Science.gov

Sample records for descriptive mathematical techniques

  1. Mathematical techniques: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Articles on theoretical and applied mathematics are introduced. The articles cover information that might be of interest to workers in statistics and information theory, computational aids that could be used by scientists and engineers, and mathematical techniques for design and control.

  2. Mathematical Description of Dendrimer Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majoros, Istvan J.; Mehta, Chandan B.; Baker, James R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Characteristics of starburst dendrimers can be easily attributed to the multiplicity of the monomers used to synthesize them. The molecular weight, degree of polymerization, number of terminal groups and branch points for each generation of a dendrimer can be calculated using mathematical formulas incorporating these variables. Mathematical models for the calculation of degree of polymerization, molecular weight, and number of terminal groups and branching groups previously published were revised and elaborated on for poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers, and introduced for poly(propyleneimine) (POPAM) dendrimers and the novel POPAM-PAMAM hybrid, which we call the POMAM dendrimer. Experimental verification of the relationship between theoretical and actual structure for the PAMAM dendrimer was also established.

  3. Towards a Bernsteinian Language of Description for Mathematics Classroom Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straehler-Pohl, Hauke; Gellert, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    This article aims at developing an external language of description to investigate the problem of why particular groups of students are systematically not provided access to school mathematical knowledge. Based on Basil Bernstein's conceptualisation of power in classification, we develop a three-dimensional model that operationalises the…

  4. Connecting Intonation Labels to Mathematical Descriptions of Fundamental Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabe, Esther; Kochanski, Greg; Coleman, John

    2007-01-01

    The mathematical models of intonation used in speech technology are often inaccessible to linguists. By the same token, phonological descriptions of intonation are rarely used by speech technologists, as they cannot be implemented directly in applications. Consequently, these research communities do not benefit much from each other's insights. In…

  5. A description of seismic amplitude techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadlow, James

    2014-02-01

    The acquisition of seismic data is a non-invasive technique used for determining the sub surface geology. Changes in lithology and fluid fill affect the seismic wavelet. Analysing seismic data for direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHIs), such as full stack amplitude anomalies, or amplitude variation with offset (AVO), can help a seismic interpreter relate the geophysical response to real geology and, more importantly, to distinguish the presence of hydrocarbons. Inversion is another commonly used technique that attempts to tie the seismic data back to the geology. Much has been written about these techniques, and attempting to gain an understanding on the theory and application of them by reading through various journals can be quite daunting. The purpose of this paper is to briefly outline DHI analysis, including full stack amplitude anomalies, AVO and inversion and show the relationship between all three. The equations presented have been included for completeness, but the reader can pass over the mathematical detail.

  6. THE SHEFFIELD ALCOHOL POLICY MODEL - A MATHEMATICAL DESCRIPTION.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Alan; Meier, Petra; Purshouse, Robin; Rafia, Rachid; Meng, Yang; Hill-Macmanus, Daniel; Angus, Colin; Holmes, John

    2014-09-30

    This methodology paper sets out a mathematical description of the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model version 2.0, a model to evaluate public health strategies for alcohol harm reduction in the UK. Policies that can be appraised include a minimum price per unit of alcohol, restrictions on price discounting, and broader public health measures. The model estimates the impact on consumers, health services, crime, employers, retailers and government tax revenues. The synthesis of public and commercial data sources to inform the model structure is described. A detailed algebraic description of the model is provided. This involves quantifying baseline levels of alcohol purchasing and consumption by age and gender subgroups, estimating the impact of policies on consumption, for example, using evidence on price elasticities of demand for alcohol, quantification of risk functions relating alcohol consumption to harms including 47 health conditions, crimes, absenteeism and unemployment, and finally monetary valuation of the consequences. The results framework, shown for a minimum price per unit of alcohol, has been used to provide policy appraisals for the UK government policy-makers. In discussion and online appendix, we explore issues around valuation and scope, limitations of evidence/data, how the framework can be adapted to other countries and decisions, and ongoing plans for further development. © 2014 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25270223

  7. THE SHEFFIELD ALCOHOL POLICY MODEL - A MATHEMATICAL DESCRIPTION.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Alan; Meier, Petra; Purshouse, Robin; Rafia, Rachid; Meng, Yang; Hill-Macmanus, Daniel; Angus, Colin; Holmes, John

    2014-09-30

    This methodology paper sets out a mathematical description of the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model version 2.0, a model to evaluate public health strategies for alcohol harm reduction in the UK. Policies that can be appraised include a minimum price per unit of alcohol, restrictions on price discounting, and broader public health measures. The model estimates the impact on consumers, health services, crime, employers, retailers and government tax revenues. The synthesis of public and commercial data sources to inform the model structure is described. A detailed algebraic description of the model is provided. This involves quantifying baseline levels of alcohol purchasing and consumption by age and gender subgroups, estimating the impact of policies on consumption, for example, using evidence on price elasticities of demand for alcohol, quantification of risk functions relating alcohol consumption to harms including 47 health conditions, crimes, absenteeism and unemployment, and finally monetary valuation of the consequences. The results framework, shown for a minimum price per unit of alcohol, has been used to provide policy appraisals for the UK government policy-makers. In discussion and online appendix, we explore issues around valuation and scope, limitations of evidence/data, how the framework can be adapted to other countries and decisions, and ongoing plans for further development. © 2014 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A mathematical description of the inclusive fitness theory.

    PubMed

    Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Yutaka

    2013-03-01

    Recent developments in the inclusive fitness theory have revealed that the direction of evolution can be analytically predicted in a wider class of models than previously thought, such as those models dealing with network structure. This paper aims to provide a mathematical description of the inclusive fitness theory. Specifically, we provide a general framework based on a Markov chain that can implement basic models of inclusive fitness. Our framework is based on the probability distribution of "offspring-to-parent map", from which the key concepts of the theory, such as fitness function, relatedness and inclusive fitness, are derived in a straightforward manner. We prove theorems showing that inclusive fitness always provides a correct prediction on which of two competing genes more frequently appears in the long run in the Markov chain. As an application of the theorems, we prove a general formula of the optimal dispersal rate in the Wright's island model with recurrent mutations. We also show the existence of the critical mutation rate, which does not depend on the number of islands and below which a positive dispersal rate evolves. Our framework can also be applied to lattice or network structured populations.

  9. Connecting intonation labels to mathematical descriptions of fundamental frequency.

    PubMed

    Grabe, Esther; Kochanski, Greg; Coleman, John

    2007-01-01

    The mathematical models of intonation used in speech technology are often inaccessible to linguists. By the same token, phonological descriptions of intonation are rarely used by speech technologists, as they cannot be implemented directly in applications. Consequently, these research communities do not benefit much from each other's insights. In this paper, we explore the interface between the disciplines, in search of bridges between intonational phonology and speech technology. In a corpus of speech data from seven dialects of English, we hand-labeled over 700 sentences and identified seven nuclear accent types. Then we fitted a third-order polynomial to the fundamental frequency (F0) contour in the region around the accent mark. The polynomial captures the local shape (time-dependence) of F0 in a few numbers, in our case, four coefficients. The coefficients were subjected to statistical analysis. Nineteen of the 21 pairs of accent types differed significantly in one or more coefficients. Our approach bridges the gap between intonational phonology and speech technology. It provides quantitative, empirically testable models of intonation labels that can be implemented in applications. PMID:17974321

  10. Comparative Validity of the Descriptive Tests of Mathematical Skills (DTMS) and SAT-Mathematics (SAT-M) for Predicting Performance in Freshman College Mathematics Courses: Prefatory Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, M. Padraig M. M.; Bluford, Dontrell A.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the predictive validity of the Descriptive Tests of Mathematical Skills (DTMS) and the SAT-Mathematics (SAT-M) tests as placement tools for entering students in a small, liberal arts, historically black institution (HBI) using regression analysis. The placement schema is four-tiered: for a remedial algebra course, college…

  11. Descriptions of Free and Freeware Software in the Mathematics Teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes de Macedo, Josue; Neves de Almeida, Samara; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the analysis and the cataloging of free and freeware mathematical software available on the internet, a brief explanation of them, and types of licenses for use in teaching and learning. The methodology is based on the qualitative research. Among the different types of software found, it stands out in algebra, the Winmat, that works with linear algebra, matrices and linear systems. In geometry, the GeoGebra, which can be used in the study of functions, plan and spatial geometry, algebra and calculus. For graphing, can quote the Graph and Graphequation. With Graphmatica software, it is possible to build various graphs of mathematical equations on the same screen, representing cartesian equations, inequalities, parametric among other functions. The Winplot allows the user to build graphics in two and three dimensions functions and mathematical equations. Thus, this work aims to present the teachers some free math software able to be used in the classroom.

  12. Educational Plan: Title I Elementary Mathematics Program. Description, Performance Objectives, and Tests. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Des Moines Public Schools, IA.

    This three-part guide presents a brief program description along with lists of performance objectives and lists of test items for the Des Moines (Iowa) Public Schools Title I Elementary Mathematics Program. The program description provides background information on the Des Moines Public School District and describes the student selection/screening…

  13. Tailoring Modified Moore Method Techniques to Liberal Arts Mathematics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchman, Theron J.; Shaw, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Inquiry-based learning (IBL) techniques can be used in mathematics courses for non-majors, such as courses required for liberal arts majors to fulfill graduation requirements. Unique challenges are discussed, followed by adaptations of IBL techniques to overcome those challenges.

  14. [Simplified defecography technique. Description and results].

    PubMed

    Berretta, O; Chaussade, S; Coquet, M; Couturier, D; Bonnin, A; Guerre, J

    1990-10-13

    Defecography is a useful paraclinical examination to explore disturbances of continence or defecation. The purpose of this study was to present a simplified defecography technique and assess its validity in subjects without defecation problems (n = 10) and in patients complaining of idiopathic chronic constipation (n = 35). The anorectal angle at rest (RAA) and when straining at stool was not significantly different in constipated patients and in controls. Defecography often gave abnormal results. Anterior rectocele was found in almost 50 percent (17/35) of constipated patients and in 20 percent (2/10) of controls (P less than 0.05). None of the patients had posterior rectocele. Persistent imprint of the puborectal muscle during straining was present in 36 percent (9/35) of constipated patients and in 10 percent (1/10) of controls (NS). The imprint was not always associated with closure of the RAA between rest and straining; this closure was never found in controls but was observed in 6 out of 17 constipated patients (35 percent; P less than 0.05). Perineal descent (PD) varied from 0.6 to 3.7 cm (mean +/- s.e.m.: 2.0 +/- 0.63 cm) in controls, as against 0.6 to 7.9 cm (mean +/- s.e.m.: 2.7 +/- 0.45 cm) in constipated patients. In 24 percent of the constipated patients PD was greater than 3.7 cm (the maximum value recorded in controls). All constipated patients with closure of the RAA during defecation had a PD of less than 1 cm, thus confirming the concept of "pelvic floor muscle hypertonia". Disorders of rectal statics are more frequent in subjects with constipation, but their significance is varied. Some abnormalities could be the cause of constipation (e.g. anismus) and others its consequence (anterior rectal prolapse, anterior rectocele, PD).

  15. Mathematical description of human body constitution and fatness.

    PubMed

    Sheikh-Zade, Yu R; Galenko-Yaroshevskii, P A; Cherednik, I L

    2014-02-01

    Using mathematical modeling of human body, we demonstrated logical drawbacks of body mass index (BMI1 = M/H(2); A. Quetelet, 1832) and proposed more precise body mass index (BMI2 = M/H(3)) as well as body constitution index (BCI = (M/H(3))(1/2)) and fatness index (FI = M/HC(2)), where M, H, and C are body weight, height, and wrist circumference of the individual. PMID:24771443

  16. Mathematical Description of an Asynchronous Motor with the Indirect Control of the Output Mechanical Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazachev, A. V.; Dementyev, Yu. N.; Negodin, K. N.; Umursakova, A. D.

    2016-02-01

    The article gives the mathematical description of an asynchronous motor with the indirect control of the output mechanical variables of an asynchronous motor in the electric drive. To determine the electromagnetic torque and angular velocity of the asynchronous motor in the electric drive the mathematical description is used in which the values are determined by the readings of the motor and easily measured values by means of known in practice devices. The proposed in the article the mathematical description for the indirect measuring the electromagnetic torque and angular velocity of the asynchronous motor in the electric drive does not contain the integral components that introduce the great error into the value of the controlled electromagnetic torque and angular velocity.

  17. Research on Mathematical Techniques in Psychology. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulliksen, Harold

    Mathematical techniques are developed for studying psychological problems in three fields: (1) psychological scaling, (2) learning and concept formation, and (3) mental measurement. Psychological scaling procedures are demonstrated to be useful in many areas, ranging from sensory discrimination of physical stimuli, such as colors, sounds, etc.,…

  18. a Mathematical Description of the Critical Point in Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilge, Ayse Humeyra; Pekcan, Onder

    2013-10-01

    Let y(x) be a smooth sigmoidal curve, y(n) be its nth derivative and {xm,i} and {xa,i}, i = 1,2,…, be the set of points where respectively the derivatives of odd and even order reach their extreme values. We argue that if the sigmoidal curve y(x) represents a phase transition, then the sequences {xm,i} and {xa,i} are both convergent and they have a common limit xc that we characterize as the critical point of the phase transition. In this study, we examine the logistic growth curve and the Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) epidemic model as typical examples of symmetrical and asymmetrical transition curves. Numerical computations indicate that the critical point of the logistic growth curve that is symmetrical about the point (x0, y0) is always the point (x0, y0) but the critical point of the asymmetrical SIR model depends on the system parameters. We use the description of the sol-gel phase transition of polyacrylamide-sodium alginate (SA) composite (with low SA concentrations) in terms of the SIR epidemic model, to compare the location of the critical point as described above with the "gel point" determined by independent experiments. We show that the critical point tc is located in between the zero of the third derivative ta and the inflection point tm of the transition curve and as the strength of activation (measured by the parameter k/η of the SIR model) increases, the phase transition occurs earlier in time and the critical point, tc, moves toward ta.

  19. Techniques Use by Science, Technology and Mathematics (STM) Teachers for Controlling Undesirable Classroom Behaviours in Anambra State Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinelo, Okigbo Ebele; Nwanneka, Okoli Josephine

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the techniques used by secondary school Science Technology and Mathematics (STM) teachers in controlling undesirable behaviours in their classrooms. It adopted descriptive survey design in which 178 Anambra State teachers teaching STM subjects in senior secondary were involved in the research. Two sections of questionnaire…

  20. Predicting Academic Success of Junior Secondary School Students in Mathematics through Cognitive Style and Problem Solving Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badru, Ademola K.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the prediction of academic success of Junior secondary school mathematics students using their cognitive style and problem solving technique. A descriptive survey of correlation type was adopted for this study. A purposive sampling procedure was used to select five Public Junior secondary schools in Ijebu-Ode local government…

  1. Mathematical analysis techniques for modeling the space network activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Lisa M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to explore and identify mathematical analysis techniques, and in particular, the use of linear programming. This topic was then applied to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) in order to understand the space network better. Finally, a small scale version of the system was modeled, variables were identified, data was gathered, and comparisons were made between actual and theoretical data.

  2. A computerized method for mathematical description of three-dimensional root canal axis.

    PubMed

    Dobó-Nagy, C; Keszthelyi, G; Szabó, J; Sulyok, P; Ledeczky, G; Szabó, J

    2000-11-01

    Knowledge of the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of root canals is important for successful endodontic treatment. The objective of the present study was to determine the 3D root canal axis mathematically. Two views (mesiodistal and buccolingual) of digitized images were taken from extracted natural human teeth. Geometric reconstruction to standardize projection geometry was conducted on images. Because 90-degree turn-around image pairs are Monge images of a given root canal, these Monge images were positioned using photogrammetric methods. Each well-ordered axis pair of a given root canal was put into a common coordinate system resulting in 3D polynomial function of the actual root canal. On the basis of the results gained using 10 samples evaluated with the Friedman statistical test, this description seems to be reproducible. The 3D representation of the root canal may help the clinicians in choosing the optimal instruments and shaping techniques. The root canal axis that is described by the 3D function forms a basis for determination of curvature values and torsion values in each of the axis points. Evaluating these values may also yield a new type of classification. PMID:11469291

  3. A simple mathematical description of an off-grid hybrid solar-wind power generating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasone, M.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Luca, R.; Torre, G.

    2013-05-01

    We give a detailed description of the energy balance equation for a stand-alone hybrid solar-wind power generating system. The dimensions of the power generator and the energy capacity of a buffer battery (used as an energy storage system) are chosen to suit a known consumer's profile. Future applications of the mathematical model developed and analogies with a similar hydrodynamic problem are discussed.

  4. Innovative techniques for the description of reservoir heterogeneity using tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, G.; Sepehrnoori, K.

    1991-09-01

    The objective of this research is to develop an advanced, innovative technique for the description of reservoir heterogeneity. This proposed method consists of using tracers in single-well backflow tests. The general idea is to make use of fluid drift in the reservoir either due to naturally occurring pressure gradients in the reservoir, or by deliberately imposed pressure gradients using adjacent injection and production wells in the same reservoir. The analytical tool that will be used to design and interpret these tests is a compositional reservoir simulator with special features added and tested specifically for this purpose. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Mathematical Morphology Techniques For Image Processing Applications In Biomedical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoo, Grace T.; Kim, Yongmin; Haralick, Robert M.; Nochlin, David; Sumi, Shuzo M.

    1988-06-01

    Mathematical morphology operations allow object identification based on shape and are useful for grouping a cluster of small objects into one object. Because of these capabilities, we have implemented and evaluated this technique for our study of Alzheimer's disease. The microscopic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease is the presence of brain lesions known as neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques. These lesions have distinct shapes compared to normal brain tissue. Neurofibrillary tangles appear as flame-shaped structures, whereas senile plaques appear as circular clusters of small objects. In order to quantitatively analyze the distribution of these lesions, we have developed and applied the tools of mathematical morphology on the Pixar Image Computer. As a preliminary test of the accuracy of the automatic detection algorithm, a study comparing computer and human detection of senile plaques was performed by evaluating 50 images from 5 different patients. The results of this comparison demonstrates that the computer counts correlate very well with the human counts (correlation coefficient = .81). Now that the basic algorithm has been shown to work, optimization of the software will be performed to improve its speed. Also future improvements such as local adaptive thresholding will be made to the image analysis routine to further improve the systems accuracy.

  6. Bayesian Minimum Description Length Techniques for Multiple Changepoint Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anuradha Priyadarshani, Hewa Arachchige

    This dissertation develops a minimum description length (MDL) multiple changepoint detection procedure that allows for prior distributions. MDL methods, which are penalized likelihood techniques with penalties based on data description-length information principles, have been successfully applied to many recent multiple changepoint problems. This work shows how to modify the MDL penalty to account for various prior knowledge. Our motivation lies in climatology. Here, a metadata record, which is a file listing times when a recording station physically moved, instrumentation was changed, etc., sometimes exists. While metadata records are notoriously incomplete, they permit the construct a prior distribution that helps detect changepoints. This allows both documented and undocumented changepoints to be analyzed in tandem. The method developed here takes into account 1) metadata, 2) reference series, 3) seasonal means, and 4) autocorrelations. Asymptotically, our estimated multiple changepoint configuration of monthly data is shown to be consistent. The methods are illustrated in the analysis of 114 years of monthly temperatures from Tuscaloosa, Alabama. The multivariate aspect of the methods allow maximum and minimum temperatures to be jointly studied. A method for homogenizing daily temperature series is also developed. While daily temperatures have a complex structure, statistical techniques have been accumulating that can now accommodate all of the salient characteristics of daily temperatures. The goal here is to combine these techniques in a reasonable manner for multiple changepoint identification in daily series; computational speed is key as a century of daily data has over 36,000 data points. Autocorrelation aspects are important since correlation can destroy changepoint techniques and sample correlations of day-to-day temperature anomalies are often as large as 0.7. While homogenized daily temperatures may not be as useful as homogenized monthly or yearly

  7. Classical Mathematical Models for Description and Prediction of Experimental Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Benzekry, Sébastien; Lamont, Clare; Beheshti, Afshin; Tracz, Amanda; Ebos, John M. L.; Hlatky, Lynn; Hahnfeldt, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Despite internal complexity, tumor growth kinetics follow relatively simple laws that can be expressed as mathematical models. To explore this further, quantitative analysis of the most classical of these were performed. The models were assessed against data from two in vivo experimental systems: an ectopic syngeneic tumor (Lewis lung carcinoma) and an orthotopically xenografted human breast carcinoma. The goals were threefold: 1) to determine a statistical model for description of the measurement error, 2) to establish the descriptive power of each model, using several goodness-of-fit metrics and a study of parametric identifiability, and 3) to assess the models' ability to forecast future tumor growth. The models included in the study comprised the exponential, exponential-linear, power law, Gompertz, logistic, generalized logistic, von Bertalanffy and a model with dynamic carrying capacity. For the breast data, the dynamics were best captured by the Gompertz and exponential-linear models. The latter also exhibited the highest predictive power, with excellent prediction scores (≥80%) extending out as far as 12 days in the future. For the lung data, the Gompertz and power law models provided the most parsimonious and parametrically identifiable description. However, not one of the models was able to achieve a substantial prediction rate (≥70%) beyond the next day data point. In this context, adjunction of a priori information on the parameter distribution led to considerable improvement. For instance, forecast success rates went from 14.9% to 62.7% when using the power law model to predict the full future tumor growth curves, using just three data points. These results not only have important implications for biological theories of tumor growth and the use of mathematical modeling in preclinical anti-cancer drug investigations, but also may assist in defining how mathematical models could serve as potential prognostic tools in the clinic. PMID:25167199

  8. A Technique for Studying the Organization of Mathematics Text Materials. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Robert B.; Holz, Alan W.

    The validity and the reliability of a technique for identifying and studying presentation variables in mathematics texts were investigated in this study. A category system for classifying messages in mathematics texts in terms of mathematical content and processes and in terms of mode of representation, procedures for applying this system to…

  9. Oral Examination in College Mathematics: An Alternative Assessment Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odafe, Victor U.

    2006-01-01

    Preparing for an oral examination is an alternative way for students to learn mathematics by working cooperatively in small teams to solve problems. Reformed college mathematics courses are emphasizing the ability to communicate ideas clearly, both orally and in writing. The instructor is able to ask probing questions that are not usually possible…

  10. Computational Technique for Teaching Mathematics (CTTM): Visualizing the Polynomial's Resultant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alves, Francisco Regis Vieira

    2015-01-01

    We find several applications of the Dynamic System Geogebra--DSG related predominantly to the basic mathematical concepts at the context of the learning and teaching in Brasil. However, all these works were developed in the basic level of Mathematics. On the other hand, we discuss and explore, with DSG's help, some applications of the polynomial's…

  11. A Non-Mathematical Technique for Teaching Binary Computer Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Fred

    This document describes an aid invented by the author for teaching binary computer concepts in a data processing course for business students unfamiliar with mathematical concepts. It permits the instructor to simulate the inner, invisible operation of storing data electronically. The standard 8-bit "byte" is represented by a portable…

  12. Experience Matters: Innovative Techniques Add up to Mathematical Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savitz, Ryan M.; Savitz, Fred R.

    2010-01-01

    The first-year college experience is anxiety-producing, and for college students, especially those representing traditionally underserved populations, the experience can be particularly daunting. To mitigate against potential failure a father/son team, the father a professor of education and the son a professor of mathematics, pooled their…

  13. Specificity of mathematical description of statistical and dynamical properties of CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsev, Sergey

    CELSS for long-term space missions has to be possessed high level of matter turnover closure. Designing, studying, and maintaining such kind of systems seems to be not possible without accounting their specificity -high closure. For measuring this specific property potentially universal coefficient of closure is suggested and disscussed. It can be shown standard statistical formulas are incorrect for estimating mean values of biomass of CELSS components. Account-ing closure as specific constraint of closed ecological systems allows obtaining correct formulas for calculating mean values of biomass and composition of chemical compounds of CELSS. Errors due to using standard statistical evaluations are discussed. Organisms composing bi-ological LSS consume and produce spectrum of different substances. Providing high level of closure -the absence of deadlocks -depends on accuracy of adjusting all organisms input and output to each other. This is practical objective of high importance. Adequate mathematical models ought to describe possibility of organisms to vary their consumption and production spectrum (stoichiometric ratio). Traditional ecological models describing dynamics of limiting element can not be adequately applied for describing CELSS dynamics over all possible oper-ating regimes. Possible use of adaptive metabolism models for providing correct description of CELSS dynamics is considered.

  14. A Spectrum of Pedagogical Awareness for Undergraduate Mathematics: From "Tricks" to "Techniques"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nardi, Elena; Jaworski, Barbara; Hegedus, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    We describe a four-level spectrum of pedagogical awareness (SPA) that emerged from the analysis of six undergraduate mathematics tutors' (1) conceptualizations of their first-year students' difficulties; (2) descriptive accounts of their strategies for facilitating the overcoming of these difficulties; and (3) self-reflective accounts regarding…

  15. Variational Data Assimilation Technique in Mathematical Modeling of Ocean Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agoshkov, V. I.; Zalesny, V. B.

    2012-03-01

    Problems of the variational data assimilation for the primitive equation ocean model constructed at the Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences are considered. The model has a flexible computational structure and consists of two parts: a forward prognostic model, and its adjoint analog. The numerical algorithm for the forward and adjoint models is constructed based on the method of multicomponent splitting. The method includes splitting with respect to physical processes and space coordinates. Numerical experiments are performed with the use of the Indian Ocean and the World Ocean as examples. These numerical examples support the theoretical conclusions and demonstrate the rationality of the approach using an ocean dynamics model with an observed data assimilation procedure.

  16. Mathematical Description of Complex Chemical Kinetics and Application to CFD Modeling Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittker, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    A major effort in combustion research at the present time is devoted to the theoretical modeling of practical combustion systems. These include turbojet and ramjet air-breathing engines as well as ground-based gas-turbine power generating systems. The ability to use computational modeling extensively in designing these products not only saves time and money, but also helps designers meet the quite rigorous environmental standards that have been imposed on all combustion devices. The goal is to combine the very complex solution of the Navier-Stokes flow equations with realistic turbulence and heat-release models into a single computer code. Such a computational fluid-dynamic (CFD) code simulates the coupling of fluid mechanics with the chemistry of combustion to describe the practical devices. This paper will focus on the task of developing a simplified chemical model which can predict realistic heat-release rates as well as species composition profiles, and is also computationally rapid. We first discuss the mathematical techniques used to describe a complex, multistep fuel oxidation chemical reaction and develop a detailed mechanism for the process. We then show how this mechanism may be reduced and simplified to give an approximate model which adequately predicts heat release rates and a limited number of species composition profiles, but is computationally much faster than the original one. Only such a model can be incorporated into a CFD code without adding significantly to long computation times. Finally, we present some of the recent advances in the development of these simplified chemical mechanisms.

  17. Mathematical description of complex chemical kinetics and application to CFD modeling codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittker, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    A major effort in combustion research at the present time is devoted to the theoretical modeling of practical combustion systems. These include turbojet and ramjet air-breathing engines as well as ground-based gas-turbine power generating systems. The ability to use computational modeling extensively in designing these products not only saves time and money, but also helps designers meet the quite rigorous environmental standards that have been imposed on all combustion devices. The goal is to combine the very complex solution of the Navier-Stokes flow equations with realistic turbulence and heat-release models into a single computer code. Such a computational fluid-dynamic (CFD) code simulates the coupling of fluid mechanics with the chemistry of combustion to describe the practical devices. This paper will focus on the task of developing a simplified chemical model which can predict realistic heat-release rates as well as species composition profiles, and is also computationally rapid. We first discuss the mathematical techniques used to describe a complex, multistep fuel oxidation chemical reaction and develop a detailed mechanism for the process. We then show how this mechanism may be reduced and simplified to give an approximate model which adequately predicts heat release rates and a limited number of species composition profiles, but is computationally much faster than the original one. Only such a model can be incorporated into a CFD code without adding significantly to long computation times. Finally, we present some of the recent advances in the development of these simplified chemical mechanisms.

  18. The mathematical description of the gasification process of woody biomass in installations with a plasma heat source for producing synthesis gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadrtdinov, A. R.; Safin, R. G.; Gerasimov, M. K.; Petrov, V. I.; Gilfanov, K. K.

    2016-04-01

    The article presents the scheme of processing of plant biomass in the gasification installation with a plasma heat source to produce synthesis gas suitable for chemical industry. The analyzed physical picture of raw materials' recycling process underlies a mathematical description of the process set out in the form of the basic differential equations with boundary conditions. The received mathematical description allows calculating of the main parameters of equipment for biomass recycling and to determine the optimal modes of its operation.

  19. Mathematical Description of THE Traction Characteristics of the Driving Devices at Spatial Stiffness Compensators of the Vibration Isolation Installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurova, E. G.

    2016-08-01

    During the researches the mathematical description of the traction characteristics of the stiffness compensators of the vibration isolation devices, relatively of the each axis, has been done. Representation of the compensators properties considers the variable load, thereby provide the wide enough spectrum of the action of the suggested vibration isolators. The derived expressions are valid for all three axes of space at the different stiffnesses, i.e. basic basic and two compensating. The research was supported by the scholarships of Russian Federation President for young scientists №184 from 10th of March 2015.

  20. Dimensional Analysis: an Elegant Technique for Facilitating the Teaching of Mathematical Modelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.; Joubert, Stephan V.

    2002-01-01

    Dimension analysis is promoted as a technique that promotes better understanding of the role of units and dimensions in mathematical modeling problems. Dimensional analysis is shown to lead to interesting systems of linear equations to solve, and can point the way to more quantitative analysis. Two student problems are discussed. (Author/MM)

  1. Teams Games Tournaments (TGT). Cooperative Technique for Learning Mathematics in Secondary Schools in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salam, Abdus; Hossain, Anwar; Rahman, Shahidur

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of game playing on performance and attitudes of students towards mathematics of Grade VIII. The study was undergone by implementing TGT technique for the experimental group and typical lecture-based approach for the control group. A same achievement test was employed as in both pre-test and post-test, an…

  2. An Enzymatic Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Incorporating an Introduction to Mathematical Method Comparison Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duxbury, Mark

    2004-01-01

    An enzymatic laboratory experiment based on the analysis of serum is described that is suitable for students of clinical chemistry. The experiment incorporates an introduction to mathematical method-comparison techniques in which three different clinical glucose analysis methods are compared using linear regression and Bland-Altman difference…

  3. A Description of Fourth Grade Children's Problem-Solving in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Martha K.; Rule, Ann M.; Walmsley, Angela L. E.; Swanson, Joy R.

    2010-01-01

    This preliminary study described fourth grade students verbally solving a mathematics problem using a think-aloud protocol. Comments in the think aloud were categorized according to type (e.g., paraphrases and elaborations) and facilitative nature (i.e., whether the comments facilitated correct solution of the problem). Amount of the students'…

  4. Mathematical description of polymerization using an organolithium catalyst in the presence of a donor

    SciTech Connect

    Zak, A.V.; Perlin, B.A.; Shpakov, P.P.; Drozdov, B.T.; Erenburg, E.G.; Ermakova, I.I.; Ryakhovskii, V.S.

    1986-10-20

    The authors present a mathematical representation of the polymerization of butadiene to rubber via a complex of lithium in the presence of the donor diethylene glycol dimethyl ether toward the end of increasing the efficiency of the process as well as the quality of the final product. The model demonstrates the dependence of the properties and composition of the polybutadiene on polymerization conditions.

  5. A Description and Characterization of Student Activity in an Open, Online, Mathematics Help Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Sande, Carla

    2011-01-01

    Free, open, online, calculus forums are websites where students from around the world can post course-related queries that may be viewed and responded to by anonymous others. These sites are an emergent resource for students seeking help and have become a part of many students' mathematical experience. The purpose of this paper is to introduce and…

  6. A Qualitative Description of Women’s HIV Self-Management Techniques: Context, Strategies, and Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Webel, Allison R.; Dolansky, Mary A.; Henry, Anna G.; Salata, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Women living with HIV face unique challenges managing their disease. The purpose of this descriptive, qualitative study was to describe self-management techniques reported by 48 women living with HIV in the United States. Participants were involved in one, 90-minute, digitally-recorded focus group exploring aspects of HIV self-management strategies. Descriptive statistics, qualitative description, and content analysis were used to analyze the data. Participants had been living with HIV for an average of 12 years, most (69%) were engaged in routine HIV care (85%) and were currently prescribed antiretroviral therapy. Participants reported using self-management techniques: taking personal time (n = 23; 48%), advocacy (n = 12; 25%), sleeping (n = 17, 35%); attending support groups (n = 10; 21%), and attending medical appointments (n = 8; 17%). Nurses can add strategies to enhance HIV self-management to routine clinical care, which may have a positive impact on the health of women living with HIV. PMID:22079674

  7. The Effect of Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition Technique on Students' Reading Descriptive Text Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainuddin

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at finding out the effectiveness of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) Technique on Students' Reading Descriptive Text Achievement. In other words, the objective of this study was to find out if there was a significant effect of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC)…

  8. The 'Embowire' Technique: Concept and Description of a Novel Embolization Technique for Narrow Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Benitez, Ruben Rusch, Oliver Heverhagen, Johannes Levent, Kara Hanno, Hoppe Geiser, Christa Kettenbach, Joachim

    2013-10-15

    We describe a new, useful embolization technique applied to occlude narrow vessel branches ({<=}1.5 mm (0.06 Double-Prime ) in diameter) by deployment of one hydrocoil, through a microcatheter, in a way similar to the way in which one might navigate through the vascular lumen with a guidewire.

  9. Rocket injector anomalies study. Volume 1: Description of the mathematical model and solution procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekwas, A. J.; Singhal, A. K.; Tam, L. T.

    1984-01-01

    The capability of simulating three dimensional two phase reactive flows with combustion in the liquid fuelled rocket engines is demonstrated. This was accomplished by modifying an existing three dimensional computer program (REFLAN3D) with Eulerian Lagrangian approach to simulate two phase spray flow, evaporation and combustion. The modified code is referred as REFLAN3D-SPRAY. The mathematical formulation of the fluid flow, heat transfer, combustion and two phase flow interaction of the numerical solution procedure, boundary conditions and their treatment are described.

  10. Kinetic analysis of AUC-dependent saturable clearance of liposomes: mathematical description of AUC dependency.

    PubMed

    Harashima, H; Yamane, C; Kume, Y; Kiwada, H

    1993-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the AUC dependency of saturable hepatic clearance (CLh) of liposomes and to postulate a mathematical model to describe the characteristics. The AUC dependency of saturable CLh was examined under intravenous rapid administration at various doses. The CLh increased with increasing blood concentration but decreased with the increase of AUC at each dose. In addition, the relationship between AUC and CLh was consistent with that observed in previously reported infusion studies. These experimental data confirm the AUC dependency of saturable CLh of liposomes. A mathematical model was developed for this AUC dependency. The decrease of CLh was described by the uptake amount (X) as follows: CLh = CLm(1-X/Xm), where CLm and Xm represent the maximum uptake clearance and the maximum uptake amount, respectively. The rate equation for uptake was analytically solved as CLh = X/AUC = Xm/AUC(1-exp(CLm/XmAUC)). Uptake clearance can be described by CLm, Xm, and AUC, and so uptake clearance is constant if AUC is constant. These experimental analyses and theoretical considerations show the validity of the AUC-dependent saturable CLh of liposomes.

  11. A domain-knowledge-inspired mathematical framework for the description and classification of H&E stained histopathology images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massar, Melody L.; Bhagavatula, Ramamurthy; Ozolek, John A.; Castro, Carlos A.; Fickus, Matthew; Kovacevic, Jelena

    2011-09-01

    We present the current state of our work on a mathematical framework for identification and delineation of histopathology images-local histograms and occlusion models. Local histograms are histograms computed over defined spatial neighborhoods whose purpose is to characterize an image locally. This unit of description is augmented by our occlusion models that describe a methodology for image formation. In the context of this image formation model, the power of local histograms with respect to appropriate families of images will be shown through various proved statements about expected performance. We conclude by presenting a preliminary study to demonstrate the power of the framework in the context of histopathology image classification tasks that, while differing greatly in application, both originate from what is considered an appropriate class of images for this framework.

  12. Mathematical description and measurement of refractive parameters of freeform spectacle lenses.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Qiu, Zhongjun; Fang, Fengzhou

    2014-08-01

    Refractive parameters are the main design and evaluation parameters of freeform spectacle lenses. In this paper, the mathematical model of refractive parameters is established, and the refractive power distribution on the whole surface is drawn with a radial basis function. The measurement methods are analyzed, and typical freeform spectacle lenses are measured with a freeform verifier. The refractive power distribution on the whole surface, the cylinder view, and the refractive power curve along the progressive corridor are drawn up. There are no evident image changes on the whole surface. The refractive power smoothly varies along the progressive corridor. In comparing the results with the analysis, measurement results are in agreement with the calculation. PMID:25090322

  13. [Mathematical description of the three-dimensional axis of the root canal of human teeth].

    PubMed

    Dobó, Nagy Csaba; Keszthelyi, Gusztáv; Sulyok, Péter; Ledeczky, Gábor; Szabó, József

    2002-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to describe root canal axes of natural human teeth mathematically. Two views (clinical and proximal) radiographs were taken from extracted human teeth. Geometry defines the 90-degree turn-around image pairs as Monge images. These Monge images of the root canals were positioned using photogrammetric methods. Each well-ordered axis pair of a given root canal was put into a common coordinate system resulting in three-dimensional polynomial function of the actual root canal. Testing differences between determined and repeatedly determined axes of ten samples by statistical analysis did not show any significant differences. Evaluation of data gained on a large number of samples may also yield a new type of classification. PMID:12236090

  14. A theory of cerebral learning regulated by the reward system. I. Hypotheses and mathematical description.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, K

    1993-01-01

    Hypothetical mechanisms of the neocorticohippocampal system are presented. Neurophysiological and neuroanatomical findings concerning the system are integrated to demonstrate how animals associate sensory stimuli with rewarding actions: (1) cortical plasticity regulated by cholinergic/noradrenergic inputs from the hypothalamic reward system reinforces association connections between the most activated columns in the cortex; (2) the repetitive reinforcement forms association pathways connecting sensory cortical columns activated by the stimuli with motor cortical columns producing the rewarding actions; (3) after the pathways are formed, the cortex is capable of temporarily memorizing the stimuli by producing long-term potentiation through the cortico-hippocampal circuits; and (4) the memory allows the cortex to extend correct association pathways even in an environment where sensory stimuli rapidly change. A mathematical model of parts of the nervous system is presented to quantitatively examine the mechanisms. Membrane characteristics of single neurons are given by the Hodgkin-Huxley electric circuit. According to anatomical data, neural circuits of the neocortico-hippocampal system are composed by connecting populations of the model neurons. Computer simulation using physiological data concerning ion channels demonstrates how the mechanisms work and how to test the hypotheses presented.

  15. Spatial Mapping of Translational Diffusion Coefficients Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging: A Mathematical Description

    PubMed Central

    SHETTY, ANIL N.; CHIANG, SHARON; MALETIC-SAVATIC, MIRJANA; KASPRIAN, GREGOR; VANNUCCI, MARINA; LEE, WESLEY

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the theoretical background for diffusion weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Molecular diffusion is a random process involving thermal Brownian motion. In biological tissues, the underlying microstructures restrict the diffusion of water molecules, making diffusion directionally dependent. Water diffusion in tissue is mathematically characterized by the diffusion tensor, the elements of which contain information about the magnitude and direction of diffusion and is a function of the coordinate system. Thus, it is possible to generate contrast in tissue based primarily on diffusion effects. Expressing diffusion in terms of the measured diffusion coefficient (eigenvalue) in any one direction can lead to errors. Nowhere is this more evident than in white matter, due to the preferential orientation of myelin fibers. The directional dependency is removed by diagonalization of the diffusion tensor, which then yields a set of three eigenvalues and eigenvectors, representing the magnitude and direction of the three orthogonal axes of the diffusion ellipsoid, respectively. For example, the eigenvalue corresponding to the eigenvector along the long axis of the fiber corresponds qualitatively to diffusion with least restriction. Determination of the principal values of the diffusion tensor and various anisotropic indices provides structural information. We review the use of diffusion measurements using the modified Stejskal–Tanner diffusion equation. The anisotropy is analyzed by decomposing the diffusion tensor based on symmetrical properties describing the geometry of diffusion tensor. We further describe diffusion tensor properties in visualizing fiber tract organization of the human brain. PMID:27441031

  16. A particulate pulse-release system and mathematical description with the Maxwell-Stefan theory.

    PubMed

    Hartman Kok, P J; Vonk, P; Kossen, N W

    2000-05-15

    In this contribution both the development of a multi-particulate delayed release system with release properties dependent on the swelling of an UV crosslinked coating and a mathematical model to describe its release properties are presented. The formulation consists of a water-soluble core coated with a copolymer of methacrylic acid and ethyl acrylate. Incorporating a network of crosslinked pentaerythritol triacrylate decreases the water-solubility of the coating. After immersing the formulation in water the coating will take up water and subsequently swell in such a degree that the diffusion coefficient of water in the coating will increase. This makes the coating permeable to the dissolved components present in the core. The swelling kinetics of the coating are such that the formulation has a pulse-release profile, i.e. a fast release of the contents is obtained after a pre-determined lag-time. Both the coating thickness and the duration of the UV crosslinking time can be used to adjust the lag-time. The experimental results are used to estimate the Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients of water in the coating. The relation between the Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficient and the mole fraction of water in the coating differs from results found in the literature. However, the prediction of the release time based on the presented model is in good agreement with the experimental findings.

  17. Research on target recognition techniques of radar networking based on fuzzy mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Chengbin; Wang, Guohong; Guan, Chengzhun; Pan, Jinshan

    2007-11-01

    Nowadays there are more and more targets, so it is more difficult for radar networking to track the important targets. To reduce the pressure on radar networking and the waste of ammunition, it is very necessary for radar networking to recognize the targets. Two target recognition approaches of radar networking based on fuzzy mathematics are proposed in this paper, which are multi-level fuzzy synthetical evaluation technique and lattice approaching degree technique. By analyzing the principles, the application techniques are given, the merits and shortcomings are also analyzed, and applying environments are advised. Another emphasis is the compare between the multiple mono-level fuzzy synthetical evaluation and the multi-level fuzzy synthetical evaluation, an instance is carried out to illuminate the problem, then the results are analyzed in theory, the conclusions are gotten which can be instructions for application in engineering.

  18. A Descriptive Qualitative Study Exploring Teacher and Parental Perceptions of African-American Middle School Male Students Related to Mathematics Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Crystal Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative descriptive case study explored the perceptions of parents and teachers of the academic achievement gap in mathematics between African-American middle school males and their White counterparts. Ten parents, both African-American and White, with students attending middle school in the Cherokee County School District and 5 teachers…

  19. Review of the mathematical foundations of data fusion techniques in surface metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Leach, Richard K.; Jiang, X.

    2015-06-01

    The recent proliferation of engineered surfaces, including freeform and structured surfaces, is challenging current metrology techniques. Measurement using multiple sensors has been proposed to achieve enhanced benefits, mainly in terms of spatial frequency bandwidth, which a single sensor cannot provide. When using data from different sensors, a process of data fusion is required and there is much active research in this area. In this paper, current data fusion methods and applications are reviewed, with a focus on the mathematical foundations of the subject. Common research questions in the fusion of surface metrology data are raised and potential fusion algorithms are discussed.

  20. New techniques for the analysis of manual control systems. [mathematical models of human operator behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekey, G. A.

    1971-01-01

    Studies are summarized on the application of advanced analytical and computational methods to the development of mathematical models of human controllers in multiaxis manual control systems. Specific accomplishments include the following: (1) The development of analytical and computer methods for the measurement of random parameters in linear models of human operators. (2) Discrete models of human operator behavior in a multiple display situation were developed. (3) Sensitivity techniques were developed which make possible the identification of unknown sampling intervals in linear systems. (4) The adaptive behavior of human operators following particular classes of vehicle failures was studied and a model structure proposed.

  1. Mathematical Model and Artificial Intelligent Techniques Applied to a Milk Industry through DSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, P. Ravi; Divya, V. P. Sree

    2011-08-01

    The resources for electrical energy are depleting and hence the gap between the supply and the demand is continuously increasing. Under such circumstances, the option left is optimal utilization of available energy resources. The main objective of this chapter is to discuss about the Peak load management and overcome the problems associated with it in processing industries such as Milk industry with the help of DSM techniques. The chapter presents a generalized mathematical model for minimizing the total operating cost of the industry subject to the constraints. The work presented in this chapter also deals with the results of application of Neural Network, Fuzzy Logic and Demand Side Management (DSM) techniques applied to a medium scale milk industrial consumer in India to achieve the improvement in load factor, reduction in Maximum Demand (MD) and also the consumer gets saving in the energy bill.

  2. The Functional Anaesthetic Discogram: Description of a Novel Diagnostic Technique and Report of 3 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Farbod; Carragee, Eugene; Kim, Mi-Jung

    2008-01-01

    Background The diagnostic evaluation of patients with presumed discogenic low back pain is controversial; recent studies have brought the specificity of the traditional technique, provocative lumbar discography, into question. One of the explanations for the relative lack of predictability in treatment outcomes for patients with discogenic low back pain may be a corresponding lack of certainty in the diagnosis. Purpose A new diagnostic technique is described for the evaluation of patients with presumptive discogenic low back pain; the cases of 3 patients in whom the technique was used are presented. Study Design/Setting Case report; university practice. Methods A technique is described in which an anaesthetic catheter is placed into putative symptomatic lumbar discs, the patient elicits his or her typical pain via a position or activity, and anaesthetic or placebo is delivered to the disc. The effect of the injected substance on the patient's pain is then noted. Results In one patient, the new test was confirmatory of the results of the provocative discogram; in two patients, the test results were divergent. Conclusions These case studies and technical description are presented as a first step in examining this method of preoperative assessment. Further study of the technique will allow us to make more definitive recommendations with regards to its validity and utility. Level of Evidence Level 4 – Case Series PMID:25802610

  3. Mathematical description of nonstationary aerodynamic characteristics of a passenger aircraft model in longitudinal motion at large angles of attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petoshin, V. I.; Chasovnikov, E. A.

    2011-05-01

    Aerodynamic loads in problems of flight dynamics of passenger aircraft in stalled flow regimes are described using a mathematical model that includes an ordinary linear first-order differential equation. A procedure for determining the parameters of the mathematical model is proposed which is based on approximating experimental frequency characteristics with the frequency characteristics of the linearized mathematical model. The mathematical model was verified by tests of a modern passenger aircraft model in a wind tunnel.

  4. Recommended procedures and techniques for the petrographic description of bituminous coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, E.C.T.; Minkin, J.A.; Thompson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    bed. The use of bulk-specific-gravity determinations is alo recommended for identification and characterization of the distinctive lithologic units. The availability of an AIAS also enhances the capability to acquire textural information. Ranges of size of maceral and mineral grains can be quickly and precisely determined by use of an AIAS. We assume that shape characteristics of coal particles can also be readily evaluated by automated image analysis, although this evaluation has not yet been attempted in our laboratory. Definitive data on the particulate mineral content of coal constitute another important segment of petrographic description. Characterization of mineral content may be accomplished by optical identification, electron microprobe analysis, X-ray diffraction, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Individual mineral grains in place in polished blocks or polished this sections, or separated from the coal matrix by sink-float methods are studied by analytical techniques appropriate to the conditions of sampling. Finally, whenever possible, identification of the probable genus or plant species from which a given coal component is derived will add valuable information and meaning to the petrographic description. ?? 1982.

  5. A Modified Moore Approach to Teaching Mathematical Statistics: An Inquiry Based Learning Technique to Teaching Mathematical Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, M. Padraig M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The author of this paper submits the thesis that learning requires doing; only through inquiry is learning achieved, and hence this paper proposes a programme of use of a modified Moore method in a Probability and Mathematical Statistics (PAMS) course sequence to teach students PAMS. Furthermore, the author of this paper opines that set theory…

  6. Chronology of DIC technique based on the fundamental mathematical modeling and dehydration impact.

    PubMed

    Alias, Norma; Saipol, Hafizah Farhah Saipan; Ghani, Asnida Che Abd

    2014-12-01

    A chronology of mathematical models for heat and mass transfer equation is proposed for the prediction of moisture and temperature behavior during drying using DIC (Détente Instantanée Contrôlée) or instant controlled pressure drop technique. DIC technique has the potential as most commonly used dehydration method for high impact food value including the nutrition maintenance and the best possible quality for food storage. The model is governed by the regression model, followed by 2D Fick's and Fourier's parabolic equation and 2D elliptic-parabolic equation in a rectangular slice. The models neglect the effect of shrinkage and radiation effects. The simulations of heat and mass transfer equations with parabolic and elliptic-parabolic types through some numerical methods based on finite difference method (FDM) have been illustrated. Intel®Core™2Duo processors with Linux operating system and C programming language have been considered as a computational platform for the simulation. Qualitative and quantitative differences between DIC technique and the conventional drying methods have been shown as a comparative. PMID:25477631

  7. Adaptive staircase techniques in psychoacoustics: a comparison of human data and a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Kollmeier, B; Gilkey, R H; Sieben, U K

    1988-05-01

    Data from a simple tone-in-noise simultaneous masking task were used to evaluate each of two common adaptive staircase rules (a "1 up 2 down" rule and a "1 up 3 down" rule) and the parameter estimation by sequential testing (PEST) technique in combination with each of two psychophysical procedures [a two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) and a three-alternative forced-choice (3AFC) procedure]. These human data were compared to predictions generated by a mathematical model based on Markov theory. The model predicts that threshold estimates obtained with the adaptive techniques should be equal to those derived with equivalent "fixed signal level" techniques. However, the human data indicate that the adaptive techniques tend to yield lower thresholds. The model predicts that the standard error of a threshold estimate obtained from an adaptive technique will decrease and approach zero as the number of trials used to compute the estimate increases. The human data show greater variability than predicted and approach a nonzero value as the number of trials increases. The predictions of the model suggest that the commonly used combination of the 2AFC procedure and the 1 up 2 down rule is the least efficient method of estimating a threshold and that the 3AFC procedure in combination with the 1 up 3 down rule is the most efficient method. The human data are less consistent, but generally show the combination of the 2AFC procedure and the 1 up 2 down rule to be one of the least efficient methods. Possible explanations for the differences between the model's predictions and the human data, as well as suggestions for laboratory practice, are discussed. PMID:3403801

  8. Mathematical and Statistical Techniques for Systems Medicine: The Wnt Signaling Pathway as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Adam L; Harrington, Heather A; Stumpf, Michael P H; Byrne, Helen M

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has seen an explosion in models that describe phenomena in systems medicine. Such models are especially useful for studying signaling pathways, such as the Wnt pathway. In this chapter we use the Wnt pathway to showcase current mathematical and statistical techniques that enable modelers to gain insight into (models of) gene regulation and generate testable predictions. We introduce a range of modeling frameworks, but focus on ordinary differential equation (ODE) models since they remain the most widely used approach in systems biology and medicine and continue to offer great potential. We present methods for the analysis of a single model, comprising applications of standard dynamical systems approaches such as nondimensionalization, steady state, asymptotic and sensitivity analysis, and more recent statistical and algebraic approaches to compare models with data. We present parameter estimation and model comparison techniques, focusing on Bayesian analysis and coplanarity via algebraic geometry. Our intention is that this (non-exhaustive) review may serve as a useful starting point for the analysis of models in systems medicine.

  9. Mathematical and Statistical Techniques for Systems Medicine: The Wnt Signaling Pathway as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Adam L; Harrington, Heather A; Stumpf, Michael P H; Byrne, Helen M

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has seen an explosion in models that describe phenomena in systems medicine. Such models are especially useful for studying signaling pathways, such as the Wnt pathway. In this chapter we use the Wnt pathway to showcase current mathematical and statistical techniques that enable modelers to gain insight into (models of) gene regulation and generate testable predictions. We introduce a range of modeling frameworks, but focus on ordinary differential equation (ODE) models since they remain the most widely used approach in systems biology and medicine and continue to offer great potential. We present methods for the analysis of a single model, comprising applications of standard dynamical systems approaches such as nondimensionalization, steady state, asymptotic and sensitivity analysis, and more recent statistical and algebraic approaches to compare models with data. We present parameter estimation and model comparison techniques, focusing on Bayesian analysis and coplanarity via algebraic geometry. Our intention is that this (non-exhaustive) review may serve as a useful starting point for the analysis of models in systems medicine. PMID:26677193

  10. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas A.

    1983-01-01

    Mathematical techniques used to solve geological problems are briefly discussed (including comments on use of geostatistics). Highlights of conferences/meetings and conference papers in mathematical geology are also provided. (JN)

  11. Mathematical Description of the Hydrodynamic Regimes of an Asymptotic Model for Two-Phase Flow Arising in PFBC Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vicente, S.; Galiano, G.; Velasco, J.; Aróstegui, J. M.

    Two-phase systems where a dense phase of small particles is fluidized with a gas flow appear in many industrial applications, among which the fluidized bed combustors are probably the most important. A homogenization technique allows us to formulate the mathematical model in form of the compressible Navier-Stokes system type with some particularities: 1) the volumetric fraction of the dense phase (analogous to the density in the Navier-Stokes equations) may vanish, 2) the constitutive viscosity law may depend in a nonlinear form on this density, 3) the source term is nonlinear and coupled with state equations involving drag forces and hydrodynamic pressure, and 4) the state equation for the collision pressure of dense phase blows up for finite values of the density. We develop a rigorous theory for a special kind of solutions we call stationary clouds. Such solutions exist only under restrictions on the geometry of combustor and on the boundary conditions that usually meet in engineering applications. In return, these solutions have a stationary one-dimensional structure very simple and, from them, it is possible to reconstruct much of the dynamics of the whole system, responding to most of the practical issues of interest. Finally, we study the linear stability for the trivial solutions corresponding to uniform fluidized states injecting plane wave perturbations in our equations. Depending on the parameters of the equations of state describing the collisions between solid particles, hydrodynamic pressure, and the values of blowing boundary condition, we can draw detailed abacus separating stable regions of unstable regions where bubbles appear. Then, we use the dispersion relations of this multidimensional linearized model, combined with the stationary phase theorem, to approach the profiles and the evolution of the bubbles appearing in unstable regimes, and verify that the obtained results adjust to the observations.

  12. Limb lengthening with submuscular plate stabilization: a case series and description of the technique.

    PubMed

    Iobst, Christopher A; Dahl, Mark T

    2007-01-01

    Combining a circular fixator with a percutaneously inserted locking plate has all of the same advantages that lengthening over an intramedullary nail provides but eliminates the concern with regard to creating a deep infection in the medullary canal. It also can be applied to virtually any bone in any age group of patients without any concern with regard to causing avascular necrosis, fat embolism, or physeal injury. The design of the locking plate prevents loss of fixation and protects against bending of the regenerate bone after frame removal. This study represents a description of the surgical technique and a retrospective examination of the first 6 patients treated using this technique. The average age of the patients is 7.6 years, and the average duration of follow-up is 10 months. All 6 patients achieved solid union of the lengthening site and full, unassisted weight bearing with excellent range of motion. The mean lengthening was 3.52 cm, which represents an average of 14.6% of the overall bone length. The mean duration of external fixation was 45 days, and the mean external fixation index was 0.42 mo/cm. The mean distraction rate was 0.85 mm/d. There were 3 serious and 2 severe complications noted. The serious complications included the development of a premature consolidation and a translational deformity of the regenerate in 1 patient, requiring a revision corticotomy, and a fall of a second patient 3 months after fixator removal, causing a fracture at the superior edge of his locking plate. The 2 severe complications were an 11-degree and an 18-degree residual procurvatum deformity that developed during lengthening. In conclusion, lengthening with the assistance of a percutaneously inserted locking plate provides an alternative method to lengthening over an intramedullary nail, applicable to children with open physes.

  13. Mathematical techniques to characterize nitrogen isotherms from eroded sediments under conventional tillage and no tillage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinho, M. D.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.

    2011-12-01

    Soil specific surface area (SSA) is one of the most important soil properties as it affects chemical reactivity, cation exchange capacity and, in general, nutrient holding capacity. The SSA of a soil mainly depends on texture, clay type and organic matter content, which in turn are factors affecting the erosion potential. An important consideration in the link between soil erosion and nutrient transfer to waters is the well-documented relation between SSA (or particle size distribution) and nutrient losses. Because, sediment erosion and transport processes are particle size dependent, they influence also SSA. Characterization of both, soil nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms by monofractal and multifractal analysis has been demonstrated to be an useful tool, which allows a better understanding of the organization of the soil colloidal complex. Here, we report measures of nitrogen isotherm in sediments produced under three different management histories and we characterize them by various mathematical techniques including fractal and multifractal analysis. Soil and water losses from an Oxisol were evaluated under natural rain, at the experimental station of UNICAMP/ FEAGRI, Campinas, SP, Brazil. Experimental plots were 20 m x 30 m (i.e. 600 m2) and the management systems compared were no-tillage and two different conventional tillage techniques. Specific surface area determined by the classical BET method was significantly lower in sediments eroded from the no-tilled than from the tilled plots. The scaling properties of both nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms from all the studied sediment samples could be fitted reasonably well with multifractal models. Various fractal and multifractal parameters obtained from the adsorption and desorption characteristics also were useful to differentiate the impact of tillage treatment on the adsorption and desorption characteristics of the eroded sediments. Reasons for such differences have been already explored.

  14. Young Children's Descriptions of Their Local Environment: A Comparison of Information Elicited by Recall Recognition and Performance Techniques of Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Christopher; Darvizeh, Zhra

    1981-01-01

    Results are reported of a study which used recall (verbal description, drawing, modelling in two and three dimensions) and recognition (photograph) techniques to determine three- and four-year-olds' knowledge of routes in their local environment and their ability to express this knowledge. (DC)

  15. The Math Gap: a description of the mathematics performance of preschool-aged deaf/hard-of-hearing children.

    PubMed

    Pagliaro, Claudia M; Kritzer, Karen L

    2013-04-01

    Over decades and across grade levels, deaf/hard-of-hearing (d/hh) student performance in mathematics has shown a gap in achievement. It is unclear, however, exactly when this gap begins to emerge and in what areas. This study describes preschool d/hh children's knowledge of early mathematics concepts. Both standardized and nonstandardized measures were used to assess understanding in number, geometry, measurement, problem solving, and patterns, reasoning and algebra. Results present strong evidence that d/hh students' difficulty in mathematics may begin prior to the start of formal schooling. Findings also show areas of strength (geometry) and weakness (problem solving and measurement) for these children. Evidence of poor foundational performance may relate to later academic achievement.

  16. Mathematical Methods in Counterterrorism: Tools and Techniques for a New Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, David L.; Memon, Nasrullah; Farley, Jonathan D.; Rosenørn, Torben

    Throughout the years mathematics has served as the most basic and fundamental tool employed by scientists and researchers to study and describe a wide variety of fields and phenomena. One of the most important practical application areas of mathematics has been for national defense and security purposes. For example, during the Second World War, the mathematical principles underlying game theory and cryptography played a very important role in military planning. Since that time, it has become clear that mathematics has an important role to play in securing victory in any global conflict, including the struggle faced by national security and law enforcement officials in the fight against those engaged in terrorism and other illicit activities.

  17. Multivariate and Descriptive Discriminant Analysis of Multidisciplinary Approaches to Integrating Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education in the High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicklein, Robert C.; Schell, John W.

    A study examined the perceptions of participants in a multidisciplinary project regarding the degree to which the integration of technology, mathematics, and science had enabled advanced mental skills in technical thinking and problem solving. A literature review focused on advanced learning and thinking, ill-structured workplace problems,…

  18. Mathematical description of the kinetics of the thermal degradation of coals over a wide range of rates of heating

    SciTech Connect

    Aksenov, L.N.; Bronshtein, A.P.; Zadorina, E.N.; Zagorets, A.M.; Makarov, G.N.; Polyakov, A.A.; Shlenskii, O.F.

    1981-01-01

    The determination of the most effective regimes for the thermal processing of solid fuels and the control of these processes requires a well-based selection of mathematical models for them. In the reported theoretical study, the question is considered of the possibility of using the traditional equations of chemical kinetics for describing the thermal degradation of the organic matter of coals. Various methods are proposed for the detemination of thermogravimetric curves. 14 refs.

  19. Mathematical and system level HW description DSP algorithms modeling investigation in an experimental 100G optical coherent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Vitor B.; Silva, Flávio A.; Oliveira, Julio C. R. F.; Franz, Lucas V.; Schneider, Eduardo O.; Moretti, Cleber; Ranzini, Stenio M.

    2013-01-01

    Today and next generation optical coherent systems rely more and more in DSP algorithms to improve capacity, spectral efficiency and fiber impairments mitigation. The amount of signal processing is remarkable, and because of that ASICs are preferable in order to comply with cost, power consumption and size, required in OIF 100G optical module standards. One important step in the ASIC development process is the validation of the DSP algorithms mathematical models in a high level language that consider HW characteristics and constrains. In this work we present, compare and evaluate in experimental data the mathematical model developed in Matlab and the SystemC model developed in C++. The DSP algorithms functionalities implemented were orthonormalization, CD equalizer, clock recovery, dynamic equalizer, frequency offset and phase estimation. The SystemC model considers clock signals, reset/enable structures, parallelization, finite fixed-point operations and structures that are closer to the ASIC HW implementation; due to these restrictions the performance is not as good as the mathematical modeling. The DSP algorithms models are evaluated in two 112 Gbit/s DP-QPSK experimental scenarios. In the first scenario the models are evaluated in back-to-back with ASE noise loading; in the second scenario the models are compared in a 226km optical fiber recirculation loop, with 80x112 Gbit/s DP-QPSK channels (8.96 Tbit/s). In the back-to-back experiment the OSNR penalty from the mathematical model to the SystemC model is only 1,0dB and in the recirculation loop the maximum reach is 2,600 km and 2,200 km for the Matlab and SystemC models respectively.

  20. On the Inclusion of the Interfacial Area Between Phases in the Physical and Mathematical Description of Subsurface Multiphase Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, W.G.

    2001-01-25

    This project has contributed to the improved understanding and precise physical description of multiphase subsurface flow by combining theoretical derivation of equations, lattice Boltzmann modeling of hydrodynamics to identify characteristics and parameters, and simplification of field-scale equations to assess the advantages and disadvantages of the complete theory.

  1. Per Oral Endoscopic Myotomy for Achalasia: A Detailed Description of the Technique and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Kevin L; Inoue, Haruhiro

    2016-05-01

    Historically, the most robust outcomes in treatment of achalasia were seen with surgical myotomy. Per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) introduced an endoscopic method for creating a surgical myotomy. Thousands of cases of POEM have been performed; however, there is no standard technique, and the rates of clinical success and adverse events vary widely among centers. This article presents a detailed description of the POEM technique, including the rationale and potential pitfalls of the main variations, in the context of the international literature. PMID:27112254

  2. A Mathematical Model for Vertical Attitude Takeoff and Landing (VATOL) Aircraft Simulation. Volume 1; Model Description Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortenbaugh, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    A mathematical model of a high performance airplane capable of vertical attitude takeoff and landing (VATOL) was developed. An off line digital simulation program incorporating this model was developed to provide trim conditions and dynamic check runs for the piloted simulation studies and support dynamic analyses of proposed VATOL configuration and flight control concepts. Development details for the various simulation component models and the application of the off line simulation program, Vertical Attitude Take-Off and Landing Simulation (VATLAS), to develop a baseline control system for the Vought SF-121 VATOL airplane concept are described.

  3. Barely started and already left behind: a descriptive analysis of the mathematics ability demonstrated by young deaf children.

    PubMed

    Kritzer, Karen L

    2009-01-01

    This study examined young deaf children's early informal/formal mathematical knowledge as measured by the Test of Early Mathematics Ability (TEMA-3). Findings from this study suggest that prior to the onset of formal schooling, young deaf children might already demonstrate evidence of academic delays. Of these 28 participants (4-6 years of age), for whom data were analyzed, none received a score on the TEMA-3, indicating above-"average" ability according to normative ranking. More than half of participants received scores substantially below average with 11 participants receiving scores a year or more behind normative age-equivalent scores. Upon more focused analysis, specific areas of difficulty were found to include word/story problems, skip counting (i.e., counting by twos, threes, etc.), number comparisons, the reading/writing of two to three digit numbers, and addition/subtraction number facts. A qualitative analysis of the answers participants gave and the behaviors they demonstrated while answering the test items was conducted and revealed possible explanations for why specific test items may have been challenging. Implications of findings for parents, early interventionists, and teachers of young deaf children are discussed. PMID:19596725

  4. Description of a novel technique for suture ligation of the renal vessels during robotic nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manish N; Laungani, Rajesh; Shrivastava, Alok; Bhandari, Akshay; Spencer Krane, L; Menon, Mani; Rogers, Craig G

    2009-03-01

    Minimally invasive techniques are frequently used for surgical treatment of suspected malignant renal masses. We previously reported on our experience with robotic nephrectomy and the feasibility of performing suture ligation of the renal vessels using robotic needle drivers. We describe a novel technique for suture ligation of the renal vessels during robotic nephrectomy utilizing the robotic hook and a suture with loops at each end. Our technique for suture ligation of the renal vessels recapitulates the open technique without the need for exchanging the robotic working instruments for robotic needle drivers and without the need for endovascular staplers. PMID:27628449

  5. Development of mathematical techniques for the assimilation of remote sensing data into atmospheric models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seinfeld, J. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The problem of the assimilation of remote sensing data into mathematical models of atmospheric pollutant species was investigated. The data assimilation problem is posed in terms of the matching of spatially integrated species burden measurements to the predicted three-dimensional concentration fields from atmospheric diffusion models. General conditions were derived for the reconstructability of atmospheric concentration distributions from data typical of remote sensing applications, and a computational algorithm (filter) for the processing of remote sensing data was developed.

  6. Development of mathematical techniques for the assimilation of remote sensing data into atmospheric models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seinfeld, J. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The problem of the assimilation of remote sensing data into mathematical models of atmospheric pollutant species was investigated. The problem is posed in terms of the matching of spatially integrated species burden measurements to the predicted three dimensional concentration fields from atmospheric diffusion models. General conditions are derived for the "reconstructability' of atmospheric concentration distributions from data typical of remote sensing applications, and a computational algorithm (filter) for the processing of remote sensing data is developed.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ANNOTATION SCHEME FOR STANDARDIZED DESCRIPTION OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS IN THE FIELD OF PLANT PROTECTION.

    PubMed

    Günther, T; Büttner, C; Käsbohrer, A; Filter, M

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical models on properties and behavior of harmful organisms in the food chain are an increas- ingly relevant approach of the agriculture and food industry. As a consequence, there are many efforts to develop biological models in science, economics and risk assessment nowadays. However, there is a lack of international harmonized standards on model annotation and model formats, which would be neces- sary to set up efficient tools supporting broad model application and information exchange. There are some established standards in the field of systems biology, but there is currently no corresponding provi- sion in the area of plant protection. This work therefore aimed at the development of an annotation scheme using domain-specific metadata. The proposed scheme has been validated in a prototype implementation of a web-database model repository. This prototypic community resource currently contains models on aflatoxin secreting fungal Aspergillus flavus in maize, as these models have a high relevance to food safety and economic impact. Specifically, models describing biological processes of the fungus (growth, Aflatoxin secreting), as well as dose-response- and carry over models were included. Furthermore, phenological models for maize were integrated as well. The developed annotation scheme is based on the well-established data exchange format SBML, which is broadly applied in the field of systems biology. The identified example models were annotated according to the developed scheme and entered into a Web-table (Google Sheets), which was transferred to a web based demonstrator available at https://sites.google.com/site/test782726372685/. By implementation of a software demonstrator it became clear that the proposed annotation scheme can be applied to models on plant pathogens and that broad adoption within the domain could promote communication and application of mathematical models. PMID:27141756

  8. Mathematical calculation skills required for drug administration in undergraduate nursing students to ensure patient safety: A descriptive study: Drug calculation skills in nursing students.

    PubMed

    Bagnasco, Annamaria; Galaverna, Lucia; Aleo, Giuseppe; Grugnetti, Anna Maria; Rosa, Francesca; Sasso, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    In the literature we found many studies that confirmed our concerns about nursing students' poor maths skills that directly impact on their ability to correctly calculate drug dosages with very serious consequences for patient safety. The aim of our study was to explore where students had most difficulty and identify appropriate educational interventions to bridge their mathematical knowledge gaps. This was a quali-quantitative descriptive study that included a sample of 726 undergraduate nursing students. We identified exactly where students had most difficulty and identified appropriate educational interventions to bridge their mathematical knowledge gaps. We found that the undergraduate nursing students mainly had difficulty with basic maths principles. Specific learning interventions are needed to improve their basic maths skills and their dosage calculation skills. For this purpose, we identified safeMedicate and eDose (Authentic World Ltd.), only that they are only available in English. In the near future we hope to set up a partnership to work together on the Italian version of these tools. PMID:26347449

  9. Mathematical calculation skills required for drug administration in undergraduate nursing students to ensure patient safety: A descriptive study: Drug calculation skills in nursing students.

    PubMed

    Bagnasco, Annamaria; Galaverna, Lucia; Aleo, Giuseppe; Grugnetti, Anna Maria; Rosa, Francesca; Sasso, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    In the literature we found many studies that confirmed our concerns about nursing students' poor maths skills that directly impact on their ability to correctly calculate drug dosages with very serious consequences for patient safety. The aim of our study was to explore where students had most difficulty and identify appropriate educational interventions to bridge their mathematical knowledge gaps. This was a quali-quantitative descriptive study that included a sample of 726 undergraduate nursing students. We identified exactly where students had most difficulty and identified appropriate educational interventions to bridge their mathematical knowledge gaps. We found that the undergraduate nursing students mainly had difficulty with basic maths principles. Specific learning interventions are needed to improve their basic maths skills and their dosage calculation skills. For this purpose, we identified safeMedicate and eDose (Authentic World Ltd.), only that they are only available in English. In the near future we hope to set up a partnership to work together on the Italian version of these tools.

  10. Treatment of control data in lunar phototriangulation. [application of statistical procedures and development of mathematical and computer techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, K. W.

    1974-01-01

    In lunar phototriangulation, there is a complete lack of accurate ground control points. The accuracy analysis of the results of lunar phototriangulation must, therefore, be completely dependent on statistical procedure. It was the objective of this investigation to examine the validity of the commonly used statistical procedures, and to develop both mathematical techniques and computer softwares for evaluating (1) the accuracy of lunar phototriangulation; (2) the contribution of the different types of photo support data on the accuracy of lunar phototriangulation; (3) accuracy of absolute orientation as a function of the accuracy and distribution of both the ground and model points; and (4) the relative slope accuracy between any triangulated pass points.

  11. A descriptive analysis of batting backlift techniques in cricket: Does the practice of elite cricketers follow the theory?

    PubMed

    Noorbhai, M Habib; Noakes, Timothy D

    2016-10-01

    One of the first principles of cricket batsmanship that is coached from a young age is to play with a straight bat. Limited studies to date have examined whether top international batsmen use this traditionally described technique. Accordingly, we performed a descriptive, observational study of the backlift technique adopted by 65 of the most successful batsmen of all time, based on their career averages, strike rate and runs scored. The batsmen were divided into two groups depending on whether they played the game before or after 1954. Surprisingly, more than 70% of these successful batsmen did not adopt the traditionally taught technique. Instead, they adopted a more looped action in which the initial movement of the bat was in the direction of the slips, and in extreme cases it was either towards the gully/point region or to have the face of the bat directed towards the off-side. This suggests that traditionally taught batting coaching techniques may hinder, rather than enhance future cricketing performance. Since the vast majority of cricketers are not coached in this technique, this finding probably indicates that this looped technique is likely a contributing factor to effective batsmanship.

  12. A descriptive analysis of batting backlift techniques in cricket: Does the practice of elite cricketers follow the theory?

    PubMed

    Noorbhai, M Habib; Noakes, Timothy D

    2016-10-01

    One of the first principles of cricket batsmanship that is coached from a young age is to play with a straight bat. Limited studies to date have examined whether top international batsmen use this traditionally described technique. Accordingly, we performed a descriptive, observational study of the backlift technique adopted by 65 of the most successful batsmen of all time, based on their career averages, strike rate and runs scored. The batsmen were divided into two groups depending on whether they played the game before or after 1954. Surprisingly, more than 70% of these successful batsmen did not adopt the traditionally taught technique. Instead, they adopted a more looped action in which the initial movement of the bat was in the direction of the slips, and in extreme cases it was either towards the gully/point region or to have the face of the bat directed towards the off-side. This suggests that traditionally taught batting coaching techniques may hinder, rather than enhance future cricketing performance. Since the vast majority of cricketers are not coached in this technique, this finding probably indicates that this looped technique is likely a contributing factor to effective batsmanship. PMID:26956380

  13. Monitoring of Land Subsidence in Ravenna Municipality Using Integrated SAR - GPS Techniques: Description and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artese, G.; Fiaschi, S.; Di Martire, D.; Tessitore, S.; Fabris, M.; Achilli, V.; Ahmed, A.; Borgstrom, S.; Calcaterra, D.; Ramondini, M.; Artese, S.; Floris, M.; Menin, A.; Monego, M.; Siniscalchi, V.

    2016-06-01

    The Emilia Romagna Region (N-E Italy) and in particular the Adriatic Sea coastline of Ravenna, is affected by a noticeable subsidence that started in the 1950s, when the exploitation of on and off-shore methane reservoirs began, along with the pumping of groundwater for industrial uses. In such area the current subsidence rate, even if lower than in the past, reaches the -2 cm/y. Over the years, local Authorities have monitored this phenomenon with different techniques: spirit levelling, GPS surveys and, more recently, Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) techniques, confirming the critical situation of land subsidence risk. In this work, we present the comparison between the results obtained with DInSAR and GPS techniques applied to the study of the land subsidence in the Ravenna territory. With regard to the DInSAR, the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) and the Coherent Pixel Technique (CPT) techniques have been used. Different SAR datasets have been exploited: ERS-1/2, ENVISAT, TerraSAR-X and Sentinel-1. Some GPS campaigns have been also carried out in a subsidence prone area. 3D vertices have been selected very close to existing persistent scatterers in order to link the GPS measurement results to the SAR ones. GPS data were processed into the International reference system and the comparisons between the coordinates, for the first 6 months of the monitoring, provided results with the same trend of the DInSAR data, even if inside the precision of the method.

  14. Chondroblastoma of the femoral head disrupting the articular cartilage. Description of a novel surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Givissis, Panagiotis; Agathangelidis, Filon; Christodoulou, Evangelos; Christodoulou, Anastasios

    2012-06-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rare benign tumour. Involvement of the femoral head may often lead to a delayed diagnosis. We present the case of a 15-year-old patient with right hip pain which was first attributed to adductor tendinitis. Following aggravation of the symptoms, thorough investigation including a CT-guided biopsy, revealed the diagnosis of chondroblastoma of the femoral head. Removal of the lesion based on the techniques described in literature was not possible, mainly because the articular cartilage was breached. A novel surgical technique was used in order to address the rare location and behaviour of the tumour. This technique offered the patient pain relief and return to his previous every day and sports activities. No recurrence was seen at two years follow-up.

  15. Chondroblastoma of the femoral head disrupting the articular cartilage. Description of a novel surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Givissis, Panagiotis; Agathangelidis, Filon; Christodoulou, Evangelos; Christodoulou, Anastasios

    2012-06-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rare benign tumour. Involvement of the femoral head may often lead to a delayed diagnosis. We present the case of a 15-year-old patient with right hip pain which was first attributed to adductor tendinitis. Following aggravation of the symptoms, thorough investigation including a CT-guided biopsy, revealed the diagnosis of chondroblastoma of the femoral head. Removal of the lesion based on the techniques described in literature was not possible, mainly because the articular cartilage was breached. A novel surgical technique was used in order to address the rare location and behaviour of the tumour. This technique offered the patient pain relief and return to his previous every day and sports activities. No recurrence was seen at two years follow-up. PMID:22822587

  16. A minimally invasive technique for percutaneous lumbar facet augmentation: Technical description of a novel device

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Zachary A.; Armin, Sean; Raphael, Dan; Khoo, Larry T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: We describe a new posterior dynamic stabilizing system that can be used to augment the mechanics of the degenerating lumbar segment. The mechanism of this system differs from other previously described surgical techniques that have been designed to augment lumbar biomechanics. The implant and technique we describe is an extension-limiting one, and it is designed to support and cushion the facet complex. Furthermore, it is inserted through an entirely percutaneous technique. The purpose of this technical note is to demonstrate a novel posterior surgical approach for the treatment of lumbar degenerative. Methods: This report describes a novel, percutaneously placed, posterior dynamic stabilization system as an alternative option to treat lumbar degenerative disk disease with and without lumbar spinal stenosis. The system does not require a midline soft-tissue dissection, nor subperiosteal dissection, and is a truly minimally invasive means for posterior augmentation of the functional facet complex. This system can be implanted as a stand-alone procedure or in conjunction with decompression procedures. Results: One-year clinical results in nine individual patients, all treated for degenerative disease of the lower lumbar spine, are presented. Conclusions: This novel technique allows for percutaneous posterior dynamic stabilization of the lumbar facet complex. The use of this procedure may allow a less invasive alternative to traditional approaches to the lumbar spine as well as an alternative to other newly developed posterior dynamic stabilization systems. PMID:22145084

  17. Endoscopic treatment of ureterovesical junction obstructive pathology: A description of the oblique meatotomy technique and results

    PubMed Central

    Arrabal-Martín, Miguel; Zuluaga-Gómez, Armando; Merino-Salas, Sergio; Nogueras-Ocaña, Mercedes; Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Benign obstructive pathology of the ureterovesical junction includes congenital and acquired illnesses. The objective of this study was to describe the endoscopic oblique meatotomy technique using scissors and cold cutting to treat benign obstructive pathology of the ureterovesical junction. Methods: From 2007 to 2012, we treated 18 patients with obstructive pathology of the ureterovesical junction (5 megaureters [3 with lithiasis], 4 iatrogenic stenoses, and 9 ureteroceles with lithiasis). In all cases, oblique meatotomy was performed using endoscopic scissors through an 8.5 Ch ureteroscope. The mean follow-up for all patients was 3 years. Pain, grade of hydronephrosis, and occurrence of vesicoureteral reflux were evaluated before and after treatment. Results: The mean endoscopic treatment time was 13.4 minutes. The procedure was performed on an outpatient basis with 6 hours of hospital admission, and a double J stent was inserted for 6 weeks. We achieved treatment success in 94.5% of patients after 3 years of follow-up. Only 1 patient presented with vesicoureteral reflux at 12 months after treatment; however, this condition did not require further treatment. Overall, 100% of patients remained free from lithiasis. There are 2 main limitations: the small number of patients and the lack of another group to compare the results of this technique; however, the aim of this work was to communicate a new technique to treat ureterovesical junction stricture Interpretation: Oblique ureteral meatotomy is a safe and effective treatment for benign obstructive pathology of the ureterovesical junction and has a low index of complications. PMID:24282466

  18. Dowel Fusion of the Scapho-Trapezio-Trapezoid Joint: A Description of a New Technique.

    PubMed

    Thurston; Stanley

    1999-12-01

    We describe a modification of the technique for arthrodesis of the joints between the scaphoid, the trapezoid and the trapezium (the S-T-T joint) described by Sandow, that involves the en bloc resection of a cylinder of bone incorporating a portion of each of the scaphoid, trapezoid and the trapezium, using a hollow mill, and replacing it with a cylindrical graft of exactly the same size taken from the distal radius. The procedure is relatively quick and easy with a high rate of fusion and must be regarded as a preferable alternative to other, more complex procedures.

  19. A Description of the Revised ATHEANA (A Technique for Human Event Analysis)

    SciTech Connect

    FORESTER,JOHN A.; BLEY,DENNIS C.; COOPER,SUSANE; KOLACZKOWSKI,ALAN M.; THOMPSON,CATHERINE; RAMEY-SMITH,ANN; WREATHALL,JOHN

    2000-07-18

    This paper describes the most recent version of a human reliability analysis (HRA) method called ``A Technique for Human Event Analysis'' (ATHEANA). The new version is documented in NUREG-1624, Rev. 1 [1] and reflects improvements to the method based on comments received from a peer review that was held in 1998 (see [2] for a detailed discussion of the peer review comments) and on the results of an initial trial application of the method conducted at a nuclear power plant in 1997 (see Appendix A in [3]). A summary of the more important recommendations resulting from the peer review and trial application is provided and critical and unique aspects of the revised method are discussed.

  20. Interactions between Activation and Repolarization Restitution Properties in the Intact Human Heart: In-Vivo Whole-Heart Data and Mathematical Description

    PubMed Central

    Taggart, Peter; Srinivasan, Neil; Hayward, Martin; Lambiase, Pier D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The restitution of the action potential duration (APDR) and conduction velocity (CVR) are mechanisms whereby cardiac excitation and repolarization adapt to changes in heart rate. They modulate the vulnerability to dangerous arrhythmia, but the mechanistic link between restitution and arrhythmogenesis remains only partially understood. Methods This paper provides an experimental and theoretical study of repolarization and excitation restitution properties and their interactions in the intact human epicardium. The interdependence between excitation and repolarization dynamic is studied in 8 patients (14 restitution protocols, 1722 restitution curves) undergoing global epicardial mapping with multi-electrode socks before open heart surgery. A mathematical description of the contribution of both repolarization and conduction dynamics to the steepness of the APDR slope is proposed. Results This study demonstrates that the APDR slope is a function of both activation and repolarization dynamics. At short cycle length, conduction delay significantly increases the APDR slope by interacting with the diastolic interval. As predicted by the proposed mathematical formulation, the APDR slope was more sensitive to activation time prolongation than to the simultaneous shortening of repolarization time. A steep APDR slope was frequently identified, with 61% of all cardiac sites exhibiting an APDR slope > 1, suggesting that a slope > 1 may not necessarily promote electrical instability in the human epicardium. APDR slope did not change for different activation or repolarization times, and it was not a function of local baseline APD. However, it was affected by the spatial organization of electrical excitation, suggesting that in tissue APDR is not a unique function of local electrophysiological properties. Spatial heterogeneity in both activation and repolarization restitution contributed to the increase in the modulated dispersion of repolarization, which for short cycle

  1. A Step-by-Step Teaching Technique for Teachers with Adult Students of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Step-by-step teaching is a researcher-designed innovative process that takes the adult learner, step-by-step, from his present level of understanding to the required level. The technique is based on well-researched and accepted pedagogical practices set in their psychological, sociological, and andragogical perspectives. Using a convenience sample…

  2. Perfusion Angiography of the Foot in Patients with Critical Limb Ischemia: Description of the Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Jens, Sjoerd Marquering, Henk A.; Koelemay, Mark J. W.; Reekers, Jim A.

    2015-02-15

    ObjectiveTo study the feasibility of 2D perfusion imaging in critical limb ischemia (CLI).Methods/ResultsPerfusion angiography is a new technology which was tested in 18 patients with CLI of the foot. A standardized protocol was used with a catheter placed at the mid-part of the popliteal artery, and a total of 9 cc of non-ionic iodinated contrast material was injected at a rate of 3 cc/sec. The technology is based on early cardiology research where iodinated contrast agents were used for imaging of cardiac perfusion. During the first pass of the contrast, there is a significant diffusion of the contrast agents into the interstitial space, particularly for non-ionic and low-molecular-weight compounds.DiscussionThe original angiography data can be used to make a time–density curve, which represents the actual perfusion of the foot in time. Angiographic perfusion imaging is a post-processing modality for which no extra contrast or radiation is needed. With this technique, it is possible to get more information about the perfusion status and microcirculation of the foot. This is a step toward functional imaging in CLI patients.

  3. Mathematical modeling of noninvasive blood pressure estimation techniques--Part I: Pressure transmission across the arm tissue.

    PubMed

    Ursino, M; Cristalli, C

    1995-02-01

    A mathematical model of the arm tissue mechanical behavior under the effect of external pressure loads is presented. The model has been used to study stress and strain distribution across the tissue, and pressure transmission to the brachial artery, when the arm is compressed by two adjacent cuffs independently inflated. Using this configuration, the tissue elastic parameters (Young modulus and Poisson ratio) can be individually identified using a simple and noninvasive experimental procedure. Model validation has been achieved by comparing its results with data obtained experimentally on 10 subjects. These comparisons demonstrate that the proposed model may constitute a simple but valid new tool able to describe tissue behavior, subjected to external pressures, with sufficient accuracy. Joined with a model of brachial hemodynamics, it might contribute to improve our understanding of noninvasive blood pressure estimation techniques.

  4. Using wavelet denoising and mathematical morphology in the segmentation technique applied to blood cells images.

    PubMed

    Boix, Macarena; Cantó, Begoña

    2013-04-01

    Accurate image segmentation is used in medical diagnosis since this technique is a noninvasive pre-processing step for biomedical treatment. In this work we present an efficient segmentation method for medical image analysis. In particular, with this method blood cells can be segmented. For that, we combine the wavelet transform with morphological operations. Moreover, the wavelet thresholding technique is used to eliminate the noise and prepare the image for suitable segmentation. In wavelet denoising we determine the best wavelet that shows a segmentation with the largest area in the cell. We study different wavelet families and we conclude that the wavelet db1 is the best and it can serve for posterior works on blood pathologies. The proposed method generates goods results when it is applied on several images. Finally, the proposed algorithm made in MatLab environment is verified for a selected blood cells.

  5. Management of Giant Calcified Thoracic Disks and Description of the Trench Vertebrectomy Technique

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mahfoudh, Rafid; Mitchell, Paul S.; Wilby, Martin; Crooks, Daniel; Barrett, Chris; Pillay, Robin; Pigott, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Study Design  Case series and review of the literature. Objective  To review the management of giant calcified disks in our large cohort and compare with the existing literature. We discuss our surgical technique. Methods  Twenty-nine cases of herniated thoracic disk between 2000 and 2013 were reviewed. Eighteen patients were identified as having giant calcified thoracic disks, defined as diffusely calcified disks occupying at least 40% of the spinal canal. Demographic data was collected in addition to presentation, imaging findings, operative details, and outcomes using the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scale. Results  Giant calcified thoracic disks (GCTDs) are unique clinical entities that require special neurosurgical consideration owing to significant (≥40%) involvement of the spinal canal and compression of the spinal cord, often leading to myelopathy. The median age at diagnosis was 51.2 years (range 37 to 70) with the mean duration of presenting symptoms being 9.9 months (range 2 weeks to 3 years). Seventeen (94.4%) patients presented with at least one sign of myelopathy (hyperreflexia, hypertonia, bladder or bowel dysfunction) with the remaining 1 (5.6%) patient presenting with symptoms in keeping with radiculopathy. Thoracotomy was performed on 17 (94.4%) patients, and 1 (5.6%) patient had a costotransverse approach. Mean follow-up was 19.8 months (range 7 months to 2 years). mJOA score improved in 15 (83.3%) patients. mJOA scores in the other patients remained stable. Conclusions  GCTDs are difficult neurosurgical challenges owing to their size, degree of spinal cord compression, and consistency. We recommend a trench vertebrectomy via a thoracotomy in their surgical management. This procedure safely allows the identification of normal dura on either side of the compressed segment prior to performing a diskectomy. Excellent fusion rates were achieved with insertion of rib head autograft in the trench. PMID:27556000

  6. Fluoroscopy-Guided Sacroiliac Joint Injection: Description of a Modified Technique.

    PubMed

    Kasliwal, Prasad Jaychand; Kasliwal, Sapana

    2016-02-01

    Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pathology is a common etiologic cause for 10 - 27% of cases of mechanical low back pain (LBP) below the L5 level. In the absence of definite clinical or radiologic diagnostic criteria, controlled blocks of the SIJ have become the choice assessment method for making the diagnosis of SIJ pain. The SI joint is most often characterized as a large, auricular-shaped, diarthrodial synovial joint. In reality, its synovial characteristic is limited only to the distal third and anterior third. In SIJ interventions, the lateral view has been underutilized. In our technique, we used the lateral view to create a three-dimensional view of the SIJ to aid in gauging the accurateness of the contrast spread and to obtain a precise block. After obtaining appropriate fluoroscopic images, a curved tip spinal needle was directed into the inferior aspect of the SIJ using a posterior approach. As the needle contacts firm tissues on the posterior aspect of the joint, position of the needle tip is checked using lateral fluoroscopy. In the lateral view, the needle tip position is manipulated to keep it in the anterior third of the SIJ and contrast is injected. Our criteria for accurate SIJ block, in posteroanterior (PA) view, is the injection of the contrast medium should outline the joint space and the contrast medium should be seen to travel cephalad along the joint line. In the lateral view, the contrast medium most densely outlines the parameter of the joint. We have utilized this method with good effect in approximately 30 cases over one year. Out of 30 cases, needle position and contrast spread was satisfactory in 28 and 27 cases, respectively. So satisfactory needle placement and contrast spread was in 93% and 87% cases. Pain relief of 80% or more after intra-articular injection of local anesthetic was seen in 50% (15 of 30) patients; pain relief of 50 - 79% was witnessed in 30% (9 of 30) patients. Thus, pain decreased 50% or more in 80% (24 of 30) of the joints

  7. Trends and techniques for space base electronics. [mathematical models, ion implantation, and semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gassaway, J. D.; Mahmood, Q.; Trotter, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    A system was developed for depositing aluminum and aluminum alloys by the D.C. sputtering technique. This system which was designed for a high level of cleanliness and ion monitoring the deposition parameters during film preparation is ready for studying the deposition and annealing parameters upon double level metal preparation. The finite element method was studied for use in the computer modeling of two dimensional MOS transistor structures. An algorithm was developed for implementing a computer study which is based upon the finite difference method. The program was modified and used to calculate redistribution data for boron and phosphorous which had been predeposited by ion implantation with range and straggle conditions typical of those used at MSFC. Data were generated for 111 oriented SOS films with redistribution in N2, dry O2 and steam ambients. Data are given showing both two dimensional effects and the evolution of the junction depth, sheet resistance and integrated dose with redistribution time.

  8. Rural Mathematics Educator, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Mathematics Educator, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This document contains the two issues of "Rural Mathematics Educator" published in 2002. This newsletter of the Appalachian Collaborative Center for Learning, Assessment, and Instruction in Mathematics (ACCLAIM) includes articles on rural mathematics education, as well as information and descriptions of professional development opportunities for…

  9. A passive microwave technique for estimating rainfall and vertical structure information from space. Part 1: Algorithm description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kummerow, Christian; Giglio, Louis

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a multichannel physical approach for retrieving rainfall and vertical structure information from satellite-based passive microwave observations. The algorithm makes use of statistical inversion techniques based upon theoretically calculated relations between rainfall rates and brightness temperatures. Potential errors introduced into the theoretical calculations by the unknown vertical distribution of hydrometeors are overcome by explicity accounting for diverse hydrometeor profiles. This is accomplished by allowing for a number of different vertical distributions in the theoretical brightness temperature calculations and requiring consistency between the observed and calculated brightness temperatures. This paper will focus primarily on the theoretical aspects of the retrieval algorithm, which includes a procedure used to account for inhomogeneities of the rainfall within the satellite field of view as well as a detailed description of the algorithm as it is applied over both ocean and land surfaces. The residual error between observed and calculated brightness temperatures is found to be an important quantity in assessing the uniqueness of the solution. It is further found that the residual error is a meaningful quantity that can be used to derive expected accuracies from this retrieval technique. Examples comparing the retrieved results as well as the detailed analysis of the algorithm performance under various circumstances are the subject of a companion paper.

  10. Guidelines for the use of mathematics in operational area-wide integrated pest management programs using the sterile insect technique with a special focus on Tephritid Fruit Flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest control managers can benefit from using mathematical approaches, particularly models, when implementing area-wide pest control programs that include sterile insect technique (SIT), especially when these are used to calculate required rates of sterile releases to result in suppression or eradica...

  11. Cardiac chamber volumes by echocardiography using a new mathematical method: A promising technique for zero-G use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckey, J. C.; Beattie, J. M.; Gaffney, F. A.; Nixon, J. V.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    Accurate, reproducible, and non-invasive means for ventricular volume determination are needed for evaluating cardiovascular function zero-gravity. Current echocardiographic methods, particularly for the right ventricle, suffer from a large standard error. A new mathematical approach, recently described by Watanabe et al., was tested on 1 normal formalin-fixed human hearts suspended in a mineral oil bath. Volumes are estimated from multiple two-dimensional echocardiographic views recorded from a single point at sequential angles. The product of sectional cavity area and center of mass for each view summed over the range of angles (using a trapezoidal rule) gives volume. Multiple (8-14) short axis right ventricle and left ventricle views at 5.0 deg intervals were videotaped. The images were digitized by two independent observers (leading-edge to leading-edge technique) and analyzed using a graphics tablet and microcomputer. Actual volumes were determined by filling the chambers with water. These data were compared to the mean of the two echo measurements.

  12. What Counts as Mathematical Discourse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moschkovich, Judit

    2003-01-01

    In this paper I use situated and socio-cultural perspective (Gee, 1996 & 1999) to examine descriptions of mathematical discourse and an example of student talk in a mathematics classroom. Using this example, I discuss how the distinction between everyday and mathematical discourse can help or hinder us in hearing the mathematical content in…

  13. Developing a Pedagogic Discourse in the Teaching of Undergraduate Mathematics: One Tutors' Uses of Generic Examples and Other Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nardi, Elena; Jaworski, Barbara J.

    This paper reports from a research project at Oxford in the UK that focused (a) on university mathematics teachers' conceptualizations of first-year undergraduate teaching related to observation of their teaching; and (b) on issues relating the conceptualizations to mathematics as a discipline. This research builds on a qualitative study of…

  14. Using Data Mining Techniques Examination of the Middle School Students' Attitude towards Mathematics in the Context of Some Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idil, Feriha Hande; Narli, Serkan; Aksoy, Esra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine middle school students' attitude towards mathematics in the context of their mathematic learning preferences using data mining which is data analysis methodology that has been successfully used in different areas including educational domains. "How do I actually learn?" questionnaire and attitude scale…

  15. A Descriptive, Survey Research Study of the Student Characteristics Influencing the Four Theoretical Sources of Mathematical Self-Efficacy of College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locklear, Tonja Motley

    2012-01-01

    The Sources of Middle School Mathematics Self-Efficacy Scale (Usher & Pajares, 2009) was adapted for use in this study investigating the impact that gender, race, sexual orientation, hometown location (rural, suburban, or urban), high school GPA, college GPA and letter grade of a mathematics course in the previous semester had on the four…

  16. Mathematical and statistical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, A. Glen

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the mathematical and statistical analysis component of RICIS is to research, develop, and evaluate mathematical and statistical techniques for aerospace technology applications. Specific research areas of interest include modeling, simulation, experiment design, reliability assessment, and numerical analysis.

  17. Underground Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadlock, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    The movement of groundwater in underground aquifers is an ideal physical example of many important themes in mathematical modeling, ranging from general principles (like Occam's Razor) to specific techniques (such as geometry, linear equations, and the calculus). This article gives a self-contained introduction to groundwater modeling with…

  18. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided aspiration of an anterior cruciate ligament ganglion cyst: description of technique and case presentation.

    PubMed

    Krill, Michael; Peck, Evan

    2014-12-01

    An anterior cruciate ligament ganglion cyst is an infrequent but potentially clinically significant cause of knee pain. Although the cyst may be removed surgically, percutaneous ultrasound-guided anterior cruciate ligament ganglion cyst aspiration and injection is feasible. To our knowledge, we present the first reported case description of the utilization of ultrasound guidance to perform this procedure with a successful clinical outcome.

  19. MECHANICAL DRAFTING AND DESIGN TECHNOLOGY, JOB DESCRIPTIONS AND SUGGESTED TECHNIQUES FOR DETERMINING COURSES OF STUDY IN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PETERSON, CLARENCE E.

    THIS IS THE FIRST OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO PROVIDE AID TO STATES IN ORGANIZING AND OPERATING PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE VIII OF THE NATIONAL DEFENSE EDUCATION ACT, PUBLIC LAW 85-864. IT FURNISHES--(1) GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT A TECHNOLOGY OR BROAD FIELD OF WORK, (2) COMPOSITE JOB DESCRIPTIONS OF REPRESENTATIVE OCCUPATIONS IN THAT FIELD OF WORK, (3) A…

  20. A Descriptive Study of the Use of PROANA 5: A Computerized Technique for the Analysis of Small Group Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrow, Wayne

    The purpose of this study was to generate descriptive statistical estimates regarding the expected proportion of occurrence of each of the PROANA 5 (Process Analysis) variables (line usage, clique group, detrimental clique group, leadership, and dominance) in small group communication. A second purpose was to determine the expected pattern of…

  1. Acquisition of teleological descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, David W.

    1992-03-01

    Teleology descriptions capture the purpose of an entity, mechanism, or activity with which they are associated. These descriptions can be used in explanation, diagnosis, and design reuse. We describe a technique for acquiring teleological descriptions expressed in the teleology language TeD. Acquisition occurs during design by observing design modifications and design verification. We demonstrate the acquisition technique in an electronic circuit design.

  2. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided aspiration of an anterior cruciate ligament ganglion cyst: description of technique and case presentation.

    PubMed

    Krill, Michael; Peck, Evan

    2014-12-01

    An anterior cruciate ligament ganglion cyst is an infrequent but potentially clinically significant cause of knee pain. Although the cyst may be removed surgically, percutaneous ultrasound-guided anterior cruciate ligament ganglion cyst aspiration and injection is feasible. To our knowledge, we present the first reported case description of the utilization of ultrasound guidance to perform this procedure with a successful clinical outcome. PMID:25088315

  3. The Nature of Mathematics Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cemen, Pamala Byrd

    This paper attempts to generate a comprehensive description of the nature of mathematics anxiety through a synthesis of: (1) the general and test anxiety literatures applied to mathematics anxiety; (2) the mathematics anxiety literature, and (3) case studies developed through in-depth interviews. The indepth interviews were conducted with seven…

  4. The "Sublabral Window" in Arthroscopic Posterior Shoulder Instability Surgery: Description of a Technique for Safe Posterior Glenoid Preparation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kushal V; Bravman, Jonathan T; McCarty, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Arthroscopic posterior labral repairs for posterior shoulder instability can be challenging. Preparation of the capsulolabral tissue and glenoid bony surface is critical. Iatrogenic injury to the articular cartilage and unwarranted truncation of the capsulolabral tissue are concerns during preparation. As a result, several techniques have been described to potentially avoid these complications. We describe an additional technique for improving access and preparing the capsulolabral tissue and glenoid surface through a "sublabral window." This technique approaches the posterior labrum and glenoid through an already established posterior portal and mitigates iatrogenic injury to the labrum and articular cartilage. The technique is rather simple and easily adaptable. PMID:27656358

  5. In vitro description of a new technique for stapled side-to-side jejunocecal anastomosis in horses and CT scan anatomical comparison with other techniques

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Stapled jejunocecal anastomoses are commonly performed in equine abdominal surgery. They carry higher complication rates compared to handsewn techniques. In human surgery various causes likely to lead to failure of stapled techniques have been evaluated, including staple line failure. Recently Freeman proposed a technique to perform a stapled jejunocecal anastomosis in horses while avoiding blind pouch formation. The aim of this study is to describe a method for stapled side-to-side jejunocecal anastomosis in horses and to compare it with other techniques with computed tomography to assess stomal area, shape and blind pouch size. Methods Intestinal specimens comprising the cecum, ileum and jejunum from 18 horses were collected and were divided into three groups. In Group S a standard stapled side-to-side jejunocecal anastomosis was performed. In Group F the anastomosis was performed using a modified technique proposed by Freeman. In Group G the anastomosis was performed with a modified technique proposed by the authors. Inflated bowel segments were CT scanned to obtain a MultiPlanar Reconstruction of the stoma and afferent small intestine before calculating the cross-sectional area of each of these regions. The ratio of the measured areas was compared between the three techniques. The volume of the blind-end pouch was measured and its ratio with the intestinal area compared between techniques. The cecum was opened and the length of the stoma measured with a caliper and compared to the intended initial length. Results The stomal/intestinal area ratio was not significantly different between techniques. No statistically significant difference was found in the stomal ideal/real perimeter ratio. There was no statistically significant difference in the intended/real stomal length ratio, and all techniques featured an increase in stomal length ranging from 2 to 12 %. Blind pouch formation was a consistent finding in Group S and was virtually absent in Groups F

  6. Description of a computer program and numerical techniques for developing linear perturbation models from nonlinear systems simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dieudonne, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    A numerical technique was developed which generates linear perturbation models from nonlinear aircraft vehicle simulations. The technique is very general and can be applied to simulations of any system that is described by nonlinear differential equations. The computer program used to generate these models is discussed, with emphasis placed on generation of the Jacobian matrices, calculation of the coefficients needed for solving the perturbation model, and generation of the solution of the linear differential equations. An example application of the technique to a nonlinear model of the NASA terminal configured vehicle is included.

  7. A mathematical model to predict the size of the pellets formed in freeze pelletization techniques: parameters affecting pellet size.

    PubMed

    Cheboyina, Sreekhar; O'Haver, John; Wyandt, Christy M

    2006-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed based on the theory of drop formation to predict the size of the pellets formed in the freeze pelletization process. Further the model was validated by studying the effect of various parameters on the pellet size such as viscosity of the pellet forming and column liquids, surface/interfacial tension, density difference between pellet forming and column liquids; size, shape, and material of construction of the needle tips and temperatures maintained in the columns. In this study, pellets were prepared from different matrices including polyethylene glycols and waxes. The column liquids studied were silicone oils and aqueous glycerol solutions. The surface/interfacial tension, density difference between pellet forming and column liquids and needle tip size were found to be the most important factors affecting pellet size. The viscosity of the column liquid was not found to significantly affect the size of the pellets. The size of the pellets was also not affected by the pellet forming liquids of low viscosities. An increase in the initial column temperature slightly decreased the pellet size. The mathematical model developed was found to successfully predict the size of the pellets with an average error of 3.32% for different matrices that were studied.

  8. Redundancy management of electrohydraulic servoactuators by mathematical model referencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    A description of a mathematical model reference system is presented which provides redundancy management for an electrohydraulic servoactuator. The mathematical model includes a compensation network that calculates reference parameter perturbations induced by external disturbance forces. This is accomplished by using the measured pressure differential data taken from the physical system. This technique was experimentally verified by tests performed using the H-1 engine thrust vector control system for Saturn IB. The results of these tests are included in this report. It was concluded that this technique improves the tracking accuracy of the model reference system to the extent that redundancy management of electrohydraulic servosystems may be performed using this method.

  9. Analyst in the Nursery: An Application of Child Analytic Techniques in a Therapeutic Nursery. I. A Schematic Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliman, Gilbert

    The Cornerstone Project is an application of child psychoanalytic techniques in synergy with therapeutic nursery education. The Cornerstone School and the method associated with it provide treatment for children ages three to six years within a nursery classroom group setting. A therapist works six or more hours per week in the classroom, during…

  10. Wellsite, laboratory, and mathematical techniques for determining sorbed gas content of coals and gas shales utilizing well cuttings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newell, K.D.

    2007-01-01

    Drill cuttings can be used for desorption analyses but with more uncertainty than desorption analyses done with cores. Drill cuttings are not recommended to take the place of core, but in some circumstances, desorption work with cuttings can provide a timely and economic supplement to that of cores. The mixed lithologic nature of drill cuttings is primarily the source of uncertainty in their analysis for gas content, for it is unclear how to apportion the gas generated from both the coal and the dark-colored shale that is mixed in usually with the coal. In the Western Interior Basin Coal Basin in eastern Kansas (Pennsylvanian-age coals), dark-colored shales with normal (??? 100 API units) gamma-ray levels seem to give off minimal amounts of gas on the order of less than five standard cubic feet per ton (scf/ton). In some cuttings analyses this rule of thumb for gas content of the shale is adequate for inferring the gas content of coals, but shales with high-gamma-ray values (>150 API units) may yield several times this amount of gas. The uncertainty in desorption analysis of drill cuttings can be depicted graphically on a diagram identified as a "lithologic component sensitivity analysis diagram." Comparison of cuttings desorption results from nearby wells on this diagram, can sometimes yield an unique solution for the gas content of both a dark shale and coal mixed in a cuttings sample. A mathematical solution, based on equating the dry, ash-free gas-contents of the admixed coal and dark-colored shale, also yields results that are correlative to data from nearby cores. ?? 2007 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  11. Novel description of ionic currents recorded with the action potential clamp technique: application to excitatory currents in suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Clay, John R

    2015-07-01

    The traditional method of recording ionic currents in neurons has been with voltage-clamp steps. Other waveforms such as action potentials (APs) can be used. The AP clamp method reveals contributions of ionic currents that underlie excitability during an AP (Bean BP. Nat Rev Neurosci 8: 451-465, 2007). A novel usage of the method is described in this report. An experimental recording of an AP from the literature is digitized and applied computationally to models of ionic currents. These results are compared with experimental AP-clamp recordings for model verification or, if need be, alterations to the model. The method is applied to the tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium ion current, INa, and the calcium ion current, ICa, from suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) neurons (Jackson AC, Yao GL, Bean BP. J Neurosci 24: 7985-7998, 2004). The latter group reported voltage-step and AP-clamp results for both components. A model of INa is constructed from their voltage-step results. The AP clamp computational methodology applied to that model compares favorably with experiment, other than a modest discrepancy close to the peak of the AP that has not yet been resolved. A model of ICa was constructed from both voltage-step and AP-clamp results of this component. The model employs the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation for the current-voltage relation rather than the traditional linear dependence of this aspect of the model on the Ca(2+) driving force. The long-term goal of this work is a mathematical model of the SCN AP. The method is general. It can be applied to any excitable cell.

  12. A description of a system of programs for mathematically processing on unified series (YeS) computers photographic images of the Earth taken from spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolotukhin, V. G.; Kolosov, B. I.; Usikov, D. A.; Borisenko, V. I.; Mosin, S. T.; Gorokhov, V. N.

    1980-01-01

    A description of a batch of programs for the YeS-1040 computer combined into an automated system for processing photo (and video) images of the Earth's surface, taken from spacecraft, is presented. Individual programs with the detailed discussion of the algorithmic and programmatic facilities needed by the user are presented. The basic principles for assembling the system, and the control programs are included. The exchange format within whose framework the cataloging of any programs recommended for the system of processing will be activated in the future is displayed.

  13. Innovative techniques for the description of reservoir heterogeneity using tracers. Second technical annual progress report, October 1991--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, G.A.; Sepehrnoori, K.

    1992-12-31

    This second annual report on innovative uses of tracers for reservoir characterization contains four sections each describing a novel use of oilfield tracers. The first section describes and illustrates the use of a new single-well tracer test to estimate wettability. This test consists of the injection of brine containing tracers followed by oil containing tracers, a shut-in period to allow some of the tracers to react, and then production of the tracers. The inclusion of the oil injection slug with tracers is unique to this test, and this is what makes the test work. We adapted our chemical simulator, UTCHEM, to enable us to study this tracer method and made an extensive simulation study to evaluate the effects of wettability based upon characteristic curves for relative permeability and capillary pressure for differing wetting states typical of oil reservoirs. The second section of this report describes a new method for analyzing interwell tracer data based upon a type-curve approach. Theoretical frequency response functions were used to build type curves of ``transfer function`` and ``phase spectrum`` that have dimensionless heterogeneity index as a parameter to characterize a stochastic permeability field. We illustrate this method by analyzing field tracer data. The third section of this report describes a new theory for interpreting interwell tracer data in terms of channeling and dispersive behavior for reservoirs. Once again, a stochastic approach to reservoir description is taken. The fourth section of this report describes our simulation of perfluorocarbon gas tracers. This new tracer technology developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is being tested at the Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 in California. We report preliminary simulations made of these tracers in one of the oil reservoirs under evaluation with these tracers in this field. Our compostional simulator (UTCOMP) was used for this simulation study.

  14. A new technique to make transparent teeth without decalcifying: description of the methodology and micro-hardness assessment.

    PubMed

    Malentacca, Augusto; Lajolo, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Diaphanisation and other in vitro endodontic models (i.e., plastic blocks, micro-CT reconstruction, computerised models) do not recreate real root canal working conditions: a more realistic endodontic model is essential for testing endodontic devices and teaching purposes. The aim of this study was to describe a new technique to construct transparent teeth without decalcifying and evaluate the micro-hardness of so treated teeth. Thirty freshly extracted teeth were randomly divided into three groups as follows: 10 non-treated teeth (4 molars, 3 premolars, 3 incisors; control group - G1), 10 teeth were diaphanised (4 molars, 4 premolars, 2 incisors - G2) and 10 teeth were treated with the new proposed technique (2 molars, 6 premolars, 2 incisors - G3). Vickers hardness tester (MHT-4 and AxioVision microscope, Carl Zeiss, 37030 Gottingen, Germany - load=50 g, dwell time=20s, slope=5, 50× magnification) was used to determine microhardness (Vickers Hardness Number - VHN). Statistical analysis was performed using the Intercooled Stata 8.0 software (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA). Only groups 1 and 3 could be tested for hardness because diaphanised teeth were too tender and elastic. Differences in enamel VHN were observed between G1 (mean 304.29; DS=10.44; range 283-321) and G3 (mean 318.51; DS=14.36; range 295.5-339.2) - (p<0.05); differences in dentine VHN were observed between G1 (mean 74.73; DS=6.62; range 63.9-88.1) and G3 (mean 64.54; DS=5.55; range 51.2-72.3) - (p<0.05). G3 teeth presented a slightly lower VHN compared to G1, probably due to some little structural differences among groups, and were dramatically harder than the diaphanised teeth. The described technique, thus, can be considered ideal for testing endodontic instruments and for teaching purposes.

  15. Apparatus description and data analysis of a radiometric technique for measurements of spectral and total normal emittance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, S. F.; Kantsios, A. G.; Voros, J. P.; Stewart, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    The development of a radiometric technique for determining the spectral and total normal emittance of materials heated to temperatures of 800, 1100, and 1300 K by direct comparison with National Bureau of Standards (NBS) reference specimens is discussed. Emittances are measured over the spectral range of 1 to 15 microns and are statistically compared with NBS reference specimens. Results are included for NBS reference specimens, Rene 41, alundum, zirconia, AISI type 321 stainless steel, nickel 201, and a space-shuttle reusable surface insulation.

  16. HOW CAN BONE TUNNEL ENLARGEMENT IN ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION SURGERY BE MEASURED? DESCRIPTION OF A TECHNIQUE

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar Leonardi, Adriano Barros de; Severino, Nilson Roberto; Junior, Aires Duarte

    2015-01-01

    To assess the presence of tibial bone tunnel enlargement after surgery to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament using quadruple flexor tendon grafts, and to propose a new technique for its measurement. Methods: The study involved 25 patients aged 18-43 years over a six-month period. The assessment was based on radiographs taken immediately postoperatively and in the third and sixth months of evolution after operations to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament using grafts from the tendons of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscles, fixed in the femur with a transverse metal screw and in the tibia with an interference screw. The radiographs were evaluated in terms of the relative value between the diameter of the tunnel and the bone, both at 2 cm below the medial tibial condyle. Results: There were significant increases in tunnel diameters: 20.56% for radiographs in anteroposterior view and 26.48% in lateral view. Enlargement was present in 48% of anteroposterior and lateral radiographs, but was present in both views in only 16% of the cases. Conclusions: Bone tunnel enlargement is a phenomenon found in the first months after surgery to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament. The measurement technique proposed in this study was sufficient to detect it. PMID:27027030

  17. Description and interpretation of the bracts epidermis of Gramineae (Poaceae) with rotated image with maximum average power spectrum (RIMAPS) technique.

    PubMed

    Favret, Eduardo A; Fuentes, Néstor O; Molina, Ana M; Setten, Lorena M

    2008-10-01

    During the last few years, RIMAPS technique has been used to characterize the micro-relief of metallic surfaces and recently also applied to biological surfaces. RIMAPS is an image analysis technique which uses the rotation of an image and calculates its average power spectrum. Here, it is presented as a tool for describing the morphology of the trichodium net found in some grasses, which is developed on the epidermal cells of the lemma. Three different species of grasses (herbarium samples) are analyzed: Podagrostis aequivalvis (Trin.) Scribn. & Merr., Bromidium hygrometricum (Nees) Nees & Meyen and Bromidium ramboi (Parodi) Rúgolo. Simple schemes representing the real microstructure of the lemma are proposed and studied. RIMAPS spectra of both the schemes and the real microstructures are compared. These results allow inferring how similar the proposed geometrical schemes are to the real microstructures. Each geometrical pattern could be used as a reference for classifying other species. Finally, this kind of analysis is used to determine the morphology of the trichodium net of Agrostis breviculmis Hitchc. As the dried sample had shrunk and the microstructure was not clear, two kinds of morphology are proposed for the trichodium net of Agrostis L., one elliptical and the other rectilinear, the former being the most suitable.

  18. Description and interpretation of the bracts epidermis of Gramineae (Poaceae) with rotated image with maximum average power spectrum (RIMAPS) technique.

    PubMed

    Favret, Eduardo A; Fuentes, Néstor O; Molina, Ana M; Setten, Lorena M

    2008-10-01

    During the last few years, RIMAPS technique has been used to characterize the micro-relief of metallic surfaces and recently also applied to biological surfaces. RIMAPS is an image analysis technique which uses the rotation of an image and calculates its average power spectrum. Here, it is presented as a tool for describing the morphology of the trichodium net found in some grasses, which is developed on the epidermal cells of the lemma. Three different species of grasses (herbarium samples) are analyzed: Podagrostis aequivalvis (Trin.) Scribn. & Merr., Bromidium hygrometricum (Nees) Nees & Meyen and Bromidium ramboi (Parodi) Rúgolo. Simple schemes representing the real microstructure of the lemma are proposed and studied. RIMAPS spectra of both the schemes and the real microstructures are compared. These results allow inferring how similar the proposed geometrical schemes are to the real microstructures. Each geometrical pattern could be used as a reference for classifying other species. Finally, this kind of analysis is used to determine the morphology of the trichodium net of Agrostis breviculmis Hitchc. As the dried sample had shrunk and the microstructure was not clear, two kinds of morphology are proposed for the trichodium net of Agrostis L., one elliptical and the other rectilinear, the former being the most suitable. PMID:18042391

  19. On the inclusion of the interfacial area between phases in the physical and mathematical description of subsurface multiphase flow. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, W.G.; Tompson, A.; Soll, W.E.

    1998-06-01

    'Improved capabilities for modeling multiphase flow in the subsurface requires that several aspects of the system which impact the flow and transport processes be more properly accounted for. A distinguishing feature of multiphase flow in comparison to single phase flow is the existence of interfaces between fluids. At the microscopic (pore) scale, these interfaces are known to influence system behavior by supporting non-zero stresses such that the pressures in adjacent phases are not equal. In problems of interphase transport at the macroscopic (core) scale, knowledge of the total amount of interfacial area in the system provides a clue to the effectiveness of the communication between phases. Although interfacial processes are central to multiphase flow physics, their treatment in traditional porous-media theories has been implicit rather than explicit; and no attempts have been made to systematically account for the evolution of the interfacial area in dynamic systems or to include the dependence of constitutive functions, such as capillary pressure, on the interfacial area. This project implements a three-pronged approach to assessing the importance of various features of multiphase flow to its description. The research contributes to the improved understanding and precise physical description of multiphase subsurface flow by combining: (1) theoretical derivation of equations, (2) lattice Boltzmann modeling of hydrodynamics to identify characteristics and parameters, and (3) solution of the field-scale equations using a discrete numerical method to assess the advantages and disadvantages of the complete theory. This approach includes both fundamental scientific inquiry and a path for inclusion of the scientific results obtained in a technical tool that will improve assessment capabilities for multiphase flow situations that have arisen due to the introduction of organic materials in the natural environment. This report summarizes work after 1.5 years of a 3

  20. A, E, I, O, U and Always Y: A Simple Technique for Improving Communication and Assessment in the Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez, Lorna Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the A, E, I, O, U technique, designed to help teachers ensure that teaching and learning are not mutually exclusive in the classroom. Most teachers would agree that motivating average teenagers to communicate how they got an answer or justify their problem-solving strategies can be as difficult as teaching a dog to whistle.…

  1. Spectrophotometric Determination of the Dissociation Constant of an Acid-Base Indicator Using a Mathematical Deconvolution Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alter, Krystyn P.; Molloy, John L.; Niemeyer, Emily D.

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory experiment reinforces the concept of acid-base equilibria while introducing a common application of spectrophotometry and can easily be completed within a standard four-hour laboratory period. It provides students with an opportunity to use advanced data analysis techniques like data smoothing and spectral deconvolution to…

  2. Novel techniques for biodiversity studies of gordiids and description of a new species of Chordodes (Gordiida, Nematomorpha) from Kenya, Africa.

    PubMed

    Bolek, Matthew G; Szmygiel, Cleo; Kubat, Austin; Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Hanelt, Ben

    2013-01-01

    We review recent advances in the use of non-adult gordiid cyst stages to locate gordiids over large geographical regions and new culturing techniques which can help overcome current difficulties in nematomorph biodiversity studies. Using these techniques, we collected a new species of gordiid as cysts in aquatic snails (Biomphalaria pfeifferi) from the Lake Victoria Basin, western Kenya, Africa and cultured them in the laboratory. We describe the adult free-living male and female worms using morphological (light and scanning electron microscopy) and molecular data as well as the life cycle, mating and oviposition behavior, egg strings, eggs, larvae, and cysts of this new species. Chordodes kenyaensis n. sp. belongs to a large group of African Chordodes in which simple areoles are smooth or superficially structured less so than "blackberry" areoles but contain filamentous projections. Present among the simple areoles are clusters of bulging areoles, crowned and circurmcluster areoles along with thorn and tubercle areoles. In the laboratory, worms developed and emerged within 53-78 days from three, species of laboratory-reared crickets exposed to cysts of this species. Adult male and female C. kenyaensis n. sp. initiated typical Gordian knots within hours to days of being placed together and males deposited masses of sperm on the cloacal region of females. Females began oviposition within a week of copulating and attached egg strings in a continuous zigzag pattern on small branches or air-hoses but never free in the water column. Larvae hatched within two to three weeks, and cysts developed in laboratory-reared and exposed snails within 14-24 days. Morphological characteristics of egg strings, eggs, larvae and cysts of C. kenyaensis were most similar to other gordiids in the genus Chordodes but differed morphologically from other gordiid genera for which similar information is available.

  3. Mathematics Underground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luther, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of groundwater flow is a topic at the intersection of mathematics and geohydrology and is rarely encountered in undergraduate mathematics. However, this subject is full of interesting and meaningful examples of truly "applied" mathematics accessible to undergraduates, from the pre-calculus to advanced mathematics levels. This…

  4. Quantification of rainfall prediction uncertainties using a cross-validation based technique. Methodology description and experimental validation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, Ignacio; Cea, Luis; Puertas, Jerónimo; Salsón, Santiago; Petazzi, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we present a new methodology to compute rainfall fields including the quantification of predictions uncertainties using raingauge network data. The proposed methodology comprises two steps. Firstly, the ordinary krigging technique is used to determine the estimated rainfall depth in every point of the study area. Then multiple equi-probable errors fields, which comprise both interpolation and measuring uncertainties, are added to the krigged field resulting in multiple rainfall predictions. To compute these error fields first the standard deviation of the krigging estimation is determined following the cross-validation based procedure described in Delrieu et al. (2014). Then, the standard deviation field is sampled using non-conditioned Gaussian random fields. The proposed methodology was applied to study 7 rain events in a 60x60 km area of the west coast of Galicia, in the Northwest of Spain. Due to its location at the junction between tropical and polar regions, the study area suffers from frequent intense rainfalls characterized by a great variability in terms of both space and time. Rainfall data from the tipping bucket raingauge network operated by MeteoGalicia were used to estimate the rainfall fields using the proposed methodology. The obtained predictions were then validated using rainfall data from 3 additional rain gauges installed within the CAPRI project (Probabilistic flood prediction with high resolution hydrologic models from radar rainfall estimates, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness. Reference CGL2013-46245-R.). Results show that both the mean hyetographs and the peak intensities are correctly predicted. The computed hyetographs present a good fit to the experimental data and most of the measured values fall within the 95% confidence intervals. Also, most of the experimental values outside the confidence bounds correspond to time periods of low rainfall depths, where the inaccuracy of the measuring devices

  5. Posterior lumbar dynamic stabilization instead of arthrodesis for symptomatic adjacent-segment degenerative stenosis: description of a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Mashaly, Hazem; Paschel, Erin E; Khattar, Nicolas K; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Gerszten, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The development of symptomatic adjacent-segment disease (ASD) is a well-recognized consequence of lumbar fusion surgery. Extension of a fusion to a diseased segment may only lead to subsequent adjacent-segment degeneration. The authors report the use of a novel technique that uses dynamic stabilization instead of arthrodesis for the surgical treatment of symptomatic ASD following a prior lumbar instrumented fusion. METHODS A cohort of 28 consecutive patients was evaluated who developed symptomatic stenosis immediately adjacent to a previous lumbar instrumented fusion. All patients had symptoms of neurogenic claudication refractory to nonsurgical treatment and were surgically treated with decompression and dynamic stabilization instead of extending the fusion construct using a posterior lumbar dynamic stabilization system. Preoperative symptoms, visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores, and perioperative complications were recorded. Clinical outcome was gauged by comparing VAS scores prior to surgery and at the time of last follow-up. RESULTS The mean follow-up duration was 52 months (range 17-94 months). The mean interval from the time of primary fusion surgery to the dynamic stabilization surgery was 40 months (range 10-96 months). The mean patient age was 51 years (range 29-76 years). There were 19 (68%) men and 9 (32%) women. Twenty-three patients (82%) presented with low-back pain at time of surgery, whereas 24 patients (86%) presented with lower-extremity symptoms only. Twenty-four patients (86%) underwent operations that were performed using single-level dynamic stabilization, 3 patients (11%) were treated at 2 levels, and 1 patient underwent 3-level decompression and dynamic stabilization. The most commonly affected and treated level (46%) was L3-4. The mean preoperative VAS pain score was 8, whereas the mean postoperative score was 3. No patient required surgery for symptomatic degeneration rostral to the level of dynamic stabilization during the

  6. Posterior lumbar dynamic stabilization instead of arthrodesis for symptomatic adjacent-segment degenerative stenosis: description of a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Mashaly, Hazem; Paschel, Erin E; Khattar, Nicolas K; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Gerszten, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The development of symptomatic adjacent-segment disease (ASD) is a well-recognized consequence of lumbar fusion surgery. Extension of a fusion to a diseased segment may only lead to subsequent adjacent-segment degeneration. The authors report the use of a novel technique that uses dynamic stabilization instead of arthrodesis for the surgical treatment of symptomatic ASD following a prior lumbar instrumented fusion. METHODS A cohort of 28 consecutive patients was evaluated who developed symptomatic stenosis immediately adjacent to a previous lumbar instrumented fusion. All patients had symptoms of neurogenic claudication refractory to nonsurgical treatment and were surgically treated with decompression and dynamic stabilization instead of extending the fusion construct using a posterior lumbar dynamic stabilization system. Preoperative symptoms, visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores, and perioperative complications were recorded. Clinical outcome was gauged by comparing VAS scores prior to surgery and at the time of last follow-up. RESULTS The mean follow-up duration was 52 months (range 17-94 months). The mean interval from the time of primary fusion surgery to the dynamic stabilization surgery was 40 months (range 10-96 months). The mean patient age was 51 years (range 29-76 years). There were 19 (68%) men and 9 (32%) women. Twenty-three patients (82%) presented with low-back pain at time of surgery, whereas 24 patients (86%) presented with lower-extremity symptoms only. Twenty-four patients (86%) underwent operations that were performed using single-level dynamic stabilization, 3 patients (11%) were treated at 2 levels, and 1 patient underwent 3-level decompression and dynamic stabilization. The most commonly affected and treated level (46%) was L3-4. The mean preoperative VAS pain score was 8, whereas the mean postoperative score was 3. No patient required surgery for symptomatic degeneration rostral to the level of dynamic stabilization during the

  7. A new cable-tie based sternal closure system: description of the device, technique of implantation and first clinical evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Wire closure still remains the preferred technique despite reasonable disadvantages. Associated complications, such as infection and sternal instability, cause time- and cost-consuming therapies. We present a new tool for sternal closure with its first clinical experience and results. Methods The sternal ZipFixTM System is based on the cable-tie principle. It primarily consists of biocompatible Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone implants and is predominantly used peristernally through the intercostal space. The system provides a large implant-to-bone contact for better force distribution and for avoiding bone cut through. Results 50 patients were closed with the ZipFixTM system. No sternal instability was observed at 30 days. Two patients developed a mediastinitis that necessitated the removal of the device; however, the ZipFixTM were intact and the sternum remained stable. Conclusions In our initial evaluation, the short-term results have shown that the sternal ZipFixTM can be used safely and effectively. It is fast, easy to use and serves as a potential alternative for traditional wire closure. PMID:22731778

  8. Arthroscopic-Assisted Treatment of a Reversed Hill-Sachs Lesion: Description of a New Technique Using Cerament

    PubMed Central

    Bark, S.; Renken, F.; Schulz, A. P.; Paech, A.; Gille, J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Impaction fractures of the anterior aspect of the humeral head, the reversed Hill-Sachs lesion, are common in posterior shoulder dislocation. We present a new technique to address these lesions arthroscopic-assisted with the use of a bone substitute. Methods. We report the case of a 45-year-old male with a reversed Hill-Sachs lesion after posterior shoulder dislocation. Initially a glenohumeral arthroscopy is performed to address concomitant intra-articular injuries. Guided by the k-wire a cannulated sizer was inserted for reduction of the fracture under arthroscopic visualization. For reduction of the impacted part of the humeral head the subcortical defect was filled with an injectable bone substitute (Cerament) to prevent secondary dislocation. Results. X-ray at follow-up 6 months after the index procedure documents the bony remodeling of the bone substitute. At that time the patient was pain-free (VAS 0) and satisfied with the outcome (Constant score: 78, Rand-36 score: 84, Rowe score: 81) with a good ROM. Conclusions. In conclusion, arthroscopic-assisted reconstruction of reversed Hill-Sachs lesions with an injectable bone substitute is feasible and may provide patients with all the benefits of an anatomic reconstruction with decreased risks related to open surgery. PMID:25688315

  9. Computation and graphics in mathematical research

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.A.; Spruck, J.

    1992-08-13

    This report discusses: The description of the GANG Project and results for prior research; the center for geometry, analysis, numerics and graphics; description of GANG Laboratory; software development at GANG; and mathematical and scientific research activities.

  10. Experimenting with Mathematical Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanft, Rebecca; Walter, Anne

    2016-01-01

    St. Olaf College recently added a Mathematical Biology concentration to its curriculum. The core course, Mathematics of Biology, was redesigned to include a wet laboratory. The lab classes required students to collect data and implement the essential modeling techniques of formulation, implementation, validation, and analysis. The four labs…

  11. Mathematics in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallenberg, Harvey

    1995-01-01

    Presents ideas for creating mathematical classroom activities associated with the history of mathematics: calculating sums and products the way ancient Greeks did it, using an abacus or moving stones on a sanded floor, and engaging elementary students through role playing specific mathematicians. Suggests that through such techniques, mathematics…

  12. Mathematical epidemiology is not an oxymoron

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A brief description of the importance of communicable diseases in history and the development of mathematical modelling of disease transmission is given. This includes reasons for mathematical modelling, the history of mathematical modelling from the foundations laid in the late nineteenth century to the present, some of the accomplishments of mathematical modelling, and some challenges for the future. Our purpose is to demonstrate the importance of mathematical modelling for the understanding and management of infectious disease transmission. PMID:19922686

  13. The Mathematics of Global Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreith, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a descriptive and preliminary report on recent efforts to address two questions: 1) Can school mathematics be used to enhance our students' ability to understand their changing world? and 2) What role might computer technology play in this regard? After recounting some of the mathematical tools that led to a better understanding of…

  14. Fostering Creativity Through Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenberg, Betty K., Ed.; Troutman, Andria P., Ed.

    The 26 activities described in this volume deal with a wide variety of mathematical ideas. Most of the activities are appropriate for grades 6-9; many could be used with older or younger groups as well. All activities are described in detail; some descriptions include sample worksheets, and several provide suggestions for followup activities. The…

  15. Mathematics, Anyone?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reys, Robert; Reys, Rustin

    2011-01-01

    In their dual roles as mathematics teachers and tennis coaches, the authors have worked with tennis players who have never thought about how a knowledge of mathematics might help them become "better" tennis players. They have also worked with many mathematics students who have never considered how much mathematics is associated with tennis. This…

  16. Experimental Mathematics and Computational Statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2009-04-30

    The field of statistics has long been noted for techniques to detect patterns and regularities in numerical data. In this article we explore connections between statistics and the emerging field of 'experimental mathematics'. These includes both applications of experimental mathematics in statistics, as well as statistical methods applied to computational mathematics.

  17. Prospects of a mathematical theory of human behavior in complex man-machine systems tasks. [time sharing computer analogy of automobile driving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    A hierarchy of human activities is derived by analyzing automobile driving in general terms. A structural description leads to a block diagram and a time-sharing computer analogy. The range of applicability of existing mathematical models is considered with respect to the hierarchy of human activities in actual complex tasks. Other mathematical tools so far not often applied to man machine systems are also discussed. The mathematical descriptions at least briefly considered here include utility, estimation, control, queueing, and fuzzy set theory as well as artificial intelligence techniques. Some thoughts are given as to how these methods might be integrated and how further work might be pursued.

  18. CARE 3 phase 2 report - mathematical description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiffler, J. J.; Bryant, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    CARE III (Computer-Aided Reliability Estimation, version three) a computer program designed to help estimate the reliability of complex, redundant systems is described. Although the program can model a wide variety of redundant structures, it was developed specifically for fault tolerant avionics systems. CARE III generalizes the class of system structures that can be modeled and greatly expands the coverage model to take into account such effects as intermittent and transient faults, latent faults, and error propagation.

  19. Mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Brian F.; Wither (Post.), David P.

    2003-09-01

    This paper is a distillation of the major result from the 1998 Ph.D. thesis of the late David Wither. It details a longitudinal study over five years of the relationship between mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. It starts from the already well documented negative correlation between the two, and seeks to establish one of the three hypotheses—that mathematics anxiety causes an impairment of mathematics achievement; that lack of mathematics achievement causes mathematics anxiety; or that there is a third underlying cause of the two.

  20. Rainforest Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the contested way that ethnomathematics has sometimes been received by mathematicians and others and what that disagreement might suggest about issues in mathematics education; namely, (a) the relation of ethnomathematics to academic mathematics; (b) recent efforts to reform secondary school mathematics so that it prepares…

  1. New Trends in Mathematics Teaching, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This volume consists of 29 papers and articles from leading mathematics-teaching journals in many countries. Discussed is new content and curricula and unusual approaches and techniques in the teaching of mathematics at the elementary and secondary levels. Some topics discussed are theories of mathematics instruction, new mathematical experiences…

  2. Drought description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matalas, N.C.

    1991-01-01

    What constitutes a comprehensive description of drought, a description forming a basis for answering why a drought occurred is outlined. The description entails two aspects that are "naturally" coupled, named physical and economic, and treats the set of hydrologic measures of droughts in terms of their multivariate distribution, rather than in terms of a collection of the marginal distributions. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Mathematical Modeling and Pure Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usiskin, Zalman

    2015-01-01

    Common situations, like planning air travel, can become grist for mathematical modeling and can promote the mathematical ideas of variables, formulas, algebraic expressions, functions, and statistics. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how the mathematical modeling that is present in everyday situations can be naturally embedded in…

  4. Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Prospective Primary Mathematics Teachers about Mathematical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yavuz, Gunes; Gunhan, Berna Canturk; Ersoy, Esen; Narli, Serkan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the self-efficacy beliefs about mathematical literacy among teachers of primary school mathematics and the relationship between the self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes towards mathematics. To that end, a descriptive research study was conducted with 550 prospective teachers studying primary school mathematics…

  5. Hardware description languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Jerry H.

    1994-01-01

    Hardware description languages are special purpose programming languages. They are primarily used to specify the behavior of digital systems and are rapidly replacing traditional digital system design techniques. This is because they allow the designer to concentrate on how the system should operate rather than on implementation details. Hardware description languages allow a digital system to be described with a wide range of abstraction, and they support top down design techniques. A key feature of any hardware description language environment is its ability to simulate the modeled system. The two most important hardware description languages are Verilog and VHDL. Verilog has been the dominant language for the design of application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's). However, VHDL is rapidly gaining in popularity.

  6. Mathematics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langbort, Carol, Ed.; Curtis, Deborah, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    The focus of this special issue is mathematics education. All articles were written by graduates of the new masters Degree program in which students earn a Master of Arts degree in Education with a concentration in Mathematics Education at San Francisco State University. Articles include: (1) "Developing Teacher-Leaders in a Masters Degree Program…

  7. Making Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huckstep, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Contends teachers must resist the temptation to suggest that, while children can create stories and melodies, they cannot create mathematics. Quotes mathematician G. H. Hardy: "A mathematician, like a painter or poet, is a 'maker' of patterns." Considers mathematics should be able to stand up for itself. (BT)

  8. Technical Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Carol A.

    This manuscript provides information and problems for teaching mathematics to vocational education students. Problems reflect applications of mathematical concepts to specific technical areas. The materials are organized into six chapters. Chapter 1 covers basic arithmetic, including fractions, decimals, ratio and proportions, percentages, and…

  9. Mathematics Scrapbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochazka, Helen

    2004-01-01

    One section of this "scrapbook" section describes Pythagoras' belief in the connections between music and mathematics -- that everything in the universe was a series of harmonies and regulated by music. Another section explains why Phythagoras felt it important for women to be encouraged to learn mathematics. At least 28 women were involved in his…

  10. Developmental Kindergarten: Definition and Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.

    This paper sets forth a definition and operational description of a developmental program that should be of use as a guide, especially to Virginia's teachers and administrators. Also included in the paper are kindergarten curriculum objectives in the areas of language arts, mathematics, science, art, social studies, family life, health, mental…

  11. Factors Influencing Competency in Mathematics Among Entering Elementary Education Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caraway, Sue Dennis

    Relationships among attitude toward mathematics, mathematics background, and junior college transfer versus non-transfer status upon competency in elementary mathematics were investigated using multiple linear regression techniques. Instruments for collecting data included a mathematics placement test, the "Mathematics Attitude Scale" by Aiken,…

  12. Applications of Secondary School Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastner, Bernice

    This text is based on the idea that teachers of mathematics at any level will find it advantageous to be able to point to interesting, useful, and diverse applications of the mathematics they teach. The first chapter describes several graphing techniques used for displaying data and finding meaningful relationships as a result. Subsequent chapters…

  13. Storytelling + Origami = Storigami Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastin, Marla

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a way to engage students in mathematics learning by using the innovative instructional method of storigami. The author shares reactions from teachers who have used her storigami techniques in their classes and provides an example of storigami using the Norwegian fable "The Dog and the Mountain." (Contains 6 figures.)

  14. Remedial Mathematics in the College: A Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akst, Geoffrey

    1978-01-01

    References dealing specifically with college remedial mathematics programs fall into several categories: descriptions of programs at individual colleges, regional surveys, and comparative studies on the relative effectiveness of various modes of instruction. (MN)

  15. Mathematical modeling of radio systems and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, Iu. P.; Tsvetnov, V. V.

    Methods for developing mathematical models of radio systems and devices are presented with emphasis on the functional approach to the modeling of radio systems. In particular, attention is given to the formal description of radio systems, computer-aided modeling of radio systems, a classification of methods of radio system modeling, and methods of mathematical description of signals and noise. Specific methods discussed include the carrier method, the complex envelope method, the method of statistical equivalents, and the information parameter method.

  16. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCammon, Richard B.

    1979-01-01

    The year 1978 marked a continued trend toward practical applications in mathematical geology. Developments included work in interactive computer graphics, factor analysis, the vanishing tons problem, universal kriging, and resource estimating. (BB)

  17. Mathematical Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Martin

    1978-01-01

    Describes the life and work of Charles Peirce, U.S. mathematician and philosopher. His accomplishments include contributions to logic, the foundations of mathematics and scientific method, and decision theory and probability theory. (MA)

  18. Teaching Mathematics to Civil Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, J. J.; Moore, E.

    1977-01-01

    This paper outlines a technique for teaching a rigorous course in calculus and differential equations which stresses applicability of the mathematics to problems in civil engineering. The method involves integration of subject matter and team teaching. (SD)

  19. Computer-Game-Based Tutoring of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ke, Fengfeng

    2013-01-01

    This in-situ, descriptive case study examined the potential of implementing computer mathematics games as an anchor for tutoring of mathematics. Data were collected from middle school students at a rural pueblo school and an urban Hispanic-serving school, through in-field observation, content analysis of game-based tutoring-learning interactions,…

  20. On the Role of Mathematics in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quale, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    I examine the association between the observable physical world and the mathematical models of theoretical physics. These models will exhibit many entities that have no counterpart in the physical world, but which are still necessary for the mathematical description of physical systems. Moreover, when the model is applied to the analysis of a…

  1. Mathematics Teachers' Criteria of Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ural, Alattin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine mathematics teachers' decisions about dimensions of the geometric figures, criteria of dimension and consistency of decision-criteria. The research is a qualitative research and the model applied in the study is descriptive method on the basis of general scanning model. 15 mathematics teachers attended the…

  2. Dynamic Boolean Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossé, Michael J.; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Chandler, Kayla; Lynch-Davis, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic mathematical environments allow users to reify mathematical concepts through multiple representations, transform mathematical relations and organically explore mathematical properties, investigate integrated mathematics, and develop conceptual understanding. Herein, we integrate Boolean algebra, the functionalities of a dynamic…

  3. Mathematical wit and mathematical cognition.

    PubMed

    Aberdein, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    The published works of scientists often conceal the cognitive processes that led to their results. Scholars of mathematical practice must therefore seek out less obvious sources. This article analyzes a widely circulated mathematical joke, comprising a list of spurious proof types. An account is proposed in terms of argumentation schemes: stereotypical patterns of reasoning, which may be accompanied by critical questions itemizing possible lines of defeat. It is argued that humor is associated with risky forms of inference, which are essential to creative mathematics. The components of the joke are explicated by argumentation schemes devised for application to topic-neutral reasoning. These in turn are classified under seven headings: retroduction, citation, intuition, meta-argument, closure, generalization, and definition. Finally, the wider significance of this account for the cognitive science of mathematics is discussed. PMID:23512504

  4. Mathematical Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Glimm, J.

    2009-10-14

    Progress for the past decade or so has been extraordinary. The solution of Fermat's Last Theorem [11] and of the Poincare Conjecture [1] have resolved two of the most outstanding challenges to mathematics. For both cases, deep and advanced theories and whole subfields of mathematics came into play and were developed further as part of the solutions. And still the future is wide open. Six of the original seven problems from the Clay Foundation challenge remain open, the 23 DARPA challenge problems are open. Entire new branches of mathematics have been developed, including financial mathematics and the connection between geometry and string theory, proposed to solve the problems of quantized gravity. New solutions of the Einstein equations, inspired by shock wave theory, suggest a cosmology model which fits accelerating expansion of the universe possibly eliminating assumptions of 'dark matter'. Intellectual challenges and opportunities for mathematics are greater than ever. The role of mathematics in society continues to grow; with this growth comes new opportunities and some growing pains; each will be analyzed here. We see a broadening of the intellectual and professional opportunities and responsibilities for mathematicians. These trends are also occuring across all of science. The response can be at the level of the professional societies, which can work to deepen their interactions, not only within the mathematical sciences, but also with other scientific societies. At a deeper level, the choices to be made will come from individual mathematicians. Here, of course, the individual choices will be varied, and we argue for respect and support for this diversity of responses. In such a manner, we hope to preserve the best of the present while welcoming the best of the new.

  5. Surgical reconstruction of PIP joint collateral ligament in chronic instability in a high performance athlete: case report and description of technique.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Gustavo; Pavan, Alexandre; Aita, Marcio A; Argintar, Evan

    2011-06-01

    We present a case report describing the surgical technique for the reconstruction of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint collateral ligament using autograft palmaris longus tendon graft. We accomplished this successfully in a high performance professional athlete presenting with chronic instability of the PIP joint. Our surgical reconstructive technique recreated anatomic ligament position, while correcting multidirectional instability without disruption of the other dynamic anatomic structures of the PIP joint. Our results demonstrated excellent clinical and functional results, and we offer our technique as an alternative to tenodesis procedures for individuals with professions that demand PIP motion.

  6. Elementary Statistics I--Mathematics 274 Course Syllabus, Fall 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Deborah L.

    This document features the syllabus for a course in Elementary Statistics/Mathematics at Southern University in Baton Rouge, LA. The course textbook, a course description, readings, goals, and course requirements are presented. Basic descriptive analysis and mathematical concepts commonly used in statistics are emphasized in the course. Topics…

  7. Anaphoric Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beller, Charley

    2013-01-01

    The study of definite descriptions has been a central part of research in linguistics and philosophy of language since Russell's seminal work "On Denoting" (Russell 1905). In that work Russell quickly dispatches analyses of denoting expressions with forms like "no man," "some man," "a man," and "every…

  8. Combination of Different In Situ Characterization Techniques and Scanning Electron Microscopy Investigations for a Comprehensive Description of the Tensile Deformation Behavior of a CrMnNi TRIP/TWIP Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidner, Anja; Biermann, Horst

    2015-08-01

    The class of low-carbon, high-alloy CrMnNi steels exhibits outstanding mechanical properties with respect to high strength and ductility due to either transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) or twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) effect depending on chemical composition and deformation temperature. However, the ongoing deformation mechanisms like the formation of stacking faults, martensitic phase transformation or deformation-induced twinning are overlapping and the kinetics of the microstructure evolution are quite complex. Therefore, in addition to macroscopic deformation tests and microstructural investigations by scanning electron microscopy, a combination of several in situ characterization techniques with either high lateral and/or temporal resolution as well as providing integral volume information were chosen in order to give a thoroughly and comprehensive description of the deformation behavior of CrMnNi TRIP/TWIP steels. In addition, the complementary in situ techniques like in situ nanoindentation, micro-digital image correlation, and acoustic emission measurements provide excellent possibility for description of materials behavior on a multiscale level from the submicrometer scale up to the macroscopic range. The results obtained by the complementary techniques can support the future modeling of the deformation behavior of TRIP/TWIP steels dependent on chemical composition, temperature, grain size and grain orientation.

  9. The Definition of Mathematics: Philosophical and Pedagogical Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khait, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    There is a strange fact that many works written with the purpose to explain what is mathematics, somehow avoid the issue. This paper is aimed at filling this gap. After discussing various descriptions of mathematics as they appear in literature, it is suggested that mathematics is an essentially linguistic activity characterized by association of…

  10. CRAC2 model description

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, L.T.; Alpert, D.J.; Burke, R.P.; Johnson, J.D.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; Aldrich, D.C.; Blond, R.M.

    1984-03-01

    The CRAC2 computer code is a revised version of CRAC (Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences) which was developed for the Reactor Safety Study. This document provides an overview of the CRAC2 code and a description of each of the models used. Significant improvements incorporated into CRAC2 include an improved weather sequence sampling technique, a new evacuation model, and new output capabilities. In addition, refinements have been made to the atmospheric transport and deposition model. Details of the modeling differences between CRAC2 and CRAC are emphasized in the model descriptions.

  11. SKYMAP system description: Star catalog data base generation and utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlieb, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    The specifications, design, software description, and use of the SKYMAP star catalog system are detailed. The SKYMAP system was developed to provide an accurate and complete catalog of all stars with blue or visual magnitudes brighter than 9.0 for use by attitude determination programs. Because of the large number of stars which are brighter than 9.0 magnitude, efficient techniques of manipulating and accessing the data were required. These techniques of staged distillation of data from a Master Catalog to a Core Catalog, and direct access of overlapping zone catalogs, form the basis of the SKYMAP system. The collection and tranformation of data required to produce the Master Catalog data base is described. The data flow through the main programs and levels of star catalogs is detailed. The mathematical and logical techniques for each program and the format of all catalogs are documented.

  12. Mathematical Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogness, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Advances in computer graphics have provided mathematicians with the ability to create stunning visualizations, both to gain insight and to help demonstrate the beauty of mathematics to others. As educators these tools can be particularly important as we search for ways to work with students raised with constant visual stimulation, from video games…

  13. Relevant Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catterton, Gene; And Others

    This material was developed to be used with the non college-bound student in the senior high school. It provides the student with everyday problems and experiences in which practical mathematical applications are made. The package includes worksheets pertaining to letterhead invoices, sales slips, payroll sheets, inventory sheets, carpentry and…

  14. Data interpretation, objective evaluation procedures and mathematical techniques for the evaluation of energy-dependent ratio, shape and cross section data

    SciTech Connect

    Poenitz, W.P.

    1980-01-01

    The evaluation of several energy-dependent neutron cross sections which are of importance for practical applications is considered. The evaluation process is defined as the procedure which is used to derive the best knowledge of these cross sections based on the available direct experimental data information, and, using theoretical models, on the auxiliary data base. The experimental data base represents a multiple overdetermination of the unknown cross sections with various correlations between the measured values. Obtaining the least-squares estimator is considered as the standard mathematical procedure to derive a consistent set of evaluated cross section values. Various approximations made in order to avoid the monstrous system of normal equations are considered and the feasibility of the exact solution is demonstrated. The variance-covariance of the result, its reliability and the improvements obtained in iterative steps are discussed. Finally, the inclusion of auxiliary, supplementary information is considered. 45 references.

  15. Development of a mechanism and an accurate and simple mathematical model for the description of drug release: Application to a relevant example of acetazolamide-controlled release from a bio-inspired elastin-based hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Colino, A; Bermudez, J M; Arias, F J; Quinteros, D; Gonzo, E

    2016-04-01

    Transversality between mathematical modeling, pharmacology, and materials science is essential in order to achieve controlled-release systems with advanced properties. In this regard, the area of biomaterials provides a platform for the development of depots that are able to achieve controlled release of a drug, whereas pharmacology strives to find new therapeutic molecules and mathematical models have a connecting function, providing a rational understanding by modeling the parameters that influence the release observed. Herein we present a mechanism which, based on reasonable assumptions, explains the experimental data obtained very well. In addition, we have developed a simple and accurate “lumped” kinetics model to correctly fit the experimentally observed drug-release behavior. This lumped model allows us to have simple analytic solutions for the mass and rate of drug release as a function of time without limitations of time or mass of drug released, which represents an important step-forward in the area of in vitro drug delivery when compared to the current state of the art in mathematical modeling. As an example, we applied the mechanism and model to the release data for acetazolamide from a recombinant polymer. Both materials were selected because of a need to develop a suitable ophthalmic formulation for the treatment of glaucoma. The in vitro release model proposed herein provides a valuable predictive tool for ensuring product performance and batch-to-batch reproducibility, thus paving the way for the development of further pharmaceutical devices.

  16. Development of a mechanism and an accurate and simple mathematical model for the description of drug release: Application to a relevant example of acetazolamide-controlled release from a bio-inspired elastin-based hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Colino, A; Bermudez, J M; Arias, F J; Quinteros, D; Gonzo, E

    2016-04-01

    Transversality between mathematical modeling, pharmacology, and materials science is essential in order to achieve controlled-release systems with advanced properties. In this regard, the area of biomaterials provides a platform for the development of depots that are able to achieve controlled release of a drug, whereas pharmacology strives to find new therapeutic molecules and mathematical models have a connecting function, providing a rational understanding by modeling the parameters that influence the release observed. Herein we present a mechanism which, based on reasonable assumptions, explains the experimental data obtained very well. In addition, we have developed a simple and accurate “lumped” kinetics model to correctly fit the experimentally observed drug-release behavior. This lumped model allows us to have simple analytic solutions for the mass and rate of drug release as a function of time without limitations of time or mass of drug released, which represents an important step-forward in the area of in vitro drug delivery when compared to the current state of the art in mathematical modeling. As an example, we applied the mechanism and model to the release data for acetazolamide from a recombinant polymer. Both materials were selected because of a need to develop a suitable ophthalmic formulation for the treatment of glaucoma. The in vitro release model proposed herein provides a valuable predictive tool for ensuring product performance and batch-to-batch reproducibility, thus paving the way for the development of further pharmaceutical devices. PMID:26838852

  17. A descriptive study of the usage of spinal manipulative therapy techniques within a randomized clinical trial in acute low back pain.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Deirdre A; McDonough, Suzanne M; Baxter, G David; Dempster, Martin; Moore, Ann P

    2005-02-01

    The majority of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of spinal manipulative therapy have not adequately defined the terms 'mobilization' and 'manipulation', nor distinguished between these terms in reporting the trial interventions. The purpose of this study was to describe the spinal manipulative therapy techniques utilized within a RCT of manipulative therapy (MT; n = 80), interferential therapy (IFT; n = 80), and a combination of both (CT; n = 80) for people with acute low back pain (LBP). Spinal manipulative therapy was defined as any 'mobilization' (low velocity manual force without a thrust) or 'manipulation' (high velocity thrust) techniques of the spine described by Maitland and Cyriax. The 16 physiotherapists, all members of the Society of Orthopaedic Medicine, utilized three spinal manipulative therapy patterns in the RCT: Maitland Mobilization (40.4%, n = 59), Maitland Mobilization/Cyriax Manipulation (40.4%, n = 59) and Cyriax Manipulation (19.1%, n = 28). There was a significant difference between the MT and CT groups in their usage of spinal manipulative therapy techniques (chi2 = 9.178; df = 2; P = 0.01); subjects randomized to the CT group received three times more Cyriax Manipulation (29.2%, n = 21/72) than those randomized to the MT group (9.5%, n = 7/74; df = 1; P = 0.003). The use of mobilization techniques within the trial was comparable with their usage by the general population of physiotherapists in Britain and Ireland for LBP management. However, the usage of manipulation techniques was considerably higher than reported in physiotherapy surveys and may reflect the postgraduate training of trial therapists.

  18. Mathematical String Sculptures: A Case Study in Computationally-Enhanced Mathematical Crafts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Mathematical string sculptures constitute an extremely beautiful realm of mathematical crafts. This snapshot begins with a description of a marvelous (and no longer manufactured) toy called Space Spider, which provided a framework with which children could experiment with string sculptures. Using a computer-controlled laser cutter to create frames…

  19. Symmetry in Mathematics and Art: An Exploration of an Art Venue for Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianou, Despina A.; Grzegorczyk, Ivona

    2005-01-01

    Symmetry is an aspect of mathematics that is strongly linked to art and design. We chose to explore this connection in the context of a liberal arts mathematics course. Here we present a brief description of this course, including an outline of the curriculum and specific features of the course. We subsequently present the results of a study we…

  20. Relating Difficulty in School Mathematics to Nature of Mathematics: Perception of High School Students from Kerala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Sarabi, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    This study relates factors in nature of Mathematics and its teaching learning to student difficulties for diverse mathematics tasks. Descriptive survey was done on a sample of 300 high school students in Kerala with a questionnaire on difficulties in learning. Student perception of difficulty on 26 types of tasks, under five heads that students…

  1. On the mathematical modeling of wound healing angiogenesis in skin as a reaction-transport process

    PubMed Central

    Flegg, Jennifer A.; Menon, Shakti N.; Maini, Philip K.; McElwain, D. L. Sean

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, numerous research groups have attempted to provide mathematical descriptions of the skin wound healing process. The development of theoretical models of the interlinked processes that underlie the healing mechanism has yielded considerable insight into aspects of this critical phenomenon that remain difficult to investigate empirically. In particular, the mathematical modeling of angiogenesis, i.e., capillary sprout growth, has offered new paradigms for the understanding of this highly complex and crucial step in the healing pathway. With the recent advances in imaging and cell tracking, the time is now ripe for an appraisal of the utility and importance of mathematical modeling in wound healing angiogenesis research. The purpose of this review is to pedagogically elucidate the conceptual principles that have underpinned the development of mathematical descriptions of wound healing angiogenesis, specifically those that have utilized a continuum reaction-transport framework, and highlight the contribution that such models have made toward the advancement of research in this field. We aim to draw attention to the common assumptions made when developing models of this nature, thereby bringing into focus the advantages and limitations of this approach. A deeper integration of mathematical modeling techniques into the practice of wound healing angiogenesis research promises new perspectives for advancing our knowledge in this area. To this end we detail several open problems related to the understanding of wound healing angiogenesis, and outline how these issues could be addressed through closer cross-disciplinary collaboration. PMID:26483695

  2. Mathematics Curriculum Guide. Mathematics IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary City Public School System, IN.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade 12. SUBJECT MATTER: Mathematics. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The subject matter is presented in four columns: major areas, significant outcomes, observations and suggestions, and films and references. The topics include: sets-relations-functions, circular functions, graphs of circular functions, inverses of circular…

  3. Mathematical Creativity and Mathematical Aptitude: A Cross-Lagged Panel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyagi, Tarun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Cross-lagged panel correlation (CLPC) analysis has been used to identify causal relationships between mathematical creativity and mathematical aptitude. For this study, 480 8th standard students were selected through a random cluster technique from 9 intermediate and high schools of Varanasi, India. Mathematical creativity and mathematical…

  4. Mathematical Idea Analysis: What Embodied Cognitive Science Can Say about the Human Nature of Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Rafael E.

    This paper gives a brief introduction to a discipline called the cognitive science of mathematics. The theoretical background of the arguments is based on embodied cognition and findings in cognitive linguistics. It discusses Mathematical Idea Analysis, a set of techniques for studying implicit structures in mathematics. Particular attention is…

  5. Mathematics is always invisible, Professor Dowling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cable, John

    2015-09-01

    This article provides a critical evaluation of a technique of analysis, the Social Activity Method, recently offered by Dowling (2013) as a `gift' to mathematics education. The method is found to be inadequate, firstly, because it employs a dichotomy (between `expression' and `content') instead of a finer analysis (into symbols, concepts and setting or phenomena), and, secondly, because the distinction between `public' and `esoteric' mathematics, although interesting, is allowed to obscure the structure of the mathematics itself. There is also criticism of what Dowling calls the `myth of participation', which denies the intimate links between mathematics and the rest of the universe that lie at the heart of mathematical pedagogy. Behind all this lies Dowling's `essentially linguistic' conception of mathematics, which is criticised on the dual ground that it ignores the chastening experience of formalism in mathematical philosophy and that linguistics itself has taken a wrong turn and ignores lessons that might be learnt from mathematics education.

  6. Advanced techniques for the storage and use of very large, heterogeneous spatial databases. The representation of geographic knowledge: Toward a universal framework. [relations (mathematics)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peuquet, Donna J.

    1987-01-01

    A new approach to building geographic data models that is based on the fundamental characteristics of the data is presented. An overall theoretical framework for representing geographic data is proposed. An example of utilizing this framework in a Geographic Information System (GIS) context by combining artificial intelligence techniques with recent developments in spatial data processing techniques is given. Elements of data representation discussed include hierarchical structure, separation of locational and conceptual views, and the ability to store knowledge at variable levels of completeness and precision.

  7. Mathematical Modeling of Diverse Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Tensor calculus is applied to the formulation of mathematical models of diverse phenomena. Aeronautics, fluid dynamics, and cosmology are among the areas of application. The feasibility of combining tensor methods and computer capability to formulate problems is demonstrated. The techniques described are an attempt to simplify the formulation of mathematical models by reducing the modeling process to a series of routine operations, which can be performed either manually or by computer.

  8. Screw-Wire Osteo-Traction: An Adjunctive or Alternative Method of Anatomical Reduction of Multisegment Midfacial Fractures? A Description of Technique and Prospective Study of 40 Patients

    PubMed Central

    O'Regan, Barry; Devine, Maria; Bhopal, Sats

    2013-01-01

    Stable anatomical fracture reduction and segment control before miniplate fixation can be difficult to achieve in comminuted midfacial fractures. Fracture mobilization and reduction methods include Gillies elevation, malar hook, and Dingman elevators. No single method is used universally. Disadvantages include imprecise segment alignment and poor segment stability/control. We have employed screw-wire osteo-traction (SWOT) to address this problem. A literature review revealed two published reports. The aims were to evaluate the SWOT technique effectiveness as a fracture reduction method and to examine rates of revision fixation and plate removal. We recruited 40 consecutive patients requiring open reduction and internal fixation of multisegment midfacial fractures (2009–2012) and employed miniplate osteosynthesis in all patients. SWOT was used as a default reduction method in all patients. The rates of successful fracture reduction achieved by SWOT alone or in combination and of revision fixation and plate removal, were used as outcome indices of the reduction method effectiveness. The SWOT technique achieved satisfactory anatomical reduction in 27/40 patients when used alone. Other reduction methods were also used in 13/40 patients. No patient required revision fixation and three patients required late plate removal. SWOT can be used across the midface fracture pattern in conjunction with other methods or as a sole reduction method before miniplate fixation. PMID:24436763

  9. Screw-wire osteo-traction: an adjunctive or alternative method of anatomical reduction of multisegment midfacial fractures? A description of technique and prospective study of 40 patients.

    PubMed

    O'Regan, Barry; Devine, Maria; Bhopal, Sats

    2013-12-01

    Stable anatomical fracture reduction and segment control before miniplate fixation can be difficult to achieve in comminuted midfacial fractures. Fracture mobilization and reduction methods include Gillies elevation, malar hook, and Dingman elevators. No single method is used universally. Disadvantages include imprecise segment alignment and poor segment stability/control. We have employed screw-wire osteo-traction (SWOT) to address this problem. A literature review revealed two published reports. The aims were to evaluate the SWOT technique effectiveness as a fracture reduction method and to examine rates of revision fixation and plate removal. We recruited 40 consecutive patients requiring open reduction and internal fixation of multisegment midfacial fractures (2009-2012) and employed miniplate osteosynthesis in all patients. SWOT was used as a default reduction method in all patients. The rates of successful fracture reduction achieved by SWOT alone or in combination and of revision fixation and plate removal, were used as outcome indices of the reduction method effectiveness. The SWOT technique achieved satisfactory anatomical reduction in 27/40 patients when used alone. Other reduction methods were also used in 13/40 patients. No patient required revision fixation and three patients required late plate removal. SWOT can be used across the midface fracture pattern in conjunction with other methods or as a sole reduction method before miniplate fixation.

  10. Using the Oaxaca-Blinder Decomposition Technique to Analyze Learning Outcomes Changes over Time: An Application to Indonesia's Results in PISA Mathematics. Policy Research Working Paper 5584

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera-Osorio, Felipe; Garcia-Moreno, Vicente; Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Porta, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    The Oaxaca-Blinder technique was originally used in labor economics to decompose earnings gaps and to estimate the level of discrimination. It has been applied since in other social issues, including education, where it can be used to assess how much of a gap is due to differences in characteristics (explained variation) and how much is due to…

  11. Dilemma in Teaching Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Md Kamaruddin, Nafisah Kamariah; Md Amin, Zulkarnain

    2012-01-01

    The challenge in mathematics education is finding the best way to teach mathematics. When students learn the reasoning and proving in mathematics, they will be proficient in mathematics. Students must know mathematics before they can apply it. Symbolism and logic is the key to both the learning of mathematics and its effective application to…

  12. Dissociation coefficients of protein adsorption to nanoparticles as quantitative metrics for description of the protein corona: A comparison of experimental techniques and methodological relevance.

    PubMed

    Hühn, Jonas; Fedeli, Chiara; Zhang, Qian; Masood, Atif; Del Pino, Pablo; Khashab, Niveen M; Papini, Emanuele; Parak, Wolfgang J

    2016-06-01

    Protein adsorption to nanoparticles is described as a chemical reaction in which proteins attach to binding sites on the nanoparticle surface. This process is defined by a dissociation coefficient, which tells how many proteins are adsorbed per nanoparticle in dependence of the protein concentration. Different techniques to experimentally determine dissociation coefficients of protein adsorption to nanoparticles are reviewed. Results of more than 130 experiments in which dissociation coefficients have been determined are compared. Data show that different methods, nanoparticle systems, and proteins can lead to significantly different dissociation coefficients. However, we observed a clear tendency of smaller dissociation coefficients upon less negative towards more positive zeta potentials of the nanoparticles. The zeta potential thus is a key parameter influencing protein adsorption to the surface of nanoparticles. Our analysis highlights the importance of the characterization of the parameters governing protein-nanoparticle interaction for quantitative evaluation and objective literature comparison. PMID:26748245

  13. The composite sequential clustering technique for analysis of multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, M. Y.

    1972-01-01

    The clustering technique consists of two parts: (1) a sequential statistical clustering which is essentially a sequential variance analysis, and (2) a generalized K-means clustering. In this composite clustering technique, the output of (1) is a set of initial clusters which are input to (2) for further improvement by an iterative scheme. This unsupervised composite technique was employed for automatic classification of two sets of remote multispectral earth resource observations. The classification accuracy by the unsupervised technique is found to be comparable to that by traditional supervised maximum likelihood classification techniques. The mathematical algorithms for the composite sequential clustering program and a detailed computer program description with job setup are given.

  14. Teaching Mathematical Modeling in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxena, Ritu; Shrivastava, Keerty; Bhardwaj, Ramakant

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics is not only a subject but it is also a language consisting of many different symbols and relations. Taught as a compulsory subject up the 10th class, students are then able to choose whether or not to study mathematics as a main subject. The present paper discusses mathematical modeling in mathematics education. The article provides…

  15. Mathematizing Darwin.

    PubMed

    Edwards, A W F

    2011-03-01

    Ernst Mayr called the first part of the evolutionary synthesis the 'Fisherian synthesis' on account of the dominant role played by R.A. Fisher in forging a mathematical theory of natural selection together with J.B.S. Haldane and Sewall Wright in the decade 1922-1932. It is here argued that Fisher's contribution relied on a close reading of Darwin's work to a much greater extent than did the contributions of Haldane and Wright, that it was synthetic in contrast to their analytic approach and that it was greatly influenced by his friendship with the Darwin family, particularly with Charles's son Leonard. PMID:21423339

  16. Is V-Y plasty necessary for penile lengthening? Girth enhancement and increased length solely through circumcision: description of a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Mertziotis, Nikos; Kozyrakis, Diomidis; Bogris, Elias

    2013-11-01

    Our objective is to describe a novel ligamentolysis approach using a subcoronal incision technique and to determine its safety and efficacy. During the last 7 years, 82 consecutive patients had penile augmentation surgery. Ligamentolysis, through a lower abdominal incision (V-Y plasty) in the first 35 males, was performed (Group A), followed by circumcision ligamentolysis in the next 47 males (Group B). The operation time, complications, and the preoperative and postoperative values of penile length and girth along with the self-esteem and relations questionnaire score as well as satisfaction score was calculated before and after the surgery, and a comparison was conducted between the groups. The mean age at presentation was 32 years (range: 18-56 years). Seventy-nine patients suffered from penile dysmorphophobia, and three patients had micropenises (length <7.5 cm). The mean surgical times were 150.7 and 125.2 min for Groups A and B, respectively (P=0.005). Postoperatively, four Group A patients and three Group B patients (11% versus 6%, respectively) experienced penile retraction (P=0.453). Hypertrophic scars were observed in 18 men (51%) in the former [corrected] group. In the circumcision group, no major wound complications were recorded. The length and girth improvements between the groups were similar. In terms of satisfaction and SEAR improvement, the resulting difference for both variables favored the circumcision group (P=0.007 and <0.001, respectively). With strict selection criteria, the circumcision ligamentolysis procedure compared to the V-Y plasty demonstrated improved results in terms of safety, operation time, retraction rate and cosmetic appearance without any compromise in the gained penile size. PMID:23792340

  17. Mathematical modelling of animate and intentional motion.

    PubMed Central

    Rittscher, Jens; Blake, Andrew; Hoogs, Anthony; Stein, Gees

    2003-01-01

    Our aim is to enable a machine to observe and interpret the behaviour of others. Mathematical models are employed to describe certain biological motions. The main challenge is to design models that are both tractable and meaningful. In the first part we will describe how computer vision techniques, in particular visual tracking, can be applied to recognize a small vocabulary of human actions in a constrained scenario. Mainly the problems of viewpoint and scale invariance need to be overcome to formalize a general framework. Hence the second part of the article is devoted to the question whether a particular human action should be captured in a single complex model or whether it is more promising to make extensive use of semantic knowledge and a collection of low-level models that encode certain motion primitives. Scene context plays a crucial role if we intend to give a higher-level interpretation rather than a low-level physical description of the observed motion. A semantic knowledge base is used to establish the scene context. This approach consists of three main components: visual analysis, the mapping from vision to language and the search of the semantic database. A small number of robust visual detectors is used to generate a higher-level description of the scene. The approach together with a number of results is presented in the third part of this article. PMID:12689374

  18. Applied mathematical problems in modern electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriegsman, Gregory

    1994-05-01

    We have primarily investigated two classes of electromagnetic problems. The first contains the quantitative description of microwave heating of dispersive and conductive materials. Such problems arise, for example, when biological tissue are exposed, accidentally or purposefully, to microwave radiation. Other instances occur in ceramic processing, such as sintering and microwave assisted chemical vapor infiltration and other industrial drying processes, such as the curing of paints and concrete. The second class characterizes the scattering of microwaves by complex targets which possess two or more disparate length and/or time scales. Spatially complex scatterers arise in a variety of applications, such as large gratings and slowly changing guiding structures. The former are useful in developing microstrip energy couplers while the later can be used to model anatomical subsystems (e.g., the open guiding structure composed of two legs and the adjoining lower torso). Temporally complex targets occur in applications involving dispersive media whose relaxation times differ by orders of magnitude from thermal and/or electromagnetic time scales. For both cases the mathematical description of the problems gives rise to complicated ill-conditioned boundary value problems, whose accurate solutions require a blend of both asymptotic techniques, such as multiscale methods and matched asymptotic expansions, and numerical methods incorporating radiation boundary conditions, such as finite differences and finite elements.

  19. Computing maximum-likelihood estimates for parameters of the National Descriptive Model of Mercury in Fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donato, David I.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the mathematical expressions and the computational techniques required to compute maximum-likelihood estimates for the parameters of the National Descriptive Model of Mercury in Fish (NDMMF), a statistical model used to predict the concentration of methylmercury in fish tissue. The expressions and techniques reported here were prepared to support the development of custom software capable of computing NDMMF parameter estimates more quickly and using less computer memory than is currently possible with available general-purpose statistical software. Computation of maximum-likelihood estimates for the NDMMF by numerical solution of a system of simultaneous equations through repeated Newton-Raphson iterations is described. This report explains the derivation of the mathematical expressions required for computational parameter estimation in sufficient detail to facilitate future derivations for any revised versions of the NDMMF that may be developed.

  20. Descriptive thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, David; Huntsman, Steven

    2006-06-01

    Thermodynamics (in concert with its sister discipline, statistical physics) can be regarded as a data reduction scheme based on partitioning a total system into a subsystem and a bath that weakly interact with each other. Whereas conventionally, the systems investigated require this form of data reduction in order to facilitate prediction, a different problem also occurs, in the context of communication networks, markets, etc. Such “empirically accessible” systems typically overwhelm observers with the sort of information that in the case of (say) a gas is effectively unobtainable. What is required for such complex interacting systems is not prediction (this may be impossible when humans besides the observer are responsible for the interactions) but rather, description as a route to understanding. Still, the need for a thermodynamical data reduction scheme remains. In this paper, we show how an empirical temperature can be computed for finite, empirically accessible systems, and further outline how this construction allows the age-old science of thermodynamics to be fruitfully applied to them.

  1. Integrating Literature in Mathematics: A Teaching Technique for Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Elsa C.; Thornton, Jenifer Salter; Cuero, Kimberley K.

    2010-01-01

    The integration of content areas is not a new concept (Moyer, 2000). Integration is promoted by many teacher educators because of its benefits for learners of all ages and backgrounds (Burns, 2005; Douville, Pugalee, & Wallace, 2003; Pica, 2002). Literacy in general, but reading in particular, is important across the content areas. Mathematics…

  2. Authenticity of Mathematical Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Dung; Dougherty, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Some students leave high school never quite sure of the relevancy of the mathematics they have learned. They fail to see links between school mathematics and the mathematics of everyday life that requires thoughtful decision making and often complex problem solving. Is it possible to bridge the gap between school mathematics and the mathematics in…

  3. Computation and graphics in mathematical research. Progress report, June 1, 1991--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.A.; Spruck, J.

    1992-08-13

    This report discusses: The description of the GANG Project and results for prior research; the center for geometry, analysis, numerics and graphics; description of GANG Laboratory; software development at GANG; and mathematical and scientific research activities.

  4. Mathematical Programming Models in Educational Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, James F.

    This document begins by defining and discussing educational planning. A brief overview of mathematical programing with an explanation of the general linear programing model is then provided. Some recent applications of mathematical programing techniques to educational planning problems are reviewed, and their implications for educational research…

  5. The Mathematics of Starry Nights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Farshad

    2008-01-01

    The mathematics for finding and plotting the locations of stars and constellations are available in many books on astronomy, but the steps involve mystifying and fragmented equations, calculations, and terminology. This paper will introduce an entirely new unified and cohesive technique that is easy to understand by mathematicians, and simple…

  6. Mathematical Modeling of Chemical Stoichiometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croteau, Joshua; Fox, William P.; Varazo, Kristofoland

    2007-01-01

    In beginning chemistry classes, students are taught a variety of techniques for balancing chemical equations. The most common method is inspection. This paper addresses using a system of linear mathematical equations to solve for the stoichiometric coefficients. Many linear algebra books carry the standard balancing of chemical equations as an…

  7. The reasonable effectiveness of mathematics in the natural sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Alex

    2011-12-01

    Mathematics and its relation to the physical universe have been the topic of speculation since the days of Pythagoras. Several different views of the nature of mathematics have been considered: Realism—mathematics exists and is discovered; Logicism—all mathematics may be deduced through pure logic; Formalism—mathematics is just the manipulation of formulas and rules invented for the purpose; Intuitionism—mathematics comprises mental constructs governed by self evident rules. The debate among the several schools has major importance in understanding what Eugene Wigner called, The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences. In return, this `Unreasonable Effectiveness' suggests a possible resolution of the debate in favor of Realism. The crucial element is the extraordinary predictive capacity of mathematical structures descriptive of physical theories.

  8. Mathematical Language and Advanced Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Pier Luigi

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the role of language in mathematics learning at college level. Its main aim is to provide a perspective on mathematical language appropriate to effectively interpret students' linguistic behaviors in mathematics and to suggest new teaching ideas. Examples are given to show that the explanation of students' behaviors…

  9. Mathematical Story: A Metaphor for Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietiker, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework for interpreting the content found in mathematics curriculum in order to offer teachers and other mathematics educators comprehensive conceptual tools with which to make curricular decisions. More specifically, it describes a metaphor of "mathematics curriculum as story" and defines and…

  10. Mathematics for Life: Sustainable Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renert, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Ecological sustainability has not been a major focus of mathematics education research, even though it has attracted considerable attention in other areas of educational research in the past decade. The connections between mathematics education and ecological sustainability are not readily apparent. This paper explores how mathematics educators…

  11. Mathematical Modelling Approach in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arseven, Ayla

    2015-01-01

    The topic of models and modeling has come to be important for science and mathematics education in recent years. The topic of "Modeling" topic is especially important for examinations such as PISA which is conducted at an international level and measures a student's success in mathematics. Mathematical modeling can be defined as using…

  12. Mathematics Anxiety and Attitudes toward Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rounds, James B., Jr.; Hendel, Darwin D.

    1980-01-01

    Results indicate that the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale and the Math Anxiety Scale measure similar components of mathematics-anxiety domain. Mathematics-anxiety scales and Fennema-Sherman scales of Confidence and Effectance Motivation measure similar affective domains and are approximately equal predictors of arithmetic performance. (Author)

  13. Number Sense in the Elementary School Mathematics Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, John W.; Lamb, Charles E.

    1986-01-01

    The number sense program in Texas was developed to help motivate students to learn mathematics and to literally develop "number sense." A description of the program, a 70-item exercise (with answers), and teaching tips are provided. (JN)

  14. Values taught, values learned, attitude and performance in mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limbaco, K. S. A.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify, describe and find the relationship among values taught, values learned, attitude and performance in mathematics. The researcher used descriptive-correlational method of research to gather information and to describe the nature of situation. The following instruments were used in this study: Math Attitude Inventory, Inventory of Values Taught and Learned which were content validated by experts in the field of Mathematics, Values and Education. Generally, most of the values were taught by the teachers. All of the values were learned by the students. The following got the highest mean ratings for values taught: moral strength, sharing, charity, valuing life, love of God, truth and honesty, reason, alternativism and articulation. The following got highest mean ratings for values learned: patience/tolerance, sharing, charity, valuing life, faith, love of God, truth and honesty, analogical thinking, confidence and individual liberty. Majority of the respondents have moderately positive attitude towards mathematics. Positive statements in the Mathematics Attitude Inventory are "Generally true" while negative statements are "Neutral." In conclusion, values were taught by mathematics teacher, thus, learned by the students. Therefore, mathematics is very much related to life. Values can be learned and strengthened through mathematics; there is a significant relationship between values taught by the teachers and values learned by the students and attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics; values taught does not affect attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics. A student may have a positive attitude towards mathematics or have an exemplary performance in mathematics even if the mathematics teacher did not teach values; values learned does not affect attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics. A student may have a positive attitude towards mathematics or have an exemplary performance

  15. Learning to Calculate and Learning Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fearnley-Sander, Desmond

    1980-01-01

    A calculator solution of a simple computational problem is discussed with emphasis on its ramifications for the understanding of some fundamental theorems of pure mathematics and techniques of computing. (Author/MK)

  16. Bridging the Gap Between Common Sense and Mathematical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, Laurence

    1975-01-01

    Describes a four-phase method of helping students who are mathematically unsophisticated and have difficulty relating their common sense, English-language understanding of a system to an abstract, mathematical description. The approach uses interactive simulation models. (Author/IRT)

  17. [Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics Feasibility Studies 9-13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics, Newton, MA.

    These materials are a part of a series of studies sponsored by the Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics which reflects the ideas of CCSM regarding the goals and objectives for school mathematics K-12. Feasibility Studies 9-13 contain a wide range of topics. The following are the titles and brief descriptions of these studies. Number…

  18. The Necessary Teaching Competences for Mathematics Teachers in Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnoor, A. G.; xiang, G. Y.

    2007-01-01

    The professional competences of middle school mathematics teachers has been identified, also the significance extent of such competences for chinese and yemenies mathematics teachers has been studied. The researcher used descriptive research approach. The study data collected from Specialist educators and teachers experts to determine the…

  19. Motivational Classroom Climate for Learning Mathematics: A Reversal Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a case is made that affect is central in determining students' experience of learning or not learning mathematics. I show how reversal theory (Apter, 2001), and particularly its taxonomy of motivations and emotions, provides a basis for a thick description of students' experiences of learning in a mathematics classroom. Using data…

  20. [Representation and mathematical analysis of human corneal surface].

    PubMed

    Tălu, Stefan; Tălu, Mihai; Giovanzana, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    In the description and analysis of human corneal surface are used various mathematical models based on parametric representations, used in biomechanical studies and 3D solid modeling of the cornea. Mathematical models are important into the biomechanics of the cornea to model the corneal behavior. Corneal biomechanics also has the potential to improve outcomes in refractive surgery. The objective of this paper is to present the most representative mathematical models currently used for modeling of human corneal in optics and biomechanics fields.

  1. Rival approaches to mathematical modelling in immunology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrew, Sarah M.; Baker, Christopher T. H.; Bocharov, Gennady A.

    2007-08-01

    In order to formulate quantitatively correct mathematical models of the immune system, one requires an understanding of immune processes and familiarity with a range of mathematical techniques. Selection of an appropriate model requires a number of decisions to be made, including a choice of the modelling objectives, strategies and techniques and the types of model considered as candidate models. The authors adopt a multidisciplinary perspective.

  2. Chinese Calendar and Mathematical Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    The Chinese calendar (li 历) was a system of mathematical astronomy that included mathematical techniques for the computation of celestial movements. It was the basis for producing astronomical ephemerides and annual almanacs. Calendar making started early in China. Since the Great Inception calendar reform in 104 BC, China has produced about 100 calendars (astronomical systems). The focus of calendar making was the prediction of solar, lunar, and planetary motions. As astronomy developed, new observational discoveries were incorporated into the calendar to make the system more precise. The history of astronomy in ancient China was largely a history of calendar making.

  3. Three essays in mathematical finance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruming

    This dissertation uses mathematical techniques to solve three problems in mathematical finance. The first two problems are on model-independent pricing and hedging of financial derivatives. We use asymptotic expansions to express derivative prices and implied volatilities. Then just by using the first few terms in the expansions, we get simple and accurate formulas, which can also help us find connections between different products. The last problem is on optimal trading strategies in a limit order book. Under a very general setup, we solve explicitly for a dynamic decision problem involving choosing between limit order and market order.

  4. Projects in Higher Education Science, Mathematics, Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    Presented are brief descriptions of the activities of the directors of projects related to new courses, curricula, teaching hardware, and other mechanisms designed to provide more and better learning experiences for students in areas of science, mathematics, and engineering in higher education. The publication provides information about these…

  5. Mathematical and Statistical Software Index. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Doris E., Comp.

    Brief descriptions are provided of general-purpose mathematical and statistical software, including 27 "stand-alone" programs, three subroutine systems, and two nationally recognized statistical packages, which are available in the Air Force Human Resources Laboratory (AFHRL) software library. This index was created to enable researchers to…

  6. Teaching Mathematics from a Chemist's Viewpoint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLorenzo, Ronald A.

    This paper describes a chemistry professor's approach to teaching mathematics in the college classroom. Based on the assumption that the four main goals of the educational process in general are to teach students to communicate clearly, study regularly, master basic math skills, and think logically, a description is provided of the manner in which…

  7. Classroom Instruction and Students' Attitudes Towards Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessema, Taddesse G.

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the association between classroom instruction and students' attitudes towards mathematics at the secondary level. Data were collected through a Likert-type survey of Hope High School students and then analyzed for statistical significance by utilizing descriptive statistics, tests of significance, and correlation…

  8. Students as Mathematics Consultants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    If students are going to develop reasoning and thinking skills, use their mathematical knowledge, and recognize the relevance of mathematics in their lives, they need to experience mathematics in meaningful ways. Only then will their mathematical skills be transferrable to all other parts of their lives. To promote such flexible mathematical…

  9. Transforming Primary Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askew, Mike

    2011-01-01

    What is good mathematics teaching? What is mathematics teaching good for? Who is mathematics teaching for? These are just some of the questions addressed in "Transforming Primary Mathematics", a highly timely new resource for teachers which accessibly sets out the key theories and latest research in primary maths today. Under-pinned by findings…

  10. Mathematics for Real Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsy, Zaghloul, Ed.; Draxler, Alexandra, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    A set of articles with the theme "Mathematics for Real Life" is presented. These article titles are: (1) Teaching Mathematics as a Tool for Problem Solving; (2) New Math or New Education; (3) Hand Calculators and Math in Primary School; (4) Mass Media in the Mathematical Training of Polish Primary Teachers; (5) The Goals of Mathematics Teaching in…

  11. Mathematical Epistemologies at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noss, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Investigates young people's expression of mathematical ideas with a computer, the nature of mathematical practices, and the problem of mathematical meaning from cognitive and socio-cultural perspectives. Describes a mathematical activity system designed for learning and the role of digital technologies in helping to understand and reshape the…

  12. Functioning Mathematically: 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, David

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the first part of the closing address given by the author to the 2007 Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) Easter conference at Loughborough. In his closing address, the author focuses on functioning mathematically as opposed to functional mathematics. His view of functional mathematics is that the focus is on someone…

  13. Mathematics Lessons without ...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Kath; Hibbs, John

    2006-01-01

    In the Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) Easter conference, 2006, the authors presented a list of important aspects of mathematics lessons, recommended for students to have a positive attitude to mathematics and for teachers to acquire effective teaching. The following are discussed in detail: (1) Mathematics lessons without good…

  14. Structural damage identification using mathematical optimization techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Mo-How Herman

    1991-01-01

    An identification procedure is proposed to identify damage characteristics (location and size of the damage) from dynamic measurements. This procedure was based on minimization of the mean-square measure of difference between measurement data (natural frequencies and mode shapes) and the corresponding predictions obtained from the computational model. The procedure is tested for simulated damage in the form of stiffness changes in a simple fixed free spring mass system and symmetric cracks in a simply supported Bernoulli Euler beam. It is shown that when all the mode information is used in the identification procedure it is possible to uniquely determine the damage properties. Without knowing the complete set of modal information, a restricted region in the initial data space has been found for realistic and convergent solution from the identification process.

  15. Provocative Mathematics Questions: Drawing Attention to a Lack of Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klymchuk, Sergiy

    2015-01-01

    The article investigates the role of attention in the reflective thinking of school mathematics teachers. It analyses teachers' ability to pay attention to detail and "use" their mathematical knowledge. The vast majority of teachers can be expected to have an excellent knowledge of mathematical techniques. The question examined here is…

  16. Granularity analysis for mathematical proofs.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Marvin R G

    2013-04-01

    Mathematical proofs generally allow for various levels of detail and conciseness, such that they can be adapted for a particular audience or purpose. Using automated reasoning approaches for teaching proof construction in mathematics presupposes that the step size of proofs in such a system is appropriate within the teaching context. This work proposes a framework that supports the granularity analysis of mathematical proofs, to be used in the automated assessment of students' proof attempts and for the presentation of hints and solutions at a suitable pace. Models for granularity are represented by classifiers, which can be generated by hand or inferred from a corpus of sample judgments via machine-learning techniques. This latter procedure is studied by modeling granularity judgments from four experts. The results provide support for the granularity of assertion-level proofs but also illustrate a degree of subjectivity in assessing step size.

  17. A mathematical simulation model of a 1985-era tilt-rotor passenger aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcveigh, M. A.; Widdison, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model for use in real-time piloted simulation of a 1985-era tilt rotor passenger aircraft is presented. The model comprises the basic six degrees-of-freedom equations of motion, and a large angle of attack representation of the airframe and rotor aerodynamics, together with equations and functions used to model turbine engine performance, aircraft control system and stability augmentation system. A complete derivation of the primary equations is given together with a description of the modeling techniques used. Data for the model is included in an appendix.

  18. Mathematical modelling of flow distribution in the human cardiovascular system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sud, V. K.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents a detailed model of the entire human cardiovascular system which aims to study the changes in flow distribution caused by external stimuli, changes in internal parameters, or other factors. The arterial-venous network is represented by 325 interconnected elastic segments. The mathematical description of each segment is based on equations of hydrodynamics and those of stress/strain relationships in elastic materials. Appropriate input functions provide for the pumping of blood by the heart through the system. The analysis employs the finite-element technique which can accommodate any prescribed boundary conditions. Values of model parameters are from available data on physical and rheological properties of blood and blood vessels. As a representative example, simulation results on changes in flow distribution with changes in the elastic properties of blood vessels are discussed. They indicate that the errors in the calculated overall flow rates are not significant even in the extreme case of arteries and veins behaving as rigid tubes.

  19. Assessment in the Context of Mathematics Instruction Reform: The Design of Assessment in the QUASAR Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Edward A.; Lane, Suzanne

    Recent reports on mathematics education reform have focused the attention of educational practitioners and policymakers on new goals for mathematics education and new descriptions of mathematical proficiency. QUASAR is a national project (Quantitative Understanding: Amplifying Student Achievement and Reasoning) designed to improve the mathematics…

  20. Unpacking Teachers' Moves in the Classroom: Navigating Micro- and Macro-Levels of Mathematical Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.

    2015-01-01

    The work that mathematics teachers do is frequently mathematical in nature and different from other professions. Understanding and describing common ways that teachers draw upon their content knowledge in the practice of teaching is important. Building on the descriptions by McCrory et al. ("Journal for Research in Mathematics Education"…

  1. Teachers' Beliefs and Technology: Calculator Use in Mathematics Instruction in Junior Secondary Schools in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salani, End

    2013-01-01

    Lesson starts are transitional events which may cause management problems for teachers. This study sought junior secondary school mathematics teachers' beliefs about calculator use in mathematics instruction in Botswana and was descriptive in nature adopting a survey design. The sample of seventeen (17) mathematics teachers from four (4) junior…

  2. The NIST Digital Library of Mathematical Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Charles W.

    1998-05-01

    Not updated since its 1964 publication, the Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables), ed. M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, National Bureau of Standards Applied Mathematics Series v. 55 (U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 1964) presents the state of applied mathematics 40 years ago, in a form suited for computation in an age of numerical tables and mechanical calculators. Yet it remains a workhorse reference of AMO physics and of other scientific fields, having been cited in archival literature over 26,000 times since 1974 (at a still-increasing rate). To incorporate subsequent advances in basic mathematical knowledge, in computational power and technique, and in dissemination of information, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has begun a project to provide a modern source of evaluated mathematical reference data: the NIST Digital Library of Mathematical Functions. The Digital Library is designed to serve the needs of users of applied mathematics via the World Wide Web. We shall demonstrate the operation of a prototype, and hope to elicit expressed needs of the AMO community.

  3. Mathematical Modelling: A New Approach to Teaching Applied Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burghes, D. N.; Borrie, M. S.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the advantages of mathematical modeling approach in teaching applied mathematics and gives many suggestions for suitable material which illustrates the links between real problems and mathematics. (GA)

  4. Mathematics and the brain: uncharted territory?

    PubMed

    Neumärker, K J

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of disorders of arithmetic skills in children of circa 6 % calls for intensive consideration of the subject by health care providers and researchers. The necessity of interdisciplinary cooperation is evident. The current classifications by the ICD-10 (Specific disorder of arithmetic skills) and DSM-IV (Mathematics disorder) represent different viewpoints. A developmental dyscalculia is exclusively diagnosed according to clinical presentation. Arithmetic and its disorders are brain functions, determined and influenced by the (cerebral) human development. With modem neuroimaging techniques, a connectionistic model of distinct arithmetic functions has been specified. The results of single case descriptions of arithmetic disorders correspond well in that context with the concept of parallel cortico-subcortical and subcortico-cortical neuronal circuits. In comparison with dyslexia, there is intense need for research in the field of arithmetic disorders. Only through analysis and understanding of the complex cerebral connections in arithmetic can improved diagnostic as well as multidimensionally therapeutic approaches to arithmetic disorders be achieved, possibly opening new ways of academic and social integration of the affected individuals. PMID:11138902

  5. Mathematics and Sports. Mathematical World. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadovskii, L. E.; Sadovskii, A. L.

    This volume contains some examples of mathematical applications in sports. Sports discussed include tennis, figure skating, gymnastics, track and field, soccer, skiing, hockey, and swimming. Problems and situations are posed and answers with thorough explanations are provided. Chapters include: (1) Mathematics and Sports; (2) What Is Applied…

  6. Mathematics Coursework Regulates Growth in Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY), we examined the extent to which students' mathematics coursework regulates (influences) the rate of growth in mathematics achievement during middle and high school. Graphical analysis showed that students who started middle school with higher achievement took individual mathematics…

  7. Mathematics for Language, Language for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochazkova, Lenka Tejkalova

    2013-01-01

    The author discusses the balance and mutual influence of the language of instruction and mathematics in the context of CLIL, Content and Language Integrated Learning. Different aspects of the relationship of language and Mathematics teaching and learning are discussed: the benefits of using a foreign language of instruction, as well as the…

  8. Negotiation of Mathematical Meaning and Learning Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voigt, Jorg

    1994-01-01

    Presents a case study of a first-grade class and their teacher who were observed as they ascribed mathematical meanings of numbers and of numerical operations to empirical phenomena. Differences in ascriptions led to negotiation of meanings. Discusses some indirect relations between social interaction and mathematics learning. (Contains 60…

  9. Perspectives from Mathematics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowder, Judith Threadgill

    1998-01-01

    Explores possible reasons for the gender differences in mathematics problem-solving strategies found in primary-grade students in the study by E. Fennema and others and considers implications of the findings for mathematics instruction. (SLD)

  10. Developing My Mathematics Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Assuming the role of storyteller, the author uses her experiences as a graduate student and beginning teacher to reflect critically on issues related to mathematics, mathematics education, gender, and diversity.

  11. Mental Mathematics Moves Ahead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Pamela

    1988-01-01

    The author suggests that the efficient use of mathematics in everyday life means translating situations into mathematical contexts, using a calculator and mental methods of calculation. Suggestions for teaching these concepts are included. (PK)

  12. The Mathematical Formatting of Climate Change: Critical Mathematics Education and Post-Normal Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barwell, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most pressing issues of the 21st Century. Mathematics is involved at every level of understanding climate change, including the description, prediction and communication of climate change. As a highly complex issue, climate change is an example of "post-normal" science -- it is urgent, complex and involves a…

  13. Design Features of Pedagogically-Sound Software in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Howard; And Others

    Weaknesses in educational software currently available in the domain of mathematics are discussed. A technique that was used for the design and production of mathematics software aimed at improving problem-solving skills which combines sound pedagogy and innovative programming is presented. To illustrate the design portion of this technique, a…

  14. Mathematics for Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Joseph R.; Nery, Karen P.

    This set of 20 modules was designed for use primarily to help teach and reinforce the basic mathematics skills in electronics classes. The modules are based on electronics competencies that require mathematics skills, as determined by a panel of high school electronics and mathematics teachers. Each module consists of one or two pages of basic…

  15. Making Mathematics Phenomenal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics is often portrayed as an "abstract" cerebral subject, beyond the reach of many. In response, research with digital technology has led to innovative design in which mathematics can be experienced much like everyday phenomena. This lecture examines how careful design can "phenomenalise" mathematics and support not only engagement but…

  16. Translations toward Connected Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applebaum, Mark; Leikin, Roza

    2010-01-01

    The translation principle allows students to solve problems in different branches of mathematics and thus to develop connectedness in their mathematical knowledge. Successful application of the translation principle depends on the classroom mathematical norms for the development of discussions and the comparison of different solutions to one…

  17. Mathematics and Comprehensive Ideals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This article revisits methods and debates about teaching mathematics that were common in the 1980s and early 1990s, and then moves up to date with the findings from three mathematics departments that set out to make a difference for their lowest attaining students. The methods they used were distinctly focused on core mathematical ideas, and how…

  18. Winning Women into Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenschaft, Patricia Clark, Ed.; Keith, Sandra Zaroodny, Ed.

    Mathematics is an auspicious discipline for young people of both sexes and all ethnic groups. This booklet aims to help members of the Mathematical Association of America (MAA) and others to increase future participation of women in mathematics, to better understand their present roles, and to develop a vision of a world with greater equal…

  19. Mathematics Teaching Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Tami S.; Speer, William R.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes features, consistent messages, and new components of "Mathematics Teaching Today: Improving Practice, Improving Student Learning" (NCTM 2007), an updated edition of "Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics" (NCTM 1991). The new book describes aspects of high-quality mathematics teaching; offers a model for observing,…

  20. Revisiting Mathematics Manipulative Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Paul; Marshall, Linda

    2010-01-01

    It is over 12 years since "APMC" published Bob Perry and Peter Howard's research on the use of mathematics manipulative materials in primary mathematics classrooms. Since then the availability of virtual manipulatives and associated access to computers and interactive whiteboards have caused educators to rethink the use of mathematics manipulative…

  1. Mathematics and Global Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Richard H.

    This resource was written to provide students with an awareness of critical issues facing the world today. In courses for college students, it can motivate their study of mathematics, teach them how to solve mathematical problems related to current global issues, provide coherence to mathematical studies through a focus on issues of human…

  2. Who Can Know Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshaw, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores contemporary thinking about learning mathematics, and within that, social justice within mathematics education. The discussion first looks at mechanisms offered by conventional explanations on the emancipatory project and then moves towards more recent insights developed within mathematics education. Synergies are drawn between…

  3. Making Mathematics Culturally Relevant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    Examines three strands of elementary mathematics--numerals and counting, recording and calculating, and mathematics exploration and play--and provides ways to integrate culture and mathematics experiences in each area. Specific topics include Egyptian methods for multiplication, the abacus, and the words for the numbers 1-10 in seven different…

  4. Mathematical Epistemologies at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noss, Richard

    In this paper, I draw together a corpus of findings derived from two sources: studies of students using computers to learn mathematics, and research into the use of mathematics in professional practice. Using this as a basis, I map some elements of a theoretical framework for understanding the nature of mathematical knowledge in use, and how it is…

  5. Contrasts in Mathematical Challenges in A-Level Mathematics and Further Mathematics, and Undergraduate Mathematics Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Ellie

    2014-01-01

    This article describes part of a study which investigated the role of questions in students' approaches to learning mathematics at the secondary-tertiary interface, focussing on the enculturation of students at the University of Oxford. Use of the Mathematical Assessment Task Hierarchy taxonomy revealed A-level Mathematics and Further Mathematics…

  6. Mathematics and Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallian, Joseph A., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Mathematics and Sports", edited by Joseph A. Gallian, gathers 25 articles that illuminate the power and role of mathematics in the worlds of professional and recreational play. Divided into sections by the kind of sports, the book offers source materials for classroom use and student projects. Readers will encounter mathematical ideas from an…

  7. A "Mathematics Background Check"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubisz, John

    2009-01-01

    Early in my career someone else reported that the best indicator of success in calculus-based physics (CBP) at our school was whether students had taken mathematics in a certain region of New Brunswick. I sat down with a very longtime mathematics teacher and asked him what he thought students should know in mathematics after high school to succeed…

  8. Topics in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey, Johnsie Jo, Ed.; And Others

    This manual is a collection of materials and teaching strategies to motivate the development of mathematical ideas in secondary school mathematics programs or in beginning college mathematics programs. The unit is written for the instructor with step-by-step procedures including lists of needed materials. The exercises in this unit also appear in…

  9. Mathematics and Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayed, Fayez

    2015-01-01

    The wide range of Mathematical Apps targeting different mathematical concepts and the various types of mobile devices available present a demanding and challenging problem to the teaching and learning in the field of mathematics. In an attempt to address this issue, a few Apps were selected, implemented and tested in this work. [For complete…

  10. Latinos and Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz-Franco, Luis

    An historical perspective reveals that sophisticated mathematical activity has been going on in the Latino culture for thousands of years. This paper provides a general definition of the area of mathematics education that deals with issues of culture and mathematics (ethnomathematics) and defines what is meant by the term Latino in this essay.…

  11. Mathenger Hunt: Mathematics Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falba, Christy J.; Weiss, Maria J.

    1991-01-01

    Presented is an activity which shows how mathematics is used in real life and helps to establish a need for mathematics in students' futures. Adapted from a scavenger-hunt idea, this activity helps students to discover that almost every career makes use of mathematics. (KR)

  12. Mathematics. [SITE 2001 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Michael L., Ed.; Lowery, Norene Vail, Ed.; Harnisch, Delwyn L., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on mathematics from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2001 conference: "Secondary Mathematics Methods Course with Technology Units: Encouraging Pre-Service Teachers To Use Technology" (Rajee Amarasinghe); "Competency Exams in College Mathematics" (Kathy R. Autrey and Leigh…

  13. Applying Mathematical Processes (AMP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kathotia, Vinay

    2011-01-01

    This article provides insights into the "Applying Mathematical Processes" resources, developed by the Nuffield Foundation. It features Nuffield AMP activities--and related ones from Bowland Maths--that were designed to support the teaching and assessment of key processes in mathematics--representing a situation mathematically, analysing,…

  14. Mathematics and mysticism.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Ralph

    2015-12-01

    Is there a world of mathematics above and beyond ordinary reality, as Plato proposed? Or is mathematics a cultural construct? In this short article we speculate on the place of mathematical reality from the perspective of the mystical cosmologies of the ancient traditions of meditation, psychedelics, and divination.

  15. Creating Words in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galligan, Linda

    2016-01-01

    A "National Numeracy Report" and the Australian Curriculum (2014) have recognised the importance of language in mathematics. The general capabilities contained within the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" (2014) highlight literacy as an important tool in the teaching and learning of mathematics, from the interpretation of…

  16. Scaffolding students' opportunities to learn mathematics through social interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Clare V.; Pape, Stephen J.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we take a sociocultural perspective on teaching and learning to examine how teachers in an urban Algebra 1 classroom constructed opportunities to learn. Drawing on analyses of discourse practices, including videotaped classroom lessons as well as other classroom artifacts and telephone interviews, we describe ways that two teachers and their students interacted to develop mathematical understanding. Through descriptive narrative, we highlight practices that positioned students as competent mathematical thinkers and provided evidence of students' mathematical agency. This study suggests that critical awareness of discourse practices in conjunction with teacher mediation of other affordances for learning within the classroom environment might engage students in mathematical practices such as problem solving, explaining mathematical ideas, arguing for or against specific solutions to problems, and justifying mathematical thinking.

  17. The History of Mathematics and Mathematical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grattan-Guinness, I.

    1977-01-01

    Answers to questions which were asked after the author's various lectures in Australia are gathered here. Topics touched upon include "new" mathematics, unknown constants and free variables, propositional functions, linear algebra, arithmetic and geometry, and student assessment. (MN)

  18. Writing job descriptions.

    PubMed

    Schaffner, M

    1990-01-01

    The skill of writing job descriptions begins with an understanding of the advantages, as well as the basic elements, of a well written description. The end result should be approved and updated as needed. Having a better understanding of this process makes writing the job description a challenge rather than a chore.

  19. Mathematical methods for protein science

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, W.; Istrail, S.; Atkins, J.

    1997-12-31

    Understanding the structure and function of proteins is a fundamental endeavor in molecular biology. Currently, over 100,000 protein sequences have been determined by experimental methods. The three dimensional structure of the protein determines its function, but there are currently less than 4,000 structures known to atomic resolution. Accordingly, techniques to predict protein structure from sequence have an important role in aiding the understanding of the Genome and the effects of mutations in genetic disease. The authors describe current efforts at Sandia to better understand the structure of proteins through rigorous mathematical analyses of simple lattice models. The efforts have focused on two aspects of protein science: mathematical structure prediction, and inverse protein folding.

  20. Mathematical algorithms for approximate reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, John H.; Chay, Seung C.; Downs, Mary M.

    1988-01-01

    Most state of the art expert system environments contain a single and often ad hoc strategy for approximate reasoning. Some environments provide facilities to program the approximate reasoning algorithms. However, the next generation of expert systems should have an environment which contain a choice of several mathematical algorithms for approximate reasoning. To meet the need for validatable and verifiable coding, the expert system environment must no longer depend upon ad hoc reasoning techniques but instead must include mathematically rigorous techniques for approximate reasoning. Popular approximate reasoning techniques are reviewed, including: certainty factors, belief measures, Bayesian probabilities, fuzzy logic, and Shafer-Dempster techniques for reasoning. A group of mathematically rigorous algorithms for approximate reasoning are focused on that could form the basis of a next generation expert system environment. These algorithms are based upon the axioms of set theory and probability theory. To separate these algorithms for approximate reasoning various conditions of mutual exclusivity and independence are imposed upon the assertions. Approximate reasoning algorithms presented include: reasoning with statistically independent assertions, reasoning with mutually exclusive assertions, reasoning with assertions that exhibit minimum overlay within the state space, reasoning with assertions that exhibit maximum overlay within the state space (i.e. fuzzy logic), pessimistic reasoning (i.e. worst case analysis), optimistic reasoning (i.e. best case analysis), and reasoning with assertions with absolutely no knowledge of the possible dependency among the assertions. A robust environment for expert system construction should include the two modes of inference: modus ponens and modus tollens. Modus ponens inference is based upon reasoning towards the conclusion in a statement of logical implication, whereas modus tollens inference is based upon reasoning away

  1. Early childhood mathematics intervention.

    PubMed

    Clements, Douglas H; Sarama, Julie

    2011-08-19

    Preschool and primary grade children have the capacity to learn substantial mathematics, but many children lack opportunities to do so. Too many children not only start behind their more advantaged peers, but also begin a negative trajectory in mathematics. Interventions designed to facilitate their mathematical learning during ages 3 to 5 years have a strong positive effect on these children's lives for many years thereafter.

  2. Mathematical Ties That Bind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Peggy A.

    1994-01-01

    Describes some mathematical investigations of the necktie which includes applications of geometry, statistics, data analysis, sampling, probability, symmetry, proportion, problem solving, and business. (MKR)

  3. The emerging and emergent present: a view on the indeterminate nature of mathematics lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Maheux, Jean-François

    2014-06-01

    The notion of emergence has considerable currency in mathematics education. However, the notion tends to be used in a descriptive way rather than being theorized and developed as a phenomenon sui generis. The purpose of this article is to contribute to building a theory of emergence. After providing an exemplifying description and analysis of an episode from a second-grade mathematics classroom studying three-dimensional geometry, we discuss implications for theoretical and classroom praxis in mathematics education, especially for the curriculum planning and the preparation, training, and enhancement of teachers of mathematics.

  4. Poisson type models and descriptive statistics of computer network information flows

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, D.; Fedorov, V.; Dunigan, T.; Batsell, S.

    1997-08-01

    Many contemporary publications on network traffic gravitate to ideas of self-similarity and long-range dependence. The corresponding elegant and parsimonious mathematical techniques proved to be efficient for the description of a wide class of aggregated processes. Sharing the enthusiasm about the above ideas the authors also believe that whenever it is possible any problem must be considered at the most basic level in an attempt to understand the driving forces of the processes under analysis. Consequently the authors try to show that some behavioral patterns of descriptive statistics which are typical for long-memory processes (a particular case of long-range dependence) can also be explained in the framework of the traditional Poisson process paradigm. Applying the concepts of inhomogeneity, compoundness and double stochasticity they propose a simple and intuitively transparent approach of explaining the expected shape of the observed histograms of counts and the expected behavior of the sample covariance functions. Matching the images of these two descriptive statistics allows them to infer the presence of trends or double stochasticity in analyzed time series. They considered only statistics which are based on counts. A similar approach may be applied to waiting or inter-arrival time sequences and will be discussed in other publications. They hope that combining the reported results with the statistical methods based on aggregated models may lead to computationally affordable on-line techniques of compact and visualized data analysis of network flows.

  5. Mathematics for Teaching: A Form of Applied Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianides, Gabriel J.; Stylianides, Andreas J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we elaborate a conceptualisation of "mathematics for teaching" as a form of applied mathematics (using Bass's idea of characterising mathematics education as a form of applied mathematics) and we examine implications of this conceptualisation for the mathematical preparation of teachers. Specifically, we focus on issues of design…

  6. Using Mathematics Literature with Prospective Secondary Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jett, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Literature in mathematics has been found to foster positive improvements in mathematics learning. This manuscript reports on a mathematics teacher educator's use of literature via literature circles with 11 prospective secondary mathematics teachers in a mathematics content course. Using survey and reflection data, the author found that…

  7. Finite Mathematics and Discrete Mathematics: Is There a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marvin L.

    Discrete mathematics and finite mathematics differ in a number of ways. First, finite mathematics has a longer history and is therefore more stable in terms of course content. Finite mathematics courses emphasize certain particular mathematical tools which are useful in solving the problems of business and the social sciences. Discrete mathematics…

  8. Exploring Differential Effects of Mathematics Courses on Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; McIntyre, Laureen J.

    2005-01-01

    Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Mathematics Participation (N = 1,518 students from 34 schools), we investigated the effects of pure and applied mathematics courses on mathematics achievement, controlling for prior mathematics achievement. Results of multilevel modelling showed that the effects of pure mathematics were significant after…

  9. Hands-On Mathematics: Two Cases from Ancient Chinese Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Youjun

    2009-01-01

    In modern mathematical teaching, it has become increasingly emphasized that mathematical knowledge should be taught by problem-solving, hands-on activities, and interactive learning experiences. Comparing the ideas of modern mathematical education with the development of ancient Chinese mathematics, we find that the history of mathematics in…

  10. A Capstone Mathematics Course for Prospective Secondary Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artzt, Alice F.; Sultan, Alan; Curcio, Frances R.; Gurl, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    This article describes an innovative capstone mathematics course that links college mathematics with school mathematics and pedagogy. It describes how college juniors in a secondary mathematics teacher preparation program engage in leadership experiences that enable them to learn mathematics for teaching while developing student-centered…

  11. Mathematics in narratives of Geodetic expeditions.

    PubMed

    Terrall, Mary

    2006-12-01

    In eighteenth-century France, geodesy (the measure of the earth's shape) became an arena where mathematics and narrative intersected productively. Mathematics played a crucial role not only in the measurements and analysis necessary to geodesy but also in the narrative accounts that presented the results of elaborate and expensive expeditions to the reading public. When they returned to France to write these accounts after their travels, mathematician-observers developed a variety of ways to display numbers and mathematical arguments and techniques. The numbers, equations, and diagrams they produced could not be separated from the story of their acquisition. Reading these accounts for the interplay of these two aspects--the mathematical and the narrative--shows how travelers articulated the intellectual and physical difficulties of their work to enhance the value of their results for specialist and lay readers alike. PMID:17367005

  12. Mathematics in narratives of Geodetic expeditions.

    PubMed

    Terrall, Mary

    2006-12-01

    In eighteenth-century France, geodesy (the measure of the earth's shape) became an arena where mathematics and narrative intersected productively. Mathematics played a crucial role not only in the measurements and analysis necessary to geodesy but also in the narrative accounts that presented the results of elaborate and expensive expeditions to the reading public. When they returned to France to write these accounts after their travels, mathematician-observers developed a variety of ways to display numbers and mathematical arguments and techniques. The numbers, equations, and diagrams they produced could not be separated from the story of their acquisition. Reading these accounts for the interplay of these two aspects--the mathematical and the narrative--shows how travelers articulated the intellectual and physical difficulties of their work to enhance the value of their results for specialist and lay readers alike.

  13. Improving accessibility to mathematical formulas: the Wikipedia Math Accessor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes Sepúlveda, J.; Ferres, L.

    2012-09-01

    Mathematics accessibility is an important topic for inclusive education. In this paper, we make Wikipedia's repository of mathematical formulas accessible by providing a natural language description of its more than 420,000 formulas using a well-researched sub-language. We also contribute by targeting Spanish speakers, for whom assistive technologies, particularly domain-specific technologies like the one described here, are scarce. Our focus on the semantics of formulas (rather than their visual appearance) allowed us to generate verbalizations with a precision of approximately 80% of understandable descriptions, as shown in an evaluation with sighted users.

  14. Multimedia content description framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Lawrence David (Inventor); Kim, Michelle Yoonk Yung (Inventor); Li, Chung-Sheng (Inventor); Mohan, Rakesh (Inventor); Smith, John Richard (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A framework is provided for describing multimedia content and a system in which a plurality of multimedia storage devices employing the content description methods of the present invention can interoperate. In accordance with one form of the present invention, the content description framework is a description scheme (DS) for describing streams or aggregations of multimedia objects, which may comprise audio, images, video, text, time series, and various other modalities. This description scheme can accommodate an essentially limitless number of descriptors in terms of features, semantics or metadata, and facilitate content-based search, index, and retrieval, among other capabilities, for both streamed or aggregated multimedia objects.

  15. Remedial Mathematics for Quantum Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koopman, Lodewijk; Brouwer, Natasa; Heck, Andre; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2008-01-01

    Proper mathematical skills are important for every science course and mathematics-intensive chemistry courses rely on a sound mathematical pre-knowledge. In the first-year quantum chemistry course at this university, it was noticed that many students lack basic mathematical knowledge. To tackle the mathematics problem, a remedial mathematics…

  16. Combinatorics, geometry, and mathematical physics

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.Y.C.; Louck, J.D.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Combinatorics and geometry have been among the most active areas of mathematics over the past few years because of newly discovered inter-relations between them and their potential for applications. In this project, the authors set out to identify problems in physics, chemistry, and biology where these methods could impact significantly. In particular, the experience suggested that the areas of unitary symmetry and discrete dynamical systems could be brought more strongly under the purview of combinatorial methods. Unitary symmetry deals with the detailed description of the quantum mechanics of many-particle systems, and discrete dynamical systems with chaotic systems. The depth and complexity of the mathematics in these physical areas of research suggested that not only could significant advances be made in these areas, but also that here would be a fertile feedback of concept and structure to enrich combinatorics itself by setting new directions. During the three years of this project, the goals have been realized beyond expectation, and in this report the authors set forth these advancements and justify their optimism.

  17. Mathematical models of diabetes progression.

    PubMed

    De Gaetano, Andrea; Hardy, Thomas; Beck, Benoit; Abu-Raddad, Eyas; Palumbo, Pasquale; Bue-Valleskey, Juliana; Pørksen, Niels

    2008-12-01

    Few attempts have been made to model mathematically the progression of type 2 diabetes. A realistic representation of the long-term physiological adaptation to developing insulin resistance is necessary for effectively designing clinical trials and evaluating diabetes prevention or disease modification therapies. Writing a good model for diabetes progression is difficult because the long time span of the disease makes experimental verification of modeling hypotheses extremely awkward. In this context, it is of primary importance that the assumptions underlying the model equations properly reflect established physiology and that the mathematical formulation of the model give rise only to physically plausible behavior of the solutions. In the present work, a model of the pancreatic islet compensation is formulated, its physiological assumptions are presented, some fundamental qualitative characteristics of its solutions are established, the numerical values assigned to its parameters are extensively discussed (also with reference to available cross-sectional epidemiologic data), and its performance over the span of a lifetime is simulated under various conditions, including worsening insulin resistance and primary replication defects. The differences with respect to two previously proposed models of diabetes progression are highlighted, and therefore, the model is proposed as a realistic, robust description of the evolution of the compensation of the glucose-insulin system in healthy and diabetic individuals. Model simulations can be run from the authors' web page.

  18. The Effect of German and Turkish Mathematics Teachers' Teaching Experience on Mathematics Education Values: A Cross-Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dede, Yuksel

    2013-01-01

    This study reported the specific findings of a larger comparative study concerning Turkish and German mathematics teachers' values. The main focus was on the teaching experience of the mathematics teachers. Interactions related to nationality were also of interest. The research methodology employed in this study was a descriptive study. The…

  19. Mathematical études: embedding opportunities for developing procedural fluency within rich mathematical contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Colin

    2013-07-01

    In a high-stakes assessment culture, it is clearly important that learners of mathematics develop the necessary fluency and confidence to perform well on the specific, narrowly defined techniques that will be tested. However, an overemphasis on the training of piecemeal mathematical skills at the expense of more independent engagement with richer, multifaceted tasks risks devaluing the subject and failing to give learners an authentic and enjoyable experience of being a mathematician. Thus, there is a pressing need for mathematical tasks which embed the practice of essential techniques within a richer, exploratory and investigative context. Such tasks can be justified to school management or to more traditional mathematics teachers as vital practice of important skills; at the same time, they give scope to progressive teachers who wish to work in more exploratory ways. This paper draws on the notion of a musical étude to develop a powerful and versatile approach in which these apparently contradictory aspects of teaching mathematics can be harmoniously combined. I illustrate the tactic in three central areas of the high-school mathematics curriculum: plotting Cartesian coordinates, solving linear equations and performing enlargements. In each case, extensive practice of important procedures takes place alongside more thoughtful and mathematically creative activity.

  20. Solving Common Mathematical Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luz, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

  1. Issues in Teaching Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author states that there are selected issues in mathematics instruction that educators should be well aware of when planning lessons and units of study. These issues provide a basis for thought and discussion when assisting pupils to attain more optimally. Purposeful studying of issues guides mathematics teachers in…

  2. Mathematics: The Universal Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Sharon B.

    2009-01-01

    Mathematics is considered the universal language, but students who speak languages other than English have difficulty doing mathematics in English. For instance, because of a lack of familiarity with the problem's context, many have trouble understanding exactly what operations to perform. In the United States, approximately one in seven students…

  3. Modularizing Remedial Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    As remedial mathematics education has become an increasingly important topic of conversation in higher education. Mathematics departments have been put under increased pressure to change their programs to increase the student success rate. A number of models have been introduced over the last decade that represent a wide range of new ideas and…

  4. Dyslexia, Dyspraxia and Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Dorian

    This book explores how primary school children with dyslexia or dyspraxia and difficulty in math can learn math and provides practical support and detailed teaching suggestions. It considers cognitive features that underlie difficulty with mathematics generally or with specific aspects of mathematics. It outlines the ways in which children usually…

  5. Developing Mathematically Promising Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Linda Jensen, Ed.

    This book, written on the recommendation of the Task Force on Mathematically Promising Students, investigates issues involving the development of promising mathematics students. Recommendations are made concerning topics such as the definition of promising students; the identification of such students; appropriate curriculum, instruction, and…

  6. Mathematics in Power Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trombley, Carl; And Others

    This mathematics curriculum is designed to be taught by the technology education teacher during the power technology class over a period of 2 years. It is intended to be elective in nature; upon successful completion of both years, one-half credit in mathematics is to be awarded. A list of the academic competencies contained in the curriculum…

  7. What Is Discrete Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Karen Tobey

    This paper cites information received from a number of sources, e.g., mathematics teachers in two-year colleges, publishers, and convention speakers, about the nature of discrete mathematics and about what topics a course in this subject should contain. Note is taken of the book edited by Ralston and Young which discusses the future of college…

  8. Consumer Mathematics Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    This guide for high school consumer mathematics (one in a set of curriculum guides developed by Louisiana statewide mathematics curriculum committees) contains a course outline, performance objectives, and coordinated activities designed to teach skills that students will need as citizens and consumers. Background on the development,…

  9. Business Mathematics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

    This curriculum guide for teaching business mathematics in the Connecticut Vocational-Technical School System is based on the latest thinking of instructors in the field, suggestions from mathematics authorities, and current instructional approaches in education. The curriculum guide consists of six sections: (1) career relationships and…

  10. Astronomy and Mathematics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    There are many European countries where Astronomy does not appear as a specific course on the secondary school. In these cases Astronomy content can be introduced by means of other subjects. There are some astronomical topics within the subject of Physics but this talk concerns introducing Astronomy in Mathematics classes. Teaching Astronomy through Mathematics would result in more exposure than through Physics as Mathematics is more prevalent in the curriculum. Generally it is not easy to motivate students in Mathematics but they are motivated to find out more about the universe and Astronomy current events than appears in the media. This situation can be an excellent introduction to several mathematics topics. The teachers in secondary and high school can use this idea in order to present more attractive mathematics courses. In particular some different examples will be offered regarding * Angles and spherical coordinates considering star traces * Logarithms and visual magnitudes * Plane trigonometry related orbital movements * Spherical trigonometry in connection with ecliptic obliquity * Conic curves related to sundial at several latitudes Some students do not enjoy studying Mathematics but they can be attracted by practical situations using Applied Mathematics: Astronomy is always very attractive to teenagers.

  11. Quality Teaching in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2012-01-01

    The best teaching possible needs to accrue in the mathematics curriculum. Pupils also need to become proficient in using mathematics in every day situations in life. Individuals buy goods and services. They pay for these in different ways, including cash. Here, persons need to be able to compute the total cost of items purchased and then pay for…

  12. Learning Mathematics while Black

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Danny Bernard

    2012-01-01

    While research by scholars has contributed greatly to an emerging knowledge base on Black children and mathematics, there continues to be a dire need for insightful research that de-centers longstanding accounts that have contributed to the construction of Black children as mathematically illiterate and as less than ideal learners relative to…

  13. Intermediate Mathematics Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    This SMSG study guide is intended to provide teachers who use "Intermediate Mathematics," as a textbook with references to materials which will help them to gain a better understanding of the mathematics contained in the text. For each chapter of the text a brief resume of its content is followed by a list of annotated references which are…

  14. Designing Assessment for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depka, Eileen

    2007-01-01

    Teaching mathematics in today's world requires practices and procedures integrated with performance tasks that actively involve students. In this second edition of Designing Rubrics for Mathematics, Eileen Depka clarifies the purpose of rubrics in math instruction and illustrates the relationship between assessment, rubrics, and the National…

  15. Mathematical Graphic Organizers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zollman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    As part of a math-science partnership, a university mathematics educator and ten elementary school teachers developed a novel approach to mathematical problem solving derived from research on reading and writing pedagogy. Specifically, research indicates that students who use graphic organizers to arrange their ideas improve their comprehension…

  16. Mathematics. [SITE 2002 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Michael L., Ed.; Lowery, Norene Vail, Ed.; Harnisch, Delwyn L., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on mathematics from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2002 conference: (1) "Teachers' Learning of Mathematics in the Presence of Technology: Participatory Cognitive Apprenticeship" (Mara Alagic); (2) "A Fractal Is a Pattern in Your Neighborhood" (Craig N. Bach); (3)…

  17. See a Different Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallings, L. Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes four strategies for posing mathematics problems that raise the cognitive demands of the tasks given to students. Each strategy is illustrated with three common middle school mathematics examples: finding the greatest common factor, finding area or perimeter, and finding the equation of a line. Posing these types of problems…

  18. The Impossible in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Irving

    The material in this reprint, with minor editorial changes, is from the chapter "Doing the Impossible" in MONKEY BUSINESS by Irving Adler. This 25-page booklet contains brief accounts of historical attempts to prove impossible problems in mathematics. The mathematical recreations in this booklet of geometric constructions include the trisection…

  19. Strengthen Your Mathematical Muscles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlhuter, Kay A.; Breyfogle, M. Lynn; McDuffie, Amy Roth

    2010-01-01

    Developing deep knowledge and understanding of mathematics is a lifelong process, and building the foundation for teachers' development must begin in preservice preparation and continue throughout one's professional life. While teaching mathematics content courses and methods courses, the authors have found that preservice elementary school…

  20. Mathematics: Content and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2009-01-01

    The debate has gone on for some time in terms of which is more salient for the teacher to be well versed in, mathematical content versus methods and approaches in teaching. Both are salient. They cannot be separated from each other. The mathematics teacher must indeed have broad, in-depth knowledge of subject matter as well as in teaching and…

  1. Mathematics Education in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varsavsky, Cristina; Anaya, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the state of mathematics education in Argentina across all levels, in the regional and world contexts. Statistics are drawn from Mercosur and UNESCO data bases, World Education Indicators and various national time-series government reports. Mathematics results in national testing programmes, Programme for…

  2. [Collected Papers on Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Michael L., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on issues related to mathematics in technology and teacher education: "A Case for Strong Conceptualization in Technology Enhanced Mathematics Instruction" (Michael L. Connell and Delwyn L. Harnisch); "Faculty/Student Collaboration in Education and Math--Using the Web To Improve Student Learning and…

  3. Discrete Mathematics Re "Tooled."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grassl, Richard M.; Mingus, Tabitha T. Y.

    1999-01-01

    Indicates the importance of teaching discrete mathematics. Describes how the use of technology can enhance the teaching and learning of discrete mathematics. Explorations using Excel, Derive, and the TI-92 proved how preservice and inservice teachers experienced a new dimension in problem solving and discovery. (ASK)

  4. Mathematics and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennema, Elizabeth, Ed.; Leder, Gilah C., Ed.

    This book reports on various studies that have increased our understanding of why females and males learn different kinds and amounts of mathematics. In particular, this book explicates the Autonomous Learning Behavior model, proposed by Fennema and Peterson, which is a possible explanation of the development of gender differences in mathematics.…

  5. Mathematics Knowledge for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Research indicates that U. S. teachers' mathematical knowledge continues to be weak, and there is an inherent difference between the mathematical knowledge needed to be an effective teacher and that needed by a mathematician. In this article, the author discusses pedagogical content knowledge. According to Schulman (1987), pedagogical content…

  6. Attitudes and Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iben, Miriam F.

    1991-01-01

    Examines seventh and eighth grade students in Australia, Japan, and the United States for attitudes related to mathematics, and the relationship these attitudes have to students' development of abstract mathematical thought and spatial relations. Study uses the Iowa Algebra Aptitude Test, Differential Aptitude Test-Spatial Relations, and the…

  7. Developing Mathematical Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Eula Ewing; Orme, Michelle P.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of mathematical vocabulary, difficulties students encounter in learning this vocabulary, and some instructional strategies. Two general methods for teaching vocabulary are discussed: context and explicit vocabulary instruction. The methods are summarized as they apply to mathematical vocabulary instruction and…

  8. Mathematics and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, John

    2012-01-01

    This relationship is omnipresent to those who appreciate the shared attributes of these two areas of creativity. The dynamic nature of media, and further study, enable mathematicians and artists to present new and exciting manifestations of the "mathematics in art", and the "art in mathematics". The illustrative images of the relationship--that…

  9. Why physics needs mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrlich, Fritz

    2011-12-01

    Classical and the quantum mechanical sciences are in essential need of mathematics. Only thus can the laws of nature be formulated quantitatively permitting quantitative predictions. Mathematics also facilitates extrapolations. But classical and quantum sciences differ in essential ways: they follow different laws of logic, Aristotelian and non-Aristotelian logics, respectively. These are explicated.

  10. The Definition of Mathematics: Philosophical and Pedagogical Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khait, Alexander

    There is a strange fact that many works written with the purpose to explain what is mathematics, somehow avoid the issue. This paper is aimed at filling this gap. After discussing various descriptions of mathematics as they appear in literature, it is suggested that mathematics is an essentially linguistic activity characterized by association of words with precise meanings. Educational implications of this idea are considered in the light of(1) a strong tendency of most humans to the fuzzy way of thought as described by the dual-process theory developed by researchers of human reasoning;

  11. Business Mathematics. Mathematics Curriculum Guide (Career Oriented).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuschler, Alexandra; And Others

    The curriculum guide correlates concepts in business mathematics with career-oriented concepts and activities. The curriculum outline format gives the concepts to be taught, matched with related career-oriented performance objectives, concepts, and suggested instructional activities in facing page layouts. The outline is divided into the major…

  12. Technical Mathematics: Restructure of Technical Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Carol A.

    Designed to accompany a series of videotapes, this textbook provides information, examples, problems, and solutions relating to mathematics and its applications in technical fields. Chapter I deals with basic arithmetic, providing information on fractions, decimals, ratios, proportions, percentages, and order of operations. Chapter II focuses on…

  13. Examining Fourth-Grade Mathematics Writing: Features of Organization, Mathematics Vocabulary, and Mathematical Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Michael A.; Powell, Sarah R.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, students are expected to write about mathematics. Mathematics writing may be informal (e.g., journals, exit slips) or formal (e.g., writing prompts on high-stakes mathematics assessments). In order to develop an effective mathematics-writing intervention, research needs to be conducted on how students organize mathematics writing and…

  14. Math Description Engine Software Development Kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Robert O.; Smith, Stephanie L.; Dexter, Dan E.; Hodgson, Terry R.

    2010-01-01

    The Math Description Engine Software Development Kit (MDE SDK) can be used by software developers to make computer-rendered graphs more accessible to blind and visually-impaired users. The MDE SDK generates alternative graph descriptions in two forms: textual descriptions and non-verbal sound renderings, or sonification. It also enables display of an animated trace of a graph sonification on a visual graph component, with color and line-thickness options for users having low vision or color-related impairments. A set of accessible graphical user interface widgets is provided for operation by end users and for control of accessible graph displays. Version 1.0 of the MDE SDK generates text descriptions for 2D graphs commonly seen in math and science curriculum (and practice). The mathematically rich text descriptions can also serve as a virtual math and science assistant for blind and sighted users, making graphs more accessible for everyone. The MDE SDK has a simple application programming interface (API) that makes it easy for programmers and Web-site developers to make graphs accessible with just a few lines of code. The source code is written in Java for cross-platform compatibility and to take advantage of Java s built-in support for building accessible software application interfaces. Compiled-library and NASA Open Source versions are available with API documentation and Programmer s Guide at http:/ / prim e.jsc.n asa. gov.

  15. Provocative Opinion: Descriptive Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent, Henry A.; Bent, Brian E.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses many of the distinctions that chemists draw between theoretical chemistry and descriptive chemistry, along with the tendency for chemical educators to adopt the type of chemistry they feel is most important to teach. Uses examples to argue that theoretical chemistry and descriptive chemistry are, at the bottom line, the same. (TW)

  16. A Descriptive Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Josef

    1979-01-01

    In this experiment in description, students in a high school honors English class were asked to select a surrealistic painting and capture it in writing. Their compositions were given to art students who tried to reproduce the paintings from the written descriptions. (SJL)

  17. Physics 3204. Course Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newfoundland and Labrador Dept. of Education.

    A description of the physics 3204 course in Newfoundland and Labrador is provided. The description includes: (1) statement of purpose, including general objectives of science education; (2) a list of six course objectives; (3) course content for units on sound, light, optical instruments, electrostatics, current electricity, Michael Faraday and…

  18. Job descriptions made easy.

    PubMed

    Miller, Larry

    2014-01-01

    The act of writing a job description can be a daunting and difficult task for many managers. This article focuses on the key concepts of What, How, and Measureable Results as they relate to an employee's job duties. When the answers to these three elements are articulated, they define the core responsibilities of any job that form the basis for an effective job description.

  19. Assessing Students Beliefs about Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Denise A.

    1992-01-01

    Presents 11 open-ended questions that can be presented to students and teachers at all educational levels in various formats to assess mathematical beliefs. Questions investigate beliefs toward mathematics, the problem-solving process, mathematicians, and mathematical applications. (MDH)

  20. Mathematiques 14-24 (Mathematics 14-24).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    To set goals and make informed choices, students need an array of thinking and problem-solving skills. Fundamental to this is an understanding of mathematical techniques and processes that will enable them to apply the basic skills necessary to address everyday mathematical situations, as well as acquire higher order skills in logical analysis and…

  1. Applied Mathematics via Student-Created Computer Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloyer, Clifford; Smith, Lynn H.

    1983-01-01

    Describes topics and applications of five lessons dealing with applied mathematics (solving sequential optimization problems, queuing theory, graph theory, glyphs (pictorial techniques for displaying relationships among variables, medical mathematics). Design and evaluation of these materials which employ interactive graphics are also described.…

  2. People's Mathematics in Working Life: Why Is It Invisible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedege, Tine

    2010-01-01

    The labour market requirements play a central role in the answer from politicians and educational planners to the question "Why teach mathematics to adults?" Mathematics is interwoven with technology in the workplace - in technique, work organisation and people's competences. Still "No" is the most common answer to the question…

  3. Curricular Coherence and the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, William H.; Houang, Richard T.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we explored the relationship of the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics (CCSSM) to student achievement. Building on techniques developed for the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), we found a very high degree of similarity between CCSSM and the standards of the highest-achieving nations on the 1995…

  4. Integrated Programs for Science and Mathematics: Review of Related Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Kursat; Pehlivan, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a review of literature on the integration of science and mathematics, focusing on the dominant trends in the related studies. Majority of the studies conclude that the concept of the integration between science and mathematics is still vogue. On the other hand, there are various methods, techniques and models to achieve this…

  5. Computerized proof techniques for undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Christopher J.; Tefera, Akalu; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2012-12-01

    The use of computer algebra systems such as Maple and Mathematica is becoming increasingly important and widespread in mathematics learning, teaching and research. In this article, we present computerized proof techniques of Gosper, Wilf-Zeilberger and Zeilberger that can be used for enhancing the teaching and learning of topics in discrete mathematics. We demonstrate by examples how one can use these computerized proof techniques to raise students' interests in the discovery and proof of mathematical identities and enhance their problem-solving skills.

  6. Exposing the Mathematical Wizard: Approximating Trigonometric Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2011-01-01

    For almost all students, what happens when they push buttons on their calculators is essentially magic, and the techniques used are seemingly pure wizardry. In this article, the author draws back the curtain to expose some of the mathematics behind computational wizardry and introduces some fundamental ideas that are accessible to precalculus…

  7. The International Mathematical Olympiad Training Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Cecil; Patruno, Gregg

    1985-01-01

    The Mathematical Olympiad Training Session is designed to give United States students a problem-oriented exposure to subject areas (algebra, geometry, number theory, combinatorics, and inequalities) through an intensive three-week course. Techniques used during the session, with three sample problems and their solutions, are presented. (JN)

  8. A New Wave in Applied Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipra, Barry A.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is wavelet theory, which provides ways to rearrange data to reveal features of a physical or mathematical system which might otherwise be hidden. This theory is compared to fourier analysis and the advantages of wavelet theory are stressed. Applications of this technique are suggested. (CW)

  9. Mathematics Is Always Invisible, Professor Dowling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable, John

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a critical evaluation of a technique of analysis, the "Social Activity Method," recently offered by Dowling (2013) as a "gift" to mathematics education. The method is found to be inadequate, firstly, because it employs a dichotomy (between "expression" and "content") instead of a finer…

  10. Mathematics as verbal behavior.

    PubMed

    Marr, M Jackson

    2015-04-01

    "Behavior which is effective only through the mediation of other persons has so many distinguishing dynamic and topographical properties that a special treatment is justified and indeed demanded" (Skinner, 1957, p. 2). Skinner's demand for a special treatment of verbal behavior can be extended within that field to domains such as music, poetry, drama, and the topic of this paper: mathematics. For centuries, mathematics has been of special concern to philosophers who have continually argued to the present day about what some deem its "special nature." Two interrelated principal questions have been: (1) Are the subjects of mathematical interest pre-existing in some transcendental realm and thus are "discovered" as one might discover a new planet; and (2) Why is mathematics so effective in the practices of science and engineering even though originally such mathematics was "pure" with applications neither contemplated or even desired? I argue that considering the actual practice of mathematics in its history and in the context of acquired verbal behavior one can address at least some of its apparent mysteries. To this end, I discuss some of the structural and functional features of mathematics including verbal operants, rule-and contingency-modulated behavior, relational frames, the shaping of abstraction, and the development of intuition. How is it possible to understand Nature by properly talking about it? Essentially, it is because nature taught us how to talk. PMID:25595115

  11. Mathematics as verbal behavior.

    PubMed

    Marr, M Jackson

    2015-04-01

    "Behavior which is effective only through the mediation of other persons has so many distinguishing dynamic and topographical properties that a special treatment is justified and indeed demanded" (Skinner, 1957, p. 2). Skinner's demand for a special treatment of verbal behavior can be extended within that field to domains such as music, poetry, drama, and the topic of this paper: mathematics. For centuries, mathematics has been of special concern to philosophers who have continually argued to the present day about what some deem its "special nature." Two interrelated principal questions have been: (1) Are the subjects of mathematical interest pre-existing in some transcendental realm and thus are "discovered" as one might discover a new planet; and (2) Why is mathematics so effective in the practices of science and engineering even though originally such mathematics was "pure" with applications neither contemplated or even desired? I argue that considering the actual practice of mathematics in its history and in the context of acquired verbal behavior one can address at least some of its apparent mysteries. To this end, I discuss some of the structural and functional features of mathematics including verbal operants, rule-and contingency-modulated behavior, relational frames, the shaping of abstraction, and the development of intuition. How is it possible to understand Nature by properly talking about it? Essentially, it is because nature taught us how to talk.

  12. Teaching undergraduate mathematics in interactive groups: how does it fit with students' learning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheryn, Louise; Ell, Fiona

    2014-08-01

    Debates about how undergraduate mathematics should be taught are informed by different views of what it is to learn and to do mathematics. In this qualitative study 10 students enrolled in an advanced undergraduate course in mathematics shared their views about how they best learn mathematics. After participating in a semester-long course in combinatorics, taught using a non-traditional, formal group work approach, the 10 students shared their views about how such an approach fitted in with their experience of learning mathematics. A descriptive thematic analysis of the students' responses revealed that despite being very comfortable with the traditional approach to learning new mathematics, most students were open to a formal group work approach and could see benefits from it after their participation. The students' prior conceptions of the goal of undergraduate mathematics learning and their view of themselves as 'mathematicians' framed their experience of learning mathematics in a non-traditional class.

  13. A mathematical programming approach to stochastic and dynamic optimization problems

    SciTech Connect

    Bertsimas, D.

    1994-12-31

    We propose three ideas for constructing optimal or near-optimal policies: (1) for systems for which we have an exact characterization of the performance space we outline an adaptive greedy algorithm that gives rise to indexing policies (we illustrate this technique in the context of indexable systems); (2) we use integer programming to construct policies from the underlying descriptions of the performance space (we illustrate this technique in the context of polling systems); (3) we use linear control over polyhedral regions to solve deterministic versions for this class of problems. This approach gives interesting insights for the structure of the optimal policy (we illustrate this idea in the context of multiclass queueing networks). The unifying theme in the paper is the thesis that better formulations lead to deeper understanding and better solution methods. Overall the proposed approach for stochastic and dynamic optimization parallels efforts of the mathematical programming community in the last fifteen years to develop sharper formulations (polyhedral combinatorics and more recently nonlinear relaxations) and leads to new insights ranging from a complete characterization and new algorithms for indexable systems to tight lower bounds and new algorithms with provable a posteriori guarantees for their suboptimality for polling systems, multiclass queueing and loss networks.

  14. Mathematics and Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Boisvert, Ronald F.; Donahue, Michael J.; Lozier, Daniel W.; McMichael, Robert; Rust, Bert W.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we describe the role that mathematics plays in measurement science at NIST. We first survey the history behind NIST’s current work in this area, starting with the NBS Math Tables project of the 1930s. We then provide examples of more recent efforts in the application of mathematics to measurement science, including the solution of ill-posed inverse problems, characterization of the accuracy of software for micromagnetic modeling, and in the development and dissemination of mathematical reference data. Finally, we comment on emerging issues in measurement science to which mathematicians will devote their energies in coming years. PMID:27500024

  15. The Greatest Mathematical Discovery?

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2010-05-12

    What mathematical discovery more than 1500 years ago: (1) Is one of the greatest, if not the greatest, single discovery in the field of mathematics? (2) Involved three subtle ideas that eluded the greatest minds of antiquity, even geniuses such as Archimedes? (3) Was fiercely resisted in Europe for hundreds of years after its discovery? (4) Even today, in historical treatments of mathematics, is often dismissed with scant mention, or else is ascribed to the wrong source? Answer: Our modern system of positional decimal notation with zero, together with the basic arithmetic computational schemes, which were discovered in India about 500 CE.

  16. Mathematization in introductory physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahmia, Suzanne M.

    Mathematization is central to STEM disciplines as a cornerstone of the quantitative reasoning that characterizes these fields. Introductory physics is required for most STEM majors in part so that students develop expert-like mathematization. This dissertation describes coordinated research and curriculum development for strengthening mathematization in introductory physics; it blends scholarship in physics and mathematics education in the form of three papers. The first paper explores mathematization in the context of physics, and makes an original contribution to the measurement of physics students' struggle to mathematize. Instructors naturally assume students have a conceptual mastery of algebra before embarking on a college physics course because these students are enrolled in math courses beyond algebra. This paper provides evidence that refutes the validity of this assumption and categorizes some of the barriers students commonly encounter with quantification and representing ideas symbolically. The second paper develops a model of instruction that can help students progress from their starting points to their instructor's desired endpoints. Instructors recognize that the introductory physics course introduces new ideas at an astonishing rate. More than most physicists realize, however, the way that mathematics is used in the course is foreign to a large portion of class. This paper puts forth an instructional model that can move all students toward better quantitative and physical reasoning, despite the substantial variability of those students' initial states. The third paper describes the design and testing of curricular materials that foster mathematical creativity to prepare students to better understand physics reasoning. Few students enter introductory physics with experience generating equations in response to specific challenges involving unfamiliar quantities and units, yet this generative use of mathematics is typical of the thinking involved in

  17. A Synthesis of Solar Cycle Prediction Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.; Wilson, Robert M.; Reichmann, Edwin J.

    1999-01-01

    A number of techniques currently in use for predicting solar activity on a solar cycle timescale are tested with historical data. Some techniques, e.g., regression and curve fitting, work well as solar activity approaches maximum and provide a month-by-month description of future activity, while others, e.g., geomagnetic precursors, work well near solar minimum but only provide an estimate of the amplitude of the cycle. A synthesis of different techniques is shown to provide a more accurate and useful forecast of solar cycle activity levels. A combination of two uncorrelated geomagnetic precursor techniques provides a more accurate prediction for the amplitude of a solar activity cycle at a time well before activity minimum. This combined precursor method gives a smoothed sunspot number maximum of 154 plus or minus 21 at the 95% level of confidence for the next cycle maximum. A mathematical function dependent on the time of cycle initiation and the cycle amplitude is used to describe the level of solar activity month by month for the next cycle. As the time of cycle maximum approaches a better estimate of the cycle activity is obtained by including the fit between previous activity levels and this function. This Combined Solar Cycle Activity Forecast gives, as of January 1999, a smoothed sunspot maximum of 146 plus or minus 20 at the 95% level of confidence for the next cycle maximum.

  18. On the Role of Mathematics in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quale, Andreas

    2011-03-01

    I examine the association between the observable physical world and the mathematical models of theoretical physics. These models will exhibit many entities that have no counterpart in the physical world, but which are still necessary for the mathematical description of physical systems. Moreover, when the model is applied to the analysis of a physical system, it will sometimes produce solutions that are unphysical—i.e. describe a physical system that simply cannot exist in the real world. It is argued that this poses a problem for the epistemic position of realism in physics: a mathematical theory that professes to give a correct description of physical reality should not contain such unrealistic objects. Some concrete examples are examined, and their implications for physics are discussed from a relativist epistemic perspective. I argue that the appearance of the unphysical entities and solutions also has significance for the teaching of physics. It is recommended that the students be exposed from the start to a relativist ontology, as advocated by the theory of radical constructivism; here the unphysical objects do not pose an epistemic problem.

  19. Benjamin Banneker's Mathematical Puzzles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, John F.

    2003-01-01

    Benjamin Banneker, a self-taught African American mathematician, kept a journal containing a number of mathematical puzzles. Explores four of these puzzles, 200 years later, with the aid of 21st century technology. (Author/NB)

  20. Mathematics Case Methods Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Carne S.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an overview and analysis of the Mathematics Case Methods Project, which uses cases in order to examine and reflect upon teaching. Focuses on a special kind of teacher knowledge, coined pedagogical-content knowledge. (ASK)

  1. Standards in Mathematics Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Bill

    1978-01-01

    This article is based on a lecture given at the 1978 Easter Course at Padgate College of Higher Education. The lecture is an analysis of the complexity of mathematics teaching and the setting of teaching standards. (MN)

  2. Reciprocal Relationships between Attitude toward Mathematics and Achievement in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin

    1997-01-01

    This study examined reciprocal relationships between attitude toward mathematics and mathematics achievement. High school seniors from the Dominican Republic completed mathematics achievement tests and a questionnaire on mathematics attitudes. Results indicated that reciprocal relationships existed, suggesting that the reciprocal nature between…

  3. Using Mathematics in Science: Working with Your Mathematics Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Changes to the mathematics and science curriculums are designed to increase rigour in mathematics, and place greater emphasis on mathematical content in science subjects at key stages 3, 4 and 5 (ages 11-18). One way to meet the growing challenge of providing increased emphasis on mathematics in the science curriculum is greater collaboration…

  4. Applications of Secondary School Mathematics: Readings from the "Mathematics Teacher."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Joe Dan, Ed.

    This book provides applications for use in the secondary school mathematics curriculum by selecting related articles appearing in the "Mathematics Teacher" during the last 15 years. The articles are grouped into chapters that reflect the main secondary school mathematics courses and categorized by the highest level of mathematics needed for…

  5. Promoting Critical Mathematics Literacy in Secondary Mathematics Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Michael Charles

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how critical mathematical literacy teachers conceptualize their practices and how those practices were demonstrated in the classroom. Practices were considered from an ontology of mathematics education, specific to critical mathematical literacy, in which classroom interactions question what it means to do mathematics as an…

  6. Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Attitudes Towards Learning Mathematics with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ipek, A. Sabri; Berigel, Muhammed; Albayrak, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    Role of technology which is an important tool for new approaches in learning mathematics is rapidly increasing at focus point of learning mathematics with new designs. One of the biggest factors at learning and instructing technology based mathematic education is attitudes of mathematics teachers towards technology. At this study, attitudes of…

  7. Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Perceptions and Lived Experiences on Mathematical Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Defne; Aydin, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical thinking skills and meaningful mathematical understanding are among the goals of current mathematics education. There is a wide consensus among scholars about the purpose of developing mathematical understanding and higher order thinking skills in students. However, how to develop those skills in classroom settings is an area that…

  8. Mathematical Modeling in Mathematics Education: Basic Concepts and Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erbas, Ayhan Kürsat; Kertil, Mahmut; Çetinkaya, Bülent; Çakiroglu, Erdinç; Alacaci, Cengiz; Bas, Sinem

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling and its role in mathematics education have been receiving increasing attention in Turkey, as in many other countries. The growing body of literature on this topic reveals a variety of approaches to mathematical modeling and related concepts, along with differing perspectives on the use of mathematical modeling in teaching and…

  9. Explicating the Role of Mathematical Tasks in Conceptual Learning: An Elaboration of the Hypothetical Learning Trajectory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Martin A.; Tzur, Ron

    2004-01-01

    Simon's (1995) development of the construct of hypothetical learning trajectory (HLT) offered a description of key aspects of planning mathematics lessons. An HLT consists of the goal for the students' learning, the mathematical tasks that will be used to promote student learning, and hypotheses about the process of the students' learning.…

  10. An Investigation of Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers' Skills in the Development of Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özgen, Kemal; Alkan, Hu¨seyin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine pre-service mathematics teachers' skills in the development of activities. The research was carried out using the case study which is descriptive method. For the collection of data, 57 pre-service mathematics teachers' in their final year secondary math teachers' education department…

  11. On Possible Uses of Traditional Angolan Sand Drawings in the Mathematics Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Paulus

    1988-01-01

    Both industrialized and Third World countries see the need to "multi-culturalize" their mathematics curricula. Following a brief description of the drawing tradition of the Tchokwe people (Angola), some possible uses of their pictograms in the mathematics classroom are suggested. Examples given in this paper include the study of arithmetical…

  12. Ten Equations That Changed Biology: Mathematics in Problem-Solving Biology Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungck, John R.

    1997-01-01

    Mathematics plays an exceptionally important role in biological education and the history of biology. Ten equations and descriptions of their historical importance are presented to draw students' and faculty's attention to mathematical models that have been intrinsic to many of the significant discoveries in biology in the 20th century. Each…

  13. Opinions of Mathematics Teacher Candidates towards Applying 7E Instructional Model on Computer Aided Instruction Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenilmez, Kursat; Ersoy, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine opinions of mathematics teacher candidates towards applying 7E instructional model on computer aided instruction environments. The descriptive case study model was used in this study. The sample of the study consists of 52 mathematics teacher candidates which were selected randomly from Eskisehir…

  14. Increasing mathematical problem-solving performance through relaxation training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Conni; Coltharp, Hazel; Hurford, David; Cole, Amykay

    2000-04-01

    Two intact classes of 30 undergraduate students enrolled in the same general education mathematics course were each administered the IPSP Mathematics Problem Solving Test and the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale at the beginning and end of the semester. Both groups experienced the same syllabus, lectures, course requirements, and assessment techniques; however, one group received relaxation training during an initial class meeting and during the first 5 to 7 minutes of each subsequent class. The group which had received relaxation training had significantly lower mathematics anxiety and significantly higher mathematics performance at the end of the course. The results suggest that relaxation training may be a useful tool for treating anxiety in undergraduate general education mathematics students.

  15. Mathematical modeling of molecular diffusion through mucus

    PubMed Central

    Cu, Yen; Saltzman, W. Mark

    2008-01-01

    The rate of molecular transport through the mucus gel can be an important determinant of efficacy for therapeutic agents delivered by oral, intranasal, intravaginal/rectal, and intraocular routes. Transport through mucus can be described by mathematical models based on principles of physical chemistry and known characteristics of the mucus gel, its constituents, and of the drug itself. In this paper, we review mathematical models of molecular diffusion in mucus, as well as the techniques commonly used to measure diffusion of solutes in the mucus gel, mucus gel mimics, and mucosal epithelia. PMID:19135488

  16. Change and Calculations: MINNEMAST Coordinated Mathematics - Science Series, Unit 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Patricia A., Ed.; Nyberg, Luanne, Ed.

    This volume is the twenty-fourth in a series of 29 coordinated MINNEMAST units in mathematics and science for kindergarten and the primary grades. Intended for use by third-grade teachers, this unit guide provides a summary and overview of the unit, a list of materials needed, and descriptions of four groups of lessons and activities. The purposes…

  17. Eliciting Students' Beliefs about Who Is Good at Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morge, Shelby P.

    2007-01-01

    This article highlights a series of activities designed to elicit students' mathematics-related beliefs, particularly those related to gender. As a result of the activities, females in upper-level classes rated themselves as having less confidence than males, and viewing a movie clip was sufficient for some students to modify their descriptions of…

  18. Using Our Senses: MINNEMAST Coordinated Mathematics - Science Series, Unit 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Laura M.; Reed, Elizabeth W.

    This volume is the fourth in a series of 29 coordinated MINNEMAST units in mathematics and science for kindergarten and the primary grades. Intended for use by kindergarten teachers, this unit guide provides a summary and overview of the unit, a list of materials needed, and descriptions of seven groups of activities. The purposes and procedures…

  19. Harmony between Turkish Early Childhood and Primary Mathematics Education Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliskan Dedeoglu, Nuray; Alat, Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the spiral relation and the congruency between mathematics standards listed in the Early Childhood and First Grade curricula in Turkey. A descriptive content analysis was conducted on Early Child Education Curriculum (OOEP) for 36-72 months old children and Math Curriculum for the Grades 1-5 (IMOP), both…

  20. In the Beginning: The Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Julian C.

    This paper contains a brief description of the founding and early years of the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY) from 1968 to the present. Several of the guiding principles behind SMPY are discussed. SMPY led to the formation of strong regional, state, and local centers that now blanket the United States with annual talent searches…

  1. Conditions Affecting Life: MINNEMAST Coordinated Mathematics - Science Series, Unit 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Elaine E., Ed.

    This volume is the twenty-third in a series of 29 coordinated MINNEMAST units in mathematics and science for kindergarten and the primary grades. Intended for use by third-grade teachers, this unit guide provides a summary and overview of the unit, a list of materials needed, and descriptions of six groups of lessons. The purposes and procedures…

  2. Investigating Systems: MINNEMAST Coordinated Mathematics - Science Series, Unit 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Edith, Ed.

    This volume is the fifteenth in a series of 29 coordinated MINNEMAST units in mathematics and science for kindergarten and the primary grades. Intended for use by second-grade teachers, this unit guide provides a summary and overview of the unit, a list of materials needed, and descriptions of six groups of lessons. The purposes and procedures for…

  3. 101 Environmental Education Activities. Booklet 3--Mathematics Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaljo, Roger, Comp.

    Each of the 14 environment-related mathematics activities included in this publication by the Upper Mississippi River ECO-Center includes objectives, materials needed, preparation, and activity description. Occasionally, variations and helpful hints are added. Because the student can gain experience to help him with the practical application of…

  4. Using Larger Numbers: MINNEMAST Coordinated Mathematics - Science Series, Unit 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihrig, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    This volume is the twentieth in a series of 29 coordinated MINNEMAST units in mathematics and science for kindergarten and the primary grades. Intended for use by second-grade teachers, this unit guide provides a summary and overview of the unit, a list of materials needed, and descriptions of three groups of lessons and activities. The purposes…

  5. Watching and Wondering: MINNEMAST Coordinated Mathematics - Science Series, Unit 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Laura M.; Reed, Elizabeth W.

    This volume is the first in a series of 29 coordinated MINNEMAST units in mathematics and science for kindergarten and the primary grades. Intended for use by kindergarten teachers, this unit guide provides a summary and overview of the unit, a list of materials needed, and descriptions of six groups of activities. The purposes and procedures for…

  6. Mathematics Education Is Not an Enigma--Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Doug Williams presented the opening address at Conference 2012 on the theme of "Enigmas". Here he continues storytelling about the learning and teaching of mathematics at its best. The descriptions are of real classrooms with real teachers, and real learners. As with many good stories this is the narrative of a journey. A journey that seeks to…

  7. Mathematics Education Is Not an Enigma--Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Doug Williams presented the opening address at Conference 2012 on the theme of "Enigmas". This is storytelling about the learning and teaching of mathematics at its best. The descriptions are of real classrooms with real teachers, and real learners. As with many good stories this is the narrative of a journey. A journey that seeks to change…

  8. Engaging Students in Mathematical Modeling through Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carducci, Olivia M.

    2014-01-01

    I have included a service-learning project in my mathematical modeling course for the last 6 years. This article describes my experience with service-learning in this course. The article includes a description of the course and the service-learning projects. There is a discussion of how to connect with community partners and identify…

  9. Operating Procedures for HP Mathematics Drill and Practice Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewlett Packard Co., Cupertino, CA.

    This book is one of a series of five providing a description of the Hewlett-Packard Mathematics Drill and Practice Program for the computer. Complete operating procedures for the program are given. Contents include: (1) introduction; (2) things to know before operating the system; (3) creating records and files; (4) daily tasks; (5) occasional…

  10. The Force-Frequency Relationship: Insights from Mathematical Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puglisi, Jose L.; Negroni, Jorge A.; Chen-Izu, Ye; Bers, Donald M.

    2013-01-01

    The force-frequency relationship has intrigued researchers since its discovery by Bowditch in 1871. Many attempts have been made to construct mathematical descriptions of this phenomenon, beginning with the simple formulation of Koch-Wesser and Blinks in 1963 to the most sophisticated ones of today. This property of cardiac muscle is amplified by…

  11. Brain Hemisphericity and Mathematics Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Sanny F.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to find out the brain hemisphericity and mathematics achievement of high school students. The respondents of the study were the 168 first year high school students of Colegio de San Jose, during school year 2010-2011 who were chosen through stratified random sampling. The descriptive and interview methods of research were used in…

  12. Natural Systems: MINNEMAST Coordinated Mathematics - Science Series, Unit 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakke, Jeannette; And Others

    This volume is the last in a series of 29 coordinated MINNEMAST units in mathematics and science for kindergarten and the primary grades. Intended for use by third-grade teachers, this unit guide provides a summary and overview of the unit, a list of materials needed, and descriptions of three groups of lessons. The purposes and procedures for…

  13. Cultural Issues in the Communication of Research on Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolini Bussi, Maria G.; Martignone, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    It might be trite to observe that every research study is framed within a cultural background. In this paper we argue that the description of the cultural background is important for discussing, evaluating and exploiting internationally the findings of local educational studies. This issue is fundamental in every study in mathematics education…

  14. A Generalized Instructional System for Elementary Mathematical Logic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Adele

    A computer-based instructional system for teaching the notion of mathematical proof is described. The system is capable of handling formalizations of the full predicate calculus with identity and, with minor work, definite description. Designed as an instructional device, the program is also the basis for a number of research projects involving…

  15. Developing Interactive Learning Objects for a Computing Mathematics Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Cher Ping; Lee, Siew Lie; Richards, Cameron

    2006-01-01

    Based on a case study of the online component of a Computing Mathematics module at a local polytechnic in Singapore, this article provides a descriptive account of the development and employment of interactive learning objects to enhance the learning experiences of the students in the course. The experimented learning objects were branded as…

  16. Characterization of high school mathematics and physics language genres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Michelle L.

    Research indicates that language factors play a critical role in the learning of school mathematics and science. Symbols and language-forms have been created to represent and discuss mathematical ideas. Understanding language factors, therefore, is critical in improving the teaching and learning of school mathematics and science. The specific goal of this research was to characterize language genres found in secondary school mathematics and physics classrooms. The research presented here was conducted in two secondary school classrooms---one algebra and one physics---taught by the same teacher. The focus was on the discourse between the teacher and her students. In both mathematics and physics, the teacher attended to the meaning of mathematical concepts and processes, but the talk differed. Physics talk focused on developing meaning for the physics concepts through activities and discussion, which were accompanied by mathematical calculations and analyses. Algebra talk, on the other hand, was procedural and narrative in nature. Thus physics talk was more descriptive of individual concepts and situation, and was more explanatory and exploratory than algebra talk. All discourse inevitably reflects one's thinking and beliefs about the content of that discourse. Thus talking algebra and talking physics, as observed in this study, both represented the teacher's beliefs about teaching and learning and the nature of the school curriculum. Even for a teacher with a strong academic background in both mathematics and science, integrating across the curriculum can be hindered by the approved school curriculum and by the reality of the particular classroom context. Providing professional development and implementing one of several available integrated curricula would be needed if more integration were to be implemented. This study presents a literature-based description of the conceptual notion of language genre. It additionally presents a conceptualization of mathematics and

  17. The Applied Mathematics for Power Systems (AMPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael

    2012-07-24

    Increased deployment of new technologies, e.g., renewable generation and electric vehicles, is rapidly transforming electrical power networks by crossing previously distinct spatiotemporal scales and invalidating many traditional approaches for designing, analyzing, and operating power grids. This trend is expected to accelerate over the coming years, bringing the disruptive challenge of complexity, but also opportunities to deliver unprecedented efficiency and reliability. Our Applied Mathematics for Power Systems (AMPS) Center will discover, enable, and solve emerging mathematics challenges arising in power systems and, more generally, in complex engineered networks. We will develop foundational applied mathematics resulting in rigorous algorithms and simulation toolboxes for modern and future engineered networks. The AMPS Center deconstruction/reconstruction approach 'deconstructs' complex networks into sub-problems within non-separable spatiotemporal scales, a missing step in 20th century modeling of engineered networks. These sub-problems are addressed within the appropriate AMPS foundational pillar - complex systems, control theory, and optimization theory - and merged or 'reconstructed' at their boundaries into more general mathematical descriptions of complex engineered networks where important new questions are formulated and attacked. These two steps, iterated multiple times, will bridge the growing chasm between the legacy power grid and its future as a complex engineered network.

  18. Generalized simulation technique for turbojet engine system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seldner, K.; Mihaloew, J. R.; Blaha, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    A nonlinear analog simulation of a turbojet engine was developed. The purpose of the study was to establish simulation techniques applicable to propulsion system dynamics and controls research. A schematic model was derived from a physical description of a J85-13 turbojet engine. Basic conservation equations were applied to each component along with their individual performance characteristics to derive a mathematical representation. The simulation was mechanized on an analog computer. The simulation was verified in both steady-state and dynamic modes by comparing analytical results with experimental data obtained from tests performed at the Lewis Research Center with a J85-13 engine. In addition, comparison was also made with performance data obtained from the engine manufacturer. The comparisons established the validity of the simulation technique.

  19. Reaching All Students with Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Gilbert, Ed.; Driscoll, Mark, Ed.

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics'"Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics" and "Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics" reflect the belief that all students can learn a significant core of high-quality mathematics. Recognizing the magnitude of the task of reaching all students, this book was put together…

  20. A Mathematics Software Database Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, R. S.; Smith, David A.

    1987-01-01

    Contains an update of an earlier listing of software for mathematics instruction at the college level. Topics are: advanced mathematics, algebra, calculus, differential equations, discrete mathematics, equation solving, general mathematics, geometry, linear and matrix algebra, logic, statistics and probability, and trigonometry. (PK)

  1. Perceptions of Mathematics and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloosterman, Peter; Tassel, Janet; Ponniah, Ann G.; Esses, N. Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This study examined students' perceptions about gender and the subject of mathematics, as well as gender and mathematics learning. Secondary school students and pre-service elementary teachers were surveyed using the Mathematics as a Gendered Domain and Who and Mathematics instruments developed by Leder and Forgasz (Leder, 2001). The data indicate…

  2. Mathematical Modeling: A Structured Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anhalt, Cynthia Oropesa; Cortez, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modeling, in which students use mathematics to explain or interpret physical, social, or scientific phenomena, is an essential component of the high school curriculum. The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) classify modeling as a K-12 standard for mathematical practice and as a conceptual category for high school…

  3. Truth & Beauty: Mathematics in Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Marion D.

    2013-01-01

    Today there are many categories of mathematics literature, including fiction and poetry. Mathematics fiction appears in such anthologies as "Fantasia Mathematica" (Fadiman 1958, 1997) and "The Mathematical Magpie" (Fadiman 1962, 1997). In addition, mathematics fiction is featured at http://kasmana.people.cofc.edu/MATHFICT.…

  4. Semantic Processing of Mathematical Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Vanessa K.; Wilson, Anna J.; Hamm, Jeff P.; Phillips, Nicola; Iwabuchi, Sarina J.; Corballis, Michael C.; Arzarello, Ferdinando; Thomas, Michael O. J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether or not university mathematics students semantically process gestures depicting mathematical functions (mathematical gestures) similarly to the way they process action gestures and sentences. Semantic processing was indexed by the N400 effect. Results: The N400 effect elicited by words primed with mathematical gestures…

  5. On correct mathematical models of ecological LSS of high closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsev, S. I.

    Usually mathematical models of natural ecological systems are implicitly based on the assumption of stoichiometrically rigid metabolism In most cases such assumption is applicable but in the case of ecological systems of high closure it can cause errors of forecast For completely closed ecological system the assumption of rigid metabolism results in completely incorrect forecast Since CELSS for long-duration missions have to be of high closure then using adequate mathematical description is of great importance for successfulness of a space mission Possible variants of non-rigid metabolism applicable to different type of biological components of CELSS are considered in the paper It is shown non-rigid models of metabolism not only eliminate incorrectness of mathematical description but as well allow to obtain more adequate estimation of stability of closed ecological systems

  6. Experimenting with Impacts in a Conceptual Physics or Descriptive Astronomy Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    What follows is a description of the procedure for and results of a simple experiment on the formation of impact craters designed for the laboratory portions of lower mathematical-level general education science courses such as conceptual physics or descriptive astronomy. The experiment provides necessary experience with data collection and…

  7. Summer Institute for Mathematics and Science teachers (SIMS). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-01

    The Summer Institute for Mathematics and Science Teachers (SIMS) was to provide training for science and mathematics educators in strategies and techniques to use for educating and motivating historically under-represented populations. The Institute featured 40 hours of training over five days, July 13-17, 1993 plus half-day follow-up training November 13, 1993 and April 30, 1994. The objective of the training was to include sensitization to cultural and gender issues, and to instruct participants in the utilization of a variety of techniques and activities for encouraging historically under-represented groups to take more advanced science and mathematics courses.

  8. Automatic TLI recognition system, general description

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report is a general description of an automatic target recognition system developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for the Department of Energy. A user`s manual is a separate volume, Automatic TLI Recognition System, User`s Guide, and a programmer`s manual is Automatic TLI Recognition System, Programmer`s Guide. This system was designed as an automatic target recognition system for fast screening of large amounts of multi-sensor image data, based on low-cost parallel processors. This system naturally incorporates image data fusion, and it gives uncertainty estimates. It is relatively low cost, compact, and transportable. The software is easily enhanced to expand the system`s capabilities, and the hardware is easily expandable to increase the system`s speed. In addition to its primary function as a trainable target recognition system, this is also a versatile, general-purpose tool for image manipulation and analysis, which can be either keyboard-driven or script-driven. This report includes descriptions of three variants of the computer hardware, a description of the mathematical basis if the training process, and a description with examples of the system capabilities.

  9. General Mathematics II. A CoSer Project of the Cortland-Madison BOCES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLucci, Jackie; And Others

    This General Mathematics II curriculum reflects the 1980 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Agenda for Action statement that emphasis in mathematics learning and teaching should be shifted away from isolated computational skills toward problem-solving techniques. The use of calculators and estimation is encouraged. Emphasis both in…

  10. Using a Computer Algebra System to Facilitate the Learning of Mathematical Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAndrew, Alasdair

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical induction is one of the major proof techniques taught to mathematics students in the first years of their undergraduate degrees. In addition to its importance to mathematics, induction is also required for computer science and related disciplines. However, even if the concepts of a proof by induction are taught and understood, many…

  11. Automatic Semantic Generation and Arabic Translation of Mathematical Expressions on the Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doush, Iyad Abu; Al-Bdarneh, Sondos

    2013-01-01

    Automatic processing of mathematical information on the web imposes some difficulties. This paper presents a novel technique for automatic generation of mathematical equations semantic and Arabic translation on the web. The proposed system facilitates unambiguous representation of mathematical equations by correlating equations to their known…

  12. What Would the Mathematics Curriculum Look Like if Values Were the Focus?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seah, Wee Tiong; Andersson, Annica; Bishop, Alan; Clarkson, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The crucial reason for the common dislike, fear, and even hatred of mathematics by students and others is probably not the nature of mathematics itself, but the way the subject is portrayed and taught. We propose that instead of a mathematics curriculum that focuses on concepts and techniques (which is often seen), it might be more productive if…

  13. Math in Motion: Origami in the Classroom. A Hands-On Creative Approach to Teaching Mathematics. K-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Barbara

    This perfect bound teacher's guide presents techniques and activities to teach mathematics using origami paper folding. Part 1 includes a history of origami, mathematics and origami, and careers using mathematics. Parts 2 and 3 introduce paper-folding concepts and teaching techniques and include suggestions for low-budget paper resources. Part 4…

  14. MATHEMATICAL METHODS IN MEDICAL IMAGE PROCESSING

    PubMed Central

    ANGENENT, SIGURD; PICHON, ERIC; TANNENBAUM, ALLEN

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe some central mathematical problems in medical imaging. The subject has been undergoing rapid changes driven by better hardware and software. Much of the software is based on novel methods utilizing geometric partial differential equations in conjunction with standard signal/image processing techniques as well as computer graphics facilitating man/machine interactions. As part of this enterprise, researchers have been trying to base biomedical engineering principles on rigorous mathematical foundations for the development of software methods to be integrated into complete therapy delivery systems. These systems support the more effective delivery of many image-guided procedures such as radiation therapy, biopsy, and minimally invasive surgery. We will show how mathematics may impact some of the main problems in this area, including image enhancement, registration, and segmentation. PMID:23645963

  15. Active plasma resonance spectroscopy: a functional analytic description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapke, M.; Oberrath, J.; Mussenbrock, T.; Brinkmann, R. P.

    2013-04-01

    The term ‘active plasma resonance spectroscopy’ denotes a class of diagnostic methods which employ the ability of plasmas to resonate on or near the plasma frequency. The basic idea dates back to the early days of discharge physics: a signal in the GHz range is coupled to the plasma via an electrical probe; the spectral response is recorded, and then evaluated with a mathematical model to obtain information on the electron density and other plasma parameters. In recent years, the concept has found renewed interest as a basis of industry compatible plasma diagnostics. This paper analyzes the diagnostic technique in terms of a general description based on functional analytic (or Hilbert Space) methods which hold for arbitrary probe geometries. It is shown that the response function of the plasma-probe system can be expressed as a matrix element of the resolvent of an appropriately defined dynamical operator. A specialization of the formalism to a symmetric probe design is given, as well as an interpretation in terms of a lumped circuit model consisting of series resonance circuits. We present ideas for an optimized probe design based on geometric and electrical symmetry.

  16. Simple Description of the Two-Channel Kondo Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Piers

    1996-03-01

    The physics of the two channel Kondo model provides an example of a new universality class of non-Fermi liquid behavior. Its spin physics provides one of the few concrete examples of true marginal Fermi liquid behavior. Two channel Kondo physics may also provide one of basic engines for non Fermi liquid behavior in heavy fermion systems. For these reasons, a simple description of the underlying physics in this model is highly desirable. Conventionally, this model had yielded only to the most sophisticated and specialized mathematical techniques. I shall explain (P.Coleman, L. Ioffe and A. M. Tsvelik, Phys. Rev. B), 52, 6611 (1995). (P. Coleman and A. Schofield, Phys. Rev. Lett), 75, 2184, (1995) how we have been able to circumvent the problems encountered by earlier attempts to develop a simple picture by reformulating the two-channel Kondo model to explicitly remove the unscattered charge degrees of freedom from the outset. This procedure moves the non-Fermi liquid fixed point to infinite coupling where simple back-of-the envelope methods reveals the secret workings of its marginal Fermi liquid fixed point. I shall carefully explain how marginal spin-physics of the two-channel Kondo model results from the formation of a neutral three-body bound state at the Fermi energy. This new physics may prove to be very important as a guide to our general understanding of marginal Fermi liquid behavior.

  17. The Effect of Mathematics Research on Mathematics Majors' Mathematical Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodson, Joshua E.

    2012-01-01

    This is a dissertation about the beliefs that mathematics majors have about mathematics and how their beliefs are affected by the introduction of mathematics research. The mathematics research presented to the students dealt with counting regular orbits of an action. Research has shown that the beliefs that teachers hold about mathematics…

  18. High School Mathematics Teachers' Perspectives on the Purposes of Mathematical Proof in School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, David S.; Doerr, Helen M.

    2014-01-01

    Proof serves many purposes in mathematics. In this qualitative study of 17 high school mathematics teachers, we found that these teachers perceived that two of the most important purposes for proof in school mathematics were (a) to enhance students' mathematical understanding and (b) to develop generalized thinking skills that were…

  19. Attitudes toward Mathematics: Relationships to Mathematics Achievement, Gender, Mathematics Course-taking Plans, and Career Interests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorndike-Christ, Tracy

    The relationship of attitudes toward mathematics to mathematics performance, gender, mathematics course-taking plans, and career interests were investigated. Students enrolled in public middle and high school mathematics courses (722 male, 794 female) served as subjects. The Fennema-Sherman Math Attitude scales were used to measure attitudes…

  20. Physical and mathematical cochlear models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Kian-Meng

    2000-10-01

    The cochlea is an intricate organ in the inner ear responsible for our hearing. Besides acting as a transducer to convert mechanical sound vibrations to electrical neural signals, the cochlea also amplifies and separates the sound signal into its spectral components for further processing in the brain. It operates over a broad-band of frequency and a huge dynamic range of input while maintaining a low power consumption. The present research takes the approach of building cochlear models to study and understand the underlying mechanics involved in the functioning of the cochlea. Both physical and mathematical models of the cochlea are constructed. The physical model is a first attempt to build a life- sized replica of the human cochlea using advanced micro- machining techniques. The model takes a modular design, with a removable silicon-wafer based partition membrane encapsulated in a plastic fluid chamber. Preliminary measurements in the model are obtained and they compare roughly with simulation results. Parametric studies on the design parameters of the model leads to an improved design of the model. The studies also revealed that the width and orthotropy of the basilar membrane in the cochlea have significant effects on the sharply tuned responses observed in the biological cochlea. The mathematical model is a physiologically based model that includes three-dimensional viscous fluid flow and a tapered partition with variable properties along its length. A hybrid asymptotic and numerical method provides a uniformly valid and efficient solution to the short and long wave regions in the model. Both linear and non- linear activity are included in the model to simulate the active cochlea. The mathematical model has successfully reproduced many features of the response in the biological cochlea, as observed in experiment measurements performed on animals. These features include sharply tuned frequency responses, significant amplification with inclusion of activity

  1. Basic mathematical cognition.

    PubMed

    Gaber, David; Schlimm, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is a powerful tool for describing and developing our knowledge of the physical world. It informs our understanding of subjects as diverse as music, games, science, economics, communications protocols, and visual arts. Mathematical thinking has its roots in the adaptive behavior of living creatures: animals must employ judgments about quantities and magnitudes in the assessment of both threats (how many foes) and opportunities (how much food) in order to make effective decisions, and use geometric information in the environment for recognizing landmarks and navigating environments. Correspondingly, cognitive systems that are dedicated to the processing of distinctly mathematical information have developed. In particular, there is evidence that certain core systems for understanding different aspects of arithmetic as well as geometry are employed by humans and many other animals. They become active early in life and, particularly in the case of humans, develop through maturation. Although these core systems individually appear to be quite limited in application, in combination they allow for the recognition of mathematical properties and the formation of appropriate inferences based upon those properties. In this overview, the core systems, their roles, their limitations, and their interaction with external representations are discussed, as well as possibilities for how they can be employed together to allow us to reason about more complex mathematical domains. PMID:26263425

  2. Mathematical and computational models of plasma flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brushlinsky, K. V.

    Investigations of plasma flows are of interest, firstly, due to numerous applications, and secondly, because of their general principles, which form a special branch of physics: the plasma dynamics. Numerical simulation and computation, together with theoretic and experimental methods, play an important part in these investigations. Speaking on flows, a relatively dense plasma is mentioned, so its mathematical models appertain to the fluid mechanics, i.e., they are based on the magnetohydrodynamic description of plasma. Time dependent two dimensional models of plasma flows of two wide-spread types are considered: the flows across the magnetic field and those in the magnetic field plane.

  3. Software Template for Instruction in Mathematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Robert O.; Moebes, Travis A.; Beall, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Intelligent Math Tutor (IMT) is a software system that serves as a template for creating software for teaching mathematics. IMT can be easily connected to artificial-intelligence software and other analysis software through input and output of files. IMT provides an easy-to-use interface for generating courses that include tests that contain both multiple-choice and fill-in-the-blank questions, and enables tracking of test scores. IMT makes it easy to generate software for Web-based courses or to manufacture compact disks containing executable course software. IMT also can function as a Web-based application program, with features that run quickly on the Web, while retaining the intelligence of a high-level language application program with many graphics. IMT can be used to write application programs in text, graphics, and/or sound, so that the programs can be tailored to the needs of most handicapped persons. The course software generated by IMT follows a "back to basics" approach of teaching mathematics by inducing the student to apply creative mathematical techniques in the process of learning. Students are thereby made to discover mathematical fundamentals and thereby come to understand mathematics more deeply than they could through simple memorization.

  4. The "Emerging" and "Emergent" Present: A View on the Indeterminate Nature of Mathematics Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Maheux, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    The notion of emergence has considerable currency in mathematics education. However, the notion tends to be used in a descriptive way rather than being theorized and developed as a phenomenon sui generis. The purpose of this article is to contribute to building a theory of "emergence." After providing an exemplifying description and…

  5. The Provision, Use, Study Time and Effectiveness of Media: A Mathematical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Gordon; Lloyd, David

    2005-01-01

    Many institutions regularly conduct surveys of students. In some cases these provide descriptive statistics about students' actual use of course components and the descriptive statistics are discussed using ordinary language. A number of refinements to these surveys are proposed. It is argued that mathematical modeling as used in the discipline of…

  6. Perception determinants in learning mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtar, Siti Fairus; Ali, Noor Rasidah; Rashid, Nurazlina Abdul

    2015-05-01

    This article described a statistical study of students' perception in mathematics. The objective of this study is to identify factors related to perception about learning mathematics among non mathematics' student. This study also determined the relationship between of these factors among non mathematics' student. 43 items questionnaires were distributed to one hundred students in UiTM Kedah who enrolled in the Business Mathematics course. These items were measured by using a semantic scale with the following anchors: 1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree. A factor analysis of respondents were identified into five factors that influencing the students' perception in mathematics. In my study, factors identified were attitude, interest, role of the teacher, role of peers and usefulness of mathematics that may relate to the perception about learning mathematics among non mathematics' student.

  7. Mathematical Astronomy in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plofker, Kim

    Astronomy in South Asia's Sanskrit tradition, apparently originating in simple calendric computations regulating the timing of ancient ritual practices, expanded over the course of two or three millennia to include detailed spherical models, an endless variety of astrological systems, and academic mathematics in general. Assimilating various technical models, methods, and genres from the astronomy of neighboring cultures, Indian astronomers created new forms that were in turn borrowed by their foreign counterparts. Always recognizably related to the main themes of Eurasian geocentric mathematical astronomy, Indian astral science nonetheless maintained its culturally distinct character until Keplerian heliocentrism and Newtonian mechanics replaced it in colonial South Asia's academic mainstream.

  8. Mathematics in modern immunology

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Mario; Lythe, Grant; Molina-París, Carmen; Ribeiro, Ruy M.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical and statistical methods enable multidisciplinary approaches that catalyse discovery. Together with experimental methods, they identify key hypotheses, define measurable observables and reconcile disparate results. We collect a representative sample of studies in T-cell biology that illustrate the benefits of modelling–experimental collaborations and that have proven valuable or even groundbreaking. We conclude that it is possible to find excellent examples of synergy between mathematical modelling and experiment in immunology, which have brought significant insight that would not be available without these collaborations, but that much remains to be discovered. PMID:27051512

  9. Mathematics in modern immunology.

    PubMed

    Castro, Mario; Lythe, Grant; Molina-París, Carmen; Ribeiro, Ruy M

    2016-04-01

    Mathematical and statistical methods enable multidisciplinary approaches that catalyse discovery. Together with experimental methods, they identify key hypotheses, define measurable observables and reconcile disparate results. We collect a representative sample of studies in T-cell biology that illustrate the benefits of modelling-experimental collaborations and that have proven valuable or even groundbreaking. We conclude that it is possible to find excellent examples of synergy between mathematical modelling and experiment in immunology, which have brought significant insight that would not be available without these collaborations, but that much remains to be discovered.

  10. Description of a new technique for repairing chronic type B dissections that involve visceral branches being fed by both true and false lumen by using both lumens as conduits

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Joe; Remund, Tyler; Pohlson, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Here we present three cases performed using a novel technique where aortic flow is compartmentalized proximal to the target vessels through a physician-modified endograft. The visceral segment is then further compartmentalized by the use of another physician modified endograft. By compartmentalizing the flow proximal to the visceral segment, both the true lumen and false lumen can be used as conduits for coextensive bridging stent grafts. Overall, patients have tolerated this procedure extremely well, and while further study and follow-up must be conducted, this procedure could offer a reasonable long-term solution to thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms complicated by dissection. PMID:25972031

  11. Description of a new technique for repairing chronic type B dissections that involve visceral branches being fed by both true and false lumen by using both lumens as conduits.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joe; Remund, Tyler; Pohlson, Katie; Kelly, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    Here we present three cases performed using a novel technique where aortic flow is compartmentalized proximal to the target vessels through a physician-modified endograft. The visceral segment is then further compartmentalized by the use of another physician modified endograft. By compartmentalizing the flow proximal to the visceral segment, both the true lumen and false lumen can be used as conduits for coextensive bridging stent grafts. Overall, patients have tolerated this procedure extremely well, and while further study and follow-up must be conducted, this procedure could offer a reasonable long-term solution to thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms complicated by dissection.

  12. The Music of Mathematics: Toward a New Problem Typology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarfoot, David

    Halmos (1980) once described problems and their solutions as "the heart of mathematics". Following this line of thinking, one might naturally ask: "What, then, is the heart of problems?". In this work, I attempt to answer this question using techniques from statistics, information visualization, and machine learning. I begin the journey by cataloging the features of problems delineated by the mathematics and mathematics education communities. These dimensions are explored in a large data set of students working thousands of problems at the Art of Problem Solving, an online company that provides adaptive mathematical training for students around the world. This analysis is able to concretely show how the fabric of mathematical problems changes across different subjects, difficulty levels, and students. Furthermore, it locates problems that stand out in the crowd -- those that synergize cognitive engagement, learning, and difficulty. This quantitatively-heavy side of the dissertation is partnered with a qualitatively-inspired portion that involves human scoring of 105 problems and their solutions. In this setting, I am able to capture elusive features of mathematical problems and derive a fuller picture of the space of mathematical problems. Using correlation matrices, principal components analysis, and clustering techniques, I explore the relationships among those features frequently discussed in mathematics problems (e.g., difficulty, creativity, novelty, affective engagement, authenticity). Along the way, I define a new set of uncorrelated features in problems and use these as the basis for a New Mathematical Problem Typology (NMPT). Grounded in the terminology of classical music, the NMPT works to quickly convey the essence and value of a problem, just as terms like "etude" and "mazurka" do for musicians. Taken together, these quantitative and qualitative analyses seek to terraform the landscape of mathematical problems and, concomitantly, the current thinking

  13. Elementary Techniques of Numerical Integration and Their Computer Implementation. Applications of Elementary Calculus to Computer Science. Modules and Monographs in Undergraduate Mathematics and Its Applications Project. UMAP Unit 379.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motter, Wendell L.

    It is noted that there are some integrals which cannot be evaluated by determining an antiderivative, and these integrals must be subjected to other techniques. Numerical integration is one such method; it provides a sum that is an approximate value for some integral types. This module's purpose is to introduce methods of numerical integration and…

  14. Mathematical challenges from theoretical/computational chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The committee believes that this report has relevance and potentially valuable suggestions for a wide range of readers. Target audiences include: graduate departments in the mathematical and chemical sciences; federal and private agencies that fund research in the mathematical and chemical sciences; selected industrial and government research and development laboratories; developers of software and hardware for computational chemistry; and selected individual researchers. Chapter 2 of this report covers some history of computational chemistry for the nonspecialist, while Chapter 3 illustrates the fruits of some past successful cross-fertilization between mathematical scientists and computational/theoretical chemists. In Chapter 4 the committee has assembled a representative, but not exhaustive, survey of research opportunities. Most of these are descriptions of important open problems in computational/theoretical chemistry that could gain much from the efforts of innovative mathematical scientists, written so as to be accessible introductions to the nonspecialist. Chapter 5 is an assessment, necessarily subjective, of cultural differences that must be overcome if collaborative work is to be encouraged between the mathematical and the chemical communities. Finally, the report ends with a brief list of conclusions and recommendations that, if followed, could promote accelerated progress at this interface. Recognizing that bothersome language issues can inhibit prospects for collaborative research at the interface between distinctive disciplines, the committee has attempted throughout to maintain an accessible style, in part by using illustrative boxes, and has included at the end of the report a glossary of technical terms that may be familiar to only a subset of the target audiences listed above.

  15. Transitioning into Mathematics Curriculum Leadership: A Study of How a Graduate Degree Program Influenced Leaders' Views, Actions, and Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Liza

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this "intrinsic multi-descriptive" case study was to explore how a mathematics curriculum leadership graduate degree program influenced seven participants' views and actions as they transitioned into new mathematics curriculum leadership roles. The mathematics curriculum leadership graduate degree program was a joint…

  16. Nondestructive evaluation technique guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1973-01-01

    A total of 70 individual nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are described. Information is presented that permits ease of comparison of the merits and limitations of each technique with respect to various NDE problems. An NDE technique classification system is presented. It is based on the system that was adopted by the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB). The classification system presented follows the NMAB system closely with the exception of additional categories that have been added to cover more advanced techniques presently in use. The rationale of the technique is explained. The format provides for a concise description of each technique, the physical principles involved, objectives of interrogation, example applications, limitations of each technique, a schematic illustration, and key reference material. Cross-index tabulations are also provided so that particular NDE problems can be referred to appropriate techniques.

  17. Teaching Descriptive Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brashers, H. C.

    1968-01-01

    As the inexperienced writer becomes aware of the issues involved in the composition of effective descriptive prose, he also develops a consistent control over his materials. The persona he chooses, if coherently thought out, can function as an index of many choices, helping him to manipulate the tone, intent, and mood of this style; to regulate…

  18. Elementary School Mathematics Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, W. Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This article first describes some of the basic skills and knowledge that a solid elementary school mathematics foundation requires. It then elaborates on several points germane to these practices. These are then followed with a discussion and conclude with final comments and suggestions for future research. The article sets out the five…

  19. The Constructivist Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Karrie; Jones, Jennifer L.; Vermette, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    By examining how people learn, the educational theories of Dewey, Piaget, Vygotsky and Bruner can be synthesized to give this set of core Constructivist principles. Principles of effective mathematics teaching: (1) allows learning that is "active" and "reflective". Students are required to transfer key concepts to new situations; (2) allows…

  20. The Amazing Mathematical Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noblitt, Bethany A.; Buckley, Brooke E.

    2011-01-01

    Teams, pit stops, clues, time limits, fast forwards, challenges, and prizes are all components of the CBS hit show "The Amazing Race." They were also elements of the Amazing Mathematical Race sponsored by the Math and Stats Club at Northern Kentucky University in April 2009. Held in recognition of Math Awareness Month, which is advocated by the…

  1. Mathematics in Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Vocational-Technical Education Dept.

    This handbook was developed to help the vocational teacher aid students in solving mathematical problems in vocational education classes. Most of the examples in the handbook were derived from metal-working and industrial mechanics classes; however, the procedures explained through them will work in any vocational class. The handbook is divided…

  2. Navajo Area Mathematics Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Window Rock, AZ.

    Heavy emphasis is placed on development of understanding of arithmetic in this mathematics curriculum prepared specifically for Navajo children and intended for use in reservation schools. Materials are presented so that only when a given concept is understood are skills associated with it and a written format introduced. Learning activities…

  3. Supporting Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houssart, Jenny; Roaf, Caroline; Watson, Anne

    2005-01-01

    This book looks at how practitioners have focused on the fully educational application of intellect to the problem of developing mathematical thinking among one's pupils. Each chapter demonstrates reflective minds at work, relying on close observation, willingness to understand the student's thinking processes and patient commitment to students…

  4. Mathematics Guide, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portales Public Schools, NM.

    This curriculum guide provides aid in organizing and planning for the mathematical needs of the individual classroom. It is recommended that: (1) each teacher study the entire curriculum to become familiar with the concepts that interlock and blend all the grades together, and (2) all students with average ability master 70% of the skills. The…

  5. Exploratory Problems in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Frederick W.

    This book attempts to introduce students to the creative aspects of mathematics through exploratory problems. The introduction presents the criteria for the selection of the problems in the book. Criteria indicate that problems should: be immediately attractive, require data to be generated or gathered, appeal to students from junior high school…

  6. Making Music with Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Maria L.

    1999-01-01

    Presents examples of students' work when they are engaged in problem solving and reasoning tasks as they determine how to fill bottles with water to create musical notes by blowing across the tops of the bottles, and as they create mathematical models that represent these notes. (ASK)

  7. Mathematics as Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soifer, Alexander

    This book contains about 200 problems. It is suggested that it be used by students, teachers or anyone interested in exploring mathematics. In addition to a general discussion on problem solving, there are problems concerned with number theory, algebra, geometry, and combinatorics. (PK)

  8. Mathematics for Drafting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Joseph R.; Nery, Karen P.

    This set of three modules was designed for use primarily to help teach and reinforce the basic mathematics skills in drafting classes. The modules are based on the needs of drafting students in beginning courses as determined by a survey of teachers across North Carolina. Each module consists of basic information and examples and problem sheets…

  9. Corner Reflector Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popelka, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    Tiny prisms in reflective road signs and safety vests have interesting geometrical properties that can be discussed at any level of high school mathematics. At the beginning of the school year, the author teaches a unit on these reflective materials in her precalculus class so that students can review and strengthen their geometry and trigonometry…

  10. Correlating Mathematics and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mireles, Selena Vasquez

    2009-01-01

    The change from students learning all subjects together in a one-room schoolhouse to learning in classes separated by subject and grade resulted in distinct disciplines such as social studies, mathematics, science, and English. What was lost was the unified, holistic curriculum that a one-room setting required. Since students move from…

  11. Investigating Children's Mathematics Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joohi; Autry, Mary Murray; Fox, Jill; Williams, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    A sample of 244 children (average age: 61 months) and their parents from the Dallas and Fort Worth (DFW) metroplex area in Texas were surveyed to investigate children's mathematics readiness. This study was conducted as part of a project funded by a local child care council, composed of business, civic, and education leaders in the community. The…

  12. Mathematics in Baseball.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battista, Michael T.

    1993-01-01

    Presents a series of 13 activities to explore the mathematics of baseball. Activities examine the numerical measures of player statistics and team standings and the geometry of baseball. Discusses the use of computer spreadsheets and LOGO computer simulations to study the concepts embodied in the activities. (MDH)

  13. Oral and Mental Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sue

    2009-01-01

    The Williams Review (Dept. for Children, Schools and Families, 2008) is significantly important to all early years and primary educationalists, including those who are involved in teaching mathematics to the next generation of primary school teachers. The report, compiled as a result of this review, sets out the ways that children in primary…

  14. Symmetry in Mathematics Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfus, Tommy; Eisenberg, Theodore

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the creed in symmetry and the omnipresence of symmetrical relationships in mathematics and nature, discusses mathematicians' attraction toward looking for symmetrical relationships as an unstated problem-solving heuristic, and shows how symmetry can be used as a didactical tool. (Author/MKR)

  15. Consumer Mathematics. Teaching Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    GRADES OR AGES: Secondary school. SUBJECT MATTER: Consumer mathematics including--money management, transportation, probability, swindles and gyps, insurance, housing, taxes, consumer credit, banks, savings, and investments. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into ten parallel units, one for each of the above areas, which…

  16. Every Day Is Mathematical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Rita H.; Jarrah, Adeeb M.

    2012-01-01

    March 14 is special because it is Pi Day. Mathematics is celebrated on that day because the date, 3-14, replicates the first three digits of pi. Pi-related songs, websites, trivia facts, and more are at the fingertips of interested teachers and students. Less celebrated, but still fairly well known, is National Metric Day, which falls on October…

  17. Mathematics Unipac. Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Five activities are presented in this student workbook designed for exploration of a career in computers, and the mathematics related to that career. Included are activities on basic computer language, flow charts, and basic computer programming. Each activity includes the objective, materials needed, and information for completing the activity.…

  18. Mathematical Pattern Hunters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitin, Phyllis; Whitin, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The habit of looking for patterns, the skills to find them, and the expectation that patterns have explanations is an essential mathematical habit of mind for young children (Goldenberg, Shteingold, & Feurzeig 2003, 23). Work with patterns leads to the ability to form generalizations, the bedrock of algebraic thinking, and teachers must nurture…

  19. Mathematical Intrusions in Literatures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modica, Erasmo

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an activity that can be carried out in one of the final classes of Italian secondary schools. The aim of the activity is to stimulate pupil curiosity, demonstrating that Mathematics is not a barren subject and allowing the students, according to an interdisciplinary point of view, to investigate some literary works and the…

  20. Audiovisual Materials in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raab, Joseph A.

    This pamphlet lists five thousand current, readily available audiovisual materials in mathematics. These are grouped under eighteen subject areas: Advanced Calculus, Algebra, Arithmetic, Business, Calculus, Charts, Computers, Geometry, Limits, Logarithms, Logic, Number Theory, Probability, Soild Geometry, Slide Rule, Statistics, Topology, and…

  1. Mathematics for the Baker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdany, Melvin

    The curriculum guide offers a course of training in the fundamentals of mathematics as applied to baking. Problems specifically related to the baking trade are included to maintain a practical orientation. The course is designed to help the student develop proficiency in the basic computation of whole numbers, fractions, decimals, percentage,…

  2. Formal Definitions in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shield, Mal

    2004-01-01

    The definition is an important language form in the register of mathematics. Students need to understand the structure of a definition so that they can make sense of the definitions they encounter and so that they can construct their own definitions as part of organising their thoughts about the concepts they have explored. This article suggests…

  3. New Technologies in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarmiento, Jorge

    An understanding of past technological advancements can help educators understand the influence of new technologies in education. Inventions such as the abacus, logarithms, the slide rule, the calculating machine, computers, and electronic calculators have all found their place in mathematics education. While new technologies can be very useful,…

  4. Mathematics and Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Tobin; Martin, Lee

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues for an approach to mobile learning that leverages students' informal digital practices as resources for designing mathematics classrooms activities. We briefly describe two exploratory designs along these lines, one featuring the use of photos taken by students outside class and the other centered on their recording and…

  5. Mathematics, Vol. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The second of three volumes of a mathematics training course for Navy personnel, this document contains material primarily found at the college level. Beginning with logarithms and trigonometry, the text moves into vectors and static equilibrium (physics). Coordinate geometry, conic sections, and the tangents, normals, and slopes of curves follow.…

  6. Using and Applying Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Rupert

    2011-01-01

    The Nobel prize winning physicist Richard Feynman (2007) famously enthused about "the pleasure of finding things out". In day-to-day classroom life, however, it is easy to lose and undervalue this pleasure in the process, as opposed to products, of mathematics. Finding things out involves a journey and is often where the learning takes place.…

  7. Designing for Mathematical Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Noss, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Our focus is on the design of systems (pedagogical, technical, social) that encourage mathematical abstraction, a process we refer to as "designing for abstraction." In this paper, we draw on detailed design experiments from our research on children's understanding about chance and distribution to re-present this work as a case study in designing…

  8. A Classroom Mathematics Utility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Reviews CATUSPLOT, a mathematics utility aimed at high school algebra through college-level calculus. Basic program capabilities include plotting, tabulating, integrating, and locating of intersections of functions composed of combinations of polynomial, trigonometric, and exponential functions. Rated excellent on all areas examined…

  9. Designing a Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Lee Peng

    2010-01-01

    A decade of PMRI saw the changes in the classroom in some of the primary schools in Indonesia. Based on observation, we can say that though the mathematics syllabus in Indonesia did not change, its curriculum has changed under the movement of PMRI. In this article, we put in writing some of the experience gained through the involvement in…

  10. The Language of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruun, Faye; Diaz, Joan M.; Dykes, Valerie J.

    2015-01-01

    Students may excel in computation, but their ability to apply their skills will suffer if they do not understand the math vocabulary used in instructions and story problems. This action research project examines two methods for strengthening students' ability to communicate mathematically: (1) Journal writing and peer discussion; and (2) The…

  11. The Making of Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Describes the most enduring link between Napoleon and mathematics as the geometric result known as Napoleon's Theorem, which states that if equilateral triangles are drawn on the three sides of any triangle, the line segments joining the centers of these equilateral triangles will themselves form an equilateral triangle. (ASK)

  12. Learning Mathematics through Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, John

    2015-01-01

    When considering the use of games for teaching mathematics, educators should distinguish between an "activity" and a "game". Gough (1999) states that "A 'game' needs to have two or more players, who take turns, each competing to achieve a 'winning' situation of some kind, each able to exercise some choice about how to move…

  13. Teaching Vocational Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiering, Jeannette; And Others

    This Australian document is a guide to teaching mathematics as it relates to specific work situations. After a brief introduction, chapter 1 looks at problem solving, advises teachers to lower the reading level and thus raise the understandability of written math problems, and describes a four-step problem-solving process. Chapter 2 outlines a…

  14. Comprehension Tests in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradie, Jurie; Frith, John

    2000-01-01

    Presents an alternative way for testing a student's understanding of theory in a tertiary mathematics course. Provides two sample questions and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the method. Argues that the method is an acceptable and flexible means of testing students and can be adapted to use in other contexts as well. (Author/ASK)

  15. Celebrate Mathematical Curiosity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redford, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Children's mathematical questions are often based in real-world experiences, as they instinctively make connections to the world around them. In teaching math methods courses, this author recently started to emphasize the importance of fostering curiosity in, and activating the thinking of, the students. In this article, she describes how to tap…

  16. Mathematics in the Middle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leutzinger, Larry, Ed.

    This book contains articles that help to further the process of reform in the middle grades, recognizing that the knowledge acquired during these years greatly affects how well the secondary school curriculum will attain its goals. Critical issues facing middle grade classes in particular and all mathematics classrooms in general are discussed.…

  17. Mathematics Through Paper Folding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Alton T.

    This booklet is a revised edition of Donovan Johnson's "Paper Folding for the Mathematics Class" (ED 077 711). It begins with directions for folding basic constructions such as as a straight line, the line perpendicular to a given line passing through a given point, and the bisector of an angle. Subsequent chapters cover concepts related to…

  18. Flipping Freshman Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zack, Laurie; Fuselier, Jenny; Graham-Squire, Adam; Lamb, Ron; O'Hara, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Our study compared a flipped class with a standard lecture class in four introductory courses: finite mathematics, precalculus, business calculus, and calculus 1. The flipped sections watched video lectures outside of class and spent time in class actively working on problems. The traditional sections had lectures in class and did homework outside…

  19. Functioning Mathematically: 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, David

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author looks at ways of creating conditions to bring about learning. If one is to "arrange conditions to bring about learning," one needs written guidance and support systems. Two books that discusses how to arrange these conditions are: "Thinking Mathematically" by John Mason with Leone Burton and Kaye Stacey and "Starting…

  20. Urban Mathematics Teacher Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamdan, Kamal

    2010-01-01

    Mathematics teachers are both more difficult to attract and more difficult to retain than social sciences teachers. This fact is not unique to the United States; it is reported as being a problem in Europe as well (Howson, 2002). In the United States, however, the problem is particularly preoccupying. Because of the chronic teacher shortages and…