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Sample records for descriptive sensory analysis

  1. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat.

    PubMed

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-07-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat's unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods.

  2. Sensory characterization of a ready-to-eat sweetpotato breakfast cereal by descriptive analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dansby, M. A.; Bovell-Benjamin, A. C.

    2003-01-01

    The sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam], an important industry in the United States, has been selected as a candidate crop to be grown on future long-duration space missions by NASA. Raw sweetpotato roots were processed into flour, which was used to formulate ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (RTEBC). Twelve trained panelists evaluated the sensory attributes of the extruded RTEBC using descriptive analysis. The samples were significantly different (P<0.05) for all attributes. Twelve perceived sensory attributes, which could be used to differentiate the appearance, texture, and flavor of sweetpotato RTEBC, were described. The data could be used to optimize the RTEBC and for designing studies to test its consumer acceptance.

  3. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice. PMID:25838891

  4. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice. PMID:25838891

  5. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice.

  6. Quantitative descriptive analysis and principal component analysis for sensory characterization of Indian milk product cham-cham.

    PubMed

    Puri, Ritika; Khamrui, Kaushik; Khetra, Yogesh; Malhotra, Ravinder; Devraja, H C

    2016-02-01

    Promising development and expansion in the market of cham-cham, a traditional Indian dairy product is expected in the coming future with the organized production of this milk product by some large dairies. The objective of this study was to document the extent of variation in sensory properties of market samples of cham-cham collected from four different locations known for their excellence in cham-cham production and to find out the attributes that govern much of variation in sensory scores of this product using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and principal component analysis (PCA). QDA revealed significant (p < 0.05) difference in sensory attributes of cham-cham among the market samples. PCA identified four significant principal components that accounted for 72.4 % of the variation in the sensory data. Factor scores of each of the four principal components which primarily correspond to sweetness/shape/dryness of interior, surface appearance/surface dryness, rancid and firmness attributes specify the location of each market sample along each of the axes in 3-D graphs. These findings demonstrate the utility of quantitative descriptive analysis for identifying and measuring attributes of cham-cham that contribute most to its sensory acceptability.

  7. The antioxidative activity of plant extracts in cooked pork patties as evaluated by descriptive sensory profiling and chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Lise R; Byrne, Derek V; Bertelsen, Grete; Skibsted, Leif H

    2004-11-01

    Antioxidative efficiency of extracts of rosemary, green tea, coffee and grape skin in precooked pork patties was investigated during storage under retail conditions (10 days, 4 °C, atmospheric air), using descriptive sensory profiling following reheating and quantitative measurements of hexanal, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and vitamin E as indicators of lipid oxidation. The initial oxidative status of pork patties (evaluated by ANOVA) showed a significant lower level of secondary oxidation products and higher levels of vitamin E in patties with extracts incorporated, indicating that the extracts retarded lipid oxidation during processing of the meat. Data analysis for the storage study was based on qualitative overview of sensory/chemical variation by principal component analysis (PCA) and quantitative ANOVA-PLSR for determination of the relationship between design variables (days of chill-storage, extract treatment) versus sensory-chemical variables and PLSR for elucidating the predictive ability of the chemical methods for sensory terms. Lipid oxidation was seen to involve a decrease in perception of meat flavour/odour and a concomitant increase in the off-flavour/odours linseed, rancid. TBARS, hexanal and vitamin E were all significant predictive indices (P<0.05) for the majority of the sensory terms, while vitamin E through negative correlation with TBARS and hexanal displayed its antioxidative effect and thus, its ability to preserve sensory fresh meat flavour/odour. The effect of the various extracts incorporated in the product was clearly related to the degree of lipid oxidation and an overall ranking of the antioxidative efficiency of extracts in declining order became apparent: Rosemary>Grape skin>Tea>Coffee>Reference. Furthermore, the relation between extracts and vitamin E indicated that the extracts, to some extent, interacted with the vitamin and prevented it from degrading. In conclusion, the rosemary extract displayed potential

  8. Investigation of sensory and volatile characteristics of farmed and wild barramundi (Lates calcarifer) using gas chromatography-olfactometry mass spectrometry and descriptive sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Frank, Damian; Poole, Sue; Kirchhoff, Stephanie; Forde, Ciarán

    2009-11-11

    Australian aquacultured and wild-caught barramundi (Lates calcarifer) were obtained for sensory evaluation and analysis by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) with simultaneous mass spectrometry. Aquacultured barramundi were sourced from commercial farms representing some typical Australian production methods: above-ground recirculation tank, in-ground lined pond, and in-ground earth pond cultivation. Wild barramundi were sourced from three river-mouth sites in Northern Australia: the Gulf of Carpentaria, the Arafura Sea in the Northern Territory, and the Coral Sea, Northern Queensland. Fish were filleted, minced into a homogeneous sample, and blast frozen for subsequent cooking and sensory and volatile analysis. Barramundi mince portions were grilled using a standardized method for sensory descriptive profiling and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry analysis. Volatiles from grilled fish were collected using dynamic headspace, and the extracts were subjected to direct-intensity olfactometry analysis by trained assessors. More than 30 odor-active compounds were present in the barramundi extracts, mostly with the same odor-active compounds detected in both wild and aquacultured samples. On average, the perceived GC-O odor intensities of most aroma volatiles were higher in aquacultured samples. This was also reflected by instrumental data, where most volatiles were present at higher concentrations in the aquacultured samples. Additional "muddy", "earthy", and "musty" flavor notes perceived in the lined and earth pond aquacultured samples were related to the presence of 2-methyl isoborneol and geosmin in these samples. Multivariate modeling was used to relate the sensory, olfactometry, and instrumental data; overall, there was good agreement between the data sets.

  9. Sensory descriptive quantitative analysis of unpasteurized and pasteurized juçara pulp (Euterpe edulis) during long-term storage

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Paula Porrelli Moreira; Casemiro, Renata Cristina; Zillo, Rafaela Rebessi; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Prospero, Evanilda Teresinha Perissinotto; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of pasteurization followed by storage under different conditions on the sensory attributes of frozen juçara pulp using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Pasteurization of packed frozen pulp was performed by its immersion in stainless steel tank containing water (80°C) for 5 min, followed by storage under refrigerated and frozen conditions. A trained sensory panel evaluated the samples (6°C) on day 1, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90. Sensory attributes were separated as follows: appearance (foamy, heterogeneous, purple, brown, oily, and creamy), aroma (sweet and fermented), taste (astringent, bitter, and sweet), and texture (oily and consistent), and compared to a reference material. In general, unpasteurized frozen pulp showed the highest score for foamy appearance, and pasteurized samples showed highest scores to creamy appearance. Pasteurized samples remained stable regarding brown color development while unpasteurized counterparts presented increase. Color is an important attribute related to the product identity. All attributes related to taste and texture remained constant during storage for all samples. Pasteurization followed by storage under frozen conditions has shown to be the best conservation method as samples submitted to such process received the best sensory evaluation, described as foamy, slightly heterogeneous, slightly bitter, and slightly astringent. PMID:25473489

  10. Sensory analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sensory evaluation can answer questions about a product that instruments cannot. The human subject is the instrument, and data can provide a wealth of information for a product developer, or results can be very variable and erroneous if all the precautions to minimize bias and external noise are no...

  11. Contribution of beef base to aroma characteristics of beeflike process flavour assessed by descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography olfactometry and partial least squares regression.

    PubMed

    Song, Shiqing; Zhang, Xiaoming; Hayat, Khizar; Huang, Meigui; Liu, Ping; Karangwa, Eric; Gu, Fenglin; Jia, Chengsheng; Xia, Shuqin; Xiao, Zuobing; Niu, Yunwei

    2010-12-01

    Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis were conducted to investigate changes in aroma characteristics of beeflike process flavours (BPFs) prepared from enzymatically hydrolyzed beef (beef base) of different DH (degree of hydrolysis) with other ingredients. Five attributes (beefy, meaty, simulate, mouthful and roasted) were selected to assess BPFs. The results of descriptive sensory analysis confirmed that BPF2 from beef base of moderate DH 29.13% was strongest in beefy, meaty and simulate characteristics; BPF4 and BPF5 from beef base of higher DH (40.43% and 44.22%, respectively) were superior in mouthful and roasted attributes respectively; while BPF0 without beef base gave weaker odour for all attributes. Twenty six compounds from GC-MS were selected as specific compounds to represent beef odour based on their odour-active properties assessed by a detection frequency method of GC-O and correlation of their contents with sensory attributes intensity. Correlation analysis of molecular weight (MW) of peptides, odour-active compounds and sensory attributes through partial least squares regression (PLSR) further explained that beef base with DH of 29.13% was a desirable precursor for imparting aroma characteristics of beeflike process flavour. PMID:21055762

  12. Contribution to aroma characteristics of mutton process flavor from the enzymatic hydrolysate of sheep bone protein assessed by descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ping; Tian, Honglei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Wang, Liping

    2013-03-15

    Changes in the aroma characteristics of mutton process flavors (MPFs) prepared from sheep bone protein hydrolysates (SBPHs) with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and descriptive sensory analysis (DSA). Five attributes (muttony, meaty, roasted, mouthful, and simulate) were selected to assess MPFs. The results of DSA showed a distinct difference among the control sample MPF0 and other MPF samples with added SBPHs for different DHs of almost all sensory attributes. MPF5 (DH 25.92%) was the strongest in the muttony, meaty, and roasted attributes, whereas MPF6 (DH 30.89%) was the strongest in the simulate and roasted attributes. Thirty-six compounds were identified as odor-active compounds for the evaluation of the sensory characteristics of MPFs via GC-MS-O analysis. The results of correlation analysis among odor-active compounds, molecular weight, and DSA further confirmed that the SBPH with a DH range of 25.92-30.89% may be a desirable precursor for the sensory characteristics of MPF. PMID:23416288

  13. Sensory analysis of lipstick.

    PubMed

    Yap, K C S; Aminah, A

    2011-06-01

    Sensory analysis of lipstick product by trained panellists started with recruiting female panels who are lipstick users, in good health condition and willing to be a part of sensory members. This group of people was further scrutinized with duo-trio method using commercial lipstick samples that are commonly used among them. About 40% of the 15 panels recruited were unable to differentiate the lipstick samples they usually use better than chance. The balance of nine panels that were corrected at least with 65% across all trials in panels screening process was formed a working group to develop sensory languages as a means of describing product similarities and differences and a scoring system. Five sessions with each session took about 90 min were carried out using 10 types of lipsticks with different waxes mixture ratio in the formulation together with six commercial lipsticks that are the most common to the panels. First session was focus on listing out the panels' perception towards the characteristic of the lipstick samples after normal application on their lips. Second session was focus on the refining and categorizing the responses gathered from the first session and translated into sensory attributes with its definition. Third session was focus on the scoring system. Fourth and fifth sessions were repetition of the third session to ensure consistency. In a collective effort of the panels, sensory attributes developed for lipstick were Spreadability, Off flavour, Hardness, Smoothness, Moist, Not messy, Glossy and Greasy. Analysis of variance was able to provide ample evidence on gauging the panel performance. A proper panels selecting and training was able to produce a reliable and sensitive trained panel for evaluating the product based on the procedures being trained.

  14. Sensory analysis of lipstick.

    PubMed

    Yap, K C S; Aminah, A

    2011-06-01

    Sensory analysis of lipstick product by trained panellists started with recruiting female panels who are lipstick users, in good health condition and willing to be a part of sensory members. This group of people was further scrutinized with duo-trio method using commercial lipstick samples that are commonly used among them. About 40% of the 15 panels recruited were unable to differentiate the lipstick samples they usually use better than chance. The balance of nine panels that were corrected at least with 65% across all trials in panels screening process was formed a working group to develop sensory languages as a means of describing product similarities and differences and a scoring system. Five sessions with each session took about 90 min were carried out using 10 types of lipsticks with different waxes mixture ratio in the formulation together with six commercial lipsticks that are the most common to the panels. First session was focus on listing out the panels' perception towards the characteristic of the lipstick samples after normal application on their lips. Second session was focus on the refining and categorizing the responses gathered from the first session and translated into sensory attributes with its definition. Third session was focus on the scoring system. Fourth and fifth sessions were repetition of the third session to ensure consistency. In a collective effort of the panels, sensory attributes developed for lipstick were Spreadability, Off flavour, Hardness, Smoothness, Moist, Not messy, Glossy and Greasy. Analysis of variance was able to provide ample evidence on gauging the panel performance. A proper panels selecting and training was able to produce a reliable and sensitive trained panel for evaluating the product based on the procedures being trained. PMID:21272038

  15. Descriptive sensory analysis of meat from broilers fed diets containing vitamin E or beta-carotene as antioxidants and different supplemental fats.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J A; Guerrero, L; Arnau, J; Guardia, M D; Esteve-Garcia, E

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary fat (lard, sunflower oil, and olive oil) and supplementation of alpha-tocopheryl acetate or beta-carotene on descriptive sensory changes in broiler leg meat as evaluated by a trained panel. Twenty-five descriptors were analyzed from chicken leg meat: 11 in raw meat and 14 in cooked meat. Rancid values were very low, possibly because samples were consumed between 1 and 4 d after slaughter, which maybe insufficient time for oxidative processes to decrease meat sensory quality. However, samples supplemented with vitamin E showed lower rancidity levels, although the differences were only significant when compared to a beta-carotene diet, whereas the control treatment showed intermediate scores. Beta-carotene modified texture scores compared to the control diet, although the differences were only significant in initial juiciness and teeth adhesion compared to the vitamin E treatment and in tenderness compared to the control. In addition, juiciness and tenderness were positively correlated according to the principal component analysis of sensory attributes. The effect of dietary fat on analyzed attributes was lower than the effect of dietary antioxidant. The most important effect of fat type was on hardness of internal fat. Chickens whose diets were supplemented with lard had higher scored values than chickens whose diets were supplemented with vegetable oils. However, type of fat added to diet did not significantly influence rancidity values. These results indicate that an increase in the degree of unsaturation of fat in meat does not cause an increase in the oxidation levels detected by the panel under the conditions of short-term storage.

  16. Effect of preservative addition on sensory and dynamic profile of Lucanian dry-sausages as assessed by quantitative descriptive analysis and temporal dominance of sensations.

    PubMed

    Braghieri, Ada; Piazzolla, Nicoletta; Galgano, Fernanda; Condelli, Nicola; De Rosa, Giuseppe; Napolitano, Fabio

    2016-12-01

    The quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) was combined with temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) to assess the sensory properties of Lucanian dry-sausages either added with nitrate, nitrite and l-ascorbic acid (NS), or not (NNS). Both QDA and TDS differentiated the two groups of sausages. NNS products were perceived with higher intensity of hardness (P<0.05) and tended to be perceived with higher intensities of flavor (P<0.10), pepper (P<0.20), and oiliness (P<0.20), while resulting lower in chewiness (P<0.20). TDS showed that in all the sausages hardness was the first dominant attribute; then, in NNS products flavor remained dominant until the end of tasting, whereas in NS products oiliness prevailed. In conclusion, TDS showed that the perception of some textural parameters, such as oiliness, during mastication was more dominant in NS products, whereas using conventional QDA this attribute appeared higher in sausages manufactured without preservatives. Therefore, TDS provided additional information for the description and differentiation of Lucanian sausages. PMID:27486959

  17. A point process analysis of sensory encoding.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Garrett B; Webber, Roxanna M

    2003-01-01

    Nowhere is the sparse nature of neuronal coding more evident than in the sensory cortex, where neuronal response becomes increasingly tuned to specific features of the sensory environment. For such situations, where rate modulation schemes do not accurately describe the neuronal response to sensory stimuli, statistical descriptions based on point process events are particularly appropriate. Here, intensity measures derived from experimental data in the rat somatosensory cortex enable the direct analysis of statistical structure within spike trains, as well as inter-relationships between tactile stimuli and neuronal response. Intensity measures capture structure in spontaneous as well as driven activity, reflecting the interplay between excitatory and suppressive influences on neuronal firing. Second-order intensity estimates reveal strong dependencies upon patterns of tactile stimulation, which define the neuronal response characteristics to temporally structured stimuli.

  18. Sensory description of sweet wines obtained by the winemaking procedures of raisining, botrytisation and fortification.

    PubMed

    González-Álvarez, Mariana; Noguerol-Pato, Raquel; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2014-02-15

    The effect of winemaking procedures on the sensory modification of sweet wines was investigated. Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines were obtained by two different processes: by using raisins for vinification to obtain a naturally sweet wine and by using freshly harvested grapes with the stoppage of the fermentation by the addition of alcohol. Eight international sweet wines were also subjected to sensory analysis for comparative description purposes. Wines were described with a sensory profile by 12 trained panellists on 70 sensory attributes by employing the frequency of citation method. Analysis of variance of the descriptive data confirmed the existence of subtle sensory differences among Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines depending on the procedure used for their production. Cluster analysis emphasised discriminated attributes between the Garnacha Tintorera-based and the commercial groups of sweet wines for both those obtained by raisining and by fortification. Several kinds of discriminant functions were used to separate groups of sweet wines--obtained by botrytisation, raisining and fortification--to show the key descriptors that contribute to their separation and define the sensory perception of each type of wine.

  19. Identification of characteristic flavour precursors from enzymatic hydrolysis-mild thermal oxidation tallow by descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-olfactometry and partial least squares regression.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Xiaoming; Song, Shiqing; Tan, Chen; Jia, Chengsheng; Xia, Shuqin

    2013-01-15

    The "enzymatic hydrolysis-mild thermal oxidation" method was employed to obtain oxidized tallow. Nine beeflike flavours (BFs) were prepared through Maillard reaction with oxidized tallow and other ingredients. Volatile compounds of oxidized tallow and beeflike flavours were analysed by SPME/GC-MS. Six sensory attributes (meaty, beefy, tallowy, simulate, burnt and off-flavour) were selected to assess BFs. Thirty four odour-active compounds were identified to represent beef odour through GC-O analysis based on detection frequency method. GC-MS profiles of oxidized tallow were correlated with GC-O responses and sensory attributes of BFs using partial least squares regression modelling (PLSR). Twenty nine compounds were considered as the potential precursors of oxidized tallow. Among them, tetradecanoic acid, d-limonene, 1,7-heptandiol, 2-butyltetrahydrofuran, (Z)-4-undecenal, (Z)-4-decenal, (E)-4-nonenal and 5-pentyl-2(3H)-furanone were unique products generated from enzymatic hydrolysis-mild thermal oxidation of tallow, while hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, pentanal, acetic acid, butanoic acid, hexanoic acid, 1-heptanol, 1-octanol, 3-methylbutanal, 2-pentylfuran, γ-nonalactone, 2-undecenal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E)-2-nonenal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-decenal and (Z)-2-heptenal were common products generated from thermal oxidation of tallow. PMID:23270941

  20. Descriptive sensory profile of cow and buffalo milk Cheddar cheese prepared using indigenous cultures.

    PubMed

    Murtaza, M A; Rehman, S U; Anjum, F M; Huma, N

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the sensory profile of Cheddar cheese prepared from cow and buffalo milk using indigenous and commercial cultures. Commercially available and locally isolated, indigenous starter cultures were used to prepare cow and buffalo milk Cheddar cheese. The cheese was ripened at 4 and 12°C and analyzed for descriptive sensory profile by a panel of 10 assessors after 60 and 120 d of ripening. On evaluation, the mean scores for odor, flavor, and texture attributes obtained for buffalo milk cheese were significantly higher than those obtained for cow milk cheese. For most of the traits, cheese samples prepared from indigenous cultures and ripened at higher temperature received higher descriptive scores compared with those of commercial cultures and ripened at lower degrees. Milk sources highly significantly affected the "creamy" and "sour" traits of odor; the "creamy," "smoky," and "soapy" flavors; and all the texture attributes except "maturity." Starter cultures considerably influenced the production of "acidic," "bitter," "sweet," and "sour" characteristics. The use of elevated ripening temperature showed noticeable effect on all the characteristics except the "creamy" odor and flavor. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis also showed that milk sources, starter cultures, and ripening temperatures significantly influenced the sensory characteristics. PMID:23332853

  1. Sensory analysis of calcium-biofortified lettuce.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunghun; Elless, Mark P; Park, Jungeun; Jenkins, Alicia; Lim, Wansang; Chambers, Edgar; Hirschi, Kendal D

    2009-01-01

    Vegetables represent an attractive means of providing increased calcium nutrition to the public. In this study, it was demonstrated that lettuce expressing the deregulated Arabidopsis H(+)/Ca(2+) transporter sCAX1 (cation exchanger 1) contained 25%-32% more calcium than controls. These biofortified lettuce lines were fertile and demonstrated robust growth in glasshouse growth conditions. Using a panel of highly trained descriptive panellists, biofortified lettuce plants were evaluated and no significant differences were detected in flavour, bitterness or crispness when compared with controls. Sensory analysis studies are critical if claims are to be made regarding the efficacy of biofortified foods, and may be an important component in the public acceptance of genetically modified foods. PMID:19021875

  2. Deboning time effect on sensory descriptive flavor profiles of cooked broiler pectoralis major

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profiling sensory texture characteristics of cooked chicken pectoralis major (breast fillets) deboned at different postmortem (PM) times has been research interests for decades. However, there is lack of peer-reviewed studies to compare sensory descriptive flavor profiles of hot-deboned versus 2-h c...

  3. Physical Properties, Volatiles Compositions and Sensory Descriptions of the Aromatized Hazelnut Oil-Wax Organogels.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Emin; Öğütcü, Mustafa; Yüceer, Yonca Karagül

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical, thermal and sensorial features of vitamin enriched and aromatized hazelnut oil-beeswax and sunflower wax organogels. Another objective was to monitor the influence of storage on textural and oxidative stability and volatile composition of the organogels. The results show that organogels with beeswax had lower levels of solid fat content, melting point and firmness than sunflower wax counterparts. The microphotographs revealed that beeswax organogels had spherical crystals while sunflower wax organogels continued need-like crystals, but both organogels continued crystallized β' polymorph. All organogels maintained their oxidative stability during storage. Quantitative descriptive analysis results were consistent with these findings that the organogel structure and properties were similar to breakfast margarine. The main volatile components of the organogels with added strawberry aroma were ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl-2-methyl butanoate, D-limonene, ethyl caproate; banana-aroma were isoamyl acetate, isoamyl valerianate, ethyl acetate; and butter-aroma were 2,3-butanedione, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. These volatile components were not only detected in the fresh samples but also at the end of the storage period. Sensory definition terms were matched with the sensory descriptors of the detected volatiles. In conclusion, the new organogels were shown to be suitable for food product applications. PMID:26259923

  4. Physical Properties, Volatiles Compositions and Sensory Descriptions of the Aromatized Hazelnut Oil-Wax Organogels.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Emin; Öğütcü, Mustafa; Yüceer, Yonca Karagül

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical, thermal and sensorial features of vitamin enriched and aromatized hazelnut oil-beeswax and sunflower wax organogels. Another objective was to monitor the influence of storage on textural and oxidative stability and volatile composition of the organogels. The results show that organogels with beeswax had lower levels of solid fat content, melting point and firmness than sunflower wax counterparts. The microphotographs revealed that beeswax organogels had spherical crystals while sunflower wax organogels continued need-like crystals, but both organogels continued crystallized β' polymorph. All organogels maintained their oxidative stability during storage. Quantitative descriptive analysis results were consistent with these findings that the organogel structure and properties were similar to breakfast margarine. The main volatile components of the organogels with added strawberry aroma were ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl-2-methyl butanoate, D-limonene, ethyl caproate; banana-aroma were isoamyl acetate, isoamyl valerianate, ethyl acetate; and butter-aroma were 2,3-butanedione, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. These volatile components were not only detected in the fresh samples but also at the end of the storage period. Sensory definition terms were matched with the sensory descriptors of the detected volatiles. In conclusion, the new organogels were shown to be suitable for food product applications.

  5. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF DIVALENT SALTS

    PubMed Central

    YANG, HEIDI HAI-LING; LAWLESS, HARRY T.

    2005-01-01

    Many divalent salts (e.g., calcium, iron, zinc), have important nutritional value and are used to fortify food or as dietary supplements. Sensory characterization of some divalent salts in aqueous solutions by untrained judges has been reported in the psychophysical literature, but formal sensory evaluation by trained panels is lacking. To provide this information, a trained descriptive panel evaluated the sensory characteristics of 10 divalent salts including ferrous sulfate, chloride and gluconate; calcium chloride, lactate and glycerophosphate; zinc sulfate and chloride; and magnesium sulfate and chloride. Among the compounds tested, iron compounds were highest in metallic taste; zinc compounds had higher astringency and a glutamate-like sensation; and bitterness was pronounced for magnesium and calcium salts. Bitterness was affected by the anion in ferrous and calcium salts. Results from the trained panelists were largely consistent with the psychophysical literature using untrained judges, but provided a more comprehensive set of oral sensory attributes. PMID:16614749

  6. Characterizing commercial pureed foods: sensory, nutritional, and textural analysis.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, Laurel; Keller, Heather H; Duizer, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Dysphagia (swallowing impairment) is a common consequence of stroke and degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. Limited research is available on pureed foods, specifically the qualities of commercial products. Because research has linked pureed foods, specifically in-house pureed products, to malnutrition due to inferior sensory and nutritional qualities, commercial purees also need to be investigated. Proprietary research on sensory attributes of commercial foods is available; however direct comparisons of commercial pureed foods have never been reported. Descriptive sensory analysis as well as nutritional and texture analysis of commercially pureed prepared products was performed using a trained descriptive analysis panel. The pureed foods tested included four brands of carrots, of turkey, and two of bread. Each commercial puree was analyzed for fat (Soxhlet), protein (Dumas), carbohydrate (proximate analysis), fiber (total fiber), and sodium content (Quantab titrator strips). The purees were also texturally compared with a line spread test and a back extrusion test. Differences were found in the purees for sensory attributes as well as nutritional and textural properties. Findings suggest that implementation of standards is required to reduce variability between products, specifically regarding the textural components of the products. This would ensure all commercial products available in Canada meet standards established as being considered safe for swallowing.

  7. Sensory-specific anomic aphasia following left occipital lesions: data from free oral descriptions of concrete word meanings.

    PubMed

    Mårtensson, F; Roll, M; Lindgren, M; Apt, P; Horne, M

    2014-04-01

    The present study investigated hierarchical lexical semantic structure in oral descriptions of concrete word meanings produced by a subject (ZZ) diagnosed with anomic aphasia due to left occipital lesions. The focus of the analysis was production of a) nouns at different levels of semantic specificity (e.g., "robin"-"bird"-"animal") and b) words describing sensory or motor experiences (e.g., "blue," "soft," "fly"). Results show that in contrast to healthy and aphasic controls, who produced words at all levels of specificity and mainly vision-related sensory information, ZZ produced almost exclusively nouns at the most non-specific levels and words associated with sound and movement.

  8. Chemical and sensory profiles of makgeolli, Korean commercial rice wine, from descriptive, chemical, and volatile compound analyses.

    PubMed

    Jung, Heeyong; Lee, Seung-Joo; Lim, Jeong Ho; Kim, Bum Keun; Park, Kee Jai

    2014-01-01

    The chemical and sensory profiles of 12 commercial samples of makgeolli, a Korean rice wine, were determined using descriptive sensory, chemical, and volatile components analyses. The sample wines were analysed for their titratable acidity, ethanol content, pH, Hunter colour value and total reducing sugars. The chemical compositions of the makgeolli samples were found to be significantly different. The volatile compounds were extracted with solid-phase microextraction and analysed by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In all, 45 major volatile compounds, consisting of 33 esters, 8 alcohols, 1 aldehyde, 1 acid, 1 phenol and 1 terpene, were identified; each makgeolli sample included 28-35 volatile compounds. Based on principal component analysis of the sensory data, samples RW1, RW2, RW5, RW8 and RW12 were associated with roasted cereal, mouldy, bubbles, sweet and sour attributes; the other samples were associated with sensory attributes of yellowness, yeast, full body, turbidity, continuation, swallow, alcohol, fruit aroma and whiteness. PMID:24444985

  9. Chemical and sensory profiles of makgeolli, Korean commercial rice wine, from descriptive, chemical, and volatile compound analyses.

    PubMed

    Jung, Heeyong; Lee, Seung-Joo; Lim, Jeong Ho; Kim, Bum Keun; Park, Kee Jai

    2014-01-01

    The chemical and sensory profiles of 12 commercial samples of makgeolli, a Korean rice wine, were determined using descriptive sensory, chemical, and volatile components analyses. The sample wines were analysed for their titratable acidity, ethanol content, pH, Hunter colour value and total reducing sugars. The chemical compositions of the makgeolli samples were found to be significantly different. The volatile compounds were extracted with solid-phase microextraction and analysed by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In all, 45 major volatile compounds, consisting of 33 esters, 8 alcohols, 1 aldehyde, 1 acid, 1 phenol and 1 terpene, were identified; each makgeolli sample included 28-35 volatile compounds. Based on principal component analysis of the sensory data, samples RW1, RW2, RW5, RW8 and RW12 were associated with roasted cereal, mouldy, bubbles, sweet and sour attributes; the other samples were associated with sensory attributes of yellowness, yeast, full body, turbidity, continuation, swallow, alcohol, fruit aroma and whiteness.

  10. Sensory-specific anomic aphasia following left occipital lesions: Data from free oral descriptions of concrete word meanings

    PubMed Central

    Mårtensson, F.; Roll, M.; Lindgren, M.; Apt, P.; Horne, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated hierarchical lexical semantic structure in oral descriptions of concrete word meanings produced by a subject (ZZ) diagnosed with anomic aphasia due to left occipital lesions. The focus of the analysis was production of a) nouns at different levels of semantic specificity (e.g., “robin”–“bird”–“animal”) and b) words describing sensory or motor experiences (e.g., “blue,” “soft,” “fly”). Results show that in contrast to healthy and aphasic controls, who produced words at all levels of specificity and mainly vision-related sensory information, ZZ produced almost exclusively nouns at the most non-specific levels and words associated with sound and movement. PMID:23425233

  11. Measuring information acquisition from sensory input using automated scoring of natural-language descriptions.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Daniel R; Bex, Peter J; Rose, Dylan J; Woods, Russell L

    2014-01-01

    Information acquisition, the gathering and interpretation of sensory information, is a basic function of mobile organisms. We describe a new method for measuring this ability in humans, using free-recall responses to sensory stimuli which are scored objectively using a "wisdom of crowds" approach. As an example, we demonstrate this metric using perception of video stimuli. Immediately after viewing a 30 s video clip, subjects responded to a prompt to give a short description of the clip in natural language. These responses were scored automatically by comparison to a dataset of responses to the same clip by normally-sighted viewers (the crowd). In this case, the normative dataset consisted of responses to 200 clips by 60 subjects who were stratified by age (range 22 to 85 y) and viewed the clips in the lab, for 2,400 responses, and by 99 crowdsourced participants (age range 20 to 66 y) who viewed clips in their Web browser, for 4,000 responses. We compared different algorithms for computing these similarities and found that a simple count of the words in common had the best performance. It correctly matched 75% of the lab-sourced and 95% of crowdsourced responses to their corresponding clips. We validated the measure by showing that when the amount of information in the clip was degraded using defocus lenses, the shared word score decreased across the five predetermined visual-acuity levels, demonstrating a dose-response effect (N = 15). This approach, of scoring open-ended immediate free recall of the stimulus, is applicable not only to video, but also to other situations where a measure of the information that is successfully acquired is desirable. Information acquired will be affected by stimulus quality, sensory ability, and cognitive processes, so our metric can be used to assess each of these components when the others are controlled.

  12. Application of principal component analysis (PCA) as a sensory assessment tool for fermented food products.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debasree; Chattopadhyay, Parimal

    2012-06-01

    The objective of the work was to use the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) to describe the sensory attributes of the fermented food products prepared with the incorporation of lactic cultures. Panellists were selected and trained to evaluate various attributes specially color and appearance, body texture, flavor, overall acceptability and acidity of the fermented food products like cow milk curd and soymilk curd, idli, sauerkraut and probiotic ice cream. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified the six significant principal components that accounted for more than 90% of the variance in the sensory attribute data. Overall product quality was modelled as a function of principal components using multiple least squares regression (R (2) = 0.8). The result from PCA was statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). These findings demonstrate the utility of quantitative descriptive analysis for identifying and measuring the fermented food product attributes that are important for consumer acceptability. PMID:23729852

  13. Effect of postmortem deboning time on sensory descriptive flavor and texture profiles of cooked boneless skinless chicken thighs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three replicate trials were conducted to investigate the effect of deboning time on sensory descriptive profiles of cooked boneless skinless thigh meat (iliotibialis, iliofibularis and the femoritibialis). Carcasses (42-d old birds) were obtained from a commercial processing plant. Thighs were hot-b...

  14. Multivariate analysis of the sensory changes in the dehydrated cowpea leaves.

    PubMed

    Nyambaka, Hudson; Ryley, Janice

    2004-09-01

    Processing of foods, especially dehydration is known to result in alteration of sensory and nutritional qualities. Cowpea leaves is one of the common leafy vegetables consumed in Kenya that contain high levels of pro-vitamin A compounds and has good carotene retention during processing. A tasting panel was trained using a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) test that was developed and used to characterize the sensory properties of dehydrated cowpea leaves. The panel identified sensory attributes in dehydrated cowpea leaves that were important in discriminating the dehydrated samples from the fresh material. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to analyze the QDA scores. The first principal component (PC1) which accounted for 85% of the variance was an index of the interrelationship among variables in differentiating the samples while PC2, which accounted for the remaining variance measured the attributes influence in discriminating samples. The results of the sensory attributes mean scores showed that aroma, texture and appearance had high influence in discriminating between the fresh, the sun-dried and the solar-dried samples. The solar dried products were close to the fresh material, which was characterized, as soft and tender with an appealing dark green color, than the sun dried product. The sun dried products differed from the other products more on appearance. PMID:18969564

  15. Description, Recognition and Analysis of Biological Images

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Donggang; Jin, Jesse S.; Luo Suhuai; Pham, Tuan D.; Lai Wei

    2010-01-25

    Description, recognition and analysis biological images plays an important role for human to describe and understand the related biological information. The color images are separated by color reduction. A new and efficient linearization algorithm is introduced based on some criteria of difference chain code. A series of critical points is got based on the linearized lines. The series of curvature angle, linearity, maximum linearity, convexity, concavity and bend angle of linearized lines are calculated from the starting line to the end line along all smoothed contours. The useful method can be used for shape description and recognition. The analysis, decision, classification of the biological images are based on the description of morphological structures, color information and prior knowledge, which are associated each other. The efficiency of the algorithms is described based on two applications. One application is the description, recognition and analysis of color flower images. Another one is related to the dynamic description, recognition and analysis of cell-cycle images.

  16. Sensory Subtypes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Latent Profile Transition Analysis using a National Survey of Sensory Features

    PubMed Central

    Ausderau, Karla K.; Furlong, Melissa; Sideris, John; Bulluck, John; Little, Lauren M.; Watson, Linda R.; Boyd, Brian A.; Belger, Aysenil; Dickie, Virginia A.; Baranek, Grace T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sensory features are highly prevalent and heterogeneous among children with ASD. There is a need to identify homogenous groups of children with ASD based on sensory features (i.e., sensory subtypes) to inform research and treatment. Methods Sensory subtypes and their stability over one year were identified through latent profile transition analysis (LPTA) among a national sample of children with ASD. Data were collected from caregivers of children with ASD ages 2-12 years at two time points (Time 1 N=1294; Time 2 N=884). Results Four sensory subtypes (Mild; Sensitive-Distressed; Attenuated-Preoccupied; Extreme-Mixed) were identified, which were supported by fit indices from the LPTA as well as current theoretical models that inform clinical practice. The Mild and Extreme-Mixed subtypes reflected quantitatively different sensory profiles, while the Sensitive-Distressed and Attenuated-Preoccupied subtypes reflected qualitatively different profiles. Further, subtypes reflected differential child (i.e., gender, developmental age, chronological age, autism severity) and family (i.e., income, mother's education) characteristics. Ninety-one percent of participants remained stable in their subtypes over one year. Conclusions Characterizing the nature of homogenous sensory subtypes may facilitate assessment and intervention, as well as potentially inform biological mechanisms. PMID:25039572

  17. Effects of sensory augmentation on postural control and gait symmetry of transfemoral amputees: a case description.

    PubMed

    Pagel, Anna; Arieta, Alejandro Hernandez; Riener, Robert; Vallery, Heike

    2016-10-01

    Despite recent advances in leg prosthetics, transfemoral amputees still experience limitations in postural control and gait symmetry. It has been hypothesized that artificial sensory information might improve the integration of the prosthesis into the human sensory-motor control loops and, thus, reduce these limitations. In three transfemoral amputees, we investigated the effect of Electrotactile Moving Sensation for Sensory Augmentation (EMSSA) without training and present preliminary findings. Experimental conditions included standing with open/closed eyes on stable/unstable ground as well as treadmill walking. For standing conditions, spatiotemporal posturographic measures and sample entropy were derived from the center of pressure. For walking conditions, step length and stance duration were calculated. Conditions without feedback showed effects congruent with findings in the literature, e.g., asymmetric weight bearing and step length, and validated the collected data. During standing, with EMSSA a tendency to influence postural control in a negative way was found: Postural control was less effective and less efficient and the prosthetic leg was less involved. Sample entropy tended to decrease, suggesting that EMSSA demanded increased attention. During walking, with EMSSA no persistent positive effect was found. This contrasts the positive subjective assessment and the positive effect on one subject's step length. PMID:26718557

  18. Improving the sensory quality of flavored liquid milk by engaging sensory analysis and consumer preference.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Ruicong; Zhao, Lei; Shi, Jingye

    2016-07-01

    Developing innovative products that satisfy various groups of consumers helps a company maintain a leading market share. The hedonic scale and just-about-right (JAR) scale are 2 popular methods for hedonic assessment and product diagnostics. In this paper, we chose to study flavored liquid milk because it is one of the most necessary nutrient sources in China. The hedonic scale and JAR scale methods were combined to provide directional information for flavored liquid milk optimization. Two methods of analysis (penalty analysis and partial least squares regression on dummy variables) were used and the results were compared. This paper had 2 aims: (1) to investigate consumer preferences of basic flavor attributes of milk from various cities in China; and (2) to determine the improvement direction for specific products and the ideal overall liking for consumers in various cities. The results showed that consumers in China have local-specific requirements for characteristics of flavored liquid milk. Furthermore, we provide a consumer-oriented product design method to improve sensory quality according to the preference of particular consumers.

  19. Hereditary Sensory Neuropathy Type I: Haplotype Analysis Shows Founders in Southern England and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, G. A.; Dawkins, J. L.; Blair, I. P.; Auer-Grumbach, M.; Brahmbhatt, S. B.; Hulme, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN1) is the most common dominantly inherited degenerative disorder of sensory neurons. The gene mutation was mapped to chromosome 9 in a large Australian family, descended from an ancestor from southern England who was a convict. Dawkins et al. recently reported gene mutations in the SPTLC1 gene, in this and other families. The first description of hereditary sensory neuropathy, by Hicks, was in a family from London and Exeter. To determine if the families in the present study that have SPTLC1 mutations are related to English families with HSN1 and, possibly, to the family studied by Hicks, we performed haplotype analysis of four Australian families of English extraction, four English families, and one Austrian family. Three Australian families of English extraction and three English families (two of whom have been described elsewhere) had the 399T→G SPTLC1 mutation, the same chromosome 9 haplotype, and the same phenotype. The Australian and English families may therefore have a common founder who, on the basis of historical information, has been determined to have lived in southern England prior to 1800. The sensorimotor neuropathy phenotype caused by the 399T→G SPTLC1 mutation is the same as that reported by Campbell and Hoffman and, possibly, the same as that originally described by Hicks. PMID:11479835

  20. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I: haplotype analysis shows founders in southern England and Europe.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, G A; Dawkins, J L; Blair, I P; Auer-Grumbach, M; Brahmbhatt, S B; Hulme, D J

    2001-09-01

    Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN1) is the most common dominantly inherited degenerative disorder of sensory neurons. The gene mutation was mapped to chromosome 9 in a large Australian family, descended from an ancestor from southern England who was a convict. Dawkins et al. recently reported gene mutations in the SPTLC1 gene, in this and other families. The first description of hereditary sensory neuropathy, by Hicks, was in a family from London and Exeter. To determine if the families in the present study that have SPTLC1 mutations are related to English families with HSN1 and, possibly, to the family studied by Hicks, we performed haplotype analysis of four Australian families of English extraction, four English families, and one Austrian family. Three Australian families of English extraction and three English families (two of whom have been described elsewhere) had the 399T-->G SPTLC1 mutation, the same chromosome 9 haplotype, and the same phenotype. The Australian and English families may therefore have a common founder who, on the basis of historical information, has been determined to have lived in southern England prior to 1800. The sensorimotor neuropathy phenotype caused by the 399T-->G SPTLC1 mutation is the same as that reported by Campbell and Hoffman and, possibly, the same as that originally described by Hicks. PMID:11479835

  1. A Sensory 3D Map of the Odor Description Space Derived from a Comparison of Numeric Odor Profile Databases.

    PubMed

    Zarzo, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Many authors have proposed different schemes of odor classification, which are useful to aid the complex task of describing smells. However, reaching a consensus on a particular classification seems difficult because our psychophysical space of odor description is a continuum and is not clustered into well-defined categories. An alternative approach is to describe the perceptual space of odors as a low-dimensional coordinate system. This idea was first proposed by Crocker and Henderson in 1927, who suggested using numeric profiles based on 4 dimensions: "fragrant," "acid," "burnt," and "caprylic." In the present work, the odor profiles of 144 aroma chemicals were compared by means of statistical regression with comparable numeric odor profiles obtained from 2 databases, enabling a plausible interpretation of the 4 dimensions. Based on the results and taking into account comparable 2D sensory maps of odor descriptors from the literature, a 3D sensory map (odor cube) has been drawn up to improve understanding of the similarities and dissimilarities of the odor descriptors most frequently used in fragrance chemistry. PMID:25847969

  2. Nutrition, sensory evaluation, and performance analysis of hydrogenated frying oils.

    PubMed

    Hack, Danielle M; Bordi, Peter L; Hessert, S William

    2009-12-01

    The Food and Drug Administration now requires labeling of trans fats on nutrition labels, a decision that has created a push to reformulate deep-fat frying oils. Prior to the passage of this law, frying oils contained trans fats because trans fats made the oils more stable and thus allowing for longer frying usage. In the present study, oil performance, sensory evaluation and nutritional analysis was conducted on trans fat-free oils through a 10-day degradation process using French fries to break down the oil. The goal of the study was to test oil stability and nutrition analysis and to learn consumer preference between trans fat and trans fat-free oils. Sensory evaluation indicated a preference for fries composed from trans fat-free oil mixtures. The most stable oils were also combination oils. Based on these findings, industry representatives considering using the trans fat-free frying oils should consider using blended oils instead, which met customers' taste preference and minimized oil rancidity and usage.

  3. Temporal codes and computations for sensory representation and scene analysis.

    PubMed

    Cariani, Peter A

    2004-09-01

    This paper considers a space of possible temporal codes, surveys neurophysiological and psychological evidence for their use in nervous systems, and presents examples of neural timing networks that operate in the time-domain. Sensory qualities can be encoded temporally by means of two broad strategies: stimulus-driven temporal correlations (phase-locking) and stimulus-triggering of endogenous temporal response patterns. Evidence for stimulus-related spike timing patterns exists in nearly every sensory modality, and such information can be potentially utilized for representation of stimulus qualities, localization of sources, and perceptual grouping. Multiple strategies for temporal (time, frequency, and code-division) multiplexing of information for transmission and grouping are outlined. Using delays and multiplications (coincidences), neural timing networks perform time-domain signal processing operations to compare, extract and separate temporal patterns. Separation of synthetic double vowels by a recurrent neural timing network is used to illustrate how coherences in temporal fine structure can be exploited to build up and separate periodic signals with different fundamentals. Timing nets constitute a time-domain scene analysis strategy based on temporal pattern invariance rather than feature-based labeling, segregation and binding of channels. Further potential implications of temporal codes and computations for new kinds of neural networks are explored.

  4. Consumer palatability scores, sensory descriptive attributes, and volatile compounds of grilled beef steaks from three USDA Quality Grades.

    PubMed

    Legako, J F; Dinh, T T N; Miller, M F; Adhikari, K; Brooks, J C

    2016-02-01

    Consumer palatability scores, sensory descriptive attributes, and volatile compounds were assessed for beef Longissimus lumborum steaks of USDA Prime, Low Choice, and Standard grades. Overall and flavor liking was greater (P<0.05) for Prime and Low Choice. Initial flavor impact and fat-like attributes were greater (P<0.05) among Prime and Low Choice. Prime had greater (P<0.05) brown/roasted, beef identity, overall sweetness, and umami. Cardboard was greater (P<0.05) in Standard. Volatile compounds representing flavor development pathways were varied with quality grade. Standard had greater (P<0.05) abundances of n-aldehydes. Phenylacetaldehyde was greater (P<0.05) in Prime and Low Choice. Both 2,3-butanedione and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone were greatest (P<0.05) in Prime. Overall liking was positively correlated with many descriptive attributes, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, and phenylacetaldehyde, and negatively correlated with cardboard, green, and n-aldehydes. While the measured attributes and volatiles may not be causative of flavor, this data indicates potential for prediction of flavor through their measurement.

  5. Comparative analysis of aroma compounds and sensorial features of strawberry and lemon guavas (Psidium cattleianum Sabine).

    PubMed

    Egea, Mariana Buranelo; Pereira-Netto, Adaucto Bellarmino; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Lopez, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    The aroma of strawberry and lemon guava fruits (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) was studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and quantitative analysis. Volatiles released from the pulps were collected in a trapping system consisting of LiChrolut EN resins and eluted with dichloromethane/methanol. In total, 23 odour zones were detected by GC-O, of which 16 were found in the extract from the strawberry guava pulp and 17 in the extract from the lemon guava pulp. Among the compounds identified, only 10 were common to both strawberry and lemon guavas. The descriptive sensorial analysis differentiated between the aroma profiles of the strawberry guava pulp with the descriptor "tomato" and the lemon guava pulp with the descriptor "tropical fruit". The typical aroma of the guava fruits was dominated by the presence of numerous aldehydes and ketones among which (Z)-3-hexenal was the most intense odorant, while 1,8-cineole and linalool were also revealed as important aroma constituents.

  6. Comparative analysis of aroma compounds and sensorial features of strawberry and lemon guavas (Psidium cattleianum Sabine).

    PubMed

    Egea, Mariana Buranelo; Pereira-Netto, Adaucto Bellarmino; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Lopez, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    The aroma of strawberry and lemon guava fruits (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) was studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and quantitative analysis. Volatiles released from the pulps were collected in a trapping system consisting of LiChrolut EN resins and eluted with dichloromethane/methanol. In total, 23 odour zones were detected by GC-O, of which 16 were found in the extract from the strawberry guava pulp and 17 in the extract from the lemon guava pulp. Among the compounds identified, only 10 were common to both strawberry and lemon guavas. The descriptive sensorial analysis differentiated between the aroma profiles of the strawberry guava pulp with the descriptor "tomato" and the lemon guava pulp with the descriptor "tropical fruit". The typical aroma of the guava fruits was dominated by the presence of numerous aldehydes and ketones among which (Z)-3-hexenal was the most intense odorant, while 1,8-cineole and linalool were also revealed as important aroma constituents. PMID:24996334

  7. Analysis of HSV viral reactivation in explants of sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Anne-Marie W.; Kristie, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    As with all Herpesviruses, Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has both a lytic replication phase and a latency-reactivation cycle. During lytic replication, there is an ordered cascade of viral gene expression that leads to the synthesis of infectious viral progeny. In contrast, latency is characterized by the lack of significant lytic gene expression and the absence of infectious virus. Reactivation from latency is characterized by the re-entry of the virus into the lytic replication cycle and the production of recurrent disease. This unit describes the establishment of the mouse sensory neuron model of HSV-1 latency-reactivation as a useful in vivo system for the analysis of mechanisms involved in latency and reactivation. Assays including the determination of viral yields, immunohistochemical/immunofluorescent detection of viral antigens, and mRNA quantitation are used in experiments designed to investigate the network of cellular and viral proteins regulating HSV-1 lytic infection, latency, and reactivation. PMID:25367271

  8. Analysis of the sensory profile in children with Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hildenbrand, Hanna L; Smith, Ann C M

    2012-02-01

    This study systematically assessed sensory processing in 34 children, aged 3-14 years, with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) using the Sensory Profile Caregiver Questionnaire. Scores for the SMS cohort were significantly different from scores of the national sample of children with and without disabilities in all Sensory Profile categories and quadrants (p < .001). No main effects of age or gender were found, but an interaction effect of age by gender was found in Modulation of Sensory Input Affecting Emotional Responses, in which older females presented with the lowest scores. A significant decline over time was found in the Seeking pattern, reflecting increased vulnerability (p < .05). Nonsignificant trends suggest more vulnerabilities for older versus younger children, especially older females. The neurobehavioral phenotype in children with SMS is expanded by this description of sensory processing. How children with SMS experience and respond to everyday sensations informs multidisciplinary team decisions.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Sensory Extinction Treatments for Self-Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiselli, James K.

    1988-01-01

    In this case study, a six-year-old, multihandicapped child was treated for self-injurious arm-biting using two response contingent deceleration procedures and two forms of sensory extinction. Only the sensory extinction procedure with protective cuffs reduced arm-biting to manageable levels. (Author/DB)

  10. Flavour Profiling of 'Marion' and Thornless Blackberries by Instrumental and Sensory Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The flavour of thornless blackberries grown in Pacific Northwest including 'Thornless Evergreen', 'Black Diamond', 'Black Pearl', 'Nightfall', ORUS 1843-3, 'Waldo', NZ 9351-4, and 'Chester Thornless' as well as 'Marion' was profiled by sensory evaluation and instrumental analysis. Sensory results sh...

  11. Sensory properties and instrumental texture analysis of chevon patties from intact male Boer and Kiko goats harvested at four endpoints.

    PubMed

    Leick, C M; Behrends, J M; Solaiman, S G; Broadway, P R; Min, B R; Mikel, W B; Williams, J B; Schilling, M W

    2012-07-01

    Intact male Boer and Kiko goats (n=48) were harvested after 0, 4, 8, or 12 weeks on a 16% crude protein concentrate diet. Boneless goat carcass left sides were ground and formed into patties to evaluate cook loss, texture profile analysis, and descriptive sensory characteristics. Increasing feeding duration increased percent fat and decreased moisture in raw ground meat (P<0.05). Boer ground meat had more fat and less moisture than Kiko meat (P<0.05). Breed and feeding duration did not affect cook loss (P>0.05). Increased feeding duration increased aroma intensity and goaty, bloody, musty, and liver/organy aromas; salty, bitter, umami, grassy, goaty, fat, liver/organy, metallic, earthy, and chemical flavors; and juiciness and oiliness, while decreasing chewiness and crumbliness (P<0.05). Boer and Kiko patties had similar sensory properties after 0 and 4weeks on feed, but breeds were more distinguishable after 8 or 12 weeks on feed. PMID:22417728

  12. Application of multivariate analysis to the effects of additives on chemical and sensory quality of stored coffee brew.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martínez, Mónica; Sopelana, Patricia; de Peña, M Paz; Cid, Concepción

    2008-12-24

    The aim of this work was to obtain a black coffee brew to be consumed hot by extension of its shelf life, by addition of additives. Four pH-regulator agents (sodium and potassium carbonates and bicarbonates), one pH regulator and antioxidant (sodium citrate), three antioxidants [sodium ascorbate, ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA), and sodium sulfite], and lactoserum were tested by sensory analysis. Sodium carbonate and bicarbonate were selected for a study of the physicochemical (soluble and volatile compounds related to the sensory properties) and sensorial quality of coffee brew stored for 90 days at 4 degrees C. Although both additives extended the shelf life of the coffee brew up to 60 days, sodium carbonate was the chosen additive because it was the most useful in limiting the pH decrease and perception of sourness, which are some of the main factors involved in the rejection of stored coffee brews, and it better maintained the aroma and taste/flavor. Moreover, the application of multivariate analysis facilitated first the description of the global changes of the coffee brews with or without additives throughout the storage using principal component analysis and second the obtainment of a simple equation only with pH and caffeic acid parameters to discriminate the three types of coffee brews and simplify the analytical process, by means of the stepwise discriminant analysis.

  13. Sensory neurobiological analysis of neuropeptide modulation of meal size.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Gary J; Azzara, Anthony V

    2004-08-01

    Gerry Smith's emphasis on the meal as the functional unit of ingestion spurred experiments designed to (1) identify oral and postoral stimuli that affect meal size, and (2) identify peripheral and central neural mechanisms involved in the processing of sensory signals generated by these stimuli. His observations that gut-brain peptides can limit meal size were important in formulating the idea that neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake modulate the peripheral and central neural processing of meal-stimulated sensory signals. This focus on meal size continues to foster the development of hypotheses and the design of experiments that characterize the sites and modes of action of feeding modulatory neuropeptides. These investigations have focused attention on the gut-brain neuraxis as a critical sensory pathway in the control of ingestive behavior, and have revealed important integrative properties of peripheral and central neurons along this axis. The neuromodulatory function of peptides that alter food intake is supported by their ability to recruit the activation of neurons at multiple central nodes of the gut-brain axis and to affect the neural processing and behavioral potency of meal-related gastrointestinal signals important in the negative feedback control of meal size. This sensory neurobiological perspective may also be applied to determine whether feeding modulatory neuropeptides affect the neural and behavioral potency of oral positive feedback signals that promote ingestion.

  14. Where are the sensory organs of Nybelinia surmenicola (Trypanorhyncha)? A comparative analysis with Parachristianella sp. and other trypanorhynchean cestodes.

    PubMed

    Biserova, Natalia M; Gordeev, Ilya I; Korneva, Janetta V

    2016-01-01

    The sensory organs in tegument of two trypanorhynchean species--Nybelinia surmenicola (plerocercoid) and adult Parachristianella sp. (Cestoda, Trypanorhyncha)--were studied with the aim of ultrastructural description and a comparative analysis. The Nybelinia surmenicola plerocercoid lacks papillae with sensory cilia on the bothria adhesive surface. We found an unciliated sensory organ within the median bothria fold. This unciliated free nerve ending contains the central electron-dense disc, three dense supporting rings, and broad root. The nerve ending locates in the basal matrix under the tegument. The tegument of N. surmenicola has a number of ultrastructural features which make it significantly different from other Trypanorhyncha: (i) the tegumental cytoplasm has a plicated constitution in a form of high apical and deep basal folds, (ii) numerous layers of the basal matrix are presented in the subtegument, and (iii) the squamiform and bristlelike microtriches N. surmenicola lack the base and the basal plate. In contrast, numerous ciliated and unciliated receptors were found in Parachristianella sp.: six types on the bothria and one type in the strobila tegument. Ultrastructural constitution of sensory organs in the form of ciliated free nerve endings as well as unciliated basal nerve endings of Parachristianella sp. has many common features inside Eucestoda. In comparison with other Trypanorhyncha, all Nybelinia species studied have less quantity of the bothrial sensory organs. This fact may reflect behavioral patterns of Nybelinia as well as phylogenetic position into Trypanorhyncha. Our observations of living animals conventionally demonstrate the ability of N. surmenicola plerocercoids to locomote in forward direction on the Petri dish surface. The participation of the bothrial microtriches in a parasite movement has been discussed. PMID:26443684

  15. Effects of Acupuncture on Sensory Perception: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baeumler, Petra I.; Fleckenstein, Johannes; Takayama, Shin; Simang, Michael; Seki, Takashi; Irnich, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of acupuncture on sensory perception has never been systematically reviewed; although, studies on acupuncture mechanisms are frequently based on the idea that changes in sensory thresholds reflect its effect on the nervous system. Methods Pubmed, EMBASE and Scopus were screened for studies investigating the effect of acupuncture on thermal or mechanical detection or pain thresholds in humans published in English or German. A meta-analysis of high quality studies was performed. Results Out of 3007 identified articles 85 were included. Sixty five studies showed that acupuncture affects at least one sensory threshold. Most studies assessed the pressure pain threshold of which 80% reported an increase after acupuncture. Significant short- and long-term effects on the pressure pain threshold in pain patients were revealed by two meta-analyses including four and two high quality studies, respectively. In over 60% of studies, acupuncture reduced sensitivity to noxious thermal stimuli, but measuring methods might influence results. Few but consistent data indicate that acupuncture reduces pin-prick like pain but not mechanical detection. Results on thermal detection are heterogeneous. Sensory threshold changes were equally frequent reported after manual acupuncture as after electroacupuncture. Among 48 sham-controlled studies, 25 showed stronger effects on sensory thresholds through verum than through sham acupuncture, but in 9 studies significant threshold changes were also observed after sham acupuncture. Overall, there is a lack of high quality acupuncture studies applying comprehensive assessments of sensory perception. Conclusions Our findings indicate that acupuncture affects sensory perception. Results are most compelling for the pressure pain threshold, especially in pain conditions associated with tenderness. Sham acupuncture can also cause such effects. Future studies should incorporate comprehensive, standardized assessments of sensory

  16. Involvement of Sensory Regions in Affective Experience: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Satpute, Ajay B.; Kang, Jian; Bickart, Kevin C.; Yardley, Helena; Wager, Tor D.; Barrett, Lisa F.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of work suggests that sensory processes may also contribute to affective experience. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis of affective experiences driven through visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, and somatosensory stimulus modalities including study contrasts that compared affective stimuli to matched neutral control stimuli. We found, first, that limbic and paralimbic regions, including the amygdala, anterior insula, pre-supplementary motor area, and portions of orbitofrontal cortex were consistently engaged across two or more modalities. Second, early sensory input regions in occipital, temporal, piriform, mid-insular, and primary sensory cortex were frequently engaged during affective experiences driven by visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, and somatosensory inputs. A classification analysis demonstrated that the pattern of neural activity across a contrast map diagnosed the stimulus modality driving the affective experience. These findings suggest that affective experiences are constructed from activity that is distributed across limbic and paralimbic brain regions and also activity in sensory cortical regions. PMID:26696928

  17. Effect of dry-air chilling on sensory descriptive profiles of cooked broiler breast meat deboned four hours after the initiation of chilling.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, H; Savage, E M; Smith, D P; Berrang, M E

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a dry air-chilling (AC) method on sensory texture and flavor descriptive profiles of broiler pectoralis major (fillet) and pectoralis minor (tender). The profiles of the muscles immersion-chilled and deboned at the same postmortem time and the profiles of the muscles hot-boned (or no chill) were used for the comparison. A total of 108 eviscerated carcasses (6-wk-old broilers) were obtained from a commercial processing line before the chillers. Carcasses were transported to a laboratory facility where they were either i) chilled by a dry AC method (0.7 degrees C, 150 min in a cold room), ii) chilled by immersion chilling (IC; 0.3 degrees C, 50 min in a chiller), or iii) not chilled (9 birds per treatment per replication). Both IC and AC fillets and tenders were removed from the bone at 4 h after the initiation of chilling (approximately 4.75 h postmortem) in a processing area (18 degrees C). The no-chill muscles were removed immediately upon arrival. The sensory properties (21 attributes) of cooked broiler breast meat were evaluated by trained panelists using 0- to 15-point universal intensity scales. The average intensity scores of the 9 flavor attributes analyzed ranged from 0.9 to 4.0. Regardless of breast muscle type, there were no significant differences in sensory flavor descriptive profiles between the 3 treatments. The average intensity scores of the 12 texture attributes ranged from 1.5 to 7.5 and there were no significant differences between the AC and IC samples. The average intensity scores of the texture attributes, cohesiveness, hardness, cohesiveness of mass, rate of breakdown, and chewiness of the no chill fillets and tenders were significantly higher than those of either of the chilled samples. These results demonstrate that chicken breast meat from AC retains sensory flavor profile characteristics but AC results in sensory texture profile differences when compared with no-chill meat. Sensory

  18. Analysis and modeling of neural processes underlying sensory preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Hirashima, Daisuke; Mizunami, Makoto

    2013-03-01

    Sensory preconditioning (SPC) is a procedure to demonstrate learning to associate between relatively neutral sensory stimuli in the absence of an external reinforcing stimulus, the underlying neural mechanisms of which have remained obscure. We address basic questions about neural processes underlying SPC, including whether neurons that mediate reward or punishment signals in reinforcement learning participate in association between neutral sensory stimuli. In crickets, we have suggested that octopaminergic (OA-ergic) or dopaminergic (DA-ergic) neurons participate in memory acquisition and retrieval in appetitive or aversive conditioning, respectively. Crickets that had been trained to associate an odor (CS2) with a visual pattern (CS1) (phase 1) and then to associate CS1 with water reward or quinine punishment (phase 2) exhibited a significantly increased or decreased preference for CS2 that had never been paired with the US, demonstrating successful SPC. Injection of an OA or DA receptor antagonist at different phases of the SPC training and testing showed that OA-ergic or DA-ergic neurons do not participate in learning of CS2-CS1 association in phase 1, but that OA-ergic neurons participate in learning in phase 2 and memory retrieval after appetitive SPC training. We also obtained evidence suggesting that association between CS2 and US, which should underlie conditioned response of crickets to CS2, is formed in phase 2, contrary to the standard theory of SPC assuming that it occurs in the final test. We propose models of SPC to account for these findings, by extending our model of classical conditioning.

  19. Analysis and modeling of neural processes underlying sensory preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Hirashima, Daisuke; Mizunami, Makoto

    2013-03-01

    Sensory preconditioning (SPC) is a procedure to demonstrate learning to associate between relatively neutral sensory stimuli in the absence of an external reinforcing stimulus, the underlying neural mechanisms of which have remained obscure. We address basic questions about neural processes underlying SPC, including whether neurons that mediate reward or punishment signals in reinforcement learning participate in association between neutral sensory stimuli. In crickets, we have suggested that octopaminergic (OA-ergic) or dopaminergic (DA-ergic) neurons participate in memory acquisition and retrieval in appetitive or aversive conditioning, respectively. Crickets that had been trained to associate an odor (CS2) with a visual pattern (CS1) (phase 1) and then to associate CS1 with water reward or quinine punishment (phase 2) exhibited a significantly increased or decreased preference for CS2 that had never been paired with the US, demonstrating successful SPC. Injection of an OA or DA receptor antagonist at different phases of the SPC training and testing showed that OA-ergic or DA-ergic neurons do not participate in learning of CS2-CS1 association in phase 1, but that OA-ergic neurons participate in learning in phase 2 and memory retrieval after appetitive SPC training. We also obtained evidence suggesting that association between CS2 and US, which should underlie conditioned response of crickets to CS2, is formed in phase 2, contrary to the standard theory of SPC assuming that it occurs in the final test. We propose models of SPC to account for these findings, by extending our model of classical conditioning. PMID:23380289

  20. Novel and successful free comments method for sensory characterization of chocolate ice cream: A comparative study between pivot profile and comment analysis.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Fernando G A; Esmerino, Erick A; Filho, Elson R Tavares; Ferraz, Juliana P; da Cruz, Adriano G; Bolini, Helena M A

    2016-05-01

    Rapid sensory profiling methods have gained space in the sensory evaluation field. Techniques using direct analysis of the terms generated by consumers are considered easy to perform, without specific training requirements, thus improving knowledge about consumer perceptions on various products. This study aimed to determine the sensory profile of different commercial samples of chocolate ice cream, labeled as conventional and light or diet, using the "comment analysis" and "pivot profile" methods, based on consumers' perceptions. In the comment analysis task, consumers responded to 2 separate open questions describing the sensory attributes they liked or disliked in each sample. In the pivot profile method, samples were served in pairs (consisting of a coded sample and pivot), and consumers indicated the higher and lower intensity attributes in the target sample compared with the pivot. We observed that both methods were able to characterize the different chocolate ice cream samples using consumer perception, with high correlation results and configurational similarity (regression vector coefficient=0.917) between them. However, it is worth emphasizing that comment analysis is performed intuitively by consumers, whereas the pivot profile method showed high analytical and discriminative power even using consumers, proving to be a promising technique for routine application when classical descriptive methods cannot be used.

  1. Novel and successful free comments method for sensory characterization of chocolate ice cream: A comparative study between pivot profile and comment analysis.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Fernando G A; Esmerino, Erick A; Filho, Elson R Tavares; Ferraz, Juliana P; da Cruz, Adriano G; Bolini, Helena M A

    2016-05-01

    Rapid sensory profiling methods have gained space in the sensory evaluation field. Techniques using direct analysis of the terms generated by consumers are considered easy to perform, without specific training requirements, thus improving knowledge about consumer perceptions on various products. This study aimed to determine the sensory profile of different commercial samples of chocolate ice cream, labeled as conventional and light or diet, using the "comment analysis" and "pivot profile" methods, based on consumers' perceptions. In the comment analysis task, consumers responded to 2 separate open questions describing the sensory attributes they liked or disliked in each sample. In the pivot profile method, samples were served in pairs (consisting of a coded sample and pivot), and consumers indicated the higher and lower intensity attributes in the target sample compared with the pivot. We observed that both methods were able to characterize the different chocolate ice cream samples using consumer perception, with high correlation results and configurational similarity (regression vector coefficient=0.917) between them. However, it is worth emphasizing that comment analysis is performed intuitively by consumers, whereas the pivot profile method showed high analytical and discriminative power even using consumers, proving to be a promising technique for routine application when classical descriptive methods cannot be used. PMID:26923040

  2. Transcriptome analysis of embryonic and adult sensory axons reveals changes in mRNA repertoire localization

    PubMed Central

    Gumy, Laura F.; Yeo, Giles S.H.; Tung, Yi-Chun Loraine; Zivraj, Krishna H.; Willis, Dianna; Coppola, Giovanni; Lam, Brian Y.H.; Twiss, Jeffery L.; Holt, Christine E.; Fawcett, James W.

    2011-01-01

    mRNAs are transported, localized, and translated in axons of sensory neurons. However, little is known about the full repertoire of transcripts present in embryonic and adult sensory axons and how this pool of mRNAs dynamically changes during development. Here, we used a compartmentalized chamber to isolate mRNA from pure embryonic and adult sensory axons devoid of non-neuronal or cell body contamination. Genome-wide microarray analysis reveals that a previously unappreciated number of transcripts are localized in sensory axons and that this repertoire changes during development toward adulthood. Embryonic axons are enriched in transcripts encoding cytoskeletal-related proteins with a role in axonal outgrowth. Surprisingly, adult axons are enriched in mRNAs encoding immune molecules with a role in nociception. Additionally, we show Tubulin-beta3 (Tubb3) mRNA is present only in embryonic axons, with Tubb3 locally synthesized in axons of embryonic, but not adult neurons where it is transported, thus validating our experimental approach. In summary, we provide the first complete catalog of embryonic and adult sensory axonal mRNAs. In addition we show that this pool of axonal mRNAs dynamically changes during development. These data provide an important resource for studies on the role of local protein synthesis in axon regeneration and nociception during neuronal development. PMID:21098654

  3. The value of job analysis, job description and performance.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, M N; Coggins, S

    1997-01-01

    All companies, regardless of size, are faced with the same employment concerns. Efficient personnel management requires the use of three human resource techniques--job analysis, job description and performance appraisal. These techniques and tools are not for large practices only. Small groups can obtain the same benefits by employing these performance control measures. Job analysis allows for the development of a compensation system. Job descriptions summarize the most important duties. Performance appraisals help reward outstanding work.

  4. Sensory analysis of rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, fed enriched black soldier fly prepupae, hermetia illucens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A growth trial and fillet sensory analysis were conducted to examine the effects of replacing dietary fish meal with black soldier fly (BSF) prepupae, Hermetia illucens, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. A practical-type trout diet was formulated to contain 45% protein; four test diets were dev...

  5. The sensory experiences of adults with autism spectrum disorder: A qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Ashley E; David R Simmons, R

    2015-01-01

    It has been well established that individuals with autism spectrum disorder report unusual experiences with sensory stimuli compared with typically developing individuals. However, there is a paucity of research exploring the nature of such experiences. A focus group was conducted with six adults with a diagnosis of autism or Asperger syndrome. Data were coded and analysed using an inductive, qualitative thematic analysis. Four main themes encompassing both positive and negative sensory experiences emerged from these data: (a) the importance of particular aspects of stimuli in their perception, (b) the importance of having control over stimuli, (c) how emotions/mental states could impact/be impacted by sensory stimuli, and (d) physical responses to stimuli. These data are discussed alongside extant literature. Limitations, possible implications, and potential directions of future research are also discussed.

  6. The sensory experiences of adults with autism spectrum disorder: A qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Ashley E; David R Simmons, R

    2015-01-01

    It has been well established that individuals with autism spectrum disorder report unusual experiences with sensory stimuli compared with typically developing individuals. However, there is a paucity of research exploring the nature of such experiences. A focus group was conducted with six adults with a diagnosis of autism or Asperger syndrome. Data were coded and analysed using an inductive, qualitative thematic analysis. Four main themes encompassing both positive and negative sensory experiences emerged from these data: (a) the importance of particular aspects of stimuli in their perception, (b) the importance of having control over stimuli, (c) how emotions/mental states could impact/be impacted by sensory stimuli, and (d) physical responses to stimuli. These data are discussed alongside extant literature. Limitations, possible implications, and potential directions of future research are also discussed. PMID:26422904

  7. Descriptive Cost Analysis of Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slobojan, Alan

    1987-01-01

    Presents a study of cost analysis of the Frederick County Public Schools (Maryland) special education programs and services. The Larson IPSEC Model was used as the basis for the cost analysis. The modified Larson model provides a valuable tool to determine the per pupil cost of special education. (Author/MD)

  8. Description of MSFC engineering photographic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earle, Jim; Williams, Frank

    1988-01-01

    Utilizing a background that includes development of basic launch and test photographic coverage and analysis procedures, the MSFC Photographic Evaluation Group has built a body of experience that enables it to effectively satisfy MSFC's engineering photographic analysis needs. Combining the basic soundness of reliable, proven techniques of the past with the newer technical advances of computers and computer-related devices, the MSFC Photo Evaluation Group is in a position to continue to provide photo and video analysis service center-wide and NASA-wide to supply an improving photo analysis product to meet the photo evaluation needs of the future; and to provide new standards in the state-of-the-art of photo analysis of dynamic events.

  9. Screening Analysis : Volume 1, Description and Conclusions.

    SciTech Connect

    Bonneville Power Administration; Corps of Engineers; Bureau of Reclamation

    1992-08-01

    The SOR consists of three analytical phases leading to a Draft EIS. The first phase Pilot Analysis, was performed for the purpose of testing the decision analysis methodology being used in the SOR. The Pilot Analysis is described later in this chapter. The second phase, Screening Analysis, examines all possible operating alternatives using a simplified analytical approach. It is described in detail in this and the next chapter. This document also presents the results of screening. The final phase, Full-Scale Analysis, will be documented in the Draft EIS and is intended to evaluate comprehensively the few, best alternatives arising from the screening analysis. The purpose of screening is to analyze a wide variety of differing ways of operating the Columbia River system to test the reaction of the system to change. The many alternatives considered reflect the range of needs and requirements of the various river users and interests in the Columbia River Basin. While some of the alternatives might be viewed as extreme, the information gained from the analysis is useful in highlighting issues and conflicts in meeting operating objectives. Screening is also intended to develop a broad technical basis for evaluation including regional experts and to begin developing an evaluation capability for each river use that will support full-scale analysis. Finally, screening provides a logical method for examining all possible options and reaching a decision on a few alternatives worthy of full-scale analysis. An organizational structure was developed and staffed to manage and execute the SOR, specifically during the screening phase and the upcoming full-scale analysis phase. The organization involves ten technical work groups, each representing a particular river use. Several other groups exist to oversee or support the efforts of the work groups.

  10. Health leaders of tomorrow: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Levey, L M; Lane, M S; Baretich, M; Levey, S

    1989-01-01

    The dramatically changing environment of the health care executive prompted the current survey of graduate students in health administration. The survey examined the types of attitudes and values that may influence students' future leadership style and ethical decision making. A self-administered questionnaire was designed to provide descriptive information as well as to allow comparisons with recent surveys of practitioners and peers and with other research. Respondents to the survey, conducted in the fall of 1986, included nearly half of the full-time students in 56 participating AUPHA graduate programs and one-quarter of the part-time students (N = 1,764). Students' characteristics such as age, sex, religious preference, work experience, and career aspirations were assessed in relation to their social philosophy on health issues, instrumental and terminal values, attitudes toward achievement, and degree of idealism versus relativism in moral reasoning. The typical student was a twenty-seven-year-old white female with a stated religious preference who expected in ten years to be associated with a multi-institutional system or consulting firm. Her social philosophy showed concern for the rising cost of health care on the consumer and an emphasis on self-help. Self-respect and honesty are her highest values; her ethical ideology had components of high idealism and relativism, which is indicative of a situational decision-making style. Work orientation and mastery were both above average sources of achievement motivation for her, whereas competitiveness was about average. When group differences in attitudes and values were evaluated, however, sex was the highest predictor, followed by age, expectation of becoming a CEO, and self-assessed potential for success. Although there was substantial agreement between students' and practitioners' attitudes and values, some differences were found. Implications for future research are discussed, as well as issues relating to

  11. A role of the claustrum in auditory scene analysis by reflecting sensory change

    PubMed Central

    Remedios, Ryan; Logothetis, Nikos K.; Kayser, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The biological function of the claustrum remains speculative, despite many years of research. On the basis of its widespread connections it is often hypothesized that the claustrum may have an integrative function mainly reflecting objects rather than the details of sensory stimuli. Given the absence of a clear demonstration of any sensory integration in claustral neurons, however, we propose an alternative, data-driven, hypothesis: namely that the claustrum detects the occurrence of novel or salient sensory events. The detection of new events is critical for behavior and survival, as suddenly appearing objects may require rapid and coordinated reactions. Sounds are of particular relevance in this regard, and our conclusions are based on the analysis of neurons in the auditory zone of the primate claustrum. Specifically, we studied the responses to natural sounds, their preference to various sound categories, and to changes in the auditory scene. In a test for sound-category preference claustral neurons responded to but displayed a clear lack of selectivity between monkey vocalizations, other animal vocalizations or environmental sounds (Esnd). Claustral neurons were however able to detect target sounds embedded in a noisy background and their responses scaled with target signal to noise ratio (SNR). The single trial responses of individual neurons suggest that these neurons detected and reflected the occurrence of a change in the auditory scene. Given its widespread connectivity with sensory, motor and limbic structures the claustrum could play the essential role of identifying the occurrence of important sensory changes and notifying other brain areas—hence contributing to sensory awareness. PMID:24772069

  12. A role of the claustrum in auditory scene analysis by reflecting sensory change.

    PubMed

    Remedios, Ryan; Logothetis, Nikos K; Kayser, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The biological function of the claustrum remains speculative, despite many years of research. On the basis of its widespread connections it is often hypothesized that the claustrum may have an integrative function mainly reflecting objects rather than the details of sensory stimuli. Given the absence of a clear demonstration of any sensory integration in claustral neurons, however, we propose an alternative, data-driven, hypothesis: namely that the claustrum detects the occurrence of novel or salient sensory events. The detection of new events is critical for behavior and survival, as suddenly appearing objects may require rapid and coordinated reactions. Sounds are of particular relevance in this regard, and our conclusions are based on the analysis of neurons in the auditory zone of the primate claustrum. Specifically, we studied the responses to natural sounds, their preference to various sound categories, and to changes in the auditory scene. In a test for sound-category preference claustral neurons responded to but displayed a clear lack of selectivity between monkey vocalizations, other animal vocalizations or environmental sounds (Esnd). Claustral neurons were however able to detect target sounds embedded in a noisy background and their responses scaled with target signal to noise ratio (SNR). The single trial responses of individual neurons suggest that these neurons detected and reflected the occurrence of a change in the auditory scene. Given its widespread connectivity with sensory, motor and limbic structures the claustrum could play the essential role of identifying the occurrence of important sensory changes and notifying other brain areas-hence contributing to sensory awareness. PMID:24772069

  13. Functional analysis of the sensory motor pathway of resistance reflex in crayfish. II. Integration Of sensory inputs in motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Le Ray, D; Clarac, F; Cattaert, D

    1997-12-01

    The in vitro preparation of the fifth thoracic ganglion of the crayfish was used to analyze the connections supporting the monosynaptic reflex responses recorded from the depressor motor neurons (Dep MNs). Dep MNs are directly connected by the release-sensitive afferents from a proprioceptor, the coxo-basipodite chordotonal organ (CBCO), which is released by upward movements of the leg. Sine-wave movements, applied to the CBCO strand from the most released position, allowed us to stimulate the greatest part of release-sensitive CBCO fibers. Systematic intracellular recordings from all Dep MNs performed in high divalent cation saline allowed us to determine the connections between CBCO afferents and their postsynaptic Dep MNs: it highlighted the sequential activation of the different Dep MNs involved in the monosynaptic reflex. The convergence of different sensory afferents onto a given Dep MN, and the divergence of a given sensory afferent onto several Dep MNs illustrates the complexity of the sensory-motor reflex loops involved in the control of locomotion and posture. Electrophysiological experiments and simulations were performed to analyze the mechanisms by which Dep MNs integrate the large amount of sensory input that they receive. Paired intracellular recording experiments demonstrated that postsynaptic response shapes characteristic of both phasic and phaso-tonic afferents could be induced by varying the presynaptic firing frequency, whatever the postsynaptic Dep MN. Compartment model simulations were used to analyze the role of the sensory-motor synapse characteristics in the summation properties of postsynaptic MN. They demonstrated the importance of the postsynaptic compartment geometry, because large postsynaptic compartments allowed to generate greater excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) summations than small ones. The results presented show that velocity information is the most effective to elicit large compound EPSPs in MNs. We therefore suggest

  14. Aromatic profile of ciders by chemical quantitative, gas chromatography-olfactometry, and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Antón, María José; Suárez Valles, Belén; García Hevia, Ana; Picinelli Lobo, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Nine samples of Asturias cider have been analyzed for volatile, olfactometric, and sensorial profiles. The aromatic composition was mainly constituted by fusel alcohols and ethyl esters. Among the minor volatile compounds, fatty acids, volatile phenols, and alcohols were the main components. The olfactometric analysis revealed the existence of 55 aromatic areas, exhibiting a wide range of intensities. Components like amyl alcohols, 2-phenylethanol, ethyl esters such as 2-methylbutyrate, hexanoate and octanoate, hexanoic and octanoic acids 2-phenylethyl acetate, 4-ethyl guaiacol, and 4-ethyl phenol could be considered as being part of the structure of cider aroma. The extract dilution analysis of one extract identified 2 volatile phenols (4-ethyl guaiacol and 4-ethyl phenol) among the most powerful odorants in cider. These components gave significant correlations with the sensory attributes sweet, spicy, and lees. PMID:24313985

  15. Application of a potentiometric sensor array as a technique in sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Hruskar, M; Major, N; Krpan, M

    2010-04-15

    This paper reports on the application of a potentiometric sensor array used for monitoring changes in probiotic fermented milk during storage, classification of probiotic fermented milk according to flavor and to accurately predict the results from a human sensory panel. For that purpose the potentiometric electronic tongue consisting of seven sensors and an Ag/AgCl reference electrode was used. The samples of plain, strawberry, apple-pear and forest-fruit probiotic fermented milk were stored during 20 days on two different temperatures and monitored by the electronic tongue and the human sensory panel. Various pattern recognition techniques are adapted including multivariate data processing based on principal components analysis (PCA) for monitoring changes occurring in probiotic fermented milk, artificial neural networks (ANN) for the classification of probiotic fermented milk during storage, partial least square regression (PLS) and artificial neural networks (ANN) to estimate and predict the sensory panel evaluation results. The highest correct classification percentage (97%) was obtained for plain probiotic fermented milk and the lowest (87%) for apple-pear flavored probiotic fermented milk. The highest correlation between the sensor array and the human sensory panel was obtained for the forest-fruit flavored probiotic fermented milk both by using artificial neural networks (0.998) and partial least square regression (0.992). Results from these analyses demonstrate that the electronic tongue can be used to monitor changes in probiotic fermented milk during storage, to classify probiotic fermented milk according to flavor and to predict the sensory characteristics and their relationship to the quality of the probiotic fermented milk measured by consumer.

  16. Estimation of Sensory Pork Loin Tenderness Using Warner-Bratzler Shear Force and Texture Profile Analysis Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Jee-Hwan; Choi, Mi-Hee; Rhee, Min-Suk; Kim, Byoung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which instrumental measurements explain the variation in pork loin tenderness as assessed by the sensory evaluation of trained panelists. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS) had a significant relationship with the sensory tenderness variables, such as softness, initial tenderness, chewiness, and rate of breakdown. In a regression analysis, WBS could account variations in these sensory variables, though only to a limited proportion of variation. On the other hand, three parameters from texture profile analysis (TPA)—hardness, gumminess, and chewiness—were significantly correlated with all sensory evaluation variables. In particular, from the result of stepwise regression analysis, TPA hardness alone explained over 15% of variation in all sensory evaluation variables, with the exception of perceptible residue. Based on these results, TPA analysis was found to be better than WBS measurement, with the TPA parameter hardness likely to prove particularly useful, in terms of predicting pork loin tenderness as rated by trained panelists. However, sensory evaluation should be conducted to investigate practical pork tenderness perceived by consumer, because both instrumental measurements could explain only a small portion (less than 20%) of the variability in sensory evaluation. PMID:26954174

  17. Job Analysis, Job Descriptions, and Performance Appraisal Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Johnnie M.; Foxley, Cecelia H.

    1980-01-01

    Job analysis, job descriptions, and performance appraisal can benefit student services administration in many ways. Involving staff members in the development and implementation of these techniques can increase commitment to and understanding of the overall objectives of the office, as well as communication and cooperation among colleagues.…

  18. Sensorial analysis evaluation in cereal bars preserved by ionizing radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Araújo, M. M.; Fanaro, G. B.; Rela, P. R.; Mancini-Filho, J.

    2007-11-01

    Gamma-rays utilized as a food-processing treatment to eliminate insect contamination is well established in food industries. Recent troubles in Brazilian cereal bars commercialization require a special consumer's attention because some products were contaminated by insects. To solve the problem, food-irradiation treatment was utilized as a safe and effective solution. The final product was free of insect contamination. The aim of this study was to determine the best radiation dose processing utilized to disinfestations and detect some change on sensorial characteristic by sensorial analysis in cereal bars. In this study, three different kinds of cereal bars were purchased in São Paulo (Brazil) in supermarkets and irradiated with 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy at "Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares" (IPEN-CNEN/SP). The samples were treated with ionizing radiation using a 60Co gamma-ray facility (Gammacell 220, A.E.C.L.). That radiation doses were used successfully as an anti-insect treatment in the cereal bars, since in some food industries doses up to 3.0 kGy are used to guarantee at least a dose of 1.0 kGy in internal cereal bars package. Sensorial analysis was necessary since cereal bars contain ingredients very sensitive to ionizing radiation process.

  19. Transcriptome Analysis of Chemically-Induced Sensory Neuron Ablation in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Jane A.; Zhang, Bo; Pope, Holly M.; Voigt, Mark M.

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral glia are known to have a critical role in the initial response to axon damage and degeneration. However, little is known about the cellular responses of non-myelinating glia to nerve injury. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptomes of wild-type and mutant (lacking peripheral glia) zebrafish larvae that were treated with metronidazole. This treatment allowed us to conditionally and selectively ablate cranial sensory neurons whose axons are ensheathed only by non-myelinating glia. While transcripts representing over 27,000 genes were detected by RNAseq, only a small fraction (~1% of genes) were found to be differentially expressed in response to neuronal degeneration in either line at either 2 hrs or 5 hrs of metronidazole treatment. Analysis revealed that most expression changes (332 out of the total of 458 differentially expressed genes) occurred over a continuous period (from 2 to 5 hrs of metronidazole exposure), with a small number of genes showing changes limited to only the 2 hr (55 genes) or 5 hr (71 genes) time points. For genes with continuous alterations in expression, some of the most meaningful sets of enriched categories in the wild-type line were those involving the inflammatory TNF-alpha and IL6 signaling pathways, oxidoreductase activities and response to stress. Intriguingly, these changes were not observed in the mutant line. Indeed, cluster analysis indicated that the effects of metronidazole treatment on gene expression was heavily influenced by the presence or absence of glia, indicating that the peripheral non-myelinating glia play a significant role in the transcriptional response to sensory neuron degeneration. This is the first transcriptome study of metronidazole-induced neuronal death in zebrafish and the response of non-myelinating glia to sensory neuron degeneration. We believe this study provides important insight into the mechanisms by which non-myelinating glia react to neuronal death and degeneration in sensory

  20. Effects of static magnetic fields on cognition, vital signs, and sensory perception: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Angela; Szostek, Anne; Nees, Frauke; Meyer, Patric; Semmler, Wolfhard; Flor, Herta

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate whether cognitive processes, sensory perception, and vital signs might be influenced by static magnetic fields in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which could pose a risk for health personnel and patients, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies that examined effects of static magnetic fields. Studies covering the time from 1992 to 2007 were selected. Cohen's d effects sizes were used and combined in different categories of neuropsychology (reaction time, visual processing, eye-hand coordination, and working memory). Additionally, effects of static magnetic fields on sensory perception and vital signs were analyzed. In the category "neuropsychology," only effects on the visual system were homogeneous, showing a statistically significant impairment as a result of exposure to static magnetic fields (d = -0.415). Vital signs were not affected and effects on sensory perceptions included an increase of dizziness and vertigo, primarily caused by movement during static magnetic field gradient exposures. The number of studies dealing with this topic is very small and the experimental set-up of some of the analyzed studies makes it difficult to accurately determine the effects of static magnetic fields by themselves, excluding nonspecific factors. The implications of these results for MRI lead to suggestions for improvement in research designs.

  1. Chemical and sensorial aroma characterization of freshly distilled Calvados. 1. Evaluation of quality and defects on the basis of key odorants by olfactometry and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Guichard, Hugues; Lemesle, Stéphane; Ledauphin, Jérôme; Barillier, Daniel; Picoche, Bernard

    2003-01-15

    Eight freshly distilled samples of Calvados, a fermented and distilled apple juice, were analyzed by sensory evaluation and direct injection GC to determine the composition of higher alcohols, esters, and aldehydes. The composition determined by direct injection was tentatively related to sensory descriptors. Esters have a probable maximum level around 500 g/hl of pure alcohol (PA). This level also corresponds to the threshold of the main ester constituent, ethyl acetate. A high ratio of esters to ethyl acetate seems to be of prime importance for good quality. Total aldehydes, with a maximum level between 8 and 11 g/hl of PA and mainly comprising acetal (maximum between 5 and 9 g/hl of PA), were related to a "green" descriptor. Higher alcohols do not have a direct impact on quality, but other volatile compounds with a positive impact on flavor should probably be present at a high level. As overall quality was not well related to sensory quality, it was necessary to perform more a precise analysis to determine the key odorants. The Calvados samples were thus extracted using pentane. Gas chromatography, employing both a flame ionization detector and an olfactometry port, was used to analyze the obtained extracts. Seventy-one odors were detected and distributed according to Calvados quality determined by sensory evaluation. Nineteen odors common to all Calvados samples constituted the "skeleton" of the aroma. Twenty-eight odors were specific to a quality class: 6 for good quality, 4 for neutral, and 18 for defective. Twenty-four other odors had either too low an odor impact or no evident specificity.

  2. Characterization of Chinese rice wine taste attributes using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Yu, HaiYan; Zhao, Jie; Li, Fenghua; Tian, Huaixiang; Ma, Xia

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the taste characteristics of Chinese rice wine, wine samples sourced from different vintage years were analyzed using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue. Six organic acids and seventeen amino acids were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Five monosaccharides were measured using anion-exchange chromatography. The global taste attributes were analyzed using an electronic tongue (E-tongue). The correlations between the 28 taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes, and the correlations between the E-tongue response and the sensory attributes were established via partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA). E-tongue response data combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to discriminate the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from different vintage years. Sensory evaluation indicated significant differences in the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010 vintage years in the sensory attributes of harmony and mellow. The PLSDA model for the taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes showed that proline, fucose, arabinose, lactic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, isoleucine, valine, threonine, and lysine had an influence on the taste characteristic of Chinese rice wine. The Chinese rice wine samples were all correctly classified using the E-tongue and LDA. The electronic tongue was an effective tool for rapid discrimination of Chinese rice wine. PMID:26113454

  3. Characterization of Chinese rice wine taste attributes using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Yu, HaiYan; Zhao, Jie; Li, Fenghua; Tian, Huaixiang; Ma, Xia

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the taste characteristics of Chinese rice wine, wine samples sourced from different vintage years were analyzed using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue. Six organic acids and seventeen amino acids were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Five monosaccharides were measured using anion-exchange chromatography. The global taste attributes were analyzed using an electronic tongue (E-tongue). The correlations between the 28 taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes, and the correlations between the E-tongue response and the sensory attributes were established via partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA). E-tongue response data combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to discriminate the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from different vintage years. Sensory evaluation indicated significant differences in the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010 vintage years in the sensory attributes of harmony and mellow. The PLSDA model for the taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes showed that proline, fucose, arabinose, lactic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, isoleucine, valine, threonine, and lysine had an influence on the taste characteristic of Chinese rice wine. The Chinese rice wine samples were all correctly classified using the E-tongue and LDA. The electronic tongue was an effective tool for rapid discrimination of Chinese rice wine.

  4. Morphological analysis of Drosophila larval peripheral sensory neuron dendrites and axons using genetic mosaics.

    PubMed

    Karim, M Rezaul; Moore, Adrian W

    2011-11-07

    Nervous system development requires the correct specification of neuron position and identity, followed by accurate neuron class-specific dendritic development and axonal wiring. Recently the dendritic arborization (DA) sensory neurons of the Drosophila larval peripheral nervous system (PNS) have become powerful genetic models in which to elucidate both general and class-specific mechanisms of neuron differentiation. There are four main DA neuron classes (I-IV)(1). They are named in order of increasing dendrite arbor complexity, and have class-specific differences in the genetic control of their differentiation(2-10). The DA sensory system is a practical model to investigate the molecular mechanisms behind the control of dendritic morphology(11-13) because: 1) it can take advantage of the powerful genetic tools available in the fruit fly, 2) the DA neuron dendrite arbor spreads out in only 2 dimensions beneath an optically clear larval cuticle making it easy to visualize with high resolution in vivo, 3) the class-specific diversity in dendritic morphology facilitates a comparative analysis to find key elements controlling the formation of simple vs. highly branched dendritic trees, and 4) dendritic arbor stereotypical shapes of different DA neurons facilitate morphometric statistical analyses. DA neuron activity modifies the output of a larval locomotion central pattern generator(14-16). The different DA neuron classes have distinct sensory modalities, and their activation elicits different behavioral responses(14,16-20). Furthermore different classes send axonal projections stereotypically into the Drosophila larval central nervous system in the ventral nerve cord (VNC)(21). These projections terminate with topographic representations of both DA neuron sensory modality and the position in the body wall of the dendritic field(7,22,23). Hence examination of DA axonal projections can be used to elucidate mechanisms underlying topographic mapping(7,22,23), as well as

  5. Simultaneous analysis of consumer variables, acceptability and sensory characteristics of dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Masahiro; Obiya, Shinichi; Kaneko, Miku; Enomoto, Ayame; Honma, Mayu; Wakayama, Masataka; Tomita, Masaru

    2016-11-01

    We conducted a consumer acceptability analysis of dry-cured ham based on sensory evaluation. Consumer acceptability data are rendered heterogeneous by the diverse backgrounds and assessment abilities of the participants, requiring versatile analytical methods for their interpretation. Totally, 9 sensory attributes of 12 kinds of dry-cured ham samples collected from Japan (n=9), Italy (n=1), Spain (n=1), and Germany (n=1) were tasted by 117 Japanese consumers who showed acceptable evaluation abilities during blind sampling. Common techniques, such as hierarchical clustering, principal component analysis, and external preference mapping, were simultaneously utilized to analyze each characteristics scored in modified hedonic scale. These analyses revealed the relationships between the features and preferences of the assessors. For example, consumers aged 20-30 with smoking and drinking habits preferred sweetness and saltiness, and gave high ratings to Spanish Jómon serrano and Italian prosciutto. Our approach could assist ham marketers to identify potential purchasers and the preferred characteristics of their products.

  6. Analysis of the Sensory Profile in Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildenbrand, Hanna L.; Smith, Ann C. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study systematically assessed sensory processing in 34 children, aged 3-14 years, with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) using the Sensory Profile Caregiver Questionnaire. Scores for the SMS cohort were significantly different from scores of the national sample of children with and without disabilities in all Sensory Profile categories and…

  7. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... PDF Open All Close All Description Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA is a condition characterized by nerve ...

  8. Exploratory factor analysis for differentiating sensory and mechanical variables related to muscle-tendon unit elongation

    PubMed Central

    Chagas, Mauro H.; Magalhães, Fabrício A.; Peixoto, Gustavo H. C.; Pereira, Beatriz M.; Andrade, André G. P.; Menzel, Hans-Joachim K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Stretching exercises are able to promote adaptations in the muscle-tendon unit (MTU), which can be tested through physiological and biomechanical variables. Identifying the key variables in MTU adaptations is crucial to improvements in training. Objective To perform an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) involving the variables often used to evaluate the response of the MTU to stretching exercises. Method Maximum joint range of motion (ROMMAX), ROM at first sensation of stretching (FSTROM), peak torque (torqueMAX), passive stiffness, normalized stiffness, passive energy, and normalized energy were investigated in 36 participants during passive knee extension on an isokinetic dynamometer. Stiffness and energy values were normalized by the muscle cross-sectional area and their passive mode assured by monitoring the EMG activity. Results EFA revealed two major factors that explained 89.68% of the total variance: 53.13% was explained by the variables torqueMAX, passive stiffness, normalized stiffness, passive energy, and normalized energy, whereas the remaining 36.55% was explained by the variables ROMMAX and FSTROM. Conclusion This result supports the literature wherein two main hypotheses (mechanical and sensory theories) have been suggested to describe the adaptations of the MTU to stretching exercises. Contrary to some studies, in the present investigation torqueMAX was significantly correlated with the variables of the mechanical theory rather than those of the sensory theory. Therefore, a new approach was proposed to explain the behavior of the torqueMAX during stretching exercises. PMID:27437715

  9. Predicate Argument Structure Analysis for Use Case Description Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Hironori; Nakamura, Taiga; Yamaguchi, Takahira

    In a large software system development project, many documents are prepared and updated frequently. In such a situation, support is needed for looking through these documents easily to identify inconsistencies and to maintain traceability. In this research, we focus on the requirements documents such as use cases and consider how to create models from the use case descriptions in unformatted text. In the model construction, we propose a few semantic constraints based on the features of the use cases and use them for a predicate argument structure analysis to assign semantic labels to actors and actions. With this approach, we show that we can assign semantic labels without enhancing any existing general lexical resources such as case frame dictionaries and design a less language-dependent model construction architecture. By using the constructed model, we consider a system for quality analysis of the use cases and automated test case generation to keep the traceability between document sets. We evaluated the reuse of the existing use cases and generated test case steps automatically with the proposed prototype system from real-world use cases in the development of a system using a packaged application. Based on the evaluation, we show how to construct models with high precision from English and Japanese use case data. Also, we could generate good test cases for about 90% of the real use cases through the manual improvement of the descriptions based on the feedback from the quality analysis system.

  10. Physicochemical characterization and sensory analysis of yeast-leavened and sourdough soy breads.

    PubMed

    Yezbick, Gabrielle; Ahn-Jarvis, Jennifer; Schwartz, Steven J; Vodovotz, Yael

    2013-10-01

    Sourdough fermentation has been shown to have numerous beneficial effects on bread quality, and nutritionally enhance soy-supplemented bread by altering isoflavone chemical forms. Given this, the objective of this study was to compare the loaf quality and shelf life of sourdough and yeast-leavened soy breads by various physical, thermal, and sensorial methods, and to assess the effects of fermentation by various microorganisms on isoflavone profile in dough and breads using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Sourdough fermentation yielded a less extensible dough compared to yeast-leavened soy dough (P < 0.001), and resulted in a harder bread crumb (P < 0.05) and lighter crust color (P < 0.001), compared to yeast-leavened soy bread (Y-B). Sensory analysis revealed a significantly higher overall liking of Y-B compared to sourdough soy bread (SD-B) (P < 0.001). Segmentation analysis of the cohort suggests that overall liking and bread consumption frequency may be determinants of Y-B or SD-B preference. SD-B and Y-B exhibited similar shelf-life properties. Despite significantly different enthalpies associated with the melting of amylose-lipid complexes, thermal analysis of the 2 soy breads stored for 10 d (ambient conditions) demonstrated no significant difference in water distribution and starch retrogradation (P < 0.05). Lastly, SD-B was determined to have 32% of total isoflavones occurring in the aglycone form compared to 17% in Y-B. These findings warrant further investigation of sourdough fermentation as a processing technique for quality and nutritional enhancement of soy-based baked goods.

  11. Physicochemical Characterization and Sensory Analysis of Yeast-leavened and Sourdough Soy Breads

    PubMed Central

    Yezbick, Gabrielle; Ahn-Jarvis, Jennifer; Schwartz, Steven J.; Vodovotz, Yael

    2013-01-01

    Sourdough fermentation has been shown to have numerous beneficial effects on bread quality, and nutritionally enhance soy-supplemented bread by altering isoflavone chemical forms. Given this, the objective of this study was to compare the loaf quality and shelf life of sourdough and yeast-leavened soy breads by various physical, thermal, and sensorial methods, and to assess the effects of fermentation by various microorganisms on isoflavone profile in dough and breads using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Sourdough fermentation yielded a less extensible dough compared to yeast-leavened soy dough (P < 0.001), and resulted in a harder bread crumb (P < 0.05) and lighter crust color (P < 0.001), compared to yeast-leavened soy bread (Y-B). Sensory analysis revealed a significantly higher overall liking of Y-B compared to sourdough soy bread (SD-B) (P < 0.001). Segmentation analysis of the cohort suggests that overall liking and bread consumption frequency may be determinants of Y-B or SD-B preference. SD-B and Y-B exhibited similar shelf-life properties. Despite significantly different enthalpies associated with the melting of amylose-lipid complexes, thermal analysis of the 2 soy breads stored for 10 d (ambient conditions) demonstrated no significant difference in water distribution and starch retrogradation (P < 0.05). Lastly, SD-B was determined to have 32% of total isoflavones occurring in the aglycone form compared to 17% in Y-B. These findings warrant further investigation of sourdough fermentation as a processing technique for quality and nutritional enhancement of soy-based baked goods. PMID:24024975

  12. Metabolite profiling of soy sauce using gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry and analysis of correlation with quantitative descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Bamba, Takeshi; Sano, Atsushi; Kodama, Yukako; Imamura, Miho; Obata, Akio; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2012-08-01

    Soy sauces, produced from different ingredients and brewing processes, have variations in components and quality. Therefore, it is extremely important to comprehend the relationship between components and the sensory attributes of soy sauces. The current study sought to perform metabolite profiling in order to devise a method of assessing the attributes of soy sauces. Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) data for 24 soy sauce samples were obtained from well selected sensory panelists. Metabolite profiles primarily concerning low-molecular-weight hydrophilic components were based on gas chromatography with time-of-flightmass spectrometry (GC/TOFMS). QDA data for soy sauces were accurately predicted by projection to latent structure (PLS), with metabolite profiles serving as explanatory variables and QDA data set serving as a response variable. Moreover, analysis of correlation between matrices of metabolite profiles and QDA data indicated contributing compounds that were highly correlated with QDA data. Especially, it was indicated that sugars are important components of the tastes of soy sauces. This new approach which combines metabolite profiling with QDA is applicable to analysis of sensory attributes of food as a result of the complex interaction between its components. This approach is effective to search important compounds that contribute to the attributes.

  13. Descriptive analysis and U.S. consumer acceptability of 6 green tea samples from China, Japan, and Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Delores H

    2010-03-01

    In the past, green tea has been one of the least popular nonalcoholic beverages for U.S. consumers. However, green tea has been receiving attention because of its potential health benefits. Knowing which green tea flavor attributes contribute to consumer liking will help the fast growing green tea business including green tea importers, tea shops, and beverage companies to understand which characteristics are most accepted by U.S. consumers. The objectives of this study were (1) to examine differences in acceptability of commonly available loose leaf and bagged green teas available from the major exporters to the U.S. (Japan, Korea, and China) and (2) to determine which green tea flavor characteristics are related to consumers' liking. In the study, consumers from the U.S. evaluated 6 green tea samples from China, Japan, and Korea for acceptability. A highly trained panel also evaluated the green tea samples to provide descriptive sensory attributes that might be related to acceptability. We found that U.S. consumers liked green tea samples with lower flavor intensity and lower bitterness intensity. Consumers' acceptability of green tea was negatively correlated with spinach and animalic flavor and bitterness and astringency of green teas evaluated using descriptive sensory analysis, but the correlation was only moderate. To learn what green tea flavor characteristics influence consumers' liking, future studies using more green tea samples with different flavor profiles are needed.

  14. High Performance Descriptive Semantic Analysis of Semantic Graph Databases

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.

    2011-06-02

    As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to understand their inherent semantic structure, whether codified in explicit ontologies or not. Our group is researching novel methods for what we call descriptive semantic analysis of RDF triplestores, to serve purposes of analysis, interpretation, visualization, and optimization. But data size and computational complexity makes it increasingly necessary to bring high performance computational resources to bear on this task. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multi-threaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional servers, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture and our methods, and present the results of our analyses of basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths such for the Billion Triple Challenge 2010 dataset.

  15. Descriptive analysis of YouTube music therapy videos.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Lori F; Gregory, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a descriptive analysis of music therapy-related videos on YouTube. Preliminary searches using the keywords music therapy, music therapy session, and "music therapy session" resulted in listings of 5000, 767, and 59 videos respectively. The narrowed down listing of 59 videos was divided between two investigators and reviewed in order to determine their relationship to actual music therapy practice. A total of 32 videos were determined to be depictions of music therapy sessions. These videos were analyzed using a 16-item investigator-created rubric that examined both video specific information and therapy specific information. Results of the analysis indicated that audio and visual quality was adequate, while narrative descriptions and identification information were ineffective in the majority of the videos. The top 5 videos (based on the highest number of viewings in the sample) were selected for further analysis in order to investigate demonstration of the Professional Level of Practice Competencies set forth in the American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) Professional Competencies (AMTA, 2008). Four of the five videos met basic competency criteria, with the quality of the fifth video precluding evaluation of content. Of particular interest is the fact that none of the videos included credentialing information. Results of this study suggest the need to consider ways to ensure accurate dissemination of music therapy-related information in the YouTube environment, ethical standards when posting music therapy session videos, and the possibility of creating AMTA standards for posting music therapy related video.

  16. Genome analysis and signature discovery for diving and sensory properties of the endangered Chinese alligator

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Qiu-Hong; Pan, Sheng-Kai; Hu, Li; Zhu, Ying; Xu, Peng-Wei; Xia, Jin-Quan; Chen, Hui; He, Gen-Yun; He, Jing; Ni, Xiao-Wei; Hou, Hao-Long; Liao, Sheng-Guang; Yang, Hai-Qiong; Chen, Ying; Gao, Shu-Kun; Ge, Yun-Fa; Cao, Chang-Chang; Li, Peng-Fei; Fang, Li-Ming; Liao, Li; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Meng-Zhen; Dong, Wei; Fang, Sheng-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Crocodilians are diving reptiles that can hold their breath under water for long periods of time and are crepuscular animals with excellent sensory abilities. They comprise a sister lineage of birds and have no sex chromosome. Here we report the genome sequence of the endangered Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) and describe its unique features. The next-generation sequencing generated 314 Gb of raw sequence, yielding a genome size of 2.3 Gb. A total of 22 200 genes were predicted in Alligator sinensis using a de novo, homology- and RNA-based combined model. The genetic basis of long-diving behavior includes duplication of the bicarbonate-binding hemoglobin gene, co-functioning of routine phosphate-binding and special bicarbonate-binding oxygen transport, and positively selected energy metabolism, ammonium bicarbonate excretion and cardiac muscle contraction. Further, we elucidated the robust Alligator sinensis sensory system, including a significantly expanded olfactory receptor repertoire, rapidly evolving nerve-related cellular components and visual perception, and positive selection of the night vision-related opsin and sound detection-associated otopetrin. We also discovered a well-developed immune system with a considerable number of lineage-specific antigen-presentation genes for adaptive immunity as well as expansion of the tripartite motif-containing C-type lectin and butyrophilin genes for innate immunity and expression of antibacterial peptides. Multifluorescence in situ hybridization showed that alligator chromosome 3, which encodes DMRT1, exhibits significant synteny with chicken chromosome Z. Finally, population history analysis indicated population admixture 0.60-1.05 million years ago, when the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was uplifted. PMID:23917531

  17. Finite Element Analysis Applied to Dentoalveolar Trauma: Methodology Description

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, B. R.; Moreira Neto, J. J. S.; da Silva, F. I.; de Aguiar, A. S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Dentoalveolar traumatic injuries are among the clinical conditions most frequently treated in dental practice. However, few studies so far have addressed the biomechanical aspects of these events, probably as a result of difficulties in carrying out satisfactory experimental and clinical studies as well as the unavailability of truly scientific methodologies. The aim of this paper was to describe the use of finite element analysis applied to the biomechanical evaluation of dentoalveolar trauma. For didactic purposes, the methodological process was divided into steps that go from the creation of a geometric model to the evaluation of final results, always with a focus on methodological characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages, so as to allow the reader to customize the methodology according to specific needs. Our description shows that the finite element method can faithfully reproduce dentoalveolar trauma, provided the methodology is closely followed and thoroughly evaluated. PMID:21991463

  18. Is Sensory Over-Responsivity Distinguishable from Childhood Behavior Problems? A Phenotypic and Genetic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hulle, Carol A.; Schmidt, Nicole L.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although impaired sensory processing accompanies various clinical conditions, the question of its status as an independent disorder remains open. Our goal was to delineate the comorbidity (or lack thereof) between childhood psychopathology and sensory over-responsivity (SOR) in middle childhood using phenotypic and behavior-genetic…

  19. A Meta-Analysis of Sensory Modulation Symptoms in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Sasson, Ayelet; Hen, Liat; Fluss, Ronen; Cermak, Sharon A.; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Gal, Eynat

    2009-01-01

    Sensory modulation symptoms are common in persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); however have a heterogeneous presentation. Results from 14 studies indicated a significant high difference between ASD and typical groups in the presence/frequency of sensory symptoms, with the greatest difference in under-responsivity, followed by…

  20. A quantitative sensory analysis of peripheral neuropathy in colorectal cancer and its exacerbation by oxaliplatin chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Barbosa, Mariana; Kosturakis, Alyssa K; Eng, Cathy; Wendelschafer-Crabb, Gwen; Kennedy, William R; Simone, Donald A; Wang, Xin S; Cleeland, Charles S; Dougherty, Patrick M

    2014-11-01

    Peripheral neuropathy caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy, especially platins and taxanes, is a widespread problem among cancer survivors that is likely to continue to expand in the future. However, little work to date has focused on understanding this challenge. The goal in this study was to determine the impact of colorectal cancer and cumulative chemotherapeutic dose on sensory function to gain mechanistic insight into the subtypes of primary afferent fibers damaged by chemotherapy. Patients with colorectal cancer underwent quantitative sensory testing before and then prior to each cycle of oxaliplatin. These data were compared with those from 47 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Patients showed significant subclinical deficits in sensory function before any therapy compared with healthy volunteers, and they became more pronounced in patients who received chemotherapy. Sensory modalities that involved large Aβ myelinated fibers and unmyelinated C fibers were most affected by chemotherapy, whereas sensory modalities conveyed by thinly myelinated Aδ fibers were less sensitive to chemotherapy. Patients with baseline sensory deficits went on to develop more symptom complaints during chemotherapy than those who had no baseline deficit. Patients who were tested again 6 to 12 months after chemotherapy presented with the most numbness and pain and also the most pronounced sensory deficits. Our results illuminate a mechanistic connection between the pattern of effects on sensory function and the nerve fiber types that appear to be most vulnerable to chemotherapy-induced toxicity, with implications for how to focus future work to ameloirate risks of peripheral neuropathy. PMID:25183707

  1. Descriptive Quantitative Analysis of Rearfoot Alignment Radiographic Parameters.

    PubMed

    Meyr, Andrew J; Wagoner, Matthew R

    2015-01-01

    Although the radiographic parameters of the transverse talocalcaneal angle (tTCA), calcaneocuboid angle (CCA), talar head uncovering (THU), calcaneal inclination angle (CIA), talar declination angle (TDA), lateral talar-first metatarsal angle (lTFA), and lateral talocalcaneal angle (lTCA) form the basis of the preoperative evaluation and procedure selection for pes planovalgus deformity, the so-called normal values of these measurements are not well-established. The objectives of the present study were to retrospectively evaluate the descriptive statistics of these radiographic parameters (tTCA, CCA, THU, CIA, TDA, lTFA, and lTCA) in a large population, and, second, to determine an objective basis for defining "normal" versus "abnormal" measurements. As a secondary outcome, the relationship of these variables to the body mass index was assessed. Anteroposterior and lateral foot radiographs from 250 consecutive patients without a history of previous foot and ankle surgery and/or trauma were evaluated. The results revealed a mean measurement of 24.12°, 13.20°, 74.32%, 16.41°, 26.64°, 8.37°, and 43.41° for the tTCA, CCA, THU, CIA, TDA, lTFA, and lTCA, respectively. These were generally in line with the reported historical normal values. Descriptive statistical analysis demonstrated that the tTCA, THU, and TDA met the standards to be considered normally distributed but that the CCA, CIA, lTFA, and lTCA demonstrated data characteristics of both parametric and nonparametric distributions. Furthermore, only the CIA (R = -0.2428) and lTCA (R = -0.2449) demonstrated substantial correlation with the body mass index. No differentiations in deformity progression were observed when the radiographic parameters were plotted against each other to lead to a quantitative basis for defining "normal" versus "abnormal" measurements. PMID:26002682

  2. Characterisation of volatile profile and sensory analysis of fresh-cut "Radicchio di Chioggia" stored in air or modified atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, Rosaria; Martignetti, Antonella; Pellicano, Mario Paolo; Stocchero, Matteo; Cefola, Maria; Pace, Bernardo; De Giulio, Beatrice

    2016-02-01

    The volatile profile of two hybrids of "Radicchio di Chioggia", Corelli and Botticelli, stored in air or passive modified atmosphere (MAP) during 12 days of cold storage, was monitored by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) GC-MS. Botticelli samples were also subjected to sensory analysis. Totally, 61 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified in the headspace of radicchio samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that fresh product possessed a metabolic content similar to that of the MAP samples after 5 and 8 days of storage. Projection to latent structures by partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis showed the volatiles content of the samples varied depending only on the packaging conditions. Specifically, 12 metabolites describing the time evolution and explaining the effects of the different storage conditions were highlighted. Finally, a PCA analysis revealed that VOCs profile significantly correlated with sensory attributes.

  3. Source analysis of electrophysiological correlates of beat induction as sensory-guided action

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Neil P. M.; Lee, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a reanalysis of electrophysiological data originally collected to test a sensory-motor theory of beat induction (Todd et al., 2002; Todd and Seiss, 2004; Todd and Lee, 2015). The reanalysis is conducted in the light of more recent findings and in particular the demonstration that auditory evoked potentials contain a vestibular dependency. At the core of the analysis is a model which predicts brain dipole source current activity over time in temporal and frontal lobe areas during passive listening to a rhythm, or active synchronization, where it dissociates the frontal activity into distinct sources which can be identified as respectively pre-motor and motor in origin. The model successfully captures the main features of the rhythm in showing that the metrical structure is manifest in an increase in source current activity during strong compared to weak beats. In addition the outcomes of modeling suggest that: (1) activity in both temporal and frontal areas contribute to the metrical percept and that this activity is distributed over time; (2) transient, time-locked activity associated with anticipated beats is increased when a temporal expectation is confirmed following a previous violation, such as a syncopation; (3) two distinct processes are involved in auditory cortex, corresponding to tangential and radial (possibly vestibular dependent) current sources. We discuss the implications of these outcomes for the insights they give into the origin of metrical structure and the power of syncopation to induce movement and create a sense of groove. PMID:26321991

  4. Sensory mononeuropathies.

    PubMed

    Massey, E W

    1998-01-01

    The clinical neurologist frequently encounters patients with a variety of focal sensory symptoms and signs. This article reviews the clinical features, etiologies, laboratory findings, and management of the common sensory mononeuropathies including meralgia paresthetica, cheiralgia paresthetica, notalgia paresthetica, gonyalgia paresthetica, digitalgia paresthetica, intercostal neuropathy, and mental neuropathy. PMID:9608615

  5. Evaluating current trends in psychiatric music therapy: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    , improvisation, songwriting, lyric analysis, and music and movement to address consumer objectives. Participants indicated they used therapeutic verbal skills and techniques such as humor, redirection, reinforcement, empathy, and affirmation in their clinical practice. Additionally, the results of this survey were compared to the psychiatric portion of a music therapy descriptive study published in 1979. Similarities and differences are discussed.

  6. The Sensory Environment and Participation of Preschool Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Piller, Aimee; Pfeiffer, Beth

    2016-07-01

    Sensory processing is recognized as impacting participation for preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Little research exists to examine the impact of the sensory environment on the participation patterns of children with ASD, specifically from a contextual standpoint. The researchers in this study examined the viewpoint of teachers and occupational therapists on the sensory-related environmental barriers to participation within the preschool context. Qualitative descriptive methodology was used for data collection and analysis. Thirteen preschool teachers and occupational therapists were interviewed. Sensory aspects of the environment both inhibited and enhanced participation. Physical and temporal components of the environment are identified as being the most influential. Modifications of the environment are identified as increasing participation. It is important to consider the sensory aspects of the environment, in addition to the sensory processing patterns of the person in assessment and intervention planning within the preschool environment. PMID:27618846

  7. Analysis of News Agencies' Descriptive Features of People and Organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Shin; Ma, Qiang; Yoshikawa, Masatoshi

    News agencies report news from different viewpoints and with different writing styles. We propose a method to extract characteristic descriptions of a news agency written about people and organizations. To extract the characteristic descriptions of a given person or organization, we analyze words which appear in the same sentence on the basis of their SVO roles. We then extract a description that is often used by the news agency but not commonly used by the others. The experimental results show that our method can elucidate the different features of each agency’s writing style.

  8. Sensory evaluation and electronic tongue analysis for sweetener recognition in coke drinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szöllősi, Dániel; Kovács, Zoltán; Gere, Attila; Sípos, László; Kókai, Zoltán; Fekete, András

    2011-09-01

    Consumption of beverages with low energy has an increasing role. Furthermore hydrolyzed starch products such as inverted syrup show a wide application in the beverage industry. Therefore the importance of methods which can monitor the usage of natural and artificial sweeteners is increasing. The task was to describe the relevant sensory attributes and to determine the applicability of the electronic tongue to discriminate the coke drink samples with different sweeteners. Furthermore the aim was to find relationship between the taste attributes and measurement results provided by electronic tongue. An Alpha Astree Electronic Tongue and a trained sensory panel were used to evaluate the coke samples. Panelists found significant differences between the samples in 15 cases from the 18 sensory attributes defined previously by the consensus group. Coke drinks containing different kind of sweeteners can be characterized according to these sensory attributes. The samples were definitely distinguished by the electronic tongue. The main difference was found between the samples made with natural and artificial sweeteners. However electronic tongue was able to distinguish samples containing different kind of artificial and different kind of natural sweeteners, as well. Taste attributes of coke drinks determined by sensory panel were predicted by partial least squares regression method based on the results of electronic tongue with close correlation and low prediction error.

  9. Autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia with sensory axonal neuropathy (SCA4): clinical description and genetic localization to chromosome 16q22.1.

    PubMed Central

    Flanigan, K.; Gardner, K.; Alderson, K.; Galster, B.; Otterud, B.; Leppert, M. F.; Kaplan, C.; Ptácek, L. J.

    1996-01-01

    The hereditary ataxias represent a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders. Various classification schemes based on clinical criteria are being replaced as molecular characterization of the ataxias proceeds; so far, seven distinct autosomal dominant hereditary ataxias have been genetically mapped in the human genome. We report linkage to chromosome 16q22.1 for one of these genes (SCA4) in a five-generation family with an autosomal dominant, late-onset spinocerebellar ataxia; the gene is tightly linked to the microsatellite marker D16S397 (LOD score = 5.93 at theta = .00). In addition, we present clinical and electrophysiological data regarding the distinct and previously unreported phenotype consisting of ataxia with the invariant presence of a prominent axonal sensory neuropathy. PMID:8755926

  10. Website Sharing in Online Health Communities: A Descriptive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Chinmoy; Huh, Jina; Adupa, Abhishek Kalyan

    2016-01-01

    Background An increasing number of people visit online health communities to seek health information. In these communities, people share experiences and information with others, often complemented with links to different websites. Understanding how people share websites can help us understand patients’ needs in online health communities and improve how peer patients share health information online. Objective Our goal was to understand (1) what kinds of websites are shared, (2) information quality of the shared websites, (3) who shares websites, (4) community differences in website-sharing behavior, and (5) the contexts in which patients share websites. We aimed to find practical applications and implications of website-sharing practices in online health communities. Methods We used regular expressions to extract URLs from 10 WebMD online health communities. We then categorized the URLs based on their top-level domains. We counted the number of trust codes (eg, accredited agencies’ formal evaluation and PubMed authors’ institutions) for each website to assess information quality. We used descriptive statistics to determine website-sharing activities. To understand the context of the URL being discussed, we conducted a simple random selection of 5 threads that contained at least one post with URLs from each community. Gathering all other posts in these threads resulted in 387 posts for open coding analysis with the goal of understanding motivations and situations in which website sharing occurred. Results We extracted a total of 25,448 websites. The majority of the shared websites were .com (59.16%, 15,056/25,448) and WebMD internal (23.2%, 5905/25,448) websites; the least shared websites were social media websites (0.15%, 39/25,448). High-posting community members and moderators posted more websites with trust codes than low-posting community members did. The heart disease community had the highest percentage of websites containing trust codes compared to

  11. Analysis and Measurement of the Sympathetic and Sensory Innervation of White and Brown Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Cheryl H.; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Ehlen, J. Christopher; Bartness, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we provide a detailed account of how to denervate white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT) and how to measure sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity to these and other tissues neurochemically. The brain controls many of the functions of WAT and BAT via the SNS innervation of the tissues, especially lipolysis and thermogenesis, respectively. There is no clearly demonstrated parasympathetic innervation of WAT or the major interscapular BAT (IBAT) depot. WAT and BAT communicate with the brain neurally via sensory nerves. We detail the surgical denervation (eliminating both innervations) of several WAT pads and IBAT. We also detail more selective chemical denervation of the SNS innervation via intra-WAT/IBAT 6-hydroxy-dopamine (a catecholaminergic neurotoxin) injections and selective chemical sensory denervation via intra-WAT/IBAT capsaicin (a sensory nerve neurotoxin) injections. Verifications of the denervations are provided (HPLC-EC detection for SNS, ELIA for calcitonin gene-related peptide (proven sensory nerve marker)). Finally, assessment of the SNS drive to WAT/BAT or other tissues is described using the alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine method combined with HPLC-EC, a direct neurochemical measure of SNS activity. These methods have proven useful for us and for other investigators interested in innervation of adipose tissues. The chemical denervation approach has been extended to nonadipose tissues as well. PMID:24480348

  12. Analysis and measurement of the sympathetic and sensory innervation of white and brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Cheryl H; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Ehlen, J Christopher; Bartness, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Here, we provide a detailed account of how to denervate white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT) and how to measure sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity to these and other tissues neurochemically. The brain controls many of the functions of WAT and BAT via the SNS innervation of the tissues, especially lipolysis and thermogenesis, respectively. There is no clearly demonstrated parasympathetic innervation of WAT or the major interscapular BAT (IBAT) depot. WAT and BAT communicate with the brain neurally via sensory nerves. We detail the surgical denervation (eliminating both innervations) of several WAT pads and IBAT. We also detail more selective chemical denervation of the SNS innervation via intra-WAT/IBAT 6-hydroxy-dopamine (a catecholaminergic neurotoxin) injections and selective chemical sensory denervation via intra-WAT/IBAT capsaicin (a sensory nerve neurotoxin) injections. Verifications of the denervations are provided (HPLC-EC detection for SNS, ELIA for calcitonin gene-related peptide (proven sensory nerve marker)). Finally, assessment of the SNS drive to WAT/BAT or other tissues is described using the alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine method combined with HPLC-EC, a direct neurochemical measure of SNS activity. These methods have proven useful for us and for other investigators interested in innervation of adipose tissues. The chemical denervation approach has been extended to nonadipose tissues as well.

  13. A Descriptive Analysis of High School Student Motivators for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, Janet Maria

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the quantitative descriptive study was to gain an understanding of the motivating factors leading high school students from rural and urban schools to receive a diploma. A revised version of the High School Motivation Scale (Close, 2001; Solberg et al., 2007) generated from SurveyMonkey.com was administered to high school graduates…

  14. Robotics/Automated Systems Task Analysis and Description of Required Job Competencies Report. Task Analysis and Description of Required Job Competencies of Robotics/Automated Systems Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Daniel M.; Lovett, James E.

    This task analysis report for the Robotics/Automated Systems Technician (RAST) curriculum project first provides a RAST job description. It then discusses the task analysis, including the identification of tasks, the grouping of tasks according to major areas of specialty, and the comparison of the competencies to existing or new courses to…

  15. Effects of Flavor and Texture on the Sensory Perception of Gouda-Type Cheese Varieties during Ripening Using Multivariate Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Makoto; Iwasawa, Ai; Suzuki-Iwashima, Ai; Iida, Fumiko

    2015-12-01

    The impact of flavor composition, texture, and other factors on desirability of different commercial sources of Gouda-type cheese using multivariate analyses on the basis of sensory and instrumental analyses were investigated. Volatile aroma compounds were measured using headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and steam distillation extraction (SDE)-GC/MS, and fatty acid composition, low-molecular-weight compounds, including amino acids, and organic acids, as well pH, texture, and color were measured to determine their relationship with sensory perception. Orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was performed to discriminate between 2 different ripening periods in 7 sample sets, revealing that ethanol, ethyl acetate, hexanoic acid, and octanoic acid increased with increasing sensory attribute scores for sweetness, fruity, and sulfurous. A partial least squares (PLS) regression model was constructed to predict the desirability of cheese using these parameters. We showed that texture and buttery flavors are important factors affecting the desirability of Gouda-type cheeses for Japanese consumers using these multivariate analyses. PMID:26551333

  16. Olive oil sensory defects classification with data fusion of instrumental techniques and multivariate analysis (PLS-DA).

    PubMed

    Borràs, Eva; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard; Mestres, Montserrat; Aceña, Laura; Calvo, Angels; Busto, Olga

    2016-07-15

    Three instrumental techniques, headspace-mass spectrometry (HS-MS), mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) and UV-visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis), have been combined to classify virgin olive oil samples based on the presence or absence of sensory defects. The reference sensory values were provided by an official taste panel. Different data fusion strategies were studied to improve the discrimination capability compared to using each instrumental technique individually. A general model was applied to discriminate high-quality non-defective olive oils (extra-virgin) and the lowest-quality olive oils considered non-edible (lampante). A specific identification of key off-flavours, such as musty, winey, fusty and rancid, was also studied. The data fusion of the three techniques improved the classification results in most of the cases. Low-level data fusion was the best strategy to discriminate musty, winey and fusty defects, using HS-MS, MIR and UV-vis, and the rancid defect using only HS-MS and MIR. The mid-level data fusion approach using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) scores was found to be the best strategy for defective vs non-defective and edible vs non-edible oil discrimination. However, the data fusion did not sufficiently improve the results obtained by a single technique (HS-MS) to classify non-defective classes. These results indicate that instrumental data fusion can be useful for the identification of sensory defects in virgin olive oils.

  17. Sensory gating deficits, pattern completion, and disturbed fronto-limbic balance, a model for description of hallucinations and delusions in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Javanbakht, Arash

    2006-01-01

    Schizophrenia, if not the most difficult, is one of the most difficult mysterious puzzles for psychiatrists, psychologists, and neuroscientists to solve. In this paper, based on the previously known pathologies of schizophrenia, a new model is proposed for explanation of the formation of positive psychotic symptoms of hallucinations and delusions. This model can be used for understanding psychotic or psychotic-like positive symptoms of bipolar mood disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive, and amphetamine and drug-induced psychotic disorders. Based on the postulated model, a spectral view on these disorders with psychotic features is also proposed. These pathologies include auditory sensory gating deficits in hippocampus, abnormal emotional coding in amygdala, pattern completion in thalamic and cortical areas, and disturbed fronto-limbic balance. This model includes anatomical and neurotransmitter defects of hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, cingula, and prefrontal cortex and their interconnections. A role for hippocampal sensory gating deficits in the pathogenesis of positive psychotic symptoms and interrelation between amygdala and its dopamine level with hippocampus is speculated. This model also hires the interesting function of pattern completion in thalamus and cortical areas for a better explanation of the pathogenesis of hallucinations and delusional psychotic symptoms. Furthermore, there is also explanation for the polygenic etiology of the schizophrenic and psychotic disorders and relation between schizophrenia and bipolar mood disorder in anatomy and neural systems involved. A spectral view is proposed that explains the absence of clear cut border between different psychotic or psychotic-like disorders in their form and severity based on the involved genes and brain functional systems. Including excessive prefrontal pruning, there is also explanation for the appearance of positive psychotic symptoms in early adulthood. An explanation

  18. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program: FY2011 Project Descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, Mary M.; Brown, Geoffrey W.; Warner, Kirstin F.; Remmers, Daniel L.; Whinnery, LeRoy L.; Shelley, Timothy J.; Reyes, Jose A.; Hsu, Peter C.; Reynolds, John G.

    2012-02-03

    This document provides brief descriptions of research topics for consideration by the IDCA for potential funding in funding in FY 2011. The topics include the utilization of the results from the Proficiency Test developed during FY 2010 to start populating the small-scale safety and thermal testing (SSST) Testing Compendium and revising results from methods modifications. Other research topics were also developed for FY 2011 from issues that arose in the Proficiency Test.

  19. Content analysis of 186 descriptive case studies of hospitalized children.

    PubMed

    Barnes, C M; Bandak, A G; Beardslee, C I

    1990-01-01

    One hundred eighty-six single case studies of sick infants, children, and adolescents were analyzed to provide a substantial descriptive data base of children's responses to illness, hospitalization, and treatment over a span of more than 20 years. Units of theory of coping behavior are identified as a first phase for adding new knowledge to the field of pediatric nursing. Indicators of the significance of the data base are included.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions MEMSA myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia Enable Javascript to view the ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia , commonly called MEMSA , is part ...

  1. Behavior Life Style Analysis for Mobile Sensory Data in Cloud Computing through MapReduce

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Shujaat; Bang, Jae Hun; Han, Manhyung; Ahmed, Muhammad Idris; Amin, Muhammad Bilal; Lee, Sungyoung; Nugent, Chris; McClean, Sally; Scotney, Bryan; Parr, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing has revolutionized healthcare in today's world as it can be seamlessly integrated into a mobile application and sensor devices. The sensory data is then transferred from these devices to the public and private clouds. In this paper, a hybrid and distributed environment is built which is capable of collecting data from the mobile phone application and store it in the cloud. We developed an activity recognition application and transfer the data to the cloud for further processing. Big data technology Hadoop MapReduce is employed to analyze the data and create user timeline of user's activities. These activities are visualized to find useful health analytics and trends. In this paper a big data solution is proposed to analyze the sensory data and give insights into user behavior and lifestyle trends. PMID:25420151

  2. Behavior life style analysis for mobile sensory data in cloud computing through MapReduce.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shujaat; Bang, Jae Hun; Han, Manhyung; Ahmed, Muhammad Idris; Amin, Muhammad Bilal; Lee, Sungyoung; Nugent, Chris; McClean, Sally; Scotney, Bryan; Parr, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing has revolutionized healthcare in today's world as it can be seamlessly integrated into a mobile application and sensor devices. The sensory data is then transferred from these devices to the public and private clouds. In this paper, a hybrid and distributed environment is built which is capable of collecting data from the mobile phone application and store it in the cloud. We developed an activity recognition application and transfer the data to the cloud for further processing. Big data technology Hadoop MapReduce is employed to analyze the data and create user timeline of user's activities. These activities are visualized to find useful health analytics and trends. In this paper a big data solution is proposed to analyze the sensory data and give insights into user behavior and lifestyle trends. PMID:25420151

  3. Behavior life style analysis for mobile sensory data in cloud computing through MapReduce.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shujaat; Bang, Jae Hun; Han, Manhyung; Ahmed, Muhammad Idris; Amin, Muhammad Bilal; Lee, Sungyoung; Nugent, Chris; McClean, Sally; Scotney, Bryan; Parr, Gerard

    2014-11-20

    Cloud computing has revolutionized healthcare in today's world as it can be seamlessly integrated into a mobile application and sensor devices. The sensory data is then transferred from these devices to the public and private clouds. In this paper, a hybrid and distributed environment is built which is capable of collecting data from the mobile phone application and store it in the cloud. We developed an activity recognition application and transfer the data to the cloud for further processing. Big data technology Hadoop MapReduce is employed to analyze the data and create user timeline of user's activities. These activities are visualized to find useful health analytics and trends. In this paper a big data solution is proposed to analyze the sensory data and give insights into user behavior and lifestyle trends.

  4. Sensory cutaneous nerve fine-needle aspiration in Hansen's disease: A retrospective analysis of our experience

    PubMed Central

    Prasoon, Dev; Mandal, Swapan Kumar; Agrawal, Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leprosy affects peripheral nerves. As Mycobacterium leprae has unique tropism for Schwann cells, thickened sensory cutaneous nerves provide an easy target for the detection of lepra bacilli and other changes associated with the disease. Materials and Methods: The data of patients with sensory cutaneous nerve involvement were retrieved from our record for the period January 2006 to December 2014. The hematoxylin and eosin (H and E)- and May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG)-stained slides were screened for Schwann cells, granuloma, and necrosis. Modified Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN)-stained smears were searched for lepra bacilli and globi. Morphological index was calculated in multibacillary lesions. Result: Twenty-nine sensory cutaneous nerves were aspirated in 23 patients. While 15 cases showed skin and nerve involvement, 8 cases showed only nerve involvement. Terminal cutaneous branch of the radial nerve was most often aspirated. No motor loss was observed after aspiration. Five cytologic pictures were seen — Epithelioid cell granuloma only in 6 cases, epithelioid cell granuloma with necrosis in 1 case, epithelioid cell granuloma with lepra bacilli in 3 cases, necrosis with lepra bacilli in 1 case, and only lepra bacilli in 12 cases. Morphological index ranged from 20% to 80%. Conclusion: Sensory cutaneous nerve fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a feasible, viable, effective, and safe procedure. It adds to diagnostic FNA yield in patients with concomitant skin involvement and offers a way to evaluate patients with only nerve involvement. Calculation of morphological index allows prognostication and may have a role in assessing response to therapy and/or relapse. PMID:26729977

  5. Error-based analysis of optimal tuning functions explains phenomena observed in sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Yaeli, Steve; Meir, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Biological systems display impressive capabilities in effectively responding to environmental signals in real time. There is increasing evidence that organisms may indeed be employing near optimal Bayesian calculations in their decision-making. An intriguing question relates to the properties of optimal encoding methods, namely determining the properties of neural populations in sensory layers that optimize performance, subject to physiological constraints. Within an ecological theory of neural encoding/decoding, we show that optimal Bayesian performance requires neural adaptation which reflects environmental changes. Specifically, we predict that neuronal tuning functions possess an optimal width, which increases with prior uncertainty and environmental noise, and decreases with the decoding time window. Furthermore, even for static stimuli, we demonstrate that dynamic sensory tuning functions, acting at relatively short time scales, lead to improved performance. Interestingly, the narrowing of tuning functions as a function of time was recently observed in several biological systems. Such results set the stage for a functional theory which may explain the high reliability of sensory systems, and the utility of neuronal adaptation occurring at multiple time scales. PMID:21079749

  6. Chemical analysis and sensory evaluation of mahi-mahi (Cryphaena hippurus) during chilled storage.

    PubMed

    Antoine, F R; Wei, C I; Otwell, W S; Sims, C A; Littell, R C; Hogle, A D; Marshall, M R

    2004-10-01

    Biogenic amines, total volatile base-nitrogen (TVB-N), and sensory evaluation are some of the indicators used for fish quality determination. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship among histamine, cadaverine, putrescine, TVB-N, and sensory evaluation as quality assessment tools. Two groups of six mahi-mahi fillets were refrigerated at 7 degrees C and sampled on days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10. On day 3, histamine, cadaverine, and putrescine levels reached 5, 3, and 0.5 mg/100 g, respectively, whereas TVB-N reached 30 mg/100 g. Sensory scores were 6 to 6.5 (10 very fresh and 1 very spoiled) for odor, appearance, texture, and color. Correlations were 0.78 and 0.72 between histamine and cadaverine and histamine and putrescine, 0.74 and 0.80 between TVB-N and cadaverine and TVB-N and putrescine, and 0.75 and 0.78 between odor and putrescine and odor and cadaverine. AromaMaps showed distinct trends for deteriorating mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) quality. PMID:15508638

  7. Analysis of Sensory/Active Piezoelectric Composite Structures in Thermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Saravanos, Dimitris A.

    1996-01-01

    Although there has been extensive development of analytical methods for modeling the behavior of piezoelectric structures, only a limited amount of research has been performed concerning the implications of thermal effects on both the active and sensory response of smart structures. Thermal effects become important when the piezoelectric structure has to operate in either extremely hot or cold temperature environments. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to extend the previously developed discrete layer formulation of Saravanos and Heyliger to account for the coupled mechanical, electrical, and thermal response in modern smart composite beams. The mechanics accounts for thermal effects which may arise in the elastic and piezoelectric media at the material level through the constitutive equations. The displacements, electric potentials, and temperatures are introduced as state variables, allowing them to be modeled as variable fields through the laminate thickness. This unified representation leads to an inherent capability to model both the active compensation of thermal distortions in smart structures and the resultant sensory voltage when thermal loads are applied. The corresponding finite element formulation is developed and numerical results demonstrate the ability to model both the active and sensory modes of composite beams with heterogeneous plies with attached piezoelectric layers under thermal loadings.

  8. Sensory and instrumental analysis of medium and long shelf-life Charentais cantaloupe melons (Cucumis melo L.) harvested at different maturities.

    PubMed

    Lignou, Stella; Parker, Jane K; Baxter, Charles; Mottram, Donald S

    2014-04-01

    The flavour profiles of two genotypes of Charentais cantaloupe melons (medium shelf-life and long shelf-life), harvested at two distinct maturities (immature and mature fruit), were investigated. Dynamic headspace extraction (DHE), solid-phase extraction (SPE), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS) were used to determine volatile and semi-volatile compounds. Qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA) was used to assess the organoleptic impact of the different melons and the sensory data were correlated with the chemical analysis. There were significant, consistent and substantial differences between the mature and immature fruit for the medium shelf-life genotype, the less mature giving a green, cucumber character and lacking the sweet, fruity character of the mature fruit. However, maturity at harvest had a much smaller impact on the long shelf-life melons and fewer differences were detected. These long shelf-life melons tasted sweet, but lacked fruity flavours, instead exhibiting a musty, earthy character.

  9. Sensory and instrumental analysis of medium and long shelf-life Charentais cantaloupe melons (Cucumis melo L.) harvested at different maturities

    PubMed Central

    Lignou, Stella; Parker, Jane K.; Baxter, Charles; Mottram, Donald S.

    2014-01-01

    The flavour profiles of two genotypes of Charentais cantaloupe melons (medium shelf-life and long shelf-life), harvested at two distinct maturities (immature and mature fruit), were investigated. Dynamic headspace extraction (DHE), solid-phase extraction (SPE), gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and gas chromatography–olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC–O/MS) were used to determine volatile and semi-volatile compounds. Qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA) was used to assess the organoleptic impact of the different melons and the sensory data were correlated with the chemical analysis. There were significant, consistent and substantial differences between the mature and immature fruit for the medium shelf-life genotype, the less mature giving a green, cucumber character and lacking the sweet, fruity character of the mature fruit. However, maturity at harvest had a much smaller impact on the long shelf-life melons and fewer differences were detected. These long shelf-life melons tasted sweet, but lacked fruity flavours, instead exhibiting a musty, earthy character. PMID:24262549

  10. Can Raters with Reduced Job Descriptive Information Provide Accurate Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) Ratings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Lee; Harvey, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    Job-naive raters provided with job descriptive information made Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) ratings which were validated against ratings of job analysts who were also job content experts. None of the reduced job descriptive information conditions enabled job-naive raters to obtain either acceptable levels of convergent validity with…

  11. Sensory Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Web version Sensory Dysfunction Overview Why are smell and taste important? Your senses of smell and taste let you fully enjoy the scents ... bitter and sour. Flavor involves both taste and smell. For example, because a person is able to ...

  12. Description of the ARM Operational Objective Analysis System

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, M; Xie, S; Cederwall, RT; Yio, JJ

    2001-06-01

    This report describes the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) operational variational objective analysis system. It is currently used to process data collected from the ARM intensive operational periods (IOPs) for driving and evaluating physical parameterizations in climate models. The analysis system was originally developed by Zhang and Lin (1997) at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Stony Brook and was migrated to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as the ARM operational objective analysis system in May 1999. In contrast with previous objective analysis (e.g., Barnes 1964; O’Brien 1970; Lin and Johnson 1994) the ARM objective analysis used the constrained variational analysis method in which the atmospheric state variables are forced to satisfy the conservation of mass, heat, moisture, and momentum. The purpose of this technical report is to provide an overview of the constrained variational analysis method, the architecture of the objective analysis system, along with in-depth information on running the variational analysis codes.

  13. Nontargeted metabolite profiles and sensory properties of strawberry cultivars grown both organically and conventionally.

    PubMed

    Kårlund, Anna; Hanhineva, Kati; Lehtonen, Marko; Karjalainen, Reijo O; Sandell, Mari

    2015-01-28

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) contains many secondary metabolites potentially beneficial for human health, and several of these compounds contribute to strawberry sensory properties, as well. In this study, three strawberry cultivars grown both conventionally and organically were subjected to nontargeted metabolite profiling analysis with LC-qTOF-ESI-MS and to descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained panel. Combined metabolome and sensory data (PLS model) revealed that 79% variation in the metabolome explained 88% variation in the sensory profiles. Flavonoids and condensed and hydrolyzable tannins determined the orosensory properties, and fatty acids contributed to the odor attributes of strawberry. Overall, the results indicated that the chemical composition and sensory quality of strawberries grown in different cultivation systems vary mostly according to cultivar. Organic farming practices may enhance the accumulation of some plant metabolites in specific strawberry genotypes. Careful cultivar selection is a key factor for the improvement of nutritional quality and marketing value of organic strawberries. PMID:25569122

  14. A system for aerodynamic design and analysis of supersonic aircraft. Part 3: Computer program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, W. D.; Lundry, J. L.; Coleman, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    The computer program documentation for the design and analysis of supersonic configurations is presented. Schematics and block diagrams of the major program structure, together with subroutine descriptions for each module are included.

  15. Tapping into the Spirit of the Sensitive Child: A Foundation for Understanding and Bringing the Joy of Music to Children Who Have Sensory Integration Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Liz

    2004-01-01

    Presents an article on understanding and introducing music to sensory-sensitive children. Description of a child with Sensory Integrity Dysfunction; Problems experienced by sensory-sensitive students; Potential of sensory-sensitive children to excel in musical aptitude tests.

  16. Quality of sour cherry juice of different clones and cultivars (Prunus cerasus L.) determined by a combined sensory and NMR spectroscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Morten R; Pedersen, Bjarne H; Bertram, Hanne C; Kidmose, Ulla

    2011-11-23

    Juice was manufactured from seven different sour cherry clones/cultivars and evaluated by quantitative descriptive sensory analysis and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The sensory evaluation showed a large variation in several sensory attributes between the sour cherry clones/cultivars, which could be divided into two groups on the basis of both the sensory data and the NMR spectroscopic data. These groups were closely related to the genetic background of the clones. Kelleris clones were distinctly different from Stevnsberry and Fanal clones. Hence, (1)H NMR spectroscopic data seem to correlate with sensory quality of different sour cherry clones. In addition, malic acid was the most important metabolite for modeling the two highly correlated sensory attributes sweetness and sourness, whereas the glucose content had a slight effect and the fructose content had no impact on sweetness/sourness. Other metabolites (ethyl acetate, asparagine, ethanol) could be correlated with sensory attributes; however, a direct causal connection could not be established. PMID:21981716

  17. Geometry Description Markup Language for Physics Simulation And Analysis Applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Chytracek, R.; McCormick, J.; Pokorski, W.; Santin, G.; /European Space Agency

    2007-01-23

    The Geometry Description Markup Language (GDML) is a specialized XML-based language designed as an application-independent persistent format for describing the geometries of detectors associated with physics measurements. It serves to implement ''geometry trees'' which correspond to the hierarchy of volumes a detector geometry can be composed of, and to allow to identify the position of individual solids, as well as to describe the materials they are made of. Being pure XML, GDML can be universally used, and in particular it can be considered as the format for interchanging geometries among different applications. In this paper we will present the current status of the development of GDML. After having discussed the contents of the latest GDML schema, which is the basic definition of the format, we will concentrate on the GDML processors. We will present the latest implementation of the GDML ''writers'' as well as ''readers'' for either Geant4 [2], [3] or ROOT [4], [10].

  18. Probing the relative contribution of the first and second responses to sensory gating indices: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Pin; Arfken, Cynthia L; Sangal, Monica P; Boutros, Nash N

    2011-07-01

    Sensory gating deficit in schizophrenia patients has been well-documented. However, a central conceptual issue, regarding whether the gating deficit results from an abnormal initial response (S1) or difficulty in attenuating the response to the repeating stimulus (S2), raise doubts about the validity and utility of the S2/S1 ratio as a measure of sensory gating. This meta-analysis study, therefore, sought to determine the consistency and relative magnitude of the effect of the two essential components (S1 and S2) and the ratio. The results of weighted random effects meta-analysis revealed that the overall effect sizes for the S1 amplitude, S2 amplitude, and P50 S2/S1 ratio were -0.19 (small), 0.65 (medium to large), and 0.93 (large), respectively. These results confirm that the S2/S1 ratio and the repeating (S2) stimulus differ robustly between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls in contrast to the consistent but smaller effect size for the S1 amplitude. These findings are more likely to reflect defective inhibition of repeating redundant input rather than an abnormal response to novel stimuli.

  19. Finite Element Analysis of Active and Sensory Thermopiezoelectric Composite Materials. Degree awarded by Northwestern Univ., Dec. 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ho-Jun

    2001-01-01

    Analytical formulations are developed to account for the coupled mechanical, electrical, and thermal response of piezoelectric composite materials. The coupled response is captured at the material level through the thermopiezoelectric constitutive equations and leads to the inherent capability to model both the sensory and active responses of piezoelectric materials. A layerwise laminate theory is incorporated to provide more accurate analysis of the displacements, strains, stresses, electric fields, and thermal fields through-the-thickness. Thermal effects which arise from coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch, pyroelectric effects, and temperature dependent material properties are explicitly accounted for in the formulation. Corresponding finite element formulations are developed for piezoelectric beam, plate, and shell elements to provide a more generalized capability for the analysis of arbitrary piezoelectric composite structures. The accuracy of the current formulation is verified with comparisons from published experimental data and other analytical models. Additional numerical studies are also conducted to demonstrate additional capabilities of the formulation to represent the sensory and active behaviors. A future plan of experimental studies is provided to characterize the high temperature dynamic response of piezoelectric composite materials.

  20. Genetic analysis of vertebrate sensory hair cell mechanosensation: the zebrafish circler mutants.

    PubMed

    Nicolson, T; Rüsch, A; Friedrich, R W; Granato, M; Ruppersberg, J P; Nüsslein-Volhard, C

    1998-02-01

    The molecular basis of sensory hair cell mechanotransduction is largely unknown. In order to identify genes that are essential for mechanosensory hair cell function, we characterized a group of recently isolated zebrafish motility mutants. These mutants are defective in balance and swim in circles but have no obvious morphological defects. We examined the mutants using calcium imaging of acoustic-vibrational and tactile escape responses, high resolution microscopy of sensory neuroepithelia in live larvae, and recordings of extracellular hair cell potentials (microphonics). Based on the analyses, we have identified several classes of genes. Mutations in sputnik and mariner affect hair bundle integrity. Mutant astronaut and cosmonaut hair cells have relatively normal microphonics and thus appear to affect events downstream of mechanotransduction. Mutant orbiter, mercury, and gemini larvae have normal hair cell morphology and yet do not respond to acoustic-vibrational stimuli. The microphonics of lateral line hair cells of orbiter, mercury, and gemini larvae are absent or strongly reduced. Therefore, these genes may encode components of the transduction apparatus. PMID:9491988

  1. Description of the ARM Operational Objective Analysis System

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, M.; Xie, S.; Cederwall, R.T.; Yio, J.J.

    2001-06-19

    This report describes the ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) operational variational objective analysis system. It is currently used to process the data collected from the ARM Intensive Operational Periods (IOPs) for driving and evaluating physical parameterizations in climate models. The analysis system was originally developed by Zhang and Lin (1997) at State University of New York at Stony Brook and was migrated to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as the ARM operational objective analysis system in May 1999. In contrast with previous objective analysis (e.g., Barnes, 1964; O'Brien, 1970; Lin and Johnson, 1996), the ARM objective analysis used the constrained variational analysis method developed by Zhang and Lin (1997), in which the atmospheric state variables are forced to satisfy the conservation of mass, heat, moisture, and momentum through a variational technique. The purpose of this technical report is to provide an overview of the constrained variational analysis method, the architecture of the objective analysis system, along with in-depth information on running the variational analysis codes.

  2. The Training of Music Teachers in Colombia: A Descriptive Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayibe Cárdenas Soler, Ruth; Lorenzo Quiles, Oswaldo; Hargreaves, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This study is an evaluative analysis of 13 Music Education programs in Colombia that provide training for secondary school music teachers for 6th to 11th grade in the Colombian education system. The study utilized an analysis matrix from the International Research Project ALFA II-0448-A, which developed a similar study with Latin American and…

  3. Pediatric restless legs syndrome: analysis of symptom descriptions and drawings.

    PubMed

    Picchietti, Daniel L; Arbuckle, Robert A; Abetz, Linda; Durmer, Jeffrey S; Ivanenko, Anna; Owens, Judith A; Croenlein, Jens; Allen, Richard P; Walters, Arthur S

    2011-11-01

    The specific aims of this study were to collect and analyze detailed symptom descriptions from patients with pediatric restless legs syndrome, ages 6 to 17 years, as well as assess symptom impact and the usefulness of drawings. Trained qualitative interviewers conducted face-to-face audio-recorded interviews of children and adolescents who met criteria for definite restless legs syndrome. Thirty-three patients in 3 age groups used 16 different categories of descriptors for restless legs sensations, with a mean of 3 or more categories used per patient in each age group. "Need to move/kick," "pain/hurts," "uncomfortable/cannot get comfortable," and "like bugs or ants/crawling" were the most common descriptors. Two-thirds reported daytime sensations, and nearly half had arm involvement. They described impact on sleep, cognitive function, and affect. Drawings provided useful diagnostic information. These detailed empirical data will be useful in clinical practice, as well as in the development of formal diagnostic tools and severity measures.

  4. Nuclear reactor descriptions for space power systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccauley, E. W.; Brown, N. J.

    1972-01-01

    For the small, high performance reactors required for space electric applications, adequate neutronic analysis is of crucial importance, but in terms of computational time consumed, nuclear calculations probably yield the least amount of detail for mission analysis study. It has been found possible, after generation of only a few designs of a reactor family in elaborate thermomechanical and nuclear detail to use simple curve fitting techniques to assure desired neutronic performance while still performing the thermomechanical analysis in explicit detail. The resulting speed-up in computation time permits a broad detailed examination of constraints by the mission analyst.

  5. Integrating sensory evaluation in adaptive conjoint analysis to elaborate the conflicting influence of intrinsic and extrinsic attributes on food choice.

    PubMed

    Hoppert, Karin; Mai, Robert; Zahn, Susann; Hoffmann, Stefan; Rohm, Harald

    2012-12-01

    Sensory properties and packaging information are factors which considerably contribute to food choice. We present a new methodology in which sensory preference testing was integrated in adaptive conjoint analysis. By simultaneous variation of intrinsic and extrinsic attributes on identical levels, this procedure allows assessing the importance of attribute/level combinations on product selection. In a set-up with nine pair-wise comparisons and four subsequent calibration assessments, 101 young consumers evaluated vanilla yoghurt which was varied in fat content (four levels), sugar content (two levels) and flavour intensity (two levels); the same attribute/level combinations were also presented as extrinsic information. The results indicate that the evaluation of a particular attribute may largely diverge in intrinsic and in extrinsic processing. We noticed from our utility values that, for example, the acceptance of yoghurt increases with an increasing level of the actual fat content, whereas acceptance diminishes when a high fat content is labelled on the product. This article further implicates that neglecting these diverging relationships may lead to an over- or underestimation of the importance of an attribute for food choice.

  6. Sensory Recovery Outcome after Digital Nerve Repair in Relation to Different Reconstructive Techniques: Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Petra; Harder, Yves; Kern, Yasmin; Paprottka, Philipp M.; Machens, Hans-Günther; Lohmeyer, Jörn A.

    2013-01-01

    Good clinical outcome after digital nerve repair is highly relevant for proper hand function and has a significant socioeconomic impact. However, level of evidence for competing surgical techniques is low. The aim is to summarize and compare the outcomes of digital nerve repair with different methods (end-to-end and end-to-side coaptations, nerve grafts, artificial conduit-, vein-, muscle, and muscle-in-vein reconstructions, and replantations) to provide an aid for choosing an individual technique of nerve reconstruction and to create reference values of standard repair for nonrandomized clinical studies. 87 publications including 2,997 nerve repairs were suitable for a precise evaluation. For digital nerve repairs there was practically no particular technique superior to another. Only end-to-side coaptation had an inferior two-point discrimination in comparison to end-to-end coaptation or nerve grafting. Furthermore, this meta-analysis showed that youth was associated with an improved sensory recovery outcome in patients who underwent digital replantation. For end-to-end coaptations, recent publications had significantly better sensory recovery outcomes than older ones. Given minor differences in outcome, the main criteria in choosing an adequate surgical technique should be gap length and donor site morbidity caused by graft material harvesting. Our clinical experience was used to provide a decision tree for digital nerve repair. PMID:23984064

  7. New Test Statistics for MANOVA/Descriptive Discriminant Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, William T.; Algina, James

    1996-01-01

    Univariate procedures proposed by M. Brown and A. Forsythe (1974) and the multivariate procedures from D. Nel and C. van der Merwe (1986) were generalized to form five new multivariate alternatives to one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) for use when dispersion matrices are heteroscedastic. These alternatives are evaluated for Type I…

  8. Using Neural Networks for Descriptive Statistical Analysis of Educational Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirri, Henry; And Others

    Methodological issues of using a class of neural networks called Mixture Density Networks (MDN) for discriminant analysis are discussed. MDN models have the advantage of having a rigorous probabilistic interpretation, and they have proven to be a viable alternative as a classification procedure in discrete domains. Both classification and…

  9. Descriptive Analysis of Teachers' Responses to Problem Behavior Following Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison, Laura; Lerman, Dorothea C.

    2009-01-01

    The procedures described by Sloman et al. (2005) were extended to an analysis of teachers' responses to problem behavior after they had been taught to withhold potential sources of positive and negative reinforcement following instances of problem behavior. Results were consistent with those reported previously, suggesting that escape from child…

  10. [Description and value of the Microvision system for pollen analysis].

    PubMed

    Thibaudon, M; Lachasse, C

    2004-09-01

    Currently, two techniques of analysis are classically used by the aerobiological networks: the technique of the 12 vertical lines allow to follow the evolution by bi-hourly periods of pollination, but the segmentation of the sample doesn't allow to visualise pollen clouds of short duration; the technique of 2 or 3 horizontal lines allow to follow the daily evolution, but only the daily totals are recorded. The MICROVISION system adapted by the RNSA to the pollen analysis allow to keep the horizontal method, which is faster and continue, and to record automatically in the database the hourly or bi-hourly data. So each pollen is recorded by its coordinates with a precision of 1 micron (1.8 seconds). First, we realised a cartography of the impaction of the pollen grains on the strip, in order to locate the more representative horizontal lines. Secondly, the coupling of the microscope with the Microvision system and the software of data acquiring elaborated by the RNSA allow to propose a more reliable and faster procedure for pollen analysis.

  11. Sensory cilia in arthropods.

    PubMed

    Keil, Thomas A

    2012-11-01

    In arthropods, the modified primary cilium is a structure common to all peripheral sensory neurons other than photoreceptors. Since its first description in 1958, it has been investigated in great detail in numerous sense organs (sensilla) of many insect species by means of electron microscopy and electrophysiology. The perfection of molecular biological methods has led to an enormous advance in our knowledge about development and function of sensory cilia in the fruitfly since the end of the last century. The cilia show a wealth of adaptations according to their different physiological roles: chemoreception, mechanoreception, hygroreception, and thermoreception. Divergent types of receptors and channels have evolved fulfilling these tasks. The number of olfactory receptor genes can be close to 300 in ants, whereas in crickets slightest mechanical stimuli are detected by the interaction of extremely sophisticated biomechanical devices with mechanosensory cilia. Despite their enormous morphological and physiological divergence, sensilla and sensory cilia develop according to a stereotyped pattern. Intraflagellar transport genes have been found to be decisive for proper development and function.

  12. A review on intelligent sensory modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tham, H. J.; Tang, S. Y.; Teo, K. T. K.; Loh, S. P.

    2016-06-01

    Sensory evaluation plays an important role in the quality control of food productions. Sensory data obtained through sensory evaluation are generally subjective, vague and uncertain. Classically, factorial multivariate methods such as Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Partial Least Square (PLS) method, Multiple Regression (MLR) method and Response Surface Method (RSM) are the common tools used to analyse sensory data. These methods can model some of the sensory data but may not be robust enough to analyse nonlinear data. In these situations, intelligent modelling techniques such as Fuzzy Logic and Artificial neural network (ANNs) emerged to solve the vagueness and uncertainty of sensory data. This paper outlines literature of intelligent sensory modelling on sensory data analysis.

  13. Effect of enzymatic hydrolysis with subsequent mild thermal oxidation of tallow on precursor formation and sensory profiles of beef flavours assessed by partial least squares regression.

    PubMed

    Song, Shiqing; Tang, Qi; Hayat, Khizar; Karangwa, Eric; Zhang, Xiaoming; Xiao, Zuobing

    2014-03-01

    Effects of different pretreatments of tallow on flavour precursor development and flavour profiles of beef flavours (BFs) were evaluated. Analysis of free fatty acids and volatiles of tallow by GC and GC-MS indicated that the enzymatic hydrolyzed-thermally oxidized tallow formed the most characteristic flavour precursors compared with others. The results of descriptive sensory analysis confirmed that beef flavour 4 from enzymatic hydrolyzed-thermally oxidized tallow had the strongest beefy, meaty and odour characteristics, followed by beef flavour 2 from oxidized tallow. Electronic nose data confirmed the accuracy of the sensory analysis results. The correlation analysis of 51 volatile compounds in tallow and sensory attributes of BFs showed that some compounds, especially aldehydes, made a significant contribution to sensory attributes. Correlation analysis of free fatty acids and sensory attributes through partial least squares regression (PLSR) confirmed that the moderate enzymatic hydrolysis-thermal oxidation pretreatment of tallow was necessary to achieve the characteristic beef flavour. PMID:24334040

  14. Effect of enzymatic hydrolysis with subsequent mild thermal oxidation of tallow on precursor formation and sensory profiles of beef flavours assessed by partial least squares regression.

    PubMed

    Song, Shiqing; Tang, Qi; Hayat, Khizar; Karangwa, Eric; Zhang, Xiaoming; Xiao, Zuobing

    2014-03-01

    Effects of different pretreatments of tallow on flavour precursor development and flavour profiles of beef flavours (BFs) were evaluated. Analysis of free fatty acids and volatiles of tallow by GC and GC-MS indicated that the enzymatic hydrolyzed-thermally oxidized tallow formed the most characteristic flavour precursors compared with others. The results of descriptive sensory analysis confirmed that beef flavour 4 from enzymatic hydrolyzed-thermally oxidized tallow had the strongest beefy, meaty and odour characteristics, followed by beef flavour 2 from oxidized tallow. Electronic nose data confirmed the accuracy of the sensory analysis results. The correlation analysis of 51 volatile compounds in tallow and sensory attributes of BFs showed that some compounds, especially aldehydes, made a significant contribution to sensory attributes. Correlation analysis of free fatty acids and sensory attributes through partial least squares regression (PLSR) confirmed that the moderate enzymatic hydrolysis-thermal oxidation pretreatment of tallow was necessary to achieve the characteristic beef flavour.

  15. Canine dacryolithiasis: a case description and mineral analysis.

    PubMed

    Malho, Pedro; Sansom, Jane; Johnson, Phillipa; Stewart, Jennifer

    2013-07-01

    A 4-year-old, female, spayed, Labrador retriever was presented with a painless swelling of the left ventromedial eyelid and epiphora of 3 months duration. Bilateral patency of the nasolacrimal system was confirmed by the appearance of fluorescein dye at both nares. Ultrasonography revealed a well-demarcated fluid-filled structure containing echogenic ill-defined material in close proximity to the nasolacrimal system. A transconjunctival surgical approach confirmed the close anatomical proximity of the cyst and the absence of a communication with the inferior canaliculus. The cyst contained multiple intraluminal calculi (dacryoliths). Following surgical excision of the cyst, the epiphora resolved and no recurrence was noted over a 12-month follow-up period. On histopathology, the cystic structure was lined by stratified squamous epithelium, consistent with lacrimal canaliculus epithelium. Presumed progression of a canalicular diverticulum to a cyst with the formation of intraluminal dacryoliths was suspected. Mineral analysis of the dacryoliths revealed a calcium carbonate composition.

  16. Inspiratory and expiratory resistive load detection in normal and asthmatic subjects. A sensory decision theory analysis.

    PubMed

    Bonnel, A M; Mathiot, M J; Grimaud, C

    1985-01-01

    The ability to detect added external inspiratory and expiratory resistive loads was studied in normal and asthmatic subjects using sensory decision theory as a psychophysical method. Performances P(A)/delta R [where P(A) represents the index of sensitivity and delta R the additional resistor] were similar in normal and asthmatic subjects, but when sensitivity was expressed in relation to airway resistance [P(A)/delta R/Raw], asthmatics showed higher inspiratory and expiratory performances than normal subjects. After bronchodilation the relative sensitivity in the asthmatic group was impaired and approached that of normal subjects. Comparing inspiratory and expiratory load detection, normal subjects showed a higher sensitivity for expiratory than for inspiratory loads. In contrast, there was no difference in the asthmatic group. The response bias remained the same across conditions. If one accepts the assumption that the variability of sensitivity presented by asthmatic and normal subjects might be related to the variable state of their pulmonary function, our results can be interpreted as demonstrating a relationship between sensitivity and pulmonary distension or airway obstruction. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that the site of perception for respiratory load detection is the chest wall. PMID:4023435

  17. Kymographic Analysis of Transport in an Individual Neuronal Sensory Cilium in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    O'Hagan, Robert; Barr, Maureen M

    2016-01-01

    Intraflagellar Transport (IFT) is driven by molecular motors that travel upon microtubule-based ciliary axonemes. In the single-celled alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, movement of a single anterograde IFT motor, heterotrimeric kinesin-II, is required to generate two identical motile flagella. The function of this canonical anterograde IFT motor is conserved among all eukaryotes, yet multicellular organisms can generate cilia of diverse structures and functions, ranging from simple threadlike non-motile primary cilia to the elaborate cilia that make up rod and cone photoreceptors in the retina. An emerging theme is that additional molecular motors modulate the canonical IFT machinery to give rise to differing ciliary morphologies. Therefore, a complete understanding of the trafficking of ciliary receptors, as well as the biogenesis, maintenance, specialization, and function of cilia, requires the characterization of motor molecules.Here, we describe in detail our method for measuring the motility of proteins in cilia or dendrites of C. elegans male-specific CEM ciliated sensory neurons using time-lapse microscopy and kymography of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged motors, receptors, and cargos. We describe, as a specific example, OSM-3::GFP puncta moving in cilia, but also include (Fig. 1) with settings that have worked well for us measuring movement of heterotrimeric kinesin-II, IFT particles, and the polycystin TRP channel PKD-2. PMID:27514919

  18. Laminar Analysis of Excitatory Local Circuits in Vibrissal Motor and Sensory Cortical Areas

    PubMed Central

    Hooks, B. M.; Hires, S. Andrew; Zhang, Ying-Xin; Huber, Daniel; Petreanu, Leopoldo; Svoboda, Karel; Shepherd, Gordon M. G.

    2011-01-01

    Rodents move their whiskers to locate and identify objects. Cortical areas involved in vibrissal somatosensation and sensorimotor integration include the vibrissal area of the primary motor cortex (vM1), primary somatosensory cortex (vS1; barrel cortex), and secondary somatosensory cortex (S2). We mapped local excitatory pathways in each area across all cortical layers using glutamate uncaging and laser scanning photostimulation. We analyzed these maps to derive laminar connectivity matrices describing the average strengths of pathways between individual neurons in different layers and between entire cortical layers. In vM1, the strongest projection was L2/3→L5. In vS1, strong projections were L2/3→L5 and L4→L3. L6 input and output were weak in both areas. In S2, L2/3→L5 exceeded the strength of the ascending L4→L3 projection, and local input to L6 was prominent. The most conserved pathways were L2/3→L5, and the most variable were L4→L2/3 and pathways involving L6. Local excitatory circuits in different cortical areas are organized around a prominent descending pathway from L2/3→L5, suggesting that sensory cortices are elaborations on a basic motor cortex-like plan. PMID:21245906

  19. Diagnostic testing during pregnancy: a descriptive analysis of utilisation data.

    PubMed

    Rushworth, R L; Bell, S M; Rob, M I; Taylor, P T

    1994-12-01

    To describe patterns of diagnostic testing during the antenatal period and to assess the potential benefit of using Medicare claims data in monitoring testing practice, we examined the matched claims data (with identifying details removed) on approximately 10,000 women having a confinement for which a Medicare benefit was claimed between 1 July and 30 September 1990. The results showed that almost all the women included in the study sample had an ultrasound and blood group and antibody examination. A smaller proportion had serological tests for syphilis (77 per cent), rubella (51 per cent) and hepatitis B carriage (73 per cent). Two-thirds had urine microscopy and culture, and under half (40 per cent) had serum alpha-fetoprotein estimation. Few (18 per cent) had a claim processed for microscopy and culture of a genital swab and fewer than 8 per cent claimed for any other pathology tests. There were differences in the proportions having tests, depending on whether the clinician managing the confinement was a specialist obstetrician or a general practitioner, and depending on geographic area and age group. While the data do not represent all women having a confinement in New South Wales, the selective use of antenatal diagnostic tests found in this study is of considerable public health importance and analysis of claims data can provide useful information for health professionals. PMID:7536479

  20. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Oman: 
A Descriptive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Azri, AbdulAziz; Al-Sheibani, Salma

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We sought to analyze all cases of nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) in Oman to determine the most common clinical presentation, whether it is associated with certain tribes in Oman, and its distribution in different regions of the country. We also looked at the histopathological diagnosis, treatment modality, recurrence, and metastasis. Methods This retrospective chart analysis was performed using the data of all patients with NPC who presented to the Al Nahdha Hospital (the main tertiary hospital of head and neck surgery in Oman) from January 2003 until August 2011. Results Twenty-six cases of NPC were included in the final study population. Muscat (the capital city of Oman) had the highest number of cases followed by the Ash Sharqiyah, Al-Batinah, and Dhofar regions. The largest number of cases were found in the Al-Balushi tribe. Cases had a bimodal distribution within two age groups (20–30 years and 50–60 years). Follow-up ranged between six months and seven years. Conclusion Neck mass and nasal symptoms were the most common presentations of NPC in Oman. Further studies, with a larger sample size are required in order to support our results. PMID:26171122

  1. Concentration in the Greek private hospital sector: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Boutsioli, Zoe

    2007-07-01

    Over the last 20 years, governments all around the world have attempted to boost the role of market and competition in health care industries in order to increase efficiency and reduce costs. The increased competition and the significant implications on costs and prices of health care services resulted in health care industries being transformed. Large firms are merging and acquiring other firms. If this trend continues, few firms will dominate the health care markets. In this study, I use the simple concentration ratio (CR) for the largest 4, 8 and 20 companies to measure the concentration of Greek private hospitals during the period 1997-2004. Also, the Gini coefficient for inequality is used. For the two different categories of hospitals used (a) general and neuropsychiatric and (b) obstetric/gynaecological it is evident that the top four firms of the first category accounted for 43% of sales in 1997, and 52% in 2004, while the four largest firms of the second category accounted for almost 83% in 1997, and 81% in 2004. Also, the Gini coefficient increases over the 8-year period examined from 0.69 in 1997 to 0.82 in 2004. It explains that the market of the private health care services becomes less equal in the sense that fewer private hospitals and clinics hold more and more of the share of the total sales. From a cross-industry analysis it is clear that the private hospital sector has the highest concentration rate. Finally, it appears that the market structure of the private hospitals in Greece resembles more closely to an oligopoly rather than a monopolistic competition, since very few firms dominate the market.

  2. Unintended Birth Among Hispanic Women in Texas: A Descriptive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jill A.; Homedes, Nuria; Brown, Louis D.

    2014-01-01

    Unintended birth is associated with adverse maternal and infant outcomes. In 2006, US Hispanics had the highest unintended birth rate (45 births/1,000 women) compared to other groups. One-fifth of US Hispanic women reside in Texas, yet unintended birth among Texas Hispanics has not been studied. The goal of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of unintended birth in this population. Using data from Hispanic participants in the Texas Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System 2009–2010, we studied unintended birth in relation to demographic, lifestyle and partner characteristics. Adjusted prevalence odds ratios (POR) were computed for each characteristic and the analysis was stratified by maternal nativity (US vs foreign born). The weighted proportion of unintended birth was 49.5 % (CI = 45.9–52.6). In adjusted analyses, women aged 12–19 had a higher prevalence of unintended birth compared to ≥20 years (POR = 2.1, CI = 1.3–3.7). Unmarried (POR = 1.5, CI = 1.1–2.1), uninsured (POR = 1.7, CI = 1.2–2.3), and US-born (POR = 1.6, CI = 1.0–2.6) women had higher prevalence compared to married, insured and foreign-born women, respectively. Among US-born Hispanic women, higher prevalence of unintended birth was associated with being young, unmarried and experiencing psychological stressors within 12 months of giving birth; among foreign-born Hispanic women, higher prevalence was associated with lack of insurance. Efforts to reduce unintended birth in Texas might focus on young, single, uninsured and US-born Hispanic women. Analyses of other pre-pregnancy factors and health outcomes among Texas Hispanics could increase understanding of the differences we observed in unintended birth between US and foreign-born Hispanics. PMID:25366101

  3. Unintended birth among Hispanic women in Texas: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Denise; McDonald, Jill A; Homedes, Nuria; Brown, Louis D

    2015-06-01

    Unintended birth is associated with adverse maternal and infant outcomes. In 2006, US Hispanics had the highest unintended birth rate (45 births/1,000 women) compared to other groups. One-fifth of US Hispanic women reside in Texas, yet unintended birth among Texas Hispanics has not been studied. The goal of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of unintended birth in this population. Using data from Hispanic participants in the Texas Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System 2009-2010, we studied unintended birth in relation to demographic, lifestyle and partner characteristics. Adjusted prevalence odds ratios (POR) were computed for each characteristic and the analysis was stratified by maternal nativity (US vs foreign born). The weighted proportion of unintended birth was 49.5 % (CI = 45.9-52.6). In adjusted analyses, women aged 12-19 had a higher prevalence of unintended birth compared to ≥20 years (POR = 2.1, CI = 1.3-3.7). Unmarried (POR = 1.5, CI = 1.1-2.1), uninsured (POR = 1.7, CI = 1.2-2.3), and US-born (POR = 1.6, CI = 1.0-2.6) women had higher prevalence compared to married, insured and foreign-born women, respectively. Among US-born Hispanic women, higher prevalence of unintended birth was associated with being young, unmarried and experiencing psychological stressors within 12 months of giving birth; among foreign-born Hispanic women, higher prevalence was associated with lack of insurance. Efforts to reduce unintended birth in Texas might focus on young, single, uninsured and US-born Hispanic women. Analyses of other pre-pregnancy factors and health outcomes among Texas Hispanics could increase understanding of the differences we observed in unintended birth between US and foreign-born Hispanics.

  4. Sensory characterization of bowel cleansing solutions

    PubMed Central

    Sharara, Ala I; Daroub, Hamza; Georges, Camille; Shayto, Rani; Nader, Ralph; Chalhoub, Jean; Olabi, Ammar

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercial bowel cleansing preparations. METHODS Samples of 4 commercially available bowel cleansing preparations, namely polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution (PEG), PEG + ascorbic acid (PEG-Asc), sodium picosulfate (SPS), and oral sodium sulfate (OSS) were prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Descriptive analysis was conducted (n = 14) using a 15-cm line scale with the Compusense at-hand® sensory evaluation software. Acceptability testing (n = 80) was conducted using the 9-point hedonic scale. In addition, a Just-About-Right (JAR) scale was included for the four basic tastes to determine their intensity compatibility with acceptability levels in the products. RESULTS Samples were significantly different, in descriptive analysis, for all attributes (P < 0.05) except for sweetness. SPS received the highest ratings for turbidity, viscosity appearance, orange odor and orange flavor; PEG-Asc for citrus odor and citrus flavor; OSS for sweetener taste, sweet aftertaste, bitterness, astringency, mouthcoating, bitter aftertaste and throatburn, and along with PEG-Asc, the highest ratings for saltiness, sourness and adhesiveness. Acceptability results showed significant differences between the various samples (P < 0.05). SPS received significantly higher ratings for overall acceptability, acceptability of taste, odor and mouthfeel (P < 0.05). JAR ratings showed that PEG and PEG-Asc were perceived as slightly too salty; SPS and OSS were slightly too sweet, while SPS, PEG-Asc and OSS were slightly too sour and OSS slightly too bitter. While using small sample volumes was necessary to avoid unwanted purgative effects, acceptability ratings do not reflect the true effect of large volumes intake thus limiting the generalization of the results. CONCLUSION Further improvements are needed to enhance the sensory profile and to optimize the acceptability for better compliance with these bowel cleansing solutions

  5. Sensory characterization of bowel cleansing solutions

    PubMed Central

    Sharara, Ala I; Daroub, Hamza; Georges, Camille; Shayto, Rani; Nader, Ralph; Chalhoub, Jean; Olabi, Ammar

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercial bowel cleansing preparations. METHODS Samples of 4 commercially available bowel cleansing preparations, namely polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution (PEG), PEG + ascorbic acid (PEG-Asc), sodium picosulfate (SPS), and oral sodium sulfate (OSS) were prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Descriptive analysis was conducted (n = 14) using a 15-cm line scale with the Compusense at-hand® sensory evaluation software. Acceptability testing (n = 80) was conducted using the 9-point hedonic scale. In addition, a Just-About-Right (JAR) scale was included for the four basic tastes to determine their intensity compatibility with acceptability levels in the products. RESULTS Samples were significantly different, in descriptive analysis, for all attributes (P < 0.05) except for sweetness. SPS received the highest ratings for turbidity, viscosity appearance, orange odor and orange flavor; PEG-Asc for citrus odor and citrus flavor; OSS for sweetener taste, sweet aftertaste, bitterness, astringency, mouthcoating, bitter aftertaste and throatburn, and along with PEG-Asc, the highest ratings for saltiness, sourness and adhesiveness. Acceptability results showed significant differences between the various samples (P < 0.05). SPS received significantly higher ratings for overall acceptability, acceptability of taste, odor and mouthfeel (P < 0.05). JAR ratings showed that PEG and PEG-Asc were perceived as slightly too salty; SPS and OSS were slightly too sweet, while SPS, PEG-Asc and OSS were slightly too sour and OSS slightly too bitter. While using small sample volumes was necessary to avoid unwanted purgative effects, acceptability ratings do not reflect the true effect of large volumes intake thus limiting the generalization of the results. CONCLUSION Further improvements are needed to enhance the sensory profile and to optimize the acceptability for better compliance with these bowel cleansing solutions.

  6. Usage of a Responsible Gambling Tool: A Descriptive Analysis and Latent Class Analysis of User Behavior.

    PubMed

    Forsström, David; Hesser, Hugo; Carlbring, Per

    2016-09-01

    Gambling is a common pastime around the world. Most gamblers can engage in gambling activities without negative consequences, but some run the risk of developing an excessive gambling pattern. Excessive gambling has severe negative economic and psychological consequences, which makes the development of responsible gambling strategies vital to protecting individuals from these risks. One such strategy is responsible gambling (RG) tools. These tools track an individual's gambling history and supplies personalized feedback and might be one way to decrease excessive gambling behavior. However, research is lacking in this area and little is known about the usage of these tools. The aim of this article is to describe user behavior and to investigate if there are different subclasses of users by conducting a latent class analysis. The user behaviour of 9528 online gamblers who voluntarily used a RG tool was analysed. Number of visits to the site, self-tests made, and advice used were the observed variables included in the latent class analysis. Descriptive statistics show that overall the functions of the tool had a high initial usage and a low repeated usage. Latent class analysis yielded five distinct classes of users: self-testers, multi-function users, advice users, site visitors, and non-users. Multinomial regression revealed that classes were associated with different risk levels of excessive gambling. The self-testers and multi-function users used the tool to a higher extent and were found to have a greater risk of excessive gambling than the other classes. PMID:26753878

  7. Usage of a Responsible Gambling Tool: A Descriptive Analysis and Latent Class Analysis of User Behavior.

    PubMed

    Forsström, David; Hesser, Hugo; Carlbring, Per

    2016-09-01

    Gambling is a common pastime around the world. Most gamblers can engage in gambling activities without negative consequences, but some run the risk of developing an excessive gambling pattern. Excessive gambling has severe negative economic and psychological consequences, which makes the development of responsible gambling strategies vital to protecting individuals from these risks. One such strategy is responsible gambling (RG) tools. These tools track an individual's gambling history and supplies personalized feedback and might be one way to decrease excessive gambling behavior. However, research is lacking in this area and little is known about the usage of these tools. The aim of this article is to describe user behavior and to investigate if there are different subclasses of users by conducting a latent class analysis. The user behaviour of 9528 online gamblers who voluntarily used a RG tool was analysed. Number of visits to the site, self-tests made, and advice used were the observed variables included in the latent class analysis. Descriptive statistics show that overall the functions of the tool had a high initial usage and a low repeated usage. Latent class analysis yielded five distinct classes of users: self-testers, multi-function users, advice users, site visitors, and non-users. Multinomial regression revealed that classes were associated with different risk levels of excessive gambling. The self-testers and multi-function users used the tool to a higher extent and were found to have a greater risk of excessive gambling than the other classes.

  8. Comprehensive RNA-Seq Expression Analysis of Sensory Ganglia with a Focus on Ion Channels and GPCRs in Trigeminal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Manteniotis, Stavros; Lehmann, Ramona; Flegel, Caroline; Vogel, Felix; Hofreuter, Adrian; Schreiner, Benjamin S. P.; Altmüller, Janine; Becker, Christian; Schöbel, Nicole; Hatt, Hanns; Gisselmann, Günter

    2013-01-01

    The specific functions of sensory systems depend on the tissue-specific expression of genes that code for molecular sensor proteins that are necessary for stimulus detection and membrane signaling. Using the Next Generation Sequencing technique (RNA-Seq), we analyzed the complete transcriptome of the trigeminal ganglia (TG) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of adult mice. Focusing on genes with an expression level higher than 1 FPKM (fragments per kilobase of transcript per million mapped reads), we detected the expression of 12984 genes in the TG and 13195 in the DRG. To analyze the specific gene expression patterns of the peripheral neuronal tissues, we compared their gene expression profiles with that of the liver, brain, olfactory epithelium, and skeletal muscle. The transcriptome data of the TG and DRG were scanned for virtually all known G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as well as for ion channels. The expression profile was ranked with regard to the level and specificity for the TG. In total, we detected 106 non-olfactory GPCRs and 33 ion channels that had not been previously described as expressed in the TG. To validate the RNA-Seq data, in situ hybridization experiments were performed for several of the newly detected transcripts. To identify differences in expression profiles between the sensory ganglia, the RNA-Seq data of the TG and DRG were compared. Among the differentially expressed genes (> 1 FPKM), 65 and 117 were expressed at least 10-fold higher in the TG and DRG, respectively. Our transcriptome analysis allows a comprehensive overview of all ion channels and G protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in trigeminal ganglia and provides additional approaches for the investigation of trigeminal sensing as well as for the physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms of pain. PMID:24260241

  9. Application of sensory and microbial analysis to assess quality of fish in Siliguri city of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Jha, Prithwiraj; Roy, Rudra Prasad; Barat, S

    2010-09-01

    Sensory and certain microbial analyses were applied to assess the quality of raw fish sold at a market in Siliguri cityof West Bengal, India. In regular surveys undertaken during June to August 2008, a particular fish species was randomly selected, its source was noted and a sensory analysis, the quality index method (QIM) was applied to assess its quality Raw fish samples were also collected and a small quantity (about 1 g) of scales oran upper layer of the skin surface (forscale-less fish samples), gill, liverand a portion of gut with gut-contents were aseptically removed for enumeration of the total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Salmonella spp. and coliform counts. Oreochromis mossambicus and Tenulosa ilisha recorded significantly higher QIM scores, compared to other species (p<0.05). Riverine fish, Lepidocephalichthys guntea and Channa punctatus scored the lowest QIM scores (0) while scores for Puntius ticto and Mystus vittatus and pond cultured species like Cirrhinus mrigala, Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Labeo bata and Cyprinus carpio were very marginal (p<0.05). Aeromonas spp., Salmonella spp. and total coliforms were recorded from all the studied species while Pseudomonas spp. was isolated from only seven species. Among the tissues examined, the lowest counts of total heterotrophic bacteria, Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Salmonella spp. and total coliforms were recorded from the skin in every fish species. Highest counts of pathogenic bacteria (except Pseudomonas spp.) were recorded in Tenulosa ilisha for all the tissues except liver. Since fish are properly cooked in Bengali households, the risk of disease from fish consumption is relatively less. However, some tribes residing in the region are known to consume undercooked fish and proper cooking methods should be followed in view of the present findings to avoid health risks. Besides, utmost care should be taken while handling fish. PMID:21387907

  10. Use of generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA) to test the effects of sex and carcass weight on sensory quality evaluations of Terrincho lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, S; Teixeira, A

    2013-03-01

    Generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA) was used to test the sensory attributes of Terrincho lamb meat, a product with Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) labelling. Effects of sex and carcass weight on the following sensory attributes: toughness, juiciness, flavour intensity, odour intensity, stringiness, and level of sweetness were tested. Tests were performed on 28 females and 29 males placed within three classes of carcass weight, 3 to 9 kg. Meat sensory quality was evaluated, within five sessions, by a trained taste panel. Meat was cooked in a conventional oven, cut into pieces, and delivered to the panel for evaluation. Data were analyzed using a GPA to minimize differences between assessors. Two factors explained 72.76% of the total variability. The panel did not clearly detect sex effects, yet could differentiate meat by carcass weight as heavier animals were toughest and had more intense odour and flavour, whilst light animals were most succulent. PMID:23273454

  11. Manufacture and sensory analysis of reduced- and low-sodium Cheddar and Mozzarella cheeses.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Brown, Kelly; Irish, David A; Brothersen, Carl; McMahon, Donald J

    2014-01-01

    High sodium intake negatively affects consumer health, thus there is active interest in lowering sodium levels in dairy foods. Cheddar and low-moisture, part-skim Mozzarella cheeses were made with total salt levels of 0.7, 1.0, 1.25, 1.35, and 1.8% (wt/wt) in triplicate, thus reducing sodium by 25 to 60%. Multiple manufacturing protocols for salt reduction were used to produce cheeses with similar postpress moisture and pH, independent of the final salt levels in cheese, in order to study the role of salt in cheese acceptability. Cheese flavor was evaluated by a descriptive taste panel on a 15-point intensity scale. Consumer acceptance was evaluated by a consumer panel on a 9-point hedonic scale. Taste panels conducted with cubed Cheddar cheese (at 3 and 6mo) and cold shredded Mozzarella cheese (at 3wk) showed that consumer liking for cheese was low at 0.7 and 0.9% salt, but all cheeses containing higher salt levels (1.25, 1.35, and 1.8% salt) were comparably preferred. The cheeses had acceptable liking scores (≥6) when served as quesadilla or pizza toppings, and consumers were able to differentiate cheeses at alternate salt levels; for example, 1.8 and 1.5% salt cheeses scored similarly, as did cheeses with 1.5% and 1.35% salt, but 1.35% salt cheese scored lower than and was discernible from 1.8% salt cheese. Descriptive panelists perceived salty, sour, umami, bitter, brothy, lactone/fatty acid, and sulfur attributes as different across Mozzarella cheeses, with the perception of each significantly increasing along with salt level. Salty and buttery attributes were perceived more with increasing salt levels of Cheddar cheese by the descriptive panel at 3mo, whereas bitter, brothy, and umami attributes were perceived less at the higher salt levels. However, this trend reversed at 6mo, when perception of salty, sour, bitter, buttery, lactone/fatty acid, and umami attributes increased with salt level. We conclude that consumers can distinguish even a 30% salt

  12. Manufacture and sensory analysis of reduced- and low-sodium Cheddar and Mozzarella cheeses.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Brown, Kelly; Irish, David A; Brothersen, Carl; McMahon, Donald J

    2014-01-01

    High sodium intake negatively affects consumer health, thus there is active interest in lowering sodium levels in dairy foods. Cheddar and low-moisture, part-skim Mozzarella cheeses were made with total salt levels of 0.7, 1.0, 1.25, 1.35, and 1.8% (wt/wt) in triplicate, thus reducing sodium by 25 to 60%. Multiple manufacturing protocols for salt reduction were used to produce cheeses with similar postpress moisture and pH, independent of the final salt levels in cheese, in order to study the role of salt in cheese acceptability. Cheese flavor was evaluated by a descriptive taste panel on a 15-point intensity scale. Consumer acceptance was evaluated by a consumer panel on a 9-point hedonic scale. Taste panels conducted with cubed Cheddar cheese (at 3 and 6mo) and cold shredded Mozzarella cheese (at 3wk) showed that consumer liking for cheese was low at 0.7 and 0.9% salt, but all cheeses containing higher salt levels (1.25, 1.35, and 1.8% salt) were comparably preferred. The cheeses had acceptable liking scores (≥6) when served as quesadilla or pizza toppings, and consumers were able to differentiate cheeses at alternate salt levels; for example, 1.8 and 1.5% salt cheeses scored similarly, as did cheeses with 1.5% and 1.35% salt, but 1.35% salt cheese scored lower than and was discernible from 1.8% salt cheese. Descriptive panelists perceived salty, sour, umami, bitter, brothy, lactone/fatty acid, and sulfur attributes as different across Mozzarella cheeses, with the perception of each significantly increasing along with salt level. Salty and buttery attributes were perceived more with increasing salt levels of Cheddar cheese by the descriptive panel at 3mo, whereas bitter, brothy, and umami attributes were perceived less at the higher salt levels. However, this trend reversed at 6mo, when perception of salty, sour, bitter, buttery, lactone/fatty acid, and umami attributes increased with salt level. We conclude that consumers can distinguish even a 30% salt

  13. Quantitative Sensory Analysis of Peripheral Neuropathy Produced by Colorectal Cancer and its Exacerbation by Cumulative Dose of Oxaliplatin Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho Barbosa, Mariana; Kosturakis, Alyssa K.; Eng, Cathy; Wendelschafer-Crabb, Gwen; Kennedy, William R.; Simone, Donald A.; Wang, Xin Shelley; Cleeland, Charles S.; Dougherty, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal in this study was to determine the impact of colorectal cancer and cumulative chemotherapeutic dose on sensory function to gain mechanistic insight to the subtypes of primary afferent fibers damaged by chemotherapy. Patients with colorectal cancer underwent quantitative sensory testing (QST) before and then prior to each cycle of oxaliplatin. These data were compared to that from age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. The patients showed significant subclinical deficits in sensory function prior to any therapy compared to healthy volunteers. Sensory deficits became more pronounced in patients with chemotherapy. Sensory deficits were most pronounced for modalities mediated by large Aβ myelinated fibers and unmyelinated C fibers whereas those modalities of sensation conveyed by thinly myelinated Aδ fibers appeared showed less sensitivity to chemotherapy. Patients with baseline sensory deficits went on to develop more symptom complaints during chemotherapy than those who had no baseline deficit. Patients who were re-tested 6 to 12 months following chemotherapy showed the most numbness and pain as well as the most pronounced sensory deficits. The pattern of effects on sensory function has clear mechanistic implications for the fibers types that are vulnerable to the toxicity of chemotherapy. PMID:25183707

  14. A novel approach to assess temporal sensory perception of muscle foods: application of a time-intensity technique to diverse Iberian meat products.

    PubMed

    Lorido, Laura; Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Although dynamic sensory techniques such as time-intensity (TI) have been applied to certain meat products, existing knowledge regarding the temporal sensory perception of muscle foods is still limited. The objective of the present study was to apply TI to the flavour and texture perception of three different Iberian meat products: liver pâté, dry-cured sausages ("salchichon") and dry-cured loin. Moreover, the advantages of using dynamic versus static sensory techniques were explored by subjecting the same products to a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). TI was a suitable technique to assess the impact of composition and structure of the three meat products on flavour and texture perception from a dynamic perspective. TI parameters extracted from the TI-curves and related to temporal perception enabled the detection of clear differences in sensory temporal perception between the meat products and provided additional insight on sensory perception compared to the conventional static sensory technique (QDA).

  15. Relationships between NIR spectra and sensory attributes of Thai commercial fish sauces.

    PubMed

    Ritthiruangdej, Pitiporn; Suwonsichon, Thongchai

    2007-07-01

    Twenty Thai commercial fish sauces were characterized by sensory descriptive analysis and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. The main objectives were i) to investigate the relationships between sensory attributes and NIR spectra of samples and ii) to characterize the sensory characteristics of fish sauces based on NIR data. A generic descriptive analysis with 12 trained panels was used to characterize the sensory attributes. These attributes consisted of 15 descriptors: brown color, 5 aromatics (sweet, caramelized, fermented, fishy, and musty), 4 tastes (sweet, salty, bitter, and umami), 3 aftertastes (sweet, salty and bitter) and 2 flavors (caramelized and fishy). The results showed that Thai fish sauce samples exhibited significant differences in all of sensory attribute values (p < 0.05). NIR transflectance spectra were obtained from 1100 to 2500 nm. Prior to investigation of the relationships between sensory attributes and NIR spectra, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to reduce the dimensionality of the spectral data from 622 wavelengths to two uncorrelated components (NIR1 and NIR2) which explained 92 and 7% of the total variation, respectively. NIR1 was highly correlated with the wavelength regions of 1100 - 1544, 1774 - 2062, 2092 - 2308, and 2358 - 2440 nm, while NIR2 was highly correlated with the wavelength regions of 1742 - 1764, 2066 - 2088, and 2312 - 2354 nm. Subsequently, the relationships among these two components and all sensory attributes were also investigated by PCA. The results showed that the first three principal components (PCs) named as fishy flavor component (PC1), sweet component (PC2) and bitterness component (PC3), respectively, explained a total of 66.86% of the variation. NIR1 was mainly correlated to the sensory attributes of fishy aromatic, fishy flavor and sweet aftertaste on PC1. In addition, the PCA using only the factor loadings of NIR1 and NIR2 could be used to classify samples into three groups which showed high

  16. Integrated Annotation and Analysis of In Situ Hybridization Images Using the ImAnno System: Application to the Ear and Sensory Organs of the Fetal Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Romand, Raymond; Ripp, Raymond; Poidevin, Laetitia; Boeglin, Marcel; Geffers, Lars; Dollé, Pascal; Poch, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    An in situ hybridization (ISH) study was performed on 2000 murine genes representing around 10% of the protein-coding genes present in the mouse genome using data generated by the EURExpress consortium. This study was carried out in 25 tissues of late gestation embryos (E14.5), with a special emphasis on the developing ear and on five distinct developing sensory organs, including the cochlea, the vestibular receptors, the sensory retina, the olfactory organ, and the vibrissae follicles. The results obtained from an analysis of more than 11,000 micrographs have been integrated in a newly developed knowledgebase, called ImAnno. In addition to managing the multilevel micrograph annotations performed by human experts, ImAnno provides public access to various integrated databases and tools. Thus, it facilitates the analysis of complex ISH gene expression patterns, as well as functional annotation and interaction of gene sets. It also provides direct links to human pathways and diseases. Hierarchical clustering of expression patterns in the 25 tissues revealed three main branches corresponding to tissues with common functions and/or embryonic origins. To illustrate the integrative power of ImAnno, we explored the expression, function and disease traits of the sensory epithelia of the five presumptive sensory organs. The study identified 623 genes (out of 2000) concomitantly expressed in the five embryonic epithelia, among which many (∼12%) were involved in human disorders. Finally, various multilevel interaction networks were characterized, highlighting differential functional enrichments of directly or indirectly interacting genes. These analyses exemplify an under-represention of "sensory" functions in the sensory gene set suggests that E14.5 is a pivotal stage between the developmental stage and the functional phase that will be fully reached only after birth. PMID:25706271

  17. Effects of a Training Package to Improve the Accuracy of Descriptive Analysis Data Recording

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Kimberly L.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2013-01-01

    Functional behavior assessment is an important precursor to developing interventions to address a problem behavior. Descriptive analysis, a type of functional behavior assessment, is effective in informing intervention design only if the gathered data accurately capture relevant events and behaviors. We investigated a training procedure to improve…

  18. A Descriptive Analysis of Studies on Behavioural Treatment of Drooling (1970-2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Burg, Jan J. W.; Didden, Robert; Jongerius, Peter H.; Rotteveel, Jan J.

    2007-01-01

    A descriptive analysis was conducted on studies on the behavioural treatment of drooling (published between 1970 and 2005). The 17 articles that met the inclusion criteria described 53 participants (mean age 14y 7mo, [SD 4y 9mo]; range 6-28y). Sex of 87% of the participants was reported: 28 male, 18 female. For 60% of the participants the degree…

  19. Chemical and sensory profiles of rosé wines from Australia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaming; Capone, Dimitra L; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Jeffery, David W

    2016-04-01

    The appeal of rosé wine is attributable to its sensory profiles and underlying chemical composition, which are determined by viticultural and oenological inputs. This study provided the first insight into the sensory attributes and volatile profiles of Australian rosé wines. An HS-SPME-GC-MS method and a recently developed HPLC-MS/MS method were used to quantify 51 volatile compounds, including 4 potent sulfur compounds, in 26 commercial rosé wines. Descriptive analysis on all wines was undertaken and the sensory results were correlated with quantitative chemical data to explore relationships between wine composition and sensory profiles. Based on odour activity values, esters were prominent aroma volatiles, and β-damascenone, 3-methylbutyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and 3-MHA were deemed to be important, in accord with other studies. Wines were described with terms ranging from developed, spicy and savoury to fresh green, citrus, tropical fruit, floral and confectionery. PMID:26593542

  20. Chemical and sensory profiles of rosé wines from Australia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaming; Capone, Dimitra L; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Jeffery, David W

    2016-04-01

    The appeal of rosé wine is attributable to its sensory profiles and underlying chemical composition, which are determined by viticultural and oenological inputs. This study provided the first insight into the sensory attributes and volatile profiles of Australian rosé wines. An HS-SPME-GC-MS method and a recently developed HPLC-MS/MS method were used to quantify 51 volatile compounds, including 4 potent sulfur compounds, in 26 commercial rosé wines. Descriptive analysis on all wines was undertaken and the sensory results were correlated with quantitative chemical data to explore relationships between wine composition and sensory profiles. Based on odour activity values, esters were prominent aroma volatiles, and β-damascenone, 3-methylbutyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and 3-MHA were deemed to be important, in accord with other studies. Wines were described with terms ranging from developed, spicy and savoury to fresh green, citrus, tropical fruit, floral and confectionery.

  1. Relationships among rheological and sensorial properties of young cheeses.

    PubMed

    Brown, J A; Foegeding, E A; Daubert, C R; Drake, M A; Gumpertz, M

    2003-10-01

    This study investigated the sensory and rheological properties of young cheeses in order to better understand perceived cheese texture. Mozzarella and Monterey Jacks were tested at 4, 10, 17, and 38 d of age; process cheese was tested at 4 d. Rheological methods were used to determine the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic and fracture properties. A trained sensory panel developed a descriptive language and reference scales to evaluate cheese texture. All methods differentiated the cheeses by variety. Principal component analysis of sensory texture revealed that three principal components explained 96.1% of the total variation in the cheeses. The perception of firmness decreased as the cheeses aged, whereas the perception of springiness increased. Principal component analysis of the rheological parameters (three principal components: 87.9% of the variance) showed that the cheeses' solid-like response (storage modulus and fracture modulus) decreased during aging, while phase angle, maximum compliance, and retardation time increased. Analysis of the instrumental and sensory parameters (three principal components: 82.1% of the variance) revealed groupings of parameters according to cheese rigidity, resiliency, and chewdown texture. Rheological properties were highly associated with rigidity and resiliency, but less so with chewdown texture.

  2. Are social workers required to engage in participatory practices? An analysis of job descriptions.

    PubMed

    Levin, Lia; Weiss-Gal, Idit

    2009-03-01

    The participatory approach is depicted as inherent to the social work profession in social workers' theoretical literature, codes of ethics and practical discourse. The current study examined whether, and to what degree, social workers in Israel are indeed formally required to engage in participatory practices in the job descriptions of diverse social care services. A quantitative content analysis of 78 formal social workers' job descriptions revealed this requirement to be very limited. Most participatory actions required of social workers represented low-level service-user participation, pertained only to the initial and concluding stages of intervention, and referred to professional domains in which service-user participation is already required by law. A greater emphasis on participatory practice was found in job descriptions in the health field and those relating to community social workers. Various interpretations and implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. Sensory and instrumental texture assessment of roasted pistachio nut/kernel by partial least square (PLS) regression analysis: effect of roasting conditions.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi Moghaddam, Toktam; Razavi, Seyed M A; Taghizadeh, Masoud; Sazgarnia, Ameneh

    2016-01-01

    Roasting is an important step in the processing of pistachio nuts. The effect of hot air roasting temperature (90, 120 and 150 °C), time (20, 35 and 50 min) and air velocity (0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 m/s) on textural and sensory characteristics of pistachio nuts and kernels were investigated. The results showed that increasing the roasting temperature decreased the fracture force (82-25.54 N), instrumental hardness (82.76-37.59 N), apparent modulus of elasticity (47-21.22 N/s), compressive energy (280.73-101.18 N.s) and increased amount of bitterness (1-2.5) and the hardness score (6-8.40) of pistachio kernels. Higher roasting time improved the flavor of samples. The results of the consumer test showed that the roasted pistachio kernels have good acceptability for flavor (score 5.83-8.40), color (score 7.20-8.40) and hardness (score 6-8.40) acceptance. Moreover, Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis of instrumental and sensory data provided important information for the correlation of objective and subjective properties. The univariate analysis showed that over 93.87 % of the variation in sensory hardness and almost 87 % of the variation in sensory acceptability could be explained by instrumental texture properties. PMID:26787956

  4. The effect of phenol composition on the sensory profile of smoke affected wines.

    PubMed

    Kelly, David; Zerihun, Ayalsew

    2015-05-26

    Vineyards exposed to wildfire generated smoke can produce wines with elevated levels of lignin derived phenols that have acrid, metallic and smoky aromas and flavour attributes. While a large number of phenols are present in smoke affected wines, the effect of smoke vegetation source on the sensory descriptors has not been reported. Here we report on a descriptive sensory analysis of wines made from grapes exposed to different vegetation sources of smoke to examine: (1) the effect vegetation source has on wine sensory attribute ratings and; (2) associations between volatile and glycoconjugated phenol composition and sensory attributes. Sensory attribute ratings were determined by a trained sensory panel and phenol concentrations determined by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Analysis of variance, principal component analysis and partial least squares regressions were used to evaluate the interrelationships between the phenol composition and sensory attributes. The results showed that vegetation source of smoke significantly affected sensory attribute intensity, especially the taste descriptors. Differences in aroma and taste from smoke exposure were not limited to an elevation in a range of detractive descriptors but also a masking of positive fruit descriptors. Sensory differences due to vegetation type were driven by phenol composition and concentration. In particular, the glycoconjugates of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanillin), 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanone (acetovanillone), 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde (syringaldehyde) and 1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanone (acetosyringone) concentrations were influential in separating the vegetation sources of smoke. It is concluded that the detractive aroma attributes of smoke affected wine, especially of smoke and ash, were associated with volatile phenols while the detractive flavour descriptors were correlated with glycoconjugated phenols.

  5. Screening of the key volatile organic compounds of Tuber melanosporum fermentation by aroma sensory evaluation combination with principle component analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui-Sang; Jin, Guang-Huai; Xiao, Deng-Rong; Li, Hong-Mei; Bai, Feng-Wu; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2015-12-11

    Aroma results from the interplay of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the attributes of microbial-producing aromas are significantly affected by fermentation conditions. Among the VOCs, only a few of them contribute to aroma. Thus, screening and identification of the key VOCs is critical for microbial-producing aroma. The traditional method is based on gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), which is time-consuming and laborious. Considering the Tuber melanosporum fermentation system as an example, a new method to screen and identify the key VOCs by combining the aroma evaluation method with principle component analysis (PCA) was developed in this work. First, an aroma sensory evaluation method was developed to screen 34 potential favorite aroma samples from 504 fermentation samples. Second, PCA was employed to screen nine common key VOCs from these 34 samples. Third, seven key VOCs were identified by the traditional method. Finally, all of the seven key VOCs identified by the traditional method were also identified, along with four others, by the new strategy. These results indicate the reliability of the new method and demonstrate it to be a viable alternative to the traditional method.

  6. Screening of the key volatile organic compounds of Tuber melanosporum fermentation by aroma sensory evaluation combination with principle component analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui-Sang; Jin, Guang-Huai; Xiao, Deng-Rong; Li, Hong-Mei; Bai, Feng-Wu; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Aroma results from the interplay of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the attributes of microbial-producing aromas are significantly affected by fermentation conditions. Among the VOCs, only a few of them contribute to aroma. Thus, screening and identification of the key VOCs is critical for microbial-producing aroma. The traditional method is based on gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), which is time-consuming and laborious. Considering the Tuber melanosporum fermentation system as an example, a new method to screen and identify the key VOCs by combining the aroma evaluation method with principle component analysis (PCA) was developed in this work. First, an aroma sensory evaluation method was developed to screen 34 potential favorite aroma samples from 504 fermentation samples. Second, PCA was employed to screen nine common key VOCs from these 34 samples. Third, seven key VOCs were identified by the traditional method. Finally, all of the seven key VOCs identified by the traditional method were also identified, along with four others, by the new strategy. These results indicate the reliability of the new method and demonstrate it to be a viable alternative to the traditional method. PMID:26655663

  7. A Meta-Analysis of Site-Specific Effects of Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Sensory Perception and Pain

    PubMed Central

    Vaseghi, Bita; Zoghi, Maryam; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of our meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (c-tDCS) on sensory and pain thresholds (STh and PTh) in healthy individuals and pain level (PL) in patients with chronic pain. Electronic databases were searched for c-tDCS studies. Methodological quality was evaluated using the PEDro and Downs and Black (D&B) assessment tools. C-tDCS of the primary motor cortex (S1) increases both STh (P<0.001, effect size of 26.84%) and PTh (P<0.001, effect size of 11.62%). In addition, c-tDCS over M1 led to STh increase (P<0.005, effect size of 30.44%). Likewise, PL decreased significantly in the patient group following application of c-tDCS. The small number of studies precluded subgroup analysis. Nevertheless, meta-analysis showed that in all groups (except c-tDCS of S1) active c-tDCS and sham stimulation produced significant differences in STh/PTh in healthy and PL in patient group. This review provides evidence for the site-specific effectiveness of c-tDCS in increasing STh/PTh in healthy individuals and decreasing PL in patients with chronic pain. However, due to small sample sizes in the included studies, our results should be interpreted with caution. Given that the level of blinding was not considered in the inclusion criteria, the results of the current study should be interpreted with caution. PMID:25978673

  8. A Survey on the Effect of Livestock Production System and Finishing Diet on Sensory Characteristics of Foal Meat Using Generalized Procrustes Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, José M.; Purriños, Laura; Carballo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The influence of livestock production system [Freedom Extensive System (FES) versus Semi-Extensive System (SES)] and finishing feed (1.5 kg versus 3.0 kg of commercial feed in the finishing period) diet on sensory properties of foal meat using Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) was studied. For this work, a total of 24 foals (8 from FES and 16 from SES) were used. Samples were evaluated by eight panelists for eight sensory attributes: colour, marbling, odour intensity, sweetness, springiness, hardness, chewiness, and juiciness. Data were analyzed using a GPA to minimize differences among testers. Highly appreciated sensory properties (odour intensity, red colour, marbling, and juiciness) were mostly associated with foals from the Semi-Extensive System. On the other hand, the three groups studied (FES, 1.5SES, and 3SES) were clearly recognized by panelists on the consensus configuration and they were clearly separated on the map. This study concluded that sensory characteristics of foal meat from a Semi-Extensive Production System with a finishing diet of 3 kg concentrate were more preferable than the other ones. PMID:27006978

  9. A Survey on the Effect of Livestock Production System and Finishing Diet on Sensory Characteristics of Foal Meat Using Generalized Procrustes Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Purriños, Laura; Carballo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The influence of livestock production system [Freedom Extensive System (FES) versus Semi-Extensive System (SES)] and finishing feed (1.5 kg versus 3.0 kg of commercial feed in the finishing period) diet on sensory properties of foal meat using Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) was studied. For this work, a total of 24 foals (8 from FES and 16 from SES) were used. Samples were evaluated by eight panelists for eight sensory attributes: colour, marbling, odour intensity, sweetness, springiness, hardness, chewiness, and juiciness. Data were analyzed using a GPA to minimize differences among testers. Highly appreciated sensory properties (odour intensity, red colour, marbling, and juiciness) were mostly associated with foals from the Semi-Extensive System. On the other hand, the three groups studied (FES, 1.5SES, and 3SES) were clearly recognized by panelists on the consensus configuration and they were clearly separated on the map. This study concluded that sensory characteristics of foal meat from a Semi-Extensive Production System with a finishing diet of 3 kg concentrate were more preferable than the other ones. PMID:27006978

  10. Sensory analysis and species-specific PCR detect bovine milk adulteration of frescal (fresh) goat cheese.

    PubMed

    Golinelli, L P; Carvalho, A C; Casaes, R S; Lopes, C S C; Deliza, R; Paschoalin, V M F; Silva, J T

    2014-11-01

    The Brazilian market for dairy products made from goat milk is increasing despite the seasonality of production and naturally small milk production per animal, factors that result in high-priced products and encourage fraud. In Brazil, no official analytical method exists for detecting adulteration of goat dairy products with cow milk. The aim of this study was to design a strategy to investigate the adulteration of frescal (fresh) goat cheeses available in the Rio de Janeiro retail market, combining analysis of cheese composition and the perception of adulteration by consumers. Commercial goat cheeses were tested by using a duplex PCR assay previously designed to authenticate cheeses, by targeting the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA genes of both species simultaneously. The PCR test was able to detect 0.5% (vol/vol) cow milk added during goat cheese formulation. The analysis of 20 locally produced goat cheeses (20 lots of 4 brands) showed that all were adulterated with cow milk, even though the labels did not indicate the addition of cow milk. To estimate the ability of consumers to perceive the fraudulent addition of cow milk, a triangle test was performed, in which cheeses formulated with several different proportions of goat and cow milk were offered to 102 regular consumers of cheese. Detection threshold analysis indicated that almost half of the consumers were able to perceive adulteration at 10% (vol/vol) cow milk. Effective actions must be implemented to regulate the market for goat dairy products in Brazil, considering the rights and choices of consumers with respect to their particular requirements for diet and health, preference, and cost.

  11. Sensory analysis and species-specific PCR detect bovine milk adulteration of frescal (fresh) goat cheese.

    PubMed

    Golinelli, L P; Carvalho, A C; Casaes, R S; Lopes, C S C; Deliza, R; Paschoalin, V M F; Silva, J T

    2014-11-01

    The Brazilian market for dairy products made from goat milk is increasing despite the seasonality of production and naturally small milk production per animal, factors that result in high-priced products and encourage fraud. In Brazil, no official analytical method exists for detecting adulteration of goat dairy products with cow milk. The aim of this study was to design a strategy to investigate the adulteration of frescal (fresh) goat cheeses available in the Rio de Janeiro retail market, combining analysis of cheese composition and the perception of adulteration by consumers. Commercial goat cheeses were tested by using a duplex PCR assay previously designed to authenticate cheeses, by targeting the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA genes of both species simultaneously. The PCR test was able to detect 0.5% (vol/vol) cow milk added during goat cheese formulation. The analysis of 20 locally produced goat cheeses (20 lots of 4 brands) showed that all were adulterated with cow milk, even though the labels did not indicate the addition of cow milk. To estimate the ability of consumers to perceive the fraudulent addition of cow milk, a triangle test was performed, in which cheeses formulated with several different proportions of goat and cow milk were offered to 102 regular consumers of cheese. Detection threshold analysis indicated that almost half of the consumers were able to perceive adulteration at 10% (vol/vol) cow milk. Effective actions must be implemented to regulate the market for goat dairy products in Brazil, considering the rights and choices of consumers with respect to their particular requirements for diet and health, preference, and cost. PMID:25200782

  12. Analysis of polysaccharides in cider: their effect on sensory foaming properties.

    PubMed

    Mangas, J J; Moreno, J; Rodríguez, R; Picinelli, A; Suárez, B

    1999-01-01

    A feasible spectrophotometric method for determining acidic and neutral polysaccharides in cider is described, and the advantages of this method are examined with respect to precision, accuracy, and detection and quantitation limits. The concentration of nonvolatile and volatile components in cider, together with chemometric techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and partial least squares (PLS), allowed us to typify the ciders on the basis of their foaming properties. Acidic polysaccharide and 1-propanol were the most relevant variables for this purpose. PMID:10563864

  13. Volatile flavour of wine: correlation between instrumental analysis and sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Rapp, A

    1998-12-01

    The aroma of wine consists of 600 to 800 aroma compounds from which especially those, typical for the variety, are already present in the grapes. There are significant varietal differences between the aromagrams ('fingerprint patterns'). Thus the amount of some flavour compounds ('key substances') shows typical dependence on the variety. Especially monoterpene compounds play an important role in the differentiation of wine varieties. The German white wines can be differentiated into three groups only by quantitative determination of 12 monoterpenes ('terpene profile'). These groups are: 'Riesling type', 'Muscat type' and 'Silvaner-Weissburgunder type'. Such 'terpene profiles' are also useful for the separation of real Riesling wines from others called Riesling (e.g. Welschriesling, Kap Riesling, Emerald Riesling) but not produced from grapes of the variety Riesling. Including further components and by means of statistical methods (discriminant analysis) even the different varieties within the mentioned groups for instance the 'Riesling'-group (e.g. Riesling, Kerner, Ehrenfelser, Bacchus, Müller-Thurgau) can be separated from each other. An analytical characterization of the neutral ('Silvaner-type') grape varieties Silvaner, Ruländer (Pinot gris), Weissburgunder (Pinot blanc) is also possible with about 20 compounds (e.g. monoterpenes, alcohols). Computing at the same time free and glycosidically bound aroma components (monoterpenes, alcohols, norisoprenes) in discriminant analysis the characterization of the neutral grape varieties can be considerably improved. To identify compounds causing 'off-flavours' sniffing technique is the method of choice. The off-flavour is pinpointed during gas chromatographic separation of the complex aroma mixture by effluent sniffing. Once allocated, the chemical nature of the off-flavours is elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Substances contributing to the green pepper taint, the strawberry note, moussiness, corkiness, etc. in

  14. Configuration Analysis Tool (CAT). System Description and users guide (revision 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, W.; Taylor, W.; Mcgarry, F. E.; Merwarth, P.

    1982-01-01

    A system description of, and user's guide for, the Configuration Analysis Tool (CAT) are presented. As a configuration management tool, CAT enhances the control of large software systems by providing a repository for information describing the current status of a project. CAT provides an editing capability to update the information and a reporting capability to present the information. CAT is an interactive program available in versions for the PDP-11/70 and VAX-11/780 computers.

  15. Sensory Evaluation of Locally-grown Fruit Purees and Inulin Fibre on Probiotic Yogurt in Mwanza, Tanzania and the Microbial Analysis of Probiotic Yogurt Fortified with Moringa oleifera

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Kathryn; Soltani, Mohammad; Gough, Robert

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to establish new food products that increase the nutritional value and health benefits of the probiotic yogurt currently used in the Western Heads East (WHE) Project in Mwanza, Tanzania. The probiotic yogurt has established health benefits, and product development through fortification must not adversely affect the acceptability of yogurt or the viability of the probiotics. Both sensory testing and microbial analysis testing were conducted. The products tested were yogurt fortified with locally-grown fruit purees with inulin and Moringa oleifera. The results of the sensory evaluation showed that all yogurts were not rated significantly different from the control, except for appearance. The avocado puree without inulin rated significantly lower in all categories. The microbial analysis showed that Moringa oleifera did not negatively affect the growth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 in MRS, milk or yogurt, although a significant decrease was found after 5 weeks of storage at 4 oC. PMID:25995722

  16. Sensory evaluation of locally-grown fruit purees and inulin fibre on probiotic yogurt in Mwanza, Tanzania and the Microbial Analysis of Probiotic Yogurt Fortified with Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Hekmat, Sharareh; Morgan, Kathryn; Soltani, Mohammad; Gough, Robert

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish new food products that increase the nutritional value and health benefits of the probiotic yogurt currently used in the Western Heads East (WHE) Project in Mwanza, Tanzania. The probiotic yogurt has established health benefits, and product development through fortification must not adversely affect the acceptability of yogurt or the viability of the probiotics. Both sensory testing and microbial analysis testing were conducted. The products tested were yogurt fortified with locally-grown fruit purees with inulin and Moringa oleifera. The results of the sensory evaluation showed that all yogurts were not rated significantly different from the control, except for appearance. The avocado puree without inulin rated significantly lower in all categories. The microbial analysis showed that Moringa oleifera did not negatively affect the growth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 in MRS, milk or yogurt, although a significant decrease was found after 5 weeks of storage at 4 (o)C. PMID:25995722

  17. Sensory evaluation of locally-grown fruit purees and inulin fibre on probiotic yogurt in Mwanza, Tanzania and the Microbial Analysis of Probiotic Yogurt Fortified with Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Hekmat, Sharareh; Morgan, Kathryn; Soltani, Mohammad; Gough, Robert

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish new food products that increase the nutritional value and health benefits of the probiotic yogurt currently used in the Western Heads East (WHE) Project in Mwanza, Tanzania. The probiotic yogurt has established health benefits, and product development through fortification must not adversely affect the acceptability of yogurt or the viability of the probiotics. Both sensory testing and microbial analysis testing were conducted. The products tested were yogurt fortified with locally-grown fruit purees with inulin and Moringa oleifera. The results of the sensory evaluation showed that all yogurts were not rated significantly different from the control, except for appearance. The avocado puree without inulin rated significantly lower in all categories. The microbial analysis showed that Moringa oleifera did not negatively affect the growth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 in MRS, milk or yogurt, although a significant decrease was found after 5 weeks of storage at 4 (o)C.

  18. Determination of furan levels in commercial orange juice products and its correlation to the sensory and quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina K; Kim, Min Yeop; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2016-11-15

    The objective of current study was to determine the furan levels in commercial orange juices (OJs) and relate to the sensory and quality characteristics of OJs. The factors among sensory and quality characteristics that showed high correlation to furan were identified. The furan levels found in 18 commercial OJs ranged from 0.59 to 27.39ng/mL. Freshly-squeezed type OJs (n=4) had significantly lower furan levels (4.68ng/mL) than other OJs treated with heat processing (p<0.05). Vitamin C content, specifically, dehydroascorbic acid showed higher correlation to the furan level in OJs (r=0.833). A descriptive sensory analysis result revealed the different flavor profile of commercial OJs according to the processing method and added ingredient in OJs. Current approach of using sensory analysis for prediction of furan level in food products can be applied to future studies in many other food commodities. PMID:27283680

  19. Efficacy of monitoring the sensory taste characteristics in pomegranate juice with electronic tongue, and chemical measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to flavor attributes, pomegranate juices have sweet, sour, bitter tastes, astringent, and toothetch feeling factors. Many factors influence tastes and feeling factors. Measuring these attributes without a sensory panel makes economic sense. This investigation compares descriptive sensory...

  20. Loch Linnhe `94: Test operations description and on-site analysis, US activities

    SciTech Connect

    Mantrom, D.D.

    1994-11-01

    A field experiment named Loch Linnhe `94 (LL94) is described. This experiment was conducted in upper Loch Linnhe, Scotland, in September 1994, as an exercise involving UK and US investigators, under the Joint UK/US Radar Ocean Imaging Program. This experiment involved a dual-frequency, dual-polarization hillside real aperture radar operated by the UK, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) current meter array (CMA), in-water hydrodynamic sensors, and meteorological measurements. The primary measurements involved imaging ship-generated and ambient internal waves by the radar and the CMA. This report documents test operations from a US perspective and presents on-site analysis results derived by US investigators. The rationale underlying complementary radar and CMA measurements is described. Descriptions of the test site, platforms, and major US instrument systems are given. A summary of test operations and examples of radar, CMA, water column profile, and meteorological data are provided. A description of the rather extensive analysis of these data performed at the LL94 test site is presented. The products of this analysis are presented and some implications for further analysis and future experiments are discussed. All experimental objectives were either fully or partially met. Powerful on-site analysis capabilities generated many useful products and helped improve subsequent data collection. Significant further data analysis is planned.

  1. A FORTRAN program for analysis of genotypic frequencies and description of the breeding structure of populations.

    PubMed

    Black, W C; Krafsur, E S

    1985-08-01

    A FORTRAN program, "Genestats" was designed to analyse genotypic and allelic frequencies in subpopulations. The genotypes of individuals gathered from electrophoretic analysis at one or more loci are submitted. The program subsequently calculates allele frequencies, determines if significant heterogeneity exists among subpopulations, tests for departures from random mating in subpopulations and calculates F-statistics. A description of the statistical methods is provided. Printout from analysis of allozyme data collected from field subpopulations of the house fly (Musca domestica L.) is provided to illustrate and evaluate the computational methods.

  2. Metabolomic analysis of the effect of shade treatment on the nutritional and sensory qualities of green tea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lan-Sook; Choi, Ji Hea; Son, Nari; Kim, Sang-Hee; Park, Jong-Dae; Jang, Dae-Ja; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Kim, Hyun-Jin

    2013-01-16

    We analyzed metabolites from a 50% aqueous methanol extract of green teas treated with different shade periods (0, 15, 18, and 20 days) to investigate the effect of low light on their nutritional and sensory qualities. The shaded groups could be clearly distinguished from the control (0 day), and the 20 day group was separated from the 15 and 18 day groups. The shade treatment increased quercetin-galactosylrutinoside, kaempferol-glucosylrutinoside, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin gallate, tryptophan, phenylalanine, theanine, glutamine, glutamate, and caffeine levels but decreased quercetin-glucosylrutinoside, kaempferol-glucoside, gallocatechin, and epigallocatechin levels. Further studies on the nutritional benefits of these metabolites are needed. However, this result, along with the sensory evaluation and color measurement data, suggests that shade treatment improves the nutritional and sensory quality of green tea. Thus, we proposed a metabolomic pathway related to the effect of low light, which could elucidate the relationship between low light and tea quality.

  3. Effects of extraction conditions on the sensory and instrumental characteristics of fish gelatin gels.

    PubMed

    Boran, G; Lawless, H T; Regenstein, J M

    2010-01-01

    Fish skin gelatin has recently been of interest as a product that eliminates religious concerns (Jewish and Muslim) and could be an alternative value-added product from fish waste. Recent research has shown that extraction conditions affect gelatin quality. In this study, gelatin from Asian silver carp skin and extracted under different conditions have been studied sensory properties using descriptive analysis and time intensity testing to determine how extraction conditions affect gelatin sensory properties. Three pairs of gelatin samples were selected based on their gel strength, viscosity, and melting temperature. The impacts of different extraction conditions on instrumental methods were examined. Some functionality measurements were also done to determine how sensory measurements correlate with instrumental measurements. The gel strength varied between 60 ± 10 g and 590 ± 30 g while the viscosity varied between 1.9 ± 0.0 cP and 7.4 ± 0.2 cP. The hardness, melting and gelling temperature of the samples were well correlated with the gel strength (r > 0.90). The results indicated that the strongest correlation among all the sensory attributes was between firmness and melting temperature, which was a negative correlation (-0.75) suggesting that the firmer the gel samples the slower they melt. The viscosity was found to be very discriminative between samples in terms of sensory properties. The functional measurements were found to be strongly correlated within themselves while the sensory measurements were less so, which might be due to the greater variability when using sensory panelists or sensory parameters simply might not be related. The firmness, melting rate, and aftertaste were those sensory attributes most successfully discriminated by the panelists.

  4. Effects of extraction conditions on the sensory and instrumental characteristics of fish gelatin gels.

    PubMed

    Boran, G; Lawless, H T; Regenstein, J M

    2010-01-01

    Fish skin gelatin has recently been of interest as a product that eliminates religious concerns (Jewish and Muslim) and could be an alternative value-added product from fish waste. Recent research has shown that extraction conditions affect gelatin quality. In this study, gelatin from Asian silver carp skin and extracted under different conditions have been studied sensory properties using descriptive analysis and time intensity testing to determine how extraction conditions affect gelatin sensory properties. Three pairs of gelatin samples were selected based on their gel strength, viscosity, and melting temperature. The impacts of different extraction conditions on instrumental methods were examined. Some functionality measurements were also done to determine how sensory measurements correlate with instrumental measurements. The gel strength varied between 60 ± 10 g and 590 ± 30 g while the viscosity varied between 1.9 ± 0.0 cP and 7.4 ± 0.2 cP. The hardness, melting and gelling temperature of the samples were well correlated with the gel strength (r > 0.90). The results indicated that the strongest correlation among all the sensory attributes was between firmness and melting temperature, which was a negative correlation (-0.75) suggesting that the firmer the gel samples the slower they melt. The viscosity was found to be very discriminative between samples in terms of sensory properties. The functional measurements were found to be strongly correlated within themselves while the sensory measurements were less so, which might be due to the greater variability when using sensory panelists or sensory parameters simply might not be related. The firmness, melting rate, and aftertaste were those sensory attributes most successfully discriminated by the panelists. PMID:21535620

  5. Multi-level model for 2D human motion analysis and description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foures, Thomas; Joly, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the proposition of a model for human motion analysis in a video. Its main caracteristic is to adapt itself automatically to the current resolution, the actual quality of the picture, or the level of precision required by a given application, due to its possible decomposition into several hierarchical levels. The model is region-based to address some analysis processing needs. The top level of the model is only defined with 5 ribbons, which can be cut into sub-ribbons regarding to a given (or an expected) level of details. Matching process between model and current picture consists in the comparison of extracted subject shape with a graphical rendering of the model built on the base of some computed parameters. The comparison is processed by using a chamfer matching algorithm. In our developments, we intend to realize a platform of interaction between a dancer and tools synthetizing abstract motion pictures and music in the conditions of a real-time dialogue between a human and a computer. In consequence, we use this model in a perspective of motion description instead of motion recognition: no a priori gestures are supposed to be recognized as far as no a priori application is specially targeted. The resulting description will be made following a Description Scheme compliant with the movement notation called "Labanotation".

  6. Job Analysis and the Preparation of Job Descriptions. Mendip Papers MP 037.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Bob

    This document provides guidelines for conducting job analyses and writing job descriptions. It covers the following topics: the rationale for job descriptions, the terminology of job descriptions, who should write job descriptions, getting the information to write job descriptions, preparing for staff interviews, conducting interviews, writing the…

  7. Teachers' instructions and children's compliance in preschool classrooms: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Atwater, J B; Morris, E K

    1988-01-01

    This study presents a methodology for collecting detailed naturalistic data on preschool teachers' instructions and children's compliance and a descriptive analysis of variables related to instruction rate and compliance probability. In preschools, teachers and children were observed across a variety of classroom activities. Kindergarten and first-grade teachers also were observed to permit a comparison of instructional behavior between preschool and early elementary settings. Among teachers, instructions varied in frequency but displayed consistencies in form. For example, teachers more often phrased instructions as imperatives than as questions or declaratives and directed more instructions to individuals than to groups. Teachers' instructional behavior varied across preschool activities and between preschool and elementary grades. Children's compliance was related to the context of an instruction, but not to its form. In addition to providing information about naturally occurring instructional events, the results illustrate the effects of context on teacher and child behavior and suggest directions for future descriptive and experimental research.

  8. Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model: Technical Description. 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etheridge, Melvin; Plugge, Joana; Retina, Nusrat

    1998-01-01

    The Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 (FAM 2.0), is a discrete event simulation model designed to support analysis of alternative concepts in air traffic management and control. FAM 2.0 was developed by the Logistics Management Institute (LMI) under a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contract. This document provides a technical description of FAM 2.0 and its computer files to enable the modeler and programmer to make enhancements or modifications to the model. Those interested in a guide for using the model in analysis should consult the companion document, Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 Users Manual.

  9. Amplitude of sensory nerve action potential in early stage diabetic peripheral neuropathy: an analysis of 500 cases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunqian; Li, Jintao; Wang, Tingjuan; Wang, Jianlin

    2014-07-15

    Early diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy is important for the successful treatment of diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we recruited 500 diabetic patients from the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University in China from June 2008 to September 2013: 221 cases showed symptoms of peripheral neuropathy (symptomatic group) and 279 cases had no symptoms of peripheral impairment (asymptomatic group). One hundred healthy control subjects were also recruited. Nerve conduction studies revealed that distal motor latency was longer, sensory nerve conduction velocity was slower, and sensory nerve action potential and amplitude of compound muscle action potential were significantly lower in the median, ulnar, posterior tibial and common peroneal nerve in the diabetic groups compared with control subjects. Moreover, the alterations were more obvious in patients with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Of the 500 diabetic patients, neural conduction abnormalities were detected in 358 cases (71.6%), among which impairment of the common peroneal nerve was most prominent. Sensory nerve abnormality was more obvious than motor nerve abnormality in the diabetic groups. The amplitude of sensory nerve action potential was the most sensitive measure of peripheral neuropathy. Our results reveal that varying degrees of nerve conduction changes are present in the early, asymptomatic stage of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

  10. Evaluation of umami taste in mushroom extracts by chemical analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue system.

    PubMed

    Phat, Chanvorleak; Moon, BoKyung; Lee, Chan

    2016-02-01

    Seventeen edible mushrooms commercially available in Korea were analysed for their umami taste compounds (5'-nucleotides: AMP, GMP, IMP, UMP, XMP; free amino acids: aspartic, glutamic acid) and subjected to human sensory evaluation and electronic tongue measurements. Amanita virgineoides featured the highest total 5'-nucleotide content (36.9 ± 1.50 mg/g), while monosodium glutamate-like components (42.4 ± 6.90 mg/g) were highest in Agaricus bisporus. The equivalent umami concentration (EUC) ranged from 1.51 ± 0.42 to 3890 ± 833 mg MSG/g dry weight; most mushrooms exhibited a high umami taste. Pleurotus ostreatus scored the highest in the human sensory evaluation, while Flammulina velutipes obtained the maximum score in the electronic tongue measurement. The EUC and the sensory score from the electronic tongue test were highly correlated, and also showed significant correlation with the human sensory evaluation score. These results suggest that the electronic tongue is suitable to determine the characteristic umami taste of mushrooms.

  11. Evaluation of umami taste in mushroom extracts by chemical analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue system.

    PubMed

    Phat, Chanvorleak; Moon, BoKyung; Lee, Chan

    2016-02-01

    Seventeen edible mushrooms commercially available in Korea were analysed for their umami taste compounds (5'-nucleotides: AMP, GMP, IMP, UMP, XMP; free amino acids: aspartic, glutamic acid) and subjected to human sensory evaluation and electronic tongue measurements. Amanita virgineoides featured the highest total 5'-nucleotide content (36.9 ± 1.50 mg/g), while monosodium glutamate-like components (42.4 ± 6.90 mg/g) were highest in Agaricus bisporus. The equivalent umami concentration (EUC) ranged from 1.51 ± 0.42 to 3890 ± 833 mg MSG/g dry weight; most mushrooms exhibited a high umami taste. Pleurotus ostreatus scored the highest in the human sensory evaluation, while Flammulina velutipes obtained the maximum score in the electronic tongue measurement. The EUC and the sensory score from the electronic tongue test were highly correlated, and also showed significant correlation with the human sensory evaluation score. These results suggest that the electronic tongue is suitable to determine the characteristic umami taste of mushrooms. PMID:26304449

  12. Cognitive mechanisms associated with auditory sensory gating

    PubMed Central

    Jones, L.A.; Hills, P.J.; Dick, K.M.; Jones, S.P.; Bright, P.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory gating is a neurophysiological measure of inhibition that is characterised by a reduction in the P50 event-related potential to a repeated identical stimulus. The objective of this work was to determine the cognitive mechanisms that relate to the neurological phenomenon of auditory sensory gating. Sixty participants underwent a battery of 10 cognitive tasks, including qualitatively different measures of attentional inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence. Participants additionally completed a paired-stimulus paradigm as a measure of auditory sensory gating. A correlational analysis revealed that several tasks correlated significantly with sensory gating. However once fluid intelligence and working memory were accounted for, only a measure of latent inhibition and accuracy scores on the continuous performance task showed significant sensitivity to sensory gating. We conclude that sensory gating reflects the identification of goal-irrelevant information at the encoding (input) stage and the subsequent ability to selectively attend to goal-relevant information based on that previous identification. PMID:26716891

  13. The Impact of Rendered Protein Meal Oxidation Level on Shelf-Life, Sensory Characteristics, and Acceptability in Extruded Pet Food

    PubMed Central

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Koppel, Kadri; Aldrich, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Sensory analysis was used to determine the changes due to the storage time on extruded pet food prepared from two different rendered protein meals: (i) beef meat and bone meal (BMBM); (ii) chicken byproduct meal (CPBM). Extrusion is a process where feed is pressed through a die in order to create shapes and increase digestibility. Descriptive sensory analysis using a human panel found an increase in undesirable sensory attributes (e.g., oxidized oil, rancid) in extruded pet food over storage time, especially the one prepared from chicken by product meal without antioxidants. The small increase in oxidized and rancid aromas of BMBM samples did not affect pet owners’ acceptability of the products. CPBM samples without antioxidants showed a notable increase in oxidized and rancid aroma over storage time and, thus, affected product acceptability negatively. This finding indicated that human sensory analysis can be used as a tool to track the changes of pet food characteristics due to storage, as well as estimate the shelf-life of the products. Abstract Pet foods are expected to have a shelf-life for 12 months or more. Sensory analysis can be used to determine changes in products and to estimate products’ shelf-life. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate how increasing levels of oxidation in rendered protein meals used to produce extruded pet food affected the sensory properties and (2) determine the effect of shelf-life on pet owners’ acceptability of extruded pet food diet formulated without the use of preservative. Pet food diets contained beef meat bone meal (BMBM) and chicken byproduct meal (CBPM) in which the oxidation was retarded with ethoxyquin, mixed tocopherols, or none at all, and then extruded into dry pet foods. These samples represented low, medium, and high oxidation levels, respectively. Samples were stored for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at ambient temperature. Each time point, samples were evaluated by six highly

  14. A Descriptive Analysis of Oral Health Systematic Reviews Published 1991–2012: Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Saltaji, Humam; Cummings, Greta G.; Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Major, Michael P.; Amin, Maryam; Major, Paul W.; Hartling, Lisa; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify all systematic reviews (SRs) published in the domain of oral health research and describe them in terms of their epidemiological and descriptive characteristics. Design Cross sectional, descriptive study. Methods An electronic search of seven databases was performed from inception through May 2012; bibliographies of relevant publications were also reviewed. Studies were considered for inclusion if they were oral health SRs defined as therapeutic or non-therapeutic investigations that studied a topic or an intervention related to dental, oral or craniofacial diseases/disorders. Data were extracted from all the SRs based on a number of epidemiological and descriptive characteristics. Data were analysed descriptively for all the SRs, within each of the nine dental specialities, and for Cochrane and non-Cochrane SRs separately. Results 1,188 oral health (126 Cochrane and 1062 non-Cochrane) SRs published from 1991 through May 2012 were identified, encompassing the nine dental specialties. Over half (n = 676; 56.9%) of the SRs were published in specialty oral health journals, with almost all (n = 1,178; 99.2%) of the SRs published in English and almost none of the non-Cochrane SRs (n = 11; 0.9%) consisting of updates of previously published SRs. 75.3% of the SRs were categorized as therapeutic, with 64.5% examining non-drug interventions, while approximately half (n = 150/294; 51%) of the non-therapeutic SRs were classified as epidemiological SRs. The SRs included a median of 15 studies, with a meta-analysis conducted in 43.6%, in which a median of 9 studies/1 randomized trial were included in the largest meta-analysis conducted. Funding was received for 25.1% of the SRs, including nearly three-quarters (n = 96; 76.2%) of the Cochrane SRs. Conclusion Epidemiological and descriptive characteristics of the 1,188 oral health SRs varied across the nine dental specialties and by SR category (Cochrane vs. non-Cochrane). There is a

  15. Influence of different maceration time and temperatures on total phenols, colour and sensory properties of Cabernet Sauvignon wines.

    PubMed

    Şener, Hasan; Yildirim, Hatice Kalkan

    2013-12-01

    Maceration and fermentation time and temperatures are important factors affecting wine quality. In this study different maceration times (3 and 6 days) and temperatures (15  and 25 ) during production of red wine (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon) were investigated. In all wines standard wine chemical parameters and some specific parameters as total phenols, tartaric esters, total flavonols and colour parameters (CD, CI, T, dA%, %Y, %R, %B, CIELAB values) were determined. Sensory evaluation was performed by descriptive sensory analysis. The results demonstrated not only the importance of skin contact time and temperature during maceration but also the effects of transition temperatures (different maceration and fermentation temperatures) on wine quality as a whole. The results of sensory descriptive analyses revealed that the temperature significantly affected the aroma and flavour attributes of wines. The highest scores for 'cassis', 'clove', 'fresh fruity' and 'rose' characters were obtained in wines produced at low temperature (15 ) of maceration (6 days) and fermentation.

  16. Therapists' verbal behavior analysis: a descriptive approach to the psychotherapeutic phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Froján, M Xesús; Montaño, Montserrat; Calero, Ana

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents some preliminary results from a different approach to research on psychotherapeutic processes. As activity in psychotherapy is predominantly verbal, we propose a scientific study of therapists' verbal behavior from a behaviorist perspective. Data were obtained through observational analysis of the recordings of 16 clinical sessions involving 4 cases, all of which based on individual cognitive-behavioral therapy with adults, in the framework of private clinical practice in Spain. The analysis used a previously validated system of categories and The Observer XT software to register and code data. A descriptive analysis enabled us to identify several patterns of psychologists' verbal behavior, irrespective of the therapist and/or the case analyzed. Notable differences were also observed in clinicians' performance, which raises important questions about potential variables associated with therapeutic change. Finally, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the present research agenda, the development of which should lead to a fuller understanding of the psychotherapeutic phenomenon. PMID:20977039

  17. [Gait disorders in Parkinson disease. Clinical description, analysis of posture, initiation of stabilized gait].

    PubMed

    Kemoun, G; Defebvre, L

    2001-03-10

    A WELL INFORMED DESCRIPTION: The parkinsonian posture is generally described as a stooped one. At the beginning of the disease, the gait troubles remain moderate; gradually the gait is composed of small steps without a wide base; the patient tends to run after his centre of gravity by accelerating the step (festination phenomenon). Difficulties occurs for starting up (delay of gait initiation), for about-turn or for clearing obstacles. Kinetic jammings and standing around (freezing) can last several seconds and be responsible for falls. POSTURAL INSTABILITY, A MAJOR SYMPTOM IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE: This symptom is little improved by therapies and is responsible for serious disability. Postural instability induces a disequilibrium and is partially due to a simultaneous antagonist muscles contraction and to the impossibility of modifying postural responses to changing support conditions. The passive viscoelastic properties of muscles and tendons constitute a first line of defence against the disequilibrium and contribute to postural stability in the case of medium disturbances. Automatic and voluntary postural responses which come into play in the case of major disturbances can also be impaired (delay or defect of the responses). GAIT INITIATION FAILURE ARE FREQUENT: They result from an increase of the postural phase and a decrease of the propulsion forces, depending on a deficit of the postural anticipation mechanisms and also the sequential organization and the integration of two different motor programs, postural and locomotor. They can be controlled partially with sensory stimuli, notably visual inputs. DATA CONCERNING STABILIZED WALKING AND ITS PATHOPHYSIOLOGY REMAINS TO BE CLARIFIED: Spatial and temporal parameters are impaired: speed, step length and swing phase are reduced, while cadence increases to compensate these troubles. These modifications are the consequence of an incapacity to produce internal marks to generate regular steps. When the parkinsonian

  18. Multi-trait analysis of post-harvest storage in rocket salad (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) links sensorial, volatile and nutritional data.

    PubMed

    Spadafora, Natasha D; Amaro, Ana L; Pereira, Maria J; Müller, Carsten T; Pintado, Manuela; Rogers, Hilary J

    2016-11-15

    Rocket salad (Diplotaxis tenuifolia; wild rocket) is an important component of ready to eat salads providing a distinct peppery flavour and containing nutritionally relevant compounds. Quality deteriorates during post-harvest, in relation to time and storage temperature amongst other factors. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are easily measurable from rocket leaves and may provide useful quality indicators for e.g. changes in isothiocyanates derived from nutritionally important glucosinolates. VOC profiles discriminated storage temperatures (0, 5 and 10°C) and times (over 14days). More specifically, concentrations of aldehydes and isothiocyanates decreased with time paralleling a fall in vitamin C and a reduction in sensorial quality at the two higher temperatures. Sulphur containing compounds rise at later time-points and at higher temperatures coincident with an increase in microbial titre, mirroring a further drop in sensorial quality thus indicating their contribution to off-odours. PMID:27283614

  19. Multi-trait analysis of post-harvest storage in rocket salad (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) links sensorial, volatile and nutritional data.

    PubMed

    Spadafora, Natasha D; Amaro, Ana L; Pereira, Maria J; Müller, Carsten T; Pintado, Manuela; Rogers, Hilary J

    2016-11-15

    Rocket salad (Diplotaxis tenuifolia; wild rocket) is an important component of ready to eat salads providing a distinct peppery flavour and containing nutritionally relevant compounds. Quality deteriorates during post-harvest, in relation to time and storage temperature amongst other factors. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are easily measurable from rocket leaves and may provide useful quality indicators for e.g. changes in isothiocyanates derived from nutritionally important glucosinolates. VOC profiles discriminated storage temperatures (0, 5 and 10°C) and times (over 14days). More specifically, concentrations of aldehydes and isothiocyanates decreased with time paralleling a fall in vitamin C and a reduction in sensorial quality at the two higher temperatures. Sulphur containing compounds rise at later time-points and at higher temperatures coincident with an increase in microbial titre, mirroring a further drop in sensorial quality thus indicating their contribution to off-odours.

  20. Maternal self-efficacy and experimentally manipulated infant difficulty effects on maternal sensory sensitivity: a signal detection analysis.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Wilberta; Leavitt, Lewis; Taylor, Nicole

    2005-09-01

    The impact of differences in maternal self-efficacy and infant difficulty on mothers' sensitivity to small changes in the fundamental frequency of an audiotaped infant's cry was explored in 2 experiments. The experiments share in common experimental manipulations of infant difficulty, a laboratory derived measure of maternal efficacy (low, moderate, and high illusory control), and the use of signal detection methodology to measure maternal sensory sensitivity. In Experiment 1 (N = 72), easy and difficult infant temperament was manipulated by varying the amount of crying (i.e., frequency of cry termination) in a simulated child-care task. In Experiment 2 (N = 51), easy and difficult infant temperament was manipulated via exposure to the solvable or unsolvable pretreatment of a learned helplessness task to mirror mothers' ability to soothe a crying infant. In both experiments, only mothers with high illusory control showed reduced sensory sensitivity under the difficult infant condition compared with the easy infant condition. PMID:16173875

  1. Complex networks as a unified framework for descriptive analysis and predictive modeling in climate

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhaeuser, Karsten J K; Chawla, Nitesh; Ganguly, Auroop R

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of climate data has relied heavily on hypothesis-driven statistical methods, while projections of future climate are based primarily on physics-based computational models. However, in recent years a wealth of new datasets has become available. Therefore, we take a more data-centric approach and propose a unified framework for studying climate, with an aim towards characterizing observed phenomena as well as discovering new knowledge in the climate domain. Specifically, we posit that complex networks are well-suited for both descriptive analysis and predictive modeling tasks. We show that the structural properties of climate networks have useful interpretation within the domain. Further, we extract clusters from these networks and demonstrate their predictive power as climate indices. Our experimental results establish that the network clusters are statistically significantly better predictors than clusters derived using a more traditional clustering approach. Using complex networks as data representation thus enables the unique opportunity for descriptive and predictive modeling to inform each other.

  2. Syntactic methods of shape feature description and its application in analysis of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiela, Marek R.; Tadeusiewicz, Ryszard

    2000-02-01

    The paper presents specialist algorithms of morphologic analysis of shapes of selected organs of abdominal cavity proposed in order to diagnose disease symptoms occurring in the main pancreatic ducts and upper segments of ureters. Analysis of the correct morphology of these structures has been conducted with the use of syntactic methods of pattern recognition. Its main objective is computer-aided support to early diagnosis of neoplastic lesions and pancreatitis based on images taken in the course of examination with the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) method and a diagnosis of morphological lesions in ureter based on kidney radiogram analysis. In the analysis of ERCP images, the main objective is to recognize morphological lesions in pancreas ducts characteristic for carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis. In the case of kidney radiogram analysis the aim is to diagnose local irregularity of ureter lumen. Diagnosing the above mentioned lesion has been conducted with the use of syntactic methods of pattern recognition, in particular the languages of shape features description and context-free attributed grammars. These methods allow to recognize and describe in a very efficient way the aforementioned lesions on images obtained as a result of initial image processing into diagrams of widths of the examined structures.

  3. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea. PMID:23909609

  4. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea.

  5. Terminal Area Productivity Airport Wind Analysis and Chicago O'Hare Model Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemm, Robert; Shapiro, Gerald

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes two results from a continuing effort to provide accurate cost-benefit analyses of the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program technologies. Previous tasks have developed airport capacity and delay models and completed preliminary cost benefit estimates for TAP technologies at 10 U.S. airports. This task covers two improvements to the capacity and delay models. The first improvement is the completion of a detailed model set for the Chicago O'Hare (ORD) airport. Previous analyses used a more general model to estimate the benefits for ORD. This paper contains a description of the model details with results corresponding to current conditions. The second improvement is the development of specific wind speed and direction criteria for use in the delay models to predict when the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) will allow use of reduced landing separations. This paper includes a description of the criteria and an estimate of AVOSS utility for 10 airports based on analysis of 35 years of weather data.

  6. Differential sensory fMRI signatures in autism and schizophrenia: Analysis of amplitude and trial-to-trial variability.

    PubMed

    Haigh, Sarah M; Gupta, Akshat; Barb, Scott M; Glass, Summer A F; Minshew, Nancy J; Dinstein, Ilan; Heeger, David J; Eack, Shaun M; Behrmann, Marlene

    2016-08-01

    Autism and schizophrenia share multiple phenotypic and genotypic markers, and there is ongoing debate regarding the relationship of these two disorders. To examine whether cortical dynamics are similar across these disorders, we directly compared fMRI responses to visual, somatosensory and auditory stimuli in adults with autism (N=15), with schizophrenia (N=15), and matched controls (N=15). All participants completed a one-back letter detection task presented at fixation (to control attention) while task-irrelevant sensory stimulation was delivered to the different modalities. We focused specifically on the response amplitudes and the variability in sensory fMRI responses of the two groups, given the evidence of greater trial-to-trial variability in adults with autism. Both autism and schizophrenia individuals showed weaker signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) in sensory-evoked responses compared to controls (d>0.42), but for different reasons. For the autism group, the fMRI response amplitudes were indistinguishable from controls but were more variable trial-to-trial (d=0.47). For the schizophrenia group, response amplitudes were smaller compared to autism (d=0.44) and control groups (d=0.74), but were not significantly more variable (d<0.29). These differential group profiles suggest (1) that greater trial-to-trial variability in cortical responses may be specific to autism and is not a defining characteristic of schizophrenia, and (2) that blunted response amplitudes may be characteristic of schizophrenia. The relationship between the amplitude and the variability of cortical activity might serve as a specific signature differentiating these neurodevelopmental disorders. Identifying the neural basis of these responses and their relationship to the underlying genetic bases may substantially enlighten the understanding of both disorders. PMID:27083780

  7. Brief Report: Further Evidence of Sensory Subtypes in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Alison E.; Dennis, Simon J.; Geraghty, Maureen E.

    2011-01-01

    Distinct sensory processing (SP) subtypes in autism have been reported previously. This study sought to replicate the previous findings in an independent sample of thirty children diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. Model-based cluster analysis of parent-reported sensory functioning (measured using the Short Sensory Profile) confirmed the…

  8. Sensory Processing Subtypes in Autism: Association with Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Alison E.; Young, Robyn L.; Baker, Amy E. Z.; Angley, Manya T.

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes…

  9. Algal sensory photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Hegemann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Only five major types of sensory photoreceptors (BLUF-proteins, cryptochromes, phototropins, phytochromes, and rhodopsins) are used in nature to regulate developmental processes, photosynthesis, photoorientation, and control of the circadian clock. Sensory photoreceptors of algae and protists are exceptionally rich in structure and function; light-gated ion channels and photoactivated adenylate cyclases are unique examples. During the past ten years major progress has been made with respect to understanding the function, photochemistry, and structure of key sensory players of the algal kingdom.

  10. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis of agronomic traits in a maize recombinant inbred line population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H M; Hui, G Q; Luo, Q; Sun, Y; Liu, X H

    2014-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important crops in the world. In this study, 13 agronomic traits of a recombinant inbred line population that was derived from the cross between Mo17 and Huangzao4 were investigated in maize: ear diameter, ear length, ear axis diameter, ear weight, plant height, ear height, days to pollen shed (DPS), days to silking (DS), the interval between DPS and DS, 100-kernel weight, kernel test weight, ear kernel weight, and kernel rate. Furthermore, the descriptive statistics and correlation analysis of the 13 traits were performed using the SPSS 11.5 software. The results providing the phenotypic data here are needed for the quantitative trait locus mapping of these agronomic traits. PMID:24535873

  11. Do choosing wisely tools meet criteria for patient decision aids? A descriptive analysis of patient materials

    PubMed Central

    Légaré, France; Hébert, Jessica; Goh, Larissa; Lewis, Krystina B; Leiva Portocarrero, Maria Ester; Robitaille, Hubert; Stacey, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Choosing Wisely is a remarkable physician-led campaign to reduce unnecessary or harmful health services. Some of the literature identifies Choosing Wisely as a shared decision-making approach. We evaluated the patient materials developed by Choosing Wisely Canada to determine whether they meet the criteria for shared decision-making tools known as patient decision aids. Design Descriptive analysis of all Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials. Data source In May 2015, we selected all Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials from its official website. Main outcomes and measures Four team members independently extracted characteristics of the English materials using the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) modified 16-item minimum criteria for qualifying and certifying patient decision aids. The research team discussed discrepancies between data extractors and reached a consensus. Descriptive analysis was conducted. Results Of the 24 patient materials assessed, 12 were about treatments, 11 were about screening and 1 was about prevention. The median score for patient materials using IPDAS criteria was 10/16 (range: 8–11) for screening topics and 6/12 (range: 6–9) for prevention and treatment topics. Commonly missed criteria were stating the decision (21/24 did not), providing balanced information on option benefits/harms (24/24 did not), citing evidence (24/24 did not) and updating policy (24/24 did not). Out of 24 patient materials, only 2 met the 6 IPDAS criteria to qualify as patient decision aids, and neither of these 2 met the 6 certifying criteria. Conclusions Patient materials developed by Choosing Wisely Canada do not meet the IPDAS minimal qualifying or certifying criteria for patient decision aids. Modifications to the Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials would help to ensure that they qualify as patient decision aids and thus as more effective shared decision-making tools. PMID:27566638

  12. Signaling by Sensory Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Julius, David; Nathans, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Sensory systems detect small molecules, mechanical perturbations, or radiation via the activation of receptor proteins and downstream signaling cascades in specialized sensory cells. In vertebrates, the two principal categories of sensory receptors are ion channels, which mediate mechanosensation, thermosensation, and acid and salt taste; and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which mediate vision, olfaction, and sweet, bitter, and umami tastes. GPCR-based signaling in rods and cones illustrates the fundamental principles of rapid activation and inactivation, signal amplification, and gain control. Channel-based sensory systems illustrate the integration of diverse modulatory signals at the receptor, as seen in the thermosensory/pain system, and the rapid response kinetics that are possible with direct mechanical gating of a channel. Comparisons of sensory receptor gene sequences reveal numerous examples in which gene duplication and sequence divergence have created novel sensory specificities. This is the evolutionary basis for the observed diversity in temperature- and ligand-dependent gating among thermosensory channels, spectral tuning among visual pigments, and odorant binding among olfactory receptors. The coding of complex external stimuli by a limited number of sensory receptor types has led to the evolution of modality-specific and species-specific patterns of retention or loss of sensory information, a filtering operation that selectively emphasizes features in the stimulus that enhance survival in a particular ecological niche. The many specialized anatomic structures, such as the eye and ear, that house primary sensory neurons further enhance the detection of relevant stimuli. PMID:22110046

  13. Development of the Classroom Sensory Environment Assessment (CSEA).

    PubMed

    Kuhaneck, Heather Miller; Kelleher, Jaqueline

    2015-01-01

    The Classroom Sensory Environment Assessment (CSEA) is a tool that provides a means of understanding the impact of a classroom's sensory environment on student behavior. The purpose of the CSEA is to promote collaboration between occupational therapists and elementary education teachers. In particular, students with autism spectrum disorder included in general education classrooms may benefit from a suitable match created through this collaborative process between the sensory environment and their unique sensory preferences. The development of the CSEA has occurred in multiple stages over 2 yr. This article reports on descriptive results for 152 classrooms and initial reliability results. Descriptive information suggests that classrooms are environments with an enormous variety of sensory experiences that can be quantified. Visual experiences are most frequent. The tool has adequate internal consistency but requires further investigation of interrater reliability and validity.

  14. Development of the Classroom Sensory Environment Assessment (CSEA).

    PubMed

    Kuhaneck, Heather Miller; Kelleher, Jaqueline

    2015-01-01

    The Classroom Sensory Environment Assessment (CSEA) is a tool that provides a means of understanding the impact of a classroom's sensory environment on student behavior. The purpose of the CSEA is to promote collaboration between occupational therapists and elementary education teachers. In particular, students with autism spectrum disorder included in general education classrooms may benefit from a suitable match created through this collaborative process between the sensory environment and their unique sensory preferences. The development of the CSEA has occurred in multiple stages over 2 yr. This article reports on descriptive results for 152 classrooms and initial reliability results. Descriptive information suggests that classrooms are environments with an enormous variety of sensory experiences that can be quantified. Visual experiences are most frequent. The tool has adequate internal consistency but requires further investigation of interrater reliability and validity. PMID:26565097

  15. Predictive analysis of beer quality by correlating sensory evaluation with higher alcohol and ester production using multivariate statistics methods.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jian-Jun; Li, Qing-Liang; Yin, Hua; Zhong, Cheng; Hao, Jun-Guang; Yang, Pan-Fei; Tian, Yu-Hong; Jia, Shi-Ru

    2014-10-15

    Sensory evaluation is regarded as a necessary procedure to ensure a reproducible quality of beer. Meanwhile, high-throughput analytical methods provide a powerful tool to analyse various flavour compounds, such as higher alcohol and ester. In this study, the relationship between flavour compounds and sensory evaluation was established by non-linear models such as partial least squares (PLS), genetic algorithm back-propagation neural network (GA-BP), support vector machine (SVM). It was shown that SVM with a Radial Basis Function (RBF) had a better performance of prediction accuracy for both calibration set (94.3%) and validation set (96.2%) than other models. Relatively lower prediction abilities were observed for GA-BP (52.1%) and PLS (31.7%). In addition, the kernel function of SVM played an essential role of model training when the prediction accuracy of SVM with polynomial kernel function was 32.9%. As a powerful multivariate statistics method, SVM holds great potential to assess beer quality. PMID:24837965

  16. Predictive analysis of beer quality by correlating sensory evaluation with higher alcohol and ester production using multivariate statistics methods.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jian-Jun; Li, Qing-Liang; Yin, Hua; Zhong, Cheng; Hao, Jun-Guang; Yang, Pan-Fei; Tian, Yu-Hong; Jia, Shi-Ru

    2014-10-15

    Sensory evaluation is regarded as a necessary procedure to ensure a reproducible quality of beer. Meanwhile, high-throughput analytical methods provide a powerful tool to analyse various flavour compounds, such as higher alcohol and ester. In this study, the relationship between flavour compounds and sensory evaluation was established by non-linear models such as partial least squares (PLS), genetic algorithm back-propagation neural network (GA-BP), support vector machine (SVM). It was shown that SVM with a Radial Basis Function (RBF) had a better performance of prediction accuracy for both calibration set (94.3%) and validation set (96.2%) than other models. Relatively lower prediction abilities were observed for GA-BP (52.1%) and PLS (31.7%). In addition, the kernel function of SVM played an essential role of model training when the prediction accuracy of SVM with polynomial kernel function was 32.9%. As a powerful multivariate statistics method, SVM holds great potential to assess beer quality.

  17. Response Surface Optimization of Process Parameters and Fuzzy Analysis of Sensory Data of High Pressure-Temperature Treated Pineapple Puree.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Snehasis; Rao, Pavuluri Srinivasa; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2015-08-01

    The high-pressure processing conditions were optimized for pineapple puree within the domain of 400-600 MPa, 40-60 °C, and 10-20 min using the response surface methodology (RSM). The target was to maximize the inactivation of polyphenoloxidase (PPO) along with a minimal loss in beneficial bromelain (BRM) activity, ascorbic acid (AA) content, antioxidant capacity, and color in the sample. The optimum condition was 600 MPa, 50 °C, and 13 min, having the highest desirability of 0.604, which resulted in 44% PPO and 47% BRM activities. However, 93% antioxidant activity and 85% AA were retained in optimized sample with a total color change (∆E*) value less than 2.5. A 10-fold reduction in PPO activity was obtained at 600 MPa/70 °C/20 min; however, the thermal degradation of nutrients was severe at this condition. Fuzzy mathematical approach confirmed that sensory acceptance of the optimized sample was close to the fresh sample; whereas, the thermally pasteurized sample (treated at 0.1 MPa, 95 °C for 12 min) had the least sensory score as compared to others.

  18. Response Surface Optimization of Process Parameters and Fuzzy Analysis of Sensory Data of High Pressure-Temperature Treated Pineapple Puree.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Snehasis; Rao, Pavuluri Srinivasa; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2015-08-01

    The high-pressure processing conditions were optimized for pineapple puree within the domain of 400-600 MPa, 40-60 °C, and 10-20 min using the response surface methodology (RSM). The target was to maximize the inactivation of polyphenoloxidase (PPO) along with a minimal loss in beneficial bromelain (BRM) activity, ascorbic acid (AA) content, antioxidant capacity, and color in the sample. The optimum condition was 600 MPa, 50 °C, and 13 min, having the highest desirability of 0.604, which resulted in 44% PPO and 47% BRM activities. However, 93% antioxidant activity and 85% AA were retained in optimized sample with a total color change (∆E*) value less than 2.5. A 10-fold reduction in PPO activity was obtained at 600 MPa/70 °C/20 min; however, the thermal degradation of nutrients was severe at this condition. Fuzzy mathematical approach confirmed that sensory acceptance of the optimized sample was close to the fresh sample; whereas, the thermally pasteurized sample (treated at 0.1 MPa, 95 °C for 12 min) had the least sensory score as compared to others. PMID:26220205

  19. The Use of Descriptive Analysis to Identify and Manipulate Schedules of Reinforcement in the Treatment of Food Refusal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Sean D.; Cooper-Brown, Linda J.; Wacker, David P.; Rankin, Barbara E.

    2006-01-01

    The feeding behaviors of a child diagnosed with failure to thrive were assessed using descriptive analysis methodology to identify the schedules of reinforcement provided by the child's parents. This analysis revealed that the child's appropriate feeding behaviors (i.e., bite acceptance, self-feeding) were on a lean schedule of positive…

  20. Relationship between sensory attributes and volatile compounds qualifying dry-cured hams.

    PubMed

    García-González, Diego L; Tena, Noelia; Aparicio-Ruiz, Ramón; Morales, Maria T

    2008-10-01

    This work studies the relationship between 45 volatile compounds and 17 sensory attributes (13 flavour perceptions) of dry-cured hams. Volatile compounds were quantified by SPME-GC while the sensory assessment was carried out by 13 panellists. GC-sniffing was used to determine the odour impact zones of the chromatogram. The odour thresholds of the volatile compounds and their sensory characterisation were determined by dilution analysis. Six sensory attributes (acorn odour and flavour, rancid odour, rancid taste, fat rancid and fat pungent flavours) were explained by regression equations (adjusted -R(2)⩾0.70) based on ten compounds: benzaldehyde, 2-heptanone, hexanal, hexanol, limonene, 3-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanol, 2-nonanone, octanol, pentanol. Acorn flavour attribute was successfully emulated by mixing the volatile compounds selected by the equation. Its odour was evaluated by assessors that gave a sensory description that matches with the target. All the procedures performed for the elucidation of volatile-attribute relations showed a basic agreement in their results. PMID:22063336

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Dietary Habits on Sensory Motor Association and Heart Rate Variability during Menstrual Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Tanwir; Jiwane, Rekha; Kishanrao, Sadawarte Sahebrao

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dietary habits can make a big difference on both physical and mental aspects of the body. Menstrual disorder frequently affects the quality of life of adolescent and young adult women. Menstrual cycle irregularities may be associated with psychological stress, and endocrine disturbances. Monitoring of sensory-motor association and cardiovascular activity across the menstrual cycle has not been evaluated with dietary habits. Aim The present study was carried out to bridge the relationship between dietary habits and endogenous sex hormone mediated sensory motor association and heart rate variability (HRV) among young females during different phases of menstrual cycle. Materials and Methods The present study was carried out on healthy volunteered 100 female medical students in the age group of 19-25 years with regular menstrual cycle. Group I (n=45) vegetarians, Group II (n=25) eggetarians and Group III (n= 30) non-vegetarians, where n denotes the number of individuals in each group. Sensory-motor association (reaction time) and cardiovascular activity (HRV) was evaluated. Results We observed among all the dietary habits (vegetarians, eggetarians and non-vegetarians) the reaction time and HRV was comparable in follicular and menstrual phase, however it was significantly altered in luteal phase when compared to follicular and menstrual phase. Moreover, among all the dietary habits, non-vegetarians showed more significant alteration of reaction time and HRV in luteal phase when compared to vegetarians and eggetarians, as well as there was positive correlation between visual and auditory reaction time and negative correlation between LF and HF in luteal phase, among all the dietary habits. Conclusion We concluded sensorimotor association and regulation of autonomic tone is modified in luteal phase comparable to follicular phase and menstrual phase; however non-vegetarian had showed more significant alterations as compared to eggetarians and vegetarians

  2. The Student-Authored Biomedical Publications at Alfaisal University, Saudi Arabia: a 6-year descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Alnajjar, Asma; Khan, Tehreem A; Mina, Syeda; Alkattan, Khaled; Abu-Zaid, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    There are limited numbers of studies which comprehensively explored the research publications authored by medical students. To descriptively analyze the student-authored research publications originating from Alfaisal University-College of Medicine (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) over a 6-year period. All student-authored research publications were retrieved from PubMed(®) and the College's publication database. Study inclusion criteria included: (1) at least one medical student author, (2) published and/or accepted in-press PubMed-indexed article from 10 September 2008 to 31 December 2014. Data was transferred to Microsoft Excel Software for descriptive statistical analysis of variable parameters. Seventy-three (n = 73) articles met the study inclusion criteria. They were published by 170 students; the majority were males (79.4 %) and clerkship students (65.9 %). There was a markedly steady increase in number of yearly publications from 1 publication in 2009 to 35 publications by the end of 2014. Fifty (68.5 %), twenty-nine (39.7 %) and thirty-seven (50.7 %) students were first, second and corresponding authors, respectively. The most frequent research areas were clinical science (43.8 %), basic science (23.3 %) and medical education (21.9 %). The most frequent research types were case reports (41.1 %), research articles (32.9 %) and correspondence letters (15.1 %). Fifty-seven (78.1 %) and sixteen (21.9 %) publications took place in local and abroad institutes, respectively. Most publications (71.2 %) had impact factors below 2. The mean ± SD of articles' impact factors and citations were 3.9 ± 9.9 and 1.9 ± 4.1, respectively. Students demonstrated positive attitudes towards publishing and significantly contributed to the institution's pool of research publications.

  3. Sensory profiles of bread made from paired samples of organic and conventionally grown wheat grain.

    PubMed

    Annett, L E; Spaner, D; Wismer, W V

    2007-05-01

    The Canadian hard red spring wheat cultivar "Park" was grown in 2005 in Edmonton, AB, Canada on both conventionally and organically managed land, situated less than 1 km apart. Grains from the paired wheat samples were compared for cereal-grain-quality attributes. For sensory analysis, organically and conventionally produced wheat grains were milled into flour and baked into 60% whole wheat bread. Color, texture, taste, and aroma attributes of bread were compared using the sensory technique of descriptive analysis. Organic grain contained more wholemeal protein than conventional grain (P < or = 0.05), but both were greater than 14% protein, indicating excellent grain quality for yeast-leavened bread. Mixograph analysis revealed that conventional flour produced stronger bread dough than organic flour (P < or = 0.05). Visual observation confirmed these findings as conventional flour produced larger bread loaf volume. Fourteen sensory attributes were generated by the descriptive analysis panel. No differences were observed for flavor, aroma, or color attributes (P > 0.05), but the panel perceived the organic bread to be more "dense" in texture (P < or = 0.05) with smaller air cells in the appearance of the crumb (P < or = 0.05) than conventional bread.

  4. Bioactive capacity, sensory properties, and nutritional analysis of a shelf stable protein-rich functional ingredient with concentrated fruit and vegetable phytoactives.

    PubMed

    Grace, Mary H; Yousef, Gad G; Esposito, Debora; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2014-12-01

    Well-known health-protective phytochemicals from muscadine grape and kale were stably complexed with food grade protein (soy or hemp protein isolates) to create biofortified food ingredients for use in a variety of convenient, portable food formulations. The bioactive (anti-inflammatory) potential, sensory attributes and proximates of the prepared formulations were evaluated in this study. Anti-inflammatory properties of the protein-phytoactive ingredient particles were contributed by the polyphenolic content (muscadine-protein) or the combination of polyphenol, carotenoid, and glucosinolate content (kale-protein aggregates). Phytoactive compounds from the fortified matrices suppressed at least two biomarkers of inflammation; most notable with the expression of chronic pro-inflammatory genes IL-6 and Mcp1. Sensory analysis suggested both sweet and savory functional food applications for the biofortified ingredients. Proximate analyses determined that fortification of the soy protein isolate (SPI) with muscadine or kale bioactives resulted in elevated dietary fibers, total carbohydrates, and free sugars, but did not increase calories/100 g dry matrix compared to unfortified SPI. Overall protein content in the aggregate matrices was about 37% less (muscadine-SPI, kale-SPI and kale- HP50) or 17.6% less (muscadine-HP50) on a weight basis, likely due to solubility of some proteins during preparation and partial displacement of some protein mass by the fruit and vegetable phytoactive constituents.

  5. Preliminary study on the development of an antistretch marks water-in-oil cream: ultrasound assessment, texture analysis, and sensory analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bogdan, Cătălina; Moldovan, Mirela L; Man, Ioana Manuela; Crișan, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Striae distensae represent the result of the failure of the dermis to sustain intrinsic mechanical forces. Intensive moisturization of the lesions and use of emollient oils have been recommended for the prevention and treatment of striae distensae rubra. The aim of this research was to formulate an emollient water-in-oil cosmetic cream containing argan oil, which may be helpful in the prevention or early treatment of striae distensae. Patients and methods Sensory evaluation of the consistency, firmness, adhesiveness, oiliness, spreadability, and rapidity of penetration into the skin was evaluated by 22 volunteers using 10-point scales for each descriptor. The instrumental characterization of the cream was performed using Brookfield® CT3 Texture Analyzer. The cutaneous changes induced by the topical use of the cream were evaluated by assessing the thickness of the epidermis, hydration, and elasticity of the skin using DermaLab® Combo scanner. Results Ultrasound measurements showed an improvement in the elasticity of the epidermis following the application of cream. The product was well tolerated and appreciated by the consumers in terms of its spreadability, penetration ability, and lack of stickiness. The values recorded for texture analysis were firmness 10.16±0.15 mJ, adhesiveness 30.94±6.87 g, consistency 1229.50±119.78 g, spreadability 481.50±39 g, and stringiness 0.56±0.09 mJ. Conclusion A water-in-oil cream containing argan oil and emollient ingredients with appropriate physical characteristics was obtained. In vivo study of clinical efficacy revealed a positive effect on increasing the skin elasticity, suggesting that the cream may be helpful in the prevention or early treatment of striae distensae.

  6. Preliminary study on the development of an antistretch marks water-in-oil cream: ultrasound assessment, texture analysis, and sensory analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bogdan, Cătălina; Moldovan, Mirela L; Man, Ioana Manuela; Crișan, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Striae distensae represent the result of the failure of the dermis to sustain intrinsic mechanical forces. Intensive moisturization of the lesions and use of emollient oils have been recommended for the prevention and treatment of striae distensae rubra. The aim of this research was to formulate an emollient water-in-oil cosmetic cream containing argan oil, which may be helpful in the prevention or early treatment of striae distensae. Patients and methods Sensory evaluation of the consistency, firmness, adhesiveness, oiliness, spreadability, and rapidity of penetration into the skin was evaluated by 22 volunteers using 10-point scales for each descriptor. The instrumental characterization of the cream was performed using Brookfield® CT3 Texture Analyzer. The cutaneous changes induced by the topical use of the cream were evaluated by assessing the thickness of the epidermis, hydration, and elasticity of the skin using DermaLab® Combo scanner. Results Ultrasound measurements showed an improvement in the elasticity of the epidermis following the application of cream. The product was well tolerated and appreciated by the consumers in terms of its spreadability, penetration ability, and lack of stickiness. The values recorded for texture analysis were firmness 10.16±0.15 mJ, adhesiveness 30.94±6.87 g, consistency 1229.50±119.78 g, spreadability 481.50±39 g, and stringiness 0.56±0.09 mJ. Conclusion A water-in-oil cream containing argan oil and emollient ingredients with appropriate physical characteristics was obtained. In vivo study of clinical efficacy revealed a positive effect on increasing the skin elasticity, suggesting that the cream may be helpful in the prevention or early treatment of striae distensae. PMID:27660478

  7. A Description of the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) Common Data Analysis Pipeline.

    PubMed

    Rudnick, Paul A; Markey, Sanford P; Roth, Jeri; Mirokhin, Yuri; Yan, Xinjian; Tchekhovskoi, Dmitrii V; Edwards, Nathan J; Thangudu, Ratna R; Ketchum, Karen A; Kinsinger, Christopher R; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Stein, Stephen E

    2016-03-01

    The Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) has produced large proteomics data sets from the mass spectrometric interrogation of tumor samples previously analyzed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) program. The availability of the genomic and proteomic data is enabling proteogenomic study for both reference (i.e., contained in major sequence databases) and nonreference markers of cancer. The CPTAC laboratories have focused on colon, breast, and ovarian tissues in the first round of analyses; spectra from these data sets were produced from 2D liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses and represent deep coverage. To reduce the variability introduced by disparate data analysis platforms (e.g., software packages, versions, parameters, sequence databases, etc.), the CPTAC Common Data Analysis Platform (CDAP) was created. The CDAP produces both peptide-spectrum-match (PSM) reports and gene-level reports. The pipeline processes raw mass spectrometry data according to the following: (1) peak-picking and quantitative data extraction, (2) database searching, (3) gene-based protein parsimony, and (4) false-discovery rate-based filtering. The pipeline also produces localization scores for the phosphopeptide enrichment studies using the PhosphoRS program. Quantitative information for each of the data sets is specific to the sample processing, with PSM and protein reports containing the spectrum-level or gene-level ("rolled-up") precursor peak areas and spectral counts for label-free or reporter ion log-ratios for 4plex iTRAQ. The reports are available in simple tab-delimited formats and, for the PSM-reports, in mzIdentML. The goal of the CDAP is to provide standard, uniform reports for all of the CPTAC data to enable comparisons between different samples and cancer types as well as across the major omics fields. PMID:26860878

  8. A Description of the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) Common Data Analysis Pipeline.

    PubMed

    Rudnick, Paul A; Markey, Sanford P; Roth, Jeri; Mirokhin, Yuri; Yan, Xinjian; Tchekhovskoi, Dmitrii V; Edwards, Nathan J; Thangudu, Ratna R; Ketchum, Karen A; Kinsinger, Christopher R; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Stein, Stephen E

    2016-03-01

    The Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) has produced large proteomics data sets from the mass spectrometric interrogation of tumor samples previously analyzed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) program. The availability of the genomic and proteomic data is enabling proteogenomic study for both reference (i.e., contained in major sequence databases) and nonreference markers of cancer. The CPTAC laboratories have focused on colon, breast, and ovarian tissues in the first round of analyses; spectra from these data sets were produced from 2D liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses and represent deep coverage. To reduce the variability introduced by disparate data analysis platforms (e.g., software packages, versions, parameters, sequence databases, etc.), the CPTAC Common Data Analysis Platform (CDAP) was created. The CDAP produces both peptide-spectrum-match (PSM) reports and gene-level reports. The pipeline processes raw mass spectrometry data according to the following: (1) peak-picking and quantitative data extraction, (2) database searching, (3) gene-based protein parsimony, and (4) false-discovery rate-based filtering. The pipeline also produces localization scores for the phosphopeptide enrichment studies using the PhosphoRS program. Quantitative information for each of the data sets is specific to the sample processing, with PSM and protein reports containing the spectrum-level or gene-level ("rolled-up") precursor peak areas and spectral counts for label-free or reporter ion log-ratios for 4plex iTRAQ. The reports are available in simple tab-delimited formats and, for the PSM-reports, in mzIdentML. The goal of the CDAP is to provide standard, uniform reports for all of the CPTAC data to enable comparisons between different samples and cancer types as well as across the major omics fields.

  9. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SENSORY SYSTEMS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to many neurotoxic compounds has been shown to produce a sensory system dysfunction. Neurophysiological assessment of sensory function in humans and animal models often uses techniques known as sensory evoked potentials. Because both humans and animals show analogous res...

  10. Processing Differences between Descriptions and Experience: A Comparative Analysis Using Eye-Tracking and Physiological Measures.

    PubMed

    Glöckner, Andreas; Fiedler, Susann; Hochman, Guy; Ayal, Shahar; Hilbig, Benjamin E

    2012-01-01

    Do decisions from description and from experience trigger different cognitive processes? We investigated this general question using cognitive modeling, eye-tracking, and physiological arousal measures. Three novel findings indeed suggest qualitatively different processes between the two types of decisions. First, comparative modeling indicates that evidence-accumulation models assuming averaging of all fixation-sampled outcomes predict choices best in decisions from experience, whereas Cumulative Prospect Theory predicts choices best in decisions from descriptions. Second, arousal decreased with increasing difference in expected value between gambles in description-based choices but not in experience. Third, the relation between attention and subjective weights given to outcomes was stronger for experience-based than for description-based tasks. Overall, our results indicate that processes in experience-based risky choice can be captured by sampling-and-averaging evidence-accumulation model. This model cannot be generalized to description-based decisions, in which more complex mechanisms are involved.

  11. Hereditary sensory neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2004-05-01

    Hereditary sensory neuropathies (HSNs) are a group of genetically determined peripheral neuropathies with prominent disturbance of the peripheral sensory neurons. They are characterized by sensory loss, insensitivity to pain, a variable degree of muscle weakness and wasting, as well as autonomic features. Frequent complications are foot ulcerations and infections that may lead to osteomyelitis, followed by necrosis and amputations. Consequently, the hereditary sensory neuropathies have also been termed ulceromutilating neuropathies. On the other hand, in the presence of additional motor weakness, they have been subclassified among the group of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disorders. Sporadic and familial cases with different modes of inheritance are known to affect both children and adults. The most prevalent forms of the autosomal dominantly inherited hereditary sensory neuropathies are HSN I and CMT 2b. HSN I is associated with mutations in the SPTLC1 gene, whereas mutations in the RAB7 gene have been identified in CMT 2b. However, at least one more hitherto unknown gene responsible for autosomal-dominant hereditary sensory neuropathies must exist. Autosomal-recessive hereditary sensory neuropathies types III and IV, and probably also type V, result from mutations in the IKBKAP and NTRK1 genes. Very recently, the gene in HSN II (HSN2) has been identified. A spontaneous autosomal-recessive mutation in the Cct4 gene has been reported in the Sprague-Dawley rat strain with early onset sensory neuropathy. Although no curative treatment is available so far, and current therapy is limited to symptom relief, these molecular genetic advances in knowledge about the hereditary sensory neuropathies can be translated into clinical practice by improving diagnosis and genetic counseling. They will also be the basis for functional studies in the future. PMID:15319794

  12. A content analysis of staff nurse descriptions of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    McNeese-Smith, D K

    1999-06-01

    Job satisfaction of nurses has been studied, using quantitative methodology, but hospital staff nurse descriptions of the source of their job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction have rarely been examined. This study collected information from 30 staff nurses through semistructured, taped interviews. Using content analysis, interviews were coded and categories and themes were identified. Findings indicate that job satisfaction was derived from the following categories: patient care, environment, balanced workload, relations with coworkers, personal factors, salary and benefits, professionalism, cultural background of the nurse and career stage of the nurse. Themes related to patient care, the pace and variety in an acute care environment, relationships with coworkers and meeting personal and family needs were cited as particularly relevant to job satisfaction. Job dissatisfaction was primarily influenced by patient care, factors that interfere with the job and patient care, feeling overloaded, relations with coworkers, personal factors, organizational factors and the career stage of the nurse. Themes related to the following categories have the greatest influence on job dissatisfaction: feeling overloaded, factors that interfere with patient care, coworkers who do not provide good care and situations that feel unfair. The actual words of nurses were included to provide depth and substance to the categories and themes. A discussion was presented of the relationship of these findings to theory and to outcomes of quantitative research. These findings have implications for nursing practice, administration and education as the profession considers organizational and individual factors influencing nurses' feelings about their job and prepares for future nursing shortages.

  13. PROTEUS two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1. 0. Volume 1: Analysis description

    SciTech Connect

    Towne, C.E.; Schwab, J.R.; Benson, T.J.; Suresh, A.

    1990-03-01

    A new computer code was developed to solve the two-dimensional or axisymmetric, Reynolds averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. Turbulence is modeled using an algebraic eddy viscosity model. The objective was to develop a code for aerospace applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The equations are written in nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, and solved by marching in time using a fully-coupled alternating direction-implicit procedure with generalized first- or second-order time differencing. All terms are linearized using second-order Taylor series. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly, and may be steady, unsteady, or spatially periodic. Simple Cartesian or polar grids may be generated internally by the program. More complex geometries require an externally generated computational coordinate system. The documentation is divided into three volumes. Volume 1 is the Analysis Description, and describes in detail the governing equations, the turbulence model, the linearization of the equations and boundary conditions, the time and space differencing formulas, the ADI solution procedure, and the artificial viscosity models.

  14. Effect of cooking on aroma profile of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and correlation with sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Prashant K; Tripathi, Jyoti; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S

    2017-01-15

    Volatile aroma compounds of three varieties of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) namely Kashmiri red, Sharmili and Chitra were extracted in raw state using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and cooked state using simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE). During cooking a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the content of several aldehydes, alcohols and terpene hydrocarbons while an increase in content of various sulfurous compounds, terpene alcohols, ketones and pyrazines was noted. Descriptive sensory analysis showed that the maximum intensity of 'kidney bean', 'earthy' and 'smoky' odour was observed in Kashmiri red while Sharmili variety was characterised by 'sulfurous' odour. Correlation of volatile profile data with descriptive sensory analysis and odour activity values clearly established the role of compounds, such as methanethiol, diethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methional and dimethyl trisulfide, in contributing to 'cooked kidney bean' aroma, while dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone and ethyl methyl sulfone were responsible for 'sulfurous' aroma.

  15. Effect of cooking on aroma profile of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and correlation with sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Prashant K; Tripathi, Jyoti; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S

    2017-01-15

    Volatile aroma compounds of three varieties of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) namely Kashmiri red, Sharmili and Chitra were extracted in raw state using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and cooked state using simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE). During cooking a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the content of several aldehydes, alcohols and terpene hydrocarbons while an increase in content of various sulfurous compounds, terpene alcohols, ketones and pyrazines was noted. Descriptive sensory analysis showed that the maximum intensity of 'kidney bean', 'earthy' and 'smoky' odour was observed in Kashmiri red while Sharmili variety was characterised by 'sulfurous' odour. Correlation of volatile profile data with descriptive sensory analysis and odour activity values clearly established the role of compounds, such as methanethiol, diethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methional and dimethyl trisulfide, in contributing to 'cooked kidney bean' aroma, while dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone and ethyl methyl sulfone were responsible for 'sulfurous' aroma. PMID:27542492

  16. A Descriptive Study of the Use of PROANA 5: A Computerized Technique for the Analysis of Small Group Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrow, Wayne

    The purpose of this study was to generate descriptive statistical estimates regarding the expected proportion of occurrence of each of the PROANA 5 (Process Analysis) variables (line usage, clique group, detrimental clique group, leadership, and dominance) in small group communication. A second purpose was to determine the expected pattern of…

  17. The role of temporal structure in the investigation of sensory memory, auditory scene analysis, and speech perception: a healthy-aging perspective.

    PubMed

    Rimmele, Johanna Maria; Sussman, Elyse; Poeppel, David

    2015-02-01

    Listening situations with multiple talkers or background noise are common in everyday communication and are particularly demanding for older adults. Here we review current research on auditory perception in aging individuals in order to gain insights into the challenges of listening under noisy conditions. Informationally rich temporal structure in auditory signals--over a range of time scales from milliseconds to seconds--renders temporal processing central to perception in the auditory domain. We discuss the role of temporal structure in auditory processing, in particular from a perspective relevant for hearing in background noise, and focusing on sensory memory, auditory scene analysis, and speech perception. Interestingly, these auditory processes, usually studied in an independent manner, show considerable overlap of processing time scales, even though each has its own 'privileged' temporal regimes. By integrating perspectives on temporal structure processing in these three areas of investigation, we aim to highlight similarities typically not recognized.

  18. Determination of geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol, and a musty-earthy odor in wheat grain by SPME-GC-MS, profiling volatiles, and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Jeleń, Henryk H; Majcher, Małgorzata; Zawirska-Wojtasiak, Renata; Wiewiórowska, Małgorzata; Wasowicz, Erwin

    2003-11-19

    Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol-compounds responsible for the musty-earthy off-odor of wheat grain, were isolated by SPME and analyzed by GC-MS. Carboxen/PDMS/DVB fiber coating was selected because of its highest extraction efficiency. Concentrations of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol as low as 0.001 microg/kg were detected in SIM mode using ion trap mass spectrometer. Apart from GC-MS determination of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, various methods for evaluating the musty-earthy off-odor caused by these compounds in wheat grain are presented. Sensory profile analysis differentiated wheat grain into sound and off-flavored, but the method was tedious. Similar groupings, however, were obtained using more rapid methods such as comparison of volatile profiles using SPME-fast GC with PCA projection of data and metal oxide (MOS) based electronic nose. PMID:14611175

  19. Sensory profile of a model energy drink with varying levels of functional ingredients-caffeine, ginseng, and taurine.

    PubMed

    Tamamoto, Lauren C; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2010-08-01

    Energy drinks have increased in popularity in recent years due to the claimed energy boost provided by functional ingredients. A multitude of functional ingredients have been utilized; however, there is limited research on their sensory effects in energy drink formulations. A 13-member descriptive analysis panel was conducted to investigate the effects on the sensory and rheological properties of 3 common functional ingredients-caffeine, ginseng, and taurine-in a noncarbonated model energy drink solution. Combinations of these functional ingredients at 3 levels (low, medium, high) were added to create a total of 27 different solutions (3 x 3 x 3 factorial design). Analysis of variance was performed to evaluate the sensory effects of the varying concentrations of functional ingredients in solution. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to summarize the relationship among the attributes and solutions. In general, high levels of caffeine in solution resulted in low ratings of fruity attributes and high ratings of bitter tea and fruit bitter attributes. The high level of ginseng in solution was characterized by high ratings of bitter attributes. A horns effect was observed as the sweet, artificial lemon-lime, pear, mango, and pineapple attributes were rated lower in intensity with increased ginseng levels. Taurine levels of up to 416 mg/100 mL had no significant effect on the sensory attribute ratings of the model energy drink solutions. These findings can be utilized to predict the changes in sensory characteristics when formulating energy drinks containing these popular functional ingredients.

  20. Volatile compounds and sensory analysis of both harvests of double-cut Yakima peppermint (Mentha piperita L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Michael Z; Trinnaman, Laurence; Bardsley, Kathryn; St Hilaire, Craig J; Da Costa, Neil C

    2011-09-01

    North American peppermint oils are widely regarded as some of the most superior peppermint oils commercially available. Amongst them is Yakima double-cut peppermint oil (Mentha piperita L.). It has an aroma described as strong, refreshing, minty, slightly creamy, and very herbaceous with some of the most desirable flavor notes among peppermint oils. The peppermint is grown in the Yakima Valley of Washington State, USA. As one of the most northerly grown peppermints with longer days, it is unique as there are 2 harvests of the mint leaves in one season. For this study, samples of fresh and dried (hay) leaves were collected from both harvests; 1st cut, July and 2nd cut, September. Steam-distilled oils were produced from each harvest and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to give detailed profiles. The aroma and taste sensory attributes of each oil were evaluated. In addition, menthyl formate has previously been reported only once in the literature, but not as definitively as required by current flavor-regulatory bodies for use as a natural flavoring ingredient. It was conclusively reported in these peppermint oils.

  1. Sensory and immune genes identification and analysis in a widely used parasitoid wasp Trichogramma dendrolimi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Su-Fang; Kong, Xiang-Bo; Wang, Hong-Bin; Zhou, Gang; Yu, Jin-Xiu; Liu, Fu; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-06-01

    Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is one of the preponderant egg parasitoids of Dendrolimus spp., which are important defoliators of coniferous forests. This parasitoid wasp has been widely released to control pine caterpillar and other lepidopteran pests, but its control efficiency needs to be improved. Sensory systems are crucial for T. dendrolimi to locate hosts, and immunity is probably involved after egg deposition in the host cavity; however, few reports have focused on the molecular mechanism of olfactory detection and survival of T. dendrolimi. It is necessary to identify these genes before further functional research is conducted. In this study, we assembled and analyzed the transcriptome of T. dendrolimi using next-generation sequencing technology. The sequencing and assembly resulted in 38 565 contigs with N50 of 3422 bp. Sequence comparison indicate that T. dendrolimi sequences are very similar to those of another parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis. Then the olfactory, vision, and immune-related gene families were identified, and phylogenetic analyses were performed with these genes from T. dendrolimi and other model insect species. Furthermore, phylogenetic tree with odorant binding proteins of T. dendrolimi and their host Dendrolimus was constructed to determine whether convergent evolution exists. These genes can be valid targets for further gene function research. The present study may help us to understand host location and survival mechanisms of T. dendrolimi and to use them more efficiently for pest control in the future. PMID:26940718

  2. Description, Usage, and Validation of the MVL-15 Modified Vortex Lattice Analysis Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozoroski, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    , thereby providing a pathway to map viscous data to the inviscid results. However, a number of factors can sidetrack the analysis consistency during various stages of this process. For example, it should be expected that the final airplane lift curve and drag polar results depend strongly on the geometry and aerodynamics of the airfoil section; however, flap deflections and flap chord extensions change the local reference geometry of the input airfoil, the airplane wing, the tabulated non-dimensional viscous aerodynamics, and the spanwise links between the linear and the viscous aerodynamics. These changes also affect the bound circulation and therefore, calculation and integration of the induced angle of attack and induced drag. MVL-15 is configured to ensure these types of challenges are properly addressed. This report is a comprehensive manual describing the theory, use, and validation of the MVL-15 analysis tool. Section 3 summarizes theoretical, procedural, and characteristic features of MVL-15, and includes a list of the files required to setup, execute, and summarize an analysis. Section 4, Section 5, Section 6, and Section 7 combine to comprise the User's Guide portions of this report. The MVL-15 input and output files are described in Section 4 and Section 5, respectively; the descriptions are supplemented with example files and information about the file formats, parameter definitions, and typical parameter values. Section 6 describes the Wing Geometry Setup Utility and the 2d-Variants Utility files that simplify and assist setting up a consistent set of MVL-15 geometry and aerodynamics input parameters and input files. Section 7 describes the use of the 3d-Results Presentation Utility file that can be used to automatically create summary tables and charts from the MVL-15 output files. Section 8 documents the Validation Results of an extensive and varied validation test matrix, including results of an airplane analysis representative of the ERA Program. A start

  3. Portable microcomputer for the analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra. Volume I. Data analysis methodology and hardware description

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhter, W.D.

    1984-05-01

    A portable microcomputer has been developed and programmed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to perform in-field analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra. The unit includes a 16-bit LSI-11/2 microprocessor, 32-K words of memory, a 20-character display for user prompting, a numeric keyboard for user responses, and a 20-character thermal printer for hard-copy output of results. The unit weights 11 kg and had dimensions of 33.5 x 30.5 x 23.0 cm. This compactness allows the unit to be stored under an airline seat. Only the positions of the 148-keV /sup 241/Pu and 208-keV /sup 237/U peaks are required for spectral analysis that gives plutonium isotopic ratios and weight percent abundances. Volume I of this report provides a detailed description of the data analysis methodology, operation instructions, hardware, and maintenance and troubleshooting. Volume II describes the software and provides software listings.

  4. Check-All-That-Apply (CATA), Sorting, and Polarized Sensory Positioning (PSP) with Astringent Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Erin E.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple rapid sensory profiling techniques have been developed as more efficient alternatives to traditional sensory descriptive analysis. Here, we compare the results of three rapid sensory profiling techniques – check-all-that-apply (CATA), sorting, and polarized sensory positioning (PSP) – using a diverse range of astringent stimuli. These rapid methods differ in their theoretical basis, implementation, and data analyses, and the relative advantages and limitations are largely unexplored. Additionally, we were interested in using these methods to compare varied astringent stimuli, as these compounds are difficult to characterize using traditional descriptive analysis due to high fatigue and potential carry-over. In the CATA experiment, subjects (n=41) were asked to rate the overall intensity of each stimulus as well as to endorse any relevant terms (from a list of 13) which characterized the sample. In the sorting experiment, subjects (n=30) assigned intensity-matched stimuli into groups 1-on-1 with the experimenter. In the PSP experiment, (n=41) subjects first sampled and took notes on three blind references (‘poles’) before rating each stimulus for its similarity to each of the 3 poles. Two-dimensional perceptual maps from correspondence analysis (CATA), multidimensional scaling (sorting), and multiple factor analysis (PSP) were remarkably similar, with normalized RV coefficients indicating significantly similar plots, regardless of method. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering of all data sets using Ward’s minimum variance as the linkage criteria showed the clusters of astringent stimuli were approximately based on the respective class of astringent agent. Based on the descriptive CATA data, it appears these differences may be due to the presence of side tastes such as bitterness and sourness, rather than astringent sub-qualities per se. Although all three methods are considered ‘rapid,’ our prior experience with sorting suggests it is best

  5. Neurocontrol in sensory cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritt, Jason; Nandi, Anirban; Schroeder, Joseph; Ching, Shinung

    Technology to control neural ensembles is rapidly advancing, but many important challenges remain in applications, such as design of controls (e.g. stimulation patterns) with specificity comparable to natural sensory encoding. We use the rodent whisker tactile system as a model for active touch, in which sensory information is acquired in a closed loop between feedforward encoding of sensory information and feedback guidance of sensing motions. Motivated by this system, we present optimal control strategies that are tailored for underactuation (a large ratio of neurons or degrees of freedom to stimulation channels) and limited observability (absence of direct measurement of the system state), common in available stimulation technologies for freely behaving animals. Using a control framework, we have begun to elucidate the feedback effect of sensory cortex activity on sensing in behaving animals. For example, by optogenetically perturbing primary sensory cortex (SI) activity at varied timing relative to individual whisker motions, we find that SI modulates future sensing behavior within 15 msec, on a whisk by whisk basis, changing the flow of incoming sensory information based on past experience. J.T.R. and S.C. hold Career Awards at the Scientific Interface from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund.

  6. Short communication: Sensory profile and acceptability of a cow milk cheese manufactured by adding jenny milk.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, C; Faraone, D; Paolino, R; Freschi, P; Musto, M

    2016-01-01

    The addition of jenny milk during cheesemaking has been recommended as a viable alternative to egg lysozyme for controlling late blowing defects. However, little is known on the sensory properties of the cheeses made with jenny milk. In this study, the effect of the addition of jenny milk during cheesemaking on sensory properties and consumer acceptability of cheese was evaluated. A sensory profile was carried out by 10 trained panelists on 4 cow milk cheese types. Two types of cheeses were made by adding jenny milk to cow milk during cheesemaking; the cheeses were then left to ripen for 45 and 120 d. The remaining 2 cheese types were made with only cow milk and were also left to ripen for 45 and 120 d. The attributes generated by a quantitative descriptive analysis sensory panel were effective for discriminating the 4 products. Among them, added jenny milk samples aged for 45 d had the highest intensity of some appearance descriptors (structure and color uniformity), as well as the highest intensity of sweetness. The analysis of acceptability data obtained from 89 consumers showed that added jenny milk aged for 45 d was the most preferred type of cheese, whereas no significant differences were found among the other products, which had higher intensity of bitter, salty, acid milk, and so on. PMID:26506544

  7. Examining Sensory Quadrants in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Carmody, Thomas; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Mehta, Jyutika A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sensory quadrants in autism based on Dunn's Theory of Sensory Processing. The data for this study was collected as part of a cross-sectional study that examined sensory processing (using the Sensory Profile) in 103 persons with autism, 3-43 years of age, compared to 103 age- and gender-matched community…

  8. Descriptive statistics tables from a detailed analysis of the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) data

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, A.M.; Klepeis, N.E.

    1996-07-01

    Detailed results tables are presented from an unweighted statistical analysis of selected portions of the 1992--1994 National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) data base. This survey collected data on the potential exposure of Americans to important household pollutants. Randomly selected individuals (9,386) supplied minute-by-minute diaries spanning a 24-hour day as well as follow-up questions on specific exposure types. Selected 24-hour diary locations and activities, selected regroupings of the 24-hour diary locations, activities, and smoker-present categories, and most of the follow-up question variables in the NHAPS data base were statistically analyzed across 12 subgroups (gender, age, Hispanic, education, employment, census region, day-of-week, season, asthma, angina and bronchitis/emphysema). Overall statistics were also generated for the 9,386 total respondents. Tables show descriptive statistics (including frequency distributions) of time spent and frequency of occurrence in each of 39 locations and for 22 activities (that were experienced by more than 50 respondents), along with equivalent tables for 10 regrouped locations (Residence-Indoors, Residence-Outdoors, Inside Vehicle, Near Vehicle, Other Outdoor, Office/Factory, Mall/Store, Public Building, Bar/Restaurant, Other Indoor), seven regrouped activities and smoker present. Tables of frequency distributions of time spent in exposure activities, or the frequency of occurrence of exposure activities, as determined from the follow up questions that were analyzed are also presented. Detailed indices provide page numbers for each table. An Appendix contains a condensed listing of the questionnaires (Versions A and B for adults, child-direct and child-proxy interview types), including the question number, the NHAPS data base variable name, and the verbatim question text.

  9. The Impact of Rendered Protein Meal Oxidation Level on Shelf-Life, Sensory Characteristics, and Acceptability in Extruded Pet Food.

    PubMed

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Koppel, Kadri; Aldrich, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Pet foods are expected to have a shelf-life for 12 months or more. Sensory analysis can be used to determine changes in products and to estimate products' shelf-life. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate how increasing levels of oxidation in rendered protein meals used to produce extruded pet food affected the sensory properties and (2) determine the effect of shelf-life on pet owners' acceptability of extruded pet food diet formulated without the use of preservative. Pet food diets contained beef meat bone meal (BMBM) and chicken byproduct meal (CBPM) in which the oxidation was retarded with ethoxyquin, mixed tocopherols, or none at all, and then extruded into dry pet foods. These samples represented low, medium, and high oxidation levels, respectively. Samples were stored for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at ambient temperature. Each time point, samples were evaluated by six highly trained descriptive panelists for sensory attributes related to oxidation. Samples without preservatives were chosen for the acceptability test, since the differences in sensory characteristics over storage time were more distinguishable in those samples. Pet owners evaluated samples for aroma, appearance and overall liking. Descriptive sensory analysis detected significant changes in oxidized-related sensory characteristics over storage time. However, the differences for CBPM samples were more pronounced and directional. The consumer study showed no differences in pet owners' acceptability for BMBM samples. However, the noticeable increase in aroma characteristics (rancid aroma 0.33-4.21) in CBPM samples over storage time did have a negative effect on consumer's liking (overall liking 5.52-4.95). PMID:27483326

  10. A detailed description of the uncertainty analysis for High Area Ratio Rocket Nozzle tests at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.; Dieck, Ronald H.; Chuang, Isaac

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary uncertainty analysis has been performed for the High Area Ratio Rocket Nozzle test program which took place at the altitude test capsule of the Rocket Engine Test Facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Results from the study establish the uncertainty of measured and calculated parameters required for the calculation of rocket engine specific impulse. A generalized description of the uncertainty methodology used is provided. Specific equations and a detailed description of the analysis are presented. Verification of the uncertainty analysis model was performed by comparison with results from the experimental program's data reduction code. Final results include an uncertainty for specific impulse of 1.30 percent. The largest contributors to this uncertainty were calibration errors from the test capsule pressure and thrust measurement devices.

  11. Efficient sensory cortical coding optimizes pursuit eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bing; Macellaio, Matthew V.; Osborne, Leslie C.

    2016-01-01

    In the natural world, the statistics of sensory stimuli fluctuate across a wide range. In theory, the brain could maximize information recovery if sensory neurons adaptively rescale their sensitivity to the current range of inputs. Such adaptive coding has been observed in a variety of systems, but the premise that adaptation optimizes behaviour has not been tested. Here we show that adaptation in cortical sensory neurons maximizes information about visual motion in pursuit eye movements guided by that cortical activity. We find that gain adaptation drives a rapid (<100 ms) recovery of information after shifts in motion variance, because the neurons and behaviour rescale their sensitivity to motion fluctuations. Both neurons and pursuit rapidly adopt a response gain that maximizes motion information and minimizes tracking errors. Thus, efficient sensory coding is not simply an ideal standard but a description of real sensory computation that manifests in improved behavioural performance. PMID:27611214

  12. Efficient sensory cortical coding optimizes pursuit eye movements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Macellaio, Matthew V; Osborne, Leslie C

    2016-01-01

    In the natural world, the statistics of sensory stimuli fluctuate across a wide range. In theory, the brain could maximize information recovery if sensory neurons adaptively rescale their sensitivity to the current range of inputs. Such adaptive coding has been observed in a variety of systems, but the premise that adaptation optimizes behaviour has not been tested. Here we show that adaptation in cortical sensory neurons maximizes information about visual motion in pursuit eye movements guided by that cortical activity. We find that gain adaptation drives a rapid (<100 ms) recovery of information after shifts in motion variance, because the neurons and behaviour rescale their sensitivity to motion fluctuations. Both neurons and pursuit rapidly adopt a response gain that maximizes motion information and minimizes tracking errors. Thus, efficient sensory coding is not simply an ideal standard but a description of real sensory computation that manifests in improved behavioural performance. PMID:27611214

  13. Using Administrative Data for Research: A Companion Guide to "A Descriptive Analysis of the Principal Workforce in Florida Schools." REL 2015-049

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Osborne-Lampkin, La'Tara; Herrington, Carolyn D.

    2014-01-01

    This document is a companion guide to "A Descriptive Analysis of the Principal Workforce in Florida Schools" (Folsom, Osborne-Lampkin, & Herrington, in press). It describes the methods used to extract information from the Florida Department of Education database in order to conduct a descriptive analysis of the demographic…

  14. Bubble-included chocolate: relating structure with sensory response.

    PubMed

    Haedelt, J; Beckett, S T; Niranjan, K

    2007-04-01

    Bubbles impart a very unique texture, chew, and mouth-feel to foods. However, little is known about the relationship between structure of such products and consumer response in terms of mouth-feel and eating experience. The objective of this article is to investigate the sensory properties of 4 types of bubble-containing chocolates, produced by using different gases: carbon dioxide, nitrogen, nitrous oxide, and argon. The structure of these chocolates were characterized in terms of (1) gas hold-up values determined by density measurements and (2) bubble size distribution which was measured by undertaking an image analysis of X-ray microtomograph sections. Bubble size distributions were obtained by measuring bubble volumes after reconstructing 3D images from the tomographic sections. A sensory study was undertaken by a nonexpert panel of 20 panelists and their responses were analyzed using qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). The results show that chocolates made from the 4 gases could be divided into 2 groups on the basis of bubble volume and gas hold-up: the samples produced using carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide had a distinctly higher gas hold-up containing larger bubbles in comparison with those produced using argon and nitrogen. The sensory study also demonstrated that chocolates made with the latter were perceived to be harder, less aerated, slow to melt in the mouth, and having a higher overall flavor intensity. These products were further found to be creamier than the chocolates made by using carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide; the latter sample also showed a higher intensity of cocoa flavor.

  15. Sensory characterization of young South American red wines classified by varietal and origin.

    PubMed

    Llobodanin, Laura Garcia; Barroso, Lucia Pereira; Castro, Inar Alves

    2014-08-01

    Typicality is the set of sensory characteristics that identify a distinctive type of wine. Thus, the aim of this research was to identify the sensory characteristics that contribute to define typicality of young South American red wines based on their varietal and origin, and to evaluate the effect of the vintage on this identification. To achieve this objective, visual appearance, odor, and taste of 138 wines from 2 vintages were submitted to a sensory evaluation using a descriptive analysis complemented with the frequency of citation method, performed by wine experts. The intensity of 17 odor and taste attributes was evaluated using a 5 points rating structured scale. The panel performance evaluation demonstrated its high level of expertise and reproducibility. The wines were separated into 3 clusters by multivariate analyses. Cluster 1 was primarily composed of Carménère, Malbec, and Syrah wines from Chile. Cluster 2 was predominantly composed of Tannat wines from Uruguay and Brazil, while Cluster 3 contained a higher proportion of Malbec and Merlot wines from Argentina and Brazil. Cabernet Sauvignon was equally distributed into all clusters. Wine experts were able to identify the wines according to their varietal and origin, suggesting that there is typicality in young South American red wines. The combination of descriptive analysis with the frequency of citation was useful in characterizing most of the wines, but the typicality perceived by the panelists was not achieved by multivariate analysis. Vintage did not alter the sensory characterization of the wines, and this result could be due the new viticulture or oenological practices used by the winemakers to compensate the environmental variation.

  16. Raised fields in the Llanos de Moxos, Bolivia - description and analysis of their morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Leonor; Lombardo, Umberto; Veit, Heinz

    2014-05-01

    The disturbance of Pre Columbian populations on Amazonian ecosystems is being actively debated. The traditional view of amazon being an untouched landscape because of its poor soils and harsh climate has been challenged and the extreme opposite idea of highly modified landscapes with complex societies is growing. Recent research has led to new impulses and issues requesting about the agricultural strategies people developed to survive in this climate. The Llanos de Moxos, situated in the Bolivian Lowlands in south-eastern Amazonia is one important region which was densely altered and where a great variety of earthworks can be found. One of the most impressive earth works are the raised fields, which are earth platforms for cultivation of differing shape and dimension that are elevated above the landscapes natural surface. In contrast to the "terra preta" formation where artefacts and amendments like charcoal and kitchen waste have been clearly identified, raised fields have shown to be artefact poor and studies up till now couldn't find any evidence of additional amendments which could have improved soil quality in the long term. As a result the function and productivity of raised fields is still not well understood and is being actively discussed. Detailed investigations on raised fields located in the indigenous community of Bermeo, in the vicinity of San Ignacio de Moxos provides data showing a novel explanation of the Pre-Columbian management of raised fields, and a chronological sequence of their utilization and abandonment. OSL dating has shown that the raised fields had been in use since as early as 600 AD. Comparison of Geochemistry with a reference profile, away from raised fields, showed that there is no evidence for manure amendments deriving from kitchen waste or animal residues suggesting a rather extensive use of those fields. Complementary the description of intern morphology and laboratory analysis of this raised fields, combined with radiocarbon

  17. Sensory quality of Camembert-type cheese: Relationship between starter cultures and ripening molds.

    PubMed

    Galli, Bruno Domingues; Martin, José Guilherme Prado; da Silva, Paula Porrelli Moreira; Porto, Ernani; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet

    2016-10-01

    Starter cultures and ripening molds used in the manufacture of moldy cheese aimed at obtaining characteristic flavors and textures considerably differ among dairy industries. Thus, the study of variables inherent to the process and their influence on sensory patterns in cheese can improve the standardization and control of the production process. The aim of this work was to study the influence of three different variables on the sensory quality of Camembert-type cheese: type of lactic bacteria, type of ripener molds and inoculation method. Batches of Camembert-type cheese were produced using O or DL-type mesophilic starter culture, ripened with Penicillium camemberti or Penicillium candidum and mold inoculation was made directly into the milk or by spraying. All batches were sensorially evaluated using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) with panelists trained for various attributes. Among the combinations analyzed, those resulting in more typical Camembert-type cheese were those using O-type mesophilic starter culture and P. candidum maturation mold directly applied into the milk or sprayed and those using DL-type mesophilic starter and P. camemberti ripener mold applied by surface spraying. These results demonstrate, therefore, that the combination of different ripener molds, inoculation methods and starter cultures directly influences the sensory quality of Camembert-type cheese, modifying significantly its texture, appearance, aroma and taste. PMID:27382958

  18. Descriptive Analysis of Classroom Setting Events on the Social Behaviors of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Brian A.; Conroy, Maureen A.; Asmus, Jennifer M.; McKenney, Elizabeth L. W.; Mancil, G. Richmond

    2008-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are characterized by extreme deficits in social relatedness with same-age peers. The purpose of this descriptive study was to identify naturally occurring antecedent variables (i.e., setting events) in the classroom environments of children with ASD that promoted their engagement in peer-related social…

  19. Descriptive Analysis of Teacher Instructional Practices and Student Engagement among Adolescents with and without Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirn, Regina G.; Scott, Terrance M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine teacher and student behavior in high school classrooms that included at least one student identified with challenging behavior. Across two school years and within the content areas of math, reading/English, social studies, and science, student/ teacher dyads were directly observed in the typical…

  20. Accuracy of Teacher-Collected Descriptive Analysis Data: A Comparison of Narrative and Structured Recording Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerman, Dorothea C.; Hovanetz, Alyson; Strobel, Margaret; Tetreault, Allison

    2009-01-01

    Recording the antecedents and consequences of problem behavior for the purposes of conducting descriptive analyses (called "A-B-C recording") can be particularly challenging, given the multiple variables that are commonly present in the natural environment. Nonetheless, psychologists and behavioral consultants often must rely on parents and…

  1. Integrating Real-Life Data Analysis in Teaching Descriptive Statistics: A Constructivist Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libman, Zipora

    2010-01-01

    This article looks at a process of integrating real-life data investigation in a course on descriptive statistics. Referring to constructivist perspectives, this article suggests a look at the potential of inculcating alternative teaching methods that encourage students to take a more active role in their own learning and participate in the…

  2. Time-Out with Parents: A Descriptive Analysis of 30 Years of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Gregory E.; Hupp, Stephen D. A.; Olmi, D. Joe

    2010-01-01

    The current data-based review encompasses 30 years of research involving parental use of time-out (TO). Although extensively researched for decades, parental usage of TO continues to vary widely across a number of procedural variables. As such, the current review provides descriptive data for 40 articles published between 1977 and 2007 along both…

  3. Phonetics: A Critical Analysis of Phonetic Theory and a Technic for the Practical Description of Sounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Kenneth L.

    This book seeks to point out the difficulties which remain in phonetic theory because of a legacy from prephonemic days when phonetics and phonemics were one. Sounds were shown to have been chosen for description because of their use in speech rather than because of their articulatory or acoustic nature; many sounds were ignored because they were…

  4. Secondary Physical Education Teachers' Beliefs and Practices in Teaching Students with Severe Disabilities: A Descriptive Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammah, Jonathan O. A.; Hodge, Samuel R.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose was to describe the beliefs and practices of general physical education (GPE) teachers at the high school level on inclusion and teaching students with severe disabilities. Participants were two experienced GPE teachers at separate suburban high schools. The research paradigm was descriptive using a combination of naturalistic…

  5. Cryptogenic sensory polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Dimachkie, Mazen M; Barohn, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    Chronic sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathy is a common cause for referral to neurologists. Despite extensive diagnostic testing, up to one-third of these patients remain without a known cause, and are referred to as having cryptogenic sensory peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms progress slowly. On examination, there may be additional mild toe flexion and extension weakness. Electrophysiologic testing and histology reveals axonal neuropathy. Prognosis is usually favorable, as most patients maintain independent ambulation. Besides patient education and reassurance, management is focused on pharmacotherapy for neuropathic pain and physical therapy for balance training, and, occasionally, assistive devices.

  6. Sensory interactions between six common aroma vectors explain four main red wine aroma nuances.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vicente; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Campo, Eva; Herrero, Paula; de la Fuente, Arancha; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2016-05-15

    This work aims at assessing the aromatic sensory dimensions linked to 6 common wine aroma vectors (N, norisoprenoids; A, branched acids; F, enolones; E, branched ethyl esters; L, fusel alcohols, M, wood compounds) varying in their natural range of occurrence. Wine models were built by adding the vectors at two levels (fractional factorial design 2(VI)) to a de-aromatised aged red wine. Twenty other different models were evaluated by descriptive analysis. Red, black and dried fruits and woody notes were satisfactorily reproduced. Individual vectors explained just 15% of the sensory space, mostly dependent on perceptual interactions. N influences dried and black fruits and suppresses red fruits. A suppresses black fruits and enhances red and dried fruits. F exerts a major role on red fruits. E suppresses dried fruits and modulates black fruits. L is revealed as a strong suppressor of red fruits and particularly of woody notes.

  7. Impact of roasting time on the sensory profile of arabica and robusta coffee.

    PubMed

    Bicho, Natalina Cavaco; Leitão, António Eduardo; Ramalho, José Cochicho; de Alvarenga, Nuno Bartolomeu; Lidon, Fernando Cebola

    2013-01-01

    Roasted coffee samples of the two major trade species (Coffea arabica and C. canephora) were studied to identify sensory descriptors that might be used to determine blends production and evaluation, following the expectations of consumers. Coffee beans were roasted at 220 + 10 °C, for 7, 9, and 11 min, and the sensory profiles of the beverages were assessed. From descriptive analysis the eigenvalues allowed the identification of two principal components (PCs), being the variance between samples 68.9% and 21.1%. In the first PC the characteristic odor, astringency, body, bitter flavor, burned aroma, and residual, typical, and burned tastes prevailed. The correlation coefficient between the second PC and citric acid flavor and aroma reached 0.96 and 0.78, respectively. It was concluded that in beverages of these species, the descriptors of both components can be separated according to bean roasting time. Considering roasting time, the overall quality was also rated. PMID:23445394

  8. Caramel as a Model System for Evaluating the Roles of Mechanical Properties and Oral Processing on Sensory Perception of Texture.

    PubMed

    Wagoner, Ty B; Luck, Paige J; Foegeding, E Allen

    2016-03-01

    Food formulation can have a significant impact on texture perception during oral processing. We hypothesized that slight modifications to caramel formulations would significantly alter mechanical and masticatory parameters, which can be used to explain differences in texture perception. A multidisciplinary approach was applied by evaluating relationships among mechanical properties, sensory texture, and oral processing. Caramels were utilized as a highly adhesive and cohesive model system and the formulation was adjusted to generate distinct differences in sensory hardness and adhesiveness. Descriptive analysis was used to determine sensory texture, and mechanical properties were evaluated by oscillatory rheology, creep recovery, and pressure sensitive tack measurements. Oral processing was measured by determining activity of anterior temporalis and masseter muscles via electromyography and tracking jaw movement during chewing. The substitution of agar or gelatin for corn syrup at 0.6% w/w of the total formulation resulted in increased sensory hardness and decreased adhesiveness. Creep recovery and pressure sensitive tack testing were more effective at differentiating among treatments than oscillatory rheology. Hardness correlated inversely with creep compliance, and both stickiness and tooth adhesiveness correlated with pressure sensitive adhesive force. Harder samples, despite being less adhesive, were associated with increased muscle activity and jaw movement during mastication. Tooth packing, not linked with any mechanical property, correlated with altered jaw movement. The combination of material properties and oral processing parameters were able to explain all sensory texture differences in a highly adhesive food.

  9. Caramel as a Model System for Evaluating the Roles of Mechanical Properties and Oral Processing on Sensory Perception of Texture.

    PubMed

    Wagoner, Ty B; Luck, Paige J; Foegeding, E Allen

    2016-03-01

    Food formulation can have a significant impact on texture perception during oral processing. We hypothesized that slight modifications to caramel formulations would significantly alter mechanical and masticatory parameters, which can be used to explain differences in texture perception. A multidisciplinary approach was applied by evaluating relationships among mechanical properties, sensory texture, and oral processing. Caramels were utilized as a highly adhesive and cohesive model system and the formulation was adjusted to generate distinct differences in sensory hardness and adhesiveness. Descriptive analysis was used to determine sensory texture, and mechanical properties were evaluated by oscillatory rheology, creep recovery, and pressure sensitive tack measurements. Oral processing was measured by determining activity of anterior temporalis and masseter muscles via electromyography and tracking jaw movement during chewing. The substitution of agar or gelatin for corn syrup at 0.6% w/w of the total formulation resulted in increased sensory hardness and decreased adhesiveness. Creep recovery and pressure sensitive tack testing were more effective at differentiating among treatments than oscillatory rheology. Hardness correlated inversely with creep compliance, and both stickiness and tooth adhesiveness correlated with pressure sensitive adhesive force. Harder samples, despite being less adhesive, were associated with increased muscle activity and jaw movement during mastication. Tooth packing, not linked with any mechanical property, correlated with altered jaw movement. The combination of material properties and oral processing parameters were able to explain all sensory texture differences in a highly adhesive food. PMID:26823092

  10. 3-Methyl-2-butene-1-thiol: identification, analysis, occurrence and sensory role of an uncommon thiol in wine.

    PubMed

    San-Juan, Felipe; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Escudero, Ana

    2012-09-15

    A highly uncommon odorant, 3-methyl-2-butene-1-thiol was detected by using Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O) and unequivocally identified for the first time in wine. A purge and trap sampling technique which provides highly representative extracts for olfactometric analysis was used for the extraction of the volatile fraction of a Spanish red wine made from Prieto Picudo grapes. The identification of the odorant was achieved by multidimensional gas chromatography analysis of the same purge and trap extract. Mass spectrum and retention indices in both polar and non-polar columns allowed knowing unequivocally the identity. To obtain quantitative data a method was validated for the analysis of the compound at ng L(-1) level with acceptable precision. This powerful odorant presented an odor threshold in wine of 0.5-1 ng L(-1) and it has been detected in several Prieto Picudo wines at concentrations slightly above the odor threshold.

  11. Characterization of odor-active compounds of various Chrysanthemum essential oils by gas chromatography-olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their correlation with sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zuobing; Fan, Binbin; Niu, Yunwei; Wu, Minling; Liu, Junhua; Ma, Shengtao

    2016-01-15

    Volatiles of five kinds of Chrysanthemum essential oils with different manufactures were characterized by descriptive sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and statistics analysis. Six sensory attributes (floral, woody, grassy, fruity, sour and minty) were selected to assess Chrysanthemum essential oils. A total of 38 volatile compounds were detected and quantified using standard substances by GC-O and GC-MS. Terpenes constituted the largest chemical group among the volatiles of the essential oils. Then partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to elucidate the relationship between sensory attributes and aroma compounds. The result showed that α-pinene, β-thujene, α-terpinolen, β-cubebene, caryophyllene, (Z)β-farnesene, (-)-spathulenol, linalool, camphor, camphene, 4-terpineol, Z-citral and 4-isopropyltoluene were typical aroma compounds covaried with characteristic aroma of Chrysanthemum essential oils.

  12. Characterization of odor-active compounds of various Chrysanthemum essential oils by gas chromatography-olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their correlation with sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zuobing; Fan, Binbin; Niu, Yunwei; Wu, Minling; Liu, Junhua; Ma, Shengtao

    2016-01-15

    Volatiles of five kinds of Chrysanthemum essential oils with different manufactures were characterized by descriptive sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and statistics analysis. Six sensory attributes (floral, woody, grassy, fruity, sour and minty) were selected to assess Chrysanthemum essential oils. A total of 38 volatile compounds were detected and quantified using standard substances by GC-O and GC-MS. Terpenes constituted the largest chemical group among the volatiles of the essential oils. Then partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to elucidate the relationship between sensory attributes and aroma compounds. The result showed that α-pinene, β-thujene, α-terpinolen, β-cubebene, caryophyllene, (Z)β-farnesene, (-)-spathulenol, linalool, camphor, camphene, 4-terpineol, Z-citral and 4-isopropyltoluene were typical aroma compounds covaried with characteristic aroma of Chrysanthemum essential oils. PMID:26735711

  13. Relationships between volatile production, fruit quality, and sensory evaluation in Granny Smith apples stored in different controlled-atmosphere treatments by means of multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Lavilla, T; Puy, J; López, M L; Recasens, I; Vendrell, M

    1999-09-01

    Aroma compounds, quality parameters, and sensory evaluation of Granny Smith apples were analyzed after 3, 5, and 7 months of cold storage in three controlled-atmosphere (CA) treatments, in which oxygen and carbon dioxide were held at 1, 2, and 3%. During poststorage ripening, the apples were kept at 20 degrees C for 1, 5, and 10 days before analytical measurements were made. The highest volatile emission was obtained after 5 months of storage in all CA treatments, reaching its highest value when a low-oxygen CA (LO) was used. Ultralow-oxygen CA (ULO) showed the highest ability to maintain apple firmness. The correlation among analytical and sensory parameters suggests that ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, 1-butanol, pentyl acetate, and tert-butyl propionate are the aroma compounds with the highest influence in the sensorial score. Concerning CA treatments, LO and ULO appear to be very valuable technologies for maintaining the sensorial quality even after 7 months of storage. PMID:10552724

  14. A Description for Rock Joint Roughness Based on Terrestrial Laser Scanner and Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Yunfeng; Tang, Huiming; Eldin, M. A. M Ez; Chen, Pengyu; Wang, Liangqing; Wang, Jinge

    2015-01-01

    Shear behavior of rock mass greatly depends upon the rock joint roughness which is generally characterized by anisotropy, scale effect and interval effect. A new index enabling to capture all the three features, namely brightness area percentage (BAP), is presented to express the roughness based on synthetic illumination of a digital terrain model derived from terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). Since only tiny planes facing opposite to shear direction make contribution to resistance during shear failure, therefore these planes are recognized through the image processing technique by taking advantage of the fact that they appear brighter than other ones under the same light source. Comparison with existing roughness indexes and two case studies were illustrated to test the performance of BAP description. The results reveal that the rock joint roughness estimated by the presented description has a good match with existing roughness methods and displays a wider applicability. PMID:26585247

  15. A Description for Rock Joint Roughness Based on Terrestrial Laser Scanner and Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Yunfeng; Tang, Huiming; Eldin, M. A. M. Ez; Chen, Pengyu; Wang, Liangqing; Wang, Jinge

    2015-11-01

    Shear behavior of rock mass greatly depends upon the rock joint roughness which is generally characterized by anisotropy, scale effect and interval effect. A new index enabling to capture all the three features, namely brightness area percentage (BAP), is presented to express the roughness based on synthetic illumination of a digital terrain model derived from terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). Since only tiny planes facing opposite to shear direction make contribution to resistance during shear failure, therefore these planes are recognized through the image processing technique by taking advantage of the fact that they appear brighter than other ones under the same light source. Comparison with existing roughness indexes and two case studies were illustrated to test the performance of BAP description. The results reveal that the rock joint roughness estimated by the presented description has a good match with existing roughness methods and displays a wider applicability.

  16. Structured Sensory Trauma Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

    2010-01-01

    This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…

  17. Recording Sensory Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    From children's viewpoints, what they experience in the world is what the world is like--for everyone. "What do others experience with their senses when they are in the same situation?" is a question that young children can explore by collecting data as they use a "feely box," or take a "sensory walk." There are many ways to focus the children's…

  18. Studying Sensory Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerly, Spafford C.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the vestibular organ's role in balancing the body and stabilizing the visual world using the example of a hunter. Describes the relationship between sensory perception and learning. Recommends using optical illusions to illustrate the distinctions between external realities and internal perceptions. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  19. Environmental Awareness (Sensory Awareness).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Marian

    Capitalizing on the resources available within a city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) describes methods and procedures for developing sensory awareness in the urban out-of-doors. Conceptual focus is on interdependency ("living things are interdependent"). Involvement in the environment (observing, thinking, doing)…

  20. Physicochemical, textural, volatile, and sensory profiles of traditional Sepet cheese.

    PubMed

    Ercan, D; Korel, F; Yüceer, Y Karagül; Kınık, O

    2011-09-01

    Characterization of traditional cheeses is important for the protection of diversity of tradition and contributing baseline data for further research and quality control. Sepet cheese is a traditional cheese and specific to the Aegean region of Turkey. In this study, 52 Sepet cheese samples were analyzed to characterize the physicochemical, textural, volatile compounds, and sensory profiles. The changes in the physicochemical and volatile compositions were investigated during production and ripening periods. The average dry matter (DM; 55.16%), fat-in-DM (45.80%), protein (29.18%), salt-in-DM (12.88%), water activity (0.83), pH (5.50), titratable acidity (1.69%), ripening and lipolysis indices (11.06 and 6.36), firmness (212.20N), springiness (0.62), cohesiveness (0.57), adhesiveness (0.48 Nmm), and chewiness (66.87N) values of Sepet cheese samples were determined. Hexanoic, octanoic, decanoic, and butyric acids, which were responsible for the cheesy, waxy, goaty odors, were the most abundant volatile compounds in these cheeses. Most of the volatile compounds increased significantly during production and ripening. Significant changes in most of the physicochemical characteristics were observed up to the third month of ripening. As a result of the descriptive sensory analysis, Sepet cheeses were described with descriptors such as free fatty acid, animal like, sulfurous, creamy, cooked, and whey, and aromatics with high salty basic taste. PMID:21854903

  1. Tools for quantitative form description; an evaluation of different software packages for semi-landmark analysis

    PubMed Central

    Houssaye, Alexandra; Herrel, Anthony; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Cornette, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    The challenging complexity of biological structures has led to the development of several methods for quantitative analyses of form. Bones are shaped by the interaction of historical (phylogenetic), structural, and functional constrains. Consequently, bone shape has been investigated intensively in an evolutionary context. Geometric morphometric approaches allow the description of the shape of an object in all of its biological complexity. However, when biological objects present only few anatomical landmarks, sliding semi-landmarks may provide good descriptors of shape. The sliding procedure, mandatory for sliding semi-landmarks, requires several steps that may be time-consuming. We here compare the time required by two different software packages (‘Edgewarp’ and ‘Morpho’) for the same sliding task, and investigate potential differences in the results and biological interpretation. ‘Morpho’ is much faster than ‘Edgewarp,’ notably as a result of the greater computational power of the ‘Morpho’ software routines and the complexity of the ‘Edgewarp’ workflow. Morphospaces obtained using both software packages are similar and provide a consistent description of the biological variability. The principal differences between the two software packages are observed in areas characterized by abrupt changes in the bone topography. In summary, both software packages perform equally well in terms of the description of biological structures, yet differ in the simplicity of the workflow and time needed to perform the analyses. PMID:26618086

  2. Drought description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matalas, N.C.

    1991-01-01

    What constitutes a comprehensive description of drought, a description forming a basis for answering why a drought occurred is outlined. The description entails two aspects that are "naturally" coupled, named physical and economic, and treats the set of hydrologic measures of droughts in terms of their multivariate distribution, rather than in terms of a collection of the marginal distributions. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Conduction aphasia, sensory-motor integration, and phonological short-term memory - an aggregate analysis of lesion and fMRI data.

    PubMed

    Buchsbaum, Bradley R; Baldo, Juliana; Okada, Kayoko; Berman, Karen F; Dronkers, Nina; D'Esposito, Mark; Hickok, Gregory

    2011-12-01

    Conduction aphasia is a language disorder characterized by frequent speech errors, impaired verbatim repetition, a deficit in phonological short-term memory, and naming difficulties in the presence of otherwise fluent and grammatical speech output. While traditional models of conduction aphasia have typically implicated white matter pathways, recent advances in lesions reconstruction methodology applied to groups of patients have implicated left temporoparietal zones. Parallel work using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has pinpointed a region in the posterior most portion of the left planum temporale, area Spt, which is critical for phonological working memory. Here we show that the region of maximal lesion overlap in a sample of 14 patients with conduction aphasia perfectly circumscribes area Spt, as defined in an aggregate fMRI analysis of 105 subjects performing a phonological working memory task. We provide a review of the evidence supporting the idea that Spt is an interface site for the integration of sensory and vocal tract-related motor representations of complex sound sequences, such as speech and music and show how the symptoms of conduction aphasia can be explained by damage to this system. PMID:21256582

  4. Conduction Aphasia, Sensory-Motor Integration, and Phonological Short-term Memory – an Aggregate analysis of Lesion and fMRI data

    PubMed Central

    Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Baldo, Juliana; Okada, Kayoko; Berman, Karen F.; Dronkers, Nina; D’Esposito, Mark; Hickok, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Conduction aphasia is a language disorder characterized by frequent speech errors, impaired verbatim repetition, a deficit in phonological short-term memory, and naming difficulties in the presence of otherwise fluent and grammatical speech output. While traditional models of conduction aphasia have typically implicated white matter pathways, recent advances in lesions reconstruction methodology applied to groups of patients have implicated left temporoparietal zones. Parallel work using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has pinpointed a region in the posterior most portion of the left planum temporale, area Spt, which is critical for phonological working memory. Here we show that the region of maximal lesion overlap in a sample of 14 patients with conduction aphasia perfectly circumscribes area Spt, as defined in an aggregate fMRI analysis of 105 subjects performing a phonological working memory task. We provide a review of the evidence supporting the idea that Spt is an interface site for the integration of sensory and vocal tract-related motor representations of complex sound sequences, such as speech and music and show how the symptoms of conduction aphasia can be explained by damage to this system. PMID:21256582

  5. Impacts of glutathione Maillard reaction products on sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup.

    PubMed

    Hong, J H; Jung, D W; Kim, Y S; Lee, S M; Kim, K O

    2010-10-01

    The sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup with added glutathione Maillard reaction products (GMRPs) were investigated to examine the effects of the GMRPs on beef-soup flavor compared to soups made with glutathione (GSH) and monosodium glutamate (MSG), a control (CON), or a control soup made with 150% beef content (CON150). The sensory characteristics of the beef soups were examined by descriptive analysis. The overall acceptabilities of the beef soups were rated by consumers. Principal component analysis was performed on descriptive data as explanatory variables with overall acceptability as a supplementary variable to observe the relationships between the descriptive data and consumer acceptability, as well as the relationships between the beef-soup samples and their sensory attributes. The samples containing GMRPs had "beef flavor" that was stronger than the CON and MSG samples, and comparable to that of the GSH sample and CON150. The GMRP samples had stronger "green onion flavor,"garlic flavor," and "boiled egg white flavor" than the other samples. The beef soup containing MSG was preferred to CON, CON150, and GSH. The samples with GMRPs were least favored because of their pronounced metallic and astringent notes. The results of this study imply the feasibility of GMRPs as a flavor enhancer since the soups containing these compounds showed more complex flavor profiles than GSH. However, future studies are required to optimize the MR conditions that produce GMRPs without undesirable characteristics. Practical Application: This study examined the practicability of the Maillard reaction products between glutathione (GSH) and glucose (GP) or fructose (FP) as a flavor enhancer by investigating the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability evoked by them in a beef-soup system. This study helps flavor and food industry to develop a new flavor enhancer by providing practical information, such as beef flavor-enhancing effect of FP and

  6. Sensory-directed identification of taste-active ellagitannins in American (Quercus alba L.) and European oak wood (Quercus robur L.) and quantitative analysis in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines.

    PubMed

    Glabasnia, Arne; Hofmann, Thomas

    2006-05-01

    Aimed at increasing our knowledge on the sensory-active nonvolatiles migrating from oak wood into alcoholic beverages upon cooperaging, an aqueous ethanolic extract prepared from oak wood chips (Quercus alba L.) was screened for its key taste compounds by application of the taste dilution analysis. Purification of the compounds perceived with the highest sensory impacts, followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry as well as one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR experiments, revealed the ellagitannins vescalagin, castalagin, and grandinin, the roburins A-E, and 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin as the key molecules imparting an astringent oral sensation. To the best of our knowledge, 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin has as yet not been reported as a phytochemical in Q. alba L. In addition, the sensory activity of these ellagitannins was determined for the first time on the basis of their human threshold concentrations and dose/response functions. Furthermore, the ellagitannins have been quantitatively determined in extracts prepared from Q. alba L. and Quercus robur L., respectively, as well as in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines, and the sensory contribution of the individual compounds has been evaluated for the first time on the basis of dose/activity considerations.

  7. Sensory-directed identification of taste-active ellagitannins in American (Quercus alba L.) and European oak wood (Quercus robur L.) and quantitative analysis in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines.

    PubMed

    Glabasnia, Arne; Hofmann, Thomas

    2006-05-01

    Aimed at increasing our knowledge on the sensory-active nonvolatiles migrating from oak wood into alcoholic beverages upon cooperaging, an aqueous ethanolic extract prepared from oak wood chips (Quercus alba L.) was screened for its key taste compounds by application of the taste dilution analysis. Purification of the compounds perceived with the highest sensory impacts, followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry as well as one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR experiments, revealed the ellagitannins vescalagin, castalagin, and grandinin, the roburins A-E, and 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin as the key molecules imparting an astringent oral sensation. To the best of our knowledge, 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin has as yet not been reported as a phytochemical in Q. alba L. In addition, the sensory activity of these ellagitannins was determined for the first time on the basis of their human threshold concentrations and dose/response functions. Furthermore, the ellagitannins have been quantitatively determined in extracts prepared from Q. alba L. and Quercus robur L., respectively, as well as in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines, and the sensory contribution of the individual compounds has been evaluated for the first time on the basis of dose/activity considerations. PMID:16637699

  8. Field Air Sampling and Simultaneous Chemical and Sensory Analysis of Livestock Odorants with Sorbent Tube GC-MS/Olfactometry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shicheng; Cai Lingshuang; Koziel, Jacek A.; Hoff, Steven; Clanton, Charles; Schmidt, David; Jacobson, Larry; Parker, David; Heber, Albert

    2009-05-23

    Characterization and quantification of livestock odorants is one of the most challenging analytical tasks because odor-causing gases are very reactive, polar and often present at very low concentrations in a complex matrix of less important or irrelevant gases. The objective of this research was to develop a novel analytical method for characterization of the livestock odorants including their odor character, odor intensity, and hedonic tone and to apply this method for quantitative analysis of the key odorants responsible for livestock odor. Sorbent tubes packed with Tenax TA were used for field sampling. The automated one-step thermal desorption module coupled with multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry system was used for simultaneous chemical and odor analysis. Fifteen odorous VOCs and semi-VOCs identified from different livestock species operations were quantified. Method detection limits ranges from 40 pg for skatole to 3590 pg for acetic acid. In addition, odor character, odor intensity and hedonic tone associated with each of the target odorants are also analyzed simultaneously. We found that the mass of each VOCs in the sample correlates well with the log stimulus intensity. All of the correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}) are greater than 0.74, and the top 10 correlation coefficients were greater than 0.90.

  9. Field Air Sampling and Simultaneous Chemical and Sensory Analysis of Livestock Odorants with Sorbent Tube GC-MS/Olfactometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shicheng; Cai, Lingshuang; Koziel, Jacek A.; Hoff, Steven; Clanton, Charles; Schmidt, David; Jacobson, Larry; Parker, David; Heber, Albert

    2009-05-01

    Characterization and quantification of livestock odorants is one of the most challenging analytical tasks because odor-causing gases are very reactive, polar and often present at very low concentrations in a complex matrix of less important or irrelevant gases. The objective of this research was to develop a novel analytical method for characterization of the livestock odorants including their odor character, odor intensity, and hedonic tone and to apply this method for quantitative analysis of the key odorants responsible for livestock odor. Sorbent tubes packed with Tenax TA were used for field sampling. The automated one-step thermal desorption module coupled with multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry system was used for simultaneous chemical and odor analysis. Fifteen odorous VOCs and semi-VOCs identified from different livestock species operations were quantified. Method detection limits ranges from 40 pg for skatole to 3590 pg for acetic acid. In addition, odor character, odor intensity and hedonic tone associated with each of the target odorants are also analyzed simultaneously. We found that the mass of each VOCs in the sample correlates well with the log stimulus intensity. All of the correlation coefficients (R2) are greater than 0.74, and the top 10 correlation coefficients were greater than 0.90.

  10. Sensory properties determined by starch type in white sauces: effects of freeze/thaw and hydrocolloid addition.

    PubMed

    Arocas, A; Sanz, T; Salvador, A; Varela, P; Fiszman, S M

    2010-03-01

    The effect of 5 types of starch (rice, potato, waxy corn, corn, and modified waxy corn) on the sensory properties of white sauces was studied. A comparative study was also made of variations resulting from freezing/thawing and effect of replacing 0.15% starch with 2 nonstarchy hydrocolloids, xanthan gum (XG), or locust bean gum (LBG) in samples to be frozen. The sensory properties were studied through descriptive analysis by a panel of 10 trained judges. Principal components analysis and cluster analysis were used to group each of the samples according to the scores for consistency, resilience, graininess, thickness, heterogeneity, creaminess, and mouth coating, the sensory attributes which were chosen to define the sauces under study. Significant differences were found between the different starches employed: the rice and modified starches presented similar behavior to each other, as did the potato starch and corn starch, while the waxy starch sauce stood apart from the rest because of its resilience. The freeze/thaw cycle had the greatest effect on the corn-starch sauce, increasing its graininess and heterogeneity values owing to retrogradation. Adding XG or LBG to the sauces subjected to a period of freezing/thawing did not have a significant effect on the sensory attributes of the reheated sauces made with rice, potato, or waxy or modified starch, but lower graininess and heterogeneity values were observed in the sauce made with corn starch.

  11. The impact of hybridization on the volatile and sensorial profile of Ocimum basilicum L.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Andréa Santos; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; da Silva, Maria Aparecida Azevedo Pereira; Alves, Mércia Freitas; Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the volatile and sensorial profile of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) of the essential oil of three hybrids ("Cinnamon" × "Maria Bonita," "Sweet Dani" × "Cinnamon," and "Sweet Dani" × "Maria Bonita"). Twelve descriptive terms were developed by a selected panel that also generated the definition of each term and the reference samples. The data were subjected to ANOVA, Tukey's test, and principal component analysis. The hybrid "Cinnamon" × "Maria Bonita" exhibited a stronger global aroma that was less citric than the other samples. Hybridization favored the generation of novel compounds in the essential oil of the hybrid "Sweet Dani" × "Maria Bonita," such as canfora and (E)-caryophyllene; (E)-caryophyllene also was a novel compound in the hybrid "Sweet Dani" × "Cinnamon"; this compound was not present in the essential oils of the parents.

  12. The impact of hybridization on the volatile and sensorial profile of Ocimum basilicum L.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Andréa Santos; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; da Silva, Maria Aparecida Azevedo Pereira; Alves, Mércia Freitas; Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the volatile and sensorial profile of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) of the essential oil of three hybrids ("Cinnamon" × "Maria Bonita," "Sweet Dani" × "Cinnamon," and "Sweet Dani" × "Maria Bonita"). Twelve descriptive terms were developed by a selected panel that also generated the definition of each term and the reference samples. The data were subjected to ANOVA, Tukey's test, and principal component analysis. The hybrid "Cinnamon" × "Maria Bonita" exhibited a stronger global aroma that was less citric than the other samples. Hybridization favored the generation of novel compounds in the essential oil of the hybrid "Sweet Dani" × "Maria Bonita," such as canfora and (E)-caryophyllene; (E)-caryophyllene also was a novel compound in the hybrid "Sweet Dani" × "Cinnamon"; this compound was not present in the essential oils of the parents. PMID:24558334

  13. Inulin and erythritol as sucrose replacers in short-dough cookies: sensory, fracture, and acoustic properties.

    PubMed

    Laguna, Laura; Primo-Martín, Cristina; Salvador, Ana; Sanz, Teresa

    2013-05-01

    The effect of sucrose replacement by erythritol and inulin was studied in short-dough cookies using instrumental and sensory analysis. Two levels of replacement were used (25% and 50% of total sucrose content). Descriptive sensory analysis showed that the sucrose replacement affects visual and texture cookies characteristics, being the differences perceived by mouth greater than by hand. In general, sucrose substitutes produced a less crispy cookie and lower consumer acceptability, with the exception of 25% sucrose replacement by inulin. Matrix aeration attributes such as open and crumbly obtained by trained panel were important properties, and correlated positively with consumer acceptance and negatively with maximum force at break (hardness). Inulin cookies sensory properties were more similar to the control than the erythritol cookies. Also, consumer overall acceptance decreased significantly with sucrose replacement by erythritol. The analysis of texture and sound revealed that inulin cookies were softer whereas erythritol cookies were harder in comparison with control cookies; despite this difference, inulin cookies had similar sound characteristics to erythritol cookies.

  14. Cover arrangements for consultants on leave: an analysis of job descriptions.

    PubMed

    Pearson, C; Janssen, C M; Lewis, M H; Galland, R B

    2001-02-01

    There is much ambiguity about consultant leave allowances and arrangements for cover in the National Health Service. We analysed job descriptions for 47 consultant posts advertised in mid-2000. 35 defined a duty rota but only 3 mentioned specific available leave (all different). In 32 there was no mention of cover for colleagues on leave. When a consultant is absent, colleagues tend to provide cover for emergency cases but not for elective admissions, which are managed largely by junior doctors. This arrangement is particularly hazardous in surgical specialties. If elective surgery is to continue when the consultant is absent, arrangements for leave and cover need to be more clearly defined.

  15. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control.

    PubMed

    Teng, Ya-Ling; Chen, Chiung-Ling; Lou, Shu-Zon; Wang, Wei-Tsan; Wu, Jui-Yen; Ma, Hui-Ing; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP) postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99); controls (76.53±7.47); t1,59 = -3.28, p<0.001]. The results of mixed-model ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between the group and sensory conditions [F5,295 = 5.55, p<0.001]. Further analysis indicated that AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients compared to the controls in conditions containing unreliable somatosensory information either with visual deprivation or with conflicting visual information. Sensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory conditions, which

  16. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control.

    PubMed

    Teng, Ya-Ling; Chen, Chiung-Ling; Lou, Shu-Zon; Wang, Wei-Tsan; Wu, Jui-Yen; Ma, Hui-Ing; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP) postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99); controls (76.53±7.47); t1,59 = -3.28, p<0.001]. The results of mixed-model ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between the group and sensory conditions [F5,295 = 5.55, p<0.001]. Further analysis indicated that AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients compared to the controls in conditions containing unreliable somatosensory information either with visual deprivation or with conflicting visual information. Sensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory conditions, which

  17. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chiung-Ling; Lou, Shu-Zon; Wang, Wei-Tsan; Wu, Jui-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP) postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99); controls (76.53±7.47); t1,59 = -3.28, p<0.001]. The results of mixed-model ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between the group and sensory conditions [F5,295 = 5.55, p<0.001]. Further analysis indicated that AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients compared to the controls in conditions containing unreliable somatosensory information either with visual deprivation or with conflicting visual information. Sensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory conditions, which

  18. Characterizing the Smell of Marijuana by Odor Impact of Volatile Compounds: An Application of Simultaneous Chemical and Sensory Analysis.

    PubMed

    Rice, Somchai; Koziel, Jacek A

    2015-01-01

    Recent U.S. legislation permitting recreational use of marijuana in certain states brings the use of marijuana odor as probable cause for search and seizure to the forefront of forensic science, once again. This study showed the use of solid-phase microextraction with multidimensional gas chromatography--mass spectrometry and simultaneous human olfaction to characterize the total aroma of marijuana. The application of odor activity analysis offers an explanation as to why high volatile chemical concentration does not equate to most potent odor impact of a certain compound. This suggests that more attention should be focused on highly odorous compounds typically present in low concentrations, such as nonanal, decanol, o-cymene, benzaldehyde, which have more potent odor impact than previously reported marijuana headspace volatiles.

  19. Characterizing the Smell of Marijuana by Odor Impact of Volatile Compounds: An Application of Simultaneous Chemical and Sensory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recent US legislation permitting recreational use of marijuana in certain states brings the use of marijuana odor as probable cause for search and seizure to the forefront of forensic science, once again. This study showed the use of solid-phase microextraction with multidimensional gas chromatography—mass spectrometry and simultaneous human olfaction to characterize the total aroma of marijuana. The application of odor activity analysis offers an explanation as to why high volatile chemical concentration does not equate to most potent odor impact of a certain compound. This suggests that more attention should be focused on highly odorous compounds typically present in low concentrations, such as nonanal, decanol, o-cymene, benzaldehyde, which have more potent odor impact than previously reported marijuana headspace volatiles. PMID:26657499

  20. Sensory and non-sensory factors and the concept of externality in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Gardner, R M; Brake, S J; Reyes, B; Maestas, D

    1983-08-01

    9 obese and 9 normal subjects performed a psychophysical task in which food- or non-food-related stimuli were briefly flashed tachistoscopically at a speed and intensity near the visual threshold. A signal was presented on one-half the trials and noise only on the other one-half of the trials. Using signal detection theory methodology, separate measures of sensory sensitivity (d') and response bias (beta) were calculated. No differences were noted between obese and normal subjects on measures of sensory sensitivity but significant differences on response bias. Obese subjects had consistently lower response criteria than normal ones. Analysis for subjects categorized by whether they were restrained or unrestrained eaters gave findings identical to those for obese and normal. The importance of using a methodology that separates sensory and non-sensory factors in research on obesity is discussed.

  1. Idiopathic toe walking and sensory processing dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is generally understood that toe walking involves the absence or limitation of heel strike in the contact phase of the gait cycle. Toe walking has been identified as a symptom of disease processes, trauma and/or neurogenic influences. When there is no obvious cause of the gait pattern, a diagnosis of idiopathic toe walking (ITW) is made. Although there has been limited research into the pathophysiology of ITW, there has been an increasing number of contemporary texts and practitioner debates proposing that this gait pattern is linked to a sensory processing dysfunction (SPD). The purpose of this paper is to examine the literature and provide a summary of what is known about the relationship between toe walking and SPD. Method Forty-nine articles were reviewed, predominantly sourced from peer reviewed journals. Five contemporary texts were also reviewed. The literature styles consisted of author opinion pieces, letters to the editor, clinical trials, case studies, classification studies, poster/conference abstracts and narrative literature reviews. Literature was assessed and graded according to level of evidence. Results Only one small prospective, descriptive study without control has been conducted in relation to idiopathic toe walking and sensory processing. A cross-sectional study into the prevalence of idiopathic toe walking proposed sensory processing as being a reason for the difference. A proposed link between ITW and sensory processing was found within four contemporary texts and one conference abstract. Conclusion Based on the limited conclusive evidence available, the relationship between ITW and sensory processing has not been confirmed. Given the limited number and types of studies together with the growing body of anecdotal evidence it is proposed that further investigation of this relationship would be advantageous. PMID:20712877

  2. Template-based data entry for general description in medical records and data transfer to data warehouse for analysis.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Yasushi; Kuwata, Shigeki; Yamamoto, Yuichiro; Izumi, Kazunori; Okada, Yasushi; Hazumi, Michihiro; Yoshimoto, Sachiko; Mineno, Takahiro; Nagahama, Munetoshi; Fujii, Ayumi; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    General descriptions in medical records are so diverse that they are usually entered as free text into an electronic medical record, and the resulting data analysis is often difficult. We developed and implemented a template-based data entry module and data analyzing system for general descriptions. We developed a template with tree structure, whose content master and entered patient's data are simultaneously expressed by XML. The entered structured data is converted to narrative form for easy reading. This module was implemented in the EMR system, and is used in 35 hospitals as of October, 2006. So far, 3725 templates (3242 concepts) have been produced. The data in XML and narrative text data are stored in the EMR database. The XML data are retrieved, and then patient's data are extracted, to be stored in the data ware-house (DWH). We developed a search assisting system that enables users to find objective data from the DWH without requiring complicated SQL. By using this method, general descriptions in medical records can be structured and made available for clinical research.

  3. Descriptive analysis of individual and community factors among African American youths in urban public housing.

    PubMed

    Nebbitt, Von E; Williams, James Herbert; Lombe, Margaret; McCoy, Henrika; Stephens, Jennifer

    2014-07-01

    African American adolescents are disproportionately represented in urban public housing developments. These neighborhoods are generally characterized by high rates of poverty, crime, violence, and disorganization. Although evidence is emerging on youths in these communities, little is known about their depressive symptoms, perceived efficacy, or frequency of substance use and sex-risk behavior. Further, even less is known about their exposure to community and household violence, their parents' behavior, or their sense of connection to their communities. Using a sample of 782 African American adolescents living in public housing neighborhoods located in four large U.S. cities, this article attempts to rectify the observed gap in knowledge by presenting a descriptive overview of their self-reported depressive symptoms; self-efficacy; frequencies of delinquent and sexual-risk behavior; and alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use. The self-reported ratings of their parents' behavior as well as their exposure to community and household violence are presented. Analytic procedures include descriptive statistics and mean comparisons between genders and across research cities. Results suggest several differences between genders and across research sites. However, results are not very different from national data. Implications for social work practice are discussed. PMID:25076647

  4. Effect of green tea powder on thermal, rheological & functional properties of wheat flour and physical, nutraceutical & sensory analysis of cookies.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mudasir; Baba, Waqas N; A Wani, Touseef; Gani, Asir; Gani, Adil; Shah, Umar; Wani, S M; Masoodi, F A

    2015-09-01

    Green tea powder (GTP) was incorporated in wheat flour at different levels (1, 2 and 4 %) and its effect on quality parameters of flour and cookies were studied. Thermal analysis showed that addition of GTP did not increase the onset temperature, end temperature and enthalpy of flour significantly. However, the increase in GTP content retarded the retro gradation of the gelatinized wheat flour gel and decreased the water absorption capacity, Oil absorption capacity, water solubility index, Foam capacity and foam stability significantly. The L* and b* values of cookies decreased from 53.63 to 33.23 and 29.02 to 24.39 respectively, while as, a* value showed an increase from 3.61 to 5.23 indirect proportion to quantity added. The addition of GTP to wheat flour increased the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) percent inhibition and reducing power of cookies. Further, it also increases the acceptability for color, aroma and taste; however it loosened its structural integrity and decreased the fracture force.

  5. CRYPTOGENIC SENSORY POLYNEUROPATHY

    PubMed Central

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathy is a common cause for referral to neurologists. Despite extensive diagnostic testing, up to one-third of these patients remain without a known cause. They are referred to as having cryptogenic sensory peripheral neuropathy (CSPN). The age of onset is variable but usually in the sixth to seventh decade of life, affecting men and women equally. CSPN symptoms progress slowly, most patients present with distal leg paresthesias or pain that progressed over years to involve the hands. On examination, there may be additional mild toe flexion and extension weakness. Electrophysiologic testing and histology reveals axonal neuropathy. Prognosis is usually favorable as most patients maintain independent ambulation. Besides patient education and reassurance, management is focused on pharmacotherapy of neuropathic pain (see Treatment of Painful Peripheral Neuropathy chapter) and physical therapy for balance training and occasionally assistive devices. PMID:23642719

  6. Instabilities in sensory processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, J.

    2014-07-01

    In any organism there are different kinds of sensory receptors for detecting the various, distinct stimuli through which its external environment may impinge upon it. These receptors convey these stimuli in different ways to an organism's information processing region enabling it to distinctly perceive the varied sensations and to respond to them. The behavior of cells and their response to stimuli may be captured through simple mathematical models employing regulatory feedback mechanisms. We argue that the sensory processes such as olfaction function optimally by operating in the close proximity of dynamical instabilities. In the case of coupled neurons, we point out that random disturbances and fluctuations can move their operating point close to certain dynamical instabilities triggering synchronous activity.

  7. Star tracker constraint violations digital capability description and analysis results. Mission planning, mission analysis, and software formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poston, P. L.

    1975-01-01

    Results of star tracker constraint violation analyses performed with the digital computer program Shuttle Attitude and Pointing Time Line Processor (SAPT) are presented. Results are typical of those utilized to provide the information required to update Baseline Reference Mission Attitude and Pointing Time Lines. Descriptions of SAPT modifications implemented to perform these analyses are also presented.

  8. Sensory Motor Coordination in Robonaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Richard Alan, II

    2003-01-01

    As a participant of the year 2000 NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, I worked with the engineers of the Dexterous Robotics Laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center on the Robonaut project. The Robonaut is an articulated torso with two dexterous arms, left and right five-fingered hands, and a head with cameras mounted on an articulated neck. This advanced space robot, now driven only teleoperatively using VR gloves, sensors and helmets, is to be upgraded to a thinking system that can find, interact with and assist humans autonomously, allowing the Crew to work with Robonaut as a (junior) member of their team. Thus, the work performed this summer was toward the goal of enabling Robonaut to operate autonomously as an intelligent assistant to astronauts. Our underlying hypothesis is that a robot can develop intelligence if it learns a set of basic behaviors (i.e., reflexes - actions tightly coupled to sensing) and through experience learns how to sequence these to solve problems or to accomplish higher-level tasks. We describe our approach to the automatic acquisition of basic behaviors as learning sensory-motor coordination (SMC). Although research in the ontogenesis of animals development from the time of conception) supports the approach of learning SMC as the foundation for intelligent, autonomous behavior, we do not know whether it will prove viable for the development of autonomy in robots. The first step in testing the hypothesis is to determine if SMC can be learned by the robot. To do this, we have taken advantage of Robonaut's teleoperated control system. When a person teleoperates Robonaut, the person's own SMC causes the robot to act purposefully. If the sensory signals that the robot detects during teleoperation are recorded over several repetitions of the same task, it should be possible through signal analysis to identify the sensory-motor couplings that accompany purposeful motion. In this report, reasons for suspecting SMC as the basis for

  9. Relationship between physical properties and sensory attributes of carbonated beverages.

    PubMed

    Kappes, S M; Schmidt, S J; Lee, S-Y

    2007-01-01

    Bulk sweeteners provide functional properties in beverages, including sweet taste, bulking, bitter masking, structure, and mouthfeel. Diet beverages come closer to the taste of regular beverages using a blend of high-intensity sweeteners; however, some properties, including bulking, structure, and mouthfeel, remain significantly different. Relating physical properties to sensory characteristics is an important step in understanding why mouthfeel differences are apparent in beverages sweetened with alternative sweeteners compared to bulk sweeteners. The objectives of this research were to (1) measure sweetener profile, Brix, refractive index, viscosity, a(w), carbonation, titratable acidity, and pH of commercial carbonated beverages; and (2) correlate the physical property measurements to descriptive analysis of the beverages. Correlation analysis, partial least squares, canonical correlation analysis, and cluster analysis were used to analyze the data. Brix, viscosity, and sweet taste were highly correlated among one another and were all negatively correlated to a(w). Carbonated and decarbonated pH were highly correlated to each other and were both negatively correlated to mouthcoating. Numbing, burn, bite, and carbonation were highly correlated to total acidity, citric acid, and ascorbic acid and negatively correlated to phosphoric acid. The mouthfeel difference between diet and regular lemon/lime carbonated beverages is small and may be related to overall differences between flavor, acid, and sweetener types and usage levels. This research is significant because it demonstrates the use of both sensory attributes and physical properties to identify types of ingredients and levels that may decrease the mouthfeel perception differences between regular and diet carbonated beverages, which could consequently lead to higher acceptance of diet beverages by the consumers of regular. PMID:17995891

  10. Moving Sensory Adaptation beyond Suppressive Effects in Single Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Samuel G.; Kohn, Adam

    2014-01-01

    How an object is perceived depends on the temporal context in which it is encountered. Sensory signals in the brain also depend on temporal context, a phenomenon often referred to as adaptation. Traditional descriptions of adaptation effects emphasize various forms of response fatigue in single neurons, which grow in strength with exposure to a stimulus. Recent work on vision, and other sensory modalities, has shown that this description has substantial shortcomings. Here we review our emerging understanding of how adaptation alters the balance between excitatory and suppressive signals, how effects depend on adaptation duration, and how adaptation influences representations that are distributed within and across multiple brain structures. This work points to a sophisticated set of mechanisms for adjusting to recent sensory experience, and suggests new avenues for understanding their function. PMID:25442850

  11. Are olfactory images sensory in nature?

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Haruko; Ayabe-Kanamura, Saho; Kikuchi, Tadashi

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the features of olfactory mental images by comparing odour images with perceptual and semantic representations. Participants who were assigned to three groups made similarity judgments about 17 common odours by smelling odours, imagining odours, or on the basis of the meaning of odour source names. In the smelling group, every pair of odours was compared. In the imagining group, imagined odours were compared twice, both before and after associative learning of the odour/name combinations. In the meaning group, the odour source names were compared in terms of general word meanings. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis was applied to each group of similarity data and three-dimensional sensory, mental, and semantic spaces were composed. 17 elements in the mental and semantic spaces were superimposed onto the sensory space by Procrustes rotation. We found that the averaged distances of the 17 elements between the sensory and the mental spaces (either before or after learning) were smaller than those between the sensory and semantic spaces. We suggest that odour images have sensory features, especially after associative learning between perceived odours and their names.

  12. Sensory Perception: Lessons from Synesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Joshua Paul

    2013-01-01

    Synesthesia, the conscious, idiosyncratic, repeatable, and involuntary sensation of one sensory modality in response to another, is a condition that has puzzled both researchers and philosophers for centuries. Much time has been spent proving the condition’s existence as well as investigating its etiology, but what can be learned from synesthesia remains a poorly discussed topic. Here, synaesthesia is presented as a possible answer rather than a question to the current gaps in our understanding of sensory perception. By first appreciating the similarities between normal sensory perception and synesthesia, one can use what is known about synaesthesia, from behavioral and imaging studies, to inform our understanding of “normal” sensory perception. In particular, in considering synesthesia, one can better understand how and where the different sensory modalities interact in the brain, how different sensory modalities can interact without confusion ― the binding problem ― as well as how sensory perception develops. PMID:23766741

  13. Radioactive Solid Waste Storage and Disposal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Description and Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, L.D.

    2001-01-30

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a principle Department of Energy (DOE) Research Institution operated by the Union Carbide Corporation - Nuclear Division (UCC-ND) under direction of the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO). The Laboratory was established in east Tennessee, near what is now the city of Oak Ridge, in the mid 1940s as a part of the World War II effort to develop a nuclear weapon. Since its inception, disposal of radioactively contaminated materials, both solid and liquid, has been an integral part of Laboratory operations. The purpose of this document is to provide a detailed description of the ORNL Solid Waste Storage Areas, to describe the practice and procedure of their operation, and to address the health and safety impacts and concerns of that operation.

  14. Differences in physical characteristics in collegiate baseball players. A descriptive position by position analysis.

    PubMed

    Carda, R D; Looney, M A

    1994-12-01

    Physical characteristics including height, weight, body composition, and somatotype of NCAA Division II baseball players were evaluated to determine if differences in physical profiles exist by position at this level of competition. Differences in height, weight, lean body weight and somatoplots were found among various players. Pitchers were found to be taller that infielders and outfielders and displayed more endomorphy and less mesomorphy than the outfielders. Among the infielders, first basemen were taller than second basemen and third basemen while shortstops were found to be taller than second basemen. With respect to weight, first basemen and catchers were found to be heavier than second basemen. The second basemen had less lean body mass than all other infield groups. The data reveal more than a general description is warranted when describing the physical characteristics of baseball players at this level of play.

  15. Sensory quality of broiler breast meat influenced by low atmospheric pressure stunning, deboning time and cooking methods.

    PubMed

    Schilling, M W; Radhakrishnan, V; Vizzier-Thaxton, Y; Christensen, K; Williams, J B; Joseph, P

    2015-06-01

    Stunning method (low atmospheric pressure stunning, LAPS and electrical stunning, ES), deboning time (0.75 h and 4 h), and cooking method (baking, frying, and sous vide) were evaluated for their impact on the descriptive sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of breast meat (n=576, 144 birds per stunning × deboning time combination). Sensory evaluation was conducted by trained descriptive (n=8) and consumer (n=185) panels. On average, no differences (P>0.05) existed in the sensory acceptability of fried and sous vide cooked broiler breast treatment combinations. However, for oven-baking, the LAPS treatment that was deboned at 4 h was more acceptable (P<0.05) than other treatments and the ES and LAPS 4 h samples had greater (P<0.05) acceptability for texture than their ES and LAPS 0.75 h counterparts. Since consumers were highly variable in their liking of chicken breast treatments, consumers were grouped into clusters for each cooking method based on liking and preference. Cluster analysis data revealed that the largest groups of consumers liked (score≥6.0) all chicken breast treatments, but a larger proportion of consumers liked the 4 h LAPS and ES treatments when compared to the 0.75 h LAPS and ES treatments for all cooking methods. In addition, the consumers who indicated that baked chicken breast was highly acceptable preferred (P<0.05) 4 h LAPS over the 4 h ES samples. Based on sensory results, chicken breast meat from all stunning and deboning method combinations was highly acceptable to the majority of consumers, but the LAPS 4 h treatment had enhanced sensory characteristics when baked. PMID:25834250

  16. Sensory quality of broiler breast meat influenced by low atmospheric pressure stunning, deboning time and cooking methods.

    PubMed

    Schilling, M W; Radhakrishnan, V; Vizzier-Thaxton, Y; Christensen, K; Williams, J B; Joseph, P

    2015-06-01

    Stunning method (low atmospheric pressure stunning, LAPS and electrical stunning, ES), deboning time (0.75 h and 4 h), and cooking method (baking, frying, and sous vide) were evaluated for their impact on the descriptive sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of breast meat (n=576, 144 birds per stunning × deboning time combination). Sensory evaluation was conducted by trained descriptive (n=8) and consumer (n=185) panels. On average, no differences (P>0.05) existed in the sensory acceptability of fried and sous vide cooked broiler breast treatment combinations. However, for oven-baking, the LAPS treatment that was deboned at 4 h was more acceptable (P<0.05) than other treatments and the ES and LAPS 4 h samples had greater (P<0.05) acceptability for texture than their ES and LAPS 0.75 h counterparts. Since consumers were highly variable in their liking of chicken breast treatments, consumers were grouped into clusters for each cooking method based on liking and preference. Cluster analysis data revealed that the largest groups of consumers liked (score≥6.0) all chicken breast treatments, but a larger proportion of consumers liked the 4 h LAPS and ES treatments when compared to the 0.75 h LAPS and ES treatments for all cooking methods. In addition, the consumers who indicated that baked chicken breast was highly acceptable preferred (P<0.05) 4 h LAPS over the 4 h ES samples. Based on sensory results, chicken breast meat from all stunning and deboning method combinations was highly acceptable to the majority of consumers, but the LAPS 4 h treatment had enhanced sensory characteristics when baked.

  17. Sensory syndromes in parietal stroke.

    PubMed

    Bassetti, C; Bogousslavsky, J; Regli, F

    1993-10-01

    We studied 20 patients with an acute parietal stroke with hemisensory disturbances but no visual field deficit and no or only slight motor weakness, without thalamic involvement on CT or MRI and found three main sensory syndromes. (1) The pseudothalamic sensory syndrome consists of a faciobrachiocrural impairment of elementary sensation (touch, pain, temperature, vibration). All patients have an inferior-anterior parietal stroke involving the parietal operculum, posterior insula, and, in all but one patient, underlying white matter. (2) The cortical sensory syndrome consists of an isolated loss of discriminative sensation (stereognosis, graphesthesia, position sense) involving one or two parts of the body. These patients show a superior-posterior parietal stroke. (3) The atypical sensory syndrome consists of a sensory loss involving all modalities of sensation in a partial distribution. Parietal lesions of different topography are responsible for this clinical picture, which probably represents a minor variant of the two previous sensory syndromes. Neuropsychological dysfunction was present in 17 patients. The only constant association was between conduction aphasia and right-sided pseudothalamic sensory deficit. We conclude that parietal stroke can cause different sensory syndromes depending on the topography of the underlying lesion. Sensory deficits can be monosymptomatic but never present as a "pure sensory stroke" involving face, arm, leg, and trunk together.

  18. Look Closer: The Alertness of People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities during Multi-Sensory Storytelling, a Time Sequential Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ten Brug, Annet; Munde, Vera S.; van der Putten, Annette A.J.; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) is a storytelling method designed for individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). It is essential that listeners be alert during MSST, so that they become familiar with their personalised stories. Repetition and the presentation of stimuli are likely to affect the…

  19. Crystallization, X-ray diffraction analysis and SIRAS/molecular-replacenent phasing of three crystal forms of Anabaena sensory rhodopsin transducer

    SciTech Connect

    Vogeley, Lutz; Luecke, Hartmut

    2006-04-01

    Crystals of Anabaena sensory rhodopsin transducer, the transducer for the cyanobacterial photosensor Anabaena sensory rhodopsin, obtained in the space groups P4, C2 and P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} diffract to 1.8, 2.1 and 2.0 Å, respectively. Phases for these crystal forms were obtained by SIRAS phasing using an iodide quick-soak derivative (P4) and molecular replacement (C2 and P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}). Anabaena sensory rhodopsin transducer (ASRT) is a 14.7 kDa soluble signaling protein associated with the membrane-embedded light receptor Anabaena sensory rhodopsin (ASR) from Anabaena sp., a freshwater cyanobacterium. Crystals of ASRT were obtained in three different space groups, P4, C2 and P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, which diffract to 1.8, 2.1 and 2.0 Å, respectively. Phases for one of these crystal forms (P4) were obtained by SIRAS phasing using an iodide quick-soak derivative and a partial model was built. Phases for the remaining crystal forms were obtained by molecular replacement using the partial model from the P4 crystal form.

  20. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from dairy and swine facilities: Part 5-Simultaneous chemical and sensory analysis with Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry - Olfactometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O) for air samples collected at barn exhaust fans were used for quantification and ranking of odor impact of target odorous gases. Fifteen target odorous VOCs (odorants) were selected. Air sampl...

  1. Multi-Sensory Storytelling as an Aid to Assisting People with Profound Intellectual Disabilities to Cope with Sensitive Issues: A Multiple Research Methods Analysis of Engagement and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Hannah; Fenwick, Maggi; Lambe, Loretto; Hogg, James

    2011-01-01

    The importance of storytelling in social, cultural and educational contexts is well established and documented. The extension of storytelling to people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) has in recent years been undertaken with an emphasis on the value of sensory experience and the context storytelling provides for social…

  2. Sensory synergy as environmental input integration

    PubMed Central

    Alnajjar, Fady; Itkonen, Matti; Berenz, Vincent; Tournier, Maxime; Nagai, Chikara; Shimoda, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS) remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with nine healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis' sensory system to make the controller simpler. PMID:25628523

  3. Aerodynamic preliminary analysis system. Part 2: User's manual and program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divan, P.; Dunn, K.; Kojima, J.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive aerodynamic analysis program based on linearized potential theory is described. The solution treats thickness and attitude problems at subsonic and supersonic speeds. Three dimensional configurations with or without jet flaps having multiple nonplanar surfaces of arbitrary planform and open or closed slender bodies or noncircular contour are analyzed. Longitudinal and lateral-directional static and rotary derivative solutions are generated. The analysis is implemented on a time sharing system in conjunction with an input tablet digitizer and an interactive graphics input/output display and editing terminal to maximize its responsiveness to the preliminary analysis problem. Nominal case computation time of 45 CPU seconds on the CDC 175 for a 200 panel simulation indicates the program provides an efficient analysis for systematically performing various aerodynamic configuration tradeoff and evaluation studies.

  4. Describing Quality and Sensory Attributes of 3 Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Cultivars at 3 Ripeness Stages Based on Firmness.

    PubMed

    Nassur, Rita de Cássia Mirela Resende; González-Moscoso, Sara; Crisosto, Gayle M; Lima, Luiz Carlos de Oliveira; Vilas Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2015-09-01

    To determine the ideal ripening stage for consumption of the mango cultivars, "Ataulfo," "Haden," and "Tommy Atkins"; fruits at 3 flesh firmness levels (ripeness stages) were evaluated by a trained panel using descriptive analysis after instrumental measurements were made. After harvest, all fruits were ripened to allow softening and quality and sensory attribute changes. Ripening changes during softening of Ataulfo mangos were expressed by a characteristic increase in the perception of "tropical fruit" and "peach" aromas, an increase in "juiciness," "sweetness," and "tropical fruit" flavor, while "fibrousness," "chewiness," and "sourness" decreased. Similar desirable sensory changes were also detected during softening of Haden mangos; an increase in tropical fruit and peach aromas, sweetness and tropical fruit flavor, and a decrease in chewiness, sourness, and bitterness. Softening of Tommy Atkins mangos was followed by reduced chewiness and sourness and increased peach aroma. Softening of all cultivars was followed by decreased sourness and titratable acidity (TA) and increased soluble solids concentration (SSC) and SSC:TA ratio. The results indicate that mango ripening leads to increased expression of sensory attributes such as tropical fruit and peach aromas, tropical flavor, and sweetness that have been related to improved eating quality and these final changes in sensory quality attributes are specific for each cultivar. For example, Ataulfo and Haden mangos had greater improvement in quality and sensory attributes related to fruit eating quality during ripening-softening than Tommy Atkins. In our consumer test, these quality-sensory attributes expressed during ripening that were perceived by the trained panel were also validated, supporting the need for a controlled ripening protocol in mangos.

  5. The functioning of the Cuban home hospitalization programme: a descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    De Vos, Pol; Barroso, Isabel; Rodríguez, Armando; Bonet, Mariano; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Background Over the last decades hospital at home (HaH) programmes have been set up in many, mainly European, countries. The Cuban HaH programme is not hospital driven, but the responsibility of the first line health services, and family doctors play a pivotal role. Methods We analyse the structure and functioning of the Cuban programme. In this descriptive study, information was prospectively collected on HaH patients admitted between July 1st 2001 and June 30th 2002. Results Admission rates varied between areas from 0.014 to 0.035 per person per year (ppy). The < 1y and 1–4y age groups had the highest admission rates. In one area the follow-up of pregnancy problems led to high 15–24y and 25–49y female admission rates (0,070 and 0,058 respectively). Respiratory affections were the most frequent reason for admission (32,6%), followed by early hospital discharge (16,0%) and gynaeco-obstetrical problems (10.8%). The median length of stay varied from 5 to 7 days between regions and from 5 days (early discharge) to 7 days (gynaeco-obstetrical problems) in function of the reason for admission. On average an HaH episode entailed 1.4 and 1.6 contacts per patient-day with the family doctor and nurse respectively. Conclusion Difference in admission criteria in function of geography, distance to the hospital, transport facilities, and staff factors, as well as differences in hospital policy on early discharge explain the observed variability. The programme plays an important role in the integrated approach to quality care in the Cuban health system, but could benefit from more uniform admission criteria. PMID:17540015

  6. Volatile and sensory profiling of cocktail bitters.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Arielle J; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E

    2015-07-15

    Aromatic cocktail bitters are derived from the alcoholic extraction of a variety of plant materials and are used as additives in mixed drinks to enhance aroma and flavor. In this study sixteen commercial bitters were analyzed using volatile (GC-MS) and sensory profiling and multivariate statistics including Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS). The samples differed significantly in their citrus, celery, and spice characteristics. 148 volatile compounds were tentatively identified and the composition varied significantly with the type of bitters sample evaluated. PLS analysis showed that the volatile data correlated well overall to the sensory data, explaining 60% of the overall variability in the dataset. Primary aldehydes and phenylpropanoids were most closely related to green and spice-related sensory descriptors. However, the sensory impact of terpenoid compounds was difficult to predict in many cases. This may be due to the wide range of aroma qualities associated with terpenes as well as to concentration, synergistic or masking effects. PMID:25722175

  7. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup with added glutathione and/or MSG.

    PubMed

    Jung, D W; Hong, J H; Kim, K O

    2010-01-01

    The sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup with added glutathione (GSH) and/or monosodium glutamate (MSG) were investigated to examine the feasibility of GSH as a flavor enhancer. The sensory characteristics of beef soup samples, containing only GSH or MSG at different levels or a mixture of these, were examined by descriptive analysis. Principle component analysis was conducted to summarize the relationships between the beef soup samples and the attributes. In consumer testing, separate groups of consumers evaluated overall liking as well as the flavor intensities of beef, seasoning, and MSG. Partial least square regression was conducted to observe the relationships between the descriptive data and consumer data. The samples containing GSH had stronger "beef flavor,"garlic flavor," and "green onion flavor" while the samples containing MSG had stronger "salty taste,"sweet taste,"MSG taste," and "potato flavor." The consumers preferred samples containing both GSH and MSG, which had higher perceived flavor intensities of beef, seasonings, MSG. This study indicates that GSH has potential as a flavor enhancer, but more tests in different food systems with additions of GSH at varying levels are required to elucidate its effectiveness as a flavor enhancer more clearly. PMID:20492200

  8. Description of a user-oriented geographic information system - The resource analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmann, S. E.; Mokma, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the Resource Analysis Program, an applied geographic information system. Several applications are presented which utilized soil, and other natural resource data, to develop integrated maps and data analyses. These applications demonstrate the methods of analysis and the philosophy of approach used in the mapping system. The applications are evaluated in reference to four major needs of a functional mapping system: data capture, data libraries, data analysis, and mapping and data display. These four criteria are then used to describe an effort to develop the next generation of applied mapping systems. This approach uses inexpensive microcomputers for field applications and should prove to be a viable entry point for users heretofore unable or unwilling to venture into applied computer mapping.

  9. Self-Injurious Behavior and Functional Analysis: Where Are the Descriptions of Participant Protections?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeden, Marc; Mahoney, Amanda; Poling, Alan

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the reporting of participant protections in studies involving functional analysis and self-injurious behavior and published from 1994 through 2008. Results indicated that session termination criteria were rarely reported and other specific participant safeguards were seldom described. The absence of such information in no way…

  10. Aerodynamic design and analysis system for supersonic aircraft. Part 3: Computer program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, W. D.; Lundry, J. L.; Coleman, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    The computer program for the design and analysis of supersonic aircraft configurations is presented. The schematics of the program structure are provided. The individual overlays and subroutines are described. The system is useful in determining surface pressures and supersonic area rule concepts.

  11. Compositional Analysis of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks. 1. Review and Description of Methods

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    As interest in lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks for conversion into transportation fuels grows, the summative compositional analysis of biomass, or plant-derived material, becomes ever more important. The sulfuric acid hydrolysis of biomass has been used to measure lignin and structural carbohydrate content for more than 100 years. Researchers have applied these methods to measure the lignin and structural carbohydrate contents of woody materials, estimate the nutritional value of animal feed, analyze the dietary fiber content of human food, compare potential biofuels feedstocks, and measure the efficiency of biomass-to-biofuels processes. The purpose of this paper is to review the history and lineage of biomass compositional analysis methods based on a sulfuric acid hydrolysis. These methods have become the de facto procedure for biomass compositional analysis. The paper traces changes to the biomass compositional analysis methods through time to the biomass methods currently used at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The current suite of laboratory analytical procedures (LAPs) offered by NREL is described, including an overview of the procedures and methodologies and some common pitfalls. Suggestions are made for continuing improvement to the suite of analyses. PMID:20669951

  12. Quantitative and Descriptive Comparison of Four Acoustic Analysis Systems: Vowel Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burris, Carlyn; Vorperian, Houri K.; Fourakis, Marios; Kent, Ray D.; Bolt, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines accuracy and comparability of 4 trademarked acoustic analysis software packages (AASPs): Praat, WaveSurfer, TF32, and CSL by using synthesized and natural vowels. Features of AASPs are also described. Method: Synthesized and natural vowels were analyzed using each of the AASP's default settings to secure 9…

  13. Graphical and Numerical Descriptive Analysis: Exploratory Tools Applied to Vietnamese Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haughton, Dominique; Phong, Nguyen

    2004-01-01

    This case study covers several exploratory data analysis ideas, the histogram and boxplot, kernel density estimates, the recently introduced bagplot--a two-dimensional extension of the boxplot--as well as the violin plot, which combines a boxplot with a density shape plot. We apply these ideas and demonstrate how to interpret the output from these…

  14. A Descriptive Analysis of Health-Related Infomercials: Implications for Health Education and Media Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Susan C.; Lindsay, Gordon B.; Thomsen, Steve R.; Olsen, Astrid M.

    2003-01-01

    Media literacy education helps individuals become discriminating consumers of health information. Informed consumers are less likely to purchase useless health products if informed of misleading and deceptive advertising methods. The purpose of this study was to conduct a content analysis of health-related TV infomercials. An instrument…

  15. A Descriptive Analysis of Test Session Observation Checklist Ratings from the Woodcock Johnson III Standardization Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisby, Craig L.; Osterlind, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    Modern scale construction techniques have been used to develop scales measuring examiner ratings of examinees' test session behavior (TSB) on Wechsler and Stanford-Binet intelligence tests. This study analyzes data from the Test Session Observation Checklist (TSOC), a measure developed by post hoc rational analysis, from a portion of the Woodcock…

  16. Variations in U.S. Consumers' Acceptability of Korean Rice Cake, Seolgitteok, with respect to Sensory Attributes and Nonsensory Factors.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sungeun; Yoon, Suk Hoo; Min, Jieun; Lee, Suji; Tokar, Tonya; Lee, Sun-Ok; Seo, Han-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Because the Korean rice cake, Seolgitteok, is mainly prepared with rice flour containing no gluten-protein associated with celiac disease, it can be considered for inclusion in a gluten-free diet. However, Western consumers may be unlikely to enjoy the plain flavor and chewy texture of Seolgitteok. This study aimed to determine both sensory and nonsensory factors that might affect U.S. consumers' acceptability of Seolgitteok. A total of 119 U.S. consumers rated 5 Seolgitteok samples, differentiated by descriptive sensory analysis, with respect to hedonic impression and just-about-right aspects of sensory attributes. Nonsensory factors such as demographic profile, innovativeness, social representation, sensation-seeking, and personality traits were also assessed. Addition levels of brown rice flour (0% to 100%) and sugar (5% to 20%) not only enriched flavor, but also lessened chewiness of Seolgitteok, thereby increasing an overall hedonic impression. Moreover, consumer acceptability of Seolgitteok varied with respect to nonsensory factors. Seolgitteok was more appreciated by males, sensation seekers, and individuals constrained by social desirability than by other groups. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that U.S. consumers' acceptability of Seolgitteok varies not only by sensory attributes such as rice flavor, sweetness, and chewiness, but also by nonsensory factors such as gender, sensation-seeking characteristics, and personality traits.

  17. Variations in U.S. Consumers' Acceptability of Korean Rice Cake, Seolgitteok, with respect to Sensory Attributes and Nonsensory Factors.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sungeun; Yoon, Suk Hoo; Min, Jieun; Lee, Suji; Tokar, Tonya; Lee, Sun-Ok; Seo, Han-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Because the Korean rice cake, Seolgitteok, is mainly prepared with rice flour containing no gluten-protein associated with celiac disease, it can be considered for inclusion in a gluten-free diet. However, Western consumers may be unlikely to enjoy the plain flavor and chewy texture of Seolgitteok. This study aimed to determine both sensory and nonsensory factors that might affect U.S. consumers' acceptability of Seolgitteok. A total of 119 U.S. consumers rated 5 Seolgitteok samples, differentiated by descriptive sensory analysis, with respect to hedonic impression and just-about-right aspects of sensory attributes. Nonsensory factors such as demographic profile, innovativeness, social representation, sensation-seeking, and personality traits were also assessed. Addition levels of brown rice flour (0% to 100%) and sugar (5% to 20%) not only enriched flavor, but also lessened chewiness of Seolgitteok, thereby increasing an overall hedonic impression. Moreover, consumer acceptability of Seolgitteok varied with respect to nonsensory factors. Seolgitteok was more appreciated by males, sensation seekers, and individuals constrained by social desirability than by other groups. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that U.S. consumers' acceptability of Seolgitteok varies not only by sensory attributes such as rice flavor, sweetness, and chewiness, but also by nonsensory factors such as gender, sensation-seeking characteristics, and personality traits. PMID:26641741

  18. Influence of lactation stage and some flock management practices on sensory characteristics of goat milk from Brazilian Saanen breed.

    PubMed

    de Cássia Ramos do Egypto Queiroga, Rita; Costa, Roberto Germano; Madruga, Marta Suely; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Dos Santos Garruti, Deborah; Magnani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of lactation stage (early, middle, late) and management practices (milking hygiene and buck presence) on the sensory attributes of Saanen goat milk. Goats were randomly divided in four groups in respect of different milking sanitary procedures and the presence/absence of the buck in the barn. Milk samples were analyzed for sensory attributes including quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and acceptance. The milking hygiene practice caused no significant influence on microbiological parameters. Results of QDA revealed that the buck presence increased the characteristic odor of milk at the middle and late lactation stages. The off-odor and off-flavor descriptors showed a distinct response since a higher intensity of these sensory characteristics was noted in the samples obtained from goats maintained without the buck. Odor and flavor contributed most in characterizing the different samples regardless of the management practice and lactation stage. The acceptance of odor showed to be influenced only by the lactation stage, while the acceptance of flavor was only through the presence of the buck. Odor acceptance correlated negatively to off-odor and off-flavor, suggesting that these two sensory attributes impaired the preference for the aroma of the milk samples. PMID:26497816

  19. Sensory rooms in psychiatric inpatient care: Staff experiences.

    PubMed

    Björkdahl, Anna; Perseius, Kent-Inge; Samuelsson, Mats; Lindberg, Mathilde Hedlund

    2016-10-01

    There is an increased interest in exploring the use of sensory rooms in psychiatric inpatient care. Sensory rooms can provide stimulation via sight, smell, hearing, touch and taste in a demand-free environment that is controlled by the patient. The rooms may reduce patients' distress and agitation, as well as rates of seclusion and restraint. Successful implementation of sensory rooms is influenced by the attitudes and approach of staff. This paper presents a study of the experiences of 126 staff members who worked with sensory rooms in a Swedish inpatient psychiatry setting. A cross-sectional descriptive survey design was used. Data were collected by a web based self-report 12-item questionnaire that included both open- and closed-ended questions. Our findings strengthen the results of previous research in this area in many ways. Content analyses revealed three main categories: hopes and concerns, focusing on patients' self-care, and the room as a sanctuary. Although staff initially described both negative and positive expectations of sensory rooms, after working with the rooms, there was a strong emphasis on more positive experiences, such as letting go of control and observing an increase in patients' self-confidence, emotional self-care and well-being. Our findings support the important principals of person-centred nursing and recovery-oriented mental health and the ability of staff to implement these principles by working with sensory rooms.

  20. The influence of season on the sensory profile of Egyptian goose (Alopochen aegyptiacus) meat.

    PubMed

    Geldenhuys, Greta; Muller, Nina; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2016-09-01

    The feeding activities of Egyptian geese are becoming a problem for crop farmers in South Africa. Their grain-based diet during the harvesting season compared to the diet during the rest of the year may have an influence on the meat quality, especially the sensory profile. Descriptive sensory analysis, physical measurements, and the proximate composition were used to investigate these effects. Season was a major influential factor with the meat from summer associating with sweet-oily-duck and beef attributes in contrast to the strong association towards the game, metallic, and fish attributes of the winter meat. This is due to the difference in the main fatty acids; winter was higher (P ≤ 0.05) in polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFA: ) (C18:3 n-3) and summer higher (P ≤ 0.05) in monounsaturated fatty acid (C18:1 n-9). This study established that season has a significant effect on the sensory profile of Egyptian goose meat and should be considered regarding the utilization and consumption. PMID:27143770

  1. Often atypical? The distribution of sensory disturbance in carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Clark, D; Amirfeyz, R; Leslie, I; Bannister, G

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the disturbance of hand sensation in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and assess the usefulness of objective and subjective measures. The study included 64 patients with CTS confirmed by electrophysiological testing. Sensory assessment was made by objective (pressure aesthesiometry) and subjective (hand symptom diagram) measures in different anatomical areas. The results of the subjective and objective testing were correlated with nerve conduction studies by a kappa analysis. Sensory disturbance occurred more frequently in areas innervated by the median nerve (index finger, 94%) but also with great frequency in other areas (little finger, 39%). Pain occurred frequently in anticipated areas (wrist crease, 33%) but also in other areas (little finger, 11%). There was very poor correlation between objective measures and electrophysiological testing or subjective measures. This study does therefore not support the use of objective sensory assessment for the initial diagnosis of CTS. An atypical distribution of symptoms is a common occurrence and should not discourage diagnosis of CTS. The patient's description of symptoms remains the most important tool in diagnosis. PMID:21929918

  2. Sensory integrative processing in delinquent-prone and non-delinquent-prone adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fanchiang, S P; Snyder, C; Zobel-Lachiusa, J; Loeffler, C B; Thompson, M E

    1990-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to obtain a preliminary description of the sensory integrative and practic abilities of 114 non-delinquent-prone adolescents aged 12 through 18 years and to compare their performances with those of 12 delinquent-prone adolescents with learning problems. Ten of the 17 subtests of the Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests (SIPT) (Ayres, 1989) as well as the Finger Posture Imitation Test (Druker, 1980) and the MacQuarrie Test for Mechanical Ability (MacQuarrie, 1925/1953) were administered to both groups. It was hypothesized that performance on some tests would correlate with age in the non-delinquent-prone adolescents. It was also hypothesized that some delinquent-prone adolescents with learning problems would perform significantly worse on the tests of sensory integrative and practic abilities than would the non-delinquent-prone adolescents. A data analysis indicated that performance on the praxis tests, Manual Form Perception, Graphesthesia, and Bilateral Motor Coordination showed a significant age correlation. The results of this study indicated a difference between the two groups, and it was concluded that the delinquent-prone group performed more poorly on all of the praxis-related tests and on the absolute values of the tests of Postrotary Nystagmus, Standing and Walking Balance, and Bilateral Motor Coordination. Some of the vestibular- and praxis-related tests, therefore, may still provide useful information on children older than 8 years of age.

  3. Description of the third instar of Hygrobia nigra (Clark, 1862) Coleoptera: Paelobiidae), with a key for the identification of mature larvae of Hygrobia Latreille, 1804 and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Michat, Mariano C; Alarie, Yves; Hendrich, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The mature larva of the squeak beetle Hygrobia nigra (Clark, 1862) (Paelobiidae) is studied for the first time based on detailed descriptions and illustrations of selected structures, with special emphasis on morphometry and chaetotaxy. A key for the identification of mature larvae of four of the six species of Hygrobia Latreille, 1804 known worldwide is presented. The phylogenetic relationships of the species are analyzed based on a cladistic analysis of a combined data set including larval and adult characters. Hygrobia nigra shares with the other known species of the genus several larval apomorphies including the presence of paramedian lip-like lobes on the epipharynx, a well-developed gula, gills on thoracic and first three abdominal sterna, and the maxillary stipites inserted into submental pouches, and is unique in the presence of a larger number of secondary setae on the metacoxa. The presence of a compact group of minute sensilla in the place where the galea is commonly located suggests that members of Hygrobia lost the galea, a condition independently evolved in some dytiscid lineages. The Australian species form a well-supported clade characterized by the presence of a short nasale, fewer natatory setae on the metatibia, and a marked shortening of the antennal sensorial appendage and the last abdominal segment. However, no larval characters were discovered to resolve relationships within that clade. The Palearctic H. hermanni (Fabricius, 1775) lacks a distinct nasale and is resolved as sister to the clade formed by the Australian species. PMID:25081162

  4. The Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) aerodynamics and systems: Description and analysis. [maneuver control and gust alleviators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrisani, D., II; Daughaday, H.; Dittenhauser, J.; Rynaski, E.

    1978-01-01

    The aerodynamics, control system, instrumentation complement and recording system of the USAF Total In/Flight Simulator (TIFS) airplane are described. A control system that would allow the ailerons to be operated collectively, as well as, differentially to entrance the ability of the vehicle to perform the dual function of maneuver load control and gust alleviation is emphasized. Mathematical prediction of the rigid body and the flexible equations of longitudinal motion using the level 2.01 FLEXSTAB program are included along with a definition of the vehicle geometry, the mass and stiffness distribution, the calculated mode frequencies and mode shapes, and the resulting aerodynamic equations of motion of the flexible vehicle. A complete description of the control and instrumentation system of the aircraft is presented, including analysis, ground test and flight data comparisons of the performance and bandwidth of the aerodynamic surface servos. Proposed modification for improved performance of the servos are also presented.

  5. THE APPLICATION OF THE SXF LATTICE DESCRIPTION AND THE UAL SOFTWARE ENVIRONMENT TO THE ANALYSIS OF THE LHC.

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER,W.; PILAT,F.; PTITSON,V.

    1999-03-29

    A software environment for accelerator modeling has been developed which includes the UAL (Unified Accelerator Library), a collection of accelerator physics libraries with a Per1 interface for scripting, and the SXF (Standard eXchange Format), a format for accelerator description which extends the MAD sequence by including deviations from design values. SXF interfaces have been written for several programs, including MAD9 and MAD8 via the doom database, Cosy, TevLat and UAL itself, which includes Teapot++. After an overview of the software we describe the application of the tools to the analysis of the LHC lattice stability, in the presence of alignment and coupling errors, and to the correction of the first turn and closed orbit in the machine.

  6. A Descriptive Analysis of Music Therapists' Perceptions of Delivering Services in Inclusive Settings: A Challenge to the Field.

    PubMed

    Jones; Cardinal

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of music therapists toward inclusion (providing services within general education settings) and to determine their willingness to provide their services in these settings. A questionnaire was sent to 560 music therapists of which 373 responded (67%). A descriptive analysis indicated that although the vast majority of music therapists are providing their services in a segregated setting, they (a) overwhelmingly know about inclusion, (b) perceive benefits to clients with and without disabilities, and (c) are willing to provide their services within an inclusive setting. Why then do therapists so overwhelmingly provide their services in noninclusive settings? Possible answers to this question as well as the challenge this creates to the field of music therapy are discussed.

  7. Description of a Portable Wireless Device for High-Frequency Body Temperature Acquisition and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta-Frau, David; Varela, Manuel; Aboy, Mateo; Miró-Martínez, Pau

    2009-01-01

    We describe a device for dual channel body temperature monitoring. The device can operate as a real time monitor or as a data logger, and has Bluetooth capabilities to enable for wireless data download to the computer used for data analysis. The proposed device is capable of sampling temperature at a rate of 1 sample per minute with a resolution of 0.01 °C . The internal memory allows for stand-alone data logging of up to 10 days. The device has a battery life of 50 hours in continuous real-time mode. In addition to describing the proposed device in detail, we report the results of a statistical analysis conducted to assess its accuracy and reproducibility. PMID:22408473

  8. EBT reactor systems analysis and cost code: description and users guide (Version 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T.; Uckan, N.A.; Barnes, J.M.; Driemeyer, D.E.

    1984-06-01

    An ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) reactor systems analysis and cost code that incorporates the most recent advances in EBT physics has been written. The code determines a set of reactors that fall within an allowed operating window determined from the coupling of ring and core plasma properties and the self-consistent treatment of the coupled ring-core stability and power balance requirements. The essential elements of the systems analysis and cost code are described, along with the calculational sequences leading to the specification of the reactor options and their associated costs. The input parameters, the constraints imposed upon them, and the operating range over which the code provides valid results are discussed. A sample problem and the interpretation of the results are also presented.

  9. A Description of the Revised ATHEANA (A Technique for Human Event Analysis)

    SciTech Connect

    FORESTER,JOHN A.; BLEY,DENNIS C.; COOPER,SUSANE; KOLACZKOWSKI,ALAN M.; THOMPSON,CATHERINE; RAMEY-SMITH,ANN; WREATHALL,JOHN

    2000-07-18

    This paper describes the most recent version of a human reliability analysis (HRA) method called ``A Technique for Human Event Analysis'' (ATHEANA). The new version is documented in NUREG-1624, Rev. 1 [1] and reflects improvements to the method based on comments received from a peer review that was held in 1998 (see [2] for a detailed discussion of the peer review comments) and on the results of an initial trial application of the method conducted at a nuclear power plant in 1997 (see Appendix A in [3]). A summary of the more important recommendations resulting from the peer review and trial application is provided and critical and unique aspects of the revised method are discussed.

  10. Description of the Northwest hazardous waste site data base and preliminary analysis of site characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, D.L.; Hartz, K.E.; Triplett, M.B.

    1988-08-01

    The Northwest Hazardous Waste RD and D Center (the Center) conducts research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) activities for hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste technologies applicable to remediating sites in the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington. To properly set priorities for these RD and D activities and to target development efforts it is necessary to understand the nature of the sites requiring remediation. A data base of hazardous waste site characteristics has been constructed to facilitate this analysis. The data base used data from EPA's Region X Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) and from Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation (PA/SI) forms for sites in Montana. The Center's data base focuses on two sets of sites--those on the National Priorities List (NPL) and other sites that are denoted as ''active'' CERCLIS sites. Active CERCLIS sites are those sites that are undergoing active investigation and analysis. The data base contains information for each site covering site identification and location, type of industry associated with the site, waste categories present (e.g., heavy metals, pesticides, etc.), methods of disposal (e.g., tanks, drums, land, etc.), waste forms (e.g., liquid, solid, etc.), and hazard targets (e.g., surface water, groundwater, etc.). As part of this analysis, the Northwest region was divided into three geographic subregions to identify differences in disposal site characteristics within the Northwest. 2 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. A new analysis system for whole air sampling: description and results from 2013 SENEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, B. M.; Gilman, J.; Dumas, M.; Hughes, D.; Jaksich, A.; Hatch, C. D.; Graus, M.; Warneke, C.; Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Holloway, J. S.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the troposphere is critical for the understanding of emissions and physical and chemical processes that can impact both air quality and climate. Airborne VOC measurements have proven especially challenging due to the requirement of both high sensitivity (pptv) and short sample collection times (≤15 s) to maximize spatial resolution and sampling frequency for targeted plume analysis. The use of stainless steel canisters to collect whole air samples (WAS) for post-flight analysis has been pioneered by the groups of D. Blake and E. Atlas [Blake et al., 1992; Atlas et al., 1993]. For the 2013 Southeast Nexus Study (SENEX), the NOAA ESRL CSD laboratory undertook WAS measurements for the first time. This required the construction of three new, highly-automated, and field-portable instruments designed to sample, analyze, and clean the canisters for re-use. Analysis was performed with a new custom-built gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer system. The instrument pre-concentrates analyte cryostatically into two parallel traps by means of a Stirling engine, a novel technique which obviates the need for liquid nitrogen to reach trapping temperatures of -175C. Here we present an evaluation of the retrieval of target VOC species from WAS canisters. We discuss the effects of humidity and sample age on the analyte, particularly upon C8+ alkane and aromatic species and biogenic species. Finally, we present results from several research flights during SENEX that targeted emissions from oil/natural gas production.

  12. Revision of Leptorhynchoides thecatus (Acanthocephala: Illiosentidae), with morphometric analysis and description of six new species.

    PubMed

    Steinauer, Michelle L; Nickol, Brent B

    2015-04-01

    Six new species of Leptorhynchoides from the southeastern United States are described. These new species were once part of the Leptorhynchoides thecatus complex of species that was previously recognized on the basis of DNA sequence data. Multivariate morphometric analysis including discriminant function analysis and decision tree analysis indicated that each of the species is morphologically distinct. Both analyses classified more than 90% of specimens correctly and most misclassifications occurred between members of 2 pairs of species that are morphologically similar. The most discriminating continuous characters were: trunk length, number of longitudinal rows of hooks, length of the longest hook, and testes width. Hook asymmetry and missing hooks on the proboscis were also important taxonomic characters. The discriminant function and the decision tree generated from the data were used to classify new specimens, yielding a 96% and 84% correct classification rate, respectively. The new taxonomic designations account for much of the previously recognized variability in host use, habitat use, and development as determined by survey data. With the addition of these 6 new taxa, 10 species currently are recognized within the genus. PMID:25422077

  13. Revision of Leptorhynchoides thecatus (Acanthocephala: Illiosentidae), with morphometric analysis and description of six new species.

    PubMed

    Steinauer, Michelle L; Nickol, Brent B

    2015-04-01

    Six new species of Leptorhynchoides from the southeastern United States are described. These new species were once part of the Leptorhynchoides thecatus complex of species that was previously recognized on the basis of DNA sequence data. Multivariate morphometric analysis including discriminant function analysis and decision tree analysis indicated that each of the species is morphologically distinct. Both analyses classified more than 90% of specimens correctly and most misclassifications occurred between members of 2 pairs of species that are morphologically similar. The most discriminating continuous characters were: trunk length, number of longitudinal rows of hooks, length of the longest hook, and testes width. Hook asymmetry and missing hooks on the proboscis were also important taxonomic characters. The discriminant function and the decision tree generated from the data were used to classify new specimens, yielding a 96% and 84% correct classification rate, respectively. The new taxonomic designations account for much of the previously recognized variability in host use, habitat use, and development as determined by survey data. With the addition of these 6 new taxa, 10 species currently are recognized within the genus.

  14. Sensory receptors in monotremes.

    PubMed

    Proske, U; Gregory, J E; Iggo, A

    1998-07-29

    This is a summary of the current knowledge of sensory receptors in skin of the bill of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, and the snout of the echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus. Brief mention is also made of the third living member of the monotremes, the long-nosed echidna, Zaglossus bruijnii. The monotremes are the only group of mammals known to have evolved electroreception. The structures in the skin responsible for the electric sense have been identified as sensory mucous glands with an expanded epidermal portion that is innervated by large-diameter nerve fibres. Afferent recordings have shown that in both platypuses and echidnas the receptors excited by cathodal (negative) pulses and inhibited by anodal (positive) pulses. Estimates give a total of 40,000 mucous sensory glands in the upper and lower bill of the platypus, whereas there are only about 100 in the tip of the echidna snout. Recording of electroreceptor-evoked activity from the brain of the platypus have shown that the largest area dedicated to somatosensory input from the bill, S1, shows alternating rows of mechanosensory and bimodal neurons. The bimodal neurons respond to both electrosensory and mechanical inputs. In skin of the platypus bill and echidna snout, apart from the electroreceptors, there are structures called push rods, which consist of a column of compacted cells that is able to move relatively independently of adjacent regions of skin. At the base of the column are Merkel cell complexes, known to be type I slowly adapting mechanoreceptors, and lamellated corpuscles, probably vibration receptors. It has been speculated that the platypus uses its electric sense to detect the electromyographic activity from moving prey in the water and for obstacle avoidance. Mechanoreceptors signal contact with the prey. For the echidna, a role for the electrosensory system has not yet been established during normal foraging behaviour, although it has been shown that it is able to detect the presence

  15. Cloning, expression, refolding, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the sensory domain of the Campylobacter chemoreceptor for aspartate A (CcaA).

    PubMed

    Machuca, Mayra A; Liu, Yu C; Roujeinikova, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In Campylobacter jejuni, chemotaxis and motility have been identified as important virulence factors that are required for host colonization and invasion. Chemotactic recognition of extracellular signals is mediated by the periplasmic sensory domains of its transducer-like proteins (Tlps). In this study, the sensory domain of the C. jejuni chemoreceptor for aspartate A (CcaA) has been expressed in Escherichia coli and purified from inclusion bodies. The urea-denatured protein was refolded and then crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as a precipitating agent. A complete data set has been collected to 1.4 Å resolution using cryocooling conditions and synchrotron radiation. The crystals belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a=39.3, b=43.3, c=50.9 Å, α=92.5, β=111.4, γ=114.7°. PMID:25615981

  16. Examination of the influence of coatings on thin superalloy sections. Volume 1: Description and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, M.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of an aluminide coating and of section thickness were investigated on two cast nickel-base superalloys. Cast section thickness ranged from 0.038 cm to 0.15 cm. Simulated engine exposures in a jet fuel burner rig with cyclic air cooling were studied. The effects of surface machining before coating and re-machining and re-coating after exposures were examined. The properties evaluated included tensile strength, stress rupture, high-cycle mechanical fatigue, and thermal fatigue. A metallurgical analysis was made of the microstructures of the coated and uncoated alloy.

  17. Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter description report. INEL Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration System Analysis project

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, M.C.; Morrison, J.L.; Morneau, R.A.; Rudin, M.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1992-05-01

    A formal methodology has been developed for identifying technology gaps and assessing innovative or postulated technologies for inclusion in proposed Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) remediation systems. Called the Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter, the methodology provides a formalized selection process where technologies and systems are rated and assessments made based on performance measures, and regulatory and technical requirements. The results are auditable, and can be validated with field data. This analysis methodology will be applied to the remedial action of transuranic contaminated waste pits and trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL).

  18. Data Science Programs in U.S. Higher Education: An Exploratory Content Analysis of Program Description, Curriculum Structure, and Course Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Rong; Sae-Lim, Watinee

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an exploratory content analysis of 30 randomly selected Data Science (DS) programs from eight disciplines revealed significant gaps in current DS education in the United States. The analysis centers on linguistic patterns of program descriptions, curriculum requirements, and DS course focus as pertaining to key skills and domain…

  19. Holistic Analysis Enhances the Description of Metabolic Complexity in Dietary Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Simmler, Charlotte; Kulakowski, Daniel; Lankin, David C; McAlpine, James B; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F

    2016-01-01

    In the field of food and nutrition, complex natural products (NPs) are typically obtained from cells/tissues of diverse organisms such as plants, mushrooms, and animals. Among them, edible fruits, grains, and vegetables represent most of the human diet. Because of an important dietary dependence, the comprehensive metabolomic analysis of dietary NPs, performed holistically via the assessment of as many metabolites as possible, constitutes a fundamental building block for understanding the human diet. Both mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are important complementary analytic techniques, covering a wide range of metabolites at different concentrations. Particularly, 1-dimensional 1H-NMR offers an unbiased overview of all metabolites present in a sample without prior knowledge of its composition, thereby leading to an untargeted analysis. In the past decade, NMR-based metabolomics in plant and food analyses has evolved considerably. The scope of the present review, covering literature of the past 5 y, is to address the relevance of 1H-NMR–based metabolomics in food plant studies, including a comparison with MS-based techniques. Major applications of NMR-based metabolomics for the quality control of dietary NPs and assessment of their nutritional values are presented. PMID:27180381

  20. 3-D description of fracture surfaces and stress-sensitivity analysis for naturally fractured reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.Q.; Jioa, D.; Meng, Y.F.; Fan, Y.

    1997-08-01

    Three kinds of reservoir cores (limestone, sandstone, and shale with natural fractures) were used to study the effect of morphology of fracture surfaces on stress sensitivity. The cores, obtained from the reservoirs with depths of 2170 to 2300 m, have fractures which are mated on a large scale, but unmated on a fine scale. A specially designed photoelectric scanner with a computer was used to describe the topography of the fracture surfaces. Then, theoretical analysis of the fracture closure was carried out based on the fracture topography generated. The scanning results show that the asperity has almost normal distributions for all three types of samples. For the tested samples, the fracture closure predicted by the elastic-contact theory is different from the laboratory measurements because plastic deformation of the aspirates plays an important role under the testing range of normal stresses. In this work, the traditionally used elastic-contact theory has been modified to better predict the stress sensitivity of reservoir fractures. Analysis shows that the standard deviation of the probability density function of asperity distribution has a great effect on the fracture closure rate.

  1. A descriptive analysis of potential reinforcement contingencies in the preschool classroom.

    PubMed Central

    McKerchar, Paige M; Thompson, Rachel H

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, functional analysis methods have been extended to classroom settings; however, research has not evaluated the extent to which consequences presented during functional analysis are associated with problem behavior under naturalistic classroom conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether the social consequences commonly manipulated in functional analyses occur in typical preschool classrooms. A total of 14 children attending preschool programs participated in the study. Data were collected on the occurrence of antecedent events (e.g., presentation of tasks), child behaviors (e.g., aggression), and teacher responses (e.g., delivery of attention). The probability of various teacher responses given child behavior was then calculated and compared to the response-independent probabilities of teacher responses. Attention was found to be the most common classroom consequence (100% of children), followed by material presentation (79% of children), and escape from instructional tasks (33% of children). Comparisons of conditional and response-independent probabilities showed that the probability of teacher attention increased given the occurrence of problem behavior for all children, suggesting that a contingency existed between these two events. Results suggest that functional analyses that test the effects of attention, escape, and access to materials on problem behavior may be appropriate for preschool settings. PMID:15669403

  2. Network representation of protein interactions: Theory of graph description and analysis.

    PubMed

    Kurzbach, Dennis

    2016-09-01

    A methodological framework is presented for the graph theoretical interpretation of NMR data of protein interactions. The proposed analysis generalizes the idea of network representations of protein structures by expanding it to protein interactions. This approach is based on regularization of residue-resolved NMR relaxation times and chemical shift data and subsequent construction of an adjacency matrix that represents the underlying protein interaction as a graph or network. The network nodes represent protein residues. Two nodes are connected if two residues are functionally correlated during the protein interaction event. The analysis of the resulting network enables the quantification of the importance of each amino acid of a protein for its interactions. Furthermore, the determination of the pattern of correlations between residues yields insights into the functional architecture of an interaction. This is of special interest for intrinsically disordered proteins, since the structural (three-dimensional) architecture of these proteins and their complexes is difficult to determine. The power of the proposed methodology is demonstrated at the example of the interaction between the intrinsically disordered protein osteopontin and its natural ligand heparin.

  3. Analysis of Polygala tenuifolia Transcriptome and Description of Secondary Metabolite Biosynthetic Pathways by Illumina Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Hongling; Xu, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Fusheng; Wang, Yaoqin; Guo, Shuhong; Qin, Xuemei; Du, Guanhua

    2015-01-01

    Radix polygalae, the dried roots of Polygala tenuifolia and P. sibirica, is one of the most well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Radix polygalae contains various saponins, xanthones, and oligosaccharide esters and these compounds are responsible for several pharmacological properties. To provide basic breeding information, enhance molecular biological analysis, and determine secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways of P. tenuifolia, we applied Illumina sequencing technology and de novo assembly. We also applied this technique to gain an overview of P. tenuifolia transcriptome from samples with different years. Using Illumina sequencing, approximately 67.2% of unique sequences were annotated by basic local alignment search tool similarity searches against public sequence databases. We classified the annotated unigenes by using Nr, Nt, GO, COG, and KEGG databases compared with NCBI. We also obtained many candidates CYP450s and UGTs by the analysis of genes in the secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways, including putative terpenoid backbone and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway. With this transcriptome sequencing, future genetic and genomics studies related to the molecular mechanisms associated with the chemical composition of P. tenuifolia may be improved. Genes involved in the enrichment of secondary metabolite biosynthesis-related pathways could enhance the potential applications of P. tenuifolia in pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26543847

  4. Sensory adaptation for timing perception.

    PubMed

    Roseboom, Warrick; Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-04-22

    Recent sensory experience modifies subjective timing perception. For example, when visual events repeatedly lead auditory events, such as when the sound and video tracks of a movie are out of sync, subsequent vision-leads-audio presentations are reported as more simultaneous. This phenomenon could provide insights into the fundamental problem of how timing is represented in the brain, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that the effect of recent experience on timing perception is not just subjective; recent sensory experience also modifies relative timing discrimination. This result indicates that recent sensory history alters the encoding of relative timing in sensory areas, excluding explanations of the subjective phenomenon based only on decision-level changes. The pattern of changes in timing discrimination suggests the existence of two sensory components, similar to those previously reported for visual spatial attributes: a lateral shift in the nonlinear transducer that maps relative timing into perceptual relative timing and an increase in transducer slope around the exposed timing. The existence of these components would suggest that previous explanations of how recent experience may change the sensory encoding of timing, such as changes in sensory latencies or simple implementations of neural population codes, cannot account for the effect of sensory adaptation on timing perception. PMID:25788590

  5. Portable microcomputer for the analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra. Volume II. Software description and listings. [IAEAPU

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhter, W.D.

    1984-05-01

    A portable microcomputer has been developed and programmed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to perform in-field analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra. The unit includes a 16-bit LSI-11/2 microprocessor, 32-K words of memory, a 20-character display for user prompting, a numeric keyboard for user responses, and a 20-character thermal printer for hard-copy output of results. The unit weights 11 kg and has dimensions of 33.5 x 30.5 x 23.0 cm. This compactness allows the unit to be stored under an airline seat. Only the positions of the 148-keV /sup 241/Pu and 208-keV /sup 237/U peaks are required for spectral analysis that gives plutonium isotopic ratios and weight percent abundances. Volume I of this report provides a detailed description of the data analysis methodology, operation instructions, hardware, and maintenance and troubleshooting. Volume II describes the software and provides software listings.

  6. Multispectral scanner system parameter study and analysis software system description, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, D. A. (Principal Investigator); Mobasseri, B. G.; Wiersma, D. J.; Wiswell, E. R.; Mcgillem, C. D.; Anuta, P. E.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The integration of the available methods provided the analyst with the unified scanner analysis package (USAP), the flexibility and versatility of which was superior to many previous integrated techniques. The USAP consisted of three main subsystems; (1) a spatial path, (2) a spectral path, and (3) a set of analytic classification accuracy estimators which evaluated the system performance. The spatial path consisted of satellite and/or aircraft data, data correlation analyzer, scanner IFOV, and random noise model. The output of the spatial path was fed into the analytic classification and accuracy predictor. The spectral path consisted of laboratory and/or field spectral data, EXOSYS data retrieval, optimum spectral function calculation, data transformation, and statistics calculation. The output of the spectral path was fended into the stratified posterior performance estimator.

  7. Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program. Volume 2: Program description, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The QL module of the Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program is described. Execution of this module is initiated when and if subroutine PADSI calls subroutine GROPE. Subroutine GROPE controls the high level logical flow of the QL module. The purpose of the module is to determine a trajectory that satisfies the necessary variational conditions for optimal performance. The module achieves this by solving a nonlinear multi-point boundary value problem. The numerical method employed is described. It is an iterative technique that converges quadratically when it does converge. The three basic steps of the module are: (1) initialization, (2) iteration, and (3) culmination. For Volume 1 see N73-13199.

  8. Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program. Volume 2: Program description, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program has a two-fold purpose. It can size launch vehicles in conjunction with calculus-of-variations optimal trajectories and can also be used as a general-purpose branched trajectory optimization program. In the former use, it has the Space Shuttle Synthesis Program as well as a simplified stage weight module for optimally sizing manned recoverable launch vehicles. For trajectory optimization alone or with sizing, PADS has two trajectory modules. The first trajectory module uses the method of steepest descent; the second employs the method of quasilinearization, which requires a starting solution from the first trajectory module. For Volume 1 see N73-13199.

  9. Descriptive analysis of the inequalities of health information resources between Alberta's rural and urban health regions.

    PubMed

    Stieda, Vivian; Colvin, Barb

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to understand the extent of the inequalities in health information resources across Alberta, SEARCH Custom, HKN (Health Knowledge Network) and IRREN (Inter-Regional Research and Evaluation Network) conducted a survey in December 2007 to determine what library resources currently existed in Alberta's seven rural health regions and the two urban health regions. Although anecdotal evidence indicated that these gaps existed, the analysis was undertaken to provide empirical evidence of the exact nature of these gaps. The results, coupled with the published literature on the impact, effectiveness and value of information on clinical practice and administrative decisions in healthcare management, will be used to build momentum among relevant stakeholders to support a vision of equitably funded health information for all healthcare practitioners across the province of Alberta.

  10. A descriptive taxonomy of environmental operations and its implications for behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, Henry D.; Blakely, Elbert

    1994-01-01

    Environmental operations may be classified according to whether they have evocative or function-altering effects. Evocative events, such as the presentation of unconditioned and conditioned stimuli, establishing operations, and discriminative stimuli, serve to increase, decrease, or maintain the momentary frequency of behavior. Function-altering operations, such as operant and respondent conditioning, the correlation of stimuli, and the presentation of certain verbal stimuli, serve to increase, decrease, or maintain the evocative and function-altering (e.g., reinforcing or punishing) functions of other events. This paper expands upon the functional taxonomy of environmental events described by Michael (1993a). The resulting classification scheme should permit behavior analysts to more easily respond to similarities and differences between functional environmental events. This paper discusses implications of the suggested taxonomy for how behavior analysts talk about motivational variables, discriminative stimuli, the operant unit of analysis, and the distinction between operant and respondent conditioning. PMID:22478172

  11. Sensory aspects of movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, Tourette’s syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed. PMID:24331796

  12. The record precipitation and flood event in Iberia in December 1876: description and synoptic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo, Ricardo; Varino, Filipa; Ramos, Alexandre; Valente, Maria; Zêzere, José; Vaquero, José; Gouveia, Célia; Russo, Ana

    2014-04-01

    The first week of December 1876 was marked by extreme weather conditions that affected the south-western sector of the Iberian Peninsula, leading to an all-time record flow in two large international rivers. As a direct consequence, several Portuguese and Spanish towns and villages located in the banks of both rivers suffered serious flood damage on 7 December 1876. These unusual floods were amplified by the preceding particularly autumn wet months, with October 1876 presenting extremely high precipitation anomalies for all western Iberia stations. Two recently digitised stations in Portugal (Lisbon and Evora), present a peak value on 5 December 1876. Furthermore, the values of precipitation registered between 28 November and 7 December were so remarkable that, the episode of 1876 still corresponds to the maximum average daily precipitation values for temporal scales between 2 and 10 days. Using several different data sources, such as historical newspapers of that time, meteorological data recently digitised from several stations in Portugal and Spain and the recently available 20th Century Reanalysis, we provide a detailed analysis on the socio-economic impacts, precipitation values and the atmospheric circulation conditions associated with this event. The atmospheric circulation during these months was assessed at the monthly, daily and sub-daily scales. All months considered present an intense negative NAO index value, with November 1876 corresponding to the lowest NAO value on record since 1865. We have also computed a multivariable analysis of surface and upper air fields in order to provide some enlightening into the evolution of the synoptic conditions in the week prior to the floods. These events resulted from the continuous pouring of precipitation registered between 28 November and 7 December, due to the consecutive passage of Atlantic low-pressure systems fuelled by the presence of an atmospheric-river tropical moisture flow over central Atlantic Ocean.

  13. Integrated reservoir description and analysis of the Lance formation at Jonah Field, Sublette County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.W.; Delozier, D.L.; Flinch, R.

    1996-06-01

    Log, core, and production data from the 16 wells in Jonah field have been used to characterize sandstone reservoirs in the Lance Formation (Cretaceous) in the northern Green River basin. The Lance Fm. is composed of 2500 feet of heterolithic fluvial strata that were deposited on a broad alluvial plain. Sandstones were deposited in east- flowing channels 10-20 feet deep and 150-4000 feet wide; some amalgamated sandstone intervals are >100 feet thick and over a mile wide. Fluvial architecture varies from isolated meandering river deposits to amalgamated braided river deposits. Sandstones are dominantly composed of detrital chert and quartz grains. The Lance Fm. has been divided into several informal pay intervals that have different reservoir character and performance. Wardell interval sandstones produce gas in eight wells and are poor reservoirs due to fine grain size, high clay and cement content, and greater depth. Yellow Point interval sandstones have shown average performance in five wells. The Jonah interval produces in 10 wells and is the most prolific pay zone with up to 150 net feet of sandstone having core porosity of 8-12% and permeability of .01-0.9 mD. Upper and middle Lance sandstones have better than average performance from five wells. All pay intervals require greater than 8% porosity and less than 35% water saturation. Pre-frac pressure build-up analysis indicates in situ permeabilities of 3-20 microdarcys and suggests that fractures are a significant contributor to deliverability. Estimated reserves of 0.4-4.0 BCFG/well are based on decline curve analysis. Liquid yields vary from 6-86 BO/MMCFG and increase with depth. Pressure gradients range from .55 to .59 psi/ft. Reservoir overpressure is a result of continuous migration of hydrocarbons into available pore space via microfracture seepage.

  14. Descriptive analysis of and overall survival after surgical treatment of lung metastases*

    PubMed Central

    Poletti, Giana Balestro; Toro, Ivan Felizardo Contrera; Alves, Thais Ferreira; Miranda, Eliana Cristina Martins; Seabra, José Cláudio Teixeira; Mussi, Ricardo Kalaf

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe demographic characteristics, surgical results, postoperative complications, and overall survival rates in surgically treated patients with lung metastases. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of 119 patients who underwent a total of 154 lung metastasis resections between 1997 and 2011. RESULTS: Among the 119 patients, 68 (57.1%) were male and 108 (90.8%) were White. The median age was 52 years (range, 15-75 years). In this sample, 63 patients (52.9%) presented with comorbidities, the most common being systemic arterial hypertension (69.8%) and diabetes (19.0%). Primary colorectal tumors (47.9%) and musculoskeletal tumors (21.8%) were the main sites of origin of the metastases. Approximately 24% of the patients underwent more than one resection of the lesions, and 71% had adjuvant treatment prior to metastasectomy. The rate of lung metastasis recurrence was 19.3%, and the median disease-free interval was 23 months. The main surgical access used was thoracotomy (78%), and the most common approach was wedge resection with segmentectomy (51%). The rate of postoperative complications was 22%, and perioperative mortality was 1.9%. The overall survival rates at 12, 36, 60, and 120 months were 96%, 77%, 56%, and 39%, respectively. A Cox analysis confirmed that complications within the first 30 postoperative days were associated with poor prognosis (hazard ratio = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.09-3.06; p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Surgical treatment of lung metastases is safe and effective, with good overall survival, especially in patients with fewer metastases. PMID:24473758

  15. Description of data files compiled for the Central Midwest Regional Aquifer-System Analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helgesen, John O.; Hansen, Cristi V.

    1989-01-01

    Several types of geologic and hydrologic data were collected and compiled as part of the Central Midwest Regional Aquifer-System Analysis. The study described the hydrology of Cambrian-age through Cretaceous-age rocks in all of Kansas and Nebraska and parts of eight other states. Information from both water wells and petroleum wells was obtained from numerous State, Federal, and private sources. The completeness, quality, and distribution of the data varies considerably. Most data files contain data selected to represent the regional scope of the study. The log data file contains about 850 lithologic logs and about 750 geophysical logs. The hydraulic-head data file contains about 1 ,400 measured water levels and about 2,600 values of equivalent freshwater head derived from drill-stem-test analyses. The hydrochemical data file contains about 2,900 water quality analyses. The aquifer-property data file contains about 1,050 values. In addition to site-specific data, areal information in the form of model-data arrays is available for initial hydraulic head, transmissivity, and vertical leakance. These data describe the major geohydrologic units studied in terms of a three-dimensional grid, 28 rows x 33 columns x 5 layers. Parts of the hydraulic-head, hydrochemical, and aquifer-property data files are proprietary. The fluid-withdrawal data file was developed for study use only. Most other data described herein are available on magnetic tape from the U.S. Geological Survey in Lawrence, Kansas. (USGS)

  16. The cleanroom case study in the Software Engineering Laboratory: Project description and early analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Scott; Kouchakdjian, Ara; Basili, Victor; Weidow, David

    1990-01-01

    This case study analyzes the application of the cleanroom software development methodology to the development of production software at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. The cleanroom methodology emphasizes human discipline in program verification to produce reliable software products that are right the first time. Preliminary analysis of the cleanroom case study shows that the method can be applied successfully in the FDD environment and may increase staff productivity and product quality. Compared to typical Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) activities, there is evidence of lower failure rates, a more complete and consistent set of inline code documentation, a different distribution of phase effort activity, and a different growth profile in terms of lines of code developed. The major goals of the study were to: (1) assess the process used in the SEL cleanroom model with respect to team structure, team activities, and effort distribution; (2) analyze the products of the SEL cleanroom model and determine the impact on measures of interest, including reliability, productivity, overall life-cycle cost, and software quality; and (3) analyze the residual products in the application of the SEL cleanroom model, such as fault distribution, error characteristics, system growth, and computer usage.

  17. Descriptive characteristics and cluster analysis of male veteran hazardous drinkers in an alcohol moderation intervention.

    PubMed

    Walker, Robrina; Hunt, Yvonne M; Olivier, Jake; Grothe, Karen B; Dubbert, Patricia M; Burke, Randy S; Cushman, William C

    2012-01-01

    Current efforts underway to develop the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5) have reignited discussions for classifying the substance use disorders. This study's aim was to contribute to the understanding of abusive alcohol use and its validity as a diagnosis. Cluster analysis was used to identify relatively homogeneous groups of hazardous, nondependent drinkers by using data collected from the Prevention and Treatment of Hypertension Study (PATHS), a multisite trial that examined the ability of a cognitive-behavioral-based alcohol reduction intervention, compared to a control condition, to reduce alcohol use. Participants for this study (N = 511) were male military veterans. Variables theoretically associated with alcohol use (eg, demographic, tobacco use, and mental health) were used to create the clusters and a priori, empirically based external criteria were used to assess discriminant validity. Bivariate correlations among cluster variables were generally consistent with previous findings in the literature. Analyses of internal and discriminant validity of the identified clusters were largely nonsignificant, suggesting meaningful differences between clusters could not be identified. Although the typology literature has contributed supportive validity for the alcohol dependence diagnosis, this study's results do not lend supportive validity for the construct of alcohol abuse. PMID:22691012

  18. Identification of descriptive parameters of gradated soils using column experiments and analysis of CT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binner, Richard; Homberg, Ulrike; Prohaska, Steffen; Kalbe, Ute; Berger, Wolfgang; Witt, Karl Josef

    2010-05-01

    In this contribution, we present a method that combines experimental and micro-tomographic information to derive parameters of the pore structure of gradated soils. High-resolution CT data of samples of gradated soils are acquired. Parameters such as the pore positions and the pore sizes, the pore paths, and the pore constrictions are computed by applying methods of image analysis. Further, specific parameters of the pore and soil structure are determined using column and compacting experiments based on model soils. The grain size and effluent quantity of potentially mobile particles are identified, as well as the characteristics of the supporting skeleton of the model. The results of a comparison of both methods suggest that column experiments in combination with automatic image processing methods can provide suitable geometric parameters of real grain and pore structure for analyzing suffosive erosion phenomena. This visualization allows a better understanding of the various physical processes within the pore structure. But for a qualitative approach these parameters can be incorporated into pore-network models to verify existing transport models. This research is a part of a comprehensive research project on suffosion of soils.

  19. Cladistic analysis and description of three new species of the Chilean genus Nanophareus (Opiliones: Gonyleptidae: Pachylinae).

    PubMed

    Hara, Marcos Ryotaro

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of the Chilean Pachylinae genus, Nanophareus Roewer, 1929 are described: N. bicornutus sp. nov. (Valle de Aconcagua, Zapallar, V Región de Valparaíso), N. maipu sp. nov. (La Rinconada, Quebrada de la Plata, Maipu, Región Metropolitana-Santiago), and N. polyhastatus sp. nov. (El Abanico, VIII Región de Bio-Bío). These three new species were included in a cladistic analysis that resulted in two equally most parsimonious trees (238 steps, C.I. = 0.38; R.I. = 0.51), corroborating the monophyly of Nanophareus. The proposed synapomorphies for Nanophareus remain largely unchanged: an external row of enlarged tubercles inserted amongst small ones on the lateral margin of dorsal scutum; the ventro-basal margin of the pedipalpal tibia curved at 90° in lateral view; and retrolateral seta on pedipalpal tibia with an apically bifid socket (socket and seta longer than pedipalpal tibia length), with additional small setae distally. The sister group of Nanophareus, as well as its subfamilial placement, are still unsettled issues that are here further discussed.

  20. Quantitative and descriptive comparison of four acoustic analysis systems: vowel measurements

    PubMed Central

    Burris, Carlyn; Vorperian, Houri K.; Fourakis, Marios; Kent, Ray D.; Bolt, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study examines accuracy and comparability of four trademarked acoustic analysis software packages (AASP): Praat, Wavesurfer, TF32 and CSL using synthesized and natural vowels. Features of AASP are also described. Methods Synthesized and natural vowels were analyzed using each of AASP’s default settings to secure nine acoustic measures: fundamental frequency (F0), formant frequencies (F1-F4), and formant bandwidths (B1-B4). The discrepancy between the software measured values and the input values (synthesized, previously reported, and manual measurements) was used to assess comparability and accuracy. Basic AASP features are described. Results Results indicate that Praat, Wavesurfer, and TF32 generate accurate and comparable F0 and F1-F4 data for synthesized vowels and adult male natural vowels. Results varied by vowel for adult females and children, with some serious errors. Bandwidth measurements by AASPs were highly inaccurate as compared to manual measurements and published data on formant bandwidths. Conclusions Values of F0 and F1-F4 are generally consistent and fairly accurate for adult vowels and for some child vowels using the default settings in Praat, Wavesurfer, and TF32. Manipulation of default settings yields improved output values in TF32 and CSL. Caution is recommended especially before accepting F1-F4 results for children and B1-B4 results for all speakers. PMID:24687465

  1. Multilocus sequence analysis of the genus Citrobacter and description of Citrobacter pasteurii sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Clermont, Dominique; Motreff, Laurence; Passet, Virginie; Fernandez, José-Carlos; Bizet, Chantal; Brisse, Sylvain

    2015-05-01

    Strains originating from various sources and classified as members of the genus Citrobacter within the family Enterobacteriaceae were characterized by sequencing internal portions of genes rpoB, fusA, pyrG and leuS, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, average nucleotide identity (ANI) of genomic sequences and biochemical tests. Phylogenetic analysis based on the four housekeeping genes showed that the 11 species of the genus Citrobacter with validly published names are well demarcated. Strains CIP 55.13(T) and CIP 55.9 formed a distinct branch associated with Citrobacter youngae. The ANI between CIP 55.9 and CIP 55.13(T) was 99.19%, whereas it was 94.75% between CIP 55.13(T) and strain CIP 105016(T) of the species C. youngae, the most closely related species. Biochemical characteristics consolidated the fact that the two isolates represent a separate species, for which the name Citrobacter pasteurii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CIP 55.13(T) ( =DSM 28879(T) =Na 1a(T)).

  2. Anticentromere antibody positive Sjögren's Syndrome: a retrospective descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction A subgroup of patients with primary Sjögren's Syndrome (SS) and positive anticentromere antibodies (ACA) were recognized as having features intermediate between SS and systemic sclerosis (SSc). Our goal was to describe this group clinically and serologically and define its tendency to evolve to full blown SSc. Methods Among 535 patients with primary SS we identified 20 ACA positive (ACA+/SS). We compared them to 61 randomly selected ACA negative SS patients (ACA-/SS), 31 ACA positive SSc patients with sicca manifestations [SSc/(+) sicca] and 20 ACA positive SSc patients without sicca manifestations [SSc/(-) sicca]. Results Prevalence of ACA among SS patients was 3.7%. Cases and controls did not differ in sex ratio and age at disease onset. ACA+/SS patients had a lower prevalence of dry eyes, hypergammaglobulinaemia, anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies and a higher prevalence of Raynaud's phenomenon and dysphagia compared to ACA-/SS patients. They also had lower prevalence of telangiectasias, puffy fingers, sclerodactyly, Raynaud's phenomenon, digital ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux in comparison to both of the SSc subgroups and a lower prevalence of dyspnoea and lung fibrosis compared to the SSc/(+) sicca subgroup. Two patients originally having ACA+/SS evolved to full blown SSc. Four deaths occurred, all among SSc patients. Kaplan Meier analysis showed a significant difference between cases and controls in time from disease onset to development of gastroesophageal reflux, telangiectasias, digital ulcers, arthritis, puffy fingers, xerostomia, hypergammaglobulinaemia and dysphagia. Conclusions ACA+/SS has a clinical phenotype intermediate between ACA-/SS and SSc and shows little tendency to evolve to SSc. PMID:20302639

  3. The green bank northern celestial cap pulsar survey. I. Survey description, data analysis, and initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, K.; Dartez, L. P.; Ford, A. J.; Garcia, A.; Hinojosa, J.; Jenet, F. A.; Leake, S.; Lynch, R. S.; Archibald, A. M.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Ransom, S. M.; Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Day, D.; Flanigan, J.; Kaplan, D. L.; Boyles, J.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Kondratiev, V. I.; and others

    2014-08-10

    We describe an ongoing search for pulsars and dispersed pulses of radio emission, such as those from rotating radio transients (RRATs) and fast radio bursts, at 350 MHz using the Green Bank Telescope. With the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument, we record 100 MHz of bandwidth divided into 4096 channels every 81.92 μs. This survey will cover the entire sky visible to the Green Bank Telescope (δ > –40°, or 82% of the sky) and outside of the Galactic Plane will be sensitive enough to detect slow pulsars and low dispersion measure (<30 pc cm{sup –3}) millisecond pulsars (MSPs) with a 0.08 duty cycle down to 1.1 mJy. For pulsars with a spectral index of –1.6, we will be 2.5 times more sensitive than previous and ongoing surveys over much of our survey region. Here we describe the survey, the data analysis pipeline, initial discovery parameters for 62 pulsars, and timing solutions for 5 new pulsars. PSR J0214+5222 is an MSP in a long-period (512 days) orbit and has an optical counterpart identified in archival data. PSR J0636+5129 is an MSP in a very short-period (96 minutes) orbit with a very low mass companion (8 M{sub J}). PSR J0645+5158 is an isolated MSP with a timing residual RMS of 500 ns and has been added to pulsar timing array experiments. PSR J1434+7257 is an isolated, intermediate-period pulsar that has been partially recycled. PSR J1816+4510 is an eclipsing MSP in a short-period orbit (8.7 hr) and may have recently completed its spin-up phase.

  4. Developing a Performance Brain Training™ approach for baseball: a process analysis with descriptive data.

    PubMed

    Sherlin, Leslie H; Larson, Noel C; Sherlin, Rebecca M

    2013-03-01

    Neurofeedback may be useful for improving sports performance but few studies have examined this potential. Here we present data of five development players from a major league baseball team. The aims were to evaluate the feasibility of conducting sessions within a professional organization, assess changes in quantitative electroencephalograph (QEEG), NeuroPerformance Profile™, and report qualitative self-report data before and after brain training. The EEG was recorded with 19 electrodes for 20 min of baseline conditions and approximately 21 min of a continuous performance test. The fast Fourier transform analysis provided average cross-spectral matrices for bands delta (1-3.5 Hz), theta (4-7.5 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), low beta (13-16 Hz), beta 1 (13-21 Hz), beta 2 (22-32 Hz), and gamma (32-45 Hz) from the pre and post intervention evaluations in the baseline condition of eyes open. The continuous performance test metrics included the errors of omission, errors of commission, response time and response time variability. The 9 scales of the NeuroPerformance Profile™ were examined. The QEEG data, CPT data and NeuroPerformance Profile™ data were all compared between the pre and post 15 sessions of brain training using a within subject paired t test design corrected for multiple comparisons using false discovery rate method. Following brain training, comparative QEEG, CPT and NeuroPerformance Profile™ analyses illustrated significant differences. The QEEG findings of all participants illustrated significant changes within the training parameters but also across other frequency bands and electrode sites. Overall, the positive findings in both objective and subjective measures suggest further inquiry into the utility of brain training for performance enhancement with the specific application of sport is warranted. Particularly QEEG and CPT gains were noted in the areas that correspond to client self-report data demonstrating improvement in attention, decreased

  5. Frequency, causes and pattern of abdominal trauma: A 4-year descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Suresh; Al-Hassani, Ammar; El-Menyar, Ayman; Abdelrahman, Husham; Parchani, Ashok; Peralta, Ruben; Zarour, Ahmad; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of abdominal trauma is still underreported from the Arab Middle-East. We aimed to evaluate the incidence, causes, clinical presentation, and outcome of the abdominal trauma patients in a newly established trauma center. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted at the only level I trauma center in Qatar for the patients admitted with abdominal trauma (2008-2011). Patients demographics, mechanism of injury, pattern of organ injuries, associated extra-abdominal injuries, Injury Severity Score (ISS), Abbreviated Injury Scale, complications, length of Intensive Care Unit, and hospital stay, and mortality were reviewed. Results: A total of 6888 trauma patients were admitted to the hospital, of which 1036 (15%) had abdominal trauma. The mean age was 30.6 ± 13 years and the majority was males (93%). Road traffic accidents (61%) were the most frequent mechanism of injury followed by fall from height (25%) and fall of heavy object (7%). The mean ISS was 17.9 ± 10. Liver (36%), spleen (32%) and kidney (18%) were most common injured organs. The common associated extra-abdominal injuries included chest (35%), musculoskeletal (32%), and head injury (24%). Wound infection (3.8%), pneumonia (3%), and urinary tract infection (1.4%) were the frequently observed complications. The overall mortality was 8.3% and late mortality was observed in 2.3% cases mainly due to severe head injury and sepsis. The predictors of mortality were head injury, ISS, need for blood transfusion, and serum lactate. Conclusion: Abdominal trauma is a frequent diagnosis in multiple trauma and the presence of extra-abdominal injuries and sepsis has a significant impact on the outcome. PMID:26604524

  6. Developing an International Register of Clinical Prediction Rules for Use in Primary Care: A Descriptive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Keogh, Claire; Wallace, Emma; O’Brien, Kirsty K.; Galvin, Rose; Smith, Susan M.; Lewis, Cliona; Cummins, Anthony; Cousins, Grainne; Dimitrov, Borislav D.; Fahey, Tom

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE We describe the methodology used to create a register of clinical prediction rules relevant to primary care. We also summarize the rules included in the register according to various characteristics. METHODS To identify relevant articles, we searched the MEDLINE database (PubMed) for the years 1980 to 2009 and supplemented the results with searches of secondary sources (books on clinical prediction rules) and personal resources (eg, experts in the field). The rules described in relevant articles were classified according to their clinical domain, the stage of development, and the clinical setting in which they were studied. RESULTS Our search identified clinical prediction rules reported between 1965 and 2009. The largest share of rules (37.2%) were retrieved from PubMed. The number of published rules increased substantially over the study decades. We included 745 articles in the register; many contained more than 1 clinical prediction rule study (eg, both a derivation study and a validation study), resulting in 989 individual studies. In all, 434 unique rules had gone through derivation; however, only 54.8% had been validated and merely 2.8% had undergone analysis of their impact on either the process or outcome of clinical care. The rules most commonly pertained to cardiovascular disease, respiratory, and musculoskeletal conditions. They had most often been studied in the primary care or emergency department settings. CONCLUSIONS Many clinical prediction rules have been derived, but only about half have been validated and few have been assessed for clinical impact. This lack of thorough evaluation for many rules makes it difficult to retrieve and identify those that are ready for use at the point of patient care. We plan to develop an international web-based register of clinical prediction rules and computer-based clinical decision support systems. PMID:25024245

  7. Sensory and instrumental evaluation of catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) aroma.

    PubMed

    Baranauskiene, Renata; Venskutonis, Rimantas P; Demyttenaere, Jan C R

    2003-06-18

    The present study investigates the composition of volatile constituents and sensory characteristics of catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) grown in Lithuania. Hydrodistillation, simultaneous distillation-solvent extraction, static headspace, and solid phase microextraction methods were used for the isolation of aroma volatiles. Geranyl acetate, citronellyl acetate, citronellol, and geraniol were the major constituents in catnip. Differences in the quantitative compositions of volatile compounds isolated by the different techniques were considerable. A sensory panel performed sensory analysis of the ground herb, pure essential oil, and extract; aroma profiles of the products were expressed graphically, and some effects of odor qualities of individual compounds present in catnip on the overall aroma of this herb were observed.

  8. Descriptive analysis of childbirth healthcare costs in an area with high levels of immigration in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to estimate the cost of childbirth in a teaching hospital in Barcelona, Spain, including the costs of prenatal care, delivery and postnatal care (3 months). Costs were assessed by taking into account maternal origin and delivery type. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of all deliveries in a teaching hospital to mothers living in its catchment area between October 2006 and September 2007. A process cost analysis based on a full cost accounting system was performed. The main information sources were the primary care program for sexual and reproductive health, and hospital care and costs records. Partial and total costs were compared according to maternal origin and delivery type. A regression model was fit to explain the total cost of the childbirth process as a function of maternal age and origin, prenatal care, delivery type, maternal and neonatal severity, and multiple delivery. Results The average cost of childbirth was 4,328€, with an average of 18.28 contacts between the mother or the newborn and the healthcare facilities. The delivery itself accounted for more than 75% of the overall cost: maternal admission accounted for 57% and neonatal admission for 20%. Prenatal care represented 18% of the overall cost and 75% of overall acts. The average overall cost was 5,815€ for cesarean sections, 4,064€ for vaginal instrumented deliveries and 3,682€ for vaginal non-instrumented deliveries (p < 0.001). The regression model explained 45.5% of the cost variability. The incremental cost of a delivery through cesarean section was 955€ (an increase of 31.9%) compared with an increase of 193€ (6.4%) for an instrumented vaginal delivery. The incremental cost of admitting the newborn to hospital ranged from 420€ (14.0%) to 1,951€ (65.2%) depending on the newborn's severity. Age, origin and prenatal care were not statistically significant or economically relevant. Conclusions Neither immigration nor prenatal care

  9. Online Social Networks That Connect Users to Physical Activity Partners: A Review and Descriptive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Passarella, Ralph Joseph; Appel, Lawrence J

    2014-01-01

    Background The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have identified a lack of encouragement, support, or companionship from family and friends as a major barrier to physical activity. To overcome this barrier, online social networks are now actively leveraging principles of companion social support in novel ways. Objective The aim was to evaluate the functionality, features, and usability of existing online social networks which seek to increase physical activity and fitness among users by connecting them to physical activity partners, not just online, but also face-to-face. Methods In September 2012, we used 3 major databases to identify the website addresses for relevant online social networks. We conducted a Google search using 8 unique keyword combinations: the common keyword “find” coupled with 1 of 4 prefix terms “health,” “fitness,” “workout,” or “physical” coupled with 1 of 2 stem terms “activity partners” or “activity buddies.” We also searched 2 prominent technology start-up news sites, TechCrunch and Y Combinator, using 2 unique keyword combinations: the common keyword “find” coupled with 1 of 2 stem terms “activity partners” and “activity buddies.” Sites were defined as online social health activity networks if they had the ability to (1) actively find physical activity partners or activities for the user, (2) offer dynamic, real-time tracking or sharing of social activities, and (3) provide virtual profiles to users. We excluded from our analysis sites that were not Web-based, publicly available, in English, or free. Results Of the 360 initial search results, we identified 13 websites that met our complete criteria of an online social health activity network. Features such as physical activity creation (13/13, 100%) and private messaging (12/13, 92%) appeared almost universally among these websites. However, integration with Web 2.0 technologies such as Facebook and Twitter (9/13, 69%) and the option of

  10. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions. Implementation plan and element description document (draft final). Volume 6: Lunar systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NASA's two Office of Space Flight (Code M) Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) contractors supported development of Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) lunar transportation concepts. This work treated lunar SEI missions as the far end of a more near-term STV program, most of whose missions were satellite delivery and servicing requirements derived from Civil Needs Data Base (CNDB) projections. Space Transfer Concepts and Analysis for Exploration Missions (STCAEM) began to address the complete design of a lunar transportation system. The following challenges were addressed: (1) the geometry of aerobraking; (2) accommodation of mixed payloads; (3) cryogenic propellant transfer in Low Lunar Orbit (LLO); (4) fully re-usable design; and (5) growth capability. The leveled requirements, derived requirements, and assumptions applied to the lunar transportation system design are discussed. The mission operations section includes data on mission analysis studies and performance parametrics as well as the operating modes and performance evaluations which include the STCAEM recommendations. Element descriptions for the lunar transportation family included are a listing of the lunar transfer vehicle/lunar excursion vehicle (LTV/LEV) components; trade studies and mass analyses of the transfer and excursion modules; advanced crew recovery vehicle (ACRV) (modified crew recovery vehicle (MCRV)) modifications required to fulfill lunar operations; the aerobrake shape and L/D to be used; and some costing methods and results. Commonality and evolution issues are also discussed.

  11. New whole-body sensory-motor gradients revealed using phase-locked analysis and verified using multivoxel pattern analysis and functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Zeharia, Noa; Hertz, Uri; Flash, Tamar; Amedi, Amir

    2015-02-18

    Topographic organization is one of the main principles of organization in the human brain. Specifically, whole-brain topographic mapping using spectral analysis is responsible for one of the greatest advances in vision research. Thus, it is intriguing that although topography is a key feature also in the motor system, whole-body somatosensory-motor mapping using spectral analysis has not been conducted in humans outside M1/SMA. Here, using this method, we were able to map a homunculus in the globus pallidus, a key target area for deep brain stimulation, which has not been mapped noninvasively or in healthy subjects. The analysis clarifies contradictory and partial results regarding somatotopy in the caudal-cingulate zone and rostral-cingulate zone in the medial wall and in the putamen. Most of the results were confirmed at the single-subject level and were found to be compatible with results from animal studies. Using multivoxel pattern analysis, we could predict movements of individual body parts in these homunculi, thus confirming that they contain somatotopic information. Using functional connectivity, we demonstrate interhemispheric functional somatotopic connectivity of these homunculi, such that the somatotopy in one hemisphere could have been found given the connectivity pattern of the corresponding regions of interest in the other hemisphere. When inspecting the somatotopic and nonsomatotopic connectivity patterns, a similarity index indicated that the pattern of connected and nonconnected regions of interest across different homunculi is similar for different body parts and hemispheres. The results show that topographical gradients are even more widespread than previously assumed in the somatosensory-motor system. Spectral analysis can thus potentially serve as a gold standard for defining somatosensory-motor system areas for basic research and clinical applications.

  12. Anaphoric Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beller, Charley

    2013-01-01

    The study of definite descriptions has been a central part of research in linguistics and philosophy of language since Russell's seminal work "On Denoting" (Russell 1905). In that work Russell quickly dispatches analyses of denoting expressions with forms like "no man," "some man," "a man," and "every…

  13. Impact of model fat emulsions on sensory perception using repeated spoon to spoon ingestion.

    PubMed

    Appelqvist, I A M; Poelman, A A M; Cochet-Broch, M; Delahunty, C M

    2016-06-01

    Eating is a dynamic behaviour, in which food interacts with the mechanical and physiological environment of the mouth. This dynamic interaction changes the oral surfaces leaving particles of food and building up a film on the oral surfaces, which may impact on the temporal perception during the eating experience. The effect of repeated spoon to spoon ingestion of oil in water emulsion products (2%-50% w/w oil) was evaluated using descriptive in-mouth and after swallowing sensory attributes. Descriptive sensory analysis indicated that fatty mouthfeel and afterfeel perception (measured post swallowing) increased with the number of spoonfuls for emulsions containing 50% fat. This effect is likely due to the build-up of oil droplet layers deposited on the mouth surfaces. There was an enhancement of fatty afterfeel intensity for 50% fat emulsions containing the more lipophilic aroma ethylhexanoate compared to ethyl butanoate, indicating a cross-modal interaction. No increase in these attributes from spoon to spoon was observed for the low oil emulsions; since most of the oil in the emulsion was swallowed and very little oil was likely to be left in the mouth. Sweetness perception increased as fat level increased in the emulsion due to an increase in the effective concentration of sugar in the aqueous phase. However, the sweetness perceived did not change from spoon to spoon, suggesting that any oil-droplets deposited on the oral surfaces did not form a complete barrier, restricting access of the sucrose to the taste buds. This study highlights the importance of measuring the dynamic nature of eating and demonstrated change in sensory perception occurring with repeated ingestion of model emulsions, which was likely due to a change in mouth environment. PMID:27063245

  14. Relationship between nonvolatile composition and sensory properties of premium Spanish red wines and their correlation to quality perception.

    PubMed

    Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Tao, Yong-Sheng; Dizy, Marta; Ferreira, Vicente; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2010-12-01

    The correlation of nonvolatile composition in wines with quality perception is a critical subject in current enological research, and it is far from being clear. Thus, the present work aims at (1) defining the chemical composition and in-mouth sensory properties of a set of wooded premium Spanish red wines and (2) assessing the implication of their chemical composition in the sensory perception of quality. Therefore, 24 wines were analyzed by sensory descriptive analysis and chemical analysis for nonvolatile composition, and their correlations have been discussed. In parallel, a panel of wine experts performed a quality evaluation based on overall perception. Multivariate statistical analysis has revealed that quality was primarily related to wines without defective aroma and secondarily to the presence of nonvolatile components such as reducing sugars and alcohol content as well as some phenolic compounds: proanthocyanidins linked to polysaccharide, trans-caffeic, trans-coutaric, and trans-caftaric acids, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, and malvidin-catechin dimer. The results show that wines evaluated as high-quality wines by experts present higher concentrations of these compounds except for trans-caffeic acid, which accumulates higher concentration levels in low-quality wines.

  15. Sensory Impairment and Health-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    KWON, Hye-Jin; KIM, Ji-su; KIM, Yoon-jung; KWON, Su-jin; YU, Jin-Na

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sensory impairment is a common condition that exerts negative effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the relationship between sensory impairment and HRQoL and identify sensory-specific differences in the HRQoL of elderly. Methods: This study used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V (2010–2012), analyzing 5,260 subjects over 60 years of age who completed ophthalmic and otologic examinations. Vision and hearing impairment were measured and classified. HRQoL was determined according to the European QoL five dimension test (EQ-5D). Multivariate logistic regression analysis and analysis of covariance were performed to identify relationships between sensory impairment and HRQoL dimensions as well as differences in HRQoL scores. Results: In the final adjusted multivariate model, there was a statistically higher proportion of those with dual sensory impairment who reported problems with mobility (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45–5.03), usual activities (aOR 2.32, 95% CI 1.16–4.64), and pain/discomfort among EQ-5D subcategories (aOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.07–2.97). In the EQ-5D dimensions, the means and standard deviations of vision impairment (0.86 [0.01]) and dual sensory impairment (0.84 [0.02]) appeared meaningfully lower than those for no sensory impairment (0.88 [0.00]) or hearing impairment (0.88 [0.01]); P = .02). Conclusion: Sensory impairment reduces HRQoL in the elderly. Improvement of HRQoL in the elderly thus requires regular screening and appropriate management of sensory impairment. PMID:26258089

  16. The frequency of, and adherence to, single maintenance and reliever therapy instructions in asthma: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    DiSantostefano, Rachael L; Boudiaf, Nada; Stempel, David A; Barnes, Neil C; Greening, Andrew P

    2016-07-21

    Inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist (ICS/LABA) fixed-dose combinations are recommended regular maintenance options for asthma. ICS/LABAs containing formoterol may also be indicated for single maintenance and reliever therapy (SMART). This analysis evaluated the frequency of SMART dosing of budesonide/formoterol fixed-dose combination (BFC) in the United Kingdom. Secondary objectives were to assess adherence and use of short-acting ß2-agonists (SABAs). This was a descriptive analysis of treatment patterns using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink-GP OnLine Database data (2009-2013). SMART dosing was determined when prescription instructions contained guidance for daily dosing plus 'and when required'. Treatment and prescription refill patterns of BFC and SABA were described in the year following the index date to identify adherence and SMART dosing instructions versus other dosing regimens. Of 14,818 patients identified, 173 (1.2%) had evidence of prescriptions for SMART dosing at their index BFC prescription. Despite being prescribed SMART dosing, 91 of 173 patients (53%) were additionally dispensed SABA in the year following the index date. The mean number of BFC inhalers used was less than required for daily treatment for SMART and non-SMART dosing groups (4.7 and 4.8, respectively).This analysis suggests that SMART dosing is infrequent when examining dosing instructions. Therefore, results of randomised clinical trials using SMART dosing may not translate to clinical practice in the United Kingdom because of the low level of SMART prescription, concurrent use of SABA, and inadequate refill persistence observed. Further research is needed to understand SMART dosing in real-world clinical practice.

  17. The frequency of, and adherence to, single maintenance and reliever therapy instructions in asthma: a descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    DiSantostefano, Rachael L; Boudiaf, Nada; Stempel, David A; Barnes, Neil C; Greening, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist (ICS/LABA) fixed-dose combinations are recommended regular maintenance options for asthma. ICS/LABAs containing formoterol may also be indicated for single maintenance and reliever therapy (SMART). This analysis evaluated the frequency of SMART dosing of budesonide/formoterol fixed-dose combination (BFC) in the United Kingdom. Secondary objectives were to assess adherence and use of short-acting ß2-agonists (SABAs). This was a descriptive analysis of treatment patterns using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink-GP OnLine Database data (2009–2013). SMART dosing was determined when prescription instructions contained guidance for daily dosing plus ‘and when required’. Treatment and prescription refill patterns of BFC and SABA were described in the year following the index date to identify adherence and SMART dosing instructions versus other dosing regimens. Of 14,818 patients identified, 173 (1.2%) had evidence of prescriptions for SMART dosing at their index BFC prescription. Despite being prescribed SMART dosing, 91 of 173 patients (53%) were additionally dispensed SABA in the year following the index date. The mean number of BFC inhalers used was less than required for daily treatment for SMART and non-SMART dosing groups (4.7 and 4.8, respectively).This analysis suggests that SMART dosing is infrequent when examining dosing instructions. Therefore, results of randomised clinical trials using SMART dosing may not translate to clinical practice in the United Kingdom because of the low level of SMART prescription, concurrent use of SABA, and inadequate refill persistence observed. Further research is needed to understand SMART dosing in real-world clinical practice. PMID:27442488

  18. Sensory Modulation Disorders among Children with a History of Trauma: A Frame of Reference for Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atchison, Ben J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present definitions and concepts about sensory modulation, illustrate behavioral aspects of sensory modulation disorders, describe a framework for assessment and intervention, and present advances in research. Method: A review of descriptive and evidence-based literature related to the impact of exposure…

  19. An analysis of changes in sensory thresholds to mild tactile and cold stimuli after experimental spinal cord injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, A E; LoVerso, R L; Tovar, C A; Hill, C E; Beattie, M S; Bresnahan, J C

    2000-01-01

    Changes in sensory function including chronic pain and allodynia are common sequelae of spinal cord injury (SCI) in humans. The present study documents the extent and time course of mechanical allodynia and cold hyperalgesia after contusion SCI in the rat using stimulation with graded von Frey filaments (4.97-50.45 g force) and ice probes. Fore- and hind-paw withdrawal thresholds to plantar skin stimulation were determined in rats with a range of SCI severities (10-g weight dropped from 6.25, 12.5, or 25 mm using the MASCIS injury device); animals with 25-mm injuries most consistently showed decreased hind-paw withdrawal thresholds to touch and cold, which developed over several weeks after surgery. Stimulation of the torso with graded von Frey hairs was performed at specified locations on the back and sides from the neck to the haunch. Suprasegmental responses (orientation, vocalization, or escape) to mechanical stimulation of these sites were elicited infrequently in the laminectomy control rats and only during the first 3 weeks after surgery, whereas in 25-mm SCI rats, such responses were obtained for the entire 10 weeks of the study. These data suggest that rats with contusion SCI may exhibit sensory alterations relevant to human spinal cord injuries. PMID:11402879

  20. Adaptive stimulus optimization for sensory systems neuroscience.

    PubMed

    DiMattina, Christopher; Zhang, Kechen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we review several lines of recent work aimed at developing practical methods for adaptive on-line stimulus generation for sensory neurophysiology. We consider various experimental paradigms where on-line stimulus optimization is utilized, including the classical optimal stimulus paradigm where the goal of experiments is to identify a stimulus which maximizes neural responses, the iso-response paradigm which finds sets of stimuli giving rise to constant responses, and the system identification paradigm where the experimental goal is to estimate and possibly compare sensory processing models. We discuss various theoretical and practical aspects of adaptive firing rate optimization, including optimization with stimulus space constraints, firing rate adaptation, and possible network constraints on the optimal stimulus. We consider the problem of system identification, and show how accurate estimation of non-linear models can be highly dependent on the stimulus set used to probe the network. We suggest that optimizing stimuli for accurate model estimation may make it possible to successfully identify non-linear models which are otherwise intractable, and summarize several recent studies of this type. Finally, we present a two-stage stimulus design procedure which combines the dual goals of model estimation and model comparison and may be especially useful for system identification experiments where the appropriate model is unknown beforehand. We propose that fast, on-line stimulus optimization enabled by increasing computer power can make it practical to move sensory neuroscience away from a descriptive paradigm and toward a new paradigm of real-time model estimation and comparison.

  1. Adaptive stimulus optimization for sensory systems neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    DiMattina, Christopher; Zhang, Kechen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we review several lines of recent work aimed at developing practical methods for adaptive on-line stimulus generation for sensory neurophysiology. We consider various experimental paradigms where on-line stimulus optimization is utilized, including the classical optimal stimulus paradigm where the goal of experiments is to identify a stimulus which maximizes neural responses, the iso-response paradigm which finds sets of stimuli giving rise to constant responses, and the system identification paradigm where the experimental goal is to estimate and possibly compare sensory processing models. We discuss various theoretical and practical aspects of adaptive firing rate optimization, including optimization with stimulus space constraints, firing rate adaptation, and possible network constraints on the optimal stimulus. We consider the problem of system identification, and show how accurate estimation of non-linear models can be highly dependent on the stimulus set used to probe the network. We suggest that optimizing stimuli for accurate model estimation may make it possible to successfully identify non-linear models which are otherwise intractable, and summarize several recent studies of this type. Finally, we present a two-stage stimulus design procedure which combines the dual goals of model estimation and model comparison and may be especially useful for system identification experiments where the appropriate model is unknown beforehand. We propose that fast, on-line stimulus optimization enabled by increasing computer power can make it practical to move sensory neuroscience away from a descriptive paradigm and toward a new paradigm of real-time model estimation and comparison. PMID:23761737

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Mitochondrial Genomes in Coleoptera (Arthropoda: Insecta) and Genome Descriptions of Six New Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Song, H.; Cameron, S. L.; Whiting, M. F.

    2008-01-01

    Coleoptera is the most diverse group of insects with over 360,000 described species divided into four suborders: Adephaga, Archostemata, Myxophaga, and Polyphaga. In this study, we present six new complete mitochondrial genome (mtgenome) descriptions, including a representative of each suborder, and analyze the evolution of mtgenomes from a comparative framework using all available coleopteran mtgenomes. We propose a modification of atypical cox1 start codons based on sequence alignment to better reflect the conservation observed across species as well as findings of TTG start codons in other genes. We also analyze tRNA-Ser(AGN) anticodons, usually GCU in arthropods, and report a conserved UCU anticodon as a possible synapomorphy across Polyphaga. We further analyze the secondary structure of tRNA-Ser(AGN) and present a consensus structure and an updated covariance model that allows tRNAscan-SE (via the COVE software package) to locate and fold these atypical tRNAs with much greater consistency. We also report secondary structure predictions for both rRNA genes based on conserved stems. All six species of beetle have the same gene order as the ancestral insect. We report noncoding DNA regions, including a small gap region of about 20 bp between tRNA-Ser(UCN) and nad1 that is present in all six genomes, and present results of a base composition analysis. PMID:18779259

  3. Descriptive analysis of context evaluation instrument for technical oral presentation skills evaluation: A case study in English technical communication course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Abdullah-Adnan; Asmawi, Adelina; Hamid, Mohd Rashid Ab; Mustafa, Zainol bin

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports a pilot study of Context Evaluation using a self-developed questionnaire distributed among engineering undergraduates at a university under study. The study aims to validate the self-developed questionnaires used in the Context evaluation, a component in the CIPP Model. The Context evaluation assesses background information for needs, assets, problems and opportunities relevant to beneficiaries of the study in a defined environment. Through the questionnaire, background information for the assessment of needs, assets and problems related to the engineering undergraduates' perceptions on the teaching and learning of technical oral presentation skills was collected and analysed. The questionnaire was developed using 5-points Likert scale to measure the constructs under study. They were distributed to 100 respondents with 79 returned. The respondents consisted of engineering undergraduates studied at various faculties at one technical university in Malaysia. The descriptive analysis of data for each item which makes up the construct for Context evaluation is found to be high. This implied that engineering undergraduates showed high interest in teaching and learning of technical oral presentation skills, thus their needs are met. Also, they agreed that assets and facilities are conducive to their learning. In conclusion, the context evaluation involving needs and assets factors are both considerably important; their needs are met and the assets and facilities do support their technical oral presentation skills learning experience.

  4. Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 1: Analysis description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-01-01

    A computer code called Proteus 3D has been developed to solve the three dimensional, Reynolds averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort has been to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation have been emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized non-orthogonal body-fitted coordinates by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This is the Analysis Description, and presents the equations and solution procedure. It describes in detail the governing equations, the turbulence model, the linearization of the equations and boundary conditions, the time and space differencing formulas, the ADI solution procedure, and the artificial viscosity models.

  5. Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 2.0. Volume 1: Analysis description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-01-01

    A computer code called Proteus 2D was developed to solve the two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This is the Analysis Description, and presents the equations and solution procedure. The governing equations, the turbulence model, the linearization of the equations and boundary conditions, the time and space differencing formulas, the ADI solution procedure, and the artificial viscosity models are described in detail.

  6. PROTEUS two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 1: Analysis description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Benson, Thomas J.; Suresh, Ambady

    1990-01-01

    A new computer code was developed to solve the two-dimensional or axisymmetric, Reynolds averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. Turbulence is modeled using an algebraic eddy viscosity model. The objective was to develop a code for aerospace applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The equations are written in nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, and solved by marching in time using a fully-coupled alternating direction-implicit procedure with generalized first- or second-order time differencing. All terms are linearized using second-order Taylor series. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly, and may be steady, unsteady, or spatially periodic. Simple Cartesian or polar grids may be generated internally by the program. More complex geometries require an externally generated computational coordinate system. The documentation is divided into three volumes. Volume 1 is the Analysis Description, and describes in detail the governing equations, the turbulence model, the linearization of the equations and boundary conditions, the time and space differencing formulas, the ADI solution procedure, and the artificial viscosity models.

  7. Discovery of some 400 million year-old sensory structures in the compound eyes of trilobites.

    PubMed

    Schoenemann, Brigitte; Clarkson, Euan N K

    2013-01-01

    Fossilised arthropod compound eyes have frequently been described. Among the oldest known are those from the lower Cambrian of the Chengjiang Lagerstätte (China, c 525 Ma). All these compound eyes, though often excellently preserved, however, represent just the outer shells, because soft tissues, or even individual cells, usually do not fossilise. Using modern techniques, including μct-scanning and synchrotron radiation analysis we present the discovery of the sensory cell system of compound eyes, belonging to trilobites around 400 million years old, which allows their description and analysis. They are interpreted as forming part of an apposition-like ommatidium, which is a basic functional type of compound eye present in arthropods of today. Considered in greater detail, it is similar to the compound eye of the horseshoe crab Limulus, generally regarded as a 'living fossil', which probably retained this ancient basal system successfully until today. PMID:23492459

  8. Through the Magnifying Glass: A Descriptive Theoretical Analysis of the Possible Impact of the South African Higher Education Policies on Academic Staff and their Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapesela, Mabokang; Hay, H. R.

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a descriptive theoretical analysis of the most important higher education policies and initiatives which were developed by the democratically elected government of South Africa after 1994 to transform the South African higher education system. The article sheds light on the rationale for the policies under scrutiny; how they…

  9. Characterization of cutaneous and articular sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Serra, Ines; Husson, Zoé; Bartlett, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Background A wide range of stimuli can activate sensory neurons and neurons innervating specific tissues often have distinct properties. Here, we used retrograde tracing to identify sensory neurons innervating the hind paw skin (cutaneous) and ankle/knee joints (articular), and combined immunohistochemistry and electrophysiology analysis to determine the neurochemical phenotype of cutaneous and articular neurons, as well as their electrical and chemical excitability. Results Immunohistochemistry analysis using RetroBeads as a retrograde tracer confirmed previous data that cutaneous and articular neurons are a mixture of myelinated and unmyelinated neurons, and the majority of both populations are peptidergic. In whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons, voltage-gated inward currents and action potential parameters were largely similar between articular and cutaneous neurons, although cutaneous neuron action potentials had a longer half-peak duration (HPD). An assessment of chemical sensitivity showed that all neurons responded to a pH 5.0 solution, but that acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) currents, determined by inhibition with the nonselective acid-sensing ion channel antagonist benzamil, were of a greater magnitude in cutaneous compared to articular neurons. Forty to fifty percent of cutaneous and articular neurons responded to capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde, and menthol, indicating similar expression levels of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), and transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8), respectively. By contrast, significantly more articular neurons responded to ATP than cutaneous neurons. Conclusion This work makes a detailed characterization of cutaneous and articular sensory neurons and highlights the importance of making recordings from identified neuronal populations: sensory neurons innervating different tissues have subtly different properties

  10. The effect of substitution of sodium chloride with potassium chloride on the physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of Halloumi cheese.

    PubMed

    Kamleh, R; Olabi, A; Toufeili, I; Najm, N E O; Younis, T; Ajib, R

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of salt reduction and partial replacement with KCl on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of fresh and matured Halloumi cheese. Halloumi samples were matured for 8 wk and moisture, fat, protein, pH, lactic acid, sodium, and potassium contents determined. Instrumental textural characteristics of the samples were measured using a texture analyzer. Microbiological analyses included counts of total bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds, total coliforms, and psychrophilic bacteria. Descriptive sensory analysis was carried out by a 9-member panel, and acceptability testing was conducted with 72 panelists. Salt treatment had a significant effect on the pH, sodium, and potassium contents of the cheeses, whereas age by salt treatment interaction had a significant effect on the pH, lactic acid, and potassium contents of the samples. No major trends could be discerned from the texture profile analysis. All tested microorganisms increased with storage but in general did not differ between treatments and were, in certain instances, lower than levels reported in the literature for other cheeses. Descriptive analysis revealed a significant difference between salt treatments for bitterness, crumbliness, and moistness, whereas age of cheese was significant for saltiness and squeakiness. Salt treatment had no significant effect on any of the acceptability variables for all Halloumi samples.

  11. Behavioral guides for sensory neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Konishi, M

    2006-06-01

    The study of natural behavior is important for understanding the coding schemes of sensory systems. The jamming avoidance response of the weakly electric fish Eigenmannia is an excellent example of a bottom-up approach, in which behavioral analyses guided neurophysiological studies. These studies started from the electroreceptive sense organs to the motor output consisting of pacemaker neurons. Going in the opposite direction, from the central nervous system to lower centers, is the characteristic of the top-down approach. Although this approach is perhaps more difficult than the bottom-up approach, it was successfully employed in the neuroethological analysis of sound localization in the barn owl. In the latter studies, high-order neurons selective for complex natural stimuli led to the discovery of neural pathways and networks responsible for the genesis of the stimulus selectivity. Comparison of Eigenmannia and barn owls, and their neural systems, has revealed similarities in network designs, such as parallel pathways and their convergence to produce stimulus selectivity necessary for detection of natural stimuli.

  12. Behavioral guides for sensory neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Konishi, M

    2006-06-01

    The study of natural behavior is important for understanding the coding schemes of sensory systems. The jamming avoidance response of the weakly electric fish Eigenmannia is an excellent example of a bottom-up approach, in which behavioral analyses guided neurophysiological studies. These studies started from the electroreceptive sense organs to the motor output consisting of pacemaker neurons. Going in the opposite direction, from the central nervous system to lower centers, is the characteristic of the top-down approach. Although this approach is perhaps more difficult than the bottom-up approach, it was successfully employed in the neuroethological analysis of sound localization in the barn owl. In the latter studies, high-order neurons selective for complex natural stimuli led to the discovery of neural pathways and networks responsible for the genesis of the stimulus selectivity. Comparison of Eigenmannia and barn owls, and their neural systems, has revealed similarities in network designs, such as parallel pathways and their convergence to produce stimulus selectivity necessary for detection of natural stimuli. PMID:16432726

  13. Sensory features and repetitive behaviors in children with autism and developmental delays.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Brian A; Baranek, Grace T; Sideris, John; Poe, Michele D; Watson, Linda R; Patten, Elena; Miller, Heather

    2010-04-01

    This study combined parent and observational measures to examine the association between aberrant sensory features and restricted, repetitive behaviors in children with autism (N=67) and those with developmental delays (N=42). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to empirically validate three sensory constructs of interest: hyperresponsiveness, hyporesponsiveness, and sensory seeking. Examining the association between the three derived sensory factor scores and scores on the Repetitive Behavior Scales--Revised revealed the co-occurrence of these behaviors in both clinical groups. Specifically, high levels of hyperresponsive behaviors predicted high levels of repetitive behaviors, and the relationship between these variables remained the same controlling for mental age. We primarily found non-significant associations between hyporesponsiveness or sensory seeking and repetitive behaviors, with the exception that sensory seeking was associated with ritualistic/sameness behaviors. These findings suggest that shared neurobiological mechanisms may underlie hyperresponsive sensory symptoms and repetitive behaviors and have implications for diagnostic classification as well as intervention.

  14. Transformation of sensory organs by mutations of the cut locus of D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Bodmer, R; Barbel, S; Sheperd, S; Jack, J W; Jan, L Y; Jan, Y N

    1987-10-23

    The identities of two types of sensory organs in the body wall of Drosophila, namely the external sensory organs and the chordotonal organs, are under genetic control. Embryonic lethal mutations in the cut gene complex transform the external sensory organs into chordotonal organs. The neurons, as well as the support cells forming the external sensory structures, change their morphological and antigenic characteristics to those of chordotonal organs, providing genetic evidence that these two types of sensory organs are homologous. Similar transformations of external sensory organs are observed in adult mosaic flies. Analysis of mosaic larvae and flies suggests that the cut gene function is required either in or near external sensory organs in order for them to acquire their correct identity. PMID:3117374

  15. Sensory Features and Repetitive Behaviors in Children with Autism and Developmental Delays

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Brian A.; Baranek, Grace T.; Sideris, John; Poe, Michele D.; Watson, Linda R.; Patten, Elena; Miller, Heather

    2010-01-01

    This study combined parent and observational measures to examine the association between aberrant sensory features and restricted, repetitive behaviors in children with autism (N = 67) and those with developmental delays (N = 42). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to empirically validate three sensory constructs of interest: hyperresponsiveness, hyporesponsiveness, and sensory seeking. Examining the association between the three derived sensory factor scores and scores on the Repetitive Behavior Scales—Revised revealed the co-occurrence of these behaviors in both clinical groups. Specifically, high levels of hyperresponsive behaviors predicted high levels of repetitive behaviors, and the relationship between these variables remained the same controlling for mental age. We primarily found non-significant associations between hyporesponsiveness or sensory seeking and repetitive behaviors, with the exception that sensory seeking was associated with ritualistic/sameness behaviors. These findings suggest that shared neurobiological mechanisms may underlie hyperresponsive sensory symptoms and repetitive behaviors and have implications for diagnostic classification as well as intervention. PMID:20437603

  16. Family-Centered Management of Sensory Challenges of Children With Autism: Single-Case Experimental Design.

    PubMed

    Bulkeley, Kim; Bundy, Anita; Roberts, Jacqueline; Einfeld, Stewart

    2016-01-01

    We explored the effectiveness of a sensory-based, family-centered coaching approach to changing problematic routines for young children with autism. Three mothers of young children with autism, atypical sensory processing, and global developmental delay each participated in a single-case experimental ABA design study. Mothers selected a problematic daily routine linked to sensory challenges as the focus of four intervention sessions provided in the home. Changes in mothers' perceptions of the children's behavior were the primary outcome, measured daily on a visual analog scale. Visual and descriptive analyses were undertaken. The sensory-based, family-centered coaching approach showed promise for changing sensory-related problem behaviors of young children with autism, but the degree and maintenance of the intervention effect varied among participants. PMID:27548868

  17. Influence of Sensory Dependence on Postural Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santana, Patricia A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Fiedler, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The current project is part of an NSBRI funded project, "Development of Countermeasures to Aid Functional Egress from the Crew Exploration Vehicle Following Long-Duration Spaceflight." The development of this countermeasure is based on the use of imperceptible levels of electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the inner ear to assist and enhance the response of a person s sensorimotor function. These countermeasures could be used to increase an astronaut s re-adaptation rate to Earth s gravity following long-duration space flight. The focus of my project is to evaluate and examine the correlation of sensory preferences for vision and vestibular systems. Disruption of the sensorimotor functions following space flight affects posture, locomotion and spatial orientation tasks in astronauts. The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), the Rod and Frame Test (RFT) and the Computerized Dynamic Posturography Test (CDP) are measurements used to examine subjects visual and vestibular sensory preferences. The analysis of data from these tasks will assist in relating the visual dependence measures recognized in the GEFT and RFT with vestibular dependence measures recognized in the stability measures obtained during CDP. Studying the impact of sensory dependence on the performance in varied tasks will help in the development of targeted countermeasures to help astronauts readapt to gravitational changes after long duration space flight.

  18. Relationship of sensory and instrumental aroma measurements of dark chocolate as influenced by fermentation method, roasting and conching conditions.

    PubMed

    Owusu, Margaret; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Heimdal, Hanne

    2013-10-01

    The investigation was undertaken to establish a relationship between key odorants and perceived flavor attributes of dark chocolate as influenced by cocoa fermentation method, roasting and conching conditions, using multivariate data analysis in an attempt to use one variable to predict the other. Eight of the sixteen flavor attributes used by a trained sensory panel to describe and quantify the intensity of attributes in the samples were significantly different (p < 0.05). Roasting significantly reduced astringency in heap-fermented samples but the reduction in tray-fermented samples was not significant. Unconched samples were rated higher in banana attribute than conched samples. Multivariate data analytical tools, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares (PLS) were used to investigate quantitative descriptive analysis and GC-O data and also to relate the two sets of data. PLS 1 models based on single sensory attributes gave better models than PLS2 models based on all sixteen sensory attributes. Ethyl-3-methylbutanoate (fruity, flowery); 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (popcorn); dihydro-2(3H)-furanone, (sweet); linalool oxide (sweet, flowery); benzaldehyde (earthy, nutty) and 2/3-methylbutanal (cocoa, roasted) modeled fruit attribute. It was also possible to model the attribute astringent from the aroma compounds 5-methyl-2-phenyl-2-hexenal (sweet, roasted cocoa), ethyl-3-methylbutanoate and pentyl acetate (green, cucumber). Since fruit attribute was higher in unconched samples and astringent higher in unroasted samples, it may be possible to use the levels of these important aroma compounds as indicators of the sensory attributes fruit and astringent. PMID:24425997

  19. Descriptive and social network analysis of pig transport data recorded by quality assured pig farms in the UK.

    PubMed

    Smith, R P; Cook, A J C; Christley, R M

    2013-02-01

    categorised by our analysis, were shown to mostly have movement connections within that company. However, small company farms had connections to farms belonging to large companies or other small companies, demonstrating that they may play an important role in creating links between large companies. The majority of farms in both Scotland and North-East and Eastern England belonged to large companies, and this finding is discussed in relation to how this may help explain the lower Salmonella seroprevalence in these areas. The study provides a first description of the characteristics of the UK pig movement network and the analysis has indicated a number of findings that might have implications for disease transmission and targeting surveillance and control.

  20. Who serves the urban poor? A geospatial and descriptive analysis of health services in slum settlements in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Alayne M; Islam, Rubana; Ahmed, Tanvir

    2015-01-01

    In Bangladesh, the health risks of unplanned urbanization are disproportionately shouldered by the urban poor. At the same time, affordable formal primary care services are scarce, and what exists is almost exclusively provided by non-government organizations (NGOs) working on a project basis. So where do the poor go for health care? A health facility mapping of six urban slum settlements in Dhaka was undertaken to explore the configuration of healthcare services proximate to where the poor reside. Three methods were employed: (1) Social mapping and listing of all Health Service Delivery Points (HSDPs); (2) Creation of a geospatial map including Global Positioning System (GPS) co-ordinates of all HSPDs in the six study areas and (3) Implementation of a facility survey of all HSDPs within six study areas. Descriptive statistics are used to examine the number, type and concentration of service provider types, as well as indicators of their accessibility in terms of location and hours of service. A total of 1041 HSDPs were mapped, of which 80% are privately operated and the rest by NGOs and the public sector. Phamacies and non-formal or traditional doctors make up 75% of the private sector while consultation chambers account for 20%. Most NGO and Urban Primary Health Care Project (UPHCP) static clinics are open 5–6 days/week, but close by 4–5 pm in the afternoon. Evening services are almost exclusively offered by private HSDPs; however, only 37% of private sector health staff possess some kind of formal medical qualification. This spatial analysis of health service supply in poor urban settlements emphasizes the importance of taking the informal private sector into account in efforts to increase effective coverage of quality services. Features of informal private sector service provision that have facilitated market penetration may be relevant in designing formal services that better meet the needs of the urban poor. PMID:25759453

  1. Who serves the urban poor? A geospatial and descriptive analysis of health services in slum settlements in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Adams, Alayne M; Islam, Rubana; Ahmed, Tanvir

    2015-03-01

    In Bangladesh, the health risks of unplanned urbanization are disproportionately shouldered by the urban poor. At the same time, affordable formal primary care services are scarce, and what exists is almost exclusively provided by non-government organizations (NGOs) working on a project basis. So where do the poor go for health care? A health facility mapping of six urban slum settlements in Dhaka was undertaken to explore the configuration of healthcare services proximate to where the poor reside. Three methods were employed: (1) Social mapping and listing of all Health Service Delivery Points (HSDPs); (2) Creation of a geospatial map including Global Positioning System (GPS) co-ordinates of all HSPDs in the six study areas and (3) Implementation of a facility survey of all HSDPs within six study areas. Descriptive statistics are used to examine the number, type and concentration of service provider types, as well as indicators of their accessibility in terms of location and hours of service. A total of 1041 HSDPs were mapped, of which 80% are privately operated and the rest by NGOs and the public sector. Phamacies and non-formal or traditional doctors make up 75% of the private sector while consultation chambers account for 20%. Most NGO and Urban Primary Health Care Project (UPHCP) static clinics are open 5-6 days/week, but close by 4-5 pm in the afternoon. Evening services are almost exclusively offered by private HSDPs; however, only 37% of private sector health staff possess some kind of formal medical qualification. This spatial analysis of health service supply in poor urban settlements emphasizes the importance of taking the informal private sector into account in efforts to increase effective coverage of quality services. Features of informal private sector service provision that have facilitated market penetration may be relevant in designing formal services that better meet the needs of the urban poor. PMID:25759453

  2. Health technology assessment in Switzerland: a descriptive analysis of “Coverage with Evidence Development” decisions from 1996 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Brügger, Urs; Horisberger, Bruno; Ruckstuhl, Alexander; Plessow, Rafael; Eichler, Klaus; Gratwohl, Alois

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify factors associated with the decisions of the Federal Department of Home Affairs concerning coverage with evidence development (CED) for contested novel medical technologies in Switzerland. Design Quantitative, retrospective, descriptive analysis of publicly available material and prospective, structured, qualitative interviews with key stakeholders. Setting All 152 controversial medical services decided on by the Federal Commission on Health Insurance Benefits within the framework of the new federal law on health insurance in Switzerland from 1997 to 2013, with focus on 33 technologies assigned initially to CED and 33 to evidence development without coverage. Main outcome measures Factors associated with numbers and type of contested services assigned to CED per year, the duration and final outcome of the evaluations and perceptions of key stakeholders. Results The rate of CED decisions (82 total; median 1.5/year; range 0–9/year), the time to final decision (4.5 years median; 0.75 to +11 years) and the probability of a final ‘yes’ varied over time. In logistic regression models, the change of office of the commission provided the best explanation for the observed outcomes. Good intentions but absence of scientific criteria for decisions were reported as major comments by the stakeholders. Conclusions The introduction of CED enabled access to some promising technologies early in their life cycle, and might have triggered establishment of registries and research. Impact on patients’ outcome and costs remain unknown. The primary association of institutional changes with measured end points illustrates the need for evaluation of the current health technology assessment (HTA) system. PMID:25818273

  3. Volatile compounds in dry dog foods and their influence on sensory aromatic profile.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Kadri; Adhikari, Koushik; Di Donfrancesco, Brizio

    2013-02-27

    The aim of this study was to determine volatile compounds in dry dog foods and their possible influence on sensory aromatic profile. Grain-free dry dog foods were compared to dry dog foods manufactured with grain, but also with different protein sources for their aromatic volatiles. Solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine the aromatic compounds present in the headspace of these samples. Partial Least Squares regression was performed to correlate the instrumental aromatic data with the descriptive aroma analysis data. A total of 54 aromatic compounds were tentatively identified in the dry dog food samples, with aldehydes and ketones being the most represented organic volatiles group. Grain-added products were on the average higher in total volatiles than grain-free products. Partial Least Squares regression analysis indicated possible connections with sensory aromatic profile and grain-added samples, such as rancid aroma and aldehydes, especially hexanal. The results of this study showed that dry dog foods are products with complex odor characteristics and that grain-free products are less aromatic.

  4. Relationships between preference ratings, sensory profiles, and acoustical measurements in concert halls.

    PubMed

    Kuusinen, Antti; Pätynen, Jukka; Tervo, Sakari; Lokki, Tapio

    2014-01-01

    Preferences of concert hall acoustics are explored with preference mapping. The investigation is performed on previously gathered data from individual vocabulary profiling of nine concert halls and three pieces of symphonic music, namely, excerpts of compositions by Beethoven, Bruckner, and Mozart. Individual preferences are regressed onto a latent three-dimensional sensory space obtained by multiple factor analysis of descriptive sensory data. Overlaying individually estimated preference surfaces onto one another produces preference maps which illustrates both the overall preference of the stimuli as well as differences between individual listeners. A comparison of the maps between music motifs illustrates how each music signal affects the weighting of different acoustical qualities in preference judgments. Differences in preferences between individuals are pronounced in the excerpts of Beethoven and Bruckner, while the responses are more homogeneous for Mozart music motif. Overall, proximity is identified as the main aspect associated with preference, but also loudness, envelopment, and bass are important. A correlation analysis of objective parameters and subjective perceptions substantiates the importance of lateral sound energy for good concert hall acoustics. Particularly, the lateral early energy fraction at high frequencies is found to be associated with the perception of proximity, and hence, also with preference.

  5. Relationships between preference ratings, sensory profiles, and acoustical measurements in concert halls.

    PubMed

    Kuusinen, Antti; Pätynen, Jukka; Tervo, Sakari; Lokki, Tapio

    2014-01-01

    Preferences of concert hall acoustics are explored with preference mapping. The investigation is performed on previously gathered data from individual vocabulary profiling of nine concert halls and three pieces of symphonic music, namely, excerpts of compositions by Beethoven, Bruckner, and Mozart. Individual preferences are regressed onto a latent three-dimensional sensory space obtained by multiple factor analysis of descriptive sensory data. Overlaying individually estimated preference surfaces onto one another produces preference maps which illustrates both the overall preference of the stimuli as well as differences between individual listeners. A comparison of the maps between music motifs illustrates how each music signal affects the weighting of different acoustical qualities in preference judgments. Differences in preferences between individuals are pronounced in the excerpts of Beethoven and Bruckner, while the responses are more homogeneous for Mozart music motif. Overall, proximity is identified as the main aspect associated with preference, but also loudness, envelopment, and bass are important. A correlation analysis of objective parameters and subjective perceptions substantiates the importance of lateral sound energy for good concert hall acoustics. Particularly, the lateral early energy fraction at high frequencies is found to be associated with the perception of proximity, and hence, also with preference. PMID:24437764

  6. Subacute sensory neuronopathy secondary to dorsal root ganglionitis in primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Malinow, K; Yannakakis, G D; Glusman, S M; Edlow, D W; Griffin, J; Pestronk, A; Powell, D L; Ramsey-Goldman, R; Eidelman, B H; Medsger, T A

    1986-10-01

    Sensory neuropathies, particularly trigeminal neuropathy, have been recognized as neurological complications of Sjögren's syndrome, but the pathogenesis has not been established. We describe a woman with primary Sjögren's syndrome who developed a progressive debilitating subacute sensory neuronopathy. Results of electrophysiological studies were consistent with involvement of the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia. A thoracic dorsal root ganglion biopsy showed lymphocytic infiltration and degeneration of ganglion cells. We believe that this is the first description of biopsy-documented dorsal root ganglionitis in a subacute sensory neuronopathy associated with Sjögren's syndrome and that the finding suggests an immunopathogenic basis.

  7. Effect of adjuncts on sensory properties and consumer liking of Scamorza cheese.

    PubMed

    Braghieri, A; Piazzolla, N; Romaniello, A; Paladino, F; Ricciardi, A; Napolitano, F

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of a peptidolytic adjunct (Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Lactobacillus paracasei), as a tool to accelerate ripening, on sensory properties and acceptability of Scamorza cheese obtained using 2 types of milk (Friesian and Friesian+Jersey) and Streptococcus thermophilus as primary starter. A 10-member panel was trained using a specific frame of references and used a specific vocabulary to assess cheese sensory properties through quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), whereas 87 consumers were used to evaluate product acceptability. Analysis of variance showed that milk type did not markedly alter cheese sensory properties. Conversely, panelists perceived higher intensities of butter, saltiness, and sweetness flavors in cheese without adjunct culture (ST), whereas the addition of the adjunct culture (ST+A) induced higher and sourness flavors, oiliness and grainy textures, and lower adhesiveness, moisture, springiness, and tenderness. Principal component analysis showed positive relationships between pH and tenderness, sweetness and saltiness and a negative correlation between pH and grainy, oiliness, color and structure uniformity, sourness, and milk. Most of the differences observed in QDA and most of the relationships observed in the principal component analysis were linked to the higher microbial activity induced by the adjunct culture. Independently of milk and starter types, consumers perceived Scamorza cheese as characterized by a good eating quality (mean liking scores were all above the neutral point of the hedonic scale). Although ST cheeses showed higher values for overall liking, 2 homogeneous groups of consumers were identified using partial least squares regression analysis. One group preferred ST cheeses with higher levels of tenderness, adhesiveness, springiness, and moisture in terms of texture, butter in terms of flavor, and sweetness in terms of taste, whereas a second group

  8. Effect of adjuncts on sensory properties and consumer liking of Scamorza cheese.

    PubMed

    Braghieri, A; Piazzolla, N; Romaniello, A; Paladino, F; Ricciardi, A; Napolitano, F

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of a peptidolytic adjunct (Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Lactobacillus paracasei), as a tool to accelerate ripening, on sensory properties and acceptability of Scamorza cheese obtained using 2 types of milk (Friesian and Friesian+Jersey) and Streptococcus thermophilus as primary starter. A 10-member panel was trained using a specific frame of references and used a specific vocabulary to assess cheese sensory properties through quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), whereas 87 consumers were used to evaluate product acceptability. Analysis of variance showed that milk type did not markedly alter cheese sensory properties. Conversely, panelists perceived higher intensities of butter, saltiness, and sweetness flavors in cheese without adjunct culture (ST), whereas the addition of the adjunct culture (ST+A) induced higher and sourness flavors, oiliness and grainy textures, and lower adhesiveness, moisture, springiness, and tenderness. Principal component analysis showed positive relationships between pH and tenderness, sweetness and saltiness and a negative correlation between pH and grainy, oiliness, color and structure uniformity, sourness, and milk. Most of the differences observed in QDA and most of the relationships observed in the principal component analysis were linked to the higher microbial activity induced by the adjunct culture. Independently of milk and starter types, consumers perceived Scamorza cheese as characterized by a good eating quality (mean liking scores were all above the neutral point of the hedonic scale). Although ST cheeses showed higher values for overall liking, 2 homogeneous groups of consumers were identified using partial least squares regression analysis. One group preferred ST cheeses with higher levels of tenderness, adhesiveness, springiness, and moisture in terms of texture, butter in terms of flavor, and sweetness in terms of taste, whereas a second group

  9. Sensory Transduction in Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Austin L.; Ramot, Daniel; Goodman, Miriam B.

    The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans has a well-defined and comparatively simple repertoire of sensory-guided behaviors, all of which rely on its ability to detect chemical, mechanical or thermal stimuli. In this chapter, we review what is known about the ion channels that mediate sensation in this remarkable model organism. Genetic screens for mutants defective in sensory-guided behaviors have identified genes encoding channel proteins, which are likely transducers of chemical, thermal, and mechanical stimuli. Such classical genetic approaches are now being coupled with molecular genetics and in vivo cellular physiology to elucidate how these channels are activated in specific sensory neurons. The ion channel superfamilies implicated in sensory transduction in C. elegans - CNG, TRP, and DEG/ENaC - are conserved across phyla and also appear to contribute to sensory transduction in other organisms, including vertebrates. What we learn about the role of these ion channels in C. elegans sensation is likely to illuminate analogous processes in other animals, including humans.

  10. Crossmodal plasticity in sensory loss.

    PubMed

    Frasnelli, Johannes; Collignon, Olivier; Voss, Patrice; Lepore, Franco

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we describe crossmodal plasticity following sensory loss in three parts, with each section focusing on one sensory system. We summarize a wide range of studies showing that sensory loss may lead, depending of the affected sensory system, to functional changes in other, primarily not affected senses, which range from heightened to lowered abilities. In the first part, the effects of blindness on mainly audition and touch are described. The latest findings on brain reorganization in blindness are reported, with a particular emphasis on imaging studies illustrating how nonvisual inputs recruit the visually deafferented occipital cortex. The second part covers crossmodal processing in deafness, with a special focus on the effects of deafness on visual processing. In the last portion of this review, we present the effects that the loss of a chemical sense have on the sensitivity of the other chemical senses, that is, smell, taste, and trigeminal chemosensation. We outline how the convergence of the chemical senses to the same central processing areas may lead to the observed reduction in sensitivity of the primarily not affected senses. Altogether, the studies reviewed herein illustrate the fascinating plasticity of the brain when coping with sensory deprivation. PMID:21741555

  11. Sensory Characteristics and Comparison of Commercial Plain Yogurts and 2 New Production Sample Options.

    PubMed

    Brown, Marissa D; Chambers, Delores H

    2015-12-01

    This research determined the sensory characteristics of currently available plain yogurts available in U.S. supermarkets and examined how 3 "more sustainable" prototypes compared. The prototypes, nonfat set-style yogurts pre-acidified after pasteurization with lemon juice or citric acid at 80 ppm to pH 6.2, had shorter fermentation times than the lab-made control. These reduced fermentation times could result in energy reductions and potentially substantiate a "sustainable" marketing claim, a concept gaining traction with consumers. Twenty-six commercial yogurts, varying in percent milk fat, milk source (organic or conventional), and processing (set-style, stirred, or strained/Greek-style), were also included. Using descriptive sensory analysis, a 6-person highly trained panel scored the intensity of 25 flavor and 10 texture attributes on a 15-point scale. Three replications were carried out, and all samples were tested at least 10 d prior to the end of their shelf-lives. The samples differed for 19 flavor and all 10 texture attributes. Cluster analysis indicated approximately 7 flavor and 5 texture clusters. The prototype pre-acidified with lemon juice was similar to category leaders nonfat yogurt varieties. The prototype pre-acidified with citric acid was similar in texture but was less sour. Although no legal definitions exist for "sustainable," the prototypes' sensory characteristics are comparable to those of popular yogurts indicating potential market viability. This research also demonstrates potential for making yogurt that is in line with growing consumer expectations for sustainability. Despite the current diversity, several combinations of flavor and texture were not represented.

  12. Sensory Characteristics and Comparison of Commercial Plain Yogurts and 2 New Production Sample Options.

    PubMed

    Brown, Marissa D; Chambers, Delores H

    2015-12-01

    This research determined the sensory characteristics of currently available plain yogurts available in U.S. supermarkets and examined how 3 "more sustainable" prototypes compared. The prototypes, nonfat set-style yogurts pre-acidified after pasteurization with lemon juice or citric acid at 80 ppm to pH 6.2, had shorter fermentation times than the lab-made control. These reduced fermentation times could result in energy reductions and potentially substantiate a "sustainable" marketing claim, a concept gaining traction with consumers. Twenty-six commercial yogurts, varying in percent milk fat, milk source (organic or conventional), and processing (set-style, stirred, or strained/Greek-style), were also included. Using descriptive sensory analysis, a 6-person highly trained panel scored the intensity of 25 flavor and 10 texture attributes on a 15-point scale. Three replications were carried out, and all samples were tested at least 10 d prior to the end of their shelf-lives. The samples differed for 19 flavor and all 10 texture attributes. Cluster analysis indicated approximately 7 flavor and 5 texture clusters. The prototype pre-acidified with lemon juice was similar to category leaders nonfat yogurt varieties. The prototype pre-acidified with citric acid was similar in texture but was less sour. Although no legal definitions exist for "sustainable," the prototypes' sensory characteristics are comparable to those of popular yogurts indicating potential market viability. This research also demonstrates potential for making yogurt that is in line with growing consumer expectations for sustainability. Despite the current diversity, several combinations of flavor and texture were not represented. PMID:26551026

  13. Predicting Psychotic-Like Experiences during Sensory Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Christina; Mason, Oliver J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims. This study aimed to establish the contribution of hallucination proneness, anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness to psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) reported during brief sensory deprivation. Method. Twenty-four high and 22 low hallucination-prone participants reported on PLEs occurring during brief sensory deprivation and at baseline. State/trait anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness were also measured. Results. Both groups experienced a significant increase in PLEs in sensory deprivation. The high hallucination prone group reported more PLEs both at baseline and in sensory deprivation. They also scored significantly higher on measures of state/trait anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness, though these did not explain the effects of group or condition. Regression analysis found hallucination proneness to be the best predictor of the increase in PLEs, with state anxiety also being a significant predictor. Fantasy proneness and suggestibility were not significant predictors. Conclusion. This study suggests the increase in PLEs reported during sensory deprivation reflects a genuine aberration in perceptual experience, as opposed to increased tendency to make false reports due to suggestibility of fantasy proneness. The study provides further support for the use of sensory deprivation as a safe and effective nonpharmacological model of psychosis. PMID:25811027

  14. Influence of human skin injury on regeneration of sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Taherzadeh, O; Otto, W R; Anand, U; Nanchahal, J; Anand, P

    2003-06-01

    The regeneration of sensory nerve fibres is regulated by trophic factors released from their target tissue, particularly the basal epidermis, and matrix molecules. Means to modulate this response may be useful for the treatment of neuromas and painful hypertrophic scars and of sensory deficits in skin grafts and flaps. We have developed an in vitro model of sensory neuron regeneration on human skin in order to study the mechanisms of sensory dysfunction in pathological conditions. Adult rat sensory neurons were co-cultured with unfixed cryosections of normal or injured (crushed) human skin for 72 h. Neurons were immunostained for growth-associated protein-43 and the neurite lengths of neuronal cell bodies situated in various skin regions were measured. Two-way analysis of variance was performed. Neurites of sensory cell bodies on epidermis of normal skin were the shortest, with a mean +/- SEM of 75+/-10 micrometer, whereas those of cells on the dermo-epidermal junction were the longest, with a mean +/- SEM of 231+/-18 micrometer. Neurons on the dermo-epidermal junction of injured skin had significantly longer neurites than those on the same region of normal skin (mean +/- SEM = 289+/-21 micrometer). Regeneration of sensory neurons may be influenced by extracellular matrix molecules, matrix-binding growth factors and trophic factors. Altered substrate or trophic factors in injured skin may explain the increase of neurite lengths. This in vitro model may be useful for studying the molecular mechanisms of sensory recovery and the development of neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury.

  15. Chronic sensory stroke with and without central pain is associated with bilaterally distributed sensory abnormalities as detected by quantitative sensory testing.

    PubMed

    Krause, Thomas; Asseyer, Susanna; Geisler, Frederik; Fiebach, Jochen B; Oeltjenbruns, Jochen; Kopf, Andreas; Villringer, Kersten; Villringer, Arno; Jungehulsing, Gerhard J

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 20% of patients suffering from stroke with pure or predominant sensory symptoms (referred to as sensory stroke patients) develop central poststroke pain (CPSP). It is largely unknown what distinguishes these patients from those who remain pain free. Using quantitative sensory testing (QST), we analyzed the somatosensory profiles of 50 patients with chronic sensory stroke, of which 25 suffered from CPSP. As compared with reference data from healthy controls, patients with CPSP showed alterations of thermal and mechanical thresholds on the body area contralateral to their stroke (P < 0.01). Patients with sensory stroke but without CPSP (non-pain sensory stroke [NPSS] patients) exhibited similar albeit less pronounced contralesional changes. Paradoxical heat sensation (PHS) and dynamic mechanical allodynia (DMA) showed higher values in CPSP, and an elevated cold detection threshold (CDT) was seen more often in CPSP than in patients with NPSS (P < 0.05). In patients with CPSP, changes in CDT, PHS, dynamic mechanical allodynia, and temporal pain summation (wind-up ratio) each correlated with the presence of pain (P < 0.05). On the homologous ipsilesional body area, both patient groups showed additional significant abnormalities as compared with the reference data, which strongly resembled the contralesional changes. In summary, our analysis reveals that CPSP is associated with impaired temperature perception and positive sensory signs, but differences between patients with CPSP and NPSS are subtle. Both patients with CPSP and NPSS show considerable QST changes on the ipsilesional body side. These results are in part paralleled by recent findings of bilaterally spread cortical atrophy in CPSP and might reflect chronic maladaptive cortical plasticity, particularly in patients with CPSP.

  16. β-Lactoglobulin as nanotransporter for allicin: Sensory properties and applicability in food.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Sandra Catharina; Keppler, Julia Katharina; Palani, Kalpana; Schwarz, Karin

    2016-05-15

    The thiosulfinate allicin is a labile, bioactive compound of garlic. In order to enrich allicin in a functional food, a delivery system which stabilises the compound and masks its intense flavour is necessary. In the present study allicin was covalently bound to the whey protein β-lactoglobulin and the incorporation of this transporter in a food matrix was tested. The sensory properties of the pure functional ingredient as well as of an enriched beverage were characterised by quantitative descriptive analysis. The concentration of volatile compounds was analysed by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The garlic-related organoleptic properties of garlic powder were significantly improved by the binding of allicin in combination with spray drying. After purification of the modified β-lactoglobulin the garlic taste and smell were barely perceptible. β-Lactoglobulin modified with allicin provided a stable functional ingredient that can be used to enrich a broad range of food products. PMID:26776023

  17. Behavioral, Perceptual, and Neural Alterations in Sensory and Multisensory Function in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Sarah H.; Stevenson, Ryan A.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Although sensory processing challenges have been noted since the first clinical descriptions of autism, it has taken until the release of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) in 2013 for sensory problems to be included as part of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the diagnostic profile. Because sensory information forms the building blocks for higher-order social and cognitive functions, we argue that sensory processing is not only an additional piece of the puzzle, but rather a critical cornerstone for characterizing and understanding ASD. In this review we discuss what is currently known about sensory processing in ASD, how sensory function fits within contemporary models of ASD, and what is understood about the differences in the underlying neural processing of sensory and social communication observed between individuals with and without ASD. In addition to highlighting the sensory features associated with ASD, we also emphasize the importance of multisensory processing in building perceptual and cognitive representations, and how deficits in multisensory integration may also be a core characteristic of ASD. PMID:26455789

  18. Effect of rooibos extract (Aspalathus linearis) on lipid oxidation over time and the sensory analysis of blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi) and springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) droëwors.

    PubMed

    Jones, Maxine; Hoffman, Louwrens C; Muller, Magdalena

    2015-05-01

    The study objective was to investigate the addition of rooibos extract (RBE) in blesbok and springbok droëwors, a dried meat sausage with added beef fat, to improve oxidative stability. After a storage period of two weeks, inhibition of lipid oxidation showed to be successful with RBE 1.0% addition. No differences (P>0.05) in heme-iron results within the raw, dried or stored samples were seen. However, a positive correlation between lipid oxidation and heme-iron was noted. The fatty acid profiles suggest that after drying the decrease in polyunsaturated fats could be linked to the increase in lipid oxidation. Flavor and aroma differences between the varying RBE concentrations in the droëwors were detected by the sensory panel. A droëwors formulation using a combination of game meat and beef fat with the addition of RBE at a 1.0% concentration could be a successful addition to the processed meat market. PMID:25617707

  19. On the brain of a crustacean: a morphological analysis of CaMKII expression and its relation to sensory and motor pathways.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Dib; Nazari, Evelise M; Müller, Yara M R; Allodi, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) is a Ca(2+)-activated enzyme that is abundant in vertebrate and invertebrate brains. However, its characterization is poorly addressed in the nervous system of crustaceans, and, to our knowledge, no studies have determined the microanatomical location of CaMKII in a crustacean species. In this study, we found labeling of CaMKII in the eyestalk and brain of the prawn Macrobrachium acanthurus, by means of immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Antibodies against neuron (ß tubulin III), glutamate receptor (GluA1), and FMRFamide were used in order to further characterize the CaMKII-labeled cells in the brain. In the eyestalk, strong labeling with CaMKII was observed in the photoreceptors. These cells, especially in the rhabdom, were also reactive to anti-ß tubulin III, whereas the pigment cells were labeled with anti-CaMKII. GluA1 co-located with CaMKII in the photoreceptors. Also, CaMKII appeared in the same sites as FMRFamide in the deutocerebrum, including the olfactory lobe, and in the tritocerebrum, specifically in the antennular neuropil, indicating that the synaptic areas in these regions may be related to sensory-motor processing. In the brain, the identification of cells and regions that express CaMKII contributes to the understanding of the processing of neural connections and the modulating role of CaMKII in decapod crustaceans.

  20. On the Brain of a Crustacean: A Morphological Analysis of CaMKII Expression and Its Relation to Sensory and Motor Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, Dib; Nazari, Evelise M.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) is a Ca2+-activated enzyme that is abundant in vertebrate and invertebrate brains. However, its characterization is poorly addressed in the nervous system of crustaceans, and, to our knowledge, no studies have determined the microanatomical location of CaMKII in a crustacean species. In this study, we found labeling of CaMKII in the eyestalk and brain of the prawn Macrobrachium acanthurus, by means of immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Antibodies against neuron (ß tubulin III), glutamate receptor (GluA1), and FMRFamide were used in order to further characterize the CaMKII-labeled cells in the brain. In the eyestalk, strong labeling with CaMKII was observed in the photoreceptors. These cells, especially in the rhabdom, were also reactive to anti-ß tubulin III, whereas the pigment cells were labeled with anti-CaMKII. GluA1 co-located with CaMKII in the photoreceptors. Also, CaMKII appeared in the same sites as FMRFamide in the deutocerebrum, including the olfactory lobe, and in the tritocerebrum, specifically in the antennular neuropil, indicating that the synaptic areas in these regions may be related to sensory-motor processing. In the brain, the identification of cells and regions that express CaMKII contributes to the understanding of the processing of neural connections and the modulating role of CaMKII in decapod crustaceans. PMID:23741406

  1. Microprocessor system for automated sensory irritation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCracken, M. S.

    1980-11-01

    A microprocessor controlled system which provides automatic acquisition and reduction of respiration data produced in sensory irritation studies has been developed. A microprocessor controlled system replaces a manual method where respiration patterns were recorded on a polygraph and then manually counted. A typical experiment consists of a twenty minute exposure and requires two hours to manually reduce the data. The new automated system reduces the data in a few seconds freeing the operator for other tasks. Statistical analysis of the reduced data and tabulation and plotting of results are also provided. Monitoring of the critical steps in the experiment are perfored by the automated system to insure the integrity of the experiments.

  2. A new description of Titan's aerosol optical properties from the analysis of VIMS Emission Phase Function observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Sebastien; Maltagliati, Luca; Sotin, Christophe; Rannou, Pascal; Bézard, Bruno; Cornet, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The Huygens probe gave unprecedented information on the properties of Titan's aerosols (vertical distribution, opacity as a function of wavelength, phase function, single scattering albedo) by in-situ measurements (Tomasko et al. 2008). Being the only existing in-situ atmospheric probing for Titan, this aerosol model currently is the reference for many Titan studies (e.g. by being applied as physical input in radiative transfer models of the atmosphere). Recently a reanalysis of the DISR dataset, corroborated by data from the Downward-Looking Visible Spectrometer (DLVS), was carried out by the same group (Doose et al. 2016), leading to significant changes to the indications given by Tomasko et al. (2008).Here we present the analysis of the Emission Phase Function observation (EPF) performed by VIMS during the Cassini flyby T88 (November 2012). An EPF observes the same spot on the surface (and thus the same atmosphere) with the same emergence angle but with different incidence angles. In this way, our EPF allows, for the first time, to have direct information on the phase function of Titan's aerosols, as well as on other important physical parameters of the aerosols as the behavior of their extinction as a function of wavelength and the single scattering albedo (also as a function of wavelength) for the whole VIMS range (0.8-5.2 μm). The T88 EPF is composed of 25 VIMS datacubes spanning a scattering angle range approximately from 0°to 70°.We used the radiative transfer model described in Hirtzig et al. (2013) as baseline, updated with improved methane (+ related isotopes) spectroscopy. By changing the aerosol description in the model, we found the combination of aerosol optical parameters that fits best a constant aerosol column density over the whole set of the VIMS datacubes. We confirmed that the new results from Doose et al. (2016) do improve the fit for what concerns the vertical profile and the extinction as a function of wavelength. However, a different

  3. A new description of Titan's aerosol optical properties from the analysis of VIMS Emission Phase Function observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltagliati, Luca; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Sotin, Christophe; Rannou, Pascal; Bezard, Bruno; Cornet, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The Huygens probe gave unprecedented information on the properties of Titan's aerosols (vertical distribution, opacity as a function of wavelength, phase function, single scattering albedo) by in-situ measurements (Tomasko et al. 2008). Being the only existing in-situ atmospheric probing for Titan, this aerosol model currently is the reference for many Titan studies (e.g. by being applied as physical input in radiative transfer models of the atmosphere). Recently a reanalysis of the DISR dataset, corroborated by data from the Downward-Looking Visible Spectrometer (DLVS), was carried out by the same group (Doose et al. 2016), leading to significant changes to the indications given by Tomasko et al. (2008). Here we present the analysis of the Emission Phase Function observation (EPF) performed by VIMS during the Cassini flyby T88 (November 2012). An EPF observes the same spot on the surface (and thus the same atmosphere) with the same emergence angle but with different incidence angles. In this way, our EPF allows, for the first time, to have direct information on the phase function of Titan's aerosols, as well as on other important physical parameters of the aerosols as the behavior of their extinction as a function of wavelength and the single scattering albedo (also as a function of wavelength) for the whole VIMS range (0.8-5.2 µm). The T88 EPF is composed of 25 VIMS datacubes spanning a scattering angle range approximately from 0°to 70°. We used the radiative transfer model described in Hirtzig et al. (2013) as baseline, updated with improved methane (+ related isotopes) spectroscopy. By changing the aerosol description in the model, we found the combination of aerosol optical parameters that fits best a constant aerosol column density over the whole set of the VIMS datacubes. We confirmed that the new results from Doose et al. (2016) do improve the fit for what concerns the vertical profile and the extinction as a function of wavelength. However, a different

  4. Engrailed expression in subsets of adult Drosophila sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Blagburn, Jonathan M.

    2008-01-01

    Engrailed (En) has an important role in neuronal development in vertebrates and invertebrates. In adult Drosophila, although En expression persists throughout adulthood, a detailed description of its expression in sensory neurons has not been made. In this study, en-GAL4 was used to drive UAS-CD8::GFP expression and the projections of sensory neurons were examined with confocal microscopy. En protein expression was confirmed using immunocytochemistry. In the antenna, En is present in subsets of Johnston’s organ neurons and of olfactory neurons. En-driven GFP is expressed in axons projecting to 18 identifed olfactory glomeruli, originating from basiconic, trichoid and coeloconic sensilla. In most cases both neurons of a sensillum express En. En expression overlaps with that of Acj6, another transcription factor. En-driven GFP is also expressed in a subset of maxillary palp olfactory neurons and in all mechanosensory and gustatory sensilla in the posterior compartment of the labial palps. In the legs and halteres, en-driven GFP is expressed in only a subset of the sensory neurons of different modalities that arise in the posterior compartment. Finally, en-driven GFP is expressed in a single multidendritic sensory neuron in each abdominal segment. PMID:18597129

  5. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions. Implementation plan and element description document (draft final). Volume 5: Nuclear electric propulsion vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) concept design developed in support of the Space Transfer Concepts and Analysis for Exploration Missions (STCAEM) study is presented. The evolution of the NEP concept is described along with the requirements, guidelines, and assumptions for the design. Operating modes and options are defined and a systems description of the vehicle is presented. Artificial gravity configuration options and space and ground support systems are discussed. Finally, an implementation plan is presented which addresses technology needs, schedules, facilities and costs.

  6. Descriptive thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, David; Huntsman, Steven

    2006-06-01

    Thermodynamics (in concert with its sister discipline, statistical physics) can be regarded as a data reduction scheme based on partitioning a total system into a subsystem and a bath that weakly interact with each other. Whereas conventionally, the systems investigated require this form of data reduction in order to facilitate prediction, a different problem also occurs, in the context of communication networks, markets, etc. Such “empirically accessible” systems typically overwhelm observers with the sort of information that in the case of (say) a gas is effectively unobtainable. What is required for such complex interacting systems is not prediction (this may be impossible when humans besides the observer are responsible for the interactions) but rather, description as a route to understanding. Still, the need for a thermodynamical data reduction scheme remains. In this paper, we show how an empirical temperature can be computed for finite, empirically accessible systems, and further outline how this construction allows the age-old science of thermodynamics to be fruitfully applied to them.

  7. "Miss Lincoln Doesn't Teach Here": A Descriptive Narrative and Conceptual Analysis of a Principal's Symbolic Leadership Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitzug, Ulrich C.; Reeves, Jennifer Esler

    1992-01-01

    The concept of organizational culture and the leader's role in its development has recently received significant attention. This study seeks to increase the conceptual understanding of symbolic leadership behavior and inform the issue of cultural manipulation by providing an extensive description of an elementary school principal's leadership…

  8. Thermal Processing Alters the Chemical Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Sweetsop (Annona squamosa L.) and Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Pulp and Nectar.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Revathy; Ravi, Ramasamy; Rajarathnam, Somasundaram

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal processing on the chemical quality and sensory characteristics of Annona squamosa L. and Annona muricata L. fruit pulps and nectar. The fruit pulps were pasteurized at 85 °C for 20 min and nectar prepared as per Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) specifications. The chemical composition of fresh and heated pulps of A. squamosa and A. muricata showed that compared to fresh, the chemical profile and sensory profile changed in heated samples and nectar. The free and bound phenolics of A. squamosa increased in heated pulp (127.61 to 217.22 mg/100 g and 150.34 to 239.74 mg/100 g, respectively), while in A. muricata, free phenolics increased very marginally from 31.73 to 33.74 mg/100 g and bound phenolics decreased from 111.11 to 86.91 mg/100 g. This increase in phenolic content may be attributed to the perception of bitterness and astringency in A. squamosa pulp on heating. In electronic tongue studies, principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that the fresh and heated pulps had different scores, as indicated by sensory analysis using qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). E-tongue analysis of samples discriminated the volatile compounds released from the heated A. squamosa and A. muricata fruit pulps and nectar in their respective PCA plots by forming different clusters.

  9. Thermal Processing Alters the Chemical Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Sweetsop (Annona squamosa L.) and Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Pulp and Nectar.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Revathy; Ravi, Ramasamy; Rajarathnam, Somasundaram

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal processing on the chemical quality and sensory characteristics of Annona squamosa L. and Annona muricata L. fruit pulps and nectar. The fruit pulps were pasteurized at 85 °C for 20 min and nectar prepared as per Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) specifications. The chemical composition of fresh and heated pulps of A. squamosa and A. muricata showed that compared to fresh, the chemical profile and sensory profile changed in heated samples and nectar. The free and bound phenolics of A. squamosa increased in heated pulp (127.61 to 217.22 mg/100 g and 150.34 to 239.74 mg/100 g, respectively), while in A. muricata, free phenolics increased very marginally from 31.73 to 33.74 mg/100 g and bound phenolics decreased from 111.11 to 86.91 mg/100 g. This increase in phenolic content may be attributed to the perception of bitterness and astringency in A. squamosa pulp on heating. In electronic tongue studies, principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that the fresh and heated pulps had different scores, as indicated by sensory analysis using qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). E-tongue analysis of samples discriminated the volatile compounds released from the heated A. squamosa and A. muricata fruit pulps and nectar in their respective PCA plots by forming different clusters. PMID:26642109

  10. [Sensory Awareness through Outdoor Education].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Carin; And Others

    Designed for instruction of emotionally handicapped children and youth, these seven articles present concepts and activities relative to sensory awareness and outdoor education. The first article presents definitions, concepts, detailed methodology, and over 50 activities designed to create awareness of man's five senses. Utilizing the art of…

  11. Sensory Aids for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Prosthetics Research and Development.

    The problems of providing sensory aids for the blind are presented and a report on the present status of aids discusses direct translation and recognition reading machines as well as mobility aids. Aspects of required research considered are the following: assessment of needs; vision, audition, taction, and multimodal communication; reading aids,…

  12. Making Sense of Sensory Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Marie

    2010-01-01

    The role of caregivers requires that they continuously assess the needs and performance of children and provide the support necessary for them to achieve their potential. A thorough understanding of child development, including the role and impact of sensory development, is critical for caregivers to properly evaluate and assist these children.…

  13. Effect of barley flour on the physical and sensory characteristics of chocolate chip cookies.

    PubMed

    Frost, Diana June; Adhikari, Koushik; Lewis, Douglas S

    2011-10-01

    The present study explored the possibility of using barley flour as an ingredient to incorporate soluble fibre (β-glucan) in chocolate-chip cookies. Some clinical studies have shown that β-glucan might reduce the serum cholesterol levels. The objective of this study was to determine the physical and sensory characteristics of chocolate chip cookies partly substituted with barley flour at different levels. Physical characteristics (water activity and L*a*b* colour) and sensory characteristics (descriptive and consumer analysis) were evaluated on the experimental cookies substituted with 0, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70% barley flour for all-purpose flour. There were increases in the baked-barley aroma and flavour, thickness, colour intensity, dryness and graininess with increasing barley flour content. Consumer data showed that cookies made with 30% (0.5 g β-glucan/serving) and 50% (0.8 g β-glucan/serving) barley flour substitution were comparable in liking to the control (0% substitution) cookie and a commercial cookie. The presence of β-glucan in our chocolate-chip cookies might make them a healthier option for many consumers.

  14. Sensory and consumer perception of the addition of grape seed extracts in cookies.

    PubMed

    Davidov-Pardo, G; Moreno, M; Arozarena, I; Marín-Arroyo, M R; Bleibaum, R N; Bruhn, C M

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to understand sensory and instrumental similarities and differences among an array of cookies made with bulk and microencapsulated grape seed extract (GSE) and then to determine how these differences impact consumer acceptance. Total of 4 types of cookies (control, enriched with bulk GSE, and enriched with 2 different microencapsulated GSE) were evaluated by instrumental analyses, a sensory trained panel using the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA®) methodology, and a consumer acceptance test that included a usage and attitude survey. The addition of GSE resulted in darker brown cookies; microencapsulation partially masked the color that the GSE conferred to the cookies. The cookies with the microencapsulated GSE showed a significant higher antioxidant activity, microencapsulation may have reduced the GSE heat degradation. The QDA(®) trained panelists found the enriched cookies to be more astringent and with aromas and flavors similar to whole grains flours. Consumers rated the control cookie and 1 GSE encapsulated cookie at parity; they were equally well liked (P > 0.05). When provided with information, nearly 60% of consumers stated that they were willing to purchase cookies enriched with antioxidants. This high positive percentage may increase if consumers received more education on the health benefits of antioxidant consumption.

  15. Instrumental and sensory quantification of oral coatings retained after swallowing semi-solid foods.

    PubMed

    Prinz, J F; Huntjens, L; de Wijk, R A

    2006-12-01

    After a mouthful of food has been swallowed, some food material is always retained in the mouth. With semi-solid foods this is in the form of a coating that adheres to the oral mucosa. The amount and location of this material may play an important role in food sensations. In this study two quantitative methods of describing the coatings, generated by a set of 16 model custards varying in degree of lubrication (fat content) and degree of viscosity (starch concentration) are investigated. In the first method, a trained quantitative descriptive analysis panel (N=8) was instructed to take single mouthfuls of semi-solid foods, swallow and then rinse twice for 5s with water and spit out. The turbidity of the rinse water was then measured. During the same session, sensory assessments of the products were obtained. In the second method the thickness of the coating on the anterior and middle one-thirds of the tongue was quantified using a pair of opto-electronic reflectance sensors mounted on a probe which was placed on the tongue, one sensor measuring the anterior part of the tongue the other the posterior (middle third) of the tongue. Turbidity of the first rinse related strongly to the food's viscosity, as well as to sensory attributes associated with the food's fat content and viscosity, such as perceived thickness, creaminess and fattiness. Turbidity of subsequent rinses related primarily to fat content. These results indicate that turbidity of rinse water is a useful tool in fundamental (e.g., food texture research) as well as applied research (e.g., product development and quality assurance in food industry). Reflectance varied primarily with fat content and did not relate well to sensory attributes. PMID:17045954

  16. The Effects of Fiber Inclusion on Pet Food Sensory Characteristics and Palatability

    PubMed Central

    Koppel, Kadri; Monti, Mariana; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Carciofi, Aulus Cavalieri

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary The results from this research indicate that fibers have an effect on extruded pet food texture and palatability. These results may help pet food companies select ingredients for successful product formulations. Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine (a) the influence of fiber on the sensory characteristics of dry dog foods; (b) differences of coated and uncoated kibbles for aroma and flavor characteristics; (c) palatability of these dry dog foods; and (d) potential associations between palatability and sensory attributes. A total of eight fiber treatments were manufactured: a control (no fiber addition), guava fiber (3%, 6%, and 12%), sugar cane fiber (9%; large and small particle size), and wheat bran fiber (32%; large and small particle size). The results indicated significant effects of fibers on both flavor and texture properties of the samples. Bitter taste and iron and stale aftertaste were examples of flavor attributes that differed with treatment, with highest intensity observed for 12% guava fiber and small particle size sugar cane fiber treatments. Fracturability and initial crispness attributes were lowest for the sugar cane fiber treatments. Flavor of all treatments changed after coating with a palatant, increasing in toasted, brothy, and grainy attributes. The coating also had a masking effect on aroma attributes such as stale, flavor attributes such as iron and bitter taste, and appearance attributes such as porosity. Palatability testing results indicated that the control treatment was preferred over the sugar cane or the wheat bran treatment. The treatment with large sugarcane fiber particles was preferred over the treatment with small particles, while both of the wheat bran treatments were eaten at a similar level. Descriptive sensory analysis data, especially textural attributes, were useful in pinpointing the underlying characteristics and were considered to be reasons that may influence palatability of dog foods

  17. The Effects of Fiber Inclusion on Pet Food Sensory Characteristics and Palatability.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Kadri; Monti, Mariana; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Carciofi, Aulus Cavalieri

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine (a) the influence of fiber on the sensory characteristics of dry dog foods; (b) differences of coated and uncoated kibbles for aroma and flavor characteristics; (c) palatability of these dry dog foods; and (d) potential associations between palatability and sensory attributes. A total of eight fiber treatments were manufactured: a control (no fiber addition), guava fiber (3%, 6%, and 12%), sugar cane fiber (9%; large and small particle size), and wheat bran fiber (32%; large and small particle size). The results indicated significant effects of fibers on both flavor and texture properties of the samples. Bitter taste and iron and stale aftertaste were examples of flavor attributes that differed with treatment, with highest intensity observed for 12% guava fiber and small particle size sugar cane fiber treatments. Fracturability and initial crispness attributes were lowest for the sugar cane fiber treatments. Flavor of all treatments changed after coating with a palatant, increasing in toasted, brothy, and grainy attributes. The coating also had a masking effect on aroma attributes such as stale, flavor attributes such as iron and bitter taste, and appearance attributes such as porosity. Palatability testing results indicated that the control treatment was preferred over the sugar cane or the wheat bran treatment. The treatment with large sugarcane fiber particles was preferred over the treatment with small particles, while both of the wheat bran treatments were eaten at a similar level. Descriptive sensory analysis data, especially textural attributes, were useful in pinpointing the underlying characteristics and were considered to be reasons that may influence palatability of dog foods manufactured with inclusion of different fibers. PMID:26479141

  18. Universal Natural Shapes: From Unifying Shape Description to Simple Methods for Shape Analysis and Boundary Value Problems

    PubMed Central

    Gielis, Johan; Caratelli, Diego; Fougerolle, Yohan; Ricci, Paolo Emilio; Tavkelidze, Ilia; Gerats, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Gielis curves and surfaces can describe a wide range of natural shapes and they have been used in various studies in biology and physics as descriptive tool. This has stimulated the generalization of widely used computational methods. Here we show that proper normalization of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm allows for efficient and robust reconstruction of Gielis curves, including self-intersecting and asymmetric curves, without increasing the overall complexity of the algorithm. Then, we show how complex curves of k-type can be constructed and how solutions to the Dirichlet problem for the Laplace equation on these complex domains can be derived using a semi-Fourier method. In all three methods, descriptive and computational power and efficiency is obtained in a surprisingly simple way. PMID:23028417

  19. An objective and reproducible landform and topography description approach based on digital terrain analysis used for soil profile site characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Fabian E.; Baruck, Jasmin; Hastik, Richard; Geitner, Clemens

    2015-04-01

    All major soil description and classification systems, including the World Reference Base (WRB) and the German Soil description guidelines (KA5), require the characterization of landform and topography for soil profile sites. This is commonly done at more than one scale, for instance at macro-, meso- and micro scale. However, inherent when humans perform such a task, different surveyors will reach different conclusions due to their subjective perception of landscape structure, based on their individual mind-model of soil-landscape structure, emphasizing different aspects and scales of the landscape. In this study we apply a work-flow using the GRASS GIS extension module r.geomorphon to make use of high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to characterize the landform elements and topography of soil profile sites at different scales, and compare the results with a large number of soil profile site descriptions performed during the course of forestry surveys in South and North Tyrol (Italy and Austria, respectively). The r.geomorphon extension module for the open source geographic information system GRASS GIS applies a pattern recognition algorithm to delineate landform elements based on an input DEM. For each raster cell it computes and characterizes the visible neighborhood using line-of-sight calculations and then applies a lookup-table to classify the raster cell into one of ten landform elements (flat, peak, ridge, shoulder, slope, spur, hollow, footslope, valley and pit). The input parameter search radius (L) represents the maximum number of pixels for line-of-sight calculation, resulting in landforms larger than L to be split into landform components. The use of these visibility calculations makes this landform delineation approach suitable for comparison with the landform descriptions of soil surveyors, as their spatial perception of the landscape surrounding a soil profile site certainly influences their classification of the landform on which the

  20. Response to Vestibular Sensory Events in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Grannemann, Bruce D.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Carmody, Thomas; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Mehta, Jyutika A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the response to vestibular sensory events in persons with autism. The data for this study was collected as part of a cross-sectional study that examined sensory processing (using the Sensory Profile) in 103 persons with autism, 3-43 years of age, compared to age- and gender-matched community controls. The…

  1. Multi-Sensory Intervention Observational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carla J.

    2011-01-01

    An observational research study based on sensory integration theory was conducted to examine the observed impact of student selected multi-sensory experiences within a multi-sensory intervention center relative to the sustained focus levels of students with special needs. A stratified random sample of 50 students with severe developmental…

  2. Sensory characteristics and consumer liking of sausages with 10% fat and added rye or wheat bran

    PubMed Central

    Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Vuholm, Stine; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Kristensen, Mette; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum; Raben, Anne; Kehlet, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Improving the nutritional profile of sausages through the addition of dietary fiber might affect appetite, sensory characteristics, and liking differently depending on the fiber source. This study investigates the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of sausages with 10% (w/w) fat and added rye or wheat bran. Sensory descriptive attributes (odor, appearance, texture, and flavor) of rye bran sausage (RBS) and wheat bran sausage (WBS) were evaluated by a trained sensory panel (n = 9). A sausage with wheat flour (WFS) and two commercial 20% (20%S) and 10% (10%S) (w/w) fat sausages were also included. Liking was investigated in consumer tests with two Danish target groups (49 children aged between six and nine and 24 parents). RBS and WBS were similar with regard to their sensory descriptive attributes, but the structure of these sausages was coarser and the color was more brown than the other sausages. RBS was similar to the commercial 10%S with regard to several sensory attributes and liking, whereas WBS was the least juicy, had a higher intensity of cereal odor and flavor, and the lowest liking. PMID:25473511

  3. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef stock containing glutathione Maillard reaction products prepared at various conditions.

    PubMed

    Kwon, G Y; Hong, J H; Kim, Y S; Lee, S M; Kim, K O

    2011-01-01

    The sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup samples containing 9 types of glutathione Maillard reaction products (GMRPs) were investigated to examine the effects of the GMRPs produced under different reaction conditions on the flavor of the beef soup. The sensory characteristics of the beef stocks were examined using descriptive analysis. In consumer testing, 50 consumers evaluated the overall acceptability and flavor intensities of beef odor, salty taste, beef flavor, and seasoning flavor in the beef soup samples. It was found that the reaction conditions, including sugar type and pH, affected the sensory characteristics of the beef stock containing the GMRPs. The samples containing the GMRPs reacted at pH 7 were characterized with strong beef flavor, chestnut flavor, and cooked rice flavor. However, the GMRP reacted with xylose at pH 7 (XM7) was significantly stronger in beef-related sensory characteristics than the GMRPs reacted with glucose or fructose at pH 7 (GM7 and FM7). The samples containing the GMRPs reacted at pH 3 had strong acid-related attributes whereas the GMRPs reacted at pH 11 exhibited strong sulfur-related attributes and a bitter taste. Overall, the beef soup containing XM7, which was perceived as having a strong beef odor and flavor, was rated the highest consumer acceptability score. This suggests that XM7 has feasibility as a flavor enhancer. To elucidate its effectiveness further, it is required to apply XM7 in various food systems at varying levels and to compare its flavor enhancing effects with other flavor enhancers such as monosodium L-glutamate in future studies. Practical Application: This study characterized sensory attributes of glutathione Maillard reaction products (GMRPs) reacted under various conditions and evaluated their potential as a flavor enhancer by examining consumer acceptability of beef stock containing the GMRPs. This study showed that the GMRP reacted with xylose at pH 7 had strong 71 beef

  4. Exposure, health information and flavour-masking strategies for improving the sensory quality of probiotic juice.

    PubMed

    Luckow, T; Sheehan, V; Fitzgerald, G; Delahunty, C

    2006-11-01

    Probiotics are live microbial food supplements, which have been shown to exert numerous health benefits. Research has identified that probiotics cause perceptible off-flavours that often contribute to consumer dissatisfaction. This research consisted of three objectives. Firstly, to confirm whether probiotics have a significant effect on the sensory quality and the consumer acceptance of juices. Secondly, to evaluate whether the addition of tropical juices masks probiotic off-flavours, thereby increasing consumer liking. Thirdly, to determine whether non-sensory factors (i.e., repeated exposure, and health information) have an impact on consumer liking. Three orange juice products were manufactured for analysis; Control juice, juice containing probiotics, and juice containing probiotics and tropical fruit juices (10% v/v). Descriptive sensory analysis using a trained panel (n=8) determined that probiotic juices possessed unique 'medicinal' characteristics. Using labelled affective magnitude scales, consumers (n=116) evaluated their 'overall liking' of the three juices in a randomised order in the laboratory. Once assigned into one of three balanced exposure groups, each consumer took home seven, 100mL bottles of one of the juices, and consumed one bottle each day for 7 days. After each in-home consumption, consumers evaluated their 'overall liking' to familiarize themselves with the juice. Furthermore, half of the consumers were provided with information about the presence and the health benefits of probiotics, while the other half of consumers received no information. After 7 days of in-home usage, consumers returned to the laboratory for post-exposure sensory testing, where they re-evaluated their 'overall liking' of the three juices in a randomised order. Results showed that tropical juices were effective in masking the off-flavours associated with probiotic ingredients, and that consumer liking for the probiotic juice containing tropical juice flavours was

  5. The Impact of Hybridization on the Volatile and Sensorial Profile of Ocimum basilicum L.

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Andréa Santos; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; da Silva, Maria Aparecida Azevedo Pereira; Alves, Mércia Freitas; Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the volatile and sensorial profile of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) of the essential oil of three hybrids (“Cinnamon” × “Maria Bonita,” “Sweet Dani” × “Cinnamon,” and “Sweet Dani” × “Maria Bonita”). Twelve descriptive terms were developed by a selected panel that also generated the definition of each term and the reference samples. The data were subjected to ANOVA, Tukey's test, and principal component analysis. The hybrid “Cinnamon” × “Maria Bonita” exhibited a stronger global aroma that was less citric than the other samples. Hybridization favored the generation of novel compounds in the essential oil of the hybrid “Sweet Dani” × “Maria Bonita,” such as canfora and (E)-caryophyllene; (E)-caryophyllene also was a novel compound in the hybrid “Sweet Dani” × “Cinnamon”; this compound was not present in the essential oils of the parents. PMID:24558334

  6. Sensory Augmentation for the Blind

    PubMed Central

    Kärcher, Silke M.; Fenzlaff, Sandra; Hartmann, Daniela; Nagel, Saskia K.; König, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Common navigational aids used by blind travelers during large-scale navigation divert attention away from important cues of the immediate environment (i.e., approaching vehicles). Sensory augmentation devices, relying on principles similar to those at work in sensory substitution, can potentially bypass the bottleneck of attention through sub-cognitive implementation of a set of rules coupling motor actions with sensory stimulation. We provide a late blind subject with a vibrotactile belt that continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. The present experimental approach demonstrates the positive potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of handicapped people. PMID:22403535

  7. Influence of Sensory Stimulation on Exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Mazzatenta, A; Pokorski, M; Di Tano, A; Cacchio, M; Di Giulio, C

    2016-01-01

    The real-time exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been suggested as a new biomarker to detect and monitor physiological processes in the respiratory system. The VOCs profile in exhaled breath reflects the biochemical alterations related to metabolic changes, organ failure, and neuronal activity, which are, at least in part, transmitted via the lungs to the alveolar exhaled breath. Breath analysis has been applied to investigate cancer, lung failure, and neurodegenerative diseases. There are by far no studies on the real-time monitoring of VOCs in sensory stimulation in healthy subjects. Therefore, in this study we investigated the breath parameters and exhaled VOCs in humans during sensory stimulation: smell, hearing, sight, and touch. Responses sensory stimulations were recorded in 12 volunteers using an iAQ-2000 sensor. We found significant effects of sensory stimulation. In particular, olfactory stimulation was the most effective stimulus that elicited the greatest VOCs variations in the exhaled breath. Since the olfactory pathway is distinctly driven by the hypothalamic and limbic circuitry, while other senses project first to the thalamic area and then re-project to other brain areas, the findings suggest the importance of olfaction and chemoreception in the regulation lung gas exchange. VOCs variations during sensory activation may become putative indicators of neural activity. PMID:26453064

  8. A new car-following model considering driver's sensory memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Bao-gui

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents one kind of new car-following model (mean memory model, simplified as MMM) by introducing driver sensory memory (sensory buffer) term into the original optimal velocity (OV) function by Bando et al. (1995, 1998). The main improvement is that MMM can avoid the disadvantage of the sensory buffer time neglected in existing models. The stability condition of the proposed model is obtained by using linear stability theory. Results show that the stability region decreases when the driver's sensory buffer time increases. Furthermore, the model is investigated in detail by numerical methods. The following conclusions are derived. (a) Numerical results of starting process for the car motion under a traffic signal accord with empirical traffic values; (b) the numerical simulations in the form of the space-time evolution of headway and velocity are also in good agreement with the theoretical analysis; (c) the size of hysteresis loops will be reduced with the sensing buffer time decreasing. Both analytical and simulation results show that the following car driver's sensory buffer time plays an important role on the stability of traffic flow.

  9. Influence of Sensory Stimulation on Exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Mazzatenta, A; Pokorski, M; Di Tano, A; Cacchio, M; Di Giulio, C

    2016-01-01

    The real-time exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been suggested as a new biomarker to detect and monitor physiological processes in the respiratory system. The VOCs profile in exhaled breath reflects the biochemical alterations related to metabolic changes, organ failure, and neuronal activity, which are, at least in part, transmitted via the lungs to the alveolar exhaled breath. Breath analysis has been applied to investigate cancer, lung failure, and neurodegenerative diseases. There are by far no studies on the real-time monitoring of VOCs in sensory stimulation in healthy subjects. Therefore, in this study we investigated the breath parameters and exhaled VOCs in humans during sensory stimulation: smell, hearing, sight, and touch. Responses sensory stimulations were recorded in 12 volunteers using an iAQ-2000 sensor. We found significant effects of sensory stimulation. In particular, olfactory stimulation was the most effective stimulus that elicited the greatest VOCs variations in the exhaled breath. Since the olfactory pathway is distinctly driven by the hypothalamic and limbic circuitry, while other senses project first to the thalamic area and then re-project to other brain areas, the findings suggest the importance of olfaction and chemoreception in the regulation lung gas exchange. VOCs variations during sensory activation may become putative indicators of neural activity.

  10. Kyphoplasty in the treatment of osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures (VCF) : procedure description and analysis of the outcomes in 128 patients.

    PubMed

    Molina, Guillermo Saul Fernandez; Campero, A; Feito, R; Pombo, S

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the advent of percutaneous techniques in the management of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures has proven to be a great step forward in the evolution of patients suffering from this pathology.Vertebroplasty, which was developed in 1984 by Galibert and Deramond, presents the disadvantage of leakage of the cementation material and the impossibility to restore spinal deformity. Kyphoplasty has shown to be almost a definite solution to these problems. The description of the technique, its indications, and the outcomes resulting from our series of 200 vertebral fractures in 128 patients are presented in this paper. PMID:21107953

  11. Kyphoplasty in the treatment of osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures (VCF) : procedure description and analysis of the outcomes in 128 patients.

    PubMed

    Molina, Guillermo Saul Fernandez; Campero, A; Feito, R; Pombo, S

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the advent of percutaneous techniques in the management of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures has proven to be a great step forward in the evolution of patients suffering from this pathology.Vertebroplasty, which was developed in 1984 by Galibert and Deramond, presents the disadvantage of leakage of the cementation material and the impossibility to restore spinal deformity. Kyphoplasty has shown to be almost a definite solution to these problems. The description of the technique, its indications, and the outcomes resulting from our series of 200 vertebral fractures in 128 patients are presented in this paper.

  12. Development of Metallic Sensory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Horne, Michael R.; Messick, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    Existing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are inherently limited by the physical response of the structural material being inspected and are therefore not generally effective at the identification of small discontinuities, making the detection of incipient damage extremely difficult. One innovative solution to this problem is to enhance or complement the NDE signature of structural materials to dramatically improve the ability of existing NDE tools to detect damage. To address this need, a multifunctional metallic material has been developed that can be used in structural applications. The material is processed to contain second phase sensory particles that significantly improve the NDE response, enhancing the ability of conventional NDE techniques to detect incipient damage both during and after flight. Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys (FSMAs) are an ideal material for these sensory particles as they undergo a uniform and repeatable change in both magnetic properties and crystallographic structure (martensitic transformation) when subjected to strain and/or temperature changes which can be detected using conventional NDE techniques. In this study, the use of a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) as the sensory particles was investigated.

  13. Analysis of Odorants in Marking Fluid of Siberian Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) Using Simultaneous Sensory and Chemical Analysis with Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction and Multidimensional Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Soso, Simone B; Koziel, Jacek A

    2016-06-25

    Scent-marking is the most effective method of communication in the presence or absence of a signaler. These complex mixtures result in a multifaceted interaction triggered by the sense of smell. The objective was to identify volatile organic compound (VOC) composition and odors emitted by total marking fluid (MF) associated with Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica). Siberian tiger, an endangered species, was chosen because its MF had never been analyzed. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) for headspace volatile collection combined with multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry for simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses were used. Thirty-two VOCs emitted from MF were identified. 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, the sole previously identified compound responsible for the "characteristic" odor of P. tigris MF, was identified along with two additional compounds confirmed with standards (urea, furfural) and four tentatively identified compounds (3-methylbutanamine, (R)-3-methylcyclopentanone, propanedioic acid, and 3-hydroxybutanal) as being responsible for the characteristic aroma of Siberian tiger MF. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses improved characterization of scent-markings and identified compounds not previously reported in MF of other tiger species. This research will assist animal ecologists, behaviorists, and zookeepers in understanding how scents from specific MF compounds impact tiger and wildlife communication and improve management practices related to animal behavior. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses is applicable to unlocking scent-marking information for other species.

  14. Analysis of Odorants in Marking Fluid of Siberian Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) Using Simultaneous Sensory and Chemical Analysis with Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction and Multidimensional Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Soso, Simone B; Koziel, Jacek A

    2016-01-01

    Scent-marking is the most effective method of communication in the presence or absence of a signaler. These complex mixtures result in a multifaceted interaction triggered by the sense of smell. The objective was to identify volatile organic compound (VOC) composition and odors emitted by total marking fluid (MF) associated with Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica). Siberian tiger, an endangered species, was chosen because its MF had never been analyzed. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) for headspace volatile collection combined with multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry for simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses were used. Thirty-two VOCs emitted from MF were identified. 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, the sole previously identified compound responsible for the "characteristic" odor of P. tigris MF, was identified along with two additional compounds confirmed with standards (urea, furfural) and four tentatively identified compounds (3-methylbutanamine, (R)-3-methylcyclopentanone, propanedioic acid, and 3-hydroxybutanal) as being responsible for the characteristic aroma of Siberian tiger MF. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses improved characterization of scent-markings and identified compounds not previously reported in MF of other tiger species. This research will assist animal ecologists, behaviorists, and zookeepers in understanding how scents from specific MF compounds impact tiger and wildlife communication and improve management practices related to animal behavior. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses is applicable to unlocking scent-marking information for other species. PMID:27347921

  15. Sensory impacts of food-packaging interactions.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Susan E; Webster, Janet B

    2009-01-01

    Sensory changes in food products result from intentional or unintentional interactions with packaging materials and from failure of materials to protect product integrity or quality. Resolving sensory issues related to plastic food packaging involves knowledge provided by sensory scientists, materials scientists, packaging manufacturers, food processors, and consumers. Effective communication among scientists and engineers from different disciplines and industries can help scientists understand package-product interactions. Very limited published literature describes sensory perceptions associated with food-package interactions. This article discusses sensory impacts, with emphasis on oxidation reactions, associated with the interaction of food and materials, including taints, scalping, changes in food quality as a function of packaging, and examples of material innovations for smart packaging that can improve sensory quality of foods and beverages. Sensory evaluation is an important tool for improved package selection and development of new materials. PMID:19389606

  16. Sensory Cells of the Fish Ear: A Hairy Enigma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popper, A. N.; Saidel, W. M.

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of the structure of the ears in teleost fishes has led to the tentative suggestion that otolithic endorgans may function differently, in different species. Recently, evidence has demonstrated different 'types' of sensory hair cells can be found in the ears of teleost fishes, and individual hair cell types are found in discrete regions of individual sensory, epithelia. The presence of multiple hair cell types in fishes provides strong support to the hypothesis of regional differences in the responses of individual otolithic sensory epithelia. The finding of hair cell types in fishes that closely resemble those found in amniote vestibular endorgans also suggests that hair cell heterogeneity arose earlier in the evolution of the vertebrate ear than previously thought.

  17. Effect of ingredients on sensory profile of idli.

    PubMed

    Durgadevi, Manoharan; Shetty, Prathapkumar H

    2014-09-01

    Idli is a traditional fermented food and is consumed in India and Srilanka. The objective of the present study is to select the ingredients for optimum desirable product characteristics and to identify the optimum ratios of ingredients and fermentation time with respect to sensory attributes using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The sensory attributes included were color, appearance, texture, taste and overall quality. Preliminary trials were conducted using five variants of rice and common black gram dhal before framing a model using Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). From the study it was found that a desirable score of 0.7439 was obtained for sensory attributes of idli made with the ratio of 3: 1.475 for IR20 idli rice and ADT3 variety black gram (with husk removed after soaking) fermented for 10.2 h. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) helped to discriminate the samples and attributes within the data matrix, depending upon their inter relationships. PMID:25190832

  18. The Impact of Sensory Preferences on Student Engagement, Success, and Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barends, Bobbi J.

    2012-01-01

    Many students enter institutions of higher education underprepared for college level coursework. Instructors must establish early connections with these students to engage them in their required coursework and foster success in remedial coursework. The purpose of this descriptive, quantitative study was to examine the sensory processing…

  19. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of decaffeinated green teas.

    PubMed

    Lee, S M; Lee, H-S; Kim, K-H; Kim, K-O

    2009-04-01

    Green tea has been widely consumed for its mild flavors and its health benefits, yet caffeine in green tea has been a limitation for those who want to avoid it. The limitation brought increase in need for decaffeinated products in the green tea market. Most of the conventional decaffeination techniques applied in food use organic solvents. However, supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SC-CO2) method is gaining its intension as one of the future decaffeination methods that overcomes the problems of conventional methods. The purpose of this study was to identify sensory characteristics of decaffeinated green teas applied with SC-CO2 method and to observe the relationship with consumer acceptability to elucidate the potentiality of applying SC-CO2 technique in decaffeinated green tea market. Descriptive analysis was performed on 8 samples: green teas containing 4 caffeine levels (10%, 35%, 60%, and 100%) infused at 2 infusing periods (1 or 2 min). It was found that the SC-CO2 process not only reduced caffeine but also decreased some important features of original tea flavors. Two groups were recruited for consumer acceptability test: one (GP I, N = 52), consuming all types of green teas including hot/cold canned teas; and the other (GP II, N = 40), only consuming the loose type. While GP II liked original green tea the most, GP I liked highly decaffeinated green teas. Although the SC-CO2 method had limitations of losing complex flavors of green teas, it appeared to have future potential in the decaffeinated green tea market within or without the addition of desirable flavors. PMID:19397734

  20. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of decaffeinated green teas.

    PubMed

    Lee, S M; Lee, H-S; Kim, K-H; Kim, K-O

    2009-04-01

    Green tea has been widely consumed for its mild flavors and its health benefits, yet caffeine in green tea has been a limitation for those who want to avoid it. The limitation brought increase in need for decaffeinated products in the green tea market. Most of the conventional decaffeination techniques applied in food use organic solvents. However, supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SC-CO2) method is gaining its intension as one of the future decaffeination methods that overcomes the problems of conventional methods. The purpose of this study was to identify sensory characteristics of decaffeinated green teas applied with SC-CO2 method and to observe the relationship with consumer acceptability to elucidate the potentiality of applying SC-CO2 technique in decaffeinated green tea market. Descriptive analysis was performed on 8 samples: green teas containing 4 caffeine levels (10%, 35%, 60%, and 100%) infused at 2 infusing periods (1 or 2 min). It was found that the SC-CO2 process not only reduced caffeine but also decreased some important features of original tea flavors. Two groups were recruited for consumer acceptability test: one (GP I, N = 52), consuming all types of green teas including hot/cold canned teas; and the other (GP II, N = 40), only consuming the loose type. While GP II liked original green tea the most, GP I liked highly decaffeinated green teas. Although the SC-CO2 method had limitations of losing complex flavors of green teas, it appeared to have future potential in the decaffeinated green tea market within or without the addition of desirable flavors.