CVS), and plural gestation with fetal loss. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were adjusted for state. Cases were more likely to be male (OR: 2.7; 2.2–3.3) and born to primiparous mothers (1.4; 1.2–1.7) and mothers with BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (1.4; 1.1–1.8). These associations were greatest in isolated and bilateral cases. ORs for the pregnancy-related conditions ranged from 1.3 (breech delivery) to 5.6 (early amniocentesis). Positive associations with high BMI were confined to cases with a marker of fetal constraint (oligohydramnios, breech delivery, bicornuate uterus, plural birth), inheritance (family history in 1st degree relative), or vascular disruption (early amniocentesis, CVS, plural gestation with fetal loss). Pathogenetic factors associated with obesity may be in the causal pathway for clubfoot. PMID:23686911

  16. Human Rabies in China, 1960-2014: A Descriptive Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kai; Li, Yu; Mu, Di; Wang, Liping; Yin, Wenwu; Yu, Hongjie

    2016-01-01

    Background Rabies in China remains a public health problem. In 2014, nearly one thousand rabies-related deaths were reported while rabies geographic distribution has expanded for the recent years. This report used surveillance data to describe the epidemiological characteristics of human rabies in China including determining high-risk areas and seasonality to support national rabies prevention and control activities. Methods We analyzed the incidence and distribution of human rabies cases in mainland China using notifiable surveillance data from 1960–2014, which includes a detailed analysis of the recent years from 2004 to 2014. Results From 1960 to 2014, 120,913 human rabies cases were reported in mainland China. The highest number was recorded in 1981(0.7/100,000; 7037 cases), and in 2007(0.3/100,000; 3300 cases). A clear seasonal pattern has been observed with a peak in August (11.0% of total cases), Human rabies cases were reported in all provinces with a yearly average of 2198 from 1960 to 2014 in China, while the east and south regions were more seriously affected compared with other regions. From2004 to 2014, although the number of cases decreased by 65.2% since 2004 from 2651 to 924 cases, reported areas has paradoxically expanded from 162 prefectures to 200 prefectures and from southern to the central and northern provinces of China. Farmers accounted most of the cases (65.0%); 50–59 age group accounted for the highest proportion (20.5%), and cases are predominantly males with a male-to-female ratio of 2.4:1 on average. Conclusions Despite the overall steady decline of cases since the peak in 2007, the occurrence of cases in new areas and the spread trend were obvious in China in recent years. Further investigations and efforts are warranted in the areas have high rabies incidence to control rabies by interrupting transmission from dogs to humans and in the dog population. Furthermore, elimination of rabies should be eventually the ultimate goal for

  17. Descriptive epidemiology of selected olfactory tumors.

    PubMed

    Villano, J Lee; Bressler, Linda; Propp, Jennifer M; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Martin, Iman K; Dolecek, Therese A; McCarthy, Bridget J

    2010-10-01

    Olfactory tumors, especially olfactory neuroblastomas (ON) and carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation (CND), are extremely rare, and little descriptive epidemiologic information is available. The objective of this study was to more fully describe selected olfactory tumors using a large population-based cancer incidence database. The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) 9 registries limited-use data were reviewed from 1973 to 2006 for selected nasal cavity (C30.0) and accessory sinus (C31.0-31.9) tumors. Frequencies, incidence rates, and relative survival rates were estimated using SEER*Stat, v6.5.2. The majority of cases were squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), while the incidence of ON was greater than CND. For ON, the incidence was highest in the 60-79 year age group, while for SCC, the incidence was highest in the 80+ year age group. For CND, the incidence leveled off in the oldest age groups. Survival rates were highest for ON (>70% alive at 5 years after diagnosis) and poorest for CND (44% alive at 5 years). Adjuvant radiation therapy did not improve survival over surgery alone in ON. In SCC, survival was worse in patients who received adjuvant radiation compared to patients who had surgery alone. Our analysis confirms some previously published information, and adds new information about the incidence and demographics of ON and CND. In addition, our analysis documents the lack of benefit of adjuvant radiation in ON. It is not feasible to conduct prospective trials in patients with these rare diseases, and the importance of registry data in learning about olfactory tumors is emphasized.

  18. Descriptive epidemiology of screen and non-screen sedentary time in adolescents: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Much attention has been paid to adolescents' screen time, however very few studies have examined non-screen sedentary time (NSST). This study aimed to (1) describe the magnitude and composition of screen sedentary time (SST) and NSST in Australian adolescents, (2) describe the socio-demographic correlates of SST and NSST, and (3) determine whether screen time is an adequate surrogate for total sedentary behaviour in this population. Methods 2200 9-16 year old Australians provided detailed use of time data for four days. Non-screen sedentary time (NSST) included time spent participating in activities expected to elicit <3 METs whilst seated or lying down (other than sleeping), excluding screen-based activities (television, playing videogames or using computers). Total sedentary time was the sum of screen time and NSST. Results Adolescents spent a mean (SD) of 345 (105) minutes/day in NSST, which constituted 60% of total sedentary time. School activities contributed 42% of NSST, socialising 19%, self-care (mainly eating) 16%, and passive transport 15%. Screen time and NSST showed opposite patterns in relation to key socio-demographic characteristics, including sex, age, weight status, household income, parental education and day type. Because screen time was negatively correlated with NSST (r = -0.58), and exhibited a moderate correlation (r = 0.53) with total sedentary time, screen time was only a moderately effective surrogate for total sedentary time. Conclusions To capture a complete picture of young people's sedentary time, studies should endeavour to measure both screen time and NSST. PMID:21194427

  19. A descriptive epidemiological study of shoulder injury in top level English male volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Wang, H K; Cochrane, T

    2001-02-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence and incidence of shoulder sports injuries, to discover the main shoulder injury, and to survey outcome of treatment or injuries in top level male volleyball athletes. Furthermore, the actions which most commonly cause injuries and the differences of physical characteristics between injured and healthy players were also investigated. Fifty-nine English Volleyball Federation division one athletes were recruited in the 1997/98 and 1998/99 seasons. All subjects completed two different questionnaires; a First recruitment and monthly Follow-up questionnaire throughout the period in question. Twenty-seven of the fifty-nine athletes had a history of shoulder sports injury, with a total of 29 injuries reported. The results of the First recruitment showed that overuse type injuries (19/29) were the main shoulder injuries. Cuff muscle tendinitis was predominant in these injuries (14/29). Furthermore, spiking was the major action during which a shoulder injury (23/29) first occurred. In the follow-up phase the incidences of shoulder chronic injury (or pain), re-injury, and new injury in these twenty-seven players were 3.0, 9.3 and 1.0 injuries/1,000 hours of exposure respectively. The mean duration of chronic injury or pain was 2.3 +/- 1.3 (+/- SD) months. The distribution of history of regular training, between injured and healthy subject groups, was significantly different (p = 0.008). This study has identified rotator cuff muscle/tendon injuries or involved lesions as the main shoulder injuries in top level English male volleyball athletes. These injuries result in prolonged shoulder pain symptoms.

  20. Descriptive Epidemiology of Symptomatic Femoroacetabular Impingement in Young Athlete: Single Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woo-Yong; Kang, Chan; Jeon, Je-Hyung; Zheng, Long

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in athletic patients. Materials and Methods From July 2003 to May 2013, 388 patients (422 hips) who underwent arthroscopic surgery for FAI were evaluated demographic characteristics. The patients' age, gender, diagnosis, and type of sports were analyzed using medical records and radiography. Results Among 422 hips in 388 patients, 156 hips were involved with sports. Among the 156 hips, 86, 43, and 27 hips were categorized as cam, pincer, and mixed type, respectively. Types of sports were soccer, baseball and taekwondo which showed 44, 36 and 35 hips, respectively. Also, cases related to sports according to age were 63 hips for twenties and 12 hips for teenagers in which the two showed highest association to FAI. The kinds of sports that showed high association were 28 hips of soccer and 20 cases of martial arts such as taekwondo and judo for twenties and 9 hips of martial arts for teenagers which was the highest. Conclusion FAI usually occurs in young adults and is highly related to sports activity. Most of the FAI type related to sports activity was cam type, and soccer and martial arts such as taekwondo were the most common cause of it. PMID:27536641

  1. Characteristics of martial art injuries in a defined Canadian population: a descriptive epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The martial arts have emerged as common activities in the Canadian population, yet few studies have investigated the occurrence of associated injuries on a population basis. Methods We performed such an investigation and suggest potential opportunities for prevention. The data source was 14 years (1993 to 2006) of records from the Kingston sites of the Canadian Hospital Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP). Results 920 cases were identified. Incidence rates were initially estimated using census data as denominators. We then imputed annual injury rates per 10000 using a range of published estimates of martial arts participation available from a national survey. Rates of injury in males and females were 2300 and 1033 per 10000 (0.3% participation) and 575 and 258 per 10000 (1.2% participation). Injuries were most frequently reported in karate (33%) and taekwondo (14%). The most common mechanisms of injury were falls, throws and jumps (33%). Fractures (20%) were the most frequently reported type of injury and the lower limb was the most common site of injury (41%). Conclusions Results provide a foundation for potential interventions with a focus on falls, the use of weapons, participation in tournaments, as well as head and neck trauma. PMID:21192801

  2. Epidemiology of transthyretin-associated familial amyloid polyneuropathy in the Majorcan area: Son Llàtzer Hospital descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transthyretin-associated Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by the deposition of abnormal transthyretin that results from a gene mutation. Although rare worldwide, there are descriptions of several endemic foci, such as in Majorca, Balearic Islands, Spain. We aimed at describing a contemporary series of TTR-FAP patients in Son Llàtzer Hospital in Majorca from an epidemiological point of view in order to report their main clinical and laboratory characteristics. Methods A retrospective, observational study was performed. Medical records from adult patients diagnosed with TTR-FAP from a single hospital were reviewed. Results Out of a total of 107 cases, 75 subjects were included: asymptomatic carriers (52.3%) and symptomatic patients (47.7%). Mean age was 58.3 years at the time of the study, and 50.7% were men. Mean age at diagnosis was 49.8 years. In addition, 42 patients (39.2%) had received a liver transplant, and time to liver transplantation was on average 29.56 months from the initial diagnosis. They all had the Val30Met mutation. The organs of the nervous system were those most frequently impaired (57.3%), and 83.9% of the symptomatic patients were fully ambulant (stage 1). Family history was reported in 69.3% of the cases, with the patient’s father being the most commonly affected relative. Comorbidities were frequent, with high blood pressure being the most common. Conclusions Our findings provide additional information on this condition and are useful for describing the demographic features, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and natural course of TTR-FAP in Majorca. PMID:24572009

  3. Laterality defects in the national birth defects prevention study 1998-2007 birth prevalence and descriptive epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known epidemiologically about laterality defects. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a large multi-site case-control study of birth defects, we analyzed prevalence and selected characteristics in children born with laterality defects born from 1998 to 2007...

  4. Epidemiology and temporal trend of suicide mortality in the elderly in Jiading, Shanghai, 2003–2013: a descriptive, observational study

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yueqin; Zhang, Yiying; Yu, Hongjie; Peng, Hui; Jin, Yaqing; Shi, Guozheng; Wang, Na; Chen, Zheng; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Qingwu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate and describe the epidemiological characteristics of suicide in the elderly in Jiading, Shanghai, for the period 2003–2013. Design Retrospective, observational, epidemiological study using routinely collected data. Setting Jiading District, Shanghai. Methods Suicide data were retrieved from the Shanghai Vital Registry database for the period 2003–2013. Crude and age-standardised mortality rates were calculated for various groups according to sex and age. Joinpoint regression was performed to estimate the percentage change (PC) and annual percentage change (APC) for suicide mortality. Result A total of 956 deaths due to suicide occurred among people aged ≥65 years during the study period, accounting for 76.7% (956/1247) of all suicide decedents. Among the 956 people with suicide deaths, 88.7% (848/956) had a history of a psychiatric condition. The age-standardised mortality rates for suicide without and with a psychotic history in people aged ≥65 years were much higher than those for people aged <65 years in both genders. Suicide mortality in the elderly showed a declining trend, with a PC of −51.5% for men and −47.5% for women. The APC was −29.1 in 2003–2005, 4.6 in 2005–2008 and −9.7 in 2008–2013 for aged men, and −12.2 in 2003–2006 and −5.2 in 2006–2013 for aged women, respectively. Women living in Jiading had a higher risk of suicide death than men, especially among the elderly. The mortality rate for suicide increased with age in the elderly, and was more marked for those with a psychiatric history than for those without. Conclusions Suicide mortality declined in Jiading during the study period 2003–2013 overall, but remained high in the elderly, especially those with a psychiatric history. PMID:27543591

  5. A six-year descriptive epidemiological study of human coronavirus infections in hospitalized patients in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yip, Cyril C Y; Lam, Carol S F; Luk, Hayes K H; Wong, Emily Y M; Lee, Rodney A; So, Lok-Yee; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Cheng, Vincent C C; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P

    2016-02-01

    We conducted a six-year epidemiological study on human coronaviruses (HCoVs) circulating in Hong Kong, using 8275 nasopharyngeal samples from patients with acute respiratory tract infections. HCoVs were detected in 77 (0.93%) of the samples by a pan-HCoV RT-PCR assay. The most frequently detected HCoV species was HCoV-OC43 (0.58%), followed by HCoV-229E (0.15%), HCoV-HKU1 (0.13%) and HCoV-NL63 (0.07%). HCoVs were detected throughout the study period (September 2008-August 2014), with the highest detection rate from September 2010 to August 2011 (22/1500, 1.47%). Different seasonal patterns of each HCoV species in Hong Kong were noted. HCoV-OC43 was predominant in the fall and winter, whereas HCoV-HKU1 showed peak activity in winter, with a few cases occurred in spring and summer. HCoV-229E mainly occurred in winter and spring, while HCoV-NL63 was predominant in summer and autumn. HCoVs most commonly infect the elderly and young children, with median age of 79.5 years (range, 22 days to 95 years). Intriguingly, the detection rate of HCoV-OC43 in the age group of > 80 years (26/2380, 1.09%) was significantly higher than that in the age group of 0-10 years (12/2529, 0.47%) (P < 0.05). These data provides new insight into the epidemiology of coronaviruses.

  6. Laterality Defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1998–2007): Birth Prevalence and Descriptive Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Angela E.; Krikov, Sergey; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Frías, Jaime L.; Belmont, John; Anderka, Marlene; Geva, Tal; Getz, Kelly D.; Botto, Lorenzo D.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known epidemiologically about laterality defects. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a large multi-site case-control study of birth defects, we analyzed prevalence and selected characteristics in children born with laterality defects born from 1998 to 2007. We identified 517 nonsyndromic cases (378 heterotaxy, 73.1%; 139 situs inversus totalis [SIT], 26.9%) resulting in an estimated birth prevalence of 1.1 per 10,000 live births (95% confidence interval 1.0–1.2). Prevalence did not differ significantly across sites, over time, or by inclusion of pregnancy termination. Laterality defects were more common among preterm cases compared to term cases, and in children born to mothers who were non-white or younger than 20 years compared to white mothers or those age 25–29 years. The distribution of associated cardiac and extracardiac defects, excluding the expected heterotaxy anomalies, varied by type of laterality defect. Cases with heterotaxy were significantly more likely than those with SIT to have double outlet right ventricle, atrioventricular canal defects, pulmonary stenosis, non-tetralogy of Fallot pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, totally and partially anomalous pulmonary venous return; also more likely to have orofacial clefts, esophageal atresia, bowel atresias, and omphalocele, though not reaching statistical significance. Relatively more common among cases with SIT were Dandy-Walker malformation, anotia/microtia, and limb deficiency. The similarity in the demographic characteristics of heterotaxy and SIT supports the hypothesis that they are part of a continuum of abnormal left-right axis patterning. These findings on laterality defects may help guide clinical care, future research, and prevention strategies. PMID:25099286

  7. Phocomelia: A Worldwide Descriptive Epidemiologic Study in a Large Series of Cases From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Overview of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Cuevas, Lourdes; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bianca, Sebastiano; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Canfield, Mark A.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Siffel, Csaba; Szabova, Elena; Martínez-Frías, María-Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic data on phocomelia are scarce. This study presents an epidemiologic analysis of the largest series of phocomelia cases known to date. Data were provided by 19 birth defect surveillance programs, all members of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research. Depending on the program, data corresponded to a period from 1968 through 2006. A total of 22,740,933 live births, stillbirths and, for some programs, elective terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (ETOPFA) were monitored. After a detailed review of clinical data, only true phocomelia cases were included. Descriptive data are presented and additional analyses compared isolated cases with those with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), excluding syndromes. We also briefly compared congenital anomalies associated with nonsyndromic phocomelia with those presented with amelia, another rare severe congenital limb defect. A total of 141 phocomelia cases registered gave an overall total prevalence of 0.62 per 100,000 births (95% confidence interval: 0.52–0.73). Three programs (Australia Victoria, South America ECLAMC, Italy North East) had significantly different prevalence estimates. Most cases (53.2%) had isolated phocomelia, while 9.9% had syndromes. Most nonsyndromic cases were monomelic (55.9%), with an excess of left (64.9%) and upper limb (64.9%) involvement. Most nonsyndromic cases (66.9%) were live births; most isolated cases (57.9%) weighed more than 2,499 g; most MCA (60.7%) weighed less than 2,500 g, and were more likely stillbirths (30.8%) or ETOPFA (15.4%) than isolated cases. The most common associated defects were musculoskeletal, cardiac, and intestinal. Epidemiological differences between phocomelia and amelia highlighted possible differences in their causes. PMID:22002800

  8. Epidemiology of congenital abnormalities in West Africa: Results of a descriptive study in teaching hospitals in Abidjan: Cote d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Kouame, Bertin Dibi; N’guetta-Brou, Isabelle Ama; Kouame, Guy Serge Yapo; Sounkere, Moufidath; Koffi, Maxime; Yaokreh, Jean Baptiste; Odehouri-Koudou, Thierry; Tembely, Samba; Dieth, Gaudens Atafi; Ouattara, Ossenou; Dick, Ruffin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Congenital abnormalities constitute one of the major causes of infant mortality, particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of congenital anomalies in Cote d’Ivoire. Materials and Methods: It was a multicentric study of three academic hospitals and the Heart Institute of Abidjan over 10 years. The epidemiologic Data concerned the Parturients, the annual frequency of congenital abnormalities. Distribution of the congenital abnormalities according to the organs, overall mortality and lethality of congenital abnormalities were evaluated. Results: Over 10 years, 1.632 newborns with 1.725 congenital anomalies were recorded. Frequency was 172.5 congenital anomalies per annum. Parturients were less than 35 years in 33% of cases, multigravida in 20%, multiparous in 18% and had a low socio economic status in 96% of cases. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital anomalies was performed in 1.5%. Congenital anomalies were orthopedic in 34%, neurological in 17%, gastrointestinal in 15%, facial in 11.5%, parietal in 13%, urogenital in 9% and cardiac in 0.5% of cases. The overall mortality rate of congenital anomalies was 52% and gastroschisis was the most lethal disease with 100% mortality. Conclusion: This descriptive study reveals the low socio economic status of Parturients with congenital anomalies and their poor prenatal diagnosis. These factors explain the very high mortality of congenital anomalies due to a delay management in our country in which medical expenses were borne by parents and where technical platforms remain obsoletes for good resuscitation and neonatal surgery. PMID:25659551

  9. Methods and Descriptive Epidemiology of Services Provided by Athletic Trainers in High Schools: The National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Dompier, Thomas P.; Dalton, Sara L.; Miller, Sayers John; Hayden, Ross; Marshall, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Context Research is limited on the extent and nature of the care provided by athletic trainers (ATs) to student-athletes in the high school setting. Objective To describe the methods of the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) project and provide the descriptive epidemiology of AT services for injury care in 27 high school sports. Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting Athletic training room (ATR) visits and AT services data collected in 147 high schools from 26 states. Patients or Other Participants High school student-athletes participating in 13 boys' sports and 14 girls' sports during the 2011−2012 through 2013−2014 academic years. Main Outcome Measure(s) The number of ATR visits and individual AT services, as well as the mean number of ATR visits (per injury) and AT services (per injury and ATR visit) were calculated by sport and for time-loss (TL) and non–time-loss (NTL) injuries. Results Over the 3-year period, 210 773 ATR visits and 557 381 AT services were reported for 50 604 injuries. Most ATR visits (70%) were for NTL injuries. Common AT services were therapeutic activities or exercise (45.4%), modalities (18.6%), and AT evaluation and reevaluation (15.9%), with an average of 4.17 ± 6.52 ATR visits and 11.01 ± 22.86 AT services per injury. Compared with NTL injuries, patients with TL injuries accrued more ATR visits (7.76 versus 3.47; P < .001) and AT services (18.60 versus 9.56; P < .001) per injury. An average of 2.24 ± 1.33 AT services were reported per ATR visit. Compared with TL injuries, NTL injuries had a larger average number of AT services per ATR visit (2.28 versus 2.05; P < .001). Conclusions These findings highlight the broad spectrum of care provided by ATs to high school student-athletes and demonstrate that patients with NTL injuries require substantial amounts of AT services. PMID:26678290

  10. Disparities in Beef Tapeworm Identification Rates in the Abattoirs of Gauteng Province, South Africa: A Descriptive Epidemiologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Odoi, Agricola

    2016-01-01

    Background Bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus infections (also called bovine cysticercosis or beef measles) is usually diagnosed in cattle only during post-mortem meat inspection. The aim of this study was to investigate the identification rates of these infections in and to identify predictors/determinants of variations in the identification rates in abattoirs in Gauteng province, South Africa. Methods Retrospective data for over 1.4 million cattle carcasses inspected in 26 abattoirs between January 2010 and December 2013 were used for the study. The identification rates (proportion of bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus positive carcasses) were computed and generalized estimating equations used to identify predictors/determinants of identification rates. Results The overall identification rate was 0.70% (95% CI: 0.45, 0.95). Significantly (p< 0.05) lower rates were reported during summer (0.55%) than other seasons. Some geographic areas reported significantly (p<0.05) higher rates than others. The identification rates in high throughput abattoirs was significantly (p<0.05) higher (RR: 9.4; 95% CI: 4.7–19.1) than in low throughput abattoirs. Similarly, the identification rates among animals from feedlots were significantly (p<0.05) higher (RR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.7–3.5) than those from non-feedlot sources. No significant (p>0.05) association was identified between identification rates and either the number of meat inspectors per abattoir or the provider of inspection services. Conclusion Although no significant association was found between identification rates and provider of inspection services, follow-up studies will need to be done to specifically investigate the potential conflict of interest arising from the fact that abattoir owners hire meat inspection services directly. Capture of abattoir surveillance data needs to include farm address and for each case to be reported separately. Finally, information on the type of identified cysts (alive or calcified

  11. Incidence and outcomes of emergency self-harm among adolescents: a descriptive epidemiological study in Osaka City, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Tasuku; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Hayashida, Sumito; Nitta, Masahiko; Kawamura, Takashi; Iwami, Taku; Ohta, Bon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the incidence and outcomes of self-harm from ambulance records. Design A retrospective, observational study. Setting Osaka City, Japan. Participants A total of 365 adolescents aged 10–19 years with emergency self-harm such as poisoning by drugs or gas, cutting skin, jumping from heights, hanging and drowning and treated by emergency medical service personnel from January 2010 through December 2012. Primary outcome measurements Incidence per 100 000 persons and outcome at the scene or hospital arrival by age and gender. Poisson regression models for incidence evaluation were used; reporting relative risks (RRs) and their 95% CIs. Results During the study period, a total of 425 self-harm events were documented in 365 adolescents. The incidence of self-harm increased significantly between the ages of 11 and 19 years, from 6.3 to 81.0 among boys and the ages of 12 and 19 years from 6.3 to 228.3 among girls, respectively (both p<0.001). Although there was no incidence difference between girls and boys in the group aged 11–14 years (RR 1.20; 95% CI 0.59 to 2.47), the incidence was significantly higher among girls than boys in the group aged 15–19 years (RR 4.18; 95% CI 3.20 to 5.45). The overall proportion of death by self-harm was 4.9%. The proportion of hospital admission and death by self-harm was higher among boys than among girls (38.6% vs 25.2%, p=0.016 and 14.8% vs 2.4%, p<0.001). Conclusions The incidence of emergency treatment for self-harm by adolescents increased with age and our findings also demonstrated the gender paradox. It would be necessary to establish active, gender-specific and comprehensive prevention strategies for adolescent self-harm, based on our findings showing the age and gender differences of self-harm among adolescents. PMID:27381208

  12. Nervous System and Intracranial Tumour Incidence by Ethnicity in England, 2001–2007: A Descriptive Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Maile, Edward J.; Barnes, Isobel; Finlayson, Alexander E.; Sayeed, Shameq; Ali, Raghib

    2016-01-01

    Background There is substantial variation in nervous system and intracranial tumour incidence worldwide. UK incidence data have limited utility because they group these diverse tumours together and do not provide data for individual ethnic groups within Blacks and South Asians. Our objective was to determine the incidence of individual tumour types for seven individual ethnic groups. Methods We used data from the National Cancer Intelligence Network on tumour site, age, sex and deprivation to identify 42,207 tumour cases. Self-reported ethnicity was obtained from the Hospital Episode Statistics database. We used mid-year population estimates from the Office for National Statistics. We analysed tumours by site using Poisson regression to estimate incidence rate ratios comparing non-White ethnicities to Whites after adjustment for sex, age and deprivation. Results Our study showed differences in tumour incidence by ethnicity for gliomas, meningiomas, pituitary tumours and cranial and paraspinal nerve tumours. Relative to Whites; South Asians, Blacks and Chinese have a lower incidence of gliomas (p<0.01), with respective incidence rate ratios of 0.68 (confidence interval: 0.60–0.77), 0.62 (0.52–0.73) and 0.58 (0.41–0.83). Blacks have a higher incidence of meningioma (p<0.01) with an incidence rate ratio of 1.29 (1.05–1.59) and there is heterogeneity in meningioma incidence between individual South Asian ethnicities. Blacks have a higher incidence of pituitary tumours relative to Whites (p<0.01) with an incidence rate ratio of 2.95 (2.37–3.67). There is heterogeneity in pituitary tumour incidence between individual South Asian ethnicities. Conclusions We present incidence data of individual tumour types for seven ethnic groups. Current understanding of the aetiology of these tumours cannot explain our results. These findings suggest avenues for further work. PMID:27135830

  13. Descriptive epidemiology of Paralympic sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Webborn, Nick; Emery, Carolyn

    2014-08-01

    Paralympic sports have seen an exponential increase in participation since 16 patients took part in the first Stoke Mandeville Games on the opening day of the 1948 London Olympic Games. More than 4,000 athletes took part in the London 2012 Paralympic Games. Few sporting events have seen such rapid evolution. This rapid pace of change also has meant challenges for understanding the injury risks of participation, not only because of the variety of sports, impairment types, the evolution of adapted equipment but also because of the inclusion of additional impairment types and development of new sports over time. Early studies were limited in scope but patterns of injuries are slowly emerging within Winter and Summer Paralympic sports. The IPC's London 2012 study is the largest to date with a prospective cohort study involving 49,910 athlete-days. The results identified large differences across sports and highlighted the need for longitudinal sport specific studies rather than solely games-time studies. This will require collaboration with international sports federations to examine injury patterns and risk factors for injury in this population to appropriately inform injury prevention strategies. Further studies will also need to address the impact of sporting participation, injury, and future health.

  14. Descriptive epidemiological study of food intake among Japanese adults: analyses by age, time and birth cohort model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although food and nutrient consumption among the Japanese population, known to have one of the longest life expectancies in the world, has changed markedly after World War II, little is known about the influences age, time and birth cohort have had. The present study examined the effects age, time and birth cohort have had on intake of 14 food groups from 1989 to 2009, using published data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan. Methods The survey included 575 adults (271 men and 304 women) in 1989, 8431 (3952 men and 4479 women) in 1999 and 5632 (2629 men and 3003 women) in 2009. The effects of age on energy-adjusted food intakes defined by gender and birth cohort (birth in 1930–1939, 1940–1949, 1950–1959, 1960–1969, 1970–1979) were estimated using the mean polish process. Results Intakes of meat and confectionary increased whereas those of milk and dairy products, sugar, and fats and oils decreased from 1989 to 2009. Both men and women in the 1940’s birth cohort consumed more fruit, although differences in food intake by birth cohort were less discernible. Furthermore, meat, fats and oils, and wheat intake decreased while fruits, fish, beans and vegetables consumption increased with aging in both men and women. Conclusions The present analysis suggests intakes of meat and confectionary have increased in Japan over the past 20 years regardless of age and generation. Also, younger individuals are less likely to consume fruits, fish, beans and vegetables regardless of the birth cohort and time period. Differences in food group consumption by birth cohorts born between 1930 and 1979 were not obvious. The first indication of these findings would be that in order to avoid ongoing increases in meat and confectionery intake, the public health strategy should target the whole Japanese population. Secondly, intervening with the diet of younger individuals, especially today, would be reasonable as it is unknown whether today

  15. Descriptive Epidemiology of Dance Participation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Pate, Russell R.; Liese, Angela D.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of dance participation in U.S. adolescents and to estimate the contribution of dance to total moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The sample was composed of 3,598 adolescents from the 2003-06 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Youth reported frequency and duration of…

  16. Descriptive epidemiology of dance participation in adolescents.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Jennifer R; Pate, Russell R; Liese, Angela D

    2011-09-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of dance participation in U.S. adolescents and to estimate the contribution of dance to total moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The sample was composed of 3,598 adolescents from the 2003-06 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Youth reported frequency and duration of physical activities performed in the past month. Dance participation prevalence was calculated; among those who reported dance, its contribution to total MVPA was estimated. The prevalence of dance was much higher in girls (34.8%) than boys (8.4%). Girls had a greater contribution of dance to total MVPA (39.3%) than boys (23.0%). Dance is a prevalent form of physical activity among girls, and it accounts for a substantial fraction of their total MVPA.

  17. A descriptive epidemiological study on the patterns of occupational injuries in a coastal area and a mountain area in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liping; Liu, Xiaojian; Lu, Yaogui; Yu, Min

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study compared patterns of occupational injuries in two different areas, coastal (industrial) and mountain (agricultural), in Southern China to provide information for development of occupational injury prevention measures in China. Design Descriptive epidemiological study. Setting Data were obtained from the Hospital Injury Surveillance System based on hospital data collected from 1 April 2006 to 31 March 2008. Participants Cases of occupational injury, defined as injury that occurred when the activity indicated was work. Outcome measures Distribution and differences of patterns of occupational injuries between the two areas. Results Men were more likely than women to experience occupational injuries, and there was no difference in the two areas (p=0.112). In the coastal area, occupational injury occurred more in the 21–30-year age group, but in the mountain area, it was the 41–50-year age group (p<0.001). Occupational injuries in the two areas differed by location of hometown, education and occupation (all p<0.001). Occupational injuries peaked differently in the month of the year in the two areas (p<0.001). Industrial and construction areas were the most frequent locations where occupational injuries occurred (p<0.001). Most occupational injuries were unintentional and not serious, and patients could go home after treatment. The two areas also differed in external causes and consequences of occupational injuries. Conclusions The differing patterns of occupational injuries in the coastal and mountain areas in Southern China suggest that different preventive measures should be developed. Results are relevant to other developing countries that have industrial and agricultural areas. PMID:22710129

  18. Descriptive epidemiology and geographic variation of childhood brain cancer in the US

    SciTech Connect

    Bunin, G.R.

    1984-11-01

    The descriptive epidemiology and geographic variation of childhood brain cancer by cell type was studied. For each cell type, the study indicates time trends, sex ratios, geographic variation, racial differences, urban-rural differences, and socioeconomic differences. Since, in animals, one virus or chemical often causes tumors at several sites, the sex, race, age and socio-economic status of childhood brain cancer cases was compared to the epidemiologic profile of childhood leukemias. Similar epidemiological profiles would imply similar etiologies. 116 references, 18 figures, 71 tables.

  19. Incidence and Descriptive Epidemiology of Injuries to College Ultimate Players

    PubMed Central

    Swedler, David I.; Nuwer, Jamie M.; Nazarov, Anna; Huo, Samantha C.; Malevanchik, Lev

    2015-01-01

    Context: The burden of injuries to college ultimate players has never been fully described. Objective: To quantify the injury rate in ultimate players and describe the diagnoses, anatomic locations, and mechanisms of injuries. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: College ultimate teams in the United States during the 2012 season. Main Outcome Measure(s): Initial injury rate per 1000 athlete-exposures. Results: The initial injury rate in college ultimate players was 12.64 per 1000 athlete-exposures; the rate did not differ between men and women (P = .5). Bivariate analysis indicated that injuries occurred twice as often during games as during practices, men were more likely than women to be injured when laying out for the disc, and men were more likely to incur strains and sprains than women. Conclusions: Injury patterns to college ultimate players were similar to those for athletes in other National Collegiate Athletic Association sports. This is the first study to systematically describe injuries to ultimate players. PMID:25384003

  20. Gastric Cancer: Descriptive Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Screening, and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Parisa; Islami, Farhad; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Freedman, Neal D.; Kamangar, Farin

    2014-01-01

    Less than a century ago, gastric cancer (GC) was the most common cancer in the United States and perhaps throughout the world. Despite its worldwide decline in incidence over the past century, GC remains a major killer across the globe. This article reviews the epidemiology, screening, and prevention of gastric cancer. We first discuss the descriptive epidemiology of GC, including its incidence, survival, and mortality, including trends over time. Next, we characterize the risk factors for gastric cancer, both environmental and genetic. Serological markers and histological precursor lesions of GC and early detection of GC of using these markers is reviewed. Finally, we discuss prevention strategies and provide suggestions for further research. PMID:24618998

  1. [Descriptive epidemiology of cancers in Cote d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Effi, Ahoua Benjamin; Koffi, Kouakou Emmanuel; Aman, N'guiessan Alphonse; Doukouré, Brahima; N'dah, Kouamé Justin; Koffi, Kouadio Donatien; Kouyaté, Mohamed; Koui, Béossin Baumaney Sylvanus; Hondé, Michel; Diomandé, Mohenou Isidore Jean Marie

    2013-02-01

    The cancerous disease is a real pain in developed countries due to the ageing of the population. According to the World Report Cancer in 2000, cancer tends to be a major problem of public health in the developing nations. This study research aimed at describing the epidemiological features of cancers in Cote d'Ivoire. It is a 26-year retrospective and descriptive study focusing on all cancers confirmed histologically by using the data from the registers of Anatomic Pathology laboratory of Abidjan teaching hospitals. The parameters of the study were frequency, age, sex, site and histological type. We obtained 12,841 cancers within patients aged from 2 months to 107 years old along with 51.26-year median age and 0.9 as sex-ratio. The most important cancer locations are cervix (17.41%) followed by skin (15.81%), prostate (7.73%), breast (6.88%), and stomach (6.09%). With women, the median age was 49.23 years, and the most common cancers were cervical cancer (33.25%) followed by breast cancer (12.44%) and skin cancer (10.50%). With men, the median age was 53.95 years, and the most frequent cancers were skin cancer (21.29%) followed by prostate cancer (15.69%) and stomach cancer (8.71%). Burkitt lymphoma (33.95%), retinoblastoma (10.92%) and nephroblastoma (5.88%) are the most important cancers in children. Cancers are frequent in Cote d'Ivoire. Cervical cancer, skin cancer, and prostate are updated problems with a worse prognosis. Therefore, the screening and the early diagnosis remain the best conditions to improve the prognosis of cancer.

  2. Design and descriptive epidemiology of the Infectious Diseases of East African Livestock (IDEAL) project, a longitudinal calf cohort study in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a widely recognised lack of baseline epidemiological data on the dynamics and impacts of infectious cattle diseases in east Africa. The Infectious Diseases of East African Livestock (IDEAL) project is an epidemiological study of cattle health in western Kenya with the aim of providing baseline epidemiological data, investigating the impact of different infections on key responses such as growth, mortality and morbidity, the additive and/or multiplicative effects of co-infections, and the influence of management and genetic factors. A longitudinal cohort study of newborn calves was conducted in western Kenya between 2007-2009. Calves were randomly selected from all those reported in a 2 stage clustered sampling strategy. Calves were recruited between 3 and 7 days old. A team of veterinarians and animal health assistants carried out 5-weekly, clinical and postmortem visits. Blood and tissue samples were collected in association with all visits and screened using a range of laboratory based diagnostic methods for over 100 different pathogens or infectious exposures. Results The study followed the 548 calves over the first 51 weeks of life or until death and when they were reported clinically ill. The cohort experienced a high all cause mortality rate of 16% with at least 13% of these due to infectious diseases. Only 307 (6%) of routine visits were classified as clinical episodes, with a further 216 reported by farmers. 54% of calves reached one year without a reported clinical episode. Mortality was mainly to east coast fever, haemonchosis, and heartwater. Over 50 pathogens were detected in this population with exposure to a further 6 viruses and bacteria. Conclusion The IDEAL study has demonstrated that it is possible to mount population based longitudinal animal studies. The results quantify for the first time in an animal population the high diversity of pathogens a population may have to deal with and the levels of co-infections with key

  3. Amelia: A Multi-Center Descriptive Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Overview of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    BERMEJO-SÁNCHEZ, EVA; CUEVAS, LOURDES; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; BIANCA, SEBASTIANO; BIANCHI, FABRIZIO; CANFIELD, MARK A.; CASTILLA, EDUARDO E.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, R. BRIAN; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; RISSMANN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SIFFEL, CSABA; SZABOVA, ELENA; MARTÍNEZ-FRÍAS, MARÍA-LUISA

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of congenital amelia (absence of limb/s), using the largest series of cases known to date. Data were gathered by 20 surveillance programs on congenital anomalies, all International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research members, from all continents but Africa, from 1968 to 2006, depending on the program. Reported clinical information on cases was thoroughly reviewed to identify those strictly meeting the definition of amelia. Those with amniotic bands or limb-body wall complex were excluded. The primary epidemiological analyses focused on isolated cases and those with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). A total of 326 amelia cases were ascertained among 23,110,591 live births, stillbirths and (for some programs) elective terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomalies. The overall total prevalence was 1.41 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval: 1.26–1.57). Only China Beijing and Mexico RYVEMCE had total prevalences, which were significantly higher than this overall total prevalence. Some under-registration could influence the total prevalence in some programs. Liveborn cases represented 54.6% of total. Among monomelic cases (representing 65.2% of nonsyndromic amelia cases), both sides were equally involved, and the upper limbs (53.9%) were slightly more frequently affected. One of the most interesting findings was a higher prevalence of amelia among offspring of mothers younger than 20 years. Sixty-nine percent of the cases had MCA or syndromes. The most frequent defects associated with amelia were other types of musculoskeletal defects, intestinal, some renal and genital defects, oral clefts, defects of cardiac septa, and anencephaly. PMID:22002956

  4. Descriptive epidemiology of spinal muscular atrophy type I in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Vaidla, Eve; Talvik, Inga; Kulla, Andres; Kahre, Tiina; Hamarik, Malle; Napa, Aita; Metsvaht, Tuuli; Piirsoo, Andres; Talvik, Tiina

    2006-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is the second most frequent autosomal-recessive disorder in Europeans. There are no published epidemiological data on SMA in Estonia and other Baltic countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of SMA I in Estonia. All patients with SMA I diagnosed between January 1994 and December 2003 were included in the study. The diagnosis was established on the basis of neurological evaluation, ENMG findings, molecular studies and muscle biopsy. PCR and restriction enzyme analysis was used to detect the homozygous deletion of the SMN1 gene. A total of 9 cases of SMA I were identified during this 10-year period. The incidence of SMA I in Estonia is 1 in 14,400 live births, which is similar to the result from Hungary but lower than average incidence in the world. Only one of the patients was female. Typical SMN1 gene deletion was found in all cases.

  5. The descriptive epidemiology of sports/leisure-related heat illness hospitalisations in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Finch, Caroline F; Boufous, Soufiane

    2008-01-01

    Sport-related heat illness has not been commonly studied from an epidemiological perspective. This study presents the descriptive epidemiology of sports/leisure-related heat illness hospitalisations in New South Wales, Australia. All in-patient separations from all acute hospitals in NSW during 2001-2004, with an International Classification of Diseases external cause of injury code indicating "exposure to excessive natural heat (X30)" or any ICD-10 diagnosis code in the range: "effects of heat and light (T67.0-T67.9)", were analysed. The sport/leisure relatedness of cases was defined by ICD-10-AM activity codes indicating involvement in sport/leisure activities. Cases of exposure to heat while engaged in sport/leisure were described by gender, year, age, principal diagnosis, type of activity/sport and length of stay. There were 109 hospital separations for exposure to heat while engaging in sport/leisure activity, with the majority occurring during the hottest months. The number of male cases significantly increased over the 4-year period and 45+ -year olds had the largest number of cases. Heat exhaustion was the leading cause of hospital separation (40% of cases). Marathon running, cricket and golf were the activities most commonly associated with heat-related hospitalisation. Ongoing development and refinement of expert position statements regarding heat illnesses need to draw on both epidemiological and physiological evidence to ensure their relevance to all levels of risk from the real world sport training and competition contexts.

  6. A Description of Medical Conditions in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Follow-Up of the 1980s Utah/UCLA Autism Epidemiologic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kyle B.; Cottle, Kristina; Bakian, Amanda; Farley, Megan; Bilder, Deborah; Coon, Hilary; McMahon, William M.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes medical conditions experienced by a population-based cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder whose significant developmental concerns were apparent during childhood. As part of a 25-year outcome study of autism spectrum disorder in adulthood, medical histories were collected on 92 participants (N = 69 males) who were…

  7. Three-year cohort study of the role of environmental factors in the respiratory health of children in Hamilton, Ontario. Epidemiologic survey design, methods, and description of cohort

    SciTech Connect

    Kerigan, A.T.; Goldsmith, C.H.; Pengelly, L.D.

    1986-06-01

    The relative importance of the effect of outdoor environmental factors (suspended particulates, sulphur dioxide) and indoor environmental factors (parental smoking, gas cooking), on the respiratory health of children is still unclear. To answer these questions, a 3-yr cohort analytic study has been conducted in Hamilton, Ontario between 1978 and 1981. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and indoor environmental factors was determined by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Pulmonary function measures included both the forced expiratory maneuver and the single- and multiple-breath nitrogen washouts. Outdoor air quality was measured by a comprehensive network of suspended particulate and sulphur dioxide monitors. There were 3345 children 7 to 10 yr of age studied in the first year, a response rate of 95.4%, 3,727 in the second year, and 3168 in the third year; 75.6% of the initial cohort were studied in both Year 2 and Year 3. Comprehensive quality control in the study included measurement of the repeatability of both the questionnaire and pulmonary function data. Repeatability was acceptable except for variables derived from the single-breath nitrogen washout (correlation between initial and repeat closing volume vital capacity was 0.14). Cigarette smoking in Year 3 was reported in 4.8% of the children. The distribution of other covariables was not uniform, and the prevalence of parental smoking and gas cooking was greatest in the industrial area with the highest particulate pollution. Future analysis of these data will require the effect of these covariables to be distinguished from that caused by outdoor air pollution.

  8. Descriptive Epidemiology of Musculoskeletal Injuries in the Army 101st Airborne (Air Assault) Division.

    PubMed

    Lovalekar, Mita T; Abt, John P; Sell, Timothy C; Nagai, Takashi; Keenan, Karen; Beals, Kim; Lephart, Scott M; Wirt, Michael D

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of musculoskeletal injuries among Soldiers of the 101st Airborne (Air Assault) Division. A total of 451 subjects (age: 27.6 ± 6.2 years, gender: males 395/451 = 87.6%) volunteered. Musculoskeletal injury data were extracted from subjects' medical charts and injuries that occurred during 1 year were described. Injury frequency, injury anatomic location and sublocation, injury cause, activity when injury occurred, and injury type were described. Injury frequency was 29.5 injuries per 100 subjects per year. Most injures affected the lower extremity (60.2% of injuries) and common anatomic sublocations for injuries were the ankle (17.3%) and knee (15.0%). Frequent causes of injuries were running (13.5%) and direct trauma (9.0%). Physical training was associated with 29.3% of the injuries. A majority of injuries were classified as pain/spasm/ache (29.3%), without further elucidation of pathology. Other frequent injury types were sprain (21.8%) and strain (14.3%). The descriptive epidemiology of musculoskeletal injuries in this population underscores the need to explore the modifiable risk factors of potentially preventable lower extremity injuries associated with physical training and running. There is scope for the development of an optimized and targeted physical training program for injury prevention in this population.

  9. Molecular Epidemiology of Entamoeba: First Description of Entamoeba moshkovskii in a Rural Area from Central Colombia

    PubMed Central

    León, Cielo M.; Fonseca, Jairo; Reyes, Patricia; Moncada, Ligia; Olivera, Mario J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii are the most frequent species described in human infection where E. histolytica is the only true pathogen. The epidemiology of this infection is complex due to the absence of a routine exam that allows a correct discrimination of the Entamoeba species complex. Therefore, molecular methods appear as the unique epidemiological tool to accomplish the species discrimination. Herein, we conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the frequency of Entamoeba species infections in a group of asymptomatic individuals from a rural area in central Colombia. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 181 fecal samples from asymptomatic children under 16 years old from the hamlet La Vírgen, Cundinamarca (Colombia) that voluntarily accepted to participate in the study were collected. The fecal samples were examined by light microscopy and DNA-extracted, subsequently submitted to molecular discrimination of E. dispar/E. histolytica/E. moshkovskii infection based on a multiplex PCR assay targeting the 18S rRNA fragment. To confirm the species description, twenty samples were randomly submitted to DNA sequencing of the aforementioned fragment. By direct microscopic examination, frequency of the complex E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii was 18.8% (34/181). PCR showed a frequency of 49.1% (89/181), discriminated as 23.2% (42/181) that were positive for E. dispar, 25.4% (46/181) for E. moshkovskii and 0.55% (1/ 181) for E. histolytica. Also, mixed infections were detected between E. dispar and E. moshkovskii at 4.42% (8/181) of the samples. Molecular barcoding confirmed the diagnosis depicted by the multiplex PCR assay. Conclusions/Significance This is the first description of E. moshkovskii in Colombia and the second report in South-America to our knowledge. Our results suggest the need to unravel the true epidemiology of Entamoeba infections around the world, including the real pathogenic role that E

  10. Descriptive epidemiology of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Celić, Dijana; Lipozencić, Jasna; Toncić, Ruzica Jurakić; Pasić, Aida; Rados, Jaka; Puizina-Ivić, Neira

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) incidence in Croatia in the 2003-2005 period. The cases of SCC were retrospectively studied. Data were collected from University Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Zagreb University Hospital Center and National Cancer Registry. In the study period, there were 1,860 cases of SCC (934 men and 926 women). The crude incidence rate for the Croatian population of 100,000 was 14.6 for men and 13.4 for women. The age-standardized incidence rate (adjusted for the world standard population) was 8.9 for men and 5.2 for women. The head was almost exclusive localization of SCC in both sexes. The highest SCC incidence was recorded in Zadar County. These results will serve for the SCC trend monitoring in Croatia and Europe in the forthcoming years.

  11. Snowboard traumatology: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Pigozzi, F; Santori, N; Di Salvo, V; Parisi, A; Di-Luigi, L

    1997-06-01

    In the past 10 years, snowboarding has become a popular winter sport among young people, and the number of accidents has increased proportionately. The incidence of traumas from snowboarding is shown to be 4 to 6 for every 1000 medical examinations, which is similar to that of downhill skiing. However, other important statistical differences exist between the two sports. This study of 106 snowboarding-related injury cases analyzes the epidemiology of these injuries in Italy. Results found that 45.1% of injuries are located in the upper limbs and that significant advantages are obtained with the introduction of guards to protect the upper limbs during descent. Serious ligament injuries to the knee are more rare in snowboarding than in downhill skiing. In both sports, injuries are more common with rigid boots, which lead to a higher incidence of injury to the upper limbs. Finally, a high percentage of injury to beginners was found in this study. Training courses for those who are considering taking up the sport of snowboarding could significantly lower their risk of trauma.

  12. Childhood acute leukemias are frequent in Mexico City: descriptive epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Worldwide, acute leukemia is the most common type of childhood cancer. It is particularly common in the Hispanic populations residing in the United States, Costa Rica, and Mexico City. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of acute leukemia in children who were diagnosed and treated in public hospitals in Mexico City. Methods Included in this study were those children, under 15 years of age and residents of Mexico City, who were diagnosed in 2006 and 2007 with leukemia, as determined by using the International Classification of Childhood Cancer. The average annual incidence rates (AAIR), and the standardized average annual incidence rates (SAAIR) per million children were calculated. We calculated crude, age- and sex-specific incidence rates and adjusted for age by the direct method with the world population as standard. We determined if there were a correlation between the incidence of acute leukemias in the various boroughs of Mexico City and either the number of agricultural hectares, the average number of persons per household, or the municipal human development index for Mexico (used as a reference of socio-economic level). Results Although a total of 610 new cases of leukemia were registered during 2006-2007, only 228 fit the criteria for inclusion in this study. The overall SAAIR was 57.6 per million children (95% CI, 46.9-68.3); acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was the most frequent type of leukemia, constituting 85.1% of the cases (SAAIR: 49.5 per million), followed by acute myeloblastic leukemia at 12.3% (SAAIR: 6.9 per million), and chronic myeloid leukemia at 1.7% (SAAIR: 0.9 per million). The 1-4 years age group had the highest SAAIR for ALL (77.7 per million). For cases of ALL, 73.2% had precursor B-cell immunophenotype (SAAIR: 35.8 per million) and 12.4% had T-cell immunophenotype (SAAIR 6.3 per million). The peak ages for ALL were 2-6 years and 8-10 years. More than half the children (58.8%) were classified as high

  13. NASA Remote Sensing Data for Epidemiological Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.; Vicente, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    In response to the need for improved observations of environmental factors to better understand the links between human health and the environment, NASA has established a new program to significantly improve the utilization of NASA's diverse array of data, information, and observations of the Earth for health applications. This initiative, lead by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has the following goals: (1) To encourage interdisciplinary research on the relationships between environmental parameters (e.g., rainfall, vegetation) and health, (2) Develop practical early warning systems, (3) Create a unique system for the exchange of Earth science and health data, (4) Provide an investigator field support system for customers and partners, (5) Facilitate a system for observation, identification, and surveillance of parameters relevant to environment and health issues. The NASA Environment and Health Program is conducting several interdisciplinary projects to examine applications of remote sensing data and information to a variety of health issues, including studies on malaria, Rift Valley Fever, St. Louis Encephalitis, Dengue Fever, Ebola, African Dust and health, meningitis, asthma, and filariasis. In addition, the NASA program is creating a user-friendly data system to help provide the public health community with easy and timely access to space-based environmental data for epidemiological studies. This NASA data system is being designed to bring land, atmosphere, water and ocean satellite data/products to users not familiar with satellite data/products, but who are knowledgeable in the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. This paper discusses the most recent results of the interdisciplinary environment-health research projects and provides an analysis of the usefulness of the satellite data to epidemiological studies. In addition, there will be a summary of presently-available NASA Earth science data and a description of how it may be obtained.

  14. Epidemiological studies are like cherries, one draws another.

    PubMed

    Lunet, Nuno

    2009-01-01

    The proverb "Words are like cherries", meaning that when you start talking subjects pop up and you end up with long conversations, just like cherries coming out of the plate in chains when you pick one, may also be applied to epidemiological research. A sequence of epidemiological studies, each being drawn from the previous, is presented as an example of how each investigation may raise new questions to be addressed in following studies. This description stresses the need for appropriate planning and the usefulness of pilot testing to depict inadequacies that can hardly be anticipated without field work. I intend to illustrate how epidemiological research can provide a deep approach to research questions, as long as findings are properly interpreted and suboptimal methodological options are taken into account in future investigations.

  15. Mandibular Fractures in Iraq: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Bede, Salwan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of the mandibular fractures relating to gender, age, the etiology of injury, and the rendered treatment modalities and complications. The data of the patients who sustained mandibular fractures were retrieved and were analyzed retrospectively, and based on these data a descriptive analysis was conducted. A total of 112 patients were included in this study; the most common cause was road traffic accidents (RTAs) followed by assaults and missile injuries. The most frequently involved age group was 11 to 20 years, treatment modalities included conservative, closed reduction and indirect fixation, and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) in 11.6, 79.5, and 8.9% of the cases, respectively. Most of the major complications were injury related. This study showed RTAs to be the most frequent cause followed by assaults, it also showed that a high percentage of assault victims were females mainly of low socioeconomic status. Another distinguishing feature in this study was the high incidence of missile injuries in the form of bullets and blasts. Closed reduction still has an important role in the treatment of fractures of mandible especially when the necessary equipments for ORIF are not readily available. A higher complication rate was observed in patients diagnosed with multiple and comminuted fractures as well as those caused by violence in the form of missile and assault injuries. PMID:25709754

  16. Descriptive Epidemiology of Musculoskeletal Injuries and Concussions in the National Football League, 2012-2014

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, David W.; Hutchison, Michael G.; Comper, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: The risk of all-cause injury and concussion associated with football is significant. The National Football League (NFL) has implemented changes to increase player safety warranting investigation into the incidence and patterns of injury. Purpose: To document the incidence and patterns of all-cause injury and concussions in the NFL. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Injury data were collected prospectively from official NFL injury reports over 2 regular seasons from 2012 to 2014, with identification of injury incidence rates and patterns. Concussion rate ratios were calculated using previously reported NFL rates. Results: A total of 4284 injuries were identified, including 301 concussions. The all-cause injury rate was 395.8 per 1000 athletes at risk (AAR) and concussion incidence was 27.8 per 1000 AAR. Only 2.3% of team games were injury free. Wide receivers, tight ends, and defensive backs had the highest incidence of injury and concussion. Concussion incidence was 1.61-fold higher in 2012 to 2014 compared with 2002 to 2007. The knee was injured most frequently, followed by the ankle, hamstring, shoulder, and head. Conclusion: The incidence of all-cause injury and concussion in the NFL is significant. Concussion injury rates are higher than previous reports, potentially reflecting an improvement in recognition and awareness. Injury prevention efforts should continue to reduce the prevalence of injury associated with football. PMID:26675321

  17. Descriptive epidemiology of unintentional residential fire injuries in King County, WA, 1984 and 1985.

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, J E; Koepsell, T D; Rivara, F P; Van Belle, G

    1992-01-01

    Although most studies have concentrated on fatal residential fire injuries, which are a leading cause of fatal injuries in the United States, few investigators have examined in detail nonfatal injuries as a consequence of residential fires. This population-based study used the Washington State Fire Incident Reporting System to assess the incidence and descriptive epidemiology of fatal and nonfatal burns or respiratory tract damage resulting from unintentional residential fires. For the 2-year period 1984-85 in King County, WA, the mortality rate due to injury in a residential fire was 0.7 per 100,000 per year, and the incidence of nonfatal injuries was 5.6 per 100,000 per year. Of 17 fatalities, 59 percent of the deaths occurred at the scene of the fire. Of 128 persons with nonfatal injuries, 19 percent were hospitalized; although the 55 percent seen as outpatients and the 26 percent treated by the fire department or paramedics at the fire scene usually had minor injuries, they would not have been captured if only traditional data sources had been employed. Those injured averaged 2.8 days of restricted activity, but the range was from less than 1 day to 1 year. Injuries were more common in the households with a low socioeconomic status and among nonwhites, especially American Indians. Variation in incidence by age, sex, and source of ignition for deaths and nonfatal injuries suggests appropriate targets for future fire injury prevention programs. PMID:1641436

  18. [Mental disorders and migraine: epidemiologic studies].

    PubMed

    Guillem, E; Pelissolo, A; Lepine, J P

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies in the general population, taking into account certain bias inherent to the clinical observation have confirmed the clinical impression reporting a higher psychiatric comorbidity with persons suffering from migraine than in persons without migraine. Persons with migraine are at increased risk for affective and anxiety disorders, personality traits disorders (neuroticism), suicide attempts, but not for alcohol or illicit drug abuse. The comorbidity is more important in migraine with aura than in migraine without aura. Concerning affective disorders, the lifetime prevalence of major depression is 34.4% in persons with migraine and 10.4% in persons without migraine. For bipolar I disorder, prevalence is 6.8% in migraine with aura versus 0.9% when no migraine. Compared to no migraine, the lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders in migraine is significantly increased in: panic disorder (10.9% vs 1.8%); generalized anxiety disorder (10.2% vs 1.9%); obsessive-compulsive disorder (8.6% vs 1.8%); phobic disorder (39.8% vs 20.6%). In addition, no psychopathological, biological or genetic explanation seems to be meaningful for the comprehension of this comorbidity pattern. These results remain primarily descriptive but they justify a clinical investigation of affective and anxiety disorders, and suicide attempts, in all person with migraine, and it also justifies the treatment of pain associated with the treatment of eventual affective or anxiety disorders.

  19. Descriptive epidemiology of infectious gastrointestinal illnesses in Sydney, Australia, 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Stephanie; Sibbritt, David; Stark, Damien; Harkness, John; Rawlinson, William; Andresen, David; Van Hal, Sebastian; Merif, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is a lack of information about the prevalence of gastrointestinal illnesses in Australia. Current disease surveillance systems capture only a few pathogens. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology of infectious gastrointestinal illnesses in Sydney, Australia. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms who visited tertiary public hospitals in Sydney was conducted between 2007 and 2010. Patients with diarrhoea or loose stools with an enteric pathogen detected were identified. Demographic, clinical and potential risk factor data were collected from their medical records. Measures of association, descriptive and inferential statistics were analysed. Results In total, 1722 patients were included in this study. Campylobacter (22.0%) and Clostridium difficile (19.2%) were the most frequently detected pathogens. Stratified analysis showed that rotavirus (22.4%), norovirus (20.7%) and adenovirus (18.1%) mainly affected children under 5 years; older children (5–12 years) were frequently infected with Campylobacter spp. (29.8%) and non-typhoid Salmonella spp. (24.4%); infections with C. difficile increased with age.Campylobacter and non-typhoid Salmonella spp. showed increased incidence in summer months (December to February), while rotavirus infections peaked in the cooler months (June to November). Discussion This study revealed that gastrointestinal illness remains a major public health issue in Sydney. Improvement of current disease surveillance and prevention and control measures are required. This study emphasizes the importance of laboratory diagnosis of enteric infections and the need for better clinical data collection to improve management of disease risk factors in the community. PMID:26798556

  20. Twin Studies: A Unique Epidemiological Tool

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Monalisha; Prasuna, Josyula G

    2016-01-01

    Twin studies are a special type of epidemiological studies designed to measure the contribution of genetics as opposed to the environment, to a given trait. Despite the facts that the classical twin studies are still being guided by assumptions made back in the 1920s and that the inherent limitation lies in the study design itself, the results suggested by earlier twin studies have often been confirmed by molecular genetic studies later. Use of twin registries and various innovative yet complex software packages such as the (SAS) and their extensions (e.g., SAS PROC GENMOD and SAS PROC PHREG) has increased the potential of this epidemiological tool toward contributing significantly to the field of genetics and other life sciences. PMID:27385869

  1. Examination of Different Exposure Metrics in an Epidemiological Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon measurements of ambient concentration from central-site monitoring stations as surrogates of population exposures. However, depending on the epidemiological study design, this approach may introduce exposure...

  2. [Social inequality and epidemiological studies: a reflection].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria Angela Fernandes; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Social indicators are now indispensable in the list of variables of epidemiological studies, based on the fact that the determination of health complaints is complex and multidimensional. From this perspective, social inequality has gained prominence as an explanatory factor for the health conditions of populations. The scope of this article is to discuss the different concepts that underpin the selection of the indicators used in epidemiological studies and examine the psychosocial effects on human beings caused by social inequality. A literature review of epidemiological studies that used social inequality and social capital indicators was conducted for a better understanding of health problems, as well as an investigation in the fields of sociology and social psychology. The research revealed that there is some controversy surrounding the effect of social inequality on health, possibly because these indicators are predominantly based on income and individual consumption capacity. Likewise, social capital indicators at cognitive and structural levels are too limited to understand the dynamism of social relations. Accordingly, further studies are needed for the construction of social indicators capable of examining the complexity of modern societies.

  3. Assessing the first wave of epidemiological studies of nanomaterial workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Tsai, Candace S. J.; Pelclova, Daniela; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Schulte, Paul A.

    2015-10-01

    The results of early animal studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and air pollution epidemiology suggest that it is important to assess the health of ENM workers. Initial epidemiological studies of workers' exposure to ENMs (<100 nm) are reviewed and characterized for their study designs, findings, and limitations. Of the 15 studies, 11 were cross-sectional, 4 were longitudinal (1 was both cross-sectional and longitudinal in design), and 1 was a descriptive pilot study. Generally, the studies used biologic markers as the dependent variables. All 11 cross-sectional studies showed a positive relationship between various biomarkers and ENM exposures. Three of the four longitudinal studies showed a negative relationship; the fourth showed positive findings after a 1-year follow-up. Each study considered exposure to ENMs as the independent variable. Exposure was assessed by mass concentration in 10 studies and by particle count in six studies. Six of them assessed both mass and particle concentrations. Some of the studies had limited exposure data because of inadequate exposure assessment. Generally, exposure levels were not very high in comparison to those in human inhalation chamber studies, but there were some exceptions. Most studies involved a small sample size, from 2 to 258 exposed workers. These studies represent the first wave of epidemiological studies of ENM workers. They are limited by small numbers of participants, inconsistent (and in some cases inadequate) exposure assessments, generally low exposures, and short intervals between exposure and effect. Still, these studies are a foundation for future work; they provide insight into where ENM workers are experiencing potentially adverse effects that might be related to ENM exposures.

  4. Assessing the first wave of epidemiological studies of nanomaterial workers

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Candace S. J.; Pelclova, Daniela; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Schulte, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    The results of early animal studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and air pollution epidemiology suggest that it is important to assess the health of ENM workers. Initial epidemiological studies of workers’ exposure to ENMs (<100 nm) are reviewed and characterized for their study designs, findings, and limitations. Of the 15 studies, 11 were cross-sectional, 4 were longitudinal (1 was both cross-sectional and longitudinal in design), and 1 was a descriptive pilot study. Generally, the studies used biologic markers as the dependent variables. All 11 cross-sectional studies showed a positive relationship between various biomarkers and ENM exposures. Three of the four longitudinal studies showed a negative relationship; the fourth showed positive findings after a 1-year follow-up. Each study considered exposure to ENMs as the independent variable. Exposure was assessed by mass concentration in 10 studies and by particle count in six studies. Six of them assessed both mass and particle concentrations. Some of the studies had limited exposure data because of inadequate exposure assessment. Generally, exposure levels were not very high in comparison to those in human inhalation chamber studies, but there were some exceptions. Most studies involved a small sample size, from 2 to 258 exposed workers. These studies represent the first wave of epidemiological studies of ENM workers. They are limited by small numbers of participants, inconsistent (and in some cases inadequate) exposure assessments, generally low exposures, and short intervals between exposure and effect. Still, these studies are a foundation for future work; they provide insight into where ENM workers are experiencing potentially adverse effects that might be related to ENM exposures. PMID:26635494

  5. ADHD in the Arab World: A Review of Epidemiologic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farah, Lynn G.; Fayyad, John A.; Eapen, Valsamma; Cassir,Youmna; Salamoun, Mariana M.; Tabet, Caroline C.; Mneimneh, Zeina N.; Karam, Elie G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Epidemiological studies on psychiatric disorders are quite rare in the Arab World. This article reviews epidemiological studies on ADHD in all the Arab countries. Method: All epidemiological studies on ADHD conducted from 1966 through th present were reviewed. Samples were drawn from the general community, primary care clinical…

  6. Epidemiologic study of tumors in dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, B M; Tanke, D H; Helbling, M; Martin, L D

    2003-11-01

    Occasional reports in isolated fragments of dinosaur bones have suggested that tumors might represent a population phenomenon. Previous study of humans has demonstrated that vertebral radiology is a powerful diagnostic tool for population screening. The epidemiology of tumors in dinosaurs was here investigated by fluoroscopically screening dinosaur vertebrae for evidence of tumors. Computerized tomography (CT) and cross-sections were obtained where appropriate. Among more than 10,000 specimens x-rayed, tumors were only found in Cretaceous hadrosaurs (duck-billed dinosaurs). These included hemangiomas and metastatic cancer (previously identified in dinosaurs), desmoplastic fibroma, and osteoblastoma. The epidemiology of tumors in dinosaurs seems to reflect a familial pattern. A genetic propensity or environmental mutagens are suspected.

  7. A pedigree-analysis approach to the descriptive epidemiology of autosomal-recessive disorders.

    PubMed

    Man, W Y N; Nicholas, F W; James, J W

    2007-03-17

    We describe a pedigree-analysis approach to estimating descriptive epidemiological parameters for autosomal-recessive disorders when the ancestral source of the disorder is known. We show that the expected frequency of carriers in a cohort equals the gene contribution of the ancestral source to that cohort, which is equivalent to the direct (additive) genetic relationship of that ancestor to the cohort. Also, the expected incidence of affected foetuses ranges from (1/2)F* to F*, where F* is the mean partial inbreeding coefficient (due to the ancestor) of the cohort. We applied this approach to complex vertebral malformation (CVM) in Holstein-Friesians in Australia, for which the ancestral source is a USA-born bull, Carlin-M Ivanhoe Bell. The estimated frequency of carriers was 2.47% for the 1992-born and 4.44% for the 1997-born cohort of Holstein-Friesian cows in Australia. The estimated incidence of affected foetuses/calves was considerably less than one per thousand, ranging from 0.0024 to 0.0048% for the 1992-born cohort, and from 0.0288 to 0.0576% for the 1997-born cohort. These incidences correspond to expected numbers of affected female foetuses/calves ranging from 2 to 4 for the 1992-born cohort and from 28 to 56 for the 1997-born cohort. This approach is easy to implement using software that is readily available.

  8. Recent incidence and descriptive epidemiological survey of breast cancer in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Saggu, Shalini; Rehman, Hasibur; Abbas, Zahid K.; Ansari, Abid A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To review and analyze the pattern of breast cancer (BC) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: A retrospective descriptive epidemiological review of BC of all diagnosed Saudi female cases from January 1990 to December 2014 was conducted at the Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, KSA. This report contains information obtained from the Saudi Cancer Registry and from King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center. Results: The number of women with BC increased steadily from 1990-2010. On the basis of the number of cases, the percentage distribution of BC appears to be increasing. There were 1152 female BC cases in 2008 in comparison with 1308 in 2009, and 1473 in 2010. Breast cancer ranked first among females accounting for 27.4% of all newly diagnosed female cancers (5378) in the year 2010. The average age at the diagnosis of BC was 48; weighted average was 49.8, and range 43-52. Conclusion: Among Saudi patients, there was a significant increase in the number of cases of BC, which occurs at an earlier age than in Western countries. Continued vigilance, mammographic screening, and patient education are needed to establish early diagnosis and perform optimal treatment. PMID:26446327

  9. Descriptive epidemiology of injuries in a Brazilian premier league soccer team

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas Guina Fachina, Rafael Júlio; Andrade, Marília dos Santos; Silva, Fernando Roberto; Waszczuk-Junior, Silas; Montagner, Paulo César; Borin, João Paulo; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Soccer, which has a large number of participants, has a high injury incidence that causes both financial and time burdens. Therefore, knowledge about the epidemiology of soccer injuries could allow sports-medicine professionals, such as physicians and physiotherapists, to direct their work in specific preventive programs. Thus, our aim was to conduct an epidemiological survey of injuries sustained by professional soccer players from the same team who participated in the Brazilian championship premier league in 2009. To this end, we evaluated retrospectively player medical records from the team, which included name, date of birth, position, date of injury, mechanism of injury, and type of injury. In the period of study, 95 injuries were recorded: 42 (44.2%) were recorded during matches, and 53 (55.8%) during the training period. Injuries occurred more frequently in midfielders and strikers. All injuries happened in the lower limb, most of the injuries were muscular, and most occurred as the result of collisions with other athletes. In summary, this study demonstrates that there is a need for greater safety awareness in the training environment. PMID:24379722

  10. Descriptive epidemiology of injuries in a Brazilian premier league soccer team.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Guina Fachina, Rafael Júlio; Andrade, Marília Dos Santos; Silva, Fernando Roberto; Waszczuk-Junior, Silas; Montagner, Paulo César; Borin, João Paulo; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Soccer, which has a large number of participants, has a high injury incidence that causes both financial and time burdens. Therefore, knowledge about the epidemiology of soccer injuries could allow sports-medicine professionals, such as physicians and physiotherapists, to direct their work in specific preventive programs. Thus, our aim was to conduct an epidemiological survey of injuries sustained by professional soccer players from the same team who participated in the Brazilian championship premier league in 2009. To this end, we evaluated retrospectively player medical records from the team, which included name, date of birth, position, date of injury, mechanism of injury, and type of injury. In the period of study, 95 injuries were recorded: 42 (44.2%) were recorded during matches, and 53 (55.8%) during the training period. Injuries occurred more frequently in midfielders and strikers. All injuries happened in the lower limb, most of the injuries were muscular, and most occurred as the result of collisions with other athletes. In summary, this study demonstrates that there is a need for greater safety awareness in the training environment.

  11. Study area description: Chapter 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowland, Mary M.; Leu, Matthias; Hanser, Steven E.; Leu, Matthias; Knick, Steven T.; Aldridge, Cameron L.

    2011-01-01

    The boundary for the Wyoming Basins Ecoregional Assessment (WBEA) was largely determined by the co-occurrence of some of the largest tracts of intact sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) remaining in the western United States with areas of increasing resource extraction. The WBEA area includes two ecoregions in their entirety, Wyoming Basins and Utah-Wyoming Rocky Mountains, and portions of two others (Southern Rocky Mountains and Middle Rockies-Blue Mountains). Over half the study area is in Wyoming; the remainder includes parts of Colorado, Utah, Idaho, and Montana. Private landowners manage most (33.1%) of the land base in the WBEA, followed by the U.S. Forest Service (27.3%) and U.S. Bureau of Land Management (25.6%). Sagebrush is the dominant land cover type in the study area, totaling >130,000 km2 ; nearly half the sagebrush in the WBEA is managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management. Sagebrush in the WBEA faces many potential threats that also influence the broader sagebrush ecosystem. Climate change, drought, land-use practices (e.g., livestock grazing, oil and gas development), and human development have eliminated and fragmented the sagebrush ecosystem, altered fire regimes, and accelerated the invasion of exotic plants such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum). Less than 2% of sagebrush in the WBEA is permanently protected from land cover conversion.

  12. Descriptive epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in michigan (1975-2010): lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Chika C; Grooms, Daniel L; Bruning-Fann, Colleen S; Averill, James J; Kaneene, John B

    2011-01-01

    Despite ongoing eradication efforts, bovine tuberculosis (BTB) remains a challenge in Michigan livestock and wildlife. The objectives of this study were to (1) review the epidemiology of BTB in Michigan cattle, privately owned cervids, and wildlife between 1975 and 2010 and (2) identify important lessons learned from the review and eradication strategies. BTB information was accessed from the Michigan BTB Eradication Project agencies. Cattle herds (49), privately owned deer herds (4), and wild white-tailed deer (668) were found infected with BTB during the review period. BTB has occurred primarily in counties located at the northern portion of the state's Lower Peninsula. Currently used BTB eradication strategies have successfully controlled BTB spread. However additional changes in BTB surveillance, prevention, and eradication strategies could improve eradication efforts.

  13. Epidemiological study of equine piroplasmosis in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Boldbaatar, Damdinsuren; Xuan, Xuenan; Battsetseg, Badgar; Igarashi, Ikuo; Battur, Banzragch; Batsukh, Zayat; Bayambaa, Badarch; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2005-01-04

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the occurrence of equine piroplasmosis in Mongolia, a country in which the disease occurs epidemically in different climatic conditions. Antibodies to Babesia equi and B. caballi were determined in serum samples of 254 pastured horses in different locations of Mongolia using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with recombinant antigens. One hundred and eighty-five (72.8%) and 102 (40.1%) of all serum samples were positive for B. equi and B. caballi infections, respectively. In addition, 78 (30.7%) samples were positive for both B. equi and B. caballi infections. These results indicate that equine piroplasmosis is widespread in Mongolia. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing an epidemiological study on equine piroplasmosis in different geographic regions in Mongolia.

  14. An epidemiological study of histrionic personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Nestadt, G; Romanoski, A J; Chahal, R; Merchant, A; Folstein, M F; Gruenberg, E M; McHugh, P R

    1990-05-01

    In conjunction with the Epidemiological Catchment Area (ECA) survey conducted in Baltimore, MD, a two-stage probability sample of community subjects was developed with a full psychiatric examination employing DSM-III criteria. This report details the observations on those subjects diagnosed with the DSM-III diagnosis Histrionic Personality Disorder. The results indicate that this condition can be diagnosed reliably and that it is a valid construct. It has a prevalence of 2.1% in a general population. Males and females are equally affected, suggesting that prior reports of an increased prevalence in females was an expression of ascertainment bias found in hospital-based studies. The diagnosis is associated with clear evidence of disturbance in the emotional, behavioural, and social realms. Individuals with this disorder tend to use health care facilities more frequently than others.

  15. Multicenter Epidemiological Studies of Atherosclerosis Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Songtao; Bluemke, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading course of death and disability. Conventional cardiac risk factors do not fully explain the level of cardiovascular risk, incidence of coronary artery disease, and coronary events. Risk stratification and therapy based solely on these conventional risk factors may overlook a population who would benefit from lifestyle and risk factor modification. Thus, research has recently focused on improving risk assessment with new tools in an effort to better identify subjects at highest risk and in need of aggressive management. Cardiovascular imaging, both in coronary and extracoronary arterial beds, has proven to be very helpful in this regard. In this article, we review the current literature from multicenter epidemiology studies on the utility of noninvasive imaging modalities for risk stratification in the context of conventional risk factor evaluation. PMID:20805734

  16. Epidemiological and Clinical Studies of Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Todd M.; Ferrucci, Leah M.; Tangrea, Joseph A.; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we briefly summarize some of the key developments in nutritional epidemiology and cancer over the past two decades with a focus on the strengths and limitations of study designs and dietary assessment methods. We present the evidence on dietary fat, meat, fiber, antioxidant nutrients, and calcium in relation to carcinogenesis from large cohort studies and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and refer to the conclusions of the 2007 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research summary report. One prominent theme that emerged is the lack of concordance of results from RCTs and observational studies. There are multiple potential reasons for these discrepancies, including differences in study population, dose and timing of the exposure, adherence to an intervention, length of follow-up, and the primary endpoint. Therefore, null findings of RCTs do not necessarily indicate a lack of effect for the tested dietary factors on cancer risk, as some of these nutrients may have chemopreventive effects if given at the right time and in the right dose. It is likely that potential benefits from the diet are due to a combination of food constituents rather than single components acting in isolation. Future efforts need to recognize the integrative nature of dietary exposures and attempt to study nutrients in the larger context of the foods and diets in which they are consumed. PMID:20709210

  17. Registration quality and descriptive epidemiology of childhood brain tumours in Scotland 1975-90.

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, P. A.; Ironside, J. W.; Harkness, E. F.; Arango, J. C.; Doyle, D.; Black, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    Children (0-14 years) with malignant brain and central nervous system (CNS) tumours (ICD9 191 and 192) were listed from the Scottish Cancer Registration Scheme for the years 1975-90. These cases formed the basis for validation and verification procedures aimed at providing a complete and accurate data set for epidemiological analyses. A variety of data sources were cross-checked to optimise ascertainment, and resulting from this 5.7% of validated cases were found on the cancer registry with diagnostic codes outside the ICD-9 range 191-192. A further 8.4% were newly registered cases. Analyses were conducted on the validated data set showing a significant temporal increase in incidence rates over the 16 year study period with an average annual percentage change of +2.6%. Large-scale geographical heterogeneity was also found, with a particularly high incidence in the Fife and Lothian areas and a low incidence in Grampian. Examination of associations with socioeconomic status, using the Carstairs deprivation index, revealed a rising trend in incidence strongly linked to areas with increasing levels of affluence. Our results suggest that for studies of childhood CNS tumours validation of cancer registry data is necessary and large-scale geographical variation and socioeconomic factors should be taken into account in any investigation of distribution in small geographical areas. PMID:7947107

  18. Teacher Curriculum Work Center: A Descriptive Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiman, Sharon

    This monograph is one of a continuing series initiated to provide materials for teachers, parents, school administrators, and governmental decision-makers that might encourage reexamination of a range of evaluation issues and perspectives about schools and schooling. This monograph is a descriptive study of the Teacher Curriculum Work Center,…

  19. Tea and cancer prevention: epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M

    2011-08-01

    Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiological studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers after sufficient control for confounders. Limited data support a protective effect of green tea on lung and hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake on prostate cancer risk, phase II clinical trials have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate pre-malignant lesions. Green tea may exert beneficial effects against mammary carcinogenesis in premenopausal women and recurrence of breast cancer. There is no sufficient evidence that supports a protective role of tea intake on the development of cancers of the colorectum, pancreas, urinary tract, glioma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Future prospective observational studies with biomarkers of exposure and phase III clinical trials are required to provide definitive evidence for the hypothesized beneficial effect of tea consumption on cancer formation in humans.

  20. Los Alamos National Laboratory: A guide to records series supporting epidemiologic studies conducted for the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to describe each series of records that pertains to the epidemiologic studies conducted by the Epidemiology Section of the Occupational Medicine Group (ESH-2) at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in Los Alamos, New Mexico. The records described in this guide relate to occupational studies performed by the Epidemiology Section, including those pertaining to workers at LANL, Mound Plant, Oak Ridge Reservation, Pantex Plant, Rocky Flats Plant, and Savannah River Site. Also included are descriptions of other health-related records generated or collected by the Epidemiology Section and a small set of records collected by the Industrial Hygiene and Safety Group. This guide is not designed to describe the universe of records generated by LANL which may be used for epidemiologic studies of the LANL work force. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project, HAI`s role in the project, the history of LANL the history and functions of LANL`s Health Division and Epidemiology Section, and the various epidemiologic studies performed by the Epidemiology Section. It provides information on the methodology that HAI used to inventory and describe records housed in the offices of the LANL Epidemiology Section in Technical Area 59 and at the LANL Records Center. Other topics include the methodology used to produce the guide, the arrangement of the detailed record series descriptions, and information concerning access to records repositories.

  1. EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF DISINFECTANTS AND DISINFECTANT BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article provides a review of the epidemiologic evidence for human health effects that may be associated with the disinfection of drinking water. An epidemiologic study attempts to link human health effects with exposure to a specific agent (e.g., DBCM), agents (e.g., THMs or...

  2. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Human epidemiological and exposure... Information § 159.170 Human epidemiological and exposure studies. Information must be submitted which concerns... that a correlation may exist between exposure to a pesticide and observed adverse effects in...

  3. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Human epidemiological and exposure... Information § 159.170 Human epidemiological and exposure studies. Information must be submitted which concerns... that a correlation may exist between exposure to a pesticide and observed adverse effects in...

  4. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Human epidemiological and exposure... Information § 159.170 Human epidemiological and exposure studies. Information must be submitted which concerns... that a correlation may exist between exposure to a pesticide and observed adverse effects in...

  5. Descriptive epidemiology and short-term outcomes of heart failure hospitalisation in rural Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Gene F; Jean-Baptiste, Waking; Cleophat, Philip; Leandre, Fèrnet; Louine, Martineau; Luma, Maxo; Benjamin, Emelia J; Mukherjee, Joia S; Bukhman, Gene; Hirschhorn, Lisa R

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is increasing attention to cardiovascular diseases in low-income countries. However, little is known about heart failure (HF) in rural areas, where most of the populations in low-income countries live. We studied HF epidemiology, care delivery and outcomes in rural Haiti. Methods Among adults admitted with HF to a rural Haitian tertiary care hospital during a 12-month period (2013–2014), we studied the clinical characteristics and short-term outcomes including length of stay, inhospital death and outpatient follow-up rates. Results HF accounted for 392/1049 (37%) admissions involving 311 individuals; over half (60%) were women. Mean age was 58.8 (SD 16.2) years for men and 48.3 (SD 18.8) years for women; 76 (41%) women were <40 years of age. Median length of stay was 10 days (first and second quartiles 7, 17), and inhospital mortality was 12% (n=37). Ninety nine (36%) of the 274 who survived their primary hospitalisation followed-up at the hospital’s outpatient clinic, and 18 (6.6%) were readmitted to the same hospital within 30 days postdischarge. Decreased known follow-up (p<0.01) and readmissions (p=0.03) were associated with increased distance between patient residence and hospital. Among the one-quarter (81) patients with echocardiograms, causes of HF included: non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy (64%), right HF (12%), hypertensive heart disease (7%) and rheumatic heart disease (5%). One-half of the women with cardiomyopathy by echocardiogram had peripartum cardiomyopathy. Conclusions HF is a common cause of hospitalisation in rural Haiti. Among diagnosed patients, HF is overwhelming due to non-atherosclerotic heart disease and particularly affects young adults. Implementing effective systems to improve HF diagnosis and linkage to essential outpatient care is needed to reduce long-term morbidity and mortality. PMID:26729609

  6. Uses of available record systems in epidemiologic studies of reproductive toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Polednak, A.P.; Janerich, D.T.

    1983-01-01

    The uses of available record systems in epidemiologic studies of reproductive toxicology are described with reference to New York State. The available record systems (and relevant reproductive end points) described include: a newborn screening program for metabolic diseases and hemoglobinopathies (relevant to point mutations); chromosome registries and prenatal cytogenetics (for chromosome anomalies); live birth certificates (for birth defects, birthweight, sex ratio, etc); fetal death certificates (for spontaneous fetal deaths); and a statewide cancer registry (for childhood cancers and transplacental carcinogenesis). The uses and limitations of these record systems are discussed, along with examples of their use in descriptive and analytic epidemiologic studies. Descriptive studies outlined include investigations of temporal and geographic trends in birth defects, birth weight, and fetal deaths, with reference to environmental questions (eg, Love Canal, nuclear power plants). Analytic studies described concern parental occupation in relation to specific birth defects (neural tube defects and Down syndrome) and maternal use of contraceptive drugs.

  7. Uses of available record systems in epidemiologic studies of reproductive toxicology.

    PubMed

    Polednak, A P; Janerich, D T

    1983-01-01

    The uses of available record systems in epidemiologic studies of reproductive toxicology are described with reference to New York State. The available record systems (and relevant reproductive end points) described include: a newborn screening program for metabolic diseases and hemoglobinopathies (relevant to point mutations); chromosome registries and prenatal cytogenetics (for chromosome anomalies); live birth certificates (for birth defects, birthweight, sex ratio, etc); fetal death certificates (for spontaneous fetal deaths); and a statewide cancer registry (for childhood cancers and transplacental carcinogenesis). The uses and limitations of these record systems are discussed, along with examples of their use in descriptive and analytic epidemiologic studies. Descriptive studies outlined include investigations of temporal and geographic trends in birth defects, birth weight, and fetal deaths, with reference to environmental questions (eg, Love Canal, nuclear power plants). Analytic studies described concern parental occupation in relation to specific birth defects (neural tube defects and Down syndrome) and maternal use of contraceptive drugs.

  8. PRELIMINARY HEALTH BURDEN ANALYSIS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC RECREATIONAL WATER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water Study (NEEAR) offers a rare opportunity for researchers. The study's design involves the collection of health data before and after visiting the beach in conjunction with water quality...

  9. Descriptive epidemiology of marine anemia in seapen-reared salmon in southern British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Stephen, C; Ribble, C S; Kent, M L

    1996-07-01

    Marine anemia, also known as plasmacytoid leukemia, is a recently described disease of farmed Pacific salmon in British Columbia. Most of what is known about the disease has been generated through laboratory studies or field investigations of severely affected farms. The goals of this study were to determine the range of the spatial and temporal distribution of naturally occurring marine anemia, identify potential risk factors, and provide an initial description of the impact of the disease on commercial salmon farms in British Columbia. Data were obtained from mail surveys, farm visits, and reviews of clinical and laboratory records. An attempt was made to evaluate negative, as well as mildly, moderately, and severely affected sites. The results showed marine anemia to be widely distributed throughout the major salmon farming regions in British Columbia. The disease was most commonly diagnosed in August and September, when water temperatures were at their seasonal peaks. A wide variety of lineage's and fish sources were associated with the disease. The average mortality rate attributed to marine anemia was 6% (range 2.5% to 11%). The peak occurrence of the disease was associated with a peak in the occurrence of other infectious and inflammatory diseases. The broad demographic distribution of marine anemia, coupled with its endemic nature, indicated that the disease is unlikely to be due to the recent introduction of a new pathogen and that causal factors are widespread in southern British Columbia. It is concluded that the significance of diagnosing marine anemia is not that it is predictive of an impending epidemic of mortality, but that it is an indicator of the general pattern of disease on a farm.

  10. The incidence rate of thyroid cancer among women in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001-2008.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Dohal, Ahlam A; Almalki, Shaia S; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

    2015-06-01

    This study provides a descriptive epidemiological data of thyroid cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi women, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR) and the age-standardised incidence rate (ASIR) stratified by the region and year of diagnosis. This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all Saudi thyroid cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were applied using descriptive statistics with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0. A total of 2,930 cases were recorded in the SCR between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR at 9.43 per 100,000 women, followed by Tabuk at 7.11 and eastern region at 6.5, while Jazan and Jouf had the lowest average ASIRs at 1.97 and at 2.72, respectively. The region of Qassim recorded the greatest changes of ASIR at 5.5 per 100,000 women from 2001 to 2008. There was a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for thyroid cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Riyadh, Tabuk and eastern region were the highest overall ASIR in Saudi Arabia. While, Jazan and Hail had the lowest rates. Finally, the region of Qassim had the highest changes in CIR and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. Further analytical studies are needed to determine the potential risk factors of thyroid cancer disease among Saudi women.

  11. [Linburg-Comstock syndrome. Epidemiologic and anatomic study, clinical applications].

    PubMed

    Hamitouche, K; Roux, J L; Baeten, Y; Allieu, Y

    2000-05-01

    The Linburg-Comstock (LC) syndrome is distinguished by the inability to actively flex the interphalangeal (IP) joint of the thumb without simultaneously flexing the distal IP joint of the index finger. Any resistance to this 'parasitic' reaction causes pain on the palmar side of the wrist or in the distal part of the forearm; this is due to an anomalous tendinous connection between the flexor pollicus longus (FPL) and the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP). An epidemiological study was carried out on 264 individuals (a total of 528 hands were examined), and the LC syndrome was found in 98 subjects (37%); women were more frequently affected than men, and bilaterally rather than unilaterally. In addition, we dissected 26 fresh cadaver upper limbs, and in seven cases found an anomalous connection between FPL and FDP. We also examined the case of a young violinist with bilateral LC syndrome, who complained of pain in the distal part of the left forearm after prolonged musical exercises. Surgical investigation determined a complete fusion between FPL and FDP of the index with a common tendon. Treatment consisted of splitting this common tendon to form two separate tendons, thereby permitting a certain degree of independence between the thumb and index finger, and which considerably improved the violinist's musical performance. A review of the literature showed that there was a large quantity of anatomical descriptions available on these types of connection. Certain publications also provide an extremely precise report on the anthropological significance of these anomalies.

  12. How to design a (good) epidemiological observational study: epidemiological research protocol at a glance.

    PubMed

    Fronteira, Ines

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we propose a general structure for designing a research protocol of an observational epidemiological study. We start by highlighting the importance of the research protocol, namely in accounting for some bias and guaranteeing methodologic rigor and study reproductability. Next, we reflect on some of the essential elements of a research protocol no matter its objective. We further present some specific issues to be included according to the type of study: cross-sectional, case-control and cohort.

  13. Field epidemiologic studies of populations exposed to waste dumps.

    PubMed

    Heath, C W

    1983-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies are required for assessing health risks related to toxic waste exposure. Since the settings in which such studies must be performed are extremely diverse, epidemiologic approaches must be versatile. For any particular study, three fundamental requirements are to assess what toxic materials are present, understand how human exposure may occur, and objectively measure possible biologic effects. In assessing links between exposure and disease, epidemiologists must be particularly aware of: expected disease frequencies in relation to the size of populations studied, implications of long or varied disease latencies for study design and competing causes of disease and associated confounding variables. These concepts are illustrated by discussion of epidemiologic studies related to the Love Canal toxic waste dump site in Niagara Falls, NY.

  14. Epidemiological study air disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA): study design

    PubMed Central

    Slottje, Pauline; Huizink, Anja C; Twisk, Jos WR; Witteveen, Anke B; van der Ploeg, Henk M; Bramsen, Inge; Smidt, Nynke; Bijlsma, Joost A; Bouter, Lex M; van Mechelen, Willem; Smid, Tjabe

    2005-01-01

    Background In 1992, a cargo aircraft crashed into apartment buildings in Amsterdam, killing 43 victims and destroying 266 apartments. In the aftermath there were speculations about the cause of the crash, potential exposures to hazardous materials due to the disaster and the health consequences. Starting in 2000, the Epidemiological Study Air Disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA) aimed to assess the long-term health effects of occupational exposure to this disaster on professional assistance workers. Methods/Design Epidemiological study among all the exposed professional fire-fighters and police officers who performed disaster-related task(s), and hangar workers who sorted the wreckage of the aircraft, as well as reference groups of their non-exposed colleagues who did not perform any disaster-related tasks. The study took place, on average, 8.5 years after the disaster. Questionnaires were used to assess details on occupational exposure to the disaster. Health measures comprised laboratory assessments in urine, blood and saliva, as well as self-reported current health measures, including health-related quality of life, and various physical and psychological symptoms. Discussion In this paper we describe and discuss the design of the ESADA. The ESADA will provide additional scientific knowledge on the long-term health effects of technological disasters on professional workers. PMID:15921536

  15. Descriptive epidemiology of animal bites in Indiana, 1990-92--a rationale for intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, C L; Zhou, C

    1995-01-01

    Animal bites are a reality of life throughout the world. They arise out of an imperfect relationship with domestic animals and wildlife. Most bite injuries are preventable. The principal approaches to community-wide bite prevention programs include reducing the number of domestic animals roaming in the community (animal control) and teaching people to refrain from behaviors likely to provoke bites. This article addresses the epidemiologic basis and justification for a bite prevention program targeted toward children. Animal bite data from Indiana for the years 1990, 1991, and 1992 were analyzed for trends that might suggest opportunities for preventive intervention. Bites inflicted by humans were not included in this data base. Children of all age groups were disproportionately affected, with the highest incidence in the 5-9 year age group. The dog and the cat were the most commonly reported biting animals. Wild and pet rodents were the next most frequent biting group. The bites most frequently reported from nonrodent wild animals were inflicted by raccoons. The incidence of animal bites in children peaked during the spring (April-June). Boys were bitten at a higher rate than girls, but this difference between the sexes narrows with age and was not noted in the adult population. Residents of urban counties (population greater than 100,000) had higher reported bite rates than residents of nonurban counties. PMID:7838946

  16. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... studies. 159.170 Section 159.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Information § 159.170 Human epidemiological and exposure studies. Information must be submitted which concerns any study that a person described in § 159.158(a) has concluded, or might reasonably conclude,...

  17. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... studies. 159.170 Section 159.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Information § 159.170 Human epidemiological and exposure studies. Information must be submitted which concerns any study that a person described in § 159.158(a) has concluded, or might reasonably conclude,...

  18. Epidemiological studies relating genital herpetic infection to cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nahmias, A J; Naib, Z M; Josey, W E

    1974-05-01

    Epidemiological studies relating genital herpetic infection to cervical carcinoma are reviewed. The high frequency of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) antibodies in young women (21 years or younger) with cervical carcinoma in situ and in women with dysplasia or carcinoma in situ, matched for various sexual attributes to control women, provide support for a causal relation. However, various laboratory, histopathological, and statistical problems associated with all epidemiological studies do not yet permit a firm conclusion as to the etiological role to the genital virus in cervical carcinogenesis. With the use of herpes-related cancer antigens or purified HSV-2 type-specific antigens, and with the possible development of protective HSV-2 vaccines, the application of epidemiological approaches may be necessary to provide the most finite evidence of causality.

  19. Colony Collapse Disorder: A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Evans, Jay D.; Saegerman, Claude; Mullin, Chris; Haubruge, Eric; Nguyen, Bach Kim; Frazier, Maryann; Frazier, Jim; Cox-Foster, Diana; Chen, Yanping; Underwood, Robyn; Tarpy, David R.; Pettis, Jeffery S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better characterize CCD and compare risk factor exposure between populations afflicted by and not afflicted by CCD. Methods and Principal Findings Of 61 quantified variables (including adult bee physiology, pathogen loads, and pesticide levels), no single measure emerged as a most-likely cause of CCD. Bees in CCD colonies had higher pathogen loads and were co-infected with a greater number of pathogens than control populations, suggesting either an increased exposure to pathogens or a reduced resistance of bees toward pathogens. Levels of the synthetic acaricide coumaphos (used by beekeepers to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor) were higher in control colonies than CCD-affected colonies. Conclusions/Significance This is the first comprehensive survey of CCD-affected bee populations that suggests CCD involves an interaction between pathogens and other stress factors. We present evidence that this condition is contagious or the result of exposure to a common risk factor. Potentially important areas for future hypothesis-driven research, including the possible legacy effect of mite parasitism and the role of honey bee resistance to pesticides, are highlighted. PMID:19649264

  20. Overview of risk assessment in new EPA epidemiology studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 2003, the Office of Research and Development of the US Environmental Protection Agency has conducted a series of epidemiology studies of water quality and health effects among beach goers at beaches across the United States. These studies are designed to establish associati...

  1. Incidence rate of ovarian cancer cases in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    PubMed Central

    Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Alghamdi, Mansour M; Dohal, Ahlam A; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study provides descriptive epidemiological data, such as the percentage of cases diagnosed, crude incidence rate (CIR), and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) of ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Patients and methods A retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all ovarian cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) from January 2001–December 2008 was performed. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance tests, Poisson regression, and simple linear modeling. Results A total of 991 ovarian cancer cases were recorded in the SCR from January 2001–December 2008. The region of Riyadh had the highest overall ASIR at 3.3 cases per 100,000 women, followed by the Jouf and Asir regions at 3.13 and 2.96 cases per 100,000 women. However, Hail and Jazan had the lowest rates at 1.4 and 0.6 cases per 100,000 women, respectively. Compared to Jazan, the incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases was significantly higher (P<0.001) in the Makkah region at 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.13–9.83), followed by Riyadh at 6.3 (95% CI: 4.10–9.82), and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia at 4.52 (95% CI: 2.93–6.98). The predicted annual CIR and ASIR for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia could be defined by the equations 0.9 + (0.07× years) and 1.71 + (0.09× years), respectively. Conclusion We observed a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Riyadh, Jouf, and Asir had the highest overall ASIR, while Jazan and Hail had the lowest rates. Makkah, Riyadh, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases. Further analytical studies are required to determine the potential risk factors of ovarian cancer among Saudi women. PMID:25028565

  2. An epidemiological study of technological disasters in China: 1979-2005.

    PubMed

    Chan, Emily Y Y; Hung, Kevin K C; Yue, Cai

    2011-08-01

    Although China has been known for its high frequency and human toll resulting from natural disasters, limited information is available to understand the human impact of its technological disasters (TD). This study provides a time trend analysis of the TD-induced injuries and fatalities since 1979 in mainland China. Through reviewing available academic literature and the examination of two public accessible databases, descriptive analysis of TD epidemiological profile in China was conducted by Emergency Events Database of the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters in Brussels and Energy-related Severe Accidents Database of Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland which focuses on energy-related severe accidents. Implications on health protection policy and global health were discussed.

  3. Mental Subnormality in the Community: A Clinical and Epidemiologic Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Herbert G.; And Others

    The book reports a clinical and epidemiologic study of the prevalence, distribution, and antecedents of mental subnormality in 8 to 10 year old children living in Aberdeen, Scotland (population 187,000). Utilizing three types of data (differential clinical diagnoses, biological background information, and social characteristics), the study…

  4. An epidemiological and genetic study of facial clefting in France. I. Epidemiology and frequency in relatives.

    PubMed Central

    Bonaiti, C; Briard, M L; Feingold, J; Pavy, B; Psaume, J; Migne-Tufferaud, G; Kaplan, J

    1982-01-01

    The frequencies of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL(P)) and isolated cleft palate (CP) have been estimated in France to be 0.082% and 0.035%, respectively, after exclusion of malformation syndromes. A genetic and epidemiological study has been carried out on 468 patients with CL(P) and 163 with CP. The results are given in detail and some specific points are discussed: the apparently low incidence in France, the relationship between sex ratio and abortion rates, the maternal effects, and the possibility of an association between CL(P) and CP. PMID:7200146

  5. The epidemiology of foot wounds in patients with diabetes: a description of 600 consecutive patients in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Altindas, Muzaffer; Kilic, Ali; Cinar, Can; Bingol, Ugur Anil; Ozturk, Guncel

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies describing demographic, clinical, and surgical characteristics of diabetic foot wounds are lacking in Turkey. To further describe the epidemiology of diabetic foot wounds in Turkey, we developed an evaluation form and performed a retrospective cohort study that entailed 600 diabetic patients who were admitted to the hospital for treatment of their foot wound(s). The mean age of the cohort was 62.3 ± 10.3 (range 23-92) years, and their mean duration of diabetes was 17.4 ± 7.4 years. Males accounted for 68.17% of the cohort, and 96.83% of the cohort had type 2 diabetes. Prevalences for lower extremity arterial pulses and peripheral neuropathy, as well as the location, depth, microbiology, and surgical treatment of the pedal wounds are also presented. In conclusion, diabetic foot wounds are common in Turkey, and the morbidity associated with these lesions is generally substantial. Although our investigation aimed primarily at describing risk factors associated with diabetic foot wounds, we believe that the findings of this investigation can be used in the development of prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials that focus on foot wounds in diabetic patients in Turkey, and may be useful to investigators in other parts of the world.

  6. A Descriptive Epidemiology of Screen-Based Media Use in Youth: A Review and Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Simon J.; Gorely, Trish; Biddle, Stuart J. H.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to (i) estimate the prevalence and dose of television (TV) viewing, video game playing and computer use, and (ii) assess age-related and (iii) secular trends in TV viewing among youth ([less than or equal] 18 yr). Ninety studies published in English language journals between 1949 and 2004 were included,…

  7. Descriptive Epidemiology of Bipolar I Disorder Among United States Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    course that is characterized by the occurrence of one or more manic or mixed episodes. Often individuals have also had one or more major depressive ...8217**"’ studies reported that women are more likely to pres- ent with an initial depressive episode,’*^ exhibit more depres- sive and less manic ...examined incidence rates of adult onset bipolar I disorder manic , depressed , mixed, and NOS (not otherwise specified), and compared incidence rates

  8. [Ecological studies in environmental health: Beyond epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Becerra, Luis C; Pinzón-Flórez, Carlos E; Idrovo, Álvaro J

    2015-08-01

    Ecological studies provide important and frequent sources of evidence of environmental health, since their unit of analysis is populations. This review summarizes the foundations of ecological studies with the premise that they can be performed using quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods. It presents the logic behind their design, their role in exploring causality, the variables and categories of analysis and the design principles and techniques used to collect data. Examples of ecological studies performed in Latin America are then presented, as well as some common methodological problems and options to address them. Lastly, the relevance of quantitative and qualitative ecological studies to environmental health as a way to overcome the dominance of conceptual and methodological individualism is highlighted, though ecological studies alone do not suffice for studying population health.

  9. A Descriptive Analysis of Oral Health Systematic Reviews Published 1991–2012: Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Saltaji, Humam; Cummings, Greta G.; Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Major, Michael P.; Amin, Maryam; Major, Paul W.; Hartling, Lisa; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify all systematic reviews (SRs) published in the domain of oral health research and describe them in terms of their epidemiological and descriptive characteristics. Design Cross sectional, descriptive study. Methods An electronic search of seven databases was performed from inception through May 2012; bibliographies of relevant publications were also reviewed. Studies were considered for inclusion if they were oral health SRs defined as therapeutic or non-therapeutic investigations that studied a topic or an intervention related to dental, oral or craniofacial diseases/disorders. Data were extracted from all the SRs based on a number of epidemiological and descriptive characteristics. Data were analysed descriptively for all the SRs, within each of the nine dental specialities, and for Cochrane and non-Cochrane SRs separately. Results 1,188 oral health (126 Cochrane and 1062 non-Cochrane) SRs published from 1991 through May 2012 were identified, encompassing the nine dental specialties. Over half (n = 676; 56.9%) of the SRs were published in specialty oral health journals, with almost all (n = 1,178; 99.2%) of the SRs published in English and almost none of the non-Cochrane SRs (n = 11; 0.9%) consisting of updates of previously published SRs. 75.3% of the SRs were categorized as therapeutic, with 64.5% examining non-drug interventions, while approximately half (n = 150/294; 51%) of the non-therapeutic SRs were classified as epidemiological SRs. The SRs included a median of 15 studies, with a meta-analysis conducted in 43.6%, in which a median of 9 studies/1 randomized trial were included in the largest meta-analysis conducted. Funding was received for 25.1% of the SRs, including nearly three-quarters (n = 96; 76.2%) of the Cochrane SRs. Conclusion Epidemiological and descriptive characteristics of the 1,188 oral health SRs varied across the nine dental specialties and by SR category (Cochrane vs. non-Cochrane). There is a

  10. Descriptive epidemiology of prenatal and perinatal risk factors in a Chinese population with reading disorder

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lingfei; Wang, Jia; Shao, Shanshan; Luo, Xiu; Kong, Rui; Zhang, Xiaohui; Song, Ranran

    2016-01-01

    Several prenatal and perinatal factors have been found to be associated with developmental dyslexia (reading disorder) in alphabetic language. Given the absence of relevant studies of Chinese children, the present study tries to investigate these risk factors. A total of 45,850 students were recruited from grades three to six, from seven cities of Hubei province. Dyslexia in Chinese was diagnosed based on children’s clinical symptoms. The clinical symptoms of children’s reading performance were assessed by Dyslexia Checklist for Chinese Children (DCCC) and Pupil Rating Scale Revised Screening for Learning Disabilities (PRS) which were completed by parent/guardian and header teacher respectively. Chinese language exam was used to screen children with poor reading capacity. Questionnaires about prenatal and perinatal factors were completed by parent or guardian. Among the 34,748 eligible participants, 1,200 (3.45%) were diagnosed with dyslexia in Chinese. More boys suffered from dyslexia than the girls and the gender ratio was 3:1. Family history of neuropsychiatric diseases, maternal infectious diseases, difficult vaginal delivery, preterm birth, and neonatal asphyxia were found to increase the risk of developmental dyslexia in China. Closer longitudinal developmental monitoring and preventive measures should be taken for high risk children. PMID:27819320

  11. Defining the Long-Toss: A Professional Baseball Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Austin V.; Mannava, Sandeep; Patel, Anita; Marquez-Lara, Alejandro; Freehill, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite widespread use of long-toss throwing in baseball as a component of arm conditioning, interval throwing programs, and rehabilitation, long-toss distance and throwing mechanics remain controversial. Purpose: To ascertain the perceived definition of long-toss throwing through a survey of professional pitchers, pitching coaches (PCs), and certified athletic trainers (ATCs) associated with Major League Baseball. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Pitchers, PCs, and ATCs associated with 5 Major League Baseball organizations completed an anonymous survey that collected demographic data, personal use of long-toss throwing, and their perception of the distance and throwing mechanics that comprised long-toss. Results: A total of 321 surveys were completed by 271 pitchers, 19 PCs, and 31 ATCs. For all respondents, the mean distance considered as long-toss was 175 ft (95% CI, 170-181 ft). Respondents categorized the throwing mechanics of long-toss, with 36% reporting throwing “on a line” and 70% reporting long-toss as “not on a line.” Of those throwing “on a line,” 28% reported using crow-hop footwork while 60% used crow-hop footwork when throwing “not on a line.” Interpretation of long-toss distance significantly varied by position: pitchers, 177 ft (95% CI, 171-183 ft); PCs, 177 ft (95% CI, 155-200 ft); and ATCs, 157 ft (95% CI, 144-169 ft) (P = .048). When asked when long-toss throwing is used, pitchers reported using it more frequently in preseason (P = .007), during the season (P = .015), and in the off-season (P = .002) compared with that by ATCs. Functional goals for long-toss throwing demonstrated that pitchers and PCs use long-toss for shoulder stretching more frequently than ATCs (P < .001 and P = .026, respectively). ATCs used long-toss more than pitchers for interval throwing programs (P < .001). Conclusion: The definition varies for long-toss throwing distance and throwing mechanics. Pitchers and PCs believe

  12. Molecular Epidemiology of Agents of Human Chromoblastomycosis in Brazil with the Description of Two Novel Species

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Renata R.; Vicente, Vania A.; de Azevedo, Conceição M. P. S.; Salgado, Claudio G.; da Silva, Moises B.; Queiroz-Telles, Flávio; Marques, Sirlei G.; Santos, Daniel W. C. L.; de Andrade, Tania S.; Takagi, Elizabeth H.; Cruz, Katia S.; Fornari, Gheniffer; Hahn, Rosane C.; Scroferneker, Maria L.; Caligine, Rachel B.; Ramirez-Castrillon, Mauricio; de Araújo, Daniella P.; Heidrich, Daiane; Colombo, Arnaldo L.; de Hoog, G. S.

    2016-01-01

    The human mutilating disease chromoblastomycosis is caused by melanized members of the order Chaetothyriales. To assess population diversity among 123 clinical strains of agents of the disease in Brazil we applied sequencing of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region, and partial cell division cycle and β-tubulin genes. Strains studied were limited to three clusters divided over the single family Herpotrichiellaceae known to comprise agents of the disease. A Fonsecaea cluster contained the most important agents, among which F. pedrosoi was prevalent with 80% of the total set of strains, followed by 13% for F. monophora, 3% for F. nubica, and a single isolate of F. pugnacius. Additional agents, among which two novel species, were located among members of the genus Rhinocladiella and Cyphellophora, with frequencies of 3% and 1%, respectively. PMID:27893750

  13. Epidemiological and clinical description of the top three reportable parasitic diseases in a Canadian community.

    PubMed

    Ravel, A; Nesbitt, A; Pintar, K; Macarthur, A; Wang, H-L; Marshall, B; Pollari, F

    2013-02-01

    This study provides a comprehensive epidemio-clinical picture of sporadic, domestically acquired cases of amoebiasis, cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis in one Canadian community based on patient symptom, outcome and exposure data from an enhanced surveillance system. It yields valuable data for estimating the burden of those diseases including the proportion of bloody diarrhoea, hospitalization, and disease duration. Age differences were observed by incidence rate and for some clinical information and exposures to risk factors. For each of the three diseases, the animal/environment-to-person route was the most common possible main transmission route according to the exposure reported, whereas the person-to-person route was the least common. Exposure was higher for the 10-24 years age group of giardiasis cases for swimming in recreational waters (79%) and attending a barbeque (50%). Therefore, comparisons between groups of cases or extrapolation of results when estimating the burden of illness should be adjusted for age.

  14. Cancer Mortality in the Mississippi Delta Region: Descriptive Epidemiology and Needed Future Research and Interventions.

    PubMed

    Zahnd, Whitney E; Jenkins, Wiley D; Mueller-Luckey, Georgia S

    2017-01-01

    The Delta Region is a federally designated, socioeconomically disadvantaged region of the United States covering 252 counties in eight states along the Mississippi River. The objective of this study is to describe the Region's cancer mortality burden. National Center for Health Statistics data were used to calculate age-adjusted mortality rates and rate ratios for the Delta Region for all cancers, lung, colorectal, breast (female), cervical, and prostate cancers. Rates were also calculated for comparison groups, and were stratified by gender, race, rurality, and socioeconomic status. The all-cancer mortality rate in the Delta Region was higher than all comparison groups across all stratifications. Higher rates were seen for cervical and colorectal cancer across comparison groups and stratifications. Delta Blacks had higher rates than Whites, and rural Delta residents had higher rates than their urban peers for most cancers. Further research and interventions should be conducted to elucidate and reduce these disparities.

  15. Communication to workers of epidemiology study results: an industry approach.

    PubMed

    Collins, J J; Conner, P R

    1994-02-01

    Communication to workers of epidemiology study results is gaining increasing emphasis because of the need to notify study subjects and the responsibility to warn workers of potential workplace hazards. Industry has a unique responsibility in this regard both for ethical reasons and for gains in improving workers' knowledge of workplace hazards. We describe our recent efforts to notify 9648 workers potentially interested in the results of an epidemiology study that found increased rates for cancer. We found that both study and nonstudy subjects were equally interested the findings. We conclude that most workers view the notification as evidence of the company's commitment to maintain a safe workplace, and are pleased that the company undertook the study and reported the results to them. Unfavorable comments comprised less than 1% of the responses.

  16. Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: cohort description and related epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Tekkel, Mare; Veidebaum, Toomas; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Bigbee, William L; Hartshorne, Michael F; Inskip, Peter D; Boice, John D

    2015-12-01

    The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers was one of the first investigations to evaluate the possible health consequences of working in the Chernobyl area (the 30 km exclusion zone and/or adjacent territories) after the 1986 reactor accident. The cohort consists of 4831 men who were dispatched in 1986-1991 for tasks involving decontamination, construction of buildings, transport, radiation measurement, guard duty or other activities. By 31 December 2012, the follow-up of the cohort yielded 102 158 person-years of observation. Exposure and health data were collected by postal questionnaires, biodosimetry evaluations, thyroid screenings, and record-linkages with cancer, causes of death and health insurance reimbursement registers and databases. These data cover socio-demographic factors, employment history, aspects of health behaviour, medical history, work and living conditions in the Chernobyl area, biomarkers of exposure, cancer and non-cancer disease occurrence and causes of death. Cancer incidence data were obtained for 1986-2008, mortality data for 1986-2011 and non-cancer morbidity data for 2004-2012. Although the cohort is relatively small, it has been extensively examined and benefited from comprehensive nationwide population and health registers. The major finding was an increased risk of suicide. Thyroid examinations did not reveal an association with thyroid nodular disease and radiation dose, but did indicate the importance of accounting for screening when making comparisons with unscreened populations. No risk of leukaemia was observed and risks higher than 2.5-fold could be excluded with 95% confidence. Biodosimetry included GPA analyses and chromosomal translocation analyses and indicated that the Estonian cleanup workers experienced a relatively low mean exposure of the order of 0.1 Gy. One value of the Estonian study is in the methodologic processes brought to bear in addressing possible health effects from the Chernobyl accident. Twenty

  17. 7 CFR 1737.70 - Description of feasibility study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Description of feasibility study. 1737.70 Section... TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOANS Feasibility Determination Procedures § 1737.70 Description of feasibility study. (a) In connection with each loan RUS shall prepare a feasibility study that includes sections on consolidated...

  18. 7 CFR 1737.70 - Description of feasibility study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Description of feasibility study. 1737.70 Section... TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOANS Feasibility Determination Procedures § 1737.70 Description of feasibility study. (a) In connection with each loan RUS shall prepare a feasibility study that includes sections on consolidated...

  19. 7 CFR 1737.70 - Description of feasibility study

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Description of feasibility study 1737.70 Section 1737... TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOANS Feasibility Determination Procedures § 1737.70 Description of feasibility study (a) In connection with each loan RUS shall prepare a feasibility study that includes sections on consolidated...

  20. 7 CFR 1737.70 - Description of feasibility study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Description of feasibility study. 1737.70 Section... TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOANS Feasibility Determination Procedures § 1737.70 Description of feasibility study. (a) In connection with each loan RUS shall prepare a feasibility study that includes sections on consolidated...

  1. 7 CFR 1737.70 - Description of feasibility study

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Description of feasibility study 1737.70 Section 1737... TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOANS Feasibility Determination Procedures § 1737.70 Description of feasibility study (a) In connection with each loan RUS shall prepare a feasibility study that includes sections on consolidated...

  2. Children’s sedentary behaviour: descriptive epidemiology and associations with objectively-measured sedentary time

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the patterning and socio-demographic distribution of multiple sedentary behaviours in children. The aims of this study were to: 1) describe the leisure-time sedentary behaviour of 9–10 year old British children, and 2) establish associations with objectively-measured sedentary time. Methods Cross-sectional analysis in the SPEEDY study (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people) (N=1513, 44.3% boys). Twelve leisure-time sedentary behaviours were assessed by questionnaire. Objectively-measured leisure-time sedentary time (Actigraph GT1M, <100 counts/minute) was assessed over 7 days. Differences by sex and socioeconomic status (SES) in self-reported sedentary behaviours were tested using Kruskal-Wallis tests. The association between objectively-measured sedentary time and the separate sedentary behaviours (continuous (minutes) and categorised into 'none’ 'low’ or 'high’ participation) was assessed using multi-level linear regression. Results Sex differences were observed for time spent in most sedentary behaviours (all p ≤ 0.02), except computer use. Girls spent more time in combined non-screen sedentary behaviour (median, interquartile range: girls: 770.0 minutes, 390.0-1230.0; boys: 725.0, 365.0 - 1182.5; p = 0.003), whereas boys spent more time in screen-based behaviours (girls: 540.0, 273.0 - 1050.0; boys: 885.0, 502.5 - 1665.0; p < 0.001). Time spent in five non-screen behaviours differed by SES, with higher values in those of higher SES (all p ≤ 0.001). Regression analyses with continuous exposures indicated that reading (β = 0.1, p < 0.001) and watching television (β = 0.04, p < 0.01) were positively associated with objectively-measured sedentary time, whilst playing board games (β = -0.12, p < 0.05) was negatively associated. Analysed in categorical form, sitting and talking (vs. none: 'low’ β = 26.1,ns

  3. Driver licensing: descriptive epidemiology of a social determinant of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Kate; Clapham, Kathleen; Helps, Yvonne; Senserrick, Teresa; Byrne, Jake; Martiniuk, Alexandra; Daniels, John; Harrison, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Education, employment and equitable access to services are commonly accepted as important underlying social determinants of health. For most Australians, access to health, education and other services is facilitated by private transport and a driver licence. This study aimed to examine licensing rates and predictors of licensing in a sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, as these have previously been poorly described. Methods: Interviewer‐administered surveys were conducted with 625 people 16 years or older in four Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services in New South Wales and South Australia over a two‐week period in 2012–2013. Results: Licensing rates varied from 51% to 77% by site. Compared to not having a licence, having a driver licence was significantly associated with higher odds of full‐time employment (adjusted OR 4.0, 95%CI 2.5–6.3) and educational attainment (adjusted OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.2–2.8 for trade or certificate; adjusted OR 4.0, 95%CI 1.6–9.5 for degree qualification). Conclusions: Variation in driver licensing rates suggests different yet pervasive barriers to access. There is a strong association between driver licensing, education and employment. Implications: Licensing inequality has far‐reaching impacts on the broader health and wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, reinforcing the need for appropriate and accessible pathways to achieving and maintaining driver licensing. PMID:27481274

  4. Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) Study Design

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Elizabeth A.; Hokanson, John E.; Murphy, James R.; Make, Barry; Lynch, David A.; Beaty, Terri H.; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James D.

    2010-01-01

    Background COPDGeneis a multicenter observational study designed to identify genetic factors associated with COPD. It will also characterize chest CT phenotypes in COPD subjects, including assessment of emphysema, gas trapping, and airway wall thickening. Finally, subtypes of COPD based on these phenotypes will be used in a comprehensive genome-wide study to identify COPD susceptibility genes. Methods/Results COPDGene will enroll 10,000 smokers with and without COPD across the GOLD stages. Both Non-Hispanic white and African-American subjects are included in the cohort. Inspiratory and expiratory chest CT scans will be obtained on all participants. In addition to the cross-sectional enrollment process, these subjects will be followed regularly for longitudinal studies. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) will be done on an initial group of 4000 subjects to identify genetic variants associated with case-control status and several quantitative phenotypes related to COPD. The initial findings will be verified in an additional 2000 COPD cases and 2000 smoking control subjects, and further validation association studies will be carried out. Conclusions COPDGene will provide important new information about genetic factors in COPD, and will characterize the disease process using high resolution CT scans. Understanding genetic factors and CT phenotypes that define COPD will potentially permit earlier diagnosis of this disease and may lead to the development of treatments to modify progression. PMID:20214461

  5. The incidence rate of corpus uteri cancer among females in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    PubMed Central

    Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; El-Sheemy, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study reviews the epidemiological data on corpus uteri cancer among Saudi women, including its frequency, crude incidence rate, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), adjusted by region and year of diagnosis. Methods A retrospective, descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted of all the corpus uteri cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and a simple linear model. Results A total of 1,060 corpus uteri cancer cases were included. Women aged 60–74 years of age were most affected by the disease. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 4.4 cases per 100,000 female patients, followed by the eastern region, at 4.2, and Makkah, at 3.7. Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest average ASIRs, ranging from 0.8 to 1.4. A Poisson regression model using Jazan as the reference revealed that the corpus uteri cancer incidence rate ratio was significantly higher for the regions of Makkah, at 16.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–23.0), followed by Riyadh, at 16.0 times (95% CI: 9.0–22.0), and the eastern region, at 9.9 times (95% CI: 5.6–17.6). The northern region experienced the highest changes in ASIRs of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients between 2001 and 2008. Conclusion There was a slight increase in the crude incidence rates and ASIRs for corpus uteri cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Older Saudi women were most affected by the disease. Riyadh, the eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall disease ASIRs and incidence rate ratios, while Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest rates. Finally, the northern region experienced the greatest changes in ASIR during the studied period. Further analytical studies are necessary to determine potential risk factors of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi

  6. CFS: A Review of Epidemiology and Natural History Studies

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Porter, Nicole; Brown, Molly; Anderson, Valerie; Brown, Abigail; Hunnell, Jessica; Lerch, Athena

    2010-01-01

    Almost all studies with samples of patients who have chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have relied on referrals from physicians or health facilities. Under-served minorities, who not only tend to manifest higher levels of chronic illness, but are also less likely to seek and receive adequate medical care, have not been represented in these studies (1). This may have contributed to an under-estimation of CFS among minority groups (2). Few studies have derived their samples from socioeconomically and ethnically diverse community-based populations. A technical report issued by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (3) concluded that estimating rates of recovery/improvement or relapse from CFS are not possible because there are so few natural history studies and those that are available have involved selected referral populations. This paper provides a review of epidemiologic studies of CFS followed by a discussion of diagnostic issues and risk factors for the illness. Findings from Jason et al.’s (4) epidemiologic study in a multi-ethnic, economically diverse urban area are highlighted as this research group is now examining the natural course of CFS over the past 10 years with this community-based sample. The current study will add to current epidemiologic and risk factors research by assessing the course, progression, and risk factors of CFS among a demographically diverse sample of participants who are unbiased by illness, help-seeking behaviors, or differential access to the health care system. PMID:21243091

  7. Doses for post-Chernobyl epidemiological studies: are they reliable?

    PubMed

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Chumak, Vadim; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bouville, André

    2016-09-01

    On 26 April 2016, thirty years will have elapsed since the occurrence of the Chernobyl accident, which has so far been the most severe in the history of the nuclear reactor industry. Numerous epidemiological studies were conducted to evaluate the possible health consequences of the accident. Since the credibility of the association between the radiation exposure and health outcome is highly dependent on the adequacy of the dosimetric quantities used in these studies, this paper makes an effort to overview the methods used to estimate individual doses and the associated uncertainties in the main analytical epidemiological studies (i.e. cohort or case-control) related to the Chernobyl accident. Based on the thorough analysis and comparison with other radiation studies, the authors conclude that individual doses for the Chernobyl analytical epidemiological studies have been calculated with a relatively high degree of reliability and well-characterized uncertainties, and that they compare favorably with many other non-Chernobyl studies. The major strengths of the Chernobyl studies are: (1) they are grounded on a large number of measurements, either performed on humans or made in the environment; and (2) extensive effort has been invested to evaluate the uncertainties associated with the dose estimates. Nevertheless, gaps in the methodology are identified and suggestions for the possible improvement of the current dose estimates are made.

  8. A Molecular Epidemiologic Case-Case Study of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    AD__ _ _ _ Award Number: DAMD17-98-1-8471 TITLE: A Molecular Epidemiologic Case-Case Study of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Sara S. Strom...Molecular Epidmeiologic Case-Case Study of Prostate DAMD17-98-1-8471 Cancer Susceptibility 6. AUTHOR(S) Sara S. Strom, Ph.D. Sue-Hwa Lin 7. PERFORMING...DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) Although prostate cancer is the most common cancer in

  9. Epidemiologic studies of isoflavones & mammographic density.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Verheus, Martijn; Tice, Jeffrey A

    2010-01-01

    Isoflavones, phytoestrogens in soy beans with estrogen-like properties, have been examined for their cancer protective effects. Mammographic density is a strong predictor of breast cancer. This review summarizes studies that have examined the association between isoflavones and breast density. Observational investigations in Hawaii and Singapore suggest slightly lower breast density among women of Asian descent with regular soy intake, but two larger studies from Japan and Singapore did not observe a protective effect. The findings from seven randomized trials with primarily Caucasian women indicate that soy or isoflavones do not modify mammographic density. Soy foods and isoflavone supplements within a nutritional range do not appear to modify breast cancer risk as assessed by mammographic density.

  10. Pediatric burns in Mosul: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Al-Zacko, S M; Zubeer, H G; Mohammad, A S

    2014-06-30

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the characteristics and case fatality rate of pediatric burns in Mosul, Iraq. The study group was burn patients aged 14 years and under who were admitted to the Burns Unit in Al-Jamhoori Teaching Hospital from the 1(st) of March 2011 to the 1(st) of March 2012. Of the 459 emergency burn admissions, 209 (45.53%) were pediatric patients up to 14 years of age, with a mean age of 4.73±3.61 years. Scald was the most common type of burn and occurred mainly in domestic settings. The mean total body surface area (TBSA) burned was 19.73±17.15%. Thirty-five patients died during the study period, giving a case fatality rate of 16.75%. The maximum number of deaths occurred in the 2-4 years age group. The case fatality rate was high in patients having more than 40% TBSA involvement. Flame burns were significantly more fatal than scalds, with a fatality rate of 35.35% and 12.05% respectively; (p=0.0001). In conclusion, given that most pediatric burn accidents occur at home, burn prevention should be focused on improving living conditions and on providing an educational program for parents.

  11. Operational definitions of asthma in recent epidemiological studies are inconsistent

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The best combination of questions to define asthma in epidemiological asthma studies is not known. We summarized the operational definitions of asthma used in prevalence studies and empirically assess how asthma prevalence estimates vary depending on the definition used. Methods We searched the Thomson Reuters ISI Web of knowledge and included (1) cross-sectional studies (2) on asthma prevalence (3) conducted in the general population and (4) containing an explicit definition of asthma. The search was limited to the 100 most-cited papers or published since January 2010. For each paper, we recorded the asthma definition used and other variables. Then we applied the definitions to the data of the Portuguese National Asthma survey (INAsma) and of the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) computing asthma prevalence estimates for the different definitions. Results Of 1738 papers retrieved, 117 were included for analysis. Lifetime asthma, diagnosed asthma and current asthma were defined in 8, 12 and 29 different ways, respectively. By applying definitions of current asthma on INAsma and NHANES data, the prevalence ranged between 5.3%-24.4% and 1.1%-17.2%, respectively. Conclusions There is considerable heterogeneity in the definitions of asthma used in epidemiological studies leading to highly variable estimates of asthma prevalence. Studies to inform a standardized operational definition are needed. Meanwhile, we propose a set of questions to be reported when defining asthma in epidemiological studies. PMID:25136441

  12. Overview of Recent Marine and Freshwater Recreational Epidemiology Studies and Their Findings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Overview of Recent Marine and Freshwater Recreational Epidemiology Studies and Their Findings Timothy J. Wade, Elizabeth A. Sams, Rich Haugland, Alfred P. Dufour The National Epidemiologic and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water Study was conducted to address aspects...

  13. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF CHILDREN DIAPHYSEAL FEMORAL FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Cassiano Ricardo; Traldi, Eduardo Franceschini; Posser, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the personal, fracture, treatment and complication characteristics among patients with pediatric femoral shaft fractures attended at the pediatric orthopedic service of the Joana de Gusmão Children's Hospital. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study on a population consisting of patients with femoral shaft fractures, aged between birth and 14 years and 11 months, who were divided into four age groups. Information was obtained from medical records and was transferred to a survey questionnaire to present personal, fracture, treatment and complication variables. Results: The study population consisted of 96 patients. Their mean age was 6.8 years. The cases were predominantly among males, comprising closed fractures on the right side, in the middle third with a single line. Regarding fracture etiology, traffic accidents predominated overall in the sample. Most of the patients (74 to 77.1%) presented femoral fractures as their only injury. Conservative treatment predominated in the group younger than six years of age, and surgical treatment in the group aged 6 to 14 years and 11 months. The complications observed until bone union were: discrepancy, infection and movement limitation. The mean time taken for consolidation was 9.6 ± 2.4 weeks, varying with age. Conclusion: The features of these fractures were similar to those described in the literature and the treatment used showed good results. The Joana de Gusmão Children's Hospital has used the treatment proposed in the literature for pediatric femoral shaft fractures. PMID:27042619

  14. MIH: epidemiologic clinic study in paediatric patient

    PubMed Central

    CONDÒ, R.; PERUGIA, C.; MATURO, P.; DOCIMO, R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) is a qualitative and quantitative defect of the enamel structure of the first permanent molars, which may vary from 1 to 4 with involvement of maxillary and jaw permanent incisors. Aim. Aim of this study is that to evaluate, among 1500 paediatric patients chosen at random aged between 0 and 14 years, afferent by the Paediatric Dentistry of the Azienda Ospedialiera Policlinico Tor Vergata of Rome from 1996 to 2011, the incidents and the prevalence of the MIH distribution, and furthermore to ascertain the possible relationship with the data described in the literature. Results and discussion. From the sample of 1500 paediatric patients, the number of those affections from MIH has turned out to be pairs to 110 (7.3%) aged between 4 and 15 years, and an average age equal to 9.7. The incidence of the hypoplastic defects is greater in the elements of the permanents series in which the functional class mainly interested is that of the first molars, with a percentage of 39.8%. Regarding the elements of the deciduous series affections from hypoplasia, they turn out to be in all in number of 20 represented in 80% of the cases from the seconds molars while in the remaining 20% of the cases the items involved are the central incisors. About the percentage of elements involved in the MIH: the molars, involved with a frequency of 56%, turn out to be more hit regarding incisors (44%). As reported in the literature, it can be asserted that the MIH can hit in equal measure both the male sex that feminine one. Conclusions. MIH represents a condition quite frequent in the paediatric population. In managing this anomaly takes an essential role in the early diagnosis and in the differential one. The study done underlined the importance of a correct application of the therapeutic protocol which, starting from a careful diagnosis and articulating themselves in the execution of preventive treatments and in severe cases restorative and

  15. An epidemiologic study of gypsy moth rash.

    PubMed

    Tuthill, R W; Canada, A T; Wilcock, K; Etkind, P H; O'Dell, T M; Shama, S K

    1984-08-01

    In 1981, outbreaks of itchy skin rashes were reported accompanying the heavy infestation of gypsy moths (GM) in the Northeastern United States. The rash problem was widespread and a considerable public annoyance. In the spring of 1982, during the period of greatest contact with the caterpillars, a telephone survey was carried out in a highly infested community (HI) and a minimally infested community (LO). Information was collected from 1,000 persons, representing more than 90 per cent of those selected for study. The one-week risk of rash was 10.4 per cent in the HI area and 1.6 per cent in the LO area, for a risk ratio (RR) of 6.5. The occurrence of rash was strongly related to a history of having had a rash in the previous year or having had a caterpillar crawl on the affected area. The combination of both factors additively increased the risk of rash. Hay fever and hanging the wash outside were other related variables. History of allergies other than hay fever since childhood and the use of insecticides were unrelated to rash occurrence.

  16. Epidemiology of participation: an Australian community study

    PubMed Central

    Baum, F.; Bush, R.; Modra, C.; Murray, C.; Cox, E.; Alexander, K.; Potter, R.

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To determine the levels of participation in social and civic community life in a metropolitan region, and to assess differential levels of participation according to demographic, socioeonomic and health status. To contribute to policy debates on community participation, social capital and health using these empirical data.
DESIGN—Cross sectional, postal, self completed survey on health and participation.
SETTING—Random sample of the population from the western suburbs of Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia, a population of approximately 210 000.
PARTICIPANTS—2542 respondents from a sample of 4000 people aged 18 years and over who were registered on the electoral roll.
MAIN RESULTS—The response rate to the survey was 63.6% (n=2542). Six indices of participation, on range of social and civic activities, with a number of items in each, were created. Levels of participation were highest in the informal social activities index (46.7-83.7% for individual items), and lowest in the index of civic activities of a collective nature (2.4-5.9% for individual items). Low levels of involvement in social and civic activities were reported more frequently by people of low income and low education levels.
CONCLUSIONS—Levels of participation in social and civic community life in an urban setting are significantly influenced by individual socioeconomic status, health and other demographic characteristics. An understanding of the pattern of participation is important to inform social and health policy making. Increasing levels of participation will reduce social exclusion and is likely to improve the overall quality of community life.


Keywords: community participation; social capital; health promotion PMID:10818116

  17. Epidemiological study on feline gastric Helicobacter spp. in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kubota-Aizawa, Sanae; Ohno, Koichi; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Nakashima, Ko; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Chambers, James K; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Mimuro, Hitomi; Watanabe, Takayasu; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2017-03-26

    Epidemiological and pathological studies on Helicobacter spp. in feline stomachs in Japan were conducted using genus- and species-specific (H. felis, H. bizzozeronii, H. heilmannii sensu stricto[s.s.] and H. pylori) polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), ureAB gene sequencing and histopathology. PCR results showed that 28 of 56 cats were infected with Helicobacter spp., and H. heilmannii s.s. was the most prevalent species by both PCR (28/28) and ureAB gene sequencing (26/28). Some of the sequences showed high similarities with those from human patients with gastric diseases (99%). There were no significant differences between Helicobacter spp.-positive and -negative cats in the severity of chronic gastritis (P=0.69). This is the first extensive epidemiological study on feline gastric Helicobacter spp. in Japan.

  18. A molecular epidemiological study of rabies in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Nadin-Davis, Susan A; Velez, Jafet; Malaga, Carlos; Wandeler, Alexander I

    2008-01-01

    The mongoose is the principal reservoir for rabies on the island of Puerto Rico. This report describes a molecular epidemiological study of representative rabies viruses recovered from the island in 1997. Two closely related but distinct variants circulating in regionally localised parts of the island were identified. The lack of a monophyletic relationship of these viruses suggests that two independent incursions of rabies onto the island have occurred. Both of these Puerto Rican variants were closely related to a variant, known as the north central skunk strain, currently circulating in North American skunk populations and all are members of the cosmopolitan rabies lineage spread during the colonial period. However, the Puerto Rican viruses are clearly distinct from those presently circulating in mongooses in Cuba and which are epidemiologically closely linked to the Mexican dog rabies virus. This study clearly establishes the distinct origins of the rabies viruses now circulating on these two Caribbean islands.

  19. Epidemiological aspects of studying work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Tim

    2011-02-01

    There are many challenges to conducting valid epidemiological research of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and interpreting reports describing the results. In particular, these concern the basic study design, selection of subjects, measurement of exposure and outcome, control of confounding and the limitations of workers' compensation data systems. Researchers and people interested in the research results need to be aware of the major potential problems and pay careful attention to them when designing, conducting and using the results of such research.

  20. Biologically based epidemiological studies of electric power and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.G.

    1993-12-01

    Use of electricity is a hallmark of the industrialization process, but there has been no suspicion that electricity could increase the risk of cancer. Recently, however, a number of epidemiologic studies have suggested that electromagnetic fields (EMF) may do just that. Although few cancer experiments have been done yet, there are a number of biological effects of EMF reported in the literature that might provide bases for designing cancer experiments and epidemiologic studies. These include effects of EMF on: (a) DNA transcription and translation, (b) calcium balance in cells, and (c) pineal production of melatonin. Alterations in DNA transcription and translation could have pleiotropic effects. Disruption of calcium homeostasis has many implications including oncogene activation, promotional activity via protein kinases and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), and increasing oxidative stress. Reduction of melatonin suggests a possible increased risk of cancers of hormone-dependent tissues such as breast and prostate. The idea that a cancer-causing agent must either be an initiator or a promoter should be discarded; indeed, the phenomenologic meaning of these two terms has become confused with imputed mechanistic necessity in recent years. Agents that affect division of normal cells or of fully transformed cells can play an important role in clinical cancer development quite apart from initiation or promotion. Epidemiologic studies of EMF and cancer should attempt to take account of other products of electric power (e.g., light at night) or factors associated with occupational EMF exposure (e.g., toxic chemicals) that may increase cancer risk and therefore act as cofactors or confounders. Epidemiology and laboratory studies should act synergistically in determining if there is a problem and identifying mitigation strategies if needed. 84 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Colorectal Cancer Epidemiology in the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Giovannucci, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) to identifying risk and protective factors for colorectal adenomas and colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods. We performed a narrative review of the publications using the NHS between 1976 and 2016. Results. Existing epidemiological studies using the NHS have reported that red and processed meat, alcohol, smoking, and obesity were associated with an increased risk of CRC, whereas folate, calcium, vitamin D, aspirin, and physical activity were associated with decreased risk of CRC. Moreover, modifiable factors, such as physical activity, vitamin D, folate, insulin and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, and diet quality, were identified to be associated with survival among CRC patients. In recent years, molecular pathological epidemiological studies have been actively conducted and have shown refined results by molecular subtypes of CRC. Conclusions. The NHS has provided new insights into colorectal adenomas, CRC etiology, and pathogenic mechanisms. With its unique strengths, the NHS should continue to contribute to the field of CRC epidemiology and play a major role in public health. PMID:27459444

  2. Epidemiology for primary brain tumors: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Darlix, Amélie; Zouaoui, Sonia; Rigau, Valérie; Bessaoud, Faiza; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Mathieu-Daudé, Hélène; Trétarre, Brigitte; Bauchet, Fabienne; Duffau, Hugues; Taillandier, Luc; Bauchet, Luc

    2017-02-01

    Primary central nervous system tumors (PCNST) are rare tumors responsible for high mortality and morbidity. Their epidemiology is poorly known, and clinical data are scarcely analyzed at a national level. In this study, we aimed at providing descriptive epidemiological data and incidence rates for all histological subtypes of PCNST according to the WHO classification. We conducted a nationwide population-based study of all newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed PCNST in France, between 2006 and 2011. A total of 57,816 patients were included: male 46.4%, median age at diagnosis 56 years old (range 0-99). For all newly diagnosed PCNST with histological confirmation the crude incidence rate was 15.5/10(5) per 100,000 person-years. To enable international comparisons, standardized rates were calculated: 14.1/10(5) (population of reference: USA), 14.5/10(5) (population of reference: Europe), and 12.0/10(5) (population of reference: world). 23.4% of samples were cryopreserved. Resection was performed in 79.1% of cases. Results are detailed (incidence rate, sex ratio, median age at diagnosis, number of cryopreserved samples, and type of surgery) for each of the 143 histological subtypes of PCNST, including all rare tumors. For example, incidence rates (population of reference: USA) were 0.018/10(5) for anaplastic gangliogliomas, 0.054/10(5) for malignant meningiomas, and 0.036/10(5) for hemangiopericytomas. Our study is the first to describe incidence rates and epidemiological data for all histological subtypes of PCNST, including rare tumors, at a national level. Its methodology ensures the exhaustiveness of the data collection for histologically-proven cases. Histological population-based studies have many perspectives in the field of clinical epidemiology and research.

  3. Molecular epidemiological approaches to study the epidemiology of tuberculosis in low-incidence settings receiving immigrants.

    PubMed

    Garzelli, Carlo; Rindi, Laura

    2012-06-01

    Although in most wealthy western countries the total incidence of tuberculosis (TB) steadily decreased in the last decades, the proportion of cases in immigrants from high-burden TB countries generally increased and to date a large proportion of all new active cases, often exceeding 50%, occurs among foreign-born individuals. In this context, molecular typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates has significantly contributed to understand the epidemiology of TB, allowing an objective evaluation of the dynamics and the risk of TB importation and transmission within low-incidence host countries. Many molecular studies have shown that a large part of active TB cases in immigrants yield unique, unclustered DNA fingerprints; this finding reflects reactivation of remote latent infections, rather than recent TB infections, and, at the same time, indicates a low rate of disease transmission within the host country. Some studies however express more concern on the basis of higher rates of transmission within the host country with foreign-born index cases. Molecular analysis of isolates also showed that TB infections in migrants may be acquired after arrival in the host country and that TB transmission between foreign-born and autochthonous individuals may occur in both directions. Molecular typing of isolates has been also profitably used to evaluate the diffusion of M. tuberculosis strain families across different geographic areas and human populations and to monitor the diffusion of threatening strains, such as Beijing and/or (multi)drug-resistant strains. To date, based on the contribution of molecular epidemiology, it is possible to adapt or design appropriate strategies for a rational control of TB in low-incidence countries.

  4. Consistency of external dosimetry in epidemiologic studies of nuclear workers

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, J.J.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1991-10-01

    To make the best use of available epidemiologic data in assessing risks from exposure to low-level radiation, it is important that biases and uncertainties in estimated doses be understood and documented. With this understanding, analyses of mortality data can be strengthened by including the use of correction factors where judged appropriate, excluding portions of the data where uncertainty in dose estimates is judged to be very large, and conducting sensitivity analyses to examine the effect of alternative assumptions about dosimetry errors and biases on results. It is hoped that the pooling of data from several epidemiologic studies and improved understanding of dosimetry will lead to better estimates of radiation risks. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Diagnostic Studies of Temporomandibular Disorders: Challenges From an Epidemiologic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, Samuel F.; LeResche, Linda; Von Korff, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    Adequate data on the incidence, prevalence, natural history, and clinical course of temperomandibular disorders (TMD) and other chronic pain conditions are largely lacking, though the need to derive such basic data is recognized by clinicians, researchers, and public health agencies. This paper discusses challenges to the epidemiologic study of TMD diagnosis. These challenges include: • Case definition: There is currently poor agreement regarding which combinations of clinical and psychosocial findings differentially define cases of TMD • Differentiation of normal variation v pathophysiologic signs: To what extent do commonly gathered clinical measurements constitute pathophysiologic signs of TMD v reflect normal biologic variation • Reliability of clinical measurement: Factors influencing reliability of clinical signs and reliability of examiners have not been adequately assessed • Progressive v self-limiting disease activity: Do TMD subtypes represent a continuum of pathologic disease activity, or nonmutually exclusive categories describing largely symptomatic pain conditions that are selflimiting or stable. It is recommended that epidemiologic studies not be constrained by a priori definitions of TMD subtypes, but continue to gather data on clinical signs and symptoms that have theoretical and clinical relevance to mandibular dysfunction and psychosocial status. An approach is proposed for development of reliable and valid criteria of TMD subtypes suitable for epidemiologic research. PMID:2085194

  6. Epidemiological studies in incidence, prevalence, mortality, and comorbidity of the rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Sherine E; Michaud, Kaleb

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of disease in human populations. Over the past decade there has been considerable progress in our understanding of the fundamental descriptive epidemiology (levels of disease frequency: incidence and prevalence, comorbidity, mortality, trends over time, geographic distributions, and clinical characteristics) of the rheumatic diseases. This progress is reviewed for the following major rheumatic diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA), juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, giant cell arteritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, gout, Sjögren's syndrome, and ankylosing spondylitis. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of the incidence and prevalence of these conditions--a reflection of the impact of genetic and environmental factors. The past decade has also brought new insights regarding the comorbidity associated with rheumatic diseases. Strong evidence now shows that persons with RA are at a high risk for developing several comorbid disorders, that these conditions may have atypical features and thus may be difficult to diagnose, and that persons with RA experience poorer outcomes after comorbidity compared with the general population. Taken together, these findings underscore the complexity of the rheumatic diseases and highlight the key role of epidemiological research in understanding these intriguing conditions.

  7. TIME-INTEGRATED EXPOSURE MEASURES TO IMPROVE THE PREDICTIVE POWER OF EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate exposure classification tools are required to link exposure with health effects in epidemiological studies. Although long-term integrated exposure measurements are a critical component of exposure assessment, the ability to include these measurements into epidemiologic...

  8. Consensus statement on assessment of waterpipe smoking in epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Maziak, Wasim; Ben Taleb, Ziyad; Jawad, Mohammed; Afifi, Rima; Nakkash, Rima; Akl, Elie A; Ward, Kenneth D; Salloum, Ramzi G; Barnett, Tracey E; Primack, Brian A; Sherman, Scott; Cobb, Caroline O; Sutfin, Erin L; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2016-05-10

    Numerous epidemiological accounts suggest that waterpipe smoking (aka hookah, shisha, narghile) has become a global phenomenon, especially among youth. The alarming spread of waterpipe and accumulating evidence of its addictive and harmful effects represent a new threat in the global fight to limit tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. In response to waterpipe's alarming trends, major public health and tobacco control organisations have started or are considering systematic collection of data about waterpipe smoking to monitor its trends and assess its harmful effects in different societies. Such plans require coordination and agreement on epidemiological measurement tools that reflect the uniqueness of this tobacco use method, and at the same time allow comparison of waterpipe trends across time and place, and with other tobacco use methods. We started a decade ago our work to develop standardised measures and definitions for the assessment of waterpipe smoking in epidemiological studies. In this communication, we try to expand and update these assessment tools in light of our increased knowledge and understanding of waterpipe use patterns, its context and marketing, as well as the need for evidence-guided policies and regulations to curb its spread. We have assembled for this purpose a group of leading waterpipe researchers worldwide, and worked through an iterative process to develop the suggested instruments and definitions based on what we know currently about the waterpipe epidemic. While the suggested measures are by no means comprehensive, we hope that they can provide the building blocks for standard and comparable surveillance of waterpipe smoking globally.

  9. Some applications of categorical data analysis to epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Grizzle, J E; Koch, G G

    1979-10-01

    Several examples of categorized data from epidemiological studies are analyzed to illustrate that more informative analysis than tests of independence can be performed by fitting models. All of the analyses fit into a unified conceptual framework that can be performed by weighted least squares. The methods presented show how to calculate point estimate of parameters, asymptotic variances, and asymptotically valid chi 2 tests. The examples presented are analysis of relative risks estimated from several 2 x 2 tables, analysis of selected features of life tables, construction of synthetic life tables from cross-sectional studies, and analysis of dose-response curves.

  10. Cohort profile: Epidemiological Clinicopathological studies in Europe (EClipSE).

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological Clinicopathological Studies in Europe (EClipSE) is the harmonization of neuropathological and longitudinal clinical data from three population-based prospective longitudinal studies of aging. The EClipSE database (Version 1.0) comprises data from the first 970 people who donated their brain at death and this number will increase. EClipSE enables sociodemographic, health, cognitive, and genetic measures collected during life to be related to neuropathology at death, testing hypotheses which require more power than has been previously possible. EClipSE aims to help throw light on relationships between biological, health and psychological factors underlying ageing and the manifestation of clinical dementia.

  11. Course Descriptions in Environmental Studies Part One: Historical Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Donald; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents descriptions (syllabi, outlines, goals) of selected environmental studies courses which approach the discipline from an historical and humanistic perspective. Areas explored in the courses include human ecology, American environmental history, environmental politics, and others. (JN)

  12. Epidemiologic studies of glyphosate and cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Mink, Pamela J; Mandel, Jack S; Sceurman, Bonnielin K; Lundin, Jessica I

    2012-08-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency and other regulatory agencies around the world have registered glyphosate as a broad-spectrum herbicide for use on multiple food and non-food use crops. Glyphosate is widely considered by regulatory authorities and scientific bodies to have no carcinogenic potential, based primarily on results of carcinogenicity studies of rats and mice. To examine potential cancer risks in humans, we reviewed the epidemiologic literature to evaluate whether exposure to glyphosate is associated causally with cancer risk in humans. We also reviewed relevant methodological and biomonitoring studies of glyphosate. Seven cohort studies and fourteen case-control studies examined the association between glyphosate and one or more cancer outcomes. Our review found no consistent pattern of positive associations indicating a causal relationship between total cancer (in adults or children) or any site-specific cancer and exposure to glyphosate. Data from biomonitoring studies underscore the importance of exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies, and indicate that studies should incorporate not only duration and frequency of pesticide use, but also type of pesticide formulation. Because generic exposure assessments likely lead to exposure misclassification, it is recommended that exposure algorithms be validated with biomonitoring data.

  13. Epidemiological studies of esophageal cancer in the era of genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, An-Hui; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Bo; He, Yi-Xuan; Fang, Ye-Xian; Yan, Yong-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal cancer (EC) caused about 395000 deaths in 2010. China has the most cases of EC and EC is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in China. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the predominant histologic type (90%-95%), while the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) remains extremely low in China. Traditional epidemiological studies have revealed that environmental carcinogens are risk factors for EC. Molecular epidemiological studies revealed that susceptibility to EC is influenced by both environmental and genetic risk factors. Of all the risk factors for EC, some are associated with the risk of ESCC and others with the risk of EAC. However, the details and mechanisms of risk factors involved in the process for EC are unclear. The advanced methods and techniques used in human genome studies bring a great opportunity for researchers to explore and identify the details of those risk factors or susceptibility genes involved in the process of EC. Human genome epidemiology is a new branch of epidemiology, which leads the epidemiology study from the molecular epidemiology era to the era of genome wide association studies (GWAS). Here we review the epidemiological studies of EC (especially ESCC) in the era of GWAS, and provide an overview of the general risk factors and those genomic variants (genes, SNPs, miRNAs, proteins) involved in the process of ESCC. PMID:25133033

  14. TCDD and cancer: A critical review of epidemiologic studies

    PubMed Central

    Boffetta, Paolo; Mundt, Kenneth A; Adami, Hans-Olov; Cole, Philip; Mandel, Jack S

    2011-01-01

    The authors reviewed the epidemiologic studies on exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and cancer risk, published since the last full-scale review made by the International Agency for Research on Cancer Monographs program in 1997. The update of a cohort of US herbicide producers generated negative results overall; the internal analysis provided evidence of an increased “all-cancer” risk in the highest exposure category, with a statistically significant exposure-response association in some of the many analyses performed.The update of a similar Dutch cohort did not confirm the previously observed association with TCDD exposure. The updated surveillance of the Seveso population provided evidence of increased all-cancer mortality 15-20 years after exposure among those living in the most contaminated area but might also reflect random variation, as overall excesses in the most recent follow-up were not observed. Corresponding data on cancer incidence offer little support to the mortality results. Updated results from cohort studies of Vietnam veterans potentially exposed to TCDD did not consistently suggest an increased risk of cancer. Results of additional, smaller studies of other occupational groups potentially exposed to TCDD, and of community-based case-control studies, did not provide consistent evidence of an increased cancer risk. In conclusion, recent epidemiological evidence falls far short of conclusively demonstrating a causal link between TCDD exposure and cancer risk in humans. The emphasis on results for overall cancer risk—rather than risk for specific neoplasms—is notjustified on epidemiologic grounds and is nota reason for ignoring the weaknesses of the available evidence. PMID:21718216

  15. The Use of Satellite Remote Sensing in Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sorek-Hamer, Meytar; Just, Allan C.; Kloog, Itai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a ubiquitous exposure linked with multiple adverse health outcomes for children and across the life course. The recent development of satellite based remote sensing models for air pollution enables the quantification of these risks and addresses many limitations of previous air pollution research strategies. We review the recent literature on the applications of satellite remote sensing in air quality research, with a focus on their use in epidemiological studies. Recent findings Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a focus of this review and a significant number of studies show that ground-level PM can be estimated from columnar AOD. Satellite measurements have been found to be an important source of data for PM model-based exposure estimates, and recently have been used in health studies to increase the spatial breadth and temporal resolution of these estimates. Summary It is suggested that satellite-based models improve our understanding of the spatial characteristics of air quality. Although the adoption of satellite-based measures of air quality in health studies is in its infancy, it is rapidly growing. Nevertheless, further investigation is still needed in order to have a better understanding of the AOD contribution to these prediction models in order to use them with higher accuracy in epidemiological studies. PMID:26859287

  16. Epidemiological findings and laboratory evaluation of sporotrichosis: a description of 103 cases in cats and dogs in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Madrid, Isabel Martins; Mattei, Antonella Souza; Fernandes, Cristina Gevehr; Nobre, Márcia de Oliveira; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo

    2012-04-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis, which affects mainly small animals, and is considered an important public health disease. This paper describes the epidemiological and laboratory characteristics of 103 clinical cases of sporotrichosis diagnosed over a 10-year period in southern Brazil. The 92 cats and 11 dogs from eight municipalities in Rio Grande do Sul State developed especially the disseminated cutaneous and fixed cutaneous forms of the disease. Respiratory signs such as sneezing, serous nasal discharge and dyspnea were found in about 57% of the animals. The detection of Sporothrix schenckii in different clinical samples showed highest isolation in testicles (46.6%), oral cavity (45.2%) and conjunctival mucosa (38.1%). A differentiated histological pattern was found between the fixed cutaneous and disseminated cutaneous (DC) manifestations of the disease; well-organized granulomas of nodular distribution and various fungal structures prevailed in the DC form in cats. Melanin detection in S. schenckii cells by the Fontana-Masson technique was positive in 45.4% of the samples. The study revealed that the State of Rio Grande do Sul is an endemic sporotrichosis area and demonstrated the possibility of involvement of other pathways in the infection and spread of the disease. In addition, it emphasized the importance of laboratory tests for mycosis confirmation, especially in dogs that develop clinical manifestations without the presence of cutaneous lesions.

  17. Critical review of epidemiologic studies related to ingested asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, G.M.

    1983-11-01

    Thirteen epidemiologic studies of ingested asbestos conducted in five areas of the US and Canada were evaluated for the definitiveness and applicability regarding the development of ambient water quality standards. Associations between asbestos in water supplies and cancer mortality or incidence in humans were found in one or more studies dealing with neoplasms in the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, gallbaldder, pancreas, peritoneum, lungs, pleura, prostate, kidneys, brain and thyroid as well as leukemia. However, no single study nor aggregate of studies existed that would establish risk levels from ingested asbestos. It is recommended that the integrated ecologic data to date be used to generate a rough priority of specific etiologic hypotheses that should be tested in the original settings or in independent study populations using studies designed at the more definitive individual level, such as case-control studies. 25 references, 7 tables.

  18. Serum Biomarkers of (Anti)Oxidant Status for Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Eugène; Ruskovska, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we disclose a selection of serum/plasma biomarkers of (anti)oxidant status related to nutrition, which can be used for measurements in large-scale epidemiological studies. From personal experience, we have come to the following proposal of a set of biomarkers for nutritional intake, (anti)oxidant status, and redox status. We have selected the individual antioxidant vitamins E and A, and the carotenoids which can be measured in large series by HPLC. In addition, vitamin C was selected, which can be measured by an auto-analyzer or HPLC. As a biomarker for oxidative stress, the ROM assay (reactive oxygen metabolites) was selected; for the redox status, the total thiol assay; and for the total antioxidant status the BAP assay (biological antioxidant potential). All of these biomarkers can be measured in large quantities by an auto-analyzer. Critical points in biomarker validation with respect to blood sampling, storage conditions, and measurements are discussed. With the selected biomarkers, a good set is presented for use in the risk assessment between nutrition and (chronic) diseases in large-scale epidemiological studies. Examples of the successful application of these biomarkers in large international studies are presented. PMID:26580612

  19. MODELING AN IRRITANT GAS PLUME FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Dev D.; Reed, David; Feigley, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Plume dispersion modeling systems are often used in assessing human exposures to chemical hazards for epidemiologic study. We modeled the 2005 Graniteville, South Carolina, 54,915 kg railcar chlorine release using both the Areal Locations of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA) and Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) plume modeling systems. We estimated the release rate by an engineering analysis combining semi-quantitative observations and fundamental physical principles. The use of regional meteorological conditions was validated by comparing concentration estimates generated by two source-location weather data sets. The HPAC model estimated a chlorine plume with 20 ppm outdoor concentrations up to 7 km downwind and 0.25 km upwind/downgrade. A comparative analysis of our two models showed that HPAC was the best candidate for use as a model system on which epidemiologic studies could be based after further model validation. Further validation studies are needed before individual exposure estimates can be reliable and the chlorine plume more definitively modeled. PMID:25772143

  20. Serum Biomarkers of (Anti)Oxidant Status for Epidemiological Studies.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Eugène; Ruskovska, Tatjana

    2015-11-16

    In this review, we disclose a selection of serum/plasma biomarkers of (anti)oxidant status related to nutrition, which can be used for measurements in large-scale epidemiological studies. From personal experience, we have come to the following proposal of a set of biomarkers for nutritional intake, (anti)oxidant status, and redox status. We have selected the individual antioxidant vitamins E and A, and the carotenoids which can be measured in large series by HPLC. In addition, vitamin C was selected, which can be measured by an auto-analyzer or HPLC. As a biomarker for oxidative stress, the ROM assay (reactive oxygen metabolites) was selected; for the redox status, the total thiol assay; and for the total antioxidant status the BAP assay (biological antioxidant potential). All of these biomarkers can be measured in large quantities by an auto-analyzer. Critical points in biomarker validation with respect to blood sampling, storage conditions, and measurements are discussed. With the selected biomarkers, a good set is presented for use in the risk assessment between nutrition and (chronic) diseases in large-scale epidemiological studies. Examples of the successful application of these biomarkers in large international studies are presented.

  1. Clergy-laity support and patients’ mood during serious illness: A cross-sectional epidemiologic study

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Judith C.; Wood, Laura; Steinhauser, Karen; Olson, Maren K.; Lindquist, Jennifer H.; Tulsky, James

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Religious participation is positively associated with mental health, but attendance at worship services declines during serious illness. This study assessed whether home visits by clergy or laity provide benefits to seriously ill patients who may have difficulty attending religious services. Design and sample A cross-sectional study design nested in an observational epidemiologic cohort study. The regionally-representative sample of patients had metastatic lung, colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer (n=70), Class III and IV congestive heart failure (n=70), or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with hypercapnea (n=70) and observed regarding clergy-laity support in their naturalistic environments. Measures Dependent variable: 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression scale. Independent variable: A one-item question measuring how much helpful support patients received from clergy or other persons from church, temple, synagogue, or mosque Covariates: demographic, health, social support, religiousness. Analysis Descriptive, bivariate, and general linear models Results Depressed mood was negatively associated with clergy-laity support in a non-linear pattern. Depressed mood was also positively associated with functional deficits and a lifetime history of difficulties related to religious involvement. Conclusions In lieu of worship attendance when people are sick, home visits by members of a patient’s religious community may bolster mood by providing continuity of instrumental, emotional, and spiritual support. PMID:21838948

  2. A practical method for use in epidemiological studies on enamel hypomineralisation.

    PubMed

    Ghanim, A; Elfrink, M; Weerheijm, K; Mariño, R; Manton, D

    2015-06-01

    With the development of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) judgment criteria, there has been increasing interest worldwide in investigation of the prevalence of demarcated opacities in tooth enamel substance, known as molar-incisor hypomineralisation (MIH). However, the lack of a standardised system for the purpose of recording MIH data in epidemiological surveys has contributed greatly to the wide variations in the reported prevalence between studies. The present publication describes the rationale, development, and content of a scoring method for MIH diagnosis in epidemiological studies as well as clinic- and hospital-based studies. The proposed grading method allows separate classification of demarcated hypomineralisation lesions and other enamel defects identical to MIH. It yields an informative description of the severity of MIH-affected teeth in terms of the stage of visible enamel destruction and the area of tooth surface affected (i.e. lesion clinical status and extent, respectively). In order to preserve the maximum amount of information from a clinical examination consistent with the need to permit direct comparisons between prevalence studies, two forms of the charting are proposed, a short form for simple screening surveys and a long form desirable for prospective, longitudinal observational research where aetiological factors in demarcated lesions are to be investigated in tandem with lesions distribution. Validation of the grading method is required, and its reliability and usefulness need to be tested in different age groups and different populations.

  3. Bifurcated popliteus tendon: a descriptive arthroscopic study

    PubMed Central

    Ginés-Cespedosa, Albert; Monllau, Joan C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to confirm the presence and frequency of a bifurcation of the popliteus tendon. The popliteus tendon has received attention due to its important function as a knee stabiliser. Several anatomical variants have recently been reported, one of them being a bifurcated tendon. However, the actual frequency as well as the possible role of this particular variant is still unknown. We prospectively analysed a series of 1,569 arthroscopies between January 2005 to December 2007. Six asymptomatic bifurcated popliteus tendons were found. No alterations in the magnetic resonance imaging were seen and no clinical signs (related to the popliteus tendon) were observed in these patients before surgery. In all cases the morphological variant was found by chance. Our results suggest that the presence of a bifurcated popliteus tendon is a fact and that its frequency, not previously reported, should not be ignored. PMID:18998130

  4. Epidemiologic study of ankle fractures in a tertiary hospital

    PubMed Central

    Sakaki, Marcos Hideyo; Matsumura, Bruno Akio Rodrigues; Dotta, Thiago De Angelis Guerra; Pontin, Pedro Augusto; dos Santos, Alexandre Leme Godoy; Fernandes, Tulio Diniz

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the epidemiology of ankle fractures surgically treated at the Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Medical records of patients admitted with foot and ankle fractures between 2006 and 2011 were revised. Seventy three ankle fractures that underwent surgical treatment were identified. The parameters analyzed included age, gender, injured side, AO and Gustilo & Anderson classification, associated injuries, exposure, need to urgent treatment, time to definitive treatment and early post-operative complications. Study design: retrospective epidemiological study. RESULTS: Male gender was predominant among subjects and the mean age was 27.5 years old. Thirty nine fractures resulted from traffic accidents and type B fracture according to AO classification was the most common. Twenty one were open fractures and 22 patients had associated injuries. The average time to definitive treatment was 6.5 days. Early post-operative complications were found in 21.3% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Ankle fractures treated in a tertiary hospital of a large city in Brazil affect young people victims of high-energy accidents and present significant rates of associated injuries and post-operative complications. Level of Evidence IV, Cases Series. PMID:24868187

  5. Dosimetric calculations for uranium miners for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Marsh, J W; Blanchardon, E; Gregoratto, D; Hofmann, W; Karcher, K; Nosske, D; Tomásek, L

    2012-05-01

    Epidemiological studies on uranium miners are being carried out to quantify the risk of cancer based on organ dose calculations. Mathematical models have been applied to calculate the annual absorbed doses to regions of the lung, red bone marrow, liver, kidney and stomach for each individual miner arising from exposure to radon gas, radon progeny and long-lived radionuclides (LLR) present in the uranium ore dust and to external gamma radiation. The methodology and dosimetric models used to calculate these organ doses are described and the resulting doses for unit exposure to each source (radon gas, radon progeny and LLR) are presented. The results of dosimetric calculations for a typical German miner are also given. For this miner, the absorbed dose to the central regions of the lung is dominated by the dose arising from exposure to radon progeny, whereas the absorbed dose to the red bone marrow is dominated by the external gamma dose. The uncertainties in the absorbed dose to regions of the lung arising from unit exposure to radon progeny are also discussed. These dose estimates are being used in epidemiological studies of cancer in uranium miners.

  6. Study of Resource Recovery and Epidemiology in an Anaerobic Digester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, K. Y.; Cao, Song; Hunt, M. D.; Fu, Xuping

    1995-01-01

    Three 4-liter packed bed anaerobic digesters were fabricated and operated at 35 degrees C, pH around 7, and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20, 10 and 5 days to study the resource recovery and epidemiology in a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS). A simulated wastewater, consisted of shower water, clothwash water, dishwasher water, handwash water, and urine flush water was used as the feeding solution. Under steady-state operation, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), pH, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium wer monitored in the digester input and output solutions. The volume and the CH4/CO2 ratios in the biogas produced from the anaerobic digesters were measured. The results indicate about 90 percent of TOC is converted while only 5-8 percent of N-P-K are consumed in the digester. A multi-drug resistant strain of Salmonella choleraesuis was used as the indicator bacterium in the epidemiology study. The levels of Salmonella choleraesuis in the influent and the effluent wer determined and decimal decay rate constants, k(d), were estimated. The k(d) values were greater at higher initial doses than lower doses for the same HR, and greater for batch digestion (7.89/d) than for continuous digestion (4.28, 3.82, and 3.82/d for 20, 10, and 5 d HRT, respectively).

  7. [Possibilities of epidemiological studies via automated veterinary practice administration].

    PubMed

    Brouwer, H; Schouten, E G; Noordhuizen, J P; van Voorthuysen, P F

    1995-05-15

    This study of the occurrence of tumours in dogs was carried out in order to see whether veterinary medical records can be used for epidemiological research. The relationship between tumour occurrence and breed, sex, and age was investigated by using the electronic tumourcards for 16049 dogs from three veterinary practices. Striking results include the difference in tumour occurrence between sprayed bitches (11.31%) and intact bitches (6.58%), and the high percentage of mongrels with a tumour (78.15%). Such unexpected results may be the result of selection processes underlying the composition of the population. Because these registers do not use a standard diagnostic classification system, it is difficult to identify all dogs with a specific diagnosis. This means that registers cannot be used for aetiological epidemiological research. However, they do contain valuable information for veterinary health care research and can be used as a source of cases for case-control studies, provided that a suitable mans of standardization is used.

  8. Low Quality Evidence of Epidemiological Observational Studies on Leishmaniasis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Trentini, Bruno; Steindel, Mário; Marlow, Mariel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Brazil has implemented systematic control methods for leishmaniasis for the past 30 years, despite an increase in cases and continued spread of the disease to new regions. A lack high quality evidence from epidemiological observational studies impedes the development of novel control methods to prevent disease transmission among the population. Here, we have evaluated the quality of observational studies on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil to highlight this issue. Methods/Principal Findings For this systematic review, all publications on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2012 were screened via Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist to select observational studies involving human subjects. The 283 included studies, representing only 14.1% of articles screened, were then further evaluated for quality of epidemiological methods and study design based on the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology) checklists. Over half of these studies were descriptive or case reports (53.4%, 151), followed by cross-sectional (20.8%, n = 59), case-control (8.5%, n = 24), and cohort (6.0%, n = 17). Study design was not stated in 46.6% (n = 181) and incorrectly stated in 17.5% (n = 24). Comparison groups were utilized in just 39.6% (n = 112) of the publications, and only 13.4% (n = 38) employed healthy controls. Majority of studies were performed at the city-level (62.9%, n = 178), in contrast with two (0.7%) studies performed at the national-level. Coauthorship networks showed the number of author collaborations rapidly decreased after three collaborations, with 70.9% (n = 659/929) of coauthors publishing only one article during the study period. Conclusions/Significance A review of epidemiological research in Brazil revealed a major lack of quality and evidence. While certain indicators suggested research methods

  9. Beral et al's 1990 paper on Kaposi's sarcoma among persons with AIDS: demonstrating the power of descriptive epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Newton, Robert; Whitby, Denise

    2016-10-01

    Here we discuss the impact of Beral et al's 1990 paper "Kaposi's sarcoma among persons with AIDS: a sexually transmitted infection?" Not only did this paper galvanise research into the underlying infectious cause of Kaposi's sarcoma, it also demonstrated the power of observational epidemiology in pointing the way towards major discoveries.

  10. The contribution of epidemiology to the study of traumatic stress.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Alexander

    2004-11-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been a controversial construct because of the complex set of factors that have been hypothesized to influence its onset and prevalence, such as compensation and withdrawal from combat duty. Epidemiology has done much to objectively clarify these controversies in the study of stratified population samples. The symptoms characterizing PTSD have been repeatedly described in large population samples where compensation is not a confounding issue and this has done much to support the validity of the construct. Epidemiology has also highlighted that the prevalence of exposure to traumatic events is far greater than was previously estimated. Emphasizing the importance of these events is accounting for the major burden of disease. Kessler (2000) has suggested the socio-economic effects of PTSD represent a burden of disease not dissimilar to that associated with depression. Traumatic events provide a unique opportunity to implement a preventative and public health approach to the management of psychiatric morbidity. Of particular importance is the apparent longevity of the influence that these events have on psychological adjustment.

  11. Particulate matter and heart disease: Evidence from epidemiological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Annette . E-mail: peters@gsf.de

    2005-09-01

    The association between particulate matter and heart disease was noted in the mid-nineties of last century when the epidemiological evidence for an association between air pollution and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease accumulated and first hypotheses regarding the pathomechanism were formulated. Nowadays, epidemiological studies have demonstrated coherent associations between daily changes in concentrations of ambient particles and cardiovascular disease mortality, hospital admission, disease exacerbation in patients with cardiovascular disease and early physiological responses in healthy individuals consistent with a risk factor profile deterioration. In addition, evidence was found that annual average PM{sub 2.5} exposures are associated with increased risks for mortality caused by ischemic heart disease and dysrhythmia. Thereby, evidence is suggesting not only a short-term exacerbation of cardiovascular disease by ambient particle concentrations but also a potential role of particles in defining patients' vulnerability to acute coronary events. While this concept is consistent with the current understanding of the factors defining patients' vulnerability, the mechanisms and the time-scales on which the particle-induced vulnerability might operate are unknown.

  12. Asymptomatic infection with American cutaneous leishmaniasis: epidemiological and immunological studies

    PubMed Central

    Andrade-Narvaez, Fernando J; Loría-Cervera, Elsy Nalleli; Sosa-Bibiano, Erika I; Van Wynsberghe, Nicole R

    2016-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a major public health problem caused by vector-borne protozoan intracellular parasites from the genus Leishmania, subgenera Viannia and Leishmania. Asymptomatic infection is the most common outcome after Leishmania inoculation. There is incomplete knowledge of the biological processes explaining the absence of signs or symptoms in most cases while other cases present a variety of clinical findings. Most studies of asymptomatic infection have been conducted in areas of endemic visceral leishmaniasis. In contrast, asymptomatic ACL infection has been neglected. This review is focused on the following: (1) epidemiological studies supporting the existence of asymptomatic ACL infection and (2) immunological studies conducted to understand the mechanisms responsible for controlling the parasite and avoiding tissue damage. PMID:27759762

  13. Methodological issues of confounding in analytical epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Hajian Tilaki, Karimollah

    2012-01-01

    Confounding can be thought of as mixing the effect of exposure on the risk of disease with a third factor which distorts the measure of association such as risk ratio or odds ratio. This bias arises because of complex functional relationship of confounder with both exposure and disease (outcome). In this article, we provided a conceptual framework review of confounding issues in epidemiologic studies, in particular in observational studies and nonrandomized experimental studies. We have shown in 2 by 2 tables with analytical examples how the index of association will be distorted when confounding is present. The criteria, source of confounding and several points in confounding issues have been addressed. The advantages and disadvantages of several strategies for control of confounding have been discussed.

  14. STROBE-AMS: recommendations to optimise reporting of epidemiological studies on antimicrobial resistance and informing improvement in antimicrobial stewardship

    PubMed Central

    Tacconelli, Evelina; Cataldo, Maria A; Paul, M; Leibovici, L; Kluytmans, Jan; Schröder, Wiebke; Foschi, Federico; De Angelis, Giulia; De Waure, Chiara; Cadeddu, Chiara; Mutters, Nico T; Gastmeier, Petra; Cookson, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the accuracy of application of the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) tool in epidemiological studies focused on the evaluation of the role of antibiotics in selecting resistance, and to derive and test an extension of STROBE to improve the suitability of the tool in evaluating the quality of reporting in these area. Methods A three-step study was performed. First, a systematic review of the literature analysing the association between antimicrobial exposure and acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and/or multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii was performed. Second, articles were reviewed according to the STROBE checklist for epidemiological studies. Third, a set of potential new items focused on antimicrobial-resistance quality indicators was derived through an expert two-round RAND-modified Delphi procedure and tested on the articles selected through the literature review. Results The literature search identified 78 studies. Overall, the quality of reporting appeared to be poor in most areas. Five STROBE items, comprising statistical analysis and study objectives, were satisfactory in <25% of the studies. Informative abstract, reporting of bias, control of confounding, generalisability and description of study size were missing in more than half the articles. A set of 21 new items was developed and tested. The new items focused particularly on the study setting, antimicrobial usage indicators, and patients epidemiological and clinical characteristics. The performance of the new items in included studies was very low (<25%). Conclusions Our paper reveals that reporting in epidemiological papers analysing the association between antimicrobial usage and development of resistance is poor. The implementation of the newly developed STROBE for antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) tool should enhance appropriate study design and reporting, and therefore contribute to the improvement of

  15. The genetic study of three population microisolates in South Tyrol (MICROS): study design and epidemiological perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Pattaro, Cristian; Marroni, Fabio; Riegler, Alice; Mascalzoni, Deborah; Pichler, Irene; Volpato, Claudia B; Dal Cero, Umberta; De Grandi, Alessandro; Egger, Clemens; Eisendle, Agatha; Fuchsberger, Christian; Gögele, Martin; Pedrotti, Sara; Pinggera, Gerd K; Stefanov, Stefan A; Vogl, Florian D; Wiedermann, Christian J; Meitinger, Thomas; Pramstaller, Peter P

    2007-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence of the important role that small, isolated populations could play in finding genes involved in the etiology of diseases. For historical and political reasons, South Tyrol, the northern most Italian region, includes several villages of small dimensions which remained isolated over the centuries. Methods The MICROS study is a population-based survey on three small, isolated villages, characterized by: old settlement; small number of founders; high endogamy rates; slow/null population expansion. During the stage-1 (2002/03) genealogical data, screening questionnaires, clinical measurements, blood and urine samples, and DNA were collected for 1175 adult volunteers. Stage-2, concerning trait diagnoses, linkage analysis and association studies, is ongoing. The selection of the traits is being driven by expert clinicians. Preliminary, descriptive statistics were obtained. Power simulations for finding linkage on a quantitative trait locus (QTL) were undertaken. Results Starting from participants, genealogies were reconstructed for 50,037 subjects, going back to the early 1600s. Within the last five generations, subjects were clustered in one pedigree of 7049 subjects plus 178 smaller pedigrees (3 to 85 subjects each). A significant probability of familial clustering was assessed for many traits, especially among the cardiovascular, neurological and respiratory traits. Simulations showed that the MICROS pedigree has a substantial power to detect a LOD score ≥ 3 when the QTL specific heritability is ≥ 20%. Conclusion The MICROS study is an extensive, ongoing, two-stage survey aimed at characterizing the genetic epidemiology of Mendelian and complex diseases. Our approach, involving different scientific disciplines, is an advantageous strategy to define and to study population isolates. The isolation of the Alpine populations, together with the extensive data collected so far, make the MICROS study a powerful resource for the study

  16. Hodgkin's disease: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, S. M.; Cartwright, R. A.; Darwin, C. M.; Richards, I. D.; Roberts, B.; O'Brien, C.; Bird, C. C.

    1987-01-01

    This is the first report of a case-control epidemiological study on lymphomas and leukaemias occurring in Yorkshire during 1979-84. This paper deals with the results of the Hodgkin's disease analysis comprising 248 cases and 489 controls. The results indicate support for previous work with respect to small family size and past history of infectious mononucleosis. Positive observations made in a previous pilot study are also confirmed and extended with respect to associations with certain chronic skin lesions, dental anaesthesia and familial factors. Negative associations are described with respect to X-ray exposures and cigarette smoking. It is proposed that these results fit into a general hypothesis that these conditions are the result of interaction between infectious agents and altered immunity in those persons genetically predisposed. PMID:3814482

  17. Hodgkin's disease: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Bernard, S M; Cartwright, R A; Darwin, C M; Richards, I D; Roberts, B; O'Brien, C; Bird, C C

    1987-01-01

    This is the first report of a case-control epidemiological study on lymphomas and leukaemias occurring in Yorkshire during 1979-84. This paper deals with the results of the Hodgkin's disease analysis comprising 248 cases and 489 controls. The results indicate support for previous work with respect to small family size and past history of infectious mononucleosis. Positive observations made in a previous pilot study are also confirmed and extended with respect to associations with certain chronic skin lesions, dental anaesthesia and familial factors. Negative associations are described with respect to X-ray exposures and cigarette smoking. It is proposed that these results fit into a general hypothesis that these conditions are the result of interaction between infectious agents and altered immunity in those persons genetically predisposed.

  18. Exposure Assessment Issues in Epidemiology Studies of Phthalates

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Lauren E.; Cooper, Glinda S.; Galizia, Audrey; Meeker, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review exposure assessment issues that need to be addressed in designing and interpreting epidemiology studies of phthalates, a class of chemicals commonly used in consumer and personal care products. Specific issues include population trends in exposure, temporal reliability of a urinary metabolite measurement, and how well a single urine sample may represent longer-term exposure. The focus of this review is on seven specific phthalates: diethyl phthalate (DEP); di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP); diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP); butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP); di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP); diisononyl phthalate (DiNP); and diisodecyl phthalate (DiDP). Methods Comprehensive literature search using multiple search strategies Results Since 2001, declines in population exposure to DEP, BBzP, DBP, and DEHP have been reported in the United States and Germany, but DEHP exposure has increased in China. Although the half-lives of various phthalate metabolites are relatively short (3 to 18 hours), the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for phthalate metabolites, based on spot and first morning urine samples collected over a week to several months, range from weak to moderate, with a tendency toward higher ICCs (greater temporal stability) for metabolites of the shorter-chained (DEP, DBP, DiBP and BBzP, ICCs generally 0.3 to 0.6) compared with those of the longer-chained (DEHP, DiNP, DiDP, ICCs generally 0.1 to 0.3) phthalates. Additional research on optimal approaches to addressing the issue of urine dilution in studies of associations between biomarkers and different type of health effects is needed. Conclusions In conclusion, the measurement of urinary metabolite concentrations in urine could serve as a valuable approach to estimating exposure to phthalates in environmental epidemiology studies. Careful consideration of the strengths and limitations of this approach when interpreting study results is required. PMID:26313703

  19. Ultraviolet radiation and the eye: an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, H R

    1989-01-01

    Circumstantial evidence from biochemical, animal, and epidemiologic studies suggests an association between exposure to UV-B radiation (290 nm to 320 nm) and cataract. Such an association had not been proven because it had not been possible to quantify ocular UV-B exposure of individuals or to reliably grade the type and severity of cataract in field studies. We undertook an epidemiologic survey of cataract among 838 watermen who work on the Chesapeake Bay. Their individual ocular UV-B exposure was quantified for each year of life over the age of 16, on the basis of a detailed occupational history combined with laboratory and field measurements of ocular UV-B exposure. Cataracts were graded by both type and severity through clinical and photographic means. SMD changes were ascertained by fundal photography. A general medical history was taken to discover potentially confounding factors. This study showed that people with cortical lens opacities had a 21% higher UV-B exposure at each year of life than people without these opacities. A doubling in lifetime UV-B exposure led to a 60% increase in the risk of cortical cataract, and those with a high annual UV-B exposure increased their risk of cortical cataract over threefold. Corneal changes, namely pterygium and CDK, were also strongly associated with high UV-B exposure. No association was found between nuclear lens opacities or macular degeneration and UV-B exposure. This study also indicated several simple, practical measures, such as wearing spectacles or a hat, that effectively protect the eye from UV-B exposure. Thus it is easily within the power of individuals to protect their eyes from excessive UV-B exposure and reduce their risk of cortical cataract. A program of public education in this area could be a cost-effective means of reducing this important disease. PMID:2562534

  20. Real world epidemiology of myeloproliferative neoplasms: a population based study in Korea 2004-2013.

    PubMed

    Byun, Ja Min; Kim, Young Jin; Youk, Taemi; Yang, John Jeongseok; Yoo, Jongha; Park, Tae Sung

    2017-03-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), with an expected increment in number, impose substantial economic and social burdens. To this end, we conducted a nationwide population-based descriptive epidemiology study. We also investigated medical cost associated with MPNs. Prevalence was the highest for essential thrombocythemia (ET) (range 4.1-9.0 per 100,000), followed by polycythemia vera (PV) (range 2.8-5.4 per 100,000) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) (range 0.5-0.9 per 100,000). ET incurred the highest cumulative total cost at US$35 million and the most frequent hospital visits, while PMF incurred the highest average cost per person at US$5000. The mean hemoglobin level was 16.9 ± 2.2 g/dL for PV males and 15.5 ± 2.7 g/dL for PV females. Further analyses on hemoglobin levels showed the true positive rate of PV from the significantly elevated hemoglobin group (defined as >18.5 g/dL for men and >16.5 g/dL for women) was 3.01% and that of MPNs was 3.1%. Here, we provide the biggest population-based report on MPN epidemiology that can readily be used as a representative Asian data.

  1. Epidemiology and Registry Studies of Stroke in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is the most prevalent cardiovascular disease in Japan. This review introduces two epidemiologic studies and four registry studies of stroke in Japan. The Hisayama Study was begun as a population-based prospective cohort study of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases in 1961 in the town of Hisayama. Most of the deceased subjects of the study underwent autopsy examinations from the beginning of the study. Changes in stroke trends in the last 50 years were clarified by comparison of data from different study cohorts registered every 13 to 14 years. The Suita Study was based on a random sampling of Japanese urban residents. Several reports from this study showed the significance of pre-hypertension, as well as hypertension, as a risk factor for stroke by itself and in combination with other underlying characteristics. In addition, the Japan Multicenter Stroke Investigators' Collaboration (J-MUSIC), the Japan Standard Stroke Registry Study, the Fukuoka Stroke Registry, and the Stroke Acute Management with Urgent Risk-factor Assessment and Improvement (SAMURAI) rt-PA Registry are explained as registry studies involving Japanese stroke patients. PMID:24324936

  2. Epidemiology and registry studies of stroke in Japan.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is the most prevalent cardiovascular disease in Japan. This review introduces two epidemiologic studies and four registry studies of stroke in Japan. The Hisayama Study was begun as a population-based prospective cohort study of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases in 1961 in the town of Hisayama. Most of the deceased subjects of the study underwent autopsy examinations from the beginning of the study. Changes in stroke trends in the last 50 years were clarified by comparison of data from different study cohorts registered every 13 to 14 years. The Suita Study was based on a random sampling of Japanese urban residents. Several reports from this study showed the significance of pre-hypertension, as well as hypertension, as a risk factor for stroke by itself and in combination with other underlying characteristics. In addition, the Japan Multicenter Stroke Investigators' Collaboration (J-MUSIC), the Japan Standard Stroke Registry Study, the Fukuoka Stroke Registry, and the Stroke Acute Management with Urgent Risk-factor Assessment and Improvement (SAMURAI) rt-PA Registry are explained as registry studies involving Japanese stroke patients.

  3. [Epidemiologic Study of Mortality during summer 2003 in Italy].

    PubMed

    Conti, Susanna; Meli, Paola; Minelli, Giada; Solimini, Renata; Toccaceli, Virgilia; Vichi, Monica; Beltrano, M Carmen; Perini, Luigi

    2004-01-01

    Following the unusually hot summer this year and the dramatic news from neighboring countries such as France, the Italian Minister of Health requested an epidemiologic mortality study during summer 2003, to investigate whether there had been an excess of deaths in Italy, particularly for the elderly population. Communal offices, which provide vital statistics, were asked for the number of deaths among resident people, occurred from June 1 to August 31, for 2003 and 2002, for the 21 Italian regions capitals. A mortality increase of 3,134 deaths was observed for 2003; most of them (92%) were people aged 75 years and older. The highest increases were observed in the North Western cities (Turin, Milan, Genoa). The relationship between mortality and climatic indexes (T. max, Humidex) was investigated and a clear correlation was observed.

  4. [Female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, 2009-2010: a descriptive study].

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria Arleide da; Cabral Filho, José Eulálio; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos; Falbo Neto, Gilliatt Hanois

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the epidemiological profile of female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Northeast Brazil. An observational descriptive and prospective study included all homicides from March 2009 to February 2010 with female victims from Recife, 10 to 49 years of age. A questionnaire was used to record socioeconomic, demographic, and biological risk factors. Relatives of the victims were interviewed, and data were collected from death certificates. We identified 60 homicides during the study period. Most victims were adult women with brown skin color and low schooling and low income. Other characteristics included smoking in 39.7%, alcohol and illicit drugs in 48.3% and 24.1%, respectively, and physical and/or sexual violence in the 12 months prior to the murder in 29.3%. Firearms were used in 69% of these homicides.

  5. A review of the epidemiology of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, and less commonly studied neuropathic pain conditions.

    PubMed

    Sadosky, Alesia; McDermott, Anne M; Brandenburg, Nancy A; Strauss, Marcie

    2008-01-01

    Although the burden of neuropathic pain is well-recognized, the descriptive epidemiology of specific neuropathic pain conditions has not been well-described. While painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy and postherpetic neuralgia have been widely evaluated, many other peripheral and central neuropathic pain syndromes have been less frequently studied. This review summarizes incidence and/or prevalence information about two relatively frequent neuropathic pain conditions-painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy and postherpetic neuralgia-and similarly summarizes the more limited epidemiologic information available for other peripheral and central neuropathic pain conditions. The data suggest that while our knowledge is still incomplete, the high frequency of several of these conditions in specific populations should be considered an important impetus for further studies designed to evaluate their contribution to the overall burden of neuropathic pain.

  6. Bat Rabies in France: A 24-Year Retrospective Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France. PMID:24892287

  7. Bat rabies in France: a 24-year retrospective epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France.

  8. Cycloplegic refraction is the gold standard for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Ian G; Iribarren, Rafael; Fotouhi, Akbar; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Many studies on children have shown that lack of cycloplegia is associated with slight overestimation of myopia and marked errors in estimates of the prevalence of emmetropia and hyperopia. Non-cycloplegic refraction is particularly problematic for studies of associations with risk factors. The consensus around the importance of cycloplegia in children left undefined at what age, if any, cycloplegia became unnecessary. It was often implicitly assumed that cycloplegia is not necessary beyond childhood or early adulthood, and thus, the protocol for the classical studies of refraction in older adults did not include cycloplegia. Now that population studies of refractive error are beginning to fill the gap between schoolchildren and older adults, whether cycloplegia is required for measuring refractive error in this age range, needs to be defined. Data from the Tehran Eye Study show that, without cycloplegia, there are errors in the estimation of myopia, emmetropia and hyperopia in the age range 20-50, just as in children. Similar results have been reported in an analysis of data from the Beaver Dam Offspring Eye Study. If the only important outcome measure of a particular study is the prevalence of myopia, then cycloplegia may not be crucial in some cases. But, without cycloplegia, measurements of other refractive categories as well as spherical equivalent are unreliable. In summary, the current evidence suggests that cycloplegic refraction should be considered as the gold standard for epidemiological studies of refraction, not only in children, but in adults up to the age of 50.

  9. CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.

  10. A Descriptive Study of School Discipline Referrals in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusby, Julie C.; Taylor, Ted K.; Foster, E. Michael

    2007-01-01

    School discipline referrals (SDRs) may be useful in the early detection and monitoring of disruptive behavior problems to inform prevention efforts in the school setting, yet little is known about the nature and validity of SDRs in the early grades. For this descriptive study, SDR data were collected on a sample of first grade students who were at…

  11. 10 CFR 602.5 - Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance... AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.5 Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program. (a) DOE may issue under this part awards for research,...

  12. Atopy and Specific Cancer Sites: a Review of Epidemiological Studies.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yubao; Hill, Andrew W

    2016-12-01

    Mounting evidence appears to link asthma and atopy to cancer susceptibility. This review presents and discusses published epidemiological studies on the association between site-specific cancers and atopy. PubMed was searched electronically for publications between 1995 and 2015, and cited references were researched manually. Quantitative studies relating to atopy, allergy, or asthma and cancer were identified and tabulated. Despite many exposure-related limitations, patterns in the studies were observed. Asthma, specifically, has been observed to be a risk factor for lung cancer. A protective effect of atopic diseases against pancreatic cancer has been shown consistently in case-control studies but not in cohort studies. Allergy of any type appears to be protective against glioma and adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Most studies on atopic diseases and non-Hodgkin lymphoma or colorectal cancer reported an inverse association. The other sites identified had varying and non-significant outcomes. Further research should be dedicated to carefully defined exposure assessments of "atopy" as well as the biological plausibility in the association between atopic diseases and cancer.

  13. Endometriosis and breast cancer: A survey of the epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Pontikaki, A; Sifakis, S; Spandidos, D A

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic gynecological disease with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that affects approximately 10% of women of reproductive age. Recent reviews have demonstrated the connection between endometriosis and breast cancer, which represents the most frequently diagnosed female cancer and the most common cause of cancer-related mortality among women worldwide. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of available published epidemiological studies indicating the association between endometriosis and breast cancer, and simultaneously to categorize the results based on the strength of the association, with the intention of the critical evaluation of the existing data. We performed a rigorous search of the PubMed/Medline database, using the key words 'endometriosis' and 'breast cancer' for all studies published in the English language until September 2015. We found 4 retrospective cohort studies, 4 case-control studies and 3 case-cohort studies that demonstrated a notable risk for developing breast cancer among women with endometriosis. By contrast, we also found 5 case-control studies, 1 prospective cohort study, 1 case-cohort study and 1 cross-sectional study that demonstrated a negative association between endometriosis and breast cancer. In conclusion, as regards the clarification of a 'robust' or 'weak' association between endometriosis and breast cancer, no definite conclusions could be drawn, due to the limited number of studies and the limitations of each of these studies. New well-designed, prospective cohort or randomized control trials with long-term follow-up are warranted in order to provide evidence-based clinical recommendations for proper counseling, screening and treatment strategies for patients with endometriosis, and hence to improve public health.

  14. [Oral contraceptive pill and thrombotic risk: epidemiological studies].

    PubMed

    Fruzzetti, F; Perini, D; Spirito, N; Manca, R

    2012-12-01

    The venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a rare event during childbearing age and during the assumption of combined oral contraceptive. The absolute risk of VTE in users of combined oral contraceptives is 20-30 per 100000 women years. A number of case-control studies published in recent years have shown an apparent increase in the risk of VTE among users of oral contraceptives (OCs) containing desogestrel, gestodene, drospirenone and cyproterone, relative to the use of levonorgestrel. The data derived from these recent studies is of borderline statistical significance because any important factors are not considered to evaluate the real correlation between the assumption of OCs and risk of venous thromboembolism. Among the factors that should be considered, there are: EE dose, duration of use, coexistance of other risk factors of venous thromboembolism (age, BMI, familiarity, surgical interventions) and other prescription bias. The lack of these factors is likely to contribute to the increased risk of venous thromboembolism observed in users of third-generation OCs when compared to that in users of second-generation OCs. To date, because of the inadequacy of epidemiological studies, the data about the correlation between OCs and TVE, are not conclusive and it will be necessary to carry out other studies to clarify this debating point, definitively.

  15. Invited commentary: recruiting for epidemiologic studies using social media.

    PubMed

    Allsworth, Jenifer E

    2015-05-15

    Social media-based recruitment for epidemiologic studies has the potential to expand the demographic and geographic reach of investigators and identify potential participants more cost-effectively than traditional approaches. In fact, social media are particularly appealing for their ability to engage traditionally "hard-to-reach" populations, including young adults and low-income populations. Despite their great promise as a tool for epidemiologists, social media-based recruitment approaches do not currently compare favorably with gold-standard probability-based sampling approaches. Sparse data on the demographic characteristics of social media users, patterns of social media use, and appropriate sampling frames limit our ability to implement probability-based sampling strategies. In a well-conducted study, Harris et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2015;181(10):737-746) examined the cost-effectiveness of social media-based recruitment (advertisements and promotion) in the Contraceptive Use, Pregnancy Intention, and Decisions (CUPID) Study, a cohort study of 3,799 young adult Australian women, and the approximate representativeness of the CUPID cohort. Implications for social media-based recruitment strategies for cohort assembly, data accuracy, implementation, and human subjects concerns are discussed.

  16. Cancer prevention by green tea: evidence from epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jian-Min

    2013-12-01

    In contrast to the consistent results of an inhibitory effect of green tea extracts and tea polyphenols on the development and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in experimental animal models, results from human studies are mixed. Both observational and intervention studies have provided evidence in support of a protective role of green tea intake in the development of oral-digestive tract cancer or an inhibitory role of oral supplementation of green tea extract on a precancerous lesion of oral cavity. Evidence in support of green tea intake against the development of liver cancer risk is limited and inconsistent. An inverse association between green tea intake and lung cancer risk has been observed among never smokers but not among smokers. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake against the development of prostate cancer, several phase 2 clinical trials have shown an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate premalignant lesions to malignant tumors. Prospective epidemiologic studies so far have not provided evidence for a protective effect of green tea consumption on breast cancer development. Current data neither confirm nor refute a definitive cancer-preventive role of green tea intake. Large randomized intervention trials on the efficacy of green tea polyphenols or extracts are required before a recommendation for green tea consumption for cancer prevention should be made.

  17. Delirium epidemiology in critical care (DECCA): an international study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Delirium is a frequent source of morbidity in intensive care units (ICUs). Most data on its epidemiology is from single-center studies. Our aim was to conduct a multicenter study to evaluate the epidemiology of delirium in the ICU. Methods A 1-day point-prevalence study was undertaken in 104 ICUs from 11 countries in South and North America and Spain. Results In total, 975 patients were screened, and 497 fulfilled inclusion criteria and were enrolled (median age, 62 years; 52.5% men; 16.7% and 19.9% for ICU and hospital mortality); 64% were admitted to the ICU because of medical causes, and sepsis was the main diagnosis (n = 76; 15.3%). In total, 265 patients were sedated with the Richmond agitation and sedation scale (RASS) deeper than -3, and only 232 (46.6%) patients could be evaluated with the confusion-assessment method for the ICU. The prevalence of delirium was 32.3%. Compared with patients without delirium, those with the diagnosis of delirium had a greater severity of illness at admission, demonstrated by higher sequential organ-failure assessment (SOFA (P = 0.004)) and simplified acute physiology score 3 (SAPS3) scores (P < 0.0001). Delirium was associated with increased ICU (20% versus 5.7%; P = 0.002) and hospital mortality (24 versus 8.3%; P = 0.0017), and longer ICU (P < 0.0001) and hospital length of stay (LOS) (22 (11 to 40) versus 7 (4 to 18) days; P < 0.0001). Previous use of midazolam (P = 0.009) was more frequent in patients with delirium. On multivariate analysis, delirium was independently associated with increased ICU mortality (OR = 3.14 (1.26 to 7.86); CI, 95%) and hospital mortality (OR = 2.5 (1.1 to 5.7); CI, 95%). Conclusions In this 1-day international study, delirium was frequent and associated with increased mortality and ICU LOS. The main modifiable risk factors associated with the diagnosis of delirium were the use of invasive devices and sedatives (midazolam). PMID:21092264

  18. Emergency medicine in Paarl, South Africa: a cross-sectional descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Hanewinckel, Rens; Wallis, Lee A.; Mulligan, Terrence M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Emergency Medicine (EM) in South Africa is in its earliest stages of development. There is a paucity of data about emergency department (ED) patient demographics, epidemiology, consultation and admission criteria and other characteristics. Aims This information is absolutely necessary to properly guide the development of EM and appropriate emergency care systems. In order to provide this information, we performed a study in a rural hospital in Paarl, 60 km outside Cape Town. Methods All patients who were seen in the ED between 1 January 2008 and 31 May 2008 were eligible for our research. We designed a cross-sectional descriptive study and retrieved information from a randomized sample of all consecutive patient charts seen during this period using a 40-point questionnaire (see Appendix 1). Results We investigated 2,446 charts, of which 2,134 were suitable for our research The majority (88.2%) of these patients were self-referred. In our sample, 24.1% were children under 12 years old. Almost 20% of patients had a serious pathological condition or were physiologically unstable; 36.0% of all presentations were trauma related. Besides trauma-related problems, gastrointestinal- (21.9%) and respiratory tract- (12.4%) related problems were most common in the ED; 16.5% of the patients were admitted to a ward. Conclusion This descriptive epidemiological study provides necessary data that will be used for further needs assessments and for future EM development in Paarl, and can be used as a template in other EDs and hospitals to provide similar data necessary for initial EM development strategy. PMID:21031037

  19. Low-dose radiation epidemiology studies: status and issues.

    PubMed

    Shore, Roy E

    2009-11-01

    Although the Japanese atomic bomb study and radiotherapy studies have clearly documented cancer risks from high-dose radiation exposures, radiation risk assessment groups have long recognized that protracted or low exposures to low-linear energy transfer radiations are key radiation protection concerns because these are far more common than high-exposure scenarios. Epidemiologic studies of human populations with low-dose or low dose-rate exposures are one approach to addressing those concerns. A number of large studies of radiation workers (Chernobyl clean-up workers, U.S. and Chinese radiological technologists, and the 15-country worker study) or of persons exposed to environmental radiation at moderate to low levels (residents near Techa River, Semipalatinsk, Chernobyl, or nuclear facilities) have been conducted. A variety of studies of medical radiation exposures (multiple-fluoroscopy, diagnostic (131)I, scatter radiation doses from radiotherapy, etc.) also are of interest. Key results from these studies are summarized and compared with risk estimates from the Japanese atomic bomb study. Ideally, one would like the low-dose and low dose-rate studies to guide radiation risk estimation regarding the shape of the dose-response curve, DDREF (dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor), and risk at low doses. However, the degree to which low-dose studies can do so is subject to various limitations, especially those pertaining to dosimetric uncertainties and limited statistical power. The identification of individuals who are particularly susceptible to radiation cancer induction also is of high interest in terms of occupational and medical radiation protection. Several examples of studies of radiation-related cancer susceptibility are discussed, but none thus far have clearly identified radiation-susceptible genotypes.

  20. Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series

    Cancer.gov

    The Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series provides an opportunity for our grantees and other interested individuals to share lessons learned and practical information regarding the application of next generation sequencing to cancer epidemiology studies.

  1. ESTIMATING RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ESTIMATING RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    Richard Kwok1, Pauline Mendola1 Zhixiong Ning2, Zhiyi Liu2 and Judy Mumford1

    1) Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch, Human Studies Division, NHEERL, US EPA, R...

  2. Incidence rate of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas among males in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from the Saudi Cancer Registry, 2001–2008

    PubMed Central

    Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Dohal, Ahlam A; Alghamdi, Mansour M; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    Background This study describes epidemiological data of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi men. Materials and methods Retrospective data from all NHL cancer cases among Saudi men recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) between January 2001 and December 2008 were used. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and simple linear regression were also used. Results In total, 2,555 new cases of NHL were recorded between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia had the highest overall age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) at 7.8, followed by the Eastern region at 6.8, and Makkah at 6.1 per 100,000 men; however, Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest average ASIRs at 2.5, 3.7, and 3.9 per 100,000 men, respectively. The incidence-rate ratio for the number of NHL cases was significantly higher in Riyadh (4.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.11–5.32), followed by Makkah (4.47, 95% CI 3.94–5.07), and the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia (3.27, 95% CI 2.90–3.69) than that in the reference region of Jazan. Jouf had the highest changes in the ASIRs of NHL among Saudi men from 2001 and 2008 (5.0 per 100,000 men). Conclusion A significant increase in the crude incidence rate and ASIR for NHL in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008 was found. Riyadh, the Eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall ASIR in Saudi Arabia. Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest rates. Additionally, Riyadh, Makkah, and the Eastern region had the highest incidence-rate ratio for the number of NHL cases. Finally, Jouf had the highest changes in crude incidence rate and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. Further analytical studies are needed to determine the potential risk factors of NHL among Saudi men. PMID:25028562

  3. Estimating the incidence of malignant mesothelioma in Vietnam: a pilot descriptive cancer registration study

    PubMed Central

    Soeberg, Matthew J.; Luong, Mai Anh; Tran, Van Thuan; Tran, Anh Thanh; Nguyen, Thị Thu Huyen; Bui, Dieu; Nguyen, Thi Hoai Nga; Takahashi, Ken; van Zandwijk, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Global asbestos consumption has shifted toward lower income countries, particularly in the Asian region including Vietnam where asbestos and asbestos-containing products have been imported since the late 1960s. Methods This pilot descriptive epidemiological study aimed to provide contemporary estimates of malignant mesothelioma incidence (histological subtype M9050/3; ICD-O-3) by gender and age group as recorded across nine cancer registries in Vietnam. Results We identified 148 incident cases of malignant mesothelioma during 1987–2013. The majority of cases were recorded in the Hanoi region (n = 93) and were aged 55 years or older (n = 96). Discussion By carefully reviewing existing cancer registry records in Vietnam, we identified a larger number of malignant mesothelioma cases than previously estimated. We recommend the use of cancer registry data in tracking future asbestos-related disease in Vietnam. PMID:27388204

  4. Epidemiological Assessments of Skin Outcomes in the Nurses’ Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Qing; Cho, Eunyoung; Weinstock, Martin A.; Mashfiq, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Studies (NHSs) to identifying epidemiological factors associated with multiple skin diseases, including skin cancer, psoriasis, and other inflammatory and autoimmune skin diseases. Methods. We carried out a narrative review of NHS articles published between 1976 and 2016. Results. The NHSs have identified environmental and lifestyle factors related to psoriasis, supporting obesity and smoking as psoriasis risk factors; associations between psoriasis and diabetes, myocardial infarction, and Crohn’s disease, supporting psoriasis as a systemic disorder; and associations of pigmentary traits, ultraviolet radiation, and lifestyle factors such as citrus consumption with risk of skin cancer. Genetic studies have identified novel genetic loci for skin pigmentation (e.g., IRF4, SLC24A4, NID1, and EDNRB) and skin cancer (e.g., TET2 and HERC2-OCA2). Work continues on highly prevalent but less studied skin conditions such as rosacea, acne, and atopic dermatitis. The NHS results have influenced public health policies on indoor tanning devices. Conclusions. The NHSs have provided invaluable resources on skin disease population science and contributed to the etiological understanding of multiple skin disorders. PMID:27459457

  5. An epidemiological study of workers potentially exposed to ethylene oxide.

    PubMed

    Wong, O; Trent, L S

    1993-04-01

    This epidemiological study was of 18,728 employees at 14 United States facilities producing sterilised medical supplies and spices, who were potentially exposed to ethylene oxide (EO) for at least 90 days. The mortality of the cohort was studied to the end of 1988. A total of 1353 deaths was identified. The cohort had a significantly lower mortality than the general population from all causes, all cancers, and non-malignant diseases. In the entire cohort, mortality was not significantly increased from any of the cancer sites examined. In particular, no significant increase in mortality was found in the cancer sites of interest based on previous studies--namely, stomach, leukaemia (including major specific cell types), pancreas, and brain. The lack of an increased mortality for these cancer sites was further strengthened by the lack of a dose-response relation with duration of employment and latency. Among the men, a statistically significant increase in mortality from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was found. There was no indication for a dose-response relation for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and no specific job categories seemed to be responsible for the increase. Among the women, a deficit of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was found, which was not consistent with the finding in the men. Therefore, the increase among the men did not seem to be related to exposure to EO.

  6. An epidemiological study of workers potentially exposed to ethylene oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, O; Trent, L S

    1993-01-01

    This epidemiological study was of 18,728 employees at 14 United States facilities producing sterilised medical supplies and spices, who were potentially exposed to ethylene oxide (EO) for at least 90 days. The mortality of the cohort was studied to the end of 1988. A total of 1353 deaths was identified. The cohort had a significantly lower mortality than the general population from all causes, all cancers, and non-malignant diseases. In the entire cohort, mortality was not significantly increased from any of the cancer sites examined. In particular, no significant increase in mortality was found in the cancer sites of interest based on previous studies--namely, stomach, leukaemia (including major specific cell types), pancreas, and brain. The lack of an increased mortality for these cancer sites was further strengthened by the lack of a dose-response relation with duration of employment and latency. Among the men, a statistically significant increase in mortality from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was found. There was no indication for a dose-response relation for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and no specific job categories seemed to be responsible for the increase. Among the women, a deficit of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was found, which was not consistent with the finding in the men. Therefore, the increase among the men did not seem to be related to exposure to EO. PMID:8494770

  7. Epidemiology, etiology, and motivation of alcohol misuse among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory: a descriptive review.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Jayaraj, Rama; Notaras, Leonard; Thomas, Mahiban

    2015-01-01

    The per capita alcohol consumption of the Northern Territory, Australia, is second highest in the world, estimated 15.1 liters of pure alcohol per year. Alcohol abuse is a major public health concern among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Northern Territory consume approximately 16.9 liters of pure alcohol per year. This descriptive review is based on current published and grey literature in the context of high risk alcohol use, with a special focus on the epidemiological, etiological, and social factors, to predict alcohol misuse among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in Northern Territory. The methodology involved a descriptive search on PubMed, Northern Territory government reports, health databases, and Web sites with an emphasis on the etiology and epidemiology of high-risk alcohol consumption among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory. This review has its own limitations because it does not rely on systematic review methodologies. However, it presents real data on the motives for binge drinking and alcohol-related violent assaults of this vulnerable population. Alcohol abuse and alcohol-related harms are considerably high among the rural and remote communities where additional research is needed. High-risk alcohol misuse within Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders communities often leads to a series of physical and social consequences. This review highlights the need for culturally appropriate intervention approaches focusing on alcohol misuse among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders population of the Northern Territory.

  8. An Epidemiological Study of Neuropathic Pain Symptoms in Canadian Adults

    PubMed Central

    VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth G.; Mann, Elizabeth G.; Torrance, Nicola; Smith, Blair H.; Johnson, Ana; Gilron, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The reported prevalence of neuropathic pain ranges from 6.9% to 10%; however the only Canadian study reported 17.9%. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of neuropathic pain in Canada. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a random sample of Canadian adults. The response rate was 21.1% (1504/7134). Likely or possible neuropathic pain was defined using a neuropathic pain-related diagnosis and a positive outcome on the Self-Report Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs pain scale (S-LANSS) or the Douleur Neuropathique 4 (DN4) Questions. The prevalence of likely neuropathic pain was 1.9% (S-LANSS) and 3.4% (DN4) and that of possible neuropathic pain was 5.8% (S-LANSS) and 8.1% (DN4). Neuropathic pain was highest in economically disadvantaged males. There is a significant burden of neuropathic pain in Canada. The low response rate and a slightly older and less educated sample than the Canadian population may have led to an overestimate of neuropathic pain. Population prevalence varies by screening tool used, indicating more work is needed to develop reliable measures. Population level screening targeted towards high risk groups should improve the sensitivity and specificity of screening, while clinical examination of those with positive screening results will further refine the estimate of prevalence. PMID:27445636

  9. [Hereditary deafness in Kirov oblast: a genetic epidemiological study].

    PubMed

    Zinchenko, R A; Osetrova, A A; Sharonova, E I; El'chinova, G I

    2012-03-01

    The results of a genetic epidemiological study of hereditary deafness (HD) in ten raions (districts) of Kirov oblast (administrative region), Russia, are presented. A total of 122 075 people have been examined. Segregation analysis of all families with diagnosed HD has demonstrated a good fit to either the autosomal dominant (AD) or autosomal recessive (AR) mode of inheritance. The total prevalence rates of AD and AR HDs, as well as the specific prevalence rates of nonsyndromic and syndromic forms of HD, have been calculated for the population often raions. The HD prevalence rate in Kirov oblast has been found to be 1 : 1043 people (1 : 1453 and 1 : 3699 for the nonsyndromic and syndromic forms, respectively). This value has been found to vary in different raions, which is explained by differences in the genetic subdivision levels of the populations studied; the correlation coefficient between the HD load and random inbreeding (F(ST)) in district populations is r = 0.81 +/- 0.22. The diversity of syndromic hearing disorders is described.

  10. Cognition and Vascular Risk Factors: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Vicario, Augusto; Del Sueldo, Mildren; Fernández, Ruth A.; Enders, Julio; Zilberman, Judith; Cerezo, Gustavo H.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted an epidemiological approach to identify the negative impact of the vascular risk factors (such as hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia) over cognition. The interesting aspect of this study was that the survey was conducted in all age groups through a voluntary call (n = 1365; ≥18 years old, both sexes; age 49 ± 15 y, female 75.7%). Thus, we demonstrated that the use of a Minimum Cognitive Examination (MCE), a brief, simple, and easy managed neuropsychological evaluation, detected a greater number of people with cognitive decline surpassing to the Minimal Mental Statement Examination alone (14.5% of the participants showed MMSE ≤24, 34,6% showed dys-executive function, and 45,8% memory impairment. Out of the 4 studied RF, the only one that was not related to cognitive impairment was dyslipemia. Finally, we noted the importance of cognitive state early detection in all age groups, even in the youngest group. Acting in the middle of the life stages, we can prevent or delay the onset of a disease in adults, nowadays incurable: dementia. PMID:22988488

  11. Lower limb-length discrepancy. An epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Guichet, J M; Spivak, J M; Trouilloud, P; Grammont, P M

    1991-11-01

    Two retrospective epidemiologic studies have examined the incidence and prevalence of significant lower limb-length discrepancy and the number of surgical corrections by lengthening in 1987 in France. The incidence of apparatus prescriptions for asymmetry correction filled was 2.16 per 100,000 population. The prevalence of people using a corrective apparatus was one per 1000 population. The male-to-female ratio was 1.95:1. Because of biases in the study population, the actual incidence and prevalence of significant limb-length discrepancies is likely to be considerably higher. A questionnaire administered to surgeons of the French Orthopedic Society revealed that the majority of surgical lengthenings were performed by large orthopedic teams. In the 418 procedures reported, the tibia was lengthened more often than the femur (ratio 1.1:1). Gradual distraction techniques were used in 89.4% of cases, with the Ilizarov apparatus used in 57.4%, the Wagner apparatus in 20.6%, and the Orthofix fixator in 11.2%. Immediate distraction techniques were used in 7.9% of cases, 85% of which were done on the femur. Average total lengthening was 51 mm for tibia and femur. Average lengthening was greater for methods of gradual distraction (53.5 mm) than for immediate distraction (31.4 mm).

  12. Characteristics of foodborne outbreaks in which use of analytical epidemiological studies contributed to identification of suspected vehicles, European Union, 2007 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Schlinkmann, K M; Razum, O; Werber, D

    2017-04-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks (FBDOs) occur frequently in Europe. Employing analytical epidemiological study designs increases the likelihood of identifying the suspected vehicle(s), but these studies are rarely applied in FBDO investigations. We used multivariable binary logistic regression analysis to identify characteristics of investigated FBDOs reported to the European Food Safety Authority (2007-2011) that were associated with analytical epidemiological evidence (compared to evidence from microbiological investigations/descriptive epidemiology only). The analysis was restricted to FBDO investigations, where the evidence for the suspected vehicle was considered 'strong', i.e. convincing. The presence of analytical epidemiological evidence was reported in 2012 (50%) of these 4038 outbreaks. In multivariable analysis, increasing outbreak size, number of hospitalizations, causative (i.e. aetiological) agent (whether identified and, if so, which one), and the setting in which these outbreaks occurred (e.g. geographically dispersed outbreaks) were independently associated with presence of analytical evidence. The number of investigations with reported analytical epidemiological evidence was unexpectedly high, likely indicating the need for quality assurance within the European Union foodborne outbreak reporting system, and warranting cautious interpretation of our findings. This first analysis of evidence implicating a food vehicle in FBDOs may help to inform public health authorities on when to use analytical epidemiological study designs.

  13. Allocating funds for HIV/AIDS: a descriptive study of KwaDukuza, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lasry, Arielle; Carter, Michael W; Zaric, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    Objective Through a descriptive study, we determined the factors that influence the decision-making process for allocating funds to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programmes, and the extent to which formal decision tools are used in the municipality of KwaDukuza, South Africa. Methods We conducted 35 key informant interviews in KwaDukuza. The interview questions addressed specific resource allocation issues while allowing respondents to speak openly about the complexities of the HIV/AIDS resource allocation process. Results Donors have a large influence on the decision-making process for HIV/AIDS resource allocation. However, advocacy groups, governmental bodies and local communities also play an important role. Political power, culture and ethics are among a set of intangible factors that have a strong influence on HIV/AIDS resource allocation. Formal methods, including needs assessment, best practice approaches, epidemiologic modelling and cost-effectiveness analysis are sometimes used to support the HIV/AIDS resource allocation process. Historical spending patterns are an important consideration in future HIV/AIDS allocation strategies. Conclusions Several factors and groups influence resource allocation in KwaDukuza. Although formal economic and epidemiologic information is sometimes used, in most cases other factors are more important for resource allocation decision-making. These other factors should be considered in any attempts to improve the resource allocation processes. PMID:20551138

  14. Epidemiological Study of Endemic Relapsing Fever in Hamadan Province, West of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nazari, Mansour; Najafi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endemic relapsing fever remains under diagnosed in our area according to a low index of suspicion among clinicians, as well as its difficult diagnosis. The goal of this study was to present the epidemiological aspects of the disease in western Iran. Methods: In this analytical-descriptive cross-sectional study, the epidemiological and clinical aspects of relapsing fever were investigated in Hamadan Province, western Iran from 1999 to 2013. A confirmed patient was defined as a person who had both febrile illness and detected spirochetes by Wright-Giemsa or dark-field microscopy in a peripheral blood smear. For the statistical analysis, the statistical software SPSS was used. Results: During the study period, 276 cases of relapsing fever were recorded that 146 were male. Due to the age group distributions, most of the patients aged less than 20 yr. Patients noticed from April through March, most cases were reported in September (53 cases, 19.2%). Considering time trend of the mentioned disease between 1999 and 2013 showed an increasing trend of disease from 1999 to 2003 (from 2.5% to 21.0%), while the prevalence of disease had a decreasing trend after than from 21.0% in 2003. Conclusion: The rate of endemic relapsing fever is similar in both male and female genders, but its prevalence reduced by increase of age. The trend of the changes in prevalence of the mentioned disease has shown to be downward in recent years probably due to improving health policies especially among children and adolescents and particularly in rural areas. PMID:28032111

  15. Chemotherapeutic Studies on Schistosomiasis and Clinical, Epidemiological and Immunological Studies on Malaria in Amazonas, Brazil, along the Ituxi River.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    AD-Ai58 674 CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC STUDIES ON SCHISTOSONIASIS AND CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL A..(U) BRASILIA UNIV ( BRAZIL ) A R PRATA ET AL. SEP 82 DAMD17-82...EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL STUDIES ON MALARIA IN AMAZONAS, BRAZIL , ALONG THE ITUXI RIVER Annual/Final 1 Oct 81-30 Sep 82 * 00 IO Prata, Aluzio...AND Annual/Final CLINICAL, EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL 1 Oct 81-30 Sep 82 STUDIES ON MALARIA IN AMAZONAS, BRAZIL , ALONG THE S. PERFORMING ORG

  16. Comparison of Mycotic Keratitis with Nonmycotic Keratitis: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Khater, Mohammad M.; Shehab, Nehal S.; El-Badry, Anwar S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. This work aims to study the problems encountered with and the different epidemiological features of patients with fungal keratitis. Patients and Methods. All cases with keratitis attending the Outpatient Clinic of Ophthalmology Department at Tanta University Hospital during three years from the first of January 2011 to the end of December 2013 were selected and carefully examined and cases with mycotic keratitis were further examined and investigated. Results. From 66303 attendants during this period with different complaints, there were 361 cases (0.54%) with mycotic keratitis and 473 cases (0.71%) of nonmycotic origin. Mycotic keratitis is common between 40 and 60 years, more in farmers (64%), families with large number and large crowding index, rural than urban residence, and patients with outdoor water sources and insanitary sewage disposal. Positive fungal cultures were obtained in 84.5% and were negative in 15.5% of cases in spite of their typical clinical findings for diagnosis and their improvement with antifungal therapy. Conclusion. Mycotic keratitis is more frequent in farmers, rural areas, outdoor water supply, insanitary sewage disposal, and patients preceded with organic trauma. Atypical clinical findings were found in some cases and not all cases improved with specific antifungal therapy. PMID:25548657

  17. Meningoencephalitis by Naegleria fowleri: epidemiological study in Anzoategui state, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Cermeño, Julman R; Hernández, Isabel; El Yasin, Helal; Tinedo, Rubén; Sánchez, Raúl; Pérez, Gladys; Gravano, Rosalía; Ruiz, Aida

    2006-01-01

    A case of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis produced by Naegleria fowleri was diagnosed in the Independencia county of Anzoategui State, Venezuela. This case motivated the realization of the present epidemiological study with the aim of identifying free-living amoebae in this area. Representative water samples were taken and physicochemical and microbiologic analyses were carried out. Trophozoites and cysts of Naegleria spp, were detected in 44.4% (n=4). An excellent concordance was found among the observations of free-living amoebae in smears and those of monoxenic cultures in non-nourishing agar with Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kappa=1; p= 0.003). A variable load of aerobic mesophils was obtained. Moulds and yeast averages presented 3.0 CFU/ml (SD +/- 2.0) and 102.9 CFU/ml (SD +/- 32.2), respectively. One hundred per cent of the samples presented a most probable number of total and fecal coliforms of 240,000 NMP/100mL. Naegleria spp was present in waters of the Independence county of Anzoategui state, which constitutes a risk for people that use these sources.

  18. Histopathologic reproducibility of thyroid disease in an epidemiologic study

    SciTech Connect

    Ron, E.; Griffel, B.; Liban, E.; Modan, B.

    1986-03-01

    An investigation of the long-term effects of childhood scalp irradiation demonstrated a significantly increased risk of thyroid tumors in the irradiated population. Because of the complexity of thyroid cancer diagnosis, a histopathologic slide review of 59 of the 68 patients (irradiated and nonirradiated) with thyroid disease was undertaken. The review revealed 90% agreement (kappa = +0.85, P less than 0.01) between the original and review diagnosis. Four of 27 cases previously diagnosed as malignant were reclassified as benign, yielding a cancer misdiagnosis rate of 14.8%. All four of the misdiagnosed cancers were of follicular or mixed papillary-follicular type. As a result of the histologic review, the ratio of malignant to benign tumors decreased from 2.55 to 1.75. Since disagreement in diagnosis was similar in the irradiated and nonirradiated groups, the relative risk of radiation-associated neoplasms did not change substantially. The histopathologic review shows that although there were some problems in diagnostic reproducibility, they were not statistically significant and did not alter our previous conclusions regarding radiation exposure. However, a 15% reduction in the number of malignancies might affect epidemiologic studies with an external comparison as well as geographic or temporal comparisons.

  19. Assessment of health effects in epidemiologic studies of air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Samet, J M; Speizer, F E

    1993-01-01

    As we increasingly recognize the complexity of the pollutants in indoor and outdoor microenvironments, a broad array of inhaled mixtures has assumed scientific, public health, and regulatory importance. Few adverse effects of environmental pollutants are specific, that is, uniquely associated with a single agent; the adverse effects that might be considered in an investigation of the consequences of exposure to an inhaled complex mixture are generally nonspecific. In the context of this paper, we will refer to binary mixtures as complex, though we realize that a more precise definition of complexity would restrict the term to mixtures of three or more constituents. Their causes potentially include not only pollutant exposures through the medium of inhaled air but other environmental agents, such as infectious organisms and radiation, and inherent characteristics of the exposed persons, such as atopy. We review the outcome measures that have been used in epidemiologic studies of the health effects of single pollutants and complex mixtures. Some of these outcome measures have been carefully standardized, whereas others need similar standardization and modification to improve sensitivity and specificity for investigating the health effects of air pollution. PMID:8206024

  20. [Acute and overuse injuries in elite paracycling - an epidemiological study].

    PubMed

    Kromer, P; Röcker, K; Sommer, A; Baur, H; Konstantinidis, L; Gollhofer, A; Südkamp, N P; Hirschmüller, A

    2011-09-01

    Although paracycling is a growing discipline in high level competitive sports as well as in posttraumatic rehabilitation, epidemiological data of resulting injuries is still missing. Therefore, 19 athletes of the German national paracycling team were asked about their injuries during the 2008 season using a standardized questionnaire. Overall, 18 (94.7 %) of 19 athletes reported overuse injuries; most commonly localized at the back (83.3 %), neck/shoulder (77.8 %), knee (50 %), groin/buttock (50 %) and hands/wrists (38.9 %). Altogether, 18 accidents were registered, corresponding to an injury rate of 0,95 acute injuries per athlete per year (0,07 / 1000 km). The most common acute injuries were abrasions (69.2 %) and contusions (61.5 %), whereas fractures were stated only twice (11.8 %). The anatomical distribution of overuse injuries in disabled cyclists confirms the results of studies in able-bodied cycling, although the incidences in low-back pain and neck/shoulder pain is clearly higher in disabled cycling, as well as the rate of traumatic injuries.

  1. Analysis of the transcriptome in molecular epidemiology studies

    PubMed Central

    McHale, Cliona M.; Zhang, Luoping; Thomas, Reuben; smith, Martyn T.

    2016-01-01

    The human transcriptome is complex, comprising multiple transcript types, mostly in the form of non-coding RNA (ncRNA). The majority of ncRNA is of the long form (lncRNA, ≥200bp), which plays an important role in gene regulation through multiple mechanisms including epigenetics, chromatin modification, control of transcription factor binding, and regulation of alternative splicing. Both mRNA and ncRNA exhibit additional variability in the form of alternative splicing and RNA editing. All aspects of the human transcriptome can potentially be dysregulated by environmental exposures. Next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) is the best available methodology to measure this although it has limitations, including experimental bias. The third phase of the MicroArray Quality Control Consortium project (MAQC-III), also called Sequencing Quality Control (SeQC), aims to address these limitations through standardization of experimental and bioinformatic methodologies. A limited number of toxicogenomic studies have been conducted to date using RNA-Seq. This review describes the complexity of the human transcriptome, the application of transcriptomics by RNA-Seq or microarray in molecular epidemiology studies, and limitations of these approaches including the type of cell or tissue analyzed, experimental variation, and confounding. By using good study designs with precise, individual exposure measurements, sufficient power and incorporation of phenotypic anchors, studies in human populations can identify biomarkers of exposure and/or early effect and elucidate mechanisms of action underlying associated diseases, even at low doses. Analysis of datasets at the pathway level can compensate for some of the limitations of RNA-Seq and, as more datasets become available, will increasingly elucidate the exposure-disease continuum. PMID:23907930

  2. [Epidemiologic studies on carcinogenic risk and occupational activities in tanning, leather and shoe industries].

    PubMed

    Seniori Costantini, A; Merler, E; Saracci, R

    1990-01-01

    A review is made of the epidemiological studies of occupational cancer risks among tannery, leather and shoe industry workers. The risk of nasal cancer associated with exposure to leather dust, which had already been stressed at the beginning of the 1970's, was confirmed in recent studies. However, a decreasing trend of RR was observed among shoe industry workers. The excess of leukemia among shoe workers, which was mainly based on the description of numerous cases of acute myeloblastic leukemia, has also been confirmed by two cohort studies carried out in Italy and the U.K. In addition to the evident increase in these two diseases, there are indications of an excess of cancer of other sites among leather and shoe workers, particularly bladder cancer, both among workers assigned to leather finishing operations and in leather goods and shoe production workers. Another interesting result is the excess of lung cancer among tannery workers. This evidence is unanimous in the studies carried out in Italy but is not supported by the majority of studies performed in other countries. For this reason, we consider it extremely important to carry out a multicentric study in Italy, with particular attention to the definition of occupational exposures to carcinogens. There are also other isolated reports of excesses of other cancers in the shoe and leather industries but in our opinion they are of dubious interpretation.

  3. Cohort description: The Danish study of Functional Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz; Ebstrup, Jeanette Frost; Linneberg, Allan; Skovbjerg, Sine; Madsen, Anja Lykke; Mehlsen, Jesper; Brinth, Louise; Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Carstensen, Tina Wisbech; Schroder, Andreas; Fink, Per Klausen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Jørgensen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    The Danish study of Functional Disorders (DanFunD) cohort was initiated to outline the epidemiology of functional somatic syndromes (FSS) and is the first larger coordinated epidemiological study focusing exclusively on FSS. FSS are prevalent in all medical settings and can be defined as syndromes that, after appropriate medical assessment, cannot be explained in terms of a conventional medical or surgical disease. FSS are frequent and the clinical importance varies from vague symptoms to extreme disability. No well-described medical explanations exist for FSS, and how to delimit FSS remains a controversial topic. The specific aims with the cohort were to test delimitations of FSS, estimate prevalence and incidence rates, identify risk factors, delimitate the pathogenic pathways, and explore the consequences of FSS. The study population comprises a random sample of 9,656 men and women aged 18–76 years from the general population examined from 2011 to 2015. The survey comprises screening questionnaires for five types of FSS, ie, fibromyalgia, whiplash-associated disorder, multiple chemical sensitivity, irritable bowel syndrome, and chronic fatigue syndrome, and for the unifying diagnostic category of bodily distress syndrome. Additional data included a telephone-based diagnostic interview assessment for FSS, questionnaires on physical and mental health, personality traits, lifestyle, use of health care services and social factors, and a physical examination with measures of cardiorespiratory and morphological fitness, metabolic fitness, neck mobility, heart rate variability, and pain sensitivity. A biobank including serum, plasma, urine, DNA, and microbiome has been established, and central registry data from both responders and nonresponders are similarly available on morbidity, mortality, reimbursement of medicine, heath care use, and social factors. A complete 5-year follow-up is scheduled to take place from year 2017 to 2020, and further reexaminations will be

  4. The descriptive epidemiology of DSM-IV Adult ADHD in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Fayyad, John; Sampson, Nancy A; Hwang, Irving; Adamowski, Tomasz; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura H S G; Borges, Guilherme; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G; Lee, Sing; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; O'Neill, Siobhan; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Ten Have, Margreet; Torres, Yolanda; Xavier, Miguel; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

    2017-03-01

    We previously reported on the cross-national epidemiology of ADHD from the first 10 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. The current report expands those previous findings to the 20 nationally or regionally representative WMH surveys that have now collected data on adult ADHD. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered to 26,744 respondents in these surveys in high-, upper-middle-, and low-/lower-middle-income countries (68.5% mean response rate). Current DSM-IV/CIDI adult ADHD prevalence averaged 2.8% across surveys and was higher in high (3.6%)- and upper-middle (3.0%)- than low-/lower-middle (1.4%)-income countries. Conditional prevalence of current ADHD averaged 57.0% among childhood cases and 41.1% among childhood subthreshold cases. Adult ADHD was significantly related to being male, previously married, and low education. Adult ADHD was highly comorbid with DSM-IV/CIDI anxiety, mood, behavior, and substance disorders and significantly associated with role impairments (days out of role, impaired cognition, and social interactions) when controlling for comorbidities. Treatment seeking was low in all countries and targeted largely to comorbid conditions rather than to ADHD. These results show that adult ADHD is prevalent, seriously impairing, and highly comorbid but vastly under-recognized and undertreated across countries and cultures.

  5. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-08-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer-induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy.

  6. An epidemiological study of RSV infection in the Gambia.

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Martin W.; Milligan, Paul; Sanneh, Mariama; Awemoyi, Agnes; Dakour, Raduwan; Schneider, Gisela; Palmer, Ayo; Jallow, Mariatou; Oparaogu, Anslem; Whittle, Hilton; Mulholland, E. Kim; Greenwood, Brian M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in a developing country. METHODS: The work was carried out in three hospitals for primary cases and in the community for secondary cases in the western region of the Gambia, West Africa. RSV infection was diagnosed by immunofluorescence of nasopharyngeal aspirate samples in children younger than two years admitted to hospital with acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI). Routine records of all children with ALRI were analysed, and the incidence rates of ALRI, severe RSV-associated respiratory illness and hypoxaemic RSV infections were compared. A community-based study was undertaken to identify secondary cases and to obtain information about spread of the virus. FINDINGS: 4799 children with ALRI who were younger than two years and lived in the study area were admitted to the study hospitals: 421 had severe RSV-associated respiratory illness; 55 of these were hypoxaemic. Between 1994 and 1996, the observed incidence rate for ALRI in 100 children younger than one year living close to hospital was 9.6 cases per year; for severe RSV-associated respiratory illness 0.83; and for hypoxaemic RSV-associated respiratory illness 0.089. The proportion of all ALRI admissions due to RSV was 19%. Overall, 41% of children younger than five years in compounds in which cases lived and 42% in control compounds had evidence of RSV infection during the surveillance period. CONCLUSION: RSV is an important cause of ALRI leading to hospital admission in the Gambia. Morbidity is considerable and efforts at prevention are worthwhile. PMID:12163920

  7. MELASMA: A CLINICO-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF 312 CASES

    PubMed Central

    Achar, Arun; Rathi, Sanjay K

    2011-01-01

    Background: Melasma is an acquired increased pigmentation of the skin, characterized by gray-brown symmetrical patches, mostly in the sun-exposed areas of the skin. The pathogenesis is unknown, but genetic or hormonal influences with UV radiation are important. Aims: Our present research aims to study the clinico-epidemiological pattern and the precipitating or provocation factors in melasma. Materials and Methods: A total of 312 patients were enrolled for the study over a period of one year. Results: The mean age of patients with melasma was 33.45 years, ranging from 14 to 54 years. There was female preponderance with a female to male ratio of approximately 4 : 1. The mean age of onset was 29.99 years, with the youngest and oldest being 11 and 49 years, respectively. The patients sought medical treatment on an average of 3.59 years after appearance of melasma. About 55.12% of our patients reported that their disease exacerbated during sun exposure. Among 250 female patients, 56 reported pregnancy and 46 reported oral contraceptive as the precipitating factors. Only 34 patients had given history of exacerbation of melasma during pregnancy. A positive family history of melasma was observed in 104 (33.33%) patients. Centrofacial was the most common pattern (55.44%) observed in the present study. Wood light examination showed the dermal type being the most common in 54.48% and epidermal and mixed were seen in 21.47% and 24.03% of the cases, respectively. We tried to find an association with endocrinal diseases and observed that 20 of them had hypothyroidism. Conclusion: The exact cause of melasma is unknown. However, many factors have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Here we try to identify the causative factors and provocation to develop melasma. PMID:21965843

  8. The Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-Lived Chemicals (BEES-C) Instrument for Assessing Study Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental epidemiology studies can be an effective means to assess impacts on human health from exposure to environmental stressors. Exposure scenarios are often extremely complex and proper assessment is critical for interpreting epidemiological study results. Biomarkers are...

  9. FEASIBILITY OF MATCHING STUDY PARTICIPANT RESIDENCE WITH SPECIFIC WATER UTILITY TRIHALOMETHANE (THM) DATA IN EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many epidemiologic studies concerning by-products of water disinfection use utility monitoring data to estimate exposure. Use of such data requires linkage of residence location to a specific water utility and associated monitoring data during a given exposure period. The inabil...

  10. Poliomyelitis, measles and neonatal tetanus: a hospital based epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    El Shazly, M K; Atta, H Y; Kishk, N A

    1997-01-01

    Vaccine-preventable diseases constitute a major health problem contributing to the morbidity and mortality in many developing countries including Egypt. WHO adopted resolutions to eradicate poliomyelitis by the year 2000, eliminate neonatal tetanus by the year 1995, and reduce measles mortality by 95% and morbidity by 90%, compared to the pre-immunization levels by 1995. Evaluation of preventive programs for these diseases necessitates availability of up to date information on their occurrence. The present study was undertaken to determine the current epidemiological features of poliomyelitis, neonatal tetanus and measles, to identify the trends of these diseases as well as to determine their outcomes and hospital loads. Data about the admitted cases of poliomyelitis, neonatal tetanus and measles were collected from the hospital register of Alexandria fever hospital for five successive years (1992-96). Available information on age, sex, residence, diagnosis, outcome of treatment, dates of admission and discharge were collected. The total number of cases of the three diseases admitted to the hospital during the period 1992-96 were 1406, measles represented 85.4%, neonatal tetanus 13.9% and poliomyelitis 0.7%. The results revealed that in the year 1994 only one case of poliomyelitis was admitted and since then no other cases were reported. The number of measles cases increased gradually in the latter years and about 78% of them were older than five years of age. A significant increase in the age of measles occurrence was observed. A gradual decline in the number of neonatal tetanus cases was observed. These cases were more apt to occur among early neonates but still clustered in certain geographical areas. The results of the study pinpoint the long term impact of the well run program aiming at eradicating poliomyelitis in Alexandria. However, for elimination of neonatal tetanus and controlling measles morbidity, further activities are required including strengthening

  11. Epidemiological study on food intake and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Toyonaga, A; Okamatsu, H; Sasaki, K; Kimura, H; Saito, T; Shimizu, S; Fukuizumi, K; Tsuruta, O; Tanikawa, K; Sata, M

    2000-01-01

    We conducted an epidemiological study to investigate the relation of food intake to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in an area endemic for H. pylori. In this study, 365 subjects, 104 men and 261 women, were randomly selected from 7,389 adult (over age 20) inhabitants of town A, Japan. The prevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) class antibody to H. pylori (anti-H. pylori) was 83.7% and the prevalence of anti-H. pylori increased with age significantly (P < 0.05). Subjects with anamnesis of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer and gastric cancer tended to have a higher anti-H. pylori positive ratio (93.5%) than those without (81.0%). But there was no relationship between anti-H. pylori prevalence and sex, blood type, smoking or drinking habits. Daily intake of foods by food groups, nutrients and the concentrations of serum ingredients were compared between 37 anti-H. pylori-positive and 40 negative subjects selected from 365 inhabitants by matching up according to sex and age. The daily intake of cereals, potatoes and starches, and milks tended to be higher in positive than negative subjects, while the daily intake of algae and tea appeared to be a little higher in negative than in positive subjects. The daily zinc intake of antibody-positive subjects was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in antibody negative subjects. On the other hand, the daily iron intake in negative subjects was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in positive subjects. The serum concentrations of copper, zinc, and vitamin E tended to be higher in positive than negative subjects. But there were no significant differences in serum ingredients concentrations between antibody negative and positive subjects. Our findings suggest that iron and zinc intakes may effect on H. pylori infection.

  12. True Vertigo Patients in Emergency Department; an Epidemiologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Shahrami, Ali; Norouzi, Mehdi; Kariman, Hamid; Hatamabadi, Hamid Reza; Arhami Dolatabadi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Vertigo prevalence is estimated to be 1.8% among young adults and more than 30% in the elderly. 13-38% of the referrals of patients over 65 years old in America are due to vertigo. Vertigo does not increase the risk of mortality but it can affect the patient’s quality of life. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the epidemiologic characteristics of vertigo patients referred to the emergency department (ED). Methods: In this 6-month retrospective cross-sectional study, the profiles of all vertigo patients referred to the ED of Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from October 2013 to March 2014 were evaluated. Demographic data and baseline characteristics of the patients were recorded and then patients were divided into central and peripheral vertigo. The correlation of history and clinical examination with vertigo type was evaluated and screening performance characteristics of history and clinical examination in differentiating central and peripheral vertigo were determined. Results: 379 patients with the mean age of 50.69 ± 11.94 years (minimum 18 and maximum 86) were enrolled (58.13% female). There was no sex difference in vertigo incidence (p = 0.756). A significant correlation existed between older age and increase in frequency of central cases (p < 0.001). No significant difference was detected between the treatment protocols regarding ED length of stay (p = 0.72). There was a significant overlap between the initial diagnosis and the final decision based on imaging and neurologist’s final opinion (p < 0.001). In the end, 361 (95.3%) patients were discharged from ED, while 18 were disposed to the neurology ward. No case of mortality was reported. Conclusion: Sensitivity and specificity of history and clinical examination in differentiating central and peripheral vertigo were 99 (95% CI: 57-99) and 99 (95% CI: 97-99), respectively PMID:26862546

  13. EPIDEMIOLOGIC CONCEPTS FOR INTERPRETING FINDINGS IN STUDIES OF DRINKING WATER EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To the inexperienced, environmental epidemiology may appear to be an uncomplicated, straightforward approach to studying exposure-disease associations in human populations. The studies can provide useful information about the risks of environmental exposures that human populatio...

  14. Use of Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment to Improve Interpretation of a Recreational Water Epidemiological Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a supplemental water quality monitoring study and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to complement the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA) National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water study at Boq...

  15. [Death causes in 428 alcoholic patients: a descriptive study].

    PubMed

    Martínez Lanz, P; Días Coto, C

    1992-12-01

    Several studies have demonstrated either a direct or an indirect relationship between alcoholism and death causes. The present paper is a descriptive study about death causes in 428 alcoholic patients from San José, Costa Rica, metropolitan area, whose death occurred between 1978 and 1988. Sample subjects were males, under 90-year-old at death time. It was found out that basic death causes were: Traumatism and poisoning, 25%; circulatory system illnesses, 20%; digestive system illnesses, 18.5%, and tumors, 15%.

  16. International Biological Engagement Programs Facilitate Newcastle Disease Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Patti J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Peterson, Melanie P.; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J.; Swayne, David E.; Suarez, David L.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2015-01-01

    Infections of poultry species with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), one of the most economically significant and devastating diseases for poultry producers worldwide. Biological engagement programs between the Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory (SEPRL) of the United States Department of Agriculture and laboratories from Russia, Pakistan, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Indonesia collectively have produced a better understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of the viruses responsible for ND, which is crucial for the control of the disease. The data from Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine identified possible migratory routes for birds that may carry both virulent NDV (vNDV) and NDV of low virulence into Europe. In addition, related NDV strains were isolated from wild birds in Ukraine and Nigeria, and from birds in continental USA, Alaska, Russia, and Japan, identifying wild birds as a possible mechanism of intercontinental spread of NDV of low virulence. More recently, the detection of new sub-genotypes of vNDV suggests that a new, fifth, panzootic of ND has already originated in Southeast Asia, extended to the Middle East, and is now entering into Eastern Europe. Despite expected challenges when multiple independent laboratories interact, many scientists from the collaborating countries have successfully been trained by SEPRL on molecular diagnostics, best laboratory practices, and critical biosecurity protocols, providing our partners the capacity to further train other employes and to identify locally the viruses that cause this OIE listed disease. These and other collaborations with partners in Mexico, Bulgaria, Israel, and Tanzania have allowed SEPRL scientists to engage in field studies, to elucidate more aspects of ND epidemiology in endemic countries, and to understand the challenges that the scientists and field veterinarians in these countries face on a daily basis. Finally, new viral characterization tools

  17. Epidemiological study of the cystic echinococcosis in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Azlaf, Rkia; Dakkak, Allal

    2006-04-15

    The objectives of this epidemiological study on cystic echinococcosis (CE) in Morocco (2001-2004) were to update the prevalence of CE in different animal species living in the most important areas of the country and to collect protoscoleces and germinal layers for genetic research purposes. The post mortem inspection concerned 2948 sheep, 2337 goats, 618 cattle, 482 camels and 455 equines (325 horses, 60 mules and 70 donkeys) in five different regions: the Rif (Mediterranean coast and high mountains of the Rif), the Loukkos (Atlantic northwest plain), the center (Rabat and Casablanca regions), the Middle Atlas mountains and the south (arid and semi desert areas). The global CE infection prevalence rates obtained were 22.98% in cattle, 10.58% in sheep, 12.03% in camels, 17.80% in equines and 1.88% in goats. The infection rates were especially high in the Middle Atlas in cattle (48.72%) and in the Loukkos in cattle and sheep (37.61 and 31.65%, respectively). The majority of infected cattle (49.6%) and sheep (52.1%) had hydatid cysts in both liver and lungs. Except for cattle, the liver was more infected than lungs in all the other animal species. Animals more than 5 years old were the most infected in all species. The mean CE infection rates of these animals were about 56% in cattle, 40% in sheep, 20% in camels, 17.80% in equines and 7% in goats. These rates were much higher in the Loukkos (85% of cattle and 59% of sheep) and in the Middle Atlas (68% of cattle and 45% of sheep) than in the other regions. Results showed that Echinococcus granulosus is in an endemic steady state with no evidence of protective immunity in the intermediate hosts. The mean numbers of infections per year are 0.099 for cattle, 0.063 for sheep, 0.03 for camels and 0.010 for goats.

  18. Epidemiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection in ovine breeding.

    PubMed

    Zedda, M T; Rolesu, S; Pau, S; Rosati, I; Ledda, S; Satta, G; Patta, C; Masala, G

    2010-12-01

    An outbreak of toxoplasmosis occurring in a typical farm of 524 ovines was monitored for 1 year after the occurrence of 31 abortions. Abortion events involved 7.2% of 430 pregnant sheep. Presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in sheep sera was investigated by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT). A total of 422 ewes were bled four times during the year, and an epidemiological analysis was performed on all serology data collected in this subgroup. The prevalence of IgG positives ranged from 31.52% (133/422) at the first sampling to 62.56% (264/422) at the fourth sampling. Incidence of IgG antibodies was 38.75% at the second sampling, 14.92% at the third and 29.28% at the fourth sampling. At the beginning of the study, prevalence was 70.7% in primiparous sheep and 20.9% in sheep older than 5 years; at the third sampling, prevalence was stable at 70% in pluriparous sheep. The mean prevalence of IgM antibodies was 14.87%. A total of 147 out of all 524 ovines of the flock tested positive for IgM in more than one sampling. After an initial positivity, 60 sheep tested negative for IgG at the following serological controls (4 between the first and the second sampling, 30 between the second and the third and 28 between the third and the fourth sampling). One stray cat was positive for IgG, with a titre of 1 : 320. Moreover, one of the farmers was also positive, with a titre of 1 : 160 for IgG. A positive PCR result for T. gondii DNA was also observed in aliquots of grain and pellets taken from feed stocks amassed inside the sheds without protection, suggesting that an adequate management of the farm might be useful, if not essential, for controlling T. gondii outbreaks in ovine flocks.

  19. International Biological Engagement Programs Facilitate Newcastle Disease Epidemiological Studies.

    PubMed

    Miller, Patti J; Dimitrov, Kiril M; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Peterson, Melanie P; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Swayne, David E; Suarez, David L; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-01-01

    Infections of poultry species with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), one of the most economically significant and devastating diseases for poultry producers worldwide. Biological engagement programs between the Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory (SEPRL) of the United States Department of Agriculture and laboratories from Russia, Pakistan, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Indonesia collectively have produced a better understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of the viruses responsible for ND, which is crucial for the control of the disease. The data from Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine identified possible migratory routes for birds that may carry both virulent NDV (vNDV) and NDV of low virulence into Europe. In addition, related NDV strains were isolated from wild birds in Ukraine and Nigeria, and from birds in continental USA, Alaska, Russia, and Japan, identifying wild birds as a possible mechanism of intercontinental spread of NDV of low virulence. More recently, the detection of new sub-genotypes of vNDV suggests that a new, fifth, panzootic of ND has already originated in Southeast Asia, extended to the Middle East, and is now entering into Eastern Europe. Despite expected challenges when multiple independent laboratories interact, many scientists from the collaborating countries have successfully been trained by SEPRL on molecular diagnostics, best laboratory practices, and critical biosecurity protocols, providing our partners the capacity to further train other employes and to identify locally the viruses that cause this OIE listed disease. These and other collaborations with partners in Mexico, Bulgaria, Israel, and Tanzania have allowed SEPRL scientists to engage in field studies, to elucidate more aspects of ND epidemiology in endemic countries, and to understand the challenges that the scientists and field veterinarians in these countries face on a daily basis. Finally, new viral characterization tools

  20. Fraser syndrome: epidemiological study in a European population.

    PubMed

    Barisic, Ingeborg; Odak, Ljubica; Loane, Maria; Garne, Ester; Wellesley, Diana; Calzolari, Elisa; Dolk, Helen; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Bergman, Jorieke; Bianca, Sebastiano; Boyd, Patricia A; Draper, Elizabeth S; Gatt, Miriam; Haeusler, Martin; Khoshnood, Babak; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; McDonnell, Bob; Pierini, Anna; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; Stone, David; Tenconi, Romano

    2013-05-01

    Fraser syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cryptophthalmos, cutaneous syndactyly, laryngeal, and urogenital malformations. We present a population-based epidemiological study using data provided by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) network of birth defect registries. Between January 1990 and December 2008, we identified 26 cases of Fraser syndrome in the monitored population of 12,886,464 births (minimal estimated prevalence of 0.20 per 100,000 or 1:495,633 births). Most cases (18/26; 69%) were registered in the western part of Europe, where the mean prevalence is 1 in 230,695 births, compared to the prevalence 1 in 1,091,175 for the rest of Europe (P = 0.0003). Consanguinity was present in 7/26 (27%) families. Ten (38%) cases were liveborn, 14 (54%) pregnancies were terminated following prenatal detection of a serious anomaly, and 2 (8%) were stillborn. Eye anomalies were found in 20/24 (83%), syndactyly in 14/24 (58%), and laryngeal anomalies in 5/24 (21%) patients. Ambiguous genitalia were observed in 3/24 (13%) cases. Bilateral renal agenesis was present in 12/24 (50%) and unilateral in 4/24 (17%) cases. The frequency of anorectal anomalies was particularly high (42%). Most cases of Fraser syndrome (85%) are suspected prenatally, often due to the presence of the association of renal agenesis and cryptophthalmos. In the European population, a high proportion (82%) of pregnancies is terminated, thus reducing the live birth prevalence to a third of the total prevalence rate.

  1. Adiposity and hand osteoarthritis: the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Obesity, usually characterized by the body mass index (BMI), is a risk factor for hand osteoarthritis (OA). We investigated whether adipose tissue and abdominal fat distribution are associated with hand OA. Methods The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study is a population-based cohort aged 45 to 65 years, including 5315 participants (53% women, median BMI 29.9 kg/m2). Fat percentage and fat mass (FM) (kg) were estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. The waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was calculated. In 1721 participants, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) (cm2) were assessed using abdominal MR imaging. Hand OA was defined according to the ACR criteria. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the association of fat percentage, FM, WHR, VAT and SAT with hand OA using logistic regression analyses per standard deviation, stratified by sex and adjusted for age. Results Hand OA was present in 8% of men and 20% of women. Fat percentage was associated with hand OA in men (OR 1.34 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.61)) and women (OR 1.26 (1.05 to 1.51)), as was FM. WHR was associated with hand OA in men (OR 1.45 (1.13 to 1.85)), and to a lesser extent in women (OR 1.17 (1.00 to 1.36)). Subgroup analysis revealed that VAT was associated with hand OA in men (OR1.33 (1.01 to 1.75)). This association increased after additional adjustment for FM (OR 1.51 (1.13 to 2.03)). Conclusions Fat percentage, FM and WHR were associated with hand OA. VAT was associated with hand OA in men, suggesting involvement of visceral fat in hand OA. PMID:24447395

  2. Clinico-epidemiological Study and Quality of Life Assessment in Melasma

    PubMed Central

    Yalamanchili, Ravali; Shastry, Veeranna; Betkerur, Jayadev

    2015-01-01

    Background: Melasma is one of the most common and distressing pigmentary disorders presenting to dermatology clinics. The precise cause of melasma remains unknown. It is notably difficult to treat and has a tendency to relapse. Its population prevalence varies according to ethnic composition, skin phototype, and intensity of sun exposure. Due to its frequent facial involvement, the disease has an impact on the quality of life of patients. Aims: To study the clinico-epidemiological pattern, dermascopy, wood's lamp findings and the quality of life in patients with melasma. Settings and Design: Observational/descriptive study. Materials and Methods: Patients with melasma were screened. History, clinical examination, Wood's lamp examination (WLE) and dermoscopy were done. Severity of melasma was assessed by the calculating melasma area severity index (MASI) score. Quality of Life (QOL) was assessed using MELASQOL scale with a standard structured questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive, Chi-square test and contingency coefficient analysis. Results: In 140 cases of melasma, 95 (67.9%) were females and 45 (32%) were males. Common age group affected was 31-40 years (65%). Majority were unskilled workers with average sun exposure of more than 4 hours (44%). Family history was observed in 18% cases. Malar type (68%) was the most common pattern observed. Mean MASI score was 5.7. WLE showed dermal type in 69% cases. Common findings on dermoscopy were reticular pigment network with perifollicular sparing and color varying from light to dark brown. Mean MELASQOL score was 28.28, with most patients reporting embarrassment and frustration. Conclusions: This study showed that melasma has a significant negative effect on QOL because though asymptomatic it is disfiguring affecting self-esteem. Dermoscopic examination did not help in differentiating the type of melasma. PMID:26538717

  3. Risk of Cancer in relation to Natural Radiation, including Radon: Evidence from Epidemiological Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baysson, Hélène; Tirmarche, Margot; Laurier, Dominique

    2008-08-01

    A review of recently published epidemiological studies on populations exposed to natural background ionizing radiation is proposed. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of epidemiological studies as well as the uncertainty linked to multiple exposures are discussed. As radon is the greatest source of natural radiation, particular attention is given to quantification of risk obtained through cohort studies of uranium miners and after joint analysis of case-control studies on lung cancer and residential radon.

  4. Breast cancer in Ardabil province in the north-west of Iran: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Fouladi, Nasrin; Pourfarzi, Farhad; Amani, Firooz; Ali-Mohammadi, Hossein; Lotf, Ilshan; Mazaheri, Effat

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer accounts for about 26% of all newly diagnosed cancers in women aged 20 to 59 years. As part of a basic program for cancer control, the present cross sectional descriptive study was conducted with the objective of determining the epidemiology of breast cancer in Ardabil province during 2003-2010. Necessary information on 469 recorded cases of breast cancer in the registry were collected by check list from patient's files and then analyzed by statistical methods with SPSS.16 software. Some 455 of the patients (97%) were female, 329 (70.1%) residing in Ardabil. The mean age was 46.8 ± 13.6 and most were in the age group of 40 - 60. The most prevalent pathologic form was infiltrative ductal carcinoma with 316 cases (67.4%), the largest proportion being grade II (30.6%), but very many belonged to grades III and IV (40.5%). Breast cancer in Ardabil province appeared to slightly increase over the period studied. The results were similar to other places in Asia. With regard to this, more widespread studies are required to determine factors influencing the prevalence at low age and also how to promote early detection.

  5. Epidemiology of rabies in Oman: a retrospective study (1991-2013).

    PubMed

    Abaidani, I Al; Abri, S Al; Prakash, K P; Hussain, M Hassan; Hussain, M Hammad; Rawahi, A H Al

    2015-09-28

    Animal bites and rabies are under-reported in many developing countries and there is poor understanding of the disease burden. The aim of this study was to map the epidemiology of animal bites and rabies in Oman over the period 1991-2013. In a cross-sectional, descriptive, surveillance-based study, all data about animal bites and rabies from the national communicable disease surveillance system were analysed. A total of 22 788 cases of animal bites were reported. Most bites were to males (70%) and the 10-19 year age group (26%). Cats were the most common animal and upper extremities were the most common bite site. There were 8 rabies cases reported during the study period, mostly due to bites from wild animals, with 100% mortality. Of 758 suspected animals tested, 56.1% were positive for rabies; foxes had the highest positivity rate (70.1%). The high incidence of animal bites in Oman emphasizes the importance of a rabies prevention and control programme.

  6. The Exposure Dimension of Environmental Epidemiology: A Critical but Under-ExploredStudy Quality Issue in Environmental Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological research plays a critical role in assessing the effects of various chemical, physical, oiological, and social exposures on human health both in the general population and the workplace. However, even epidemiological studies that are specifically designed to test c...

  7. Successful management of disruptive behavior: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Lux, Kathleen M; Hutcheson, Jane B; Peden, Ann R

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to describe techniques nurses use to successfully manage disruptive behavior (DB) of colleagues. DB is any inappropriate behavior, confrontation, or conflict, ranging from verbal abuse to physical and sexual harassment. Nine RNs who had successfully managed DB in a nurse colleague participated in individual interviews. All participants felt it was important to confront in private unless patient safety was at risk. Participants' described a deliberate approach that included delaying confrontation, approaching the colleague calmly, and acknowledging the colleague's point of view. Responses to the confrontation were positive. Participants also reported that the ability to confront DB improved their practice.

  8. Population studies: an integrated course in epidemiology and sociology for medical students.

    PubMed

    Elford, J; Chapman, G E; Boothroyd Brooks, E M; Shaper, A G

    1985-05-01

    At the Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine, London, an integrated course in epidemiology and sociology for preclinical students was introduced in 1979. The course--Population Studies--is taken by the 100 second-year medical students in the summer term before they enter their clinical years. It occupies one full day and one half day each week for 8 weeks--approximately 80 hours of tuition. Population Studies is unusual in two respects. Firstly, it introduces a substantial amount of epidemiology into the preclinical curriculum. And, secondly, this is the only London medical school to integrate the teaching of sociology and epidemiology into the one course.

  9. Epidemiology as discourse: the politics of development institutions in the Epidemiological Profile of El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Aviles, L

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To determine the ways in which institutions devoted to international development influence epidemiological studies.
DESIGN—This article takes a descriptive epidemiological study of El Salvador, Epidemiological Profile, conducted in 1994 by the US Agency for International Development, as a case study. The methods include discourse analysis in order to uncover the ideological basis of the report and its characteristics as a discourse of development.
SETTING—El Salvador.
RESULTS—The Epidemiological Profile theoretical basis, the epidemiological transition theory, embodies the ethnocentrism of a "colonizer's model of the world." This report follows the logic of a discourse of development by depoliticising development, creating abnormalities, and relying on the development consulting industry. The epidemiological transition theory serves as an ideology that legitimises and dissimulates the international order.
CONCLUSIONS—Even descriptive epidemiological assessments or epidemiological profiles are imbued with theoretical assumptions shaped by the institutional setting under which epidemiological investigations are conducted.


Keywords: El Salvador; politics PMID:11160170

  10. Epidemiological studies on forestomach disorders in cattle and buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, A. K.; Dhaliwal, P. S.; Randhawa, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To study epidemiology of forestomach (reticuloruminal, omasal, and abomasal) disorders in cattle and buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The 106 buffaloes and 32 cattle referred for treatment to the university large animals teaching hospital with the complaint of gastrointestinal diseases constituted the study material. The cases were diagnosed based on history, clinical examination, hematology, biochemistry, radiography, peritoneal fluid analysis and ultrasonography, rumenotomy, and postmortem. A questionnaire was prepared containing important information on housing, husbandry practices, including feeding practices and individual animal information viz. age, species, month of the year, parity, gestation (month), and recent parturition. The animals were divided into eight groups and analysis of variance was performed to study risk factors associated with each condition. Results: The forestomach disorders are widely prevalent in cattle and buffaloes between April and October, during summer and rainy season (90%) and constituted a significant proportion of diseased cows and buffaloes (138/1840) at the hospital. Different forestomach disorders and their prevalence was: Diaphragmatic hernia (DH) 17%, traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP) 14%, idiopathic motility disorder or vagus indigestion (VI) 22%, adhesive peritonitis (AP) 13%, frank exudative peritonitis (FEP) 12%, reticular abscess (RA) 8%, ruminal and omasal impaction (RI) 5%, and abomaso duodenal ulceration (ADU) 9%. DH and RA were significantly more common in buffaloes as compared to cattle. Similarly, impactions were more in buffaloes but its incidence was very low (5%). ADU was present in buffalo as commonly as in cows. Exclusive feeding of wheat straw was present in an abysmally low number of animals and hence could not be considered the cause of these disorders. DH was significantly higher in buffaloes (>5 years) of 5-8 years of age and TRP, VI and AP were observed in cattle and buffalo of 2-8 years of

  11. What is desirable and feasible in dose reconstruction for application in epidemiological studies?

    SciTech Connect

    Bouville, A.; Beebe, G.W.; Anspaugh, L.

    1996-02-01

    Epidemiological studies of populations are of two general forms, monitoring or formal, and serve several possible purposes. Monitoring studies inform members of potentially affected population groups of the nature and magnitude of the risks that might have been imposed on them. Formal epidemiological studies can increase scientific knowledge about the quantitative risk that attends exposure. Risks of human health due to radiation exposure are most appropriately estimated by means of formal epidemiological studies. Dosimetric data are essential for any epidemiological study, but the detail and accuracy needed depend on the purposes to be served. If the need is for a monitoring study, then general information about doses will suffice. However, a formal study that is expected to contribute to scientific information about quantitative radiation risk requires careful individual dose estimation. This paper is devoted to the discussion of dosimetric data needed for formal epidemiological studies of populations exposed as a result of nuclear power operations. The recommendations made by the National Research Council have largely been followed. The examples used in this paper are relevant to the Chernobyl accident, which caused a large number of people to be exposed at relatively high doses and provided an opportunity for formal epidemiological studies to be initiated. The studies that are singled out are those of thyroid cancer among children who resided in Belarus and in Ukraine at the time of the accident, and those of leukemia among workers involved in the mitigation of the accident and in clean-up operations.

  12. Out-of-field doses in radiotherapy: Input to epidemiological studies and dose-risk models.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Roger

    2017-04-06

    Out-of-field doses in radiotherapy have been increasingly studied in recent years because of the generally improved survival of patients who have received radiotherapy as part of their treatment for cancer and their subsequent risk of a second malignancy. This short article attempts to identify some current problems, challenges and opportunities for dosimetry developments in this field. Out-of-field doses and derived risk estimates contribute to general knowledge about radiation effects on humans as well as contributing to risk-benefit considerations for the individual patient. It is suggested that for input into epidemiological studies, the complete dose description (i.e. the synthesis of therapy and imaging doses from all the treatment and imaging modalities) is ideally required, although there is currently no common dosimetry framework which easily covers all modalities. A general strategy for out-of-field dose estimation requires development and improvement in several areas including (i) dosimetry in regions of steep dose gradient close to the field edge (ii) experimentally verified analytical and Monte Carlo models for out-of-field doses (iii) the validity of treatment planning system algorithms outside the field edge (iv) dosimetry of critical sub-structures in organs at risk (v) mixed field (including neutron) dosimetry in proton and ion radiotherapy and photoneutron production in high energy photon beams (vi) the most appropriate quantities to use in neutron dosimetry in a radiotherapy context and (vii) simplification of measurement methods in regions distant from the target volume.

  13. [Epidemiologic warnings from studies on alcohol use disorders].

    PubMed

    Limosin, F

    2014-04-01

    The highest consumption levels of alcohol are found in the developed world, mostly the Northern Hemisphere. After a slight decrease at the beginning of the 1990s, alcohol use in the European Region increased with an average adult per capita consumption amounting to 12.5 litres of pure alcohol per capita for the year 2009. In France, adult consumption was 12.7 litres of pure alcohol per capita for the year 2009, and it is estimated that 1.5 to 2 million of adults are alcohol-dependent (4-5% of the adult population) and 5 million are excessive drinkers. The harmful use of alcohol is one of the world's leading health risks. Alcohol is the direct cause of more than 30 diseases and a causal factor in more than 60 major types of diseases and injuries, resulting in approximately 2.5 million deaths each year. Approximately 4% of all deaths worldwide and 4.5% (7.4% for men and 1.4% for women) of the global burden of disease and injury are attributable to alcohol. In 2004 in the EU, 15.2% of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in men and 3.9% of all DALYs in women were lost due to alcohol. While the impact of alcohol consumption and dependence on mortality and disease is substantial, there are also many psychosocial consequences, including violence, family problems, child neglect and abuse, absenteeism and lost productivity in the workplace. This means that alcohol consumption and dependence have sizable impacts on many people other than the drinker. These effects add up to a staggering number of alcohol-attributable social costs, which can be estimated at € 155.8 billion a year in Europe. Despite all these consequences, many individuals with alcohol use disorders remain untreated although effective treatments exist. From 37 community-based psychiatric epidemiology studies that used standardized diagnostic instruments and included data on the percentage of individuals receiving care for alcohol abuse or dependence, the median rate of untreated cases of these

  14. Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution have traditionally relied upon surrogates of personal exposures, most commonly ambient concentration measurements from central-site monitors. However, this approach may introduce exposure prediction errors and miscla...

  15. Equivalency of risk for a modified health endpoint: a case from recreational water epidemiology studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and its predecessors have conducted three distinct series of epidemiological studies beginning in 1948 on the relationship between bathing water quality and swimmers' illnesses. Keeping pace with advances in microbial tec...

  16. Spot Sampling and Exposure Surrogate Selection as Sources of Bias in Environmental Epidemiology Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spot measurements of chemical biomarkers are often used as quantitative exposure surrogates in environmental epidemiology studies. These measures can be expressed a number of different ways – for example, urinary biomarkers can be expressed in units of concentration (&micr...

  17. Development and Evaluation of Alternative Metrics of Ambient Air Pollution Exposure for Use in Epidemiologic Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population-based epidemiologic studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as area-wide ambient air pollution levels based on readily available outdoor concentrations from central monitoring sites. This practice may in...

  18. Webinar Presentation: Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Neurodevelopment.

  19. A nationwide study of the epidemiology of relapsing polychondritis

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Anna; Páll, Nóra; Molnár, Katalin; Kováts, Tamás; Surján, György; Vicsek, Tamás; Pollner, Péter

    2016-01-01

    Objective Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare autoimmune inflammatory disease that attacks mainly cartilaginous structures or causes serious damage in proteoglycan-rich structures (the eyes, heart, blood vessels, inner ear). This study shows results regarding the epidemiology, progression, and associations of this highly variable disease by collecting all cases from a 124-million-person-year Central European nationwide cohort. Methods We used the Hungarian Health Care Database to identify all persons with possible RP infection. We followed patients who had International Classification of Diseases 10th edition code M94.1 at least once in their inpatient or outpatient records between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2013 in Hungary. We classified these patients into disease severity groups by their drug consumption patterns between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2013. We analyzed the regional distribution of RP incidences as well. Overall maps of comorbidity are presented with network layouts. Results We identified 256 patients with RP among cumulatively 11.5 million registered inhabitants. We classified these patients into four severity classes as “extremely mild” (n=144), “mild” (n=22), “moderate” (n=41), and “severe” (n=4). Two additional groups were defined for patients without available drug data as “suspected only” (n=23) and “confirmed but unknown treatment” (n=22). The age and sex distributions of patients were similar to worldwide statistics. Indeed, the overall survival was good (95% confidence interval for 5 years was 83.6%–92.9% and for 10 years was 75.0%–88.3% which corresponds to the overall survival of the general population in Hungary), and the associations with other autoimmune disorders were high (56%) in Hungary. Almost any disease can occur with RP; however, the symptoms of chromosomal abnormalities are only incidental. Spondylosis can be a sign of the activation of RP, while Sjögren syndrome is the most frequent

  20. Unnatural pregnancy deaths in Las Vegas: A descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Mahesan Paul, Anthea B; Simms, Lary; Paul, Abraham Ebenezer; Yorke, Jojo; Saroya, Tarnjot; Schmidseder, Christopher; Mahesan, Andrew A; Mahesan, Arnold M

    2016-11-01

    This study reports descriptive data assessing the prevalence of various risk factors and associations among pregnancy-related death by unnatural causes (PRUD), namely suicide, homicide and accidental causes in the city of Las Vegas. In 7215 women referred for autopsy, results showed PRUD 0.1% (n = 37) was more common in the Caucasian race 45.9% (n = 17), and ages 20-30 years 43.2% (n = 16). We also identified high prevalence of mental illness 51.3% (n = 19) and low prenatal care 37.8% (n = 14), particularly in our suicide cohort 100.0% (n = 13), and 15.3% (n = 2) respectively. Our study demonstrates the first investigation to identify the relationship between mental illness, particularly mood and substance disorders with pregnancy-related unnatural death.

  1. Endodontic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Shahravan, Arash; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of disease distribution and factors determining or affecting it. Likewise, endodontic epidemiology can be defined as the science of studying the distribution pattern and determinants of pulp and periapical diseases; specially apical periodontitis. Although different study designs have been used in endodontics, researchers must pay more attention to study designs with higher level of evidence such as randomized clinical trials. PMID:24688577

  2. Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education: A guide to record series supporting epidemiologic studies conducted for the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-17

    This guide describes record series that pertain to epidemiologic and health-related studies at the Center for Epidemiologic Research (CER) of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE). These records document the health and safety monitoring of employees and contract employees of the Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor organizations, the Manhattan Engineer District (MED), the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), and the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project, HAI`s role in the project, the history of the DOE and its epidemiologic research program, and the history of the Oak Ridge Reservation and the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education. It also furnishes information on the procedures that HAI sued to select, inventory, and describe pertinent records; the methodology used to produce the guide; the arrangement of the record series descriptions; the location of the records; and procedures for accessing records repositories.

  3. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology—Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut): An Extension of the STROBE Statement

    PubMed Central

    Hawwash, Dana; Ocké, Marga C.; Berg, Christina; Forsum, Elisabet; Sonestedt, Emily; Wirfält, Elisabet; Åkesson, Agneta; Kolsteren, Patrick; Byrnes, Graham; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Camp, John; Slimani, Nadia; Cevallos, Myriam; Egger, Matthias; Huybrechts, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background Concerns have been raised about the quality of reporting in nutritional epidemiology. Research reporting guidelines such as the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement can improve quality of reporting in observational studies. Herein, we propose recommendations for reporting nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research by extending the STROBE statement into Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology—Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut). Methods and Findings Recommendations for the reporting of nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research were developed following a systematic and consultative process, coordinated by a multidisciplinary group of 21 experts. Consensus on reporting guidelines was reached through a three-round Delphi consultation process with 53 external experts. In total, 24 recommendations for nutritional epidemiology were added to the STROBE checklist. Conclusion When used appropriately, reporting guidelines for nutritional epidemiology can contribute to improve reporting of observational studies with a focus on diet and health. PMID:27270749

  4. An observational study on cough in children: epidemiology, impact on quality of sleep and treatment outcome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cough is one of the most frequent symptoms in children and is the most common symptom for which children visit a health care provider. Methods This is an observational study on acute cough associated with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in children. The study evaluates the epidemiology and impact of cough on quality of sleep and children's activities, and the outcome of cough with antitussive treatments in pediatric routine clinical practice. Study assessments were performed through a pediatric cough questionnaire (PCQ), developed by the Italian Society of Cough Study. A total of 433 children visited by family care pediatricians for acute cough due to a URTI were enrolled in this study, with mean age of 6.1 years (SD 3.6). Cough type, duration, severity and frequency, cough impact on sleep disturbances of children and parents and on school and sport activities were assessed at baseline. In a subset of 241 children who were either treated with antitussive drugs (levodropropizine n = 101, central antitussives n = 60) or received no treatment (n = 80), the outcome of cough after 6 days was analyzed in terms of resolution, improvement, no change, or worsening. Descriptive analysis, χ2 test, and multivariate analysis with stepwise logistic regression were performed. Results Cough disturbed sleep in 88% of children and 72% of parents. In children treated with cough suppressants, the duration, type, intensity, and frequency cough were similar at baseline in the two groups respectively treated with levodropropizine and central antitussives (cloperastine and codeine). Both levodropropizine and central drugs reduced cough intensity and frequency. However, percentage of cough resolution was higher with levodropropizine than with central antitussives (47% vs. 28% respectively, p = 0.0012). Conclusions Acute cough disturbs sleep in most children and their parents. Both levodropropizine and central antitussives reduced cough intensity, with levodropropizine

  5. [Polish Multicenter Study on Diabetes Epidemiology (PMSDE)--1998-2000].

    PubMed

    Szybiński, Z

    2001-09-01

    increasing a burden of patients, theirs families, society and health care system. Within PMSDE programme elaboration of the model for calculation the direct costs about of diabetes and burden in terms of years of life lost using DALY measure was performed (K. Kissimova-Skarbek). Average diabetes type 1 patients costs 7 times and type 2 over 3 times higher than average health care cost and 95% of total time lost due to disability is caused by diabetes type 2. Therefor primary and secondary prevention of diabetes typ 2 have highest priority among strategic preventive targets. The Review Conference held in Warsaw at 24-25 February 2001 in the presence of WHO Experts formulated the recommendations focused on: 1. Elaboration of high risk strategy for early diagnosis of unknown diabetes type 2 based on the 2-hours OGTT (WHO 1985) 2. Continuation of the epidemiologic study in diabetes 3. Instituting the professional post for diabetes educator on the specialized and primary health care levels. 4. Further research are recommended for evaluation of the role of fasting glycemia and hyperinsulinemia as predictors and risk factors of diabetes type 2, for development of preventive models in diabetes type 2 and for development of the economical models to asses the costs of diabetes (Recommendations).

  6. THE 1998 BALTIMORE PARTICULATE MATTER EPIDEMIOLOGY-EXPOSURE STUDY: PART 2-PERSONAL EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT ASSOCIATED WITH AN ELDERLY STUDY POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An integrated epidemiological-exposure panel study was conducted during the summer of 1998 which focused upon establishing relationships between potential human exposures to particulate matter (PM) and related co-pollutants with detectable health effects. The study design incor...

  7. The Brazilian Football Association (CBF) model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries

    PubMed Central

    Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Runco, Jose Luiz; Cohen, Moisés

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish a national methodological model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries and to describe the numerous relevant studies previously published on this topic. INTRODUCTION: The risk of injury in professional soccer is high. However, previous studies of injury risk in Brazil and other countries have been characterized by large variations in study design and data collection methods as well as definitions of injury, standardized diagnostic criteria, and recovery times. METHODS: A system developed by the Union of European Football for epidemiological studies on professional soccer players is being used as a starting point to create a methodological model for the Brazilian Football Association. To describe the existing studies on professional soccer player injuries, we developed a search strategy to identify relevant epidemiological studies. We included the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and Medline databases in our study. RESULTS: We considered 60 studies from Medline and 16 studies from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences in the final analysis. Twelve studies were selected for final inclusion in this review: seven from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and five from Medline. We identified a lack of uniformity in the study design, data collection methods, injury definitions, standardized diagnostic criteria, and the definition of recovery time. Based on the information contained within these articles, we developed a model for epidemiological studies for the Brazilian Football Association. CONCLUSIONS: There is no uniform model for epidemiological studies of professional soccer injuries. Here, we propose a novel model to be applied for epidemiological studies of professional soccer player injuries in Brazil and throughout the world. PMID:22012041

  8. Emergency Department Utilization by Older Adults: a Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Lesley P.; Ackroyd-Stolarz, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    Background Emergency Departments (EDs) are playing an increasingly important role in the care of older adults. Characterizing ED usage will facilitate the planning for care delivery more suited to the complex health needs of this population. Methods In this retrospective cross-sectional study, administrative and clinical data were extracted from four study sites. Visits for patients aged 65 years or older were characterized using standard descriptive statistics. Results We analyzed 34,454 ED visits by older adults, accounting for 21.8% of the total ED visits for our study time period. Overall, 74.2% of patient visits were triaged as urgent or emergent. Almost half (49.8%) of visits involved diagnostic imaging, 62.1% involved lab work, and 30.8% involved consultation with hospital services. The most common ED diagnoses were symptom- or injury-related (25.0%, 17.1%. respectively). Length of stay increased with age group (Mann-Whitney U; p < .0001), as did the proportion of visits involving diagnostic testing and consultation (χ2; p < .0001). Approximately 20% of older adults in our study population were admitted to hospital following their ED visit. Conclusions Older adults have distinct patterns of ED use. ED resource use intensity increases with age. These patterns may be used to target future interventions involving alternative care for older adults. PMID:25452824

  9. Using Geographic Information Systems for Exposure Assessment in Environmental Epidemiology Studies

    PubMed Central

    Nuckols, John R.; Ward, Mary H.; Jarup, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are being used with increasing frequency in environmental epidemiology studies. Reported applications include locating the study population by geocoding addresses (assigning mapping coordinates), using proximity analysis of contaminant source as a surrogate for exposure, and integrating environmental monitoring data into the analysis of the health outcomes. Although most of these studies have been ecologic in design, some have used GIS in estimating environmental levels of a contaminant at the individual level and to design exposure metrics for use in epidemiologic studies. In this article we discuss fundamentals of three scientific disciplines instrumental to using GIS in exposure assessment for epidemiologic studies: geospatial science, environmental science, and epidemiology. We also explore how a GIS can be used to accomplish several steps in the exposure assessment process. These steps include defining the study population, identifying source and potential routes of exposure, estimating environmental levels of target contaminants, and estimating personal exposures. We present and discuss examples for the first three steps. We discuss potential use of GIS and global positioning systems (GPS) in the last step. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that the use of GIS in exposure assessment for environmental epidemiology studies is not only feasible but can enhance the understanding of the association between contaminants in our environment and disease. PMID:15198921

  10. Molecular and epidemiological studies of Porcine rubulavirus infection - an overview.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, Julieta Sandra; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Berg, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Porcine rubulavirus-La Piedad-Michoacan-Mexico virus (PorPV-LPMV) was identified as the causative agent of a viral disease that emerged spontaneously in Mexican swine in the 1980s. Since the report of the initial outbreak of the disease, only one full-length genome from a strain isolated in 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been sequenced; sequence data are scarce from other isolates. The genetic variation of this virus that has spread throughout the main endemic region of Mexico is almost a complete mystery. The development of molecular techniques for improved diagnostics and to investigate the persistence, molecular epidemiology, and the possible reservoirs of PorPV are needed. Together, this will provide greater knowledge regarding the molecular genetic changes and useful data to establish new strategies in the control of this virus in Mexico.

  11. Measuring Taste Impairment in Epidemiologic Studies – The Beaver Dam Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshanks, KJ; Schubert, CR; Snyder, DJ; Bartoshuk, LM; Huang, GH; Klein, BEK; Klein, R; Nieto, FJ; Pankow, JS; Tweed, TS; Krantz, EM; Moy, GS

    2008-01-01

    Taste or gustatory function may play an important role in determining diet and nutritional status and therefore indirectly impact health. Yet there have been few attempts to study the spectrum of taste function and dysfunction in human populations. Epidemiological studies are needed to understand the impact of taste function and dysfunction on public health, to identify modifiable risk factors, and to develop and test strategies to prevent clinically significant dysfunction. However, measuring taste function in epidemiological studies is challenging and requires repeatable, efficient methods which can measure change over time. Insights gained from translating laboratory-based methods to a population-based study, the Beaver Dam Offspring Study (BOSS) will be shared. In this study, a generalized labeled magnitude scale (gLMS) method was used to measure taste intensity of filter paper disks saturated with salt, sucrose, citric acid, quinine, or 6-n-propylthiouracil and a gLMS measure of taste preferences was administered. In addition, a portable, inexpensive camera system to capture digital images of fungiform papillae and a masked grading system to measure the density of fungiform papillae were developed. Adult children of participants in the population-based Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin are eligible for this on-going study. The parents were residents of Beaver Dam and 43–84 years of age in 1987–88; offspring range in age from 21–84 years in 2005–2008. Methods will be described in detail and preliminary results about the distributions of taste function in the BOSS cohort will be presented. PMID:19686191

  12. Brief Report: Negative Controls to Detect Selection Bias and Measurement Bias in Epidemiologic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ercumen, Ayse; Benjamin-Chung, Jade; Colford, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical laboratory experiments routinely use negative controls to identify possible sources of bias, but epidemiologic studies have infrequently used this type of control in their design or measurement approach. Recently, epidemiologists proposed the routine use of negative controls in observational studies and defined the structure of negative controls to detect bias due to unmeasured confounding. We extend this previous study and define the structure of negative controls to detect selection bias and measurement bias in both observational studies and randomized trials. We illustrate the strengths and limitations of negative controls in this context using examples from the epidemiologic literature. Given their demonstrated utility and broad generalizability, the routine use of prespecified negative controls will strengthen the evidence from epidemiologic studies. PMID:27182642

  13. Meta-epidemiological study: a step by step approach by using R.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongheng

    2016-02-09

    The results of meta-analysis are usually influenced by characteristics of component trials. These characteristics include but are not limited to sample size, publication language, quality of study design and the number of participating centers. Because systematic review and meta-analysis is considered to be evidence of the highest quality in the era of evidence-based medicine, characteristics that may bias the results of meta-analysis should be fully investigated. Meta-epidemiological study aims to investigate the impact of study design characteristics on treatment effect. The article introduces how to perform meta-epidemiological study by using R software. There are several methodological approaches to perform meta-epidemiological study, depending on whether there is heterogeneity between meta-analyses and between trials. When there is no significant heterogeneity, these results would be similar. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Leveraging epidemiologic and clinical collections for genomic studies of complex traits

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Dana C.; Goodloe, Robert; Farber-Eger, Eric; Boston, Jonathan; Pendergrass, Sarah A.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Bush, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Present day limited resources demand DNA and phenotyping alternatives to the traditional prospective population-based epidemiologic collections. Methods To accelerate genomic discovery with an emphasis on diverse populations, we as part of the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) study accessed all non-European American samples (n=15,863) available in BioVU, the Vanderbilt University biorepository linked to de-identified electronic medical records, for genomic studies as part of the larger Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) I Study. Given previous studies have cautioned against the secondary use of clinically collected data compared with epidemiologically-collected data, we present here a characterization of EAGLE BioVU, including the billing and diagnostic (ICD-9) code distributions for adult and pediatric patients as well as comparisons made for select health metrics (body mass index, glucose, HbA1c, HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides) with the population-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) linked to DNA samples (NHANES III; n=7,159 and NHANES 1999–2002; n=7,839). Results Overall, the distributions of billing and diagnostic codes suggest this clinical sample is mixture of healthy and sick patients like that expected for a contemporary American population. Conclusion Little bias is observed among health metrics suggesting this clinical collection is suitable for genomic studies along with traditional epidemiologic cohorts. PMID:26201699

  15. [The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies].

    PubMed

    von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; Egger, Matthias; Pocock, Stuart J; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Vandenbroucke, Jan P

    2008-01-01

    Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September, 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a checklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed explanation and elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the websites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies.

  16. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies.

    PubMed

    von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; Egger, Matthias; Pocock, Stuart J; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Vandenbroucke, Jan P

    2014-12-01

    Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a checklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE Statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed Explanation and Elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the Web sites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE Statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies.

  17. An Epidemiological Study of Road Traffic Accidents in Guilan Province, Northern Iran in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Mohtasham-Amiri, Zahra; Dastgiri, Saeed; Davoudi-kiakalyeh, Ali; Imani, Ali; Mollarahimi, Keyvan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the epidemiological characteristics of the road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Guilan province, northern Iran. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study which included all of RTIs admitted to medical centers of Guilan province (northern Iran) during 2012. ICD-10 was used as diagnostic criteria. Demographic variables also injury circumstance and in hospital variables such as length of stay, time of admission, type of surgery, ICU admission, final outcome and mechanism of injury, anatomical part of injury according to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) classification were derives from records by trained research team. Descriptive data is reported. The predictors of mortality were also determined. Results: The prevalence of road traffic injuries in Guilan province was 31 in 10,000 populations. Of total 7671 accidents, 5976 (77.9%) were men and 1695 (22.1%) were women. Mean age of these victims was 33.3 ± 17.289 years (32.64±16.939 for men, 35.62±18.312 for women). Most of them (32.5%) were 20-29 years old. Motorcycle-car accidents had the highest frequency followed by car-car crashes and car accidents involving pedestrians. Most of the patients (85.9%) were hospitalized and 280 injured died (3.7%). Upper extremities were the most sites of injuries. Male sex, length of hospital stay, multiple injuries and increased age were associated with road traffic accident associated mortality. Conclusion: RTIs cause enormous death and disability in this area and more road traffic preventive programs should be enforcement in these areas to reduce incidences RTI. PMID:27878129

  18. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marley, Andrew R; Nan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is currently the third deadliest cancer in the United States and will claim an estimated 49,190 U.S. lives in 2016. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of this disease, based on nationally published statistics and information presented in peer-reviewed journal articles. Specifically, this review will cover the following topics: descriptive epidemiology (including time and disease trends both in the United States and abroad), risk factors (environmental, genetic, and gene-environment interactions), screening, prevention and control, and treatment. Landmark discoveries in colorectal cancer risk factor research will also be presented. Based on the information reviewed for this report, we suggest that future U.S. public health efforts aim to increase colorectal cancer screening among African American communities, and that future worldwide colorectal cancer epidemiology studies should focus on researching nutrient-gene interactions towards the goal of improving personalized treatment and prevention strategies. PMID:27766137

  19. Multimodality molecular imaging--from target description to clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Schober, O; Rahbar, K; Riemann, B

    2009-02-01

    This highlight lecture was presented at the closing session of the Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) in Munich on 15 October 2008. The Congress was a great success: there were more than 4,000 participants, and 1,597 abstracts were submitted. Of these, 1,387 were accepted for oral or poster presentation, with a rejection rate of 14%. In this article a choice was made from 100 of the 500 lectures which received the highest scores by the scientific review panel. This article outlines the major findings and trends at the EANM 2008, and is only a brief summary of the large number of outstanding abstracts presented. Among the great number of oral and poster presentations covering nearly all fields of nuclear medicine some headlines have to be defined highlighting the development of nuclear medicine in the 21st century. This review focuses on the increasing impact of molecular and multimodality imaging in the field of nuclear medicine. In addition, the question may be asked as to whether the whole spectrum of nuclear medicine is nothing other than molecular imaging and therapy. Furthermore, molecular imaging will and has to go ahead to multimodality imaging. In view of this background the review was structured according to the single steps of molecular imaging, i.e. from target description to clinical studies. The following topics are addressed: targets, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy, devices and computer science, animals and preclinical evaluations, and patients and clinical evaluations.

  20. Rheumatic chorea in northern Australia: a clinical and epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Carapetis, J.; Currie, B.

    1999-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology and clinical features of Sydenham's chorea in the Aboriginal population of northern Australia a review was conducted of 158 episodes in 108 people: 106 were Aborigines, 79 were female, and the mean age was 10.9 years at first episode. Chorea occurred in 28% of cases of acute rheumatic fever, carditis occurred in 25% of episodes of chorea, and arthritis in 8%. Patients with carditis or arthritis tended to have raised acute phase reactants and streptococcal serology. Two episodes lasted at least 30 months. Mean time to first recurrence of chorea was 2.1 years compared with 1.2 years to second recurrence. Established rheumatic heart disease developed in 58% of cases and was more likely in those presenting with acute carditis, although most people who developed rheumatic heart disease did not have evidence of acute carditis with chorea. Differences in the patterns of chorea and other manifestations of acute rheumatic fever in different populations may hold clues to its pathogenesis. Long term adherence to secondary prophylaxis is crucial following all episodes of acute rheumatic fever, including chorea, to prevent recurrence.

 PMID:10086943

  1. Family and Psychosocial Risk Factors in a Longitudinal Epidemiological Study of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuffe, Steven P.; McKeown, Robert E.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Garrison, Carol Z.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the association of family and social risk factors with psychopathology in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Method: From 1986 to 1988, 3,419 seventh through ninth graders were screened with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The top decile scorers and a random sample of the remainder were interviewed…

  2. Exposure assessment for a large epidemiological study of aircraft manufacturing workers.

    PubMed

    Marano, D E; Boice, J D; Fryzek, J P; Morrison, J A; Sadler, C J; McLaughlin, J K

    2000-08-01

    Methods were developed to assess exposure to a wide variety of chemicals for nearly 80,000 workers involved in manufacturing aircraft since 1928. The facilities, now closed, consisted of four major plants, over 200 buildings, and a changing workforce during 60 years of operation. To access chemical exposures by specific jobs and calendar years, we reviewed complete work histories, examined detailed job descriptions available going back to 1940, interviewed long-term employees, conducted walk-through visits of aircraft manufacturing plants, reviewed comprehensive environmental assessment reports and industrial hygiene surveys on the facilities, and built on experience gained in previous studies of the aircraft industry. Using computer-based imaging systems, we examined and evaluated the complete work histories found on service record cards for the cohort and abstracted detailed information on all jobs held among the factory workers who had been employed for at least one year. Jobs were classified into one of three exposure categories related to the use of specific chemicals: routine, intermittent, and none, and these classifications were subsequently used in the epidemiological analyses. The approach to exposure assessment began with the most general categorization of employees (i.e., all workers) and then became progressively more specific, that is, factor workers, job families (similar activities), job titles, and jobs with chemical usage (exposure potential). Because exposure surveys were limited or absent during the early years of plant operations, we did not assign quantitative measures of exposure to individual job activities. Instead, we used as our exposure metric, the length of time spent in jobs with potential exposure to the chemical. Important occupational exposures included chromate-containing compounds such as used in paint primers, trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene used as vapor-state degreasing solvents, and a broad range of other solvents.

  3. Epidemiologic studies of ionizing radiation and cancer: past successes and future challenges.

    PubMed Central

    Samet, J M

    1997-01-01

    The health effects of radiation have been a focus for research since early in the 20th century. As the century ends, extensive experimental and epidemiologic evidence has been accumulated that addresses the adverse consequences of radiation exposure; epidemiologic studies of radiation-exposed groups from the general population and specific occupational groups provide quantitative estimates of the cancer risks associated with exposure. This report provides a perspective on the extensive epidemiologic evidence on the health effects of ionizing radiation and on likely needs for further epidemiologic research on radiation and health. Epidemiologic studies have proved informative on the quantitative risks of radiation-caused cancer but we now face the challenges of more precisely characterizing risks at lower levels of exposure and also of assessing modifiers of the risks, including dose rate, genetic susceptibility, and other environmental exposures. This report considers investigative approaches, such as pooled analysis of multiple data sets, that can be used to address these complex questions and the limitations of these approaches for addressing societal concerns about the risks of radiation exposure. PMID:9255575

  4. The epidemiology of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, S E

    2001-05-01

    Studies of the descriptive epidemiology of RA indicate a population prevalence of 0.5% to 1% and a highly variable annual incidence (12-1200 per 100,000 population) depending on gender, race/ethnicity, and calendar year. Secular trends in RA incidence over time have been shown in several studies, supporting the hypothesis of a host-environment interaction. People with RA have a significantly increased risk of death compared with age- and sex-matched controls without RA from the same community. The determinants of this excess mortality remain unclear; however, reports suggest increased risk from gastrointestinal, respiratory, cardiovascular, infectious, and hematologic diseases among RA patients compared with controls. Despite extensive epidemiologic research, the etiology of RA is unknown. Several risk factors have been suggested as important in the development or progression of RA. These include genetics, infectious agents, oral contraceptives, smoking, and formal education. Epidemiologic research is an essential contributor to our understanding of RA.

  5. Test-retest reliability and factor stability of the behavioral evaluation for epidemiology studies test battery.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, Diana; Heyer, Nicholas J; Bittner, Alvan C; Rohlman, Diane; Woods, James S

    2002-12-01

    The Behavioral Evaluation for Epidemiology Studies test battery uses touch-screen technology and novel methodologies to enhance neurobehavioral assessment. Scores generally show differential stability from the first trial with individual test reliabilities at or above .80 when normalized to a 3-min. administration. Six highly reliable (r > or = .87) factors were identified that cover functions known to be sensitive to neurotoxicants and physical exposures. These results strongly support recommendation of the new test battery for use in repeated-measures epidemiologic studies where first trial stability is desired.

  6. Tropical epidemiology: a system for continuous demographic monitoring of a study population.

    PubMed

    Stephens, J; Alonso, P L; Byass, P; Snow, R W

    1989-07-01

    Epidemiologists in many developing countries, where official demographic services are unavailable, have to include some demographic functions in their work. The usual method of documenting a study population for epidemiological research in a developing country consists of three stages: mapping, enumeration and vital registration. This paper considers the last element of this process, detailing the development of a suitable data system and explaining how its implementation using microcomputers and a database management system can help in the creation of an on-line continuous vital registration system for a study population as an epidemiological tool. The issues covered are data collection, entry and analysis, and the advantages of such a system for use in epidemiological research in developing countries are also discussed.

  7. Syndromic surveillance in Vanuatu since Cyclone Pam: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Harries, Anthony David; Merilles, Onofre Edwin; Viney, Kerri; Rory, Jean Jacques; Taleo, George; Guyant, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, Vanuatu designed and implemented a syndromic surveillance system based on the guidelines developed by the Pacific Community and the World Health Organization to provide early warning of outbreaks and other important public health events. Four core syndromes were endorsed for surveillance: acute fever and rash, prolonged fever, influenza-like illness and acute watery diarrhoea. In March 2015, Vanuatu was struck by Cyclone Pam, after which several important changes and improvements to the country’s syndromic surveillance were made. To date, there has been no formal evaluation of whether regular reports are occurring or that core syndromes are being documented. We therefore carried out a descriptive study in the 11 sentinel sites in Vanuatu conducting syndromic surveillance between July and December 2015. There was a total of 53 822 consultations which were higher in the first 13 weeks (n = 29 622) compared with the last 13 weeks (n = 24 200). During the six months, there were no cases of acute fever and rash or prolonged fever. There were cases with influenza-like illness from week 27 to 35, but no case was reported after week 35. Acute watery diarrhoea occurred in one or two cases per week during the whole study period. For these two core syndromes, there were generally more females than males, and about one third were children aged under 5 years. In conclusion, Vanuatu implemented changes to its new syndromic surveillance system from July to December 2015, although laboratory components had not yet been incorporated. The laboratory components are working in 2016 and will be the subject of a further report. PMID:28246576

  8. Late Language Emergence at 24 Months: An Epidemiological Study of Prevalence, Predictors, and Covariates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrick, Stephen R.; Taylor, Catherine L.; Rice, Mabel L.; Slegers, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The primary objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of late language emergence (LLE) and to investigate the predictive status of maternal, family, and child variables. Method: This is a prospective cohort study of 1,766 epidemiologically ascertained 24-month-old singleton children. The framework was an ecological model…

  9. QMRA as a compliment to epidemiologic studies estimating bather risk at recreational beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA and WHO have set recreational water quality standards based on epidemiologic studies to protect human health at beaches. These studies have largely been limited to sewage-impacted sites and resources are unlikely to be available to assess the myriad of other impacted ...

  10. The Mystery of the Blue Death: A Case Study in Epidemiology and the History of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muench, Susan Bandoni

    2009-01-01

    This case study introduces students to John Snow, considered to be one of the founders of both epidemiology and anesthesiology, and a remarkable figure in the history of science. Although historical case studies are often less popular with students than contemporary issues (Herreid 1998), a number of aspects of this case make it attractive to…

  11. Epidemiology study at a South Carolina Beach impacted by stormwater runoff

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA conducted an epidemiological study in the summer of 2009. Among the selection criteria for the study location was that beach water quality was affected primarily by stormwater runoff. Preliminary findings from the summer's research will be presented. This abstract does not ne...

  12. Ribotyping of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: discriminatory power and usefulness as a tool for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, D S; Siegrist, H H; Sahli, R; Francioli, P

    1993-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism of ribosomal DNA regions (ribotyping) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was evaluated as a tool for epidemiological purposes. Fifty-five epidemiologically unrelated isolates from three geographic areas of Switzerland and 11 isolates obtained during an outbreak of P. aeruginosa infections in a burn unit were typed by this method. Typeability and reproducibility of the method reached 100%. With four selected restriction enzymes (BamHI, ClaI, EcoRI, and PstI), the 55 unrelated isolates could be classified into 33 ribotypes. To assess the value of this method for the interpretation of epidemiological data, we calculated an index of discrimination (ID) which takes into consideration both the number of types defined by the typing method and their relative frequencies. Our ribotyping system obtained a high ID of 0.958 with only four restriction enzymes, comparing well with other different typing schemes for which ID values could be calculated from published data. All clinical isolates of the outbreak belonged to the same ribotype, whereas environmental isolates, initially thought to be the source of the epidemic, belonged to a different ribotype. Thus, the typeability, reproducibility, and discriminatory power of our method as well as its value established in an epidemiological investigation were found to be appropriate for further epidemiological studies of P. aeruginosa. Images PMID:8093252

  13. Mortality on Mount Everest, 1921-2006: descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hui; Windsor, Jeremy S; Sutherland, Andrew I; Imray, Christopher H; Moore, G W K; Semple, John L; Roach, Robert C; Salisbury, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine patterns of mortality among climbers on Mount Everest over an 86 year period. Design Descriptive study. Setting Climbing expeditions to Mount Everest, 1921-2006. Participants 14 138 mountaineers; 8030 climbers and 6108 sherpas. Main outcome measure Circumstances of deaths. Results The mortality rate among mountaineers above base camp was 1.3%. Deaths could be classified as involving trauma (objective hazards or falls, n=113), as non-traumatic (high altitude illness, hypothermia, or sudden death, n=52), or as a disappearance (body never found, n=27). During the spring climbing seasons from 1982 to 2006, 82.3% of deaths of climbers occurred during an attempt at reaching the summit. The death rate during all descents via standard routes was higher for climbers than for sherpas (2.7% (43/1585) v 0.4% (5/1231), P<0.001; all mountaineers 1.9%). Of 94 mountaineers who died after climbing above 8000 m, 53 (56%) died during descent from the summit, 16 (17%) after turning back, 9 (10%) during the ascent, 4 (5%) before leaving the final camp, and for 12 (13%) the stage of the summit bid was unknown. The median time to reach the summit via standard routes was earlier for survivors than for non-survivors (0900-0959 v 1300-1359, P<0.001). Profound fatigue (n=34), cognitive changes (n=21), and ataxia (n=12) were the commonest symptoms reported in non-survivors, whereas respiratory distress (n=5), headache (n=0), and nausea or vomiting (n=3) were rarely described. Conclusions Debilitating symptoms consistent with high altitude cerebral oedema commonly present during descent from the summit of Mount Everest. Profound fatigue and late times in reaching the summit are early features associated with subsequent death. PMID:19074222

  14. Pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles in critically ill patients with bloodstream infections: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Rachel D.; Fowler, Robert A.; Rishu, Asgar H.; Bagshaw, Sean M.; Cook, Deborah; Dodek, Peter; Hall, Richard; Kumar, Anand; Lamontagne, François; Lauzier, François; Marshall, John; Martin, Claudio M.; McIntyre, Lauralyn; Muscedere, John; Reynolds, Steven; Stelfox, Henry T.; Daneman, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Background: Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is vital to guiding empirical treatment of infections. Collating and reporting routine data on clinical isolate testing may offer more timely information about resistance patterns than traditional surveillance network methods. Methods: Using routine microbiology testing data collected from the Bacteremia Antibiotic Length Actually Needed for Clinical Effectiveness retrospective cohort study, we conducted a descriptive secondary analysis among critically ill patients in whom bloodstream infections had been diagnosed in 14 intensive care units (ICUs) in Canada. The participating sites were located within tertiary care teaching hospitals and represented 6 provinces and 10 cities. More than 80% of the study population was accrued from 2011-2013. We assessed the epidemiologic features of the infections and corresponding antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. Susceptibility testing was done according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines at accredited laboratories. Results: A total of 1416 pathogens were isolated from 1202 patients. The most common organisms were Escherichia coli (217 isolates [15.3%]), Staphylococcus aureus (175 [12.4%]), coagulase-negative staphylococci (117 [8.3%]), Klebsiella pneumoniae (86 [6.1%]) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (85 [6.0%]). The contribution of individual pathogens varied by site. For 13 ICUs, gram-negative susceptibility rates were high for carbapenems (95.4%), tobramycin (91.2%) and piperacillin-tazobactam (90.0%); however, the proportion of specimens susceptible to these agents ranged from 75.0%-100%, 66.7%-100% and 75.0%-100%, respectively, across sites. Fewer gram-negative bacteria were susceptible to fluoroquinolones (84.5% [range 64.1%-97.2%]). A total of 145 patients (12.1%) had infections caused by highly resistant microorganisms, with significant intersite variation (range 2.6%-24.0%, χ2 = 57.50, p < 0.001). Interpretation: We assessed the epidemiologic

  15. A pilot study: research poster presentations as an educational tool for undergraduate epidemiology students

    PubMed Central

    Deonandan, Raywat; Gomes, James; Lavigne, Eric; Dinh, Thy; Blanchard, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Students in a fourth year epidemiology course were surveyed after participating in a formal Science Research Day in which they presented original research, in poster form, to be judged by scientists from the community. Of 276 participating students, 80 (29%) responded to the study survey. As a result, 19% of respondents were more likely to pursue a career in science, and 27.5% were more likely to pursue a career in epidemiology. Only one respondent reported being less likely to pursue a science career, while seven were less likely to pursue epidemiology. A majority of respondents felt that the poster experience was on par with, or superior to, a comparable research paper, in terms of both educational appeal and enjoyment. Mandatory, formal poster presentations are an innovative format for teaching advanced health sciences, and may more accurately reflect the realities of a science career than do more traditional educational formats. PMID:24101888

  16. Influence of DNA extraction methods on relative telomere length measurements and its impact on epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Raschenberger, Julia; Lamina, Claudia; Haun, Margot; Kollerits, Barbara; Coassin, Stefan; Boes, Eva; Kedenko, Ludmilla; Köttgen, Anna; Kronenberg, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of telomere length is widely used in epidemiologic studies. Insufficient standardization of the measurements processes has, however, complicated the comparison of results between studies. We aimed to investigate whether DNA extraction methods have an influence on measured values of relative telomere length (RTL) and whether this has consequences for epidemiological studies. We performed four experiments with RTL measurement in quadruplicate by qPCR using DNA extracted with different methods: 1) a standardized validation experiment including three extraction methods (magnetic-particle-method EZ1, salting-out-method INV, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl-alcohol PCI) each in the same 20 samples demonstrated pronounced differences in RTL with lowest values with EZ1 followed by INV and PCI-isolated DNA; 2) a comparison of 307 samples from an epidemiological study showing EZ1-measurements 40% lower than INV-measurements; 3) a matching-approach of two similar non-diseased control groups including 143 pairs of subjects revealed significantly shorter RTL in EZ1 than INV-extracted DNA (0.844 ± 0.157 vs. 1.357 ± 0.242); 4) an association analysis of RTL with prevalent cardiovascular disease detected a stronger association with INV than with EZ1-extracted DNA. In summary, DNA extraction methods have a pronounced influence on the measured RTL-values. This might result in spurious or lost associations in epidemiological studies under certain circumstances. PMID:27138987

  17. Influence of DNA extraction methods on relative telomere length measurements and its impact on epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Raschenberger, Julia; Lamina, Claudia; Haun, Margot; Kollerits, Barbara; Coassin, Stefan; Boes, Eva; Kedenko, Ludmilla; Köttgen, Anna; Kronenberg, Florian

    2016-05-03

    Measurement of telomere length is widely used in epidemiologic studies. Insufficient standardization of the measurements processes has, however, complicated the comparison of results between studies. We aimed to investigate whether DNA extraction methods have an influence on measured values of relative telomere length (RTL) and whether this has consequences for epidemiological studies. We performed four experiments with RTL measurement in quadruplicate by qPCR using DNA extracted with different methods: 1) a standardized validation experiment including three extraction methods (magnetic-particle-method EZ1, salting-out-method INV, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl-alcohol PCI) each in the same 20 samples demonstrated pronounced differences in RTL with lowest values with EZ1 followed by INV and PCI-isolated DNA; 2) a comparison of 307 samples from an epidemiological study showing EZ1-measurements 40% lower than INV-measurements; 3) a matching-approach of two similar non-diseased control groups including 143 pairs of subjects revealed significantly shorter RTL in EZ1 than INV-extracted DNA (0.844 ± 0.157 vs. 1.357 ± 0.242); 4) an association analysis of RTL with prevalent cardiovascular disease detected a stronger association with INV than with EZ1-extracted DNA. In summary, DNA extraction methods have a pronounced influence on the measured RTL-values. This might result in spurious or lost associations in epidemiological studies under certain circumstances.

  18. Epidemiological studies of oats consumption and risk of cancer and overall mortality.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, Paolo; Thies, Frank; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2014-10-01

    A review of epidemiological studies on the intake of oats and oat-based products and its effect on the risk of chronic disease and deaths was performed. Seven studies were identified of cancer risk (two each on prostate and colorectal cancer, and one each on pancreatic, breast and endometrial cancer), and one study on overall mortality. With the exception of a case-control study of pancreatic cancer, all studies were of cohort design: five studies were based on a single cohort from Denmark. The results of most cohort studies suggest a weak protective effect of a high intake of oats on cancer risk (relative risks in the order of 0·9). Potential limitations of the studies are dietary exposure misclassification, low statistical power because of limited exposure contrast and residual confounding. Despite the evidence from experimental and mechanistic studies of a protective effect of oats intake on CVD and diabetes, no epidemiological studies have been conducted on these conditions.

  19. Environmental epidemiology

    SciTech Connect

    Kopfler, F.C.; Craun, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    This volume is a compendium of peer-reviewed papers presented at the Symposium on Exposure Measurement and Evaluation Methods for Epidemiology, cosponsored in 1985 by the Health Effects Research Laboratory, USEPA, and the Division of Environmental Chemistry of the American Chemical Society. The book is divided into four sections: Use of Biological Monitoring to Assess Exposure, Epidemiologic Considerations for Assessing Exposure, Health and Exposure Data Bases, and Assessment of Exposure to Environmental Contaminants for Epidemiologic Studies. Both background papers and detailed reports of human studies are presented. The Biological Monitoring section contains reports of efforts to quantify adducts in blood and urine samples. In the section on Epidemiologic Considerations the feasibility of conducting epidemiologic studies of persons residing near hazardous waste sites and those exposed to arsenic in drinking water is described. The review of Data Bases includes government and industry water quality monitoring systems, the FDA Market Basket Study, major EPA air monitoring data, the National Database on Body Burden of Toxic chemicals, and the National Human Adipose Tissue Survey. Methods of assessing current exposure and estimating past exposure are detailed in the final section. Exposure to trichloroethylene in shower water, the relationship between water quality and cardiovascular disease, the contribution of environmental lead exposures to pediatric blood lead levels, and data from the TEAM study in which researchers compare indoor, outdoor, and breath analysis of air pollutant exposures are also discussed.

  20. Exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies: Keyfindings and future recommendations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many epidemiologic studies of the health effects of exposure to ambient air pollution use measurements from central-site monitors as their exposure estimate. However, measurements from central-site monitors may lack the spatial and temporal resolution required to capture exposure...

  1. "Development of Model-Based Air Pollution Exposure Metrics for use in Epidemiologic Studies"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population-based epidemiological studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as area-wide ambient air pollution levels based on readily available concentrations from central monitoring sites. U.S. EPA in collaboration w...

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF MODEL-BASED AIR POLLUTION EXPOSURE METRICS FOR USE IN EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population-based epidemiological studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as area-wide ambient air pollution levels based on readily available concentrations from central monitoring sites. U.S. EPA in collaboration w...

  3. BREATH MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL BODY BURDEN OF JP-8 JET FUEL FOR EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A complex epidemiological investigation of the effects of acute exposure to JP-8 jet fuel in the U.S. Air Force was performed through the study of about 350 human subjects across six Air Force bases. The focus was on fuels system maintenance personnel as the "exposed"...

  4. Validating the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children in Rwanda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa; Scorza, Pamela; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah; Mushashi, Christina; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne; Binagwaho, Agnes; Stulac, Sara; Beardslee, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) as a screen for depression in Rwandan children and adolescents. Although the CES-DC is widely used for depression screening in high-income countries, its validity in low-income and culturally diverse settings, including sub-Saharan…

  5. [Prevalence of dentition defects among pre-school children of Tver region according to epidemiological study].

    PubMed

    Beliaev, V V; Bobrov, D V; Chumakov, A N; Al'-Zrir, O; El'-Aĭdi, M A

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological dental study of 724 pre-school children in Tver region revealed high prevalence of dentition defects due to premature removal of temporary molars. Dependence of pediatric population need for prosthetic dentistry from regional dental care system staff competence is shown. The date proved the need for standard correction of orthodontists number and broad application of pediatric prosthetics in daily practice.

  6. The North American Mercury Model Intercomparison Study (NAMMIS). Study Description and Model-to-Model Comparison

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript provides a description of the North American Mercury Model Intercomparison Study (NAMMIS) and results obtained from that study. The NAMMIS was conducted by EPA/NERL and involved a number of public and private research organizations developing numerical models of ...

  7. Simulation Use in Paramedic Education Research (SUPER): A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Kim D.; Carhart, Elliot; Bercher, Daniel; Spain, Andrew; Todaro, John; Freel, Joann

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. The purpose of this research was to characterize the use of simulation in initial paramedic education programs in order assist stakeholders’ efforts to target educational initiatives and resources. This group sought to provide a snapshot of what simulation resources programs have or have access to and how they are used; faculty perceptions about simulation; whether program characteristics, resources, or faculty training influence simulation use; and if simulation resources are uniform for patients of all ages. Methods. This was a cross-sectional census survey of paramedic programs that were accredited or had a Letter of Review from the Committee on Accreditation of Educational Programs for the EMS Professions at the time of the study. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square analyses. Results. Of the 638 surveys sent, 389 valid responses (61%) were analyzed. Paramedic programs reported they have or have access to a wide range of simulation resources (task trainers [100%], simple manikins [100%], intermediate manikins [99%], advanced/fully programmable manikins [91%], live simulated patients [83%], computer-based [71%], and virtual reality [19%]); however, they do not consistently use them, particularly advanced (71%), live simulated patients (66%), computer-based (games, scenarios) (31%), and virtual reality (4%). Simulation equipment (of any type) reportedly sits idle and unused in (31%) of programs. Lack of training was cited as the most common reason. Personnel support specific to simulation was available in 44% of programs. Programs reported using simulation to replace skills more frequently than to replace field or clinical hours. Simulation goals included assessment, critical thinking, and problem-solving most frequently, and patient and crew safety least often. Programs using advanced manikins report manufacturers as their primary means of training (87%) and that 19% of faculty had no training specific to

  8. Implementing a Graduate Certificate Program in Cardiovascular Epidemiology: The Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W; Addison, Clifton; Wilson, Gregory; Young, Lavon; Fields, Regina; Woodberry, Clevette; Payton, Marinelle

    2015-12-22

    The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) is committed to providing opportunities for expanding the understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The JHS Graduate Training and Education Center (GTEC) has initiated the Daniel Hale Williams Scholar (DHWS) program where students are afforded the opportunity to interact with epidemiologists and other biomedical scientists to learn to identify, predict, and prevent cardiovascular disease using the Jackson Heart Study data. This study describes the structured programs developed by JHS GTEC seeking to alleviate the shortage of trained professionals in cardiovascular epidemiology by training graduate students while they complete their academic degrees. The DHWS program provides: (1) an enrichment curriculum; (2) a learning community; (3) quarterly seminars; and (4) a Summer Institute. Students attend enrichment activities comprising: (1) Applied Biostatistics; (2) Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology; (3) Social Epidemiology; (4) Emerging Topics; and (5) Research Writing. Training focuses on developing proficiency in cardiovascular health knowledge. The DHWS program is a unique strategy for incorporating rigorous academic and career-focused training to graduate students and has enabled the acquisition of competencies needed to impact cardiovascular disease management programs.

  9. Implementing a Graduate Certificate Program in Cardiovascular Epidemiology: The Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W.; Addison, Clifton; Wilson, Gregory; Young, Lavon; Fields, Regina; Woodberry, Clevette; Payton, Marinelle

    2015-01-01

    The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) is committed to providing opportunities for expanding the understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The JHS Graduate Training and Education Center (GTEC) has initiated the Daniel Hale Williams Scholar (DHWS) program where students are afforded the opportunity to interact with epidemiologists and other biomedical scientists to learn to identify, predict, and prevent cardiovascular disease using the Jackson Heart Study data. This study describes the structured programs developed by JHS GTEC seeking to alleviate the shortage of trained professionals in cardiovascular epidemiology by training graduate students while they complete their academic degrees. The DHWS program provides: (1) an enrichment curriculum; (2) a learning community; (3) quarterly seminars; and (4) a Summer Institute. Students attend enrichment activities comprising: (1) Applied Biostatistics; (2) Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology; (3) Social Epidemiology; (4) Emerging Topics; and (5) Research Writing. Training focuses on developing proficiency in cardiovascular health knowledge. The DHWS program is a unique strategy for incorporating rigorous academic and career-focused training to graduate students and has enabled the acquisition of competencies needed to impact cardiovascular disease management programs. PMID:26703701

  10. The potential of exposure biomarkers in epidemiologic studies of reproductive health.

    PubMed Central

    Hogue, C J; Brewster, M A

    1991-01-01

    To further the development and application of exposure markers in field investigations in reproductive epidemiology, we have synthesized recent examinations of the issues surrounding exposure measurements in reproductive epidemiology. The specific goals of this paper are to define exposure biomarkers and explore their potential uses, particularly as screening tools. The tests for glucaric acid, thioethers, mutagenicity, and porphyrin patterns meet the general criteria for useful exposure screens. For certain xenobiotic agents, these tests accurately differentiate exposure levels, as demonstrated in occupational and environmental epidemiologic studies. As urinary screens, they are noninvasive and applicable on a large scale with current laboratory techniques. For short-term exposure, glucaric acid, thioethers, and mutagenicity tests are useful. Porphyrin patterns may measure cumulative effects as well as current exposure levels. The usefulness of these tests in epidemiologic studies of environmental effects on reproductive health has yet to be studied. To do so, the battery must be standardized for pregnant women, and test results must be correlated with measured adverse reproductive outcomes, such as gestational length and birthweight. This correlation is particularly important because maternal exposure rather than fetal exposure is being measured. The extent to which xenobiotic chemicals cross the placental barrier may vary greatly depending on the type of exposures, timing in pregnancy, and maternal detoxification capability. Without better exposure measures, epidemiologic studies of reproductive health probably will not successfully identify xenobiotic fetotoxic agents in the environment. However, with an adequate battery of nonspecific exposure biomarkers, prospective studies of environmental effects on pregnancy outcomes might be possible.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2050070

  11. Workplace exposure to passive smoking and risk of cardiovascular disease: summary of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Kawachi, I; Colditz, G A

    1999-12-01

    We reviewed the published epidemiologic studies addressing the relationship between workplace exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cardiovascular disease risk in three case-control studies and three cohort studies. Although the point estimates of risk for cardiovascular disease exceeded 1.0 in five of six studies, none of the relative risks was statistically significant because of the small number of cardiovascular end points occurring in individual studies. In common with most epidemiologic investigations of the health risks of ETS, none of the workplace studies included independent biochemical validation of ETS exposure. In contrast to the evidence on increased cardiovascular disease risk from exposure to spousal ETS, studies of ETS exposure in the workplace are still sparse and inconclusive. Conversely, there is no biologically plausible reason to believe that the hazards of ETS exposure that have been demonstrated in the home should not also apply to the workplace.

  12. Methodological issues in epidemiological studies of periodontitis - how can it be improved?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This position paper was commissioned by the European Association of Dental Public Health, which has established six working groups to investigate the current status of six topics related to oral public health. One of these areas is epidemiology of periodontal diseases. Methods Two theses "A systematic review of definitions of periodontitis and the methods that have been used to identify periodontitis" [1] and "Factors affecting community oral health care needs and provision" [2] formed the starting point for this position paper. Additional relevant and more recent publications were retrieved through a MEDLINE search. Results The literature reveals a distinct lack of consensus and uniformity in the definition of periodontitis within epidemiological studies. There are also numerous differences in the methods used. The consequence is that data from studies using differing case definitions and differing survey methods are not easily interpretable or comparable. The limitations of the widely used Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Need (CPITN) and its more recent derivatives are widely recognized. Against this background, this position paper reviews the current evidence base, outlines existing problems and suggests how epidemiology of periodontal diseases may be improved. Conclusions The remit of this working group was to review and discuss the existing evidence base of epidemiology of periodontal diseases and to identify future areas of work to further enhance it. PMID:20409298

  13. Descriptive analysis of the prevalence and the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium complex-infected pigs that were slaughtered on the main island of Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Hibiya, K; Kazumi, Y; Nishiuchi, Y; Sugawara, I; Miyagi, K; Oda, Y; Oda, E; Fujita, J

    2010-09-01

    Recent genetic studies have revealed that several epidemiological factors affect Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in pig populations. However, mechanisms underlying the spread of MAC infection among hog farms have not been clarified. In consideration of this situation, we cross-sectionally investigated the mechanisms underlying the spread of MAC on the island of Okinawa. Pigs slaughtered (n=706,763) and 331 hog farms on Okinawa were surveyed during the years 2002-2004. Two outbreaks of MAC infection were occurred in several farms during survey period. Bacteria were isolated from randomly selected pigs and genotype of isolates was determined by using genetic finger printing methods with the insertion sequence (IS) 1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Most isolates had large numbers of IS1245 copies, while strains with low copy numbers of IS1245 and isolates without IS1245 were seen in few farms. MACs strains were repeatedly isolated from pigs of the affected farms during the survey period. Those farms with an identical pig rearing systems showed synchronic changes in the prevalence of MAC infection. An industrial farm without an outbreak had an independent pig flow, but maintained distinct MAC strains. Multivariate analysis did not reveal independent factors for the prevalence of the MAC infection. These findings suggest that there were three clusters distinguished genetically in the main island of Okinawa, which were potentially spread by common pig flow. However, the outbreaks occurred because of unspecified conditions on each farm environment.

  14. Active gaming in Dutch adolescents: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adequate levels of physical activity are part of a healthy lifestyle and in this way linked to better health outcomes. For children and adolescents, the physical activity guideline recommends at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity every day. However, many adolescents are not physically active enough and they spend a lot of their time on sedentary activities (such as video games). A new generation of video games that require body movements to play them, so-called "active games", could serve to increase physical activity in adolescents. The activity level while playing these games is comparable to light-to-moderate intensity physical activity. The current study aims to increase our understanding of 1) the demographic characteristics of adolescents who play active games regularly (≥ 1 hour per week) and non-regularly (<; 1 hour per week), 2) time spent on active games, 3) the contribution of active games to daily physical activity and 4) the type and amount of activities being replaced by active gaming. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a Dutch internet panel, questioning adolescents in conjunction with one of their parents. A random sample of 320 households (with stratification on gender of the parent and the adolescent, the age of the adolescent and the region of the household) was selected that owned a console or application for active video games and that had a child aged 12 through 16 years. 201 child–parent couples (63% response) completed an internet survey with questions about demographics, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and gaming behaviour. The questionnaire also contained questions designed to assess whether and how active gaming replaces other activities. Besides descriptive analyses, independent t-test, Pearson’s chi-square and Mann–Whitney test (when data were not normally distributed) were used for comparisons between regular and non-regular active gamers. Results Eleven

  15. Trends of Antibiotic Consumption in Korea According to National Reimbursement Data (2008-2012): A Population-Based Epidemiologic Study.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young Kyung; Park, Gi Chan; An, Hyonggin; Chun, Byung Chul; Sohn, Jang Wook; Kim, Min Ja

    2015-11-01

    This study determined the trends in the quantities and patterns of nationwide antibiotic consumption in the Republic of Korea (ROK).This nationwide descriptive epidemiological study was conducted in the ROK between 2008 and 2012. The quantities and patterns of total systemic antibiotic prescriptions were analyzed using National Health Insurance claims data collected through the Health Insurance Review and Assessment service. Data concerning systemic antibiotics were collected using measurement units of the defined daily dose (DDD) per 1000 people per day according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification.Over the 5-year study period, the annual consumption of systemic antibiotics ranged from 21.68 to 23.12 DDD per 1000 people per day. Outpatient antibiotic use accounted for 80.9% of total consumption. A regression model with autoregressive errors showed significant increased consumption of major antibiotic subgroups, including 3rd-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, and glycopeptides (P < 0.001). However, the antibiotic use of 1st- (P = 0.003), 2nd- (P = 0.004), and 3rd-generation (P = 0.018) cephalosporins among patients who underwent surgery under monitoring by the antimicrobial stewardship programs for perioperative prescription was significantly lower than in those who underwent surgery without monitoring programs. In time-series analysis, total antibiotic consumption demonstrated significant seasonality (P < 0.001).The consumption of broad-spectrum antibiotics was noted to have increased in the ROK from 2008 to 2012, providing a possible explanation for the changing epidemiology of multidrug resistance. Larger prospective studies are needed to investigate the impact on public health of monitoring programs of perioperative antibiotic usage.

  16. Autism in the Faroe Islands. An Epidemiological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellefsen, Asa; Kampmann, Hanna; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, I. Carina; Gillberg, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The Faroe Islands are considered to be a genetic isolate. This population study of the prevalence of autism sought to identify a representative cohort for future genetic studies. In 2002 all schools were screened for autism spectrum disorders. The target population were all children born in 1985 through 1994 and living in the Faroe Islands on…

  17. SEVERITY OF ILLNESS RESULTS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC RECREATIONAL WATER STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NEEAR Water Study surveyed 21,105 beachgoers at four freshwater coastal beaches. It has been well documented that beachgoers experience more illness than persons that do not frequent beach areas. Reported symptoms among beachgoers for this study are gastrointestinal illness...

  18. Carbon Nanotubes Exposure Risk Assessment: From Toxicology to Epidemiologic Studies (Overview of the Current Problem)

    PubMed Central

    Fatkhutdinova, L. M.; Khaliullin, T. O.; Shvedova, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale size and fiber like structure of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may determine high reactivity and penetration, as well as the pathogenicity of asbestos and other mineral fibers. Despite many in vitro and in vivo studies, the absence of full-scale data on CNT effects on human health clearly point out the necessity for epidemiological studies. Currently, several projects are initiated worldwide on studying health risks associated with the inhalation of industrial CNTs, including NIOSH-promoted research (United States), the European CANTES study, and the Russian CNT-ERA project. Studies comprising several successive steps, such as CNT exposure assessment in occupational settings, toxicological evaluation, and epidemiological observations, are critical for determining material safety and use criteria. PMID:26457172

  19. Issues of consent and feedback in a genetic epidemiological study of women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Richards, M; Ponder, M; Pharoah, P; Everest, S; Mackay, J

    2003-01-01

    Women (N=21) who had had breast cancer and had been enrolled in a large genetic breast cancer epidemiological study were interviewed about their experience of participation in the study, their attitudes to the confidentiality of data, and the feedback of personal and general research results. Collection of family history information seemed more salient in indicating the genetic nature of the study than the enrolment information sheet. There were no concerns about confidentiality. While participants would have welcomed general feedback about the results of the study and were critical that this had not been provided, the feedback of personal information proved complicated and, sometimes, difficult. It is suggested that individual feedback of genetic test information in epidemiological studies should be undertaken only when there are specific reasons. PMID:12672889

  20. [Dermato-epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Apfelbacher, C J; Diepgen, T L; Weisshaar, E

    2011-11-01

    Dermato-epidemiology is an important scientific discipline which investigates skin diseases using epidemiological methods. Epidemiology is the science of the distribution and determinants of disease in specified populations. We describe fundamental terms of dermato-epidemiology (measures of disease occurrence, measures of risk), different study types (observational studies, interventional studies), the selection of statistical tests, bias and confounding as well as the principles of evidence-based dermatology, and give illustrative examples.

  1. [An epidemiological study of occupational injuries in Xuzhou railway from 1975 to 2015].

    PubMed

    Zhang, L

    2016-08-20

    Objective: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of occupational injuries in Xuzhou Railway, and to provide a scientific basis for the management of railway occupational safety and hygiene. Methods: From January to March, 2016, it was used the descriptive epidemiology research methods to collect the files of the professional injuries cases reported in Xuzhou railway from 1975 to 2015 to retrospectively survey and study and analyze the characteristics of professional injuries in the aspect of sociology, time, work, damage type and nature, etc. Results: From 1975 to 2015, the number of people in Xuzhou railway who had professional injuries, reached injure level and professionally died are 804, 558 and 4. The rate of occupational injuries was 0.07‰~5.87‰ and the occupational injuries rate of up to grade was 0.03‰~1.50‰. The annual average incidence rate was 0.79‰ and the annual average incidence rate of up to grade was 0.55‰. The mortality of occupational injuries was 3.95×10(-3)‰. The occurrence rate of occupational injuries showed a downward trend in wave mode. The proportion of occupational injuries of 26 to 30 years old and 11 to 15 working years workers was higher, respectively, 18.03% and 19.28%. The proportion of male occupational injuries (88.56%) was higher than that of female (11.44%) . The proportion of workers with low cultural level was higher. The time period of occupational injury was more concentrated in 2: 00~3: 00 and 16: 00~17: 00, and the proportion of occupational injuries was higher in August and the first quarter. The difference in occupational injuries rates of different years had the statistical significance (χ(2)=6 546.121, P=0.000) . The difference in the occupational injuries rates of up to grade of different years had the statistical significance (χ(2)=1 981.623, P=0.000) . The mainly departments and posts involved in occupational injuries were locomotive department (26.12%) and shunting operation (25

  2. Methods and Processes of Developing the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-Veterinary (STROBE-Vet) Statement.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, J M; O'Connor, A M; Dohoo, I R; Erb, H N; Cevallos, M; Egger, M; Ersbøll, A K; Martin, S W; Nielsen, L R; Pearl, D L; Pfeiffer, D U; Sanchez, J; Torrence, M E; Vigre, H; Waldner, C; Ward, M P

    2016-12-01

    Reporting of observational studies in veterinary research presents challenges that often are not addressed in published reporting guidelines. Our objective was to develop an extension of the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) statement that addresses unique reporting requirements for observational studies in veterinary medicine related to health, production, welfare, and food safety. We conducted a consensus meeting with 17 experts in Mississauga, Canada. Experts completed a premeeting survey about whether items in the STROBE statement should be modified or added to address unique issues related to observational studies in animal species with health, production, welfare, or food safety outcomes. During the meeting, each STROBE item was discussed to determine whether or not rewording was recommended, and whether additions were warranted. Anonymous voting was used to determine consensus. Six items required no modifications or additions. Modifications or additions were made to the STROBE items 1 (title and abstract), 3 (objectives), 5 (setting), 6 (participants), 7 (variables), 8 (data sources and measurement), 9 (bias), 10 (study size), 12 (statistical methods), 13 (participants), 14 (descriptive data), 15 (outcome data), 16 (main results), 17 (other analyses), 19 (limitations), and 22 (funding). The methods and processes used were similar to those used for other extensions of the STROBE statement. The use of this STROBE statement extension should improve reporting of observational studies in veterinary research by recognizing unique features of observational studies involving food-producing and companion animals, products of animal origin, aquaculture, and wildlife.

  3. Determining scanned body part from DICOM study description for relevant prior study matching.

    PubMed

    Mabotuwana, Thusitha; Qian, Yuechen

    2013-01-01

    The typical radiology reporting workflow involves the radiologist first looking at one or more relevant prior studies before interpreting the current study. To improve workflow efficiency, PACS systems can display relevant prior imaging studies, typically based on a study's anatomy as indicated in the Body Part Examined field of the DICOM header. The content of the Body Part Examined field can be very generic. For instance, an imaging study to exclude pancreatitis and another one to exclude renal stones will both have "abdomen" in their body part field, making it difficult to differentiate them. To improve prior study matching and support better study filtering, in this paper, we present a rule-based approach to determine specific body parts contained in the free-text DICOM Study Description field. Algorithms were trained using a production dataset of 1200 randomly selected unique study descriptions and validated against a test dataset of 404 study descriptions. Our validation resulted in 99.94% accuracy. The proposed technique suggests that a rule-based approach can be used for domain specific body part extraction from DICOM headers.

  4. Assessment of 1,3-butadiene epidemiology studies.

    PubMed Central

    Ott, M G

    1990-01-01

    Positive carcinogenicity studies in mice and rats have led to concerns that 1,3-butadiene may be carcinogenic in humans under exposure conditions that have existed in occupational settings and perhaps exist today. The principal settings of interest are the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) manufacturing industry, which uses large quantities of 1,3-butadiene, and the 1,3-butadiene monomer industry. The potential for 1,3-butadiene exposure is highest during monomer transfer operations and is lowest in finishing areas of polymerization plants where the polymer products are processed. Three large cohort mortality studies have been conducted in the SBR and monomer producing industries since 1980. These studies, which examined the mortality experience of over 17,000 men employed in one monomer and 10 SBR facilities, are the subject of this review. All but one of the facilities began operations during the early 1940s. The mortality experience observed within these employee cohorts is comparable to that seen in other long-term studies of men employed in the petroleum, chemical, and rubber industries for all causes of death, total malignant neoplasms, and for the specific cancers seen in excess in the toxicologic studies. This paper discusses discrepant findings observed in more detailed analyses within individual cohorts and among employment subgroups, as well as selected limitations of the particular studies. Additional efforts to refine 1,3-butadiene exposure categories are needed. Within the context of sample size limitations inherent in these studies, there is currently inadequate evidence to establish a relationship between cancer mortality outcomes and 1.3-butadiene exposure in humans. PMID:2205483

  5. Epidemiologic studies of environmental agents and systemic autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Mayes, M D

    1999-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic scleroderma are autoimmune diseases thought to have an exogenous trigger. This review summarizes relevant case-control and cohort studies that investigated exogenous sex hormones, silica, silicone, solvents, pesticides, mercuric chloride, and hair dyes as putative risk factors for the development of these diseases. These studies indicate that estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women increases the risk of developing lupus, scleroderma, and Raynaud disease, although the increase in risk is relatively modest. Oral contraceptives may also play a role in disease susceptibility in lupus but not apparently in scleroderma. Environmental endocrine modulators, in the form of pesticides, may represent another opportunity for estrogenlike effects to occur, but there is scant evidence that these agents play a role in human systemic autoimmune disease. Although exposure to silica dust increases the risk of scleroderma in men occupied in the industry, this does not explain most male scleroderma cases. When this exposure was investigated among women, no significant risk was found. Additionally, silicone in implanted devices as well as occupational exposure to silicone-containing compounds did not pose an increased risk among women for scleroderma. The role of solvent exposure has been investigated as a risk factor for scleroderma with mixed findings. One study suggested a potential role in male patients or in those individuals with Scl-70 antibody positivity either male or female. Two other studies were unable to corroborate this finding. Mercuric chloride causes antifibrillarin antibodies and immune complex glomerulonephritis in susceptible mouse strains. Antifibrillarin antibodies, but not glomerulonephritis, occur in a subset of scleroderma patients and preliminary evidence suggests that mercury levels may be higher in this group of individuals. Hair products have been studied as possibly raising the risk of developing lupus

  6. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  7. Epidemiology of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helzer, John E.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the application of epidemiology to alcoholism. Discusses measurement and diagnostic issues and reviews studies of the prevalence of alcoholism, its risk factors, and the contributions of epidemiology to our knowledge of treatment and prevention. (Author/KS)

  8. Pesticide Exposure and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes: Review of the Epidemiologic and Animal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Carol J.; McIntosh, Laura J.; Mink, Pamela J.; Jurek, Anne M.; Li, Abby A.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of whether pesticide exposure is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children can best be addressed with a systematic review of both the human and animal peer-reviewed literature. This review analyzed epidemiologic studies testing the hypothesis that exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and/or early childhood is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. Studies that directly queried pesticide exposure (e.g., via questionnaire or interview) or measured pesticide or metabolite levels in biological specimens from study participants (e.g., blood, urine, etc.) or their immediate environment (e.g., personal air monitoring, home dust samples, etc.) were eligible for inclusion. Consistency, strength of association, and dose response were key elements of the framework utilized for evaluating epidemiologic studies. As a whole, the epidemiologic studies did not strongly implicate any particular pesticide as being causally related to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants and children. A few associations were unique for a health outcome and specific pesticide, and alternative hypotheses could not be ruled out. Our survey of the in vivo peer-reviewed published mammalian literature focused on effects of the specific active ingredient of pesticides on functional neurodevelopmental endpoints (i.e., behavior, neuropharmacology and neuropathology). In most cases, effects were noted at dose levels within the same order of magnitude or higher compared to the point of departure used for chronic risk assessments in the United States. Thus, although the published animal studies may have characterized potential neurodevelopmental outcomes using endpoints not required by guideline studies, the effects were generally observed at or above effect levels measured in repeated-dose toxicology studies submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Suggestions for improved exposure assessment in epidemiology studies and more effective

  9. Pesticide exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes: review of the epidemiologic and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Burns, Carol J; McIntosh, Laura J; Mink, Pamela J; Jurek, Anne M; Li, Abby A

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of whether pesticide exposure is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children can best be addressed with a systematic review of both the human and animal peer-reviewed literature. This review analyzed epidemiologic studies testing the hypothesis that exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and/or early childhood is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. Studies that directly queried pesticide exposure (e.g., via questionnaire or interview) or measured pesticide or metabolite levels in biological specimens from study participants (e.g., blood, urine, etc.) or their immediate environment (e.g., personal air monitoring, home dust samples, etc.) were eligible for inclusion. Consistency, strength of association, and dose response were key elements of the framework utilized for evaluating epidemiologic studies. As a whole, the epidemiologic studies did not strongly implicate any particular pesticide as being causally related to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants and children. A few associations were unique for a health outcome and specific pesticide, and alternative hypotheses could not be ruled out. Our survey of the in vivo peer-reviewed published mammalian literature focused on effects of the specific active ingredient of pesticides on functional neurodevelopmental endpoints (i.e., behavior, neuropharmacology and neuropathology). In most cases, effects were noted at dose levels within the same order of magnitude or higher compared to the point of departure used for chronic risk assessments in the United States. Thus, although the published animal studies may have characterized potential neurodevelopmental outcomes using endpoints not required by guideline studies, the effects were generally observed at or above effect levels measured in repeated-dose toxicology studies submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Suggestions for improved exposure assessment in epidemiology studies and more effective

  10. Epidemiological appraisal of studies of residential exposure to power frequency magnetic fields and adult cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Li, C Y; Thériault, G; Lin, R S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To appraise epidemiological evidence of the purported association between residential exposure to power frequency magnetic fields and adult cancers. METHODS: Literature review and epidemiological evaluation. RESULTS: Seven epidemiological studies have been conducted on the risk of cancer among adults in relation to residential exposure to power frequency magnetic fields. Leukaemia was positively associated with magnetic fields in three case-control studies. The other two case-control studies and two cohort studies did not show such a link. Brain tumours and breast cancer have rarely been examined by these studies. Based on the epidemiological results, the analysis of the role of chance and bias, and the criteria for causal inferences, it seems that the evidence is not strong enough to support the putative causal relation between residential exposure to magnetic fields and adult leukaemia, brain tumours, or breast cancer. Inadequate statistical power is far more a concern than selection bias, information bias, and confounding in interpreting the results from these studies, and in explaining inconsistencies between studies. CONCLUSIONS: Our reviews suggested that the only way to answer whether residential exposure to magnetic fields is capable of increasing the risks of adult cancers is to conduct more studies carefully avoiding methodological flaws, in particular small sample size. We also suggested that the risk of female breast cancer should be the object of additional investigations, and that future studies should attempt to include information on exposure to magnetic fields from workplaces as well as residential exposure to estimate the effects of overall exposure to magnetic fields. PMID:8983460

  11. Epidemiological Findings of Pervasive Developmental Disorders in a Venezuelan Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montiel-Nava, Cecilia; Pena, Joaquin A.

    2008-01-01

    The study aims to determine the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) for children receiving services in Maracaibo County, Venezuela. Children aged 3-9 with diagnosis of any ASD were recruited. We ascertained area, referral process, and definitions of ASD for each patient. A total of 430 children were identified, and 76.5 percent were…

  12. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, R A; McKinney, P A; O'Brien, C; Richards, I D; Roberts, B; Lauder, I; Darwin, C M; Bernard, S M; Bird, C C

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a case control study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the Yorkshire Health Region. In all, 437 cases and 724 controls were interviewed. Risk factors associated with past skin conditions, family history of cancer and infectious mononucleosis, aspects of social life and contact with wood dust and epoxy glues all emerge. A comparison of high and low grade morphological forms of disease reveal contrasting risks and suggest separate aetiologies for these conditions.

  13. An epidemiologic study of deciduous molar relations in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Infante, P F

    1975-01-01

    This study indicated that distoclusion decreased significantly with age and was more prevalent in siblings of children with Class II molar relation as compared with the prevalence for the total population. Children of middle socioeconomic status (SES) and girls with Class I molar relation had prevalences of posterior crossbite significantly greater than lower SES children and boys, respectively. Finger habits were highly associated with posterior crossbite (P less than 0.001).

  14. Immigrants and preterm births: a nationwide epidemiological study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2013-08-01

    To examine, nationwide, if there is an association between country of birth in mothers and preterm birth and to study whether any such association remains in second-generation immigrant women. In this follow-up study, a nationwide research database located at Lund University, Sweden, was used to identify all preterm born singletons in Sweden between January 1, 1982, and December 31, 2006. Incidence ratios were standardized with regard to maternal age at birth, marital status, geographical region, body height, and smoking history as well as period of birth, family income, and gender of the infant. Singletons of mothers born in Sweden were used as the reference group. There were 2,192,843 records for singletons over the study period, of whom 4.9 % were preterm births and 0.8 % were very preterm births. Increased risk of preterm birth was observed for mothers from Austria, Yugoslavia, Romania, Central Europe, and Asia. Increased risk of very preterm birth was observed for mothers from Eastern Europe, Central Europe, Africa, and Asia; these increased risk disappeared, however, in the second-generation female immigrants. Country of birth in mothers affected the risk of preterm birth; maternity care should pay special attention to women from certain population groups.

  15. An epidemiologic study of anhidrosis in horses in Florida.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric B; Mackay, Robert J; Hernandez, Jorge A

    2010-05-15

    OBJECTIVE-To estimate prevalence of and identify factors associated with anhidrosis in horses in Florida. Design-Cross-sectional study and case-control study. ANIMALS-4,620 horses on 500 farms. PROCEDURES-A questionnaire was structured and mailed to farm owners or managers to obtain information related to diagnosis of anhidrosis in horses and exposure factors associated with this condition. The frequency of investigated farm- and animal-level factors was compared between farms and horses affected and not affected with anhidrosis, respectively. RESULTS-The prevalence of anhidrosis was 11% at the farm level and 2% at the animal level. The odds of anhidrosis were 2.13 and 4.40 times as high in farms located in central and southern Florida, respectively, compared with odds for farms in northern Florida. The odds of anhidrosis were 5.26 and 15.40 times as high in show and riding instruction operations, respectively, compared with odds for ranch operations. At the animal level, breed (Thoroughbreds and warmblood horses), foaling place (western or midwestern region of the United States), and family history of anhidrosis were significantly associated with anhidrosis. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-This study provides new information on the prevalence of and factors for anhidrosis in horses in Florida. Horses with a family history of anhidrosis should be examined by a veterinarian for diagnosis of this condition before they are exposed to exercise in a hot and humid climate.

  16. A retrospective study on epidemiology of hypoglycemia in Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Juvva Gowtham; Abhilash, K. P. P.; Saya, Rama Prakasha; Tadipaneni, Neeha; Bose, J. Maheedhar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hypoglycemia is one among the leading causes for Emergency Department (ED) visits and is the most common and easily preventable endocrine emergency. This study is aimed at assessing the incidence and elucidating the underlying causes of hypoglycemia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, observational study which included patients registering in ED with a finger prick blood glucose ≤60 mg/dl at the time of arrival. All patients aged above 15 years with the above inclusion criteria during the period of August 2010 to July 2013 were selected. The study group was categorized based on diabetic status into diabetic and nondiabetic groups. Results: A total of 1196 hypoglycemic episodes encountered at the ED during the study period were included, and of which 772 with complete data were analyzed. Underlying causes for hypoglycemia in the diabetic group (535) mainly included medication related 320 (59.81%), infections 108 (20.19%), and chronic kidney disease 61 (11.40%). Common underlying causes of hypoglycemia in nondiabetic group (237, 30.69%) included infections 107 (45.15%), acute/chronic liver disease 42 (17.72%), and malignancies 22 (9.28%). Among diabetic subjects on antidiabetic medications (n = 320), distribution over 24 h duration clearly reported two peaks at 8th and 21st h. The incidence of hypoglycemia and death per 1000 ED visits were 16.41 and 0.73 in 2011, 16.19 and 0.78 in 2012, 17.20 and 1.22 in 2013 with an average of 16.51 and 0.91, respectively. Conclusion: Bimodal distribution with peaks in incidences of hypoglycemic attacks at 8th and 21st h based on hourly distribution in a day can be correlated with the times just before next meal. None of the patients should leave ED without proper evaluation of the etiology of hypoglycemia and the problem should be addressed at each individual level. Increasing incidence of death over the years is alarming, and further studies are needed to conclude the root cause. PMID:28217510

  17. Flavan-3-ols consumption and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Lei; Yang, Ying; He, Hongjuan; Chen, Erfei; Du, Le; Dong, Jing; Yang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous in vitro studies and animal model data have suggested that flavan-3-ols, the most common subclass of flavonoids in the diet, may exert protective effects against cancer, epidemiologic studies have reported inconclusive results for the association between flavan-3-ols intake and cancer risk. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies to investigate the preventive effects of flavan-3-ols on various types of cancers. A total of 43 epidemiologic studies, consisting of 25 case-control and 18 prospective cohort studies, were included. A significant inverse association was shown between flavan-3-ols intake and the risk of overall cancer (relative risk (RR) 0.935, 95%CI: 0.891-0.981). When cancer types were separately analyzed, a statistically significant protective effect of flavan-3-ols consumption was observed in rectal cancer (RR 0.838, 95%CI: 0.733-0.958), oropharyngeal and laryngeal cancer (RR 0.759, 95%CI: 0.581-0.993), breast (RR 0.885, 95%CI: 0.790-0.991) in case-control studies and stomach cancer in women (RR 0.633, 95%CI: 0.468-0.858). Our analysis indicates the potential benefits of flavan-3-ols in cancer prevention. PMID:27634884

  18. Future directions in epidemiologic studies of 1,3-butadiene-exposed workers.

    PubMed Central

    Acquavella, J F

    1990-01-01

    To date, epidemiologic research on 1,3-butadiene has consisted of cohort mortality studies of workers in the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and butadiene monomer industries. These studies have been extremely useful both in defining the focus on human health effects to the lymphopoietic cancers and in providing a perspective on which to evaluate the available animal models for human risk assessment. The next step for epidemiologic research will involve a lymphopoietic cancer case control approach to enable a more precise assessment of whether there is a relationship between 1,3-butadiene exposure and lymphopoietic cancer. In addition, periodic mortality updates of the 1,3-butadiene-exposed worker cohorts will be important to monitor trends in lymphopoietic cancer rates and to ensure that other cancers with long latency do not begin to show elevated rates. This paper describes an industry-sponsored program of case-control and cohort mortality update studies along with the critical elements in research design and analysis for each study. Epidemiological studies will play an important role in testing hypotheses developed from toxicological studies about potential biological mechanisms of 1,3-butadiene carcinogenesis in humans. PMID:2401253

  19. Recording of external radiation exposures at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: implications for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Wing, S; West, C M; Wood, J L; Tankersley, W

    1994-01-01

    Accurate measurements of radiation exposure for individuals are critical to assessing radiation-mortality associations. This paper is based on a study of changes in recorded doses and in radiation monitoring programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy facility where whole body external penetrating radiation exposures have been of primary epidemiological interest. External radiation monitoring data from 1943-1984 are analyzed for a group of white males (N = 8,318). The proportion of workers monitored for external radiation increased from about 50% in 1943 to over 80% in 1944 to above 98% after 1948. Mean radiation doses showed maxima in 1944 and 1957, followed by steady and long-term declines. Numerous changes in monitoring programs occurred during the study period, including changes in the types of dosimeters used, the frequency of reading dosimeters, methods of calculating doses, and practices of recording doses. Temporal patterns of doses in the lower range of the distribution showed some changes suggestive of changes in policies and practices for recording doses, which would influence dose values used in epidemiological studies. Reliable and accurate exposure measurements are especially important in studies of low level exposures due to small differences in outcomes between exposure groups. Evidence of changes in recorded doses due to monitoring and recording practices, rather than to actual changes in exposures in this well-monitored population, suggests the importance of comparable studies of other populations used for epidemiological studies of radiation-mortality associations.

  20. Future directions in epidemiologic studies of 1,3-butadiene-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Acquavella, J.F. )

    1990-06-01

    To date, epidemiologic research on 1,3-butadiene has consisted of cohort mortality studies of workers in the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and butadiene monomer industries. These studies have been extremely useful both in defining the focus on human health effects to the lymphopoietic cancers and in providing a perspective on which to evaluate the available animal models for human risk assessment. The next step for epidemiologic research will involve a lymphopoietic cancer case control approach to enable a more precise assessment of whether there is a relationship between 1,3-butadiene exposure and lymphopoietic cancer. In addition, periodic mortality updates of the 1,3-butadiene-exposed worker cohorts will be important to monitor trends in lymphopoietic cancer rates and to ensure that other cancers with long latency do not begin to show elevated rates. This paper describes an industry-sponsored program of case-control and cohort mortality update studies along with the critical elements in research design and analysis for each study. Epidemiological studies will play an important role in testing hypotheses developed from toxicological studies about potential biological mechanisms of 1,3-butadiene carcinogenesis in humans.

  1. A clinico-epidemiological study of rescuer burns.

    PubMed

    Basra, Baljeet Kumar; Suri, Manav P; Patil, Nilesh; Atha, Ravish; Patel, Natvar; Sachde, Jayesh P; Shaikh, M F

    2014-08-01

    Rescuer burn is a relatively newer terminology introduced to define the burns sustained by a person attempting to rescue a primary burn victim. Few studies have been published thus far on this peculiar type of burns. Due to the general neglect of the rescuer burns victim and discontinuation of treatment in most cases, once the primary victim dies, the rescuer often ends up in badly infected wounds and has a delayed return to work. A prospective study was conducted at the B J Medical College and Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad from January 2009 to December 2012 on the rescuer burns patients treated in its burns and plastic surgery department. 3074 patients of burns received treatment during the period of study. Of these, 48 patients gave the history of sustaining burns while trying to rescue a burns victim. Male to female ratio of rescuers was approximately 7:1. It was significantly higher as compared to the ratio of 1:0.8 of females to male burn victims observed at our centre (p≤0.01). Average age of the rescuers was higher in males as compared to females but the difference was not significant (p≥0.05). Of the 45 cases of female primary burns victims, male rescuer was husband of the primary victim in 41/45 cases (91.1%), mother was rescuer in three cases (6.6% cases) and sister was rescuer in one case. Though multiple people came to rescue a burns victim, in all cases, it was seen that it was the first rescuer who sustained burns himself or herself. None of the rescuers had any knowledge of the techniques and precautions to be taken while performing a rescue operation irrespective of their education status, indirectly pointing to the lack of any teaching on burns rescue in the school education curriculum.

  2. Epidemiological and immunopathological studies on Porcine parvovirus infection in Punjab

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Amninder; Mahajan, V.; Leishangthem, G. D.; Singh, N. D.; Bhat, Payal; Banga, H. S.; Filia, G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to get the first-hand knowledge about the seroprevalence of Porcine parvovirus (PPV) in Punjab and a diagnosis of PPV from abortion cases of swine using gross, histopathological, and immunohistopathological techniques to observe the tissue tropism of the virus strain. Materials and Methods: Tissue samples from the reproductive tract of pig (n=32), placental tissue (n=10), and aborted fetuses (n=18) were collected from Postmortem Hall of the Department of Veterinary Pathology, GADVASU, field outbreaks and from butcher houses in and around Ludhiana. These samples were processed for histopathological and immunohistochemical (IHC) studies. For seroprevalence study, 90 serum samples of different sex and age were collected from 15 swine farms of Punjab and were subjected to indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay using commercial kit. Results: Overall, seroprevalence of PPV was found to be 41.1%. Sex and age related difference in the prevalence was noted. In abortion cases grossly congested and emphysematous lungs, congested internal organs with fluid in abdominal cavity and congestion in brain, changes were noted in fetuses, while diffuse hemorrhages and edema was observed in placental tissue. Histopathologically, the most frequent fetal lesions in aborted fetuses were noted in lungs, liver, and brain. IHC staining revealed PPV antigens in sections of heart, liver, lung, spleen, brain, lymph node of fetuses, placenta, and uterus of sow. Gross, histopathological, and IHC examination of the samples confirmed 5 fetus, 2 placenta and 3 female reproductive samples positive for parvovirus infection. Conclusions: Seroprevalence results may serve as a support either in prevention or control of the disease. IHC is the sensitive technique for diagnosis of PPV associated with the reproductive tract of swine and was found to supplement the gross and histopathological alterations, respectively, associated with the disease. PMID:27651669

  3. Epidemiological study of Rift Valley fever virus in Kigoma, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kifaro, Emmanuel G; Nkangaga, Japhet; Joshua, Gradson; Sallu, Raphael; Yongolo, Mmeta; Dautu, George; Kasanga, Christopher J

    2014-04-23

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an acute, zoonotic viral disease caused by a Phlebovirus, which belongs to the Bunyaviridae family. Among livestock, outbreaks of the disease are economically devastating. They are often characterised by large, sweeping abortion storms and have significant mortality in adult livestock. The aim of the current study was to investigate RVFV infection in the Kigoma region, which is nestled under the hills of the western arm of the Great Rift Valley on the edge of Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania. A region-wide serosurvey was conducted on non-vaccinated small ruminants (sheep and goats, n = 411). Sera samples were tested for the presence of anti-RVFV antibodies and viral antigen, using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The overall past infections were detected in 22 of the 411 animals, 5.4% (Confidence Interval (CI) 95% = 3.5% - 8.1%). The Kigoma rural area recorded the higher seroprevalence of 12.0% (CI 95% = 7.3% - 18.3%; p < 0.0001), followed by Kibondo at 2.3% (CI 95% = 0.5% - 6.5%; p > 0.05) and the Kasulu district at 0.8% (CI 95% = 0.0% - 4.2%; p > 0.05). The prevalence was 12.5% and 4.7% for sheep and goats, respectively. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results indicated that only eight samples were found to be positive (n = 63). This study has confirmed, for the first time, the presence of the RVFV in the Kigoma region four years after the 2007 epizootic in Tanzania. The study further suggests that the virus activity exists during the inter-epizootic period, even in regions with no history of RVFV.

  4. Opportunities for translational epidemiology: The important role of observational studies to advance precision oncology

    PubMed Central

    Marrone, Michael; Schilsky, Richard L.; Liu, Geoff; Khoury, Muin J.; Freedman, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    Within current oncology practice several genomic applications are being use to inform treatment decisions with molecularly targeted therapies in breast, lung, colorectal, melanoma and other cancers. This commentary introduces a conceptual framework connecting the full spectrum of biomedical research disciplines, including fundamental laboratory research, clinical trials, and observational studies in the translation of genomic applications into clinical practice. The conceptual framework illustrates the contribution that well-designed observational epidemiological studies provide to the successful translation of these applications, and characterizes the role observational epidemiology plays in driving the dynamic and iterative bench-to-bedside, and bedside-to-bench translation continuum. We also discuss how the principles of this conceptual model, emphasizing integration of multidisciplinary research, can be applied to the evolving paradigm in “precision oncology” focusing on multiplex tumor sequencing, and we identify opportunities for observational studies to contribute to the successful and efficient translation of this paradigm. PMID:25750251

  5. Comparison of cancer risks projected from animal bioassays to epidemiologic studies of acrylonitrile-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Ward, C E; Starr, T B

    1993-10-01

    Bioassay findings have demonstrated that acrylonitrile (ACN) is a rodent carcinogen, but the available epidemiologic evidence provides little support for the human carcinogenicity of ACN. This discordance between laboratory animal and human study findings is explored by determining post hoc the statistical power of 11 epidemiologic studies of ACN-exposed workers to detect the all-site and brain cancer excesses that are projected from rodent drinking water bioassay data. At reasonable estimates of the level and duration of exposures among the occupational cohorts, a majority of the human studies had sufficient power (> 80%) to detect the projected excesses, yet such responses were consistently absent. We conclude, subject to certain caveats, that the upper bound estimate of ACN's inhalation cancer potency of 1.5 x 10(-4) per ppm is too high to be consistent with the human ACN experience.

  6. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, R. A.; Bernard, S. M.; Bird, C. C.; Darwin, C. M.; O'Brien, C.; Richards, I. D.; Roberts, B.; McKinney, P. A.

    1987-01-01

    This is the second report of a large case control study of lymphoma/leukaemia occurring in Yorkshire during 1979-84, and deals with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia presenting either in its haematological (CLL) or more solid lymphomatous (malignant lymphoma-lymphocytic or MLL) forms. In all, 330 cases and 561 controls were interviewed. The results support the concept that CLL/MLL is a condition of multiple aetiologies with evidence for genetic predisposition through an excess of family cases, immune perturbation demonstrated by excessive previous skin diseases and phenylbutazone use, and viral involvement shown by links with infectious diseases and multiple sclerosis. PMID:3304389

  7. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, R A; Bernard, S M; Bird, C C; Darwin, C M; O'Brien, C; Richards, I D; Roberts, B; McKinney, P A

    1987-07-01

    This is the second report of a large case control study of lymphoma/leukaemia occurring in Yorkshire during 1979-84, and deals with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia presenting either in its haematological (CLL) or more solid lymphomatous (malignant lymphoma-lymphocytic or MLL) forms. In all, 330 cases and 561 controls were interviewed. The results support the concept that CLL/MLL is a condition of multiple aetiologies with evidence for genetic predisposition through an excess of family cases, immune perturbation demonstrated by excessive previous skin diseases and phenylbutazone use, and viral involvement shown by links with infectious diseases and multiple sclerosis.

  8. [Epidemiologic study of allergy in the school environment].

    PubMed

    Fourrier, E

    1989-03-01

    A school environmental study of about 20,000 children from the French department of MAINE and LOIRE (1/100 of French territory and 1/100 of the total population) was made during the summer of 1987 in all the schools of the region. The replies allowed evaluation of: -- The elements of the environment; . urban or rural . type of building . soils . domestic animals (types, lifestyle, large or small, relationship with the children). -- The proportion of allergic children per classroom, types of sickness, suggestions made by parents, eventual allergic accidents during class hours. In addition, school teachers were asked to comment on the subject. Their answers showed extreme variety of attitude towards allergy, there were those who refuted it, some fully accepted and others who asked for more information so that they could be more help to their students. A prime interest of the study lies in the dialogue between parents, teachers and physicians as the children spent most of the daytime at school and therefore the quality of the environment is a major factor in infantile allergy.

  9. Epidemiological Study of Insect Bite Reactions from Central India

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Sumit; Dongre, Atul; Krishnan, Ajay; Godse, Swati; Singh, Neha

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The physical effects of the arthropod bites on human skin receive less attention, especially in the rural areas where the per capita income is less. Ours is a rural-based hospital, the vicinity having more of plants, trees, and forests; we undertook the study to find out the relation of insect bite dermatitis in a rural area. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the Dermatology outpatient department of our institute on 100 subjects of insect bite dermatitis who were questioned retrospectively about the sequence of events besides their environmental and living conditions. They were examined thoroughly and the relevant clinical findings were noted, also taking into account the prior treatment taken by them, if any. Results and Conclusions: It was found that insect bite dermatitis has no age or gender preponderance, and the protective factors for the same are use of full sleeve clothes and keeping the doors and windows closed at night. On the contrary, the risk factors are residence in areas of heavy insect infestation, use of perfumes and colognes, warm weather in spring and summer and the lack of protective measures. However, there was no direct association of atopy with increased risk of developing insect bite dermatitis. PMID:24082174

  10. [Epidemiologic study of immunologic status of confectionary workers].

    PubMed

    Zuskin, E; Kanceljak, B; Mustajbegović, J

    1994-01-01

    Immunological and respiratory findings were studied in a group of 90 confectioners (mean age: 35 years; mean exposure: 11 years). Intradermal skin tests with different food allergens demonstrated the largest positive skin reaction to cocoa (63%), followed by chocolate (9%), cacao, nut and almond (6%) and sugar (2%). Increased IgE serum levels were found in 13.8% of the confectioners, and elevated IgM concentrations in 43.3%. The prevalence of occupational asthma and dyspnea (26.1%) in workers with positive skin tests was significantly higher than in those with negative skin tests (0%; 4.1%). There was a high prevalence of acute symptoms during the work shift. Most of these complaints were more frequent in workers with positive than in those with negative skin tests. Lung function studies demonstrated significant mean acute across-shift reductions of ventilatory capacity. Mean pre-shift FVC and FEF25 were significantly lower than predicted normal values. Pre-shift administration of disodium chromoglycate (DSCG) significantly diminished across-shift reductions for FEF50 and FEF25. Our data suggest that exposure to environmental factors in confectioneries may lead to immunological changes and the development of respiratory impairment in some workers.

  11. Recent evidence from epidemiological studies on methylmercury toxicity.

    PubMed

    Murata, Katsuyuki; Yoshida, Minoru; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Iwai-Shimada, Miyuki; Yaginuma-Sakurai, Kozue; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Iwata, Toyoto; Karita, Kanae; Nakai, Kunihiko

    2011-09-01

    More than fifty years have passed since the outbreak of Minamata disease, and large-scale methylmercury poisoning due to industrial effluents or methylmercury-containing fungicide intoxication has scarcely happened in developed countries. On the other hand, widespread environmental mercury contamination has occurred in gold and mercury mining areas of developing countries. In this article, we provided an overview of recent studies addressing human health effects of methylmercury, which we searched using the PubMed of the US National Library of Medicine. The following suggestions were obtained for low-level methylmercury exposure: (1) In recent years, the proportion of human studies addressing methylmercury has tended to decrease. (2) Prenatal exposure to methylmercury through fish intake, even at low levels, adversely affects child development after adjusting for polychlorinated biphenyls and maternal fish intake during pregnancy, whereas maternal seafood intake has some benefits. (3) Long-term methylmercury exposure through consumption of fish such as bigeye tuna and swordfish may pose a potential risk of cardiac events involving sympathovagal imbalance. (4) In measuring methylmercury levels in preserved umbilical cord collected from inhabitants born in Minamata areas between 1945 and 1989, the elevated concentrations (≥1 mg/g) were observed mainly in inhabitants born between 1947 and 1968, and the peak coincided with the peak of acetaldehyde production in Minamata. (5) Since some developing countries appear to be in similar situations to Japan in the past, attention should be directed toward early recognition of a risky agent and precautions should be taken against it.

  12. Epidemiologic study of neonatal jaundice. A survey of contributing factors.

    PubMed

    Bracci, R; Buonocore, G; Garosi, G; Bruchi, S; Berni, S

    1989-01-01

    In the attempt to detect factors influencing bilirubinemia in healthy full-term or near-term newborn infants, a statistical analysis was carried out on a population of 1,126 neonates to study the variables possibly associated with maximum bilirubin values reached in the first days of life. The following variables were studied: maximum bilirubin level (maxBIL), sex, mode of delivery, gestational age, birthweight, ratio of birthweight/weight on 5th day, Apgar score, Rh and ABO incompatibility. Blood glucose and calcium levels, haematocrit, intake of breast milk, formula and glucose solution were also evaluated during the first 5 days of life. Higher maxBIL was found in males compared to females, after spontaneous delivery vs. emergency caesarean section, after caesarean section without fetal distress vs. emergency caesarean section, and in ABO incompatibility vs. no ABO incompatibility. Statistically significant inverse correlations were observed between maxBIL and gestational age, birth weight, blood glucose, and SE-calcium. Significant positive correlations were found between maxBIL and haematocrit and breast milk intake. A multiple regression analysis between maxBIL and the significantly correlated parameters showed that only gestational age and birth weight remained significantly correlated with maxBIL. The results of the present investigation confirm that the factors most commonly reported as being responsible for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia do in fact play a role, although it can be considered almost negligible with the exception of gender, mode of delivery, ABO incompatibility, birthweight and gestational age.

  13. An epidemiologic postmarketing surveillance study of prescription acne medications.

    PubMed Central

    Facklam, D P; Gardner, J S; Neidert, G L; Westland, M M

    1990-01-01

    After the Food and Drug Administration approved a topical antibiotic for the treatment of acne, we began a postmarketing surveillance study to measure the frequency of antibiotic-associated colitis and diarrhea in acne patients treated with topical antibiotics and low doses of oral antibiotics. Pharmacists recruited 13,465 patients who presented a prescription for an acne medication, and we obtained detailed information on the use of the medications, perceived acceptability, and the occurrence of new health events from 6,453 with computer-assisted telephone interviews. Three cases (less than 0.1%) of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and one case (less than 0.1%) of antibiotic-associated colitis were confirmed. We conclude that this methodology can provide further information about the safety of a drug once it is in customary use, at a fraction of the cost of Phase III clinical trials. PMID:2136713

  14. Food polyamine and cardiovascular disease--an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Soda, Kuniyasu; Kano, Yoshihiko; Chiba, Fumihiro

    2012-09-28

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of dietary polyamines toward preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Age-standardized mortality rates as well as other relevant information regarding individuals with CVD were gathered from the World Health Organization and the International Monetary Fund in 48 different European and other Western countries. Food supply data were collected from the database of the United Nations, and the amount of dietary polyamines was estimated by using polyamine concentrations in foods from published sources. The association between CVD mortality and the amount of polyamines was investigated by performing a series of multiple linear regression analyses. Analyses using factors known to modulate the risk of CVD including: Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (standardized regression coefficient (r) = -0.786, p < 0.001) and the amount of fruits, vegetable, nuts, and beans (r = -0.183, p = 0.001) but not including polyamines, showed negative associations with CVD, while smoking rate (r = 0.139, p = 0.041) and whole milk amount (r = 0.131, p = 0.028) showed positive associations with CVD. When the amount of polyamines was added to the analyses as a covariate, GDP (r = -0.864, p < 0.001) and polyamines (r = -0.355, p = 0.007) showed negative associations with CVD, while smoking rate (r = 0.183, p = 0.006) and whole milk (r = 0.113, p = 0.041) showed positive associations with CVD. The inverse association between dietary polyamines and CVD mortality revealed by the present study merits further evaluation.

  15. Epidemiological study of health hazards among workers handling engineered nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Wang, Shu-Li; Li, Lih-Ann; Chiang, Hung-Che; Li, Wan-Fen; Lin, Pin-Pin; Lai, Ching-Huang; Lee, Hui-Ling; Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Hsu, Jin-Huei; Chen, Chiou-Rong; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Liao, Hui-Yi; Chung, Yu-Teh

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish and identify the health effect markers of workers with potential exposure to nanoparticles (20-100 nm) during manufacturing and/or application of nanomaterials. For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 227 workers who handled nanomaterials and 137 workers for comparison who did not from 14 plants in Taiwan. A questionnaire was used to collect data on exposure status, demographics, and potential confounders. The health effect markers were measured in the medical laboratory. Control banding from the Nanotool Risk Level Matrix was used to categorize the exposure risk levels of the workers. The results showed that the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) in risk level 1 (RL1) and risk level 2 (RL2) workers was significantly ( p < 0.05) lower than in control workers. A significantly decreasing gradient was found for SOD (control > RL1 > RL2). Another antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), was significantly lower only in RL1 workers than in the control workers. The cardiovascular markers, fibrinogen and ICAM (intercellular adhesion molecule), were significantly higher in RL2 workers than in controls and a significant dose-response with an increasing trend was found for these two cardiovascular markers. Another cardiovascular marker, interleukin-6, was significantly increased among RL1 workers, but not among RL2 workers. The accuracy rate for remembering 7-digits and reciting them backwards was significantly lower in RL2 workers (OR = 0.48) than in controls and a significantly reversed gradient was also found for the correct rate of backward memory (OR = 0.90 for RL1, OR = 0.48 for RL2, p < 0.05 in test for trend). Depression of antioxidant enzymes and increased expression of cardiovascular markers were found among workers handling nanomaterials. Antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD and GPX, and cardiovascular markers, such as fibrinogen, ICAM, and interluekin-6, are possible biomarkers for medical surveillance of

  16. Methods for measuring utilization of mental health services in two epidemiologic studies

    PubMed Central

    NOVINS, DOUGLAS K.; BEALS, JANETTE; CROY, CALVIN; MANSON, SPERO M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives of Study Psychiatric epidemiologic studies often include two or more sets of questions regarding service utilization, but the agreement across these different questions and the factors associated with their endorsement have not been examined. The objectives of this study were to describe the agreement of different sets of mental health service utilization questions that were included in the American Indian Service Utilization Psychiatric Epidemiology Risk and Protective Factors Project (AI-SUPERPFP), and compare the results to similar questions included in the baseline National Comorbidity Survey (NCS). Methods Responses to service utilization questions by 2878 AI-SUPERPFP and 5877 NCS participants were examined by calculating estimates of service use and agreement (κ) across the different sets of questions. Logistic regression models were developed to identify factors associated with endorsement of specific sets of questions. Results In both studies, estimates of mental health service utilization varied across the different sets of questions. Agreement across the different question sets was marginal to good (κ = 0.27–0.69). Characteristics of identified service users varied across the question sets. Limitations Neither survey included data to examine the validity of participant responses to service utilization questions. Recommendations for Further Research Question wording and placement appear to impact estimates of service utilization in psychiatric epidemiologic studies. Given the importance of these estimates for policy-making, further research into the validity of survey responses as well as impacts of question wording and context on rates of service utilization is warranted. PMID:18767205

  17. The feasibility of epidemiologic studies of waterborne arsenic: A mortality study in Millard County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.R.; Southwick, J.W.; Scanlan, L.P.; Rench, J.; Calderon, R.L.

    1998-05-01

    The current maximum contaminant level for arsenic in drinking water for the United States is 50 micrograms/liter ({micro}g/L). To provide support for a reevaluation of the standard, a retrospective cohort mortality study is being conducted in several Utah communities. The available literature about the health effects of arsenic leaves some questions unresolved, including whether results from non-US populations are generalizable to the United States. Previous analyses have concluded that it is not possible to conduct a human health effects study of waterborne arsenic in the United States because the number of persons exposed to moderate-to-high levels of waterborne arsenic was assumed to be relatively small. This paper, however, describes a population in Utah that historically has been exposed to moderate-to-high levels of arsenic over a long period of time. Also, the paper discusses how many of the obstacles to a US study can be overcome. The study population has good characterization of exposure to drinking-water arsenic, residential stability, a minimum number of confounding factors, documented residence history with additional information on exposure, and cause-of-death information. Exposure data are described from water quality records, water rights records, local health departments, and geologic records. Given this relatively large cohort of exposed persons and a good assessment of exposure, the authors believe that it is feasible to conduct an epidemiologic study of waterborne arsenic exposure in a US population.

  18. Epidemiological study of foot and ankle injuries in recreational sports

    PubMed Central

    Luciano, Alexandre de Paiva; Lara, Luiz Carlos Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This is a retrospective study showing the incidence, type and extent of injuries occurring in the foot and/or ankle as a result of recreational sports practice. METHODS: We treated 131 patients, of which 123 were male and 8 female, with a history of trauma and pain in the foot and/or ankle after the practicing recreational sports. The average age of the male patients was 24.53 years. The evaluation was done through a research protocol, which contained the variables age, sex, diagnosis, and type of recreational sport. RESULTS: The sports were classified according to the American Medical Association, which divides them into contact and non-contact sports. 82.4% of the sample practiced contact sports, while 17.6% practiced sports classified as non-contact. CONCLUSIONS: The sprained ankle was the most frequent type of injury, especially those of grade I and II. Soccer was the sport responsible for the highest incidence of injuries and among its various forms the indoor soccer presented the highest frequency of injuries (35%). In the non-contact sports, the highest incidence was found in running. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453628

  19. The transmission of campylobacter in piggeries; an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Weijtens, M J; van der Plas, J; Bijker, P G; Urlings, H A; Koster, D; van Logtestijn, J G; Huis in't Veld, J H

    1997-12-01

    The campylobacter infection of 10 sows and their piglets was monitored. These pigs were kept on two multiplier farms. Rectal faeces samples were taken from the sows shortly before littering and at different intervals after littering. Swab samples of rectal content were taken from six piglets per sow at different intervals after birth. Nine sows were shown to be infected with campylobacter before litter and all sows after litter, with an average colony count of 4.1 in log N g-1 of faeces. Half of the piglets became infected with campylobacter during the first week of life and 85%, after four weeks. Two genetic subtyping methods (ERIC-PCR and RFLP) were used to study the relationships between campylobacter isolates from sows and piglets. A large diversity of campylobacter subtypes was found. Nevertheless, piglets and their mothers often harboured campylobacter isolates with identical genetic subtyping profiles, suggesting that piglets become infected via their mothers. However, observed similarities in genetic subtyping profiles between campylobacters isolated on different farms made this difficult to prove.

  20. Epidemiological Study of Animal Leptospirosis in New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    Roqueplo, Cédric; Cabre, Olivier; Davoust, Bernard; Kodjo, Angeli

    2013-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease in the world and a real public health concern for many years in New Caledonia. A cross-sectional survey was carried out on domestic and wild animals from New Caledonia in April 2009. Blood samples were collected from 30 cattle, 29 deers, (Cervus timorensis russa), 25 horses, 51 dogs, and 8 cats and were tested for 23 serovars of pathogenic Leptospira species by the microscopic agglutination test. From the total number of 143 samples, 84 (58.7%) were found to be positive towards one or several serovars of pathogenic leptospires. According to the species, the positive sera were obtained from 43% of 30 cattle, 72% of 29 Rusa deer, 80% of 25 horses, and 43% of 51 dogs, and fromall of the 8 cats tested. This study shows the broad dispersion and the high prevalence of the different serogroups of pathogenic Leptospira species tested, particularly among deer and horses. The disease is endemic in domestic animals and concerns all the species. PMID:23533965

  1. Napping: A public health issue. From epidemiological to laboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Faraut, Brice; Andrillon, Thomas; Vecchierini, Marie-Françoise; Leger, Damien

    2016-09-13

    Sleep specialists have proposed measures to counteract the negative short- and long-term consequences of sleep debt, and some have suggested the nap as a potential and powerful "public health tool". Here, we address this countermeasure aspect of napping viewed as an action against sleep deprivation rather than an action associated with poor health. We review the physiological functions that have been associated positively with napping in both public health and clinical settings (sleep-related accidents, work and school, and cardiovascular risk) and in laboratory-based studies with potential public health issues (cognitive performance, stress, immune function and pain sensitivity). We also discuss the circumstances in which napping-depending on several factors, including nap duration, frequency, and age-could be a potential public health tool and a countermeasure for sleep loss in terms of reducing accidents and cardiovascular events and improving sleep-restriction-sensitive working performance. However, the impact of napping and the nature of the sleep stage(s) involved still need to be evaluated, especially from the perspective of coping strategies in populations with chronic sleep debt, such as night and shift workers.

  2. Molecular and epidemiological study of Salmonella clinical isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, M J; Rivera, N; Castillo, J; Rubio, M C; Gómez-Lus, R

    1991-01-01

    A survey of Salmonella infections was carried out over a 1-year period in the rural community covered by the Hospital Reina Sofía (Tudela, Spain). The 255 strains that were collected were studied by serotyping, antimicrobial resistance, and plasmid profile analysis. The predominant serotype was S. enteritidis (85.90%), followed by S. typhimurium (7.06%) and S. virchow (2.36%). Only 7.84% of the strains were resistant to antimicrobial agents. The most common resistance was to beta-lactam antibiotics. This resistance was due to the presence of one of two types of beta-lactamases, TEM-1 or TEM-2. Resistance to kanamycin was associated with the synthesis of a 3'-O-phosphotransferase. The resistance to streptomycin and chloramphenicol was either not enzymatic or was due to a 3"-O-phosphotransferase and a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, respectively. Analysis of total plasmid DNA content revealed the presence of plasmids in 96.08% of the isolates. According to their plasmid profile, the strains could be classified into different groups. The three main groups, which accounted for 50.19, 20.78, and 4.70% of the isolates, respectively, corresponded to the antimicrobial-susceptible S. enteritidis serotype. These results suggested that plasmid profile analysis in conjunction with antimicrobial resistance determination can be useful for subtyping resistant Salmonella isolates. Images PMID:2056061

  3. An epidemiologic and traumatologic study of injuries in handball.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, A B; Yde, J

    1988-10-01

    To identify the risk factors of injuries in handball, 221 players were followed during one indoor season. The injury incidence was 4.6/1000 playing hours and 11.4/1000 game hours. The upper extremity was involved in 41% of the injuries including 21% finger sprains. Ankle sprains were the most common injury (33%), and overuse injuries accounted for 18%. The risk of reinjury was 32%. Contact with opponent players during running or shooting caused 31% of the injuries. Errors during grasping the ball were the reason for most of the finger injuries. Forty percent of the injuries was treated by the players themselves. After the injury 73% were absent from handball for more than 1 week. Forty-one percent of the injured players had complaints 6 months after the end of the season. The study shows that injuries in handball are serious and cause extensive consequences for the players. In most of the injuries both intrinsic and extrinsic factors were involved, and prophylactic intervention in these cases demands changes in more fields.

  4. Etiology and occurrence of gingival recession - An epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Mythri, Sarpangala; Arunkumar, Suryanarayan Maiya; Hegde, Shashikanth; Rajesh, Shanker Kashyap; Munaz, Mohamed; Ashwin, Devasya

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Gingival recession is the term used to characterize the apical shift of the marginal gingiva from its normal position on the crown of the tooth. It is frequently observed in adult subjects. The occurrence and severity of the gingival recession present considerable differences between populations. To prevent gingival recession from occurring, it is essential to detect the underlying etiology. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of gingival recession and to identify the most common factor associated with the cause of gingival recession. Methods: A total of 710 subjects aged between 15 years to 60 years were selected. Data were collected by an interview with the help of a proforma and then the dental examination was carried out. The presence of gingival recession was recorded using Miller's classification of gingival recession. The Silness and Loe Plaque Index, Loe and Silness gingival index, community periodontal index were recorded. The data thus obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using Chi-square test and Student's unpaired t-test. Results: Of 710 subjects examined, 291 (40.98%) subjects exhibited gingival recession. The frequency of gingival recession was found to increase with age. High frequency of gingival recession was seen in males (60.5%) compared to females (39.5%). Gingival recession was commonly seen in mandibular incisors (43.0%). Miller's class I gingival recession was more commonly seen. The most common cause for gingival recession was dental plaque accumulation (44.1%) followed by faulty toothbrushing (42.7%). Conclusion: Approximately half of the subjects examined exhibited gingival recession. The etiology of gingival recession is multifactorial, and its appearance is always the result of more than one factor acting together. PMID:26941519

  5. Total Aircrew Workload Study for the AMST. Volume II. Comm/Nav Description

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-02-01

    AFFDL-TR-79- 3080,VOL.1I - LEVEL’ Itr TOTAL AIRCREW WORKLOAD STUDY FOR THE AMST VOLUME II, COMM/ NAV DESCRIPTION *THE S LUNKER JZA:10 CORPOIZATION ELE...16 SB. Detailed Description . .. .......... . . . . 19 TABLE OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1 NAV MANAGEMENT SYSTEM l............... 2 NAV ...MANAGEMENT CDU .................... 3 3 NAV MANAGEMENT CDU PAGES ............. 9........ 4 4 FLIGHT PLAN PAGE ..... ...................... 6 - 5 WAYPOINT

  6. The Epidemiological Modelling of Major Depressive Disorder: Application for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Alize J.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Norman, Rosana E.; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Patten, Scott B.; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the detrimental impact of major depressive disorder (MDD) at the individual level has been described, its global epidemiology remains unclear given limitations in the data. Here we present the modelled epidemiological profile of MDD dealing with heterogeneity in the data, enforcing internal consistency between epidemiological parameters and making estimates for world regions with no empirical data. These estimates were used to quantify the burden of MDD for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010). Method Analyses drew on data from our existing literature review of the epidemiology of MDD. DisMod-MR, the latest version of the generic disease modelling system redesigned as a Bayesian meta-regression tool, derived prevalence by age, year and sex for 21 regions. Prior epidemiological knowledge, study- and country-level covariates adjusted sub-optimal raw data. Results There were over 298 million cases of MDD globally at any point in time in 2010, with the highest proportion of cases occurring between 25 and 34 years. Global point prevalence was very similar across time (4.4% (95% uncertainty: 4.2–4.7%) in 1990, 4.4% (4.1–4.7%) in 2005 and 2010), but higher in females (5.5% (5.0–6.0%) compared to males (3.2% (3.0–3.6%) in 2010. Regions in conflict had higher prevalence than those with no conflict. The annual incidence of an episode of MDD followed a similar age and regional pattern to prevalence but was about one and a half times higher, consistent with an average duration of 37.7 weeks. Conclusion We were able to integrate available data, including those from high quality surveys and sub-optimal studies, into a model adjusting for known methodological sources of heterogeneity. We were also able to estimate the epidemiology of MDD in regions with no available data. This informed GBD 2010 and the public health field, with a clearer understanding of the global distribution of MDD. PMID:23922765

  7. Genetics of schizophrenia and smoking: an approach to studying their comorbidity based on epidemiological findings

    PubMed Central

    de Leon, Jose; Diaz, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    The association between schizophrenia and tobacco smoking has been described in more than 1,000 articles, many with inadequate methodology. The studies on this association can focus on: (1) current smoking, ever smoking or smoking cessation; (2) non-psychiatric controls or controls with severe mental illness (e.g., bipolar disorder); and (3) higher smoking frequency or greater usage in smokers. The association with the most potential for genetic studies is that between ever daily smoking and schizophrenia; it may reflect a shared genetic vulnerability. To reduce the number of false-positive genes, we propose a three-stage approach derived from epidemiological knowledge. In the first stage, only genetic variations associated with ever daily smoking that are simultaneously significant within the non-psychiatric controls, the bipolar disorder controls and the schizophrenia cases will be selected. Only those genetic variations that are simultaneously significant in the three hypothesis tests will be tested in the second stage, where the prevalence of the genes must be significantly higher in schizophrenia than in bipolar disorder, and significantly higher in bipolar disorder than in controls. The genes simultaneously significant in the second stage will be included in a third stage where the gene variations must be significantly more frequent in schizophrenia patients who did not start smoking daily until their 20s (late start) versus those who had an early start. Any genetic approach to psychiatric disorders may fail if attention is not given to comorbidity and epidemiological studies that suggest which comorbidities are likely to be explained by genetics and which are not. Our approach, which examines the results of epidemiological studies on comorbidities and then looks for genes that simultaneously satisfy epidemiologically suggested sets of hypotheses, may also apply to the study of other major illnesses. PMID:22190153

  8. An epidemiological study of low back pain in professional drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovenzi, Massimo; Rui, Francesca; Negro, Corrado; D'Agostin, Flavia; Angotzi, Giuliano; Bianchi, Sandra; Bramanti, Lucia; Festa, GianLuca; Gatti, Silvana; Pinto, Iole; Rondina, Livia; Stacchini, Nicola

    2006-12-01

    The prevalence of low back pain (LBP) was investigated in 598 Italian professional drivers exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) and ergonomic risk factors (drivers of earth moving machines, fork-lift truck drivers, truck drivers, bus drivers). The control group consisted of a small sample of 30 fire inspectors not exposed to WBV. Personal, occupational and health histories were collected by means of a structured questionnaire. Vibration measurements were performed on representative samples of the machines and vehicles used by the driver groups. From the vibration magnitudes and exposure durations, alternative measures of vibration dose were estimated for each subject. Daily vibration exposure, expressed in terms of 8-h energy-equivalent frequency-weighted acceleration, A(8), averaged 0.28-0.61 (range 0.10-1.18) m s -2 rms in the driver groups. Duration of exposure to WBV ranged between 1 and 41 years. The 7-day and 12-month prevalence of LBP was greater in the driver groups than in the controls. In the professional drivers, the occurrence of 12-month LBP, high intensity of LBP (Von Korff pain scale score ⩾5), and LBP disability (Roland & Morris disability scale score ⩾12) significantly increased with increasing cumulative vibration exposure. Even though several alternative measures of vibration exposure were associated with LBP outcomes, nevertheless a more regular trend of association with LBP was found for vibration dose expressed as ∑ a vit i (m s -2 h), in which the frequency-weighted acceleration, a v, and lifetime exposure duration, t, were given equal weight. In multivariate data analysis, individual characteristics (e.g. age, body mass index) and a physical load index (derived from combining manual materials handling and awkward postures) were significantly associated with LBP outcomes, while psychosocial work factors (e.g. job decision, job support) showed a marginal relation to LBP. This study tends to confirm that professional driving in industry

  9. Using epidemiology to regulate food additives: saccharin case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Cordle, F; Miller, S A

    1984-01-01

    The increasing use of nonnutritive sweeteners and the widely publicized 1969 ban on cyclamate led to additional investigations in rodents of the carcinogenic potential of saccharin. Preliminary results of a long-term feeding study indicated formation of bladder tumors in rodents, and collective experimental evidence has demonstrated that high doses of the synthetic sweetener saccharin can cause bladder cancer in rodents. Based on the results of that and other rodent studies indicating an increased risk of bladder cancer associated with saccharin, the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration announced the agency's intention to propose a ban on saccharin. This intention was made known in April 1977 under the Delaney Clause of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The clause essentially states that no additive shall be deemed safe if it is found to induce cancer in man or animals, or if it is found, after tests appropriate for the evaluation of the safety of food additives, to induce cancer in man or animals. Also in 1977, a group of epidemiologists began to assess the available epidemiologic information to determine the potential human risk. This report describes the assessment of several human epidemiologic studies available then and the results of more recent epidemiologic studies.

  10. HIV/AIDS among American Indians/Alaska Natives Living in Montana: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sondag, K. Ann; Strike, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the epidemiology of HIV among AI/ANs in Montana. Barriers to HIV testing and motivations to test also were explored. Analysis of data revealed that there were no significant changes in regard to HIV/AIDS case rates, demographic characteristics, or risk behaviors of AI/ANs infected with HIV/AIDS since reporting began in 1985.…

  11. MICA-AIR: A PARTICIPANT-BASED APPROACH TO EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN EPIDEMIOLOGIC AND COMMUNITY HEALTH STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objective. Epidemiologic and community health studies of traffic-related air pollution and childhood asthma have been limited by resource intensive exposure assessment techniques. The current study utilized a novel participant-based approach to collect air monitoring data f...

  12. [Preliminaries to a study of epidemiology of occupational cancer among workers of shoe factories].

    PubMed

    Mironov, A I; Shan'gina, O V; Bul'bulian, M A

    1994-01-01

    Data presented in literature proves frequent malignancies of various localizations in workers engaged into footwear production, which could result from exposure to leather, rubber dust and some chemicals (polyvinylchloride, chloroprene and others). Hygienic studies of air at footwear production demonstrate that the workers at their workplaces are exposed to such occupational hazards as dust, chemicals. Epidemiologic research to reveal possible correlation between work conditions and the workers' health are expedient.

  13. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-05-01

    The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures. (ACR)

  14. When Epidemiology Meets the Internet: Web-Based Surveys in the Millennium Cohort Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-19

    med.navy.mil). 1345 Am J Epidemiol 2007;166:1345–1354 American Journal of Epidemiology Published by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2007. Vol...JB, Kroenke K, et al. Validity and utility of the PRIME-MD patient health questionnaire in assessment of 3000 obstetric - gynecologic patients: the...PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire Obstetrics - Gynecology Study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000;183:759–69. 23. Ware N, Kleinman A. Culture and somatic

  15. Low-dose ionising radiation and cardiovascular diseases--Strategies for molecular epidemiological studies in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kreuzer, Michaela; Auvinen, Anssi; Cardis, Elisabeth; Hall, Janet; Jourdain, Jean-Rene; Laurier, Dominique; Little, Mark P; Peters, Annette; Raj, Ken; Russell, Nicola S; Tapio, Soile; Zhang, Wei; Gomolka, Maria

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that high-dose ionising radiation causes cardiovascular diseases. In contrast, the evidence for a causal relationship between long-term risk of cardiovascular diseases after moderate doses (0.5-5 Gy) is suggestive and weak after low doses (<0.5 Gy). However, evidence is emerging that doses under 0.5 Gy may also increase long-term risk of cardiovascular disease. This would have major implications for radiation protection with respect to medical use of radiation for diagnostic purposes and occupational or environmental radiation exposure. Therefore, it is of great importance to gain information about the presence and possible magnitude of radiation-related cardiovascular disease risk at doses of less than 0.5 Gy. The biological mechanisms implicated in any such effects are unclear and results from epidemiological studies are inconsistent. Molecular epidemiological studies can improve the understanding of the pathogenesis and the risk estimation of radiation-induced circulatory disease at low doses. Within the European DoReMi (Low Dose Research towards Multidisciplinary Integration) project, strategies to conduct molecular epidemiological studies in this field have been developed and evaluated. Key potentially useful European cohorts are the Mayak workers, other nuclear workers, uranium miners, Chernobyl liquidators, the Techa river residents and several diagnostic or low-dose radiotherapy patient cohorts. Criteria for informative studies are given and biomarkers to be investigated suggested. A close collaboration between epidemiology, biology and dosimetry is recommended, not only among experts in the radiation field, but also those in cardiovascular diseases.

  16. In support of descriptive studies; relevance to translational research

    PubMed Central

    Marincola, Francesco M

    2007-01-01

    The contemporary scientific establishment equates hypothesis testing to good science. This stance bypasses the preliminary need to identify a worthwhile hypothesis through rigorous observation of natural processes. If alleviation of human suffering is claimed as the goal of a scientific undertaking, it would be unfair to test a hypothesis whose relevance to human disease has not been satisfactorily proven. Here, we argue that descriptive investigations based on direct human observation should be highly valued and regarded essential for the selection of worthwhile hypotheses while the pursuit of costly scientific investigations without such evidence is a desecration of the cause upon which biomedical research is grounded. There are good things so in the tide pools and interesting thoughts to be generated from the seeing. Every new eye applied to the peephole which looks out at the world may fish in some new beauty and some new pattern, and the world of the human mind must be enriched by such fishing. John Steinbeck – Foreword to the Third Edition of Ed Ricketts' "Tides". PMID:17474987

  17. Assessment of exposure in epidemiological studies: the example of silica dust.

    PubMed

    Dahmann, Dirk; Taeger, Dirk; Kappler, Martin; Büchte, Sebastian; Morfeld, Peter; Brüning, Thomas; Pesch, Beate

    2008-09-01

    Exposure to crystalline silica ranks among the most frequent occupational exposures to an established human carcinogen. Health-based occupational exposure limits can only be derived from a reliable dose-response relationship. Although quartz dust seems to be a well-measurable agent, several uncertainties in the quantification of exposure to crystalline silica can bias the risk estimates in epidemiological studies. This review describes the silica-specific methodological issues in the assessment of exposure. The mineralogical forms of silica, the technologies applied to generate dust, protective measures, and co-existing carcinogens are important parameters to characterize the exposure condition of an occupational setting. Another methodological question concerns the measurement of the respirable dust fraction in the worker's breathing zone and the determination of the quartz content in that fraction. Personal devices have been increasingly employed over time, whereas norms for the measurement of respirable dust have been defined only recently. Several methods are available to analyse the content of crystalline silica in dust with limits of quantitation close to environmental exposure levels. For epidemiological studies, the quartz content has frequently not been measured but only calculated. To develop a silica-dust database for epidemiological purposes, historical dust concentrations sampled with different devices and measured as particle numbers have to be converted in a common exposure metric. For the development of a job-exposure matrix (JEM), missing historical data have to be estimated to complete the database over time. Unknown but frequently high-exposure levels of the past contribute largely to the cumulative exposure of a worker. Because the establishment of a JEM is crucial for risk estimates, sufficient information should be made accessible to allow an estimation of the uncertainties in the assessment of exposure to crystalline silica. The impressive

  18. The Framingham Heart Study and the Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Syed S.; Levy, Daniel; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wang, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary On October 11, 2013, the Framingham Heart Study will celebrate 65 years since the examination of its first participant in 1948. During this period, the study has provided substantial insight into the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. The origin of the study is closely linked to the cardiovascular health of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and his premature death from hypertensive heart disease and stroke in 1945. The present article describes the events leading to the founding of the Framingham Heart Study, and provides a brief historical overview of selected contributions from the study. PMID:24084292

  19. Epidemiological study of viral hepatitis types A, B, C, D and E among Inuits in West Greenland.

    PubMed

    Langer, B C; Frösner, G G; von Brunn, A

    1997-09-01

    A descriptive study was performed to evaluate the relative frequencies and molecular epidemiological features of viral hepatitis types A to E among the Inuit population in West Greenland. Serum samples were collected from 503 Inuits (186 males and 317 females; mean age 35 years; range 7-79 years) and were tested for markers of viral hepatitis infection. The hepatitis A prevalence averaged 54%, with a significant rise from 9% to 50% between the second and third decade of life. As for hepatitis B, 42% of the total study population showed serological evidence of current or past hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and 7% were hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers. Among the carriers, 6% were also positive for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and HBV DNA could be detected in 49% of carriers by polymerase chain reaction. Typing of the HBV isolates revealed genomic group D in 83% (serotype ayw2) and group A in 17% (serotype adw 2). Less than 1% of the study population had antibodies to the hepatitis C virus. None were positive for HCV RNA. Serological evidence of hepatitis D infection was found in 7% of those with hepatitis B helper virus infection markers and in 40% of the HBsAg carriers. As for hepatitis E, 3% of the Inuits showed reactivity in an enzyme immunoassay that detected hepatitis E virus antibody. HEV RNA could not be detected.

  20. Non-dermatophyte mould onychomycosis: a clinical and epidemiological study at a dermatology referral centre in Bogota, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Morales-Cardona, Camilo A; Valbuena-Mesa, Martha C; Alvarado, Zulma; Solorzano-Amador, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Worldwide prevalence of non-dermatophyte mould onychomycosis has increased in recent years; however, available information on the topic is confusing and oftentimes contradictory, probably due to the small number of reported cases. The aim of this study was to determine and describe the aetiological agents, as well as the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of non-dermatophyte mould onychomycosis in a dermatology referral centre in Bogota, Colombia. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted between January 2001 and December 2011 among patients who attend the National Institute of Dermatology with a confirmed diagnosis of onychomycosis by non-dermatophytes moulds. There were 317 confirmed cases of non-dermatophyte mould onychomycosis in 196 women and 121 men whose average age was 43 years. Twenty-seven per cent of them had a history of systemic disease. The habit of walking and showering barefoot was the major infection-related factor. Distal and lateral subungual presentation was the most common pattern of clinical presentation. The most frequent non-dermatophyte mould was Neoscytalidium dimidiatum followed by Fusarium spp. No relationship was observed with predisposing factors previously reported in the literature. Clinical features found in this population are indistinguishable from onychomycosis caused by dermatophytes. High prevalence of N. dimidiatum found here was in contrast to a large number of studies where other types of moulds predominate.

  1. What Can Epidemiological Studies Tell Us about the Impact of Chemical Mixtures on Human Health?

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joseph M.; Gennings, Chris; Hauser, Russ; Webster, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Humans are exposed to a large number of environmental chemicals: Some of these may be toxic, and many others have unknown or poorly characterized health effects. There is intense interest in determining the impact of exposure to environmental chemical mixtures on human health. As the study of mixtures continues to evolve in the field of environmental epidemiology, it is imperative that we understand the methodologic challenges of this research and the types of questions we can address using epidemiological data. In this article, we summarize some of the unique challenges in exposure assessment, statistical methods, and methodology that epidemiologists face in addressing chemical mixtures. We propose three broad questions that epidemiological studies can address: a) What are the potential health impacts of individual chemical agents? b) What is the interaction among agents? And c) what are the health effects of cumulative exposure to multiple agents? As the field of mixtures research grows, we can use these three questions as a basis for defining our research questions and for developing methods that will help us better understand the effect of chemical exposures on human disease and well-being. PMID:26720830

  2. Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Studying Spatial Abundance of Ungulates: Relevance to Spatial Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Barasona, José A.; Mulero-Pázmány, Margarita; Acevedo, Pelayo; Negro, Juan J.; Torres, María J.; Gortázar, Christian; Vicente, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    Complex ecological and epidemiological systems require multidisciplinary and innovative research. Low cost unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) can provide information on the spatial pattern of hosts’ distribution and abundance, which is crucial as regards modelling the determinants of disease transmission and persistence on a fine spatial scale. In this context we have studied the spatial epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in the ungulate community of Doñana National Park (South-western Spain) by modelling species host (red deer, fallow deer and cattle) abundance at fine spatial scale. The use of UAS high-resolution images has allowed us to collect data to model the environmental determinants of host abundance, and in a further step to evaluate their relationships with the spatial risk of TB throughout the ungulate community. We discuss the ecological, epidemiological and logistic conditions under which UAS may contribute to study the wildlife/livestock sanitary interface, where the spatial aggregation of hosts becomes crucial. These findings are relevant for planning and implementing research, fundamentally when managing disease in multi-host systems, and focusing on risky areas. Therefore, managers should prioritize the implementation of control strategies to reduce disease of conservation, economic and social relevance. PMID:25551673

  3. Prevalence of Paget's disease of bone in hospital patients in Jerusalem: an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Bloom, R A; Libson, E; Blank, P; Nubani, N

    1985-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed the widely varied prevalence of Paget's disease of bone. The highest rates have been found in parts of England. The disease has been reported only infrequently in Jews and no previous studies of prevalence have been performed in the Middle East or Asia. In the present study an age- and sex-standardized rate of 1% was found among Jews, which is similar to that in many southern European populations. No case of Paget's disease of bone was found among Arabs in this study.

  4. Long-term particulate matter exposure and mortality: a review of European epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Several studies considered the relation between long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and total mortality, as well as mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Our aim was to provide a comprehensive review of European epidemiological studies on the issue. Methods We searched the Medline database for epidemiological studies on air pollution and health outcomes published between January 2002 and December 2007. We also examined the reference lists of individual papers and reviews. Two independent reviewers classified the studies according to type of air pollutant, duration of exposure and health outcome considered. Among European investigations that examined long-term PM exposure we found 4 cohort studies (considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality), 1 case-control study (considering mortality from myocardial infarction), and 4 ecologic studies (2 studies considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality and 2 studies focused on cardiovascular mortality). Results Measurement indicators of PM exposure used in European studies, including PM10, PM2.5, total suspended particulate and black smoke, were heterogeneous. This notwithstanding, in all analytic studies total mortality was directly associated with long-term exposure to PM. The excesses in mortality were mainly due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes. Three out of 4 ecologic studies found significant direct associations between PM indexes and mortality. Conclusion European studies on long-term exposure to PM indicate a direct association with mortality, particularly from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. PMID:19995424

  5. Measuring socio-economic position for epidemiological studies in low- and middle-income countries: a methods of measurement in epidemiology paper

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Laura D; Galobardes, Bruna; Matijasevich, Alicia; Gordon, David; Johnston, Deborah; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Patel, Rita; Webb, Elizabeth A; Lawlor, Debbie A; Hargreaves, James R

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written about the measurement of socio-economic position (SEP) in high-income countries (HIC). Less has been written for an epidemiology, health systems and public health audience about the measurement of SEP in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The social stratification processes in many LMIC—and therefore the appropriate measurement tools—differ considerably from those in HIC. Many measures of SEP have been utilized in epidemiological studies; the aspects of SEP captured by these measures and the pathways through which they may affect health are likely to be slightly different but overlapping. No single measure of SEP will be ideal for all studies and contexts; the strengths and limitations of a given indicator are likely to vary according to the specific research question. Understanding the general properties of different indicators, however, is essential for all those involved in the design or interpretation of epidemiological studies. In this article, we describe the measures of SEP used in LMIC. We concentrate on measures of individual or household-level SEP rather than area-based or ecological measures such as gross domestic product. We describe each indicator in terms of its theoretical basis, interpretation, measurement, strengths and limitations. We also provide brief comparisons between LMIC and HIC for each measure. PMID:22438428

  6. Childhood Brain Tumor Epidemiology: A Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Review

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kimberly J.; Cullen, Jennifer; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Ostrom, Quinn T.; Langer, Chelsea E.; Turner, Michelle C.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Fisher, James L.; Lupo, Philip J.; Partap, Sonia; Schwartzbaum, Judith A.; Scheurer, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood brain tumors are the most common pediatric solid tumor and include several histological subtypes. Although progress has been made in improving survival rates for some subtypes, understanding of risk factors for childhood brain tumors remains limited to a few genetic syndromes and ionizing radiation to the head and neck. In this report, we review descriptive and analytical epidemiology childhood brain tumor studies from the past decade and highlight priority areas for future epidemiology investigations and methodological work that is needed to advance our understanding of childhood brain tumor causes. Specifically, we summarize the results of a review of studies published since 2004 that have analyzed incidence and survival in different international regions and that have examined potential genetic, immune system, developmental and birth characteristics, and environmental risk factors. PMID:25192704

  7. Molecular epidemiology studies on occupational and environmental exposure to mutagens and carcinogens, 1997-1999.

    PubMed Central

    Srám, R J; Binková, B

    2000-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology is a new and evolving area of research, combining laboratory measurement of internal dose, biologically effective dose, biologic effects, and influence of individual susceptibility with epidemiologic methodologies. Biomarkers evaluated were selected according to basic scheme: biomarkers of exposure--metabolites in urine, DNA adducts, protein adducts, and Comet assay parameters; biomarkers of effect--chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei, mutations in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene, and the activation of oncogenes coding for p53 or p21 proteins as measured on protein levels; biomarkers of susceptibility--genetic polymorphisms of genes CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT2. DNA adducts measured by 32P-postlabeling are the biomarker of choice for the evaluation of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Protein adducts are useful as a biomarker for exposure to tobacco smoke (4-aminobiphenyl) or to smaller molecules such as acrylonitrile or 1,3-butadiene. Of the biomarkers of effect, the most common are cytogenetic end points. Epidemiologic studies support the use of chromosomal breakage as a relevant biomarker of cancer risk. The use of the Comet assay and methods analyzing oxidative DNA damage needs reliable validation for human biomonitoring. Until now there have not been sufficient data to interpret the relationship between genotypes, biomarkers of exposure, and biomarkers of effect for assessing the risk of human exposure to mutagens and carcinogens. PMID:10698723

  8. Are epidemiological approaches suitable to study risk/preventive factors for human birth defects?

    PubMed Central

    Oberg, Anna Sara

    2015-01-01

    Birth defects are a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality and contribute substantially to long-term disability. One out of every 33 babies is born with some type of birth defect. Despite decades of research on environmental, behavioral and genetic risk factors, the vast majority of birth defects still occur without known cause. It is possible that birth defects are largely stochastic (and unavoidable) events, at which efforts to investigate their causes would be futile and unjustified. In this commentary we argue for the continued research into risk/preventive factors of human birth defects, and outline why epidemiological studies are suitable for such endeavors. First we discuss what factors to target (genetic or environmental) and how to define the pertinent research questions. Then we present a short review of both epidemiological contributions in the past and approaches to advance the field in the future. After considering also their limitations, we conclude that modern epidemiologic approaches are invaluable to advance our understanding of risk factors for human birth defects, and that interdisciplinary collaborations will also be essential to further our knowledge. PMID:25722958

  9. A Comparison of Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants: Application to Epidemiology Studies in Detroit, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vehicles are major sources of air pollutant emissions, and individuals living near large roads endure high exposures and health risks associated with traffic-related air pollutants. Air pollution epidemiology, health risk, environmental justice, and transportation planning studi...

  10. Vitamin E and risk of cardiovascular diseases: a review of epidemiologic and clinical trial studies.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Zorabel; Drogan, Dagmar; Weikert, Cornelia; Boeing, Heiner

    2010-05-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of worldwide mortality. There is strong epidemiologic evidence for a beneficial effect of vitamin E on cardiovascular disease risk. However, conflicting results have been reported by intervention studies. To assess the potential benefit of vitamin E intake on the risk of cardiovascular diseases, fifty-nine published reports from observational studies, retrospective and prospective, randomised clinical trials, meta-analyses as well as pooling analyses were reviewed. The paper provides a detailed discussion about design, quality and limitations of these studies with regard to the evidence of the hypothesized relationship between vitamin E and cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Short diet history for assessing dietary exposure to N-nitrosamines in epidemiologic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, G.R.; Harrison, L.; Jain, M.

    1986-10-01

    A short diet history for use in assessing dietary nitrosamine exposure in epidemiologic studies has been developed by using data form a case-control study of diet and stomach cancer carried out in Ontario, Manitoba, and Newfoundland between 1979 and 1982. The method gives excellent correlations for seven dietary components with estimates based on a full diet history, and also performs well when tested on a different data set from a case-control study of diet and colorectal cancer carried out in Ontario and Alberta between 1976 and 1978.

  12. Time's up. descriptive epidemiology of multi-morbidity and time spent on health related activity by older Australians: a time use survey.

    PubMed

    Jowsey, Tanisha; McRae, Ian S; Valderas, Jose M; Dugdale, Paul; Phillips, Rebecca; Bunton, Robin; Gillespie, James; Banfield, Michelle; Jones, Lesley; Kljakovic, Marjan; Yen, Laurann

    2013-01-01

    Most Western health systems remain single illness orientated despite the growing prevalence of multi-morbidity. Identifying how much time people with multiple chronic conditions spend managing their health will help policy makers and health service providers make decisions about areas of patient need for support. This article presents findings from an Australian study concerning the time spent on health related activity by older adults (aged 50 years and over), most of whom had multiple chronic conditions. A recall questionnaire was developed, piloted, and adjusted. Sampling was undertaken through three bodies; the Lung Foundation Australia (COPD sub-sample), National Diabetes Services Scheme (Diabetes sub-sample) and National Seniors Australia (Seniors sub-sample). Questionnaires were mailed out during 2011 to 10,600 older adults living in Australia. 2540 survey responses were received and analysed. Descriptive analyses were completed to obtain median values for the hours spent on each activity per month. The mean number of chronic conditions was 3.7 in the COPD sub-sample, 3.4 in the Diabetes sub-sample and 2.0 in the NSA sub-sample. The study identified a clear trend of increased time use associated with increased number of chronic conditions. Median monthly time use was 5-16 hours per month overall for our three sub-samples. For respondents in the top decile with five or more chronic conditions the median time use was equivalent to two to three hours per day, and if exercise is included in the calculations, respondents spent from between five and eight hours per day: an amount similar to full-time work. Multi-morbidity imposes considerable time burdens on patients. Ageing is associated with increasing rates of multi-morbidity. Many older adults are facing high demands on their time to manage their health in the face of decreasing energy and mobility. Their time use must be considered in health service delivery and health system reform.

  13. A Review of Exposure Assessment Methods in Epidemiological Studies on Incinerators

    PubMed Central

    Ranzi, Andrea; De Leo, Giulio A.; Lauriola, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Incineration is a common technology for waste disposal, and there is public concern for the health impact deriving from incinerators. Poor exposure assessment has been claimed as one of the main causes of inconsistency in the epidemiological literature. We reviewed 41 studies on incinerators published between 1984 and January 2013 and classified them on the basis of exposure assessment approach. Moreover, we performed a simulation study to explore how the different exposure metrics may influence the exposure levels used in epidemiological studies. 19 studies used linear distance as a measure of exposure to incinerators, 11 studies atmospheric dispersion models, and the remaining 11 studies a qualitative variable such as presence/absence of the source. All reviewed studies utilized residence as a proxy for population exposure, although residence location was evaluated with different precision (e.g., municipality, census block, or exact address). Only one study reconstructed temporal variability in exposure. Our simulation study showed a notable degree of exposure misclassification caused by the use of distance compared to dispersion modelling. We suggest that future studies (i) make full use of pollution dispersion models; (ii) localize population on a fine-scale; and (iii) explicitly account for the presence of potential environmental and socioeconomic confounding. PMID:23840228

  14. Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels, regulations, and toxicological and epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, B A; Burdock, G A; Doull, J; Kroes, R M; Marsh, G M; Pariza, M W; Spencer, P S; Waddell, W J; Walker, R; Williams, G M

    2007-01-01

    Aspartame is a methyl ester of a dipeptide used as a synthetic nonnutritive sweetener in over 90 countries worldwide in over 6000 products. The purpose of this investigation was to review the scientific literature on the absorption and metabolism, the current consumption levels worldwide, the toxicology, and recent epidemiological studies on aspartame. Current use levels of aspartame, even by high users in special subgroups, remains well below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Food Safety Authority established acceptable daily intake levels of 50 and 40 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. Consumption of large doses of aspartame in a single bolus dose will have an effect on some biochemical parameters, including plasma amino acid levels and brain neurotransmitter levels. The rise in plasma levels of phenylalanine and aspartic acid following administration of aspartame at doses less than or equal to 50 mg/kg bw do not exceed those observed postprandially. Acute, subacute and chronic toxicity studies with aspartame, and its decomposition products, conducted in mice, rats, hamsters and dogs have consistently found no adverse effect of aspartame with doses up to at least 4000 mg/kg bw/day. Critical review of all carcinogenicity studies conducted on aspartame found no credible evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. The data from the extensive investigations into the possibility of neurotoxic effects of aspartame, in general, do not support the hypothesis that aspartame in the human diet will affect nervous system function, learning or behavior. Epidemiological studies on aspartame include several case-control studies and one well-conducted prospective epidemiological study with a large cohort, in which the consumption of aspartame was measured. The studies provide no evidence to support an association between aspartame and cancer in any tissue. The weight of existing evidence is that aspartame is safe at current levels of consumption as a nonnutritive

  15. Cohort Profile: The Framingham Heart Study (FHS): overview of milestones in cardiovascular epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Connie W; Vasan, Ramachandran S

    2015-01-01

    The Framingham Heart Study (FHS) has conducted seminal research defining cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and fundamentally shaping public health guidelines for CVD prevention over the past five decades. The success of the Original Cohort, initiated in 1948, paved the way for further epidemiological research in preventive cardiology. Due to the keen observations suggesting the role of shared familial factors in the development of CVD, in 1971 the FHS began enroling the second generation cohort, comprising the children of the Original Cohort and the spouses of the children. In 2002, the third generation cohort, comprising the grandchildren of the Original Cohort, was initiated to additionally explore genetic contributions to CVD in greater depth. Additionally, because of the predominance of White individuals of European descent in the three generations of FHS participants noted above, the Heart Study enrolled the OMNI1 and OMNI2 cohorts in 1994 and 2003, respectively, aimed to reflect the current greater racial and ethnic diversity of the town of Framingham. All FHS cohorts have been examined approximately every 2–4 years since the initiation of the study. At these periodic Heart Study examinations, we obtain a medical history and perform a cardiovascular-focused physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiography, blood and urine samples testing and other cardiovascular imaging studies reflecting subclinical disease burden. The FHS has continually evolved along the cutting edge of cardiovascular science and epidemiological research since its inception. Participant studies now additionally include study of cardiovascular imaging, serum and urine biomarkers, genetics/genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and social networks. Numerous ancillary studies have been established, expanding the phenotypes to encompass multiple organ systems including the lungs, brain, bone and fat depots, among others. Whereas the FHS was originally conceived and designed to study the

  16. Cohort Profile: The Framingham Heart Study (FHS): overview of milestones in cardiovascular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Connie W; Vasan, Ramachandran S

    2015-12-01

    The Framingham Heart Study (FHS) has conducted seminal research defining cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and fundamentally shaping public health guidelines for CVD prevention over the past five decades. The success of the Original Cohort, initiated in 1948, paved the way for further epidemiological research in preventive cardiology. Due to the keen observations suggesting the role of shared familial factors in the development of CVD, in 1971 the FHS began enroling the second generation cohort, comprising the children of the Original Cohort and the spouses of the children. In 2002, the third generation cohort, comprising the grandchildren of the Original Cohort, was initiated to additionally explore genetic contributions to CVD in greater depth. Additionally, because of the predominance of White individuals of European descent in the three generations of FHS participants noted above, the Heart Study enrolled the OMNI1 and OMNI2 cohorts in 1994 and 2003, respectively, aimed to reflect the current greater racial and ethnic diversity of the town of Framingham. All FHS cohorts have been examined approximately every 2-4 years since the initiation of the study. At these periodic Heart Study examinations, we obtain a medical history and perform a cardiovascular-focused physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiography, blood and urine samples testing and other cardiovascular imaging studies reflecting subclinical disease burden.The FHS has continually evolved along the cutting edge of cardiovascular science and epidemiological research since its inception. Participant studies now additionally include study of cardiovascular imaging, serum and urine biomarkers, genetics/genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and social networks. Numerous ancillary studies have been established, expanding the phenotypes to encompass multiple organ systems including the lungs, brain, bone and fat depots, among others. Whereas the FHS was originally conceived and designed to study the

  17. A review of some epidemiological studies on cancer risk from low-dose radiation or other carcinogenic agents.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Hiromitsu

    2011-07-01

    It is extremely difficult to assess cancer risks accurately due to health effects of low-dose radiation exposure or other carcinogens based on epidemiological studies. For the detection of minute increases of the risk at low-level exposure, most of epidemiological studies lack statistical power, and they involve various complicated confounding factors. This paper reports on a literature survey of epidemiological studies published since 2000 on cancer risks associated with low-dose radiation and other carcinogens to gather major epidemiological data. Integrated risk indices were derived from those data by using, where possible, statistical models. Regarding risk assessment of low-dose radiation exposure, it is important to lower the degree of uncertainty arising from risk estimation. Risk assessment of low-dose radiation exposure could be scientific evidence when uncertainty is considered in comparing carcinogenic risks of radiation with those of other carcinogens.

  18. Using genetic epidemiology to study Rett syndrome: the design of a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Leonard, H; Fyfe, S; Dye, D; Leonard, S

    2000-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a neurological disorder that is seen almost exclusively in females. Although generally considered to have a genetic basis, the underlying mechanism remains obscure. One favoured hypothesis is that the syndrome is an X-linked dominant disorder, lethal or non-expressed in males. Genealogical research has also suggested that the mode of transmission in Rett syndrome may involve a premutation which over several generations is converted to a full mutation. Geographical clustering has been reported, and it has also been proposed that Rett syndrome is a clinically variable condition and that other neurological disorders may be occurring more commonly in families with Rett syndrome. Other studies have found an apparent increase in intellectual disability and seizures in the extended families of girls with Rett syndrome. The science of genetic epidemiology can be used to identify familial aggregation, which is the clustering of a disorder within a family. We have used a case-control study design to investigate both fetal wastage and familial aggregation of other disorders in families of girls with Rett syndrome. The Australian Rett Syndrome Database provided the source of cases, and control probands were girls of a similar age with normal development. This paper describes the methodology for a case-control study of this rare condition using pedigree data and discusses issues in the collection and evaluation of such data. The use of a control population is an important feature. Both the strengths and the shortcomings of our design are identified, and recommendations are made for future research.

  19. Metabolism and Biomarkers of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Molecular Epidemiology Studies: Lessons Learned from Aromatic Amines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Aromatic amines and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are structurally related classes of carcinogens that are formed during the combustion of tobacco or during the high-temperature cooking of meats. Both classes of procarcinogens undergo metabolic activation by N-hydroxylation of the exocyclic amine group, to produce a common proposed intermediate, the arylnitrenium ion, which is the critical metabolite implicated in toxicity and DNA damage. However, the biochemistry and chemical properties of these compounds are distinct and different biomarkers of aromatic amines and HAAs have been developed for human biomonitoring studies. Hemoglobin adducts have been extensively used as biomarkers to monitor occupational and environmental exposures to a number of aromatic amines; however, HAAs do not form hemoglobin adducts at appreciable levels and other biomarkers have been sought. A number of epidemiologic studies that have investigated dietary consumption of well-done meat in relation to various tumor sites reported a positive association between cancer risk and well-done meat consumption, although some studies have shown no associations between well-done meat and cancer risk. A major limiting factor in most epidemiological studies is the uncertainty in quantitative estimates of chronic exposure to HAAs and, thus, the association of HAAs formed in cooked meat and cancer risk has been difficult to establish. There is a critical need to establish long-term biomarkers of HAAs that can be implemented in molecular epidemioIogy studies. In this review article, we highlight and contrast the biochemistry of several prototypical carcinogenic aromatic amines and HAAs to which humans are chronically exposed. The biochemical properties and the impact of polymorphisms of the major xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes on the biological effects of these chemicals are examined. Lastly, the analytical approaches that have been successfully employed to biomonitor aromatic amines and HAAs, and

  20. Retrospective Descriptive Study of Cerebral Palsy in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thapa, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    There is very little data pertaining to cerebral palsy (CP) from Nepal. In this retrospective study it was observed that dyskinetic CP was seen in 29% and the sex ratio of males to females was two in the study population of children with CP. Both of these are much higher than data from developed countries. Hence, further randomized cross-sectional…

  1. Use of acetaminophen in relation to the occurrence of cancer: a review of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Noel S

    2016-12-01

    Acetaminophen has several pharmacologic properties that suggest it could be carcinogenic in human beings. A number of epidemiologic studies have been conducted to examine whether use of acetaminophen actually predisposes to the occurrence of one or more forms of cancer. There are inherent limitations to many of these studies, including the inaccurate identification of users and nonusers of acetaminophen, relatively short follow-up for cancer incidence, and the potential for confounding by indication. The present manuscript reviews the results of epidemiologic studies of acetaminophen use in relation to cancer incidence published through the end of 2015. The limitations of the underlying studies notwithstanding, some interim conclusions can be reached. For all but several forms of cancer, there is no suggestion that persons who have taken acetaminophen are at altered risk, even persons who have consumed a large quantity of the drug or those who have taken it for an extended duration. While in some studies the incidence of renal cell carcinoma has been observed to be increased among acetaminophen users, several other studies have failed to observe any such association; the reason for the discrepant findings is unclear. Some of the small number of studies that have presented data on the incidence of lymphoma, leukemia, and plasma cell disorders have found the risk to be modestly higher in users than nonusers of acetaminophen, but the results of other studies of these malignancies will be needed to gauge the possible role of publication bias as the basis for the positive results.

  2. An internet-based method of selecting control populations for epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Stone, Mary Bishop; Lyon, Joseph L; Simonsen, Sara Ellis; White, George L; Alder, Stephen C

    2007-01-01

    Identifying control subjects for epidemiologic studies continues to increase in difficulty because of changes in telephone technology such as answering services and machines, caller identification, and cell phones. An Internet-based method for obtaining study subjects that may increase response rates has been developed and is described. This method uses information from two websites that, when combined, provide accurate and complete lists of names, addresses, and listed phone numbers. This method was developed by use of randomly selected streets in a suburb of Salt Lake City, Utah, in June 2005.

  3. Comprehensive personal RF-EMF exposure map and its potential use in epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Rubio, Jesus; Najera, Alberto; Arribas, Enrique

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, numerous epidemiological studies, which deal with the potential effects of mobile phone antennas on health, have almost exclusively focused on their distance to mobile phone base stations. Although it is known that this is not the best approach to the problem, this situation occurs due to the numerous difficulties when determining the personal exposure to the radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). However, due to the rise of personal exposimeters, the evolution of spatial statistics, the development of geographical information systems and the use of powerful software, new alternatives are available to deal with these epidemiological studies and thus overcome the aforementioned difficulties. Using these tools, this paper presents a lattice map of personal RF-EMF exposure from exterior mobile phone base stations, covering the entire 110 administrative regions in the city of Albacete (Spain). For this purpose, we used a personal exposimeter, Satimo EME Spy 140 model, performing measurements every 4s The exposimeter was located inside the plastic basket of a bicycle, whose versatility permitted the access to all the zones of the city. Once the exposure map was prepared, its relation with the known antenna locations was studied. The 64 mobile telephone antennas of the city were also georeferenced; the randomness of both variables (exposure and antennas) were studied by means of the Moran's I test. Results showed that the distribution of the antennas follows a grouped pattern (p<0.001), while the distribution of the average exposure values have a random distribution (p=0.618). In addition, we showed two Spearman correlation studies: the first between the average exposure values and the number of mobile telephone antennas per administrative region, and the second, also considering the antennas of the neighbouring regions. No substantial correlation was detected in either of the two cases. This study also reveals the weaknesses of the

  4. [Epidemiological and virological studies into the poliomyelitis in Valencia (1959-1969)].

    PubMed

    Báguena Cervellera, María José

    2009-01-01

    Studies into the polio virus began in Valencia in 1959 with the work undertaken by the microbiologist Vicente Sanchis-Bayarri Vaillant. After his education at the Rochester University and at the Pasteur Institute, Sanchis-Bayarri Vaillant established a laboratory of cell cultures at the Faculty of Medicine in Valencia, where he developed a new diagnostic technique for the poliomyelitis virus. In addition, epidemiological studies were carried out both prior to and post the 1963 vaccination campaign, which proved that Sabin's oral vaccine was both effective and safe for use.

  5. Navigating the road ahead: addressing challenges for use of metabolomics in epidemiology studies.

    PubMed

    Haznadar, Majda; Maruvada, Padma; Mette, Eliza; Milner, John; Moore, Steven C; Nicastro, Holly L; Sampson, Joshua N; Su, L Joseph; Verma, Mukesh; Zanetti, Krista A

    2014-04-01

    Metabolomics platforms allow for the measurement of hundreds to thousands of unique small chemical entities, as well as offer extensive coverage of metabolic markers related to obesity, diet, smoking, and other exposures of high interest to health scientists. Nevertheless, its potential use as a tool in population-based study design has not been fully explored. As the field of metabolomics continues to mature, and in part, accelerate through the National Institutes of Health (NIH) investment of ≤65 million in the Common Fund's Metabolomics Program (https://common fund.nih.gov/metabolomics/index), it is time to consider those challenges most pertinent to epidemiologic studies.

  6. Epidemiological study of prostate cancer (EPICAP): a population-based case–control study in France

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in male in most Western countries, including France. Despite a significant morbidity and mortality to a lesser extent, the etiology of prostate cancer remains largely unknown. Indeed, the only well-established risk factors to date are age, ethnicity and a family history of prostate cancer. We present, here, the rationale and design of the EPIdemiological study of Prostate CAncer (EPICAP), a population-based case–control study specifically designed to investigate the role of environmental and genetic factors in prostate cancer. The EPICAP study will particularly focused on the role of circadian disruption, chronic inflammation, hormonal and metabolic factors in the occurrence of prostate cancer. Methods/Design EPICAP is a population-based case–control study conducted in the département of Hérault in France. Eligible cases are all cases of prostate cancers newly diagnosed in 2012-2013 in men less than 75 years old and residing in the département of Hérault at the time of diagnosis. Controls are men of the same age as the cases and living in the département of Hérault, recruited in the general population. The sample will include a total of 1000 incident cases of prostate cancer and 1000 population-based controls over a 3-year period (2012-2014). The cases and controls are face-to-face interviewed using a standardized computed assisted questionnaire. The questions focus primarily on usual socio-demographic characteristics, personal and family medical history, lifestyle, leisure activities, residential and occupational history. Anthropometric measures and biological samples are also collected for cases and controls. Discussion The EPICAP study aims to answer key questions in prostate cancer etiology: (1) role of circadian disruption through the study of working hours, chronotype and duration/quality of sleep, (2) role of chronic inflammation and anti-inflammatory drugs, (3) role of hormonal and metabolic

  7. MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON TWO CYCLOSPORIASIS OUTBREAKS IN VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two cyclosporiasis outbreaks in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) were investigated using molegular epidemiology. The cause of the 1999 outbreak has not been identiifed whereas the 2001 oubreak has been linked epidemiologically to the consumption of Thai basil. The internal tran...

  8. Young Drivers and Their Passengers: A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies on Crash Risk

    PubMed Central

    Ouimet, Marie Claude; Pradhan, Anuj K.; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Ehsani, Johnathon P.; Berbiche, Djamal; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature was conducted to appraise the evidence from epidemiological studies of crash risk in young drivers accompanied by passengers, compared with solo driving. Databases searched included the Cochrane Library, Embase, Scopus, Transportation Research Information Services, and Web of Science for studies published between January 1, 1989 and August 1, 2013. Epidemiological studies were selected for review if they focused on crashes of young drivers (≤24 years old) and included both a no-passenger comparison group and some measure of exposure to enable calculation of risk estimates. Fifteen articles (17 studies) were selected; seven studies reported on fatal crashes and 10 on nonfatal or combined fatal/nonfatal crashes. Studies on fatal crashes showed increased risk, compared with solo driving, for young drivers with at least one passenger (significant risk estimates ranging from 1.24 to 1.89) and two or more passengers versus solo driving (1.70–2.92). Increased risk was also found for fatal crashes and for combined or nonfatal crashes with male versus female passengers (1.53–2.66) and for younger versus older drivers (1.42–3.14). Results more clearly indicate increased risk for passenger presence in fatal crashes than that in nonfatal or combined fatal/nonfatal crashes. Findings of this review, based on correlational studies, support licensing policies that limit the presence and number of young passengers for young drivers. PMID:26112735

  9. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND GENETICAL STUDIES ON THE DRUG-RESISTANCE OF SHIGELLAE AND STAPHYLOCOCCI.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ANTIBIOTICS , RESISTANCE (BIOLOGY)), (*SHIGELLA, RESISTANCE(BIOLOGY)), (*STAPHYLOCOCCUS, RESISTANCE(BIOLOGY)), EPIDEMIOLOGY, GENETICS, DRUGS, BACTERIOPHAGES, TETRACYCLINES, PENICILLINS, ESCHERICHIA COLI, JAPAN

  10. Workplace bullying in the OR: Results of a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Chipps, Esther; Stelmaschuk, Stephanie; Albert, Nancy M; Bernhard, Linda; Holloman, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    This study describes the incidence of workplace bullying among perioperative RNs, surgical technologists, and unlicensed perioperative personnel in two academic medical centers. The study sought to determine whether the demographic variables of gender, ethnicity, hospital, years of experience on the unit, years in the profession, and job title predict the experience of workplace bullying; whether a relationship exists between workplace bullying and emotional exhaustion; and whether bullying is associated with perceptions of patient safety in the OR. The cross-sectional design included perioperative nurses, surgical technologists, and unlicensed perioperative personnel (N = 167). Fifty-nine percent of the study participants reported witnessing coworker bullying weekly, and 34% reported at least two bullying acts weekly. Having one's opinion ignored is the most common bullying act, with 28% of respondents experiencing being ignored. Differences in the experience of bullying can be found between hospitals and among ethnicities. Emotional exhaustion also was correlated with bullying. The participants did not perceive bullying as affecting patient safety.

  11. Epidemiological study of canine parvovirus infection in and around Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

    PubMed Central

    Behera, Monalisa; Panda, S. K.; Sahoo, P. K.; Acharya, A. P.; Patra, R. C.; Das, Sweta; Pati, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: An epidemiological study of canine parvovirus infection in dogs in and around Bhubaneswar, Odisha was conducted between December 2012 to March 2013 and prevalence rate was studied on the basis of age, breed, and sex. Materials and Methods: A total of 71 fecal samples from suspected diarrheic dogs were collected in sterile phosphate buffer saline (10% W/V) and examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of canine parvo virus infection, followed by epidemiological study in relation to age, breed, and sex. Results: Of 71 samples analyzed, 29 (40.85%) were found to be positive by PCR assay. The infection was higher in Deshi/local breeds (34.48%), followed by German shepherd (17.24%), equal incidences in mixed and Labrador retriever (10.34%), Rottweiler and German spitz showed 6.90% each and finally lower incidences in four breeds (3.45%) such as Dalmatians, Nea politan mastiff, Pug and Great Dane. Age-wise prevalence study revealed the infection being more in the age group of 3-6 months (41.37%), followed by equal incidences of 27.59% in 1-3 months and 6-12 months age group, and a low incidence in age groups above 12 months (3.45%). The incidence was predominantly higher in males (86.21%) than females (13.79%). Conclusions: The epidemiological analysis revealed that the breed wise prevalence was found to be more in Deshi breeds as compared to others, age groups below 6 months were found to be more prone to parvovirus infection and males were mostly infected. PMID:27046992

  12. Description of the Columbia Basin Wind Energy Study (CBWES)

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Larry K.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Nelson, Danny A.

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this Technical Report is to provide background information about the Columbia Basin Wind Energy Study (CBWES). This study, which was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Wind and Water Power Program, was conducted from 16 November 2010 through 21 March 2012 at a field site in northeastern Oregon. The primary goal of the study was to provide profiles of wind speed and wind direction over the depth of the boundary layer in an operating wind farm located in an area of complex terrain. Measurements from propeller and vane anemometers mounted on a 62 m tall tower, Doppler Sodar, and Radar Wind Profiler were combined into a single data product to provide the best estimate of the winds above the site during the first part of CBWES. An additional goal of the study was to provide measurements of Turbulence Kinetic Energy (TKE) near the surface. To address this specific goal, sonic anemometers were mounted at two heights on the 62 m tower on 23 April 2011. Prior to the deployment of the sonic anemometers on the tall tower, a single sonic anemometer was deployed on a short tower 3.1 m tall that was located just to the south of the radar wind profiler. Data from the radar wind profiler, as well as the wind profile data product are available from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Data Archive (http://www.arm.gov/data/campaigns). Data from the sonic anemometers are available from the authors.

  13. A Descriptive Study of Cooperative Problem Solving Introductory Physics Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knutson, Paul Aanond

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ways in which cooperative problem solving in physics instructional laboratories influenced the students' ability to provide qualitative responses to problems. The literature shows that problem solving involves both qualitative and quantitative skills. Qualitative skills are important because those…

  14. Interoceptive Assessment and Exposure in Panic Disorder: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Norman B.; Trakowski, Jack

    2004-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) protocols for panic disorder (PD) typically include some form of interoceptive exposure (IE)--repeated exposure to internal sensations. Despite the widespread clinical use of IE, there is a notable absence of empirical reports about the nature of interoceptive assessments and IE. The present study was designed…

  15. Best Friendships of Adolescents with Visual Impairments: A Descriptive Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, L. Penny

    1998-01-01

    This study of 40 adolescents with visual impairments and 23 of their best friends found that adolescents with visual impairments are successful in establishing and maintaining reciprocal, intimate best friendships. The friends engaged in typical activities and felt that visual impairments did not have a strong negative impact on their friendships.…

  16. Perceptions of a Middle School Reconfiguration: A Descriptive Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasker, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to follow 1 principal's journey to assist the district in its reconfiguration goals, and help the school change through deep examination of district personnel's and parents' perceptions of the change process. This was done by acknowledging distinctions and differences between junior…

  17. High School Teachers' Experiences with Suicidal Students: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedenthal, Stacey; Breslin, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    Teachers are widely considered key gatekeepers to mental health services for students at risk for suicide. Using data from 120 teachers at two Denver-area high schools, this study investigated teachers' experiences with suicidal students. Analyses revealed that the majority of teachers (58.8%) reported that at least one student had disclosed…

  18. Aragon workers' health study - design and cohort description

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spain, a Mediterranean country with relatively low rates of coronary heart disease, has a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and is experiencing a severe epidemic of overweight/obesity. We designed the Aragon Workers' Health Study (AWHS) to characterize the factors associated...

  19. A Descriptive Study of Music Teacher Educators' Beliefs about Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Carla E.; Richerme, Lauren Kapalka

    2016-01-01

    While policies at all levels affect music educators, and music education researchers have called for increased attention to policy issues, few have explored preservice music teacher educators' beliefs about policy. This study examined music teacher educators' (N = 81) familiarity with and attitudes toward contemporary education and music education…

  20. Master's Students' Rehabilitation Counselor Identity Formation: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, Julia S.; Austin, Bryan S.; Rak, Eniko; Barnes, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to advance understanding of professional identity by exploring the process by which development occurs. Drawing on Hall's model of professional identity development that explores the structural and attitudinal changes that occur in the identity development process, this study describes master's students' developmental…

  1. A Descriptive Study of Three Typical "Quality" Day Care Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drezek, Wendy

    This paper describes a study designed to collect quantified observational data on the behavior of children and teachers throughout the day at three typical quality day care centers. From 50 to 55 hours of observation were completed on five randomly-chosen 3-year-olds in each setting. While the number of subjects and centers was limited, the…

  2. Epidemiology of infections in women.

    PubMed

    Risser, Jan M H; Risser, William L; Risser, Amanda L

    2008-12-01

    This article describes the epidemiologic profiles of sexually transmitted infections seen in US women. We present a brief description of the infectious agent, describe the epidemiology of the infection among women in terms of race/ethnicity and age (if those data are available), and present what is known about the behavioral risk factors associated with acquisition.

  3. Nutritional Practices of Athletes in Oman: A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Waly, Mostafa I.; Kilani, Hashem A.; Al-Busafi, Majid S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Adequate dietary intake is crucial for optimum training and performance of athletes. There is almost no available information related to dietary practices among Omani athletes, especially during the competition. This study aimed to assess the nutritional practices (nutritional knowledge, eating habits and daily nutrients intake) among Omani male handball athletes in Muscat city, Oman. Methods This is a cross sectional study including 35 male handball athletes involved in serious training for no less than three years. Data collection was done through personal interviews using a study questionnaire which enlisted questions relating to socio-demographic information, anthropometric measurements and nutritional practices. All the study participants declared no intake of anabolic steroids. Results The mean age of the study participants was 27 ± 3 years. Their anthropometric assessment revealed that their mean height was 166 ± 12 cm, mean weight was 75 ± 10 kg, and body mass index was 27 ± 3. Nutritional knowledge analysis revealed that 80% had no nutritional supervision by a nutritionist/dietitian. Their knowledge of nutritional requirements was only 23% correct for total energy intake, 63% for protein intake, 46% for carbohydrate intake, 11% for fat intake and 83% for water intake. Eating habits indicated that 55% had <3 meals/day, 51% had lunch as the principal meal, 51% always added extra salt to their food, 28% took protein supplements on a daily basis, and 51% used pre-competition glycogen load diet. However, none consumed vitamins or mineral supplements. The mean daily caloric intake was 3674 ± 265 kcal/day, which was roughly comprised of 596 ± 66 g carbohydrates, 147 ± 28 g of protein and 78 ± 20 g of total fat. Conclusion Professional nutritional supervision is needed in order to improve the nutritional knowledge and eating habits of Omani athletes, and therefore improve their athletic performance. PMID:24044066

  4. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) and cancer prevention: a systematic review of randomized trials and epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianping; Xing, Jianmin; Fei, Yutong

    2008-01-01

    Background Green tea is one of the most popular beverages worldwide. This review summarizes the beneficial effects of green tea on cancer prevention. Methods Electronic databases, including PubMed (1966–2008), the Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 2008) and Chinese Biomedical Database (1978–2008) with supplement of relevant websites, were searched. There was no language restriction. The searches ended at March 2008. We included randomized and non-randomized clinical trials, epidemiological studies (cohort and case-control) and a meta-analysis. We excluded case series, case reports, in vitro and animal studies. Outcomes were measured with estimation of relative risk, hazard or odd ratios, with 95% confidence interval. Results Forty-three epidemiological studies, four randomized trials and one meta-analysis were identified. The overall quality of these studies was evaluated as good or moderate. While some evidence suggests that green tea has beneficial effects on gastrointestinal cancers, the findings are not consistent. Conclusion Green tea may have beneficial effects on cancer prevention. Further studies such as large and long term cohort studies and clinical trials are warranted. PMID:18940008

  5. Correlates of cortisol in human hair: implications for epidemiologic studies on health effects of chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Wosu, Adaeze C; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Shields, Alexandra E; Williams, David R; Williams, Michelle A

    2013-12-01

    Assessment of cortisol concentrations in hair is one of the latest innovations for measuring long-term cortisol exposure. We performed a systematic review of correlates of cortisol in human hair to inform the design, analysis, and interpretation of future epidemiologic studies. Relevant publications were identified through electronic searches on PubMed, WorldCat, and Web of Science using keywords, "cortisol," "hair," "confounders," "chronic," "stress," and "correlates." Thirty-nine studies were included in this review. Notwithstanding scarce data and some inconsistencies, investigators have found hair cortisol concentrations to be associated with stress-related psychiatric symptoms and disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder), medical conditions indicating chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g., Cushing's syndrome), and other life situations associated with elevated risk of chronic stress (e.g., shiftwork). Results from some studies suggest that physical activity, adiposity, and substance abuse may be correlates of hair cortisol concentrations. In contrast to measures of short-term cortisol release (saliva, blood, and urine), cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives appear not to be associated with hair cortisol concentrations. Studies of pregnant women indicate increased hair cortisol concentrations across successive trimesters. The study of hair cortisol presents a unique opportunity to assess chronic alterations in cortisol concentrations in epidemiologic studies.

  6. Correlates of Cortisol in Human Hair: Implications for Epidemiologic Studies on Health Effects of Chronic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wosu, Adaeze C.; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Shields, Alexandra E.; Williams, David R.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of cortisol concentrations in hair is one of the latest innovations for measuring long-term cortisol exposure. We performed a systematic review of correlates of cortisol in human hair to inform the design, analysis and interpretation of future epidemiologic studies. Relevant publications were identified through electronic searches on PubMed, WorldCat, and Web of Science using keywords, “cortisol” “hair” “confounders” “chronic” “stress” and “correlates.” Thirty-nine studies were included in this review. Notwithstanding scarce data and some inconsistencies, investigators have found hair cortisol concentrations to be associated with stress-related psychiatric symptoms and disorders (e.g., PTSD), medical conditions indicating chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g., Cushing´s syndrome) and other life situations associated with elevated risk of chronic stress (e.g., shiftwork). Results from some studies suggest that physical activity, adiposity, and substance abuse may be correlates of hair cortisol concentrations. In contrast to measures of short-term cortisol release (saliva, blood, and urine), cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives appear to not be associated with hair cortisol concentrations. Studies of pregnant women indicate increased hair cortisol concentrations across successive trimesters. The study of hair cortisol presents a unique opportunity to assess chronic alterations in cortisol concentrations in epidemiologic studies. PMID:24184029

  7. Transient auditory dysfunction: a description and study of prevalence.

    PubMed

    Almond, Laurence Maximilian; Patel, Ketul; Rejali, Darius

    2013-08-01

    Transient auditory dysfunction (TAD) is a previously undescribed symptom complex of unknown cause. It is characterized by short-lasting sensorineural hearing loss (unilateral or bilateral), it is associated with tinnitus, it resolves completely within minutes, and it is not accompanied by vestibular symptoms. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study to define TAD, find its prevalence, and discuss its significance. Two hundred healthy subjects between the ages of 16 and 49 years were surveyed using a questionnaire. Of these subjects, 41 (20.5%) reported experiencing symptoms of TAD. The mean number of episodes was 5.9 times per month, the mean duration was 41 seconds, and 80% experienced concomitant tinnitus. We conclude that TAD is a common finding in a healthy population. This may have implications for the pathogenesis of sudden-onset sensorineural hearing loss. Further longitudinal studies and detailed audiologic evaluation of patients with TAD are required to ascertain the significance, etiology, and pathophysiology of this condition.

  8. What is AIDS in Guadeloupe? A descriptive and comparative study.

    PubMed

    Elenga, Narcisse; Georger-Sow, Marie-Thérèse; Messiaen, Thierry; Lamaury, Isabelle; Favre, Isabelle; Nacher, Mathieu; Beaucaire, Gilles

    2014-03-01

    Since the pathogen ecology differs between Caribbean regions, specific differences in the most frequent clinical presentations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) may be expected. We therefore conducted the present retrospective cohort study in order to describe the main AIDS-defining events in Guadeloupe and to compare them with those observed in Metropolitan France and in French Guiana. We discuss the local pathogen ecology, the diagnostic limitations of hospitals in overseas territories and the drivers of the epidemic.

  9. Emerald Lake Watershed study: Introduction and site description

    SciTech Connect

    Tonnessen, K.A. )

    1991-07-01

    The Emerald Lake Watershed study was organized to investigate the effects of acidic deposition on high-elevation watersheds and surface waters of the Sierra Nevada, California. Some of the results of this comprehensive study of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at a small, headwater basin are presented in four papers in this series. The watershed study site is in Sequoia National Park, on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada. This glacial cirque is located in the upper Marble Fork of the Kaweah River. This 120-ha watershed ranges from Alta Peak (3,416 m) down to Emerald Lake (2,400 m). Most of the watershed surface area is exposed granite and granodiorite rocks, with limited coverage (about 20%) by thin, acidic soils. The hydrology of the basin is dominated by snowmelt runoff during March-June. Emerald Lake, a glacial tarn, is 2.72 ha in area, with a maximum depth of 10.5 m. Surface waters are poorly buffered and dominated by calcium and bicarbonate. Most of the yearly precipitation falls as dilute snow (pH5.2-5.4), with acidic rain storms sampled during May-October.

  10. An Updated Review of Epidemiologic Studies on the Relationship Between Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration and Low Back Pain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovenzi, M.; Hulshof, C. T. J.

    1998-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to update the information on the epidemiologic evidence of the adverse health effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the spinal system by means of a review of the epidemiologic studies published between 1986 and 1996. In a systematic search of epidemiologic studies of low back pain (LBP) disorders and occupations with exposure to WBV, 37 articles were retrieved. The quality of each study was evaluated according to criteria concerning the assessment of vibration exposure, assessment of health effects, and methodology. The epidemiologic studies reaching an adequate score on each of the above mentioned criteria, were included in the final review. A meta-analysis was also conducted in order to combine the results of independent epidemiologic studies. After applying the selection criteria, 16 articles reporting the occurrence of LBP disorders in 19 WBV-exposed occupational groups, reached a sufficient score. The study design was cross-sectional for 13 occupational groups, longitudinal for 5 groups and of case-control type for one group. The main reasons for the exclusion of studies were insufficient quantitative information on WBV exposure and the lack of control groups. The findings of the selected studies and the results of the meta-analysis of both cross-sectional and cohort studies showed that occupational exposure to WBV is associated with an increased risk of LBP, sciatic pain, and degenerative changes in the spinal system, including lumbar intervertebral disc disorders. Owing to the cross-sectional design of the majority of the reviewed studies, this epidemiologic evidence is not sufficient to outline a clear exposure-response relationship between WBV exposure and LBP disorders. Upon comparing the epidemiological studies included in this review with those conducted before 1986, it is concluded that research design and the quality of exposure and health effect data in the field of WBV have improved in the last decade.

  11. Parricide cases of adult offenders from Turkey: A descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Esat; Sahin, M Feyzi; Tavasli, Ali; Gul, M Cihad; Seyhan, O Faruk; Demirbuga, Sedat; Aliustaoglu, F Suheyla

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine and compare similarities and differences among types of parricide committed by adult offenders. The forensic psychiatric evaluation reports of the 4th Specialization Board of the Council of Forensic Medicine from 2009 to 2011 in Turkey were screened retrospectively. One hundred thirty-five adult perpetrators of parricide (125 male, 10 female) were detected, 51.9% of whom committed patricide, 40% of whom matricide and 8.1% of the perpetrators committed double parricide. Most of the perpetrators used sharp instruments as the killing method. No mental disorders were detected in 58.5% of the perpetrators, while psychotic disorders were identified in 30.4% of the cases. This study supported the predominance of sharp instruments as the killing method and a preponderance of matricide among the offenders with psychotic disorders. Although psychotic disorders were the most commonly detected mental disorders in the parricide offenders, most of them did not suffer from mental disorders.

  12. [Banks of biological resources in the system of basic epidemiological and clinical studies].

    PubMed

    Semenenko, T A; Anan'ina, Iu V; Boev, B V; Gintsburg, A L

    2011-01-01

    Banks of biological resources appear to become the key centres of long-standing international scientific infrastructure necessary for efficacious use of achievements in public health. Approaches to building up the global system of monitoring socially significant and other dangerous infections based on the passported blood sera bank and computerized epidemiological database meeting the current WHO standards are discussed. An innovative project for the creation of the Electronic Atlas of Russia is considered that must provide an original information-analytical system for the study of the most widespread infectious diseases with the use of modern geoinformation technologies.

  13. [Epidemiological study on Hymenolepis nana infection in Ciego de Avila Province, Cuba].

    PubMed

    Suárez Hernández, M; Bonet Couce, E; Díaz González, M; Ocampo Ruíz, I; Vidal García, I

    1998-01-01

    An epidemiological study on H. nana infection was carried out in Ciego de Avila province, Cuba, from 1981 to 1995. In this 15 years period 3,108,422 stool samples were examined for parasites, H. nana eggs were found in 250 (0.008%). Seasonal influence of this parasitism was not detected. There were more cases in children than in adults, with males prevailing over females. The more frequent symptoms and signs were abdominal pain, diarrhea and anorexia which relationships with food habits, dwelling characteristics, children day care center and school orchards are analyzed.

  14. Alternative models of comorbidity: a framework for the interpretation of epidemiological association studies.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Jochen; Weidinger, Stephan

    2014-02-01

    Relationships between chronic diseases have emerged as major clinical, public health and research issues. Consequently, clinical and epidemiological research on comorbidities of skin diseases is increasingly recognized as an important tool to understand their etiologies more fully and to capture their morbidities and burdens. In this issue, Flohr and colleagues report a cross-sectional analysis on the complex associations among atopic dermatitis, filaggrin loss-of-function mutations, skin barrier function, and food sensitization in exclusively breastfed infants. When interpreting this and other association studies, various alternative models of comorbidity should be considered as suggested by Neale and Kendler.

  15. Ethical problems and moral sensitivity in physiotherapy: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Kulju, Kati; Suhonen, Riitta; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2013-08-01

    This study identified and described ethical problems encountered by physiotherapists in their practice and physiotherapists' moral sensitivity in ethical situations. A questionnaire-based survey was constructed to identify ethical problems, and the Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire Revised version was used to measure moral sensitivity. Physiotherapists (n = 116) working in public health services responded to the questionnaire. Based on the results, most of the physiotherapists encounter ethical problems weekly. They concern mainly financial considerations, equality and justice, professionalism, unethical conduct of physiotherapists or other professions and patients' self-determination. The dimension of moral strength was emphasised in physiotherapists' self-evaluations of their moral sensitivity. As a conclusion, ethical problems do occur not only at individual level but also at organisational and society level. Physiotherapists seem to have moral strength for speaking on behalf of the patient. Scarce resources make them feel insufficient but much could still be done to provide quality care in co-operation with other health-care professionals.

  16. Space construction system analysis study: Project systems and missions descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Three project systems are defined and summarized. The systems are: (1) a Solar Power Satellite (SPS) Development Flight Test Vehicle configured for fabrication and compatible with solar electric propulsion orbit transfer; (2) an Advanced Communications Platform configured for space fabrication and compatible with low thrust chemical orbit transfer propulsion; and (3) the same Platform, configured to be space erectable but still compatible with low thrust chemical orbit transfer propulsion. These project systems are intended to serve as configuration models for use in detailed analyses of space construction techniques and processes. They represent feasible concepts for real projects; real in the sense that they are realistic contenders on the list of candidate missions currently projected for the national space program. Thus, they represent reasonable configurations upon which to base early studies of alternative space construction processes.

  17. An Epidemiologic Approach to the Study of Aerosolized Florida Red Tides.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Lora E; Backer, Lorraine C; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Clark, Richard; Dalpra, Dana; Johnson, David R; Bean, Judy A; Cheng, Yung Sung; Benson, Janet; Squicciarrini, Dominick; Abraham, William M; Pierce, Richard; Zaias, Julia; Naar, Jerome; Weisman, Richard; Bossart, Greg; Campbell, Susan; Wanner, Adam; Harrington, Mark; Van De Bogart, Gayl; Baden, Daniel G

    Very little has been published in the scientific literature on the human health effects of Florida red tide, either as human clinical case reports or formal epidemiologic studies. In addition to the health effects associated with the ingestion of contaminated shellfish, there have been multiple anecdotal reports of respiratory irritation and possible immunologic effects associated with the inhalation of aerosolized Florida red tide. To investigate the human health effects from environmental exposure to red tide toxins, we have formed an interdisciplinary team of scientists. We have created a network of public and environmental health workers who periodically report local conditions as a red tide develops. In addition, we have access to environmental monitoring data as well as data from a surveillance program supported through the Florida Poison Information Network. When a red tide moves onshore where people might be exposed, the team rapidly assembles at the site to collect environmental samples and epidemiologic data. To assess the more long-term effects from environmental exposure to red tide toxins, we are conducting epidemiologic studies involving occupational and sensitive populations who live in areas that are regularly impacted by red tides. Other scientists are evaluating the acute and chronic respiratory effects of red tides and brevetoxins in both rat and sheep models as well as refinement of toxin measurement methodology. These models are being used to refine and validate the biomarkers of brevetoxins exposure as well as explore the pathophysiology of health effects from brevetoxins respiratory exposure. Bolstered by the additional research in rat and sheep models, this interdisciplinary scientific team is exploring the acute and chronic exposures and health effects of aerosolized Florida red tides in animal models and various human populations. In the future, this research can be applied to the understanding of exposure and effects of other aerosolized

  18. Retrospective study maxillofacial fractures epidemiology and treatment plans in Southeast of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Samieirad, Sahand; Tohidi, Elahe; Shahidi-Payam, Akbar; Abedini, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of facial injuries varies in different countries and geographic zones. Population concentration, lifestyle, cultural background, and socioeconomic status can affect the prevalence of maxillofacial injuries. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the maxillofacial fractures epidemiology and treatment plans in hospitalized patients (2012-2014) which would be useful for better policy making strategies. Material and Methods In this retrospective study, the medical records of 386 hospitalized patients were evaluated from the department of maxillofacial surgery at Bahonar Hospital of Kerman, Iran. The type and cause of fractures and treatment plans were recorded in a checklist. For data analysis, ANOVA, t-test, Chi-square, and Fisher’s exact test were performed, using SPSS version 21. Results The majority of patients were male (76.5%). Most subjects were within the age range of 20-30 years. Fractures were mostly caused by accidents, particularly motorcycle accidents (MCAs), and the most common site of involvement was the mandible (parasymphysis). There was a significant association between the type of treatment and age. In fact, the age group of 16-59 years under went open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) more than other age groups (P=0.02). Also, a significant association was observed between gender and the occurrence of fractures (P=0.01). Conclusions Considering the geographic and cultural indices of the evaluated population, it can be concluded that patients age and gender and trauma causes significantly affect the prevalence of maxillofacial traumas and fracture kinds and treatment plans. Key words:Epidemiology, treatment, facial injuries, face fractures, maxillofacial trauma, trauma. PMID:26116845

  19. Use of phylogenetics in the molecular epidemiology and evolutionary studies of viral infections.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Hon, Chung-Chau; Tang, Julian W

    2010-01-01

    Since DNA sequencing techniques first became available almost 30 years ago, the amount of nucleic acid sequence data has increased enormously. Phylogenetics, which is widely applied to compare and analyze such data, is particularly useful for the analysis of genes from rapidly evolving viruses. It has been used extensively to describe the molecular epidemiology and transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the origins and subsequent evolution of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus (SCoV), and, more recently, the evolving epidemiology of avian influenza as well as seasonal and pandemic human influenza viruses. Recent advances in phylogenetic methods can infer more in-depth information about the patterns of virus emergence, adding to the conventional approaches in viral epidemiology. Examples of this information include estimations (with confidence limits) of the actual time of the origin of a new viral strain or its emergence in a new species, viral recombination and reassortment events, the rate of population size change in a viral epidemic, and how the virus spreads and evolves within a specific population and geographical region. Such sequence-derived information obtained from the phylogenetic tree can assist in the design and implementation of public health and therapeutic interventions. However, application of many of these advanced phylogenetic methods are currently limited to specialized phylogeneticists and statisticians, mainly because of their mathematical basis and their dependence on the use of a large number of computer programs. This review attempts to bridge this gap by presenting conceptual, technical, and practical aspects of applying phylogenetic methods in studies of influenza, HIV, and SCoV. It aims to provide, with minimal mathematics and statistics, a practical overview of how phylogenetic methods can be incorporated into virological studies by clinical and laboratory specialists.

  20. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of domestic animals related to human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Flores, Byron J; Pérez-Sánchez, Tania; Fuertes, Héctor; Sheleby-Elías, Jessica; Múzquiz, José Luis; Jirón, William; Duttmann, Christianne; Halaihel, Nabil

    2017-02-28

    Leptospirosis is one of the most extended zoonosis worldwide and humans become infected most commonly through contact with the urine of carrier animals, either directly or via contaminated water or soil. The aim in this study was to analyse the epidemiological behaviour of Leptospira spp., from domestic animals around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua, from 2007 through 2013. We report the results of a cross-sectional epidemiological study with a non-probability sampling of blood (n=3050) and urine (n=299) from Domestic Animals (DA) around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua. We analysed data obtained through Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), in-vitro culture, real time PCR and sequencing of lfb1 locus. Frequencies of 30.31% (95% CI: 28.66-31.95) and 15.38% (95% CI: 11.12-19.64) were obtained from serological test and from in-vitro culture, respectively. Although similar frequencies from serology test (P≥0.05) were found in DA species, in-vitro culture frequencies were significantly higher from bovine, equine and sheep (P<0.05) in comparison with swine and canine species. Ten serogroups of pathogenic Leptospira spp. were encountered, with the highest presence of Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup 34.65% (95% CI: 29.35-39.94). We identified 7 samples homologous to L. interrogans species Pyrogenes serovar and 3 samples as L. noguchii Louisiana or Panama serovars by analysis of lfb1 sequences. We were able to establish a temporal and spatial correlation from DA and cumulative incidence of human cases. Therefore an effective epidemiological surveillance should be implemented with a specific control program toward DA in order to reduce human leptospirosis incidence.

  1. Descriptive Epidemiology and Whole Genome Sequencing Analysis for an Outbreak of Bovine Tuberculosis in Beef Cattle and White-Tailed Deer in Northwestern Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Linda; Carstensen, Michelle; Shaw, Sheryl; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Wunschmann, Arno; Grear, Dan; Stuber, Tod; Thomsen, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) was discovered in a Minnesota cow through routine slaughter surveillance in 2005 and the resulting epidemiological investigation led to the discovery of infection in both cattle and white-tailed deer in the state. From 2005 through 2009, a total of 12 beef cattle herds and 27 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were found infected in a small geographic region of northwestern Minnesota. Genotyping of isolates determined both cattle and deer shared the same strain of bTB, and it was similar to types found in cattle in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Whole genomic sequencing confirmed the introduction of this infection into Minnesota was recent, with little genetic divergence. Aggressive surveillance and management efforts in both cattle and deer continued from 2010–2012; no additional infections were discovered. Over 10,000 deer were tested and 705 whole herd cattle tests performed in the investigation of this outbreak. PMID:26785113

  2. Descriptive Epidemiology and Whole Genome Sequencing Analysis for an Outbreak of Bovine Tuberculosis in Beef Cattle and White-Tailed Deer in Northwestern Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Linda; Carstensen, Michelle; Shaw, Sheryl; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Wunschmann, Arno; Grear, Dan; Stuber, Tod; Thomsen, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) was discovered in a Minnesota cow through routine slaughter surveillance in 2005 and the resulting epidemiological investigation led to the discovery of infection in both cattle and white-tailed deer in the state. From 2005 through 2009, a total of 12 beef cattle herds and 27 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were found infected in a small geographic region of northwestern Minnesota. Genotyping of isolates determined both cattle and deer shared the same strain of bTB, and it was similar to types found in cattle in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Whole genomic sequencing confirmed the introduction of this infection into Minnesota was recent, with little genetic divergence. Aggressive surveillance and management efforts in both cattle and deer continued from 2010-2012; no additional infections were discovered. Over 10,000 deer were tested and 705 whole herd cattle tests performed in the investigation of this outbreak.

  3. A mobile and asynchronous electronic data capture system for epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jens; Fredrich, Daniel; Piegsa, Jens; Habes, Mohamad; van den Berg, Neeltje; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2013-06-01

    A Central Data Management (CDM) system based on electronic data capture (EDC) software and study specific databases is an essential component for assessment and management of large data volumes in epidemiologic studies. Conventional CDM systems using web applications for data capture depend on permanent access to a network. However, in many study settings permanent network access cannot be guaranteed, e.g. when participants/patients are visited in their homes. In such cases a different concept for data capture is needed. The utilized EDC software must be able to ensure data capture as stand-alone instance and to synchronize captured data with the server at a later point in time. This article describes the design of the mobile information capture (MInCa) system an EDC software meeting these requirements. In particular, we focus on client and server design, data synchronization, and data privacy as well as data security measures. The MInCa software has already proven its efficiency in epidemiologic studies revealing strengths and weaknesses concerning both concept and practical application which will be addressed in this article.

  4. Characteristics of psoriasis in Greece: an epidemiological study of a population in a sunny Mediterranean climate.

    PubMed

    Rigopoulos, Dimitris; Gregoriou, Stamatis; Katrinaki, Aimilia; Korfitis, Chrysovalantis; Larios, Giorgos; Stamou, Christos; Mourellou, Olympia; Petridis, Athanasios; Rallis, Efstathios; Sotiriadis, Dimitris; Katsambas, Andreas D; Antoniou, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with important socioeconomic consequences. Data on psoriasis prevalence in Greece is scarce and circumstantially reported. The aim of this study was the recording of psoriatic patients' demographic data, clinical characteristics of the disease, and exacerbating factors. Seven hundred and eighty four patients were enrolled in 6 centres (4 in Athens and 2 in Thessaloniki) in a multicenter epidemiologic prospective study. The mean age of patients was 43.2 (standard deviation, SD 17.44) years (median 42 years), while the men: women ratio was 1.8:1. Additionally, 35% of patients reported a positive family history of psoriasis. The mean age of patients at the first episode of psoriasis was 31.3 (SD 16.39) years (median 28 years). Psoriasis vulgaris was the most common form of psoriasis in the population participating in this study. Flares of psoriasis occurred 2.6 times per year on average. The patients considered stress as the main cause for psoriasis exacerbation. Most frequent target points of psoriasis included elbows, legs, scalp and knees. The most common symptoms reported were scaling, and itching. On average, patients visited dermatologists 2.4 times per year for issues related to psoriasis. This study provides epidemiological information regarding psoriasis in Greece. Results of this survey could assist in delineation of patient profiles, and improve communication between doctors and patients.

  5. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Endometrial Cancer: An Overview of Recent Laboratory Evidence and Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mallozzi, Maddalena; Leone, Chiara; Manurita, Francesca; Bellati, Filippo; Caserta, Donatella

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although exposure to endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs) has been suggested as a contributing factor to a range of women’s health disorders including infertility, polycystic ovaries and the early onset of puberty, considerable challenges remain in attributing cause and effect on gynaecological cancer. Until recently, there were relatively few epidemiological studies examining the relationship between EDCs and endometrial cancer, however, in the last years the number of these studies has increased. Methods: A systematic MEDLINE (PubMed) search was performed and relevant articles published in the last 23 years (from 1992 to 2016) were selected. Results: Human studies and animal experiments are confirming a carcinogenic effect due to the EDC exposure and its carcinogenesis process result to be complex, multifactorial and long standing, thus, it is extremely difficult to obtain the epidemiological proof of a carcinogenic effect of EDCs for the high number of confusing factors. Conclusions: The carcinogenic effects of endocrine disruptors are plausible, although additional studies are needed to clarify their mechanisms and responsible entities. Neverthless, to reduce endocrine disruptors (ED) exposure is mandatory to implement necessary measures to limit exposure, particularly during those periods of life most vulnerable to the impact of oncogenic environmental causes, such as embryonic period and puberty. PMID:28327540

  6. Information needs of the rural physician: a descriptive study.

    PubMed Central

    Dee, C; Blazek, R

    1993-01-01

    The study was designed to describe the information needs and the information-seeking behavior of rural physicians. Data were collected from twelve rural physicians in Central Florida through face-to-face interviews and observation. From a review of 144 patient charts, 48 produced unique, factual patient care questions. Seventy-five percent of the questions were on treatment, 14.7% on diagnosis, 8.3% on etiology, and 2.1% on the psychological aspects of disease. All physicians in the survey relied on colleagues; eleven attended medical meetings; nine subscribed to medical journals, and nine owned medical textbooks. Of the physicians with access to a hospital library, two used the library frequently while ten seldom used the library. Lack of time due to heavy workloads was an obstacle to systematic information retrieval. Rural physicians need immediate access to high-quality, synthesized answers to specific patient care questions at the time of patient contact. Information must be concise and up-to-date, although not necessarily state-of-the-art. A database composed of selected textbooks with integrated keyword access would meet the criteria. In addition, a computerized expert system focused on rural physicians' information needs is a possible remedy for the existing problem. PMID:8374579

  7. Maternal Substance Use and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: A Descriptive Study.

    PubMed

    McQueen, Karen A; Murphy-Oikonen, Jodie; Desaulniers, Lindsay

    2015-08-01

    Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) is one of the primary negative effects of substance use during pregnancy. The exact statistics regarding NAS and substance use during pregnancy are difficult to determine due to underreporting, especially in the context of pregnancy. Similarly, little is known regarding whether the severity of NAS differs based on substance exposure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of NAS and types of substance use during pregnancy, and determine whether the presentation of NAS symptoms differ based on the type of substance. A retrospective chart review was conducted over a one year period at a tertiary care hospital. One hundred thirty-one mother-infant pairs met the inclusion criteria of documented NAS scores using the Modified Finnegan Scoring Tool and substance use during pregnancy. The results identified a high prevalence of NAS (8.7 %) primarily as a result of exposure to illicit opioids and/or to methadone as the treatment for opioid addiction. In addition, more than half the women on methadone maintenance treatment continued to use additional substances primarily opiates. Infants who were exposed to methadone experienced more severe NAS compared to infants not exposed to methadone including higher peak scores, prolonged NAS treatment, and length of stay. Given the severity of symptoms of the methadone exposed infants and the high rate of opioid use with methadone treatment, evidence-based interventions are required to decrease the negative effects of NAS.

  8. Dieting and food craving. A descriptive, quasi-prospective study.

    PubMed

    Massey, Anna; Hill, Andrew J

    2012-06-01

    Evidence linking food restriction and food craving is equivocal. This study investigated whether dieting was associated with a greater frequency of food craving. Dieting to lose weight was distinguished from watching so as not to gain weight. Participants were 129 women (mean age=41 yrs): 52 were currently dieting to lose weight, 40 were watching their weight, and 37 were non-dieters. They completed a food craving record after every food craving, a food diary, and a daily mood assessment over 7-days. Of the 393 craving incidents recorded, dieters experienced significantly more food cravings than non-dieters, with watchers intermediate. Chocolate was the most craved food (37% of cravings) but neither the types of food, the proportion of cravings leading to eating (∼70%), the situations in which cravings occurred, nor the time since the last eating episode differed between groups. Compared with non-dieters, dieters experienced stronger cravings that were more difficult to resist, and for foods they were restricting eating. Watchers showed similarities in experience both to dieters (low hunger) and non-dieters (lower craving intensity). These results support an association between dieting and food craving, the usefulness of distinguishing dieting to lose weight and watching, and suggest a need for further experimental investigation of actual food restriction on food craving experiences.

  9. Academic Dishonesty among Physical Therapy Students: A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Montuno, Eli; Davidson, Alex; Iwasaki, Karen; Jones, Susan; Martin, Jay; Brooks, Dina; Gibson, Barbara E.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To examine academically dishonest behaviours based on physical therapy (PT) students' current practices and educators' prior behaviours as PT students. Method: A Web-based questionnaire was sent to 174 students and 250 educators from the PT programme at the University of Toronto. The questionnaire gathered data on demographics as well as on the prevalence of, seriousness of, and contributing factors to academic dishonesty (AD). Results: In all, 52.4% of educators and 44.3% of students responded to the questionnaire over a 6-week data-collection period. Scenarios rated the most serious were the least frequently performed by educators and students. The impact of generation on attitudes and prevalence of AD was not significant. The factors most commonly reported as contributing to AD were school-related pressure, disagreement with evaluation methods, and the perception that “everyone else does it.” Conclusion: This study parallels the findings of similar research conducted in other health care programmes: AD does occur within the PT curriculum. AD was more prevalent in situations associated with helping peers than in those associated with personal gain. The consistency in behaviours reported across generations suggests that some forms of cheating are accepted as the social norm and may be a function of the environment. PMID:23729959

  10. Sexting by high school students: an exploratory and descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Strassberg, Donald S; McKinnon, Ryan K; Sustaíta, Michael A; Rullo, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a phenomenon known as sexting, defined here as the transfer of sexually explicit photos via cell phone, has received substantial attention in the U.S. national media. To determine the current and potential future impact of sexting, more information about the behavior and the attitudes and beliefs surrounding it must be gathered, particularly as it relates to sexting by minors. The present study was designed to provide preliminary information about this phenomenon. Participants were 606 high school students (representing 98 % of the available student body) recruited from a single private high school in the southwestern U.S. Nearly 20 % of all participants reported they had ever sent a sexually explicit image of themselves via cell phone while almost twice as many reported that they had ever received a sexually explicit picture via cell phone and, of these, over 25 % indicated that they had forwarded such a picture to others. Of those reporting having sent a sexually explicit cell phone picture, over a third did so despite believing that there could be serious legal and other consequences attached to the behavior. Given the potential legal and psychological risks associated with sexting, it is important for adolescents, parents, school administrators, and even legislators and law enforcement to understand this behavior.

  11. The psychological wellbeing of Iranian journalists: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Feinstein, Saul; Behari, Maziar; Pavisian, Bennis

    2016-01-01

    Objective Iran ranks 173 out of 180 countries on an index of press freedom. The purpose of the study was to assess the psychological wellbeing of Iranian journalists and document the stressors encountered in their work. Design A secure website was established and participants were given their unique identifying number and password to access the site. Setting Newsrooms in Iran and the diaspora. Participants Responses were received from 114 journalists (76%) of whom 65.8% were living in the diaspora. The mean age was 37.8 years (SD = 7.30) and 57% male. Main outcomes measures Type of stressor and behavioural data: Impact of Event Scale-revised for posttraumatic stress disorder, Beck Depression Inventory-II for depression. Results Stressors include arrest (41.2%), torture (19.3%), assault (10.5%), intimidation (51.4%) and family threatened (43.1%). Eighty nine (78.1%) journalists had stopped working on a story because of intimidation. Arrest, torture, intimidation and family threatened were associated with more intrusive and arousal PTSD symptoms (p < .01 to .001) and assault and intimidation with more depressive symptoms (p < .05). Almost a third of Iranian journalists regularly used barbiturates, with use correlating with symptoms of intrusion (p < .0001), avoidance (p < .01), arousal (p < .0001) and depression (p < .0001). 46.5% of Iranian journalists were not receiving therapy for their distress. Conclusions The findings, the first of their kind, provide data highlighting the extraordinary degree of danger confronted by Iranian journalists, their emotional distress in response to this and their proclivity to self-medicate with barbiturates. PMID:27974971

  12. Retroperitoneal fibrosis: retrospective descriptive study on clinical features and management

    PubMed Central

    Laroche, Ann-Sophie; Bell, Robert Z; Bezzaoucha, Sarah; Földes, Eva; Lamarche, Caroline; Vallée, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a rare condition characterized by the presence of inflammatory and fibrous retroperitoneal tissue that often encases the ureters or abdominal organs. This study describes the clinical characteristics, diagnostic methods, and treatments and their effects on renal function. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with RPF at Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital. Results We identified 17 patients with RPF between 1998 and 2013. Eight patients were females (47%), and the mean age was 62±18 years. Eleven patients were idiopathic. Back pain was the most common symptom. All diagnoses were made based on the finding of a retroperitoneal mass on the computed tomography scan. Three patients had histological diagnosis of RPF and seven patients had unspecific changes on their biopsy. Twelve patients needed double-J stents, three patients had a temporary percutaneous nephrostomy, two patients had to have a nephrectomy for refractory ureteral obstruction, and one patient required hemodialysis. Ten patients with idiopathic RPF received medical treatment. In the treated group, only two patients had complete remission of the disease and five patients had improvement of their lesions. There were no deteriorations and only one relapse. Seven patients did not receive any treatment; two of them achieved complete remission, one of them deteriorated, and two of them had no changes. Conclusion Most of our cases of RPF were idiopathic. Almost all treated patients received prednisone and seemed to respond, at least partially. There was a lot of heterogeneity in patient management, which makes it difficult to compare treatment effects. However, treated patients seemed to have more favorable outcomes than those who were not. PMID:27822461

  13. Chemotherapeutic Studies on Schistosomiasis and Clinical Epidemiological and Immunological Studies on Malaria in Amazonas, Brazil, along the Ituxi River.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    fi76 341 CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC STUDIES ON SCHISTOSONIRSIS AND 1/1 CLINICAL EPIDENIOLOGICAL A.. (U) BRASILIA UNIV ( BRAZIL ) A R PRATA ET AL SEP 81 DAMDi7...Fort Derick, Frederick, Maryland 21701-5012 Grant No. DAMDl7-80-G-9479 University of Brasilia Brasilia, D.F., Brazil Approved for public release...ON SCHISTOSOMIASIS AND Annual/Final CLINICAL, EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL Oct 80-Sep 81 STUDTES ON MALAIA IN AMAZONAS, BRAZIL , ALONG THE 6

  14. Epidemiological Study of Sepsis in China: Protocol of a Cross-sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Xie, Jian-Feng; Yu, Kai-Jiang; Yao, Chen; Li, Jian-Guo; Guan, Xiang-Dong; Yan, Jing; Ma, Xiao-Chun; Kang, Yan; Yang, Cong-Shan; Yao, Xiao-Qing; Shang, Hong-Cai; Qiu, Hai-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sepsis is the leading cause of death among critically ill patients. Herein, we conducted a national survey to provide data on epidemiology and treatment of sepsis in the clinical practice in China, which has no detailed epidemiological data available on sepsis. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional survey from December 1, 2015 to January 31, 2016 in all provinces/municipalities of the mainland of China. The primary outcome of this study was the incidence of sepsis, and the secondary outcome was its etiology in China. Patients with sepsis admitted to the Intensive Care Units were included in this study. The demographic, physiological, bacteriological, and therapeutic data of these patients were recorded. The incidence of sepsis was estimated using the data from the sixth census in China, reported by the Chinese National Health and Family Planning Commission and the National Bureau of Statistics as the standard population. The independent risk factors for increased mortality from sepsis were calculated. Conclusions: This study indicated the incidence and outcome of sepsis in China. It also showed the most common etiology of different sites and types of infection, which could guide empiric antibiotic therapy. Moreover, it provided information on the independent risk factors for increased mortality due to sepsis. The findings provide evidence to guide clinical management and may help improve the outcome in septic patients. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02448472; https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02448472. PMID:27958229

  15. An epidemiological study of asymptomatic neurocysticercosis in a pig farming community in northern India.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Kashi N; Verma, Avantika; Srivastava, Sandeep; Gupta, Rakesh K; Pandey, Chandra M; Paliwal, Vimal K

    2011-09-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most frequent parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by the larvae of Taenia solium. The prevalence of NCC is obscured due to variations in the methods used for epidemiological studies and often asymptomatic manifestation. The present study was conducted on 595 apparently healthy individuals belonging to the pig farming community of northern India to estimate the prevalence of asymptomatic NCC and to evaluate risk factors based on questionnaires. Diagnosis of NCC was based on neuroimaging, immunological and epidemiological criteria. Asymptomatic NCC was detected in 90 (15.1%) of 595 individuals. The evaluation of risk factors showed that age >15 years (P=0.001), intake of raw vegetables (P=0.025) and undercooked pork (P=0.005), lack of safe drinking water (P=0.003), inadequate drainage system (P=0.049), no separate place for pigs (P≤0.001), NCC related active epilepsy in the family (P≤0.001) were significantly associated with asymptomatic NCC. The present study shows high prevalence of asymptomatic NCC in pig farming community of northern India. Further, asymptomatic NCC is associated with most variables of poor socio-economic parameters.

  16. A social epidemiological study on HIV/AIDS in a village of Henan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jin; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Zhou, Liang; Tang, Yong; Xu, Guangming; Luo, Dan; Yi, Qifeng

    2013-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic caused by commercial blood donation in rural Henan Province of China in the early- to mid-1990s is the largest known cohort in the world related to blood donation but is not fully described. The objectives of this study were to describe the epidemic, epidemiology, and social epidemiology of commercial blood donation and HIV/AIDS. Both qualitative and quantitative mixed methods were used. A village was randomly selected from the 38 key HIV/AIDS pandemic villages in Henan Province. "Demographic Data Form" was applied to collect demographic information of each resident. Focus groups were held for the managers, some residents, members of "HIV/AIDS Work-Team" (organized by the Henan Provincial Government) in the village. Every village physician, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), school header, and other stakeholders were interviewed individually. The social epidemiology of HIV/AIDS was analyzed under three perspectives of the framework: individual, social, and structural perspectives. In this village, there were 2335 residents, 484 (20.3%) were former donors, 107 (4.6%) were PLWHA, and 96.3% of PLWHA were infected through commercial blood donation. Individually, low education and plasma donation were the risky factors of HIV/AIDS infection. Socially, the epidemic was geography-, kinship-, and conformity-related. Structurally, the related macrostructure factor was policy endorsement of national blood products. The microstructure factors were poverty and value belief on male child in passing down generations. It is concluded that commercial blood donation and HIV/AIDS epidemic in the village are symbiotically related. The epidemic is temporary and socially determined.

  17. Epidemiology of Patient Harms in New Zealand: Protocol of a General Practice Records Review Study

    PubMed Central

    Leitch, Sharon; Wallis, Katharine A; Eggleton, Kyle S; Cunningham, Wayne K; Williamson, Martyn I; Lillis, Steven; McMenamin, Andrew W; Tilyard, Murray W; Reith, David M; Samaranayaka, Ari; Hall, Jason E

    2017-01-01

    Background Knowing where and why harm occurs in general practice will assist patients, doctors, and others in making informed decisions about the risks and benefits of treatment options. Research to date has been unable to verify the safety of primary health care and epidemiological research about patient harms in general practice is now a top priority for advancing health systems safety. Objective We aim to study the incidence, distribution, severity, and preventability of the harms patients experience due to their health care, from the whole-of-health-system lens afforded by electronic general practice patient records. Methods “Harm” is defined as disease, injury, disability, suffering, and death, arising from the health system. The study design is a stratified, 2-level cluster, retrospective records review study. Both general practices and patients will be randomly selected so that the study’s results will apply nationally, after weighting. Stratification by practice size and rurality will allow comparisons between 6 study groups (large, medium-sized, small; urban and rural practices). Records of equal numbers of patients from each study group will be included in the study because there may be systematic differences in patient harms in different types of practices. Eight general practitioner investigators will review 3 years of electronic general practice health records (consultation notes, prescriptions, investigations, referrals, and summaries of hospital care) from 9000 patients registered in 60 general practices. Double-blinded reviews will check the concordance of reviewers’ assessments. Study data will comprise demographic data of all 9000 patients and reviewers’ assessments of whether patients experienced harm arising from health care. Where patient harm is identified, their types, preventability, severity, and outcomes will be coded using the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) 18.0. Results We have recruited practices and

  18. Application of the medical data warehousing architecture EPIDWARE to epidemiological follow-up: data extraction and transformation.

    PubMed

    Kerkri, E; Quantin, C; Yetongnon, K; Allaert, F A; Dusserre, L

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present an application of EPIDWARE, medical data warehousing architecture, to our epidemiological follow-up project. The aim of this project is to extract and regroup information from various information systems for epidemiological studies. We give a description of the requirements of the epidemiological follow-up project such as anonymity of medical data information and data file linkage procedure. We introduce the concept of Data Warehousing Architecture. The particularities of data extraction and transformation are presented and discussed.

  19. New Saliva DNA Collection Method Compared to Buccal Cell Collection Techniques for Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    ROGERS, NIKKI L.; COLE, SHELLEY A.; LAN, HAO-CHANG; CROSSA, ALDO; DEMERATH, ELLEN W.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies may require noninvasive methods for off-site DNA collection. We compared the DNA yield and quality obtained using a whole-saliva collection device (Oragene™ DNA collection kit) to those from three established noninvasive methods (cytobrush, foam swab, and oral rinse). Each method was tested on 17 adult volunteers from our center, using a random crossover collection design and analyzed using repeated-measures statistics. DNA yield and quality were assessed via gel electrophoresis, spectophotometry, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification rate. The whole-saliva method provided a significantly greater DNA yield (mean ± SD = 154.9 ± 103.05 μg, median = 181.88) than the other methods (oral rinse = 54.74 ± 41.72 μg, 36.56; swab = 11.44 ± 7.39 μg, 10.72; cytobrush = 12.66 ± 6.19, 13.22 μg) (all pairwise P < 0.05). Oral-rinse and whole-saliva samples provided the best DNA quality, whereas cytobrush and swab samples provided poorer quality DNA, as shown by lower OD260/OD280 and OD260/OD230 ratios. We conclude that both a 10-ml oral-rinse sample and 2-ml whole-saliva sample provide sufficient DNA quantity and better quality DNA for genetic epidemiological studies than do the commonly used buccal swab and brush techniques. PMID:17421001

  20. New saliva DNA collection method compared to buccal cell collection techniques for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nikki L; Cole, Shelley A; Lan, Hao-Chang; Crossa, Aldo; Demerath, Ellen W

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies may require noninvasive methods for off-site DNA collection. We compared the DNA yield and quality obtained using a whole-saliva collection device (Oragene DNA collection kit) to those from three established noninvasive methods (cytobrush, foam swab, and oral rinse). Each method was tested on 17 adult volunteers from our center, using a random crossover collection design and analyzed using repeated-measures statistics. DNA yield and quality were assessed via gel electrophoresis, spectophotometry, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification rate. The whole-saliva method provided a significantly greater DNA yield (mean +/- SD = 154.9 +/- 103.05 microg, median = 181.88) than the other methods (oral rinse = 54.74 +/- 41.72 microg, 36.56; swab = 11.44 +/- 7.39 microg, 10.72; cytobrush = 12.66 +/- 6.19, 13.22 microg) (all pairwise P < 0.05). Oral-rinse and whole-saliva samples provided the best DNA quality, whereas cytobrush and swab samples provided poorer quality DNA, as shown by lower OD(260)/OD(280) and OD(260)/OD(230) ratios. We conclude that both a 10-ml oral-rinse sample and 2-ml whole-saliva sample provide sufficient DNA quantity and better quality DNA for genetic epidemiological studies than do the commonly used buccal swab and brush techniques.

  1. Epidemiology of syphilis-related hospitalisations in Spain between 1997 and 2006: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ariza-Megía, M Carmen; González-Escalada, Alba; Álvaro-Meca, Alejandro; Gil-deMiguel, Ángel; Gil-Prieto, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Objective In order to illustrate the important public health impact of syphilis, which is a preventable infection, the epidemiology of syphilis-related hospitalisations in Spain was studied over a 10-year period. Methods A retrospective study was conducted using the National Epidemiological Surveillance System for Hospital Data (Minimum Data Set). All hospitalisations due to syphilis infection in any diagnostic position (ICD-9-CM 090–097) between 1997 and 2006 were analysed, according to the Spanish version of the International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision (ICD-9-CM). Results There were 9556 hospitalisations associated with syphilis in Spain. The hospitalisation rate was 2.33 per 100 000 population, the mortality rate was 0.07 per 100 000 population and the lethality was 3.17%. The hospitalisation rate increased significantly after 2000 and was higher in men. Conclusion Syphilis remains a major public health problem because of both potential complications and its close association with HIV infection. It is necessary to promote early diagnosis, ensure treatment in patients with syphilis and emphasise health promotion and prevention programmes. PMID:22080538

  2. Aspirin, salicylate, sulfite and tartrazine induced bronchoconstriction. Safe doses and case definition in epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Corder, E H; Buckley, C E

    1995-10-01

    Allergic-like reactions to chemical components of foods and medicines may be common. The prevalence of idiosyncratic reactions to aspirin, salicylate, metabisulfite and tartrazine is not known. We used a tertiary referral clinic population to estimate safe exposure doses for epidemiological studies. A 15% decrease in the amount of air expired in one second was defined a positive response. The median effective molar doses of the agents were remarkably similar: metabisulfite 0.19 mM, 34.4 mg [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14, 0.27 mM]; tartrazine 0.10 M, 55.0 mg (95% CI 0.05, 0.21 mM); aspirin 0.09 mM, 16.5 mg (95% CI 0.04, 0.19 mM); and salicylate 0.11 mM, 15.3 mg (95% CI 0.05, 0.27 mM). Doses to which the most sensitive (5%) and practically all (95%) susceptible persons might respectively respond are: metabisulfite 4.6 mg, 255.8 mg; tartrazine 3.4 mg, 885.6 mg; aspirin 0.8 mg, 332.3 mg; and salicylate 2.6 mg, 89.9 mg. Doses within these ranges can be used in epidemiological studies.

  3. Diagnostic Methods of Helicobacter pylori Infection for Epidemiological Studies: Critical Importance of Indirect Test Validation

    PubMed Central

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Among the methods developed to detect H. pylori infection, determining the gold standard remains debatable, especially for epidemiological studies. Due to the decreasing sensitivity of direct diagnostic tests (histopathology and/or immunohistochemistry [IHC], rapid urease test [RUT], and culture), several indirect tests, including antibody-based tests (serology and urine test), urea breath test (UBT), and stool antigen test (SAT) have been developed to diagnose H. pylori infection. Among the indirect tests, UBT and SAT became the best methods to determine active infection. While antibody-based tests, especially serology, are widely available and relatively sensitive, their specificity is low. Guidelines indicated that no single test can be considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection and that one should consider the method's advantages and disadvantages. Based on four epidemiological studies, culture and RUT present a sensitivity of 74.2–90.8% and 83.3–86.9% and a specificity of 97.7–98.8% and 95.1–97.2%, respectively, when using IHC as a gold standard. The sensitivity of serology is quite high, but that of the urine test was lower compared with that of the other methods. Thus, indirect test validation is important although some commercial kits propose universal cut-off values. PMID:26904678

  4. Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies.

    PubMed

    Özkaynak, Halûk; Baxter, Lisa K; Dionisio, Kathie L; Burke, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of the health effects of outdoor air pollution have traditionally relied upon surrogates of personal exposures, most commonly ambient concentration measurements from central-site monitors. However, this approach may introduce exposure prediction errors and misclassification of exposures for pollutants that are spatially heterogeneous, such as those associated with traffic emissions (e.g., carbon monoxide, elemental carbon, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter). We review alternative air quality and human exposure metrics applied in recent air pollution health effect studies discussed during the International Society of Exposure Science 2011 conference in Baltimore, MD. Symposium presenters considered various alternative exposure metrics, including: central site or interpolated monitoring data, regional pollution levels predicted using the national scale Community Multiscale Air Quality model or from measurements combined with local-scale (AERMOD) air quality models, hybrid models that include satellite data, statistically blended modeling and measurement data, concentrations adjusted by home infiltration rates, and population-based human exposure model (Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation, and Air Pollutants Exposure models) predictions. These alternative exposure metrics were applied in epidemiological applications to health outcomes, including daily mortality and respiratory hospital admissions, daily hospital emergency department visits, daily myocardial infarctions, and daily adverse birth outcomes. This paper summarizes the research projects presented during the symposium, with full details of the work presented in individual papers in this journal issue.

  5. Clinico-epidemiological study of near-hanging cases - An investigation from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Atreya, Alok; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2015-07-01

    Hanging is one of the commonest methods of suicide. Epidemiological data of near-hanging patients from Nepal is limited. The present research from Nepal attempts to review the clinico-epidemiological profile of near-hanging patients. A retrospective review of case records was done for the near hanging patients admitted to a tertiary care teaching hospital in Nepal, between August 2012 and August 2014. Details regarding socio-demographic profile, circumstances of hanging, clinical details, and outcome etc. were obtained and examined. During the study period, 10 near hanging patients were admitted to the hospital. The majority of the patients were below 30 years. Mean age of the study group was 28.8 years. The GCS on arrival ranged between 5/15 and 15/15 with the mean GCS being 9.5/15. Hypoxic encephalopathy and cerebral edema were the only noted complications. None of the patient had a cervical spinal injury. All the patients survived the near hanging episode. The mean ICU and hospital stay were 3.9 days and 6.2 days respectively. Prompt resuscitation, active interventions and intensive care support favors a good prognosis. Psychiatric evaluation and support to the patients and their relatives is the key to preventing such attempts in future.

  6. Diagnostic Methods of Helicobacter pylori Infection for Epidemiological Studies: Critical Importance of Indirect Test Validation.

    PubMed

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Among the methods developed to detect H. pylori infection, determining the gold standard remains debatable, especially for epidemiological studies. Due to the decreasing sensitivity of direct diagnostic tests (histopathology and/or immunohistochemistry [IHC], rapid urease test [RUT], and culture), several indirect tests, including antibody-based tests (serology and urine test), urea breath test (UBT), and stool antigen test (SAT) have been developed to diagnose H. pylori infection. Among the indirect tests, UBT and SAT became the best methods to determine active infection. While antibody-based tests, especially serology, are widely available and relatively sensitive, their specificity is low. Guidelines indicated that no single test can be considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection and that one should consider the method's advantages and disadvantages. Based on four epidemiological studies, culture and RUT present a sensitivity of 74.2-90.8% and 83.3-86.9% and a specificity of 97.7-98.8% and 95.1-97.2%, respectively, when using IHC as a gold standard. The sensitivity of serology is quite high, but that of the urine test was lower compared with that of the other methods. Thus, indirect test validation is important although some commercial kits propose universal cut-off values.

  7. A pilot study on the application of statistical classification procedures to molecular epidemiological data.

    PubMed

    Schwender, Holger; Zucknick, Manuela; Ickstadt, Katja; Bolt, Hermann M

    2004-06-15

    The development of new statistical methods for use in molecular epidemiology comprises the building and application of appropriate classification rules. The aim of this study was to assess various classification methods that can potentially handle genetic interactions. A data set comprising genotypes at 25 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) loci from 518 breast cancer cases and 586 age-matched population-based controls from the GENICA study was used to built a classification rule with the discrimination methods SVM (support vector machine), CART (classification and regression tree), Bagging, Random Forest, LogitBoost and k nearest neighbours (kNN). A blind pilot analysis of the genotypic data set was a first approach to obtain an impression of the statistical structure of the data. Furthermore, this analysis was performed to explore classification methods that may be applied to molecular-epidemiological evaluation. The results showed that all blindly applied classification methods had a slightly smaller misclassification rate than a random classification. The findings, nevertheless, suggest that SNP data might be useful for the classification of individuals into categories of high or low risk of diseases.

  8. Epidemiological Study of Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Conjunctivitis in a Level III Neonatal Unit

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Catarina; Gonçalves, Márcia; João, Anabela

    2013-01-01

    Background. Conjunctivitis is one of the most frequently occurring hospital-acquired infections among neonates, although it is less studied than potentially life-threatening infections, such as sepsis and pneumonia. Objectives. The aims of our work were to identify epidemiologic characteristics, pathogens, and susceptibility patterns of bacterial hospital-acquired conjunctivitis (HAC) in a level III neonatal unit. Materials and Methods. Data were collected retrospectively from patient charts and laboratory databases. Hospital-acquired conjunctivitis was defined in accordance with the Centers for Disease Control/National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC/NHSN) diagnostic criteria. Results. One or more episodes of HAC were diagnosed in 4,0% (n = 60) of 1492 neonates admitted during the study period. Most of the episodes involved premature (75,4%) and low birth weight (75,4%) neonates. Infection rates were higher among patients undergoing noninvasive mechanical ventilation (46,7%), parenteral nutrition (13,6%), and phototherapy (6,8%). Predominant pathogens included Serratia marcescens (27,9%), Escherichia coli (23%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18%). Susceptibility patterns revealed bacterial resistances to several antibiotic classes. Gentamicin remains the adequate choice for empirical treatment of HAC in our NICU. Conclusion. It is important to know the local patterns of the disease in order to adjust prevention strategies. Our work contributes to the epidemiological characterization of a sometimes overlooked disease. PMID:23766676

  9. Advancing the Selection of Neurodevelopmental Measures in Epidemiological Studies of Environmental Chemical Exposure and Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Youngstrom, Eric; LaKind, Judy S.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Lipkin, Paul H.; Goodman, Michael; Squibb, Katherine; Mattison, Donald R.; Anthony, Bruno J.; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth

    2010-01-01

    With research suggesting increasing incidence of pediatric neurodevelopmental disorders, questions regarding etiology continue to be raised. Neurodevelopmental function tests have been used in epidemiology studies to evaluate relationships between environmental chemical exposures and neurodevelopmental deficits. Limitations of currently used tests and difficulties with their interpretation have been described, but a comprehensive critical examination of tests commonly used in studies of environmental chemicals and pediatric neurodevelopmental disorders has not been conducted. We provide here a listing and critical evaluation of commonly used neurodevelopmental tests in studies exploring effects from chemical exposures and recommend measures that are not often used, but should be considered. We also discuss important considerations in selecting appropriate tests and provide a case study by reviewing the literature on polychlorinated biphenyls. PMID:20195443

  10. Epidemiologic Study of One Million American Workers and Military Veterans Exposed to Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Boice, John D.

    2015-02-27

    A pilot study was completed demonstrating the feasibility of conducting an epidemiologic study assessing cancer and other disease mortality among nearly one million US veterans and workers exposed to ionizing radiation, a population 10 times larger than atomic bomb survivor study with high statistical power to evaluate low dose rate effects. Among the groups enumerated and/or studied were: (1) 194,000 Department of Energy Uranium Workers; (2) 6,700 Rocketdyne Radiation Workers; (3) 7,000 Mound Radiation Workers; (4) 156,000 DOE Plutonium Workers; (5) 212,000 Nuclear Power Plant Workers; (6) 130,000 Industrial Radiography Workers; (7) 1.7 million Medical Workers and (8) 135,000 Atomic Veterans.

  11. Non-accidental non-fatal poisonings attended by emergency ambulance crews: an observational study of data sources and epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    John, Ann; Porter, Alison; Moore, Chris; Thomas, Gareth; Whitfield, Richard; Oretti, Rossana

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-accidental non-fatal poisoning (NANFP) is associated with high risk of repeat episodes and fatality. This cross-sectional study aims to describe the data sources and epidemiology of non-fatal poisonings (NFPs) presenting to the emergency ambulance service. Methods We assessed incidents of NFP across Wales from electronic ambulance call centre records and paper records completed by attending ambulance crews, December 2007 to February 2008. We descriptively analysed data completed by attending crews. Results 92 331 calls were made to the ambulance call centre, of which 3923 (4.2%) were coded as ‘overdose’ or ‘poisoning’. During the same period, ambulance crews recorded 1827 attended NANFP incidents in those categories, of which 1287 (70.4%) had been identified in the call centre. 76.1% (1356/1782) were aged 15–44 years and 54.2% (991/1827) were female. 75.0% (1302/1753) of incidents occurred in areas from the lower 2 quintiles of deprivation in Wales. Substance taken was reported in 90% of cases (n=1639). Multiple ingestion was common (n=886, 54.1%). Psychotropic was the most frequently taken group of substances (n=585, 32.0%) and paracetamol (n=484, 26.5%) was the most frequently taken substance prehospital. Almost half of patients had taken alcohol alongside other substances (n=844, 46.2%). Naloxone was the most frequently administered treatment (n=137, 7.5%). Only 142/1827 (7.8%) patients were not transported to hospital, of whom 4 were recorded to have been given naloxone. Conclusions We report new data on the epidemiology of NFP across substance types at national level, highlighting deficiencies in information systems and high levels of multiple ingestion. In order to develop policy and practice for this patient group prehospital and further along the care pathway, information systems need to be developed to allow accurate routine monitoring of volume, presentation and outcomes. PMID:27540098

  12. Assessing exposure in epidemiologic studies to disinfection by-products in drinking water: report from an international workshop.

    PubMed Central

    Arbuckle, Tye E; Hrudey, Steve E; Krasner, Stuart W; Nuckols, Jay R; Richardson, Susan D; Singer, Philip; Mendola, Pauline; Dodds, Linda; Weisel, Clifford; Ashley, David L; Froese, Kenneth L; Pegram, Rex A; Schultz, Irvin R; Reif, John; Bachand, Annette M; Benoit, Frank M; Lynberg, Michele; Poole, Charles; Waller, Kirsten

    2002-01-01

    The inability to accurately assess exposure has been one of the major shortcomings of epidemiologic studies of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water. A number of contributing factors include a) limited information on the identity, occurrence, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics of the many DBPs that can be formed from chlorine, chloramine, ozone, and chlorine dioxide disinfection; b) the complex chemical interrelationships between DBPs and other parameters within a municipal water distribution system; and c) difficulties obtaining accurate and reliable information on personal activity and water consumption patterns. In May 2000, an international workshop was held to bring together various disciplines to develop better approaches for measuring DBP exposure for epidemiologic studies. The workshop reached consensus about the clear need to involve relevant disciplines (e.g., chemists, engineers, toxicologists, biostatisticians and epidemiologists) as partners in developing epidemiologic studies of DBPs in drinking water. The workshop concluded that greater collaboration of epidemiologists with water utilities and regulators should be encouraged in order to make regulatory monitoring data more useful for epidemiologic studies. Similarly, exposure classification categories in epidemiologic studies should be chosen to make results useful for regulatory or policy decision making. PMID:11834463

  13. The impact of demographic changes on the epidemiology of herpes zoster: Spain as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Marziano, Valentina; Poletti, Piero; Guzzetta, Giorgio; Ajelli, Marco; Manfredi, Piero; Merler, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella upon first exposure and may reactivate later in life into herpes zoster (HZ), with a risk that is thought to be reduced by re-exposures to VZV. Given the decades-long time scales of reactivation and its dependence on the accumulation of re-exposure episodes, adopting a long-term perspective may be useful to correctly interpret current epidemiological trends of VZV. In this study, we investigate the possible impact of demographic changes on varicella and HZ in Spain, using an age-structured mathematical model informed with historical demographic data and calibrated against age-specific profiles of varicella seroprevalence and HZ incidence data. The model qualitatively reproduces the remarkable growth of HZ incidence observed in Spain between 1997 and 2004, before the introduction of varicella vaccination programmes. We demonstrate that this growth may be partially ascribed to the reduction of varicella circulation that followed the overall decline of the birth rate in the twentieth century. Model predictions further suggest that, even under the most optimistic projections, HZ incidence will continue its rise until at least 2040. Considering the effect of demographic changes can help interpreting variations in epidemiological trends of HZ, contributing to a more accurate evaluation of vaccination programmes against VZV. PMID:25761709

  14. A French crop-exposure matrix for use in epidemiological studies on pesticides: PESTIMAT.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Isabelle; Carles, Camille; Blanc-Lapierre, Audrey; Fabbro-Peray, Pascale; Druet-Cabanac, Michel; Boutet-Robinet, Elisa; Soulat, Jean-Marc; Bouvier, Ghislaine; Lebailly, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Pesticide exposure assessment is a key methodological issue for epidemiological studies. The history of pesticide has proven difficult to obtain from individuals' report because of the wide range of active ingredients (AIs). We developed a crop-exposure matrix, which intends to reconstitute parameters of pesticide exposure in France since 1950. PESTIMAT is composed of tables crossing crops and AIs by year and providing the following metrics: (1) probability (proportion of farmers having used the AIs); (2) frequency (number of treatment days); and (3) intensity (application rate of the AIs in kg/ha). Metrics were obtained by the combination of six sources: (i) registration information from the Agriculture Ministry; (ii) information from agricultural bodies on products marketed; (iii) agricultural recommendations by the Plant Health Protection body; (iv) treatment calendars provided by farmers; (v) data from associations of farmers; and (vi) data from the industry. To date, 529 AIs usable between 1950 and 2010 are included in PESTIMAT: 160 fungicides; 160 herbicides; and 209 insecticides. When combined with duration and determinants of intensity, the metrics in PESTIMAT will make it possible to calculate exposure scores and to search for dose-effect relationships, an important criterion for causality judgment in epidemiology.

  15. Hanford site: A guide to record series supporting epidemiologic studies