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Sample records for descriptive sensory analysis

  1. Rapid profiling of Swiss cheese by attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared spectroscopy and descriptive sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Kocaoglu-Vurma, N A; Eliardi, A; Drake, M A; Rodriguez-Saona, L E; Harper, W J

    2009-08-01

    The acceptability of cheese depends largely on the flavor formed during ripening. The flavor profiles of cheeses are complex and region- or manufacturer-specific which have made it challenging to understand the chemistry of flavor development and its correlation with sensory properties. Infrared spectroscopy is an attractive technology for the rapid, sensitive, and high-throughput analysis of foods, providing information related to its composition and conformation of food components from the spectra. Our objectives were to establish infrared spectral profiles to discriminate Swiss cheeses produced by different manufacturers in the United States and to develop predictive models for determination of sensory attributes based on infrared spectra. Fifteen samples from 3 Swiss cheese manufacturers were received and analyzed using attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). The spectra were analyzed using soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) to build a classification model. The cheeses were profiled by a trained sensory panel using descriptive sensory analysis. The relationship between the descriptive sensory scores and ATR-IR spectra was assessed using partial least square regression (PLSR) analysis. SIMCA discriminated the Swiss cheeses based on manufacturer and production region. PLSR analysis generated prediction models with correlation coefficients of validation (rVal) between 0.69 and 0.96 with standard error of cross-validation (SECV) ranging from 0.04 to 0.29. Implementation of rapid infrared analysis by the Swiss cheese industry would help to streamline quality assurance.

  2. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-01-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat’s unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods. PMID:26104409

  3. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat.

    PubMed

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-07-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat's unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods.

  4. Descriptive sensory analysis and free sugar contents of chestnut cultivars grown in North America.

    PubMed

    Warmund, Michele R; Elmore, Janelle R; Adhikari, Koushik; McGraw, Sherry

    2011-08-30

    Various chestnut (Castanea) species and cultivars are currently produced and marketed in North America including Peach, Qing, AU-Homestead, Eaton, Marrone di Castel del Rio, and Colossal. In spite of their availability in the marketplace, similarities in sensory characteristics of chestnuts, as well as their unique attributes, have not been explored. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to evaluate texture and flavor attributes of commonly grown chestnut cultivars using descriptive sensory analysis and to quantify their free sugar content by gas-liquid chromatography. Twenty-three sensory terms were used for descriptive analysis of roasted chestnuts. All but two attributes (raw impression and fermented) were common to all chestnut cultivars. Peelability, initial firmness, dissolvability, and mustard, sweet, and sour flavors varied among cultivars. Sucrose, the predominant free sugar in chestnuts, was greatest in Colossal chestnuts from California, while those of Peach had the lowest content. Glucose, fructose and maltose were also present in chestnuts. This study demonstrated that cultivars of various chestnut species share several common sensory attributes, but differ in intensity ratings of six descriptors. Of these attributes, sweetness has been associated with consumer acceptance and can be promoted in the marketplace. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Effect of grape seed extract on descriptive sensory analysis of ground chicken during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Brannan, R G

    2009-04-01

    Descriptive sensory analysis, instrumental color, yield, pH, water activity, and binding strength were determined on ground chicken breast and thigh with or without grape seed extract (GSE) during refrigerated storage. In chicken breast, GSE inhibited the intensity of musty and rancid odor, and rancid flavor compared to control patties, but GSE caused significantly darker (L(∗)), redder (a(∗)), and less yellow (b(∗)) patties. No differences were observed for pH, water activity, or yield, though differences were observed for binding strength. In chicken thigh, sensory scores were significantly different for 14 of 15 sensory attributes, although the differences were due to storage time or precooking, not the presence of GSE. GSE caused significantly darker sensory scores and L(∗) values, and redder (a(∗)) and less yellow (b(∗)) patties. Differences in binding strength and yield were attributable to precooking, not the presence of GSE. GSE may be an effective antioxidant in precooked chicken breast systems.

  6. Sensory characterization of a ready-to-eat sweetpotato breakfast cereal by descriptive analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dansby, M. A.; Bovell-Benjamin, A. C.

    2003-01-01

    The sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam], an important industry in the United States, has been selected as a candidate crop to be grown on future long-duration space missions by NASA. Raw sweetpotato roots were processed into flour, which was used to formulate ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (RTEBC). Twelve trained panelists evaluated the sensory attributes of the extruded RTEBC using descriptive analysis. The samples were significantly different (P<0.05) for all attributes. Twelve perceived sensory attributes, which could be used to differentiate the appearance, texture, and flavor of sweetpotato RTEBC, were described. The data could be used to optimize the RTEBC and for designing studies to test its consumer acceptance.

  7. Sensory characterization of a ready-to-eat sweetpotato breakfast cereal by descriptive analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dansby, M. A.; Bovell-Benjamin, A. C.

    2003-01-01

    The sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam], an important industry in the United States, has been selected as a candidate crop to be grown on future long-duration space missions by NASA. Raw sweetpotato roots were processed into flour, which was used to formulate ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (RTEBC). Twelve trained panelists evaluated the sensory attributes of the extruded RTEBC using descriptive analysis. The samples were significantly different (P<0.05) for all attributes. Twelve perceived sensory attributes, which could be used to differentiate the appearance, texture, and flavor of sweetpotato RTEBC, were described. The data could be used to optimize the RTEBC and for designing studies to test its consumer acceptance.

  8. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice.

  9. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice. PMID:25838891

  10. Quantitative descriptive analysis and principal component analysis for sensory characterization of Indian milk product cham-cham.

    PubMed

    Puri, Ritika; Khamrui, Kaushik; Khetra, Yogesh; Malhotra, Ravinder; Devraja, H C

    2016-02-01

    Promising development and expansion in the market of cham-cham, a traditional Indian dairy product is expected in the coming future with the organized production of this milk product by some large dairies. The objective of this study was to document the extent of variation in sensory properties of market samples of cham-cham collected from four different locations known for their excellence in cham-cham production and to find out the attributes that govern much of variation in sensory scores of this product using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and principal component analysis (PCA). QDA revealed significant (p < 0.05) difference in sensory attributes of cham-cham among the market samples. PCA identified four significant principal components that accounted for 72.4 % of the variation in the sensory data. Factor scores of each of the four principal components which primarily correspond to sweetness/shape/dryness of interior, surface appearance/surface dryness, rancid and firmness attributes specify the location of each market sample along each of the axes in 3-D graphs. These findings demonstrate the utility of quantitative descriptive analysis for identifying and measuring attributes of cham-cham that contribute most to its sensory acceptability.

  11. Sensory descriptive quantitative analysis of unpasteurized and pasteurized juçara pulp (Euterpe edulis) during long-term storage

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Paula Porrelli Moreira; Casemiro, Renata Cristina; Zillo, Rafaela Rebessi; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Prospero, Evanilda Teresinha Perissinotto; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of pasteurization followed by storage under different conditions on the sensory attributes of frozen juçara pulp using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Pasteurization of packed frozen pulp was performed by its immersion in stainless steel tank containing water (80°C) for 5 min, followed by storage under refrigerated and frozen conditions. A trained sensory panel evaluated the samples (6°C) on day 1, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90. Sensory attributes were separated as follows: appearance (foamy, heterogeneous, purple, brown, oily, and creamy), aroma (sweet and fermented), taste (astringent, bitter, and sweet), and texture (oily and consistent), and compared to a reference material. In general, unpasteurized frozen pulp showed the highest score for foamy appearance, and pasteurized samples showed highest scores to creamy appearance. Pasteurized samples remained stable regarding brown color development while unpasteurized counterparts presented increase. Color is an important attribute related to the product identity. All attributes related to taste and texture remained constant during storage for all samples. Pasteurization followed by storage under frozen conditions has shown to be the best conservation method as samples submitted to such process received the best sensory evaluation, described as foamy, slightly heterogeneous, slightly bitter, and slightly astringent. PMID:25473489

  12. Chemometric models for the quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of Arabica coffee beverages using near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, J S; Ferreira, M M C; Salva, T J G

    2011-02-15

    Mathematical models based on chemometric analyses of the coffee beverage sensory data and NIR spectra of 51 Arabica roasted coffee samples were generated aiming to predict the scores of acidity, bitterness, flavour, cleanliness, body and overall quality of coffee beverage. Partial least squares (PLS) were used to construct the models. The ordered predictor selection (OPS) algorithm was applied to select the wavelengths for the regression model of each sensory attribute in order to take only significant regions into account. The regions of the spectrum defined as important for sensory quality were closely related to the NIR spectra of pure caffeine, trigonelline, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, cellulose, coffee lipids, sucrose and casein. The NIR analyses sustained that the relationship between the sensory characteristics of the beverage and the chemical composition of the roasted grain were as listed below: 1 - the lipids and proteins were closely related to the attribute body; 2 - the caffeine and chlorogenic acids were related to bitterness; 3 - the chlorogenic acids were related to acidity and flavour; 4 - the cleanliness and overall quality were related to caffeine, trigonelline, chlorogenic acid, polysaccharides, sucrose and protein. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sensory analysis of pet foods.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Kadri

    2014-08-01

    Pet food palatability depends first and foremost on the pet and is related to the pet food sensory properties such as aroma, texture and flavor. Sensory analysis of pet foods may be conducted by humans via descriptive or hedonic analysis, pets via acceptance or preference tests, and through a number of instrumental analysis methods. Sensory analysis of pet foods provides additional information on reasons behind palatable and unpalatable foods as pets lack linguistic capabilities. Furthermore, sensory analysis may be combined with other types of information such as personality and environment factors to increase understanding of acceptable pet foods. Most pet food flavor research is proprietary and, thus, there are a limited number of publications available. Funding opportunities for pet food studies would increase research and publications and this would help raise public awareness of pet food related issues. This mini-review addresses current pet food sensory analysis literature and discusses future challenges and possibilities.

  14. Mapping the sensory perception of apple using descriptive sensory evaluation in a genome wide association study

    PubMed Central

    Amyotte, Beatrice; Bowen, Amy J.; Banks, Travis; Rajcan, Istvan; Somers, Daryl J.

    2017-01-01

    Breeding apples is a long-term endeavour and it is imperative that new cultivars are selected to have outstanding consumer appeal. This study has taken the approach of merging sensory science with genome wide association analyses in order to map the human perception of apple flavour and texture onto the apple genome. The goal was to identify genomic associations that could be used in breeding apples for improved fruit quality. A collection of 85 apple cultivars was examined over two years through descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained sensory panel. The trained sensory panel scored randomized sliced samples of each apple cultivar for seventeen taste, flavour and texture attributes using controlled sensory evaluation practices. In addition, the apple collection was subjected to genotyping by sequencing for marker discovery. A genome wide association analysis suggested significant genomic associations for several sensory traits including juiciness, crispness, mealiness and fresh green apple flavour. The findings include previously unreported genomic regions that could be used in apple breeding and suggest that similar sensory association mapping methods could be applied in other plants. PMID:28231290

  15. Mapping the sensory perception of apple using descriptive sensory evaluation in a genome wide association study.

    PubMed

    Amyotte, Beatrice; Bowen, Amy J; Banks, Travis; Rajcan, Istvan; Somers, Daryl J

    2017-01-01

    Breeding apples is a long-term endeavour and it is imperative that new cultivars are selected to have outstanding consumer appeal. This study has taken the approach of merging sensory science with genome wide association analyses in order to map the human perception of apple flavour and texture onto the apple genome. The goal was to identify genomic associations that could be used in breeding apples for improved fruit quality. A collection of 85 apple cultivars was examined over two years through descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained sensory panel. The trained sensory panel scored randomized sliced samples of each apple cultivar for seventeen taste, flavour and texture attributes using controlled sensory evaluation practices. In addition, the apple collection was subjected to genotyping by sequencing for marker discovery. A genome wide association analysis suggested significant genomic associations for several sensory traits including juiciness, crispness, mealiness and fresh green apple flavour. The findings include previously unreported genomic regions that could be used in apple breeding and suggest that similar sensory association mapping methods could be applied in other plants.

  16. Comparison of natural and roasted Turkish tombul hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) volatiles and flavor by DHA/GC/MS and descriptive sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Shahidi, Fereidoon; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2003-08-13

    Natural (raw) and roasted hazelnuts were compared for their differences in volatile components and sensory responses. A total of 79 compounds were detected in both hazelnuts, of which 39 (27 positive, 5 tentative, and 7 unknown) were detected in natural hazelnut and 71 (40 positive, 14 tentative, and 17 unknown) were detected in roasted hazelnut. These included ketones, aldehydes, pyrazines, alcohols, aromatic hydrocarbons, furans, pyrroles, terpenes, and acids. Pyrazines, pyrroles, terpenes, and acids were detected in roasted hazelnut only. Concentrations of several compounds increased as a result of roasting and these may play significant roles in the flavor of roasted hazelnut. Pyrazines together with ketones, aldehydes, furans, and pyrroles may contribute to the characteristic roasted aroma of hazelnut. Descriptive sensory analysis (DSA) showed that some flavor attributes such as "aftertaste", "burnt", "coffee/chocolate-like", "roasty", and "sweet" were rated significantly higher in roasted hazelnut compared to its natural counterpart. Natural and roasted hazelnuts can be distinguished using these attributes.

  17. Sensory overload: A concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Scheydt, Stefan; Müller Staub, Maria; Frauenfelder, Fritz; Nielsen, Gunnar H; Behrens, Johann; Needham, Ian

    2017-04-01

    In the context of mental disorders sensory overload is a widely described phenomenon used in conjunction with psychiatric interventions such as removal from stimuli. However, the theoretical foundation of sensory overload as addressed in the literature can be described as insufficient and fragmentary. To date, the concept of sensory overload has not yet been sufficiently specified or analyzed. The aim of the study was to analyze the concept of sensory overload in mental health care. A literature search was undertaken using specific electronic databases, specific journals and websites, hand searches, specific library catalogues, and electronic publishing databases. Walker and Avant's method of concept analysis was used to analyze the sources included in the analysis. All aspects of the method of Walker and Avant were covered in this concept analysis. The conceptual understanding has become more focused, the defining attributes, influencing factors and consequences are described and empirical referents identified. The concept analysis is a first step in the development of a middle-range descriptive theory of sensory overload based on social scientific and stress-theoretical approaches. This specification may serve as a fundament for further research, for the development of a nursing diagnosis or for guidelines. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  18. Descriptive sensory analysis in different classes of orange juice by a robust free-choice profile method.

    PubMed

    Pérez Aparicio, Jesús; Toledano Medina, M Angeles; Lafuente Rosales, Victoria

    2007-07-09

    Free-choice profile (FCP), developed in the 1980s, is a sensory analysis method that can be carried out by untrained panels. The participants need only to be able to use a scale and be consumers of the product under evaluation. The data are analysed by sophisticated statistical methodologies like Generalized Procrustean Analysis (GPA) or STATIS. To facilitate a wider use of the free-choice profiling procedure, different authors have advocated simpler methods based on principal components analysis (PCA) of merged data sets. The purpose of this work was to apply another easy procedure to this type of data by means of a robust PCA. The most important characteristic of the proposed method is that quality responsible managers could use this methodology without any scale evaluation. Only the free terms generated by the assessors are necessary to apply the script, thus avoiding the error associated with scale utilization by inexpert assessors. Also, it is possible to use the application with missing data and with differences in the assessors' attendance at sessions. An example was performed to generate the descriptors from different orange juice types. The results were compared with the STATIS method and with the PCA on the merged data sets. The samples evaluated were fresh orange juices with differences in storage days and pasteurized, concentrated and orange nectar drinks from different brands. Eighteen assessors with a low-level training program were used in a six-session free-choice profile framework. The results proved that this script could be of use in marketing decisions and product quality program development.

  19. Antioxidant capacity, fatty acids profile, and descriptive sensory analysis of table olives as affected by deficit irrigation.

    PubMed

    Cano-Lamadrid, Marina; Hernández, Francisca; Corell, Mireia; Burló, Francisco; Legua, Pilar; Moriana, Alfonso; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2017-01-01

    The influence of three irrigation treatments (T0, no stress; T1, soft stress; and, T2, moderate stress) on the key functional properties [fatty acids, sugar alcohols, organic acids, minerals, total polyphenols content (TPC), and antioxidant activity (AA)], sensory quality, and consumers' acceptance of table olives, cv. 'Manzanilla', was evaluated. A soft water stress, T1, led to table olives with the highest oil and dry matter contents, with the highest intensities of key sensory attributes and slightly, although not significant, higher values of consumer satisfaction degree. Besides, RDI in general (T1 and T2) slightly increased green colour, the content of linoleic acid, but decreased the content of phytic acid and some minerals. The soft RDI conditions are a good option for the cultivation of olive trees because they are environmentally friendly and simultaneously maintain or even improve the functionality, sensory quality, and consumer acceptance of table olives. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Descriptive sensory analysis of meat from broilers fed diets containing vitamin E or beta-carotene as antioxidants and different supplemental fats.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J A; Guerrero, L; Arnau, J; Guardia, M D; Esteve-Garcia, E

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary fat (lard, sunflower oil, and olive oil) and supplementation of alpha-tocopheryl acetate or beta-carotene on descriptive sensory changes in broiler leg meat as evaluated by a trained panel. Twenty-five descriptors were analyzed from chicken leg meat: 11 in raw meat and 14 in cooked meat. Rancid values were very low, possibly because samples were consumed between 1 and 4 d after slaughter, which maybe insufficient time for oxidative processes to decrease meat sensory quality. However, samples supplemented with vitamin E showed lower rancidity levels, although the differences were only significant when compared to a beta-carotene diet, whereas the control treatment showed intermediate scores. Beta-carotene modified texture scores compared to the control diet, although the differences were only significant in initial juiciness and teeth adhesion compared to the vitamin E treatment and in tenderness compared to the control. In addition, juiciness and tenderness were positively correlated according to the principal component analysis of sensory attributes. The effect of dietary fat on analyzed attributes was lower than the effect of dietary antioxidant. The most important effect of fat type was on hardness of internal fat. Chickens whose diets were supplemented with lard had higher scored values than chickens whose diets were supplemented with vegetable oils. However, type of fat added to diet did not significantly influence rancidity values. These results indicate that an increase in the degree of unsaturation of fat in meat does not cause an increase in the oxidation levels detected by the panel under the conditions of short-term storage.

  1. Effects of packaging materials on the aroma stability of Thai 'tom yam' seasoning powder as determined by descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Leelaphiwat, Pattarin; Harte, Janice B; Auras, Rafael A; Ong, Peter Kc; Chonhenchob, Vanee

    2017-04-01

    Changes in the aroma characteristics of Thai 'tom yam' seasoning powder, containing lemongrass, galangal and kaffir lime leaf, as affected by different packaging materials were assessed using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The descriptive aroma attributes for lemongrass, galangal and kaffir lime leaf powders were developed by the QDA panel. The mixed herb and spice seasoning powder was kept in glass jars closed with different packaging materials (Nylon 6, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polylactic acid (PLA)) stored at 38 °C (accelerated storage condition), and evaluated by the trained QDA panel during storage for 49 days. The descriptive words for Thai 'tom yam' seasoning powder developed by the trained panelists were lemongrass, vinegary and leafy for lemongrass, galangal and kaffir lime leaf dried powder, respectively. The aroma intensities significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased with increased storage time. However, the intensity scores for aroma attributes were not significantly (P > 0.05) different among the packaging materials studied. The major components in Thai 'tom yam' seasoning powder, quantified by GC-MS, were estragole, bicyclo[3.1.1]heptane, β-bisabolene, benzoic acid and 2-ethylhexyl salicylate. The concentrations of major aroma compounds significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased with storage time. Aroma stability of Thai 'tom yam' powder can be determined by descriptive sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis. Nylon, PET and PLA exhibited similar aroma barrier properties against key aroma compounds in Thai 'tom yam'. This information can be used for prediction of aroma loss through packaging materials during storage of Thai 'tom yam'. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. A comparative study of volatile components in Dianhong teas from fresh leaves of four tea cultivars by using chromatography-mass spectrometry, multivariate data analysis, and descriptive sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Chenxia; Kong, Yawen; Peng, Xiaopei; Li, Changwen; Liu, Shunhang; Du, Liping; Xiao, Dongguang; Xu, Yongquan

    2017-10-01

    Dianhong teas produced from fresh leaves of different tea cultivars (YK is Yunkang No. 10, XY is Xueya 100, CY is Changyebaihao, SS is Shishengmiao), were compared in terms of volatile compounds and descriptive sensory analysis. A total of 73 volatile compounds in 16 tea samples were tentatively identified. YK, XY, CY, and SS contained 55, 53, 49, and 51 volatile compounds, respectively. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were used to classify the samples, and 40 key components were selected based on variable importance in the projection. Moreover, 11 flavor attributes, namely, floral, fruity, grass/green, woody, sweet, roasty, caramel, mellow and thick, bitter, astringent, and sweet aftertaste were identified through descriptive sensory analysis (DSA). In generally, innate differences among the tea varieties significantly affected the intensities of most of the key sensory attributes of Dianhong teas possibly because of the different amounts of aroma-active and taste components in Dianhong teas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Interrelationships between descriptive texture profile sensory panel and descriptive attribute sensory panel evaluations of beef Longissimus and Semitendinosus muscles.

    PubMed

    Otremba, M M; Dikeman, M E; Milliken, G A; Stroda, S L; Chambers Iv, E; Chambers, D

    2000-04-01

    The objectives of our study were to examine the relationships between highly trained and experienced descriptive texture profile (DTP) sensory panel and trained descriptive attribute (DA) sensory panel evaluations, and to evaluate the effects of muscle fiber orientation on sensory panel tenderness scores of beef longissimus lumborum (LL) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles. Eighteen LL and 18 ST muscles were cut into 2.54 cm steaks and cooked to 71°C; then 1.27×1.27×2.54-cm cubes were removed using two methods (parallel with the muscle fiber orientation and perpendicular to the steak cut surface) and presented to the two sensory panels. Both panels detected differences among replications (muscles from different carcasses); however, a panelist × replication effect occurred for the DA sensory panel. Both panels detected differences (p<0.05) in LL muscle fiber orientation for most attributes related to tenderness; however, few differences were detected for flavor and juiciness traits for either muscle. Numerous significant (r ⩾ 0.50 or ⩽ -0.50) correlations occurred between DTP and DA panel attributes and were generally higher when cubes were cut perpendicular to the steak cut surface. The DTP panelists were more consistent in their evaluations of texture attributes; however, they were more sensitive to muscle fiber orientation. Both panels were effective in detecting differences among replications.

  4. Sensory description of sweet wines obtained by the winemaking procedures of raisining, botrytisation and fortification.

    PubMed

    González-Álvarez, Mariana; Noguerol-Pato, Raquel; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2014-02-15

    The effect of winemaking procedures on the sensory modification of sweet wines was investigated. Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines were obtained by two different processes: by using raisins for vinification to obtain a naturally sweet wine and by using freshly harvested grapes with the stoppage of the fermentation by the addition of alcohol. Eight international sweet wines were also subjected to sensory analysis for comparative description purposes. Wines were described with a sensory profile by 12 trained panellists on 70 sensory attributes by employing the frequency of citation method. Analysis of variance of the descriptive data confirmed the existence of subtle sensory differences among Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines depending on the procedure used for their production. Cluster analysis emphasised discriminated attributes between the Garnacha Tintorera-based and the commercial groups of sweet wines for both those obtained by raisining and by fortification. Several kinds of discriminant functions were used to separate groups of sweet wines--obtained by botrytisation, raisining and fortification--to show the key descriptors that contribute to their separation and define the sensory perception of each type of wine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of characteristic flavour precursors from enzymatic hydrolysis-mild thermal oxidation tallow by descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-olfactometry and partial least squares regression.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Xiaoming; Song, Shiqing; Tan, Chen; Jia, Chengsheng; Xia, Shuqin

    2013-01-15

    The "enzymatic hydrolysis-mild thermal oxidation" method was employed to obtain oxidized tallow. Nine beeflike flavours (BFs) were prepared through Maillard reaction with oxidized tallow and other ingredients. Volatile compounds of oxidized tallow and beeflike flavours were analysed by SPME/GC-MS. Six sensory attributes (meaty, beefy, tallowy, simulate, burnt and off-flavour) were selected to assess BFs. Thirty four odour-active compounds were identified to represent beef odour through GC-O analysis based on detection frequency method. GC-MS profiles of oxidized tallow were correlated with GC-O responses and sensory attributes of BFs using partial least squares regression modelling (PLSR). Twenty nine compounds were considered as the potential precursors of oxidized tallow. Among them, tetradecanoic acid, d-limonene, 1,7-heptandiol, 2-butyltetrahydrofuran, (Z)-4-undecenal, (Z)-4-decenal, (E)-4-nonenal and 5-pentyl-2(3H)-furanone were unique products generated from enzymatic hydrolysis-mild thermal oxidation of tallow, while hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, pentanal, acetic acid, butanoic acid, hexanoic acid, 1-heptanol, 1-octanol, 3-methylbutanal, 2-pentylfuran, γ-nonalactone, 2-undecenal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E)-2-nonenal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-decenal and (Z)-2-heptenal were common products generated from thermal oxidation of tallow.

  6. Sensory analysis of calcium-biofortified lettuce.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunghun; Elless, Mark P; Park, Jungeun; Jenkins, Alicia; Lim, Wansang; Chambers, Edgar; Hirschi, Kendal D

    2009-01-01

    Vegetables represent an attractive means of providing increased calcium nutrition to the public. In this study, it was demonstrated that lettuce expressing the deregulated Arabidopsis H(+)/Ca(2+) transporter sCAX1 (cation exchanger 1) contained 25%-32% more calcium than controls. These biofortified lettuce lines were fertile and demonstrated robust growth in glasshouse growth conditions. Using a panel of highly trained descriptive panellists, biofortified lettuce plants were evaluated and no significant differences were detected in flavour, bitterness or crispness when compared with controls. Sensory analysis studies are critical if claims are to be made regarding the efficacy of biofortified foods, and may be an important component in the public acceptance of genetically modified foods.

  7. Relation between sensory analysis and rheology of body lotions.

    PubMed

    Moravkova, T; Filip, P

    2016-12-01

    Evaluation of sensory attributes of cosmetic products is traditionally based on sensory panels. However, in some cases, a suitable candidate method that can reduce time and costs is the use of instrumental analysis that can detect relatively very small changes of entry ingredients. Such approach has been already applied for emollients, salt content, stabilizers, etc. The aim of this contribution is to apply the relations between sensory analysis and rheology to a series of body lotions differing in the contents of emulsifiers and viscosity regulators. Sensory and rheological analyses are related. Rheological analysis can represent a good alternative to basic orientation in chosen customer's feelings. A rotational rheometer is the only instrumental device required for the measurements. An empirical rheological model was proposed by means of which the selected sensory attributes were evaluated using the numerical values of adjustable model parameters. This approach exhibited a very good agreement with the results obtained by the sensory panel. It was shown that a description of chosen sensory attributes can be responsibly carried out by rheological measurements, that is through the attained numerical values of the parameters appearing in a proposed empirical model characterizing shear viscosity of body lotions. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  8. Relationship between sensory descriptive juiciness measurements and functionality parameters of broiler breast fillets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Relationships between Sensory Descriptive Juiciness Measurements and Functionality Parameters of Broiler Breast Fillets H. Zhuang and E. M. Savage Quality and Safety Assessment Research Unit, ARS-USDA, Russell Research Center, P. O. Box 5677, Athens, GA 30604-5677 Sensory moisture characteristics...

  9. Physical Properties, Volatiles Compositions and Sensory Descriptions of the Aromatized Hazelnut Oil-Wax Organogels.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Emin; Öğütcü, Mustafa; Yüceer, Yonca Karagül

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical, thermal and sensorial features of vitamin enriched and aromatized hazelnut oil-beeswax and sunflower wax organogels. Another objective was to monitor the influence of storage on textural and oxidative stability and volatile composition of the organogels. The results show that organogels with beeswax had lower levels of solid fat content, melting point and firmness than sunflower wax counterparts. The microphotographs revealed that beeswax organogels had spherical crystals while sunflower wax organogels continued need-like crystals, but both organogels continued crystallized β' polymorph. All organogels maintained their oxidative stability during storage. Quantitative descriptive analysis results were consistent with these findings that the organogel structure and properties were similar to breakfast margarine. The main volatile components of the organogels with added strawberry aroma were ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl-2-methyl butanoate, D-limonene, ethyl caproate; banana-aroma were isoamyl acetate, isoamyl valerianate, ethyl acetate; and butter-aroma were 2,3-butanedione, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. These volatile components were not only detected in the fresh samples but also at the end of the storage period. Sensory definition terms were matched with the sensory descriptors of the detected volatiles. In conclusion, the new organogels were shown to be suitable for food product applications. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Characterizing commercial pureed foods: sensory, nutritional, and textural analysis.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, Laurel; Keller, Heather H; Duizer, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Dysphagia (swallowing impairment) is a common consequence of stroke and degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. Limited research is available on pureed foods, specifically the qualities of commercial products. Because research has linked pureed foods, specifically in-house pureed products, to malnutrition due to inferior sensory and nutritional qualities, commercial purees also need to be investigated. Proprietary research on sensory attributes of commercial foods is available; however direct comparisons of commercial pureed foods have never been reported. Descriptive sensory analysis as well as nutritional and texture analysis of commercially pureed prepared products was performed using a trained descriptive analysis panel. The pureed foods tested included four brands of carrots, of turkey, and two of bread. Each commercial puree was analyzed for fat (Soxhlet), protein (Dumas), carbohydrate (proximate analysis), fiber (total fiber), and sodium content (Quantab titrator strips). The purees were also texturally compared with a line spread test and a back extrusion test. Differences were found in the purees for sensory attributes as well as nutritional and textural properties. Findings suggest that implementation of standards is required to reduce variability between products, specifically regarding the textural components of the products. This would ensure all commercial products available in Canada meet standards established as being considered safe for swallowing.

  11. Chemical and sensory profiles of makgeolli, Korean commercial rice wine, from descriptive, chemical, and volatile compound analyses.

    PubMed

    Jung, Heeyong; Lee, Seung-Joo; Lim, Jeong Ho; Kim, Bum Keun; Park, Kee Jai

    2014-01-01

    The chemical and sensory profiles of 12 commercial samples of makgeolli, a Korean rice wine, were determined using descriptive sensory, chemical, and volatile components analyses. The sample wines were analysed for their titratable acidity, ethanol content, pH, Hunter colour value and total reducing sugars. The chemical compositions of the makgeolli samples were found to be significantly different. The volatile compounds were extracted with solid-phase microextraction and analysed by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In all, 45 major volatile compounds, consisting of 33 esters, 8 alcohols, 1 aldehyde, 1 acid, 1 phenol and 1 terpene, were identified; each makgeolli sample included 28-35 volatile compounds. Based on principal component analysis of the sensory data, samples RW1, RW2, RW5, RW8 and RW12 were associated with roasted cereal, mouldy, bubbles, sweet and sour attributes; the other samples were associated with sensory attributes of yellowness, yeast, full body, turbidity, continuation, swallow, alcohol, fruit aroma and whiteness.

  12. Dynamic sensory description of Rioja Alavesa red wines made by different winemaking practices by using Temporal Dominance of Sensations.

    PubMed

    Etaio, Iñaki; Meillon, Sophie; Pérez-Elortondo, Francisco J; Schlich, Pascal

    2016-08-01

    Although sensory description of wines in scientific literature is very large, there is an evident lack of studies describing wines from a dynamic approach. The objective of this study was to describe the evolution of the sensations perceived in red wines from Rioja Alavesa by using Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) and also to compare wines made with the two winemaking procedures used in Rioja Alavesa: carbonic maceration (CM) and destemming (DS). Ten sensory attributes were evaluated in eight wines (four CM and four DS wines) in triplicate by a panel of 16 trained assessors. Red/black berry and woody aromas were dominant firstly, whereas heat, astringent, bitter and pungent sensations were dominant later. CM wines showed higher dominance for woody, spicy, pungent and acid sensations and lower dominance for red/black berry aroma and astringency than DS wines. This study is the first to describe Rioja wines from a dynamic approach and it also provides information about the dynamic sensory differences between wines made by CM or by DS. In this sense, this work shows the usefulness of TDS to describe and differentiate wines and to provide additional information to the conventional static descriptive analysis. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Sensory-specific anomic aphasia following left occipital lesions: Data from free oral descriptions of concrete word meanings

    PubMed Central

    Mårtensson, F.; Roll, M.; Lindgren, M.; Apt, P.; Horne, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated hierarchical lexical semantic structure in oral descriptions of concrete word meanings produced by a subject (ZZ) diagnosed with anomic aphasia due to left occipital lesions. The focus of the analysis was production of a) nouns at different levels of semantic specificity (e.g., “robin”–“bird”–“animal”) and b) words describing sensory or motor experiences (e.g., “blue,” “soft,” “fly”). Results show that in contrast to healthy and aphasic controls, who produced words at all levels of specificity and mainly vision-related sensory information, ZZ produced almost exclusively nouns at the most non-specific levels and words associated with sound and movement. PMID:23425233

  14. Development of a structured sensory honey analysis: application to artisanal Madrid honeys.

    PubMed

    González, M M; de Lorenzo, C; Pérez, R A

    2010-02-01

    In this work a methodology to evaluate the sensory properties of honeys has been developed. The sensory analysis was carried out by means of a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) method, based on several reference scales, for the coverage of the designed range for each descriptor. The peculiarity of this sensory analysis is that the reference scales have been constituted by common foodstuffs agreed upon by consensus of the panel. The main sensory attributes evaluated in the analyses were: adhesiveness, viscosity, bitterness, aroma, sweetness, acidity, color and granularity. Both the intensity and persistence of honey aromas have also been estimated, together with the classification of the identified aromatic attributes into different groups. The method was applied to 55 artisanal honeys from Madrid (Spain) with the following results: (i) the developed sensory profile sheet allowed a satisfactory description of Madrid honeys; (ii) correlations between sensory attributes of three broad groups of Madrid honeys were obtained and (iii) aroma persistence, sweetness, bitterness, color and granularity appeared as the main sensorial characteristics of honey with discrimination power between floral and honeydew honeys.

  15. Characterization and classification of Japanese consumer perceptions for beef tenderness using descriptive texture characteristics assessed by a trained sensory panel.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Keisuke; Motoyama, Michiyo; Narita, Takumi; Hagi, Tatsuro; Ojima, Koichi; Oe, Mika; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Kitsunai, Katsuhiro; Saito, Yosuke; Hatori, Hikari; Muroya, Susumu; Nomura, Masaru; Miyaguchi, Yuji; Chikuni, Koichi

    2014-02-01

    Meat tenderness is an important characteristic in terms of consumer preference and satisfaction. However, each consumer may have his/her own criteria to judge meat tenderness, because consumers are neither selected nor trained like an expert sensory panel. This study aimed to characterize consumer tenderness using descriptive texture profiles such as chewiness and hardness assessed by a trained panel. Longissimus muscles cooked at four different end-point temperatures were subjected to a trained sensory panel (n=18) and consumer (n=107) tenderness tests. Multiple regression analysis showed that consumer tenderness was characterized as 'low-chewiness and low hardness texture.' Subsequently, consumers were divided into two groups by cluster analysis according to tenderness perceptions in each participant, and the two groups were characterized as 'tenderness is mainly low-chewiness' and 'tenderness is mainly low-hardness' for tenderness perception, respectively. These results demonstrate objective characteristics and variability of consumer meat tenderness, and provide new information regarding the evaluation and management of meat tenderness for meat manufacturers. © 2013.

  16. Volatile composition and sensory analysis of Italian gianduja torrone.

    PubMed

    Speziale, Marisa; Vázquez-Araújo, Laura; Mincione, Antonio; Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A

    2010-08-15

    Gianduja torrone (GT) is a typical Italian product made with almonds, honey and chocolate. In this study, the volatile composition and the descriptive sensory analysis of the product, from five different manufacturing companies and two consecutive seasons (2007 and 2008), were studied. Volatile compounds in torrone samples were extracted using simultaneous distillation-extraction and isolated, quantified and identified using GC-MS. Aromatic hydrocarbons were the predominant chemical compounds in the GT samples, mainly being artificial aromas (vanillin and benzaldehyde) added as ingredients. Although pyrazines from chocolate (tetramethylpyrazine, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, etc.) were found in lower concentrations than the added flavourings, they played an important role in determining the sensory aroma profile of GT, as scores for chocolate flavour were the highest. Although the almond and honey flavours were similar in products from all companies, the chocolate cover and the quantity of vanilla added determined significant differences in the products. The chocolate cover and artificial aromas play the main role in determining the aroma of GT. If manufacturers are interested in providing a more homogeneous product to the consumers, more attention should be paid to the raw materials chosen (black or milk chocolate) and concentrations of the aromas added. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Measuring Information Acquisition from Sensory Input Using Automated Scoring of Natural-Language Descriptions

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Daniel R.; Bex, Peter J.; Rose, Dylan J.; Woods, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Information acquisition, the gathering and interpretation of sensory information, is a basic function of mobile organisms. We describe a new method for measuring this ability in humans, using free-recall responses to sensory stimuli which are scored objectively using a “wisdom of crowds” approach. As an example, we demonstrate this metric using perception of video stimuli. Immediately after viewing a 30 s video clip, subjects responded to a prompt to give a short description of the clip in natural language. These responses were scored automatically by comparison to a dataset of responses to the same clip by normally-sighted viewers (the crowd). In this case, the normative dataset consisted of responses to 200 clips by 60 subjects who were stratified by age (range 22 to 85y) and viewed the clips in the lab, for 2,400 responses, and by 99 crowdsourced participants (age range 20 to 66y) who viewed clips in their Web browser, for 4,000 responses. We compared different algorithms for computing these similarities and found that a simple count of the words in common had the best performance. It correctly matched 75% of the lab-sourced and 95% of crowdsourced responses to their corresponding clips. We validated the measure by showing that when the amount of information in the clip was degraded using defocus lenses, the shared word score decreased across the five predetermined visual-acuity levels, demonstrating a dose-response effect (N = 15). This approach, of scoring open-ended immediate free recall of the stimulus, is applicable not only to video, but also to other situations where a measure of the information that is successfully acquired is desirable. Information acquired will be affected by stimulus quality, sensory ability, and cognitive processes, so our metric can be used to assess each of these components when the others are controlled. PMID:24695546

  18. Measuring information acquisition from sensory input using automated scoring of natural-language descriptions.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Daniel R; Bex, Peter J; Rose, Dylan J; Woods, Russell L

    2014-01-01

    Information acquisition, the gathering and interpretation of sensory information, is a basic function of mobile organisms. We describe a new method for measuring this ability in humans, using free-recall responses to sensory stimuli which are scored objectively using a "wisdom of crowds" approach. As an example, we demonstrate this metric using perception of video stimuli. Immediately after viewing a 30 s video clip, subjects responded to a prompt to give a short description of the clip in natural language. These responses were scored automatically by comparison to a dataset of responses to the same clip by normally-sighted viewers (the crowd). In this case, the normative dataset consisted of responses to 200 clips by 60 subjects who were stratified by age (range 22 to 85 y) and viewed the clips in the lab, for 2,400 responses, and by 99 crowdsourced participants (age range 20 to 66 y) who viewed clips in their Web browser, for 4,000 responses. We compared different algorithms for computing these similarities and found that a simple count of the words in common had the best performance. It correctly matched 75% of the lab-sourced and 95% of crowdsourced responses to their corresponding clips. We validated the measure by showing that when the amount of information in the clip was degraded using defocus lenses, the shared word score decreased across the five predetermined visual-acuity levels, demonstrating a dose-response effect (N = 15). This approach, of scoring open-ended immediate free recall of the stimulus, is applicable not only to video, but also to other situations where a measure of the information that is successfully acquired is desirable. Information acquired will be affected by stimulus quality, sensory ability, and cognitive processes, so our metric can be used to assess each of these components when the others are controlled.

  19. Estimation of failure criteria in multivariate sensory shelf life testing using survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Ana; Gagliardi, Andrés; Ares, Gastón

    2017-09-01

    For most food products, shelf life is determined by changes in their sensory characteristics. A predetermined increase or decrease in the intensity of a sensory characteristic has frequently been used to signal that a product has reached the end of its shelf life. Considering all attributes change simultaneously, the concept of multivariate shelf life allows a single measurement of deterioration that takes into account all these sensory changes at a certain storage time. The aim of the present work was to apply survival analysis to estimate failure criteria in multivariate sensory shelf life testing using two case studies, hamburger buns and orange juice, by modelling the relationship between consumers' rejection of the product and the deterioration index estimated using PCA. In both studies, a panel of 13 trained assessors evaluated the samples using descriptive analysis whereas a panel of 100 consumers answered a "yes" or "no" question regarding intention to buy or consume the product. PC1 explained the great majority of the variance, indicating all sensory characteristics evolved similarly with storage time. Thus, PC1 could be regarded as index of sensory deterioration and a single failure criterion could be estimated through survival analysis for 25 and 50% consumers' rejection. The proposed approach based on multivariate shelf life testing may increase the accuracy of shelf life estimations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of postmortem deboning time on sensory descriptive flavor and texture profiles of cooked boneless skinless chicken thighs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three replicate trials were conducted to investigate the effect of deboning time on sensory descriptive profiles of cooked boneless skinless thigh meat (iliotibialis, iliofibularis and the femoritibialis). Carcasses (42-d old birds) were obtained from a commercial processing plant. Thighs were hot-b...

  1. Descriptive approaches to landscape analysis

    Treesearch

    R. Burton Litton Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Descriptive landscape analyses include various procedures used to document visual/scenic resources. Historic and regional examples of landscape description represent desirable insight for contemporary professional inventory work. Routed and areal landscape inventories are discussed as basic tools. From them, qualitative and quantitative evaluations can be developed...

  2. Interrelationships among evaluations of beef longissimus and semitendinosus muscle tenderness by Warner-Bratzler shear force, a descriptive-texture profile sensory panel, and a descriptive attribute sensory panel.

    PubMed

    Otremba, M M; Dikeman, M E; Milliken, G A; Stroda, S L; Unruh, J A; Chambers, E

    1999-04-01

    The objective of our study was to examine the interrelationships among Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) determinations, evaluation by a highly trained descriptive-texture-profile (DTP) sensory panel, and evaluation by a trained descriptive attribute (DA) sensory panel as affected by muscle fiber orientation of samples and shear-blade type. Longissimus lumborum and semitendinosus muscles (n = 18 of each) were cut into 2.54-cm steaks, which were cooked to 71 degrees C. Cores were obtained with two methods (parallel to the muscle fiber orientation and perpendicular to the cut steak surface), used for WBSF determinations with the typical V-shaped blade and modified WBSF determinations with a flat blade, and presented to the DTP and DA sensory panels. The V-shaped blade resulted in 1.4 to 2.5 kg lower (P < .05) mean WBSF values than the flat blade for both muscles. Cores taken parallel to the longissimus muscle fiber orientation had .64 kg higher (P < .05) mean WBSF values than cores taken perpendicular to the cut steak surface. Both panels detected differences among carcass replications; however, a panelist x replication effect (P < .05) occurred for the DA panel. Both panels detected differences (P < .05) in muscle fiber orientation for attributes related to tenderness. Correlations between sensory panel scores and WBSF values were dependent on blade type and coring method. Blade type and coring method had greater effects on correlations between sensory scores and WBSF values for the DTP panel than for the DA panel. Correlations between scores by both sensory panels and WBSF values were comparable. The more highly trained DTP panelists were more consistent in their evaluations of texture attributes; however, they were more sensitive to muscle fiber orientation. Both panels were effective in detecting differences among carcass replications.

  3. Volatile composition and sensory properties of Vitis vinifera red cultivars from north west Spain: correlation between sensory and instrumental analysis.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, M; Campo, E; Escudero, A; Graña, M; Masa, A; Cacho, J

    2012-03-30

    The aroma and volatile composition of wines from five red cultivars from NW Spain (Brancellao, Mencía, Merenzao, Mouratón and Sousón) have been studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and sensory descriptive analysis (SDA) during three consecutive vintages (2007-2009) in order to characterize these wines. In addition, relationships between the instrumental (volatile) and sensory variables were analyzed through the application of partial least squares regression (PLSR). Results revealed that the effect of "cultivar" was very important as a third of compounds (16 in total) varied significantly (P≤0.05) among varieties. Mencía wines presented the highest concentrations of γ-nonalactone, whereas Sousón wines were the richest in monoterpene compounds. On the contrary, no significant difference was observed with respect to the esters content, probably as a consequence of using the same yeast for all vinifications. Twenty out of 51 quantified volatile compounds were present in some samples at concentrations higher than their corresponding odor thresholds (OAV>1), thus contributing to the final wine aroma. Partial least square (PLS) regression was applied to volatile compounds with OAV>0.2 and aroma descriptors with %GM>10. PLSR yielded a satisfactory model for the prediction of four important aroma descriptors in this set of wines--aroma quality, aroma intensity, herbaceous and red fruit--from instrumental analysis data. This work contributes to gaining knowledge about the sensory profiles and its relation to the volatile composition of minority Galician red grape cultivars.

  4. Sensory analysis of cosmetic powders: personal care ingredients and emulsions.

    PubMed

    Moussour, M; Lavarde, M; Pensé-Lhéritier, A-M; Bouton, F

    2017-02-01

    The powders are ingredients increasingly used in the formulation of cosmetic products for the sensory qualities they give. The objective of this study was the development of a lexicon and a referential for sensory characterization of these pure raw materials as well as formulations which contain them. Eleven expert panellists from Ecole de biologie industrielle de Cergy (France) developed a lexicon and a referential based on 12 powders of different chemical natures. The selected attributes were then used for performing a quantitative descriptive profile of two powders and an emulsion containing or not one of these two powders. A lexicon has been established through a consensus approach of the panel. It contains seven attributes that allow the evaluation of the powders in four phases: the appearance, the pickup, the application and the after-feel. This lexicon contains definitions and assessment protocols and provides references products. The quantitative descriptive profile of two powders of the same chemical nature, but different in physical quality showed significant differences in sensory level between products. These same attributes used to evaluate an emulsion containing the powder or not allowed to prove the contribution of these raw materials on the sensory specificities of the emulsion. The lexicon developed in this study can be used for assessment of other powders but also to define the quantities necessary to put in the formulation to meet the sensory characteristics of these raw materials powder. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. Description, Recognition and Analysis of Biological Images

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Donggang; Jin, Jesse S.; Luo Suhuai; Pham, Tuan D.; Lai Wei

    2010-01-25

    Description, recognition and analysis biological images plays an important role for human to describe and understand the related biological information. The color images are separated by color reduction. A new and efficient linearization algorithm is introduced based on some criteria of difference chain code. A series of critical points is got based on the linearized lines. The series of curvature angle, linearity, maximum linearity, convexity, concavity and bend angle of linearized lines are calculated from the starting line to the end line along all smoothed contours. The useful method can be used for shape description and recognition. The analysis, decision, classification of the biological images are based on the description of morphological structures, color information and prior knowledge, which are associated each other. The efficiency of the algorithms is described based on two applications. One application is the description, recognition and analysis of color flower images. Another one is related to the dynamic description, recognition and analysis of cell-cycle images.

  6. Discrimination of honeys using colorimetric sensor arrays, sensory analysis and gas chromatography techniques.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Haroon Elrasheid; Xiaobo, Zou; Xiaowei, Huang; Jiyong, Shi; Mariod, Abdalbasit Adam

    2016-09-01

    Aroma profiles of six honey varieties of different botanical origins were investigated using colorimetric sensor array, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and descriptive sensory analysis. Fifty-eight aroma compounds were identified, including 2 norisoprenoids, 5 hydrocarbons, 4 terpenes, 6 phenols, 7 ketones, 9 acids, 12 aldehydes and 13 alcohols. Twenty abundant or active compounds were chosen as key compounds to characterize honey aroma. Discrimination of the honeys was subsequently implemented using multivariate analysis, including hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Honeys of the same botanical origin were grouped together in the PCA score plot and HCA dendrogram. SPME-GC/MS and colorimetric sensor array were able to discriminate the honeys effectively with the advantages of being rapid, simple and low-cost. Moreover, partial least squares regression (PLSR) was applied to indicate the relationship between sensory descriptors and aroma compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sensory over responsivity and obsessive compulsive symptoms: A cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Ben-Sasson, Ayelet; Podoly, Tamar Yonit

    2017-02-01

    Several studies have examined the sensory component in Obsesseive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and described an OCD subtype which has a unique profile, and that Sensory Phenomena (SP) is a significant component of this subtype. SP has some commonalities with Sensory Over Responsivity (SOR) and might be in part a characteristic of this subtype. Although there are some studies that have examined SOR and its relation to Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms (OCS), literature lacks sufficient data on this interplay. First to further examine the correlations between OCS and SOR, and to explore the correlations between SOR modalities (i.e. smell, touch, etc.) and OCS subscales (i.e. washing, ordering, etc.). Second, to investigate the cluster analysis of SOR and OCS dimensions in adults, that is, to classify the sample using the sensory scores to find whether a sensory OCD subtype can be specified. Our third goal was to explore the psychometric features of a new sensory questionnaire: the Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ). A sample of non clinical adults (n=350) was recruited via e-mail, social media and social networks. Participants completed questionnaires for measuring SOR, OCS, and anxiety. SOR and OCI-F scores were moderately significantly correlated (n=274), significant correlations between all SOR modalities and OCS subscales were found with no specific higher correlation between one modality to one OCS subscale. Cluster analysis revealed four distinct clusters: (1) No OC and SOR symptoms (NONE; n=100), (2) High OC and SOR symptoms (BOTH; n=28), (3) Moderate OC symptoms (OCS; n=63), (4) Moderate SOR symptoms (SOR; n=83). The BOTH cluster had significantly higher anxiety levels than the other clusters, and shared OC subscales scores with the OCS cluster. The BOTH cluster also reported higher SOR scores across tactile, vision, taste and olfactory modalities. The SPQ was found reliable and suitable to detect SOR, the sample SPQ scores was normally distributed (n=350). SOR is a

  8. Effects of freezing-thawing on sensory descriptive profiles of cooked poultry breast meat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Freezing is a common method used by consumers to extend meat shelf life and by researchers to allow for subsequent meat quality assessments and processing. However, the effects of freezing on the sensory quality of cooked poultry breast meat are not well documented. The objective of this study was t...

  9. Descriptive Analysis of Simulated Bird Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckenlively, Donald B.

    1986-01-01

    Describes use of computer simulation which generates bird songs so that students can analyze song motifs and sequences as an introduction to descriptive analysis of behavior in an animal behavior course. Advantages of the simulation are discussed together with computer hardware/software needed and data presentation, analysis, and generation…

  10. Effects of sensory augmentation on postural control and gait symmetry of transfemoral amputees: a case description.

    PubMed

    Pagel, Anna; Arieta, Alejandro Hernandez; Riener, Robert; Vallery, Heike

    2016-10-01

    Despite recent advances in leg prosthetics, transfemoral amputees still experience limitations in postural control and gait symmetry. It has been hypothesized that artificial sensory information might improve the integration of the prosthesis into the human sensory-motor control loops and, thus, reduce these limitations. In three transfemoral amputees, we investigated the effect of Electrotactile Moving Sensation for Sensory Augmentation (EMSSA) without training and present preliminary findings. Experimental conditions included standing with open/closed eyes on stable/unstable ground as well as treadmill walking. For standing conditions, spatiotemporal posturographic measures and sample entropy were derived from the center of pressure. For walking conditions, step length and stance duration were calculated. Conditions without feedback showed effects congruent with findings in the literature, e.g., asymmetric weight bearing and step length, and validated the collected data. During standing, with EMSSA a tendency to influence postural control in a negative way was found: Postural control was less effective and less efficient and the prosthetic leg was less involved. Sample entropy tended to decrease, suggesting that EMSSA demanded increased attention. During walking, with EMSSA no persistent positive effect was found. This contrasts the positive subjective assessment and the positive effect on one subject's step length.

  11. Sensory subtypes in children with autism spectrum disorder: latent profile transition analysis using a national survey of sensory features.

    PubMed

    Ausderau, Karla K; Furlong, Melissa; Sideris, John; Bulluck, John; Little, Lauren M; Watson, Linda R; Boyd, Brian A; Belger, Aysenil; Dickie, Virginia A; Baranek, Grace T

    2014-08-01

    Sensory features are highly prevalent and heterogeneous among children with ASD. There is a need to identify homogenous groups of children with ASD based on sensory features (i.e., sensory subtypes) to inform research and treatment. Sensory subtypes and their stability over 1 year were identified through latent profile transition analysis (LPTA) among a national sample of children with ASD. Data were collected from caregivers of children with ASD ages 2-12 years at two time points (Time 1 N = 1294; Time 2 N = 884). Four sensory subtypes (Mild; Sensitive-Distressed; Attenuated-Preoccupied; Extreme-Mixed) were identified, which were supported by fit indices from the LPTA as well as current theoretical models that inform clinical practice. The Mild and Extreme-Mixed subtypes reflected quantitatively different sensory profiles, while the Sensitive-Distressed and Attenuated-Preoccupied subtypes reflected qualitatively different profiles. Further, subtypes reflected differential child (i.e., gender, developmental age, chronological age, autism severity) and family (i.e., income, mother's education) characteristics. Ninety-one percent of participants remained stable in their subtypes over 1 year. Characterizing the nature of homogenous sensory subtypes may facilitate assessment and intervention, as well as potentially inform biological mechanisms. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  12. Sensory Subtypes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Latent Profile Transition Analysis using a National Survey of Sensory Features

    PubMed Central

    Ausderau, Karla K.; Furlong, Melissa; Sideris, John; Bulluck, John; Little, Lauren M.; Watson, Linda R.; Boyd, Brian A.; Belger, Aysenil; Dickie, Virginia A.; Baranek, Grace T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sensory features are highly prevalent and heterogeneous among children with ASD. There is a need to identify homogenous groups of children with ASD based on sensory features (i.e., sensory subtypes) to inform research and treatment. Methods Sensory subtypes and their stability over one year were identified through latent profile transition analysis (LPTA) among a national sample of children with ASD. Data were collected from caregivers of children with ASD ages 2-12 years at two time points (Time 1 N=1294; Time 2 N=884). Results Four sensory subtypes (Mild; Sensitive-Distressed; Attenuated-Preoccupied; Extreme-Mixed) were identified, which were supported by fit indices from the LPTA as well as current theoretical models that inform clinical practice. The Mild and Extreme-Mixed subtypes reflected quantitatively different sensory profiles, while the Sensitive-Distressed and Attenuated-Preoccupied subtypes reflected qualitatively different profiles. Further, subtypes reflected differential child (i.e., gender, developmental age, chronological age, autism severity) and family (i.e., income, mother's education) characteristics. Ninety-one percent of participants remained stable in their subtypes over one year. Conclusions Characterizing the nature of homogenous sensory subtypes may facilitate assessment and intervention, as well as potentially inform biological mechanisms. PMID:25039572

  13. BUENA VISTA HIGH SCHOOL--DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EGBERT, ROBERT L.

    A DETAILED SYSTEM DESCRIPTION OF THE 11TH-GRADE ENGLISH COURSE WHICH COMBINES TEAM TEACHING WITH CLOSED-CIRCUIT TELEVISION AT THE BUENA VISTA HIGH SCHOOL IN SAGINAW, MICHIGAN, WAS PRESENTED. THE SECOND IN A SERIES OF THREE REPORTS, THIS REPORT PRESENTED AN ANALYSIS OF (1) COURSE OPERATING PROCEDURES, (2) TIME SPENT IN VARIOUS GROUPINGS AND…

  14. [Possible Signs of Sensory Overload].

    PubMed

    Scheydt, Stefan; Needham, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Objective To identify, synthesize and structure the defining characteristics of overstimulation. Methods The literature search was conducted in relevant international databases (Pubmed, Medline, CINAHL, Psyndex, PsycArticles, PsychINFO). The literature analysis was conducted according to Mayring's method of qualitative content analysis. Results Despite the scanty data available on symptoms or effects of sensory overload, twelve literature-sources were identified, describing signs and symptoms of sensory overload. A cluster of psychopathological and behavioral characteristics of sensory overload was developed. Conclusions Further research is needed to obtain an evidence-based description of the defining characteristics of sensory overload. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Descriptive sensory profiling and physical/chemical analyses of warmed-over flavour in pork patties from carriers and non-carriers of the RN(-) allele.

    PubMed

    Byrne, D V; O'Sullivan, M G; Bredie, W L P; Andersen, H J; Martens, M

    2003-02-01

    Descriptive sensory profiling was carried out to evaluate warmed-over flavour (WOF) development in cooked, chill-stored and reheated pork patties derived from the meat (Musculus longissimus dorsi) of carriers (RN(-)/rn(+)) and non-carriers (rn(+)/rn(+)) of the RN(-) gene. Patties were oven-cooked at 150 and 170 °C and chill-stored for up to 5 days to facilitate warmed-over flavour (WOF) development. In addition, thawing losses, cooking losses, pH and TBARS were measured in the cooked pork patties. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate changes in the physical/chemical measurements due to the experimental design variables (storage days, cooking temperature and genotype) and multivariate ANOVA-partial least squares regression (APLSR) was used to determine relationships between the design variables and the sensory and physical/chemical data. WOF was found to involve the development of lipid oxidation derived nuance off-flavour and odour notes, e.g. rancid-like flavour and linseed oil-like odour, in association with a concurrent decrease in 'meatiness' as described by, e.g. cooked pork meat-like flavour. Cooking temperature was described by roasted-like and caramel-like odours and samples from carriers of the RN(-) gene were described as more 'sour' and 'metallic'. Thawing and cooking losses were found to be significantly (P <0.05) higher in meat from carriers of the RN(-) gene versus non-carriers. pH was negatively related to samples from carriers of the RN(-) gene. However, the measured pH in RN(-) carriers could not be significantly ascribed as lower in non-carriers in the freshly cooked meat samples. TBARS were found to be significant (P <0.05) predictors of the sensory terms related to the lipid oxidation aspect of WOF. Moreover, TBARS were significantly (P <0.05) higher in meat from RN(-) gene carriers but, significantly (P <0.05) lower in meat cooked at high oven temperatures (170 °C). The former effect was postulated as related to pH and the

  16. First-Hand Accounts of Sensory Perceptual Experiences in Autism: A Qualitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert S. P.; Quigney, Ciara; Huws, Jaci C.

    2003-01-01

    Five first-hand Web page accounts of unusual sensory perceptual experiences written by persons with high-functioning autism were selected for qualitative analysis. Four core categories emerged: turbulent sensory perceptual experiences; coping mechanisms; enjoyable sensory perceptual experiences; and awareness of being different, suggesting they…

  17. Descriptive analysis of flavor characteristics for black walnut cultivars.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ashley E; Chambers, Delores H

    2013-06-01

    Seven black walnut cultivars, Brown Nugget, Davidson, Emma K, Football, Sparks 127, Sparrow, and Tomboy, were evaluated by descriptive sensory analysis. Seven trained panelists developed a lexicon for the black walnuts and scored the intensities of the samples for 22 flavor attributes. Results showed that the 7 samples differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) on 13 of the attributes. For the majority of the attributes, only Emma K differed from the rest of the cultivars by being characterized with lower scores for black walnut ID, overall nutty, nutty-grain-like, nutty-buttery, floral/fruity, oily, and overall sweet. That sample also was higher in acrid, burnt, fruity-dark, musty/earthy, rancid, and bitter attributes. The remaining 6 cultivars showed few differences in individual attribute ratings, but did show some differences when mapped using multivariate techniques. Future studies should include descriptive analysis of other black walnut varieties, both wild and commercial, that could be grown and harvested for production.

  18. Evaluation of bitterness in white wine applying descriptive analysis, time-intensity analysis, and temporal dominance of sensations analysis.

    PubMed

    Sokolowsky, Martina; Fischer, Ulrich

    2012-06-30

    Bitterness in wine, especially in white wine, is a complex and sensitive topic as it is a persistent sensation with negative connotation by consumers. However, the molecular base for bitter taste in white wines is still widely unknown yet. At the same time studies dealing with bitterness have to cope with the temporal dynamics of bitter perception. The most common method to describe bitter taste is the static measurement amongst other attributes during a descriptive analysis. A less frequently applied method, the time-intensity analysis, evaluates the temporal gustatory changes focusing on bitterness alone. The most recently developed multidimensional approach of the temporal dominance of sensations method reveals the temporal dominance of bitter taste in relation to other attributes. In order to compare the results comprised with these different sensory methodologies, 13 commercial white wines were evaluated by the same panel. To facilitate a statistical comparison, parameters were extracted from bitterness curves obtained from time-intensity and temporal dominance of sensations analysis and were compared to bitter intensity as well as bitter persistency based on descriptive analysis. Analysis of variance differentiated significantly the wines regarding all measured bitterness parameters obtained from the three sensory techniques. Comparing the information of all sensory parameters by multiple factor analysis and correlation, each technique provided additional valuable information regarding the complex bitter perception in white wine.

  19. Precursors and trajectories of sensory features: qualitative analysis of infant home videos.

    PubMed

    Freuler, Ashley; Baranek, Grace T; Watson, Linda R; Boyd, Brian A; Bulluck, John C

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study explored precursors and trajectories of extreme sensory patterns in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) compared with children with developmental delay (DD). METHOD. We conducted a retrospective analysis of home videos of 12 infants who later displayed extreme presence or absence of three sensory patterns at preschool and school age. RESULTS. In ASD, hyporesponsiveness was most evident in infancy, followed by sensory repetitions. Hyporesponsiveness appeared stable over time and also was a precursor of sensory seeking. Infants with DD had few sensory precursors. CONCLUSION. Precursors of extreme sensory features emerge early in children with ASD and appear relatively stable over time for a pattern of hyporesponsiveness but less stable for patterns of hyperresponsiveness and sensory seeking. These findings highlight the emergent nature of sensory features that may inform early identification and intervention. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  20. Consumer palatability scores, sensory descriptive attributes, and volatile compounds of grilled beef steaks from three USDA Quality Grades.

    PubMed

    Legako, J F; Dinh, T T N; Miller, M F; Adhikari, K; Brooks, J C

    2016-02-01

    Consumer palatability scores, sensory descriptive attributes, and volatile compounds were assessed for beef Longissimus lumborum steaks of USDA Prime, Low Choice, and Standard grades. Overall and flavor liking was greater (P<0.05) for Prime and Low Choice. Initial flavor impact and fat-like attributes were greater (P<0.05) among Prime and Low Choice. Prime had greater (P<0.05) brown/roasted, beef identity, overall sweetness, and umami. Cardboard was greater (P<0.05) in Standard. Volatile compounds representing flavor development pathways were varied with quality grade. Standard had greater (P<0.05) abundances of n-aldehydes. Phenylacetaldehyde was greater (P<0.05) in Prime and Low Choice. Both 2,3-butanedione and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone were greatest (P<0.05) in Prime. Overall liking was positively correlated with many descriptive attributes, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, and phenylacetaldehyde, and negatively correlated with cardboard, green, and n-aldehydes. While the measured attributes and volatiles may not be causative of flavor, this data indicates potential for prediction of flavor through their measurement.

  1. Vibrotactile perception threshold measurements for diagnosis of sensory neuropathy. Description of a reference population.

    PubMed

    Lundström, R; Strömberg, T; Lundborg, G

    1992-01-01

    Recognition of the fact that impairment of the tactile sense may occur independently of other disturbances in the vibration syndrome has rekindled an interest in developing a diagnostic method for early detection of vibration-induced neuropathy. There is also evidence suggesting that vibrotactile measurements represent a valuable diagnostic tool in compressive neuropathies, such as the carpal tunnel syndrome. The method may also become useful for diagnosing sensory neuropathies caused by other factors, such as solvents, pesticides, heavy metals, alcoholism, and diabetes. However, before vibrotactile measurement can be accepted and established as a tool for clinical diagnostic purposes, for screening, and in research, the level and the shape of the normal threshold curve have to be specified. With the purpose of assembling normative data, the vibrotactile perception thresholds (8-500 Hz) of the right index fingertip were measured in 171 healthy males (19-75 years) not exposed to vibration. A Békésy audiometer was modified to operate in combination with a vibration exciter, instead of headphones, at frequencies lower than usual (8-500 Hz). The results showed that the perception thresholds increased from about 100 dB to about 140 dB (rel. 10(-6) m/s2rms) as a function of frequency and age. The frequency-dependent changes were not linear, however, but displayed a peak in sensitivity at 125 Hz. Threshold changes due to aging were most pronounced at the highest frequencies. It is of the utmost importance that these natural changes are taken into account when making comparisons between groups or individuals.

  2. Evaluating thermophysiological comfort using the principles of sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Cubrić, Ivana Salopek; Skenderi, Zenun

    2013-03-01

    Thermophysiological comfort applies to the way in which clothing lets through or retains heat and moisture and helps the body retain heat balance in rest position or at various levels of activities. In this paper, the principles of sensory analysis are used to define the protocol of new method for the evaluation of thermophysiological comfort wearing different garments. Sensory analysis was chosen because as a scientific discipline that applies experiment principles using human senses is used for the evaluation of consumer goods. Test protocol using assessors described in this paper consists of the following steps: defining the interview content, finding potential assessors and making an interview, creating a survey, conducting a survey, group discussion, test and group discussion scoring, selection of assessors, assessment preparation and subjective assessment. On average the most distinctive increase in the sensation of warmth was recorded for the polyester clothing ensemble, and the lowest one for the cotton clothing ensemble. Concerning the average grades of comfort given by assesors, the most comfortable clothing ensemble is the one made of viscose. It was also found out that the method is especially suitable if a representative group of assessors is formed.

  3. Consumer sensory analysis of organically and conventionally grown vegetables.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Chambers, Edgar; Matta, Ziad; Loughin, Thomas M; Carey, Edward E

    2007-03-01

    Consumers of organically grown fruits and vegetables often believe that these products taste better than conventional produce. However, comparison of produce from supermarket shelves does not permit adequate assessment of this consumer perception, given potentially confounding cultivar and environmental effects. We used replicated side-by-side plots to produce organic and conventional vegetables for consumer sensory studies. In one test, red loose leaf lettuce, spinach, arugula, and mustard greens, grown organically and conventionally, were evaluated for overall liking as well as for intensity of flavor and bitterness. Another consumer test was conducted comparing organically and conventionally grown tomatoes, cucumbers, and onions. Overall, organically and conventionally grown vegetables did not show significant differences in consumer liking or consumer-perceived sensory quality. The only exception was in tomatoes where the conventionally produced tomato was rated as having significantly stronger flavor than the organically produced tomato. However, overall liking was the same for both organic and conventional samples. As conventional tomatoes also were scored marginally significantly higher in ripeness and a positive correlation was found between ratings of flavor intensity and ripeness, the flavor difference observed could not be simply ascribed to the contrasting growing conditions. Consumer panelists in both tests considered organic produce to be healthier (72%) and more environmentally friendly (51%) than conventional produce, while 28% considered organic produce to have better taste. Covariance analysis indicated that consumer demographics affected sensory comparisons of organic and conventional lettuce and cucumbers. Future study is needed to substantiate the influence of segmentation of consumers on their preference for organic food.

  4. Lexical References to Sensory Modalities in Verbal Descriptions of People and Objects by Congenitally Blind, Late Blind and Sighted Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chauvey, Valérie; Hatwell, Yvette; Verine, Bertrand; Kaminski, Gwenael; Gentaz, Edouard

    2012-01-01

    Background Some previous studies have revealed that while congenitally blind people have a tendency to refer to visual attributes (‘verbalism’), references to auditory and tactile attributes are scarcer. However, this statement may be challenged by current theories claiming that cognition is linked to the perceptions and actions from which it derives. Verbal productions by the blind could therefore differ from those of the sighted because of their specific perceptual experience. The relative weight of each sense in oral descriptions was compared in three groups with different visual experience Congenitally blind (CB), late blind (LB) and blindfolded sighted (BS) adults. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants were asked to give an oral description of their mother and their father, and of four familiar manually-explored objects. The number of visual references obtained when describing people was relatively high, and was the same in the CB and BS groups (“verbalism” in the CB). While references to touch were scarce in all groups, the CB referred to audition more frequently than the LB and the BS groups. There were, by contrast, no differences between groups in descriptions of objects, and references to touch dominated the other modalities. Conclusion/Significance The relative weight of each modality varies according to the cognitive processes involved in each task. Long term memory, internal representations and information acquired through social communication, are at work in the People task, seem to favour visual references in both the blind and the sighted, whereas the congenitally blind also refer often to audition. By contrast, the perceptual encoding and working memory at work in the Objects task enhance sensory references to touch in a similar way in all groups. These results attenuate the impact of verbalism in blindness, and support (albeit moderately) the idea that the perceptual experience of the congenitally blind is to some extent reflected in

  5. Comparison of cook loss, shear force, and sensory descriptive profiles of boneless skinless white meat cooked from a frozen or thawed state.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Hong; Savage, Elizabeth M

    2013-11-01

    Four replications were conducted to compare quality measurements, cook loss, shear force, and sensory quality attributes of cooked boneless skinless white meat, broiler breast fillets (pectoralis major) prepared directly from a frozen state or prepared from a thawed state. In each replication, fresh broiler fillets (removed from carcasses 6-8 h postmortem) were procured from a local commercial processing plant and stored in a -20°C freezer until use. On the sensory evaluation date, fillets were cooked to an endpoint temperature of 78°C either directly from the frozen state (thawing during cooking) or after the frozen samples were thawed in a refrigerator (2°C) overnight (thawing before cooking). Cook loss and Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force were used as indicators for instrumental quality measurements. Sensory quality measurements were conducted by trained descriptive panelists using 0 to 15 universal intensity scales for 8 texture and 10 flavor attributes. Results show that there were no differences (P > 0.05) in measurements for sensory descriptive flavor attributes of cooked fillets between the 2 sample thawing methods, indicating that the sensory flavor profiles of both methods were similar to each other. However, WB shear force (36.98 N), cook loss (21.2%), sensory texture attributes of cohesiveness (intensity score was 5.59), hardness (5.14), rate of breakdown (5.50), and chewiness (5.21) of the breast fillets cooked directly from the frozen state were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the breast meat cooked after being thawed (30.56 N, 19.0%, 5.19, 4.78, 5.29, and 5.02, respectively). These results indicate that cookery directly from frozen boneless skinless white meat can result in different measurement values of cook loss, shear force, and sensory descriptive texture attributes compared with cookery after frozen fillets are thawed.

  6. Continuous functions for the analysis of sensory transduction.

    PubMed

    Awiszus, F

    1989-01-01

    Sensory transduction at a primary receptor neuron yields a current that drives the generation of action potentials. Due to the inaccessibility of that current for direct measurements the analysis of sensory transduction requires the use of neuronal output functions that give an indirect measure for the "input" current, i.e. the current at the impulse initiating site. Three continuous neuronal output functions are investigated with respect to their ability to reconstruct the input current (i) the membrane potential recorded under sodium channel block referred to as "receptor potential", (ii) the interspike-interval function (Awiszus 1988a) and (iii) the phase lag function which is introduced in this paper. The behaviour of these three functions for constant and dynamically varying input is studied at the Hodgkin-Huxley model (Hodgkin and Huxley 1952) because for this model neuron it is possible to compare the input current estimates obtained from the output functions with the true input current. It was found that for constant and for sufficiently slow varying input all three functions allow a valid reconstruction of the input current time course. On the other hand, if the input current changes rapidly all three estimated input current time courses show considerable deviations from the true time course. The largest maximal deviation is shown by the current estimate obtained from the receptor potential whereas the phase lag function yields the smallest input current misjudgement. An experimental example to illustrate the procedure to obtain the phase lag function for a muscle spindle primary afferent is given.

  7. Comparative analysis of aroma compounds and sensorial features of strawberry and lemon guavas (Psidium cattleianum Sabine).

    PubMed

    Egea, Mariana Buranelo; Pereira-Netto, Adaucto Bellarmino; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Lopez, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    The aroma of strawberry and lemon guava fruits (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) was studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and quantitative analysis. Volatiles released from the pulps were collected in a trapping system consisting of LiChrolut EN resins and eluted with dichloromethane/methanol. In total, 23 odour zones were detected by GC-O, of which 16 were found in the extract from the strawberry guava pulp and 17 in the extract from the lemon guava pulp. Among the compounds identified, only 10 were common to both strawberry and lemon guavas. The descriptive sensorial analysis differentiated between the aroma profiles of the strawberry guava pulp with the descriptor "tomato" and the lemon guava pulp with the descriptor "tropical fruit". The typical aroma of the guava fruits was dominated by the presence of numerous aldehydes and ketones among which (Z)-3-hexenal was the most intense odorant, while 1,8-cineole and linalool were also revealed as important aroma constituents.

  8. Analysis of the sensory profile in children with Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hildenbrand, Hanna L; Smith, Ann C M

    2012-02-01

    This study systematically assessed sensory processing in 34 children, aged 3-14 years, with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) using the Sensory Profile Caregiver Questionnaire. Scores for the SMS cohort were significantly different from scores of the national sample of children with and without disabilities in all Sensory Profile categories and quadrants (p < .001). No main effects of age or gender were found, but an interaction effect of age by gender was found in Modulation of Sensory Input Affecting Emotional Responses, in which older females presented with the lowest scores. A significant decline over time was found in the Seeking pattern, reflecting increased vulnerability (p < .05). Nonsignificant trends suggest more vulnerabilities for older versus younger children, especially older females. The neurobehavioral phenotype in children with SMS is expanded by this description of sensory processing. How children with SMS experience and respond to everyday sensations informs multidisciplinary team decisions.

  9. Fatty acid composition and its association with chemical and sensory analysis of boar taint.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoye; Trautmann, Johanna; Wigger, Ruth; Zhou, Guanghong; Mörlein, Daniel

    2017-09-15

    A certain level of disagreement between the chemical analysis of androstenone and skatole and the human perception of boar taint has been found in many studies. Here we analyze whether the fatty acid composition can explain such inconsistency between sensory evaluation and chemical analysis of boar taint compounds. Therefore, back fat samples (n=143) were selected according to their sensory evaluation by a 10-person sensory panel, and the chemical analysis (stable isotope dilution analysis with headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) of androstenone and skatole. Subsequently a quantification of fatty acids using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection was conducted. The correlation analyses revealed that several fatty acids are significantly correlated with androstenone, skatole, and the sensory rating. However, multivariate analyses (principal component analysis) revealed no explanation of the fatty acid composition with respect to the (dis-)agreement between sensory and chemical analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Sensory Extinction Treatments for Self-Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiselli, James K.

    1988-01-01

    In this case study, a six-year-old, multihandicapped child was treated for self-injurious arm-biting using two response contingent deceleration procedures and two forms of sensory extinction. Only the sensory extinction procedure with protective cuffs reduced arm-biting to manageable levels. (Author/DB)

  11. Research reactor job analysis - A project description

    SciTech Connect

    Yoder, John

    1988-07-01

    Addressing the need of the improved training in nuclear industry, nuclear utilities established training program guidelines based on Performance-Based Training (PBT) concepts. The comparison of commercial nuclear power facilities with research and test reactors owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), made in an independent review of personnel selection, training, and qualification requirements for DOE-owned reactors pointed out that the complexity of the most critical tasks in research reactors is less than that in power reactors. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) started a project by commissioning Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) to conduct a job analysis survey of representative research reactor facilities. The output of the project consists of two publications: Volume 1 - Research Reactor Job Analysis: Overview, which contains an Introduction, Project Description, Project Methodology,, and. An Overview of Performance-Based Training (PBT); and Volume 2 - Research Reactor Job Analysis: Implementation, which contains Guidelines for Application of Preliminary Task Lists and Preliminary Task Lists for Reactor Operators and Supervisory Reactor Operators.

  12. Analysis of HSV Viral Reactivation in Explants of Sensory Neurons.

    PubMed

    Arbuckle, Jesse H; Turner, Anne-Marie W; Kristie, Thomas M

    2014-11-03

    As with all Herpesviruses, Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has both a lytic replication phase and a latency-reactivation cycle. During lytic replication, there is an ordered cascade of viral gene expression that leads to the synthesis of infectious viral progeny. In contrast, latency is characterized by the lack of significant lytic gene expression and the absence of infectious virus. Reactivation from latency is characterized by the re-entry of the virus into the lytic replication cycle and the production of recurrent disease. This unit describes the establishment of the mouse sensory neuron model of HSV-1 latency-reactivation as a useful in vivo system for the analysis of mechanisms involved in latency and reactivation. Assays including the determination of viral yields, immunohistochemical/immunofluorescent detection of viral antigens, and mRNA quantitation are used in experiments designed to investigate the network of cellular and viral proteins regulating HSV-1 lytic infection, latency, and reactivation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Flavour Profiling of 'Marion' and Thornless Blackberries by Instrumental and Sensory Analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The flavour of thornless blackberries grown in Pacific Northwest including 'Thornless Evergreen', 'Black Diamond', 'Black Pearl', 'Nightfall', ORUS 1843-3, 'Waldo', NZ 9351-4, and 'Chester Thornless' as well as 'Marion' was profiled by sensory evaluation and instrumental analysis. Sensory results sh...

  14. Sensory properties and instrumental texture analysis of chevon patties from intact male Boer and Kiko goats harvested at four endpoints.

    PubMed

    Leick, C M; Behrends, J M; Solaiman, S G; Broadway, P R; Min, B R; Mikel, W B; Williams, J B; Schilling, M W

    2012-07-01

    Intact male Boer and Kiko goats (n=48) were harvested after 0, 4, 8, or 12 weeks on a 16% crude protein concentrate diet. Boneless goat carcass left sides were ground and formed into patties to evaluate cook loss, texture profile analysis, and descriptive sensory characteristics. Increasing feeding duration increased percent fat and decreased moisture in raw ground meat (P<0.05). Boer ground meat had more fat and less moisture than Kiko meat (P<0.05). Breed and feeding duration did not affect cook loss (P>0.05). Increased feeding duration increased aroma intensity and goaty, bloody, musty, and liver/organy aromas; salty, bitter, umami, grassy, goaty, fat, liver/organy, metallic, earthy, and chemical flavors; and juiciness and oiliness, while decreasing chewiness and crumbliness (P<0.05). Boer and Kiko patties had similar sensory properties after 0 and 4weeks on feed, but breeds were more distinguishable after 8 or 12 weeks on feed.

  15. Consumer perceptions of meat. Understanding these results through descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Mun˜oz, A M

    1998-01-01

    Consumer perceptions of meals are investigated through qualitative and quantitative consumer studies. Qualitative studies add value and meaningful information to quantitative studies of meat. Among the important issues to consider in designing a quantitative consumer test for meats is the selection of terms to be used in a questionnaire. Additional terms besides tenderness, juiciness and flavor liking should be used to fully investigate consumer perceptions of meats. The limitations of consumer language is discussed. These limitations may be overcome through consumer-descriptive studies. These studies combine descriptive/sensory laboratory data with consumer information to decode consumer responses. The applications of this approach are: to achieve a more thorough interpretation and understanding of consumer responses, to provide more specific product guidance, to enable the prediction of consumer responses based on internal data (e.g. descriptive, instrumental), and to study different consumer segments.

  16. Application of multivariate analysis to the effects of additives on chemical and sensory quality of stored coffee brew.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martínez, Mónica; Sopelana, Patricia; de Peña, M Paz; Cid, Concepción

    2008-12-24

    The aim of this work was to obtain a black coffee brew to be consumed hot by extension of its shelf life, by addition of additives. Four pH-regulator agents (sodium and potassium carbonates and bicarbonates), one pH regulator and antioxidant (sodium citrate), three antioxidants [sodium ascorbate, ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA), and sodium sulfite], and lactoserum were tested by sensory analysis. Sodium carbonate and bicarbonate were selected for a study of the physicochemical (soluble and volatile compounds related to the sensory properties) and sensorial quality of coffee brew stored for 90 days at 4 degrees C. Although both additives extended the shelf life of the coffee brew up to 60 days, sodium carbonate was the chosen additive because it was the most useful in limiting the pH decrease and perception of sourness, which are some of the main factors involved in the rejection of stored coffee brews, and it better maintained the aroma and taste/flavor. Moreover, the application of multivariate analysis facilitated first the description of the global changes of the coffee brews with or without additives throughout the storage using principal component analysis and second the obtainment of a simple equation only with pH and caffeic acid parameters to discriminate the three types of coffee brews and simplify the analytical process, by means of the stepwise discriminant analysis.

  17. Where are the sensory organs of Nybelinia surmenicola (Trypanorhyncha)? A comparative analysis with Parachristianella sp. and other trypanorhynchean cestodes.

    PubMed

    Biserova, Natalia M; Gordeev, Ilya I; Korneva, Janetta V

    2016-01-01

    The sensory organs in tegument of two trypanorhynchean species--Nybelinia surmenicola (plerocercoid) and adult Parachristianella sp. (Cestoda, Trypanorhyncha)--were studied with the aim of ultrastructural description and a comparative analysis. The Nybelinia surmenicola plerocercoid lacks papillae with sensory cilia on the bothria adhesive surface. We found an unciliated sensory organ within the median bothria fold. This unciliated free nerve ending contains the central electron-dense disc, three dense supporting rings, and broad root. The nerve ending locates in the basal matrix under the tegument. The tegument of N. surmenicola has a number of ultrastructural features which make it significantly different from other Trypanorhyncha: (i) the tegumental cytoplasm has a plicated constitution in a form of high apical and deep basal folds, (ii) numerous layers of the basal matrix are presented in the subtegument, and (iii) the squamiform and bristlelike microtriches N. surmenicola lack the base and the basal plate. In contrast, numerous ciliated and unciliated receptors were found in Parachristianella sp.: six types on the bothria and one type in the strobila tegument. Ultrastructural constitution of sensory organs in the form of ciliated free nerve endings as well as unciliated basal nerve endings of Parachristianella sp. has many common features inside Eucestoda. In comparison with other Trypanorhyncha, all Nybelinia species studied have less quantity of the bothrial sensory organs. This fact may reflect behavioral patterns of Nybelinia as well as phylogenetic position into Trypanorhyncha. Our observations of living animals conventionally demonstrate the ability of N. surmenicola plerocercoids to locomote in forward direction on the Petri dish surface. The participation of the bothrial microtriches in a parasite movement has been discussed.

  18. Idaho's Forest Products Industry: A Descriptive Analysis

    Treesearch

    Todd A. Morgan; Charles E. Keegan; Timothy P. Spoelma; Thale Dillon; A. Lorin Hearst; Francis G. Wagner; Larry T. DeBlander

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Idaho's primary forest products industry; traces the flow of Idaho's 2001 timber harvest through the primary sectors; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. The economic contribution of the forest products industry to the State and historical industry changes are discussed...

  19. California's forest products industry: a descriptive analysis.

    Treesearch

    Todd A. Morgan; Charles E. Keegan; Thale Dillon; Alfred L. Chase; Jeremy S. Fried; Marc N. Weber

    2004-01-01

    This report traces the flow of California’s 2000 timber harvest through the wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, operations, and condition of California’s primary forest products industry; and briefly summarizes timber inventory and growth. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as trends in harvest, production, and...

  20. Effects of acupuncture on sensory perception: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Baeumler, Petra I; Fleckenstein, Johannes; Takayama, Shin; Simang, Michael; Seki, Takashi; Irnich, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    The effect of acupuncture on sensory perception has never been systematically reviewed; although, studies on acupuncture mechanisms are frequently based on the idea that changes in sensory thresholds reflect its effect on the nervous system. Pubmed, EMBASE and Scopus were screened for studies investigating the effect of acupuncture on thermal or mechanical detection or pain thresholds in humans published in English or German. A meta-analysis of high quality studies was performed. Out of 3007 identified articles 85 were included. Sixty five studies showed that acupuncture affects at least one sensory threshold. Most studies assessed the pressure pain threshold of which 80% reported an increase after acupuncture. Significant short- and long-term effects on the pressure pain threshold in pain patients were revealed by two meta-analyses including four and two high quality studies, respectively. In over 60% of studies, acupuncture reduced sensitivity to noxious thermal stimuli, but measuring methods might influence results. Few but consistent data indicate that acupuncture reduces pin-prick like pain but not mechanical detection. Results on thermal detection are heterogeneous. Sensory threshold changes were equally frequent reported after manual acupuncture as after electroacupuncture. Among 48 sham-controlled studies, 25 showed stronger effects on sensory thresholds through verum than through sham acupuncture, but in 9 studies significant threshold changes were also observed after sham acupuncture. Overall, there is a lack of high quality acupuncture studies applying comprehensive assessments of sensory perception. Our findings indicate that acupuncture affects sensory perception. Results are most compelling for the pressure pain threshold, especially in pain conditions associated with tenderness. Sham acupuncture can also cause such effects. Future studies should incorporate comprehensive, standardized assessments of sensory profiles in order to fully characterize its

  1. Effects of Acupuncture on Sensory Perception: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baeumler, Petra I.; Fleckenstein, Johannes; Takayama, Shin; Simang, Michael; Seki, Takashi; Irnich, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of acupuncture on sensory perception has never been systematically reviewed; although, studies on acupuncture mechanisms are frequently based on the idea that changes in sensory thresholds reflect its effect on the nervous system. Methods Pubmed, EMBASE and Scopus were screened for studies investigating the effect of acupuncture on thermal or mechanical detection or pain thresholds in humans published in English or German. A meta-analysis of high quality studies was performed. Results Out of 3007 identified articles 85 were included. Sixty five studies showed that acupuncture affects at least one sensory threshold. Most studies assessed the pressure pain threshold of which 80% reported an increase after acupuncture. Significant short- and long-term effects on the pressure pain threshold in pain patients were revealed by two meta-analyses including four and two high quality studies, respectively. In over 60% of studies, acupuncture reduced sensitivity to noxious thermal stimuli, but measuring methods might influence results. Few but consistent data indicate that acupuncture reduces pin-prick like pain but not mechanical detection. Results on thermal detection are heterogeneous. Sensory threshold changes were equally frequent reported after manual acupuncture as after electroacupuncture. Among 48 sham-controlled studies, 25 showed stronger effects on sensory thresholds through verum than through sham acupuncture, but in 9 studies significant threshold changes were also observed after sham acupuncture. Overall, there is a lack of high quality acupuncture studies applying comprehensive assessments of sensory perception. Conclusions Our findings indicate that acupuncture affects sensory perception. Results are most compelling for the pressure pain threshold, especially in pain conditions associated with tenderness. Sham acupuncture can also cause such effects. Future studies should incorporate comprehensive, standardized assessments of sensory

  2. Involvement of Sensory Regions in Affective Experience: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Satpute, Ajay B.; Kang, Jian; Bickart, Kevin C.; Yardley, Helena; Wager, Tor D.; Barrett, Lisa F.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of work suggests that sensory processes may also contribute to affective experience. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis of affective experiences driven through visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, and somatosensory stimulus modalities including study contrasts that compared affective stimuli to matched neutral control stimuli. We found, first, that limbic and paralimbic regions, including the amygdala, anterior insula, pre-supplementary motor area, and portions of orbitofrontal cortex were consistently engaged across two or more modalities. Second, early sensory input regions in occipital, temporal, piriform, mid-insular, and primary sensory cortex were frequently engaged during affective experiences driven by visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, and somatosensory inputs. A classification analysis demonstrated that the pattern of neural activity across a contrast map diagnosed the stimulus modality driving the affective experience. These findings suggest that affective experiences are constructed from activity that is distributed across limbic and paralimbic brain regions and also activity in sensory cortical regions. PMID:26696928

  3. Effects of Sensory and Procedural Information on Coping with Stressful Medical Procedures and Pain: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suls, Jerry; Wan, Choi K.

    1989-01-01

    A meta-analysis of studies on preparation for medical procedures and pain examined the relative effects of sensory, procedural, and combined sensory-procedural preoperational information on coping outcomes. Results indicated that, in contrast to sensory information, procedural information provided no significant benefits over control group…

  4. Multivariate analysis of volatile compounds detected by headspace solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography: A tool for sensory classification of cork stoppers.

    PubMed

    Prat, Chantal; Besalú, Emili; Bañeras, Lluís; Anticó, Enriqueta

    2011-06-15

    The volatile fraction of aqueous cork macerates of tainted and non-tainted agglomerate cork stoppers was analysed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)/gas chromatography. Twenty compounds containing terpenoids, aliphatic alcohols, lignin-related compounds and others were selected and analysed in individual corks. Cork stoppers were previously classified in six different classes according to sensory descriptions including, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole taint and other frequent, non-characteristic odours found in cork. A multivariate analysis of the chromatographic data of 20 selected chemical compounds using linear discriminant analysis models helped in the differentiation of the a priori made groups. The discriminant model selected five compounds as the best combination. Selected compounds appear in the model in the following order; 2,4,6 TCA, fenchyl alcohol, 1-octen-3-ol, benzyl alcohol and benzothiazole. Unfortunately, not all six a priori differentiated sensory classes were clearly discriminated in the model, probably indicating that no measurable differences exist in the chromatographic data for some categories. The predictive analyses of a refined model in which two sensory classes were fused together resulted in a good classification. Prediction rates of control (non-tainted), TCA, musty-earthy-vegetative, vegetative and chemical descriptions were 100%, 100%, 85%, 67.3% and 100%, respectively, when the modified model was used. The multivariate analysis of chromatographic data will help in the classification of stoppers and provide a perfect complement to sensory analyses.

  5. Exploiting spatial descriptions in visual scene analysis.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Leon; Johannsen, Katrin; Swadzba, Agnes; De Ruiter, Jan P; Wachsmuth, Sven

    2012-08-01

    The reliable automatic visual recognition of indoor scenes with complex object constellations using only sensor data is a nontrivial problem. In order to improve the construction of an accurate semantic 3D model of an indoor scene, we exploit human-produced verbal descriptions of the relative location of pairs of objects. This requires the ability to deal with different spatial reference frames (RF) that humans use interchangeably. In German, both the intrinsic and relative RF are used frequently, which often leads to ambiguities in referential communication. We assume that there are certain regularities that help in specific contexts. In a first experiment, we investigated how speakers of German describe spatial relationships between different pieces of furniture. This gave us important information about the distribution of the RFs used for furniture-predicate combinations, and by implication also about the preferred spatial predicate. The results of this experiment are compiled into a computational model that extracts partial orderings of spatial arrangements between furniture items from verbal descriptions. In the implemented system, the visual scene is initially scanned by a 3D camera system. From the 3D point cloud, we extract point clusters that suggest the presence of certain furniture objects. We then integrate the partial orderings extracted from the verbal utterances incrementally and cumulatively with the estimated probabilities about the identity and location of objects in the scene, and also estimate the probable orientation of the objects. This allows the system to significantly improve both the accuracy and richness of its visual scene representation.

  6. Thorough Behavioral Analysis and Description: Its Relationship to Social Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whol, Theodore H.

    1974-01-01

    A case is made for the utility and necessity of thorough behavioral analysis and description of developmentally disabled children using Wolfenberger's "Five Embarrassments in the Diagnostic Process" as a point of departure. (DB)

  7. The Sensory Difference Threshold of Menthol Odor in Flavored Tobacco Determined by Combining Sensory and Chemical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Krüsemann, Erna J Z; Cremers, Johannes W J M; Visser, Wouter F; Punter, Pieter H; Talhout, Reinskje

    2017-03-01

    Cigarettes are an often-used consumer product, and flavor is an important determinant of their product appeal. Cigarettes with strong nontobacco flavors are popular among young people, and may facilitate smoking initiation. Discriminating flavors in tobacco is important for regulation purposes, for instance to set upper limits to the levels of important flavor additives. We provide a simple and fast method to determine the human odor difference threshold for flavor additives in a tobacco matrix, using a combination of chemical and sensory analysis. For an example, the human difference threshold for menthol odor, one of the most frequently used tobacco flavors, was determined. A consumer panel consisting of 20 women compared different concentrations of menthol-flavored tobacco to unflavored cigarette tobacco using the 2-alternative forced choice method. Components contributing to menthol odor were quantified using headspace GC-MS. The sensory difference threshold of menthol odor corresponded to a mixture of 43 (37-50)% menthol-flavored tobacco, containing 1.8 (1.6-2.1) mg menthol, 2.7 (2.3-3.1) µg menthone, and 1.0 (0.9-1.2) µg neomenthyl acetate per gram of tobacco. Such a method is important in the context of the European Tobacco Product Directive, and the US Food and Drug Administration Tobacco Control Act, that both prohibit cigarettes and roll-your-own tobacco with a characterizing flavor other than tobacco. Our method can also be adapted for matrices other than tobacco, such as food. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Comparative proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins between peripheral sensory and motor nerves.

    PubMed

    He, Qianru; Man, Lili; Ji, Yuhua; Zhang, Shuqiang; Jiang, Maorong; Ding, Fei; Gu, Xiaosong

    2012-06-01

    Peripheral sensory and motor nerves have different functions and different approaches to regeneration, especially their distinct ability to accurately reinervate terminal nerve pathways. To understand the molecular aspects underlying these differences, the proteomics technique by coupling isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) with online two-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (2D LC-MS/MS) was used to investigate the protein profile of sensory and motor nerve samples from rats. A total of 1472 proteins were identified in either sensory or motor nerve. Of them, 100 proteins showed differential expressions between both nerves, and some of them were validated by quantitative real time RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. In the light of functional categorization, the differentially expressed proteins in sensory and motor nerves, belonging to a broad range of classes, were related to a diverse array of biological functions, which included cell adhesion, cytoskeleton, neuronal plasticity, neurotrophic activity, calcium-binding, signal transduction, transport, enzyme catalysis, lipid metabolism, DNA-binding, synaptosome function, actin-binding, ATP-binding, extracellular matrix, and commitment to other lineages. The relatively higher expressed proteins in either sensory or motor nerve were tentatively discussed in combination with their specific molecular characteristics. It is anticipated that the database generated in this study will provide a solid foundation for further comprehensive investigation of functional differences between sensory and motor nerves, including the specificity of their regeneration.

  9. Descriptive Cost Analysis of Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slobojan, Alan

    1987-01-01

    Presents a study of cost analysis of the Frederick County Public Schools (Maryland) special education programs and services. The Larson IPSEC Model was used as the basis for the cost analysis. The modified Larson model provides a valuable tool to determine the per pupil cost of special education. (Author/MD)

  10. Descriptive Cost Analysis of Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slobojan, Alan

    1987-01-01

    Presents a study of cost analysis of the Frederick County Public Schools (Maryland) special education programs and services. The Larson IPSEC Model was used as the basis for the cost analysis. The modified Larson model provides a valuable tool to determine the per pupil cost of special education. (Author/MD)

  11. Screening Analysis : Volume 1, Description and Conclusions.

    SciTech Connect

    Bonneville Power Administration; Corps of Engineers; Bureau of Reclamation

    1992-08-01

    The SOR consists of three analytical phases leading to a Draft EIS. The first phase Pilot Analysis, was performed for the purpose of testing the decision analysis methodology being used in the SOR. The Pilot Analysis is described later in this chapter. The second phase, Screening Analysis, examines all possible operating alternatives using a simplified analytical approach. It is described in detail in this and the next chapter. This document also presents the results of screening. The final phase, Full-Scale Analysis, will be documented in the Draft EIS and is intended to evaluate comprehensively the few, best alternatives arising from the screening analysis. The purpose of screening is to analyze a wide variety of differing ways of operating the Columbia River system to test the reaction of the system to change. The many alternatives considered reflect the range of needs and requirements of the various river users and interests in the Columbia River Basin. While some of the alternatives might be viewed as extreme, the information gained from the analysis is useful in highlighting issues and conflicts in meeting operating objectives. Screening is also intended to develop a broad technical basis for evaluation including regional experts and to begin developing an evaluation capability for each river use that will support full-scale analysis. Finally, screening provides a logical method for examining all possible options and reaching a decision on a few alternatives worthy of full-scale analysis. An organizational structure was developed and staffed to manage and execute the SOR, specifically during the screening phase and the upcoming full-scale analysis phase. The organization involves ten technical work groups, each representing a particular river use. Several other groups exist to oversee or support the efforts of the work groups.

  12. Comparing conventional Descriptive Analysis and Napping®-UFP against physiochemical measurements: a case study using apples.

    PubMed

    Pickup, William; Bremer, Phil; Peng, Mei

    2017-08-08

    The extensive time and cost associated with conventional sensory profiling methods has spurred sensory researchers to develop rapid method alternatives, such as Napping® with Ultra-Flash Profiling (UFP). Napping®-UFP generates sensory maps by requiring untrained panellists to separate samples based on perceived sensory similarities. Evaluations of this method have been restrained to manufactured/formulated food models, and predominantly structured on comparisons against the conventional descriptive method. The present study aims to extend the validation of Napping®-UFP (N = 72) to natural biological products; and to evaluate this method against Descriptive Analysis (DA; N = 8) with physiochemical measurements as an additional evaluative criterion. The results revealed that sample configurations generated by DA and Napping®-UFP were not significantly correlated (RV = 0.425, P = 0.077); however, they were both correlated with the product map generated based on the instrumental measures (P < 0.05). The finding also noted that sample characterisations from DA and Napping®-UFP were driven by different sensory attributes, indicating potential structural differences between these two methods in configuring samples. Overall, these findings lent support for the extended use of Napping®-UFP for evaluations of natural biological products. Although DA was shown to be a better method for establishing sensory-instrumental relationships, Napping®-UFP exhibited strengths in generating informative sample configurations based on holistic perception of products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Health leaders of tomorrow: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Levey, L M; Lane, M S; Baretich, M; Levey, S

    1989-01-01

    The dramatically changing environment of the health care executive prompted the current survey of graduate students in health administration. The survey examined the types of attitudes and values that may influence students' future leadership style and ethical decision making. A self-administered questionnaire was designed to provide descriptive information as well as to allow comparisons with recent surveys of practitioners and peers and with other research. Respondents to the survey, conducted in the fall of 1986, included nearly half of the full-time students in 56 participating AUPHA graduate programs and one-quarter of the part-time students (N = 1,764). Students' characteristics such as age, sex, religious preference, work experience, and career aspirations were assessed in relation to their social philosophy on health issues, instrumental and terminal values, attitudes toward achievement, and degree of idealism versus relativism in moral reasoning. The typical student was a twenty-seven-year-old white female with a stated religious preference who expected in ten years to be associated with a multi-institutional system or consulting firm. Her social philosophy showed concern for the rising cost of health care on the consumer and an emphasis on self-help. Self-respect and honesty are her highest values; her ethical ideology had components of high idealism and relativism, which is indicative of a situational decision-making style. Work orientation and mastery were both above average sources of achievement motivation for her, whereas competitiveness was about average. When group differences in attitudes and values were evaluated, however, sex was the highest predictor, followed by age, expectation of becoming a CEO, and self-assessed potential for success. Although there was substantial agreement between students' and practitioners' attitudes and values, some differences were found. Implications for future research are discussed, as well as issues relating to

  14. Novel and successful free comments method for sensory characterization of chocolate ice cream: A comparative study between pivot profile and comment analysis.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Fernando G A; Esmerino, Erick A; Filho, Elson R Tavares; Ferraz, Juliana P; da Cruz, Adriano G; Bolini, Helena M A

    2016-05-01

    Rapid sensory profiling methods have gained space in the sensory evaluation field. Techniques using direct analysis of the terms generated by consumers are considered easy to perform, without specific training requirements, thus improving knowledge about consumer perceptions on various products. This study aimed to determine the sensory profile of different commercial samples of chocolate ice cream, labeled as conventional and light or diet, using the "comment analysis" and "pivot profile" methods, based on consumers' perceptions. In the comment analysis task, consumers responded to 2 separate open questions describing the sensory attributes they liked or disliked in each sample. In the pivot profile method, samples were served in pairs (consisting of a coded sample and pivot), and consumers indicated the higher and lower intensity attributes in the target sample compared with the pivot. We observed that both methods were able to characterize the different chocolate ice cream samples using consumer perception, with high correlation results and configurational similarity (regression vector coefficient=0.917) between them. However, it is worth emphasizing that comment analysis is performed intuitively by consumers, whereas the pivot profile method showed high analytical and discriminative power even using consumers, proving to be a promising technique for routine application when classical descriptive methods cannot be used. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Sensory analysis. Study of influence of assessors training duration on the panel efficiency].

    PubMed

    Smirnova, E A; Sarkisyan, V A; Glazkova, I V; Elizarova, E V; Kerimova, M G

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the assessors group at different stages of training and estimate the influence of the duration of their training on the quality of the data obtained. The optimal training duration to work with descriptive methods, which is necessary and sufficient for reproducible evaluation of sensory properties has been determined. The training was conducted at three stages during 108 hours. It has been demonstrated that statistically significant differences among products can be already determined by assessors after 8 hours of training. By increasing the training duration the effectiveness of assessors was improved. Completion of training course led to a significant reduction in the mean square error for some sensory characteristics of the products and the variability of the scores.

  16. Quantification of sensory and food quality: the R-index analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Seong; van Hout, Danielle

    2009-08-01

    The accurate quantification of sensory difference/similarity between foods, as well as consumer acceptance/preference and concepts, is greatly needed to optimize and maintain food quality. The R-Index is one class of measures of the degree of difference/similarity, and was originally developed for sensory difference tests for food quality control, product development, and so on. The index is based on signal detection theory and is free of the response bias that can invalidate difference testing protocols, including categorization and same-different and A-Not A tests. It is also a nonparametric analysis, making no assumptions about sensory distributions, and is simple to compute and understand. The R-Index is also flexible in its application. Methods based on R-Index analysis have been used as detection and sensory difference tests, as simple alternatives to hedonic scaling, and for the measurement of consumer concepts. This review indicates the various computational strategies for the R-Index and its practical applications to consumer and sensory measurements in food science.

  17. Qualitative data analysis for an exploratory sensory study of Grechetto wine.

    PubMed

    Esti, Marco; González Airola, Ricardo L; Moneta, Elisabetta; Paperaio, Marina; Sinesio, Fiorella

    2010-02-15

    Grechetto is a traditional white-grape vine, widespread in Umbria and Lazio regions in central Italy. Despite the wine commercial diffusion, little literature on its sensory characteristics is available. The present study is an exploratory research conducted with the aim of identifying the sensory markers of Grechetto wine and of evaluating the effect of clone, geographical area, vintage and producer on sensory attributes. A qualitative sensory study was conducted on 16 wines, differing for vintage, Typical Geographic Indication, and clone, collected from 7 wineries, using a trained panel in isolation who referred to a glossary of 133 white wine descriptors. Sixty-five attributes identified by a minimum of 50% of the respondents were submitted to a correspondence analysis to link wine samples to the sensory attributes. Seventeen terms identified as common to all samples are considered as characteristics of Grechetto wine, 10 of which olfactory: fruity, apple, acacia flower, pineapple, banana, floral, herbaceous, honey, apricot and peach. In order to interpret the relationship between design variables and sensory attributes data on 2005 and 2006 wines, the 28 most discriminating descriptors were projected in a principal component analysis. The first principal component was best described by olfactory terms and the second by gustative attributes. Good reproducibility of results was obtained for the two vintages. For one winery, vintage effect (2002-2006) was described in a new principal component analysis model applied on 39 most discriminating descriptors, which globally explained about 84% of the variance. In the young wines the notes of sulphur, yeast, dried fruit, butter, combined with herbaceous fresh and tropical fruity notes (melon, grapefruit) were dominant. During wine aging, sweeter notes, like honey, caramel, jam, become more dominant as well as some mineral notes, such as tuff and flint.

  18. Sensory analysis of rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, fed enriched black soldier fly prepupae, hermetia illucens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A growth trial and fillet sensory analysis were conducted to examine the effects of replacing dietary fish meal with black soldier fly (BSF) prepupae, Hermetia illucens, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. A practical-type trout diet was formulated to contain 45% protein; four test diets were dev...

  19. The sensory experiences of adults with autism spectrum disorder: A qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Ashley E; David R Simmons, R

    2015-01-01

    It has been well established that individuals with autism spectrum disorder report unusual experiences with sensory stimuli compared with typically developing individuals. However, there is a paucity of research exploring the nature of such experiences. A focus group was conducted with six adults with a diagnosis of autism or Asperger syndrome. Data were coded and analysed using an inductive, qualitative thematic analysis. Four main themes encompassing both positive and negative sensory experiences emerged from these data: (a) the importance of particular aspects of stimuli in their perception, (b) the importance of having control over stimuli, (c) how emotions/mental states could impact/be impacted by sensory stimuli, and (d) physical responses to stimuli. These data are discussed alongside extant literature. Limitations, possible implications, and potential directions of future research are also discussed.

  20. Information theoretic analysis of dynamical encoding in the cricket cercal sensory system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John

    1996-03-01

    The stimulus/response properties of mechanosensory receptor neurons and primary sensory interneurons in the cricket cercal system were studied using electrophysiological techniques. We characterized the quantity and quality of information encoded in the cells elicited responses about the dynamics of stimulus waveforms. This characterization was achieved through the application of stochastic systems analysis and information theory. The information transfer rates ranged from about 100 to 250 bits per second for the sensory receptors and between 10 to 60 bits per second for the primary sensory interneurons. Scaled to the mean spike rates of the cells, these rates correspond to between 1 and 3 bits per spike for both the receptors and the interneurons. These results will be discussed within the general context of the neural encoding problem.

  1. A simple method for purification of vestibular hair cells and non-sensory cells, and application for proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Herget, Meike; Scheibinger, Mirko; Guo, Zhaohua; Jan, Taha A; Adams, Christopher M; Cheng, Alan G; Heller, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Mechanosensitive hair cells and supporting cells comprise the sensory epithelia of the inner ear. The paucity of both cell types has hampered molecular and cell biological studies, which often require large quantities of purified cells. Here, we report a strategy allowing the enrichment of relatively pure populations of vestibular hair cells and non-sensory cells including supporting cells. We utilized specific uptake of fluorescent styryl dyes for labeling of hair cells. Enzymatic isolation and flow cytometry was used to generate pure populations of sensory hair cells and non-sensory cells. We applied mass spectrometry to perform a qualitative high-resolution analysis of the proteomic makeup of both the hair cell and non-sensory cell populations. Our conservative analysis identified more than 600 proteins with a false discovery rate of <3% at the protein level and <1% at the peptide level. Analysis of proteins exclusively detected in either population revealed 64 proteins that were specific to hair cells and 103 proteins that were only detectable in non-sensory cells. Statistical analyses extended these groups by 53 proteins that are strongly upregulated in hair cells versus non-sensory cells and vice versa by 68 proteins. Our results demonstrate that enzymatic dissociation of styryl dye-labeled sensory hair cells and non-sensory cells is a valid method to generate pure enough cell populations for flow cytometry and subsequent molecular analyses.

  2. A role of the claustrum in auditory scene analysis by reflecting sensory change

    PubMed Central

    Remedios, Ryan; Logothetis, Nikos K.; Kayser, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The biological function of the claustrum remains speculative, despite many years of research. On the basis of its widespread connections it is often hypothesized that the claustrum may have an integrative function mainly reflecting objects rather than the details of sensory stimuli. Given the absence of a clear demonstration of any sensory integration in claustral neurons, however, we propose an alternative, data-driven, hypothesis: namely that the claustrum detects the occurrence of novel or salient sensory events. The detection of new events is critical for behavior and survival, as suddenly appearing objects may require rapid and coordinated reactions. Sounds are of particular relevance in this regard, and our conclusions are based on the analysis of neurons in the auditory zone of the primate claustrum. Specifically, we studied the responses to natural sounds, their preference to various sound categories, and to changes in the auditory scene. In a test for sound-category preference claustral neurons responded to but displayed a clear lack of selectivity between monkey vocalizations, other animal vocalizations or environmental sounds (Esnd). Claustral neurons were however able to detect target sounds embedded in a noisy background and their responses scaled with target signal to noise ratio (SNR). The single trial responses of individual neurons suggest that these neurons detected and reflected the occurrence of a change in the auditory scene. Given its widespread connectivity with sensory, motor and limbic structures the claustrum could play the essential role of identifying the occurrence of important sensory changes and notifying other brain areas—hence contributing to sensory awareness. PMID:24772069

  3. A role of the claustrum in auditory scene analysis by reflecting sensory change.

    PubMed

    Remedios, Ryan; Logothetis, Nikos K; Kayser, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The biological function of the claustrum remains speculative, despite many years of research. On the basis of its widespread connections it is often hypothesized that the claustrum may have an integrative function mainly reflecting objects rather than the details of sensory stimuli. Given the absence of a clear demonstration of any sensory integration in claustral neurons, however, we propose an alternative, data-driven, hypothesis: namely that the claustrum detects the occurrence of novel or salient sensory events. The detection of new events is critical for behavior and survival, as suddenly appearing objects may require rapid and coordinated reactions. Sounds are of particular relevance in this regard, and our conclusions are based on the analysis of neurons in the auditory zone of the primate claustrum. Specifically, we studied the responses to natural sounds, their preference to various sound categories, and to changes in the auditory scene. In a test for sound-category preference claustral neurons responded to but displayed a clear lack of selectivity between monkey vocalizations, other animal vocalizations or environmental sounds (Esnd). Claustral neurons were however able to detect target sounds embedded in a noisy background and their responses scaled with target signal to noise ratio (SNR). The single trial responses of individual neurons suggest that these neurons detected and reflected the occurrence of a change in the auditory scene. Given its widespread connectivity with sensory, motor and limbic structures the claustrum could play the essential role of identifying the occurrence of important sensory changes and notifying other brain areas-hence contributing to sensory awareness.

  4. Visual unit analysis: a descriptive approach to landscape assessment

    Treesearch

    R. J. Tetlow; S. R. J. Sheppard

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of the visible attributes of landscapes is an important component of the planning process. When landscapes are at regional scale, economical and effective methodologies are critical. The Visual Unit concept appears to offer a logical and useful framework for description and evaluation. The concept subdivides landscape into coherent, spatially-defined units....

  5. A Descriptive Analysis of Instructional Coaches' Data Use in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass Rangel, Virginia; Bell, Elizabeth R.; Monroy, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    A key assumption of accountability policies is that educators will use data to improve their instruction. In practice, however, data use is quite hard, and more districts are looking to instructional coaches to support their teachers. The purpose of this descriptive analysis is to examine how instructional coaches in elementary and middle school…

  6. Consumer preference for mandarins: Implications of a sensory analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While consumption of mandarins has grown steadily in the United States, mandarin cultivars being produced and consumed have been changing. The goal of this research is to identify factors that impact consumer choice of mandarins. In this analysis, consumers were presented with multiple mandarins for...

  7. Quantification and description of fracture network by MRI image analysis.

    PubMed

    Balzarini, M; Nicula, S; Mattiello, D; Aliverti, E

    2001-01-01

    The contribution of fractures to total porosity and their geometrical descriptions have been studied by Image Analysis applied to 1H Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Reservoirs of different lithology were acquired with MSME 2D quantitative and 3D sequences. An image analysis procedure, developed ad hoc, was then applied to these acquisitions and the petrophysical parameters computed. These parameters range from fracture porosity to fracture density.

  8. Aromatic profile of ciders by chemical quantitative, gas chromatography-olfactometry, and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Antón, María José; Suárez Valles, Belén; García Hevia, Ana; Picinelli Lobo, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Nine samples of Asturias cider have been analyzed for volatile, olfactometric, and sensorial profiles. The aromatic composition was mainly constituted by fusel alcohols and ethyl esters. Among the minor volatile compounds, fatty acids, volatile phenols, and alcohols were the main components. The olfactometric analysis revealed the existence of 55 aromatic areas, exhibiting a wide range of intensities. Components like amyl alcohols, 2-phenylethanol, ethyl esters such as 2-methylbutyrate, hexanoate and octanoate, hexanoic and octanoic acids 2-phenylethyl acetate, 4-ethyl guaiacol, and 4-ethyl phenol could be considered as being part of the structure of cider aroma. The extract dilution analysis of one extract identified 2 volatile phenols (4-ethyl guaiacol and 4-ethyl phenol) among the most powerful odorants in cider. These components gave significant correlations with the sensory attributes sweet, spicy, and lees.

  9. Characterizing salt substitution in beef meat processing by vibrational spectroscopy and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Perisic, Nebojsa; Afseth, Nils Kristian; Ofstad, Ragni; Narum, Bjørg; Kohler, Achim

    2013-11-01

    In this investigation, the effect of NaCl, KCl and MgSO4 on bovine meat was studied, where the salts were used in standard marinades in 5.5% concentration. The effect of salts on secondary structure of the myofibrillar proteins, protein-water interactions, WHC, and sensory properties of the meat was followed by carrying out FTIR and NIR measurements, cooking loss and sensory analysis. The information obtained by spectroscopic analysis was integrated by using CPCA. This revealed that MgSO4 increased ratio of α-helices and CO and NH groups (followed by FTIR) that are involved in H-bonding with surrounding water molecules (followed by NIR). This was also supported by increased WHC. Conversely, KCl reduced WHC of meat and was correlated to non-hydrogenated CO and NH groups. Furthermore, the sensory analysis confirmed that MgSO4 was acceptable only when the share of this salt in the mixture was one third. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimation of Sensory Pork Loin Tenderness Using Warner-Bratzler Shear Force and Texture Profile Analysis Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Jee-Hwan; Choi, Mi-Hee; Rhee, Min-Suk; Kim, Byoung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which instrumental measurements explain the variation in pork loin tenderness as assessed by the sensory evaluation of trained panelists. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS) had a significant relationship with the sensory tenderness variables, such as softness, initial tenderness, chewiness, and rate of breakdown. In a regression analysis, WBS could account variations in these sensory variables, though only to a limited proportion of variation. On the other hand, three parameters from texture profile analysis (TPA)—hardness, gumminess, and chewiness—were significantly correlated with all sensory evaluation variables. In particular, from the result of stepwise regression analysis, TPA hardness alone explained over 15% of variation in all sensory evaluation variables, with the exception of perceptible residue. Based on these results, TPA analysis was found to be better than WBS measurement, with the TPA parameter hardness likely to prove particularly useful, in terms of predicting pork loin tenderness as rated by trained panelists. However, sensory evaluation should be conducted to investigate practical pork tenderness perceived by consumer, because both instrumental measurements could explain only a small portion (less than 20%) of the variability in sensory evaluation. PMID:26954174

  11. Estimation of Sensory Pork Loin Tenderness Using Warner-Bratzler Shear Force and Texture Profile Analysis Measurements.

    PubMed

    Choe, Jee-Hwan; Choi, Mi-Hee; Rhee, Min-Suk; Kim, Byoung-Chul

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the degree to which instrumental measurements explain the variation in pork loin tenderness as assessed by the sensory evaluation of trained panelists. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS) had a significant relationship with the sensory tenderness variables, such as softness, initial tenderness, chewiness, and rate of breakdown. In a regression analysis, WBS could account variations in these sensory variables, though only to a limited proportion of variation. On the other hand, three parameters from texture profile analysis (TPA)-hardness, gumminess, and chewiness-were significantly correlated with all sensory evaluation variables. In particular, from the result of stepwise regression analysis, TPA hardness alone explained over 15% of variation in all sensory evaluation variables, with the exception of perceptible residue. Based on these results, TPA analysis was found to be better than WBS measurement, with the TPA parameter hardness likely to prove particularly useful, in terms of predicting pork loin tenderness as rated by trained panelists. However, sensory evaluation should be conducted to investigate practical pork tenderness perceived by consumer, because both instrumental measurements could explain only a small portion (less than 20%) of the variability in sensory evaluation.

  12. In-depth proteomic analysis of mouse cochlear sensory epithelium by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Darville, Lancia N F; Sokolowski, Bernd H A

    2013-08-02

    Proteomic analysis of sensory organs such as the cochlea is challenging due to its small size and difficulties with membrane protein isolation. Mass spectrometry in conjunction with separation methods can provide a more comprehensive proteome, because of the ability to enrich protein samples, detect hydrophobic proteins, and identify low abundant proteins by reducing the proteome dynamic range. GELFrEE as well as different separation and digestion techniques were combined with FASP and nanoLC-MS/MS to obtain an in-depth proteome analysis of cochlear sensory epithelium from 30-day-old mice. Digestion with LysC/trypsin followed by SCX fractionation and multiple nanoLC-MS/MS analyses identified 3773 proteins with a 1% FDR. Of these, 694 protein IDs were in the plasmalemma. Protein IDs obtained by combining outcomes from GELFrEE/LysC/trypsin with GELFrEE/trypsin/trypsin generated 2779 proteins, of which 606 additional proteins were identified using the GELFrEE/LysC/trypsin approach. Combining results from the different techniques resulted in a total of 4620 IDs, including a number of previously unreported proteins. GO analyses showed high expression of binding and catalytic proteins as well as proteins associated with metabolism. The results show that the application of multiple techniques is needed to provide an exhaustive proteome of the cochlear sensory epithelium that includes many membrane proteins. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the data set identifier PXD000231.

  13. Sensorial analysis evaluation in cereal bars preserved by ionizing radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Araújo, M. M.; Fanaro, G. B.; Rela, P. R.; Mancini-Filho, J.

    2007-11-01

    Gamma-rays utilized as a food-processing treatment to eliminate insect contamination is well established in food industries. Recent troubles in Brazilian cereal bars commercialization require a special consumer's attention because some products were contaminated by insects. To solve the problem, food-irradiation treatment was utilized as a safe and effective solution. The final product was free of insect contamination. The aim of this study was to determine the best radiation dose processing utilized to disinfestations and detect some change on sensorial characteristic by sensorial analysis in cereal bars. In this study, three different kinds of cereal bars were purchased in São Paulo (Brazil) in supermarkets and irradiated with 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy at "Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares" (IPEN-CNEN/SP). The samples were treated with ionizing radiation using a 60Co gamma-ray facility (Gammacell 220, A.E.C.L.). That radiation doses were used successfully as an anti-insect treatment in the cereal bars, since in some food industries doses up to 3.0 kGy are used to guarantee at least a dose of 1.0 kGy in internal cereal bars package. Sensorial analysis was necessary since cereal bars contain ingredients very sensitive to ionizing radiation process.

  14. Sensory analysis and aroma compounds of buckwheat containing products-a review.

    PubMed

    Starowicz, Małgorzata; Koutsidis, Georgios; Zieliński, Henryk

    2017-07-07

    Buckwheat is a rich source of starch, proteins, minerals and antioxidants, and as such has become a popular functional ingredient incorporated in diverse recipes/products with particular use in the gluten free market. Due to the absence of gluten, application of buckwheat or buckwheat derived ingredients in this particular food sector has increased significantly over recent years with many buckwheat-based products appearing globally. Sensory analysis is an integral part of the development of products that fulfill consumer expectations. Therefore, investigations on the incorporation of health promoting functional ingredients such as buckwheat into traditional recipes are often complemented by the evaluation of appearance, aroma, taste and texture as well as overall quality through standardized procedures involving trained judges or consumer panels. Aroma is of particular importance in driving consumer preference and its sensory assessment is often complemented with analytical workflows aiming to isolate and determine the concentration of volatile compounds in food and understand the effect of food components on the overall aroma intensity and/or perception of the final product. The present manuscript provides a review of recent advances and knowledge on the sensory characteristics, consumer preference and volatile compound analysis of buckwheat and buckwheat based products.

  15. In-depth Proteomic Analysis of Mouse Cochlear Sensory Epithelium by Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Darville, Lancia N.F.; Sokolowski, Bernd H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of sensory organs such as the cochlea is challenging due to its small size and difficulties with membrane protein isolation. Mass spectrometry in conjunction with separation methods can provide a more comprehensive proteome, because of the ability to enrich protein samples, detect hydrophobic proteins, and identify low abundant proteins by reducing the proteome dynamic range. GELFrEE as well as different separation and digestion techniques were combined with FASP and nanoLC-MS/MS to obtain an in-depth proteome analysis of cochlear sensory epithelium from 30-day-old mice. Digestion with LysC/trypsin followed by SCX fractionation and multiple nanoLC-MS/MS analyses identified 3773 proteins with a 1% FDR. Of these, 694 protein IDs were in the plasmalemma. Protein IDs obtained by combining outcomes from GELFrEE/LysC/trypsin with GELFrEE/trypsin/trypsin generated 2779 proteins, of which 606 additional proteins were identified using the GELFrEE/LysC/trypsin approach. Combining results from the different techniques resulted in a total of 4620 IDs, including a number of previously unreported proteins. GO analyses showed high expression of binding and catalytic proteins as well as proteins associated with metabolism. The results show that the application of multiple techniques is needed to provide an exhaustive proteome of the cochlear sensory epithelium that includes many membrane proteins. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the data set identifier PXD000231. PMID:23721421

  16. The Use of Sensory Analysis Techniques to Assess the Quality of Indoor Air.

    PubMed

    Lewkowska, Paulina; Dymerski, Tomasz; Gębicki, Jacek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2017-01-02

    The quality of indoor air is one of the significant elements that influences people's well-being and health inside buildings. Emissions of pollutants, which may cause odor nuisance, are the main reason for people's complaints regarding the quality of indoor air. As a result, it is necessary to perform tests aimed at identifying the sources of odors inside buildings. The article contains basic information on the characteristics of the sources of indoor air pollution and the influence of the odor detection threshold on people's health and comfort. An attempt was also made to classify and use sensory analysis techniques to perform tests of the quality of indoor air, which would enable identification of sensory experience and would allow for indication of the degree of their intensity.

  17. Identification of olive oil sensory defects by multivariate analysis of mid infrared spectra.

    PubMed

    Borràs, Eva; Mestres, Montserrat; Aceña, Laura; Busto, Olga; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard; Calvo, Angels

    2015-11-15

    Mid-infrared (MIR) spectra (4000-600 cm(-1)) of olive oils were analyzed using chemometric methods to identify the four main sensorial defects, musty, winey, fusty and rancid, previously evaluated by an expert sensory panel. Classification models were developed using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to distinguish between extra-virgin olive oils (defect absent) and lower quality olive oils (defect present). The most important spectral ranges responsible for the discrimination were identified. PLS-DA models were able to discriminate between defective and high quality oils with predictive abilities around 87% for the musty defect and around 77% for winey, fusty and rancid defects. This methodology advances instrumental determination of results previously only achievable with a human test panel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of seven salad rocket (Eruca sativa) accessions: The relationships between sensory attributes and volatile and non-volatile compounds.

    PubMed

    Bell, Luke; Methven, Lisa; Signore, Angelo; Oruna-Concha, Maria Jose; Wagstaff, Carol

    2017-03-01

    Sensory and chemical analyses were performed on accessions of rocket (Eruca sativa) to determine phytochemical influences on sensory attributes. A trained panel was used to evaluate leaves, and chemical data were obtained for polyatomic ions, amino acids, sugars and organic acids. These chemical data (and data of glucosinolates, flavonols and headspace volatiles previously reported) were used in Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to determine variables statistically important to sensory traits. Significant differences were observed between samples for polyatomic ion and amino acid concentrations. PCA revealed strong, positive correlations between glucosinolates, isothiocyanates and sulfur compounds with bitterness, mustard, peppery, warming and initial heat mouthfeel traits. The ratio between glucosinolates and sugars inferred reduced perception of bitter aftereffects. We highlight the diversity of E. sativa accessions from a sensory and phytochemical standpoint, and the potential for breeders to create varieties that are nutritionally and sensorially superior to existing ones. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Transcriptome Analysis of Chemically-Induced Sensory Neuron Ablation in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Jane A.; Zhang, Bo; Pope, Holly M.; Voigt, Mark M.

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral glia are known to have a critical role in the initial response to axon damage and degeneration. However, little is known about the cellular responses of non-myelinating glia to nerve injury. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptomes of wild-type and mutant (lacking peripheral glia) zebrafish larvae that were treated with metronidazole. This treatment allowed us to conditionally and selectively ablate cranial sensory neurons whose axons are ensheathed only by non-myelinating glia. While transcripts representing over 27,000 genes were detected by RNAseq, only a small fraction (~1% of genes) were found to be differentially expressed in response to neuronal degeneration in either line at either 2 hrs or 5 hrs of metronidazole treatment. Analysis revealed that most expression changes (332 out of the total of 458 differentially expressed genes) occurred over a continuous period (from 2 to 5 hrs of metronidazole exposure), with a small number of genes showing changes limited to only the 2 hr (55 genes) or 5 hr (71 genes) time points. For genes with continuous alterations in expression, some of the most meaningful sets of enriched categories in the wild-type line were those involving the inflammatory TNF-alpha and IL6 signaling pathways, oxidoreductase activities and response to stress. Intriguingly, these changes were not observed in the mutant line. Indeed, cluster analysis indicated that the effects of metronidazole treatment on gene expression was heavily influenced by the presence or absence of glia, indicating that the peripheral non-myelinating glia play a significant role in the transcriptional response to sensory neuron degeneration. This is the first transcriptome study of metronidazole-induced neuronal death in zebrafish and the response of non-myelinating glia to sensory neuron degeneration. We believe this study provides important insight into the mechanisms by which non-myelinating glia react to neuronal death and degeneration in sensory

  20. Smokefree legislation effects on respiratory and sensory disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rando-Matos, Yolanda; Pons-Vigués, Mariona; López, María José; Córdoba, Rodrigo; Ballve-Moreno, José Luis; Puigdomènech-Puig, Elisa; Benito-López, Vega Estíbaliz; Arias-Agudelo, Olga Lucía; López-Grau, Mercè; Guardia-Riera, Anna; Trujillo, José Manuel; Martin-Cantera, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to synthesize the available evidence in scientific papers of smokefree legislation effects on respiratory diseases and sensory and respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm, red eyes, runny nose) among all populations. Systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out. A search between January 1995 and February 2015 was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases. Inclusion criteria were: 1) original scientific studies about smokefree legislation, 2) Data before and after legislation were collected, and 3) Impact on respiratory and sensory outcomes were assessed. Paired reviewers independently carried out the screening of titles and abstracts, data extraction from full-text articles, and methodological quality assessment. A total number of 1606 papers were identified. 50 papers were selected, 26 were related to symptoms (23 concerned workers). Most outcomes presented significant decreases in the percentage of people suffering from them, especially in locations with comprehensive measures and during the immediate post-ban period (within the first six months). Four (50%) of the papers concerning pulmonary function reported some significant improvement in expiratory parameters. Significant decreases were described in 13 of the 17 papers evaluating asthma hospital admissions, and there were fewer significant reductions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admissions (range 1-36%) than for asthma (5-31%). Six studies regarding different respiratory diseases showed discrepant results, and four papers about mortality reported significant declines in subgroups. Low bias risk was present in 23 (46%) of the studies. Smokefree legislation appears to improve respiratory and sensory symptoms at short term in workers (the overall effect being greater in comprehensive smokefree legislation in sensory symptoms) and, to a lesser degree, rates of hospitalization for asthma.

  1. Smokefree legislation effects on respiratory and sensory disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pons-Vigués, Mariona; López, María José; Córdoba, Rodrigo; Ballve-Moreno, José Luis; Puigdomènech-Puig, Elisa; Benito-López, Vega Estíbaliz; Arias-Agudelo, Olga Lucía; López-Grau, Mercè; Guardia-Riera, Anna; Trujillo, José Manuel; Martin-Cantera, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Aims The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to synthesize the available evidence in scientific papers of smokefree legislation effects on respiratory diseases and sensory and respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm, red eyes, runny nose) among all populations. Materials and methods Systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out. A search between January 1995 and February 2015 was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases. Inclusion criteria were: 1) original scientific studies about smokefree legislation, 2) Data before and after legislation were collected, and 3) Impact on respiratory and sensory outcomes were assessed. Paired reviewers independently carried out the screening of titles and abstracts, data extraction from full-text articles, and methodological quality assessment. Results A total number of 1606 papers were identified. 50 papers were selected, 26 were related to symptoms (23 concerned workers). Most outcomes presented significant decreases in the percentage of people suffering from them, especially in locations with comprehensive measures and during the immediate post-ban period (within the first six months). Four (50%) of the papers concerning pulmonary function reported some significant improvement in expiratory parameters. Significant decreases were described in 13 of the 17 papers evaluating asthma hospital admissions, and there were fewer significant reductions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admissions (range 1–36%) than for asthma (5–31%). Six studies regarding different respiratory diseases showed discrepant results, and four papers about mortality reported significant declines in subgroups. Low bias risk was present in 23 (46%) of the studies. Conclusions Smokefree legislation appears to improve respiratory and sensory symptoms at short term in workers (the overall effect being greater in comprehensive smokefree legislation in sensory symptoms) and, to a

  2. Sensory classification of table olives using an electronic tongue: Analysis of aqueous pastes and brines.

    PubMed

    Marx, Ítala; Rodrigues, Nuno; Dias, Luís G; Veloso, Ana C A; Pereira, José A; Drunkler, Deisy A; Peres, António M

    2017-01-01

    Table olives are highly appreciated and consumed worldwide. Different aspects are used for trade category classification being the sensory assessment of negative defects present in the olives and brines one of the most important. The trade category quality classification must follow the International Olive Council directives, requiring the organoleptic assessment of defects by a trained sensory panel. However, the training process is a hard, complex and sometimes subjective task, being the low number of samples that can be evaluated per day a major drawback considering the real needs of the olive industry. In this context, the development of electronic tongues as taste sensors for defects' sensory evaluation is of utmost relevance. So, an electronic tongue was used for table olives classification according to the presence and intensity of negative defects. Linear discrimination models were established based on sub-sets of sensor signals selected by a simulated annealing algorithm. The predictive potential of the novel approach was first demonstrated for standard solutions of chemical compounds that mimic butyric, putrid and zapateria defects (≥93% for cross-validation procedures). Then its applicability was verified; using reference table olives/brine solutions samples identified with a single intense negative attribute, namely butyric, musty, putrid, zapateria or winey-vinegary defects (≥93% cross-validation procedures). Finally, the E-tongue coupled with the same chemometric approach was applied to classify table olive samples according to the trade commercial categories (extra, 1(st) choice, 2(nd) choice and unsuitable for consumption) and an additional quality category (extra free of defects), established based on sensory analysis data. Despite the heterogeneity of the samples studied and number of different sensory defects perceived, the predictive linear discriminant model established showed sensitivities greater than 86%. So, the overall performance

  3. Validation of the French sensory gating inventory: a confirmatory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Hetrick, William P; Boyer, Laurent; Bolbecker, Amanda; Aramaki, Mitsuko; Ystad, Sølvi; Richieri, Raphaëlle; El-Kaim, Alexandre; Faget, Catherine; Faugere, Mélanie; Cermolacce, Michel; Kronland-Martinet, Richard; Lancon, Christophe; Vion-Dury, Jean

    2014-12-30

    The Sensory Gating Inventory (SGI) is an instrument investigating daily experiences of sensory gating deficit developed for English speaking schizophrenia patients. The purpose of this study is to design and validate a French version of the SGI. A forward-backward translation of the SGI was performed. The psychometric properties of the French SGI version were analyzed. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was carried out to determine whether factor structure of the French version is similar to the original English version. In a sample of 363 healthy subjects (mean age=31.8 years, S.D.=12.2 years) the validation process revealed satisfactory psychometric properties: the internal consistency reliability was confirmed for each dimension; each item achieved the 0.40 standard threshold for item-internal consistency; each item was more highly correlated with its contributive dimension than with the other dimensions; and based on a CFA, we found a 4-factor structure for the French version of the SGI similar to the original instrument. Test-retest reliability was not determined. The French version of the SGI is a psychometrically sound self-report for measuring phenomenological sensory gating experiences.

  4. Effects of static magnetic fields on cognition, vital signs, and sensory perception: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Angela; Szostek, Anne; Nees, Frauke; Meyer, Patric; Semmler, Wolfhard; Flor, Herta

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate whether cognitive processes, sensory perception, and vital signs might be influenced by static magnetic fields in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which could pose a risk for health personnel and patients, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies that examined effects of static magnetic fields. Studies covering the time from 1992 to 2007 were selected. Cohen's d effects sizes were used and combined in different categories of neuropsychology (reaction time, visual processing, eye-hand coordination, and working memory). Additionally, effects of static magnetic fields on sensory perception and vital signs were analyzed. In the category "neuropsychology," only effects on the visual system were homogeneous, showing a statistically significant impairment as a result of exposure to static magnetic fields (d = -0.415). Vital signs were not affected and effects on sensory perceptions included an increase of dizziness and vertigo, primarily caused by movement during static magnetic field gradient exposures. The number of studies dealing with this topic is very small and the experimental set-up of some of the analyzed studies makes it difficult to accurately determine the effects of static magnetic fields by themselves, excluding nonspecific factors. The implications of these results for MRI lead to suggestions for improvement in research designs.

  5. Predicate Argument Structure Analysis for Use Case Description Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Hironori; Nakamura, Taiga; Yamaguchi, Takahira

    In a large software system development project, many documents are prepared and updated frequently. In such a situation, support is needed for looking through these documents easily to identify inconsistencies and to maintain traceability. In this research, we focus on the requirements documents such as use cases and consider how to create models from the use case descriptions in unformatted text. In the model construction, we propose a few semantic constraints based on the features of the use cases and use them for a predicate argument structure analysis to assign semantic labels to actors and actions. With this approach, we show that we can assign semantic labels without enhancing any existing general lexical resources such as case frame dictionaries and design a less language-dependent model construction architecture. By using the constructed model, we consider a system for quality analysis of the use cases and automated test case generation to keep the traceability between document sets. We evaluated the reuse of the existing use cases and generated test case steps automatically with the proposed prototype system from real-world use cases in the development of a system using a packaged application. Based on the evaluation, we show how to construct models with high precision from English and Japanese use case data. Also, we could generate good test cases for about 90% of the real use cases through the manual improvement of the descriptions based on the feedback from the quality analysis system.

  6. Physical-Chemical Characterization of Fruit Purees and Relationship with Sensory Analysis Carried out by Infants (12 to 24 mo).

    PubMed

    Inarejos-García, A M; Mancebo-Campos, V; Cañizares, P; Llanos, J

    2015-05-01

    Fruit purees are one of the foods earliest introduced foods in infants' diet during the complementary period. The rheological characteristics together with the sensory analysis are decisive factors for the acceptance of the food product by the infant. The sensory analysis of three commercial fruit purees (mixed fruits, pear, and plum) was studied by employing a new objective sensory parameter named as SAIR (Sensory Acceptance by Infants Ratio), which is the quotient between the percentage of puree consumed (%) by the time (seconds) throughout the storage time. In parallel, the rheological characteristics of the purees were analyzed in order to obtain a relationship with the SAIR parameter. It was proved that the best acceptance of the product (higher SAIR) was observed for such purees showing a lower apparent viscosity (lower consistency index, "K") and a less pseudoplastic behavior (higher flow behavior index, "n"). These results may help to obtain higher acceptance values based on easy obtainable and objective parameters.

  7. Characterization of Chinese rice wine taste attributes using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Yu, HaiYan; Zhao, Jie; Li, Fenghua; Tian, Huaixiang; Ma, Xia

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the taste characteristics of Chinese rice wine, wine samples sourced from different vintage years were analyzed using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue. Six organic acids and seventeen amino acids were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Five monosaccharides were measured using anion-exchange chromatography. The global taste attributes were analyzed using an electronic tongue (E-tongue). The correlations between the 28 taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes, and the correlations between the E-tongue response and the sensory attributes were established via partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA). E-tongue response data combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to discriminate the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from different vintage years. Sensory evaluation indicated significant differences in the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010 vintage years in the sensory attributes of harmony and mellow. The PLSDA model for the taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes showed that proline, fucose, arabinose, lactic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, isoleucine, valine, threonine, and lysine had an influence on the taste characteristic of Chinese rice wine. The Chinese rice wine samples were all correctly classified using the E-tongue and LDA. The electronic tongue was an effective tool for rapid discrimination of Chinese rice wine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nonlinear Analysis of Sensory Organization Test for Subjects with Unilateral Vestibular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chen; Chang, Fu-Ling; Lo, Men-Tzung

    2014-01-01

    Vestibular disorder is the cause of approximately 50% of dizziness in older people. The vestibular system is a critical postural control mechanism, and posturography analysis is helpful for diagnosing vestibular disorder. In clinical practice, the sensory organization test (SOT) is used to quantify postural control in an upright stance under different test conditions. However, both aging and vestibular disorder cause declines of postural control mechanisms. The aim of this study was to enhance the performance of the SOT using a nonlinear algorithm of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and to verify the differences of effects caused by aging and/or illnesses benefits to clinical diagnosis. A total of 51 subjects belonging to 3 groups—healthy-young, healthy-elderly and dizzy—were recruited for this study. New dynamic parameters of the SOT were derived from the center of pressure (COP) signals. EMD served as an adaptive filter bank to derive the low- and high-frequency components of the COP. The effects on four ratios of sensory analysis caused by aging and vestibular disorder can be investigated for the specific frequency bands. According to our findings, new SOT parameters derived from the component with the specific frequency band more sensitively reflect the functional condition of vestibular dysfunction. Furthermore, both aging and vestibular dysfunction caused an increase in magnitude for the low-frequency component of the AP-direction COP time series. In summary, the low-frequency fluctuation reflects the stability of postural control, while the high-frequency fluctuation is sensitive to the functional condition of the sensory system. EMD successfully improved the accuracy of SOT measurements in this investigation. PMID:24632582

  9. Nonlinear analysis of sensory organization test for subjects with unilateral vestibular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Jia-Rong; Hsu, Li-Chi; Lin, Chen; Chang, Fu-Ling; Lo, Men-Tzung

    2014-01-01

    Vestibular disorder is the cause of approximately 50% of dizziness in older people. The vestibular system is a critical postural control mechanism, and posturography analysis is helpful for diagnosing vestibular disorder. In clinical practice, the sensory organization test (SOT) is used to quantify postural control in an upright stance under different test conditions. However, both aging and vestibular disorder cause declines of postural control mechanisms. The aim of this study was to enhance the performance of the SOT using a nonlinear algorithm of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and to verify the differences of effects caused by aging and/or illnesses benefits to clinical diagnosis. A total of 51 subjects belonging to 3 groups--healthy-young, healthy-elderly and dizzy--were recruited for this study. New dynamic parameters of the SOT were derived from the center of pressure (COP) signals. EMD served as an adaptive filter bank to derive the low- and high-frequency components of the COP. The effects on four ratios of sensory analysis caused by aging and vestibular disorder can be investigated for the specific frequency bands. According to our findings, new SOT parameters derived from the component with the specific frequency band more sensitively reflect the functional condition of vestibular dysfunction. Furthermore, both aging and vestibular dysfunction caused an increase in magnitude for the low-frequency component of the AP-direction COP time series. In summary, the low-frequency fluctuation reflects the stability of postural control, while the high-frequency fluctuation is sensitive to the functional condition of the sensory system. EMD successfully improved the accuracy of SOT measurements in this investigation.

  10. High Performance Descriptive Semantic Analysis of Semantic Graph Databases

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.

    2011-06-02

    As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to understand their inherent semantic structure, whether codified in explicit ontologies or not. Our group is researching novel methods for what we call descriptive semantic analysis of RDF triplestores, to serve purposes of analysis, interpretation, visualization, and optimization. But data size and computational complexity makes it increasingly necessary to bring high performance computational resources to bear on this task. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multi-threaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional servers, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture and our methods, and present the results of our analyses of basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths such for the Billion Triple Challenge 2010 dataset.

  11. Descriptive analysis and U.S. consumer acceptability of 6 green tea samples from China, Japan, and Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Delores H

    2010-03-01

    In the past, green tea has been one of the least popular nonalcoholic beverages for U.S. consumers. However, green tea has been receiving attention because of its potential health benefits. Knowing which green tea flavor attributes contribute to consumer liking will help the fast growing green tea business including green tea importers, tea shops, and beverage companies to understand which characteristics are most accepted by U.S. consumers. The objectives of this study were (1) to examine differences in acceptability of commonly available loose leaf and bagged green teas available from the major exporters to the U.S. (Japan, Korea, and China) and (2) to determine which green tea flavor characteristics are related to consumers' liking. In the study, consumers from the U.S. evaluated 6 green tea samples from China, Japan, and Korea for acceptability. A highly trained panel also evaluated the green tea samples to provide descriptive sensory attributes that might be related to acceptability. We found that U.S. consumers liked green tea samples with lower flavor intensity and lower bitterness intensity. Consumers' acceptability of green tea was negatively correlated with spinach and animalic flavor and bitterness and astringency of green teas evaluated using descriptive sensory analysis, but the correlation was only moderate. To learn what green tea flavor characteristics influence consumers' liking, future studies using more green tea samples with different flavor profiles are needed.

  12. Morphological Analysis of Drosophila Larval Peripheral Sensory Neuron Dendrites and Axons Using Genetic Mosaics

    PubMed Central

    Karim, M. Rezaul; Moore, Adrian W.

    2011-01-01

    Nervous system development requires the correct specification of neuron position and identity, followed by accurate neuron class-specific dendritic development and axonal wiring. Recently the dendritic arborization (DA) sensory neurons of the Drosophila larval peripheral nervous system (PNS) have become powerful genetic models in which to elucidate both general and class-specific mechanisms of neuron differentiation. There are four main DA neuron classes (I-IV)1. They are named in order of increasing dendrite arbor complexity, and have class-specific differences in the genetic control of their differentiation2-10. The DA sensory system is a practical model to investigate the molecular mechanisms behind the control of dendritic morphology11-13 because: 1) it can take advantage of the powerful genetic tools available in the fruit fly, 2) the DA neuron dendrite arbor spreads out in only 2 dimensions beneath an optically clear larval cuticle making it easy to visualize with high resolution in vivo, 3) the class-specific diversity in dendritic morphology facilitates a comparative analysis to find key elements controlling the formation of simple vs. highly branched dendritic trees, and 4) dendritic arbor stereotypical shapes of different DA neurons facilitate morphometric statistical analyses. DA neuron activity modifies the output of a larval locomotion central pattern generator14-16. The different DA neuron classes have distinct sensory modalities, and their activation elicits different behavioral responses14,16-20. Furthermore different classes send axonal projections stereotypically into the Drosophila larval central nervous system in the ventral nerve cord (VNC)21. These projections terminate with topographic representations of both DA neuron sensory modality and the position in the body wall of the dendritic field7,22,23. Hence examination of DA axonal projections can be used to elucidate mechanisms underlying topographic mapping7,22,23, as well as the wiring of a

  13. Morphological analysis of Drosophila larval peripheral sensory neuron dendrites and axons using genetic mosaics.

    PubMed

    Karim, M Rezaul; Moore, Adrian W

    2011-11-07

    Nervous system development requires the correct specification of neuron position and identity, followed by accurate neuron class-specific dendritic development and axonal wiring. Recently the dendritic arborization (DA) sensory neurons of the Drosophila larval peripheral nervous system (PNS) have become powerful genetic models in which to elucidate both general and class-specific mechanisms of neuron differentiation. There are four main DA neuron classes (I-IV)(1). They are named in order of increasing dendrite arbor complexity, and have class-specific differences in the genetic control of their differentiation(2-10). The DA sensory system is a practical model to investigate the molecular mechanisms behind the control of dendritic morphology(11-13) because: 1) it can take advantage of the powerful genetic tools available in the fruit fly, 2) the DA neuron dendrite arbor spreads out in only 2 dimensions beneath an optically clear larval cuticle making it easy to visualize with high resolution in vivo, 3) the class-specific diversity in dendritic morphology facilitates a comparative analysis to find key elements controlling the formation of simple vs. highly branched dendritic trees, and 4) dendritic arbor stereotypical shapes of different DA neurons facilitate morphometric statistical analyses. DA neuron activity modifies the output of a larval locomotion central pattern generator(14-16). The different DA neuron classes have distinct sensory modalities, and their activation elicits different behavioral responses(14,16-20). Furthermore different classes send axonal projections stereotypically into the Drosophila larval central nervous system in the ventral nerve cord (VNC)(21). These projections terminate with topographic representations of both DA neuron sensory modality and the position in the body wall of the dendritic field(7,22,23). Hence examination of DA axonal projections can be used to elucidate mechanisms underlying topographic mapping(7,22,23), as well as

  14. Analysis of the Sensory Profile in Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildenbrand, Hanna L.; Smith, Ann C. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study systematically assessed sensory processing in 34 children, aged 3-14 years, with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) using the Sensory Profile Caregiver Questionnaire. Scores for the SMS cohort were significantly different from scores of the national sample of children with and without disabilities in all Sensory Profile categories and…

  15. Analysis of the Sensory Profile in Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildenbrand, Hanna L.; Smith, Ann C. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study systematically assessed sensory processing in 34 children, aged 3-14 years, with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) using the Sensory Profile Caregiver Questionnaire. Scores for the SMS cohort were significantly different from scores of the national sample of children with and without disabilities in all Sensory Profile categories and…

  16. Simultaneous analysis of consumer variables, acceptability and sensory characteristics of dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Masahiro; Obiya, Shinichi; Kaneko, Miku; Enomoto, Ayame; Honma, Mayu; Wakayama, Masataka; Tomita, Masaru

    2016-11-01

    We conducted a consumer acceptability analysis of dry-cured ham based on sensory evaluation. Consumer acceptability data are rendered heterogeneous by the diverse backgrounds and assessment abilities of the participants, requiring versatile analytical methods for their interpretation. Totally, 9 sensory attributes of 12 kinds of dry-cured ham samples collected from Japan (n=9), Italy (n=1), Spain (n=1), and Germany (n=1) were tasted by 117 Japanese consumers who showed acceptable evaluation abilities during blind sampling. Common techniques, such as hierarchical clustering, principal component analysis, and external preference mapping, were simultaneously utilized to analyze each characteristics scored in modified hedonic scale. These analyses revealed the relationships between the features and preferences of the assessors. For example, consumers aged 20-30 with smoking and drinking habits preferred sweetness and saltiness, and gave high ratings to Spanish Jómon serrano and Italian prosciutto. Our approach could assist ham marketers to identify potential purchasers and the preferred characteristics of their products.

  17. Descriptive analysis of YouTube music therapy videos.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Lori F; Gregory, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a descriptive analysis of music therapy-related videos on YouTube. Preliminary searches using the keywords music therapy, music therapy session, and "music therapy session" resulted in listings of 5000, 767, and 59 videos respectively. The narrowed down listing of 59 videos was divided between two investigators and reviewed in order to determine their relationship to actual music therapy practice. A total of 32 videos were determined to be depictions of music therapy sessions. These videos were analyzed using a 16-item investigator-created rubric that examined both video specific information and therapy specific information. Results of the analysis indicated that audio and visual quality was adequate, while narrative descriptions and identification information were ineffective in the majority of the videos. The top 5 videos (based on the highest number of viewings in the sample) were selected for further analysis in order to investigate demonstration of the Professional Level of Practice Competencies set forth in the American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) Professional Competencies (AMTA, 2008). Four of the five videos met basic competency criteria, with the quality of the fifth video precluding evaluation of content. Of particular interest is the fact that none of the videos included credentialing information. Results of this study suggest the need to consider ways to ensure accurate dissemination of music therapy-related information in the YouTube environment, ethical standards when posting music therapy session videos, and the possibility of creating AMTA standards for posting music therapy related video.

  18. Sensory properties of Californian and imported extra virgin olive oils.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Claudia; Guinard, Jean-Xavier

    2011-04-01

    Production and consumption of extra-virgin olive has been increasing in the United States, particularly in California. The objective of this study was to compare the sensory characteristics of 22 extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) from California, Italy, Spain, Chile, and Australia using a generic descriptive analysis. A total of 22 sensory attributes were identified and defined by the descriptive panel. With the exception of thick and citrus, all sensory attributes were significantly different among the oils. Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA) showed that California oils differed from some imported EVOOs, mainly by their absence of defects. A second analysis, of only those attributes included in the International Olive Council (IOC) official scorecard, provided a less detailed description of the samples and did not allow for a full characterization of the oils. While the IOC attributes allowed for faster classification in terms of clean versus defective EVOOs, the more comprehensive descriptive analysis provided both more information and a more refined classification of the samples. Variety and region of origin were important factors in the classification of both Californian and imported EVOOs.   Measuring olive oil sensory quality using the IOC method-positive attributes of fruitiness, bitterness, and pungency, and defects including fusty, musty, winey, and rancid-allows for the certification of oils as extra virgin but it provides limited information on the sensory characteristics of the oils. A full descriptive profile, on the other hand, provides information that can be used by producers in the processing and marketing of their oils, and is a useful tool in the education of consumers about the wide range of (positive) sensory attributes in EVOO and the various sensory styles of EVOO.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA Printable PDF Open All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA is a condition characterized ...

  20. Acute Surgical Unit at Auckland City Hospital: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Hsee, Li; Devaud, Marcelo; Middelberg, Lisa; Jones, Wayne; Civil, Ian

    2012-09-01

    Lack of timely assessment and access to acute operating rooms is a worldwide problem and also exists in New Zealand hospitals. To address these issues, an Acute Surgical Unit (ASU) was set up at Auckland City Hospital (ACH) in January 2009. This service has evolved and been modified to address the specific needs of acute surgical patients of ACH. Despite initial challenges inherent to setting up a new service, the Unit has been in steady operation and enhanced its performance over time. This paper is a descriptive analysis of the design of the ACH ASU and discusses some of the indications for streamlining acute surgical services at a large tertiary metropolitan hospital in New Zealand. Performance of the ASU has shown benefits for acute patients and the Hospital. The acute surgical rotation has also been beneficial for surgical training.

  1. Finite element analysis applied to dentoalveolar trauma: methodology description.

    PubMed

    da Silva, B R; Moreira Neto, J J S; da Silva, F I; de Aguiar, A S W

    2011-01-01

    Dentoalveolar traumatic injuries are among the clinical conditions most frequently treated in dental practice. However, few studies so far have addressed the biomechanical aspects of these events, probably as a result of difficulties in carrying out satisfactory experimental and clinical studies as well as the unavailability of truly scientific methodologies. The aim of this paper was to describe the use of finite element analysis applied to the biomechanical evaluation of dentoalveolar trauma. For didactic purposes, the methodological process was divided into steps that go from the creation of a geometric model to the evaluation of final results, always with a focus on methodological characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages, so as to allow the reader to customize the methodology according to specific needs. Our description shows that the finite element method can faithfully reproduce dentoalveolar trauma, provided the methodology is closely followed and thoroughly evaluated.

  2. Finite Element Analysis Applied to Dentoalveolar Trauma: Methodology Description

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, B. R.; Moreira Neto, J. J. S.; da Silva, F. I.; de Aguiar, A. S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Dentoalveolar traumatic injuries are among the clinical conditions most frequently treated in dental practice. However, few studies so far have addressed the biomechanical aspects of these events, probably as a result of difficulties in carrying out satisfactory experimental and clinical studies as well as the unavailability of truly scientific methodologies. The aim of this paper was to describe the use of finite element analysis applied to the biomechanical evaluation of dentoalveolar trauma. For didactic purposes, the methodological process was divided into steps that go from the creation of a geometric model to the evaluation of final results, always with a focus on methodological characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages, so as to allow the reader to customize the methodology according to specific needs. Our description shows that the finite element method can faithfully reproduce dentoalveolar trauma, provided the methodology is closely followed and thoroughly evaluated. PMID:21991463

  3. Exploratory factor analysis for differentiating sensory and mechanical variables related to muscle-tendon unit elongation.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Mauro H; Magalhães, Fabrício A; Peixoto, Gustavo H C; Pereira, Beatriz M; Andrade, André G P; Menzel, Hans-Joachim K

    2016-03-22

    Background Stretching exercises are able to promote adaptations in the muscle-tendon unit (MTU), which can be tested through physiological and biomechanical variables. Identifying the key variables in MTU adaptations is crucial to improvements in training. Objective To perform an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) involving the variables often used to evaluate the response of the MTU to stretching exercises. Method Maximum joint range of motion (ROMMAX), ROM at first sensation of stretching (FSTROM), peak torque (torqueMAX), passive stiffness, normalized stiffness, passive energy, and normalized energy were investigated in 36 participants during passive knee extension on an isokinetic dynamometer. Stiffness and energy values were normalized by the muscle cross-sectional area and their passive mode assured by monitoring the EMG activity. Results EFA revealed two major factors that explained 89.68% of the total variance: 53.13% was explained by the variables torqueMAX, passive stiffness, normalized stiffness, passive energy, and normalized energy, whereas the remaining 36.55% was explained by the variables ROMMAX and FSTROM. Conclusion This result supports the literature wherein two main hypotheses (mechanical and sensory theories) have been suggested to describe the adaptations of the MTU to stretching exercises. Contrary to some studies, in the present investigation torqueMAX was significantly correlated with the variables of the mechanical theory rather than those of the sensory theory. Therefore, a new approach was proposed to explain the behavior of the torqueMAX during stretching exercises.

  4. Auditory scene analysis and sensory memory: the role of the auditory N100m.

    PubMed

    May, P J C; Tiitinen, H

    2004-11-30

    We consider the neural dynamics underlying auditory streaming, the perceptual grouping of transient auditory events, by using neural modeling and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements in humans. We demonstrate that spatial variations in the strength of feedback inhibition leads to differential amplitude modulation (AM) tuning resembling that found in animal models. In our model, neurons respond selectively to stimuli presented at different onset-to-onset interstimulus intervals (ISIs), and their summed activity (corresponding to the MEG signal) exhibits both transient and sustained responses (SRs) at fast ISIs. In MEG measurements utilizing 2-s trains of 50-ms stimuli presented at 0-1950 ms ISIs, we observed the transient N100m and SRs predicted by the model, with a prominent SR emerging for discrete stimuli at ISIs below 200 ms. Our results explain why, at fast stimulus rates, the amplitude of the auditory N100m appears to be strongly attenuated even though auditory cortex continues to respond vigorously to the stimuli. The results suggest that the longer and shorter forms of auditory sensory memory may be reflected in the N100m and the SR, respectively. As the emergence of the SR coincides with the stimuli being perceived as auditory streams, our study suggests that auditory sensory memory as indexed by transient and sustained cortical activity might underlie auditory scene analysis.

  5. HS-GC-MS-O analysis and sensory acceptance of passion fruit during maturation.

    PubMed

    Janzantti, Natália S; Monteiro, Magali

    2017-07-01

    The odor-active compounds of the conventional yellow passion fruit influence the aroma during ripeness and the acceptance of the juice. HS-GC-MS and GC-OSME analysis and sensory acceptance of the conventional passion fruit from different stages of ripeness were studied to characterize the aroma of the fruit and, aroma and flavor of the juice. Ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate and propyl acetate showed high odoriferous importance in the passion fruit from the 1/3 yellow skin color. Cis-3-hexen-1-ol and diethyl carbonate plus the odor-active compounds from the 1/3 yellow skin color showed high odoriferous importance in the 2/3 yellow skin color, and butyl acetate and alpha-terpineol plus the same odor-active compounds from 2/3 were the most important for the 3/3 yellow skin color. There was difference in the aroma and flavor of the juices, with higher acceptance means for the passion fruit from the 3/3 yellow skin color. The passion fruit volatile compounds peak area, odoriferous intensity and sensory acceptance of the juices increased during ripeness, indicating that the conventional passion fruit characteristic aroma is completely expressed when the fruit reaches the whole maturation, at the 3/3 yellow skin color.

  6. Exploratory factor analysis for differentiating sensory and mechanical variables related to muscle-tendon unit elongation

    PubMed Central

    Chagas, Mauro H.; Magalhães, Fabrício A.; Peixoto, Gustavo H. C.; Pereira, Beatriz M.; Andrade, André G. P.; Menzel, Hans-Joachim K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Stretching exercises are able to promote adaptations in the muscle-tendon unit (MTU), which can be tested through physiological and biomechanical variables. Identifying the key variables in MTU adaptations is crucial to improvements in training. Objective To perform an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) involving the variables often used to evaluate the response of the MTU to stretching exercises. Method Maximum joint range of motion (ROMMAX), ROM at first sensation of stretching (FSTROM), peak torque (torqueMAX), passive stiffness, normalized stiffness, passive energy, and normalized energy were investigated in 36 participants during passive knee extension on an isokinetic dynamometer. Stiffness and energy values were normalized by the muscle cross-sectional area and their passive mode assured by monitoring the EMG activity. Results EFA revealed two major factors that explained 89.68% of the total variance: 53.13% was explained by the variables torqueMAX, passive stiffness, normalized stiffness, passive energy, and normalized energy, whereas the remaining 36.55% was explained by the variables ROMMAX and FSTROM. Conclusion This result supports the literature wherein two main hypotheses (mechanical and sensory theories) have been suggested to describe the adaptations of the MTU to stretching exercises. Contrary to some studies, in the present investigation torqueMAX was significantly correlated with the variables of the mechanical theory rather than those of the sensory theory. Therefore, a new approach was proposed to explain the behavior of the torqueMAX during stretching exercises. PMID:27437715

  7. Physicochemical Characterization and Sensory Analysis of Yeast-leavened and Sourdough Soy Breads

    PubMed Central

    Yezbick, Gabrielle; Ahn-Jarvis, Jennifer; Schwartz, Steven J.; Vodovotz, Yael

    2013-01-01

    Sourdough fermentation has been shown to have numerous beneficial effects on bread quality, and nutritionally enhance soy-supplemented bread by altering isoflavone chemical forms. Given this, the objective of this study was to compare the loaf quality and shelf life of sourdough and yeast-leavened soy breads by various physical, thermal, and sensorial methods, and to assess the effects of fermentation by various microorganisms on isoflavone profile in dough and breads using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Sourdough fermentation yielded a less extensible dough compared to yeast-leavened soy dough (P < 0.001), and resulted in a harder bread crumb (P < 0.05) and lighter crust color (P < 0.001), compared to yeast-leavened soy bread (Y-B). Sensory analysis revealed a significantly higher overall liking of Y-B compared to sourdough soy bread (SD-B) (P < 0.001). Segmentation analysis of the cohort suggests that overall liking and bread consumption frequency may be determinants of Y-B or SD-B preference. SD-B and Y-B exhibited similar shelf-life properties. Despite significantly different enthalpies associated with the melting of amylose-lipid complexes, thermal analysis of the 2 soy breads stored for 10 d (ambient conditions) demonstrated no significant difference in water distribution and starch retrogradation (P < 0.05). Lastly, SD-B was determined to have 32% of total isoflavones occurring in the aglycone form compared to 17% in Y-B. These findings warrant further investigation of sourdough fermentation as a processing technique for quality and nutritional enhancement of soy-based baked goods. PMID:24024975

  8. Protocol for Data Collection and Analysis Applied to Automated Facial Expression Analysis Technology and Temporal Analysis for Sensory Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Crist, Courtney A; Duncan, Susan E; Gallagher, Daniel L

    2016-08-26

    We demonstrate a method for capturing emotional response to beverages and liquefied foods in a sensory evaluation laboratory using automated facial expression analysis (AFEA) software. Additionally, we demonstrate a method for extracting relevant emotional data output and plotting the emotional response of a population over a specified time frame. By time pairing each participant's treatment response to a control stimulus (baseline), the overall emotional response over time and across multiple participants can be quantified. AFEA is a prospective analytical tool for assessing unbiased response to food and beverages. At present, most research has mainly focused on beverages. Methodologies and analyses have not yet been standardized for the application of AFEA to beverages and foods; however, a consistent standard methodology is needed. Optimizing video capture procedures and resulting video quality aids in a successful collection of emotional response to foods. Furthermore, the methodology of data analysis is novel for extracting the pertinent data relevant to the emotional response. The combinations of video capture optimization and data analysis will aid in standardizing the protocol for automated facial expression analysis and interpretation of emotional response data.

  9. Transcriptomic analysis of the developing and adult mouse cochlear sensory epithelia.

    PubMed

    Smeti, Ibtihel; Assou, Said; Savary, Etienne; Masmoudi, Saber; Zine, Azel

    2012-01-01

    The adult mammalian cochlea lacks regenerative ability and the irreversible degeneration of cochlear sensory hair cells leads to permanent hearing loss. Previous data show that early postnatal cochlea harbors stem/progenitor-like cells and shows a limited regenerative/repair capacity. These properties are progressively lost later during the postnatal development. Little is known about the genes and pathways that are potentially involved in this difference of the regenerative/repair potentialities between early postnatal and adult mammalian cochlear sensory epithelia (CSE). The goal of our study is to investigate the transcriptomic profiles of these two stages. We used Mouse Genome 430 2.0 microarray to perform an extensive analysis of the genes expressed in mouse postnatal day-3 (P3) and adult CSE. Statistical analysis of microarray data was performed using SAM (Significance Analysis of Microarrays) software. We identified 5644 statistically significant differentially expressed transcripts with a fold change (FC) >2 and a False Discovery Rate (FDR) ≤0.05. The P3 CSE signature included 3,102 transcripts, among which were known genes in the cochlea, but also new transcripts such as, Hmga2 (high mobility group AT-hook 2) and Nrarp (Notch-regulated ankyrin repeat protein). The adult CSE overexpressed 2,542 transcripts including new transcripts, such as Prl (Prolactin) and Ar (Androgen receptor), that previously were not known to be expressed in the adult cochlea. Our comparative study revealed important genes and pathways differentially expressed between the developing and adult CSE. The identification of new candidate genes would be useful as potential markers of the maintenance or the loss of stem cells and regenerative/repair ability during mammalian cochlear development.

  10. A Descriptive Analysis of Prehospital Response to Hazardous Materials Events.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ashley J; Lohse, Christine M; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the overall frequency of hazardous materials (HazMat) events in the United States and the nature of prehospital care for those exposed. The purpose of the current study was to perform a descriptive analysis of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) activations reported to a national EMS database. Analysis of the 2012 National EMS Information System (NEMSIS) Public Release Research Data Set v.2.2.1, containing EMS emergency response data submitted by 41 states, was conducted. Mandatory data elements E0207 (Type of Response Delay), E0208 (Type of Scene Delay), and E0209 (Type of Transport Delay) contained specific codes for HazMat events and were used to identify specific EMS activation records for subsequent analysis. Overlapping data elements were identified and combined in order to prevent duplicate entries. Descriptive analyses were generated from the NEMSIS Research Data Set. A total of 17,479,328 EMS activations were reported, of which 2,527 unique activations involved HazMat response. Mass-casualty incident was coded for 5.6% of activations. The most common level of prehospital care present on scene was Basic Life Support (BLS; 51.1%); 2.1% required aggressive Advanced Life Support (ALS) response. The most common locations for HazMat activations were homes (36.2%), streets or highways (26.3%), and health care facilities (11.6%). The primary symptoms observed by EMS personnel were pain (29.6%), breathing problems (12.2%), and change in responsiveness (9.6%). Two percent of HazMat activations involved cardiac arrest, with 21.7% occurring after EMS arrival. Delays in patient care included response delay, scene delay, and transport delay. Hazardous materials events are rare causes of EMS activation in the United States. The majority occur in non-industrial venues and involve two or fewer patients. Scene time frequently is delayed due to multiple barriers. Cardiac arrest is rare but occurred after EMS arrival in one-fifth of patients.

  11. Multi-Sensory Aerosol Data and the NRL NAAPS model for Regulatory Exceptional Event Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husar, R. B.; Hoijarvi, K.; Westphal, D. L.; Haynes, J.; Omar, A. H.; Frank, N. H.

    2013-12-01

    Beyond scientific exploration and analysis, multi-sensory observations along with models are finding increasing applications for operational air quality management. EPA's Exceptional Event (EE) Rule allows the exclusion of data strongly influenced by impacts from "exceptional events," such as smoke from wildfires or dust from abnormally high winds. The EE Rule encourages the use of satellite observations and other non-standard data along with models as evidence for formal documentation of EE samples for exclusion. Thus, the implementation of the EE Rule is uniquely suited for the direct application of integrated multi-sensory observations and indirectly through the assimilation into an aerosol simulation model. Here we report the results of a project: NASA and NAAPS Products for Air Quality Decision Making. The project uses of observations from multiple satellite sensors, surface-based aerosol measurements and the NRL Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) model that assimilates key satellite observations. The satellite sensor data for detecting and documenting smoke and dust events include: MODIS AOD and Images; OMI Aerosol Index, Tropospheric NO2; AIRS, CO. The surface observations include the EPA regulatory PM2.5 network; the IMPROVE/STN aerosol chemical network; AIRNOW PM2.5 mass network, and surface met. data. Within this application, crucial role is assigned to the NAAPS model for estimating the surface concentration of windblown dust and biomass smoke. The operational model assimilates quality-assured daily MODIS data and 2DVAR to adjust the model concentrations and CALIOP-based climatology to adjust the vertical profiles at 6-hour intervals. The assimilation of satellite data from multiple satellites significantly contributes to the usefulness of NAAPS for EE analysis. The NAAPS smoke and dust simulations were evaluated using the IMPROVE/STN chemical data. The multi-sensory observations along with the model simulations are integrated into a web

  12. Use of lipase from Rhizomucor miehei in dry fermented sausages elaboration: Microbial, chemical and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Zalacain, I; Zapelena, M J; De Peña, M P; Astiasarán, I; Bello, J

    1997-01-01

    Three different amounts of lipase (0.075, 0.100 and 0.150 LU/g) from Rhizomucor miehei (Palatase M 200L Novo Nordisk) were used to determine the correct amount to use in dry fermented sausages. Determination of acidity values through fourteen days of ripening showed that 0.100 LU/g was the most appropriate. Two types of fermented sausages were manufactured, addition of the enzyme being the only difference between them. Addition of Palatase did not affect product stability (pH and A(w)), and the growth of micro-organisms. In spite of the increase in acidity value, no rancidity developed as determined by both chemical and sensory analysis. Increases in the liberation of palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids were found when lipase was used. Juiciness and taste were slightly better in the sausages with Palatase than in those without, but these differences were not reflected in the overall acceptability.

  13. Evaluation of aroma generation of Lactococcus lactis with an electronic nose and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Méndez, N; Vallejo-Cordoba, B; González-Córdova, A F; Nevárez-Moorillón, G V; Rivera-Chavira, B

    2008-01-01

    There is an increased interest in exploring the potential of new Lactococcus lactis strains isolated from different natural ecosystems for the production of aroma compounds. Thus, the objective of this study was to screen the aroma generation of Lactococcus lactis strains isolated from different sources by an electronic nose and sensory evaluation for their potential use in starter cheese cultures. Twenty-three strains of Lactococcus lactis were isolated from dairy sources such as artisanal raw-milk cheeses, nondairy sources, and commercial starter cultures (industrial). All the strains were assessed for their ability to produce aromas by an electronic nose and sensory analysis after their incubation in milk. Some phenotypic characteristics of technological importance such as lactose fermentation, proteolytic activity, and citrate utilization were also evaluated. Lactococcus lactis strains showed clear phenotypic differences related to their isolation source. Strains isolated from raw-milk dairy products or commercial starter cultures presented faster lactose fermentation and proteolytic activity than those presented by strains isolated from nondairy sources. Additionally, strains isolated from dairy and nondairy sources presented better citrate utilization than strains isolated from commercial dairy starters. On the other hand, there was not a clear relationship between the source of isolation and the ability of lactococci strains to produce aroma. Principal components analysis of electronic nose data revealed 4 distinctive groups based on aroma profiles. Additionally, odor intensity scores (yogurt-like and Fresco cheese-like) for these 4 groups revealed the nature of their differences. In general, strains from dairy products presented intense yogurt-like and Fresco cheese-like aromas, with the latter being the most intense for one specific strain. On the other hand, the majority of wild strains from nondairy sources presented a stronger yogurt-like aroma, whereas

  14. A Computer-Based Content Analysis of Interview Texts: Numeric Description and Multivariate Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierschenk, B.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described by which cognitive structures in verbal data can be identified and categorized through numerical analysis and quantitative description. Transcriptions of interviews (in this case, the verbal statements of 40 researchers) are manually coded and subjected to analysis following the AaO (Agent action Object) paradigm. The texts…

  15. A Computer-Based Content Analysis of Interview Texts: Numeric Description and Multivariate Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierschenk, B.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described by which cognitive structures in verbal data can be identified and categorized through numerical analysis and quantitative description. Transcriptions of interviews (in this case, the verbal statements of 40 researchers) are manually coded and subjected to analysis following the AaO (Agent action Object) paradigm. The texts…

  16. The efficacy of molecular markers analysis with integration of sensory methods in detection of aroma in rice.

    PubMed

    Yeap, H Y; Faruq, G; Zakaria, H P; Harikrishna, J A

    2013-01-01

    Allele Specific Amplification with four primers (External Antisense Primer, External Sense Primer, Internal Nonfragrant Sense Primer, and Internal Fragrant Antisense Primer) and sensory evaluation with leaves and grains were executed to identify aromatic rice genotypes and their F1 individuals derived from different crosses of 2 Malaysian varieties with 4 popular land races and 3 advance lines. Homozygous aromatic (fgr/fgr) F1 individuals demonstrated better aroma scores compared to both heterozygous nonaromatic (FGR/fgr) and homozygous nonaromatic (FGR/FGR) individuals, while, some F1 individuals expressed aroma in both leaf and grain aromatic tests without possessing the fgr allele. Genotypic analysis of F1 individuals for the fgr gene represented homozygous aromatic, heterozygous nonaromatic and homozygous nonaromatic genotypes in the ratio 20:19:3. Genotypic and phenotypic analysis revealed that aroma in F1 individuals was successfully inherited from the parents, but either molecular analysis or sensory evaluation alone could not determine aromatic condition completely. The integration of molecular analysis with sensory methods was observed as rapid and reliable for the screening of aromatic genotypes because molecular analysis could distinguish aromatic homozygous, nonaromatic homozygous and nonaromatic heterozygous individuals, whilst the sensory method facilitated the evaluation of aroma emitted from leaf and grain during flowering to maturity stages.

  17. Comparison of cook loss, shear force, and sensory descriptive profiles of broiler breast fillets cooked from a frozen state and cooked after freeze/thaw

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four replications were conducted to compare quality measurements, cook loss, shear force, and sensory quality profiles of cooked broiler breast meat (pectoralis major) prepared directly from a frozen state and prepared after freeze/thaw. In each replication, fresh broiler fillets (removed from carca...

  18. Survival analysis applied to the sensory shelf-life dating of high hydrostatic pressure processed avocado and mango pulps.

    PubMed

    Jacobo-Velázquez, D A; Ramos-Parra, P A; Hernández-Brenes, C

    2010-08-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) pasteurized and refrigerated avocado and mango pulps contain lower microbial counts and thus are safer and acceptable for human consumption for a longer period of time, when compared to fresh unprocessed pulps. However, during their commercial shelf life, changes in their sensory characteristics take place and eventually produce the rejection of these products by consumers. Therefore, in the present study, the use of sensory evaluation was proposed for the shelf-life determinations of HHP-processed avocado and mango pulps. The study focused on evaluating the feasibility of applying survival analysis methodology to the data generated by consumers in order to determine the sensory shelf lives of both HHP-treated pulps of avocado and mango. Survival analysis proved to be an effective methodology for the estimation of the sensory shelf life of avocado and mango pulps processed with HHP, with potential application for other pressurized products. Practical Application: At present, HHP processing is one of the most effective alternatives for the commercial nonthermal pasteurization of fresh tropical fruits. HHP processing improves the microbial stability of the fruit pulps significantly; however, the products continue to deteriorate during their refrigerated storage mainly due to the action of residual detrimental enzymes. This article proposes the application of survival analysis methodology for the determination of the sensory shelf life of HHP-treated avocado and mango pulps. Results demonstrated that the procedure appears to be simple and practical for the sensory shelf-life determination of HHP-treated foods when their main mode of failure is not caused by increases in microbiological counts that can affect human health.

  19. Patients' views on early sensory relearning following nerve repair-a Q-methodology study.

    PubMed

    Vikström, Pernilla; Carlsson, Ingela; Rosén, Birgitta; Björkman, Anders

    2017-09-26

    Descriptive study. Early sensory relearning where the dynamic capacity of the brain is used has been shown to improve sensory outcome after nerve repair. However, no previous studies have examined how patients experience early sensory relearning. To describe patient's views on early sensory relearning. Statements' scores were analyzed by factor analysis. Thirty-seven consecutive adult patients with median and/or ulnar nerve repair who completed early sensory relearning were included. Three factors were identified, explaining 45% of the variance: (1) "Believe sensory relearning is meaningful, manage to get an illusion of touch and complete the sensory relearning"; (2) "Do not get an illusion of touch easily and need support in their sensory relearning" (3) "Are not motivated, manage to get an illusion of touch but do not complete sensory relearning". Many patients succeed in implementing their sensory relearning. However, a substantial part of the patient population need more support, have difficulties to create illusion of touch, and lack motivation to complete the sensory relearning. To enhance motivation and meaningfulness by relating the training clearly to everyday occupations and to the patient's life situation is a suggested way to proceed. The three unique factors indicate motivation and sense of meaningfulness as key components which should be taken into consideration in developing programs for person-centered early sensory relearning. 3. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical significance in nursing research: A discussion and descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Polit, Denise F

    2017-05-10

    It is widely understood that statistical significance should not be equated with clinical significance, but the topic of clinical significance has not received much attention in the nursing literature. By contrast, interest in conceptualizing and operationalizing clinical significance has been a "hot topic" in other health care fields for several decades. The major purpose of this paper is to briefly describe recent advances in defining and quantifying clinical significance. The overview covers both group-level indicators of clinical significance (e.g., effect size indexes), and individual-level benchmarks (e.g., the minimal important change index). A secondary purpose is to describe the extent to which developments in clinical significance have penetrated the nursing literature. A descriptive analysis of a sample of primary research articles published in three high-impact nursing research journals in 2016 was undertaken. A total of 362 articles were electronically searched for terms relating to statistical and clinical significance. Of the 362 articles, 261 were reports of quantitative studies, the vast majority of which (93%) included a formal evaluation of the statistical significance of the results. By contrast, the term "clinical significance" or related surrogate terms were found in only 33 papers, and most often the term was used informally, without explicit definition or assessment. Raising consciousness about clinical significance should be an important priority among nurse researchers. Several recommendations are offered to improve the visibility and salience of clinical significance in nursing science. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Coblation tonsillectomy: a systematic review and descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Christopher; Muzaffar, Jameel; Daultrey, Charles; Coulson, Christopher

    2017-03-18

    Coblation is one of the more recent techniques for tonsillectomy; however, it remains unclear whether it exhibits any benefit or increased risk when compared to other techniques. This review provides an updated assessment of coblation tonsillectomy and how it compares to other tonsillectomy techniques. Systematic review and descriptive analysis of published literature. Electronic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Database were performed. We included all randomized control trials comparing coblation tonsillectomy (not 'tonsillotomy') with any other tonsillectomy technique. Studies were excluded if tonsils, rather than individuals, were randomized. 16 eligible studies were identified, including a total of 567 patients, both adults and children. Coblation was compared with a variety of other tonsillectomy techniques. Outcomes included pain, primary and secondary haemorrhage, intraoperative bleeding and operation time. Postoperative pain was the primary outcome in most studies. There was a trend towards less pain in the coblation group in seven of the included studies. More recent studies appeared to fare more favourably in terms of pain outcomes and operating time. The coblation technique appears to be comparable with other commonly employed techniques for tonsillectomy; however, there is still no strong evidence to suggest that it possesses any definitive benefits. Findings would advocate further work being done through carefully designed randomised control trials, which compare coblation with cold dissection as the 'gold standard' and place an emphasis on reducing the amount of adjuvant electrocautery used so as to maximise the benefits of coblation and the lower temperature it generates.

  2. Sensory Correlations in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Grannemann, Bruce D.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Johnson, Danny G.; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Savla, Jayshree S.; Mehta, Jyutika A.; Schroeder, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between auditory, visual, touch, and oral sensory dysfunction in autism and their relationship to multisensory dysfunction and severity of autism. The Sensory Profile was completed on 104 persons with a diagnosis of autism, 3 to 56 years of age. Analysis showed a significant correlation between the different…

  3. Genome analysis and signature discovery for diving and sensory properties of the endangered Chinese alligator.

    PubMed

    Wan, Qiu-Hong; Pan, Sheng-Kai; Hu, Li; Zhu, Ying; Xu, Peng-Wei; Xia, Jin-Quan; Chen, Hui; He, Gen-Yun; He, Jing; Ni, Xiao-Wei; Hou, Hao-Long; Liao, Sheng-Guang; Yang, Hai-Qiong; Chen, Ying; Gao, Shu-Kun; Ge, Yun-Fa; Cao, Chang-Chang; Li, Peng-Fei; Fang, Li-Ming; Liao, Li; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Meng-Zhen; Dong, Wei; Fang, Sheng-Guo

    2013-09-01

    Crocodilians are diving reptiles that can hold their breath under water for long periods of time and are crepuscular animals with excellent sensory abilities. They comprise a sister lineage of birds and have no sex chromosome. Here we report the genome sequence of the endangered Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) and describe its unique features. The next-generation sequencing generated 314 Gb of raw sequence, yielding a genome size of 2.3 Gb. A total of 22 200 genes were predicted in Alligator sinensis using a de novo, homology- and RNA-based combined model. The genetic basis of long-diving behavior includes duplication of the bicarbonate-binding hemoglobin gene, co-functioning of routine phosphate-binding and special bicarbonate-binding oxygen transport, and positively selected energy metabolism, ammonium bicarbonate excretion and cardiac muscle contraction. Further, we elucidated the robust Alligator sinensis sensory system, including a significantly expanded olfactory receptor repertoire, rapidly evolving nerve-related cellular components and visual perception, and positive selection of the night vision-related opsin and sound detection-associated otopetrin. We also discovered a well-developed immune system with a considerable number of lineage-specific antigen-presentation genes for adaptive immunity as well as expansion of the tripartite motif-containing C-type lectin and butyrophilin genes for innate immunity and expression of antibacterial peptides. Multifluorescence in situ hybridization showed that alligator chromosome 3, which encodes DMRT1, exhibits significant synteny with chicken chromosome Z. Finally, population history analysis indicated population admixture 0.60-1.05 million years ago, when the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was uplifted.

  4. Genome analysis and signature discovery for diving and sensory properties of the endangered Chinese alligator

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Qiu-Hong; Pan, Sheng-Kai; Hu, Li; Zhu, Ying; Xu, Peng-Wei; Xia, Jin-Quan; Chen, Hui; He, Gen-Yun; He, Jing; Ni, Xiao-Wei; Hou, Hao-Long; Liao, Sheng-Guang; Yang, Hai-Qiong; Chen, Ying; Gao, Shu-Kun; Ge, Yun-Fa; Cao, Chang-Chang; Li, Peng-Fei; Fang, Li-Ming; Liao, Li; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Meng-Zhen; Dong, Wei; Fang, Sheng-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Crocodilians are diving reptiles that can hold their breath under water for long periods of time and are crepuscular animals with excellent sensory abilities. They comprise a sister lineage of birds and have no sex chromosome. Here we report the genome sequence of the endangered Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) and describe its unique features. The next-generation sequencing generated 314 Gb of raw sequence, yielding a genome size of 2.3 Gb. A total of 22 200 genes were predicted in Alligator sinensis using a de novo, homology- and RNA-based combined model. The genetic basis of long-diving behavior includes duplication of the bicarbonate-binding hemoglobin gene, co-functioning of routine phosphate-binding and special bicarbonate-binding oxygen transport, and positively selected energy metabolism, ammonium bicarbonate excretion and cardiac muscle contraction. Further, we elucidated the robust Alligator sinensis sensory system, including a significantly expanded olfactory receptor repertoire, rapidly evolving nerve-related cellular components and visual perception, and positive selection of the night vision-related opsin and sound detection-associated otopetrin. We also discovered a well-developed immune system with a considerable number of lineage-specific antigen-presentation genes for adaptive immunity as well as expansion of the tripartite motif-containing C-type lectin and butyrophilin genes for innate immunity and expression of antibacterial peptides. Multifluorescence in situ hybridization showed that alligator chromosome 3, which encodes DMRT1, exhibits significant synteny with chicken chromosome Z. Finally, population history analysis indicated population admixture 0.60-1.05 million years ago, when the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was uplifted. PMID:23917531

  5. Does anodal transcranial direct current stimulation modulate sensory perception and pain? A meta-analysis study.

    PubMed

    Vaseghi, B; Zoghi, M; Jaberzadeh, S

    2014-09-01

    The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) on sensory (STh) and pain thresholds (PTh) in healthy individuals and pain levels (PL) in patients with chronic pain. Electronic databases were searched for a-tDCS studies. Methodological quality was examined using the PEDro and Downs and Black (D&B) assessment tools. a-tDCS of the primary motor cortex (M1) increases both STh (P<0.005, with the effect size of 22.19%) and PTh (P<0.001, effect size of 19.28%). In addition, STh was increased by a-tDCS of the primary sensory cortex (S1) (P<0.05 with an effect size of 4.34). Likewise, PL decreased significantly in the patient group following application of a-tDCS to both the M1 and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The average decrease in visual analogue score was 14.9% and 19.3% after applying a-tDCS on the M1 and DLPFC. Moreover, meta-analysis showed that in all subgroups (except a-tDCS of S1) active a-tDCS and sham stimulation produced significant differences. This review provides evidence for the effectiveness of a-tDCS in increasing STh/PTh in healthy group and decreasing PL in patients. However, due to small sample sizes in the included studies, our results should be interpreted cautiously. Given the level of blinding did not considered in inclusion criteria, the result of current study should be interpreted with caution. Site of stimulation should have a differential effect over pain relief. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluating current trends in psychiatric music therapy: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    , improvisation, songwriting, lyric analysis, and music and movement to address consumer objectives. Participants indicated they used therapeutic verbal skills and techniques such as humor, redirection, reinforcement, empathy, and affirmation in their clinical practice. Additionally, the results of this survey were compared to the psychiatric portion of a music therapy descriptive study published in 1979. Similarities and differences are discussed.

  7. Video Analysis of Sensory-Motor Features in Infants with Fragile X Syndrome at 9-12 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baranek, Grace T.; Danko, Cassandra D.; Skinner, Martie L.; Donald B., Jr.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Roberts, Jane E.; Mirrett, Penny L.

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized retrospective video analysis to distinguish sensory-motor patterns in infants with fragile X syndrome (FXS) (n=11) from other infants [i.e., autism (n=11), other developmental delay (n=10), typical (n=11)] at 9-12 months of age. Measures of development, autistic features, and FMRP were assessed at the time of entry into the…

  8. Is Sensory Over-Responsivity Distinguishable from Childhood Behavior Problems? A Phenotypic and Genetic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hulle, Carol A.; Schmidt, Nicole L.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although impaired sensory processing accompanies various clinical conditions, the question of its status as an independent disorder remains open. Our goal was to delineate the comorbidity (or lack thereof) between childhood psychopathology and sensory over-responsivity (SOR) in middle childhood using phenotypic and behavior-genetic…

  9. A quantitative sensory analysis of peripheral neuropathy in colorectal cancer and its exacerbation by oxaliplatin chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Barbosa, Mariana; Kosturakis, Alyssa K; Eng, Cathy; Wendelschafer-Crabb, Gwen; Kennedy, William R; Simone, Donald A; Wang, Xin S; Cleeland, Charles S; Dougherty, Patrick M

    2014-11-01

    Peripheral neuropathy caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy, especially platins and taxanes, is a widespread problem among cancer survivors that is likely to continue to expand in the future. However, little work to date has focused on understanding this challenge. The goal in this study was to determine the impact of colorectal cancer and cumulative chemotherapeutic dose on sensory function to gain mechanistic insight into the subtypes of primary afferent fibers damaged by chemotherapy. Patients with colorectal cancer underwent quantitative sensory testing before and then prior to each cycle of oxaliplatin. These data were compared with those from 47 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Patients showed significant subclinical deficits in sensory function before any therapy compared with healthy volunteers, and they became more pronounced in patients who received chemotherapy. Sensory modalities that involved large Aβ myelinated fibers and unmyelinated C fibers were most affected by chemotherapy, whereas sensory modalities conveyed by thinly myelinated Aδ fibers were less sensitive to chemotherapy. Patients with baseline sensory deficits went on to develop more symptom complaints during chemotherapy than those who had no baseline deficit. Patients who were tested again 6 to 12 months after chemotherapy presented with the most numbness and pain and also the most pronounced sensory deficits. Our results illuminate a mechanistic connection between the pattern of effects on sensory function and the nerve fiber types that appear to be most vulnerable to chemotherapy-induced toxicity, with implications for how to focus future work to ameloirate risks of peripheral neuropathy.

  10. A Meta-Analysis of Sensory Modulation Symptoms in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Sasson, Ayelet; Hen, Liat; Fluss, Ronen; Cermak, Sharon A.; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Gal, Eynat

    2009-01-01

    Sensory modulation symptoms are common in persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); however have a heterogeneous presentation. Results from 14 studies indicated a significant high difference between ASD and typical groups in the presence/frequency of sensory symptoms, with the greatest difference in under-responsivity, followed by…

  11. A Meta-Analysis of Sensory Modulation Symptoms in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Sasson, Ayelet; Hen, Liat; Fluss, Ronen; Cermak, Sharon A.; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Gal, Eynat

    2009-01-01

    Sensory modulation symptoms are common in persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); however have a heterogeneous presentation. Results from 14 studies indicated a significant high difference between ASD and typical groups in the presence/frequency of sensory symptoms, with the greatest difference in under-responsivity, followed by…

  12. Is Sensory Over-Responsivity Distinguishable from Childhood Behavior Problems? A Phenotypic and Genetic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hulle, Carol A.; Schmidt, Nicole L.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although impaired sensory processing accompanies various clinical conditions, the question of its status as an independent disorder remains open. Our goal was to delineate the comorbidity (or lack thereof) between childhood psychopathology and sensory over-responsivity (SOR) in middle childhood using phenotypic and behavior-genetic…

  13. Sensory Neuronopathies.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Allison; Gwathmey, Kelly G

    2017-08-23

    The sensory neuronopathies are sensory-predominant polyneuropathies that result from damage to the dorsal root and trigeminal sensory ganglia. This review explores the various causes of acquired sensory neuronopathies, the approach to diagnosis, and treatment. Diagnostic criteria have recently been published and validated to allow differentiation of sensory neuronopathies from other polyneuropathies. On the basis of serial electrodiagnostic studies, the treatment window for the acquired sensory neuronopathies has been identified as approximately 8 months. If treatment is initiated within 2 months of symptom onset, there is a better opportunity for improvement of the patient's condition. Even though sensory neuronopathies are rare, significant progress has been made regarding characterization of their clinical, electrophysiologic, and imaging features. This does not hold true, however, for treatment. There have been no randomized controlled clinical trials to guide management of these diseases, and a standard treatment approach remains undetermined.

  14. A Framework for Establishing Standard Reference Scale of Texture by Multivariate Statistical Analysis Based on Instrumental Measurement and Sensory Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Ruicong; Zhao, Lei; Xie, Nan; Wang, Houyin; Shi, Bolin; Shi, Jingye

    2016-01-13

    A framework of establishing standard reference scale (texture) is proposed by multivariate statistical analysis according to instrumental measurement and sensory evaluation. Multivariate statistical analysis is conducted to rapidly select typical reference samples with characteristics of universality, representativeness, stability, substitutability, and traceability. The reasonableness of the framework method is verified by establishing standard reference scale of texture attribute (hardness) with Chinese well-known food. More than 100 food products in 16 categories were tested using instrumental measurement (TPA test), and the result was analyzed with clustering analysis, principal component analysis, relative standard deviation, and analysis of variance. As a result, nine kinds of foods were determined to construct the hardness standard reference scale. The results indicate that the regression coefficient between the estimated sensory value and the instrumentally measured value is significant (R(2) = 0.9765), which fits well with Stevens's theory. The research provides reliable a theoretical basis and practical guide for quantitative standard reference scale establishment on food texture characteristics.

  15. Evaluation of volatiles from two subtropical strawberry cultivars using GC-olfactometry, GC-MS odor activity values, and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaofen; Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth; Rouseff, Russell

    2011-12-14

    Most strawberry flavor studies have examined berries grown in temperate regions with long summer days. Few studies have examined berries harvested in winter months from subtropical regions with shorter photoperiods. Fruits harvested in February and March from two strawberry cultivars, 'Strawberry Festival' and 'Florida Radiance', were examined. Thirty odor active compounds were detected using time-intensity GC-O. Twenty-nine were identified. The major odor active volatiles in both cultivars were 2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMMF), 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMHF), methyl butanoate, γ-decalactone, unknown (grassy, LRI 1362, wax), (E)-2-hexenal, linalool, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, geraniol, butanoic acid, methyl 2-methylbutanoate, and ethyl hexanoate. Over 90 volatiles were identified and 54 quantified using GC-MS including 33 esters, 6 alcohols, 5 acids, 3 aldehydes, 3 lactones, 2 ketones, and 2 furanones. Odor activity values (OAVs) were determined for 46 volatiles, of which 22 had OAV > 1. The highest OAVs for 'Strawberry Festival' were ethyl butanoate (461), DMHF (424), methyl butanoate (358), and linalool (102). A 14-member trained panel evaluated quartered fruit using quantitative descriptive analysis to quantify seven sensory attributes. Sensory "strawberry flavor" scores were positively correlated with sensory "sweetness" (R(2) = 0.83) as well as GC-MS methyl 3-methylbutanoate (R(2) = 0.90) and ethyl butanoate (R(2) = 0.96). These cultivars lacked methyl anthranilate and possessed an aroma pattern different from summer-grown strawberries.

  16. ACTS Aeronautical Terminal Experiment System Description and Link Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, Philip; Raquet, Charles; Reinhart, Richard; Nakamura, Dan

    1996-01-01

    During the summer of 1994, the performance of an experimental mobile satellite communication system was demonstrated to industry and government representatives by the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The system was based on the advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) and consisted of a K-/Ka-band active monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) phased array antenna system, ACTS mobile terminal (AMT) and link evaluation terminal (LET). A LeRC research aircraft, Learjet model 25, was outfitted with the active MMIC phased array antenna system and AMT and served as the experimental 20/30 Ghz aeronautical terminal. The LET at LeRC in Cleveland, OH, was interfaced with portions of fixed-AMT equipment and together provided the gateway station functions including ACTS interface and public service telephone network (PSTN) interface. The ACTS was operated in its microwave switch matrix (MSM) mode with a spot beam for the Learjet and another spot beam dedicated to the LET. The Learjet was flown over several major cities across the US and demonstrated the feasibility of a full-duplex compressed voice links for an aeronautical terminal through the 20/30 Ghz ACTS channel. This paper presents a technical description of the system including the MMIC phased array antenna system, AMT, Learjet, LET, and ACTS. The array antenna system consists of a 30 Ghz transmit array (LeRc/Texas Instruments) and two 20 Ghz receive arrays (USAF Rome Lab., Boeing, and Martin Marietta), each one very small with sufficient performance for a satellite voice link. The AMT consists of 2.4/4.8/9.6 Kbps voice coder/decoder, modem, PSTN interface and RF/IF converters. Link analysis is presented and compared to the actual performance data collected during the demonstration flights.

  17. ACTS aeronautical terminal experiment: System description and link analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, Philip; Raquet, Charles; Reinhart, Richard; Nakamura, Dan

    1995-01-01

    During the summer of 1994, the performance of an experimental mobile satellite communication system was demonstrated to the industry and government representatives by the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The system was based on the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) and consisted of an K-/Ka-band active MMIC phased array antenna system, ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) and Link Evaluation Terminal (LET). A LeRC research aircraft, Learjet Model 25, was outfitted with the active MMIC phased array antenna system and AMT and served as the experimental 20/30 Ghz aeronautical terminal. The LET at LeRC in Cleveland, OH was interfaced with portions of fixed-AMT equipment and together provided the gateway station functions including ACTS satellite interface and Public Service Telephone Network (PSTN) interface. The ACTS was operated in its Microwave Switch Matrix (MSM) mode with a spot beam for the Learjet and another spot beam dedicated to the LET. The Learjet was flown over several major cities across the US and demonstrated the feasibility of full-duplex compressed voice link for an aeronautical terminal through the 20/30 Ghz ACTS satellite channel. This paper will present a technical description of the system including the MMIC phased array antenna system, AMT, Learjet, LET and ACTS satellite. The array antenna system consists of a 30 Ghz transmit array (LeRC/Texas Instruments) and two 20 Ghz receive arrays (USAF Rome Lab/Boeing and Martin Marietta), each one very small with sufficient performance for satellite voice link. The AMT consists of 2.4/4.8/9.6 Kbps voice coder/decoder, modem, PSTN interface and RF/IF converters. Link analysis will be presented and compared to the actual performance data collected during the demonstration flights.

  18. ACTS Aeronautical Terminal Experiment System Description and Link Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, Philip; Raquet, Charles; Reinhart, Richard; Nakamura, Dan

    1996-01-01

    During the summer of 1994, the performance of an experimental mobile satellite communication system was demonstrated to industry and government representatives by the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The system was based on the advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) and consisted of a K-/Ka-band active monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) phased array antenna system, ACTS mobile terminal (AMT) and link evaluation terminal (LET). A LeRC research aircraft, Learjet model 25, was outfitted with the active MMIC phased array antenna system and AMT and served as the experimental 20/30 Ghz aeronautical terminal. The LET at LeRC in Cleveland, OH, was interfaced with portions of fixed-AMT equipment and together provided the gateway station functions including ACTS interface and public service telephone network (PSTN) interface. The ACTS was operated in its microwave switch matrix (MSM) mode with a spot beam for the Learjet and another spot beam dedicated to the LET. The Learjet was flown over several major cities across the US and demonstrated the feasibility of a full-duplex compressed voice links for an aeronautical terminal through the 20/30 Ghz ACTS channel. This paper presents a technical description of the system including the MMIC phased array antenna system, AMT, Learjet, LET, and ACTS. The array antenna system consists of a 30 Ghz transmit array (LeRc/Texas Instruments) and two 20 Ghz receive arrays (USAF Rome Lab., Boeing, and Martin Marietta), each one very small with sufficient performance for a satellite voice link. The AMT consists of 2.4/4.8/9.6 Kbps voice coder/decoder, modem, PSTN interface and RF/IF converters. Link analysis is presented and compared to the actual performance data collected during the demonstration flights.

  19. ACTS aeronautical terminal experiment: System description and link analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, Philip; Raquet, Charles; Reinhart, Richard; Nakamura, Dan

    1995-01-01

    During the summer of 1994, the performance of an experimental mobile satellite communication system was demonstrated to the industry and government representatives by the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The system was based on the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) and consisted of an K-/Ka-band active MMIC phased array antenna system, ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) and Link Evaluation Terminal (LET). A LeRC research aircraft, Learjet Model 25, was outfitted with the active MMIC phased array antenna system and AMT and served as the experimental 20/30 Ghz aeronautical terminal. The LET at LeRC in Cleveland, OH was interfaced with portions of fixed-AMT equipment and together provided the gateway station functions including ACTS satellite interface and Public Service Telephone Network (PSTN) interface. The ACTS was operated in its Microwave Switch Matrix (MSM) mode with a spot beam for the Learjet and another spot beam dedicated to the LET. The Learjet was flown over several major cities across the US and demonstrated the feasibility of full-duplex compressed voice link for an aeronautical terminal through the 20/30 Ghz ACTS satellite channel. This paper will present a technical description of the system including the MMIC phased array antenna system, AMT, Learjet, LET and ACTS satellite. The array antenna system consists of a 30 Ghz transmit array (LeRC/Texas Instruments) and two 20 Ghz receive arrays (USAF Rome Lab/Boeing and Martin Marietta), each one very small with sufficient performance for satellite voice link. The AMT consists of 2.4/4.8/9.6 Kbps voice coder/decoder, modem, PSTN interface and RF/IF converters. Link analysis will be presented and compared to the actual performance data collected during the demonstration flights.

  20. Monitoring the sensory quality of canned white asparagus through cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Arana, Inés; Ibañez, Francisco C; Torre, Paloma

    2016-05-01

    White asparagus is one of the 30 vegetables most consumed in the world. This paper unifies the stages of their sensory quality control. The aims of this work were to describe the sensory properties of canned white asparagus and their quality control and to evaluate the applicability of agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) for classifying and monitoring the sensory quality of manufacturers. Sixteen sensory descriptors and their evaluation technique were defined. The sensory profile of canned white asparagus was high flavor characteristic, little acidity and bitterness, medium firmness and very light fibrosity, among other characteristics. The dendrogram established groups of manufacturers that had similar scores in the same set of descriptors, and each cluster grouped the manufacturers that had a similar quality profile. The sensory profile of canned white asparagus was clearly defined through the intensity evaluation of 16 descriptors, and the sensory quality report provided to the manufacturers is in detail and of easy interpretation. AHC grouped the manufacturers according to the highest quality scores in certain descriptors and is a useful tool because it is very visual. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Analysis of cutaneous sensory neurons in transgenic mice lacking the low affinity neurotrophin receptor p75.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, I; Priestley, J V; McMahon, S B; Bröcker, E B; Toyka, K V; Koltzenburg, M

    1997-01-01

    Mice with a targeted mutation of the p75 low affinity neurotrophin receptor display smaller peripheral nerves and dorsal root ganglia. Here we show that transgenic mice have a significant elevation of thresholds to noxious mechanical and heat stimuli compared with p75+/+ control mice. Immunocytochemical analysis using antibodies against PGP 9.5 (a panaxonal marker) and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP, which labels peptidergic neurons) showed a reduction to 73% and 54%, respectively, of the epidermal innervation density. However, analysis of the cell size distribution of toluidine blue-stained dorsal root ganglia showed no selective loss of neurons of particular diameters. Moreover, the neurochemical profile of dorsal root ganglia cells as defined by trkA, CGRP, IB4 and RT97 immunostaining revealed no significant differences in comparison with p75+/+ animals. Staining of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord for CGRP and IB4 was also normal in p75-/- animals. Taking into account a previously reported loss of approximately 50% dorsal root ganglion neurons, we conclude that all types of sensory neurons are equally depleted in p75-/- mice and that the absence of p75 impedes the development of more than one neuronal subtype.

  2. Pathway Analysis of Smoking Quantity in Multiple GWAS Identifies Cholinergic and Sensory Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Harari, Oscar; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Bucholz, Kathleen; Edenberg, Howard J.; Heath, Andrew; Martin, Nicholas G.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Montgomery, Grant; Schrage, Andrew; Bierut, Laura J.; Madden, Pamela F.; Goate, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a common addiction that increases the risk for many diseases, including lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified and validated several susceptibility loci for nicotine consumption and dependence. However, the trait variance explained by these genes is only a small fraction of the estimated genetic risk. Pathway analysis complements single marker methods by including biological knowledge into the evaluation of GWAS, under the assumption that causal variants lie in functionally related genes, enabling the evaluation of a broad range of signals. Our approach to the identification of pathways enriched for multiple genes associated with smoking quantity includes the analysis of two studies and the replication of common findings in a third dataset. This study identified pathways for the cholinergic receptors, which included SNPs known to be genome-wide significant; as well as novel pathways, such as genes involved in the sensory perception of smell, that do not contain any single SNP that achieves that stringent threshold. PMID:23227220

  3. Characterisation of volatile profile and sensory analysis of fresh-cut "Radicchio di Chioggia" stored in air or modified atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, Rosaria; Martignetti, Antonella; Pellicano, Mario Paolo; Stocchero, Matteo; Cefola, Maria; Pace, Bernardo; De Giulio, Beatrice

    2016-02-01

    The volatile profile of two hybrids of "Radicchio di Chioggia", Corelli and Botticelli, stored in air or passive modified atmosphere (MAP) during 12 days of cold storage, was monitored by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) GC-MS. Botticelli samples were also subjected to sensory analysis. Totally, 61 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified in the headspace of radicchio samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that fresh product possessed a metabolic content similar to that of the MAP samples after 5 and 8 days of storage. Projection to latent structures by partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis showed the volatiles content of the samples varied depending only on the packaging conditions. Specifically, 12 metabolites describing the time evolution and explaining the effects of the different storage conditions were highlighted. Finally, a PCA analysis revealed that VOCs profile significantly correlated with sensory attributes.

  4. How do older people describe their sensory experiences of the natural world? A systematic review of the qualitative evidence.

    PubMed

    Orr, Noreen; Wagstaffe, Alexandra; Briscoe, Simon; Garside, Ruth

    2016-06-01

    Despite the increased scholarly interest in the senses and sensory experiences, the topic of older people's sensory engagement with nature is currently under researched. This paper reviews and synthesises qualitative research evidence about how older people, including those living with dementia, describe their sensory engagement with the natural world. Ten databases were searched from 1990 to September 2014: MEDLINE (Ovid), MEDLINE-in-Process (Ovid), PsycINFO (Ovid), CINAHL (EBSCO), GreenFILE (EBSCO), ProQuest Sociology, ASSIA (ProQuest), International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (ProQuest); HMIC (Ovid); Social Policy and Practice (Ovid). Forward and backward citation chasing of included articles was conducted; 20 organizations were contacted to identify unpublished reports. Screening was undertaken independently by two reviewers. Twenty seven studies were included. Thematic analysis revealed that descriptions of sensory experiences are encompassed within six themes: descriptions from 'the window'; sensory descriptions that emphasise vision; descriptions of 'being in nature'; descriptions of 'doing in nature'; barriers to sensory engagement; and meanings of being and doing in nature. Older people derive considerable pleasure and enjoyment from viewing nature, being and doing in nature which, in turn has a positive impact on their wellbeing and quality of life. Future research could usefully explore how sensory engagement with nature could be used to stimulate reminiscences of places and people, and evoke past sensory experiences to enrich everyday life and maintain a sense of self. The protocol was registered with PROSPERO ( CRD42015020736 ).

  5. Sensory development.

    PubMed

    Clark-Gambelunghe, Melinda B; Clark, David A

    2015-04-01

    Sensory development is complex, with both morphologic and neural components. Development of the senses begins in early fetal life, initially with structures and then in-utero stimulation initiates perception. After birth, environmental stimulants accelerate each sensory organ to nearly complete maturity several months after birth. Vision and hearing are the best studied senses and the most crucial for learning. This article focuses on the cranial senses of vision, hearing, smell, and taste. Sensory function, embryogenesis, external and genetic effects, and common malformations that may affect development are discussed, and the corresponding sensory organs are examined and evaluated.

  6. A meta-analysis of sensory modulation symptoms in individuals with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Ben-Sasson, Ayelet; Hen, Liat; Fluss, Ronen; Cermak, Sharon A; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Gal, Eynat

    2009-01-01

    Sensory modulation symptoms are common in persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); however have a heterogeneous presentation. Results from 14 studies indicated a significant high difference between ASD and typical groups in the presence/frequency of sensory symptoms, with the greatest difference in under-responsivity, followed by over-responsivity and sensation seeking. Three moderators that reduced the variability in findings among studies were: chronological age, severity of autism, and type of control group. Sensory differences were highest for studies of children ages 6-9 years, samples with more than 80% with an autism diagnosis, and compared to a CA matched versus a MA or DD matched group. It is important to consider these moderators in the design of studies and interventions addressing sensory symptoms.

  7. A Descriptive Analysis of Neck Myoclonus During Routine Polysomnography

    PubMed Central

    Frauscher, Birgit; Brandauer, Elisabeth; Gschliesser, Viola; Falkenstetter, Tina; Furtner, Martin T.; Ulmer, Hanno; Poewe, Werner; Högl, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    : Frauscher B; Brandauer E; Gschliesser V; Falkenstetter T; Furtner MT; Ulmer H; Poewe W; Högl B. A descriptive analysis of neck myoclonus during routine polysomnography. SLEEP 2010;33(8):1091-1096. PMID:20815192

  8. Website Sharing in Online Health Communities: A Descriptive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Chinmoy; Huh, Jina; Adupa, Abhishek Kalyan

    2016-01-01

    Background An increasing number of people visit online health communities to seek health information. In these communities, people share experiences and information with others, often complemented with links to different websites. Understanding how people share websites can help us understand patients’ needs in online health communities and improve how peer patients share health information online. Objective Our goal was to understand (1) what kinds of websites are shared, (2) information quality of the shared websites, (3) who shares websites, (4) community differences in website-sharing behavior, and (5) the contexts in which patients share websites. We aimed to find practical applications and implications of website-sharing practices in online health communities. Methods We used regular expressions to extract URLs from 10 WebMD online health communities. We then categorized the URLs based on their top-level domains. We counted the number of trust codes (eg, accredited agencies’ formal evaluation and PubMed authors’ institutions) for each website to assess information quality. We used descriptive statistics to determine website-sharing activities. To understand the context of the URL being discussed, we conducted a simple random selection of 5 threads that contained at least one post with URLs from each community. Gathering all other posts in these threads resulted in 387 posts for open coding analysis with the goal of understanding motivations and situations in which website sharing occurred. Results We extracted a total of 25,448 websites. The majority of the shared websites were .com (59.16%, 15,056/25,448) and WebMD internal (23.2%, 5905/25,448) websites; the least shared websites were social media websites (0.15%, 39/25,448). High-posting community members and moderators posted more websites with trust codes than low-posting community members did. The heart disease community had the highest percentage of websites containing trust codes compared to

  9. Sensory and instrumental analysis for slipperiness and compliance of food during swallowing.

    PubMed

    Seo, H-S; Hwang, I K; Han, T R; Kim, I S

    2007-11-01

    In spite of its importance, there have been few attempts to evaluate the sensory attributes of the food bolus during swallowing. In the current study, the slipperiness, the degree of slide for the food bolus through the mucosal surface of the oro-pharynx, and the compliance, how easily the shape of a food bolus can be transformed for automatic and comfortable swallowing, were derived among several sensory attributes related to the swallowing. Therefore, the study aims were twofold: (1) to develop the methods of sensory and instrumental analyses for determining the slipperiness and compliance of the food bolus during swallowing and (2) to examine the appropriateness of the newly designed devices by correlating the data between the sensory and instrumental analyses. Six commercial food products were evaluated by 10 trained panelists for each attribute. The devices for assessing each attribute were developed in consideration of the oro-pharyngeal movements. The sensory and instrumental analyses showed high correlation and regression coefficients as well as intensity differences of the 6 samples for each attribute. In conclusion, the slipperiness and the compliance were suitable for acquiring a better understanding of the sensory attributes of the food bolus during swallowing, and the newly developed devices showed a high potential for determining those attributes.

  10. Exploring the College Enrollment of Parents: A Descriptive Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Laura W.; Fester, Rachel; Walsh, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Despite the substantial size of the population, relatively little research has focused on the status and experiences of undergraduate parents. Using descriptive analyses of data from the NPSAS:04, this study provides a starting point for campus administrators, public policymakers, and educational researchers who seek to identify ways to better…

  11. A Descriptive Analysis of High School Student Motivators for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, Janet Maria

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the quantitative descriptive study was to gain an understanding of the motivating factors leading high school students from rural and urban schools to receive a diploma. A revised version of the High School Motivation Scale (Close, 2001; Solberg et al., 2007) generated from SurveyMonkey.com was administered to high school graduates…

  12. Fermentation process for production of apple-based kefir vinegar: microbiological, chemical and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Viana, Roberta Oliveira; Magalhães-Guedes, Karina Teixeira; Braga, Roberto Alves; Dias, Disney Ribeiro; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    The aim of this study was to develop a kefir apple-based vinegar and evaluate this fermentation process using new methodology with Biospeckle Laser. Brazilian kefir grains were inoculated in apple must for vinegar production. In this study, the microbial community present in kefir, and correspondent vinegar, was investigated using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization - Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technique. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter syzygii were the microbial species identified. S. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, A. pasteurianus and A. syzygii were found in smaller quantities at the beginning of the alcoholic fermentation, but were found throughout the alcoholic and acetic fermentation. Kefir grains were able to utilize apple must as substrate to produce ethanol, and acetic acid. Acetate, volatile alcohols and aldehydes in the vinegar-based kefir were also produced. The yield of acetic acid in the kefir vinegars was ∼79%. The acetic acid concentration was ∼41gL(-1), reaching the required standard for the Brazilian legislation accepts it as vinegar (4.0% acetic acid). Kefir vinegar showed good acceptance in the sensory analysis. The technology proposed here is novel by the application of immobilized-cell biomass (kefir grains) providing a mixed inocula and eliminating the use of centrifuge at the end of the fermentative process. This step will save energy demand and investment. This is the first study to produce apple vinegar using kefir grains. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  13. Developing hexanal as an odor reference standard for sensory analysis of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Omür-Ozbek, Pinar; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2008-05-01

    There are many analytical and sensory methods to analyze drinking water for flavor and off-flavors before it reaches consumers. Flavor profile analysis (FPA) is one of the most comprehensive methods. A well-trained panel is essential for FPA and although taste standards are well established, FPA training lacks an odor reference standard. In search of an odor reference standard, four different panel groups were trained and tested for n-hexanal at various concentrations (1-1000 microg/L) over 14 months. The Weber-Fechner plots for n-hexanal showed a linear and overlapping relationship for all panels. Analytical measurements demonstrated that the headspace concentration of n-hexanal was constant after 5 sniffs at 45 degrees C and it remained constant during FPA sessions for up to 4 h. The panelists liked the grassy odor of n-hexanal, which did not result in fatigue, and testing demonstrated that approximately 95% of the population can detect n-hexanal's odor. n-Hexanal is proposed as an odor reference standard for FPA training to define odor intensities because it is chemically stable, follows Weber-Fechner law, mimics grassy odors found in drinking water, and was acceptable to the human panelists.

  14. Source analysis of electrophysiological correlates of beat induction as sensory-guided action

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Neil P. M.; Lee, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a reanalysis of electrophysiological data originally collected to test a sensory-motor theory of beat induction (Todd et al., 2002; Todd and Seiss, 2004; Todd and Lee, 2015). The reanalysis is conducted in the light of more recent findings and in particular the demonstration that auditory evoked potentials contain a vestibular dependency. At the core of the analysis is a model which predicts brain dipole source current activity over time in temporal and frontal lobe areas during passive listening to a rhythm, or active synchronization, where it dissociates the frontal activity into distinct sources which can be identified as respectively pre-motor and motor in origin. The model successfully captures the main features of the rhythm in showing that the metrical structure is manifest in an increase in source current activity during strong compared to weak beats. In addition the outcomes of modeling suggest that: (1) activity in both temporal and frontal areas contribute to the metrical percept and that this activity is distributed over time; (2) transient, time-locked activity associated with anticipated beats is increased when a temporal expectation is confirmed following a previous violation, such as a syncopation; (3) two distinct processes are involved in auditory cortex, corresponding to tangential and radial (possibly vestibular dependent) current sources. We discuss the implications of these outcomes for the insights they give into the origin of metrical structure and the power of syncopation to induce movement and create a sense of groove. PMID:26321991

  15. Multi-Sensory Storytelling for Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: An Analysis of the Development, Content and Application in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ten Brug, Annet; van der Putten, Annette; Penne, Anneleen; Maes, Bea; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Background: Multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) books are individualized stories, which involve sensory stimulation in addition to verbal text. Despite the frequent use of MSST in practice, little research is conducted into its structure, content and effectiveness. This study aims at the analysis of the development, content and application in…

  16. Sensory nerves and pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingfu; Peng, Jie

    2014-11-01

    Sensory nerves are a kind of nerve that conduct afferent impulses from the periphery receptors to the central nervous system (CNS) and are able to release neuromediators from the activated peripheral endings. Sensory nerves are particularly important for microcirculatory response, and stimulation of pancreatic sensory nerves releases a variety of neuropeptides such as substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), etc., leading to neurogenic inflammation characterized as the local vasodilatation and plasma extravasation. Deactivation of sensory nerves often leads to the disturbances of pancreatic microcirculation. Pancreatitis is a common digestive disease that can lead to severe complications and even death if it goes untreated. Experimental studies in animals and tissue analysis in patients with pancreatitis have shown significant changes in sensory nerves supplying the pancreatic gland. Thus making clear the whole mechanism of pancreatitis is essential to treat and cure it. Sensory nerves may have a close correlation with the development of pancreatitis, and knowing more about the role of sensory nerve in pancreatitis is important for the treatment for pancreatitis. This review is aimed to summarize the relationship between sensory nerves and pancreatitis.

  17. Sensory Quality Preservation of Coated Walnuts.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Antonella L; Asensio, Claudia M; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensory stability of coated walnuts during storage. Four walnut samples were prepared: uncoated (NC), and samples coated with carboxymethyl cellulose (NCMC), methyl cellulose (NMC), or whey protein (NPS). The samples were stored at room temperature for 210 d and were periodically removed from storage to perform a sensory descriptive analysis. A consumer acceptance test was carried out on the fresh product (storage day 0) to evaluate flavor. All samples exhibited significant differences in their sensory attributes initially and after storage. Intensity ratings for oxidized and cardboard flavors increased during storage. NC showed the highest oxidized and cardboard intensity ratings (39 and 22, respectively) and NMC exhibited the lowest intensity ratings for these negative attributes (8 and 17, respectively) after 210 d of storage. Alternatively, the intensity ratings for sweetness and walnut flavors were decreased for all samples. NMC had the lowest decrease at the end of storage for these positive attributes (75.86 in walnut flavor and 12.09 in sweetness). The results of this study suggest a protective effect of the use of an edible coating to preserve sensory attributes during storage, especially for samples coated with MC. The results of the acceptance test showed that addition of the coating negatively affected the flavor acceptance for NMC and NCMC coated walnuts. Edible coatings help to preserve sensory attributes in walnuts, improving their shelf-life, however, these coatings may affect consumer acceptance in some cases.

  18. The Sensory Environment and Participation of Preschool Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Piller, Aimee; Pfeiffer, Beth

    2016-07-01

    Sensory processing is recognized as impacting participation for preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Little research exists to examine the impact of the sensory environment on the participation patterns of children with ASD, specifically from a contextual standpoint. The researchers in this study examined the viewpoint of teachers and occupational therapists on the sensory-related environmental barriers to participation within the preschool context. Qualitative descriptive methodology was used for data collection and analysis. Thirteen preschool teachers and occupational therapists were interviewed. Sensory aspects of the environment both inhibited and enhanced participation. Physical and temporal components of the environment are identified as being the most influential. Modifications of the environment are identified as increasing participation. It is important to consider the sensory aspects of the environment, in addition to the sensory processing patterns of the person in assessment and intervention planning within the preschool environment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Sensory mononeuropathies.

    PubMed

    Massey, E W

    1998-01-01

    The clinical neurologist frequently encounters patients with a variety of focal sensory symptoms and signs. This article reviews the clinical features, etiologies, laboratory findings, and management of the common sensory mononeuropathies including meralgia paresthetica, cheiralgia paresthetica, notalgia paresthetica, gonyalgia paresthetica, digitalgia paresthetica, intercostal neuropathy, and mental neuropathy.

  20. An Initial lexicon of sensory properties for nail polish.

    PubMed

    Sun, C; Koppel, K; Chambers, E

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an initial lexicon for sensory properties of nail polish and to validate this lexicon using a descriptive analysis study of selected samples. Seventeen commercial products from four categories (regular, flake-containing, water-based and gel) were used in this study. Descriptive sensory analysis was conducted in this study to characterize and evaluate application and removal properties of these nail polishes. Data was then processed by ANOVA, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Pearson's Correlation Coefficient analysis to explore the differences among samples and attributes. A lexicon of 21 sensory attributes was developed to describe the application of nail polish. It included three initial texture attributes, thirteen initial appearance attributes and five aroma attributes. A lexicon of five attributes in five stages was developed to describe the removal of nail polish. The results from ANOVA and PCA showed that attributes in the lexicon separated the different product categories. The results of this study indicated that descriptive sensory analysis can be used to evaluate nail polish. The results of this study present scientists who are working on nail polish an additional tool to describe application and removal properties of nail polish. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  1. Robotics/Automated Systems Task Analysis and Description of Required Job Competencies Report. Task Analysis and Description of Required Job Competencies of Robotics/Automated Systems Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Daniel M.; Lovett, James E.

    This task analysis report for the Robotics/Automated Systems Technician (RAST) curriculum project first provides a RAST job description. It then discusses the task analysis, including the identification of tasks, the grouping of tasks according to major areas of specialty, and the comparison of the competencies to existing or new courses to…

  2. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program: FY2011 Project Descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, Mary M.; Brown, Geoffrey W.; Warner, Kirstin F.; Remmers, Daniel L.; Whinnery, LeRoy L.; Shelley, Timothy J.; Reyes, Jose A.; Hsu, Peter C.; Reynolds, John G.

    2012-02-03

    This document provides brief descriptions of research topics for consideration by the IDCA for potential funding in funding in FY 2011. The topics include the utilization of the results from the Proficiency Test developed during FY 2010 to start populating the small-scale safety and thermal testing (SSST) Testing Compendium and revising results from methods modifications. Other research topics were also developed for FY 2011 from issues that arose in the Proficiency Test.

  3. Sensory evaluation and electronic tongue analysis for sweetener recognition in coke drinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szöllősi, Dániel; Kovács, Zoltán; Gere, Attila; Sípos, László; Kókai, Zoltán; Fekete, András

    2011-09-01

    Consumption of beverages with low energy has an increasing role. Furthermore hydrolyzed starch products such as inverted syrup show a wide application in the beverage industry. Therefore the importance of methods which can monitor the usage of natural and artificial sweeteners is increasing. The task was to describe the relevant sensory attributes and to determine the applicability of the electronic tongue to discriminate the coke drink samples with different sweeteners. Furthermore the aim was to find relationship between the taste attributes and measurement results provided by electronic tongue. An Alpha Astree Electronic Tongue and a trained sensory panel were used to evaluate the coke samples. Panelists found significant differences between the samples in 15 cases from the 18 sensory attributes defined previously by the consensus group. Coke drinks containing different kind of sweeteners can be characterized according to these sensory attributes. The samples were definitely distinguished by the electronic tongue. The main difference was found between the samples made with natural and artificial sweeteners. However electronic tongue was able to distinguish samples containing different kind of artificial and different kind of natural sweeteners, as well. Taste attributes of coke drinks determined by sensory panel were predicted by partial least squares regression method based on the results of electronic tongue with close correlation and low prediction error.

  4. [Analysis of 180 patients with sensory defect nystagmus (SDN) and congenital idiopathic nystagmus (CIN)].

    PubMed

    Lorenz, B; Gampe, E

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of the diseases underlying congenital nystagmus in a series of patients registered during 6 years as a prerequisite for adequate counselling of the families. Retrospective study of all patients that presented between 1992 and 1998 with congenital nystagmus not related to visual deprivation or acquired pathologies of the visual pathways. The patients were examined clinically and in dependence on the findings also by electrophysiological (Ganzfeld ERG and VEP, Albino-flash-VEP), psychophysical (colour vision, dark adaptation, spectral sensitivity), and molecular genetic methods. When estimated necessary, family members affected by history and unaffected family members were also examined. In cases of complex neuroophthalmological diseases a neuropaediatric examination including neuroimaging was initiated. In total, 180 patients could be analysed. A sensory defect nystagmus (SDN) was present in 142 patients (79%). The diagnoses were as follows: albinism (any form) in 56 patients (30%), progressive photoreceptor dystrophy in 20 patients (11%), stationary cone dysfunction in 18 patients (10%), bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia in 15 patients (8%), chorioretinal or optic nerve colobomata in 10 patients (6%), aniridia and its variants in 10 patients (6%), familial isolated nystagmus in 8 patients (5%), and congenital stationary night blindness in 5 patients (3%). 38 patients (21%) could not (yet) be classified. The prevalence of SDN as the manifesting symptom of a variety of well defined diseases in the present series of at least 79% is similar to that of 90% reported earlier. The precise diagnosis is a prerequisite for counselling the families as to functional prognosis and recurrence risk. Unnecessary neurological examinations including neuroimaging can be avoided.

  5. Descriptive Analysis in Education: A Guide for Researchers. NCEE 2017-4023

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Susanna; Dynarski, Susan; McFarland, Daniel; Morris, Pamela; Reardon, Sean; Reber, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Whether the goal is to identify and describe trends and variation in populations, create new measures of key phenomena, or describe samples in studies aimed at identifying causal effects, description plays a critical role in the scientific process in general and education research in particular. Descriptive analysis identifies patterns in data to…

  6. Descriptive and Experimental Analysis of Variables Maintaining Self-Injurious Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerman, Dorothea C.; Iwata, Brian A.

    1993-01-01

    Independent descriptive (correlational) and functional (experimental) analyses, conducted with six subjects with profound mental retardation exhibiting self-injurious behavior (SIB), found that the descriptive analysis was useful in identifying the extent to which SIB was related to social versus nonsocial contingencies but was limited in its…

  7. Hallucinations in schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease: an analysis of sensory modalities involved and the repercussion on patients

    PubMed Central

    Llorca, P. M.; Pereira, B.; Jardri, R.; Chereau-Boudet, I.; Brousse, G.; Misdrahi, D.; Fénelon, G.; Tronche, A.-M.; Schwan, R.; Lançon, C.; Marques, A.; Ulla, M.; Derost, P.; Debilly, B.; Durif, F.; de Chazeron, I.

    2016-01-01

    Hallucinations have been described in various clinical populations, but they are neither disorder nor disease specific. In schizophrenia patients, hallucinations are hallmark symptoms and auditory ones are described as the more frequent. In Parkinson’s disease, the descriptions of hallucination modalities are sparse, but the hallucinations do tend to have less negative consequences. Our study aims to explore the phenomenology of hallucinations in both hallucinating schizophrenia patients and Parkinson’s disease patients using the Psycho-Sensory hAllucinations Scale (PSAS). The main objective is to describe the phenomena of these clinical symptoms in those two specific populations. Each hallucinatory sensory modality significantly differed between Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia patients. Auditory, olfactory/gustatory and cœnesthetic hallucinations were more frequent in schizophrenia than visual hallucinations. The guardian angel item, usually not explored in schizophrenia, was described by 46% of these patients. The combination of auditory and visual hallucinations was the most frequent for both Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia. The repercussion index summing characteristics of each hallucination (frequency, duration, negative aspects, conviction, impact, control and sound intensity) was always higher for schizophrenia. A broader view including widespread characteristics and interdisciplinary works must be encouraged to better understand the complexity of the process involved in hallucinations. PMID:27905557

  8. Hallucinations in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease: an analysis of sensory modalities involved and the repercussion on patients.

    PubMed

    Llorca, P M; Pereira, B; Jardri, R; Chereau-Boudet, I; Brousse, G; Misdrahi, D; Fénelon, G; Tronche, A-M; Schwan, R; Lançon, C; Marques, A; Ulla, M; Derost, P; Debilly, B; Durif, F; de Chazeron, I

    2016-12-01

    Hallucinations have been described in various clinical populations, but they are neither disorder nor disease specific. In schizophrenia patients, hallucinations are hallmark symptoms and auditory ones are described as the more frequent. In Parkinson's disease, the descriptions of hallucination modalities are sparse, but the hallucinations do tend to have less negative consequences. Our study aims to explore the phenomenology of hallucinations in both hallucinating schizophrenia patients and Parkinson's disease patients using the Psycho-Sensory hAllucinations Scale (PSAS). The main objective is to describe the phenomena of these clinical symptoms in those two specific populations. Each hallucinatory sensory modality significantly differed between Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia patients. Auditory, olfactory/gustatory and cœnesthetic hallucinations were more frequent in schizophrenia than visual hallucinations. The guardian angel item, usually not explored in schizophrenia, was described by 46% of these patients. The combination of auditory and visual hallucinations was the most frequent for both Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. The repercussion index summing characteristics of each hallucination (frequency, duration, negative aspects, conviction, impact, control and sound intensity) was always higher for schizophrenia. A broader view including widespread characteristics and interdisciplinary works must be encouraged to better understand the complexity of the process involved in hallucinations.

  9. Description of the ARM Operational Objective Analysis System

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, M; Xie, S; Cederwall, RT; Yio, JJ

    2001-06-01

    This report describes the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) operational variational objective analysis system. It is currently used to process data collected from the ARM intensive operational periods (IOPs) for driving and evaluating physical parameterizations in climate models. The analysis system was originally developed by Zhang and Lin (1997) at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Stony Brook and was migrated to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as the ARM operational objective analysis system in May 1999. In contrast with previous objective analysis (e.g., Barnes 1964; O’Brien 1970; Lin and Johnson 1994) the ARM objective analysis used the constrained variational analysis method in which the atmospheric state variables are forced to satisfy the conservation of mass, heat, moisture, and momentum. The purpose of this technical report is to provide an overview of the constrained variational analysis method, the architecture of the objective analysis system, along with in-depth information on running the variational analysis codes.

  10. Sensory cutaneous nerve fine-needle aspiration in Hansen's disease: A retrospective analysis of our experience.

    PubMed

    Prasoon, Dev; Mandal, Swapan Kumar; Agrawal, Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Leprosy affects peripheral nerves. As Mycobacterium leprae has unique tropism for Schwann cells, thickened sensory cutaneous nerves provide an easy target for the detection of lepra bacilli and other changes associated with the disease. The data of patients with sensory cutaneous nerve involvement were retrieved from our record for the period January 2006 to December 2014. The hematoxylin and eosin (H and E)- and May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG)-stained slides were screened for Schwann cells, granuloma, and necrosis. Modified Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN)-stained smears were searched for lepra bacilli and globi. Morphological index was calculated in multibacillary lesions. Twenty-nine sensory cutaneous nerves were aspirated in 23 patients. While 15 cases showed skin and nerve involvement, 8 cases showed only nerve involvement. Terminal cutaneous branch of the radial nerve was most often aspirated. No motor loss was observed after aspiration. Five cytologic pictures were seen - Epithelioid cell granuloma only in 6 cases, epithelioid cell granuloma with necrosis in 1 case, epithelioid cell granuloma with lepra bacilli in 3 cases, necrosis with lepra bacilli in 1 case, and only lepra bacilli in 12 cases. Morphological index ranged from 20% to 80%. Sensory cutaneous nerve fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a feasible, viable, effective, and safe procedure. It adds to diagnostic FNA yield in patients with concomitant skin involvement and offers a way to evaluate patients with only nerve involvement. Calculation of morphological index allows prognostication and may have a role in assessing response to therapy and/or relapse.

  11. A molecular analysis of neurogenic placode and cranial sensory ganglion development in the shark, Scyliorhinus canicula

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, P.; McCole, R. B.; Baker, C. V. H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the evolution of the genetic control of the development of cranial neurogenic placodes and cranial sensory ganglia in vertebrates, we cloned and analysed the spatiotemporal expression pattern of six transcription factor genes in a chondrichthyan, the shark Scyliorhinus canicula (lesser-spotted dogfish/catshark). As in other vertebrates, NeuroD is expressed in all cranial sensory ganglia. We show that Pax3 is expressed in the profundal placode and ganglion, strongly supporting homology between the separate profundal ganglion of elasmobranchs and basal actinopterygians and the ophthalmic trigeminal placode-derived neurons of the fused amniote trigeminal ganglion. We show that Pax2 is a conserved pan-gnathostome marker for epibranchial and otic placodes, and confirm that Phox2b is a conserved pan-gnathostome marker for epibranchial placode-derived neurons. We identify Eya4 as a novel marker for the lateral line system throughout its development, expressed in lateral line placodes, sensory ridges and migrating primordia, neuromasts and electroreceptors. We also identify Tbx3 as a specific marker for lateral line ganglia in shark embryos. We use the spatiotemporal expression pattern of these genes to characterise the development of neurogenic placodes and cranial sensory ganglia in the dogfish, with a focus on the epibranchial and lateral line placodes. Our findings demonstrate the evolutionary conservation across all gnathostomes of at least some of the transcription factor networks underlying neurogenic placode development. PMID:17234174

  12. A molecular analysis of neurogenic placode and cranial sensory ganglion development in the shark, Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, P; McCole, R B; Baker, C V H

    2007-04-01

    In order to gain insight into the evolution of the genetic control of the development of cranial neurogenic placodes and cranial sensory ganglia in vertebrates, we cloned and analysed the spatiotemporal expression pattern of six transcription factor genes in a chondrichthyan, the shark Scyliorhinus canicula (lesser-spotted dogfish/catshark). As in other vertebrates, NeuroD is expressed in all cranial sensory ganglia. We show that Pax3 is expressed in the profundal placode and ganglion, strongly supporting homology between the separate profundal ganglion of elasmobranchs and basal actinopterygians and the ophthalmic trigeminal placode-derived neurons of the fused amniote trigeminal ganglion. We show that Pax2 is a conserved pan-gnathostome marker for epibranchial and otic placodes, and confirm that Phox2b is a conserved pan-gnathostome marker for epibranchial placode-derived neurons. We identify Eya4 as a novel marker for the lateral line system throughout its development, expressed in lateral line placodes, sensory ridges and migrating primordia, neuromasts and electroreceptors. We also identify Tbx3 as a specific marker for lateral line ganglia in shark embryos. We use the spatiotemporal expression pattern of these genes to characterise the development of neurogenic placodes and cranial sensory ganglia in the dogfish, with a focus on the epibranchial and lateral line placodes. Our findings demonstrate the evolutionary conservation across all gnathostomes of at least some of the transcription factor networks underlying neurogenic placode development.

  13. Analysis and measurement of the sympathetic and sensory innervation of white and brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Cheryl H; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Ehlen, J Christopher; Bartness, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Here, we provide a detailed account of how to denervate white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT) and how to measure sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity to these and other tissues neurochemically. The brain controls many of the functions of WAT and BAT via the SNS innervation of the tissues, especially lipolysis and thermogenesis, respectively. There is no clearly demonstrated parasympathetic innervation of WAT or the major interscapular BAT (IBAT) depot. WAT and BAT communicate with the brain neurally via sensory nerves. We detail the surgical denervation (eliminating both innervations) of several WAT pads and IBAT. We also detail more selective chemical denervation of the SNS innervation via intra-WAT/IBAT 6-hydroxy-dopamine (a catecholaminergic neurotoxin) injections and selective chemical sensory denervation via intra-WAT/IBAT capsaicin (a sensory nerve neurotoxin) injections. Verifications of the denervations are provided (HPLC-EC detection for SNS, ELIA for calcitonin gene-related peptide (proven sensory nerve marker)). Finally, assessment of the SNS drive to WAT/BAT or other tissues is described using the alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine method combined with HPLC-EC, a direct neurochemical measure of SNS activity. These methods have proven useful for us and for other investigators interested in innervation of adipose tissues. The chemical denervation approach has been extended to nonadipose tissues as well.

  14. Analysis and Measurement of the Sympathetic and Sensory Innervation of White and Brown Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Cheryl H.; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Ehlen, J. Christopher; Bartness, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we provide a detailed account of how to denervate white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT) and how to measure sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity to these and other tissues neurochemically. The brain controls many of the functions of WAT and BAT via the SNS innervation of the tissues, especially lipolysis and thermogenesis, respectively. There is no clearly demonstrated parasympathetic innervation of WAT or the major interscapular BAT (IBAT) depot. WAT and BAT communicate with the brain neurally via sensory nerves. We detail the surgical denervation (eliminating both innervations) of several WAT pads and IBAT. We also detail more selective chemical denervation of the SNS innervation via intra-WAT/IBAT 6-hydroxy-dopamine (a catecholaminergic neurotoxin) injections and selective chemical sensory denervation via intra-WAT/IBAT capsaicin (a sensory nerve neurotoxin) injections. Verifications of the denervations are provided (HPLC-EC detection for SNS, ELIA for calcitonin gene-related peptide (proven sensory nerve marker)). Finally, assessment of the SNS drive to WAT/BAT or other tissues is described using the alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine method combined with HPLC-EC, a direct neurochemical measure of SNS activity. These methods have proven useful for us and for other investigators interested in innervation of adipose tissues. The chemical denervation approach has been extended to nonadipose tissues as well. PMID:24480348

  15. Quality of sour cream packaged in cups with different light barrier properties measured by fluorescence spectroscopy and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Hanne; Tellefsen, Siri Birgitte Geiner; Dahl, Annette Veberg

    2009-10-01

    In this study, photooxidation of sour cream packaged in cups with different light barrier properties was investigated. The sour cream was light exposed for 36 h with a standard fluorescent light tube, simulating storage conditions in many Norwegian grocery stores. Three different cups were evaluated: a white cup, a cup with medium light barrier (LB), and a cup with high LB. The quality of the sour cream was evaluated by sensory analysis and front face fluorescence spectroscopy. The sour cream stored in white cups became very rancid during the light exposure, with a rancid flavor score of 7.8 on a scale from 1 to 9, where 9 is the highest intensity. Cups with high LB gave best protection against the light. The sensory assessors could not distinguish between sour cream stored in cups with high LB and sour cream stored in the dark. The rancid flavor intensity for the cups with medium LB was significantly different (P < 0.05) from both the white cup and the cup with high LB. The sensory flavor intensities indicated that with 36 h of light exposure, only a cup with high LB will protect the sour cream sufficiently. The fluorescence measurements corresponded well with the sensory analysis as the photosensitizers were somewhat degraded for sour cream stored in cups with medium LB and most degraded in the white cups. For the cups with high LB, the fluorescence peaks that originated from the photosensitizers were all intact. Dairy products such as sour cream will develop off-odor and taste faults ("sunlight taste") in a few hours if exposed to sufficient fluorescent lightning in the grocery stores. A light barrier can be incorporated in the packaging material to protect the dairy products from the light. Our experiment showed that the incorporation of a black pigment into 1 of the 3 plastic layers in the cup for packaging of sour cream protected the sour cream from degradation when exposed to light.

  16. Geometry Description Markup Language for Physics Simulation and Analysis Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chytracek, R.; Mccormick, J.; Pokorski, W.; Santin, G.

    2006-10-01

    The Geometry Description Markup Language (GDML) is a specialized XML-based language designed as an application-independent persistent format for describing the geometries of detectors associated with physics measurements. It serves to implement "geometry trees" which correspond to the hierarchy of volumes a detector geometry can be composed of, and to allow to identify the position of individual solids, as well as to describe the materials they are made of. Being pure XML, GDML can be universally used, and in particular it can be considered as the format for interchanging geometries among different applications. In this paper we will present the current status of the development of GDML. After having discussed the contents of the latest GDML schema, which is the basic definition of the format, we will concentrate on the GDML processors. We will present the latest implementation of the GDML "writers" as well as "readers" for either Geant4 , or ROOT ,

  17. A system for aerodynamic design and analysis of supersonic aircraft. Part 3: Computer program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, W. D.; Lundry, J. L.; Coleman, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    The computer program documentation for the design and analysis of supersonic configurations is presented. Schematics and block diagrams of the major program structure, together with subroutine descriptions for each module are included.

  18. Implementation of physicochemical and sensory analysis in conjunction with multivariate analysis towards assessing olive oil authentication/adulteration.

    PubMed

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Vlachos, Antonios

    2007-01-01

    The authenticity of products labeled as olive oils, and in particular as virgin olive oils, stands for a very important issue both in terms of its health and commercial aspects. In view of the continuously increasing interest in virgin olive oil therapeutic properties, the traditional methods of characterization and physical and sensory analysis were further enriched with more advanced and sophisticated methods such as HPLC-MS, HPLC-GC/C/IRMS, RPLC-GC, DEPT, and CSIA among others. The results of both traditional and "novel" methods were treated both by means of classical multivariate analysis (cluster, principal component, correspondence, canonical, and discriminant) and artificial intelligence methods showing that nowadays the adulteration of virgin olive oil with seed oil is detectable at very low percentages, sometimes even at less than 1%. Furthermore, the detection of geographical origin of olive oil is equally feasible and much more accurate in countries like Italy and Spain where databases of physical/chemical properties exist. However, this geographical origin classification can also be accomplished in the absence of such databases provided that an adequate number of oil samples are used and the parameters studied have "discriminating power."

  19. Olive oil sensory defects classification with data fusion of instrumental techniques and multivariate analysis (PLS-DA).

    PubMed

    Borràs, Eva; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard; Mestres, Montserrat; Aceña, Laura; Calvo, Angels; Busto, Olga

    2016-07-15

    Three instrumental techniques, headspace-mass spectrometry (HS-MS), mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) and UV-visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis), have been combined to classify virgin olive oil samples based on the presence or absence of sensory defects. The reference sensory values were provided by an official taste panel. Different data fusion strategies were studied to improve the discrimination capability compared to using each instrumental technique individually. A general model was applied to discriminate high-quality non-defective olive oils (extra-virgin) and the lowest-quality olive oils considered non-edible (lampante). A specific identification of key off-flavours, such as musty, winey, fusty and rancid, was also studied. The data fusion of the three techniques improved the classification results in most of the cases. Low-level data fusion was the best strategy to discriminate musty, winey and fusty defects, using HS-MS, MIR and UV-vis, and the rancid defect using only HS-MS and MIR. The mid-level data fusion approach using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) scores was found to be the best strategy for defective vs non-defective and edible vs non-edible oil discrimination. However, the data fusion did not sufficiently improve the results obtained by a single technique (HS-MS) to classify non-defective classes. These results indicate that instrumental data fusion can be useful for the identification of sensory defects in virgin olive oils.

  20. Effects of Flavor and Texture on the Sensory Perception of Gouda-Type Cheese Varieties during Ripening Using Multivariate Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Makoto; Iwasawa, Ai; Suzuki-Iwashima, Ai; Iida, Fumiko

    2015-12-01

    The impact of flavor composition, texture, and other factors on desirability of different commercial sources of Gouda-type cheese using multivariate analyses on the basis of sensory and instrumental analyses were investigated. Volatile aroma compounds were measured using headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and steam distillation extraction (SDE)-GC/MS, and fatty acid composition, low-molecular-weight compounds, including amino acids, and organic acids, as well pH, texture, and color were measured to determine their relationship with sensory perception. Orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was performed to discriminate between 2 different ripening periods in 7 sample sets, revealing that ethanol, ethyl acetate, hexanoic acid, and octanoic acid increased with increasing sensory attribute scores for sweetness, fruity, and sulfurous. A partial least squares (PLS) regression model was constructed to predict the desirability of cheese using these parameters. We showed that texture and buttery flavors are important factors affecting the desirability of Gouda-type cheeses for Japanese consumers using these multivariate analyses. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Description of the ARM Operational Objective Analysis System

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, M.; Xie, S.; Cederwall, R.T.; Yio, J.J.

    2001-06-19

    This report describes the ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) operational variational objective analysis system. It is currently used to process the data collected from the ARM Intensive Operational Periods (IOPs) for driving and evaluating physical parameterizations in climate models. The analysis system was originally developed by Zhang and Lin (1997) at State University of New York at Stony Brook and was migrated to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as the ARM operational objective analysis system in May 1999. In contrast with previous objective analysis (e.g., Barnes, 1964; O'Brien, 1970; Lin and Johnson, 1996), the ARM objective analysis used the constrained variational analysis method developed by Zhang and Lin (1997), in which the atmospheric state variables are forced to satisfy the conservation of mass, heat, moisture, and momentum through a variational technique. The purpose of this technical report is to provide an overview of the constrained variational analysis method, the architecture of the objective analysis system, along with in-depth information on running the variational analysis codes.

  2. The Training of Music Teachers in Colombia: A Descriptive Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayibe Cárdenas Soler, Ruth; Lorenzo Quiles, Oswaldo; Hargreaves, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This study is an evaluative analysis of 13 Music Education programs in Colombia that provide training for secondary school music teachers for 6th to 11th grade in the Colombian education system. The study utilized an analysis matrix from the International Research Project ALFA II-0448-A, which developed a similar study with Latin American and…

  3. The Training of Music Teachers in Colombia: A Descriptive Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayibe Cárdenas Soler, Ruth; Lorenzo Quiles, Oswaldo; Hargreaves, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This study is an evaluative analysis of 13 Music Education programs in Colombia that provide training for secondary school music teachers for 6th to 11th grade in the Colombian education system. The study utilized an analysis matrix from the International Research Project ALFA II-0448-A, which developed a similar study with Latin American and…

  4. [Pregnancy in adolescence description and analysis of care provided].

    PubMed

    de Caminha, Náira Oliveira; Freitas, Lydia Vieira; Lima, Thaís Marques; Gomes, Linicarla Fabíole de Souza; Herculano, Marta Maria Soares; Damasceno, Ana Kelve de Castro

    2012-09-01

    This work is aimed at describing and analyzing prenatal care to teenage women through the Brazilian Prenatal and Birth Humanization Program (BPBHP). It's a descriptive quantitative study conducted between March and July 2009 based on a form and interview with 200 teenage women during the postpartum period in a maternity ward of Sistema Unico de Satúde (Brazilian Unified Health System), which is considered a reference in obstetric care. The young women received prenatal care through the public service (96.4%) which began during the first trimester (47.4%), they didn't have the minimum medical appointments required (52.6%), took iron supplements (96.9%), received tetanus immunization (80.5%) and didn't have enough orientation (46.0%). The laboratory tests were performed during their first medical appointment (80.0%), but only a third were repeated in the third trimester. Therefore, the BPBHP doesn't meet all the standards set by the Ministéio da Saúde (Ministry of Health), and there are improvements to be made in the early service phase, ongoing care, demand for second exam samples and availability of orientation.

  5. Students' views on the block evaluation process: A descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Pakkies, Ntefeleng E; Mtshali, Ntombifikile G

    2016-03-30

    Higher education institutions have executed policies and practices intended to determine and promote good teaching. Students' evaluation of the teaching and learning process is seen as one measure of evaluating quality and effectiveness of instruction and courses. Policies and procedures guiding this process are discernible in universities, but it isoften not the case for nursing colleges. To analyse and describe the views of nursing students on block evaluation, and how feedback obtained from this process was managed. A quantitative descriptive study was conducted amongst nursing students (n = 177) in their second to fourth year of training from one nursing college in KwaZulu-Natal. A questionnaire was administered by the researcher and data were analysed using the Statistical Package of Social Sciences Version 19.0. The response rate was 145 (81.9%). The participants perceived the aim of block evaluation as improving the quality of teaching and enhancing their experiences as students.They questioned the significance of their input as stakeholders given that they had never been consulted about the development or review of the evaluation tool, or the administration process; and they often did not receive feedback from the evaluation they participated in. The college management should develop a clear organisational structure with supporting policies and operational guidelines for administering the evaluation process. The administration, implementation procedures, reporting of results and follow-up mechanisms should be made transparent and communicated to all concerned. Reports and actions related to these evaluations should provide feedback into relevant courses or programmes.

  6. Mutadelic: mutation analysis using description logic inferencing capabilities.

    PubMed

    Holford, Matthew E; Krauthammer, Michael

    2015-12-01

    As next generation sequencing gains a foothold in clinical genetics, there is a need for annotation tools to characterize increasing amounts of patient variant data for identifying clinically relevant mutations. While existing informatics tools provide efficient bulk variant annotations, they often generate excess information that may limit their scalability. We propose an alternative solution based on description logic inferencing to generate workflows that produce only those annotations that will contribute to the interpretation of each variant. Workflows are dynamically generated using a novel abductive reasoning framework called a basic framework for abductive workflow generation (AbFab). Criteria for identifying disease-causing variants in Mendelian blood disorders were identified and implemented as AbFab services. A web application was built allowing users to run workflows generated from the criteria to analyze genomic variants. Significant variants are flagged and explanations provided for why they match or fail to match the criteria. The Mutadelic web application is available for use at http://krauthammerlab.med.yale.edu/mutadelic. michael.krauthammer@yale.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Feature separability analysis for SAR ATR using data description method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Weiwei; Du, Xiaoyong; Hu, WeiDong; Yu, Wenxian

    2007-11-01

    Feature extraction and selection play an important role in radar target recognition. This paper focuses on evaluating feature separability for SAR ATR and selecting the best subset of features. In details, fifteen features extracted from T72, BTR70 and BMP2 in MSTAR standard public dataset are examined, which are divided into seven categories: standard deviation, fractal dimension, weighted-rank fill ratio, size-related features, contrast-based features, count feature, projection feature, and moment features. Since the number of samples is small, a new separability criterion based on the overlap degree of each two class regions is proposed to assess the separability of these features. Here the class region is described by support vector data description (SVDD) method for good generalization. Based on the proposed criterion, a forward feature selection method is adopted to choose the best subset of features. Because of the strong variability of the feature against aspect, the features are analyzed under different aspect sectors within 360°angle range stepped by 15°, 30 °, and 60°, respectively. Experiments using MSTAR dataset validate the criterion, and the best subset of features is determined.

  8. Cortical Gating of Oropharyngeal Sensory Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler-Hegland, Karen; Pitts, Teresa; Davenport, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentials provide a measure of cortical neuronal activation in response to various types of sensory stimuli. In order to prevent flooding of the cortex with redundant information various sensory stimuli are gated cortically such that response to stimulus 2 (S2) is significantly reduced in amplitude compared to stimulus 1 (S1). Upper airway protective mechanisms, such as swallowing and cough, are dependent on sensory input for triggering and modifying their motor output. Thus, it was hypothesized that central neural gating would be absent for paired-air puff stimuli applied to the oropharynx. Twenty-three healthy adults (18–35 years) served as research participants. Pharyngeal sensory evoked potentials (PSEPs) were measured via 32-electrode cap (10–20 system) connected to SynAmps2 Neuroscan EEG System. Paired-pulse air puffs were delivered with an inter-stimulus interval of 500 ms to the oropharynx using a thin polyethylene tube connected to a flexible laryngoscope. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a repeated measures analysis of variance. There were no significant differences found for the amplitudes S1 and S2 for any of the four component PSEP peaks. Mean gating ratios were above 0.90 for each peak. Results supports our hypothesis that sensory central neural gating would be absent for component PSEP peaks with paired-pulse stimuli delivered to the oropharynx. This may be related to the need for constant sensory monitoring necessary for adequate airway protection associated with swallowing and coughing. PMID:21423402

  9. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IE

    MedlinePlus

    ... autonomic neuropathy type IE hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IE Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... All Close All Description Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IE (HSAN IE) is a disorder that ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions HSAN2 hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... All Close All Description Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II ( HSAN2 ) is a condition that primarily ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions MEMSA myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia Enable Javascript to view the ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia , commonly called MEMSA , is part ...

  12. Behavior Life Style Analysis for Mobile Sensory Data in Cloud Computing through MapReduce

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Shujaat; Bang, Jae Hun; Han, Manhyung; Ahmed, Muhammad Idris; Amin, Muhammad Bilal; Lee, Sungyoung; Nugent, Chris; McClean, Sally; Scotney, Bryan; Parr, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing has revolutionized healthcare in today's world as it can be seamlessly integrated into a mobile application and sensor devices. The sensory data is then transferred from these devices to the public and private clouds. In this paper, a hybrid and distributed environment is built which is capable of collecting data from the mobile phone application and store it in the cloud. We developed an activity recognition application and transfer the data to the cloud for further processing. Big data technology Hadoop MapReduce is employed to analyze the data and create user timeline of user's activities. These activities are visualized to find useful health analytics and trends. In this paper a big data solution is proposed to analyze the sensory data and give insights into user behavior and lifestyle trends. PMID:25420151

  13. Behavior life style analysis for mobile sensory data in cloud computing through MapReduce.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shujaat; Bang, Jae Hun; Han, Manhyung; Ahmed, Muhammad Idris; Amin, Muhammad Bilal; Lee, Sungyoung; Nugent, Chris; McClean, Sally; Scotney, Bryan; Parr, Gerard

    2014-11-20

    Cloud computing has revolutionized healthcare in today's world as it can be seamlessly integrated into a mobile application and sensor devices. The sensory data is then transferred from these devices to the public and private clouds. In this paper, a hybrid and distributed environment is built which is capable of collecting data from the mobile phone application and store it in the cloud. We developed an activity recognition application and transfer the data to the cloud for further processing. Big data technology Hadoop MapReduce is employed to analyze the data and create user timeline of user's activities. These activities are visualized to find useful health analytics and trends. In this paper a big data solution is proposed to analyze the sensory data and give insights into user behavior and lifestyle trends.

  14. Activation of sensory cortex by imagined genital stimulation: an fMRI analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Nan J.; Frangos, Eleni; Komisaruk, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    Background During the course of a previous study, our laboratory made a serendipitous finding that just thinking about genital stimulation resulted in brain activations that overlapped with, and differed from, those generated by physical genital stimulation. Objective This study extends our previous findings by further characterizing how the brain differentially processes physical ‘touch’ stimulation and ‘imagined’ stimulation. Design Eleven healthy women (age range 29–74) participated in an fMRI study of the brain response to imagined or actual tactile stimulation of the nipple and clitoris. Two additional conditions – imagined dildo self-stimulation and imagined speculum stimulation – were included to characterize the effects of erotic versus non-erotic imagery. Results Imagined and tactile self-stimulation of the nipple and clitoris each activated the paracentral lobule (the genital region of the primary sensory cortex) and the secondary somatosensory cortex. Imagined self-stimulation of the clitoris and nipple resulted in greater activation of the frontal pole and orbital frontal cortex compared to tactile self-stimulation of these two bodily regions. Tactile self-stimulation of the clitoris and nipple activated the cerebellum, primary somatosensory cortex (hand region), and premotor cortex more than the imagined stimulation of these body regions. Imagining dildo stimulation generated extensive brain activation in the genital sensory cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, insula, nucleus accumbens, and medial prefrontal cortex, whereas imagining speculum stimulation generated only minimal activation. Conclusion The present findings provide evidence of the potency of imagined stimulation of the genitals and that the following brain regions may participate in erogenous experience: primary and secondary sensory cortices, sensory-motor integration areas, limbic structures, and components of the ‘reward system’. In addition

  15. Sensory and instrumental analysis of medium and long shelf-life Charentais cantaloupe melons (Cucumis melo L.) harvested at different maturities

    PubMed Central

    Lignou, Stella; Parker, Jane K.; Baxter, Charles; Mottram, Donald S.

    2014-01-01

    The flavour profiles of two genotypes of Charentais cantaloupe melons (medium shelf-life and long shelf-life), harvested at two distinct maturities (immature and mature fruit), were investigated. Dynamic headspace extraction (DHE), solid-phase extraction (SPE), gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and gas chromatography–olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC–O/MS) were used to determine volatile and semi-volatile compounds. Qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA) was used to assess the organoleptic impact of the different melons and the sensory data were correlated with the chemical analysis. There were significant, consistent and substantial differences between the mature and immature fruit for the medium shelf-life genotype, the less mature giving a green, cucumber character and lacking the sweet, fruity character of the mature fruit. However, maturity at harvest had a much smaller impact on the long shelf-life melons and fewer differences were detected. These long shelf-life melons tasted sweet, but lacked fruity flavours, instead exhibiting a musty, earthy character. PMID:24262549

  16. Sensory and instrumental analysis of medium and long shelf-life Charentais cantaloupe melons (Cucumis melo L.) harvested at different maturities.

    PubMed

    Lignou, Stella; Parker, Jane K; Baxter, Charles; Mottram, Donald S

    2014-04-01

    The flavour profiles of two genotypes of Charentais cantaloupe melons (medium shelf-life and long shelf-life), harvested at two distinct maturities (immature and mature fruit), were investigated. Dynamic headspace extraction (DHE), solid-phase extraction (SPE), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS) were used to determine volatile and semi-volatile compounds. Qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA) was used to assess the organoleptic impact of the different melons and the sensory data were correlated with the chemical analysis. There were significant, consistent and substantial differences between the mature and immature fruit for the medium shelf-life genotype, the less mature giving a green, cucumber character and lacking the sweet, fruity character of the mature fruit. However, maturity at harvest had a much smaller impact on the long shelf-life melons and fewer differences were detected. These long shelf-life melons tasted sweet, but lacked fruity flavours, instead exhibiting a musty, earthy character. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical analysis and sensory evaluation of mahi-mahi (Cryphaena hippurus) during chilled storage.

    PubMed

    Antoine, F R; Wei, C I; Otwell, W S; Sims, C A; Littell, R C; Hogle, A D; Marshall, M R

    2004-10-01

    Biogenic amines, total volatile base-nitrogen (TVB-N), and sensory evaluation are some of the indicators used for fish quality determination. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship among histamine, cadaverine, putrescine, TVB-N, and sensory evaluation as quality assessment tools. Two groups of six mahi-mahi fillets were refrigerated at 7 degrees C and sampled on days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10. On day 3, histamine, cadaverine, and putrescine levels reached 5, 3, and 0.5 mg/100 g, respectively, whereas TVB-N reached 30 mg/100 g. Sensory scores were 6 to 6.5 (10 very fresh and 1 very spoiled) for odor, appearance, texture, and color. Correlations were 0.78 and 0.72 between histamine and cadaverine and histamine and putrescine, 0.74 and 0.80 between TVB-N and cadaverine and TVB-N and putrescine, and 0.75 and 0.78 between odor and putrescine and odor and cadaverine. AromaMaps showed distinct trends for deteriorating mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) quality.

  18. Changes in Wine Ethanol Content Due to Evaporation from Wine Glasses and Implications for Sensory Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wollan, David; Pham, Duc-Truc; Wilkinson, Kerry Leigh

    2016-10-12

    The relative proportion of water and ethanol present in alcoholic beverages can significantly influence the perception of wine sensory attributes. This study therefore investigated changes in wine ethanol concentration due to evaporation from wine glasses. The ethanol content of commercial wines exposed to ambient conditions while in wine glasses was monitored over time. No change in wine ethanol content was observed where glasses were covered with plastic lids, but where glasses were not covered, evaporation had a significant impact on wine ethanol content, with losses from 0.9 to 1.9% alcohol by volume observed for wines that received direct exposure to airflow for 2 h. Evaporation also resulted in decreases in the concentration of some fermentation volatiles (determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and a perceptible change in wine aroma. The rate of ethanol loss was strongly influenced by exposure to airflow (i.e., from the laboratory air-conditioning unit), together with certain glass shape and wine parameters; glass headspace in particular. This is the first study to demonstrate the significant potential for ethanol evaporation from wine in wine glasses. Research findings have important implications for the technical evaluation of wine sensory properties; in particular, informal sensory trials and wine show judging, where the use of covers on wine glasses is not standard practice.

  19. Analysis of Sensory/Active Piezoelectric Composite Structures in Thermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Saravanos, Dimitris A.

    1996-01-01

    Although there has been extensive development of analytical methods for modeling the behavior of piezoelectric structures, only a limited amount of research has been performed concerning the implications of thermal effects on both the active and sensory response of smart structures. Thermal effects become important when the piezoelectric structure has to operate in either extremely hot or cold temperature environments. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to extend the previously developed discrete layer formulation of Saravanos and Heyliger to account for the coupled mechanical, electrical, and thermal response in modern smart composite beams. The mechanics accounts for thermal effects which may arise in the elastic and piezoelectric media at the material level through the constitutive equations. The displacements, electric potentials, and temperatures are introduced as state variables, allowing them to be modeled as variable fields through the laminate thickness. This unified representation leads to an inherent capability to model both the active compensation of thermal distortions in smart structures and the resultant sensory voltage when thermal loads are applied. The corresponding finite element formulation is developed and numerical results demonstrate the ability to model both the active and sensory modes of composite beams with heterogeneous plies with attached piezoelectric layers under thermal loadings.

  20. Descriptive Analysis of Teachers' Responses to Problem Behavior Following Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison, Laura; Lerman, Dorothea C.

    2009-01-01

    The procedures described by Sloman et al. (2005) were extended to an analysis of teachers' responses to problem behavior after they had been taught to withhold potential sources of positive and negative reinforcement following instances of problem behavior. Results were consistent with those reported previously, suggesting that escape from child…

  1. Descriptive analysis of teachers' responses to problem behavior following training.

    PubMed

    Addison, Laura; Lerman, Dorothea C

    2009-01-01

    The procedures described by Sloman et al. (2005) were extended to an analysis of teachers' responses to problem behavior after they had been taught to withhold potential sources of positive and negative reinforcement following instances of problem behavior. Results were consistent with those reported previously, suggesting that escape from child problem behavior may shape and maintain adult behavior that is potentially countertherapeutic.

  2. [Description and value of the Microvision system for pollen analysis].

    PubMed

    Thibaudon, M; Lachasse, C

    2004-09-01

    Currently, two techniques of analysis are classically used by the aerobiological networks: the technique of the 12 vertical lines allow to follow the evolution by bi-hourly periods of pollination, but the segmentation of the sample doesn't allow to visualise pollen clouds of short duration; the technique of 2 or 3 horizontal lines allow to follow the daily evolution, but only the daily totals are recorded. The MICROVISION system adapted by the RNSA to the pollen analysis allow to keep the horizontal method, which is faster and continue, and to record automatically in the database the hourly or bi-hourly data. So each pollen is recorded by its coordinates with a precision of 1 micron (1.8 seconds). First, we realised a cartography of the impaction of the pollen grains on the strip, in order to locate the more representative horizontal lines. Secondly, the coupling of the microscope with the Microvision system and the software of data acquiring elaborated by the RNSA allow to propose a more reliable and faster procedure for pollen analysis.

  3. Descriptive analysis and early-stage consumer acceptance of yogurts fermented with carrot juice.

    PubMed

    Cliff, M A; Fan, L; Sanford, K; Stanich, K; Doucette, C; Raymond, N

    2013-07-01

    This research explored the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of novel probiotic unsweetened yogurts. Yogurts were made with 4 carrot juice levels (8, 16, 24, and 32%), 2 firmness levels (regular, 45g/L milk solids; firm, 90g/L milk solids), and 2 starter cultures (C1, C2). The sensory profile characterized the color intensity (before and after stirring), carrot flavor, sourness, and 7 texture/mouth-feel attributes (astringency, chalkiness, mouth-coating, thickness, smoothness, creaminess, and graininess). The influence of carrot juice level and firmness level were evaluated using ANOVA, polynomial contrasts, and principal component analysis. Mean scores and standard errors were calculated. Consumer acceptance panels in Wolfville, Nova Scotia (n=56), and in Vancouver, British Columbia (Asian n=72, non-Asian n=72), evaluated the hedonic responses to the C1 and C2 formulations, respectively. We observed increases in color intensity, carrot flavor, creaminess, mouth-coating, and chalkiness with increasing carrot juice levels, as well as increases in color intensity, carrot flavor, creaminess, mouth-coating, thickness, and astringency with increasing milk solids concentrations of the C1 and C2 yogurts. Mean hedonic scores for color, appearance, and texture/mouth-feel were greater than hedonic scores for aroma, flavor/taste, and overall liking. This research identified the sensory qualities that need further development and demonstrated the importance of early-stage consumer acceptance research for directing new product development.

  4. Nontargeted metabolite profiles and sensory properties of strawberry cultivars grown both organically and conventionally.

    PubMed

    Kårlund, Anna; Hanhineva, Kati; Lehtonen, Marko; Karjalainen, Reijo O; Sandell, Mari

    2015-01-28

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) contains many secondary metabolites potentially beneficial for human health, and several of these compounds contribute to strawberry sensory properties, as well. In this study, three strawberry cultivars grown both conventionally and organically were subjected to nontargeted metabolite profiling analysis with LC-qTOF-ESI-MS and to descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained panel. Combined metabolome and sensory data (PLS model) revealed that 79% variation in the metabolome explained 88% variation in the sensory profiles. Flavonoids and condensed and hydrolyzable tannins determined the orosensory properties, and fatty acids contributed to the odor attributes of strawberry. Overall, the results indicated that the chemical composition and sensory quality of strawberries grown in different cultivation systems vary mostly according to cultivar. Organic farming practices may enhance the accumulation of some plant metabolites in specific strawberry genotypes. Careful cultivar selection is a key factor for the improvement of nutritional quality and marketing value of organic strawberries.

  5. Is Sensory Over-Responsivity Distinguishable from Childhood Behavior Problems? A Phenotypic and Genetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Van Hulle, Carol A.; Schmidt, Nicole L.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2011-01-01

    Background Although impaired sensory processing accompanies various clinical conditions, the question of its status as an independent disorder remains open. Our goal was to delineate the comorbidity (or lack thereof) between childhood psychopathology and sensory over-responsivity (SOR) in middle childhood using phenotypic and behavior genetic analyses. Method Participants (N=970) were drawn from the Wisconsin Twin Project, a population-based sample of twins and their families. Mothers completed a sensory responsivity checklist when their offspring were on average 7 years old, followed by a diagnostic interview (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children; DISC) within 6 – 12 months. We examined the incidence of DISC diagnoses - ADHD, Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiance Disorder, Agoraphobia, General Anxiety, OCD, Panic disorder, Separation Anxiety, Social Phobia, Specific Phobia, Depression, Enuresis, Trichtolloma, Tics, selective mutism, and Pica -among children with SOR, and vice-versa. Children with Autism or PDD were excluded from the present study. Additionally, we examined parent reported physical health diagnoses among non-diagnosed children and three groups of children with SOR and/or DISC diagnoses. Biometric models explored common underlying genetic and environmental influences on symptoms of SOR and psychopathology. Results A majority of individuals who screened positive for SOR did not qualify for a DISC diagnosis (58.2%), and vice versa (68.3%). Children who screened positive for SOR only and typical children had similar rates of physical health problems. Turning to a dimensional approach, multivariate twin models of demonstrated that modest covariation between SOR and DISC symptoms could be entirely accounted for by common underlying genetic effects. Conclusions Our results suggest that SOR occurs independently of recognized childhood psychiatric diagnoses but is also a relatively frequent comorbid condition with recognized diagnoses. Genetic

  6. Tapping into the Spirit of the Sensitive Child: A Foundation for Understanding and Bringing the Joy of Music to Children Who Have Sensory Integration Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Liz

    2004-01-01

    Presents an article on understanding and introducing music to sensory-sensitive children. Description of a child with Sensory Integrity Dysfunction; Problems experienced by sensory-sensitive students; Potential of sensory-sensitive children to excel in musical aptitude tests.

  7. Sensory perineuritis.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, W B; Squier, M V

    1988-01-01

    A case of sensory perineuritis is described, affecting individual cutaneous nerves in the extremities and with a chronic inflammatory exudate confined to the perineurium in a sural nerve biopsy. No cause was found. The condition slowly resolved on steroid treatment. Images PMID:3379419

  8. Library Use of Public Health Materials: Description and Analysis *

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Joan

    1974-01-01

    A method is described for optimizing the efficiency of a journal collection. The method is employed to determine an optimal journal collection in public health. A citation analysis of 3,456 citations from the bibliographies of forty-four master's and doctoral dissertations from five different universities is performed. It is verified that the distribution of references to journal titles is approximately logarithmic (Bradford's Law) and that the distribution of references by year is exponential. These two parameters are combined to formulate an equation which may be used to specify a journal collection satisfying the greatest possible percent of demand. In public health, for example, a 1,500-volume library containing sixty titles could satisfy 73% of the demand for references in health related areas and 48% of the total demand for references for this particular, diverse research group. Other desirable aspects of a public health collection are also described as determined from the data. PMID:4826486

  9. Investigation of the aroma of commercial peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) types by Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Tiago; Weesepoel, Yannick; Koot, Alex; Iglesias, Ignasi; Eduardo, Iban; Gratacós-Cubarsí, Marta; Guerrero, Luis; Hortós, Maria; van Ruth, Saskia

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the aroma and sensory profiles of various types of peaches (Prunus persica L. Batsch.). Forty-three commercial cultivars comprising peaches, flat peaches, nectarines, and canning peaches (pavías) were grown over two consecutive harvest years. Fruits were assessed for chemical aroma and sensory profiles. Chemical aroma profile was obtained by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and spectral masses were tentatively identified with PTR-Time of Flight-MS (PTR-Tof-MS). Sensory analysis was performed at commercial maturity considering seven aroma/flavor attributes. The four types of peaches showed both distinct chemical aroma and sensory profiles. Flat peaches and canning peaches showed most distinct patterns according to discriminant analysis. The sensory data were related to the volatile compounds by partial least square regression. γ-Hexalactone, γ-octalactone, hotrienol, acetic acid and ethyl acetate correlated positively, and benzeneacetaldehyde, trimethylbenzene and acetaldehyde negatively to the intensities of aroma and ripe fruit sensory scores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of sensory modulation disorder among Puerto Rican preschoolers: an analysis focused on socioeconomic status variables.

    PubMed

    Román-Oyola, Rosa; Reynolds, Stacey

    2013-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the prevalence of sensory modulation disorder (SMD) in a sample of Puerto Rican preschoolers and to examine differences in the prevalence of SMD based on socioeconomic status (SES) variables. Caregivers of children from Head Start programs and private preschools were recruited from three regions in Puerto Rico (PR) to participate in the study. Each caregiver completed a Short Sensory Profile (SSP) and a demographic data sheet. Total scores on the SSP were used to establish diagnosis of SMD. The total sample included 141 participants (response rate of 64%). Prevalence of SMD among the total PR sample (19.9%) was higher than previously reported estimates on the US mainland (5-16%). Statistical results indicated no difference in the overall prevalence of SMD based on SES. However, significant differences in scores based on caregivers' educational degree were found on the SSP sub-domain of Movement sensitivity and Under-responsive/seeks sensation; differences in scores based on caregiver household income were also found for the SSP sub-domain of Under-responsive/seeks. Although SMD appears to be prevalent in preschoolers in PR, variables associated with SES do not appear to contribute to an overall SMD diagnosis. However, additional research linking specific sub-domains of SMD to SES variables may be warranted. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Genetic analysis of vertebrate sensory hair cell mechanosensation: the zebrafish circler mutants.

    PubMed

    Nicolson, T; Rüsch, A; Friedrich, R W; Granato, M; Ruppersberg, J P; Nüsslein-Volhard, C

    1998-02-01

    The molecular basis of sensory hair cell mechanotransduction is largely unknown. In order to identify genes that are essential for mechanosensory hair cell function, we characterized a group of recently isolated zebrafish motility mutants. These mutants are defective in balance and swim in circles but have no obvious morphological defects. We examined the mutants using calcium imaging of acoustic-vibrational and tactile escape responses, high resolution microscopy of sensory neuroepithelia in live larvae, and recordings of extracellular hair cell potentials (microphonics). Based on the analyses, we have identified several classes of genes. Mutations in sputnik and mariner affect hair bundle integrity. Mutant astronaut and cosmonaut hair cells have relatively normal microphonics and thus appear to affect events downstream of mechanotransduction. Mutant orbiter, mercury, and gemini larvae have normal hair cell morphology and yet do not respond to acoustic-vibrational stimuli. The microphonics of lateral line hair cells of orbiter, mercury, and gemini larvae are absent or strongly reduced. Therefore, these genes may encode components of the transduction apparatus.

  12. Analysis of behavioral selection after sensory deprivation of legs in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Kanou, Masamichi; Morita, Shinsuke; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Tsuneo

    2007-10-01

    An air puff stimulus evoked the swimming of an intact cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, placed on a water surface. When only the forelegs were intact, swimming was initiated frequently, but flying was never initiated. On the other hand, flying was initiated when only the middle legs or hindlegs were intact. Therefore, the sensory inputs from the forelegs are important in the initiation of swimming and for the inhibition of flying when on the water surface. After bilateral ablation of the middle legs and hindlegs, the bilateral segments of the remaining forelegs were sequentially ablated from the distal area to the proximal area of the legs. After bilateral ablation of all tarsomeres, the relative occurrence of swimming decreased and that of flying increased. After the following ablation of the bilateral tibiae, most insects responded to an air puff stimulus by flying. Experiments performed after coating the leg surface with enamel resulted in almost the same behavioral change as that observed in the ablation experiments. These results suggest that the sensory receptors responsible for the initiation of swimming and the inhibition of flying are mainly located on the surface of the tibia and the tarsus of the forelegs. The behavioral change between swimming and walking was also studied using methylcellulose solutions of various viscosities. On the methylcellulose solution, the relative occurrence of walking in the crickets increased with an increase in the viscosity of the solution.

  13. Structural Analysis of the Phenol-Responsive Sensory Domain of the Transcription Activator PoxR.

    PubMed

    Patil, Vinod Vikas; Park, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Goo; Woo, Euijeon

    2016-04-05

    Positive phenol-degradative gene regulator (PoxR) is a σ(54)-dependent AAA+ ATPase transcription activator that regulates the catabolism of phenols. The PoxR sensory domain detects phenols and relays signals for the activation of transcription. Here we report the first structure of the phenol sensory domain bound to phenol and five derivatives. It exists as a tightly intertwined homodimer with a phenol-binding pocket buried inside, placing two C termini on the same side of the dimer. His102 and Trp130 interact with the hydroxyl group of the phenol in a cavity surrounded by rigid hydrophobic residues on one side and a flexible region on the other. Each monomer has a V4R fold with a unique zinc-binding site. A shift at the C-terminal helix suggests that there is a possible conformational change upon ligand binding. The results provide a structural basis of chemical effector binding for transcriptional regulation with broad implications for protein engineering.

  14. Sensory-evoked turning locomotion in red-eared turtles: kinematic analysis and electromyography.

    PubMed

    Welch, Dan B; Currie, Scott N

    2014-07-01

    We examined the limb kinematics and motor patterns that underlie sensory-evoked turning locomotion in red-eared turtles. Intact animals were held by a band-clamp in a water-filled tank. Turn-swimming was evoked by slowly rotating turtles to the right or left via a motor connected to the shaft of the band-clamp. Animals executed sustained forward turn-swimming against the direction of the imposed rotation. We recorded video of turn-swimming and computer-analyzed the limb and head movements. In a subset of turtles, we also recorded electromyograms from identified limb muscles. Turning exhibited a stereotyped pattern of (1) coordinated forward swimming in the hindlimb and forelimb on the outer side of the turn, (2) back-paddling in the hindlimb on the inner side, (3) a nearly stationary, "braking" forelimb on the inner side, and (4) neck bending toward the direction of the turn. Reversing the rotation caused animals to switch the direction of their turns and the asymmetric pattern of right and left limb activities. Preliminary evidence suggested that vestibular inputs were sufficient to drive the behavior. Sensory-evoked turning may provide a useful experimental platform to examine the brainstem commands and spinal neural networks that underlie the activation and switching of different locomotor forms.

  15. Pinhão starch and coat extract as new natural cosmetic ingredients: Topical formulation stability and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Daudt, Renata Moschini; Back, Patrícia Inês; Cardozo, Nilo Sérgio Medeiros; Marczak, Ligia Damasceno Ferreira; Külkamp-Guerreiro, Irene Clemes

    2015-12-10

    The objective of this study was to use pinhão derivatives, starch and coat extract, as new natural ingredients to develop cosmetic formulations. Two types of formulation, gel and emulgel, and their controls were developed. The formulations were characterized by stability studies using thermal stress. The parameters analyzed were resistance to centrifugation, pH, spreadability, rheology, content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Sensory analysis was also performed to verify the acceptability of the ingredients to potential consumers. The pH was kept the same after heating/freezing cycles for all formulations, and the formulations showed stability by resistance to centrifugation. The formulations did not induce any skin irritation or cutaneous pH alteration. The pinhão starch addition improved spreadability stability and increased viscosity when compared with control formulations. The pinhão coat extract used in these formulations is a good source of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Moreover, sensory analysis indicates that the emulgel formulation is the best vehicle for adding pinhão starch and pinhão coat extract. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Volatile flavor analysis and sensory evaluation of custard desserts varying in type and concentration of carboxymethyl cellulose.

    PubMed

    van Ruth, Saskia M; de Witte, Leontien; Uriarte, Amaya Rey

    2004-12-29

    The influence of type and concentration of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) on flavor and textural properties of custard desserts was examined. A synthetic strawberry flavor mixture was used to flavor the custards; it comprised 15 volatile flavor compounds. The viscosity of the custards was determined using rheometric measurements. Static headspace gas chromatography and in-nose proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry analyses were conducted to determine the custards' volatile flavor properties. Perceived odor, flavor, and textural properties were assessed in sensory analysis experiments using magnitude estimation against a fixed modulus. Both type and concentration of CMC altered the viscosity of the custards. Softer custards had higher static headspace flavor concentrations. On the contrary, firmer custards demonstrated higher in-nose flavor concentrations. In sensory analysis, firmer custards showed higher thickness and lower sweetness intensities than their low-viscosity counterparts. The thickness perception corresponded to the viscosity of the custards. Removal of sucrose from the custards affected sweetness intensity only and not the intensity of other attributes. Therefore, the influence of the viscosity of the custards on the release of sweet-tasting components is held responsible for the effect on perceived sweetness intensity. Odor intensities were generally higher for the low-viscosity custard, whereas fruity flavor intensities were higher for the firmer custards. Odor intensities correlated with static headspace concentrations and flavor intensities related reasonably well with in-nose concentrations. Opening and closing of the nasal cavity is regarded as an important factor determining the discrepancy between static and in-nose measurements.

  17. Finite Element Analysis of Active and Sensory Thermopiezoelectric Composite Materials. Degree awarded by Northwestern Univ., Dec. 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ho-Jun

    2001-01-01

    Analytical formulations are developed to account for the coupled mechanical, electrical, and thermal response of piezoelectric composite materials. The coupled response is captured at the material level through the thermopiezoelectric constitutive equations and leads to the inherent capability to model both the sensory and active responses of piezoelectric materials. A layerwise laminate theory is incorporated to provide more accurate analysis of the displacements, strains, stresses, electric fields, and thermal fields through-the-thickness. Thermal effects which arise from coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch, pyroelectric effects, and temperature dependent material properties are explicitly accounted for in the formulation. Corresponding finite element formulations are developed for piezoelectric beam, plate, and shell elements to provide a more generalized capability for the analysis of arbitrary piezoelectric composite structures. The accuracy of the current formulation is verified with comparisons from published experimental data and other analytical models. Additional numerical studies are also conducted to demonstrate additional capabilities of the formulation to represent the sensory and active behaviors. A future plan of experimental studies is provided to characterize the high temperature dynamic response of piezoelectric composite materials.

  18. Advanced predoctoral implant program at UIC: description and qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Afshari, Fatemeh S; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Quimby, Anastasiya; Harlow, Rand; Campbell, Stephen D; Sukotjo, Cortino

    2014-05-01

    Dental implant education has increasingly become an integral part of predoctoral dental curricula. However, the majority of implant education emphasizes the restorative aspect as opposed to the surgical. The University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry has developed an Advanced Predoctoral Implant Program (APIP) that provides a select group of students the opportunity to place implants for single-tooth restorations and mandibular overdentures. This article describes the rationale, logistics, experiences, and perspectives of an innovative approach to provide additional learning experiences in the care of patients with partial and complete edentulism using implant-supported therapies. Student and faculty perspectives on the APIP were ascertained via focus group discussions and a student survey. The qualitative analysis of this study suggests that the select predoctoral dental students highly benefited from this experience and intend to increase their knowledge and skills in implant dentistry through formal education following graduation. Furthermore, the survey indicates that the APIP has had a positive influence on the students' interest in surgically placing implants in their future dental practice and their confidence level in restoring and surgically placing implants.

  19. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Oman: 
A Descriptive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Azri, AbdulAziz; Al-Sheibani, Salma

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We sought to analyze all cases of nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) in Oman to determine the most common clinical presentation, whether it is associated with certain tribes in Oman, and its distribution in different regions of the country. We also looked at the histopathological diagnosis, treatment modality, recurrence, and metastasis. Methods This retrospective chart analysis was performed using the data of all patients with NPC who presented to the Al Nahdha Hospital (the main tertiary hospital of head and neck surgery in Oman) from January 2003 until August 2011. Results Twenty-six cases of NPC were included in the final study population. Muscat (the capital city of Oman) had the highest number of cases followed by the Ash Sharqiyah, Al-Batinah, and Dhofar regions. The largest number of cases were found in the Al-Balushi tribe. Cases had a bimodal distribution within two age groups (20–30 years and 50–60 years). Follow-up ranged between six months and seven years. Conclusion Neck mass and nasal symptoms were the most common presentations of NPC in Oman. Further studies, with a larger sample size are required in order to support our results. PMID:26171122

  20. Severe Tuberculosis Requiring Intensive Care: A Descriptive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo Dias, Paulo; Ferreira, Alcina Azevedo; Xerinda, Sandra Margarida; Lima Alves, Carlos; Sarmento, António Carlos; dos Santos, Lurdes Campos

    2017-01-01

    Background. This study aims to describe the characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) patients requiring intensive care and to determine the in-hospital mortality and the associated predictive factors. Methods. Retrospective cohort study of all TB patients admitted to the ICU of the Infectious Diseases Department of Centro Hospitalar de São João (Porto, Portugal) between January 2007 and July 2014. Comorbid diagnoses, clinical features, radiological and laboratory investigations, and outcomes were reviewed. Univariate analysis was performed to identify risk factors for death. Results. We included 39 patients: median age was 52.0 years and 74.4% were male. Twenty-one patients (53.8%) died during hospital stay (15 in the ICU). The diagnosis of isolated pulmonary TB, a positive smear for acid-fast-bacilli and a positive PCR for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients of pulmonary disease, severe sepsis/septic shock, acute renal failure and Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome on admission, the need for mechanical ventilation or vasopressor support, hospital acquired infection, use of adjunctive corticotherapy, smoking, and alcohol abuse were significantly associated with mortality (p < 0.05). Conclusion. This cohort of TB patients requiring intensive care presented a high mortality rate. Most risk factors for mortality were related to organ failure, but others could be attributed to delay in the diagnostic and therapeutic approach, important targets for intervention. PMID:28250986

  1. Canine dacryolithiasis: a case description and mineral analysis.

    PubMed

    Malho, Pedro; Sansom, Jane; Johnson, Phillipa; Stewart, Jennifer

    2013-07-01

    A 4-year-old, female, spayed, Labrador retriever was presented with a painless swelling of the left ventromedial eyelid and epiphora of 3 months duration. Bilateral patency of the nasolacrimal system was confirmed by the appearance of fluorescein dye at both nares. Ultrasonography revealed a well-demarcated fluid-filled structure containing echogenic ill-defined material in close proximity to the nasolacrimal system. A transconjunctival surgical approach confirmed the close anatomical proximity of the cyst and the absence of a communication with the inferior canaliculus. The cyst contained multiple intraluminal calculi (dacryoliths). Following surgical excision of the cyst, the epiphora resolved and no recurrence was noted over a 12-month follow-up period. On histopathology, the cystic structure was lined by stratified squamous epithelium, consistent with lacrimal canaliculus epithelium. Presumed progression of a canalicular diverticulum to a cyst with the formation of intraluminal dacryoliths was suspected. Mineral analysis of the dacryoliths revealed a calcium carbonate composition. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  2. Unintended birth among Hispanic women in Texas: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Denise; McDonald, Jill A; Homedes, Nuria; Brown, Louis D

    2015-06-01

    Unintended birth is associated with adverse maternal and infant outcomes. In 2006, US Hispanics had the highest unintended birth rate (45 births/1,000 women) compared to other groups. One-fifth of US Hispanic women reside in Texas, yet unintended birth among Texas Hispanics has not been studied. The goal of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of unintended birth in this population. Using data from Hispanic participants in the Texas Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System 2009-2010, we studied unintended birth in relation to demographic, lifestyle and partner characteristics. Adjusted prevalence odds ratios (POR) were computed for each characteristic and the analysis was stratified by maternal nativity (US vs foreign born). The weighted proportion of unintended birth was 49.5 % (CI = 45.9-52.6). In adjusted analyses, women aged 12-19 had a higher prevalence of unintended birth compared to ≥20 years (POR = 2.1, CI = 1.3-3.7). Unmarried (POR = 1.5, CI = 1.1-2.1), uninsured (POR = 1.7, CI = 1.2-2.3), and US-born (POR = 1.6, CI = 1.0-2.6) women had higher prevalence compared to married, insured and foreign-born women, respectively. Among US-born Hispanic women, higher prevalence of unintended birth was associated with being young, unmarried and experiencing psychological stressors within 12 months of giving birth; among foreign-born Hispanic women, higher prevalence was associated with lack of insurance. Efforts to reduce unintended birth in Texas might focus on young, single, uninsured and US-born Hispanic women. Analyses of other pre-pregnancy factors and health outcomes among Texas Hispanics could increase understanding of the differences we observed in unintended birth between US and foreign-born Hispanics.

  3. Unintended Birth Among Hispanic Women in Texas: A Descriptive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jill A.; Homedes, Nuria; Brown, Louis D.

    2014-01-01

    Unintended birth is associated with adverse maternal and infant outcomes. In 2006, US Hispanics had the highest unintended birth rate (45 births/1,000 women) compared to other groups. One-fifth of US Hispanic women reside in Texas, yet unintended birth among Texas Hispanics has not been studied. The goal of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of unintended birth in this population. Using data from Hispanic participants in the Texas Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System 2009–2010, we studied unintended birth in relation to demographic, lifestyle and partner characteristics. Adjusted prevalence odds ratios (POR) were computed for each characteristic and the analysis was stratified by maternal nativity (US vs foreign born). The weighted proportion of unintended birth was 49.5 % (CI = 45.9–52.6). In adjusted analyses, women aged 12–19 had a higher prevalence of unintended birth compared to ≥20 years (POR = 2.1, CI = 1.3–3.7). Unmarried (POR = 1.5, CI = 1.1–2.1), uninsured (POR = 1.7, CI = 1.2–2.3), and US-born (POR = 1.6, CI = 1.0–2.6) women had higher prevalence compared to married, insured and foreign-born women, respectively. Among US-born Hispanic women, higher prevalence of unintended birth was associated with being young, unmarried and experiencing psychological stressors within 12 months of giving birth; among foreign-born Hispanic women, higher prevalence was associated with lack of insurance. Efforts to reduce unintended birth in Texas might focus on young, single, uninsured and US-born Hispanic women. Analyses of other pre-pregnancy factors and health outcomes among Texas Hispanics could increase understanding of the differences we observed in unintended birth between US and foreign-born Hispanics. PMID:25366101

  4. Analysis of Graph Invariants in Functional Neocortical Circuitry Reveals Generalized Features Common to Three Areas of Sensory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Gururangan, Suchin S.; Sadovsky, Alexander J.; MacLean, Jason N.

    2014-01-01

    Correlations in local neocortical spiking activity can provide insight into the underlying organization of cortical microcircuitry. However, identifying structure in patterned multi-neuronal spiking remains a daunting task due to the high dimensionality of the activity. Using two-photon imaging, we monitored spontaneous circuit dynamics in large, densely sampled neuronal populations within slices of mouse primary auditory, somatosensory, and visual cortex. Using the lagged correlation of spiking activity between neurons, we generated functional wiring diagrams to gain insight into the underlying neocortical circuitry. By establishing the presence of graph invariants, which are label-independent characteristics common to all circuit topologies, our study revealed organizational features that generalized across functionally distinct cortical regions. Regardless of sensory area, random and -nearest neighbors null graphs failed to capture the structure of experimentally derived functional circuitry. These null models indicated that despite a bias in the data towards spatially proximal functional connections, functional circuit structure is best described by non-random and occasionally distal connections. Eigenvector centrality, which quantifies the importance of a neuron in the temporal flow of circuit activity, was highly related to feedforwardness in all functional circuits. The number of nodes participating in a functional circuit did not scale with the number of neurons imaged regardless of sensory area, indicating that circuit size is not tied to the sampling of neocortex. Local circuit flow comprehensively covered angular space regardless of the spatial scale that we tested, demonstrating that circuitry itself does not bias activity flow toward pia. Finally, analysis revealed that a minimal numerical sample size of neurons was necessary to capture at least 90 percent of functional circuit topology. These data and analyses indicated that functional circuitry

  5. Prostate brachytherapy: a descriptive analysis from CaPSURE.

    PubMed

    Lee, W Robert; Sharkey, Jerrold; Cowan, Janet E; DuChane, Janeen; Carroll, Peter R

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe demographic and clinical characteristics in a large disease registry of prostate cancer patients treated with prostate brachytherapy (PB) and to identify factors influencing the use of supplemental external beam (SEB) radiation therapy and choice of isotope. Data were abstracted from the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor (CaPSURE), a disease registry of 11,804 men with various stages of prostate cancer. The study population consisted of those men who were diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1990 and 2003, had no prior history of cancer and were treated with PB (alone or with SEB). The influence of patient demographics, disease characteristics, and year of diagnosis on the use of SEB and isotope choice was examined. The study population included 791 men. Six hundred nine men (77%) were treated with PB alone and 182 men (23%) were treated with PB and SEB. Patient demographics were not associated with the use of SEB. Disease characteristics were associated with the use of SEB. Patients treated with PB and SEB had higher pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA), higher T-stage, higher Gleason score, and were more likely to be placed in the high-risk category (all p<0.01). The use of SEB increased over the period studied. In a multivariate analysis, patients diagnosed after 1999 were much more likely to receive SEB after controlling for disease characteristics (PSA, T-stage, Gleason). Likewise, higher clinical PSA (odds ratio [OR]=1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-1.13), higher biopsy Gleason (OR=3.64; 95% CI: 2.60-5.09), and cT2 vs. cT1 (OR=2.06; 95% CI: 1.22-3.48) were more likely to have PB with SEB than PB alone. Patient demographics differed according to isotope. Compared to men treated with 125)I, men treated with (103)Pd were older, less educated, less wealthy, and less likely to have private insurance. Disease characteristics also differed according to isotope. Compared to men

  6. Chemical and sensory analysis of strawberry flavoured yogurt supplemented with an algae oil emulsion.

    PubMed

    Chee, Celia P; Gallaher, Jason J; Djordjevic, Darinka; Faraji, Habibollah; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A; Hollender, Ruth; Peterson, Devin G; Roberts, Robert F; Coupland, John N

    2005-08-01

    A yogurt mix (2 g fat and 17g solids/100 g) was supplemented with an algae oil emulsion to provide 500 mg omega-3 fatty acids per 272 g serving of yogurt white mass. The emulsion was added to the yogurt mix either before or after the homogenization step and prior to pasteurization. It was then flavoured with a strawberry fruit base and fermented and stored for up to three weeks. The oxidative deterioration of the products was determined by hydroperoxide measurements and by trained and consumer sensory evaluations. The hydroperoxide content of the supplemented yogurts increased over the storage treatment and was unaffected by the stage of addition. The trained panel could distinguish a stronger fishy flavour in both of the supplemented yogurts after 22 days storage, but the consumer panel rated both control and supplemented samples similarly, as 'moderately liked'.

  7. [An analysis of the functional heterogeneity of the sensory motor neuron synapse of the frog].

    PubMed

    Ditiatev, A E

    1989-01-01

    Four models of the amplitude fluctuations of postsynaptic potentials have been compared. Better agreement of convolution of the two binomial distributions and beta-model as compared to the binomial model is demonstrated. The beta-model is based on the assumption that the probability of the transmitter quantum release is a random variable which has beta distribution. The number of the quantum generators estimated by the beta-model is close to the number of synaptic boutons in the sensory-motor synapses of the frog. Investigation of this model has shown that the number of generators estimated by the binomial model may be interpreted as the number of transmitter release sites functioning with probabilities exceeding 0.2. Results obtained confirm the hypothesis concerning the functional heterogeneity of release sites at the frog interneuronal synapses.

  8. Rocket salad (Diplotaxis and Eruca spp.) sensory analysis and relation with glucosinolate and phenolic content.

    PubMed

    Pasini, Federica; Verardo, Vito; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; D'Antuono, Luigi Filippo

    2011-12-01

    Salad crops of the Brassicaceae family, such as Diplotaxis tenuifolia and Eruca vesicaria, commonly referred to as 'rocket salads', have attracted considerable interest as culinary vegetables because of their strong flavour and their content of putative health-promoting compounds. Among such compounds, glucosinolates and phenolics are well-known phytochemicals with an important role also in determining the characteristic flavour of these species. In this study, to identify potentially high-value rocket salads, 37 cultivated types were examined for sensory characters and their relations with glucosinolate and phenolic contents, which ranged from 0.76 to 3.03 g kg(-1) dry weight (DW) and from 4.68 to 31.39 g kg(-1) DW, respectively. The perception of bitter taste was significantly affected by specific glucosinolates, namely progoitrin/epiprogoitrin and dimeric glucosativin. Aroma intensity was negatively related to glucoalyssin content, whereas pungency was significantly related to total glucosinolate content. Kaempferol-3-(2-sinapoyl-glucoside)-4'-glucoside was positively and significantly related to all flavour trait perceptions. Aroma intensity, pungency, crunchiness and juiciness were positively related to typical rocket salad flavour perception through a prominent direct effect. Aroma intensity, pungency, crunchiness and juiciness were strong determinants of overall rocket salad flavour perception. Visual traits also characterised sensory components. Bitterness, usually considered a negative flavour trait, was moderately perceived in the examined material, without negatively affecting typical flavour perception. In the range of the examined material, glucosinolate content did not contrast with typical flavour, demonstrating that good taste and putative health-promoting properties may coexist. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Cognitive Processes in Intelligence Analysis: A Descriptive Model and Review of the Literature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    The descriptive model of cognitive processes in intelligence analysis presented in this report was developed as a part of a study entitled...8217Investigation of Methodologies and Techniques for Intelligence Analysis .’ The approach to constructing the model is based on the investigation of analytical...investigation, intelligence analysis was defined as a spectrum of analytical and judgmental activities involved in the processing and production of

  10. Usage of a Responsible Gambling Tool: A Descriptive Analysis and Latent Class Analysis of User Behavior.

    PubMed

    Forsström, David; Hesser, Hugo; Carlbring, Per

    2016-09-01

    Gambling is a common pastime around the world. Most gamblers can engage in gambling activities without negative consequences, but some run the risk of developing an excessive gambling pattern. Excessive gambling has severe negative economic and psychological consequences, which makes the development of responsible gambling strategies vital to protecting individuals from these risks. One such strategy is responsible gambling (RG) tools. These tools track an individual's gambling history and supplies personalized feedback and might be one way to decrease excessive gambling behavior. However, research is lacking in this area and little is known about the usage of these tools. The aim of this article is to describe user behavior and to investigate if there are different subclasses of users by conducting a latent class analysis. The user behaviour of 9528 online gamblers who voluntarily used a RG tool was analysed. Number of visits to the site, self-tests made, and advice used were the observed variables included in the latent class analysis. Descriptive statistics show that overall the functions of the tool had a high initial usage and a low repeated usage. Latent class analysis yielded five distinct classes of users: self-testers, multi-function users, advice users, site visitors, and non-users. Multinomial regression revealed that classes were associated with different risk levels of excessive gambling. The self-testers and multi-function users used the tool to a higher extent and were found to have a greater risk of excessive gambling than the other classes.

  11. Sensory Recovery Outcome after Digital Nerve Repair in Relation to Different Reconstructive Techniques: Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Petra; Harder, Yves; Kern, Yasmin; Paprottka, Philipp M.; Machens, Hans-Günther; Lohmeyer, Jörn A.

    2013-01-01

    Good clinical outcome after digital nerve repair is highly relevant for proper hand function and has a significant socioeconomic impact. However, level of evidence for competing surgical techniques is low. The aim is to summarize and compare the outcomes of digital nerve repair with different methods (end-to-end and end-to-side coaptations, nerve grafts, artificial conduit-, vein-, muscle, and muscle-in-vein reconstructions, and replantations) to provide an aid for choosing an individual technique of nerve reconstruction and to create reference values of standard repair for nonrandomized clinical studies. 87 publications including 2,997 nerve repairs were suitable for a precise evaluation. For digital nerve repairs there was practically no particular technique superior to another. Only end-to-side coaptation had an inferior two-point discrimination in comparison to end-to-end coaptation or nerve grafting. Furthermore, this meta-analysis showed that youth was associated with an improved sensory recovery outcome in patients who underwent digital replantation. For end-to-end coaptations, recent publications had significantly better sensory recovery outcomes than older ones. Given minor differences in outcome, the main criteria in choosing an adequate surgical technique should be gap length and donor site morbidity caused by graft material harvesting. Our clinical experience was used to provide a decision tree for digital nerve repair. PMID:23984064

  12. Integrating sensory evaluation in adaptive conjoint analysis to elaborate the conflicting influence of intrinsic and extrinsic attributes on food choice.

    PubMed

    Hoppert, Karin; Mai, Robert; Zahn, Susann; Hoffmann, Stefan; Rohm, Harald

    2012-12-01

    Sensory properties and packaging information are factors which considerably contribute to food choice. We present a new methodology in which sensory preference testing was integrated in adaptive conjoint analysis. By simultaneous variation of intrinsic and extrinsic attributes on identical levels, this procedure allows assessing the importance of attribute/level combinations on product selection. In a set-up with nine pair-wise comparisons and four subsequent calibration assessments, 101 young consumers evaluated vanilla yoghurt which was varied in fat content (four levels), sugar content (two levels) and flavour intensity (two levels); the same attribute/level combinations were also presented as extrinsic information. The results indicate that the evaluation of a particular attribute may largely diverge in intrinsic and in extrinsic processing. We noticed from our utility values that, for example, the acceptance of yoghurt increases with an increasing level of the actual fat content, whereas acceptance diminishes when a high fat content is labelled on the product. This article further implicates that neglecting these diverging relationships may lead to an over- or underestimation of the importance of an attribute for food choice.

  13. A comparative analysis of the encapsulated end-organs of mammalian skeletal muscles and of their sensory nerve endings.

    PubMed

    Banks, R W; Hulliger, M; Saed, H H; Stacey, M J

    2009-06-01

    The encapsulated sensory endings of mammalian skeletal muscles are all mechanoreceptors. At the most basic functional level they serve as length sensors (muscle spindle primary and secondary endings), tension sensors (tendon organs), and pressure or vibration sensors (lamellated corpuscles). At a higher functional level, the differing roles of individual muscles in, for example, postural adjustment and locomotion might be expected to be reflected in characteristic complements of the various end-organs, their sensory endings and afferent nerve fibres. This has previously been demonstrated with regard to the number of muscle-spindle capsules; however, information on the other types of end-organ, as well as the complements of primary and secondary endings of the spindles themselves, is sporadic and inconclusive regarding their comparative provision in different muscles. Our general conclusion that muscle-specific variability in the provision of encapsulated sensory endings does exist demonstrates the necessity for the acquisition of more data of this type if we are to understand the underlying adaptive relationships between motor control and the structure and function of skeletal muscle. The present quantitative and comparative analysis of encapsulated muscle afferents is based on teased, silver-impregnated preparations. We begin with a statistical analysis of the number and distribution of muscle-spindle afferents in hind-limb muscles of the cat, particularly tenuissimus. We show that: (i) taking account of the necessity for at least one primary ending to be present, muscles differ significantly in the mean number of additional afferents per spindle capsule; (ii) the frequency of occurrence of spindles with different sensory complements is consistent with a stochastic, rather than deterministic, developmental process; and (iii) notwithstanding the previous finding, there is a differential distribution of spindles intramuscularly such that the more complex ones tend

  14. A Description and Analysis of Evolving Data Resources on Small Business

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    A Description and Analysis of Evolving Data Resources on Small Business AMELIA HAVILAND AND BOGDAN SAVYCH WR-293-ICJ September 2005...proceedings_c.pdf Kauffman Symposium on Entrepreneurship Data (Nov 10-11, 2004) Conference Summary Document available by request from A. Haviland NAS PANELS

  15. Descriptive Analysis of Secondary Special Education and Transition Services Model Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusch, Frank R.; And Others

    This monograph provides a descriptive analysis of five grant programs funded by the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) in 1984. The programs were designed to stimulate the improvement and development of programs for secondary special education and to strengthen and coordinate education, training, and related services…

  16. Teacher Effectiveness, Mobility, and Attrition in Florida: A Descriptive Analysis. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    While there has been substantial research studying the factors that influence teachers' career decisions, there is far less literature on the relationship between teacher effectiveness, mobility, and attrition. In the paper "Teacher Effectiveness, Mobility, and Attrition in Florida: A Descriptive Analysis," Martin West and Matthew…

  17. Descriptive Analysis of Epileptic Seizures and Problem Behavior in Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Celeste; Yoder, Paul J.; Kennedy, Craig H.

    2006-01-01

    We studied possible relations between seizures and problem behavior in 3 adults with developmental disabilities. Each person was observed for between 56 and 92 days to record occurrences of seizures and problem behavior. Results of our descriptive analysis indicated an association between seizures and problem behavior for each participant. For…

  18. A Descriptive Analysis of Studies on Behavioural Treatment of Drooling (1970-2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Burg, Jan J. W.; Didden, Robert; Jongerius, Peter H.; Rotteveel, Jan J.

    2007-01-01

    A descriptive analysis was conducted on studies on the behavioural treatment of drooling (published between 1970 and 2005). The 17 articles that met the inclusion criteria described 53 participants (mean age 14y 7mo, [SD 4y 9mo]; range 6-28y). Sex of 87% of the participants was reported: 28 male, 18 female. For 60% of the participants the degree…

  19. Effects of a Training Package to Improve the Accuracy of Descriptive Analysis Data Recording

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Kimberly L.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2013-01-01

    Functional behavior assessment is an important precursor to developing interventions to address a problem behavior. Descriptive analysis, a type of functional behavior assessment, is effective in informing intervention design only if the gathered data accurately capture relevant events and behaviors. We investigated a training procedure to improve…

  20. Effects of a Training Package to Improve the Accuracy of Descriptive Analysis Data Recording

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Kimberly L.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2013-01-01

    Functional behavior assessment is an important precursor to developing interventions to address a problem behavior. Descriptive analysis, a type of functional behavior assessment, is effective in informing intervention design only if the gathered data accurately capture relevant events and behaviors. We investigated a training procedure to improve…

  1. Power vectors: an application of Fourier analysis to the description and statistical analysis of refractive error.

    PubMed

    Thibos, L N; Wheeler, W; Horner, D

    1997-06-01

    The description of sphero-cylinder lenses is approached from the viewpoint of Fourier analysis of the power profile. It is shown that the familiar sine-squared law leads naturally to a Fourier series representation with exactly three Fourier coefficients, representing the natural parameters of a thin lens. The constant term corresponds to the mean spherical equivalent (MSE) power, whereas the amplitude and phase of the harmonic correspond to the power and axis of a Jackson cross-cylinder (JCC) lens, respectively. Expressing the Fourier series in rectangular form leads to the representation of an arbitrary sphero-cylinder lens as the sum of a spherical lens and two cross-cylinders, one at axis 0 degree and the other at axis 45 degrees. The power of these three component lenses may be interpreted as (x,y,z) coordinates of a vector representation of the power profile. Advantages of this power vector representation of a sphero-cylinder lens for numerical and graphical analysis of optometric data are described for problems involving lens combinations, comparison of different lenses, and the statistical distribution of refractive errors.

  2. Instruction: The Forgotten Variable? A Discussion of Methodological Issues in the Investigation of Sensory Communication Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granzin, Alex; Morganstern, Kenneth

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses the need to exercise greater experimental control over instructional variables in the investigation of sensory communication aids for the deaf. An analysis of several recent papers with respect to control of instructional variables, the need for better procedural descriptions in research reports and its relationship to…

  3. Production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory analysis of goat milk in goats fed buriti oil.

    PubMed

    Morais, J S; Bezerra, L R; Silva, A M A; Araújo, M J; Oliveira, R L; Edvan, R L; Torreão, J N C; Lanna, D P D

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of replacing ground corn with buriti oil ( L.) on feed intake and digestibility and on the production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of goat milk. A double Latin square (4 × 4) was used; eight goats were distributed in a completely randomized design. The square comprised four periods and four buriti oil concentration (0.00; 1.50; 3.00 and 4.50% of total DM) replacing corn. Intakes of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, non-fibrous carboydrates (NFC) and TDN were not affected by the replacement of corn with oil in the diet. However, lipids intake was increased ( < 0.01) by 100% in the diet of goats with 4.50% oil inclusion, as total DM. DM and CP digestibility were similar between the buriti oil concentrations. However, lipid digestibility increased linearly ( = 0.01) and may have contributed to a quadratic reduction in NDF digestibility ( = 0.01) and a linear reduction of NFC ( = 0.04) with buriti oil content in the goat feed. Goat milk production, corrected production and chemical composition were not influenced by the concentration of buriti oil replacement; however, milk fat concentration ( = 0.04) and feed efficiency ( < 0.01) increased linearly with the amount of buriti oil in the diet. There was a linear reduction on hypercholesterolemic SFA such as C12:0 ( < 0.01) and C14:0 ( < 0.01) as well as the atherogenic index (AI; < 0.01) with buriti oil inclusion in goat's diet. In contrast, the fatty acids C18:0 ( < 0.01) and C18:1 9 ( < 0.01) increased linearly in the milk of goats that were fed with buriti oil. However, CLA ( < 0.01) varied quadratically; the maximum production of 0.62 g/100 g of fat was observed when using 1.50% buriti oil. The sensory characteristics of the milk were not changed ( > 0.05) by the replacement of corn with buriti oil in the goats' diet. It is recommended to replace corn with buriti oil in goat feed by up to 4.5% of total DM, resulting in improved feed efficiency and milk fat without

  4. Sensory effect of acetaldehyde on the perception of 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine: Role of acetaldehyde in sensory interactions

    DOE PAGES

    Coetzee, C.; Brand, J.; Jacobson, Daniel A.; ...

    2016-01-28

    Background and Aims-Wine aroma is influenced by complex interactions between various wine constituents. This study investigated the sensory interactive effects of Sauvignon Blanc impact compounds, 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine, with acetaldehyde that typically forms during the oxidation of wine. Methods and Results-Spiked model wines were subjected to sensory descriptive analysis using a trained sensory panel. Additionally, the concentration of each compound varied from below aroma threshold values to high values as reported for wine. Depending on the concentration, acetaldehyde enhanced fruity attributes at a lower concentration, whereas suppression occurred at a higher concentration. Acetaldehyde effectively suppressed the green pepper aroma attributemore » at certain concentration values, whereas 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol suppressed oxidised green apple associated with acetaldehyde. Changes in attributes used for aroma description also occurred because of change in concentration. Conclusions-Complex sensory interactions may occur between Sauvignon Blanc impact compounds and one of the main oxidation-derived compounds, acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde can enhance or suppress pleasant fruity characters depending on the concentration. Significance of the Study-This study showed the potential positive effect of acetaldehyde on white wine aroma when present at a low concentration. Formation of this compound during winemaking and ageing should, however, be controlled because of negative sensory interactions occurring at a higher concentration. In conclusion, this study may also contribute to the sensory characterisation of Sauvignon Blanc wine undergoing oxidation.« less

  5. Sensory effect of acetaldehyde on the perception of 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine: Role of acetaldehyde in sensory interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Coetzee, C.; Brand, J.; Jacobson, Daniel A.; Du Toit, W. J.

    2016-01-28

    Background and Aims-Wine aroma is influenced by complex interactions between various wine constituents. This study investigated the sensory interactive effects of Sauvignon Blanc impact compounds, 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine, with acetaldehyde that typically forms during the oxidation of wine. Methods and Results-Spiked model wines were subjected to sensory descriptive analysis using a trained sensory panel. Additionally, the concentration of each compound varied from below aroma threshold values to high values as reported for wine. Depending on the concentration, acetaldehyde enhanced fruity attributes at a lower concentration, whereas suppression occurred at a higher concentration. Acetaldehyde effectively suppressed the green pepper aroma attribute at certain concentration values, whereas 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol suppressed oxidised green apple associated with acetaldehyde. Changes in attributes used for aroma description also occurred because of change in concentration. Conclusions-Complex sensory interactions may occur between Sauvignon Blanc impact compounds and one of the main oxidation-derived compounds, acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde can enhance or suppress pleasant fruity characters depending on the concentration. Significance of the Study-This study showed the potential positive effect of acetaldehyde on white wine aroma when present at a low concentration. Formation of this compound during winemaking and ageing should, however, be controlled because of negative sensory interactions occurring at a higher concentration. In conclusion, this study may also contribute to the sensory characterisation of Sauvignon Blanc wine undergoing oxidation.

  6. Novel vinegar-derived product enriched with dietary fiber: effect on polyphenolic profile, volatile composition and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Rodríguez-Dodero, M Carmen; Natera-Marín, Ramón; Castro-Mejías, Remedios; García-Barroso, Carmelo; Durán-Guerrero, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    Dietary fiber derived from citrus fruits was added to vinegar. Different sources and quantities of fiber and storage conditions have been scrutinized. Formulated vinegars were evaluated on the basis of their phenolic profile, volatile composition and sensory analysis. The addition of citrus fiber enhanced the phenolic and volatile profile of the resulted vinegars. Whereas lemon fiber contributed mostly to the enrichment of the polyphenolic composition, orange fiber was that which increased in a higher way the volatile composition of the vinegars. Moreover, the content of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and the majority of volatile compounds decreased as the dose of fiber increased. Furthermore, the judges preferred fiber-enriched vinegars, but in different quantities depending of the fiber source. This preference was mainly based on citric attribute, contributing several terpenes and ketones derived from them. The addition of citrus fiber to vinegar did not result in a marked storage-dependence.

  7. Analysis of Proprioceptive Sensory Innervation of the Mouse Soleus: A Whole-Mount Muscle Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sonner, Martha J.; Walters, Marie C.; Ladle, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Muscle proprioceptive afferents provide feedback critical for successful execution of motor tasks via specialized mechanoreceptors housed within skeletal muscles: muscle spindles, supplied by group Ia and group II afferents, and Golgi tendon organs, supplied by group Ib afferents. The morphology of these proprioceptors and their associated afferents has been studied extensively in the cat soleus, and to a lesser degree, in the rat; however, quantitative analyses of proprioceptive innervation in the mouse soleus are comparatively limited. The present study employed genetically-encoded fluorescent reporting systems to label and analyze muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs, and the proprioceptive sensory neuron subpopulations supplying them within the intact mouse soleus muscle using high magnification confocal microscopy. Total proprioceptive receptors numbered 11.3 ± 0.4 and 5.2 ± 0.2 for muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs, respectively, and these receptor counts varied independently (n = 27 muscles). Analogous to findings in the rat, muscle spindles analyzed were most frequently supplied by two proprioceptive afferents, and in the majority of instances, both were classified as primary endings using established morphological criteria. Secondary endings were most frequently observed when spindle associated afferents totaled three or more. The mean diameter of primary and secondary afferent axons differed significantly, but the distributions overlap more than previously observed in cat and rat studies. PMID:28122055

  8. Analysis of IFT kinesins in developing zebrafish cone photoreceptor sensory cilia.

    PubMed

    Insinna, Christine; Luby-Phelps, Katherine; Link, Brian A; Besharse, Joseph C

    2009-01-01

    The photoreceptor outer segment (OS), a well-defined sensory cilium, provides an important context for the study of intraflagellar transport (IFT). The early phases of OS development involve successive events that are common to virtually all cilia. Additionally, intense protein trafficking occurs through the cilium and relies on IFT to maintain proper cellular morphology and optimize the photosensitive function. In the past decade, progress has been made in the characterization of photoreceptor OS trafficking in murine and amphibian models. Recently, powerful and cost-effective molecular tools and techniques for zebrafish have opened new opportunities to study photoreceptor IFT. Studies using zebrafish take advantage of its rapid embryogenesis to characterize the early events involved in photoreceptor ciliogenesis and OS assembly. In this overview, we describe phenotypes associated with knockdown strategies or genetic mutations of IFT components in zebrafish and detail a general experimental approach that has enabled us to study the function of the two anterograde IFT motors, KIF17 and kinesin II, in zebrafish cone photoreceptors.

  9. Exploratory sensory profiling of three culinary preparations of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Seefeldt, Helene F; Tønning, Erik; Thybo, Anette K

    2011-01-15

    A consumer-oriented description of potato quality with regard to culinary preparation could increase potato consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensory attributes in 11 potato varieties grown at two locations and used for three culinary preparations. Sensory evaluation of the potatoes served either as boiled, oven-fried or mashed were performed using 15-19 descriptors for appearance, flavour and texture attributes. A principal component analysis revealed that 45% of the variation in the sensory data was related to variety differences, which was ascribed to variation in appearance, dry matter content and texture. Growing location also significantly affected appearance and texture. The sensory panel judged the sensory attributes 'yellowness', 'hardness', 'adhesiveness' and 'moistness' to be important quality descriptors in all three culinary preparations. Internal references showed the high reproducibility of the sensory evaluations. The potatoes grown in a sandy location had higher content of dry matter compared to those grown in a clay location, affecting the quality. This study showed that it was possible to do reliable and reproducible sensory profiles in a potato material with a large span in quality. Sensory information based on few attributes can be used to describe culinary quality of potato varieties. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Efficacy of Sensory and Motor Interventions for Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baranek, Grace T.

    2002-01-01

    This article evaluates the scientific basis (primarily gained through uncontrolled, descriptive studies) of various sensory and motor interventions for children with autism and concludes that most categories of interventions, including sensory integration, sensory stimulation approaches, auditory integration training, and prism lenses, have shown…

  11. A review on intelligent sensory modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tham, H. J.; Tang, S. Y.; Teo, K. T. K.; Loh, S. P.

    2016-06-01

    Sensory evaluation plays an important role in the quality control of food productions. Sensory data obtained through sensory evaluation are generally subjective, vague and uncertain. Classically, factorial multivariate methods such as Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Partial Least Square (PLS) method, Multiple Regression (MLR) method and Response Surface Method (RSM) are the common tools used to analyse sensory data. These methods can model some of the sensory data but may not be robust enough to analyse nonlinear data. In these situations, intelligent modelling techniques such as Fuzzy Logic and Artificial neural network (ANNs) emerged to solve the vagueness and uncertainty of sensory data. This paper outlines literature of intelligent sensory modelling on sensory data analysis.

  12. A brief description of an Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) computer data analysis and management program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayroe, R. R., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A data analysis and management procedure currently being used at Marshall Space Flight Center to analyze ERTS digital data is described. The objective is to acquaint potential users with the various computer programs that are available for analysis of multispectral digital imagery and to show how these programs are used in the overall data management plan. The report contains a brief description of each computer routine, and references are provided for obtaining more detailed information.

  13. Effect of enzymatic hydrolysis with subsequent mild thermal oxidation of tallow on precursor formation and sensory profiles of beef flavours assessed by partial least squares regression.

    PubMed

    Song, Shiqing; Tang, Qi; Hayat, Khizar; Karangwa, Eric; Zhang, Xiaoming; Xiao, Zuobing

    2014-03-01

    Effects of different pretreatments of tallow on flavour precursor development and flavour profiles of beef flavours (BFs) were evaluated. Analysis of free fatty acids and volatiles of tallow by GC and GC-MS indicated that the enzymatic hydrolyzed-thermally oxidized tallow formed the most characteristic flavour precursors compared with others. The results of descriptive sensory analysis confirmed that beef flavour 4 from enzymatic hydrolyzed-thermally oxidized tallow had the strongest beefy, meaty and odour characteristics, followed by beef flavour 2 from oxidized tallow. Electronic nose data confirmed the accuracy of the sensory analysis results. The correlation analysis of 51 volatile compounds in tallow and sensory attributes of BFs showed that some compounds, especially aldehydes, made a significant contribution to sensory attributes. Correlation analysis of free fatty acids and sensory attributes through partial least squares regression (PLSR) confirmed that the moderate enzymatic hydrolysis-thermal oxidation pretreatment of tallow was necessary to achieve the characteristic beef flavour.

  14. Structural, compositional, and sensorial properties of United States commercial ice cream products.

    PubMed

    Warren, Maya M; Hartel, Richard W

    2014-10-01

    Commercial vanilla ice cream products from the United States (full fat, low fat, and nonfat) were analyzed for their structural, behavioral (i.e., melt rate and drip-through), compositional, and sensorial attributes. Mean size distributions of ice crystals and air cells, drip-through rates, percent partially coalesced fat, percent overrun and total fat, and density were determined. A trained panel carried out sensory analyses in order to determine correlations between ice cream microstructure attributes and sensory properties using a Spectrum(TM) descriptive analysis. Analyses included melt rate, breakdown, size of ice particulates (iciness), denseness, greasiness, and overall creaminess. To determine relationships and interactions, principle component analysis and multivariate pairwise correlation were performed within and between the instrumental and sensorial data. Greasiness and creaminess negatively correlated with drip-through rate and creaminess correlated with percent total fat and percent fat destabilization. Percent fat did not determine the melt rate on a sensorial level. However, drip-through rate at ambient temperatures was predicted by total fat content of the samples. Based on sensory analysis, high-fat products were noted to be creamier than low and nonfat products. Iciness did not correlate with mean ice crystal size and drip-through rate did not predict sensory melt rate. Furthermore, on a sensorial level, greasiness positively correlated with total percent fat destabilization and mean air cell size positively correlated with denseness. These results indicate that commercial ice cream products vary widely in composition, structure, behavior, and sensory properties. There is a wide range of commercial ice creams in the United States market, ranging from full fat to nonfat. In this research we showed that these ice creams vary greatly in their microstructures, behaviors (the melt/drip-though, collapse, and/or stand up properties of ice cream

  15. Sensory characterization of bowel cleansing solutions

    PubMed Central

    Sharara, Ala I; Daroub, Hamza; Georges, Camille; Shayto, Rani; Nader, Ralph; Chalhoub, Jean; Olabi, Ammar

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercial bowel cleansing preparations. METHODS Samples of 4 commercially available bowel cleansing preparations, namely polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution (PEG), PEG + ascorbic acid (PEG-Asc), sodium picosulfate (SPS), and oral sodium sulfate (OSS) were prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Descriptive analysis was conducted (n = 14) using a 15-cm line scale with the Compusense at-hand® sensory evaluation software. Acceptability testing (n = 80) was conducted using the 9-point hedonic scale. In addition, a Just-About-Right (JAR) scale was included for the four basic tastes to determine their intensity compatibility with acceptability levels in the products. RESULTS Samples were significantly different, in descriptive analysis, for all attributes (P < 0.05) except for sweetness. SPS received the highest ratings for turbidity, viscosity appearance, orange odor and orange flavor; PEG-Asc for citrus odor and citrus flavor; OSS for sweetener taste, sweet aftertaste, bitterness, astringency, mouthcoating, bitter aftertaste and throatburn, and along with PEG-Asc, the highest ratings for saltiness, sourness and adhesiveness. Acceptability results showed significant differences between the various samples (P < 0.05). SPS received significantly higher ratings for overall acceptability, acceptability of taste, odor and mouthfeel (P < 0.05). JAR ratings showed that PEG and PEG-Asc were perceived as slightly too salty; SPS and OSS were slightly too sweet, while SPS, PEG-Asc and OSS were slightly too sour and OSS slightly too bitter. While using small sample volumes was necessary to avoid unwanted purgative effects, acceptability ratings do not reflect the true effect of large volumes intake thus limiting the generalization of the results. CONCLUSION Further improvements are needed to enhance the sensory profile and to optimize the acceptability for better compliance with these bowel cleansing solutions

  16. Manufacture and sensory analysis of reduced- and low-sodium Cheddar and Mozzarella cheeses.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Brown, Kelly; Irish, David A; Brothersen, Carl; McMahon, Donald J

    2014-01-01

    High sodium intake negatively affects consumer health, thus there is active interest in lowering sodium levels in dairy foods. Cheddar and low-moisture, part-skim Mozzarella cheeses were made with total salt levels of 0.7, 1.0, 1.25, 1.35, and 1.8% (wt/wt) in triplicate, thus reducing sodium by 25 to 60%. Multiple manufacturing protocols for salt reduction were used to produce cheeses with similar postpress moisture and pH, independent of the final salt levels in cheese, in order to study the role of salt in cheese acceptability. Cheese flavor was evaluated by a descriptive taste panel on a 15-point intensity scale. Consumer acceptance was evaluated by a consumer panel on a 9-point hedonic scale. Taste panels conducted with cubed Cheddar cheese (at 3 and 6mo) and cold shredded Mozzarella cheese (at 3wk) showed that consumer liking for cheese was low at 0.7 and 0.9% salt, but all cheeses containing higher salt levels (1.25, 1.35, and 1.8% salt) were comparably preferred. The cheeses had acceptable liking scores (≥6) when served as quesadilla or pizza toppings, and consumers were able to differentiate cheeses at alternate salt levels; for example, 1.8 and 1.5% salt cheeses scored similarly, as did cheeses with 1.5% and 1.35% salt, but 1.35% salt cheese scored lower than and was discernible from 1.8% salt cheese. Descriptive panelists perceived salty, sour, umami, bitter, brothy, lactone/fatty acid, and sulfur attributes as different across Mozzarella cheeses, with the perception of each significantly increasing along with salt level. Salty and buttery attributes were perceived more with increasing salt levels of Cheddar cheese by the descriptive panel at 3mo, whereas bitter, brothy, and umami attributes were perceived less at the higher salt levels. However, this trend reversed at 6mo, when perception of salty, sour, bitter, buttery, lactone/fatty acid, and umami attributes increased with salt level. We conclude that consumers can distinguish even a 30% salt

  17. Comprehensive RNA-Seq Expression Analysis of Sensory Ganglia with a Focus on Ion Channels and GPCRs in Trigeminal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Manteniotis, Stavros; Lehmann, Ramona; Flegel, Caroline; Vogel, Felix; Hofreuter, Adrian; Schreiner, Benjamin S. P.; Altmüller, Janine; Becker, Christian; Schöbel, Nicole; Hatt, Hanns; Gisselmann, Günter

    2013-01-01

    The specific functions of sensory systems depend on the tissue-specific expression of genes that code for molecular sensor proteins that are necessary for stimulus detection and membrane signaling. Using the Next Generation Sequencing technique (RNA-Seq), we analyzed the complete transcriptome of the trigeminal ganglia (TG) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of adult mice. Focusing on genes with an expression level higher than 1 FPKM (fragments per kilobase of transcript per million mapped reads), we detected the expression of 12984 genes in the TG and 13195 in the DRG. To analyze the specific gene expression patterns of the peripheral neuronal tissues, we compared their gene expression profiles with that of the liver, brain, olfactory epithelium, and skeletal muscle. The transcriptome data of the TG and DRG were scanned for virtually all known G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as well as for ion channels. The expression profile was ranked with regard to the level and specificity for the TG. In total, we detected 106 non-olfactory GPCRs and 33 ion channels that had not been previously described as expressed in the TG. To validate the RNA-Seq data, in situ hybridization experiments were performed for several of the newly detected transcripts. To identify differences in expression profiles between the sensory ganglia, the RNA-Seq data of the TG and DRG were compared. Among the differentially expressed genes (> 1 FPKM), 65 and 117 were expressed at least 10-fold higher in the TG and DRG, respectively. Our transcriptome analysis allows a comprehensive overview of all ion channels and G protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in trigeminal ganglia and provides additional approaches for the investigation of trigeminal sensing as well as for the physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms of pain. PMID:24260241

  18. A novel approach to assess temporal sensory perception of muscle foods: application of a time-intensity technique to diverse Iberian meat products.

    PubMed

    Lorido, Laura; Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Although dynamic sensory techniques such as time-intensity (TI) have been applied to certain meat products, existing knowledge regarding the temporal sensory perception of muscle foods is still limited. The objective of the present study was to apply TI to the flavour and texture perception of three different Iberian meat products: liver pâté, dry-cured sausages ("salchichon") and dry-cured loin. Moreover, the advantages of using dynamic versus static sensory techniques were explored by subjecting the same products to a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). TI was a suitable technique to assess the impact of composition and structure of the three meat products on flavour and texture perception from a dynamic perspective. TI parameters extracted from the TI-curves and related to temporal perception enabled the detection of clear differences in sensory temporal perception between the meat products and provided additional insight on sensory perception compared to the conventional static sensory technique (QDA). © 2013.

  19. Integrated Annotation and Analysis of In Situ Hybridization Images Using the ImAnno System: Application to the Ear and Sensory Organs of the Fetal Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Romand, Raymond; Ripp, Raymond; Poidevin, Laetitia; Boeglin, Marcel; Geffers, Lars; Dollé, Pascal; Poch, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    An in situ hybridization (ISH) study was performed on 2000 murine genes representing around 10% of the protein-coding genes present in the mouse genome using data generated by the EURExpress consortium. This study was carried out in 25 tissues of late gestation embryos (E14.5), with a special emphasis on the developing ear and on five distinct developing sensory organs, including the cochlea, the vestibular receptors, the sensory retina, the olfactory organ, and the vibrissae follicles. The results obtained from an analysis of more than 11,000 micrographs have been integrated in a newly developed knowledgebase, called ImAnno. In addition to managing the multilevel micrograph annotations performed by human experts, ImAnno provides public access to various integrated databases and tools. Thus, it facilitates the analysis of complex ISH gene expression patterns, as well as functional annotation and interaction of gene sets. It also provides direct links to human pathways and diseases. Hierarchical clustering of expression patterns in the 25 tissues revealed three main branches corresponding to tissues with common functions and/or embryonic origins. To illustrate the integrative power of ImAnno, we explored the expression, function and disease traits of the sensory epithelia of the five presumptive sensory organs. The study identified 623 genes (out of 2000) concomitantly expressed in the five embryonic epithelia, among which many (∼12%) were involved in human disorders. Finally, various multilevel interaction networks were characterized, highlighting differential functional enrichments of directly or indirectly interacting genes. These analyses exemplify an under-represention of "sensory" functions in the sensory gene set suggests that E14.5 is a pivotal stage between the developmental stage and the functional phase that will be fully reached only after birth. PMID:25706271

  20. Integrated annotation and analysis of in situ hybridization images using the ImAnno system: application to the ear and sensory organs of the fetal mouse.

    PubMed

    Romand, Raymond; Ripp, Raymond; Poidevin, Laetitia; Boeglin, Marcel; Geffers, Lars; Dollé, Pascal; Poch, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    An in situ hybridization (ISH) study was performed on 2000 murine genes representing around 10% of the protein-coding genes present in the mouse genome using data generated by the EURExpress consortium. This study was carried out in 25 tissues of late gestation embryos (E14.5), with a special emphasis on the developing ear and on five distinct developing sensory organs, including the cochlea, the vestibular receptors, the sensory retina, the olfactory organ, and the vibrissae follicles. The results obtained from an analysis of more than 11,000 micrographs have been integrated in a newly developed knowledgebase, called ImAnno. In addition to managing the multilevel micrograph annotations performed by human experts, ImAnno provides public access to various integrated databases and tools. Thus, it facilitates the analysis of complex ISH gene expression patterns, as well as functional annotation and interaction of gene sets. It also provides direct links to human pathways and diseases. Hierarchical clustering of expression patterns in the 25 tissues revealed three main branches corresponding to tissues with common functions and/or embryonic origins. To illustrate the integrative power of ImAnno, we explored the expression, function and disease traits of the sensory epithelia of the five presumptive sensory organs. The study identified 623 genes (out of 2000) concomitantly expressed in the five embryonic epithelia, among which many (∼12%) were involved in human disorders. Finally, various multilevel interaction networks were characterized, highlighting differential functional enrichments of directly or indirectly interacting genes. These analyses exemplify an under-represention of "sensory" functions in the sensory gene set suggests that E14.5 is a pivotal stage between the developmental stage and the functional phase that will be fully reached only after birth.

  1. Aerodynamic design and analysis system for supersonic aircraft. Part 1: General description and theoretical development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, W. D.; Lundry, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    An integrated system of computer programs has been developed for the design and analysis of supersonic configurations. The system uses linearized theory methods for the calculation of surface pressures and supersonic area rule concepts in combination with linearized theory for calculation of aerodynamic force coefficients. Interactive graphics are optional at the user's request. This part presents a general description of the system and describes the theoretical methods used.

  2. Configuration Analysis Tool (CAT). System Description and users guide (revision 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, W.; Taylor, W.; Mcgarry, F. E.; Merwarth, P.

    1982-01-01

    A system description of, and user's guide for, the Configuration Analysis Tool (CAT) are presented. As a configuration management tool, CAT enhances the control of large software systems by providing a repository for information describing the current status of a project. CAT provides an editing capability to update the information and a reporting capability to present the information. CAT is an interactive program available in versions for the PDP-11/70 and VAX-11/780 computers.

  3. Chemical and sensory profiles of rosé wines from Australia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaming; Capone, Dimitra L; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Jeffery, David W

    2016-04-01

    The appeal of rosé wine is attributable to its sensory profiles and underlying chemical composition, which are determined by viticultural and oenological inputs. This study provided the first insight into the sensory attributes and volatile profiles of Australian rosé wines. An HS-SPME-GC-MS method and a recently developed HPLC-MS/MS method were used to quantify 51 volatile compounds, including 4 potent sulfur compounds, in 26 commercial rosé wines. Descriptive analysis on all wines was undertaken and the sensory results were correlated with quantitative chemical data to explore relationships between wine composition and sensory profiles. Based on odour activity values, esters were prominent aroma volatiles, and β-damascenone, 3-methylbutyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and 3-MHA were deemed to be important, in accord with other studies. Wines were described with terms ranging from developed, spicy and savoury to fresh green, citrus, tropical fruit, floral and confectionery.

  4. Volatile profile and sensory evaluation of tomato juices treated with pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Bendini, Alessandra; Barbieri, Sara; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Martin-Belloso, Olga; Toschi, Tullia Gallina

    2013-02-27

    Tomato juices produced from tomatoes subjected to moderate-intensity pulsed electric fields (MIPEF) and from untreated tomatoes were preserved by high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) or by thermal treatment (TH) having, in both cases, the fresh juice as a reference. The chemical and sensory changes of tomato juices stored at 4 °C for increasing period of time were analyzed. A quantitative descriptive analysis was developed to characterize the sensory quality of samples. Tomatoes subjected to MIPEF treatments led to tomato juices with a higher content of volatile compounds and better sensory properties than those prepared with untreated tomatoes. An enhancement was observed in hexanal and (E)-2-hexenal just after processing in juices prepared with MIPEF-treated tomatoes. A slight decrease in volatile compounds and a loss of sensory quality was observed over time in TH and HIPEF juices, but HIPEF-processed samples just after processing and through storage maintained higher overall quality.

  5. A descriptive analysis of the impact of moral distress on the evaluation of unsatisfactory nursing students.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Maria; Martin, Lynn; Mohide, Ann; Black, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Nurse educators assume a difficult role when evaluating unsatisfactory students, including those at risk for failure in clinical and classroom settings. While the decisional dilemma inherent in evaluating unsatisfactory students has been well documented in literature, little is known about how moral distress impacts the nurse educators' decisions regarding whether to pass or to fail unsatisfactory students. This article aims to provide a descriptive analysis of the moral dilemmas and the potential impact of moral distress experienced by nurse educators when evaluating the performance of unsatisfactory students in clinical and classroom courses. Nathaniel's theory of moral reckoning guided the descriptive analysis of six studies to understand how nurse educators work through moral dilemmas, make decisions, and provide justification for their decisions when evaluating the performance of unsatisfactory students. Nathaniel's theory has been shown to be helpful in discussing the dilemma of evaluating unsatisfactory students, and it is a suitable framework for nurse educators in working through their dilemmas as a form of structured reflection. The outcomes of this descriptive analysis highlight the need for educational administrators to provide support to undergraduate nurse educators experiencing moral distress in this type of situation. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effects of different lower-limb sensory stimulation strategies on postural regulation-A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Woo, Mei Teng; Davids, Keith; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Orth, Dominic; Chow, Jia Yi; Jaakkola, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Systematic reviews of balance control have tended to only focus on the effects of single lower-limb stimulation strategies, and a current limitation is the lack of comparison between different relevant stimulation strategies. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine evidence of effects of different lower-limb sensory stimulation strategies on postural regulation and stability. Moderate- to high- pooled effect sizes (Unbiased (Hedges' g) standardized mean differences (SMD) = 0.31-0.66) were observed with the addition of noise in a Stochastic Resonance Stimulation Strategy (SRSS), in three populations (i.e., healthy young adults, older adults, and individuals with lower-limb injuries), and under different task constraints (i.e., unipedal, bipedal, and eyes open). A Textured Material Stimulation Strategy (TMSS) enhanced postural control in the most challenging condition-eyes-closed on a stable surface (SMD = 0.61), and in older adults (SMD = 0.30). The Wearable Garments Stimulation Strategy (WGSS) showed no or adverse effects (SMD = -0.68-0.05) under all task constraints and in all populations, except in individuals with lower-limb injuries (SMD = 0.20). Results of our systematic review and meta-analysis revealed that future research could consider combining two or more stimulation strategies in intervention treatments for postural regulation and balance problems, depending on individual needs.

  7. Effects of different lower-limb sensory stimulation strategies on postural regulation—A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Davids, Keith; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Orth, Dominic; Chow, Jia Yi; Jaakkola, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Systematic reviews of balance control have tended to only focus on the effects of single lower-limb stimulation strategies, and a current limitation is the lack of comparison between different relevant stimulation strategies. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine evidence of effects of different lower-limb sensory stimulation strategies on postural regulation and stability. Moderate- to high- pooled effect sizes (Unbiased (Hedges’ g) standardized mean differences (SMD) = 0.31–0.66) were observed with the addition of noise in a Stochastic Resonance Stimulation Strategy (SRSS), in three populations (i.e., healthy young adults, older adults, and individuals with lower-limb injuries), and under different task constraints (i.e., unipedal, bipedal, and eyes open). A Textured Material Stimulation Strategy (TMSS) enhanced postural control in the most challenging condition—eyes-closed on a stable surface (SMD = 0.61), and in older adults (SMD = 0.30). The Wearable Garments Stimulation Strategy (WGSS) showed no or adverse effects (SMD = -0.68–0.05) under all task constraints and in all populations, except in individuals with lower-limb injuries (SMD = 0.20). Results of our systematic review and meta-analysis revealed that future research could consider combining two or more stimulation strategies in intervention treatments for postural regulation and balance problems, depending on individual needs. PMID:28355265

  8. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of fermented soybean paste (Doenjang).

    PubMed

    Kim, H G; Hong, J H; Song, C K; Shin, H W; Kim, K O

    2010-09-01

    This study was conducted to examine the sensory profiles of fermented soybean paste (Doenjang), to understand consumers' acceptability of different types of Doenjang samples and to identify the sensory characteristics that drive consumer acceptability of Doenjang products. Descriptive analysis and consumer acceptability test were conducted for 7 different types of Doenjang samples. The samples included 2 types of Doenjang made by either traditional or commercially modified methods. For the descriptive analysis, 8 trained panelists developed and evaluated 31 descriptors. There were significant differences in all 31 attributes among the samples. Principal component analysis was also performed to summarize the sensory characteristics of the samples. In consumer testing, 200 consumers evaluated the acceptability of Doenjang samples. Significant differences in consumer acceptability were observed among the samples. The consumers preferred the Doenjang samples manufactured using a commercially modified method. In overall point of view, most consumers liked the Doenjang samples that had strong "sweet" and "MSG (monosodium glutamate)" tastes. It appears that "sweet" and "MSG" tastes are the drivers of liking for Doenjang. "Salty" taste, "meju,"traditional Korean soy sauce," and "fermented fish" odor/flavors seem to be the drivers of disliking for Doenjang. Cluster analysis identified 3 subconsumer segments sharing a common preference pattern for the 7 samples within a cluster. The results showed that each consumer cluster preferred different Doenjang samples. External preference mapping was performed to establish the relationships between the sensory attributes and consumer acceptability in each cluster. Consumption of the fermented soybean products is gradually expanding around the world, due to their various health benefits. Therefore, understanding sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of Doenjang are becoming increasingly important. The intense and complex

  9. Descriptive analysis of staff satisfaction and turnover intention in a Malaysian University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidik, Mohamad Hazeem; Hamid, Mohd Rashid Ab; Ibrahim, Abdullah

    2017-05-01

    This paper discussed the descriptive analysis of staff satisfaction in education organisation. This study employed a cross-sectional study involving a total of 1042 of respondents from a university in east coast of Malaysia. The survey covers six dimensions of staff satisfaction which are leadership, staff involvement, workload, self-development, working environment and communication. From the analysis of the mean score, it reveals that the staff enjoyed moderate level of satisfaction and the findings of the study generally support the past findings in the literature. This study paved the way for in-depth investigation towards staff satisfaction at the university under study.

  10. The effect of phenol composition on the sensory profile of smoke affected wines.

    PubMed

    Kelly, David; Zerihun, Ayalsew

    2015-05-26

    Vineyards exposed to wildfire generated smoke can produce wines with elevated levels of lignin derived phenols that have acrid, metallic and smoky aromas and flavour attributes. While a large number of phenols are present in smoke affected wines, the effect of smoke vegetation source on the sensory descriptors has not been reported. Here we report on a descriptive sensory analysis of wines made from grapes exposed to different vegetation sources of smoke to examine: (1) the effect vegetation source has on wine sensory attribute ratings and; (2) associations between volatile and glycoconjugated phenol composition and sensory attributes. Sensory attribute ratings were determined by a trained sensory panel and phenol concentrations determined by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Analysis of variance, principal component analysis and partial least squares regressions were used to evaluate the interrelationships between the phenol composition and sensory attributes. The results showed that vegetation source of smoke significantly affected sensory attribute intensity, especially the taste descriptors. Differences in aroma and taste from smoke exposure were not limited to an elevation in a range of detractive descriptors but also a masking of positive fruit descriptors. Sensory differences due to vegetation type were driven by phenol composition and concentration. In particular, the glycoconjugates of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanillin), 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanone (acetovanillone), 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde (syringaldehyde) and 1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanone (acetosyringone) concentrations were influential in separating the vegetation sources of smoke. It is concluded that the detractive aroma attributes of smoke affected wine, especially of smoke and ash, were associated with volatile phenols while the detractive flavour descriptors were correlated with glycoconjugated phenols.

  11. Multi-level model for 2D human motion analysis and description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foures, Thomas; Joly, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the proposition of a model for human motion analysis in a video. Its main caracteristic is to adapt itself automatically to the current resolution, the actual quality of the picture, or the level of precision required by a given application, due to its possible decomposition into several hierarchical levels. The model is region-based to address some analysis processing needs. The top level of the model is only defined with 5 ribbons, which can be cut into sub-ribbons regarding to a given (or an expected) level of details. Matching process between model and current picture consists in the comparison of extracted subject shape with a graphical rendering of the model built on the base of some computed parameters. The comparison is processed by using a chamfer matching algorithm. In our developments, we intend to realize a platform of interaction between a dancer and tools synthetizing abstract motion pictures and music in the conditions of a real-time dialogue between a human and a computer. In consequence, we use this model in a perspective of motion description instead of motion recognition: no a priori gestures are supposed to be recognized as far as no a priori application is specially targeted. The resulting description will be made following a Description Scheme compliant with the movement notation called "Labanotation".

  12. Screening of the key volatile organic compounds of Tuber melanosporum fermentation by aroma sensory evaluation combination with principle component analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui-Sang; Jin, Guang-Huai; Xiao, Deng-Rong; Li, Hong-Mei; Bai, Feng-Wu; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2015-12-11

    Aroma results from the interplay of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the attributes of microbial-producing aromas are significantly affected by fermentation conditions. Among the VOCs, only a few of them contribute to aroma. Thus, screening and identification of the key VOCs is critical for microbial-producing aroma. The traditional method is based on gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), which is time-consuming and laborious. Considering the Tuber melanosporum fermentation system as an example, a new method to screen and identify the key VOCs by combining the aroma evaluation method with principle component analysis (PCA) was developed in this work. First, an aroma sensory evaluation method was developed to screen 34 potential favorite aroma samples from 504 fermentation samples. Second, PCA was employed to screen nine common key VOCs from these 34 samples. Third, seven key VOCs were identified by the traditional method. Finally, all of the seven key VOCs identified by the traditional method were also identified, along with four others, by the new strategy. These results indicate the reliability of the new method and demonstrate it to be a viable alternative to the traditional method.

  13. Development and optimisation by means of sensory analysis of new beverages based on different fruit juices and sherry wine vinegar.

    PubMed

    Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Rodríguez Dodero, M Carmen; Durán Guerrero, Enrique; Castro Mejías, Remedios; Natera Marín, Ramón; García Barroso, Carmelo

    2013-03-15

    Despite the long history of sherry wine vinegar, new alternatives of consumption are being developed, with the aim of diversifying its market. Several new acetic-based fruit juices have been developed by optimising the amount of sherry wine vinegar added to different fruit juices: apple, peach, orange and pineapple. Once the concentrations of wine vinegar were optimised by an expert panel, the aforementioned new acetic fruit juices were tasted by 86 consumers. Three different aspects were taken into account: habits of consumption of vinegar and fruit juices, gender and age. Based on the sensory analysis, 50 g kg(-1) of wine vinegar was the optimal and preferred amount of wine vinegar added to the apple, orange and peach juices, whereas 10 g kg(-1) was the favourite for the pineapple fruit. Based on the olfactory and gustatory impression, and 'purchase intent', the acetic beverages made from peach and pineapple juices were the most appreciated, followed by apple juice, while those obtained from orange juice were the least preferred by consumers. New opportunities for diversification of the oenological market could be possible as a result of the development of this type of new product which can be easily developed by any vinegar or fruit juice maker company. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Screening of the key volatile organic compounds of Tuber melanosporum fermentation by aroma sensory evaluation combination with principle component analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui-Sang; Jin, Guang-Huai; Xiao, Deng-Rong; Li, Hong-Mei; Bai, Feng-Wu; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Aroma results from the interplay of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the attributes of microbial-producing aromas are significantly affected by fermentation conditions. Among the VOCs, only a few of them contribute to aroma. Thus, screening and identification of the key VOCs is critical for microbial-producing aroma. The traditional method is based on gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), which is time-consuming and laborious. Considering the Tuber melanosporum fermentation system as an example, a new method to screen and identify the key VOCs by combining the aroma evaluation method with principle component analysis (PCA) was developed in this work. First, an aroma sensory evaluation method was developed to screen 34 potential favorite aroma samples from 504 fermentation samples. Second, PCA was employed to screen nine common key VOCs from these 34 samples. Third, seven key VOCs were identified by the traditional method. Finally, all of the seven key VOCs identified by the traditional method were also identified, along with four others, by the new strategy. These results indicate the reliability of the new method and demonstrate it to be a viable alternative to the traditional method. PMID:26655663

  15. A Meta-Analysis of Site-Specific Effects of Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Sensory Perception and Pain

    PubMed Central

    Vaseghi, Bita; Zoghi, Maryam; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of our meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (c-tDCS) on sensory and pain thresholds (STh and PTh) in healthy individuals and pain level (PL) in patients with chronic pain. Electronic databases were searched for c-tDCS studies. Methodological quality was evaluated using the PEDro and Downs and Black (D&B) assessment tools. C-tDCS of the primary motor cortex (S1) increases both STh (P<0.001, effect size of 26.84%) and PTh (P<0.001, effect size of 11.62%). In addition, c-tDCS over M1 led to STh increase (P<0.005, effect size of 30.44%). Likewise, PL decreased significantly in the patient group following application of c-tDCS. The small number of studies precluded subgroup analysis. Nevertheless, meta-analysis showed that in all groups (except c-tDCS of S1) active c-tDCS and sham stimulation produced significant differences in STh/PTh in healthy and PL in patient group. This review provides evidence for the site-specific effectiveness of c-tDCS in increasing STh/PTh in healthy individuals and decreasing PL in patients with chronic pain. However, due to small sample sizes in the included studies, our results should be interpreted with caution. Given that the level of blinding was not considered in the inclusion criteria, the results of the current study should be interpreted with caution. PMID:25978673

  16. Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model: Technical Description. 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etheridge, Melvin; Plugge, Joana; Retina, Nusrat

    1998-01-01

    The Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 (FAM 2.0), is a discrete event simulation model designed to support analysis of alternative concepts in air traffic management and control. FAM 2.0 was developed by the Logistics Management Institute (LMI) under a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contract. This document provides a technical description of FAM 2.0 and its computer files to enable the modeler and programmer to make enhancements or modifications to the model. Those interested in a guide for using the model in analysis should consult the companion document, Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 Users Manual.

  17. Sensory analysis and species-specific PCR detect bovine milk adulteration of frescal (fresh) goat cheese.

    PubMed

    Golinelli, L P; Carvalho, A C; Casaes, R S; Lopes, C S C; Deliza, R; Paschoalin, V M F; Silva, J T

    2014-11-01

    The Brazilian market for dairy products made from goat milk is increasing despite the seasonality of production and naturally small milk production per animal, factors that result in high-priced products and encourage fraud. In Brazil, no official analytical method exists for detecting adulteration of goat dairy products with cow milk. The aim of this study was to design a strategy to investigate the adulteration of frescal (fresh) goat cheeses available in the Rio de Janeiro retail market, combining analysis of cheese composition and the perception of adulteration by consumers. Commercial goat cheeses were tested by using a duplex PCR assay previously designed to authenticate cheeses, by targeting the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA genes of both species simultaneously. The PCR test was able to detect 0.5% (vol/vol) cow milk added during goat cheese formulation. The analysis of 20 locally produced goat cheeses (20 lots of 4 brands) showed that all were adulterated with cow milk, even though the labels did not indicate the addition of cow milk. To estimate the ability of consumers to perceive the fraudulent addition of cow milk, a triangle test was performed, in which cheeses formulated with several different proportions of goat and cow milk were offered to 102 regular consumers of cheese. Detection threshold analysis indicated that almost half of the consumers were able to perceive adulteration at 10% (vol/vol) cow milk. Effective actions must be implemented to regulate the market for goat dairy products in Brazil, considering the rights and choices of consumers with respect to their particular requirements for diet and health, preference, and cost.

  18. A Survey on the Effect of Livestock Production System and Finishing Diet on Sensory Characteristics of Foal Meat Using Generalized Procrustes Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Purriños, Laura; Carballo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The influence of livestock production system [Freedom Extensive System (FES) versus Semi-Extensive System (SES)] and finishing feed (1.5 kg versus 3.0 kg of commercial feed in the finishing period) diet on sensory properties of foal meat using Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) was studied. For this work, a total of 24 foals (8 from FES and 16 from SES) were used. Samples were evaluated by eight panelists for eight sensory attributes: colour, marbling, odour intensity, sweetness, springiness, hardness, chewiness, and juiciness. Data were analyzed using a GPA to minimize differences among testers. Highly appreciated sensory properties (odour intensity, red colour, marbling, and juiciness) were mostly associated with foals from the Semi-Extensive System. On the other hand, the three groups studied (FES, 1.5SES, and 3SES) were clearly recognized by panelists on the consensus configuration and they were clearly separated on the map. This study concluded that sensory characteristics of foal meat from a Semi-Extensive Production System with a finishing diet of 3 kg concentrate were more preferable than the other ones.

  19. A Survey on the Effect of Livestock Production System and Finishing Diet on Sensory Characteristics of Foal Meat Using Generalized Procrustes Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, José M.; Purriños, Laura; Carballo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The influence of livestock production system [Freedom Extensive System (FES) versus Semi-Extensive System (SES)] and finishing feed (1.5 kg versus 3.0 kg of commercial feed in the finishing period) diet on sensory properties of foal meat using Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) was studied. For this work, a total of 24 foals (8 from FES and 16 from SES) were used. Samples were evaluated by eight panelists for eight sensory attributes: colour, marbling, odour intensity, sweetness, springiness, hardness, chewiness, and juiciness. Data were analyzed using a GPA to minimize differences among testers. Highly appreciated sensory properties (odour intensity, red colour, marbling, and juiciness) were mostly associated with foals from the Semi-Extensive System. On the other hand, the three groups studied (FES, 1.5SES, and 3SES) were clearly recognized by panelists on the consensus configuration and they were clearly separated on the map. This study concluded that sensory characteristics of foal meat from a Semi-Extensive Production System with a finishing diet of 3 kg concentrate were more preferable than the other ones. PMID:27006978

  20. Validity of Sensory Systems as Distinct Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chia-Ting

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the validity of sensory systems as distinct measurable constructs as part of a larger project examining Ayres’s theory of sensory integration. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to test whether sensory questionnaire items represent distinct sensory system constructs. Data were obtained from clinical records of two age groups, 2- to 5-yr-olds (n = 231) and 6- to 10-yr-olds (n = 223). With each group, we tested several CFA models for goodness of fit with the data. The accepted model was identical for each group and indicated that tactile, vestibular–proprioceptive, visual, and auditory systems form distinct, valid factors that are not age dependent. In contrast, alternative models that grouped items according to sensory processing problems (e.g., over- or underresponsiveness within or across sensory systems) did not yield valid factors. Results indicate that distinct sensory system constructs can be measured validly using questionnaire data. PMID:25184467

  1. A retrospective analysis of recommendations for workplace accommodations for persons with mobility and sensory limitations.

    PubMed

    Sabata, Dory; Williams, Michael D; Milchus, Karen; Baker, Paul M A; Sanford, Jon A

    2008-01-01

    Many studies of workplace accommodations have primarily focused on a particular disability or functional limitation. The need exists for a broad-based study of the types and frequency of accommodations recommended for a variety of functional limitations, including multiple limitations. The researchers conducted a retrospective analysis of 266 persons who received vocational rehabilitation assessment to determine the frequency and types of recommended workplace accommodations. Computer systems/components and special tools/furnishings were the most frequently reported types of recommendations, regardless of functional limitation, whereas adaptive strategies were least likely to be suggested. In general, most job accommodation recommendations targeted the individual work space and were intended to assist in the completion of specific job tasks. Findings indicate that recommendations for workplace accommodations were surprisingly similar across all functional limitation groups.

  2. Smart sensory materials for divalent cations: a dithizone immobilized membrane for optical analysis.

    PubMed

    Alberti, Giancarla; Re, Silvia; Tivelli, Anna Maria Chiara; Biesuz, Raffaela

    2016-10-17

    An optode for Cu(ii), Cd(ii), Zn(ii) and Hg(ii) sensing has been designed by immobilization of dithizone on a triacetylcellulose membrane (mem-DTZ). The sorption of the metal ions on the mem-DTZ has been thoroughly characterized, in particular sorption kinetics, sorption isotherms and profiles as a function of the pH have been studied. Methods to assess the concentrations of the cations, both individually and in a mixture, in unknown samples, have been developed. In particular, UV-vis spectra and digital information of pictures taken by using a common desktop scanner, of the mem-DTZ sensor after equilibration with different solutions, were acquired and they were correlated with the concentration of the metal ions in solutions. For the single analyte determination, the RGB parameters of the pictures were subjected to Principal Component Analysis (PCA); otherwise the UV-vis spectra of a mixture of two cations were elaborated by Partial Least Squares (PLS) Regression. The membrane responds to the divalent cations by changing colour reversibly. The response time of the mem-DTZ is about 1 h for Cd(ii), Hg(ii) and Zn(ii), but longer for Cu(ii): more than 10 h are required. The linear interval is in the range of about 10(-7) to 10(-5) M for all metal ions. The limit of detection (LOD) is around 10(-6) M for Cu(ii), Cd(ii) and Hg(ii); for Zn(ii) a lower LOD of 10(-7) M is obtained. The applicability of mem-DTZ to real samples has been proved by analysis of the four metal cations in a certificate material (Sewage Sludge CC136A), white wine, and drinking water samples.

  3. Information theoretic analysis of dynamical encoding by four identified primary sensory interneurons in the cricket cercal system.

    PubMed

    Theunissen, F; Roddey, J C; Stufflebeam, S; Clague, H; Miller, J P

    1996-04-01

    1. The stimulus/response properties of four identified primary sensory interneurons in the cricket cercal sensory system were studied using electrophysiological techniques. These four cells are thought to represent a functionally discrete subunit of the cercal system: they are the only cells that encode information about stimulus direction to higher centers for low intensity stimuli. Previous studies characterized the quantity of information encoded by these cells about the direction of air currents in the horizontal plane. In the experiments reported here, we characterized the quantity and quality of information encoded in the cells' elicited responses about the dynamics of air current waveforms presented at their optimal stimulus directions. The total sample set included 22 cells. 2. This characterization was achieved by determining the cells' frequency sensitivities and encoding accuracy using the methods of stochastic systems analysis and information theory. The specific approach used for the analysis was the "stimulus reconstruction" technique in which a functional expansion was derived to transform the observed spike train responses into the optimal estimate (i.e., "reconstruction") of the actual stimulus. A novel derivation of the crucial equations is presented. The reverse approach is compared with the more traditional forward analysis, in which an expansion is derived that transforms the stimulus to a prediction of the spike train response. Important aspects of the application of these analytical approaches are considered. 3. All four interneurons were found to have identical frequency tuning, as assessed by the accuracy with which different frequency components of stimulus waveforms could be reconstructed with a linear expansion. The interneurons encoded significant information about stimulus frequencies between 5 and 80 Hz, which peak sensitivities at approximately 15 Hz. 4. All four interneurons were found to have identical stimulus/response latencies

  4. A Descriptive Analysis of Oral Health Systematic Reviews Published 1991–2012: Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Saltaji, Humam; Cummings, Greta G.; Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Major, Michael P.; Amin, Maryam; Major, Paul W.; Hartling, Lisa; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify all systematic reviews (SRs) published in the domain of oral health research and describe them in terms of their epidemiological and descriptive characteristics. Design Cross sectional, descriptive study. Methods An electronic search of seven databases was performed from inception through May 2012; bibliographies of relevant publications were also reviewed. Studies were considered for inclusion if they were oral health SRs defined as therapeutic or non-therapeutic investigations that studied a topic or an intervention related to dental, oral or craniofacial diseases/disorders. Data were extracted from all the SRs based on a number of epidemiological and descriptive characteristics. Data were analysed descriptively for all the SRs, within each of the nine dental specialities, and for Cochrane and non-Cochrane SRs separately. Results 1,188 oral health (126 Cochrane and 1062 non-Cochrane) SRs published from 1991 through May 2012 were identified, encompassing the nine dental specialties. Over half (n = 676; 56.9%) of the SRs were published in specialty oral health journals, with almost all (n = 1,178; 99.2%) of the SRs published in English and almost none of the non-Cochrane SRs (n = 11; 0.9%) consisting of updates of previously published SRs. 75.3% of the SRs were categorized as therapeutic, with 64.5% examining non-drug interventions, while approximately half (n = 150/294; 51%) of the non-therapeutic SRs were classified as epidemiological SRs. The SRs included a median of 15 studies, with a meta-analysis conducted in 43.6%, in which a median of 9 studies/1 randomized trial were included in the largest meta-analysis conducted. Funding was received for 25.1% of the SRs, including nearly three-quarters (n = 96; 76.2%) of the Cochrane SRs. Conclusion Epidemiological and descriptive characteristics of the 1,188 oral health SRs varied across the nine dental specialties and by SR category (Cochrane vs. non-Cochrane). There is a

  5. A descriptive analysis of oral health systematic reviews published 1991-2012: cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Saltaji, Humam; Cummings, Greta G; Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Major, Michael P; Amin, Maryam; Major, Paul W; Hartling, Lisa; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    To identify all systematic reviews (SRs) published in the domain of oral health research and describe them in terms of their epidemiological and descriptive characteristics. Cross sectional, descriptive study. An electronic search of seven databases was performed from inception through May 2012; bibliographies of relevant publications were also reviewed. Studies were considered for inclusion if they were oral health SRs defined as therapeutic or non-therapeutic investigations that studied a topic or an intervention related to dental, oral or craniofacial diseases/disorders. Data were extracted from all the SRs based on a number of epidemiological and descriptive characteristics. Data were analysed descriptively for all the SRs, within each of the nine dental specialities, and for Cochrane and non-Cochrane SRs separately. 1,188 oral health (126 Cochrane and 1062 non-Cochrane) SRs published from 1991 through May 2012 were identified, encompassing the nine dental specialties. Over half (n = 676; 56.9%) of the SRs were published in specialty oral health journals, with almost all (n = 1,178; 99.2%) of the SRs published in English and almost none of the non-Cochrane SRs (n = 11; 0.9%) consisting of updates of previously published SRs. 75.3% of the SRs were categorized as therapeutic, with 64.5% examining non-drug interventions, while approximately half (n = 150/294; 51%) of the non-therapeutic SRs were classified as epidemiological SRs. The SRs included a median of 15 studies, with a meta-analysis conducted in 43.6%, in which a median of 9 studies/1 randomized trial were included in the largest meta-analysis conducted. Funding was received for 25.1% of the SRs, including nearly three-quarters (n = 96; 76.2%) of the Cochrane SRs. Epidemiological and descriptive characteristics of the 1,188 oral health SRs varied across the nine dental specialties and by SR category (Cochrane vs. non-Cochrane). There is a clear need for more updates of SRs in all the

  6. A Comprehensive Functional Analysis of NTRK1 Missense Mutations Causing Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathy Type IV (HSAN IV).

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Samiha S; Chen, Ya-Chun; Halsall, Sally-Anne; Nahorski, Michael S; Omoto, Kiyoyuki; Young, Gareth T; Phelan, Anne; Woods, Christopher Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV (HSAN IV) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a complete lack of pain perception and anhidrosis. Here, we studied a cohort of seven patients with HSAN IV and describe a comprehensive functional analysis of seven novel NTRK1 missense mutations, c.1550G >A, c.1565G >A, c.1970T >C, c.2096T >C, c.2254T >A, c.2288G >C, and c.2311C >T, corresponding to p.G517E, p.G522E, p.L657P, p.I699T, p.C752S, p.C763S, and p.R771C, all of which were predicted pathogenic by in silico analysis. The results allowed us to assess the pathogenicity of each mutation and to gain novel insights into tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TRKA) downstream signaling. Each mutation was systematically analyzed for TRKA glycosylation states, intracellular and cell membrane expression patterns, nerve growth factor stimulated TRKA autophosphorylation, TRKA-Y496 phosphorylation, PLCγ activity, and neurite outgrowth. We showed a diverse range of functional effects: one mutation appeared fully functional, another had partial activity in all assays, one mutation affected only the PLCγ pathway and four mutations were proved null in all assays. Thus, we conclude that complete abolition of TRKA kinase activity is not the only pathogenic mechanism underlying HSAN IV. By corollary, the assessment of the clinical pathogenicity of HSAN IV mutations is more complex than initially predicted and requires a multifaceted approach.

  7. Pharmacology of currents underlying the different firing patterns of spinal sensory neurons and interneurons identified in vivo using multivariate analysis

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The operation of neuronal networks depends on the firing patterns of the network's neurons. When sustained current is injected, some neurons in the central nervous system fire a single action potential and others fire repetitively. For example, in Xenopus laevis tadpoles, primary-sensory Rohon-Beard (RB) neurons fired a single action potential in response to 300-ms rheobase current injections, whereas dorsolateral (DL) interneurons fired repetitively at 10–20 Hz. To investigate the basis for these differences in vivo, we examined drug-induced changes in the firing patterns of Xenopus spinal neurons using whole cell current-clamp recordings. Neuron types were initially separated through cluster analysis, and we compared results produced using different clustering algorithms. We used these results to develop a predictive function to classify subsequently recorded neurons. The potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA) converted single-firing RB neurons to low-frequency repetitive firing but reduced the firing frequency of repetitive-firing DL interneurons. Firing frequency in DL interneurons was also reduced by the potassium channel blockers 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), catechol, and margatoxin; 4-AP had the greatest effect. The calcium channel blockers amiloride and nimodipine had few effects on firing in either neuron type but reduced action potential duration in DL interneurons. Muscarine, which blocks M-currents, did not affect RB neurons but reduced firing frequency in DL interneurons. These results suggest that potassium currents may control neuron firing patterns: a TEA-sensitive current prevents repetitive firing in RB neurons, whereas a 4-AP-sensitive current underlies repetitive firing in DL interneurons. The cluster and discriminant analysis described could help to classify neurons in other systems. PMID:21346204

  8. A Comprehensive Functional Analysis of NTRK1 Missense Mutations Causing Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathy Type IV (HSAN IV)

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Samiha S.; Chen, Ya‐Chun; Halsall, Sally‐Anne; Nahorski, Michael S.; Omoto, Kiyoyuki; Young, Gareth T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV (HSAN IV) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a complete lack of pain perception and anhidrosis. Here, we studied a cohort of seven patients with HSAN IV and describe a comprehensive functional analysis of seven novel NTRK1 missense mutations, c.1550G >A, c.1565G >A, c.1970T >C, c.2096T >C, c.2254T >A, c.2288G >C, and c.2311C >T, corresponding to p.G517E, p.G522E, p.L657P, p.I699T, p.C752S, p.C763S, and p.R771C, all of which were predicted pathogenic by in silico analysis. The results allowed us to assess the pathogenicity of each mutation and to gain novel insights into tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TRKA) downstream signaling. Each mutation was systematically analyzed for TRKA glycosylation states, intracellular and cell membrane expression patterns, nerve growth factor stimulated TRKA autophosphorylation, TRKA‐Y496 phosphorylation, PLCγ activity, and neurite outgrowth. We showed a diverse range of functional effects: one mutation appeared fully functional, another had partial activity in all assays, one mutation affected only the PLCγ pathway and four mutations were proved null in all assays. Thus, we conclude that complete abolition of TRKA kinase activity is not the only pathogenic mechanism underlying HSAN IV. By corollary, the assessment of the clinical pathogenicity of HSAN IV mutations is more complex than initially predicted and requires a multifaceted approach. PMID:27676246

  9. Introduction of Hib vaccine into national immunization programmes: a descriptive analysis of global trends.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Isabelle A; Zuber, Patrick L F; Dumolard, Laure; Walker, Damian G; Watt, James

    2007-10-10

    Despite the demonstration of effectiveness and public health impact of Hib conjugate vaccines, the majority of infants from poorest countries do not yet have access to this safe and effective preventive intervention. This paper provides a descriptive analysis of the main characteristics of countries that have included Hib vaccine in their national immunization programmes before 2006. It highlights the importance of regularly analyzing the process of decision-making involved in implementation of public health interventions, in order to learn from cumulative experience and expedite the introduction of future interventions.

  10. Analysis of the relationship between cognitive skills and unilateral sensory hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Leyva, I; Díaz-Leines, S; Arch-Tirado, E; Lino-González, A L

    2016-07-21

    To analyse cognitive skills in patients with severe unilateral hearing loss versus those in subjects with normal hearing. 40 adults participated: 20 patients (10 women and 10 men) with severe unilateral hearing loss and 20 healthy subjects matched to the study group. Cognitive abilities were measured with the Spanish version of the Woodcock Johnson Battery-Revised; central auditory processing was assessed with monaural psychoacoustic tests. Box plots were drawn and t tests were performed for samples with a significance of P≤.05. A comparison of performances on the filtered word testing and time-compressed disyllabic word tests between patients and controls revealed a statistically significant difference (P≤.05) with greater variability among responses by hearing impaired subjects. This same group also showed a better cognitive performance on the numbers reversed, visual auditory learning, analysis synthesis, concept formation, and incomplete words tests. Patients with hearing loss performed more poorly than controls on the filtered word and time-compressed disyllabic word tests, but more competently on memory, reasoning, and auditory processing tasks. Complementary tests, such as those assessing central auditory processes and cognitive ability tests, are important and helpful for designing habilitation/rehabilitation and therapeutic strategies intended to optimise and stimulate cognitive skills in subjects with unilateral hearing impairment. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Sensory Evaluation of Locally-grown Fruit Purees and Inulin Fibre on Probiotic Yogurt in Mwanza, Tanzania and the Microbial Analysis of Probiotic Yogurt Fortified with Moringa oleifera

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Kathryn; Soltani, Mohammad; Gough, Robert

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to establish new food products that increase the nutritional value and health benefits of the probiotic yogurt currently used in the Western Heads East (WHE) Project in Mwanza, Tanzania. The probiotic yogurt has established health benefits, and product development through fortification must not adversely affect the acceptability of yogurt or the viability of the probiotics. Both sensory testing and microbial analysis testing were conducted. The products tested were yogurt fortified with locally-grown fruit purees with inulin and Moringa oleifera. The results of the sensory evaluation showed that all yogurts were not rated significantly different from the control, except for appearance. The avocado puree without inulin rated significantly lower in all categories. The microbial analysis showed that Moringa oleifera did not negatively affect the growth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 in MRS, milk or yogurt, although a significant decrease was found after 5 weeks of storage at 4 oC. PMID:25995722

  12. Sensory evaluation of locally-grown fruit purees and inulin fibre on probiotic yogurt in Mwanza, Tanzania and the Microbial Analysis of Probiotic Yogurt Fortified with Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Hekmat, Sharareh; Morgan, Kathryn; Soltani, Mohammad; Gough, Robert

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish new food products that increase the nutritional value and health benefits of the probiotic yogurt currently used in the Western Heads East (WHE) Project in Mwanza, Tanzania. The probiotic yogurt has established health benefits, and product development through fortification must not adversely affect the acceptability of yogurt or the viability of the probiotics. Both sensory testing and microbial analysis testing were conducted. The products tested were yogurt fortified with locally-grown fruit purees with inulin and Moringa oleifera. The results of the sensory evaluation showed that all yogurts were not rated significantly different from the control, except for appearance. The avocado puree without inulin rated significantly lower in all categories. The microbial analysis showed that Moringa oleifera did not negatively affect the growth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 in MRS, milk or yogurt, although a significant decrease was found after 5 weeks of storage at 4 (o)C.

  13. Analysis of Slow (Theta) Oscillations as a Potential Temporal Reference Frame for Information Coding in Sensory Cortices

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Christoph; Ince, Robin A. A.; Panzeri, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    While sensory neurons carry behaviorally relevant information in responses that often extend over hundreds of milliseconds, the key units of neural information likely consist of much shorter and temporally precise spike patterns. The mechanisms and temporal reference frames by which sensory networks partition responses into these shorter units of information remain unknown. One hypothesis holds that slow oscillations provide a network-intrinsic reference to temporally partitioned spike trains without exploiting the millisecond-precise alignment of spikes to sensory stimuli. We tested this hypothesis on neural responses recorded in visual and auditory cortices of macaque monkeys in response to natural stimuli. Comparing different schemes for response partitioning revealed that theta band oscillations provide a temporal reference that permits extracting significantly more information than can be obtained from spike counts, and sometimes almost as much information as obtained by partitioning spike trains using precisely stimulus-locked time bins. We further tested the robustness of these partitioning schemes to temporal uncertainty in the decoding process and to noise in the sensory input. This revealed that partitioning using an oscillatory reference provides greater robustness than partitioning using precisely stimulus-locked time bins. Overall, these results provide a computational proof of concept for the hypothesis that slow rhythmic network activity may serve as internal reference frame for information coding in sensory cortices and they foster the notion that slow oscillations serve as key elements for the computations underlying perception. PMID:23071429

  14. Efficacy of monitoring the sensory taste characteristics in pomegranate juice with electronic tongue, and chemical measurements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In addition to flavor attributes, pomegranate juices have sweet, sour, bitter tastes, astringent, and toothetch feeling factors. Many factors influence tastes and feeling factors. Measuring these attributes without a sensory panel makes economic sense. This investigation compares descriptive sensory...

  15. Relating physico-chemical properties of frozen green peas (Pisum sativum L.) to sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Nleya, Kathleen M; Minnaar, Amanda; de Kock, Henriëtte L

    2014-03-30

    The acceptability of frozen green peas depends on their sensory quality. There is a need to relate physico-chemical parameters to sensory quality. In this research, six brands of frozen green peas representing product sold for retail and caterer's markets were purchased and subjected to descriptive sensory evaluation and physico-chemical analyses (including dry matter content, alcohol insoluble solids content, starch content, °Brix, residual peroxidase activity, size sorting, hardness using texture analysis and colour measurements) to assess and explain product quality. The sensory quality of frozen green peas, particularly texture properties, were well explained using physico-chemical methods of analysis notably alcohol insoluble solids, starch content, hardness and °Brix. Generally, retail class peas were of superior sensory quality to caterer's class peas although one caterer's brand was comparable to the retail brands. Retail class peas were sweeter, smaller, greener, more moist and more tender than the caterer's peas. Retail class peas also had higher °Brix, a(*) , hue and chroma values; lower starch, alcohol insoluble solids, dry matter content and hardness measured. The sensory quality of frozen green peas can be partially predicted by measuring physico-chemical parameters particularly °Brix and to a lesser extent hardness by texture analyser, alcohol insoluble solids, dry matter and starch content. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Metabolomic analysis of the effect of shade treatment on the nutritional and sensory qualities of green tea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lan-Sook; Choi, Ji Hea; Son, Nari; Kim, Sang-Hee; Park, Jong-Dae; Jang, Dae-Ja; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Kim, Hyun-Jin

    2013-01-16

    We analyzed metabolites from a 50% aqueous methanol extract of green teas treated with different shade periods (0, 15, 18, and 20 days) to investigate the effect of low light on their nutritional and sensory qualities. The shaded groups could be clearly distinguished from the control (0 day), and the 20 day group was separated from the 15 and 18 day groups. The shade treatment increased quercetin-galactosylrutinoside, kaempferol-glucosylrutinoside, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin gallate, tryptophan, phenylalanine, theanine, glutamine, glutamate, and caffeine levels but decreased quercetin-glucosylrutinoside, kaempferol-glucoside, gallocatechin, and epigallocatechin levels. Further studies on the nutritional benefits of these metabolites are needed. However, this result, along with the sensory evaluation and color measurement data, suggests that shade treatment improves the nutritional and sensory quality of green tea. Thus, we proposed a metabolomic pathway related to the effect of low light, which could elucidate the relationship between low light and tea quality.

  17. [Gait disorders in Parkinson disease. Clinical description, analysis of posture, initiation of stabilized gait].

    PubMed

    Kemoun, G; Defebvre, L

    2001-03-10

    A WELL INFORMED DESCRIPTION: The parkinsonian posture is generally described as a stooped one. At the beginning of the disease, the gait troubles remain moderate; gradually the gait is composed of small steps without a wide base; the patient tends to run after his centre of gravity by accelerating the step (festination phenomenon). Difficulties occurs for starting up (delay of gait initiation), for about-turn or for clearing obstacles. Kinetic jammings and standing around (freezing) can last several seconds and be responsible for falls. POSTURAL INSTABILITY, A MAJOR SYMPTOM IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE: This symptom is little improved by therapies and is responsible for serious disability. Postural instability induces a disequilibrium and is partially due to a simultaneous antagonist muscles contraction and to the impossibility of modifying postural responses to changing support conditions. The passive viscoelastic properties of muscles and tendons constitute a first line of defence against the disequilibrium and contribute to postural stability in the case of medium disturbances. Automatic and voluntary postural responses which come into play in the case of major disturbances can also be impaired (delay or defect of the responses). GAIT INITIATION FAILURE ARE FREQUENT: They result from an increase of the postural phase and a decrease of the propulsion forces, depending on a deficit of the postural anticipation mechanisms and also the sequential organization and the integration of two different motor programs, postural and locomotor. They can be controlled partially with sensory stimuli, notably visual inputs. DATA CONCERNING STABILIZED WALKING AND ITS PATHOPHYSIOLOGY REMAINS TO BE CLARIFIED: Spatial and temporal parameters are impaired: speed, step length and swing phase are reduced, while cadence increases to compensate these troubles. These modifications are the consequence of an incapacity to produce internal marks to generate regular steps. When the parkinsonian

  18. Changes in sensory quality characteristics of coffee during storage

    PubMed Central

    Kreuml, Michaela T L; Majchrzak, Dorota; Ploederl, Bettina; Koenig, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    How long can roasted coffee beans be stored, without reducing the typical coffee flavor which is mainly responsible for consumers’ enjoyment? In Austria, most coffee packages have a best-before date between 12 and 24 months, but it is not regulated by law. Therefore, there is the need to evaluate changes in sensory qualities of coffee beverages prepared from stored coffee beans. For preparation of the coffee beverages, the paper filter method was used. In the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) 10 trained assessors evaluated the intensity of 30 coffee attributes after roasting at the 9th and 18th month of storage, respectively. The sensory evaluation results showed reduction in the sensory qualities of coffee beverages after 9 months storage of roasted coffee beans. The positive associated odor and flavor attributes decreased in their intensity, whereas the negative associated odor and flavor attributes increased significantly (P < 0.05). After 18 months of storage, the rancid odor and flavor which indicate oxidation processes were even considerably perceivable. Consequently, we can assume that changes in sensory quality characteristics of roasted and vacuum-packed coffee beans during storage are possible. PMID:24804030

  19. Accuracy Maximization Analysis for Sensory-Perceptual Tasks: Computational Improvements, Filter Robustness, and Coding Advantages for Scaled Additive Noise

    PubMed Central

    Burge, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Accuracy Maximization Analysis (AMA) is a recently developed Bayesian ideal observer method for task-specific dimensionality reduction. Given a training set of proximal stimuli (e.g. retinal images), a response noise model, and a cost function, AMA returns the filters (i.e. receptive fields) that extract the most useful stimulus features for estimating a user-specified latent variable from those stimuli. Here, we first contribute two technical advances that significantly reduce AMA’s compute time: we derive gradients of cost functions for which two popular estimators are appropriate, and we implement a stochastic gradient descent (AMA-SGD) routine for filter learning. Next, we show how the method can be used to simultaneously probe the impact on neural encoding of natural stimulus variability, the prior over the latent variable, noise power, and the choice of cost function. Then, we examine the geometry of AMA’s unique combination of properties that distinguish it from better-known statistical methods. Using binocular disparity estimation as a concrete test case, we develop insights that have general implications for understanding neural encoding and decoding in a broad class of fundamental sensory-perceptual tasks connected to the energy model. Specifically, we find that non-orthogonal (partially redundant) filters with scaled additive noise tend to outperform orthogonal filters with constant additive noise; non-orthogonal filters and scaled additive noise can interact to sculpt noise-induced stimulus encoding uncertainty to match task-irrelevant stimulus variability. Thus, we show that some properties of neural response thought to be biophysical nuisances can confer coding advantages to neural systems. Finally, we speculate that, if repurposed for the problem of neural systems identification, AMA may be able to overcome a fundamental limitation of standard subunit model estimation. As natural stimuli become more widely used in the study of psychophysical and

  20. Descriptive analysis of the Test of Everyday Attention for Children in a Spanish Normative Sample.

    PubMed

    Pardos, Alexandra; Quintero, Javier; Zuluaga, Pilar; Fernández, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch) has been validated in different countries demonstrating that it is an instrument with a correct balance between reliability and duration. Given the shortage of trustworthy instruments of evaluation in our language for infantile population we decide to explore the Spanish version of the TEA-Ch. We administered TEA-Ch (version A) to a sample control of 133 Spanish children from 6 to 11 years enrolled in school in the Community of Madrid. Four children were selected at random by course of Primary Education, distributing the sex of equivalent form. Descriptive analysis and comparison by ages and sex in each of the TEA-Ch´s subtests were conducted to establish a profile of the sample. In order to analyze the effect of the age, subjects were grouped in six sub-samples: 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 years-old. This first descriptive analysis demonstrates age exerted a significant effect on each measure, due to an important “jump” in children´s performance between 6 and 7 years-old. The effect of sex was significant only in two visual attention measures (Sky Search & Map) and interaction age and sex exerted a significant effect only in the dual task (Score DT). The results suggest that the Spanish version of the TEA-Ch (A) might be a useful instrument to evaluate attentional processes in Spanish child population.

  1. Classification and analysis of a large collection of in vivo bioassay descriptions

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Testing potential drug treatments in animal disease models is a decisive step of all preclinical drug discovery programs. Yet, despite the importance of such experiments for translational medicine, there have been relatively few efforts to comprehensively and consistently analyze the data produced by in vivo bioassays. This is partly due to their complexity and lack of accepted reporting standards—publicly available animal screening data are only accessible in unstructured free-text format, which hinders computational analysis. In this study, we use text mining to extract information from the descriptions of over 100,000 drug screening-related assays in rats and mice. We retrieve our dataset from ChEMBL—an open-source literature-based database focused on preclinical drug discovery. We show that in vivo assay descriptions can be effectively mined for relevant information, including experimental factors that might influence the outcome and reproducibility of animal research: genetic strains, experimental treatments, and phenotypic readouts used in the experiments. We further systematize extracted information using unsupervised language model (Word2Vec), which learns semantic similarities between terms and phrases, allowing identification of related animal models and classification of entire assay descriptions. In addition, we show that random forest models trained on features generated by Word2Vec can predict the class of drugs tested in different in vivo assays with high accuracy. Finally, we combine information mined from text with curated annotations stored in ChEMBL to investigate the patterns of usage of different animal models across a range of experiments, drug classes, and disease areas. PMID:28678787

  2. Amplitude of sensory nerve action potential in early stage diabetic peripheral neuropathy: an analysis of 500 cases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunqian; Li, Jintao; Wang, Tingjuan; Wang, Jianlin

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy is important for the successful treatment of diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we recruited 500 diabetic patients from the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University in China from June 2008 to September 2013: 221 cases showed symptoms of peripheral neuropathy (symptomatic group) and 279 cases had no symptoms of peripheral impairment (asymptomatic group). One hundred healthy control subjects were also recruited. Nerve conduction studies revealed that distal motor latency was longer, sensory nerve conduction velocity was slower, and sensory nerve action potential and amplitude of compound muscle action potential were significantly lower in the median, ulnar, posterior tibial and common peroneal nerve in the diabetic groups compared with control subjects. Moreover, the alterations were more obvious in patients with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Of the 500 diabetic patients, neural conduction abnormalities were detected in 358 cases (71.6%), among which impairment of the common peroneal nerve was most prominent. Sensory nerve abnormality was more obvious than motor nerve abnormality in the diabetic groups. The amplitude of sensory nerve action potential was the most sensitive measure of peripheral neuropathy. Our results reveal that varying degrees of nerve conduction changes are present in the early, asymptomatic stage of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. PMID:25221597

  3. Amplitude of sensory nerve action potential in early stage diabetic peripheral neuropathy: an analysis of 500 cases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunqian; Li, Jintao; Wang, Tingjuan; Wang, Jianlin

    2014-07-15

    Early diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy is important for the successful treatment of diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we recruited 500 diabetic patients from the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University in China from June 2008 to September 2013: 221 cases showed symptoms of peripheral neuropathy (symptomatic group) and 279 cases had no symptoms of peripheral impairment (asymptomatic group). One hundred healthy control subjects were also recruited. Nerve conduction studies revealed that distal motor latency was longer, sensory nerve conduction velocity was slower, and sensory nerve action potential and amplitude of compound muscle action potential were significantly lower in the median, ulnar, posterior tibial and common peroneal nerve in the diabetic groups compared with control subjects. Moreover, the alterations were more obvious in patients with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Of the 500 diabetic patients, neural conduction abnormalities were detected in 358 cases (71.6%), among which impairment of the common peroneal nerve was most prominent. Sensory nerve abnormality was more obvious than motor nerve abnormality in the diabetic groups. The amplitude of sensory nerve action potential was the most sensitive measure of peripheral neuropathy. Our results reveal that varying degrees of nerve conduction changes are present in the early, asymptomatic stage of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

  4. Evaluation of umami taste in mushroom extracts by chemical analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue system.

    PubMed

    Phat, Chanvorleak; Moon, BoKyung; Lee, Chan

    2016-02-01

    Seventeen edible mushrooms commercially available in Korea were analysed for their umami taste compounds (5'-nucleotides: AMP, GMP, IMP, UMP, XMP; free amino acids: aspartic, glutamic acid) and subjected to human sensory evaluation and electronic tongue measurements. Amanita virgineoides featured the highest total 5'-nucleotide content (36.9 ± 1.50 mg/g), while monosodium glutamate-like components (42.4 ± 6.90 mg/g) were highest in Agaricus bisporus. The equivalent umami concentration (EUC) ranged from 1.51 ± 0.42 to 3890 ± 833 mg MSG/g dry weight; most mushrooms exhibited a high umami taste. Pleurotus ostreatus scored the highest in the human sensory evaluation, while Flammulina velutipes obtained the maximum score in the electronic tongue measurement. The EUC and the sensory score from the electronic tongue test were highly correlated, and also showed significant correlation with the human sensory evaluation score. These results suggest that the electronic tongue is suitable to determine the characteristic umami taste of mushrooms.

  5. Syntactic methods of shape feature description and its application in analysis of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiela, Marek R.; Tadeusiewicz, Ryszard

    2000-02-01

    The paper presents specialist algorithms of morphologic analysis of shapes of selected organs of abdominal cavity proposed in order to diagnose disease symptoms occurring in the main pancreatic ducts and upper segments of ureters. Analysis of the correct morphology of these structures has been conducted with the use of syntactic methods of pattern recognition. Its main objective is computer-aided support to early diagnosis of neoplastic lesions and pancreatitis based on images taken in the course of examination with the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) method and a diagnosis of morphological lesions in ureter based on kidney radiogram analysis. In the analysis of ERCP images, the main objective is to recognize morphological lesions in pancreas ducts characteristic for carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis. In the case of kidney radiogram analysis the aim is to diagnose local irregularity of ureter lumen. Diagnosing the above mentioned lesion has been conducted with the use of syntactic methods of pattern recognition, in particular the languages of shape features description and context-free attributed grammars. These methods allow to recognize and describe in a very efficient way the aforementioned lesions on images obtained as a result of initial image processing into diagrams of widths of the examined structures.

  6. Fine-scale analysis of an assassin bug's behaviour: predatory strategies to bypass the sensory systems of prey

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Some predators sidestep environments that render them conspicuous to the sensory systems of prey. However, these challenging environments are unavoidable for certain predators. Stenolemus giraffa is an assassin bug that feeds on web-building spiders; the web is the environment in which this predator finds its prey, but it also forms part of its preys' sophisticated sensory apparatus, blurring the distinction between environment and sensory systems. Stenolemus giraffa needs to break threads in the web that obstruct its path to the spiders, and such vibrations can alert the spiders. Using laser vibrometry, this study demonstrates how S. giraffa avoids alerting the spiders during its approach. When breaking threads, S. giraffa attenuates the vibrations produced by holding on to the loose ends of the broken thread and causing them to sag prior to release. In addition, S. giraffa releases the loose ends of a broken thread one at a time (after several seconds or minutes) and in this way spaces out the production of vibrations in time. Furthermore, S. giraffa was found to maximally reduce the amplitude of vibrations when breaking threads that are prone to produce louder vibrations. Finally, S. giraffa preferred to break threads in the presence of wind, suggesting that this araneophagic insect exploits environmental noise that temporarily impairs the spiders' ability to detect vibrations. The predatory behaviour of S. giraffa seems to be adaptated in intricate manner for bypassing the sophisticated sensory systems of web-building spiders. These findings illustrate how the physical characteristics of the environment, along with the sensory systems of prey can shape the predatory strategies of animals. PMID:27853576

  7. Fine-scale analysis of an assassin bug's behaviour: predatory strategies to bypass the sensory systems of prey.

    PubMed

    Soley, Fernando G

    2016-10-01

    Some predators sidestep environments that render them conspicuous to the sensory systems of prey. However, these challenging environments are unavoidable for certain predators. Stenolemus giraffa is an assassin bug that feeds on web-building spiders; the web is the environment in which this predator finds its prey, but it also forms part of its preys' sophisticated sensory apparatus, blurring the distinction between environment and sensory systems. Stenolemus giraffa needs to break threads in the web that obstruct its path to the spiders, and such vibrations can alert the spiders. Using laser vibrometry, this study demonstrates how S. giraffa avoids alerting the spiders during its approach. When breaking threads, S. giraffa attenuates the vibrations produced by holding on to the loose ends of the broken thread and causing them to sag prior to release. In addition, S. giraffa releases the loose ends of a broken thread one at a time (after several seconds or minutes) and in this way spaces out the production of vibrations in time. Furthermore, S. giraffa was found to maximally reduce the amplitude of vibrations when breaking threads that are prone to produce louder vibrations. Finally, S. giraffa preferred to break threads in the presence of wind, suggesting that this araneophagic insect exploits environmental noise that temporarily impairs the spiders' ability to detect vibrations. The predatory behaviour of S. giraffa seems to be adaptated in intricate manner for bypassing the sophisticated sensory systems of web-building spiders. These findings illustrate how the physical characteristics of the environment, along with the sensory systems of prey can shape the predatory strategies of animals.

  8. Terminal Area Productivity Airport Wind Analysis and Chicago O'Hare Model Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemm, Robert; Shapiro, Gerald

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes two results from a continuing effort to provide accurate cost-benefit analyses of the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program technologies. Previous tasks have developed airport capacity and delay models and completed preliminary cost benefit estimates for TAP technologies at 10 U.S. airports. This task covers two improvements to the capacity and delay models. The first improvement is the completion of a detailed model set for the Chicago O'Hare (ORD) airport. Previous analyses used a more general model to estimate the benefits for ORD. This paper contains a description of the model details with results corresponding to current conditions. The second improvement is the development of specific wind speed and direction criteria for use in the delay models to predict when the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) will allow use of reduced landing separations. This paper includes a description of the criteria and an estimate of AVOSS utility for 10 airports based on analysis of 35 years of weather data.

  9. Content analysis and thematic analysis: Implications for conducting a qualitative descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Turunen, Hannele; Bondas, Terese

    2013-09-01

    Qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis are two commonly used approaches in data analysis of nursing research, but boundaries between the two have not been clearly specified. In other words, they are being used interchangeably and it seems difficult for the researcher to choose between them. In this respect, this paper describes and discusses the boundaries between qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis and presents implications to improve the consistency between the purpose of related studies and the method of data analyses. This is a discussion paper, comprising an analytical overview and discussion of the definitions, aims, philosophical background, data gathering, and analysis of content analysis and thematic analysis, and addressing their methodological subtleties. It is concluded that in spite of many similarities between the approaches, including cutting across data and searching for patterns and themes, their main difference lies in the opportunity for quantification of data. It means that measuring the frequency of different categories and themes is possible in content analysis with caution as a proxy for significance. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. The Impact of Rendered Protein Meal Oxidation Level on Shelf-Life, Sensory Characteristics, and Acceptability in Extruded Pet Food

    PubMed Central

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Koppel, Kadri; Aldrich, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Sensory analysis was used to determine the changes due to the storage time on extruded pet food prepared from two different rendered protein meals: (i) beef meat and bone meal (BMBM); (ii) chicken byproduct meal (CPBM). Extrusion is a process where feed is pressed through a die in order to create shapes and increase digestibility. Descriptive sensory analysis using a human panel found an increase in undesirable sensory attributes (e.g., oxidized oil, rancid) in extruded pet food over storage time, especially the one prepared from chicken by product meal without antioxidants. The small increase in oxidized and rancid aromas of BMBM samples did not affect pet owners’ acceptability of the products. CPBM samples without antioxidants showed a notable increase in oxidized and rancid aroma over storage time and, thus, affected product acceptability negatively. This finding indicated that human sensory analysis can be used as a tool to track the changes of pet food characteristics due to storage, as well as estimate the shelf-life of the products. Abstract Pet foods are expected to have a shelf-life for 12 months or more. Sensory analysis can be used to determine changes in products and to estimate products’ shelf-life. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate how increasing levels of oxidation in rendered protein meals used to produce extruded pet food affected the sensory properties and (2) determine the effect of shelf-life on pet owners’ acceptability of extruded pet food diet formulated without the use of preservative. Pet food diets contained beef meat bone meal (BMBM) and chicken byproduct meal (CBPM) in which the oxidation was retarded with ethoxyquin, mixed tocopherols, or none at all, and then extruded into dry pet foods. These samples represented low, medium, and high oxidation levels, respectively. Samples were stored for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at ambient temperature. Each time point, samples were evaluated by six highly

  11. Rapid consumer-based sensory characterization of requeijão cremoso, a spreadable processed cheese: Performance of new statistical approaches to evaluate check-all-that-apply data.

    PubMed

    Torres, F R; Esmerino, E A; Carr, B Thomas; Ferrão, L L; Granato, D; Pimentel, T C; Bolini, H M A; Freitas, M Q; Cruz, A G

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the performance of multidimensional alignment analysis and multidimensional scaling on phi coefficient values to evaluate check-all-that-apply questionnaire data. We evaluated 6 dairy foods belonging to the category of requeijão cremoso processed cheese (traditional, with starch, or with starch and vegetable fat). We obtained sensory descriptors using trained assessors in descriptive analysis for comparison. A check-all-that-apply questionnaire used with 121 consumers (77 women and 44 men; 18 to 57 yr old) proved to be a suitable alternative for sensory profiling, providing descriptions similar to descriptive analysis and discriminating between products. Multidimensional alignment analysis and multidimensional scaling were efficient and logical approaches for obtaining a deeper understanding of the data, allowing us to clarify the relationships between sensory descriptors and products and contribute to optimizing the different formulations of requeijão cremoso. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of different maceration time and temperatures on total phenols, colour and sensory properties of Cabernet Sauvignon wines.

    PubMed

    Şener, Hasan; Yildirim, Hatice Kalkan

    2013-12-01

    Maceration and fermentation time and temperatures are important factors affecting wine quality. In this study different maceration times (3 and 6 days) and temperatures (15  and 25 ) during production of red wine (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon) were investigated. In all wines standard wine chemical parameters and some specific parameters as total phenols, tartaric esters, total flavonols and colour parameters (CD, CI, T, dA%, %Y, %R, %B, CIELAB values) were determined. Sensory evaluation was performed by descriptive sensory analysis. The results demonstrated not only the importance of skin contact time and temperature during maceration but also the effects of transition temperatures (different maceration and fermentation temperatures) on wine quality as a whole. The results of sensory descriptive analyses revealed that the temperature significantly affected the aroma and flavour attributes of wines. The highest scores for 'cassis', 'clove', 'fresh fruity' and 'rose' characters were obtained in wines produced at low temperature (15 ) of maceration (6 days) and fermentation.

  13. Sensory Intolerance: Latent Structure and Psychopathologic Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Steven; Conelea, Christine A.; McKay, Dean; Crowe, Katherine B.; Abramowitz, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sensory intolerance refers to high levels of distress evoked by everyday sounds (e.g., sounds of people chewing) or commonplace tactile sensations (e.g., sticky or greasy substances). Sensory intolerance may be associated with obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms, OC-related phenomena, and other forms of psychopathology. Sensory intolerance is not included as a syndrome in current diagnostic systems, although preliminary research suggests that it might be a distinct syndrome. Objectives First, to investigate the latent structure of sensory intolerance in adults; that is, to investigate whether it is syndrome-like in nature, in which auditory and tactile sensory intolerance co-occur and are associated with impaired functioning. Second, to investigate the psychopathologic correlates of sensory intolerance. In particular, to investigate whether sensory intolerance is associated with OC-related phenomena, as suggested by previous research. Method A sample of 534 community-based participants were recruited via Amazon.com’s Mechanical Turk program. Participants completed measures of sensory intolerance, OC-related phenomena, and general psychopathology. Results Latent class analysis revealed two classes of individuals: Those who were intolerant of both auditory and tactile stimuli (n = 150), and those who were relatively undisturbed by auditory or tactile stimuli (n = 384). Sensory intolerant individuals, compared to those who were comparatively sensory tolerant, had greater scores on indices of general psychopathology, more severe OC symptoms, a higher likelihood of meeting caseness criteria for OC disorder, elevated scores on measures of OC-related dysfunctional beliefs, a greater tendency to report OC-related phenomena (e.g., a greater frequency of tics), and more impairment on indices of social and occupational functioning. Sensory intolerant individuals had significantly higher scores on OC symptoms even after controlling for general psychopathology

  14. Primary processes in sensory cells: current advances.

    PubMed

    Frings, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    In the course of evolution, the strong and unremitting selective pressure on sensory performance has driven the acuity of sensory organs to its physical limits. As a consequence, the study of primary sensory processes illustrates impressively how far a physiological function can be improved if the survival of a species depends on it. Sensory cells that detect single-photons, single molecules, mechanical motions on a nanometer scale, or incredibly small fluctuations of electromagnetic fields have fascinated physiologists for a long time. It is a great challenge to understand the primary sensory processes on a molecular level. This review points out some important recent developments in the search for primary processes in sensory cells that mediate touch perception, hearing, vision, taste, olfaction, as well as the analysis of light polarization and the orientation in the Earth's magnetic field. The data are screened for common transduction strategies and common transduction molecules, an aspect that may be helpful for researchers in the field.

  15. Cognitive mechanisms associated with auditory sensory gating.

    PubMed

    Jones, L A; Hills, P J; Dick, K M; Jones, S P; Bright, P

    2016-02-01

    Sensory gating is a neurophysiological measure of inhibition that is characterised by a reduction in the P50 event-related potential to a repeated identical stimulus. The objective of this work was to determine the cognitive mechanisms that relate to the neurological phenomenon of auditory sensory gating. Sixty participants underwent a battery of 10 cognitive tasks, including qualitatively different measures of attentional inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence. Participants additionally completed a paired-stimulus paradigm as a measure of auditory sensory gating. A correlational analysis revealed that several tasks correlated significantly with sensory gating. However once fluid intelligence and working memory were accounted for, only a measure of latent inhibition and accuracy scores on the continuous performance task showed significant sensitivity to sensory gating. We conclude that sensory gating reflects the identification of goal-irrelevant information at the encoding (input) stage and the subsequent ability to selectively attend to goal-relevant information based on that previous identification.

  16. Cognitive mechanisms associated with auditory sensory gating

    PubMed Central

    Jones, L.A.; Hills, P.J.; Dick, K.M.; Jones, S.P.; Bright, P.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory gating is a neurophysiological measure of inhibition that is characterised by a reduction in the P50 event-related potential to a repeated identical stimulus. The objective of this work was to determine the cognitive mechanisms that relate to the neurological phenomenon of auditory sensory gating. Sixty participants underwent a battery of 10 cognitive tasks, including qualitatively different measures of attentional inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence. Participants additionally completed a paired-stimulus paradigm as a measure of auditory sensory gating. A correlational analysis revealed that several tasks correlated significantly with sensory gating. However once fluid intelligence and working memory were accounted for, only a measure of latent inhibition and accuracy scores on the continuous performance task showed significant sensitivity to sensory gating. We conclude that sensory gating reflects the identification of goal-irrelevant information at the encoding (input) stage and the subsequent ability to selectively attend to goal-relevant information based on that previous identification. PMID:26716891

  17. Differentiation of aroma characteristics of pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) of different grades using gas chromatography-olfactometry and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Cho, In Hee; Lee, Soh Min; Kim, Se Young; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Kwang-Ok; Kim, Young-Suk

    2007-03-21

    Two independent approaches, gas chromatography-olfactometry and sensory analysis, were used to evaluate and compare the aroma characteristics of pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) of four different grades. The aroma-active compounds responsible for the sensory attributes of pine- mushrooms were investigated based on the correlation between instrumental and sensory analyses through partial least-square regression. Piny, meaty, and floral attributes were strongly correlated with each other and were the most important descriptors for defining the pine-mushrooms of the highest grade, and they decreased as the grade decreased. Among 23 aroma-active compounds, (E)-2-decenal, alpha-terpineol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 2-methylbutanoic acid ethyl ester contributed most to these attributes. On the other hand, the major aroma characteristics of the pine-mushrooms of the lowest grade were wet soil-like, alcohol, metallic, moldy, and fermented, and they decreased as the grade increased. These aroma characteristics were strongly associated with 1-octen-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanol, 3-octanone, (E)-2-octen-1-ol, and methional.

  18. Applying the Neurodynamics of Emotional Circular Causalities in Psychosocial and Cognitive Therapy using Multi-Sensory Environments: An ORBDE Case Study Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Janice

    2017-10-01

    This exploratory, evidence-based practice research study focuses on presenting a plausible mesoscopic brain dynamics hypothesis for the benefits of treating clients with psychosocial and cognitive challenges using a mindful therapeutic approach and multi-sensory environments. After an extensive neuroscientific review of the therapeutic benefits of mindfulness, a multi-sensory environment is presented as a window of therapeutic opportunity to more quickly and efficiently facilitate the neurobiological experience of becoming more mindful or conscious of self and environment. The complementary relationship between the default mode network and the executive attention network is offered as a neurobiological hypothesis that could explain positive occupational engagement pattern shifts in a case study video of a hospice client with advanced dementia during multi-sensory environment treatment. Orbital Decomposition is used for a video analysis that shows a significant behavioral pattern shift consistent with dampening of the perceptual system attractors that contribute to negative emotional circular causalities in a variety of client populations. This treatment approach may also prove to be valuable for any person who has developed circular causalities due to feelings of isolation, victimization, or abuse. A case is made for broader applications of this intervention that may positively influence perception during the information transfer and processing of hippocampal learning. Future research is called for to determine if positive affective, interpersonal, and occupational engagement pattern shifts during treatment are related to the improved default mode network-executive attention network synchrony characteristic of increased mindfulness.

  19. Sensory profile and acceptability for pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) nectar with different sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Mírian Luisa Faria; Dutra, Mariana Borges de Lima; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensory properties and acceptability of pitanga nectar samples prepared with sucrose and different sweeteners (sucralose, aspartame, stevia with 40% rebaudioside A, stevia with 95% rebaudioside A, neotame, and a 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend). A total of 13 assessors participated in a quantitative descriptive analysis and evaluated the samples in relation to the descriptor terms. The acceptability test was carried out by 120 fruit juice consumers. The results of the quantitative descriptive analysis of pitanga nectar showed that samples prepared with sucralose, aspartame, and the 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend had sensory profiles similar to that of the sample prepared with sucrose. Consumers' most accepted samples were prepared with sucrose, sucralose, aspartame, and neotame. The sweeteners that have the greatest potential to replace sucrose in pitanga nectar are sucralose and aspartame. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Sensory Assessment Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Pamela J.

    This manual is intended to provide information leading to reliable assessment of vision and hearing capabilities of children considered to have dual sensory impairments. Ongoing sensory assessment is necessary to determine the extent of residual sensory abilities that should be considered in educational programming decisions and to determine any…

  1. Do choosing wisely tools meet criteria for patient decision aids? A descriptive analysis of patient materials.

    PubMed

    Légaré, France; Hébert, Jessica; Goh, Larissa; Lewis, Krystina B; Leiva Portocarrero, Maria Ester; Robitaille, Hubert; Stacey, Dawn

    2016-08-26

    Choosing Wisely is a remarkable physician-led campaign to reduce unnecessary or harmful health services. Some of the literature identifies Choosing Wisely as a shared decision-making approach. We evaluated the patient materials developed by Choosing Wisely Canada to determine whether they meet the criteria for shared decision-making tools known as patient decision aids. Descriptive analysis of all Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials. In May 2015, we selected all Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials from its official website. Four team members independently extracted characteristics of the English materials using the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) modified 16-item minimum criteria for qualifying and certifying patient decision aids. The research team discussed discrepancies between data extractors and reached a consensus. Descriptive analysis was conducted. Of the 24 patient materials assessed, 12 were about treatments, 11 were about screening and 1 was about prevention. The median score for patient materials using IPDAS criteria was 10/16 (range: 8-11) for screening topics and 6/12 (range: 6-9) for prevention and treatment topics. Commonly missed criteria were stating the decision (21/24 did not), providing balanced information on option benefits/harms (24/24 did not), citing evidence (24/24 did not) and updating policy (24/24 did not). Out of 24 patient materials, only 2 met the 6 IPDAS criteria to qualify as patient decision aids, and neither of these 2 met the 6 certifying criteria. Patient materials developed by Choosing Wisely Canada do not meet the IPDAS minimal qualifying or certifying criteria for patient decision aids. Modifications to the Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials would help to ensure that they qualify as patient decision aids and thus as more effective shared decision-making tools. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  2. Do choosing wisely tools meet criteria for patient decision aids? A descriptive analysis of patient materials

    PubMed Central

    Légaré, France; Hébert, Jessica; Goh, Larissa; Lewis, Krystina B; Leiva Portocarrero, Maria Ester; Robitaille, Hubert; Stacey, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Choosing Wisely is a remarkable physician-led campaign to reduce unnecessary or harmful health services. Some of the literature identifies Choosing Wisely as a shared decision-making approach. We evaluated the patient materials developed by Choosing Wisely Canada to determine whether they meet the criteria for shared decision-making tools known as patient decision aids. Design Descriptive analysis of all Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials. Data source In May 2015, we selected all Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials from its official website. Main outcomes and measures Four team members independently extracted characteristics of the English materials using the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) modified 16-item minimum criteria for qualifying and certifying patient decision aids. The research team discussed discrepancies between data extractors and reached a consensus. Descriptive analysis was conducted. Results Of the 24 patient materials assessed, 12 were about treatments, 11 were about screening and 1 was about prevention. The median score for patient materials using IPDAS criteria was 10/16 (range: 8–11) for screening topics and 6/12 (range: 6–9) for prevention and treatment topics. Commonly missed criteria were stating the decision (21/24 did not), providing balanced information on option benefits/harms (24/24 did not), citing evidence (24/24 did not) and updating policy (24/24 did not). Out of 24 patient materials, only 2 met the 6 IPDAS criteria to qualify as patient decision aids, and neither of these 2 met the 6 certifying criteria. Conclusions Patient materials developed by Choosing Wisely Canada do not meet the IPDAS minimal qualifying or certifying criteria for patient decision aids. Modifications to the Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials would help to ensure that they qualify as patient decision aids and thus as more effective shared decision-making tools. PMID:27566638

  3. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of red ginseng extracts produced with different processing methods.

    PubMed

    Yoon, E K; Hong, J H; Lê, S; Kim, K O

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were: to develop objective and effective sample preparation and presentation procedures for the sensory analysis of red ginseng extracts (RGE); to identify their sensory attributes in relation with the consumer acceptability of RGEs produced with different processing techniques. The samples included 7 different types of RGE, among which 2 samples were of commercial products and the other samples were specially prepared for the study. The samples differed in processing methods (traditional method, high-hydrostatic pressure [HHP], and fermentation) and extraction solvents (ethanol, water). For the descriptive analysis, 7 trained panelists developed and evaluated 30 attributes. Principal component analysis was conducted to summarize the relationships between the sensory attributes and to get a representation of the samples according to those attributes. Consumers evaluated the appearance and flavor acceptability of the extracts. Hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted on consumer acceptability of flavor. The results showed that the clear differences among the RGEs in terms of sensory perceptions were explained by the processing methods. Consumers were segmented into 3 distinct groups in terms of preference: a consumer cluster that likes the RGEs produced with HHP or fermentation, a cluster that likes a product with strong ginseng flavor, and a cluster that likes a RGE with sweet taste and jujube flavor. These 3 clusters differed somewhat in their consumption frequency and purchase factors, also. The red ginseng extract (RGE) market is rapidly growing due to the consumer awareness of its superior health-promoting effects. However, little attention has been given to sensory properties that are a critical factor in determining quality and consumer preference. The results of this study will be helpful for researchers and manufacturers to understand the sensory characteristics of RGEs and to detect the driving factors of consumer acceptability

  4. Sensory properties and drivers of liking for Greek yogurts.

    PubMed

    Desai, N T; Shepard, L; Drake, M A

    2013-01-01

    Greek yogurt is currently the largest growing sector in the dairy industry. Because no standard of identity exists for Greek yogurts in the United States, and they can be made by a variety of methods, variability in sensory properties is expected. Knowledge of consumer perception and specific drivers of liking will be useful information for product developers. The objective of this study was to document the sensory properties of commercial Greek yogurts and to determine drivers of liking through descriptive profiling and consumer testing. Flavor and texture attributes of commercial Greek yogurts (n = 24) were evaluated in triplicate by a trained descriptive sensory panel. An online survey (n = 520) was used to collect consumer usage and attitude information for Greek yogurts before consumer acceptance testing. Consumer acceptance testing (n = 155) was then conducted on commercial Greek yogurts (n = 10). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used for data analysis. Sensory properties of yogurt differed with fat content and manufacture (Greek vs. fortified Greek). Full-fat yogurts were characterized by firmness and denseness, whereas low- and non-fat yogurts lacked firmness, denseness, cohesiveness, and, after stirring, viscosity. Fortified Greek yogurts generally had more surface shine and jiggle and lower denseness compared with traditional Greek yogurts. Fewer flavor differences were observed among yogurts compared with texture differences. Fortified Greek yogurts displayed a burnt/beefy flavor not documented in traditional Greek yogurts, but this flavor was not evident in all fortified Greek yogurts. Consumer preferred Greek yogurts with firm, dense texture, moderate sweet aromatic, milkfat and dairy sour flavors, and moderate sour taste. Consumers were aware of the increased protein content of Greek yogurts but generally unaware of differences between strained and fortified Greek yogurts; both strained Greek and fortified Greek yogurts received

  5. Multi-trait analysis of post-harvest storage in rocket salad (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) links sensorial, volatile and nutritional data.

    PubMed

    Spadafora, Natasha D; Amaro, Ana L; Pereira, Maria J; Müller, Carsten T; Pintado, Manuela; Rogers, Hilary J

    2016-11-15

    Rocket salad (Diplotaxis tenuifolia; wild rocket) is an important component of ready to eat salads providing a distinct peppery flavour and containing nutritionally relevant compounds. Quality deteriorates during post-harvest, in relation to time and storage temperature amongst other factors. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are easily measurable from rocket leaves and may provide useful quality indicators for e.g. changes in isothiocyanates derived from nutritionally important glucosinolates. VOC profiles discriminated storage temperatures (0, 5 and 10°C) and times (over 14days). More specifically, concentrations of aldehydes and isothiocyanates decreased with time paralleling a fall in vitamin C and a reduction in sensorial quality at the two higher temperatures. Sulphur containing compounds rise at later time-points and at higher temperatures coincident with an increase in microbial titre, mirroring a further drop in sensorial quality thus indicating their contribution to off-odours. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Fluorescence fingerprint as an instrumental assessment of the sensory quality of tomato juices.

    PubMed

    Trivittayasil, Vipavee; Tsuta, Mizuki; Imamura, Yoshinori; Sato, Tsuneo; Otagiri, Yuji; Obata, Akio; Otomo, Hiroe; Kokawa, Mito; Sugiyama, Junichi; Fujita, Kaori; Yoshimura, Masatoshi

    2016-03-15

    Sensory analysis is an important standard for evaluating food products. However, as trained panelists and time are required for the process, the potential of using fluorescence fingerprint as a rapid instrumental method to approximate sensory characteristics was explored in this study. Thirty-five out of 44 descriptive sensory attributes were found to show a significant difference between samples (analysis of variance test). Principal component analysis revealed that principal component 1 could capture 73.84 and 75.28% variance for aroma category and combined flavor and taste category respectively. Fluorescence fingerprints of tomato juices consisted of two visible peaks at excitation/emission wavelengths of 290/350 and 315/425 nm and a long narrow emission peak at 680 nm. The 680 nm peak was only clearly observed in juices obtained from tomatoes cultivated to be eaten raw. The ability to predict overall sensory profiles was investigated by using principal component 1 as a regression target. Fluorescence fingerprint could predict principal component 1 of both aroma and combined flavor and taste with a coefficient of determination above 0.8. The results obtained in this study indicate the potential of using fluorescence fingerprint as an instrumental method for assessing sensory characteristics of tomato juices. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Descriptive Statistics and Cluster Analysis for Extreme Rainfall in Java Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    E Komalasari, K.; Pawitan, H.; Faqih, A.

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to describe regional pattern of extreme rainfall based on maximum daily rainfall for period 1983 to 2012 in Java Island. Descriptive statistics analysis was performed to obtain centralization, variation and distribution of maximum precipitation data. Mean and median are utilized to measure central tendency data while Inter Quartile Range (IQR) and standard deviation are utilized to measure variation of data. In addition, skewness and kurtosis used to obtain shape the distribution of rainfall data. Cluster analysis using squared euclidean distance and ward method is applied to perform regional grouping. Result of this study show that mean (average) of maximum daily rainfall in Java Region during period 1983-2012 is around 80-181mm with median between 75-160mm and standard deviation between 17 to 82. Cluster analysis produces four clusters and show that western area of Java tent to have a higher annual maxima of daily rainfall than northern area, and have more variety of annual maximum value.

  8. Incorporating Descriptive Assessment Results into the Design of a Functional Analysis: A Case Example Involving a Preschooler's Hand Mouthing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Bessette, Kimberly K.

    2006-01-01

    Functional analysis methodology has become the hallmark of behavioral assessment, yielding a determination of behavioral function in roughly 96% of the cases published (Hanley, Iwata, & McCord, 2003). Some authors have suggested that incorporating the results of a descriptive assessment into the design of a functional analysis may be useful in…

  9. The Use of Descriptive Analysis to Identify and Manipulate Schedules of Reinforcement in the Treatment of Food Refusal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Sean D.; Cooper-Brown, Linda J.; Wacker, David P.; Rankin, Barbara E.

    2006-01-01

    The feeding behaviors of a child diagnosed with failure to thrive were assessed using descriptive analysis methodology to identify the schedules of reinforcement provided by the child's parents. This analysis revealed that the child's appropriate feeding behaviors (i.e., bite acceptance, self-feeding) were on a lean schedule of positive…

  10. Child's Play: A Sensory-Integrative Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Jeanette Allison

    In an attempt to demonstrate the direct relationship of physical play to sensory integration, this descriptive study measured fine and gross motor activities, and the repetition and duration of preferred activities among 179 children between 2 and 8 years of age who participated in 3 early childhood programs in California. Data were collected by…

  11. Screening for sensory impairment in older adults: Training and practice of occupational therapists in Quebec.

    PubMed

    Wittich, Walter; Barstow, Elizabeth A; Jarry, Jonathan; Thomas, Aliki

    2015-12-01

    The goal of occupational therapy education is to train generalists who can refine their knowledge after graduation according to the requirements of the professional environment. However, it is currently unclear to what extent sensory screening should be included in the educational curricula. The purpose of this study was to examine the sensory screening education for and practice by occupational therapists working with older adults. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data from members of the Quebec Order of Occupational Therapists. Descriptive statistics were used in the analysis. Data from 102 respondents indicated that training on sensory impairment-related topics was minimal and in stark contrast to the proportion who reported serving clients with a visual (92%), hearing (84%), or combined impairment (53%). Occupational therapy considers numerous aspects of physical, cognitive, and emotional well-being. The question remains as to what extent vision and hearing health should take their place among these priorities. © CAOT 2015.

  12. Volatile composition and sensory characteristics of onion powders prepared by convective drying.

    PubMed

    Choi, So Mang; Lee, Dong-Jin; Kim, Jong-Yea; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2017-09-15

    Volatile composition and sensory characteristics of onion powders prepared by convective drying at different temperatures (50, 70, and 90°C) were investigated. Dipropyl disulfide was the major volatile compound in fresh onion (77.70% of total volatile compounds). However it was considerably lost during drying, reaching 6.93-32.25µg/g solids. Dipropyl disulfide showed a positive correlation with green sensory attribute perceived by descriptive sensory analysis. Thiophenes, which were responsible for caramel and sweet attributes, were produced by drying especially when the drying temperature was high. Aldehydes, another type of volatile compound found in fresh onion, showed a positive correlation with humidity. The aldehyde content in dried onion was the highest at the lowest drying temperature, possibly because the aldehydes were produced by the residual enzymes in fresh onion. Using a low temperature for drying was ideal to retain the aroma of fresh onion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Epilepsy and the Sensory Systems

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The relations of epilepsy and the sensory systems are bidirectional. Epilepsy may act on sensory systems by producing sensory seizure symptoms, by altering sensory performance, and by epilepsy treatment causing sensory side effects. Sensory system activity may have an important role in both generation and inhibition of seizures. PMID:27857611

  14. Sensory properties of wine tannin fractions: implications for in-mouth sensory properties.

    PubMed

    McRae, Jacqui M; Schulkin, Alex; Kassara, Stella; Holt, Helen E; Smith, Paul A

    2013-01-23

    Different molecular structures of grape tannins have been shown to influence astringency, however, the in-mouth sensory effects of different molecular structures in red wine tannins remains to be established. The objective of this research was to assess the impact of wine tannin structure on in-mouth sensory properties. Wine tannin was isolated from Cabernet Sauvignon wines of two vintages (3 and 7 years old) and separated into two structurally distinct subfractions with liquid-liquid fractionation using butanol and water. The aqueous subfractions had greater mean degree of polymerization (mDp) and contained a higher proportion of epigallocatechin subunits than the butanol-soluble subfractions, while the older wine tannin fractions showed fewer epicatechin gallate subunits than the younger tannin fractions. The red wine had approximately 3:1 mass ratio of the aqueous and butanol tannin subfractions which approximated an equimolar ratio of tannin in each subfraction. Descriptive sensory analysis of the tannin subfractions in model wine at equimolar concentrations revealed that the larger, more water-soluble wine tannin subfractions from both wines were perceived as more astringent than the smaller, more hydrophobic and more highly pigmented butanol-soluble subfractions, which were perceived as hotter and more bitter. Partial least squares analysis indicated that the greater hydrophobicity and color incorporation in the butanol fractions was negatively associated with astringency, and these characteristics are also associated with aged wine tannins. As the larger, water-soluble tannins had a greater impact on the overall wine astringency, winemaking processes that modulate concentrations of these are likely to most significantly influence astringency.

  15. Parsimonious Description of Glucose Variability in Type 2 Diabetes by Sparse Principal Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fabris, Chiara; Facchinetti, Andrea; Fico, Giuseppe; Sambo, Francesco; Arredondo, Maria Teresa; Cobelli, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abnormal glucose variability (GV) is a risk factor for diabetes complications, and tens of indices for its quantification from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) time series have been proposed. However, the information carried by these indices is redundant, and a parsimonious description of GV can be obtained through sparse principal component analysis (SPCA). We have recently shown that a set of 10 metrics selected by SPCA is able to describe more than 60% of the variance of 25 GV indicators in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Here, we want to extend the application of SPCA to type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: A data set of CGM time series collected in 13 T2D subjects was considered. The 25 GV indices considered for T1D were evaluated. SPCA was used to select a subset of indices able to describe the majority of the original variance. Results: A subset of 10 indicators was selected and allowed to describe 83% of the variance of the original pool of 25 indices. Four metrics sufficient to describe 67% of the original variance turned out to be shared by the parsimonious sets of indices in T1D and T2D. Conclusions: Starting from a pool of 25 indices assessed from CGM time series in T2D subjects, reduced subsets of metrics virtually providing the same information content can be determined by SPCA. The fact that these indices also appear in the parsimonious description of GV in T1D may indicate that they could be particularly informative of GV in diabetes, regardless of the specific type of disease. PMID:26232371

  16. The Student-Authored Biomedical Publications at Alfaisal University, Saudi Arabia: a 6-year descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Alnajjar, Asma; Khan, Tehreem A; Mina, Syeda; Alkattan, Khaled; Abu-Zaid, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    There are limited numbers of studies which comprehensively explored the research publications authored by medical students. To descriptively analyze the student-authored research publications originating from Alfaisal University-College of Medicine (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) over a 6-year period. All student-authored research publications were retrieved from PubMed(®) and the College's publication database. Study inclusion criteria included: (1) at least one medical student author, (2) published and/or accepted in-press PubMed-indexed article from 10 September 2008 to 31 December 2014. Data was transferred to Microsoft Excel Software for descriptive statistical analysis of variable parameters. Seventy-three (n = 73) articles met the study inclusion criteria. They were published by 170 students; the majority were males (79.4 %) and clerkship students (65.9 %). There was a markedly steady increase in number of yearly publications from 1 publication in 2009 to 35 publications by the end of 2014. Fifty (68.5 %), twenty-nine (39.7 %) and thirty-seven (50.7 %) students were first, second and corresponding authors, respectively. The most frequent research areas were clinical science (43.8 %), basic science (23.3 %) and medical education (21.9 %). The most frequent research types were case reports (41.1 %), research articles (32.9 %) and correspondence letters (15.1 %). Fifty-seven (78.1 %) and sixteen (21.9 %) publications took place in local and abroad institutes, respectively. Most publications (71.2 %) had impact factors below 2. The mean ± SD of articles' impact factors and citations were 3.9 ± 9.9 and 1.9 ± 4.1, respectively. Students demonstrated positive attitudes towards publishing and significantly contributed to the institution's pool of research publications.

  17. The relationship between sensory latency and amplitude.

    PubMed

    Bodofsky, Elliot B; Cohen, Stephen J; Kumar, Rohini J; Schindelheim, Adam; Gaughan, John

    2016-12-01

    To prove that the relationship between sensory latencies and amplitudes is useful in determining the severity of neuropathies. This is achieved by deriving a mathematical relationship between sensory distal latency and amplitude. Determine whether sensory amplitudes below predicted correlate with a worse pathology. Patients seen for Nerve Conduction Studies by the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at Cooper University Hospital between 12/1/12 and 12/31/14 were invited to participate in a prospective database. The median, ulnar and sural sensory latencies and amplitudes were analyzed with both linear and power regression. Patients with amplitudes above and below the regression curve were compared for latency, amplitude and velocity of other nerves. Carpal Tunnel Patients were analyzed to determine whether Median sensory amplitude below predicted correlated with more severe disease. For the Median nerve, Power Regression Analysis showed a stronger correlation (R(2)=0.54) than linear regression (R(2)=0.34). Patients with Median sensory amplitude below the power correlation curve showed significantly longer ulnar sensory latency, and lower sensory amplitude than those above. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome patients with Median sensory amplitude well below predicted by the power relationship showed more advanced disease. For the ulnar and sural sensory nerve, the difference between power and linear regression was not significant. A power regression curve correlates sensory latency and amplitude better than linear regression. The latency amplitude relationship correlates with other parameters of nerve function and severity of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. This implies that below predicted sensory amplitude may indicate worse disease, and could be a useful diagnostic tool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Discrimination of cherry wines based on their sensory properties and aromatic fingerprinting using HS-SPME-GC-MS and multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zuobing; Liu, Shengjiang; Gu, Yongbo; Xu, Na; Shang, Yi; Zhu, Jiancai

    2014-03-01

    Volatiles of cherry wines were extracted by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), multivariate statistical techniques (such as principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) and correlation analysis) to differentiate sensory attributes of 3 groups of the wines through characterization of volatiles of cherry wine. Seventy-five volatiles were identified in 9 samples, including 29 esters, 22 alcohols, 8 acids, 3 ketones, 5 aldehydes, and 8 miscellaneous compounds. The PCA results showed that the cherry wines were mainly differentiated by 8 sensory attributes. The samples W2, W4, and W7 were grouped around sweet aromatic and the samples W1, W5, and W9 were highly associated with the sweet, esters, green, bitter, and fermented. Nevertheless, the samples W3, W6, and W8 were located close to the sour, alcoholic, and fruity. The final result of correlation analysis was in conformity with the conclusion of PCA. The CA results showed that the group of W2, W4, and W7, and the group of W1, W5, and W9 had less difference than the group of W3, W6, and W8. The reason should be that esterification reactions and fermentation process during the ageing period was more extended. The results of analyzing revealed that HS-SPME-GC-MS coupled with chemometrics could give an appropriate way of characterizing and classifying the cherry wines. Attributes that represent and discriminate among cherry wines might be made use of a better comprehending of the wines and for being utilized in future work. In addition, several chemometrics were used to classify the type of wines and try to install the relationship between volatiles and sensory property. Especially, PCA clearly revealed that the most contributing compounds for sensory attributes of cherry wines, CA was a more applicable way to distinguish types of cherry wines. Therefore, a feasible method that would be helpful to promote the quality of the wines by

  19. Cluster analysis for description and characterization of boundary-layer eddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennartz-Sassinek, Sabine; Liu, Shaofeng; Shao, Yaping

    2014-05-01

    Boundary-layer eddies play an important role in atmosphere and land-surface interactions. It is already known that near the surface many small eddies exist, which merge to form large eddies in the upper layers of the atmospheric boundary layer. However, it is not yet fully understood how these eddies organize themselves and how the organization can be best described. In this study, we present a new cluster analysis for description and characterization of boundary-layer eddies. Using this method, we group physical parameters in each air layer according to certain rules to connected clusters, each of which represents an eddy. The method is applied to the simulations of a coupled large-eddy atmosphere and land-surface model (LES-ALM). We present how the eddies are determined based on the different physical parameters for different air layers, the size distribution of the eddies within an air layer and how the results depend on the chosen physical parameter such as temperature, vertical temperature flux, moisture, vertical moisture flux and vertical wind. This analysis will help to better understand how information is transported through the different air layers and thus the role eddies play in the land-surface atmosphere interactions.

  20. A Description of the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) Common Data Analysis Pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Rudnick, Paul A.; Markey, Sanford P.; Roth, Jeri; Mirokhin, Yuri; Yan, Xinjian; Tchekhovskoi, Dmitrii V.; Edwards, Nathan J.; Thangudu, Ratna R.; Ketchum, Karen A.; Kinsinger, Christopher R.; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Stein, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    The Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) has produced large proteomics datasets from the mass spectrometric interrogation of tumor samples previously analyzed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) program. The availability of the genomic and proteomic data is enabling proteogenomic study for both reference (i.e., contained in major sequence databases) and non-reference markers of cancer. The CPTAC labs have focused on colon, breast, and ovarian tissues in the first round of analyses; spectra from these datasets were produced from 2D LC-MS/MS analyses and represent deep coverage. To reduce the variability introduced by disparate data analysis platforms (e.g., software packages, versions, parameters, sequence databases, etc.), the CPTAC Common Data Analysis Platform (CDAP) was created. The CDAP produces both peptide-spectrum-match (PSM) reports and gene-level reports. The pipeline processes raw mass spectrometry data according to the following: (1) Peak-picking and quantitative data extraction, (2) database searching, (3) gene-based protein parsimony, and (4) false discovery rate (FDR)-based filtering. The pipeline also produces localization scores for the phosphopeptide enrichment studies using the PhosphoRS program. Quantitative information for each of the datasets is specific to the sample processing, with PSM and protein reports containing the spectrum-level or gene-level (“rolled-up”) precursor peak areas and spectral counts for label-free or reporter ion log-ratios for 4plex iTRAQ™. The reports are available in simple tab-delimited formats and, for the PSM-reports, in mzIdentML. The goal of the CDAP is to provide standard, uniform reports for all of the CPTAC data, enabling comparisons between different samples and cancer types as well as across the major ‘omics fields. PMID:26860878

  1. A Description of the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) Common Data Analysis Pipeline.

    PubMed

    Rudnick, Paul A; Markey, Sanford P; Roth, Jeri; Mirokhin, Yuri; Yan, Xinjian; Tchekhovskoi, Dmitrii V; Edwards, Nathan J; Thangudu, Ratna R; Ketchum, Karen A; Kinsinger, Christopher R; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Stein, Stephen E

    2016-03-04

    The Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) has produced large proteomics data sets from the mass spectrometric interrogation of tumor samples previously analyzed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) program. The availability of the genomic and proteomic data is enabling proteogenomic study for both reference (i.e., contained in major sequence databases) and nonreference markers of cancer. The CPTAC laboratories have focused on colon, breast, and ovarian tissues in the first round of analyses; spectra from these data sets were produced from 2D liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses and represent deep coverage. To reduce the variability introduced by disparate data analysis platforms (e.g., software packages, versions, parameters, sequence databases, etc.), the CPTAC Common Data Analysis Platform (CDAP) was created. The CDAP produces both peptide-spectrum-match (PSM) reports and gene-level reports. The pipeline processes raw mass spectrometry data according to the following: (1) peak-picking and quantitative data extraction, (2) database searching, (3) gene-based protein parsimony, and (4) false-discovery rate-based filtering. The pipeline also produces localization scores for the phosphopeptide enrichment studies using the PhosphoRS program. Quantitative information for each of the data sets is specific to the sample processing, with PSM and protein reports containing the spectrum-level or gene-level ("rolled-up") precursor peak areas and spectral counts for label-free or reporter ion log-ratios for 4plex iTRAQ. The reports are available in simple tab-delimited formats and, for the PSM-reports, in mzIdentML. The goal of the CDAP is to provide standard, uniform reports for all of the CPTAC data to enable comparisons between different samples and cancer types as well as across the major omics fields.

  2. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea.

  3. Analysis of factors affecting volatile compound formation in roasted pumpkin seeds with selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Bowman, T; Barringer, S

    2012-01-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo and maxima) seeds are uniquely flavored and commonly consumed as a healthy roasted snack. The objective was to determine dominant volatiles in raw and roasted pumpkin seeds, and the effect of seed coat, moisture content, fatty acid ratio, total lipids, reducing sugars, and harvest year on volatile formation. Sensory was conducted to evaluate overall liking of seed variety and texture. Seed processing included extraction from the fruit, dehydration, and roasting (150 °C). Oil extraction was done using soxhlet, fatty acid profile using Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector, and reducing sugars using 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid and UV-spectroscopy. Headspace analysis of seeds was performed by selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). Volatiles dominating in raw pumpkin seeds were lipid aldehydes, ethyl acetate, 2,3-butandione, and dimethylsulfide. Compounds contributing to roasted aroma include alkylpyrazines and Strecker and lipid aldehydes. Overall, hull-less seeds had higher volatile lipid aldehydes and Strecker aldehydes. Seeds dehydrated to a moisture content of 6.5% before roasting had higher initial and final volatile concentrations than seeds starting at 50% moisture. Higher oil content resulted in higher lipid aldehyde formation during roasting with a moderate correlation between free fatty acid ratio and corresponding lipid aldehyde. Harvest year (2009 compared with 2010) had a significant impact on volatile formation in hull-less seeds, but not as much as variety differences. No significant correlation was found between reducing sugars and volatile formation. Sensory showed that hull-less seeds were liked significantly more than hulled seeds. Elucidation of aromatic flavor development during roasting with SIFT-MS provides information on flavor release and offers better control during processing. Knowledge of volatiles in raw and roasted pumpkin seeds and effects of seed coat, moisture content, seed composition, and

  4. A Descriptive Analysis of US Prehospital Care Response to Law Enforcement Tactical Incidents.

    PubMed

    Aberle, Sara J; Lohse, Christine M; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    Law enforcement tactical incidents involve high-risk operations that exceed the capabilities of regular, uniformed police. Despite the existence of tactical teams for 50 years, little is known about the frequency or nature of emergency medical services (EMS) response to tactical events in the United States. The purpose of this study was to perform a descriptive analysis of tactical events reported to a national EMS database. Descriptive analysis of the 2012 National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS) Public Release research data set, containing EMS emergency response data from 41 states. A total of 17,479,328 EMS events were reported, of which 3,953 events were coded as "Activation-Tactical or SWAT Specialty Service/Response Team." The most common level of prehospital care present on scene was basic life support (55.2%). The majority (72.3%) of tactical incident activations involved a single patient; mass casualty incidents occurred in 0.5% of events. The most common EMS response locations were homes (48.4%), streets or highways (37.0%), and public buildings (6.3%). The mean age of treated patients was 44.1 years ± 22.0 years; 3.5% of tactical incident activation patients were aged 8 years or less. Injuries were coded as firearm assault in 14.8% and as chemical exposure in 8.9% of events. Cardiac arrest occurred in 5.1% of patients, with the majority (92.2%) occurring prior to EMS arrival. The primary symptoms reported by EMS personnel were pain (37.4%), change in responsiveness (13.1%), and bleeding (8.1%). Advanced airway procedures occurred in 30 patients. No patients were documented as receiving tourniquets or needle thoracostomy. Approximately 11 EMS responses in support of law enforcement tactical operations occur daily in the United States. The majority occur in homes and involve a single patient. Advanced airway procedures are required in a minority of patients. Cardiac arrest is rare and occurs prior to EMS response in the majority of

  5. Analysis of the chronic intake of and withdrawal from diazepam on emotional reactivity and sensory information processing in rats.

    PubMed

    De Ross, J; Castilho, V M; Brandão, M L; Nobre, M J

    2008-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that, on abrupt withdrawal, patients with chronic exposure can experience a number of symptoms indicative of a dependent state. In clinical patients, the earliest to arise and most persistent signal of withdrawal from chronic benzodiazepine (Bzp) treatment is anxiety. In laboratory animals, anxiety-like effects following abrupt interruption of chronic Bzp treatment can also be reproduced. In fact, signs that oscillate from irritability to extreme fear behaviours and seizures have been described already. As anxiety remains one of the most important symptoms of Bzp withdrawal, in this study we evaluated the anxiety levels of rats withdrawn from diazepam. Also studied were the effects on the motor performance and preattentive sensory gating process of rats under diazepam chronic treatment and upon 48-h withdrawal on three animal models of anxiety, the elevated plus-maze (EPM), ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) and startle+prepulse inhibition tests. Data obtained showed an anxiolytic- and anxiogenic-like profile of the chronic intake of and withdrawal from diazepam regimen in the EPM test, 22-KHz USV and startle reflex. Diazepam chronic effects or its withdrawal were ineffective in promoting any alteration in the prepulse inhibition (PPI). However, an increase of PPI was achieved in both sucrose and diazepam pretreated rats on 48-h withdrawal, suggesting a procedural rather than a specific effect of withdrawal on sensory gating processes. It is also possible that the prepulse can function as a conditioned stimulus to informing the delivery of an aversive event, as the auditory startling-eliciting stimulus. All these findings are indicative of a sensitization of the neural substrates of aversion in diazepam-withdrawn animals without concomitant changes on the processing of sensory information.

  6. Processing Differences between Descriptions and Experience: A Comparative Analysis Using Eye-Tracking and Physiological Measures.

    PubMed

    Glöckner, Andreas; Fiedler, Susann; Hochman, Guy; Ayal, Shahar; Hilbig, Benjamin E

    2012-01-01

    Do decisions from description and from experience trigger different cognitive processes? We investigated this general question using cognitive modeling, eye-tracking, and physiological arousal measures. Three novel findings indeed suggest qualitatively different processes between the two types of decisions. First, comparative modeling indicates that evidence-accumulation models assuming averaging of all fixation-sampled outcomes predict choices best in decisions from experience, whereas Cumulative Prospect Theory predicts choices best in decisions from descriptions. Second, arousal decreased with increasing difference in expected value between gambles in description-based choices but not in experience. Third, the relation between attention and subjective weights given to outcomes was stronger for experience-based than for description-based tasks. Overall, our results indicate that processes in experience-based risky choice can be captured by sampling-and-averaging evidence-accumulation model. This model cannot be generalized to description-based decisions, in which more complex mechanisms are involved.

  7. Free-choice-profile descriptive analysis of sticks with conditioning agents.

    PubMed

    Gámbaro, Adriana; Parente, María Emma; Giménez, Ana

    2006-01-01

    Nine formulations to be used as stick bases were manufactured using sodium stearate, propyleneglycol, and water, adding different concentrations of the following conditioning agents: octyldodecanol, PPG-5-ceteth-20, and PPG-15-stearyl ether. Free-choice-profile methodology was used to select the most adequate concentration of the agents in order to improve sensory properties. The sensory descriptors were grouped into four categories: stick aspect, sensations during application, sensations immediately after application, and sensations five minutes after application. Formulations containing 4% and 6% octyldodecanol and 2% PPG-15-stearyl ether were considered inadequate, since they showed unwanted qualities such as exudation, a slow absorption rate, high oiliness, and residue. Formulations containing 2% octyldodecanol; 2%, 4%, and 6% PPG-5-ceteth-20; and 4% and 6% PPG-15-stearyl ether presented different characteristics regarding the four categories of descriptors evaluated, all of them being acceptable considering the properties sought.

  8. [Descriptive statistics].

    PubMed

    Rendón-Macías, Mario Enrique; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    Descriptive statistics is the branch of statistics that gives recommendations on how to summarize clearly and simply research data in tables, figures, charts, or graphs. Before performing a descriptive analysis it is paramount to summarize its goal or goals, and to identify the measurement scales of the different variables recorded in the study. Tables or charts aim to provide timely information on the results of an investigation. The graphs show trends and can be histograms, pie charts, "box and whiskers" plots, line graphs, or scatter plots. Images serve as examples to reinforce concepts or facts. The choice of a chart, graph, or image must be based on the study objectives. Usually it is not recommended to use more than seven in an article, also depending on its length.

  9. Cervical necrotizing fasciitis: descriptive, retrospective analysis of 59 cases treated at a single center.

    PubMed

    Elander, Johanna; Nekludov, Michael; Larsson, Agneta; Nordlander, Britt; Eksborg, Staffan; Hydman, Jonas

    2016-12-01

    To provide retrospective, descriptive information on patients with cervical necrotizing fasciitis treated at a single center during the years 1998-2014, and to evaluate the outcome of a newly introduced treatment strategy. Retrospective analysis of clinical data obtained from medical records. Mortality, pre-morbidity, severity of illness, primary site of infection, type of bacteria, time parameters. The observed 3-month mortality was 6/59 (10 %). The most common initial foci of the infection were pharyngeal, dental or hypopharyngeal. The most common pathogen was Streptococcus milleri bacteria within the Streptococcus anginosus group (66 % of the cases). Using a combined treatment with early surgical debridement combined with hyperbaric oxygen treatment, it is possible to reduce the mortality rate among patients suffering from cervical necrotizing fasciitis, compared to the expected mortality rate and to previous historical reports. Data indicated that early onset of hyperbaric oxygen treatment may have a positive impact on survival rate, but no identifiable factor was found to prognosticate outcome.

  10. Descriptive epidemiology of chronic liver disease in northeastern Italy: an analysis of multiple causes of death

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The analysis of multiple causes of death data has been applied in the United States to examine the population burden of chronic liver disease (CLD) and to assess time trends of alcohol-related and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related CLD mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the mortality for CLD by etiology in the Veneto Region (northeastern Italy). Methods Using the 2008–2010 regional archive of mortality, all causes registered on death certificates were extracted and different descriptive epidemiological measures were computed for HCV-related, alcohol-related, and overall CLD-related mortality. Results The crude mortality rate of all CLD was close to 40 per 100,000 residents. In middle ages (35 to 74 years) CLD was mentioned in about 10% and 6% of all deaths in males and females, respectively. Etiology was unspecified in about half of CLD deaths. In females and males, respectively, HCV was mentioned in 44% and 21% and alcohol in 11% and 26% of overall CLD deaths. A bimodal distribution with age was observed for HCV-related proportional mortality among females, reflecting the available seroprevalence data. Conclusions Multiple causes of death analyses can provide useful insights into the burden of CLD mortality according to etiology among different population subgroups. PMID:24112320

  11. A pedigree-analysis approach to the descriptive epidemiology of autosomal-recessive disorders.

    PubMed

    Man, W Y N; Nicholas, F W; James, J W

    2007-03-17

    We describe a pedigree-analysis approach to estimating descriptive epidemiological parameters for autosomal-recessive disorders when the ancestral source of the disorder is known. We show that the expected frequency of carriers in a cohort equals the gene contribution of the ancestral source to that cohort, which is equivalent to the direct (additive) genetic relationship of that ancestor to the cohort. Also, the expected incidence of affected foetuses ranges from (1/2)F* to F*, where F* is the mean partial inbreeding coefficient (due to the ancestor) of the cohort. We applied this approach to complex vertebral malformation (CVM) in Holstein-Friesians in Australia, for which the ancestral source is a USA-born bull, Carlin-M Ivanhoe Bell. The estimated frequency of carriers was 2.47% for the 1992-born and 4.44% for the 1997-born cohort of Holstein-Friesian cows in Australia. The estimated incidence of affected foetuses/calves was considerably less than one per thousand, ranging from 0.0024 to 0.0048% for the 1992-born cohort, and from 0.0288 to 0.0576% for the 1997-born cohort. These incidences correspond to expected numbers of affected female foetuses/calves ranging from 2 to 4 for the 1992-born cohort and from 28 to 56 for the 1997-born cohort. This approach is easy to implement using software that is readily available.

  12. [Descriptive analysis of the various mammary implants available on European market in 2005].

    PubMed

    Desouches, C; Aharoni, C; Magalon, G

    2005-10-01

    Laboratories propose a large variety of mammary implants, in which the multiplicity makes it difficult for the surgeons to choose. The objective of this work was to analyze the various features of the implants proposed by manufacturers, in particular the characteristics of the shell, the specificities of the filling, and the morphology of the implants. Nine laboratories sell ten brands of mammary implants on the European market. The laboratories are: Arion, Eurosilicone, Inamed Aesthetics, Mentor, Nagor, Perouse Plastie, Poly Implants Protheses, Polytech Silimed and Sebbin. All laboratories propose smooth or textured surfaces on the shell. Only one laboratory uses a surface covered by micropolyurethane foam. The fillings consist of a saline solution or a silicone gel. One laboratory provides a filling with hydrogel containing carboxymethylcellulose. The forms suggested are round or anatomical. The various models propose a variation on the projection for the round implants and a variation on the height for the anatomical implants. Analysis of the different catalogues makes it possible to underline the lack of precision in the terms of usage, in particular for the description of the form and the texture. It is unfortunate to have very little technical information and no clinical or biological information imposed by the European standard EN 12180. This prevents the surgeon from making his choice according to the real quality of the implants.

  13. A Descriptive Analysis of Religious Involvement Among Older Adults In Japan

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Neal; Liang, Jersey; Bennett, Joan; Kobayashi, Erika; Akiyama, Hiroko; Fukaya, Taro

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a descriptive analysis of multiple dimensions of religion with data provided by a nationwide sample of older people in Japan. Six dimensions of religion were evaluated: Religious affiliation, involvement in formal religious organizations, private religious practices, the functions of prayer, belief in punishment by supernatural forces, and beliefs about the afterlife. In addition to describing these facets of religion for the sample as a whole, tests were also performed to see if they vary by age, sex, marital status, education, and whether older Japanese people live in rural or urban areas. The findings suggest that even though older people in Japan are not highly involved in formal religious institutions, they frequently engage in private religious practices. Moreover, the data reveal that while older people in Japan do not often endorse some religious beliefs (e.g., beliefs about the quality of the afterlife), they strongly adhere to others (e.g., beliefs about punishment by supernatural forces). Significant and fairly consistent variations by gender and rural versus urban residence were also observed across the measures of religiousness. PMID:20556235

  14. A content analysis of staff nurse descriptions of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    McNeese-Smith, D K

    1999-06-01

    Job satisfaction of nurses has been studied, using quantitative methodology, but hospital staff nurse descriptions of the source of their job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction have rarely been examined. This study collected information from 30 staff nurses through semistructured, taped interviews. Using content analysis, interviews were coded and categories and themes were identified. Findings indicate that job satisfaction was derived from the following categories: patient care, environment, balanced workload, relations with coworkers, personal factors, salary and benefits, professionalism, cultural background of the nurse and career stage of the nurse. Themes related to patient care, the pace and variety in an acute care environment, relationships with coworkers and meeting personal and family needs were cited as particularly relevant to job satisfaction. Job dissatisfaction was primarily influenced by patient care, factors that interfere with the job and patient care, feeling overloaded, relations with coworkers, personal factors, organizational factors and the career stage of the nurse. Themes related to the following categories have the greatest influence on job dissatisfaction: feeling overloaded, factors that interfere with patient care, coworkers who do not provide good care and situations that feel unfair. The actual words of nurses were included to provide depth and substance to the categories and themes. A discussion was presented of the relationship of these findings to theory and to outcomes of quantitative research. These findings have implications for nursing practice, administration and education as the profession considers organizational and individual factors influencing nurses' feelings about their job and prepares for future nursing shortages.

  15. Cholera outbreaks in South and Southeast Asia: descriptive analysis, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Tanmay; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Babu, Giridhara R; Tang, Weiming; Banerjee, Barnali; Mahapatra, Umakanta; Das, Aritra

    2014-01-01

    We conducted descriptive analysis of available information regarding the epidemiology of cholera outbreaks in South and Southeast Asia during 2003-2012. Information from 58 articles, 8 reports, and World Health Organization databases were analyzed. Overall, 113 cholera outbreaks were studied in South and Southeast Asia during the past 10 years. The majority of the outbreaks (69%) occurred in Southeast Asia, including India (52%). The highest number of outbreaks was observed in 2004 (25.7%). The most commonly identified source was contaminated water: however, in some countries, the spread of cholera was facilitated via contaminated seafood (e.g., Myanmar, Thailand, and Singapore). Several genotypes and phenotypes of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, were identified in the outbreaks, including V. cholerae O1 El Tor (Ogawa and Inaba) and V. cholerae O139. The emergence of multidrug-resistant V. cholerae strains was a major concern. Cholera-related mortality was found to be low across the outbreaks, except in Orissa, India (currently Odisha) during 2007, where the case fatality rate was 8.6%. Potential limitations included underreporting, discrepancies, possible exclusion of nonindexed reports, and incomprehensive search terms. The provision of safe water and proper sanitation appear to be critical for the control of further spread of cholera in South Asian and Southeast Asian regions.

  16. A SIMPLE DESCRIPTION OF AN ALGORITHM FOR TRANSFORMATIONAL ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH SENTENCES. TRANSFORMATIONS AND DISCOURSE ANALYSIS PAPERS, NUMBER 67, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HIZ, DANUTA; JOSHI, ARAVIND K.

    PRESENTED IN THIS PAPER IS A SIMPLIFIED DESCRIPTION OF AN ALGORITHM FOR TRANSFORMATIONAL ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH SENTENCES. IT IS NEITHER ASSUMED NOR IMPLIED IN THIS ALGORITHM THAT ANY KIND OF PRIOR ANALYSIS (EITHER STRING OR CONSTITUENT ANALYSIS) IS REQUIRED AS A PREREQUISITE. IN ORDER TO DEFINE THE SET OF ALL TRANSFORMS, THE AUTHORS FIRST DEFINE A…

  17. Development of the Classroom Sensory Environment Assessment (CSEA).

    PubMed

    Kuhaneck, Heather Miller; Kelleher, Jaqueline

    2015-01-01

    The Classroom Sensory Environment Assessment (CSEA) is a tool that provides a means of understanding the impact of a classroom's sensory environment on student behavior. The purpose of the CSEA is to promote collaboration between occupational therapists and elementary education teachers. In particular, students with autism spectrum disorder included in general education classrooms may benefit from a suitable match created through this collaborative process between the sensory environment and their unique sensory preferences. The development of the CSEA has occurred in multiple stages over 2 yr. This article reports on descriptive results for 152 classrooms and initial reliability results. Descriptive information suggests that classrooms are environments with an enormous variety of sensory experiences that can be quantified. Visual experiences are most frequent. The tool has adequate internal consistency but requires further investigation of interrater reliability and validity.

  18. Predictive analysis of beer quality by correlating sensory evaluation with higher alcohol and ester production using multivariate statistics methods.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jian-Jun; Li, Qing-Liang; Yin, Hua; Zhong, Cheng; Hao, Jun-Guang; Yang, Pan-Fei; Tian, Yu-Hong; Jia, Shi-Ru

    2014-10-15

    Sensory evaluation is regarded as a necessary procedure to ensure a reproducible quality of beer. Meanwhile, high-throughput analytical methods provide a powerful tool to analyse various flavour compounds, such as higher alcohol and ester. In this study, the relationship between flavour compounds and sensory evaluation was established by non-linear models such as partial least squares (PLS), genetic algorithm back-propagation neural network (GA-BP), support vector machine (SVM). It was shown that SVM with a Radial Basis Function (RBF) had a better performance of prediction accuracy for both calibration set (94.3%) and validation set (96.2%) than other models. Relatively lower prediction abilities were observed for GA-BP (52.1%) and PLS (31.7%). In addition, the kernel function of SVM played an essential role of model training when the prediction accuracy of SVM with polynomial kernel function was 32.9%. As a powerful multivariate statistics method, SVM holds great potential to assess beer quality.

  19. Comparative study of protein stabilization in white wine using zirconia and bentonite: physicochemical and wine sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Fernando N; Achaerandio, Isabel; Labb, Mariela A; Gell, Carme; Lpez, Francisco

    2006-12-27

    A semi-industrial application of the continuous stabilization of white wine protein using a column packed with zirconia was studied and compared to the traditional bentonite treatment using a Macabeu white wine. Physicochemical and wine sensory properties were evaluated using a rating system and triangle tests. Continuous protein stabilization was analyzed in three residence times, and the equivalent of 300 BV of wine was used for both treatments. Wine protein content was reduced by 21%, 40%, and 42% using the continuous process with residence times of 7.5, 15, and 30 min, respectively, and by 61.4% using the bentonite treatment. The wines obtained from the packed column were protein stable up to 25, 75, and 175 BV for residence times of 7.5, 15, and 30 min, respectively. The amount of polyphenol removed was less than 10%, and similar amounts were removed from the wine regardless of residence time, while 20.6% of polyphenol was removed using bentonite. The physicochemical and sensory properties of wine treated with bentonite were similar to those of wine treated with zirconia.

  20. Functional brain mapping using specific sensory-circuit stimulation and a theoretical graph network analysis in mice with neuropathic allodynia

    PubMed Central

    Komaki, Yuji; Hikishima, Keigo; Shibata, Shinsuke; Konomi, Tsunehiko; Seki, Fumiko; Yamada, Masayuki; Miyasaka, Naoyuki; Fujiyoshi, Kanehiro; Okano, Hirotaka J.; Nakamura, Masaya; Okano, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Allodynia, a form of neuropathic pain, is defined as pain in response to a non-nociceptive stimulus. The brain regions responsible for pain, which are not normally activated, can be activated in allodynic mice by providing a suitable stimulus to Aβ-fibers, which transmit signals from tactile sensory fibers. Functional MRI (fMRI) can be used to objectively observe abnormal brain activation. In the present study, fMRI was conducted to investigate allodynia in mice; allodynia was generated by surgical injury at the L4 spinal nerve root, thus selectively stimulating sensory nerve fibers. In intact mice, only the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) was activated by stimulation of Aβ-fibers. Meanwhile, allodynic mice showed significantly higher BOLD signals in the anterior cingulate area (ACA) and thalamus. Using resting state fMRI, both degree and eigenvector centrality were significantly decreased in the contralateral S1, clustering coefficient and local efficiency were significantly increased in the ACA, and betweenness centrality was significantly higher in the ventral posterolateral nucleus of the thalamus. These results suggest that the observed abnormal BOLD activation is associated with defects in Aβ-fibers when Aβ-fibers in allodynic mice are selectively stimulated. The objective approach enabled by fMRI can improve our understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms and therapeutic efficacy. PMID:27898057

  1. Response Surface Optimization of Process Parameters and Fuzzy Analysis of Sensory Data of High Pressure-Temperature Treated Pineapple Puree.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Snehasis; Rao, Pavuluri Srinivasa; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2015-08-01

    The high-pressure processing conditions were optimized for pineapple puree within the domain of 400-600 MPa, 40-60 °C, and 10-20 min using the response surface methodology (RSM). The target was to maximize the inactivation of polyphenoloxidase (PPO) along with a minimal loss in beneficial bromelain (BRM) activity, ascorbic acid (AA) content, antioxidant capacity, and color in the sample. The optimum condition was 600 MPa, 50 °C, and 13 min, having the highest desirability of 0.604, which resulted in 44% PPO and 47% BRM activities. However, 93% antioxidant activity and 85% AA were retained in optimized sample with a total color change (∆E*) value less than 2.5. A 10-fold reduction in PPO activity was obtained at 600 MPa/70 °C/20 min; however, the thermal degradation of nutrients was severe at this condition. Fuzzy mathematical approach confirmed that sensory acceptance of the optimized sample was close to the fresh sample; whereas, the thermally pasteurized sample (treated at 0.1 MPa, 95 °C for 12 min) had the least sensory score as compared to others. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Brief Report: Further Evidence of Sensory Subtypes in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Alison E.; Dennis, Simon J.; Geraghty, Maureen E.

    2011-01-01

    Distinct sensory processing (SP) subtypes in autism have been reported previously. This study sought to replicate the previous findings in an independent sample of thirty children diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. Model-based cluster analysis of parent-reported sensory functioning (measured using the Short Sensory Profile) confirmed the…

  3. Sensory Processing Subtypes in Autism: Association with Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Alison E.; Young, Robyn L.; Baker, Amy E. Z.; Angley, Manya T.

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes…

  4. Sensory Processing Subtypes in Autism: Association with Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Alison E.; Young, Robyn L.; Baker, Amy E. Z.; Angley, Manya T.

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes…

  5. Product perception from sensory stimuli: the case of vacuum cleaner.

    PubMed

    Almeida e Silva, Caio Márcio; Okimoto, Maria Lúciar R L; Tanure, Raffaela Leane Zenni

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of consideration of different sensory stimuli in the perception of the product. So we conducted an experiment that examined whether there is a difference between the perception of sensory stimuli from artificially isolated. The result is an analysis of the different sensory modalities, relating them to product an between them.

  6. Brief Report: Further Evidence of Sensory Subtypes in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Alison E.; Dennis, Simon J.; Geraghty, Maureen E.

    2011-01-01

    Distinct sensory processing (SP) subtypes in autism have been reported previously. This study sought to replicate the previous findings in an independent sample of thirty children diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. Model-based cluster analysis of parent-reported sensory functioning (measured using the Short Sensory Profile) confirmed the…

  7. Sensory Clusters of Adults with and without Autism Spectrum Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwin, Marie; Schröder, Agneta; Ek, Lena; Wallsten, Tuula; Kjellin, Lars

    2017-01-01

    We identified clusters of atypical sensory functioning adults with ASC by hierarchical cluster analysis. A new scale for commonly self-reported sensory reactivity was used as a measure. In a low frequency group (n = 37), all subscale scores were relatively low, in particular atypical sensory/motor reactivity. In the intermediate group (n = 17)…

  8. Sensory Conversion Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medelius, Pedro

    The human body has five basic sensory functions: touch, vision, hearing, taste, and smell. The effectiveness of one or more of these human sensory functions can be impaired as a result of trauma, congenital defects, or the normal ageing process. Converting one type of function into another, or translating a function to a different part of the body, could result in a better quality of life for a person with diminished sensorial capabilities.

  9. Air Force Global Weather Central System Architecture Study. Final System/Subsystem Summary Report. Volume 2. Requirements Compilation and Analysis. Part 2. Functional Description

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-01

    FINAL SYSTEM/SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY REPORT, Z & & ^ $ VOLUME 2. Requirements Compilation and Analysis Part 2, Functional Description « ^N» mvr^1𔃺...Compilation and Analysis Part 2 - Functional Description RKAD INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE COMPLETING KORM 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 7. AUTHORfJj 9...Secret) Volume 4 - Systems Analysis and Trade Studies Volume 5 - System Description Volume 6 - Aerospace Ground Equipment Plan Volume 7

  10. Framing health for land-use planning legislation: A qualitative descriptive content analysis.

    PubMed

    Harris, Patrick; Kent, Jennifer; Sainsbury, Peter; Thow, Anne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Framing health as a relevant policy issue for other sectors is not well understood. A recent review of the New South Wales (Australia) land-use planning system resulted in the drafting of legislation with an internationally unprecedented focus on human health. We apply a political science approach to investigate the question 'how and to what extent were health and wider issues framed in submissions to the review?' We investigated a range of stakeholder submissions including health focussed agencies (n = 31), purposively identified key stakeholders with influence on the review (n = 24), and a random sample of other agencies and individuals (n = 47). Using qualitative descriptive analysis we inductively coded for the term 'health' and sub-categories. We deductively coded for 'wider concerns' using a locally endorsed 'Healthy Urban Development Checklist'. Additional inductive analysis uncovered further 'wider concerns'. Health was explicitly identified as a relevant issue for planning policy only in submissions by health-focussed agencies. This framing concerned the new planning system promoting and protecting health as well as connecting health to wider planning concerns including economic issues, transport, public open space and, to a slightly lesser extent, environmental sustainability. Key stakeholder and other agency submissions focussed on these and other wider planning concerns but did not mention health in detail. Health agency submissions did not emphasise infrastructure, density or housing as explicitly as others. Framing health as a relevant policy issue has the potential to influence legislative change governing the business of other sectors. Without submissions from health agencies arguing the importance of having health as an objective in the proposed legislation it is unlikely health considerations would have gained prominence in the draft bill. The findings have implications for health agency engagement with legislative change processes and beyond in

  11. Who uses nursing theory? A univariate descriptive analysis of five years' research articles.

    PubMed

    Bond, A Elaine; Eshah, Nidal Farid; Bani-Khaled, Mohammed; Hamad, Atef Omar; Habashneh, Samira; Kataua', Hussein; al-Jarrah, Imad; Abu Kamal, Andaleeb; Hamdan, Falastine Rafic; Maabreh, Roqia

    2011-06-01

    Since the early 1950s, nursing leaders have worked diligently to build the Scientific Discipline of Nursing, integrating Theory, Research and Practice. Recently, the role of theory has again come into question, with some scientists claiming nurses are not using theory to guide their research, with which to improve practice. The purposes of this descriptive study were to determine: (i) Were nursing scientists' research articles in leading nursing journals based on theory? (ii) If so, were the theories nursing theories or borrowed theories? (iii) Were the theories integrated into the studies, or were they used as organizing frameworks? Research articles from seven top ISI journals were analysed, excluding regularly featured columns, meta-analyses, secondary analysis, case studies and literature reviews. The authors used King's dynamic Interacting system and Goal Attainment Theory as an organizing framework. They developed consensus on how to identify the integration of theory, searching the Title, Abstract, Aims, Methods, Discussion and Conclusion sections of each research article, whether quantitative or qualitative. Of 2857 articles published in the seven journals from 2002 to, and including, 2006, 2184 (76%) were research articles. Of the 837 (38%) authors who used theories, 460 (55%) used nursing theories, 377 (45%) used other theories: 776 (93%) of those who used theory integrated it into their studies, including qualitative studies, while 51 (7%) reported they used theory as an organizing framework for their studies. Closer analysis revealed theory principles were implicitly implied, even in research reports that did not explicitly report theory usage. Increasing numbers of nursing research articles (though not percentagewise) continue to be guided by theory, and not always by nursing theory. Newer nursing research methods may not explicitly state the use of nursing theory, though it is implicitly implied. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring

  12. Randomized controlled trials of malaria intervention trials in Africa, 1948 to 2007: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Lutje, Vittoria; Gerritsen, Annette; Siegfried, Nandi

    2011-03-15

    Nine out of ten deaths from malaria occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Various control measures have achieved some progress in the control of the disease, but malaria is still a major public health problem in Africa. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are universally considered the best study type to rigorously assess whether an intervention is effective. The study reported here provides a descriptive analysis of RCTs reporting interventions for the prevention and treatment of malaria conducted in Africa, with the aim of providing detailed information on their main clinical and methodological characteristics, that could be used by researchers and policy makers to help plan future research. Systematic searches for malaria RCTs were conducted using electronic databases (Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library), and an African geographic search filter to identify RCTs conducted in Africa was applied. Results were exported to the statistical package STATA 8 to obtain a random sample from the overall data set. Final analysis of trial characteristics was done in a double blinded fashion by two authors using a standardized data extraction form. A random sample of 92 confirmed RCTs (from a total of 943 reports obtained between 1948 and 2007) was prepared. Most trials investigated drug treatment in children with uncomplicated malaria. Few trials reported on treatment of severe malaria or on interventions in pregnant women. Most trials were of medium size (100-500 participants), individually randomized and based in a single centre. Reporting of trial quality was variable. Although three-quarter of trials provided information on participants' informed consent and ethics approval, more details are needed. The majority of malaria RCT conducted in Africa report on drug treatment and prevention in children; there is need for more research done in pregnant women. Sources of funding, informed consent and trial quality were often poorly reported. Overall, clearer reporting of trials is

  13. Randomized controlled trials of malaria intervention trials in Africa, 1948 to 2007: a descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Nine out of ten deaths from malaria occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Various control measures have achieved some progress in the control of the disease, but malaria is still a major public health problem in Africa. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are universally considered the best study type to rigorously assess whether an intervention is effective. The study reported here provides a descriptive analysis of RCTs reporting interventions for the prevention and treatment of malaria conducted in Africa, with the aim of providing detailed information on their main clinical and methodological characteristics, that could be used by researchers and policy makers to help plan future research. Methods Systematic searches for malaria RCTs were conducted using electronic databases (Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library), and an African geographic search filter to identify RCTs conducted in Africa was applied. Results were exported to the statistical package STATA 8 to obtain a random sample from the overall data set. Final analysis of trial characteristics was done in a double blinded fashion by two authors using a standardized data extraction form. Results A random sample of 92 confirmed RCTs (from a total of 943 reports obtained between 1948 and 2007) was prepared. Most trials investigated drug treatment in children with uncomplicated malaria. Few trials reported on treatment of severe malaria or on interventions in pregnant women. Most trials were of medium size (100-500 participants), individually randomized and based in a single centre. Reporting of trial quality was variable. Although three-quarter of trials provided information on participants' informed consent and ethics approval, more details are needed. Conclusions The majority of malaria RCT conducted in Africa report on drug treatment and prevention in children; there is need for more research done in pregnant women. Sources of funding, informed consent and trial quality were often poorly reported

  14. African American Dementia Caregiver Problem Inventory: Descriptive analysis and initial psychometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wells, Brittny A; Glueckauf, Robert L; Bernabe, Daniel; Kazmer, Michelle M; Schettini, Gabriel; Springer, Jane; Sharma, Dinesh; Meng, Hongdao; Willis, Floyd B; Graff-Radford, Neill

    2017-02-01

    The primary objectives of the present study were: (a) to develop the African American Dementia Caregiver Problem Inventory (DCPI-A) that assesses the types and frequency of problems reported by African American dementia caregivers seeking cognitive-behavioral intervention, (b) to evaluate the intercoder reliability of the DCPI-A, and (c) to measure the perceived severity of common problems reported by this caregiver population. The development of the DCPI-A was divided into 3 major steps: (a) creating an initial sample pool of caregiver problems derived from 2 parent randomized clinical trials, (b) formulating a preliminary version of the DCPI-A, and (c) finalizing the development of the DCPI-A that includes 20 problem categories with explicit coding rules, definitions, and illustrative examples. The most commonly reported caregiver problems fell into 5 major categories: (a) communication problems with care recipients, family members, and/or significant others, (b) problems with socialization, recreation, and personal enhancement time; (c) problems with physical health and health maintenance, (d) problems in managing care recipients' activities of daily living; and (e) problems with care recipients' difficult behaviors. Intercoder reliability was moderately high for both percent agreement and Cronbach's kappa. A similar positive pattern of results was obtained for the analysis of coder drift. The descriptive analysis of the types and frequency of problems of African American dementia caregivers coupled with the outcomes of the psychometric evaluation bode well for the adoption of the DCPI-A in clinical settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Signaling by Sensory Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Julius, David; Nathans, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Sensory systems detect small molecules, mechanical perturbations, or radiation via the activation of receptor proteins and downstream signaling cascades in specialized sensory cells. In vertebrates, the two principal categories of sensory receptors are ion channels, which mediate mechanosensation, thermosensation, and acid and salt taste; and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which mediate vision, olfaction, and sweet, bitter, and umami tastes. GPCR-based signaling in rods and cones illustrates the fundamental principles of rapid activation and inactivation, signal amplification, and gain control. Channel-based sensory systems illustrate the integration of diverse modulatory signals at the receptor, as seen in the thermosensory/pain system, and the rapid response kinetics that are possible with direct mechanical gating of a channel. Comparisons of sensory receptor gene sequences reveal numerous examples in which gene duplication and sequence divergence have created novel sensory specificities. This is the evolutionary basis for the observed diversity in temperature- and ligand-dependent gating among thermosensory channels, spectral tuning among visual pigments, and odorant binding among olfactory receptors. The coding of complex external stimuli by a limited number of sensory receptor types has led to the evolution of modality-specific and species-specific patterns of retention or loss of sensory information, a filtering operation that selectively emphasizes features in the stimulus that enhance survival in a particular ecological niche. The many specialized anatomic structures, such as the eye and ear, that house primary sensory neurons further enhance the detection of relevant stimuli. PMID:22110046

  16. Mexican chihuahua cheese: sensory profiles of young cheese.

    PubMed

    Van Hekken, D L; Drake, M A; Corral, F J Molina; Prieto, V M Guerrero; Gardea, A A

    2006-10-01

    Sensory profiles of fresh semihard Chihuahua cheese produced in the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua were developed to characterize the flavors and textures of this traditionally made Hispanic-style cheese. Multiple allotments of Chihuahua cheese, 9 brands made with raw milk (RM) and 5 brands made with pasteurized milk (PM), were obtained within 3 d of manufacture from 12 different cheese plants throughout Chihuahua, México. Cheeses were shipped overnight to Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania, and flavor analyses were conducted within 14 to 18 d after manufacture. Four brands (2 RM and 2 PM cheeses) were then selected and multiple allotments were shipped at 3 distinct seasons over a 1-yr period for evaluation of flavor and texture. Microbial analysis was conducted prior to testing to ensure product safety. Descriptive analyses of cheese flavors and textures were conducted with panelists trained to use a universal or product-specific Spectrum intensity scale, respectively. Sensory profiles of cheeses varied among the different manufacturers. The most prominent flavor attributes were salty, sour, diacetyl, cooked, whey, bitter, and milk-fat. The RM cheeses had more intense sour, bitter, and prickle scores than the PM cheeses. Many cheese texture attributes were similar, but RM cheeses were perceived as softer than PM cheeses. As the demand for Hispanic-style cheeses increases, defining and understanding the sensory attributes of traditionally made Mexican cheeses provides guidance to cheese manufacturers as new ways are explored to improve the production and shelf life of the cheeses.

  17. Sensometric calibration of sensory characteristics of commercially available milk products with instrumental data.

    PubMed

    Ochi, H; Sumi, M; Nakata, I; Saito, H; Uozumi, M; Iwatsuki, K

    2010-05-01

    Seven brands of commercial milk and related products that are available in the Japanese market were investigated. Quantitative descriptive analysis was used to describe 12 sensory properties of the samples, and the position of each sample was displayed by principal component analysis. The sensory descriptors of the samples were correlated with various analytical data by partial least squares regression analysis. Aroma descriptors were correlated with the headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profile. Descriptors of flavor, mouthfeel, and aftertaste were correlated with the results of the physicochemical analysis. Many of the volatile compounds that contributed to aroma attributes, according to the partial least squares loading plot, were in agreement with the influence of volatile compounds shown by previous studies. Lactulose and furosine, as indicators of heating, and viscosity were parameters that influenced flavor, mouthfeel, and aftertaste. In addition, overall aftertaste was significantly related to fat content.

  18. Description, Usage, and Validation of the MVL-15 Modified Vortex Lattice Analysis Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozoroski, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    , thereby providing a pathway to map viscous data to the inviscid results. However, a number of factors can sidetrack the analysis consistency during various stages of this process. For example, it should be expected that the final airplane lift curve and drag polar results depend strongly on the geometry and aerodynamics of the airfoil section; however, flap deflections and flap chord extensions change the local reference geometry of the input airfoil, the airplane wing, the tabulated non-dimensional viscous aerodynamics, and the spanwise links between the linear and the viscous aerodynamics. These changes also affect the bound circulation and therefore, calculation and integration of the induced angle of attack and induced drag. MVL-15 is configured to ensure these types of challenges are properly addressed. This report is a comprehensive manual describing the theory, use, and validation of the MVL-15 analysis tool. Section 3 summarizes theoretical, procedural, and characteristic features of MVL-15, and includes a list of the files required to setup, execute, and summarize an analysis. Section 4, Section 5, Section 6, and Section 7 combine to comprise the User's Guide portions of this report. The MVL-15 input and output files are described in Section 4 and Section 5, respectively; the descriptions are supplemented with example files and information about the file formats, parameter definitions, and typical parameter values. Section 6 describes the Wing Geometry Setup Utility and the 2d-Variants Utility files that simplify and assist setting up a consistent set of MVL-15 geometry and aerodynamics input parameters and input files. Section 7 describes the use of the 3d-Results Presentation Utility file that can be used to automatically create summary tables and charts from the MVL-15 output files. Section 8 documents the Validation Results of an extensive and varied validation test matrix, including results of an airplane analysis representative of the ERA Program. A start

  19. Portable microcomputer for the analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra. Volume I. Data analysis methodology and hardware description

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhter, W.D.

    1984-05-01

    A portable microcomputer has been developed and programmed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to perform in-field analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra. The unit includes a 16-bit LSI-11/2 microprocessor, 32-K words of memory, a 20-character display for user prompting, a numeric keyboard for user responses, and a 20-character thermal printer for hard-copy output of results. The unit weights 11 kg and had dimensions of 33.5 x 30.5 x 23.0 cm. This compactness allows the unit to be stored under an airline seat. Only the positions of the 148-keV /sup 241/Pu and 208-keV /sup 237/U peaks are required for spectral analysis that gives plutonium isotopic ratios and weight percent abundances. Volume I of this report provides a detailed description of the data analysis methodology, operation instructions, hardware, and maintenance and troubleshooting. Volume II describes the software and provides software listings.

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Dietary Habits on Sensory Motor Association and Heart Rate Variability during Menstrual Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Tanwir; Jiwane, Rekha; Kishanrao, Sadawarte Sahebrao

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dietary habits can make a big difference on both physical and mental aspects of the body. Menstrual disorder frequently affects the quality of life of adolescent and young adult women. Menstrual cycle irregularities may be associated with psychological stress, and endocrine disturbances. Monitoring of sensory-motor association and cardiovascular activity across the menstrual cycle has not been evaluated with dietary habits. Aim The present study was carried out to bridge the relationship between dietary habits and endogenous sex hormone mediated sensory motor association and heart rate variability (HRV) among young females during different phases of menstrual cycle. Materials and Methods The present study was carried out on healthy volunteered 100 female medical students in the age group of 19-25 years with regular menstrual cycle. Group I (n=45) vegetarians, Group II (n=25) eggetarians and Group III (n= 30) non-vegetarians, where n denotes the number of individuals in each group. Sensory-motor association (reaction time) and cardiovascular activity (HRV) was evaluated. Results We observed among all the dietary habits (vegetarians, eggetarians and non-vegetarians) the reaction time and HRV was comparable in follicular and menstrual phase, however it was significantly altered in luteal phase when compared to follicular and menstrual phase. Moreover, among all the dietary habits, non-vegetarians showed more significant alteration of reaction time and HRV in luteal phase when compared to vegetarians and eggetarians, as well as there was positive correlation between visual and auditory reaction time and negative correlation between LF and HF in luteal phase, among all the dietary habits. Conclusion We concluded sensorimotor association and regulation of autonomic tone is modified in luteal phase comparable to follicular phase and menstrual phase; however non-vegetarian had showed more significant alterations as compared to eggetarians and vegetarians

  1. Sensory interaction between 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and oxidation-related compounds

    DOE PAGES

    Coetzee, C; Brand, J; Emerton, G; ...

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims:Wine aroma is influenced by complex interactions between various wine constituents. This study investigated the sensorial interactive effects of Sauvignon Blanc impact compounds, 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine with aldehydes typically originating from oxidation of white wines, methional and phenylacetaldehyde. Methods and Results: Spiked model wines were subjected to sensory descriptive analysis using a trained panel. The concentration of each compound varied from below aroma threshold value to high values reported in wine. Combinations of the four compounds were also evaluated sensorially. Depending on the concentration of the compounds, methional had a strong suppressive effect on the intensity of attributes contributedmore » by 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol, such as grapefruit and guava, whereas methional and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine enhanced the intensity of certain attributes, which included cooked beans and cooked potato. Conclusions: Complex sensory interactions may occur between Sauvignon Blanc impact compounds and compounds related to oxidation depending on concentration of the compounds. Oxidation-derived compounds such as methional can suppress pleasant aroma attributes linked to volatile thiols, while contributing negative attributes especially in the presence of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. Significance of the Study: This study highlights the importance of preserving fresh and fruity flavours while preventing the formation of unwanted aldehydes due to interactions that can influence the overall aroma profile of the wine. This study may also contribute to the sensory characterisation of oxidised Sauvignon Blanc wine.« less

  2. Culinary preparation of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.): the impact on sensory quality and appropriateness.

    PubMed

    Bach, Vibe; Mikkelsen, Laerke; Kidmose, Ulla; Edelenbos, Merete

    2015-07-01

    Beetroot is a diverse vegetable available in different shapes and colours. The objectives of this study were to evaluate sensory qualities, and sugar and dry matter content of five beetroot varieties in relationship to the appropriateness for raw, boiled and pan-fried preparation. Sensory evaluation by descriptive sensory analysis and consumer tests showed clear distinctions between red varieties Taunus, Rocket and Pablo, and the pink-white striped Chioggia and yellow Burpee's Golden in raw preparations. However, variety delimination was more difficult after boiling and pan-frying. Different sensory qualities were important for beetroot appropriateness in raw, boiled and pan-fried preparations. Appropriateness of raw beetroots was associated with high sensory scores in beetroot flavour, crispness and juiciness, and low scores in bitterness. Appropriateness of boiled beetroots was related to high scores in beetroot and earthy flavours. Pan-fried beetroot appropriateness was associated with high scores in beetroot flavour, colour intensity and crispness. This study showed that the quality of raw materials is integral in culinary preparations. These results can be used to guide consumers in the use of beetroot in culinary preparations and subsequently increase consumption. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Sensory interaction between 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and oxidation-related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Coetzee, C; Brand, J; Emerton, G; Jacobson, Daniel A; Silva Ferreira, A C; Du Toit, M

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims:Wine aroma is influenced by complex interactions between various wine constituents. This study investigated the sensorial interactive effects of Sauvignon Blanc impact compounds, 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine with aldehydes typically originating from oxidation of white wines, methional and phenylacetaldehyde. Methods and Results: Spiked model wines were subjected to sensory descriptive analysis using a trained panel. The concentration of each compound varied from below aroma threshold value to high values reported in wine. Combinations of the four compounds were also evaluated sensorially. Depending on the concentration of the compounds, methional had a strong suppressive effect on the intensity of attributes contributed by 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol, such as grapefruit and guava, whereas methional and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine enhanced the intensity of certain attributes, which included cooked beans and cooked potato. Conclusions: Complex sensory interactions may occur between Sauvignon Blanc impact compounds and compounds related to oxidation depending on concentration of the compounds. Oxidation-derived compounds such as methional can suppress pleasant aroma attributes linked to volatile thiols, while contributing negative attributes especially in the presence of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. Significance of the Study: This study highlights the importance of preserving fresh and fruity flavours while preventing the formation of unwanted aldehydes due to interactions that can influence the overall aroma profile of the wine. This study may also contribute to the sensory characterisation of oxidised Sauvignon Blanc wine.

  4. Comparative analysis of behavioral and transcriptional variation underlying CO2 sensory neuron function and development in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jia Wern; McLaughlin, Joi; Yang, Haining; Leo, Charles; Rambarat, Paula; Okuwa, Sumie; Monroy-Eklund, Anaïs; Clark, Sabrina; Jones, Corbin D; Volkan, Pelin Cayirlioglu

    2017-06-23

    Carbon dioxide is an important environmental cue for many insects, regulating many behaviors including some that have direct human impacts. To further improve our understanding of how this system varies among closely related insect species, we examined both the behavioral response to CO2 as well as the transcriptional profile of key developmental regulators of CO2 sensory neurons in the olfactory system across the Drosophila genus. We found that CO2 generally evokes repulsive behavior across most of the Drosophilids we examined, but this behavior has been lost or reduced in several lineages. Comparisons of transcriptional profiles from the developing and adult antennae for subset these species suggest that behavioral differences in some species may be due to differences in the expression of the CO2 co-receptor Gr63a. Furthermore, these differences in Gr63a expression are correlated with changes in the expression of a few genes known to be involved in the development of the CO2 circuit, namely dac, an important regulator of sensilla fate for sensilla that house CO2 ORNs, and mip120, a member of the MMB/dREAM epigenetic regulatory complex that regulates CO2 receptor expression. In contrast, most of the other known structural, molecular, and developmental components of the peripheral Drosophila CO2 olfactory system seem to be well-conserved across all examined lineages. These findings suggest that certain components of CO2 sensory ORN development may be more evolutionarily labile, and may contribute to differences in CO2-evoked behavioral responses across species.

  5. Validation of SPME-GCMS method for the analysis of virgin olive oil volatiles responsible for sensory defects.

    PubMed

    Romero, I; García-González, D L; Aparicio-Ruiz, R; Morales, M T

    2015-03-01

    Volatile compounds are responsible for the aroma of virgin olive oil and also for its quality. The high number and different nature of volatile compounds drive to the need of a reliable analytical method that allows their proper quantification to explain the standard method of panel test. Although there are some analytical solutions available, they have not been validated and the regulatory bodies are reluctant to adopt them since they can be subjected to unknown errors. In this regards, the European Union has encouraged the validation of these analytical tools through the research program Horizon2020, which involves gaining knowledge from the analytical properties of the chemical methods for sensory assessment. This work is focused on the analytical validation of the methodology used to determine the actual concentration of volatiles in virgin olive oils when applying SPME-GCMS. The validation process includes the calibration curves for 29 volatile compounds responsible for the most common sensory perceptions in virgin olive oils, the determination of their working ranges with linear response, the detection and quantification limits, the sensitivity, the accuracy estimated as trueness and precision and the selectivity. Sixty-seven percent of the compounds presented a relative standard deviation in repeatability lower than 10%, and this percentage rises to 95% in lampante virgin olive oils. The accuracy was established in 97% of the studied volatile compounds. Finally, an empirical example of the ability of the method to discriminate virgin olive oils of different categories (extra virgin, virgin, ordinary and lampante) by the quantification of their volatiles is provided.

  6. Sensory and rapid instrumental methods as a combined tool for quality control of cooked ham.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Sara; Soglia, Francesca; Palagano, Rosa; Tesini, Federica; Bendini, Alessandra; Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio; Gallina Toschi, Tullia

    2016-11-01

    In this preliminary investigation, different commercial categories of Italian cooked pork hams have been characterized using an integrated approach based on both sensory and fast instrumental measurements. For these purposes, Italian products belonging to different categories (cooked ham, "selected" cooked ham and "high quality" cooked ham) were evaluated by sensory descriptive analysis and by the application of rapid tools such as image analysis by an "electronic eye" and texture analyzer. The panel of trained assessors identified and evaluated 10 sensory descriptors able to define the quality of the products. Statistical analysis highlighted that sensory characteristics related to appearance and texture were the most significant in discriminating samples belonged to the highest (high quality cooked hams) and the lowest (cooked hams) quality of the product whereas the selected cooked hams, showed intermediate characteristics. In particular, high quality samples were characterized, above all, by the highest intensity of pink intensity, typical appearance and cohesiveness, and, at the same time, by the lowest intensity of juiciness; standard cooked ham samples showed the lowest intensity of all visual attributes and the highest value of juiciness, whereas the intermediate category (selected cooked ham) was not discriminated from the other. Also physical-rheological parameters measured by electronic eye and texture analyzer were effective in classifying samples. In particular, the PLS model built with data obtained from the electronic eye showed a satisfactory performance in terms of prediction of the pink intensity and presence of fat attributes evaluated during the sensory visual phase. This study can be considered a first application of this combined approach that could represent a suitable and fast method to verify if the meat product purchased by consumer match its description in terms of compliance with the claimed quality.

  7. Preliminary study on the development of an antistretch marks water-in-oil cream: ultrasound assessment, texture analysis, and sensory analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bogdan, Cătălina; Moldovan, Mirela L; Man, Ioana Manuela; Crișan, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Striae distensae represent the result of the failure of the dermis to sustain intrinsic mechanical forces. Intensive moisturization of the lesions and use of emollient oils have been recommended for the prevention and treatment of striae distensae rubra. The aim of this research was to formulate an emollient water-in-oil cosmetic cream containing argan oil, which may be helpful in the prevention or early treatment of striae distensae. Patients and methods Sensory evaluation of the consistency, firmness, adhesiveness, oiliness, spreadability, and rapidity of penetration into the skin was evaluated by 22 volunteers using 10-point scales for each descriptor. The instrumental characterization of the cream was performed using Brookfield® CT3 Texture Analyzer. The cutaneous changes induced by the topical use of the cream were evaluated by assessing the thickness of the epidermis, hydration, and elasticity of the skin using DermaLab® Combo scanner. Results Ultrasound measurements showed an improvement in the elasticity of the epidermis following the application of cream. The product was well tolerated and appreciated by the consumers in terms of its spreadability, penetration ability, and lack of stickiness. The values recorded for texture analysis were firmness 10.16±0.15 mJ, adhesiveness 30.94±6.87 g, consistency 1229.50±119.78 g, spreadability 481.50±39 g, and stringiness 0.56±0.09 mJ. Conclusion A water-in-oil cream containing argan oil and emollient ingredients with appropriate physical characteristics was obtained. In vivo study of clinical efficacy revealed a positive effect on increasing the skin elasticity, suggesting that the cream may be helpful in the prevention or early treatment of striae distensae. PMID:27660478

  8. Preliminary study on the development of an antistretch marks water-in-oil cream: ultrasound assessment, texture analysis, and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, Cătălina; Moldovan, Mirela L; Man, Ioana Manuela; Crișan, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Striae distensae represent the result of the failure of the dermis to sustain intrinsic mechanical forces. Intensive moisturization of the lesions and use of emollient oils have been recommended for the prevention and treatment of striae distensae rubra. The aim of this research was to formulate an emollient water-in-oil cosmetic cream containing argan oil, which may be helpful in the prevention or early treatment of striae distensae. Sensory evaluation of the consistency, firmness, adhesiveness, oiliness, spreadability, and rapidity of penetration into the skin was evaluated by 22 volunteers using 10-point scales for each descriptor. The instrumental characterization of the cream was performed using Brookfield(®) CT3 Texture Analyzer. The cutaneous changes induced by the topical use of the cream were evaluated by assessing the thickness of the epidermis, hydration, and elasticity of the skin using DermaLab(®) Combo scanner. Ultrasound measurements showed an improvement in the elasticity of the epidermis following the application of cream. The product was well tolerated and appreciated by the consumers in terms of its spreadability, penetration ability, and lack of stickiness. The values recorded for texture analysis were firmness 10.16±0.15 mJ, adhesiveness 30.94±6.87 g, consistency 1229.50±119.78 g, spreadability 481.50±39 g, and stringiness 0.56±0.09 mJ. A water-in-oil cream containing argan oil and emollient ingredients with appropriate physical characteristics was obtained. In vivo study of clinical efficacy revealed a positive effect on increasing the skin elasticity, suggesting that the cream may be helpful in the prevention or early treatment of striae distensae.

  9. Multi-sensory storytelling for persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities: an analysis of the development, content and application in practice.

    PubMed

    ten Brug, Annet; van der Putten, Annette; Penne, Anneleen; Maes, Bea; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2012-07-01

    Multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) books are individualized stories, which involve sensory stimulation in addition to verbal text. Despite the frequent use of MSST in practice, little research is conducted into its structure, content and effectiveness. This study aims at the analysis of the development, content and application in practice of the MSST books in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). Forty-nine persons with PIMD and their direct support person participated. We analysed if the books are constructed and read according to guidelines. Content and used stimuli were related to age. Of the books 84% were constructed according to guidelines. In just 1.3% of the sessions, the story was read as intended. Regarding content, 67.4% of the stories focused on daily life excursions. Tactile stimuli were used most. Age related to stimuli choice, but not to content. Although most books were properly constructed, guidelines were barely followed during reading which may negatively influence the effectiveness. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Bioactive capacity, sensory properties, and nutritional analysis of a shelf stable protein-rich functional ingredient with concentrated fruit and vegetable phytoactives.

    PubMed

    Grace, Mary H; Yousef, Gad G; Esposito, Debora; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2014-12-01

    Well-known health-protective phytochemicals from muscadine grape and kale were stably complexed with food grade protein (soy or hemp protein isolates) to create biofortified food ingredients for use in a variety of convenient, portable food formulations. The bioactive (anti-inflammatory) potential, sensory attributes and proximates of the prepared formulations were evaluated in this study. Anti-inflammatory properties of the protein-phytoactive ingredient particles were contributed by the polyphenolic content (muscadine-protein) or the combination of polyphenol, carotenoid, and glucosinolate content (kale-protein aggregates). Phytoactive compounds from the fortified matrices suppressed at least two biomarkers of inflammation; most notable with the expression of chronic pro-inflammatory genes IL-6 and Mcp1. Sensory analysis suggested both sweet and savory functional food applications for the biofortified ingredients. Proximate analyses determined that fortification of the soy protein isolate (SPI) with muscadine or kale bioactives resulted in elevated dietary fibers, total carbohydrates, and free sugars, but did not increase calories/100 g dry matrix compared to unfortified SPI. Overall protein content in the aggregate matrices was about 37% less (muscadine-SPI, kale-SPI and kale- HP50) or 17.6% less (muscadine-HP50) on a weight basis, likely due to solubility of some proteins during preparation and partial displacement of some protein mass by the fruit and vegetable phytoactive constituents.

  11. Descriptive statistics tables from a detailed analysis of the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) data

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, A.M.; Klepeis, N.E.

    1996-07-01

    Detailed results tables are presented from an unweighted statistical analysis of selected portions of the 1992--1994 National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) data base. This survey collected data on the potential exposure of Americans to important household pollutants. Randomly selected individuals (9,386) supplied minute-by-minute diaries spanning a 24-hour day as well as follow-up questions on specific exposure types. Selected 24-hour diary locations and activities, selected regroupings of the 24-hour diary locations, activities, and smoker-present categories, and most of the follow-up question variables in the NHAPS data base were statistically analyzed across 12 subgroups (gender, age, Hispanic, education, employment, census region, day-of-week, season, asthma, angina and bronchitis/emphysema). Overall statistics were also generated for the 9,386 total respondents. Tables show descriptive statistics (including frequency distributions) of time spent and frequency of occurrence in each of 39 locations and for 22 activities (that were experienced by more than 50 respondents), along with equivalent tables for 10 regrouped locations (Residence-Indoors, Residence-Outdoors, Inside Vehicle, Near Vehicle, Other Outdoor, Office/Factory, Mall/Store, Public Building, Bar/Restaurant, Other Indoor), seven regrouped activities and smoker present. Tables of frequency distributions of time spent in exposure activities, or the frequency of occurrence of exposure activities, as determined from the follow up questions that were analyzed are also presented. Detailed indices provide page numbers for each table. An Appendix contains a condensed listing of the questionnaires (Versions A and B for adults, child-direct and child-proxy interview types), including the question number, the NHAPS data base variable name, and the verbatim question text.

  12. Embolic strokes of undetermined source in the Athens stroke registry: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Ntaios, George; Papavasileiou, Vasileios; Milionis, Haralambos; Makaritsis, Konstantinos; Manios, Efstathios; Spengos, Konstantinos; Michel, Patrik; Vemmos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    A new clinical construct termed embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) was recently introduced, but no such population has been described yet. Our aim is to provide a detailed descriptive analysis of an ESUS population derived from a large prospective ischemic stroke registry using the proposed diagnostic criteria. The criteria proposed by the Cryptogenic Stroke/ESUS International Working Group were applied to the Athens Stroke Registry to identify all ESUS patients. ESUS was defined as a radiologically confirmed nonlacunar brain infarct in the absence of (a) extracranial or intracranial atherosclerosis causing ≥50% luminal stenosis in arteries supplying the ischemic area, (b) major-risk cardioembolic source, and (c) any other specific cause of stroke. Among 2735 patients admitted between 1992 and 2011, 275 (10.0%) were classified as ESUS. In the majority of ESUS (74.2%), symptoms were maximal at onset. ESUS were of moderate severity (median National Institute Health Stroke Scale score, 5). The most prevalent risk factor was arterial hypertension (64.7%), and 50.9% of patients were dyslipidemic. Among potential causes of the ESUS, covert atrial fibrillation (AF) was the most prevalent: in 30 (10.9%) patients, AF was diagnosed during hospitalization for stroke recurrence, whereas in 50 (18.2%) patients AF was detected after repeated ECG monitoring during follow-up. Also, covert AF was strongly suggested in 38 patients (13.8%) but never recorded. About 10% of patients with first-ever ischemic stroke met criteria for ESUS; covert paroxysmal AF seems to be a frequent cause of ESUS. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. A descriptive analysis of authorship within medical journals, 1995-2005.

    PubMed

    Levsky, Marc E; Rosin, Alex; Coon, Troy P; Enslow, William L; Miller, Michael A

    2007-04-01

    The emphasis on publications for promotion in academic medicine would lead one to the theory that authorship numbers would increase proportionally with this emphasis. To investigate authorship trends across a number of periodicals, we performed a descriptive study comparing two full years of published articles spaced ten years apart from five medical journals. Physician reviewers each reviewed all articles of one medical journal for the 1995 and 2005 publication years. Reviewed journals included Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM), Annals of Emergency Medicine (AnnEM), Annals of Internal Medicine (AIM), Journal of Trauma (JT), and New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM). Data collected for each article were number of authors, ordinal number of the corresponding author, type of study described, whether the described study was a multicenter trial, whether authorship listed included a "study group," and whether any author was also an editor of the journal. A total of 2927 articles were published in the five journals in 1995, and of these, 1401 (47.9%) were analyzed after the exclusion criteria had been applied; for 2005 a total of 3630 articles were published and of these, 1351 (37.2%) were included in the analysis. Across all five journals the mean number of authors per article increased from 4.66 to 5.73 between 1995 and 2005 (P < 0.0001), and four of the five journals individually had statistically significant increases in the number of authors per article. More articles had a journal editor as an author in 2005 (increased from 7.8% to 11.0%, P = 0.004), though no single journal had a statistically significant increase. We describe a trend of increasing mean authors, editorial authorship, study groups, and multicenter trials over time with fewer solo authors now publishing original research or case reports. The academic medical community must pursue an authorship requirement consensus to assure that a standard of contribution for all authors on a given paper is met.

  14. A descriptive analysis of notifiable gastrointestinal illness in the Northwest Territories, Canada, 1991–2008

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jeff; Edge, Victoria L; Furgal, Chris; Reid-Smith, Richard; Santos, Maria; McEwen, Scott A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe the major characteristics of reported notifiable gastrointestinal illness (NGI) data in the Northwest Territories (NWT) from January 1991 through December 2008. Design Descriptive analysis of 708 reported cases of NGI extracted from the Northwest Territories Communicable Disease Registry (NWT CDR). Setting Primary, secondary and tertiary health care centres across all 33 communities of the NWT. Population NWT residents of all ages with confirmed NGI reported to the NWT CDR from January 1991 through December 2008. Main outcome measure Laboratory-confirmed NGI, with a particular emphasis on campylobacteriosis, giardiasis and salmonellosis. Results Campylobacteriosis, giardiasis and salmonellosis were the most commonly identified types of NGI in the territory. Seasonal peaks for all three diseases were observed in late summer to autumn (p<0.01). Higher rates of NGI (all 15 diseases/infections) were found in the 0–9-year age group and in men (p<0.01). Similarly, rates of giardiasis were higher in the 0–9-year age group and in men (p<0.02). A disproportionate burden of salmonellosis was found in people aged 60 years and older and in women (p<0.02). Although not significant, the incidence of campylobacteriosis was greater in the 20–29-years age group and in men (p<0.07). The health authority with the highest incidence of NGI was Yellowknife (p<0.01), while for salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis, it was Tlicho (p<0.01) and for giardiasis, the Sahtu region (p<0.01). Overall, disease rates were higher in urban areas (p<0.01). Contaminated eggs, poultry and untreated water were believed by health practitioners to be important sources of infection in cases of salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and giardiasis, respectively. Conclusions The general patterns of these findings suggest that environmental and behavioural risk factors played key roles in infection. Further research into potential individual and community-level risk factors is

  15. [Descriptive statistical analysis of the treatment of status epilepticus in a referral hospital].

    PubMed

    Hortigüela-Saeta, M Montesclaros; Conejo-Moreno, David; Gutiérrez-Moreno, Miriam; Gómez-Saiz, Luna

    2015-05-16

    Status epilepticus is defined as either recurring seizures without regaining consciousness between them or one single seizure lasting more than 30 minutes. To perform a descriptive analysis of the most relevant data on the patients with status epilepticus who were admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and to review the risk factors associated to status epilepticus with a poor prognosis. A study was conducted of the main variables of the patients with status epilepticus hospitalised in the PICU of a tertiary hospital over a period of six years. Data were collected on a total of 68 patients (55.9% males), the mean age being 3.7 years. The most frequent signs and symptoms were generalised tonic-clonic seizures (50%). The mean duration of the status epilepticus was 51.44 minutes. The mean number of antiepileptic drugs used to stem the seizures was 3.21 and the mean number of drugs used prior to admission to the PICU was 2.37. The most commonly used first choice drug was diazepam (83.8%) administered rectally (75%), followed by intravenous diazepam (52.9%) in second place and phenytoin was the most frequently used drug as the third choice. The most usual cause of status epilepticus was having previously suffered from epilepsy (33.9%), and Dravet's syndrome was the most frequent epileptic causation. Treatment of status epilepticus is complex and requires multidisciplinary and personalised management. Protocols and clinical guidelines need to be drawn up and reviewed to achieve an adequate management of these patients.

  16. A detailed description of the uncertainty analysis for High Area Ratio Rocket Nozzle tests at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.; Dieck, Ronald H.; Chuang, Isaac

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary uncertainty analysis has been performed for the High Area Ratio Rocket Nozzle test program which took place at the altitude test capsule of the Rocket Engine Test Facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Results from the study establish the uncertainty of measured and calculated parameters required for the calculation of rocket engine specific impulse. A generalized description of the uncertainty methodology used is provided. Specific equations and a detailed description of the analysis are presented. Verification of the uncertainty analysis model was performed by comparison with results from the experimental program's data reduction code. Final results include an uncertainty for specific impulse of 1.30 percent. The largest contributors to this uncertainty were calibration errors from the test capsule pressure and thrust measurement devices.

  17. Sensory Profile and Consumer Acceptability of Prebiotic White Chocolate with Sucrose Substitutes and the Addition of Goji Berry (Lycium barbarum).

    PubMed

    Morais Ferreira, Janaína Madruga; Azevedo, Bruna Marcacini; Luccas, Valdecir; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2017-03-01

    Functional food is a product containing nutrients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the descriptive sensory profile and consumers' acceptance of functional (prebiotic) white chocolates with and without the addition of an antioxidant source (goji berry [GB]) and sucrose replacement. The descriptive sensory profile was determined by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) with trained assessors (n = 12), and the acceptance test was performed with 120 consumers. The correlation of descriptive and hedonic data was determined by partial least squares (PLS). The results of QDA indicated that GB reduces the perception of most aroma and flavor attributes, and enhances the bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, astringency, and most of the texture attributes. The consumers' acceptance of the chocolates was positive for all sensory characteristics, with acceptance scores above 6 on a 9-point scale. According to the PLS regression analysis, the descriptors cream color and cocoa butter flavor contributed positively to the acceptance of functional white chocolates. Therefore, prebiotic white chocolate with or without the addition of GB is innovative and can attract consumers, due to its functional properties, being a promising alternative for the food industry. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Validation of projective mapping as potential sensory screening tool for application by the honeybush herbal tea industry.

    PubMed

    Moelich, Erika Ilette; Muller, Magdalena; Joubert, Elizabeth; Næs, Tormod; Kidd, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Honeybush herbal tea is produced from the endemic South African Cyclopia species. Plant material subjected to a high-temperature oxidation step ("fermentation") forms the bulk of production. Production lags behind demand forcing tea merchants to use blends of available material to supply local and international markets. The distinct differences in the sensory profiles of the herbal tea produced from the different Cyclopia species require that special care is given to blending to ensure a consistent, high quality product. Although conventional descriptive sensory analysis (DSA) is highly effective in providing a detailed sensory profile of herbal tea infusions, industry requires a method that is more time- and cost-effective. Recent advances in sensory science have led to the development of rapid profiling methodologies. The question is whether projective mapping can successfully be used for the sensory characterisation of herbal tea infusions. Trained assessors performed global and partial projective mapping to determine the validity of this technique for the sensory characterisation of infusions of five Cyclopia species. Similar product configurations were obtained when comparing results of DSA and global and partial projective mapping. Comparison of replicate sessions showed RV coefficients >0.8. A similarity index, based on multifactor analysis, was calculated to determine assessor repeatability. Global projective mapping, demonstrated to be a valid method for providing a broad sensory characterisation of Cyclopia species, is thus suitable as a rapid quality control method of honeybush infusions. Its application by the honeybush industry could improve the consistency of the sensory profile of blended products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SENSORY SYSTEMS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to many neurotoxic compounds has been shown to produce a sensory system dysfunction. Neurophysiological assessment of sensory function in humans and animal models often uses techniques known as sensory evoked potentials. Because both humans and animals show analogous res...

  20. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SENSORY SYSTEMS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to many neurotoxic compounds has been shown to produce a sensory system dysfunction. Neurophysiological assessment of sensory function in humans and animal models often uses techniques known as sensory evoked potentials. Because both humans and animals show analogous res...

  1. Patient preferences for sensory attributes of intranasal corticosteroids and willingness to adhere to prescribed therapy for allergic rhinitis: a conjoint analysis.

    PubMed

    Mahadevia, Parthiv J; Shah, Shailen; Leibman, Christopher; Kleinman, Leah; O'Dowd, Liza

    2004-10-01

    Sensory attributes of intranasal corticosteroid (INS) products vary. To evaluate patient preferences for INS sensory attributes and the degree to which attributes influence patients' willingness to adhere to therapy. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 120 individuals across 4 US allergy/immunology clinics. Respondents chose between pairs of hypothetical INSs differing in sensory attribute composition. We measured the strength of preferences for 6 sensory attributes (smell, taste, aftertaste, throat rundown, nose runout, and feel of spray in nose or throat). Preferences were measured for 3 intensity levels of each sensory attribute (eg, no taste, weak taste, and strong taste). Other outcomes included an importance score for each sensory attribute and patients' willingness to adhere to therapy with an INS with the lowest intensity levels of each sensory attribute vs one with moderate intensity levels. Preferences decreased with increasing intensity levels of each sensory attribute. Aftertaste was the most important attribute in 28% of patients, taste in 19%, throat rundown in 18%, nose runout in 12%, smell in 11%, and feel of spray in 7%. If instructed to take an INS daily for 3 months, 77% of patients stated that they would definitely be able to follow their physician's advice (willingness to adhere) if given one containing the lowest level of each sensory attribute vs 4% if given one having moderate levels (P < .01). Patient preferences are inversely related to increasing intensity levels of sensory attributes and affect patients' willingness to adhere to therapy. Application of patient preferences when selecting INSs could improve adherence.

  2. Effect of cooking on aroma profile of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and correlation with sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Prashant K; Tripathi, Jyoti; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S

    2017-01-15

    Volatile aroma compounds of three varieties of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) namely Kashmiri red, Sharmili and Chitra were extracted in raw state using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and cooked state using simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE). During cooking a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the content of several aldehydes, alcohols and terpene hydrocarbons while an increase in content of various sulfurous compounds, terpene alcohols, ketones and pyrazines was noted. Descriptive sensory analysis showed that the maximum intensity of 'kidney bean', 'earthy' and 'smoky' odour was observed in Kashmiri red while Sharmili variety was characterised by 'sulfurous' odour. Correlation of volatile profile data with descriptive sensory analysis and odour activity values clearly established the role of compounds, such as methanethiol, diethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methional and dimethyl trisulfide, in contributing to 'cooked kidney bean' aroma, while dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone and ethyl methyl sulfone were responsible for 'sulfurous' aroma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Using Administrative Data for Research: A Companion Guide to "A Descriptive Analysis of the Principal Workforce in Florida Schools." REL 2015-049

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Osborne-Lampkin, La'Tara; Herrington, Carolyn D.

    2014-01-01

    This document is a companion guide to "A Descriptive Analysis of the Principal Workforce in Florida Schools" (Folsom, Osborne-Lampkin, & Herrington, in press). It describes the methods used to extract information from the Florida Department of Education database in order to conduct a descriptive analysis of the demographic…

  4. Effect of ethylene and temperature conditioning on sensory attributes and chemical composition of 'Comice' pears.

    PubMed

    Makkumrai, Warangkana; Sivertsen, Hanne; Sugar, David; Ebeler, Susan E; Negre-Zakharov, Florence; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

    2014-06-04

    'Comice' is among the pear varieties most difficult to ripen after harvest. Ethylene, cold temperature, and intermediate (10 °C) temperature conditioning have been successfully used to stimulate the ability of 'Comice' pears to ripen. However, the sensory quality of pears stimulated to ripen by different conditioning treatments has not been evaluated. In this study, a descriptive sensory analysis of 'Comice' pears conditioned to soften to 27, 18, and 9 N firmness with ethylene exposure for 3 or 1 days, storage at 0 °C for 25 or 15 days, or storage at 10 °C for 10 days was performed. Sensory attributes were then related to changes in chemical composition, including volatile components, water-soluble polyuronides, soluble solids content (SSC), and titratable acidity (TA). The sensory profile of fruit conditioned with ethylene was predominant in fibrous texture and low in fruity and pear aroma. Fruit conditioned at 0 °C was described as crunchy at 27 and 18 N firmness and became juicy at 9 N firmness. Fruit conditioned at 0 °C produced the highest quantity of alcohols and fewer esters than fruit conditioned at 10 °C, and they had higher fruity and pear aroma than fruit conditioned with ethylene, but lower than fruit conditioned at 10 °C. Fruit held at 10 °C were predominant in fruity and pear aroma and had the highest concentration of esters. Water-soluble polyuronides were strongly, positively correlated (r > 0.9) with sensory attributes generally associated with ripeness, including juiciness, butteriness, and sweetness and negatively correlated (r > -0.9) with sensory attributes generally associated with the unripe stage, such as firmness and crunchiness. However, water-soluble polyuronides were not significantly different among conditioning treatments. Sensory sweetness was not significantly correlated with SSC, but TA and SSC/TA were significantly correlated with sensory tartness. However, there were no significant differences among the conditioning

  5. The role of temporal structure in the investigation of sensory memory, auditory scene analysis, and speech perception: a healthy-aging perspective.

    PubMed

    Rimmele, Johanna Maria; Sussman, Elyse; Poeppel, David

    2015-02-01

    Listening situations with multiple talkers or background noise are common in everyday communication and are particularly demanding for older adults. Here we review current research on auditory perception in aging individuals in order to gain insights into the challenges of listening under noisy conditions. Informationally rich temporal structure in auditory signals--over a range of time scales from milliseconds to seconds--renders temporal processing central to perception in the auditory domain. We discuss the role of temporal structure in auditory processing, in particular from a perspective relevant for hearing in background noise, and focusing on sensory memory, auditory scene analysis, and speech perception. Interestingly, these auditory processes, usually studied in an independent manner, show considerable overlap of processing time scales, even though each has its own 'privileged' temporal regimes. By integrating perspectives on temporal structure processing in these three areas of investigation, we aim to highlight similarities typically not recognized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of the synergism among volatile compounds in Oolong tea infusion by odour threshold with sensory analysis and E-nose.

    PubMed

    Zhu, JianCai; Chen, Feng; Wang, LingYing; Niu, YunWei; Xiao, ZuoBing

    2017-04-15

    Twenty-four kinds of representative aroma compounds in Oolong tea were selected to evaluate the interactions by the variation in the threshold values of these compounds before, and after, they were mixed. Result demonstrated that the ratios of the referenced threshold values of heptanal, β-damascenone, and methional to their determined thresholds were larger, namely, 5, 3.85, and 2.5, respectively. On the other hand, the mixed compounds with similar structure and aroma mainly presented a synergistic effect and additive action. Moreover, a masking effect was found among compounds with different structures. (E)-2-hexenal was added to tea infusion at a concentration below its threshold level to investigate whether, or not, the sub-threshold compounds affected the overall odour sensation of Oolong tea by sensory analysis and electronic nose (E-nose). The result indicated that the aroma of the tea infusion with added (E)-2-hexenal had changed before, and after, they were mixed.

  7. The role of temporal structure in the investigation of sensory memory, auditory scene analysis, and speech perception: A healthy-aging perspective

    PubMed Central

    Rimmele, Johanna Maria; Sussman, Elyse; Poeppel, David

    2014-01-01

    Listening situations with multiple talkers or background noise are common in everyday communication and are particularly demanding for older adults. Here we review current research on auditory perception in aging individuals in order to gain insights into the challenges of listening under noisy conditions. Informationally rich temporal structure in auditory signals - over a range of time scales from milliseconds to seconds - renders temporal processing central to perception in the auditory domain. We discuss the role of temporal structure in auditory processing, in particular from a perspective relevant for hearing in background noise, and focusing on sensory memory, auditory scene analysis, and speech perception. Interestingly, these auditory processes, usually studied in an independent manner, show considerable overlap of processing time scales, even though each has its own ‚privileged‘ temporal regimes. By integrating perspectives on temporal structure processing in these three areas of investigation, we aim to highlight similarities typically not recognized. PMID:24956028

  8. Volatile compounds and sensory analysis of both harvests of double-cut Yakima peppermint (Mentha piperita L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Michael Z; Trinnaman, Laurence; Bardsley, Kathryn; St Hilaire, Craig J; Da Costa, Neil C

    2011-09-01

    North American peppermint oils are widely regarded as some of the most superior peppermint oils commercially available. Amongst them is Yakima double-cut peppermint oil (Mentha piperita L.). It has an aroma described as strong, refreshing, minty, slightly creamy, and very herbaceous with some of the most desirable flavor notes among peppermint oils. The peppermint is grown in the Yakima Valley of Washington State, USA. As one of the most northerly grown peppermints with longer days, it is unique as there are 2 harvests of the mint leaves in one season. For this study, samples of fresh and dried (hay) leaves were collected from both harvests; 1st cut, July and 2nd cut, September. Steam-distilled oils were produced from each harvest and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to give detailed profiles. The aroma and taste sensory attributes of each oil were evaluated. In addition, menthyl formate has previously been reported only once in the literature, but not as definitively as required by current flavor-regulatory bodies for use as a natural flavoring ingredient. It was conclusively reported in these peppermint oils. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Analysis of the Transcription Regulatory Mechanism of Otx During the Development of the Sensory Vesicle in Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Oonuma, Kouhei; Hirose, Dan; Takatori, Naohito; Saiga, Hidetoshi

    2014-09-01

    Establishment of the anterior-posterior axis is an important event in the development of bilateral animals. A homeodomain transcription factor, Otx, is important for the formation of the anterior part of the embryo, and its mRNA is expressed in a continuous manner in a wide range of animals. This pattern of expression is thought to be important for the formation of anterior neural structures, but the mechanism that regulates Otx expression remains largely unknown. Towards understanding how the transcription of Otx is maintained in the cells of anterior neural structure, the sensory vesicle, during embryogenesis, we examined transcription regulatory mechanisms of Otx, using embryos of the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis, from the gastrula to tailbud stages, which have not been studied previously. We identified two genomic regions capable of mimicking the Otx expression pattern from the gastrula to tailbud stages. Putative transcription factor binding sites required for this activity were identified. Notably, distinct sets of transcription factor binding sites were required at different developmental stages for the expression of Otx, suggesting that the continuity of Otx is supported by distinct transcriptional mechanisms in the gastrula and neurula stages. Along with previous studies using Halocynthia roretzi, the present results provide insight into the evolution of transcriptional regulatory mechanism of Otx.

  10. Sensory and immune genes identification and analysis in a widely used parasitoid wasp Trichogramma dendrolimi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Su-Fang; Kong, Xiang-Bo; Wang, Hong-Bin; Zhou, Gang; Yu, Jin-Xiu; Liu, Fu; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-06-01

    Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is one of the preponderant egg parasitoids of Dendrolimus spp., which are important defoliators of coniferous forests. This parasitoid wasp has been widely released to control pine caterpillar and other lepidopteran pests, but its control efficiency needs to be improved. Sensory systems are crucial for T. dendrolimi to locate hosts, and immunity is probably involved after egg deposition in the host cavity; however, few reports have focused on the molecular mechanism of olfactory detection and survival of T. dendrolimi. It is necessary to identify these genes before further functional research is conducted. In this study, we assembled and analyzed the transcriptome of T. dendrolimi using next-generation sequencing technology. The sequencing and assembly resulted in 38 565 contigs with N50 of 3422 bp. Sequence comparison indicate that T. dendrolimi sequences are very similar to those of another parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis. Then the olfactory, vision, and immune-related gene families were identified, and phylogenetic analyses were performed with these genes from T. dendrolimi and other model insect species. Furthermore, phylogenetic tree with odorant binding proteins of T. dendrolimi and their host Dendrolimus was constructed to determine whether convergent evolution exists. These genes can be valid targets for further gene function research. The present study may help us to understand host location and survival mechanisms of T. dendrolimi and to use them more efficiently for pest control in the future. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  11. Raised fields in the Llanos de Moxos, Bolivia - description and analysis of their morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Leonor; Lombardo, Umberto; Veit, Heinz

    2014-05-01

    The disturbance of Pre Columbian populations on Amazonian ecosystems is being actively debated. The traditional view of amazon being an untouched landscape because of its poor soils and harsh climate has been challenged and the extreme opposite idea of highly modified landscapes with complex societies is growing. Recent research has led to new impulses and issues requesting about the agricultural strategies people developed to survive in this climate. The Llanos de Moxos, situated in the Bolivian Lowlands in south-eastern Amazonia is one important region which was densely altered and where a great variety of earthworks can be found. One of the most impressive earth works are the raised fields, which are earth platforms for cultivation of differing shape and dimension that are elevated above the landscapes natural surface. In contrast to the "terra preta" formation where artefacts and amendments like charcoal and kitchen waste have been clearly identified, raised fields have shown to be artefact poor and studies up till now couldn't find any evidence of additional amendments which could have improved soil quality in the long term. As a result the function and productivity of raised fields is still not well understood and is being actively discussed. Detailed investigations on raised fields located in the indigenous community of Bermeo, in the vicinity of San Ignacio de Moxos provides data showing a novel explanation of the Pre-Columbian management of raised fields, and a chronological sequence of their utilization and abandonment. OSL dating has shown that the raised fields had been in use since as early as 600 AD. Comparison of Geochemistry with a reference profile, away from raised fields, showed that there is no evidence for manure amendments deriving from kitchen waste or animal residues suggesting a rather extensive use of those fields. Complementary the description of intern morphology and laboratory analysis of this raised fields, combined with radiocarbon

  12. A Unifying Description of Modern Analytical Instrumentation within a Course on Instrumental Methods of Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayson, Gary D.

    2004-01-01

    A unifying modular approach to the description of modern instrumentation used in analytical measurements is described. Through the identification of five modules for analytical instrument, discussions pertaining to the different physical and chemical interactions can be better directed towards the similarities and differences in the actual methods.

  13. Integrating Real-Life Data Analysis in Teaching Descriptive Statistics: A Constructivist Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libman, Zipora

    2010-01-01

    This article looks at a process of integrating real-life data investigation in a course on descriptive statistics. Referring to constructivist perspectives, this article suggests a look at the potential of inculcating alternative teaching methods that encourage students to take a more active role in their own learning and participate in the…

  14. Secondary Physical Education Teachers' Beliefs and Practices in Teaching Students with Severe Disabilities: A Descriptive Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammah, Jonathan O. A.; Hodge, Samuel R.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose was to describe the beliefs and practices of general physical education (GPE) teachers at the high school level on inclusion and teaching students with severe disabilities. Participants were two experienced GPE teachers at separate suburban high schools. The research paradigm was descriptive using a combination of naturalistic…

  15. Pakistani English Newspaper Paid Obituary Announcements: A Descriptive Analysis of the Transliterated Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhry, Sajid M.; Christopher, Anne A.; Krishnasamy, Hariharan A/L N.

    2016-01-01

    The study, qualitative and descriptive in nature, examines the use of transliteration in the paid Pakistani obituary announcements authored in the English language. Primarily, it identifies the frequently used transliterated vocabulary in these linguistic messages and reconnoiters the functional relationship that emerges in and between the textual…

  16. Accuracy of Teacher-Collected Descriptive Analysis Data: A Comparison of Narrative and Structured Recording Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerman, Dorothea C.; Hovanetz, Alyson; Strobel, Margaret; Tetreault, Allison

    2009-01-01

    Recording the antecedents and consequences of problem behavior for the purposes of conducting descriptive analyses (called "A-B-C recording") can be particularly challenging, given the multiple variables that are commonly present in the natural environment. Nonetheless, psychologists and behavioral consultants often must rely on parents and…

  17. The role of sensory cortex in behavioral flexibility.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan; Ponvert, Nicholas D; Jaramillo, Santiago

    2017-03-14

    To thrive in a changing environment, organisms evolved strategies for rapidly modifying their behavioral responses to sensory stimuli. In this review, we investigate the role of sensory cortical circuits in these flexible behaviors. First, we provide a framework for classifying tasks in which flexibility is required. We then present studies in animal models which demonstrate that responses of sensory cortical neurons depend on the expected outcome associated with a stimulus. Last, we discuss inactivation studies which indicate that sensory cortex facilitates behavioral flexibility, but is not always required for adapting to changes in environmental conditions. This analysis provides insights into the contributions of cortical and subcortical sensory circuits to flexibility in behavior.

  18. Sensory profile of a model energy drink with varying levels of functional ingredients-caffeine, ginseng, and taurine.

    PubMed

    Tamamoto, Lauren C; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2010-08-01

    Energy drinks have increased in popularity in recent years due to the claimed energy boost provided by functional ingredients. A multitude of functional ingredients have been utilized; however, there is limited research on their sensory effects in energy drink formulations. A 13-member descriptive analysis panel was conducted to investigate the effects on the sensory and rheological properties of 3 common functional ingredients-caffeine, ginseng, and taurine-in a noncarbonated model energy drink solution. Combinations of these functional ingredients at 3 levels (low, medium, high) were added to create a total of 27 different solutions (3 x 3 x 3 factorial design). Analysis of variance was performed to evaluate the sensory effects of the varying concentrations of functional ingredients in solution. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to summarize the relationship among the attributes and solutions. In general, high levels of caffeine in solution resulted in low ratings of fruity attributes and high ratings of bitter tea and fruit bitter attributes. The high level of ginseng in solution was characterized by high ratings of bitter attributes. A horns effect was observed as the sweet, artificial lemon-lime, pear, mango, and pineapple attributes were rated lower in intensity with increased ginseng levels. Taurine levels of up to 416 mg/100 mL had no significant effect on the sensory attribute ratings of the model energy drink solutions. These findings can be utilized to predict the changes in sensory characteristics when formulating energy drinks containing these popular functional ingredients.

  19. Check-All-That-Apply (CATA), Sorting, and Polarized Sensory Positioning (PSP) with Astringent Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Erin E; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2015-10-01

    Multiple rapid sensory profiling techniques have been developed as more efficient alternatives to traditional sensory descriptive analysis. Here, we compare the results of three rapid sensory profiling techniques - check-all-that-apply (CATA), sorting, and polarized sensory positioning (PSP) - using a diverse range of astringent stimuli. These rapid methods differ in their theoretical basis, implementation, and data analyses, and the relative advantages and limitations are largely unexplored. Additionally, we were interested in using these methods to compare varied astringent stimuli, as these compounds are difficult to characterize using traditional descriptive analysis due to high fatigue and potential carry-over. In the CATA experiment, subjects (n=41) were asked to rate the overall intensity of each stimulus as well as to endorse any relevant terms (from a list of 13) which characterized the sample. In the sorting experiment, subjects (n=30) assigned intensity-matched stimuli into groups 1-on-1 with the experimenter. In the PSP experiment, (n=41) subjects first sampled and took notes on three blind references ('poles') before rating each stimulus for its similarity to each of the 3 poles. Two-dimensional perceptual maps from correspondence analysis (CATA), multidimensional scaling (sorting), and multiple factor analysis (PSP) were remarkably similar, with normalized RV coefficients indicating significantly similar plots, regardless of method. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering of all data sets using Ward's minimum variance as the linkage criteria showed the clusters of astringent stimuli were approximately based on the respective class of astringent agent. Based on the descriptive CATA data, it appears these differences may be due to the presence of side tastes such as bitterness and sourness, rather than astringent sub-qualities per se. Although all three methods are considered 'rapid,' our prior experience with sorting suggests it is best performed 1

  20. Check-All-That-Apply (CATA), Sorting, and Polarized Sensory Positioning (PSP) with Astringent Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Erin E.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple rapid sensory profiling techniques have been developed as more efficient alternatives to traditional sensory descriptive analysis. Here, we compare the results of three rapid sensory profiling techniques – check-all-that-apply (CATA), sorting, and polarized sensory positioning (PSP) – using a diverse range of astringent stimuli. These rapid methods differ in their theoretical basis, implementation, and data analyses, and the relative advantages and limitations are largely unexplored. Additionally, we were interested in using these methods to compare varied astringent stimuli, as these compounds are difficult to characterize using traditional descriptive analysis due to high fatigue and potential carry-over. In the CATA experiment, subjects (n=41) were asked to rate the overall intensity of each stimulus as well as to endorse any relevant terms (from a list of 13) which characterized the sample. In the sorting experiment, subjects (n=30) assigned intensity-matched stimuli into groups 1-on-1 with the experimenter. In the PSP experiment, (n=41) subjects first sampled and took notes on three blind references (‘poles’) before rating each stimulus for its similarity to each of the 3 poles. Two-dimensional perceptual maps from correspondence analysis (CATA), multidimensional scaling (sorting), and multiple factor analysis (PSP) were remarkably similar, with normalized RV coefficients indicating significantly similar plots, regardless of method. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering of all data sets using Ward’s minimum variance as the linkage criteria showed the clusters of astringent stimuli were approximately based on the respective class of astringent agent. Based on the descriptive CATA data, it appears these differences may be due to the presence of side tastes such as bitterness and sourness, rather than astringent sub-qualities per se. Although all three methods are considered ‘rapid,’ our prior experience with sorting suggests it is best

  1. Effect of a spinal brace on postural control in different sensory conditions in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a preliminary analysis.

    PubMed

    Gur, Gozde; Dilek, Burcu; Ayhan, Cigdem; Simsek, Engin; Aras, Ozgen; Aksoy, Songul; Yakut, Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    Despite the positive effects of spinal braces on postural stability, they may constrain movement, resulting in poor balance control in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Therefore, assessment of postural dynamics may aid in designing new less-constraining braces. The effects of a spinal brace on postural stability and Cobb angle were investigated in this study. Thirteen pediatric patients (10 females, three males) with AIS were recruited to participate in the study. Cobb angle was assessed by X-ray analyses, and postural stability was tested by computerized dynamic posturography in braced and unbraced conditions. A polyethylene underarm corrective spinal brace was fabricated for the subjects. Thoracic and lumbar curvature decreased to 18.88 ± 11.73° and 17.70 ± 10.58°, respectively, after bracing (p < 0.05). Lower equilibrium scores were observed in the "eyes closed" condition and higher scores in the "eyes closed with a swaying support" condition; higher composite equilibrium scores were also observed for the sensory organization test (p < 0.05) in the braced condition. Lower scores were observed for the "toes-up adaptation test" in the braced condition (p < 0.05). In the braced condition, the reaction time was slower in the right-backward direction and movement velocity was higher in the right-front direction on the limits of stability test (p < 0.05). Furthermore, lower on-axis velocity during forward/backward dynamic balance control was observed in the braced condition (p < 0.05). Wearing a spinal brace improved postural stability in terms of increased proprioception, equilibrium performance, and rhythmic movement ability in patients with AIS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Are Sema5a mutant mice a good model of autism? A behavioral analysis of sensory systems, emotionality and cognition.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Rhian K; Huentelman, Matthew J; Brown, Richard E

    2011-11-20

    Semaphorin 5A (Sema5A) expression is reduced in the brain of individuals with autism, thus mice with reduced Sema5A levels may serve as a model of this neurodevelopmental disorder. We tested male and female Sema5a knockout mice (B6.129P2SEMA5A(<)™(1DGEN>)/J) and C57BL/6J controls for emotionality, visual ability, prepulse inhibition, motor learning and cognition. Overall, there were only two genotype differences in emotionality: Sema5a mutant mice had more stretch-attend postures in the elevated plus-maze and more defecations in the open field. All mice could see, but Sema5a mice had better visual ability than C57BL/6J mice. There were no genotype differences in sensory-motor gating. Sema5a mice showed higher levels of activity in the elevated plus-maze and light/dark transition box, and there were sex by genotype differences in the Rotarod, suggesting a sex difference in balance and coordination differentially affected by Sema5a. There were no genotype effects on cognition: Sema5a mice did not differ from C57BL/6J in the Morris water maze, set-shifting or cued and contextual fear conditioning. In the social recognition test, all mice preferred social stimuli, but there was no preference for social novelty, thus the Sema5A mice do not have a deficit in social behavior. Overall, there were a number of sex differences, with females showing greater activity and males performing better in tests of spatial learning and memory, but no deficits in the behavior of Sema5A mice. We conclude that the Sema5a mice do not meet the behavioral criteria for a mouse model of autism.

  3. Suppressor mutation analysis of the sensory rhodopsin I-transducer complex: insights into the color-sensing mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jung, K H; Spudich, J L

    1998-04-01

    The molecular complex containing the phototaxis receptor sensory rhodopsin I (SRI) and transducer protein HtrI (halobacterial transducer for SRI) mediates color-sensitive phototaxis responses in the archaeon Halobacterium salinarum. One-photon excitation of the complex by orange light elicits attractant responses, while two-photon excitation (orange followed by near-UV light) elicits repellent responses in swimming cells. Several mutations in SRI and HtrI cause an unusual mutant phenotype, called orange-light-inverted signaling, in which the cell produces a repellent response to normally attractant light. We applied a selection procedure for intragenic and extragenic suppressors of orange-light-inverted mutants and identified 15 distinct second-site mutations that restore the attractant response. Two of the 3 suppressor mutations in SRI are positioned at the cytoplasmic ends of helices F and G, and 12 suppressor mutations in HtrI cluster at the cytoplasmic end of the second HtrI transmembrane helix (TM2). Nearly all suppressors invert the normally repellent response to two-photon stimulation to an attractant response when they are expressed with their suppressible mutant alleles or in an otherwise wild-type strain. The results lead to a model for control of flagellar reversal by the SRI-HtrI complex. The model invokes an equilibrium between the A (reversal-inhibiting) and R (reversal-stimulating) conformers of the signaling complex. Attractant light and repellent light shift the equilibrium toward the A and R conformers, respectively, and mutations are proposed to cause intrinsic shifts in the equilibrium in the dark form of the complex. Differences in the strength of the two-photon signal inversion and in the allele specificity of suppression are correlated, and this correlation can be explained in terms of different values of the equilibrium constant (Keq) for the conformational transition in different mutants and mutant-suppressor pairs.

  4. Suppressor Mutation Analysis of the Sensory Rhodopsin I-Transducer Complex: Insights into the Color-Sensing Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kwang-Hwan; Spudich, John L.

    1998-01-01

    The molecular complex containing the phototaxis receptor sensory rhodopsin I (SRI) and transducer protein HtrI (halobacterial transducer for SRI) mediates color-sensitive phototaxis responses in the archaeon Halobacterium salinarum. One-photon excitation of the complex by orange light elicits attractant responses, while two-photon excitation (orange followed by near-UV light) elicits repellent responses in swimming cells. Several mutations in SRI and HtrI cause an unusual mutant phenotype, called orange-light-inverted signaling, in which the cell produces a repellent response to normally attractant light. We applied a selection procedure for intragenic and extragenic suppressors of orange-light-inverted mutants and identified 15 distinct second-site mutations that restore the attractant response. Two of the 3 suppressor mutations in SRI are positioned at the cytoplasmic ends of helices F and G, and 12 suppressor mutations in HtrI cluster at the cytoplasmic end of the second HtrI transmembrane helix (TM2). Nearly all suppressors invert the normally repellent response to two-photon stimulation to an attractant response when they are expressed with their suppressible mutant alleles or in an otherwise wild-type strain. The results lead to a model for control of flagellar reversal by the SRI-HtrI complex. The model invokes an equilibrium between the A (reversal-inhibiting) and R (reversal-stimulating) conformers of the signaling complex. Attractant light and repellent light shift the equilibrium toward the A and R conformers, respectively, and mutations are proposed to cause intrinsic shifts in the equilibrium in the dark form of the complex. Differences in the strength of the two-photon signal inversion and in the allele specificity of suppression are correlated, and this correlation can be explained in terms of different values of the equilibrium constant (Keq) for the conformational transition in different mutants and mutant-suppressor pairs. PMID:9555883

  5. Short communication: Sensory profile and acceptability of a cow milk cheese manufactured by adding jenny milk.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, C; Faraone, D; Paolino, R; Freschi, P; Musto, M

    2016-01-01

    The addition of jenny milk during cheesemaking has been recommended as a viable alternative to egg lysozyme for controlling late blowing defects. However, little is known on the sensory properties of the cheeses made with jenny milk. In this study, the effect of the addition of jenny milk during cheesemaking on sensory properties and consumer acceptability of cheese was evaluated. A sensory profile was carried out by 10 trained panelists on 4 cow milk cheese types. Two types of cheeses were made by adding jenny milk to cow milk during cheesemaking; the cheeses were then left to ripen for 45 and 120 d. The remaining 2 cheese types were made with only cow milk and were also left to ripen for 45 and 120 d. The attributes generated by a quantitative descriptive analysis sensory panel were effective for discriminating the 4 products. Among them, added jenny milk samples aged for 45 d had the highest intensity of some appearance descriptors (structure and color uniformity), as well as the highest intensity of sweetness. The analysis of acceptability data obtained from 89 consumers showed that added jenny milk aged for 45 d was the most preferred type of cheese, whereas no significant differences were found among the other products, which had higher intensity of bitter, salty, acid milk, and so on. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Description for Rock Joint Roughness Based on Terrestrial Laser Scanner and Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Yunfeng; Tang, Huiming; Eldin, M. A. M Ez; Chen, Pengyu; Wang, Liangqing; Wang, Jinge

    2015-01-01

    Shear behavior of rock mass greatly depends upon the rock joint roughness which is generally characterized by anisotropy, scale effect and interval effect. A new index enabling to capture all the three features, namely brightness area percentage (BAP), is presented to express the roughness based on synthetic illumination of a digital terrain model derived from terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). Since only tiny planes facing opposite to shear direction make contribution to resistance during shear failure, therefore these planes are recognized through the image processing technique by taking advantage of the fact that they appear brighter than other ones under the same light source. Comparison with existing roughness indexes and two case studies were illustrated to test the performance of BAP description. The results reveal that the rock joint roughness estimated by the presented description has a good match with existing roughness methods and displays a wider applicability. PMID:26585247

  7. Neurocontrol in sensory cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritt, Jason; Nandi, Anirban; Schroeder, Joseph; Ching, Shinung

    Technology to control neural ensembles is rapidly advancing, but many important challenges remain in applications, such as design of controls (e.g. stimulation patterns) with specificity comparable to natural sensory encoding. We use the rodent whisker tactile system as a model for active touch, in which sensory information is acquired in a closed loop between feedforward encoding of sensory information and feedback guidance of sensing motions. Motivated by this system, we present optimal control strategies that are tailored for underactuation (a large ratio of neurons or degrees of freedom to stimulation channels) and limited observability (absence of direct measurement of the system state), common in available stimulation technologies for freely behaving animals. Using a control framework, we have begun to elucidate the feedback effect of sensory cortex activity on sensing in behaving animals. For example, by optogenetically perturbing primary sensory cortex (SI) activity at varied timing relative to individual whisker motions, we find that SI modulates future sensing behavior within 15 msec, on a whisk by whisk basis, changing the flow of incoming sensory information based on past experience. J.T.R. and S.C. hold Career Awards at the Scientific Interface from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund.

  8. Sensory Metrics of Neuromechanical Trust.

    PubMed

    Softky, William; Benford, Criscillia

    2017-09-01

    Today digital sources supply a historically unprecedented component of human sensorimotor data, the consumption of which is correlated with poorly understood maladies such as Internet addiction disorder and Internet gaming disorder. Because both natural and digital sensorimotor data share common mathematical descriptions, one can quantify our informational sensorimotor needs using the signal processing metrics of entropy, noise, dimensionality, continuity, latency, and bandwidth. Such metrics describe in neutral terms the informational diet human brains require to self-calibrate, allowing individuals to maintain trusting relationships. With these metrics, we define the trust humans experience using the mathematical language of computational models, that is, as a primitive statistical algorithm processing finely grained sensorimotor data from neuromechanical interaction. This definition of neuromechanical trust implies that artificial sensorimotor inputs and interactions that attract low-level attention through frequent discontinuities and enhanced coherence will decalibrate a brain's representation of its world over the long term by violating the implicit statistical contract for which self-calibration evolved. Our hypersimplified mathematical understanding of human sensorimotor processing as multiscale, continuous-time vibratory interaction allows equally broad-brush descriptions of failure modes and solutions. For example, we model addiction in general as the result of homeostatic regulation gone awry in novel environments (sign reversal) and digital dependency as a sub-case in which the decalibration caused by digital sensorimotor data spurs yet more consumption of them. We predict that institutions can use these sensorimotor metrics to quantify media richness to improve employee well-being; that dyads and family-size groups will bond and heal best through low-latency, high-resolution multisensory interaction such as shared meals and reciprocated touch; and

  9. Tools for quantitative form description; an evaluation of different software packages for semi-landmark analysis

    PubMed Central

    Houssaye, Alexandra; Herrel, Anthony; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Cornette, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    The challenging complexity of biological structures has led to the development of several methods for quantitative analyses of form. Bones are shaped by the interaction of historical (phylogenetic), structural, and functional constrains. Consequently, bone shape has been investigated intensively in an evolutionary context. Geometric morphometric approaches allow the description of the shape of an object in all of its biological complexity. However, when biological objects present only few anatomical landmarks, sliding semi-landmarks may provide good descriptors of shape. The sliding procedure, mandatory for sliding semi-landmarks, requires several steps that may be time-consuming. We here compare the time required by two different software packages (‘Edgewarp’ and ‘Morpho’) for the same sliding task, and investigate potential differences in the results and biological interpretation. ‘Morpho’ is much faster than ‘Edgewarp,’ notably as a result of the greater computational power of the ‘Morpho’ software routines and the complexity of the ‘Edgewarp’ workflow. Morphospaces obtained using both software packages are similar and provide a consistent description of the biological variability. The principal differences between the two software packages are observed in areas characterized by abrupt changes in the bone topography. In summary, both software packages perform equally well in terms of the description of biological structures, yet differ in the simplicity of the workflow and time needed to perform the analyses. PMID:26618086

  10. Tools for quantitative form description; an evaluation of different software packages for semi-landmark analysis.

    PubMed

    Botton-Divet, Léo; Houssaye, Alexandra; Herrel, Anthony; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Cornette, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    The challenging complexity of biological structures has led to the development of several methods for quantitative analyses of form. Bones are shaped by the interaction of historical (phylogenetic), structural, and functional constrains. Consequently, bone shape has been investigated intensively in an evolutionary context. Geometric morphometric approaches allow the description of the shape of an object in all of its biological complexity. However, when biological objects present only few anatomical landmarks, sliding semi-landmarks may provide good descriptors of shape. The sliding procedure, mandatory for sliding semi-landmarks, requires several steps that may be time-consuming. We here compare the time required by two different software packages ('Edgewarp' and 'Morpho') for the same sliding task, and investigate potential differences in the results and biological interpretation. 'Morpho' is much faster than 'Edgewarp,' notably as a result of the greater computational power of the 'Morpho' software routines and the complexity of the 'Edgewarp' workflow. Morphospaces obtained using both software packages are similar and provide a consistent description of the biological variability. The principal differences between the two software packages are observed in areas characterized by abrupt changes in the bone topography. In summary, both software packages perform equally well in terms of the description of biological structures, yet differ in the simplicity of the workflow and time needed to perform the analyses.

  11. The Impact of Rendered Protein Meal Oxidation Level on Shelf-Life, Sensory Characteristics, and Acceptability in Extruded Pet Food.

    PubMed

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Koppel, Kadri; Aldrich, Greg

    2016-07-28

    Pet foods are expected to have a shelf-life for 12 months or more. Sensory analysis can be used to determine changes in products and to estimate products' shelf-life. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate how increasing levels of oxidation in rendered protein meals used to produce extruded pet food affected the sensory properties and (2) determine the effect of shelf-life on pet owners' acceptability of extruded pet food diet formulated without the use of preservative. Pet food diets contained beef meat bone meal (BMBM) and chicken byproduct meal (CBPM) in which the oxidation was retarded with ethoxyquin, mixed tocopherols, or none at all, and then extruded into dry pet foods. These samples represented low, medium, and high oxidation levels, respectively. Samples were stored for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at ambient temperature. Each time point, samples were evaluated by six highly trained descriptive panelists for sensory attributes related to oxidation. Samples without preservatives were chosen for the acceptability test, since the differences in sensory characteristics over storage time were more distinguishable in those samples. Pet owners evaluated samples for aroma, appearance and overall liking. Descriptive sensory analysis detected significant changes in oxidized-related sensory characteristics over storage time. However, the differences for CBPM samples were more pronounced and directional. The consumer study showed no differences in pet owners' acceptability for BMBM samples. However, the noticeable increase in aroma characteristics (rancid aroma 0.33-4.21) in CBPM samples over storage time did have a negative effect on consumer's liking (overall liking 5.52-4.95).

  12. Bypassing primary sensory cortices--a direct thalamocortical pathway for transmitting salient sensory information.

    PubMed

    Liang, M; Mouraux, A; Iannetti, G D

    2013-01-01

    Detection and appropriate reaction to sudden and intense events happening in the sensory environment is crucial for survival. By combining Bayesian model selection with dynamic causal modeling of functional magnetic resonance imaging data, a novel analysis approach that allows inferring the causality between neural activities in different brain areas, we demonstrate that salient sensory information reaches the multimodal cortical areas responsible for its detection directly from the thalamus, without being first processed in primary and secondary sensory-specific areas. This direct thalamocortical transmission of multimodal salient information is parallel to the processing of finer stimulus attributes, which are transmitted in a modality-specific fashion from the thalamus to the relevant primary sensory areas. Such direct thalamocortical connections bypassing primary sensory cortices provide a fast and efficient way for transmitting information from subcortical structures to multimodal cortical areas, to allow the early detection of salient events and, thereby, trigger immediate and appropriate behavior.

  13. Sensory Substitution for Wounded Servicemembers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-28

    traumatic brain injury (TBI) and two civilians, all with partial visual impairment , evaluated the vision sensory substitution systems. The servicemember...Mobility Augmentation; Wounded Service Members; Human-Centered Computing; Vision Augmentation, Vision , Balance and Hearing; Sensory Substitution-enabled...mitigation of vision sensory and mobility losses. 2) Improved the usefulness of available sensory substitution technologies for injured military

  14. Examining Sensory Quadrants in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Carmody, Thomas; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Mehta, Jyutika A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sensory quadrants in autism based on Dunn's Theory of Sensory Processing. The data for this study was collected as part of a cross-sectional study that examined sensory processing (using the Sensory Profile) in 103 persons with autism, 3-43 years of age, compared to 103 age- and gender-matched community…

  15. Efficient sensory cortical coding optimizes pursuit eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bing; Macellaio, Matthew V.; Osborne, Leslie C.

    2016-01-01

    In the natural world, the statistics of sensory stimuli fluctuate across a wide range. In theory, the brain could maximize information recovery if sensory neurons adaptively rescale their sensitivity to the current range of inputs. Such adaptive coding has been observed in a variety of systems, but the premise that adaptation optimizes behaviour has not been tested. Here we show that adaptation in cortical sensory neurons maximizes information about visual motion in pursuit eye movements guided by that cortical activity. We find that gain adaptation drives a rapid (<100 ms) recovery of information after shifts in motion variance, because the neurons and behaviour rescale their sensitivity to motion fluctuations. Both neurons and pursuit rapidly adopt a response gain that maximizes motion information and minimizes tracking errors. Thus, efficient sensory coding is not simply an ideal standard but a description of real sensory computation that manifests in improved behavioural performance. PMID:27611214

  16. Discrimination between descriptive models of L-glutamate uptake by the retina using non-linear regression analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Neal, M J; White, R D

    1978-01-01

    1. The uptake of labelled L-glutamate by the isolated rat retina was measured over a large range of external concentrations (1 micron to 1 mM). 2. The results obtained from measurements of the initial velocity of L-glutamate uptake at different concentrations did not follow simple hyperbolic kinetics. 3. The error structure of replicate velocity measurements was examined and found to be normally distributed and heteroscedastic. 4. Descriptive models were fitted directly to data, weighted by the invariance, using non-linear regression analysis. 5. The most suitable suitable descriptive model consisted of a saturable hyperbola (Vm = 285 n-mole.(g wet wt.)-1.min-1, Km = 252 micron) and a linear term (b = 0.45 min-1). PMID:650545

  17. Quantification of Selected Aroma-Active Compounds in Strawberries by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography and Correlation with Sensory Descriptive Analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Selected aroma-active compounds in strawberries were quantified using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography. Ten strawberry cultivars grown in California and Oregon were studied. The standard curves were built in a synthetic matrix and quantification was achieved using multipl...

  18. Applying parallel factor analysis and Tucker-3 methods on sensory and instrumental data to establish preference maps: case study on sweet corn varieties.

    PubMed

    Gere, Attila; Losó, Viktor; Györey, Annamária; Kovács, Sándor; Huzsvai, László; Nábrádi, András; Kókai, Zoltán; Sipos, László

    2014-12-01

    Traditional internal and external preference mapping methods are based on principal component analysis (PCA). However, parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and Tucker-3 methods could be a better choice. To evaluate the methods, preference maps of sweet corn varieties will be introduced. A preference map of eight sweet corn varieties was established using PARAFAC and Tucker-3 methods. Instrumental data were also integrated into the maps. The triplot created by the PARAFAC model explains better how odour is separated from texture or appearance, and how some varieties are separated from others. Internal and external preference maps were created using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and Tucker-3 models employing both sensory (trained panel and consumers) and instrumental parameters simultaneously. Triplots of the applied three-way models have a competitive advantage compared to the traditional biplots of the PCA-based external preference maps. The solution of PARAFAC and Tucker-3 is very similar regarding the interpretation of the first and third factors. The main difference is due to the second factor as it differentiated the attributes better. Consumers who prefer 'super sweet' varieties (they place great emphasis especially on taste) are much younger and have significantly higher incomes, and buy sweet corn products rarely (once a month). Consumers who consume sweet corn products mainly because of their texture and appearance are significantly older and include a higher ratio of men. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Stomatin and sensory neuron mechanotransduction.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Salgado, Carlos; Benckendorff, Anne G; Chiang, Li-Yang; Wang, Rui; Milenkovic, Nevena; Wetzel, Christiane; Hu, Jing; Stucky, Cheryl L; Parra, Marilyn G; Mohandas, Narla; Lewin, Gary R

    2007-12-01

    Somatic sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia are necessary for a large part of our mechanosensory experience. However, we only have a good knowledge of the molecules required for mechanotransduction in simple invertebrates such as the nematode Caenorhabiditis elegans. In C. elegans, a number of so-called mec genes have been isolated that are required for the transduction of body touch. One such gene, mec-2 codes for an integral membrane protein of the stomatin family, a large group of genes with a stomatin homology domain. Using stomatin null mutant mice, we have tested the hypothesis that the founding member of this family, stomatin might play a role in the transduction of mechanical stimuli by primary sensory neurons. We used the in vitro mouse skin nerve preparation to record from a large population of low- and high-threshold mechanoreceptors with myelinated A-fiber (n = 553) and unmyelinated C-fiber (n = 157) axons. One subtype of mechanoreceptor, the d-hair receptor, which is a rapidly adapting mechanoreceptor, had reduced sensitivity to mechanical stimulation in the absence of stomatin. Other cutaneous mechanoreceptors, including nociceptive C-fibers were not affected by the absence of a functional stomatin protein. Patch-clamp analysis of presumptive D-hair receptor mechanoreceptive neurons, which were identified by a characteristic rosette morphology in culture, showed no change in membrane excitability in the absence of the stomatin protein. We conclude that stomatin is required for normal mechanotransduction in a subpopulation of vertebrate sensory neurons.

  20. Set and setting: how behavioral state regulates sensory function and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Aton, Sara J.

    2013-01-01

    Recently developed neuroimaging and electrophysiological techniques are allowing us to answer fundamental questions about how behavioral states regulate our perception of the external environment. Studies using these techniques have yielded surprising insights into how sensory processing is affected at the earliest stages by attention and motivation, and how new sensory information received during wakefulness (e.g., during learning) continues to affect sensory brain circuits (leading to plastic changes) during subsequent sleep. This review aims to describe how brain states affect sensory response properties among neurons in primary and secondary sensory cortices, and how this relates to psychophysical detection thresholds and performance on sensory discrimination tasks. This is not intended to serve as a comprehensive overview of all brain states, or all sensory systems, but instead as an illustrative description of how three specific state variables (attention, motivation, and vigilance [i.e., sleep vs. wakefulness]) affect sensory systems in which they have been best studied. PMID:23792020

  1. Sensory characterization of young South American red wines classified by varietal and origin.

    PubMed

    Llobodanin, Laura Garcia; Barroso, Lucia Pereira; Castro, Inar Alves

    2014-08-01

    Typicality is the set of sensory characteristics that identify a distinctive type of wine. Thus, the aim of this research was to identify the sensory characteristics that contribute to define typicality of young South American red wines based on their varietal and origin, and to evaluate the effect of the vintage on this identification. To achieve this objective, visual appearance, odor, and taste of 138 wines from 2 vintages were submitted to a sensory evaluation using a descriptive analysis complemented with the frequency of citation method, performed by wine experts. The intensity of 17 odor and taste attributes was evaluated using a 5 points rating structured scale. The panel performance evaluation demonstrated its high level of expertise and reproducibility. The wines were separated into 3 clusters by multivariate analyses. Cluster 1 was primarily composed of Carménère, Malbec, and Syrah wines from Chile. Cluster 2 was predominantly composed of Tannat wines from Uruguay and Brazil, while Cluster 3 contained a higher proportion of Malbec and Merlot wines from Argentina and Brazil. Cabernet Sauvignon was equally distributed into all clusters. Wine experts were able to identify the wines according to their varietal and origin, suggesting that there is typicality in young South American red wines. The combination of descriptive analysis with the frequency of citation was useful in characterizing most of the wines, but the typicality perceived by the panelists was not achieved by multivariate analysis. Vintage did not alter the sensory characterization of the wines, and this result could be due the new viticulture or oenologic