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Sample records for desde cepas hospitalarias

  1. Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombe, Christine; Davidson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) is a large-scale, high-stakes, English language proficiency/placement test administered in the United Arab Emirates to Emirati nationals in their final year of secondary education or Grade 12. The purpose of the CEPA is to place students into English classes at the appropriate government…

  2. [Regulatory assessment of the "Nutrición Hospitalaria" journal].

    PubMed

    Iglesias Vázquez, E; Culebras, J M; García de Lorenzo, A

    2000-01-01

    A study is carried out to determine the degree of compliance by the journal entitled "Nutrición Hospitalaria" with the international standards issued by the ISO (International Standards Organization) by means of the application of a survey questionnaire drawn up in accordance with the guidelines published by national and international standards organizations. In total, 161 parameters are considered. Together with the general aspects of the publication, an analysis is made of its specific sections, decisive in the establishment of its level of compliance. After the analysis carried out, it was seen that the general standardization mean was 64% and the real average was 76.82%. At the same time, the necessary recommendations are given to improve these standardization levels and improve the editorial quality of "Nutrición Hospitalaria".

  3. [THE TEN MOST CITED ARTICLES OF THE JOURNAL "NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA"].

    PubMed

    Franco-López, Ángeles; González-Gallego, Javier; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Tuñón, María Jesús; García-De-Lorenzo, Abelardo; Culebras, Jesús M

    2015-12-01

    After 36 years of continued publication of the journal Nutrición Hospitalaria, a list with the ten most cited articles published in it is elaborated. The top ten most cited articles in the world literature and stratification according to language, English or Spanish, subject, or period of time published are also analyzed. Nutr Hosp is the most important Ibero latin American nutrition journal. Nutr Hosp published 369 items in 2014 gaining the fourth position among all the world's journals devoted to nutrition. Article publication in English, or simultaneously in Spanish and English and Open Access policy probably benefit the number of citations.

  4. [Evaluation of the journal Nutrición Hospitalaria. II. Productivity and collaboration].

    PubMed

    Iglesias Vázquez, E; Culebras, J M; García de Lorenzo, A

    2001-01-01

    An analysis is effected of the production by authors publishing their papers in Nutrición Hospitalaria (Hospital Nutrition), as well as by the institutions at which these authors work. The productivity figures indicate a large group of sporadic authors, whereas the "regular contributors" exceed figure 1 in the indices established. In terms of collaboration, Nutrición Hospitalaria articles present between 3 and 5 signatories per paper, lower than in other journals in the same scientific field.

  5. Effects of cypermethrin on Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Çavuşoğlu, Kültiğin; Kaya, Arzu; Yilmaz, Fadime; Yalçin, Emine

    2012-10-01

    In this study, toxic effects of the cypermethrin in Allium cepa L. cells were investigated. For this aim, we investigated the changes in pigment contents, antioxidant enzymes, mitotic index and chromosomal abnormalities as indicators of toxicity. The seeds were treated with different doses (1.5, 3.0, 6.0 ppm) of cypermethrin for 72 h. The result showed that there was a significant alteration in the tested parameters depending on treatment dose in the seeds exposed to cypermethrin when compared to the control group. Cypermethrin exposure significantly reduced the carotenoid, chlorophyll a and b pigments in all treatment groups. The activity of superoxide dismutase showed a concentration-time dependent increase and the maximum increase was observed on day 15 of treatment at 6.0 ppm cypermethrin exposure. The activity of catalase increased gradually with increasing cypermethrin concentration, but a soft decrease in CAT activity was decreased after 15 days of 1.5 ppm and 3.0 ppm cypermethrin treatment. In the roots treated with 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 ppm cypermethrin, the level of malondialdehyde was about 1.8, 2.4, and 3.4 times higher than the control group, respectively. It was also found that cypermethrin has a mitodepressive action on mitosis, and the MI was decreased depending on the dose of cyprmethrin. All of the concentrations of cypermethrin induced chromosomal abnormalities and the most common abnormality observed in the present study was chromosome bridges. PMID:21370380

  6. Isozyme analysis of progeny derived from (Allium fistulosum ×Allium cepa) ×Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Cryder, C M; Corgan, J N; Urquhart, N S; Clason, D

    1991-09-01

    Relatively large quantities of seed were obtained from the interspecific backcross (A. fistulosum xA. cepa) ×A. cepa allowing, for the first time, an extensive study of the heritable traits exhibited by backcross progeny. Two backcross populations, BC1034 and BC1040, distinguished by differentA. fistulosum parents, were characterized for the isozyme markersIdh-1, Adh-1, andPgi-1. Statistical methods are described to calculate cell probabilities for a mixed population of F2 and BC1 progeny, using an estimate of the fraction of F2 progeny in the population derived from the isozyme data. Cell probability distributions were calculated for a mixed population with independent pairs of loci and a mixed population with nonindependent pairs of loci. The isozyme lociIdh-1 andPgi-1 appear to be linked, with a map distance estimated at 33 centimorgans (cM) in BC1034 and 42 cM in BC1040. The probability distribution model for linked loci did not account for all of the distorted segregation ratios inIdh-1 ×Adh-1 orPgi-1 ×Adh-1. The cytological literature does not support linkage betweenIdh-1 ×Adh-1 orPgi-1 ×Adh-1. The distorted segregation ratios for these pairs of loci are likely the result of genetic incompatibilities between the two species.

  7. Evidence for nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility between Allium fistulosum and A. cepa.

    PubMed

    Ulloa-G, M; Corgan, J N; Dunford, M

    1995-04-01

    An F2 population (Allium fistulosum x A. cepa) of 20plants, 10 BC1,[(A. fistulosum x A. cepa) x A. cepa], and 50 BC2 plants, [(A. fistulosum x A. cepa) x A. cepa] x A. cepa were studied cytogenetically and characterized for four isozyme alleles plus various morphological characteristics. All of the progenies were in A. fistulosum (the bunching onion) cytoplasm. In the F2 population we observed non-random chromosomal and allelic segregation, suppression of bulb onion allelic expression, and abnormalities in mitosis and meiosis. Most BC2 plants resembled A. cepa (the bulbing onion) morphologically, but anthers, filaments, pistils, and petals were abnormal. Only 3 plants, and these were most nearly like the F1 hybrid morphologically, produced any seeds.The data and observations support the hypothesis of nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility interactions between the bunching and bulb onion species. PMID:24174037

  8. Evidence for nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility between Allium fistulosum and A. cepa.

    PubMed

    Ulloa-G, M; Corgan, J N; Dunford, M

    1995-04-01

    An F2 population (Allium fistulosum x A. cepa) of 20plants, 10 BC1,[(A. fistulosum x A. cepa) x A. cepa], and 50 BC2 plants, [(A. fistulosum x A. cepa) x A. cepa] x A. cepa were studied cytogenetically and characterized for four isozyme alleles plus various morphological characteristics. All of the progenies were in A. fistulosum (the bunching onion) cytoplasm. In the F2 population we observed non-random chromosomal and allelic segregation, suppression of bulb onion allelic expression, and abnormalities in mitosis and meiosis. Most BC2 plants resembled A. cepa (the bulbing onion) morphologically, but anthers, filaments, pistils, and petals were abnormal. Only 3 plants, and these were most nearly like the F1 hybrid morphologically, produced any seeds.The data and observations support the hypothesis of nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility interactions between the bunching and bulb onion species.

  9. Acetic acid and weed control in onions (Allium cepa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Although corn gluten meal shows great promise as an organic preemergent herbicide for onions, research has shown the need for supplemental, postemergen...

  10. Acetic acid: Crop injury and onion (Allium cepa L.) yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Organic herbicides for sweet onions are limited to non-selective materials, such as corn gluten meal and vinegar. Research at Lane, Oklahoma has shown...

  11. [The impact factor of Nutrición Hospitalaria is 1.096].

    PubMed

    Culebras, J M; García de Lorenzo, A

    2009-01-01

    The editors of Nutrición Hospitalaria (Nutr Hosp) analyze the journal from its foundation in 1979 to the present time, on occasion of the first publication of its impact factorby Journal Citation Reports (JCR). The actions taken along this thirty year period are described, including its incorporation to multiple web databases, the Open Access policy of the journal, its progressive internationality, and the bibliometric analysis made in 1999. A figure with the journal citation trends is included. Nutr Hosp, included in the "Nutrition & Dietetics" group of JCR, is in the position 42/59, i.e. in the third quartile. Among the Spanish journals included in JCR,Nutr Hosp is located in the 14/37 position. A few considerations are made related to the economical aspects of the journal, the number of articles received so far, the articles expected in the future, the rejection rate and the language (Spanish or English) in which Nutr Hosp should be published.

  12. Neuroprotective effect of Allium cepa L. in aluminium chloride induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Tanveer; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    The present study was envisaged to investigate the neuroprotective potential of Allium cepa (A. cepa) in aluminium chloride induced neurotoxicity. Aluminium chloride (50 mg/kg/day) was administered orally in mice supplemented with different doses of A. cepa hydroethanolic extract for a period of 60 days. Various behavioural, biochemical and histopathological parameters were estimated in aluminium exposed animals. Chronic aluminium administration resulted in significant motor incoordination and memory deficits, which were also endorsed biochemically as there was increased oxidative stress as well as elevated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and aluminium levels in the brain. Supplementation with A. cepa in aluminium exposed animals significantly improved muscle coordination and memory deficits as well as reduced oxidative stress, AChE and decreased abnormal aluminium deposition in the brain. Histopathologically, there was marked deterioration visualized as decreased vacuolated cytoplasm as well as decreased pyramidal cells in the hippocampal area of mice brain which were found to be reversed with A. cepa supplementation. Administration of BADGE (PPARγ antagonist) in aluminium exposed animals reversed the neuroprotective potential of A. cepa as assessed with various behavioural, biochemical, neurochemical and histopathological estimations. In conclusion, finding of this study suggested significant neuroprotective potential of A. cepa in aluminium induced neurotoxicity. Further, the role of PPARγ receptor agonism has also been suggested as a putative neuroprotective mechanism of A. cepa, which needs further studies for confirmation.

  13. [Research concerning the characterization of Allium cepa based ointments].

    PubMed

    Gafiţanu, Eliza; Tătărîngă, Gabriela; Ghiciuc, Cristina; Lupuşoru, Cătălina Elena; Hăncianu, Monica

    2006-01-01

    Three topical formulae with Allium cepa L. extract 30% (w/w) were studied for the evaluation of their release profiles of flavonoids and for their potency on experimental wounds on mice. The rates of release were performed under occluded conditions using cellulose acetate membrane. Data obtained from the in vitro release show that the gel formula F1 is the most efficient in the membrane diffusion process. The rate of wound healing was assessed by the contracting ability and the period of epithelization. The most important effect in the contracting ability was noticed in the case of F2 formula. PMID:19292109

  14. Clastogenicity of atrazine assessed with the Allium cepa test.

    PubMed

    Bolle, Paola; Mastrangelo, Sabina; Tucci, Paolo; Evandri, Maria G

    2004-01-01

    Atrazine is classified as a restricted use pesticide and it is currently included in an international revision program for re-evaluating the human and ecological (non-human populations) health risks associated with its release into the environment. The present study was undertaken to add new data on the genotoxic potential of atrazine using the Allium cepa chromosome aberration test. The test concentrations were based on the Maximum Contaminant Levels in water intended for human consumption set by European and US regulations. Atrazine produced a concentration-related increase in the number of total somatic chromosome aberrations, although this increase was statistically significant (p<0.05) only at the highest test concentration (5 microg/L). Analysis of the categories of structural chromosome damage indicated that breaks were the predominant lesion induced; the percent of cells per bulb with breaks also increased in a concentration-related manner, and the increase was statistically significant at the two highest test concentrations (1 and 5 microg/L) (p<0.05). The Allium cepa plant assay detected the clastogenicity of atrazine at concentrations that are likely to be encountered in water, a common site of atrazine contamination.

  15. [Chromosomal organization of centromeric Ty3/gypsy retrotransposons in Allium cepa L. and Allium fistulosum L].

    PubMed

    Kiseleva, A V; Kirov, I V; Khrustaleva, L I

    2014-06-01

    This is the first report on the presence of Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons in the centromeric region of Allium cepa and Allium fistulosum. The paper identifies the putative Ty3/gypsy centromeric retrotransposons (CR) among the DNA sequences of A. cepa present in the NCBI database and evaluates their copy number in the genomes of Allium cepa and Allium fistulosum. The putative copy number of Ty3/gypsy CR constituted about 26000 for A. cepa and about 7000 for A. fistulosum. The chromosomal organization of Ty3/gypsy CR was analyzed with the help of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The 300-bp PCR products synthesized with genomic DNA of Allium cepa and Allium fistulosum and primers designed for the sequence ET645811 of A. cepa (Genome Survey Sequence database), displaying similarity to the reverse transcriptase of the CR Ty3/gypsy family, served as FISH hybridization probes. On the chromosomes of A. cepa, hybridization signals were mainly localized in the centromeric region. On the chromosomes of A. fistulosum the signals were less expressed in the centromeric regions, though they were abundant in other chromosomal regions. The pathways of evolution in these closely related species are discussed. PMID:25715457

  16. The role of Allium cepa on aluminum-induced reproductive dysfunction in experimental male rat models

    PubMed Central

    Ige, Serah F; Akhigbe, Roland E

    2012-01-01

    AIM: Reproductive toxicity is a major challenge associated with aluminum (Al) exposure. Studies that associated Al with reproductive dysfunction did not account for the possible influence of Allium cepa extract. This study, therefore, investigates the influence of A. cepa on aluminum-induced reproductive dysfunction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six male rats per group were assigned to one of the following four treatment groups: The control animals were on control diet. A. cepa-treated rats received 1 ml of the extract/100 g body weight (BW), Al-treated rats received 100 mg AlCl3 /kg BW, and A.cepa+Al received 1 ml of the extract/100 g BW plus 100 mg AlCl3 /kg BW. Rats were orally administered their respective doses. A. cepa treatment was for 8 weeks, while Al treatment was for the last 3 days of the experimental period. RESULTS: Results obtained showed that Al significantly decreased (P < 0.05) plasma testosterone, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), sperm count, motility, morphology and viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, while lipid peroxidation index [malondialdehyde (MDA)] was significantly (P < 0.05) increased. Reproductive hormones (except testosterone), sperm qualities, and enzymatic antioxidants were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in A. cepa-treated rats and A. cepa plus Al-treated rats, while MDA was significantly (P < 0.05) improved. Weights of testes were comparable in all groups. CONCLUSION: It is thus suggested that Al exerts reproductive dysfunction by oxidative damage. A. cepa antagonizes the toxic effects of AlCl3 and improves the antioxidant status and sperm quality of male rat. However, testosterone level did not increase with A. cepa treatment. PMID:23162360

  17. Fatal onion (Allium cepa) toxicosis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Borelli, Vanessa; Lucioli, Joelma; Furlan, Fernando Henrique; Hoepers, Patrícia Giovana; Roveda, Juliano Fleck; Traverso, Sandra Davi; Gava, Aldo

    2009-05-01

    Toxicosis caused by the ingestion of onion (Allium cepa) by 5 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) occurred in the district of Caçador, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The water buffalo died after ingestion of a large quantity of onion that had been left in the pasture. Clinical signs started 8 days postingestion and were characterized by pale mucous membranes, lethargy, and dark urine. At necropsy, pieces of onions were found in the rumen of 1 animal. The carcass smelled strongly of onion, and the kidneys and urine were dark brown. Microscopic renal lesions included tubular degeneration and necrosis with deposits of eosinophilic material in the cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cells and tubular lumina. These changes were consistent with hemoglobinuric nephrosis. Centrilobular coagulation necrosis was observed in the liver accompanied by hemorrhage and macrophages containing brown cytoplasmic pigment. A diagnosis of hemolytic anemia caused by onion toxicosis was based on the epidemiological data, clinical signs, macroscopic changes, and histological lesions.

  18. Fatal onion (Allium cepa) toxicosis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Borelli, Vanessa; Lucioli, Joelma; Furlan, Fernando Henrique; Hoepers, Patrícia Giovana; Roveda, Juliano Fleck; Traverso, Sandra Davi; Gava, Aldo

    2009-05-01

    Toxicosis caused by the ingestion of onion (Allium cepa) by 5 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) occurred in the district of Caçador, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The water buffalo died after ingestion of a large quantity of onion that had been left in the pasture. Clinical signs started 8 days postingestion and were characterized by pale mucous membranes, lethargy, and dark urine. At necropsy, pieces of onions were found in the rumen of 1 animal. The carcass smelled strongly of onion, and the kidneys and urine were dark brown. Microscopic renal lesions included tubular degeneration and necrosis with deposits of eosinophilic material in the cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cells and tubular lumina. These changes were consistent with hemoglobinuric nephrosis. Centrilobular coagulation necrosis was observed in the liver accompanied by hemorrhage and macrophages containing brown cytoplasmic pigment. A diagnosis of hemolytic anemia caused by onion toxicosis was based on the epidemiological data, clinical signs, macroscopic changes, and histological lesions. PMID:19407101

  19. Chromosomal Organization and Sequence Diversity of Genes Encoding Lachrymatory Factor Synthase in Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Masamura, Noriya; McCallum, John; Khrustaleva, Ludmila; Kenel, Fernand; Pither-Joyce, Meegham; Shono, Jinji; Suzuki, Go; Mukai, Yasuhiko; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2012-06-01

    Lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS) catalyzes the formation of lachrymatory factor, one of the most distinctive traits of bulb onion (Allium cepa L.). Therefore, we used LFS as a model for a functional gene in a huge genome, and we examined the chromosomal organization of LFS in A. cepa by multiple approaches. The first-level analysis completed the chromosomal assignment of LFS gene to chromosome 5 of A. cepa via the use of a complete set of A. fistulosum-shallot (A. cepa L. Aggregatum group) monosomic addition lines. Subsequent use of an F(2) mapping population from the interspecific cross A. cepa × A. roylei confirmed the assignment of an LFS locus to this chromosome. Sequence comparison of two BAC clones bearing LFS genes, LFS amplicons from diverse germplasm, and expressed sequences from a doubled haploid line revealed variation consistent with duplicated LFS genes. Furthermore, the BAC-FISH study using the two BAC clones as a probe showed that LFS genes are localized in the proximal region of the long arm of the chromosome. These results suggested that LFS in A. cepa is transcribed from at least two loci and that they are localized on chromosome 5. PMID:22690373

  20. Micropropagation of onion (Allium cepa L.) from immature inflorescences.

    PubMed

    Marinangeli, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    In vitro plant production by direct organogenesis from immature flower heads is an ideal approach for clonal propagation of onions (Allium cepa L.). This technique ensures genetic stability, high propagation rate, and maintains donor plant of explants with an advantage over other means of in vitro regeneration. Onion micropropagation is usually applied in breeding programs, maintenance, and multiplication of cytoplasmic-male sterile lines for hybrid production, germplasm conservation, and as a tool for the application of other biotechnologies. For in vitro culture, mature onion bulbs are induced to reproductive phase by vernalization and forced to inflorescence initiation. Immature umbels are dissected from bulbs or cut directly when they appear from the pseudostem among the leaves. Disinfected inflorescences are cultivated in BDS basal medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 0.1 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid, 1 mg/L N (6)-benzyladenine, and 8 g/L agar, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod white fluorescent light (PPD: 50-70 μmol/m(2)s) for 35 days. The regenerated shoot clumps are divided and subculture under the same conditions. For bulbification phase, the individual shoots are cultured in BDS basal medium containing 90 g/L sucrose, without plant growth regulators, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod. Microbulbs can be directly cultivated ex vitro without acclimation. PMID:23179710

  1. Micropropagation of onion (Allium cepa L.) from immature inflorescences.

    PubMed

    Marinangeli, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    In vitro plant production by direct organogenesis from immature flower heads is an ideal approach for clonal propagation of onions (Allium cepa L.). This technique ensures genetic stability, high propagation rate, and maintains donor plant of explants with an advantage over other means of in vitro regeneration. Onion micropropagation is usually applied in breeding programs, maintenance, and multiplication of cytoplasmic-male sterile lines for hybrid production, germplasm conservation, and as a tool for the application of other biotechnologies. For in vitro culture, mature onion bulbs are induced to reproductive phase by vernalization and forced to inflorescence initiation. Immature umbels are dissected from bulbs or cut directly when they appear from the pseudostem among the leaves. Disinfected inflorescences are cultivated in BDS basal medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 0.1 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid, 1 mg/L N (6)-benzyladenine, and 8 g/L agar, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod white fluorescent light (PPD: 50-70 μmol/m(2)s) for 35 days. The regenerated shoot clumps are divided and subculture under the same conditions. For bulbification phase, the individual shoots are cultured in BDS basal medium containing 90 g/L sucrose, without plant growth regulators, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod. Microbulbs can be directly cultivated ex vitro without acclimation.

  2. Chromosome characteristics and behavior differences in Allium fistulosum L., A. cepa L, their F1 hybrid, and selected backcross progeny.

    PubMed

    Ulloa-G, M; Corgan, J N; Dunford, M

    1994-11-01

    Mitotic and meiotic studies were performed on Allium fistulosum, A. cepa, their F1 hybrid, and ten selected backcross (BC)1 plants [(A. fistulosum x A. cepa) x (A. cepa)]. Each BC1 plant had at least one A. cepa isozyme allele (Pgi, Idh, or Adh). Chromosome morphology and behavior differed among plants. Meiocytes were observed with one, two, or three bridges and/ or fragments, indicating at least three paracentric inversions between A. fistulosum and A. cepa. Unusual crossing over and multivalent associations suggest that the 5F subtelocentric chromosome of A. fistulosum is involved in at least one translocation. The number of bridges and fragments and multivalent associations varied between the F1 hybrid and BC1 progenies. The F1 hybrid and all BC1 progenies were either sterile or had very little seed set. Fertility was not restored in any of the selected BC1 plants.

  3. Cytogenetic and genotoxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on root cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Mamta; Khan, S Sudheer; Pakrashi, Sunandan; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2011-06-15

    Increasing use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NP) in consumer products may enhance its release into the environment. Phytotoxicity study is important to understand its possible environmental impact. Allium cepa (Onion bulb) is the best model organism to study genetic toxicology of nanoparticles. Here we have reported cytogenetic and genotoxic effects of ZnO NPs on the root cells of A. cepa. The effects of ZnO NPs on the mitotic index (MI), micronuclei index (MN index), chromosomal aberration index, and lipid peroxidation were determined through the hydroponic culturing of A. cepa. A. cepa roots were treated with the dispersions of ZnO NPs at four different concentrations (25, 50, 75, and 100 μg ml(-1)). With the increasing concentrations of ZnO NPs MI decreased with the increase of pycnotic cells, on the other hand MN and chromosomal aberration index increased. The frequency of micronucleated cells was higher in ZnO NPs treated cells as compared to control (deionized distilled water). The number of cells in each mitotic phase changed upon ZnO NPs treatment. The effect of ZnO NPs on lipid peroxidation as examined by measuring TBARS concentration was evident at all the concentrations compared to bulk ZnO. The TEM image showed internalization of ZnO NPs like particles. SEM image of treated A. cepa demonstrated that the internalized nanoparticles agglomerated depending on the physico-chemical environment inside the cell. Our results demonstrated that ZnO NPs can be a clastogenic/genotoxic and cytotoxic agent. In conclusion, the A. cepa cytogenetic test can be used for the genotoxicity monitoring of novel nanomaterials like ZnO NPs, which is used in many consumer products.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. as photosensitizer of dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutikno, Afrian, Noverdi; Supriadi, Putra, Ngurah Made Dharma

    2016-04-01

    The synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. used as natural pigment for natural dye sensitizer of solar cell has successfully done and anthocyanin is extracted. Anthocynin is color pigment of plant which has characteristic absorption spectrum of photon and excites electrons up to pigment molecules. As the anthocyanin absorbed light increases the excited electrons increase as well. The generated current also increases and it leads to the efficiency increase. The energy conversion efficiency of the cells sensitized with dye of Allium cepa L. was 3,045 x 10-4%. A simple technique was taken to fabricate dye sensitizer solar cell is spincoating.

  5. UV-mediated toxic bioactivity of harmine in the meristematic cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Hazen, M J; Gutiérrez-Gonzálvez, M G

    1988-07-01

    The photodynamic effect of harmine and UV light was studied by measuring the number of sister-chromatid exchanges and micronuclei induced by this treatment in Allium cepa meristematic cells. A significant increase in the frequencies of both cytogenetic events was observed when proliferating cells were treated for 4 h with harmine followed by irradiation with UV light for 3 min.

  6. Effect of Nigella sativa and Allium cepa oils on Trichinella spiralis in experimentally infected rats.

    PubMed

    Abu El Ezz, Nadia M T

    2005-08-01

    Prophylactic and therapeutic effect of two oils had been carried out either prior to infection or postinfection respectively in rats. Each rat in either case was orally administered with N. sativa oil or A. cepa oil in a dose 5 mg/kg body weight/day for 2 weeks. Assessment of results was by: (1) adult worm count in the intestine on 7th and 20th day post infection. (2) larval count in the muscles on the 60th day post infection. (3) Index of reproductive capacity. (4) Detection of antibodies against T. spiralis larvae by using ELISA. The results showed that, N. sativa oil as prophylactic treatment prior to T. spiralis infection is more effective than A. cepa oil on both adult worms and muscle larval count. While, A. cepa oil was showed more effectiveness than N. sativa on decline number of adult worms and muscle larvae when used as therapeutic treatment post infection. The level of antibody was recorded early in the groups that treated with N. sativa oil. In conclusion, N. sativa and A. cepa oils have anthelmintic effect in the rats infected with T. spiralis infection and increased the production of antibodies generated during life cycle of this parasite. PMID:16083064

  7. Beneficios de cuidados paliativos desde el principio

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo del blog Temas y Relatos del NCI acerca de un estudio clínico que muestra que los pacientes con cáncer avanzado que recibieron cuidados paliativos desde el principio tuvieron mejor calidad de vida y estado de ánimo.

  8. Highlights on DESD Progress to Date

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This brief report, delivered after the completion of the 1st year of the United Nations (UN) Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) (2005-2014), highlights the recent developments regarding the Decade (2005). It reports on the documents prepared, the regional and national launches of the Decade held so far and presents relevant…

  9. Chromosomal and Nuclear Alterations in Root Tip Cells of Allium Cepa L. Induced by Alprazolam

    PubMed Central

    Nefic, Hilada; Musanovic, Jasmin; Metovic, Azra; Kurteshi, Kemajl

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Alprazolam is a triazolobenzodiazepine used in panic disorders and other anxiety states. Target organ of Alprazolam is CNS, causing depression of respiration and consciousness. Aim: This study aimed to estimate the genotoxic potential of Alprazolam using Allium cepa test. Methods: Allium cepa is one of the most suitable plants for detecting different types of xenobiotics. The test enables the assessment of different genetic endpoints making possible damage to the DNA of humans to be predicted. Results: Alprazolam induced chromosomal (anaphase bridges, breaks, lagging and stickiness, abnormal spiralisation, multipolarity and polyploidy) and cytological aberrations, especially nuclear alterations (nuclear buds, fragmented nucleus and apoptotic bodies, cells without nucleus, binucleated and micronucleated cells), morphological alterations in shape and size of cells, spindle disturbance and polar deviation in root tip meristem cells of Allium cepa at all tested concentrations. Alprazolam also caused significant inhibition of mitotic index in these cells. Conclusion: These changes in cells are indicators of genotoxic potential of Alprazolam suggesting a need for further in vitro studies on animal and human lymphocytes as well as in vivo studies. PMID:25568504

  10. Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the aim, contents and significance of the education for sustainability (ESD) , together with the background of the Japanese proposal at WSSD. In 2002, a worldwide activity for the education for sustainable development was proposed by the Japanese Government in the occasion of World Summit of Sustainable Development (WSSD) which was held at Johannesburg. The proposal was formally adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 2005 and then the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) was inaugurated by UNESCO which was designated its lead agency. Prior to the Japanese proposal, there have been discussions about the necessity of the education of sustainable development, because it requests people to think nature and society in considerably different manner from the traditional way. The characters of the traditional education such as disciplinary structure of knowledge, the basic aspects of science that are directed to analysis and separation of natural sciences and social sciences ; reveal the insufficiency of educating people who would act and confront the difficult challenges of sustainability. The Japanese proposal has given a timely trigger for the world to start cooperative actions for the ESD. We are now on the half way of DESD and must step into the phase of integrating our achievements cooperatively, not only within Japan but also internationally.

  11. Genetic and Pathogenic Variability of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae Isolated from Onion and Welsh Onion in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kazunori; Nakahara, Katsuya; Tanaka, Shuhei; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Ito, Shin-ichi

    2015-04-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae causes Fusarium basal rot in onion (common onion) and Fusarium wilt in Welsh onion. Although these diseases have been detected in various areas in Japan, knowledge about the genetic and pathogenic variability of F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae is very limited. In this study, F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae was isolated from onion and Welsh onion grown in 12 locations in Japan, and a total of 55 F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae isolates (27 from onion and 28 from Welsh onion) were characterized based on their rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) and translation elongation factor-1α (EF-1α) nucleotide sequences, vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs), and the presence of the SIX (secreted in xylem) homologs. Phylogenetic analysis of IGS sequences showed that these isolates were grouped into eight clades (A to H), and 20 onion isolates belonging to clade H were monophyletic and assigned to the same VCG. All the IGS-clade H isolates possessed homologs of SIX3, SIX5, and SIX7. The SIX3 homolog was located on a 4 Mb-sized chromosome in the IGS-clade H isolates. Pathogenicity tests using onion seedlings showed that all the isolates with high virulence were in the IGS-clade H. These results suggest that F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae isolates belonging to the IGS-clade H are genetically and pathogenically different from those belonging to the other IGS clades.

  12. Screening and incorporation of rust resistance from Allium cepa into bunching onion (Allium fistulosum) via alien chromosome addition.

    PubMed

    Wako, Tadayuki; Yamashita, Ken-ichiro; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Ohara, Takayoshi; Kojima, Akio; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Shimazaki, Satoshi; Midorikawa, Naoko; Sakai, Takako; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2015-04-01

    Bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.; 2n = 16), bulb onion (Allium cepa L. Common onion group), and shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) cultivars were inoculated with rust fungus, Puccinia allii, isolated from bunching onion. Bulb onions and shallots are highly resistant to rust, suggesting they would serve as useful resources for breeding rust resistant bunching onions. To identify the A. cepa chromosome(s) related to rust resistance, a complete set of eight A. fistulosum - shallot monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) were inoculated with P. allii. At the seedling stage, FF+1A showed a high level of resistance in controlled-environment experiments, suggesting that the genes related to rust resistance could be located on shallot chromosome 1A. While MAAL, multi-chromosome addition line, and hypoallotriploid adult plants did not exhibit strong resistance to rust. In contrast to the high resistance of shallot, the addition line FF+1A+5A showed reproducibly high levels of rust resistance.

  13. Aluminium induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in root cells of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Achary, V Mohan Murali; Jena, Suprava; Panda, Kamal K; Panda, Brahma B

    2008-06-01

    Aluminium (Al) was evaluated for induction of oxidative stress and DNA damage employing the growing roots of Allium cepa L. as the assay system. Intact roots of A. cepa were treated with different concentrations, 0, 1, 10, 50, 100, or 200 microM of aluminium chloride, at pH 4.5 for 4 h (or 2 h for comet assay) at room temperature, 25+/-1 degrees C. Following treatment the parameters investigated in root tissue were Al-uptake, cell death, extra cellular generation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI), viz. O(2)(*-), H(2)O(2) and (*)OH, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, activities of antioxidant enzymes namely catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX); and DNA damage, assessed by comet assay. The findings indicated that Al triggered generation of extra-cellular ROI following a dose-response. Through application of specific enzyme inhibitors it was demonstrated that extra-cellular generation of ROI was primarily due to the activity of cell wall bound NADH-PX. Generation of ROI in root tissue as well as cell death was better correlated to the levels of root Al-uptake rather than to the concentrations of Al in ambient experimental solutions. Induction of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation by Al were statistically significant. Whereas Al inhibited CAT activity, enhanced SOD, GPX and APX activities significantly; that followed dose-response. Comet assay provided evidence that Al induced DNA damage in a range of concentrations 50-200 microM, which was comparable to that induced by ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS), an alkylating mutagen served as the positive control. The findings provided evidence that Al comparable to biotic stress induced oxidative burst at the cell surface through up- or down-regulation of some of the key enzymes of oxidative metabolism ultimately resulting in oxidative stress leading to DNA damage and cell death in root cells of A. cepa. PMID:18068230

  14. Cytogenetic studies of chromium (III) oxide nanoparticles on Allium cepa root tip cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Rajeshwari, A; Jadon, Pradeep Singh; Chaudhuri, Gouri; Mukherjee, Anita; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2015-12-01

    The current study evaluates the cytogenetic effects of chromium (III) oxide nanoparticles on the root cells of Allium cepa. The root tip cells of A. cepa were treated with the aqueous dispersions of Cr2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) at five different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100μg/mL) for 4hr. The colloidal stability of the nanoparticle suspensions during the exposure period were ascertained by particle size analyses. After 4hr exposure to Cr2O3 NPs, a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) from 35.56% (Control) to 35.26% (0.01μg/mL), 34.64% (0.1μg/mL), 32.73% (1μg/mL), 29.6% (10μg/mL) and 20.92% (100μg/mL) was noted. The optical, fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopic analyses demonstrated specific chromosomal aberrations such as-chromosome stickiness, chromosome breaks, laggard chromosome, clumped chromosome, multipolar phases, nuclear notch, and nuclear bud at different exposure concentrations. The concentration-dependent internalization/bio-uptake of Cr2O3 NPs may have contributed to the enhanced production of anti oxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase to counteract the oxidative stress, which in turn resulted in observed chromosomal aberrations and cytogenetic effects. These results suggest that A. cepa root tip assay can be successfully applied for evaluating environmental risk of Cr2O3 NPs over a wide range of concentrations. PMID:26702979

  15. Sunlight decreased genotoxicity of azadirachtin on root tip cells of Allium cepa and Eucrosia bicolor.

    PubMed

    Kwankua, W; Sengsai, S; Kuleung, C; Euawong, N

    2010-07-01

    Utilization of neem plant (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) extract for pest control in agriculture has raised concerns over contamination by the residues to the environment. Such residues, particularly azadirachtin (Aza), may cause deleterious effect to non-target organisms. This investigation was conducted to find out if Aza could be inactivated through exposures to sunlight. Activity of Aza was assessed as its ability to cause cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in the forms of nuclei abnormality and chromosome aberration as measured by mitotic index (MI) and mitotic aberration (MA). Varying concentrations of Aza were tested on Allium cepa and Eucrosia bicolor. It was found that the MI of all root tip meristematic cells of A. cepa and E. bicolor treated with 0.00005%, 0.00010%, 0.00015%, and 0.00020% (w/v) Aza-containing neem extract for 24h, were significantly lower than the controls. Complementary to the lower levels of MI, the Aza-treated groups showed higher MA levels in all cases investigated. Furthermore, the decreasing levels of MI and the increasing levels of MA related well with the increasing concentration of Aza. Microscopic examination of root tip meristematic cells revealed that the anomaly found most often were mitotic disturbances and chromosomal bridges. Exposures of 0.00020% (w/v) Aza to sunlight for 3 days and 7 days decreased Aza ability to induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, both in terms of MI and MA, to root tip meristematic cells in A. cepa and E. bicolor. Photodegradation of Aza upon exposure to direct sunlight was confirmed by HPLC. The study implicates that Aza would unlikely cause long term deleterious effects to the environment since it would be inactivated by sunlight. PMID:20452021

  16. Physiological, anatomical, biochemical, and cytogenetic effects of thiamethoxam treatment on Allium cepa (amaryllidaceae) L.

    PubMed

    Çavuşoğlu, Kültiğin; Yalçin, Emine; Türkmen, Zafer; Yapar, Kürşad; Sağir, Saffet

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, toxic effects of active substance thiamethoxam of the insecticide Eforia were investigated on Allium cepa L. For this aim, we used the germination percentage, root length, weight gain, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, frequency of micronucleus (MN), chromosomal aberrations (CAs), and mitotic index (MI) as indicators of toxicity. Also, the changes in the root anatomy of A. cepa seeds treated with thiamethoxam were examined. The seeds in all the treatment groups were treated with three different doses (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) of thiamethoxam for 72 h. The results showed that there were significant alterations in the germination percentage, root length, weight gain, MDA level, MN, CAs, and MI frequency depending on application dose in the seeds exposed to thiamethoxam compared to control group. Thiamethoxam treatments significantly reduced the germination percentage, root length, and weight gain in all the treatment groups (P < 0.05). But, it caused an increase in MN and CAs formation (P < 0.05). It was also found that thiamethoxam has a mito-depressive action on mitosis, and the MI was decreased depending on the dose of applied-thiamethoxam (P < 0.05). About 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg doses of thiamethoxam significantly enhanced the lipid peroxidation and caused an increase in MDA levels at each dose treatment (P < 0.05). Some anatomical damages such as necrotic cell death, unclear vascular tissue, unclear epidermis layer, cell deformation, and unusual form of cell nucleus were observed by using light micrographs. Each dose of thiamethoxam caused severe toxic effects on A. cepa cells, and the maximum toxic effect was observed at the dose level of 500 mg/kg. PMID:21374786

  17. Report on the CEPA activities [Consorcio Educativo para la Proteccion Ambiental/Educational Consortium for Environmental Preservation] [Final report of activities from 1998 to 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, Miriam

    2003-02-01

    This report compiles the instances of scientific, educational, and institutional cooperation on environmental issues and other activities in which CEPA was engaged during the past five years, and includes several annual reports and meeting summaries. CEPA is a collaborative international consortium that brings together higher education institutions with governmental agencies, research laboratories, and private sector entities. CEPA's mission is to strengthen the technical, professional, and educational environmental infrastructure in the United States and Latin America. The CEPA program includes curriculum development, student exchange, faculty development, and creation of educational materials, joint research, and other cooperative activities. CEPA's goals are accomplished by actively working with Hispanic-serving institutions of higher education in the United States, in collaboration with institutions of higher education in Latin America and other Consortium members to deliver competitive environmental programs.

  18. Educational Ethics and the DESD: Considering Trade-Offs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlottmann, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The United Nation's Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) aims to prepare students for pressing economic and environmental problems. In this article, I argue that an exclusive emphasis on an ambiguous goal, sustainable development, raises important questions for educational ethics. Specifically, I argue that DESD mission…

  19. Cytogenetic effects of three commercially formulated pesticides on somatic and germ cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Kuchy, Aashiq H; Wani, Aijaz A; Kamili, Azra N

    2016-04-01

    Cytological effects of Endosri-ES (endosulfan), Nuvan-NU (dichlorvos), and Kvistin-KS (carbendazim) were evaluated on mitotic and meiotic cells of Allium cepa. Test concentrations were chosen by calculating EC50 values of formulated ES, NU, and KS, which turned to be 60, 200, and 500 ppm (parts per million), respectively. Cytological studies were undertaken on root meristem cells of A. cepa using EC50, 1/2 × EC50, and 2 × EC50 of these pesticides for 24 and 48 h. Similarly, a meiotic study was conducted by applying the pesticides at the aforesaid concentrations from seedling to bud stage. A set of onion bulbs exposed to tap water was run parallel for negative control and maleic hydrazide (112.09 ppm) as positive control. During the study period, mitotic index (MI) decreased at all the pesticide concentrations compared to the negative control. Among various chromosomal aberrations, chromatin bridges, breaks, stickiness, laggard, vagrant chromosomes, fragments, C-mitosis, multipolarity, ring chromosome as well as micronuclei were observed in mitotic preparations. In contrast, meiotic aberrations revealed comparatively less frequency of chromosomal aberrations and the most frequent were lagging chromosome, stray bivalents, secondary association, chromatin bridge, disturbed anaphase, and stickiness. Comparative analysis of the pesticides showed that NU was highly toxic to plant cells than KS, while as ES showed intermediate effects between the two. Further, our study revealed that all the three pesticides produce genotoxic effects which can cause health risks to the human populations. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  20. Genotoxicity of sulcotrione pesticide and photoproducts on Allium cepa root meristem.

    PubMed

    Goujon, Eric; Sta, Chaima; Trivella, Aurélien; Goupil, Pascale; Richard, Claire; Ledoigt, Gérard

    2014-07-01

    Contamination by toxic agents in the environment has become matters of concern to agricultural countries. Sulcotrione, a triketone herbicide used to control dicotyledonous weeds in maize culture is rapidly photolyzed on plant foliage and generate two main photoproducts the xanthene-1,9-dione-3,4-dihydro-6-methylsulfonyl and 2-chloro-4-mesylbenzoic acid (CMBA). The aim of this study was to analyze the potential toxicity of the herbicide and the irradiated herbicide cocktail. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of non irradiated and irradiated sulcotrione were investigated in Allium cepa test. The sulcotrione irradiation was monitored under sunlight simulated conditions to reach 50% of phototransformation. Concentrations of sulcotrione in the range 5 × 10(-)(9)-5 × 10(-)(5)M were tested. Cytological analysis of root tips cells showed that both non irradiated and irradiated sulcotrione caused a dose-dependent decrease of mitotic index with higher cytotoxicity for the irradiated herbicide which can lead to 24.2% reduction of mitotic index compared to water control. Concomitantly, chromosomal aberrations were observed in A.cepa root meristems. Both non irradiated sulcotrione and irradiated sulcotrione induced a dose-dependent increase of chromosomal abnormalities frequencies to a maximal value of 33.7%. A saturating effect in anomaly frequencies was observed in meristems treated with high concentrations of non irradiated sulcotrione only. These data suggest that photolyzed sulcotrione cocktail have a greater cytotoxicity and genotoxicity than parent molecule and question about the impact of photochemical process on environment. PMID:25052526

  1. Cytogenetic effects of three commercially formulated pesticides on somatic and germ cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Kuchy, Aashiq H; Wani, Aijaz A; Kamili, Azra N

    2016-04-01

    Cytological effects of Endosri-ES (endosulfan), Nuvan-NU (dichlorvos), and Kvistin-KS (carbendazim) were evaluated on mitotic and meiotic cells of Allium cepa. Test concentrations were chosen by calculating EC50 values of formulated ES, NU, and KS, which turned to be 60, 200, and 500 ppm (parts per million), respectively. Cytological studies were undertaken on root meristem cells of A. cepa using EC50, 1/2 × EC50, and 2 × EC50 of these pesticides for 24 and 48 h. Similarly, a meiotic study was conducted by applying the pesticides at the aforesaid concentrations from seedling to bud stage. A set of onion bulbs exposed to tap water was run parallel for negative control and maleic hydrazide (112.09 ppm) as positive control. During the study period, mitotic index (MI) decreased at all the pesticide concentrations compared to the negative control. Among various chromosomal aberrations, chromatin bridges, breaks, stickiness, laggard, vagrant chromosomes, fragments, C-mitosis, multipolarity, ring chromosome as well as micronuclei were observed in mitotic preparations. In contrast, meiotic aberrations revealed comparatively less frequency of chromosomal aberrations and the most frequent were lagging chromosome, stray bivalents, secondary association, chromatin bridge, disturbed anaphase, and stickiness. Comparative analysis of the pesticides showed that NU was highly toxic to plant cells than KS, while as ES showed intermediate effects between the two. Further, our study revealed that all the three pesticides produce genotoxic effects which can cause health risks to the human populations. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:26670031

  2. Potential genotoxic effects of melted snow from an urban area revealed by the Allium cepa test.

    PubMed

    Blagojević, Jelena; Stamenković, Gorana; Vujosević, Mladen

    2009-09-01

    The presence of well-known atmospheric pollutants is regularly screened for in large towns but knowledge about the effects of mixtures of different pollutants and especially their genotoxic potential is largely missing. Since falling snow collects pollutants from the air, melted snow samples could be suitable for evaluating potential genotoxicity. For this purpose the Allium cepa anaphase-telophase test was used to analyse melted snow samples from Belgrade, the capital city of Serbia. Samples of snow were taken at two sites, characterized by differences in pollution intensity, in three successive years. At the more polluted site the analyses showed a very high degree of both toxicity and genotoxicity in the first year of the study corresponding to the effects of the known mutagen used as the positive control. At the other site the situation was much better but not without warning signals. The results showed that standard analyses for the presence of certain contaminants in the air do not give an accurate picture of the possible consequences of urban air pollution because the genotoxic potential remains hidden. The A. cepa test has been demonstrated to be very convenient for evaluation of air pollution through analyses of melted snow samples. PMID:19589556

  3. Allium cepa chromosome aberration and micronucleus tests applied to study genotoxicity of extracts from pesticide-treated vegetables and grapes.

    PubMed

    Feretti, D; Zerbini, I; Zani, C; Ceretti, E; Moretti, M; Monarca, S

    2007-06-01

    The Allium cepa assay is an efficient test for chemical screening and in situ monitoring for genotoxicity of environmental contaminants. The test has been used widely to study genotoxicity of many pesticides revealing that these compounds can induce chromosomal aberrations in root meristems of A. cepa. Pesticide residues can be present in fruit and vegetables and represent a risk for human health. The mutagenic and carcinogenic action of herbicides, insecticides and fungicides on experimental animals is well known. Several studies have shown that chronic exposure to low levels of pesticides can cause birth defects and that prenatal exposure is associated with carcinogenicity. This study evaluated the potential application of plant genotoxicity tests for monitoring mutagens in edible vegetables. The presence of pesticides and genotoxic compounds extracted from 21 treated vegetables and eight types of grapes sampled from several markets in Campania, a region in Southern Italy, was monitored concurrently. The extracts were analysed for pesticides by gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, and for genotoxicity using two plant tests: the micronucleus test and the chromosomal aberration test in A. cepa roots. Thirty-three pesticides were detected, some of which are not approved. Genotoxicity was found in some of the vegetables and grapes tested. Allium cepa tests proved to be sensitive in monitoring genotoxicity in food extracts. The micronucleus test in interphase cells gave a much higher mutagenicity than the chromosomal aberration test in anaphase-telophase cells. PMID:17487597

  4. The genetic environment of the antiseptic resistance genes qacEΔ1 and cepA in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Abuzaid, Abdulmonem A; Amyes, Sebastian G B

    2015-06-01

    The genetic environment of two antiseptic resistance genes (qacEΔ1 and cepA) was examined in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates obtained from the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh between 2006 and 2008. In 4 of 34 isolates, which carried the qacEΔ1 gene, the sul1 gene was located immediately downstream. In two of these, the orf5 gene of unknown function was found immediately downstream of the sul1 gene. In one case, this was substituted by the chrA gene. The cepA gene was carried by 56 (87·5%) isolates, and the pfkA gene was found directly downstream in 45 (70·3%) isolates, and in 40 (62·5%) of these isolates, the menG gene was found directly downstream. The cpxP gene was found in 47 (73·4%) isolates upstream of the cepA, and in 35 of these isolates, the cpxR gene was identified. These latter genes are transcription regulators, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that their presence was associated with cepA expression.

  5. The diversity and abundance of small arthropods in onion, Allium cepa, seed crops, and their potential role in pollination.

    PubMed

    Walker, M K; Howlett, B G; Wallace, A R; McCallum, J A; Teulon, D A J

    2011-01-01

    Onion, Allium cepa L. (Asparagales: Amaryllidaceae), crop fields grown for seed production require arthropod pollination for adequate seed yield. Although many arthropod species visit A. cepa flowers, for most there is little information on their role as pollinators. Small flower visiting arthropods (body width < 3 mm) in particular are rarely assessed. A survey of eight flowering commercial A. cepa seed fields in the North and South Islands of New Zealand using window traps revealed that small arthropods were highly abundant among all except one field. Insects belonging to the orders Diptera and Thysanoptera were the most abundant and Hymenoptera, Collembola, Psocoptera, Hemiptera, and Coleoptera were also present. To test whether small arthropods might contribute to pollination, seed sets from umbels caged within 3 mm diameter mesh cages were compared with similarly caged, hand-pollinated umbels and uncaged umbels. Caged umbels that were not hand-pollinated set significantly fewer seeds (average eight seeds/umbel, n = 10) than caged hand-pollinated umbels (average 146 seeds/umbel) and uncaged umbels (average 481 seeds/umbel). Moreover, sticky traps placed on umbels within cages captured similar numbers of small arthropods as sticky traps placed on uncaged umbels, suggesting cages did not inhibit the movement of small arthropods to umbels. Therefore, despite the high abundance of small arthropods within fields, evidence to support their role as significant pollinators of commercial A. cepa seed crops was not found.

  6. Genotypic variation in sulfur assimilation and metabolism of onion (Allium cepa L.) III. Characterization of sulfite reductase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic and cDNA sequences corresponding to a ferredoxin-sulfite reductase (SiR) have been cloned from bulb onion (Allium cepa L.) and the expression of the gene and activity of the enzyme characterised with respect to sulfur (S) supply. Cloning, mapping and expression studies revealed that onion ha...

  7. Efficacy assessment of acid mine drainage treatment with coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Geremias, Reginaldo; Bortolotto, Tiago; Wilhelm-Filho, Danilo; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; de Fávere, Valfredo Tadeu

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) with calcinated coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator. The pH values and the concentrations of aluminum, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead and sulfate were determined before and after the treatment of the AMD with calcinated coal mining waste. Allium cepa L. was exposed to untreated and treated AMD, as well as to mineral water as a negative control (NC). At the end of the exposure period, the inhibition of root growth was measured and the mean effective concentration (EC(50)) was determined. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyls (PC), catalase activity (CAT) and reduced glutathione levels (GSH) in the fleshy leaves of the bulb, as well as the DNA damage index (ID) in meristematic cells, were evaluated. The results indicated that the AMD treatment with calcinated coal mining waste resulted in an increase in the pH and an expressive removal of aluminum, iron, manganese and zinc. A high sub-chronic toxicity was observed when Allium cepa L. was exposed to the untreated AMD. However, after the treatment no toxicity was detected. Levels of TBARS and PC, CAT activity and the DNA damage index were significantly increased (P<0.05) in Allium cepa L. exposed to untreated AMD when compared to treated AMD and also to negative controls. No significant alteration in the GSH content was observed. In conclusion, the use of calcinated coal mining waste associated with toxicological tests on Allium cepa L. represents an alternative system for the treatment and biomonitoring of these types of environmental contaminants.

  8. Dissection of Trichoderma longibrachiatum-induced defense in onion (Allium cepa L.) against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepa by target metabolite profiling.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Abdel-Motaal, Fatma; El-Sayed, Magdi; Jogaiah, Sudisha; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Ito, Shin-ichi; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-05-01

    Trichoderma spp. are versatile opportunistic plant symbionts that can cause substantial changes in the metabolism of host plants, thereby increasing plant growth and activating plant defense to various diseases. Target metabolite profiling approach was selected to demonstrate that Trichoderma longibrachiatum isolated from desert soil can confer beneficial agronomic traits to onion and induce defense mechanism against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepa (FOC), through triggering a number of primary and secondary metabolite pathways. Onion seeds primed with Trichoderma T1 strain displayed early seedling emergence and enhanced growth compared with Trichoderma T2-treatment and untreated control. Therefore, T1 was selected for further investigations under greenhouse conditions, which revealed remarkable improvement in the onion bulb growth parameters and resistance against FOC. The metabolite platform of T1-primed onion (T1) and T1-primed onion challenged with FOC (T1+FOC) displayed significant accumulation of 25 abiotic and biotic stress-responsive metabolites, representing carbohydrate, phenylpropanoid and sulfur assimilation metabolic pathways. In addition, T1- and T1+FOC-treated onion plants showed discrete antioxidant capacity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) compared with control. Our findings demonstrated the contribution of T. longibrachiatum to the accumulation of key metabolites, which subsequently leads to the improvement of onion growth, as well as its resistance to oxidative stress and FOC.

  9. Dissection of Trichoderma longibrachiatum-induced defense in onion (Allium cepa L.) against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepa by target metabolite profiling.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Abdel-Motaal, Fatma; El-Sayed, Magdi; Jogaiah, Sudisha; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Ito, Shin-ichi; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-05-01

    Trichoderma spp. are versatile opportunistic plant symbionts that can cause substantial changes in the metabolism of host plants, thereby increasing plant growth and activating plant defense to various diseases. Target metabolite profiling approach was selected to demonstrate that Trichoderma longibrachiatum isolated from desert soil can confer beneficial agronomic traits to onion and induce defense mechanism against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepa (FOC), through triggering a number of primary and secondary metabolite pathways. Onion seeds primed with Trichoderma T1 strain displayed early seedling emergence and enhanced growth compared with Trichoderma T2-treatment and untreated control. Therefore, T1 was selected for further investigations under greenhouse conditions, which revealed remarkable improvement in the onion bulb growth parameters and resistance against FOC. The metabolite platform of T1-primed onion (T1) and T1-primed onion challenged with FOC (T1+FOC) displayed significant accumulation of 25 abiotic and biotic stress-responsive metabolites, representing carbohydrate, phenylpropanoid and sulfur assimilation metabolic pathways. In addition, T1- and T1+FOC-treated onion plants showed discrete antioxidant capacity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) compared with control. Our findings demonstrated the contribution of T. longibrachiatum to the accumulation of key metabolites, which subsequently leads to the improvement of onion growth, as well as its resistance to oxidative stress and FOC. PMID:26993243

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhiza improves yield and nutritional properties of onion (Allium cepa).

    PubMed

    Rozpądek, Piotr; Rąpała-Kozik, Maria; Wężowicz, Katarzyna; Grandin, Anna; Karlsson, Stefan; Ważny, Rafał; Anielska, Teresa; Turnau, Katarzyna

    2016-10-01

    Improving the nutritional value of commonly cultivated crops is one of the most pending problems for modern agriculture. In natural environments plants associate with a multitude of fungal microorganisms that improve plant fitness. The best described group are arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These fungi have been previously shown to improve the quality and yield of several common crops. In this study we tested the potential utilization of Rhizophagus irregularis in accelerating growth and increasing the content of important dietary phytochemicals in onion (Allium cepa). Our results clearly indicate that biomass production, the abundance of vitamin B1 and its analogues and organic acid concentration can be improved by inoculating the plant with AM fungi. We have shown that improved growth is accompanied with up-regulated electron transport in PSII and antioxidant enzyme activity.

  11. Controlled green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata with strong antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahni, Geetika; Panwar, Amit; Kaur, Balpreet

    2015-02-01

    A controlled "green synthesis" approach to synthesize silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata plant extract has been reported. The effect of different process parameters, such as pH, temperature and time, on synthesis of Ag nanoparticles from plant extracts has been highlighted. The work reports an easy approach to control the kinetics of interaction of metal ions with reducing agents, stabilized by ammonia to achieve sub-10 nm particles with narrow size distribution. The nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-Visible spectra and TEM analysis. Excellent antimicrobial activity at extremely low concentration of the nanoparticles was observed against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Fusarium oxysporum which may allow their exploitation as a new generation nanoproduct in biomedical and agricultural applications.

  12. Cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of sewage sludge on Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Corrêa Martins, Maria Nilza; de Souza, Victor Ventura; da Silva Souza, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic potential of sewage sludge using Allium cepa bioassay. Solubilized and crude sludge from two sewage treatment stations (STSs), herein named JM and M, were tested. In addition, sanitized, crude and solubilized sludge were also analyzed from STS M. The treatments showed positive response to phytotoxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and/or mutagenicity. Despite negative results for MN F1 (micronuclei counted in F1 root cells, derived from meristematic cells), the monitoring of genotoxic and mutagenic activities of sewage sludge are recommended because in agricultural areas this residue is applied in large scale and continuously. Based on our results we advise caution in the use of sewage sludge in agricultural soils. PMID:26841290

  13. Allium cepa and Tradescantia pallida bioassays to evaluate effects of the insecticide imidacloprid.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Yadira Ansoar; Christofoletti, Cintya Ap; Pedro, Janaína; Bueno, Odair Correa; Malaspina, Osmar; Ferreira, Rafael Alexandre Costa; Fontanetti, Carmem S

    2015-02-01

    The indiscriminate use of pesticides has become a serious environmental concern. Of them, imidacloprid (IMI) is one of the most widely used worldwide. In 2010 in Brazil, 1.934 tonnes of IMI were sold and mainly used for sugarcane crops. Several studies have examined the toxicity of IMI as well as its possible ecological effects. However, few studies have examined its toxicity at the genetic level. This is one of the biggest challenges for the scientific community, which is concerned about the impacts of these contaminants on the environment and human health. In this study, we evaluated the effects of IMI above the genetic material in Allium cepa and Tradescantia pallida following exposure to different concentrations of this insecticide. The results demonstrated that the concentrations tested induced chromosomal alterations and increased the frequency of micronuclei. Therefore, IMI in these concentrations was genotoxic to the tested organisms. These factors should be taken into account when applying this pesticide. PMID:25225953

  14. Induction of microtubule damage in Allium cepa meristematic cells by pharmaceutical formulations of thiabendazole and griseofulvin.

    PubMed

    Andrioli, Nancy B; Soloneski, Sonia; Larramendy, Marcelo L; Mudry, Marta D

    2014-09-15

    Microtubules (MT) are formed by the assembly of α- and β-tubulins and MT-associated proteins. We characterized the effects of pharmaceutical formulations containing the microtubule disruptors thiabendazole (TBZ) and griseofulvin (GF) on the mitotic machinery of plant (A. cepa) meristematic cells. GF concentrations between 10 and 250 μg/ml were tested. GF induced mitotic index inhibition and genotoxic effects, including chromosome fragments, bridges, lagged chromosomes, C-metaphases, tripolar cell division, disorganized anaphases and nuclear abnormalities in interphase cells. Efects on the mitotic machinery were studied by direct immunofluorescence with β-tubulin labeling and by DNA counterstaining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Exposure of meristematic root cells to TBZ or GF, 100 μg/ml, caused microtubular damage which led to abnormal MT arrays. Our results suggest that GF induces abnormalities in spindle symmetry/polarity, while TBZ causes chromosome missegregation, polyploidy, and lack of cytokinesis.

  15. Evaluation of cytogenotoxic effects of cold aqueous extract from Achyrocline satureioides by Allium cepa L test.

    PubMed

    Sabini, María C; Cariddi, Laura N; Escobara, Franco M; Bachetti, Romina A; Sutil, Sonia B; Contigiani, Marta S; Zanon, Silvia M; Sabini, Liliana I

    2011-07-01

    Achyrocline satureioides ("marcela del campo") is native to America. Numerous investigations have reported several bioactive properties such as anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial and antiviral. Nowadays, few medicinal plants have been scientifically evaluated to test its safety, efficacy and potential benefits, despite the great public interest in these herbs. The aim of this work was to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic activities of cold aqueous extract obtained from A. satureioides using Allium cepa L test. The results demonstrated the absence of genotoxicity of the extract. Only higher concentrations induced cytotoxicity but interestingly this effect was reversible and was not associated with mutagenicity. The contribution of this research provides assurance of safety in the application of Achyrocline satureioides in treatment of microbial diseases and other pathologies helping to define selective toxicity.

  16. Economical and environmentally-friendly approaches for usage of onion (Allium cepa L.) waste.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kavita; Mahato, Neelima; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Lee, Eul Tal; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-08-10

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most commonly cultivated crops across the globe, and its production is increasing every year due to increasing consumer demand. Simultaneously, huge amounts of waste are produced from different parts of the onion, which ultimately affect the environment in various ways. Hence, proper usage as well as disposal of this waste is important from the environmental aspect. This review summarizes various usage methods of onion waste material, and processes involved to achieve maximum benefits. Processing industries produce the largest amount of onion waste. Other sources are storage systems, domestic usage and cultivation fields. Particular emphasis has been given to the methods used for better extraction and usage of onion waste under specific topics: viz. organic synthesis, production of biogas, absorbent for pollutants and value added products. PMID:27457732

  17. Arbuscular mycorrhiza improves yield and nutritional properties of onion (Allium cepa).

    PubMed

    Rozpądek, Piotr; Rąpała-Kozik, Maria; Wężowicz, Katarzyna; Grandin, Anna; Karlsson, Stefan; Ważny, Rafał; Anielska, Teresa; Turnau, Katarzyna

    2016-10-01

    Improving the nutritional value of commonly cultivated crops is one of the most pending problems for modern agriculture. In natural environments plants associate with a multitude of fungal microorganisms that improve plant fitness. The best described group are arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These fungi have been previously shown to improve the quality and yield of several common crops. In this study we tested the potential utilization of Rhizophagus irregularis in accelerating growth and increasing the content of important dietary phytochemicals in onion (Allium cepa). Our results clearly indicate that biomass production, the abundance of vitamin B1 and its analogues and organic acid concentration can be improved by inoculating the plant with AM fungi. We have shown that improved growth is accompanied with up-regulated electron transport in PSII and antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID:27318800

  18. Cytotoxicity of Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings on Allim cepa L root meristems.

    PubMed

    Moura, A G; Santana, G M; Ferreira, P M P; Sousa, J M C; Peron, A P

    2016-06-01

    Despite their great importance for the food industry, flavorings, in general, raise a number of questions regarding their cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, since, in the literature, there are few studies found evaluating the toxicity on the systemic and cellular level, of these chemical compounds. The root meristems of Allium cepa (onion) are widely used for the assessment of toxicity of chemical compounds of interest. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate, in A. cepa meristematic cells, individually and in combination at the cellular level, the toxicity of synthetic Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings, identical to the natural, at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 mL, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. In combination we used 0.5 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 0.5 mL of Cheddar flavor; and 1.0 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 1.0 mL of Cheddar flavor, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. For these evaluations, we used groups of five onion bulbs, which were first embedded in distilled water and then transferred to their respective doses. The root tips were collected and fixed in acetic acid (3:1) for 24 hours. The slides were prepared by crushing and were stained with 2% acetic orcein. Cells were analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control and exposure time. The mitotic indices calculated and cellular aberrations observed were subjected to statistical analysis using the chi-square test (p <0.05). No chromosomal abnormalities nor those of mitotic spindle were observed for the treatments performed. The results, both individually and in combination, showed that the flavorings under study significantly reduced the cell division rate of the test system cells used. Therefore, under the conditions studied, the two flavorings were cytotoxic. PMID:26959949

  19. Molecular and Functional Characterization of FLOWERING LOCUS T Homologs in Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Han, Jeong Suk Hyeon; Vijayakumar, Harshavardhanan; Subramani, Boopathi; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Park, Jong-In; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Onion bulbing is an important agricultural trait affecting economic value and is regulated by flowering-related genes. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like gene function is crucial for the initiation of flowering in various plant species and also in asexual reproduction in tuber plants. By employing various computational analysis using RNA-Seq data, we identified eight FT-like genes (AcFT) encoding PEBP (phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein) domains in Allium cepa. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of FT-like proteins revealed six proteins that were identical to previously reported AcFT1-6 proteins, as well as one (AcFT7) with a highly conserved region shared with AcFT6 and another (comp106231) with low similarity to MFT protein, but containing a PEBP domain. Homology modelling of AcFT7 proteins showed similar structures and conservation of amino acids crucial for function in AtFT (Arabidopsis) and Hd3a (rice), with variation in the C-terminal region. Further, we analyzed AcFT expression patterns in different transitional stages, as well as under SD (short-day), LD (long-day), and drought treatment in two contrasting genotypic lines EM (early maturation, 36101) and LM (late maturation, 36122). The FT transcript levels were greatly affected by various environmental factors such as photoperiod, temperature and drought. Our results suggest that AcFT7 is a member of the FT-like genes in Allium cepa and may be involved in regulation of onion bulbing, similar to other FT genes. In addition, AcFT4 and AcFT7 could be involved in establishing the difference in timing of bulb maturity between the two contrasting onion lines. PMID:26891287

  20. Synergistic effect of isopropanol on induction of mitotic aberrations in Allium cepa

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, S.; Meier, J.R.; Smith, M.K.; Torsella, J.

    1995-12-31

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls and several other organic and inorganic compounds was remediated by treatment with a mobile solvent extraction system. The genotoxicity of the soil, as measured by the induction of anaphase aberrations in Allium cepa root tip cells, increased after the remediation process. This increase appeared to be due to synergism between the residual solvent and genotoxic components not removed by the solvent extraction process. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether isopropanol, at concentrations similar to residual amounts following remediation, induced a synergistic response with the known clastogen, 4-nitroquinoline n-oxide (4-NQO). Bulblets of Allium cepa (common onion) were exposed for 24 h to varying concentrations of isopropanol combined with 0.10 mg/14-NQO in aqueous solution. The root tips were examined for mitotic index (MI), and cells in late anaphase/early telophase were scored for mitotic aberrations (MA, i.e., bridges, fragments, and lagging chromosomes). MI and MA frequencies were transformed by the arcsin square root function prior to statistical analysis (ANOVA). Isopropanol by itself did not induce MA and did not affect the Ml, either alone or in combination with 4-NQO. However, isopropanol enhanced the 4-NQO induced MA response by 1.4 fold at 1.0 mg/ml (p-value = 0.13) and 2.0 fold at 1.2 mg/ml (p-value = 0.006). Lower concentrations of 0.3 and 0.1 mg/ml isopropanol had no effect. The results demonstrate that residual solvents can increase the genotoxicity of soils, presumably as a result of enhancing the bioavailability of genotoxic components.

  1. Synergistic effect of isopropanol on induction of mitotic aberrations in Allium cepa

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, S.; Meier, J.R.; Smith, M.K.

    1995-12-31

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls and several other organic and inorganic compounds was remediated by treatment with a mobile solvent extraction system. The genotoxicity of the soil, as measured by the induction of anaphase aberrations in Allium cepa root tip cells, increased after the remediation process. This increase appeared to be due to synergism between the residual solvent and genotoxic components not removed by the solvent extraction process. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether isopropanol, at concentrations similar to residual amounts following remediation, induced a synergistic response with the known clastogen, 4-nitroquinoline n-oxide (4-NQO). Bulblets of Allium cepa (common onion) were exposed for 24 h to varying concentrations of isopropanol combined with 0.10 g/l 4-NQO in aqueous solution. The root tips were examined for mitotic index (MI), and cells in late anaphase/early telophase were scored for mitotic aberrations. MI and MA frequencies were transformed by the arcsin square root function prior to statistical analysis (ANOVA). Isopropanol by itself did not induce MA and did not affect the MI, either alone or in combination with 4-NQO. However, isopropanol enhanced the 4-NQO-induced MA response by 1.4 fold at 1.0 mg/ml (p-value = 0.13) and 2.0 fold at 1.2 mg/ml (p-value = 0.006). Lower concentrations of 0.3 and 0.1 mg/ml isopropanol had no effect. The results demonstrate that residual solvents can increase the genotoxicity of soils, presumably as a result of enhancing the bioavailability of genotoxic components.

  2. Cytotoxicity of Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings on Allim cepa L root meristems.

    PubMed

    Moura, A G; Santana, G M; Ferreira, P M P; Sousa, J M C; Peron, A P

    2016-06-01

    Despite their great importance for the food industry, flavorings, in general, raise a number of questions regarding their cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, since, in the literature, there are few studies found evaluating the toxicity on the systemic and cellular level, of these chemical compounds. The root meristems of Allium cepa (onion) are widely used for the assessment of toxicity of chemical compounds of interest. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate, in A. cepa meristematic cells, individually and in combination at the cellular level, the toxicity of synthetic Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings, identical to the natural, at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 mL, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. In combination we used 0.5 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 0.5 mL of Cheddar flavor; and 1.0 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 1.0 mL of Cheddar flavor, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. For these evaluations, we used groups of five onion bulbs, which were first embedded in distilled water and then transferred to their respective doses. The root tips were collected and fixed in acetic acid (3:1) for 24 hours. The slides were prepared by crushing and were stained with 2% acetic orcein. Cells were analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control and exposure time. The mitotic indices calculated and cellular aberrations observed were subjected to statistical analysis using the chi-square test (p <0.05). No chromosomal abnormalities nor those of mitotic spindle were observed for the treatments performed. The results, both individually and in combination, showed that the flavorings under study significantly reduced the cell division rate of the test system cells used. Therefore, under the conditions studied, the two flavorings were cytotoxic.

  3. Biochemical and genetic analysis of carbohydrate accumulation in Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Shigenori; McCallum, John; Shaw, Martin; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Onodera, Shuichi; Shiomi, Norio; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2008-05-01

    Onion and shallot (Allium cepa L.) exhibit wide variation in bulb fructan content, and the Frc locus on chromosome 8 conditions much of this variation. To understand the biochemical basis of Frc, we conducted biochemical and genetic analyses of Allium fistulosum (FF)-shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group) alien monosomic addition lines (AALs; FF+1A-FF+8A) and onion mapping populations. Sucrose and fructan levels in leaves of FF+2A were significantly lower than in FF throughout the year, and the springtime activity of acid invertase was also lower. FF+8A showed significantly higher winter sucrose accumulation and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity. Inbred high fructan (Frc_) lines from the 'W202Ax Texas Grano 438' onion population exhibited significantly higher sucrose levels prior to bulbing than low fructan (frcfrc) lines. Sucrose synthase (SuSy) activity in these lines was correlated with leaf hexose content but not with Frc phenotype. Markers for additional candidate genes for sucrose metabolism were obtained by cloning a major SPS expressed in onion leaf and exhaustively mining onion expressed sequence tag resources. SPS and SuSy loci were assigned to chromosome 8 and 6, respectively, using AALs and linkage mapping. Further loci were assigned, using AALs, to chromosomes 1 (sucrose phosphate phosphatase), 2 (SuSy and three invertases) and 8 (neutral invertase). The concordance between chromosome 8 localization of SPS and elevated leaf sucrose levels conditioned by high fructan alleles at the Frc locus in bulb onion or alien monosomic additions of chromosome 8 in A. fistulosum suggest that the Frc locus may condition variation in SPS activity. PMID:18372295

  4. Biochemical and genetic analysis of carbohydrate accumulation in Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Shigenori; McCallum, John; Shaw, Martin; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Onodera, Shuichi; Shiomi, Norio; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2008-05-01

    Onion and shallot (Allium cepa L.) exhibit wide variation in bulb fructan content, and the Frc locus on chromosome 8 conditions much of this variation. To understand the biochemical basis of Frc, we conducted biochemical and genetic analyses of Allium fistulosum (FF)-shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group) alien monosomic addition lines (AALs; FF+1A-FF+8A) and onion mapping populations. Sucrose and fructan levels in leaves of FF+2A were significantly lower than in FF throughout the year, and the springtime activity of acid invertase was also lower. FF+8A showed significantly higher winter sucrose accumulation and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity. Inbred high fructan (Frc_) lines from the 'W202Ax Texas Grano 438' onion population exhibited significantly higher sucrose levels prior to bulbing than low fructan (frcfrc) lines. Sucrose synthase (SuSy) activity in these lines was correlated with leaf hexose content but not with Frc phenotype. Markers for additional candidate genes for sucrose metabolism were obtained by cloning a major SPS expressed in onion leaf and exhaustively mining onion expressed sequence tag resources. SPS and SuSy loci were assigned to chromosome 8 and 6, respectively, using AALs and linkage mapping. Further loci were assigned, using AALs, to chromosomes 1 (sucrose phosphate phosphatase), 2 (SuSy and three invertases) and 8 (neutral invertase). The concordance between chromosome 8 localization of SPS and elevated leaf sucrose levels conditioned by high fructan alleles at the Frc locus in bulb onion or alien monosomic additions of chromosome 8 in A. fistulosum suggest that the Frc locus may condition variation in SPS activity.

  5. The identification and analysis of the sequences that allow the detection of Allium cepa chromosomes by GISH in the allodiploid A. wakegi.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Fukashi; Hizume, Masahiro

    2002-09-01

    In Allium wakegi, which is an allodiploid species between Allium cepa and Allium fistulosum, each genome can be clearly distinguished using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Genomic DNA of A. cepa and A. fistulosum is differentiated both qualitatively and quantitatively. We wanted to isolate nucleotide sequences that give genome-specific signals on A. cepa chromosomes in GISH experiments in A. wakegi. We isolated 23 clones that show GISH-like signal patterns in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and analyzed their distribution in the A. cepa- and A. fistulosum-derived genomes of A. wakegi. There was considerable variation in the abundance and distribution of these cloned sequences on the chromosomes of the two species. The degree of A. cepa specificity varied among the clones. Twenty-two of the clones showed an even distribution over most chromosome arms with some clustering in the pericentromeric regions, but one clone showed very distinct terminal signals on some chromosomes. Whereas these sequences are not specific for A. cepa, changes in bases in nucleotide sequences and in their amount result in genome-specific characteristics in GISH experiments. PMID:12355208

  6. Mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of aqueous extract of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on meristematic cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Felicidade, I; Lima, J D; Pesarini, J R; Monreal, A C D; Mantovani, M S; Ribeiro, L R; Oliveira, R J

    2014-11-28

    Polyphenolic compounds present in rosemary were found to have antioxidant properties, anticarcinogenic activity, and to increase the detoxification of pro-carcinogens. The aim of the study was to determine the effect the aqueous extract of rosemary (AER) on mutagenicity induced by methylmethane sulfonate in meristematic cells of Allium cepa, as well as to describe its mode of action. Anti-mutagenicity experiments were carried out with 3 different concentrations of AER, which alone showed no mutagenic effects. In antimutagenicity experiments, AER showed chemopreventive activity in cultured meristematic cells of A. cepa against exposure to methylmethane sulfonate. Additionally, post-treatment and simultaneous treatment using pre-incubation protocols were the most effective. Evaluation of different protocols and the percent reduction in DNA indicated bioantimutagenic as well desmutagenic modes of action for AER. AER may be chemopreventive and antimutagenic.

  7. Mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of aqueous extract of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on meristematic cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Felicidade, I; Lima, J D; Pesarini, J R; Monreal, A C D; Mantovani, M S; Ribeiro, L R; Oliveira, R J

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds present in rosemary were found to have antioxidant properties, anticarcinogenic activity, and to increase the detoxification of pro-carcinogens. The aim of the study was to determine the effect the aqueous extract of rosemary (AER) on mutagenicity induced by methylmethane sulfonate in meristematic cells of Allium cepa, as well as to describe its mode of action. Anti-mutagenicity experiments were carried out with 3 different concentrations of AER, which alone showed no mutagenic effects. In antimutagenicity experiments, AER showed chemopreventive activity in cultured meristematic cells of A. cepa against exposure to methylmethane sulfonate. Additionally, post-treatment and simultaneous treatment using pre-incubation protocols were the most effective. Evaluation of different protocols and the percent reduction in DNA indicated bioantimutagenic as well desmutagenic modes of action for AER. AER may be chemopreventive and antimutagenic. PMID:25501210

  8. Hospital waste incinerator bottom ash leachate induced cyto-genotoxicity in Allium cepa and reproductive toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Akinbola, Temitayo I; Adeyemi, Adetutu; Morenikeji, Olajumoke A; Bakare, Adekunle A; Alimba, Chibuisi G

    2011-07-01

    The potentials of hospital incinerator bottom ash leachate (HIBAL) to induce cyto-genotoxicity in Allium cepa and reproductive anomalies in the mouse were investigated. The leachate obtained from simulation of the bottom ash was analyzed for some physico-chemical parameters. The A. cepa, mouse sperm morphology and histopathological tests were carried out at concentrations ranging from 1% to 50% of the leachate sample. In A. cepa, HIBAL caused significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of root growth and induction of chromosomal aberrations. In the animal assays, there was 100% mortality at the 50% concentrations. The leachate caused insignificant (p > 0.05) concentration-dependent induction of various types of sperm morphology. There was accumulation of fluid in the seminiferous tubule lumen and necrosis of stem cells in the testes. These effects were believed to be provoked by the somatic and germ cell genotoxins, particularly the heavy metals in the leachate. Our finding is of environmental and public health significance. PMID:21343229

  9. Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of industrial effluents originated from different industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Pathiratne, Asoka; Hemachandra, Chamini K; De Silva, Nimal

    2015-12-01

    Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of treated effluents originated from four types of industrial activities (two textile industries, three rubber based industries, two common treatment plants of industrial zones, and two water treatment plants) was assessed. Physico-chemical parameters including the heavy metal/metalloid levels of the effluents varied depending on the industry profile, but most of the measured parameters in the effluents were within the specified tolerance limits of Sri Lankan environmental regulations for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. In the A. cepa test system, the undiluted effluents induced statistically significant root growth retardation, mitosis depression, and chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in most cases in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water signifying effluent induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Ethyl methane sulphonate (a mutagen, positive control) and all the effluents under 1:8 dilution significantly induced total chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water indicating inadequacy of expected 1:8 dilutions in the receiving waters for curtailing genotoxic impacts. The results support the use of a practically feasible A. cepa test system for rapid screening of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of diverse industrial effluents discharging into inland surface waters. PMID:26547320

  10. Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of industrial effluents originated from different industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Pathiratne, Asoka; Hemachandra, Chamini K; De Silva, Nimal

    2015-12-01

    Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of treated effluents originated from four types of industrial activities (two textile industries, three rubber based industries, two common treatment plants of industrial zones, and two water treatment plants) was assessed. Physico-chemical parameters including the heavy metal/metalloid levels of the effluents varied depending on the industry profile, but most of the measured parameters in the effluents were within the specified tolerance limits of Sri Lankan environmental regulations for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. In the A. cepa test system, the undiluted effluents induced statistically significant root growth retardation, mitosis depression, and chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in most cases in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water signifying effluent induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Ethyl methane sulphonate (a mutagen, positive control) and all the effluents under 1:8 dilution significantly induced total chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water indicating inadequacy of expected 1:8 dilutions in the receiving waters for curtailing genotoxic impacts. The results support the use of a practically feasible A. cepa test system for rapid screening of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of diverse industrial effluents discharging into inland surface waters.

  11. Determination of genotoxic effects of Imazethapyr herbicide in Allium cepa root cells by mitotic activity, chromosome aberration, and comet assay.

    PubMed

    Liman, Recep; Ciğerci, İbrahim Hakkı; Öztürk, Nur Serap

    2015-02-01

    Imazethapyr (IM) is an imidazolinone herbicide that is currently used for broad-spectrum weed control in soybean and other legume crops. In this study, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of IM were investigated by using mitotic index (MI), mitotic phases, chromosomal abnormalities (CAs) and DNA damage on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa. In Allium root growth inhibition test, EC50 value was determined as 20 ppm, and 0.5xEC50, EC50 and 2xEC50 concentrations of IM herbicide were introduced to onion tuber roots. Distilled water and methyl methane sulfonate (MMS, 10 mg/L) were used as a negative and positive control, respectively. As A. cepa cell cycle is 24 hours, so, application process was carried out for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. All the applied doses decreased MIs compared to control group and these declines were found to be statistically meaningful. Analysis of the chromosomes showed that 10 ppm IM except for 48 h induced CAs but 40 ppm IM except for 72 h decreased CAs. DNA damage was found significantly higher in 20 and 40 ppm of IM compared to the control in comet assay. These results indicated that IM herbicide exhibits cytotoxic activity but not genotoxic activity (except 10 ppm) and induced DNA damage in a dose dependent manner in A. cepa root meristematic cells. PMID:25752428

  12. Regulatory Forum opinion piece: image analysis-based cell proliferation studies using electronic images: the CEPA industry working group's proposal.

    PubMed

    Dölemeyer, Arno; Mudry, Maria Cristina De Vera; Kohler, Manfred; Schorsch, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    Electronic images of histopathological changes are commonly and increasingly used in toxicologic pathology for morphological evaluation, illustration, peer review, or reporting. Toxicity studies in which cell proliferation is an end point are also pivotal in determining the carcinogenic potential of new molecules. In this article, we describe the approach of the European Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis working group (CEPA) for performing cell proliferation studies and morphometry using electronic images. The Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) has published a position statement on handling of pathology image data in compliance with 21 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts 58 and 11. CEPA supports the STP position and shares the issues involved in the use of electronic images in pathology. However, considering the experience and current know-how of members, particularly in conducting cell proliferation studies, CEPA would like to recommend in this article that electronic images acquired using state-of-the-art slide imaging techniques, including whole slide scanning, need not be considered as raw data, and therefore are not subject to 21 CFR Parts 58 and 11 regulations for archiving. In this article, we detail the reasons why we come to this proposal and we describe the measures that are taken to ensure Good Laboratory Practice-compliant execution of cell proliferation studies that include acquisition and validation of imaging and image analysis systems, development and validation of methods for their intended use, formulation, and use of standard operating procedures.

  13. Screening and incorporation of rust resistance from Allium cepa into bunching onion (Allium fistulosum) via alien chromosome addition.

    PubMed

    Wako, Tadayuki; Yamashita, Ken-ichiro; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Ohara, Takayoshi; Kojima, Akio; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Shimazaki, Satoshi; Midorikawa, Naoko; Sakai, Takako; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2015-04-01

    Bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.; 2n = 16), bulb onion (Allium cepa L. Common onion group), and shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) cultivars were inoculated with rust fungus, Puccinia allii, isolated from bunching onion. Bulb onions and shallots are highly resistant to rust, suggesting they would serve as useful resources for breeding rust resistant bunching onions. To identify the A. cepa chromosome(s) related to rust resistance, a complete set of eight A. fistulosum - shallot monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) were inoculated with P. allii. At the seedling stage, FF+1A showed a high level of resistance in controlled-environment experiments, suggesting that the genes related to rust resistance could be located on shallot chromosome 1A. While MAAL, multi-chromosome addition line, and hypoallotriploid adult plants did not exhibit strong resistance to rust. In contrast to the high resistance of shallot, the addition line FF+1A+5A showed reproducibly high levels of rust resistance. PMID:26218854

  14. Chromosome aberration and micronucleus frequencies in Allium cepa cells exposed to petroleum polluted water--a case study.

    PubMed

    Leme, Daniela Morais; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2008-01-31

    In the present study, we applied Chromosome Aberration (CA) and Micronucleus (MN) tests to Allium cepa root cells, in order to evaluate the water quality of Guaecá river. This river, located in the city of São Sebastião, SP, Brazil, had been affected by an oil pipeline leak. Chemical analyses of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also carried out in water samples, collected in July 2005 (dry season) and February 2006 (rainy season) in 4 different river sites. The largest CA and MN incidence in the meristematic cells of A. cepa was observed after exposure to water sample collected during the dry season, at the spring of the river, where the oil leak has arisen. The F(1) cells from roots exposed to such sample (non-merismatic region) were also analyzed for the incidence of MN, showing a larger frequency of irregularities, indicating a possible development of CA into MN. Lastly, our study reveals a direct correlation between water chemical analyses (contamination by TPHs and PAHs) and both genotoxic and mutagenic effects observed in exposed A. cepa cells. PMID:18068420

  15. Effect of Allium cepa and Allium sativum on some immunological cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Mirabeau, Tatfeng Y; Samson, Enitan S

    2012-01-01

    Extracts of some spices have been reported to play a contributory role in enhancing immune function. We evaluated and compared the effect(s) of single and combined oral administration of fresh aqueous onion (Allium cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts at different concentrations on some immunological determinants in rats. CD₄ cells of the rats were estimated using Partec flow cytometric technique, while total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts were estimated using the Sysmsex® automated haematology analyzing technique. Our findings revealed that, CD4 and total WBC counts were significantly increased (P≤0.05) in a dose-dependent manner in both onion (250mg/Kg/d: 349±11cell/ul and 2.75±0.15X10³cell/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 389±10cells/µl and 3.05±0.05 X10³cell/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 600±11cell/µl and 3.25±0.05X10³cells/l) and garlic (250mg/Kg/d: 410±10cell/ul and 2.85±0.15X10³cell/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 494±32cells/µl and 3.30±0.10 X10³cell/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 684±11cell/µl and 3.55±0.05X10³cells/l) treated rats when compared to the zero control (200±11cells/µl and 1.55±0.05X10³cells/l, respectively). Extract of garlic at 750mg/Kg/d had significantly increased the CD4 cells and total white cell count when compared to other concentrations (P≤0.05). However, no significant effect was observed on these parameters when extracts were combined (250mg/Kg/d: 252±21cell/µl and 1.80±0.10X10³cells/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 315±21cells/ul and 2.10±0.10X10³cells/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 368±10cells/µl and 2.35±0.05X10³cells/l, respectively), the differential WBC count showed a significant increase in the proportion of cell types (lymphocytes, neutophils and monocytes) (P≤0.05). The results from this study revealed the immune boosting capabilities of Allium cepa and Allium sativum, but underscored their synergistic activities. PMID:23983369

  16. Effect of different exposed lights on quercetin and quercetin glucoside content in onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Ko, Eun Young; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Sharma, Kavita; Li, Guan Hao; Park, Se Won

    2015-07-01

    Quercetin and quercetin glucosides are the major flavonols present in onion (Allium cepa L.) and are predominantly present as quercetin, quercetin-3,4'-diglucoside and quercetin-4'-glucoside. Effect of different light wavelengths on onion after harvest and storage, with fluorescent, blue, red and ultra violet light influenced the quercetin and quercetin glucosides profile. In a peeled onion, all the light treatments elevated quercetin content in bulb. Among them, particularly fluorescent light effect was more eminent which stimulates the maximum synthesis of quercetin in onion. In case of whole onion bulb, skin and pulp showed different responses to light treatment, respectively. The pulp had the highest quercetin glucosides under blue light, whereas the lowest under fluorescent light. Onion skin showed nearly opposite pattern as compared to the pulp. In particular, light treatment proved to be a better way to increase the level of quercetin content in onions which might be utilized for industrial production of bioactive compounds from onion and onion waste products.

  17. Cloning and functional identification of the AcLFY gene in Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cuicui; Ye, Yangyang; Song, Ce; Chen, Dian; Jiang, Baiwen; Wang, Yong

    2016-05-13

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the important vegetable crops in the world, usually with a two-year life cycle. The bulbs form in the first year after sowing, then bolting and flowering are induced by low temperature in the following year. Previous studies have shown that LEAFY gene is an inflorescence tissue specific gene, and that it is also the ultimate collection channel of all flowering pathway. In this study, using homologous gene cloning and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), we isolated an inflorescence meristem specific LEAFY cDNA, AcLFY (JX275962), from onion. AcLFY contains a 1119 bp open reading frame, which encodes a putative protein of 372 amino acids, with ∼70% homology to the daffodils LEAFY and >50% homology to LEAFY proteins from other higher plants. Fluorescence quantitative results showed that AcLFY gene has the highest expression level in inflorescence meristem during early bolting, and is still expressed in leaves after the formation of flower organs. Overexpression of AcLFY gene in Arabidopsis thaliana induced early bolting and flowering, whereas knockdown of the endogenous LEAFY gene by RNAi caused a significant delay in bolting. In addition, transgenic plants also exhibited significant morphological changes in rosette leaves, branches, and plant height. PMID:27074580

  18. Cytotoxicity and mode of action of maleic hydrazide in root tips of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Marcano, L; Carruyo, I; Del Campo, A; Montiel, X

    2004-02-01

    Maleic hydrazide (MH) is an herbicide and is a regulator of the growth of buds in vegetables during storage. It is used in agriculture-in despite its known effect as a mutagenic and clastogenic agent. In this research the effect of MH on the root tips of Allium cepa L. was determined; correlations between the effects of different concentrations and exposure times on the mitotic index (MI) and induction of chromosomal aberrations (ChA) were also examined. Experiments were carried out in triplicate, using aqueous solutions of MH to concentrations of 10(-6), 10(-5), 10(-4) and 10(-3)M, at intervals of 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h, with a control for each combination (with the MH substituted by distilled water). The results revealed an inhibition of the MI linked to the concentration and time of treatment (F=845.51, P<0.01 and F=427.58, P<0.01, respectively). For all the concentrations used and exposure periods longer than 12 h, different types of ChA were present, with significantly increased frequencies with increases in the concentration and time of exposure (P<0.01). To determine the mechanism through which the herbicide exerts its toxicity, ultrastructural electron microscopy was conducted. The results reveal nucleolar alterations, suggesting an inhibitory effect of biosynthetic activity. PMID:14757385

  19. Cytogenetic damage in shallot ( Allium cepa) root meristems induced by oil industry "high-density brines".

    PubMed

    Vidaković-Cifrek, Z; Pavlica, M; Regula, I; Papes, D

    2002-10-01

    Saturated water solutions of calcium chloride, calcium bromide (densities 1.30 kg x dm(-3) and 1.61 kg x dm(-3), respectively) and their 1:1 mixture have been commonly used as oil industry "high-density brines." In our experiment they were added to tap water in amounts appropriate to achieve concentrations of 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, and 0.1 mol x dm(-3) to study their cytotoxic effect on the root tip cells of shallot ( Allium cepa L. var. ascalonicum). All tested solutions in concentrations of 0.075 and 0.1 mol x dm(-3) caused significant inhibition of shallot root growth. CaBr (2) showed this effect in concentration 0.05 mol x dm(-3). The investigated solutions in all concentrations applied decreased mitotic activity in root tip cells. The most of mitotic abnormalities were the consequence of spindle failure and chromosome stickiness. Furthermore, the cell microtubules were investigated by indirect immunofluorescence to confirm that most abnormalities observed were the consequence of spindle failure. The present study, as well as previously done Lemna tests and Chlorella tests showed that investigated samples have certain effects on plants, so constant control of their presence in the environment is needed.

  20. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Allium cepa L. (Onion) Bulb to Identify Allergens and Epitopes.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Ramagoni, Ramesh Kumar; Anchoju, Vijayendra Chary; Vankudavath, Raju Naik; Syed, Arshi Uz Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Allium cepa (onion) is a diploid plant with one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploids. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop which has a complex heterozygous genome. There are no allergenic proteins and genomic data available for onions. This study was conducted to establish a transcriptome catalogue of onion bulb that will enable us to study onion related genes involved in medicinal use and allergies. Transcriptome dataset generated from onion bulb using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology showed a total of 99,074,309 high quality raw reads (~20 Gb). Based on sequence homology onion genes were categorized into 49 different functional groups. Most of the genes however, were classified under 'unknown' in all three gene ontology categories. Of the categorized genes, 61.2% showed metabolic functions followed by cellular components such as binding, cellular processes; catalytic activity and cell part. With BLASTx top hit analysis, a total of 2,511 homologous allergenic sequences were found, which had 37-100% similarity with 46 different types of allergens existing in the database. From the 46 contigs or allergens, 521 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. This is the first comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of onion bulb tissue using the NGS technology, which can be used to map IgE epitopes and prediction of structures and functions of various proteins. PMID:26284934

  1. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Hancornia speciosa latex in Allium cepa root model.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, T P; Sousa, T R; Arruda, A S; Peixoto, N; Gonçalves, P J; Almeida, L M

    2016-02-01

    The latex obtained from Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Mangabeira tree) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases, including diarrhea, ulcer, gastritis, tuberculosis, acne and warts. In this study, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects of H. speciosa latex on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa were examined. Onion bulbs were exposed to different concentrations of latex and then submitted to microscopic analysis using Giemsa stain. Water was used as a negative control and sodium azide as a positive control. The results showed that, under the testing conditions, the mitotic index (MI) of the onion roots submitted to latex treatment did not differ significantly from the negative control, which suggests that the latex is not cytotoxic. Low incidence of chromosome aberrations in the cells treated with H. speciosa latex was also observed, indicating that the latex does not have genotoxic effect either. The MI and the chromosome aberration frequency responded to the latex concentration, requiring more studies to evaluate the dosage effect on genotoxicity. The results indicate that in tested concentrations H. speciosa latex is probably not harmful to human health and may be potentially used in medicine. PMID:26909640

  2. The effects of onion (Allium cepa) extract on doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Alpsoy, Seref; Uygur, Ramazan; Aktas, Cevat; Topcu, Birol; Kanter, Mehmet; Erboga, Mustafa; Karakaya, Osman; Gedikbasi, Asuman

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of onion (Allium cepa) extracts (ACE) on doxorubicin (DOX)-induced apoptosis in aortic endothelial cells. The rats in the ACE-pretreated group were given a daily dose of 1 ml ACE for 14 days. To induce aortic endothelial cell apoptosis, DOX (30 mg kg(-1) body weight) was injected intraperitoneally by a single dose and the rats were sacrificed after 48 h. To date, no such studies have been performed on antiapoptotic potential of ACE on DOX-induced apoptosis in aortic endothelial cells. Our data indicate a significant reduction in the activity of in situ identification of apoptosis using terminal dUTP nick end-labeling in aortic endothelial cells of the DOX-treated group with ACE therapy. DOX-treated with ACE groups showed a significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels and increased levels of glutathione in comparison with the DOX-treated group. Data from our study show that prevention of endothelial cell apoptosis by ACE may contribute to the restoration of aortic endothelial dysfunction that is associated with DOX treatment.

  3. Pectic polysaccharide from immature onion stick (Allium cepa): structural and immunological investigation.

    PubMed

    Patra, Pradip; Sen, Ipsita K; Bhanja, Sunil K; Nandi, Ashis K; Samanta, Surajit; Das, Debsankar; Devi, K Sanjana P; Maiti, Tapas K; Islam, Syed S

    2013-01-30

    The structure of a water-soluble pectic polysaccharide (PS) isolated from immature onion stick (Allium cepa) was investigated using acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation study, and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, HSQC, and HMBC). The results of the above experiments indicated that the PS contained d-galactose, 6-O-Me-D-galactose, 3-O-acetyl-D-methyl galacturonate and D-methyl galacturonate in a molar ratio of nearly 1:1:1:1 and possesses a backbone of [→4)-α-D-GalpA6Me-(1→4)-α-D-GalpA6Me-(1→] in which one methyl galacturonate was substituted at O-3 position by an acetyl group and the neighboring methyl galacturonate being substituted at O-2 with a side chain, α-D-Galp-(1→4)-6-O-Me-β-D-Galp-(1→. The probable structure of repeating unit of the pectic polysaccharide was established as: [formula in text] The pectic polysaccharide showed in vitro splenocyte, thymocyte as well as macrophage activations.

  4. Toxicity mechanisms of onion (Allium cepa) extracts and compounds in multidrug resistant erythroleukemic cell line.

    PubMed

    Votto, Ana P S; Domingues, Beatriz S; de Souza, Michele M; da Silva Júnior, Flavio M R; Caldas, Sergiane S; Filgueira, Daza M V B; Clementin, Rosilene M; Primel, Ednei G; Vallochi, Adriana L; Furlong, Eliana B; Trindade, Gilma S

    2010-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) is being studied as a potential anticancer agent, but little is known regarding its effect in multidrug resistance (MDR) cells. In this work, the cytotoxicity of crude onion extract (OE) and fractioned extract (aqueous, methanolic and ethyl acetate), as well as some onion compounds (quercetin and propyl disulfide) were evaluated in Lucena MDR human erythroleukemic and its K562 parental cell line. The capacity of OE to induce apoptosis and/or necrosis in these cells, the possible participation of oxidative stress and DNA damage were also assessed. Similar sensitivities were obtained for both tumoral cells, however only OE caused significant effects in the cells. In K562 cells, a significant increase of apoptosis was verified while the Lucena cells experienced a significant increase of necrosis. An antioxidant capacity was verified for OE discarding oxidative damage. However, OE provoked similar significant DNA damage in both cell lines. Thus, the OE capacity to overcome the MDR phenotype suggests anti-MDR action of OE.

  5. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Allium cepa L. (Onion) Bulb to Identify Allergens and Epitopes.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Ramagoni, Ramesh Kumar; Anchoju, Vijayendra Chary; Vankudavath, Raju Naik; Syed, Arshi Uz Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Allium cepa (onion) is a diploid plant with one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploids. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop which has a complex heterozygous genome. There are no allergenic proteins and genomic data available for onions. This study was conducted to establish a transcriptome catalogue of onion bulb that will enable us to study onion related genes involved in medicinal use and allergies. Transcriptome dataset generated from onion bulb using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology showed a total of 99,074,309 high quality raw reads (~20 Gb). Based on sequence homology onion genes were categorized into 49 different functional groups. Most of the genes however, were classified under 'unknown' in all three gene ontology categories. Of the categorized genes, 61.2% showed metabolic functions followed by cellular components such as binding, cellular processes; catalytic activity and cell part. With BLASTx top hit analysis, a total of 2,511 homologous allergenic sequences were found, which had 37-100% similarity with 46 different types of allergens existing in the database. From the 46 contigs or allergens, 521 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. This is the first comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of onion bulb tissue using the NGS technology, which can be used to map IgE epitopes and prediction of structures and functions of various proteins.

  6. Structural analyses and immunomodulatory properties of fructo-oligosaccharides from onion (Allium cepa).

    PubMed

    Kumar, V Prasanna; Prashanth, K V Harish; Venkatesh, Y P

    2015-03-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) is an immune-boosting food rich in fructans. The major aim of this study is to characterize and investigate the immunomodulatory properties of onion fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). FOS was isolated from onion bulbs by hot 80% ethanol extraction (yield: ∼4.5 g/100 g fw) followed by gel permeation chromatography. NMR of onion FOS revealed unusual β-D-Glc terminal residue at the non-reducing end. TLC and ESI-MS analyses showed that onion FOS ranged from trisaccharides to hexasaccharides. Onion FOS (50 μg/mL) significantly increased (∼3-fold) the proliferation of mouse splenocytes/thymocytes vs. control. Further, onion FOS enhanced (∼2.5-fold) the production of nitric oxide by peritoneal exudates cells (PECs) from Wistar rats; intracellular free radicals production and phagocytic activity of isolated murine PECs were also augmented. Our structural and in vitro results indicate that onion FOS comprising of tri- to hexasaccharide units belongs to inulin-type fructans, and possess immunostimulatory activities towards murine lymphocytes and macrophages.

  7. Screening antibiotics: industrial research by CEPA and Merck in the 1950s.

    PubMed

    Jesús Santesmases, María

    2011-01-01

    This article is an account of a screening programme in search of new antibiotics established by CEPA (Comparñia Española de Penicilinas y Antibióticos) and Merck in Madrid in 1954. An exploration of the genealogy for such a programme, its narratives and practices, shows that the main inspiration for this programme was the factory system of production, on the one hand, and Selman Waksman's research agenda on microorganisms of the soil, on the other. In this article, the relationship between industrial production of antibiotics and the research program aimed at identifying new candidate drugs is examined. I suggest that this screening program in search of new antibiotics was organised like industrial manufacturing. The research objects and tools came, both materially and conceptually, from industrial production: a line of artisanship put together in order to obtain a product with the collaboration of every member of the production line. Following the style developed by Selman Waksman in Rutgers, the screening program evaluated samples manually, and the microbiological skills were enhanced with every test. The Madrid team's practice of applying instructions for use led to circulation of knowledge and practices, including research material and microbiological methods.

  8. SMA 850 micron Observations of CepA East -- Many Protostars, no Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogan, C. L.; Chandler, C. J.; Shirley, Y. L.; Hunter, T. R.; Sarma, A. P.

    2005-12-01

    We present high angular resolution (1'' to 2'') observations toward CepheusA-East taken with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) in its compact configuration. The observations were centered near 333, 343, 336.5, and 346.5 GHz; each with 2 GHz of bandwidth. With the high angular resolution afforded by the SMA, the previously identified single dish submm source has been resolved into a number of individual components. The strongest submm emission is detected in the vicinity of HW2 and a distinct submm source is also coincident with HW3c. Surprisingly few of the other cm-λ sources are coincident with distinct submm emission, while several submm cores are detected that are not coincident with cm-λ emission. Numerous molecular lines are detected toward the HW2 region and HW3c, including a wide range of organic molecules as is typical of hot cores. Compared to other hot cores observed with similar resolution, CepA-HW2 has unusually strong SO2, and weaker lines of organic species like methyl formate. The different molecular species show a wide range of kinematic behavior toward CepA, suggesting the presence of several distinct protostars and outflows in the vicinity of HW2. No evidence is seen for the rotating disk recently reported by Patel et al. (2005).

  9. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in diploid Allium fistulosum × A. cepa F1 hybrid onions.

    PubMed

    Lu, C C; Currah, L; Peffley, E B

    1989-03-01

    Procedures were developed for disinfestation of non-dormant basal plate tissue excised from field grown basal plate tissue of diploid Allium fistulosum × A. cepa F1 hybrid onions. Contamination levels varied with the season and vegetative development of plant material. Callus initiated from basal plate tissue and immature inflorescences of the F1 hybrids was maintained on a BDS-based medium containing 0.75 mg/l picloram and 2.0 mg/l BA. When this medium was supplemented with vitamins and glycine, and with proline at 2.5 gm/1, somatic embryos began to form. Their development continued on a BDS-based shoot promotion medium containing 0.03 mg/l picloram and 0.32 mg/l 2iP supplemented with vitamins, glycine and proline. Genotypes differed significantly in the numbers of structures regenerated. Plantlets from somatic embryos were rooted into BDS or half-strength BDS medium without growth substances and were successfully transferred to sterilized potting mix in plastic commercial corsage boxes. PMID:24240465

  10. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Allium cepa L. (Onion) Bulb to Identify Allergens and Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Ramagoni, Ramesh Kumar; Anchoju, Vijayendra Chary; Vankudavath, Raju Naik; Syed, Arshi Uz Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Allium cepa (onion) is a diploid plant with one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploids. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop which has a complex heterozygous genome. There are no allergenic proteins and genomic data available for onions. This study was conducted to establish a transcriptome catalogue of onion bulb that will enable us to study onion related genes involved in medicinal use and allergies. Transcriptome dataset generated from onion bulb using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology showed a total of 99,074,309 high quality raw reads (~20 Gb). Based on sequence homology onion genes were categorized into 49 different functional groups. Most of the genes however, were classified under 'unknown' in all three gene ontology categories. Of the categorized genes, 61.2% showed metabolic functions followed by cellular components such as binding, cellular processes; catalytic activity and cell part. With BLASTx top hit analysis, a total of 2,511 homologous allergenic sequences were found, which had 37–100% similarity with 46 different types of allergens existing in the database. From the 46 contigs or allergens, 521 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. This is the first comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of onion bulb tissue using the NGS technology, which can be used to map IgE epitopes and prediction of structures and functions of various proteins. PMID:26284934

  11. The evaluation of surface and wastewater genotoxicity using the Allium cepa test.

    PubMed

    Radić, Sandra; Stipanicev, Drazenka; Vujcić, Valerija; Rajcić, Marija Marijanović; Sirac, Sinisa; Pevalek-Kozlina, Branka

    2010-02-01

    Screening for mutagens in complex environmental mixtures, such as surface water or industrial wastewater, is gradually being accepted as a routine method in environmental monitoring programs. In the present work, the simplified Alliumcepa root assay was utilized to evaluate the possible cyto- and genotoxic effects of surface and wastewaters collected near the Sava River (Croatia) over a three-month monitoring period. Physicochemical characterization of the water samples included measurements of conductivity, chemical and biological oxygen demand, levels of suspended matter and salts, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. Morphological modifications of the A. cepa roots, inhibition of root growth, cell division and induction of mitotic and chromosomal aberrations were observed. The most highly polluted water samples (industrial effluents) caused an inhibition of root growth of over 50%, a decrease in the mitotic index of over 40%, and a considerable increase in chromosomal aberrations compared to the control. The measured biological effects of some water samples appeared related to the physicochemical characteristics. Therefore, mutagenicity/genotoxicity assays should be included, along with conventional chemical analysis, in water quality monitoring programs. Their use would allow the quantification of mutagenic hazards in surface and wastewaters. PMID:20018345

  12. Cytogenetic effects of styrene and styrene oxide on human lymphocytes and Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Linnainmaa, K; Meretoja, T; Sorsa, M; Vainio, H

    1978-01-01

    Styrene and styrene oxide induce cytogenetic effects already at very low concentrations (0.01% v/v or even less); the effects are similar in both in vitro human lymphocytes and in vivo onion root tip cells (Allium cepa L.). It is characteristic that styrene treatment is more potent in causing chromosome breakage in both systems. In Allium styrene induced inhibition of mitotic spindle action as revealed by a strong c-mitotic effect. Also the number of micronuclei and nuclear bridges increased in both test systems, especially after styrene oxide treatment. Furthermore, the metaphase chromosome morphology in the cells treated with styrene oxide was strongly affected. In both systems, chromosome destruction was observed, or else the chromosome material was decondensed and resulted in a characteristic fuzzy appearance of Allium chromosomes or a banded appearance of human lymphocyte chromosomes. A specific effect of styrene oxide on the chromosomal proteins is thus suggested. The data obtained from the autoradiographic studies with Allium support the idea that [7--3H] styrene oxide binds irreversibly to the cytoplasmic and nuclear macromolecules. PMID:734401

  13. Lamin-like analogues in plants: the characterization of NMCP1 in Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Ciska, Malgorzata; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Moreno Díaz de la Espina, Susana

    2013-04-01

    The nucleoskeleton of plants contains a peripheral lamina (also called plamina) and, even though lamins are absent in plants, their roles are still fulfilled in plant nuclei. One of the most intriguing topics in plant biology concerns the identity of lamin protein analogues in plants. Good candidates to play lamin functions in plants are the members of the NMCP (nuclear matrix constituent protein) family, which exhibit the typical tripartite structure of lamins. This paper describes a bioinformatics analysis and classification of the NMCP family based on phylogenetic relationships, sequence similarity and the distribution of conserved regions in 76 homologues. In addition, NMCP1 in the monocot Allium cepa characterized by its sequence and structure, biochemical properties, and subnuclear distribution and alterations in its expression throughout the root were identified. The results demonstrate that these proteins exhibit many similarities to lamins (structural organization, conserved regions, subnuclear distribution, and solubility) and that they may fulfil the functions of lamins in plants. These findings significantly advance understanding of the structural proteins of the plant lamina and nucleoskeleton and provide a basis for further investigation of the protein networks forming these structures. PMID:23378381

  14. A Mid-DESD Review: Key Findings and Ways Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wals, Arjen E. J.

    2009-01-01

    This article lists the key outcomes and recommendations of Phase I of the monitoring and evaluation of the DESD. Phase I focused on a review of the structures, provisions and conditions countries and regions have put in place in order to facilitate the development and implementation of ESD. The author also touches upon the constraints and…

  15. Cloning and characterization of the endogenous cephalosporinase gene, cepA, from Bacteroides fragilis reveals a new subgroup of Ambler class A beta-lactamases.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, M B; Parker, A C; Smith, C J

    1993-01-01

    Bacteroides fragilis CS30 is a clinical isolate resistant to high concentrations of benzylpenicillin and cephaloridine but not to cephamycin or penem antibiotics. beta-Lactam resistance is mediated by a chromosomally encoded cephalosporinase produced at a high level. The gene encoding this beta-lactamase was cloned from genomic libraries constructed in Escherichia coli and then mated with B. fragilis 638 for identification of ampicillin-resistant (Apr) strains. Apr transconjugants contained a nitrocefin-reactive protein with the physical and enzymatic properties of the original CS30 isolate. The beta-lactamase gene (cepA) was localized by deletion analysis and subcloned, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The 903-bp cepA open reading frame encoded a 300-amino-acid precursor protein (predicted molecular mass, 34,070 Da). A beta-lactamase-deficient mutant strain of B. fragilis 638 was constructed by insertional inactivation with the cepA gene of CS30, demonstrating strict functional homology between these chromosomal beta-lactamase genes. An extensive comparison of the CepA protein sequence by alignment with other beta-lactamases revealed the strict conservation of at least four elements common to Ambler class A. A further comparison of the CepA protein sequence with protein sequences of beta-lactamases from two other Bacteroides species indicated that they constitute their own distinct subgroup of class A beta-lactamases. Images PMID:8285623

  16. Effects of Mg{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, and Hg{sup 2+} on the nucleus and nucleolus in root tip cells of allium cepa

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D.; Jiang, W.; Wang, W.; Zhai, L.

    1995-11-01

    Metal toxicity in plants has been known for a long time. Much importance has increasingly been attached to the problems of metal pollution with the development of modern industry and agriculture. If metals in plants are accumulated to a large extent, it might seriously affect them. The cytological effects of cobalt and mercury have been studied in Allium cepa by documentation of c-mitosis. Also, the quantification of chromosome aberration in Vicia faba root-tip cells treated by magnesium sulphate and in Allium cepa by metyl mercury chloride and mercuric chloride has been reported. Cytological research on the poisoning effects of Mg, Co and Hg on the nuclei and nucleoli in root-tip cells of plants has hardly been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different concentrations of magnesium, cobalt and mercury ions on root growth, and on the nuclei and nucleoli of root tip cells of Allium-cepa. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Micronucleus and chromosome aberrations induced in onion (Allium cepa) by a petroleum refinery effluent and by river water that receives this effluent.

    PubMed

    Hoshina, Márcia M; Marin-Morales, Maria A

    2009-11-01

    In this study, micronucleus (MN) and chromosome aberration (CA) tests in Allium cepa (onion) were carried out in order to make a preliminary characterization of the water quality of the Atibaia River in an area that is under the influence of petroleum refinery and also to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatments used by the refinery. For these evaluations, seeds of A. cepa were germinated in waters collected in five different sites related with the refinery in ultra-pure water (negative control) and in methyl methanesulfonate solution (positive control). According to our results, we can suggest that even after the treatments (physicochemical, biological and stabilization pond) the final refinery effluent could induce chromosome aberrations and micronucleus in meristematic cells of A. cepa and that the discharge of the petroleum refinery effluents in the Atibaia River can interfere in the quality of this river. PMID:19647317

  18. Identification of pathogenicity‐related genes in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae

    PubMed Central

    Vágány, Viktória; Jackson, Alison C.; Harrison, Richard J.; Rainoni, Alessandro; Clarkson, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Pathogenic isolates of Fusarium oxysporum, distinguished as formae speciales (f. spp.) on the basis of their host specificity, cause crown rots, root rots and vascular wilts on many important crops worldwide. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) is particularly problematic to onion growers worldwide and is increasing in prevalence in the UK. We characterized 31 F. oxysporum isolates collected from UK onions using pathogenicity tests, sequencing of housekeeping genes and identification of effectors. In onion seedling and bulb tests, 21 isolates were pathogenic and 10 were non‐pathogenic. The molecular characterization of these isolates, and 21 additional isolates comprising other f. spp. and different Fusarium species, was carried out by sequencing three housekeeping genes. A concatenated tree separated the F. oxysporum isolates into six clades, but did not distinguish between pathogenic and non‐pathogenic isolates. Ten putative effectors were identified within FOC, including seven Secreted In Xylem (SIX) genes first reported in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Two highly homologous proteins with signal peptides and RxLR motifs (CRX1/CRX2) and a gene with no previously characterized domains (C5) were also identified. The presence/absence of nine of these genes was strongly related to pathogenicity against onion and all were shown to be expressed in planta. Different SIX gene complements were identified in other f. spp., but none were identified in three other Fusarium species from onion. Although the FOC SIX genes had a high level of homology with other f. spp., there were clear differences in sequences which were unique to FOC, whereas CRX1 and C5 genes appear to be largely FOC specific. PMID:26609905

  19. The role of gamma irradiation on the extraction of phenolic compounds in onion (Allium cepa L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Eun In; Lee, Eun Mi; Kim, Young Soo; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2012-08-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the content of total phenolic compounds, especially quercetin (Q), in onion (Allium cepa L.) skin was investigated. Onion skin extracts contained two predominant flavonoid compounds, Q and quercetin-4'-glucoside (Q4'G). After 10 kGy gamma irradiation, the yield of Q in the extracts increased significantly from 36.8 to 153.9 μg/ml of the extract, and the Q4'G content decreased slightly from 165.0 to 134.1 μg/ml. In addition, the total phenolic compound content also increased after irradiation at 10 kGy, from 228.0 μg/g of fresh weight to 346.6 μg/g; negligible changes (237.1-256.7 μg/g) occurred at doses of up to 5 kGy. As we expected, radical-scavenging activity was enhanced remarkably (by 88.8%) in the 10 kGy irradiated sample. A dose-dependent increase in the peak intensity of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra was observed in all irradiated samples, with a maximum increase at 10 kGy. The intensity relative to that of the control was 0.15, and it increased to 1.10 in 10 kGy irradiated samples. The optimum gamma irradiation dose, which is sufficient to break the chemical or physical bonds and release soluble phenols of low molecular weight in onion skin, is about 10 kGy.

  20. Vesicle formation in the membrane of onion cells (Allium cepa) during rapid osmotic dehydration

    PubMed Central

    Assani, Akym; Moundanga, Sylvie; Beney, Laurent; Gervais, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Optimization of osmotic dehydration in different plant cells has been investigated through the variation of parameters such as the nature of the sugar used, the concentration of osmotic solutions and the processing time. In micro-organisms such as the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the exposure of a cell to a slow increase in osmotic pressure preserves cell viability after rehydration, while sudden dehydration involves a lower rate of cell viability, which could be due to membrane vesiculation. The aim of this work is to study cytoplasmic vesicle formation in onion epidermal cells (Allium cepa) as a function of the kinetics of osmotic pressure variation in the external medium. Methods Onion epidermal cells were submitted either to an osmotic shock or to a progressive osmotic shift from an osmotic pressure of 2 to 24 MPa to induce plasmolysis. After 30 min in the treatment solution, deplasmolysis was carried out. Cells were observed by microscopy during the whole cycle of dehydration–rehydration. Key Results The application of an osmotic shock to onion cells, from an initial osmotic pressure of 2 MPa to a final one of 24 MPa for <1 s, led to the formation of numerous exocytotic and osmocytic vesicles visualized through light and confocal microscopy. In contrast, after application of a progressive osmotic shift, from an initial osmotic pressure of 2 MPa to a final one of 24 MPa for 30 min, no vesicles were observed. Additionally, the absence of Hechtian strand connections led to the bursting of vesicles in the case of the osmotic shock. Conclusions It is concluded that the kinetics of osmotic dehydration strongly influence vesicle formation in onion cells, and that Hechtian strand connections between protoplasts and exocytotic vesicles are a prerequisite for successful deplasmolysis. These results suggest that a decrease in the area-to-volume ratio of a cell could cause cell death following an osmotic shock. PMID:19833611

  1. Vasorelaxant and hypotensive effects of Allium cepa peel hydroalcoholic extract in rat.

    PubMed

    Naseri, Mohammad Kazem Gharib; Arabian, Maedeh; Badavi, Mohammad; Ahangarpour, Akram

    2008-06-15

    The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of onion (Allium cepa) peel hydroalcoholic extract (OPE) on rat hypertension induced by high-fructose diet and aorta contractility. The OPE was prepared by maceration method using 70% ethanol. The thoracic aorta from male adult rat (Wistar) was dissected and suspended in Krebs-Henseleit solution under 1 g resting tension. Tissue preparation was contracted by KCl (80 mM) or phenylephrine (Phe, 1 microM) and then the extract was applied cumulatively (0.0625-2 mg mL(-1)). Hypertension was induced in negative control and three groups of rats by adding fructose (10% WN/V) in drinking water for 6 weeks but control group received tap water. Hypertensive groups received saline or OPE at 200, 400 and 800 mg kg(-1) daily for last 3 weeks by gavage. Results showed that OPE reduces aorta contractions induced by KCl or Phe in a concentration-dependent manner (p < 0.001). Removing aorta endothelium did not attenuate the OPE activity. Inhibition of nitric oxide, cGMP and prostaglandin synthesis by L-NAME (100 microM), methylene blue (10 microM) and indomethacin (10 microM), respectively, did not attenuate OPE activity. Atropine abolished ACh-induced relaxation in Phe precontracted aorta but not the OPE-induced relaxation. Although the extract did not change heart rate but after 3 weeks reduced the hypertension induced by fructose (p < 0.001). Present results indicated that OPE reduces aortic contractions possibly via inhibition of calcium influx but without involving NO, cGMP, endothelium and prostaglandins. The OPE hypotensive effect could be due to extract quercetin content, antioxidant activity and inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cells Ca2+ influx. PMID:18819643

  2. Transcriptome Analysis of Sucrose Metabolism during Bulb Swelling and Development in Onion (Allium cepa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunsha; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhan, Zongxiang; Liu, Bingjiang; Chen, Zhentai; Liang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Allium cepa L. is a widely cultivated and economically significant vegetable crop worldwide, with beneficial dietary and health-related properties, but its sucrose metabolism is still poorly understood. To analyze sucrose metabolism during bulb swelling, and the development of sweet taste in onion, a global transcriptome profile of onion bulbs was undertaken at three different developmental stages, using RNA-seq. A total of 79,376 unigenes, with a mean length of 678 bp, was obtained. In total, 7% of annotated Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) were involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, “starch and sucrose metabolism” (147, 2.40%) constituted the primary metabolism pathway in the integrated library. The expression of sucrose transporter genes was greatest during the early-swelling stage, suggesting that sucrose transporters (SUTs) participated in sucrose metabolism mainly at an early stage of bulb development. A gene-expression analysis of the key enzymes of sucrose metabolism suggested that sucrose synthase, cell wall invertase, and invertase were all likely to participate in the hydrolysis of sucrose, generating glucose, and fructose. In addition, trehalose was hydrolyzed to two molecules of glucose by trehalase. From 15 to 40 days after swelling (DAS), both the glucose and fructose contents of bulbs increased, whereas the sucrose content decreased. The growth rate between 15 and 30 DAS was slower than that between 30 and 40 DAS, suggesting that the latter was a period of rapid expansion. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling will provide valuable information for further research. PMID:27713754

  3. Identification of pathogenicity-related genes in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew; Vágány, Viktória; Jackson, Alison C; Harrison, Richard J; Rainoni, Alessandro; Clarkson, John P

    2016-09-01

    Pathogenic isolates of Fusarium oxysporum, distinguished as formae speciales (f. spp.) on the basis of their host specificity, cause crown rots, root rots and vascular wilts on many important crops worldwide. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) is particularly problematic to onion growers worldwide and is increasing in prevalence in the UK. We characterized 31 F. oxysporum isolates collected from UK onions using pathogenicity tests, sequencing of housekeeping genes and identification of effectors. In onion seedling and bulb tests, 21 isolates were pathogenic and 10 were non-pathogenic. The molecular characterization of these isolates, and 21 additional isolates comprising other f. spp. and different Fusarium species, was carried out by sequencing three housekeeping genes. A concatenated tree separated the F. oxysporum isolates into six clades, but did not distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic isolates. Ten putative effectors were identified within FOC, including seven Secreted In Xylem (SIX) genes first reported in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Two highly homologous proteins with signal peptides and RxLR motifs (CRX1/CRX2) and a gene with no previously characterized domains (C5) were also identified. The presence/absence of nine of these genes was strongly related to pathogenicity against onion and all were shown to be expressed in planta. Different SIX gene complements were identified in other f. spp., but none were identified in three other Fusarium species from onion. Although the FOC SIX genes had a high level of homology with other f. spp., there were clear differences in sequences which were unique to FOC, whereas CRX1 and C5 genes appear to be largely FOC specific.

  4. Analysis of the genotoxic potential of low concentrations of Malathion on the Allium cepa cells and rat hepatoma tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Jaqueline; Mantovani, Mario Sérgio; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2015-10-01

    Based on the concentration of Malathion used in the field, we evaluated the genotoxic potential of low concentrations of this insecticide on meristematic and F1 cells of Allium cepa and on rat hepatoma tissue culture (HTC cells). In the A. cepa, chromosomal aberrations (CAs), micronuclei (MN), and mitotic index (MI) were evaluated by exposing the cells at 1.5, 0.75, 0.37, and 0.18mg/mL of Malathion for 24 and 48hr of exposure and 48hr of recovery time. The results showed that all concentrations were genotoxic to A. cepa cells. However, the analysis of the MI has showed non-relevant effects. Chromosomal bridges were the CA more frequently induced, indicating the clastogenic action of Malathion. After the recovery period, the higher concentrations continued to induce genotoxic effects, unlike the observed for the lowest concentrations tested. In HTC cells, the genotoxicity of Malathion was evaluated by the MN test and the comet assay by exposing the cells at 0.09, 0.009, and 0.0009mg/5mL culture medium, for 24hr of exposure. In the comet assay, all the concentrations induced genotoxicity in the HTC cells. In the MN test, no significant induction of MN was observed. The genotoxicity induced by the low concentrations of Malathion presented in this work highlights the importance of studying the effects of low concentrations of this pesticide and demonstrates the efficiency of these two test systems for the detection of genetic damage promoted by Malathion. PMID:26456612

  5. Aluminum induces oxidative burst, cell wall NADH peroxidase activity, and DNA damage in root cells of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Achary, V Mohan M; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Panda, Brahma B

    2012-08-01

    Plants under stress incur an oxidative burst that involves a rapid and transient overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS: O(2) (•-) , H(2) O(2) , (•) OH). We hypothesized that aluminum (Al), an established soil pollutant that causes plant stress, would induce an oxidative burst through the activation of cell wall-NADH peroxidase (NADH-PX) and/or plasma membrane-associated NADPH oxidase (NADPH-OX), leading to DNA damage in the root cells of Allium cepa L. Growing roots of A. cepa were treated with Al(3+) (800 μM of AlCl(3) ) for 3 or 6 hr without or with the pretreatment of inhibitors specific to NADH-PX and NADPH-OX for 2 hr. At the end of the treatment, the extent of ROS generation, cell death, and DNA damage were determined. The cell wall-bound protein (CWP) fractions extracted from the untreated control and the Al-treated roots under the aforementioned experimental conditions were also subjected to in vitro studies, which measured the extent of activation of peroxidase/oxidase, generation of (•) OH, and DNA damage. Overall, the present study demonstrates that the cell wall-bound NADH-PX contributes to the Al-induced oxidative burst through the generation of ROS that lead to cell death and DNA damage in the root cells of A. cepa. Furthermore, the in vitro studies revealed that the CWP fraction by itself caused DNA damage in the presence of NADH, supporting a role for NADH-PX in the stress response. Altogether, this study underscores the crucial function of the cell wall-bound NADH-PX in the oxidative burst-mediated cell death and DNA damage in plants under Al stress.

  6. Comparative analysis of crossover exchanges and chiasmata in Allium cepa x fistulosum after genomic in situ hybridization (GISH).

    PubMed

    Stevenson, M; Armstrong, S J; Ford-Lloyd, B V; Jones, G H

    1998-11-01

    Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) successfully differentiated homoeologous genomes in the inter-specific hybrid Allium cepa x fistulosum, thus allowing the detection of reciprocal crossover events as label exchanges in separating anaphase I chromosomes. Three of the eight chromosome pairs were positively identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to rDNA sequences. There was a general similarity of the GISH-based label exchange frequencies and metaphase I chiasma frequencies, but with a 20% deficit of chiasmata. Reasons for this apparent deficit are discussed. The locations of chiasmata and label exchanges are in broad agreement. PMID:9886776

  7. Inhibition effect on the Allium cepa L. root growth when using hexavalent chromium-doped river waters.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Quiñones, F R; Szymanski, N; Palácio, S M; Módenes, A N; Rizzutto, M A; Silva, F G; Oliveira, A P; Oro, A C P; Martin, N

    2009-06-01

    The effect of Cr(6+) on Allium cepa root length was studied using both clean and polluted river waters. Seven series of Cr(6+)-doped polluted and non-polluted river waters were used to grow onions. Chromium concentration (Cr(6+)) of 4.2 mg L(-1)(EC(50) value), doped in clean river water caused a 50% reduction of root length, while in organically polluted samples similar root growth inhibition occurred at 12.0 mg Cr(6+) L(-1). The results suggested that there was a dislocation to higher values in toxic chromium concentration in polluted river water due to the eutrophization level of river water.

  8. Central cell nuclear-cytoplasmic incongruity:a mechanism for segregation distortion in advanced backcross and selfed generations of (Allium cepa L. x Allium fistulosum L.) x A. cepa interspecific hybrid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Mangum, P D; Peffley, E B

    2005-01-01

    A model is presented as an explanation for an anomaly observed in germination and establishment and isozyme segregation patterns in Allium cepa x A. fistulosum F2BC3 populations generated in an introgression-breeding program. The F1BC3 parent of these populations was selected for its heterozygous PGI phenotype, Pgi-1(2/3); Pgi-1(2) was inherited from an A. cepa (Ac) seed parent and Pgi-1(3) from an A. fistulosum (Af) pollen parent. Germination and establishment was recorded for the F2BC3 progeny population. Segregation of Ac and Af Pgi-1 alleles was investigated in F2BC3 seeds and embryo and endosperm tissue was isolated and tested for isozyme expression. A pooled goodness-of-fit test of the segregation of Pgi-1 alleles in the populations to the expected Mendelian 1:2:1 ratio using the chi-square statistic gave a chi2 = 185.9, well beyond the accepted limits at 2 degrees of freedom. The 1:2:1 ratio expected for simple Mendelian inheritance was rejected, while a pooled chi-square goodness-of-fit test of the segregation of Pgi-1 alleles in the populations fit a 1:1 ratio with a chi2 = 0.203, based on the incongruity model. We present here the central cell nuclear-cytoplasmic incongruity hypothesis to explain the observed anomalies. PMID:15753603

  9. Cellular damages in the Allium cepa test system, caused by BTEX mixture prior and after biodegradation process.

    PubMed

    Mazzeo, Dânia Elisa Christofoletti; Fernandes, Thaís Cristina Casimiro; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2011-09-01

    Petroleum and derivatives have been considered one of the main environmental contaminants. Among petroleum derivatives, the volatile organic compounds benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) represent a major concern due to their toxicity and easy accumulation in groundwater. Biodegradation methods seem to be suitable tools for the clean-up of BTEX contaminants from groundwater. Genotoxic and mutagenic potential of BTEX prior and after biodegradation process was evaluated through analyses of chromosomal aberrations and MN test in meristematic and F(1) root cells using the Allium cepa test system. Seeds of A. cepa were germinated into five concentrations of BTEX, non-biodegraded and biodegraded, in ultra-pure water (negative control), in MMS 4×10(-4)M (positive control) and in culture medium used in the biodegradation (blank biodegradation control). Results showed a significant frequency of both chromosomal and nuclear aberrations. The micronucleus (MN) frequency in meristematic cells was significant for most of tested samples. However, MN was not present in significant levels in the F(1) cells, suggesting that there was no permanent damage for the meristematic cell. The BTEX effects were significantly reduced in the biodegraded samples when compared to the respective non-biodegraded concentrations. Therefore, in this study, the biodegradation process showed to be a reliable and effective alternative to treat BTEX-contaminated waters. Based on our results and available data, the BTEX toxicity could also be related to a synergistic effect of its compounds. PMID:21741065

  10. [Genotoxic effects of pesticide-treated vegetable extracts using the Allium cepa chromosome aberration and micronucleus tests].

    PubMed

    Biscardi, D; De Fusco, R; Feretti, D; Zerbini, I; Izzo, C; Esposito, V; Nardi, G; Monarca, S

    2003-01-01

    The presence of chemical residues in vegetables and fruit is a source of human exposure to toxic and genotoxic chemicals. The mutagenic and carcinogenic action of herbicides, insecticides and fungicides on experimental animals is already known. Several studies have shown that chronic exposure to low levels of pesticides can cause adverse health effects and that many pesticides are mutagenic/carcinogenic. In the present research we monitored concurrently the presence of pesticides and genotoxic compounds extracted from 21 treated vegetables and 8 types of grapes sampled from the markets of a region in Southern Italy. The extracts were analysed for pesticides by gas-chromatography and HPLC, and for genotoxicity with two plant tests in Allium cepa roots: the micronucleus test and the chromosomal aberration test. We found 33 pesticides, some of which are outlawed. Genotoxicity was found in some of the vegetables and grapes tested. Allium cepa tests were sensitive for monitoring genotoxicity in food extracts. The micronucleus test in interphase cells gave much higher mutagenicity than the chromosomal aberration test in anaphase-telophase cells. PMID:15049565

  11. Antigenotoxic and antimutagenic effects of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi in Allium cepa and Swiss mice: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Fedel-Miyasato, L E S; Formagio, A S N; Auharek, S A; Kassuya, C A L; Navarro, S D; Cunha-Laura, A L; Monreal, A C D; Vieira, M C; Oliveira, R J

    2014-04-30

    It is estimated that 60% of anticancer drugs are derived directly or indirectly from medicinal plants. Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) is traditionally used in Brazilian medicine to treat inflammation, ulcers, and tumors. Because of the need to identify new antimutagenic agents and to determine their mechanism of action, this study evaluated the chemopreventive activity of the methanolic extract from leaves of S. terebinthifolius (MEST) in Allium cepa cells and in Swiss mice analyzing different protocols of MEST in association with DNA-damaging agents. The antigenotoxic and antimutagenic aspects in peripheral blood were evaluated using the comet and micronucleus assays, respectively. The percentage of damage reduction was used to compare the A. cepa and mice results. Our results showed for the first time that MEST can act as a chemopreventive compound that promotes cellular genome integrity by desmutagenic and bioantimutagenic activities in vegetal and animal models. This finding may therefore have therapeutic applications that can indirectly correlate to the prevention and/or treatment of the degenerative diseases such as cancer.

  12. Water Quality of Urban Streams: The Allium cepa Seeds/Seedlings Test as a Tool for Surface Water Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Athanásio, Camila Gonçalves; Prá, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the genotoxic, mutagenic, and cytotoxic potential of surface waters in urban streams using Allium cepa and analyzes the applicability of this assay for environmental monitoring. Water samples were collected from three streams located in the urban area of a municipality in the south of Brazil. For each stream, two samples were collected, one upstream and one downstream of the pollution discharge site. Physicochemical evaluation indicated that all samples had various degrees of environmental impact, but substantial impact was seen for the downstream samples of the Preto and Pedras streams. All samples increased the frequency of chromosome aberrations (P < 0.05). The sample from Pedras downstream site also caused a decrease in mitotic index (P < 0.08) and increase in micronuclei (P < 0.08) frequency, indicating potential cytotoxicity and mutagenicity. The Pedras stream receives mixed industrial and urban wastewater, while the Lajeado and Preto streams receive wastewater predominantly domestic in nature, which may partially explain the difference in toxicity among the samples. Moreover, the Allium cepa seeds/seedlings were shown to be extremely sensitive in detecting the genotoxicity of environmental water samples and can be applied as the first tool for environmental health hazard identification and prediction. PMID:25574484

  13. Phenolic acid allelochemicals induced morphological, ultrastructural, and cytological modification on Cassia sophera L. and Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Gulzar, Aasifa; Siddiqui, M B; Bi, Shazia

    2016-09-01

    The allelopathic potential of leaf aqueous extract (LAE) of Calotropis procera on growth behavior, ultrastructural changes on Cassia sophera L., and cytological changes on Allium cepa L. was investigated. LAE at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 %) significantly reduced the root length, shoot length, and dry biomass of C. sophera. Besides, the ultrastructural changes (through scanning electron microscopy, SEM) induced in epidermal cells of 15-day-old seedlings of Cassia leaf were also noticed. The changes induced were shrinking and contraction of epidermal cells along with the formation of major grooves, canals, and cyst-like structures. The treated samples of epidermal cells no longer seem to be smooth as compared to control. LAE at different concentrations induces chromosomal aberrations and variation in shape of the interphase and prophase nucleus in A. cepa root tip cells when compared with control groups. The mitotic index in treated onion root tips decreased with increasing concentrations of the extracts. The most frequent aberrations were despiralization at prophase with the formation of micronuclei, sticky anaphase with bridges, sticky telophase, C-metaphase, etc. The results also show the induction of ghost cells, cells with membrane damage, and cells with heterochromatic nuclei by extract treatment. Upon HPLC analysis, nine phenolic acids (caffeic acid, gentisic acid, catechol, gallic acid, syringic acid, ellagic acid, resorcinol, p-coumaric acid, and p-hydroxy benzoic acid) were identified. Thus, the phenolic acids are mainly responsible for the allelopathic behavior of C. procera. PMID:26387115

  14. Water quality of urban streams: the Allium cepa seeds/seedlings test as a tool for surface water monitoring.

    PubMed

    Athanásio, Camila Gonçalves; Prá, Daniel; Rieger, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the genotoxic, mutagenic, and cytotoxic potential of surface waters in urban streams using Allium cepa and analyzes the applicability of this assay for environmental monitoring. Water samples were collected from three streams located in the urban area of a municipality in the south of Brazil. For each stream, two samples were collected, one upstream and one downstream of the pollution discharge site. Physicochemical evaluation indicated that all samples had various degrees of environmental impact, but substantial impact was seen for the downstream samples of the Preto and Pedras streams. All samples increased the frequency of chromosome aberrations (P < 0.05). The sample from Pedras downstream site also caused a decrease in mitotic index (P < 0.08) and increase in micronuclei (P < 0.08) frequency, indicating potential cytotoxicity and mutagenicity. The Pedras stream receives mixed industrial and urban wastewater, while the Lajeado and Preto streams receive wastewater predominantly domestic in nature, which may partially explain the difference in toxicity among the samples. Moreover, the Allium cepa seeds/seedlings were shown to be extremely sensitive in detecting the genotoxicity of environmental water samples and can be applied as the first tool for environmental health hazard identification and prediction.

  15. DNA replication stress induces deregulation of the cell cycle events in root meristems of Allium cepa

    PubMed Central

    Żabka, Aneta; Polit, Justyna Teresa; Maszewski, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Prolonged treatment of Allium cepa root meristems with changing concentrations of hydroxyurea (HU) results in either premature chromosome condensation or cell nuclei with an uncommon form of biphasic chromatin organization. The aim of the current study was to assess conditions that compromise cell cycle checkpoints and convert DNA replication stress into an abnormal course of mitosis. Methods Interphase-mitotic (IM) cells showing gradual changes of chromatin condensation were obtained following continuous 72 h treatment of seedlings with 0·75 mm HU (without renewal of the medium). HU-treated root meristems were analysed using histochemical stainings (DNA-DAPI/Feulgen; starch-iodide and DAB staining for H2O2 production), Western blotting [cyclin B-like (CBL) proteins] and immunochemistry (BrdU incorporation, detection of γ-H2AX and H3S10 phosphorylation). Key Results Continuous treatment of onion seedlings with a low concentration of HU results in shorter root meristems, enhanced production of H2O2, γ-phosphorylation of H2AX histones and accumulation of CBL proteins. HU-induced replication stress gives rise to axially elongated cells with half interphase/half mitotic structures (IM-cells) having both decondensed and condensed domains of chromatin. Long-term HU treatment results in cell nuclei resuming S phase with gradients of BrdU labelling. This suggests a polarized distribution of factors needed to re-initiate stalled replication forks. Furthermore, prolonged HU treatment extends both the relative time span and the spatial scale of H3S10 phosphorylation known in plants. Conclusions The minimum cell length and a threshold level of accumulated CBL proteins are both determining factors by which the nucleus attains commitment to induce an asynchronous course of chromosome condensation. Replication stress-induced alterations in an orderly route of the cell cycle events probably reflect a considerable reprogramming of metabolic functions of

  16. [Chromosomal structure of the hybrids between Allium cepa L. and Allium fistulosum L. with relative resistance to downy mildew based on in situ hybridization].

    PubMed

    Budylin, M V; Kan, L Iu; Romanov, V S; Khrustaleva, L I

    2014-04-01

    Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used for a chromosomal composition study of the later generations of interspecific hybrids between A. cepa L. and A. fistulosum L., which are relatively resistant to downy mildew (peronosporosis). GISH revealed that F2 hybrids, which did not produce seeds, were triploids (2n = 3x = 24) with 24 chromosomes and possessed in their compliments 16 chromosomes of A. fistulosum L. and eight chromosomes of A. cepa L. or eight chromosomes of A. fistulosum L. and 16 chromosomes of A. cepa L. The advanced F5 hybrid, which produced few seeds, was amphidiploid with 32 chromosomes. BC1F5 hybrid was triploid with eight chromosomes of A. fistulosum L. and 16 chromosomes of A. cepa L., which did not produce seeds. BC2 (BC1F5) plant was amphidiploid that possessed 4 recombinant chromosomes and produced few seeds. GISH results point to 2n-gametes formation in macro- and microsporogenesis of the hybrids. The mechanism of 2n-gametes formation and the possibility of apomixes events in the backcrossing progeny are discussed.

  17. [Chromosomal structure of the hybrids between Allium cepa L. and Allium fistulosum L. with relative resistance to downy mildew based on in situ hybridization].

    PubMed

    Budylin, M V; Kan, L Iu; Romanov, V S; Khrustaleva, L I

    2014-04-01

    Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used for a chromosomal composition study of the later generations of interspecific hybrids between A. cepa L. and A. fistulosum L., which are relatively resistant to downy mildew (peronosporosis). GISH revealed that F2 hybrids, which did not produce seeds, were triploids (2n = 3x = 24) with 24 chromosomes and possessed in their compliments 16 chromosomes of A. fistulosum L. and eight chromosomes of A. cepa L. or eight chromosomes of A. fistulosum L. and 16 chromosomes of A. cepa L. The advanced F5 hybrid, which produced few seeds, was amphidiploid with 32 chromosomes. BC1F5 hybrid was triploid with eight chromosomes of A. fistulosum L. and 16 chromosomes of A. cepa L., which did not produce seeds. BC2 (BC1F5) plant was amphidiploid that possessed 4 recombinant chromosomes and produced few seeds. GISH results point to 2n-gametes formation in macro- and microsporogenesis of the hybrids. The mechanism of 2n-gametes formation and the possibility of apomixes events in the backcrossing progeny are discussed. PMID:25715446

  18. Evaluation of the antimutagenic activity and mode of action of carrageenan fiber in cultured meristematic cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Nantes, C I; Pesarini, J R; Mauro, M O; Monreal, A C D; Ramires, A D; Oliveira, R J

    2014-11-12

    In this study, we evaluated the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of carrageenan, a sulfated polysaccharide, and described its mode of action by using an Allium cepa assay. The results indicate that carrageenan is not mutagenic, rather it has significant chemopreventive potential that is mediated by both demutagenic and bio-antimutagenic activities. This compound can adsorb agents that are toxic to DNA and inactivate them. Additionally, carrageenan can modulate enzymes of the DNA repair system. The percentage of damage reduction ranged from 62.54 to 96.66%, reflecting the compound's high efficiency in preventing the type of mutagenic damage that may be associated with tumor development. Based on these findings and information available in the literature, we conclude that carrageenan is an important fiber that should be considered as a possible base for functional foods and/or diets with potential anticancer activity.

  19. Factors affecting the production of SCEs by maleic hydrazide in root-tip chromosomes of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Cortés, F; Escalza, P; Mateos, S; Díaz-Recasens, M

    1987-10-01

    We have investigated the influence of pH on the induction of chromatid-type aberrations and sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) by maleic hydrazide (MH) in root-tip cells of Allium cepa. For both cytogenetic endpoints, the lower the pH of the treatment solution, the higher were the frequencies of chromosome alterations detected at metaphase. We have further studied the persistence of lesions giving rise to SCEs during successive cell cycles, as well as the influence of BrdU concentration in the post-treatment medium on the yield of MH-induced SCEs. Our results suggest that the cytogenetic action of MH in many respects resembles that of bifunctional alkylating agents.

  20. Addition of a combination of onion (Allium cepa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) to food of sheep stops gastrointestinal helminthic infections.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Jatzlau, Antje; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy

    2011-04-01

    Sheep with gastrointestinal nematodes and cestodes were fed on three farms with a combination of specially prepared extracts of onion (Allium cepa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) for 8 days containing each 60 g coconut and onion extract, combined with milk powder and/or polyethylene glycol (PEG) propylencarbonate (PC). In all cases, the worm stages disappeared from the feces and were also not found 9 and 20 days after the end of the feeding with this plant combination. Since all treated animals increased their body weight considerably (when compared to untreated animals), worm reduction was apparently as effective as it was shown in previous laboratory trials with rats and mice (Klimpel et al., Parasitol Res, in press, 2010; Abdel-Ghaffar et al., Parasitol Res, in press, 2010; in this volume). PMID:21120531

  1. Antiproliferative action of aqueous extracts of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. (Fabaceae) on the cell cycle of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Lourran P; Malaquias, Geiz; Peron, Ana Paula

    2014-09-01

    In this study we evaluated the action of crude aqueous extracts obtained from rhytidome of Hymenaea stigonocarpa (jatobá-do-cerrado) on Allium cepa meristematic root cells in three concentrations: 0.082, 0.164, 0.328g/mL, at exposure times of 24 and 48 h. The slides were prepared by the crushing technique, and cells analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5000 for each control group and concentration. It was found that all three concentrations, including the lowest which is considered ideal for use, in all exposure times, had significant antiproliferative action on the cell cycle of this test system. For cells under division, we observed a high number of cells in prophase. Therefore, under the conditions studied H. stigonocarpa indicated to be cytotoxic. PMID:25029361

  2. Evaluation of the antimutagenic activity and mode of action of carrageenan fiber in cultured meristematic cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Nantes, C I; Pesarini, J R; Mauro, M O; Monreal, A C D; Ramires, A D; Oliveira, R J

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of carrageenan, a sulfated polysaccharide, and described its mode of action by using an Allium cepa assay. The results indicate that carrageenan is not mutagenic, rather it has significant chemopreventive potential that is mediated by both demutagenic and bio-antimutagenic activities. This compound can adsorb agents that are toxic to DNA and inactivate them. Additionally, carrageenan can modulate enzymes of the DNA repair system. The percentage of damage reduction ranged from 62.54 to 96.66%, reflecting the compound's high efficiency in preventing the type of mutagenic damage that may be associated with tumor development. Based on these findings and information available in the literature, we conclude that carrageenan is an important fiber that should be considered as a possible base for functional foods and/or diets with potential anticancer activity. PMID:25501162

  3. Elastosis perforans serpiginosa: a case successfully treated with intralesional steroids and topical allium cepa-allantoin-pentaglycan gel.

    PubMed

    Campanati, Anna; Martina, Emanuela; Giuliodori, Katia; Ganzetti, Giulia; Marconi, Barbara; Conta, Irene; Giangiacomi, Mirella; Offidani, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Elastosis perforans serpiginosa is a rare skin disease in which abnormal elastic fibers, other connective tissue elements, and cellular debris are expelled from the papillary dermis through the epidermis. Three clinical variants of EPS can be detected: idiopathic, reactive, and drug-induced. Clinically it consists of small horny or umbilicated papules arranged in a linear, arciform, circular, or serpiginous pattern. It usually occurs in young adults and shows a predilection for the head and neck. The lesions are generally asymptomatic or slightly itching. Several treatments have been reported with poor long-term success; these include intralesional and topical corticosteroids, tazarotene, imiquimod, and cryotherapy. We report a case of 40-year-old black woman affected by elastosis perforans serpiginosa that was referred to our department and treated with intralesional injections of triamcinolone acetonide and topical application of allium cepa-allantoin-pentaglycan gel. PMID:24964949

  4. Microscopic examination on cytological changes in Allium cepa and shift in phytoplankton population at different doses of Atrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Nabarun; Finger, Kristen; Usnick, Samantha; Rogers, William J.; Das, A. B.; Smith, Don W.

    2010-06-01

    Atrazine is a wide-range herbicide. For over 50 years, atrazine has been used as a selective broadleaf herbicide in many capacities, from pre-plant to pre-emergence to post-emergence, depending on the crop and application. Currently, 96% of all atrazine used is for commercial applications in fields for the control of broadleaf and grassy weeds in crops such as sorghum, corn, sugarcane, pineapple and for the control of undesirable weeds in rangeland. Many panhandle wells have also detected atrazine in samples taken. The concern for the public is the long-term effect of atrazine with its increasing popularity, and the impact on public health. We investigated the effect of different concentrations of atrazine on Allium cepa (onion), a standard plant test system. We established a control with the Allium bulbs grown on hydroponics culture. Varying concentrations of atrazine was used on the standard plant test system, Allium cepa grown hydroponically. The mitotic indices varied and with higher doses, we observed various chromosomal abnormalities including sticky bridges, early and late separations, and lag chromosomes with higher doses of treatments. In the second part of the experiment, 0.1ppb, 1ppb, 10ppb, and 100ppb concentrations of atrazine were applied to established phytoplankton cultures from the Lake Tanglewood, Texas. Study with a Sedgwick-Rafter counter, a BX-40 Olympus microscope with DP-70 camera revealed a gradual shift in the phytoplankton community from obligatory to facultative autotroph and finally to a parasitic planktonic community. This explains the periodic fish kill in the lakes after applications of atrazine in crop fields.

  5. Characterization of onion lectin (Allium cepa agglutinin) as an immunomodulatory protein inducing Th1-type immune response in vitro.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, Vaddi K; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2015-06-01

    Onion (Allium cepa), a bulb crop of economic importance, is known to have many health benefits. The major objective of the present study is to address the immunomodulatory properties of onion lectin (A. cepa agglutinin; ACA). ACA was purified from onion extract by D-mannose-agarose chromatography (yield: ~1 mg/kg). ACA is non-glycosylated and showed a molecular mass of ~12 kDa under reducing/non-reducing SDS-PAGE; glutaraldehyde cross-linking indicated that ACA is a non-covalent tetramer of ~12 kDa subunits. Its N-terminal sequence (RNVLLNNEGL; UniProt KB Accn. C0HJM8) showed 70-90% homology to mannose-specific Allium agglutinins. ACA showed specific hemagglutination activity of 8200 units/mg and is stable in the pH range 6-10 and up to 45° C. The immunomodulatory activity of ACA was assessed using the macrophage cell line, RAW264.7 and rat peritoneal macrophages; at 0.1 μg/well, it showed a significant increase (6-8-fold vs. control) in the production of nitric oxide at 24h, and significantly stimulated (2-4-fold vs. control) the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-12) at 24h. ACA (0.1 μg/well) enhanced the proliferation of murine thymocytes by ~4 fold (vs. control) at 24h; however, ACA does not proliferate B cell-enriched rat splenocytes. Further, it significantly elevated the expression levels of cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2) over the control in murine thymocytes. Taken together, purified ACA induces a Th1-type immune response in vitro. Though present in low amounts, ACA may contribute to the immune-boosting potential of the popular spice onion since considerable amounts are consumed on a daily basis universally.

  6. Calcium movement, graviresponsiveness and the structure of columella cells and columella tissues in roots of Allium cepa L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.

    1985-01-01

    Roots of Allium cepa L. cv. Yellow are differentially responsive to gravity. Long (e.g. 40 mm) roots are strongly graviresponsive, while short (c.g. 4 mm) roots are minimally responsive to gravity. Although columella cells of graviresponsive roots are larger than those of nongraviresponsive roots, they partition their volumes to cellular organelles similarly. The movement of amyloplasts and nuclei in columella cells of horizontally-oriented roots correlates positively with the onset of gravicurvature. Furthermore, there is no significant difference in the rates of organellar redistribution when graviresponsive and nongraviresponsive roots are oriented horizontally. The more pronounced graviresponsiveness of longer roots correlates positively with (1) their caps being 9-6 times more voluminous, (2) their columella tissues being 42 times more voluminous, (3) their caps having 15 times more columella cells, and (4) their columella tissues having relative volumes 4.4 times larger than those of shorter, nongraviresponsive roots. Graviresponsive roots that are oriented horizontally are characterized by a strongly polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the root tip from the upper to the lower side, while similarly oriented nongraviresponsive roots exhibit only a minimal polar transport of 45Ca2+. These results indicate that the differential graviresponsiveness of roots of A. cepa is probably not due to either (1) ultrastructural differences in their columella cells, (2) differences in the rates of organellar redistribution when roots are oriented horizontally. Rather, these results indicate the graviresponsiveness may require an extensive columella tissue, which, in turn, may be necessary for polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the root tip.

  7. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Bulb Onion (Allium cepa L.) during Cold Acclimation Using Contrasting Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeongsukhyeon; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Park, Jong-In; Chung, Mi-Young; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Bulb onion (Allium cepa) is the second most widely cultivated and consumed vegetable crop in the world. During winter, cold injury can limit the production of bulb onion. Genomic resources available for bulb onion are still very limited. To date, no studies on heritably durable cold and freezing tolerance have been carried out in bulb onion genotypes. We applied high-throughput sequencing technology to cold (2°C), freezing (-5 and -15°C), and control (25°C)-treated samples of cold tolerant (CT) and cold susceptible (CS) genotypes of A. cepa lines. A total of 452 million paired-end reads were de novo assembled into 54,047 genes with an average length of 1,331 bp. Based on similarity searches, these genes were aligned with entries in the public non-redundant (nr) database, as well as KEGG and COG database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using log10 values with the FPKM method. Among 5,167DEGs, 491 genes were differentially expressed at freezing temperature compared to the control temperature in both CT and CS libraries. The DEG results were validated with qRT-PCR. We performed GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses of all DEGs and iPath interactive analysis found 31 pathways including those related to metabolism of carbohydrate, nucleotide, energy, cofactors and vitamins, other amino acids and xenobiotics biodegradation. Furthermore, a large number of molecular markers were identified from the assembled genes, including simple sequence repeats (SSRs) 4,437 and SNP substitutions of transition and transversion types of CT and CS. Our study is the first to provide a transcriptome sequence resource for Allium spp. with regard to cold and freezing stress. We identified a large set of genes and determined their DEG profiles under cold and freezing conditions using two different genotypes. These data represent a valuable resource for genetic and genomic studies of Allium spp. PMID:27627679

  8. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Bulb Onion (Allium cepa L.) during Cold Acclimation Using Contrasting Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Park, Jong-In; Chung, Mi-Young; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Bulb onion (Allium cepa) is the second most widely cultivated and consumed vegetable crop in the world. During winter, cold injury can limit the production of bulb onion. Genomic resources available for bulb onion are still very limited. To date, no studies on heritably durable cold and freezing tolerance have been carried out in bulb onion genotypes. We applied high-throughput sequencing technology to cold (2°C), freezing (-5 and -15°C), and control (25°C)-treated samples of cold tolerant (CT) and cold susceptible (CS) genotypes of A. cepa lines. A total of 452 million paired-end reads were de novo assembled into 54,047 genes with an average length of 1,331 bp. Based on similarity searches, these genes were aligned with entries in the public non-redundant (nr) database, as well as KEGG and COG database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using log10 values with the FPKM method. Among 5,167DEGs, 491 genes were differentially expressed at freezing temperature compared to the control temperature in both CT and CS libraries. The DEG results were validated with qRT-PCR. We performed GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses of all DEGs and iPath interactive analysis found 31 pathways including those related to metabolism of carbohydrate, nucleotide, energy, cofactors and vitamins, other amino acids and xenobiotics biodegradation. Furthermore, a large number of molecular markers were identified from the assembled genes, including simple sequence repeats (SSRs) 4,437 and SNP substitutions of transition and transversion types of CT and CS. Our study is the first to provide a transcriptome sequence resource for Allium spp. with regard to cold and freezing stress. We identified a large set of genes and determined their DEG profiles under cold and freezing conditions using two different genotypes. These data represent a valuable resource for genetic and genomic studies of Allium spp. PMID:27627679

  9. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Bulb Onion (Allium cepa L.) during Cold Acclimation Using Contrasting Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeongsukhyeon; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Park, Jong-In; Chung, Mi-Young; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Bulb onion (Allium cepa) is the second most widely cultivated and consumed vegetable crop in the world. During winter, cold injury can limit the production of bulb onion. Genomic resources available for bulb onion are still very limited. To date, no studies on heritably durable cold and freezing tolerance have been carried out in bulb onion genotypes. We applied high-throughput sequencing technology to cold (2°C), freezing (-5 and -15°C), and control (25°C)-treated samples of cold tolerant (CT) and cold susceptible (CS) genotypes of A. cepa lines. A total of 452 million paired-end reads were de novo assembled into 54,047 genes with an average length of 1,331 bp. Based on similarity searches, these genes were aligned with entries in the public non-redundant (nr) database, as well as KEGG and COG database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using log10 values with the FPKM method. Among 5,167DEGs, 491 genes were differentially expressed at freezing temperature compared to the control temperature in both CT and CS libraries. The DEG results were validated with qRT-PCR. We performed GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses of all DEGs and iPath interactive analysis found 31 pathways including those related to metabolism of carbohydrate, nucleotide, energy, cofactors and vitamins, other amino acids and xenobiotics biodegradation. Furthermore, a large number of molecular markers were identified from the assembled genes, including simple sequence repeats (SSRs) 4,437 and SNP substitutions of transition and transversion types of CT and CS. Our study is the first to provide a transcriptome sequence resource for Allium spp. with regard to cold and freezing stress. We identified a large set of genes and determined their DEG profiles under cold and freezing conditions using two different genotypes. These data represent a valuable resource for genetic and genomic studies of Allium spp.

  10. Antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity of ethanolic extracts of Brazilian green propolis and its main botanical source determined by the Allium cepa test system

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Matheus Mantuanelli; Jamal, Cláudia Masrouah; Malaspina, Osmar; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Brazilian green propolis is a resinous substance prepared by bees from parts of the plant Baccharis dracunculifolia. As it possess several biological properties, this work assessed the cytotoxic/anticytotoxic, genotoxic/antigenotoxic and mutagenic/antimutagenic potential of ethanolic extracts of Brazilian green propolis (EEGP) and of B. dracunculifolia (EEBD), by means of the Allium cepa test system. The effects were evaluated by assessing the chromosomal aberrations (CA) and micronuclei (MN) frequencies on meristematic and F1 generation cells from onion roots. Chemical analyses performed with the extracts showed differences in flavonoid quality and quantity. No genotoxic or mutagenic potential was detected, and both extracts were capable of inhibiting cellular damage caused by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) treatment, reducing the frequencies of CA and MN. By these data, we can infer that, independent of their flavonoid content, the extracts presented a protective effect in A. cepa cells against the clastogenicity of MMS. PMID:27223486

  11. Assessing toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium levels relevant to discharge limits of industrial effluents into inland surface waters using common onion, Allium cepa bioassay.

    PubMed

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2015-02-01

    Toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium relevant to established tolerance limits for the discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters was evaluated by Allium cepa bioassay. The roots of A. cepa bulbs exposed to Cu(2+) (3 mg L(-1)) individually or in mixtures with Cd(2+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) or/and Cr(6+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) exhibited the highest growth inhibition, mitotic index depression and nuclear abnormalities. Root tip cells exposed to Cr(6+) or Cd(2+) alone or in mixture displayed significant chromosomal aberrations in comparison to the controls. EC50s for root growth inhibition followed the order Cu(2+) < Cd(2+) < Cr(6+) indicating greater toxicity of copper. The results show that the industrial effluent discharge regulatory limits for these metals need to be reviewed considering potential cyto-genotoxicity to biological systems.

  12. Antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity of ethanolic extracts of Brazilian green propolis and its main botanical source determined by the Allium cepa test system.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Matheus Mantuanelli; Jamal, Cláudia Masrouah; Malaspina, Osmar; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2016-05-24

    Brazilian green propolis is a resinous substance prepared by bees from parts of the plant Baccharis dracunculifolia. As it possess several biological properties, this work assessed the cytotoxic/anticytotoxic, genotoxic/antigenotoxic and mutagenic/antimutagenic potential of ethanolic extracts of Brazilian green propolis (EEGP) and of B. dracunculifolia (EEBD), by means of the Allium cepa test system. The effects were evaluated by assessing the chromosomal aberrations (CA) and micronuclei (MN) frequencies on meristematic and F1 generation cells from onion roots. Chemical analyses performed with the extracts showed differences in flavonoid quality and quantity. No genotoxic or mutagenic potential was detected, and both extracts were capable of inhibiting cellular damage caused by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) treatment, reducing the frequencies of CA and MN. By these data, we can infer that, independent of their flavonoid content, the extracts presented a protective effect in A. cepa cells against the clastogenicity of MMS. PMID:27223486

  13. Production and characterization of alien chromosome additions in shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) carrying extra chromosome(s) of Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum L.).

    PubMed

    Hang, Tran Thi Minh; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Yamauchi, Naoki; Tashiro, Yosuke

    2004-10-01

    First and second backcrosses of amphidiploid hybrids (2n = 4x = 32, genomes AAFF) between shallot (Allium cepa Aggregatum group) and A. fistulosum were conducted to produce A. cepa - A. fistulosum alien addition lines. When shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group) was used as a pollinator, the amphidiploids and allotriploids set germinable BC(1) and BC(2) seeds, respectively. The 237 BC(1) plants mainly consisted of 170 allotriploids (2n = 3x = 24, AAF) and 42 hypo-allotriploids possessing 23 chromosomes, i.e., single-alien deletions (2n = 3x-1 = 23, AAF-nF). The single-alien deletions in the BC(1) progeny showed dwarfing characteristics and were discriminated from the allotriploids (2n = 24) and hyper-allotriploids (2n = 25) by means of flow cytometric analysis. The chromosome numbers of 46 BC(2) seedlings varied from 16 to 24. Eight monosomic additions (2n = 2x+1 = 17, AA+nF) and 20 single-alien deletions were found in these BC(2) seedlings. Consequently, six kinds of A. cepa - A. fistulosum alien chromosome additions possessing different chromosome numbers (2n = 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23) were recognized in the BC(1) and BC(2) populations. A total of 79 aneuploids, including 62 single-alien deletions, were analyzed by a chromosome 6F-specific isozyme marker (Got-2) in order to recognize its existence in their chromosome complements. This analysis revealed that two out of 62 single-alien deletions did not possess 6F. One (AAF-6F) out of the possible eight single-alien deletions could be identified at first. The present study is a first step toward the development of a useful tool, such as a complete set of eight different single-alien deletions, for the rapid chromosomal assignment of genes and genetic markers in A. fistulosum.

  14. Production and characterization of alien chromosome additions in shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) carrying extra chromosome(s) of Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum L.).

    PubMed

    Hang, Tran Thi Minh; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Yamauchi, Naoki; Tashiro, Yosuke

    2004-10-01

    First and second backcrosses of amphidiploid hybrids (2n = 4x = 32, genomes AAFF) between shallot (Allium cepa Aggregatum group) and A. fistulosum were conducted to produce A. cepa - A. fistulosum alien addition lines. When shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group) was used as a pollinator, the amphidiploids and allotriploids set germinable BC(1) and BC(2) seeds, respectively. The 237 BC(1) plants mainly consisted of 170 allotriploids (2n = 3x = 24, AAF) and 42 hypo-allotriploids possessing 23 chromosomes, i.e., single-alien deletions (2n = 3x-1 = 23, AAF-nF). The single-alien deletions in the BC(1) progeny showed dwarfing characteristics and were discriminated from the allotriploids (2n = 24) and hyper-allotriploids (2n = 25) by means of flow cytometric analysis. The chromosome numbers of 46 BC(2) seedlings varied from 16 to 24. Eight monosomic additions (2n = 2x+1 = 17, AA+nF) and 20 single-alien deletions were found in these BC(2) seedlings. Consequently, six kinds of A. cepa - A. fistulosum alien chromosome additions possessing different chromosome numbers (2n = 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23) were recognized in the BC(1) and BC(2) populations. A total of 79 aneuploids, including 62 single-alien deletions, were analyzed by a chromosome 6F-specific isozyme marker (Got-2) in order to recognize its existence in their chromosome complements. This analysis revealed that two out of 62 single-alien deletions did not possess 6F. One (AAF-6F) out of the possible eight single-alien deletions could be identified at first. The present study is a first step toward the development of a useful tool, such as a complete set of eight different single-alien deletions, for the rapid chromosomal assignment of genes and genetic markers in A. fistulosum. PMID:15599056

  15. Tracking Our Progress: A Global Monitoring and Evaluation Framework for the UN DESD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilbury, Daniella

    2009-01-01

    The sustainability agenda is a concern of several UN agencies that appreciate how well-being, social justice, human development and the health of our planet are inextricably linked. This remit underpinned the launch of the UN Decade in Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) in 2005. As the DESD reaches its mid-point, mechanisms for assessing…

  16. Antioxidants in aqueous extract of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) suppress mitosis and cyclophosphamide-induced chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa L. cells.

    PubMed

    Akinboro, Akeem; Mohamed, Kamaruzaman Bin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Sofiman, Othman Ahmad

    2011-11-01

    In this study, freeze-dried water extract from the leaves of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) was tested for mutagenic and antimutagenic potentials using the Allium cepa assay. Freeze-dried water extract alone and its combination with cyclophosphamide (CP) (50 mg/kg) were separately dissolved in tap water at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg/kg. Onions (A. cepa) were suspended in the solutions and controls for 48 h in the dark. Root tips were prepared for microscopic evaluation. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals' scavenging power of the extract was tested using butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as standards. Water extract of Myristica fragrans scavenged free radicals better than BHA, but worse than BHT. The extract alone, as well as in combination with CP suppressed cell division, and induced chromosomal aberrations that were insignificantly different from the negative control (P ≤ 0.05). However, cytotoxic and mutagenic actions of CP were considerably suppressed. The observed effects on cell division and chromosomes of A. cepa may be principally connected to the antioxidant properties of the extract. The obtained results suggest mitodepressive and antimutagenic potentials of water extract of the leaves of M. fragrans as desirable properties of a promising anticancer agent.

  17. Establishment of a series of alien monosomic addition lines of Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) with extra chromosomes from shallot (A. cepa L. aggregatum group).

    PubMed

    Shigyo, M; Tashiro, Y; Isshiki, S; Miyazaki, S

    1996-12-01

    Forty one plants of alien monosomic addition lines of Allium fistulosum L. with extra chromosomes from A. cepa L. Aggregatum group (FF + nA) were produced through the second backcross of amphidiploids between these two species to A. fistulosum. Identification of the extra chromosomes in the 16 plants by elaborate karyotype analyses indicate that a complete series (eight different types) of the alien monosomic addition lines was established in Allium for the first time in this study. Chromosomal locations of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) gene, triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene and 5S rDNA of A. cepa Aggregatum group were determined using the series; The gene locus Mdh-1 was located on 4A, Tpi-1 on 3A and a 5S rDNA locus on 7A. Our previous and present studies using the alien monosomic addition lines revealed 11 genetic markers (isozyme and 5S rDNA) assigned to all eight chromosomes of A. cepa Aggregatum group, and these markers reconfirmed the completion of the series. Extra chromosomes of 25 other plants were examined by means of simple analyses of the chromosome markers and karyotypes. Of the total 41 plants, frequencies of the alien monosomic addition lines with extra chromosomes 1A to 8A were as follows: 1A, 5 plants; 2A, 3; 3A, 5; 4A, 9; 5A, 4; 6A, 2; 7A, 11; and 8A, 2.

  18. Evaluation of toxic, cytotoxic, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities of natural and technical cashew nut shell liquids using the Allium cepa and Artemia salina bioassays.

    PubMed

    Leite, Aracelli de Sousa; Dantas, Alisson Ferreira; Oliveira, George Laylson da Silva; Gomes Júnior, Antonio L; de Lima, Sidney Gonçalo; Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes; de Freitas, Rivelilson M; Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de C; Dantas Lopes, José Arimateia

    2015-01-01

    The cashew nut releases a substance that is known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). There are both natural (iCNSL) and technical (tCNSL) cashew nut shell liquids. This study used an Artemia salina bioassay to evaluate the toxic effects of iCNSL and tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. It also evaluated the toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity of CNSL and its effects on the damage induced by copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O) on the meristems' root of Allium cepa. Effects of the damage induced by CuSO4·5H2O were evaluated before (pre-), during (co-), and after (post-) treatments. The iCNSL contained 94.5% anacardic acid, and the tCNSL contained 91.3% cardanol. The liquids were toxic to A. salina. Toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity were observed with iCNSL compared with the negative control. Similarly, iCNSL failed to inhibit the toxicity and cytotoxicity of CuSO4·5H2O. The tCNSL was not toxic, cytotoxic, or mutagenic in any of the concentrations. However, the lowest iCNSL concentrations and all of the tCNSL concentrations had preventive, antimutagenic, and reparative effects on micronuclei and on chromosomal aberrations in the A. cepa. Therefore, protective, modulating, and reparative effects may be observed in the A. cepa, depending on the concentration and type of CNSL used. PMID:25861638

  19. Establishment of a series of alien monosomic addition lines of Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) with extra chromosomes from shallot (A. cepa L. aggregatum group).

    PubMed

    Shigyo, M; Tashiro, Y; Isshiki, S; Miyazaki, S

    1996-12-01

    Forty one plants of alien monosomic addition lines of Allium fistulosum L. with extra chromosomes from A. cepa L. Aggregatum group (FF + nA) were produced through the second backcross of amphidiploids between these two species to A. fistulosum. Identification of the extra chromosomes in the 16 plants by elaborate karyotype analyses indicate that a complete series (eight different types) of the alien monosomic addition lines was established in Allium for the first time in this study. Chromosomal locations of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) gene, triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene and 5S rDNA of A. cepa Aggregatum group were determined using the series; The gene locus Mdh-1 was located on 4A, Tpi-1 on 3A and a 5S rDNA locus on 7A. Our previous and present studies using the alien monosomic addition lines revealed 11 genetic markers (isozyme and 5S rDNA) assigned to all eight chromosomes of A. cepa Aggregatum group, and these markers reconfirmed the completion of the series. Extra chromosomes of 25 other plants were examined by means of simple analyses of the chromosome markers and karyotypes. Of the total 41 plants, frequencies of the alien monosomic addition lines with extra chromosomes 1A to 8A were as follows: 1A, 5 plants; 2A, 3; 3A, 5; 4A, 9; 5A, 4; 6A, 2; 7A, 11; and 8A, 2. PMID:9080683

  20. Evaluation of toxic, cytotoxic, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities of natural and technical cashew nut shell liquids using the Allium cepa and Artemia salina bioassays.

    PubMed

    Leite, Aracelli de Sousa; Dantas, Alisson Ferreira; Oliveira, George Laylson da Silva; Gomes Júnior, Antonio L; de Lima, Sidney Gonçalo; Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes; de Freitas, Rivelilson M; Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de C; Dantas Lopes, José Arimateia

    2015-01-01

    The cashew nut releases a substance that is known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). There are both natural (iCNSL) and technical (tCNSL) cashew nut shell liquids. This study used an Artemia salina bioassay to evaluate the toxic effects of iCNSL and tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. It also evaluated the toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity of CNSL and its effects on the damage induced by copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O) on the meristems' root of Allium cepa. Effects of the damage induced by CuSO4·5H2O were evaluated before (pre-), during (co-), and after (post-) treatments. The iCNSL contained 94.5% anacardic acid, and the tCNSL contained 91.3% cardanol. The liquids were toxic to A. salina. Toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity were observed with iCNSL compared with the negative control. Similarly, iCNSL failed to inhibit the toxicity and cytotoxicity of CuSO4·5H2O. The tCNSL was not toxic, cytotoxic, or mutagenic in any of the concentrations. However, the lowest iCNSL concentrations and all of the tCNSL concentrations had preventive, antimutagenic, and reparative effects on micronuclei and on chromosomal aberrations in the A. cepa. Therefore, protective, modulating, and reparative effects may be observed in the A. cepa, depending on the concentration and type of CNSL used.

  1. Evaluation of Toxic, Cytotoxic, Mutagenic, and Antimutagenic Activities of Natural and Technical Cashew Nut Shell Liquids Using the Allium cepa and Artemia salina Bioassays

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Aracelli de Sousa; Oliveira, George Laylson da Silva; Gomes Júnior, Antonio L.; de Lima, Sidney Gonçalo; Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes; de Freitas, Rivelilson M.; Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de C.; Dantas Lopes, José Arimateia

    2015-01-01

    The cashew nut releases a substance that is known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). There are both natural (iCNSL) and technical (tCNSL) cashew nut shell liquids. This study used an Artemia salina bioassay to evaluate the toxic effects of iCNSL and tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. It also evaluated the toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity of CNSL and its effects on the damage induced by copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O) on the meristems' root of Allium cepa. Effects of the damage induced by CuSO4·5H2O were evaluated before (pre-), during (co-), and after (post-) treatments. The iCNSL contained 94.5% anacardic acid, and the tCNSL contained 91.3% cardanol. The liquids were toxic to A. salina. Toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity were observed with iCNSL compared with the negative control. Similarly, iCNSL failed to inhibit the toxicity and cytotoxicity of CuSO4·5H2O. The tCNSL was not toxic, cytotoxic, or mutagenic in any of the concentrations. However, the lowest iCNSL concentrations and all of the tCNSL concentrations had preventive, antimutagenic, and reparative effects on micronuclei and on chromosomal aberrations in the A. cepa. Therefore, protective, modulating, and reparative effects may be observed in the A. cepa, depending on the concentration and type of CNSL used. PMID:25861638

  2. Flavonol Glucoside and Antioxidant Enzyme Biosynthesis Affected by Mycorrhizal Fungi in Various Cultivars of Onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Mollavali, Mohanna; Bolandnazar, Saheb Ali; Schwarz, Dietmar; Rohn, Sascha; Riehle, Peer; Zaare Nahandi, Fariborz

    2016-01-13

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of mycorrhizal symbiosis on qualitative characteristics of onion (Allium cepa L.). For this reason, five onion cultivars with different scale color and three different strains of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Diversispora versiformis, Rhizophagus intraradices, Funneliformis mosseae) were used. Red cultivars, mainly 'Red Azar-shahr', showed the highest content in vitamin C, flavonols, and antioxidant enzymes. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased total phenolic, pyruvic acid, and vitamin C of onion plants. Considerable increase was observed in quercetin-4'-O-monoglucoside and isorhamnetin-4'-O-monoglucoside content in plants inoculated with Diversispora versiformis, but quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside was not significantly influenced. Analyses for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and antioxiodant enzyme activities such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) revealed that all except PPO were enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. Overall, these findings suggested that mycorrhizal inoculation influenced biosynthesis of flavonol glucosides and antioxidant enzymes by increasing nutrient uptake or by induction of the plant defense system. PMID:26694086

  3. Antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects of onion (Allium cepa) extract on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Alpsoy, Seref; Aktas, Cevat; Uygur, Ramazan; Topcu, Birol; Kanter, Mehmet; Erboga, Mustafa; Karakaya, Osman; Gedikbasi, Asuman

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects of onion (Allium cepa) extracts (ACE) on doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity. The rats in the ACE-pretreated group were given a daily dose of 1 ml ACE for 14 days. To induce cardiotoxicity, DOX (30 mg kg(-1) body weight) was injected intraperitoneally by a single dose and the rats were sacrificed after 48 h. To date, no such studies have been performed on the cardioprotective and anti-apoptotic potential of ACE on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Our data indicate a significant reduction in the activity of in situ identification of apoptosis using terminal dUTP nick end-labeling in cardiomyocytes of the DOX-treated group with ACE therapy. The DOX-treated with ACE groups showed a significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels, and increased activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase in comparison with the DOX-treated group. Creatine kinase, creatine kinase MB, lactate dehydrogenase activities and cardiac troponin I levels were significantly decreased in the DOX + ACE group in comparison with the DOX group. These biochemical and histological disturbances were effectively attenuated on pretreatment with ACE. The present study showed that ACE may be a suitable cardioprotector against toxic effects of DOX.

  4. Inhibitory effects of onion (Allium cepa L.) extract on proliferation of cancer cells and adipocytes via inhibiting fatty acid synthase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Tian, Wei-Xi; Ma, Xiao-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are widely used in the food industry for its nutritional and aromatic properties. Our studies showed that ethyl acetate extract of onion (EEO) had potent inhibitory effects on animal fatty acid synthase (FAS), and could induce apoptosis in FAS over-expressing human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, this apoptosis was accompanied by reduction of intracellular FAS activity and could be rescued by 25 mM or 50 mM exogenous palmitic acids, the final product of FAS catalyzed synthesis. These results suggest that the apoptosis induced by EEO occurs via inhibition of FAS. We also found that EEO could suppress lipid accumulation during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which was also related to its inhibition of intracellular FAS activity. Since obesity is closely related to breast cancer and obese patients are at elevated risk of developing various cancers, these findings suggested that onion might be useful for preventing obesity-related malignancy.

  5. Fermentation enhances the in vitro antioxidative effect of onion (Allium cepa) via an increase in quercetin content.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun-Ju; Kim, Sang-In; Park, Sang-Yun; Bang, Han-Yeol; Jeong, Ji Hye; So, Jai-Hyun; Rhee, In-Koo; Song, Kyung-Sik

    2012-06-01

    Yellow onion (Allium cepa) extract showed enhanced antioxidative effects in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and acetyl ester (CM-H(2)DCFDA) assay after being treated with a crude enzyme extract from soybean paste fungi, Aspergillus kawachii. HPLC analysis showed two increased and two decreased peaks after enzyme treatment. The decreased peaks were identified as quercetin-3,4'-di-O-β-d-glucoside (1) and quercetin-4'-O-β-d-glucoside (2), and peaks that increased were quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucoside (3) and quercetin (4), respectively. It was expected that 3 and 4 were originated from the glucosidic cleavage of their glucosides, 1 and 2. Among the increased compounds, only quercetin (4) showed strong antioxidative activity in the DPPH assay. In addition, the protective effect against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in HT22 cells was increased when treated with 25 μg/ml of fermented onion. The enhanced neuroprotective effect was also originated from the increased quercetin content. As a consequence, fermentation raised the quercetin content in onion, and subsequently increased the antioxidative and neuroprotective activities.

  6. Flavonol Glucoside and Antioxidant Enzyme Biosynthesis Affected by Mycorrhizal Fungi in Various Cultivars of Onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Mollavali, Mohanna; Bolandnazar, Saheb Ali; Schwarz, Dietmar; Rohn, Sascha; Riehle, Peer; Zaare Nahandi, Fariborz

    2016-01-13

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of mycorrhizal symbiosis on qualitative characteristics of onion (Allium cepa L.). For this reason, five onion cultivars with different scale color and three different strains of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Diversispora versiformis, Rhizophagus intraradices, Funneliformis mosseae) were used. Red cultivars, mainly 'Red Azar-shahr', showed the highest content in vitamin C, flavonols, and antioxidant enzymes. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased total phenolic, pyruvic acid, and vitamin C of onion plants. Considerable increase was observed in quercetin-4'-O-monoglucoside and isorhamnetin-4'-O-monoglucoside content in plants inoculated with Diversispora versiformis, but quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside was not significantly influenced. Analyses for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and antioxiodant enzyme activities such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) revealed that all except PPO were enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. Overall, these findings suggested that mycorrhizal inoculation influenced biosynthesis of flavonol glucosides and antioxidant enzymes by increasing nutrient uptake or by induction of the plant defense system.

  7. Biodecolorization of azo dye Remazol orange by Pseudomonas aeruginosa BCH and toxicity (oxidative stress) reduction in Allium cepa root cells.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Shekhar B; Surwase, Shripad N; Kalyani, Dayanand C; Gurav, Ranjit G; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2012-11-01

    In this report a textile azo dye Remazol orange was degraded and detoxified by bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa BCH in plain distilled water. This bacterial decolorization performance was found to be pH and temperature dependent with maximum decolorization observed at pH 8 and temperature 30 °C. Bacterium tolerated higher dye concentrations up to 400 mg l(-1). Effect of initial cell mass showed that higher cell mass concentration can accelerate decolorization process with maximum of 92 % decolorization observed at 2.5 g l(-1) cell mass within 6.5 h. Effect of various metal ions showed Mn has inducing effect whereas Zn strongly inhibited the decolorization process at 5 mM concentration. Analysis of biodegradation products carried out with UV-vis spectroscopy, HPTLC and FTIR confirmed the decolorization and degradation of Remazol orange. Possible route for the degradation of dye was proposed based on GC-MS analysis. During toxicological scrutiny in Allium cepa root cells, induction in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and inhibition of catalase (CAT) along with raised levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in dye treated samples were detected which conclusively indicated the generation of oxidative stress. Less toxic nature of the dye degraded products was observed after bacterial treatment.

  8. Purification and Characterization of Two Distinct NAD(P)H Dehydrogenases from Onion (Allium cepa L.) Root Plasma Membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, A.; Cordoba, F.; Gonzalez-Reyes, J. A.; Navas, P.; Villalba, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Highly purified plasma membrane fractions were obtained from onion (Allium cepa L.) roots and used as a source for purification of redox proteins. Plasma membranes solubilized with Triton X-100 contained two distinct polypeptides showing NAD(P)H-dependent dehydrogenase activities. Dehydrogenase I was purified by gel filtration in Sephacryl S-300 HR, ion-exchange chromatography in DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B, and dye-ligand affinity chromatography in Blue-Sepharose CL-6B after biospecific elution with NADH. Dehydrogenase I consisted of a single polypeptide of about 27 kD and an isoelectric point of about 6. Dehydrogenase II was purified from the DEAE-unbound fraction by chromatography in Blue-Sepharose CL-6B and affinity elution with NADH. Dehydrogenase II consisted of a single polypeptide of about 31 kD and an isoelectric point of about 8. Purified dehydrogenase I oxidized both NADPH and NADH, although higher rates of electron transfer were obtained with NADPH. Maximal activity was achieved with NADPH as donor and juglone or coenzyme Q as acceptor. Dehydrogenase II was specific for NADH and exhibited maximal activity with ferricyanide. Optimal pH for both dehydrogenases was about 6. Dehydrogenase I was moderately inhibited by dicumarol, thenoyltrifluoroacetone, and the thiol reagent N-ethyl-maleimide. A strong inhibition of dehydrogenase II was obtained with dicumarol, thenoyltrifluoroacetone, and the thiol reagent p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. PMID:12232306

  9. High-resolution mm interferometry and the search for massive protostellar disks: the case of Cep-A HW2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comito, Claudia; Schilke, Peter; Endesfelder, Ulrike; Jiménez-Serra, Izaskun; Martín-Pintado, Jesus

    2008-01-01

    The direct detection of accretion onto massive protostars through rotating disks constitutes an important tile in the massive-star-formation-theory mosaic. This task is however observationally very challenging. A very interesting example is Cepheus A HW2. The properties of the molecular emission around this YSO seems to suggest the presence of a massive rotating disk (cf. Patel et al. in Nature 437:109, 2005). We have carried out sub-arcsec-resolution PdBI observations of high-density and shock tracers such as SO2, SiO, CH3CN, and CH3OH towards the center of the outflow. A detailed analysis of the spatial distribution and of the velocity field traced by all observed species leads us to conclude that, on a ˜700 AU scale, the Cep-A “disk” is actually the result of the superposition of multiple hot-core-type objects, at least one of them ejecting an outflow at a small angle with respect to the line of sight. Together with the well-known large-scale outflow ejected by HW2, this setup makes for a very complex spatial and kinematic picture.

  10. Copper-induced root growth inhibition of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. involves disturbances in cell division and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Qin, Rong; Wang, Congyue; Chen, Da; Björn, Lars O; Li, Shaoshan

    2015-05-01

    Copper (Cu) is considered to be an indispensable microelement for plants. Excessive Cu, however, is toxic and disturbs several processes in the plant. The present study addressed the effects of ionic Cu (2.0 µM and 8.0 µM) on mitosis, the microtubule cytoskeleton, and DNA in root tip cells of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. to better understand Cu toxicity on plant root systems. The results indicated that Cu accumulated in roots and that root growth was inhibited dramatically in Cu treatment groups. Chromosomal aberrations (for example, C-mitosis, chromosome bridges, chromosome stickiness, and micronucleus) were observed, and the mitotic index decreased during Cu treatments at different concentrations. Microtubules were one of the target sites of Cu toxicity in root tip meristematic cells, and Cu exposure substantially impaired microtubule arrangements. The content of α-tubulin decreased following 36 h of exposure to 2.0 µM or 8.0 µM of Cu in comparison with the control group. Copper increased DNA damage and suppressed cell cycle progression. The above toxic effects became more serious with increasing Cu concentration and prolonged exposure time.

  11. Cytotoxicity of aluminum oxide nanoparticles on Allium cepa root tip--effects of oxidative stress generation and biouptake.

    PubMed

    Rajeshwari, A; Kavitha, S; Alex, Sruthi Ann; Kumar, Deepak; Mukherjee, Anita; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2015-07-01

    The commercial usage of Al2O3 nanoparticles (Al2O3 NPs) has gone up significantly in the recent times, enhancing the risk of environmental contamination with these agents and their consequent adverse effects on living systems. The current study has been designed to evaluate the cytogenetic potential of Al2O3 NPs in Allium cepa (root tip cells) at a range of exposure concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 μg/mL), their uptake/internalization profile, and the oxidative stress generated. We noted a dose-dependent decrease in the mitotic index (42 to 28 %) and an increase in the number of chromosomal aberrations. Various chromosomal aberrations, e.g. sticky, multipolar and laggard chromosomes, chromosomal breaks, and the formation of binucleate cells, were observed by optical, fluorescence, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. FT-IR analysis demonstrated the surface chemical interaction between the nanoparticles and root tip cells. The biouptake of Al2O3 in particulate form led to reactive oxygen species generation, which in turn probably contributed to the induction of chromosomal aberrations.

  12. Effects of hexavalent chromium on microtubule organization, ER distribution and callose deposition in root tip cells of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S; Melissa, Pelagia

    2012-04-01

    The subcellular targets of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] were examined in Allium cepa root tips with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cr(VI) exerted dose- and time-dependent negative effects on root growth rate, the mitotic index and microtubule (MT) organization during cell division cycle. Interphase MTs were more resistant than the mitotic ones, but when affected they were shorter, sparse and disoriented. The preprophase band of MTs became poorly organized, branched or with fragmented MTs, whilst neither a perinuclear array nor a prophase spindle was formed. Metaphase spindles converged to eccentric mini poles or consisted of dissimilar halves and were unable to correctly orient the chromosomes. Anaphase spindles were less disturbed, but chromatids failed to separate; neither did they move to the poles. At telophase, projecting, lagging or bridging chromosomes and micronuclei also occurred. Phragmoplasts were unilaterally developed, split, located at unexpected sites and frequently dissociated from the branched and misaligned cell plates. Chromosomal aberrations were directly correlated with MT disturbance. The morphology and distribution of endoplasmic reticulum was severely perturbed and presumably contributed to MT disassembly. Heavy callose apposition was also induced by Cr(VI), maybe in the context of a cellular defence reaction. Results indicate that MTs are one of the main subcellular targets of Cr(VI), MT impairment underlies chromosomal and mitotic aberrations, and MTs may constitute a reliable biomonitoring system for Cr(VI) toxicity in plants. PMID:21633932

  13. Copper-induced root growth inhibition of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. involves disturbances in cell division and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Qin, Rong; Wang, Congyue; Chen, Da; Björn, Lars O; Li, Shaoshan

    2015-05-01

    Copper (Cu) is considered to be an indispensable microelement for plants. Excessive Cu, however, is toxic and disturbs several processes in the plant. The present study addressed the effects of ionic Cu (2.0 µM and 8.0 µM) on mitosis, the microtubule cytoskeleton, and DNA in root tip cells of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. to better understand Cu toxicity on plant root systems. The results indicated that Cu accumulated in roots and that root growth was inhibited dramatically in Cu treatment groups. Chromosomal aberrations (for example, C-mitosis, chromosome bridges, chromosome stickiness, and micronucleus) were observed, and the mitotic index decreased during Cu treatments at different concentrations. Microtubules were one of the target sites of Cu toxicity in root tip meristematic cells, and Cu exposure substantially impaired microtubule arrangements. The content of α-tubulin decreased following 36 h of exposure to 2.0 µM or 8.0 µM of Cu in comparison with the control group. Copper increased DNA damage and suppressed cell cycle progression. The above toxic effects became more serious with increasing Cu concentration and prolonged exposure time. PMID:25639377

  14. Biodecolorization of azo dye Remazol orange by Pseudomonas aeruginosa BCH and toxicity (oxidative stress) reduction in Allium cepa root cells.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Shekhar B; Surwase, Shripad N; Kalyani, Dayanand C; Gurav, Ranjit G; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2012-11-01

    In this report a textile azo dye Remazol orange was degraded and detoxified by bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa BCH in plain distilled water. This bacterial decolorization performance was found to be pH and temperature dependent with maximum decolorization observed at pH 8 and temperature 30 °C. Bacterium tolerated higher dye concentrations up to 400 mg l(-1). Effect of initial cell mass showed that higher cell mass concentration can accelerate decolorization process with maximum of 92 % decolorization observed at 2.5 g l(-1) cell mass within 6.5 h. Effect of various metal ions showed Mn has inducing effect whereas Zn strongly inhibited the decolorization process at 5 mM concentration. Analysis of biodegradation products carried out with UV-vis spectroscopy, HPTLC and FTIR confirmed the decolorization and degradation of Remazol orange. Possible route for the degradation of dye was proposed based on GC-MS analysis. During toxicological scrutiny in Allium cepa root cells, induction in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and inhibition of catalase (CAT) along with raised levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in dye treated samples were detected which conclusively indicated the generation of oxidative stress. Less toxic nature of the dye degraded products was observed after bacterial treatment. PMID:22948606

  15. Astronomía Gamma desde El Leoncito

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovero, A. C.; Colombo, E.; Sahade, J.; Weekes, T. C.

    La astronomía gamma, en el extremo de energías detectadas hasta el presente, se encuentra en desarrollo en muchas partes del mundo y proporciona resultados sorprendentes a medida que la tecnología avanza en el desarrollo de nuevos detectores. La técnica Cherenkov Atmosférica es la utilizada para la detección, mediante telescopios en tierra, del efecto secundario causado por la radiación gamma de muy altas energías (E ≈ TeV). Por medio de telescopios o arreglos de detectores y utilizando la técnica mencionada, se han podido detectar algunas fuentes puntuales de mucha importancia astrofísica como la Nebulosa del Cangrejo y la galaxia de núcleo activo Markarian 421. El sistema instalado en San Juan, en cooperación con el grupo de Radiación Gamma del Observatorio Whipple, está constituído por tres colectores de 1.5m que registran pulsos de luz generados por las cascadas de partículas producidas por rayos cósmicos de todo tipo al entrar en la atmósfera terrestre. El sistema opera por barrido en ascención recta de la fuente observada que, para esta etapa del experimento, es el Centro Galáctico. Esta fuente extensa es conocida como emisor gamma de energías inferiores al TeV y ha sido observada anteriormente en este rango de energía desde el hemisferio norte pero con elevaciones bajas, situación no óptima para este tipo de técnica. Se presentan los primeros resultados del análisis de los datos obtenidos observando la región del Centro Galáctico, luego de dos años de observaciones, así como una descripción de la técnica Cherenkov Atmosférica y del equipo utilizado en la experiencia.

  16. Induction of mitotic and chromosomal abnormalities on Allium cepa cells by pesticides imidacloprid and sulfentrazone and the mixture of them.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Jaqueline; Fernandes, Thais Cristina Casimiro; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of low concentrations of pesticides in non-target organisms, seeds of Allium cepa were exposed for 24 h to the imidacloprid insecticide, sulfentrazone herbicide and to the mixture of them, followed by recovery periods of 48 and 72 h. Imidacloprid results indicated an indirect genotoxic effect by inducing different types of chromosome aberration (CA), mainly bridges and chromosomal adherences. Cells with micronucleus (MN) were not significant in the analyzed meristems. Moreover, the 72-h recovery tests indicated that the two lower concentrations of the insecticide (0.036 and 0.36 g L(-1)) had their genotoxic effects minimized after discontinuation of treatment, differently to the observed for the field concentration (3.6 g L(-1)). Sulfentrazone herbicide at field concentration (6 g L(-1)) caused cytotoxic effects by inducing nuclear fragmentation and inhibition of cell division. The other concentrations (0.06, 0.6 and 1.2 g L(-1)) indicated genotoxic effects for this herbicide. The concentration of 0.06 g L(-1) induced persistent effects that could be visualized both by the induction of CA in the recovery times as by the presence of MN in meristematic and F1 cells. The induction of MN by this lowest concentration was associated with the great amount of breakage, losses and chromosomal bridges. The mixture of pesticides induced genotoxic and cytotoxic effects, by reducing the MI of the cells. The chromosomal damage induced by the mixture of pesticides was not persistent to the cells, since such damage was minimized 72 h after the interruption of the exposure. PMID:26386773

  17. Water Transport in Onion (Allium cepa L.) Roots (Changes of Axial and Radial Hydraulic Conductivities during Root Development).

    PubMed Central

    Melchior, W.; Steudle, E.

    1993-01-01

    The hydraulic architecture of developing onion (Allium cepa L. cv Calypso) roots grown hydroponically was determined by measuring axial and radial hydraulic conductivities (equal to inverse of specific hydraulic resistances). In the roots, Casparian bands and suberin lamellae develop in the endodermis and exodermis (equal to hypodermis). Using the root pressure probe, changes of hydraulic conductivities along the developing roots were analyzed with high resolution. Axial hydraulic conductivity (Lx) was also calculated from stained cross-sections according to Poiseuille's law. Near the base and the tip of the roots, measured and calculated Lx values were similar. However, at distances between 200 and 300 mm from the apex, measured values of Lx were smaller by more than 1 order of magnitude than those calculated, probably because of remaining cross walls between xylem vessel members. During development of root xylem, Lx increased by 3 orders of magnitude. In the apical 30 mm (tip region), axial resistance limited water transport, whereas in basal parts radial resistances (low radial hydraulic conductivity, Lpr) controlled the uptake. Because of the high axial hydraulic resistance in the tip region, this zone appeared to be "hydraulically isolated" from the rest of the root. Changes of the Lpr of the roots were determined by measuring the hydraulic conductance of roots of different length and referring these data to unit surface area. At distances between 30 and 150 mm from the root tip, Lpr was fairly constant (1.4 x 10-7 m s-1 MPa-1). In more basal root zones, Lpr was considerably smaller and varied between roots. The low contribution of basal zones to the overall water uptake indicated an influence of the exodermal Casparian bands and/or suberin lamellae in the endodermis or exodermis, which develop at distances larger than 50 to 60 mm from the root tip. PMID:12231786

  18. Induction of mitotic and chromosomal abnormalities on Allium cepa cells by pesticides imidacloprid and sulfentrazone and the mixture of them.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Jaqueline; Fernandes, Thais Cristina Casimiro; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of low concentrations of pesticides in non-target organisms, seeds of Allium cepa were exposed for 24 h to the imidacloprid insecticide, sulfentrazone herbicide and to the mixture of them, followed by recovery periods of 48 and 72 h. Imidacloprid results indicated an indirect genotoxic effect by inducing different types of chromosome aberration (CA), mainly bridges and chromosomal adherences. Cells with micronucleus (MN) were not significant in the analyzed meristems. Moreover, the 72-h recovery tests indicated that the two lower concentrations of the insecticide (0.036 and 0.36 g L(-1)) had their genotoxic effects minimized after discontinuation of treatment, differently to the observed for the field concentration (3.6 g L(-1)). Sulfentrazone herbicide at field concentration (6 g L(-1)) caused cytotoxic effects by inducing nuclear fragmentation and inhibition of cell division. The other concentrations (0.06, 0.6 and 1.2 g L(-1)) indicated genotoxic effects for this herbicide. The concentration of 0.06 g L(-1) induced persistent effects that could be visualized both by the induction of CA in the recovery times as by the presence of MN in meristematic and F1 cells. The induction of MN by this lowest concentration was associated with the great amount of breakage, losses and chromosomal bridges. The mixture of pesticides induced genotoxic and cytotoxic effects, by reducing the MI of the cells. The chromosomal damage induced by the mixture of pesticides was not persistent to the cells, since such damage was minimized 72 h after the interruption of the exposure.

  19. Dissimilar effects of β-lapachone- and hydroxyurea-induced DNA replication stress in root meristem cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Zabka, Aneta; Trzaskoma, Paweł; Maszewski, Janusz

    2013-12-01

    Two anticancer drugs, β-lapachone (β-lap, a naphthoquinone) and hydroxyurea (HU, an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase), differently affect nuclear morphology and cell cycle control mechanisms in root meristem cells of Allium cepa. The 18 h treatment with 100 μM β-lap results in a lowered number of M-phase cells, increased occurrence of mitotic abnormalities, including over-condensation of chromosomes, their enhanced stickiness, formation of anaphase bridges, micronucleation and reduced mitotic spindles. Following prolonged incubations using high doses of β-lap, cell nuclei reveal dark-red fluorescence evenly distributed in chromatin surrounding the unstained regions of nucleoli. Both drugs generate H2O2 and induce DNA double strand breaks, which is correlated with γ-phoshorylation of H2AX histones. However, the extent of H2AX phosphorylation (including the frequency of γ-H2AX foci and the relative number cells creating phospho-H2AX domains) is considerably reduced in root meristem cells treated jointly with the β-lap/HU mixture. Furthermore, various effects of caffeine (an inhibitor of ATM/ATR cell cycle checkpoint kinases) on β-lap- and HU-induced γ-phoshorylation of H2AX histones and the protective activity of HU against β-lap suggest that their genotoxic activities are largely dissimilar. β-Lap treatment results in the induction of apoptosis-like programmed cell death, while HU treatment leads to cell adaptation to replication stress and promotion of abnormal nuclear divisions with biphasic interphase/mitotic states of chromatin condensation.

  20. Analysis of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity on E. coli, human blood cells and Allium cepa suggests a greater toxic potential of hair dye.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Swati; Sasmal, Kankaayan; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Singh, Mukesh

    2016-02-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are among the most important emerging environmental contaminants in recent time. PPCPs include wide range of cosmetics, among which hair dyes, are immensely popular in modern society. However, impact of hair dye and its residual discharged to the environment in relation to human health and ecological imbalance have not been widely studied. Based on the result of initial survey among the group of populations of eastern India, three most popular and commonly used permanent hair dyes are selected. Working sample of dye is prepared as recommended on the instructions booklet of the hair dye. The effect of three dyes is studied on Escherichia coli, human red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and Allium cepa bulbs by growth inhibition, hemolysis, 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and A. cepa micronuclei assays respectively. The Lethal dose (LD) demonstrated significant differences among three dyes and the model systems. In vitro hemolytic assays performed on RBC, and MTT assays on WBC show the cytotoxic effects of hair dye. Significant growth inhibition of E. coli has also been noted. In addition, the root tips of A. cepa treated with the dye have shown major chromosomal abnormalities coupled with cell division retardation. Here low mitotic index confirm cell division retardation. Finally, results of in vitro studies of dye-DNA interactions demonstrate electrostatic interaction. Combing all these results it confirms that hair dyes are cytotoxic and may cause mutagenic effect on living cells irrespective of microbes, plant and animal system. PMID:26544094

  1. Analysis of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity on E. coli, human blood cells and Allium cepa suggests a greater toxic potential of hair dye.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Swati; Sasmal, Kankaayan; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Singh, Mukesh

    2016-02-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are among the most important emerging environmental contaminants in recent time. PPCPs include wide range of cosmetics, among which hair dyes, are immensely popular in modern society. However, impact of hair dye and its residual discharged to the environment in relation to human health and ecological imbalance have not been widely studied. Based on the result of initial survey among the group of populations of eastern India, three most popular and commonly used permanent hair dyes are selected. Working sample of dye is prepared as recommended on the instructions booklet of the hair dye. The effect of three dyes is studied on Escherichia coli, human red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and Allium cepa bulbs by growth inhibition, hemolysis, 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and A. cepa micronuclei assays respectively. The Lethal dose (LD) demonstrated significant differences among three dyes and the model systems. In vitro hemolytic assays performed on RBC, and MTT assays on WBC show the cytotoxic effects of hair dye. Significant growth inhibition of E. coli has also been noted. In addition, the root tips of A. cepa treated with the dye have shown major chromosomal abnormalities coupled with cell division retardation. Here low mitotic index confirm cell division retardation. Finally, results of in vitro studies of dye-DNA interactions demonstrate electrostatic interaction. Combing all these results it confirms that hair dyes are cytotoxic and may cause mutagenic effect on living cells irrespective of microbes, plant and animal system.

  2. Loss of Microtubules in the Interphase Cells of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Root Tips from the Cell Cortex and Their Appearance in the Cytoplasm after Treatment with Cycloheximide.

    PubMed Central

    Mineyuki, Y.; Iida, H.; Anraku, Y.

    1994-01-01

    As part of a project to investigate the mechanism of cortical microtubule (MT) alignment, we examined the effects of cycloheximide (CHM) on cortical MTs in the root tip cells of Allium cepa L. Results show that although a preprophase band of MTs remained in the cell cortex, interphase MTs disappeared from the cortical cytoplasm and then appeared concomitantly in the inner cytoplasm when the rate of de novo protein synthesis was reduced with CHM (11-360 [mu]M for 2 h) PMID:12232080

  3. Evaluation of the antimutagenic activity and mode of action of the fructooligosaccharide inulin in the meristematic cells of Allium cepa culture.

    PubMed

    Mauro, M O; Pesarini, J R; Marin-Morales, M A; Monreal, M T F D; Monreal, A C D; Mantovani, M S; Oliveira, R J

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of inulin in a chromosomal aberration assay in cultures of the meristematic cells of Allium cepa. The treatments evaluated were as follows: negative control--seed germination in distilled water; positive control--aqueous solution of methyl methanesulfonate (10 μg/mL MMS); mutagenicity--aqueous solutions of inulin (0.015, 0.15, and 1.50 μg/mL); and antimutagenicity--associations between MMS and the different inulin concentrations. The antimutagenicity protocols established were pre-treatment, simultaneous simple, simultaneous with pre-incubation, and post-treatment. The damage reduction percentage (DR%) was 43.56, 27.77, and 55.92% for the pre-treatment; -31.11, 18.51, and 7.03% for the simultaneous simple; 30.43, 19.12, and 21.11% for the simultaneous with pre-incubation; and 64.07, 42.96, and 53.70% for the post-treatment. The results indicated that the most effective treatment for inhibiting damages caused by MMS was the post-treatment, which was followed by the pre-treatment, suggesting activity by bioantimutagenesis and desmutagenesis. The Allium cepa assay was demonstrated to be a good screening test for this type of activity because it is easy to perform, has a low cost, and shows DR% that is comparable to that reported studies that evaluated the prevention of DNA damage in mammals by inulin. PMID:24615117

  4. Complete assignment of structural genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis influencing bulb color to individual chromosomes of the shallot (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Masuzaki, Shin-ichi; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Yamauchi, Naoki

    2006-08-01

    We analyzed Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) - shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) alien chromosome addition lines in order to assign the genes involved in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway to chromosomes of the shallot. Two complete sets of alien monosomic additions (2n = 2x + 1 = 17) were used for determining the chromosomal locations of several partial sequences of candidate genes, CHS, CHI, F3H, DFR, and ANS via analyses of PCR-based markers. The results of DNA marker analyses showed that the CHS-A, CHS-B, CHI, F3H, DFR, and ANS genes should be assigned to chromosomes 2A, 4A, 3A, 3A, 7A, and 4A, respectively. HPLC analyses of 14 A. fistulosum - shallot multiple alien additions (2n = 2x + 2 - 2x + 7 = 18 - 23) were conducted to identify the anthocyanin compounds produced in the scaly leaves. A direct comparison between the genomic constitution and the anthocyanin compositions of the multiple additions revealed that a 3GT gene for glucosylation of anthocyanidin was located on 4A. Thus, we were able to assign all structural genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis influencing bulb color to individual chromosomes of A. cepa.

  5. Discovery of a new source of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum, cause of Fusarium wilt in Allium fistulosum, located on chromosome 2 of Allium cepa Aggregatum group.

    PubMed

    Vu, Hoa Q; El-Sayed, Magdi A; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2012-11-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the antifungal effect of Allium cepa Aggregatum group (shallot) metabolites on Fusarium oxysporum and to determine the shallot chromosome(s) related to Fusarium wilt resistance using a complete set of eight Allium fistulosum - shallot monosomic addition lines. The antifungal effects of hexane, butanol, and water extraction fractions from bulbs of shallot on 35 isolates of F. oxysporum were examined using the disc diffusion method. Only hexane and butanol fractions showed high antifungal activity. Shallot showed no symptom of disease after inoculation with F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae. The phenolic content of the roots and the saponin content of root exudates of inoculated shallot increased to much higher levels than those of the control at 3 days after inoculation. Application of freeze-dried shallot root exudates to seeds of A. fistulosum soaked in a spore suspension of F. oxysporum resulted in protection of seedlings against infection. Among eight monosomic addition lines and A. fistulosum, FF+2A showed the highest resistance to Fusarium wilt. This monosomic addition line also showed a specific saponin band derived from shallot on the thin layer chromatography profile of saponins in the eight monosomic addition lines. The chromosome 2A of shallot might possess some of the genes related to Fusarium wilt resistance.

  6. Assessment of the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of the commercial black dye in Allium cepa cells before and after bacterial biodegradation treatment.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Camargo, Bruna de Campos; de Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2016-10-01

    The present study evaluated the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic actions of different concentrations (50 and 200 μg/L) of BDCP (Black Dye Commercial Product) used by textile industries, before and after bacterial biodegradation, by the conventional staining cytogenetic technique and NOR-banding in Allium cepa cells. Differences in the chromosomal and nuclear aberrations and alterations in the number of nucleoli were observed in cells exposed to BDCP with and without the microbial treatment. The significant frequencies of chromosome and nuclear aberrations noted in the tests with bacterially biodegraded BDCP indicate that the metabolites generated by degradation are more genotoxic than the chemical itself. Losses of genetic material characterize a type of alteration that was mainly associated with the action of the original BDCP, whereas chromosome stickiness, nuclear buds and binucleated cells were the aberrations that were preferentially induced by BDCP metabolites after biodegradation. The significant frequencies of cell death observed in the tests with biodegraded BDCP also show the cytotoxic effects of the BDCP metabolites. The reduction in the total frequency of altered cells after the recovery treatments showed that the test organism A. cepa has the ability to recover from damage induced by BDCP and its metabolites after the exposure conditions are normalized. PMID:27441992

  7. Action mechanisms of petroleum hydrocarbons present in waters impacted by an oil spill on the genetic material of Allium cepa root cells.

    PubMed

    Leme, Daniela Morais; de Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2008-07-30

    Chromosomal aberration (CA) assays have been widely used, not only to assess the genotoxic effects of chemical agents, but also to evaluate their action mechanisms on the genetic material of exposed organisms. This is of particular interest, since such analyses provide a better knowledge related to the action of these agents on DNA. Among test organisms, Allium cepa is an outstanding species due to its sensitivity and suitable chromosomal features, which are essential for studies on chromosomal damage or disturbances in cell cycle. The goal of the present study was to analyze the action mechanisms of chemical agents present in petroleum polluted waters. Therefore, CA assay was carried out in A. cepa meristematic cells exposed to the Guaecá river waters, located in the city of São Sebastião, SP, Brazil, which had its waters impacted by an oil pipeline leak. Analyses of the aberration types showed clastogenic and aneugenic effects for the roots exposed to the polluted waters from Guaecá river, besides the induction of cell death. Probably all the observed effects were induced by the petroleum hydrocarbons derived from the oil leakage.

  8. Oxidative potential of ultraviolet-A irradiated or nonirradiated suspensions of titanium dioxide or silicon dioxide nanoparticles on Allium cepa roots.

    PubMed

    Koce, Jasna Dolenc; Drobne, Damjana; Klančnik, Katja; Makovec, Darko; Novak, Sara; Hočevar, Matej

    2014-04-01

    The effect of ultraviolet-A irradiated or nonirradiated suspensions of agglomerates of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) or silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) nanoparticles on roots of the onion (Allium cepa) has been studied. The reactive potential of TiO(2) nanoparticles, which have photocatalytic potential, and the nonphotocatalytic SiO(2) nanoparticles with the same size of agglomerates was compared. The authors measured the activity of antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and catalase as well as lipid peroxidation to assess the oxidative stress in exposed A. cepa roots. A wide range of concentrations of nanoparticles was tested (0.1-1000 µg/mL). The sizes of agglomerates ranged in both cases from 300 nm to 600 nm, and the exposure time was 24 h. Adsorption of SiO(2) nanoparticles on the root surface was minimal but became significant when roots were exposed to TiO(2) agglomerates. No significant biological effects were observed even at high exposure concentrations of SiO(2) and TiO(2) nanoparticles individually. Plants appear to be protected against nanoparticles by the cell wall, which shields the cell membrane from direct contact with the nanoparticles. The authors discuss the need to supplement conventional phytotoxicity and stress end points with measures of plant physiological state when evaluating the safety of nanoparticles.

  9. Oxidative potential of ultraviolet-A irradiated or nonirradiated suspensions of titanium dioxide or silicon dioxide nanoparticles on Allium cepa roots.

    PubMed

    Koce, Jasna Dolenc; Drobne, Damjana; Klančnik, Katja; Makovec, Darko; Novak, Sara; Hočevar, Matej

    2014-04-01

    The effect of ultraviolet-A irradiated or nonirradiated suspensions of agglomerates of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) or silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) nanoparticles on roots of the onion (Allium cepa) has been studied. The reactive potential of TiO(2) nanoparticles, which have photocatalytic potential, and the nonphotocatalytic SiO(2) nanoparticles with the same size of agglomerates was compared. The authors measured the activity of antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and catalase as well as lipid peroxidation to assess the oxidative stress in exposed A. cepa roots. A wide range of concentrations of nanoparticles was tested (0.1-1000 µg/mL). The sizes of agglomerates ranged in both cases from 300 nm to 600 nm, and the exposure time was 24 h. Adsorption of SiO(2) nanoparticles on the root surface was minimal but became significant when roots were exposed to TiO(2) agglomerates. No significant biological effects were observed even at high exposure concentrations of SiO(2) and TiO(2) nanoparticles individually. Plants appear to be protected against nanoparticles by the cell wall, which shields the cell membrane from direct contact with the nanoparticles. The authors discuss the need to supplement conventional phytotoxicity and stress end points with measures of plant physiological state when evaluating the safety of nanoparticles. PMID:24812678

  10. The biphasic interphase-mitotic polarity of cell nuclei induced under DNA replication stress seems to be correlated with Pin2 localization in root meristems of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Żabka, Aneta; Trzaskoma, Paweł; Winnicki, Konrad; Polit, Justyna Teresa; Chmielnicka, Agnieszka; Maszewski, Janusz

    2015-02-01

    Long-term treatment of Allium cepa seedlings with low concentration of hydroxyurea (HU) results in a disruption of cell cycle checkpoints, leading root apex meristem (RAM) cells to an abnormal organization of nuclear structures forming interphase (I) and mitotic (M) domains of chromatin at opposite poles of the nucleus. Thus far, both critical cell length and an uneven distribution of cyclin B-like proteins along the nuclear axis have been recognized as essential factors needed to facilitate the formation of biphasic interphase-mitotic (IM) cells. Two new aspects with respect to their emergence are investigated in this study. The first concerns a relationship between the polarity of increasing chromatin condensation (IM orientation) and the acropetal (base→apex) alignment of RAM cell files. The second problem involves the effects of auxin (IAA), on the frequency of IM cells. We provide evidence that there is an association between the advanced M-poles of the IM cell nuclei and the polarized accumulation sites of auxin efflux carriers (PIN2 proteins) and IAA. Furthermore, our observations reveal exclusion regions for PIN2 proteins in the microtubule-rich structures, such as preprophase bands (PPBs) and phragmoplast. The current and previous studies have prompted us to formulate a hypothetical mechanism linking PIN2-mediated unilateral localization of IAA and the induction of bipolar IM cells in HU-treated RAMs of A. cepa.

  11. Systemic control of cell division and endoreduplication by NAA and BAP by modulating CDKs in root tip cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Tank, Jigna G; Thaker, Vrinda S

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mechanism regulated by auxin and cytokinin during endoreduplication, cell division, and elongation process is studied by using Allium cepa roots as a model system. The activity of CDK genes modulated by auxin and cytokinin during cell division, elongation, and endoreduplication process is explained in this research work. To study the significance of auxin and cytokinin in the management of cell division and endoreduplication process in plant meristematic cells at molecular level endoreduplication was developed in root tips of Allium cepa by giving colchicine treatment. There were inhibition of vegetative growth, formation of c-tumor at root tip, and development of endoreduplicated cells after colchicine treatment. This c-tumor was further treated with NAA and BAP to reinitiate vegetative growth in roots. BAP gave positive response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from center of c-tumor. However, NAA gave negative response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from c-tumor. Further, CDKs gene expression analysis from normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormone (NAA or BAP) treated root tip was done and remarkable changes in transcription level of CDK genes in normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormones treated cells were observed.

  12. Discovery of a new source of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum, cause of Fusarium wilt in Allium fistulosum, located on chromosome 2 of Allium cepa Aggregatum group.

    PubMed

    Vu, Hoa Q; El-Sayed, Magdi A; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2012-11-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the antifungal effect of Allium cepa Aggregatum group (shallot) metabolites on Fusarium oxysporum and to determine the shallot chromosome(s) related to Fusarium wilt resistance using a complete set of eight Allium fistulosum - shallot monosomic addition lines. The antifungal effects of hexane, butanol, and water extraction fractions from bulbs of shallot on 35 isolates of F. oxysporum were examined using the disc diffusion method. Only hexane and butanol fractions showed high antifungal activity. Shallot showed no symptom of disease after inoculation with F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae. The phenolic content of the roots and the saponin content of root exudates of inoculated shallot increased to much higher levels than those of the control at 3 days after inoculation. Application of freeze-dried shallot root exudates to seeds of A. fistulosum soaked in a spore suspension of F. oxysporum resulted in protection of seedlings against infection. Among eight monosomic addition lines and A. fistulosum, FF+2A showed the highest resistance to Fusarium wilt. This monosomic addition line also showed a specific saponin band derived from shallot on the thin layer chromatography profile of saponins in the eight monosomic addition lines. The chromosome 2A of shallot might possess some of the genes related to Fusarium wilt resistance. PMID:23199574

  13. Complete assignment of structural genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis influencing bulb color to individual chromosomes of the shallot (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Masuzaki, Shin-ichi; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Yamauchi, Naoki

    2006-08-01

    We analyzed Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) - shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) alien chromosome addition lines in order to assign the genes involved in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway to chromosomes of the shallot. Two complete sets of alien monosomic additions (2n = 2x + 1 = 17) were used for determining the chromosomal locations of several partial sequences of candidate genes, CHS, CHI, F3H, DFR, and ANS via analyses of PCR-based markers. The results of DNA marker analyses showed that the CHS-A, CHS-B, CHI, F3H, DFR, and ANS genes should be assigned to chromosomes 2A, 4A, 3A, 3A, 7A, and 4A, respectively. HPLC analyses of 14 A. fistulosum - shallot multiple alien additions (2n = 2x + 2 - 2x + 7 = 18 - 23) were conducted to identify the anthocyanin compounds produced in the scaly leaves. A direct comparison between the genomic constitution and the anthocyanin compositions of the multiple additions revealed that a 3GT gene for glucosylation of anthocyanidin was located on 4A. Thus, we were able to assign all structural genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis influencing bulb color to individual chromosomes of A. cepa. PMID:17038797

  14. Comparison of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of plutonium-239 alpha particles and mobile phone GSM 900 radiation in the Allium cepa test.

    PubMed

    Pesnya, Dmitry S; Romanovsky, Anton V

    2013-01-20

    The goal of this study was to compare the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of plutonium-239 alpha particles and GSM 900 modulated mobile phone (model Sony Ericsson K550i) radiation in the Allium cepa test. Three groups of bulbs were exposed to mobile phone radiation during 0 (sham), 3 and 9h. A positive control group was treated during 20min with plutonium-239 alpha-radiation. Mitotic abnormalities, chromosome aberrations, micronuclei and mitotic index were analyzed. Exposure to alpha-radiation from plutonium-239 and exposure to modulated radiation from mobile phone during 3 and 9h significantly increased the mitotic index. GSM 900 mobile phone radiation as well as alpha-radiation from plutonium-239 induced both clastogenic and aneugenic effects. However, the aneugenic activity of mobile phone radiation was more pronounced. After 9h of exposure to mobile phone radiation, polyploid cells, three-groups metaphases, amitoses and some unspecified abnormalities were detected, which were not registered in the other experimental groups. Importantly, GSM 900 mobile phone radiation increased the mitotic index, the frequency of mitotic and chromosome abnormalities, and the micronucleus frequency in a time-dependent manner. Due to its sensitivity, the A. cepa test can be recommended as a useful cytogenetic assay to assess cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields.

  15. Evaluation of the antimutagenic activity and mode of action of the fructooligosaccharide inulin in the meristematic cells of Allium cepa culture.

    PubMed

    Mauro, M O; Pesarini, J R; Marin-Morales, M A; Monreal, M T F D; Monreal, A C D; Mantovani, M S; Oliveira, R J

    2014-02-14

    This study evaluated the mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of inulin in a chromosomal aberration assay in cultures of the meristematic cells of Allium cepa. The treatments evaluated were as follows: negative control--seed germination in distilled water; positive control--aqueous solution of methyl methanesulfonate (10 μg/mL MMS); mutagenicity--aqueous solutions of inulin (0.015, 0.15, and 1.50 μg/mL); and antimutagenicity--associations between MMS and the different inulin concentrations. The antimutagenicity protocols established were pre-treatment, simultaneous simple, simultaneous with pre-incubation, and post-treatment. The damage reduction percentage (DR%) was 43.56, 27.77, and 55.92% for the pre-treatment; -31.11, 18.51, and 7.03% for the simultaneous simple; 30.43, 19.12, and 21.11% for the simultaneous with pre-incubation; and 64.07, 42.96, and 53.70% for the post-treatment. The results indicated that the most effective treatment for inhibiting damages caused by MMS was the post-treatment, which was followed by the pre-treatment, suggesting activity by bioantimutagenesis and desmutagenesis. The Allium cepa assay was demonstrated to be a good screening test for this type of activity because it is easy to perform, has a low cost, and shows DR% that is comparable to that reported studies that evaluated the prevention of DNA damage in mammals by inulin.

  16. The biphasic interphase-mitotic polarity of cell nuclei induced under DNA replication stress seems to be correlated with Pin2 localization in root meristems of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Żabka, Aneta; Trzaskoma, Paweł; Winnicki, Konrad; Polit, Justyna Teresa; Chmielnicka, Agnieszka; Maszewski, Janusz

    2015-02-01

    Long-term treatment of Allium cepa seedlings with low concentration of hydroxyurea (HU) results in a disruption of cell cycle checkpoints, leading root apex meristem (RAM) cells to an abnormal organization of nuclear structures forming interphase (I) and mitotic (M) domains of chromatin at opposite poles of the nucleus. Thus far, both critical cell length and an uneven distribution of cyclin B-like proteins along the nuclear axis have been recognized as essential factors needed to facilitate the formation of biphasic interphase-mitotic (IM) cells. Two new aspects with respect to their emergence are investigated in this study. The first concerns a relationship between the polarity of increasing chromatin condensation (IM orientation) and the acropetal (base→apex) alignment of RAM cell files. The second problem involves the effects of auxin (IAA), on the frequency of IM cells. We provide evidence that there is an association between the advanced M-poles of the IM cell nuclei and the polarized accumulation sites of auxin efflux carriers (PIN2 proteins) and IAA. Furthermore, our observations reveal exclusion regions for PIN2 proteins in the microtubule-rich structures, such as preprophase bands (PPBs) and phragmoplast. The current and previous studies have prompted us to formulate a hypothetical mechanism linking PIN2-mediated unilateral localization of IAA and the induction of bipolar IM cells in HU-treated RAMs of A. cepa. PMID:25462968

  17. Effects of aluminum on nucleoli in root tip cells and selected physiological and biochemical characters in Allium cepa var. agrogarum L

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Increased Al concentration causes reduction of mitotic activity, induction of nucleolar alteration, increase of the production of ROS and alteration of several antioxidant enzyme activities in plant cells. Allium cepa is an excellent plant and a useful biomarker for environmental monitoring. Limited information is available about the effects of Al on nucleoli, antioxidant enzyme system, contents of MDA and soluble protein in A. cepa. Therefore, we carried out the investigation in order to better understand the effects of Al on the growth, nucleoli in root tip cells and selected physiological and biochemical characters. Results The results showed that the root growth exposed to 50 μM Al was inhibited significantly. 50 μM Al could induce some particles of argyrophilic proteins scattered in the nuclei and extruded from the nucleoli into the cytoplasm. The nucleolus did not disaggregate normally and still remained its characteristic structure during metaphase. Nucleolar reconstruction was inhibited. 50 μM Al induced high activities of SOD and POD in leaves and roots significantly (P < 0.05) when compared with control, whereas the level of CAT was low significantly (P < 0.05). At 50 μM Al the content of MDA in leaves was high significantly (P < 0.05) at 9th day and in roots increased (P < 0.05) with prolonging the treatment time during 6-12 days. The soluble protein content in leaves treated with 50 μM Al was high significantly (P < 0.05) at 6th day and increased with prolonging the treatment time. Conclusions We suggest that variations in nucleoli and the alterations of antioxidant enzyme activities, MDA and soluble protein contents in Allium cepa can serve as useful biomarkers, which can provide valuable information for monitoring and forecasting effects of exposure to Al in real scenarios conditions. Among the antioxidant enzymes SOD and POD appear to play a key role in the antioxidant defense mechanism under Al toxicity condition. Data from MDA

  18. Cyanamide mode of action during inhibition of onion (Allium cepa L.) root growth involves disturbances in cell division and cytoskeleton formation.

    PubMed

    Soltys, Dorota; Rudzińska-Langwald, Anna; Kurek, Wojciech; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka; Sliwinska, Elwira; Bogatek, Renata

    2011-09-01

    Cyanamide is an allelochemical produced by hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.). Its phyotoxic effect on plant growth was examined on roots of onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs. Water solution of cyanamide (2-10 mM) restricted growth of onion roots in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of onion roots with cyanamide resulted in a decrease in root growth rate accompanied by a decrease in accumulation of fresh and dry weight. The inhibitory effect of cyanamide was reversed by its removal from the environment, but full recovery was observed only for tissue treated with this chemical at low concentration (2-6 mM). Cytological observations of root tip cells suggest that disturbances in cell division may explain the strong cyanamide allelopathic activity. Moreover, in cyanamide-treated onion the following changes were detected: reduction of mitotic cells, inhibition of proliferation of meristematic cells and cell cycle, and modifications of cytoskeleton arrangement.

  19. Isolation and characterization of new onionins A2 and A3 from Allium cepa, and of onionins A1, A2, and A3 from Allium fistulosum.

    PubMed

    Nohara, Toshihiro; Fujiwara, Yukio; Kudo, Rino; Yamaguchi, Koki; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Murakami, Kotaro; Ono, Masateru; Kajimoto, Tetsuya; Takeya, Motohiro

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the new stable sulfur-containing compounds onionins A2 (1) and A3 (2) were isolated from the acetone extracts of the bulbs of Allium cepa L. and identified as the stereoisomers of onionin A1 discovered in our previous study. Their chemical structures, 3,4-dimethyl-5-(1E-propenyl)-tetrahydrothiophene-2-sulfenic acid-S-oxides, were characterized using various spectroscopic techniques. In addition, 1 and 2 together with onionin A1 were successfully isolated from the leaves of the Welsh onion, Allium fistulosum L. The onion-extracted fractions showed good potential to inhibit the polarization of M2 activated macrophages, indicating their possible ability to inhibit tumor cell proliferation. PMID:25366317

  20. Encapsulation of a flavonoid-rich Allium cepa L. var. agrogatum don extract in β-cyclodextrin for transdermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhiying; Wu, Min; Guo, Qiushi; Yang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Bingren

    2013-05-22

    This work aims to evaluate the encapsulation of a flavonoid-rich Allium cepa L. var. agrogatum Don extract (ACADFE) in β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) by analyzing the percutaneous penetration in vitro and in vivo, leading to an explanation of the physical mechanism during transdermal transport. The optimal inclusion compound containing ACADFE in β-CD was prepared in a 1:3 molar ratio. The physicochemical characterization of the inclusion complex was performed using IR, UV-vis, simultaneous thermogravimetry (TG), and differential thermal analysis (DTA) studies. It was concluded that the inclusion complex could improve the aqueous solubility and bioavailability of ACADFE. The inclusion complex exhibited significant enhancement of percutaneous absorption both in vitro and in vivo. The dorsal skins of hairless mice were photographed using a confocal scanning laser microscope. Confocal scanning laser microscopy shows that penetration of the ACADFE-β-CD inclusion complex proceeds across skin via both follicular and transcellular routes. PMID:23581706

  1. Implementing the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD): Achievements, Open Questions and Strategies for the Way Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigozzi, Mary Joy

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at the implementation of the DESD from a global perspective. It takes the position that quality education is fundamental for learning how to live sustainably, and that the DESD needs to be better positioned in the education landscape and conceived as a global social movement that must be fostered and nurtured for the well-being of…

  2. Molecular characterization of transgenic shallots (Allium cepa L.) by adaptor ligation PCR (AL-PCR) and sequencing of genomic DNA flanking T-DNA borders.

    PubMed

    Zheng, S J; Henken, B; Sofiari, E; Jacobsen, E; Krens, F A; Kik, C

    2001-06-01

    Genomic DNA blot hybridization is traditionally used to demonstrate that, via genetic transformation, foreign genes are integrated into host genomes. However, in large genome species, such as Allium cepa L., the use of genomic DNA blot hybridization is pushed towards its limits, because a considerable quantity of DNA is needed to obtain enough genome copies for a clear hybridization pattern. Furthermore, genomic DNA blot hybridization is a time-consuming method. Adaptor ligation PCR (AL-PCR) of genomic DNA flanking T-DNA borders does not have these drawbacks and seems to be an adequate alternative to genomic DNA blot hybridization. Using AL-PCR we proved that T-DNA was integrated into the A. cepa genome of three transgenic lines transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA 105 (pCAMBIA 1301). The AL-PCR patterns obtained were specific and reproducible for a given transgenic line. The results showed that T-DNA integration took place and gave insight in the number of T-DNA copies present. Comparison of AL-PCR and previously obtained genomic DNA blot hybridization results pointed towards complex T-DNA integration patterns in some of the transgenic plants. After cloning and sequencing the AL-PCR products, the junctions between plant genomic DNA and the T-DNA insert could be analysed in great detail. For example it was shown that upon T-DNA integration a 66 bp genomic sequence was deleted, and no filler DNA was inserted. Primers located within the left and right flanking genomic DNA in transgenic shallot plants were used to recover the target site of T-DNA integration.

  3. Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator to measure cytotoxicity of surface water of the Quatorze River, located in Francisco Beltrão, Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Düsman, Elisângela; Luzza, Michel; Savegnago, Leoberto; Lauxen, Daiana; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta; Tonial, Ivane Benedetti; Sauer, Ticiane Pokrywiecki

    2014-03-01

    Due to an increase in water consumption in the industrial sector and within the Brazilian population, surface water that receives wastewater from industries, domestic sewage, agricultural industries, and sewage treatment stations can pollute water bodies when not properly treated. The water quality has been linked to catchment characteristics and intensity of agricultural activities. Thus, the aim of this study was to monitor the cytotoxic potential of the water of the Quatorze River, located in the town of Francisco Beltrão, Paraná, Brazil, along its route in the rural area, using the root meristematic cells of Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator. The results showed that the water at points 2, 3, and 4 were not cytotoxic because the rates of A. cepa cell division were unaltered. Point 1 had presented a mitotic index that was statistically larger than the negative control, indicating that this water contained substances with mitogenic capacity, as demonstrated by elevated values in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). However, the mitotic index values decreased along the route of the river (point 1 to point 4), possibly indicating a mechanism of self-purification, despite having received other sources of pollution. Thus, the results of this study show that the water of the Quatorze River should undergo periodic environmental monitoring at different times of the year, including cytotoxicity analysis, to evaluate the principal sources of contamination to maintain the quality of the river water and, consequently, to maintain human health and equilibrium of the entire ecosystem. PMID:24162370

  4. Energy-dependent RBE of neutrons to induce micronuclei in root-tip cells of Allium cepa onion irradiated as dry dormant seeds and seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenyi; Fujikawa, Kazuo; Endo, Satoru; Ishikawa, Masayori; Ohtaki, Megu; Ikeda, Hideo; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2003-06-01

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of various energy neutrons produced from a Schenkel-type accelerator at the Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University (HIRRAC), compared with 60Co gamma-ray radiation was determined. The neutron radiations and gamma-ray radiation produced good linear changes in the frequency of micronuclei induced in the root-tip cells of Allium cepa onion irradiated as dry dormant seeds (seed assay) and seedlings (seedling assay) with varying radiation doses. Therefore the RBE for radiation-induced micronuclei can be calculated as the ratio of the slopes of the fitted linear dose response for the neutron radiations and the 60Co gamma-ray radiation. The RBE values by seed assay and seedling assay decreased to 174 +/- 7, from 216 +/- 9, and to 31.4 +/- 1.0, from 45.3 +/- 1.3 (one standard error), respectively, when neutron energies increased to 1.0 MeV, from 0.2 MeV, in the present study. Furthermore, the ratio of the micronucleus induction rates of seed assay to seedling assay by gamma-ray radiation was much lower than that by neutron radiations.

  5. Vermistabilization of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L) waste produced from sugar factory using earthworm Eisenia fetida: Genotoxic assessment by Allium cepa test.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Sartaj Ahmad; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, sugar beet mud (SBM) and pulp (SBP) produced as a waste by-products of the sugar industry were mixed with cattle dung (CD) at different ratios on dry weight basis for vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida. Minimum mortality and highest population of worms were observed in 20:80 (SBM20) mixture of SBM and 10:90 (SBP10) ratios. However, increased percentages of wastes significantly affected the growth and fecundity of worms. Nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium, increased from initial feed mixture to final products (i.e., vermicompost), while organic carbon (OC), C:N ratio and electrical conductivity (EC) declined in all the products of vermicomposting. Although there was an increase in the contents of all the heavy metals except copper, chromium, and iron in SBM, the contents were less than the international standards for compost which indicates that the vermicompost can be used in the fields without any ill effects on the soil. Allium cepa root chromosomal aberration assay was used to evaluate the genotoxicity of pre- and post-vermicomposted SBM to understand the effect of vermicomposting on the reduction of toxicity. Genotoxicity analysis of post-vermicomposted samples of SBM revealed 18-75% decline in the aberration frequencies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was recorded to identify the changes in texture in the control and vermicomposted samples. The vermicomposted mixtures in the presence of earthworms confirm more numerous surface irregularities that prove to be good manure. PMID:25794577

  6. Effect of single alien chromosome from shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) on carbohydrate production in leaf blade of bunching onion (A. fistulosum L.).

    PubMed

    Hang, Tran Thi Minh; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Yamauchi, Naoki; Tashiro, Yosuke

    2004-12-01

    We used a complete set of Allium fistulosum - shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group) monosomic addition lines (FF+1A - FF+8A) to identify shallot chromosomes affecting the production of sugars. In the alien addition lines grown over two years in an experimental field at Yamaguchi University (34 degrees N, 131 degrees E), shallot chromosomes 2A and 8A altered sugar contents in leaf-bunching onion (A. fistulosum). Except for FF+2A, every monosomic addition accumulated non-reducing sugars in winter leaf blades. FF+8A caused an increase in the amounts of non-reducing sugars in the winter. FF+2A hardly produced non-reducing sugar throughout the two-year study. These results indicated that genes related to non-reducing sugar metabolism are located on the 2A and 8A chromosomes. The results of regression analyses using 2002 data on A. fistulosum and the monosomic addition set revealed a correlation (r = 0.63 +/- 0.07; mean +/- SE., n = 9) between reducing sugar and monosaccharide (Glc+Fru) contents but no correlation between non-reducing sugar and sucrose contents. This result indicates the existence of other polysaccharides (e.g., scorodose) as non-reducing sugars in the leaf blade.

  7. Effects of onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oils on the Aspergillus versicolor growth and sterigmatocystin production.

    PubMed

    Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Dimić, Gordana; Lević, Jelena; Tanackov, Ilija; Tepić, Aleksandra; Vujičić, Biserka; Gvozdanović-Varga, Jelica

    2012-05-01

    In the present study the effects of individual and combined essential oils (EOs) extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.) bulb and garlic (Allium sativum L.) clove on the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and sterigmatocystin (STC) production were investigated. The EOs obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by GC/MS. Twenty one compounds were identified in onion EO. The major components were: dimethyl-trisulfide (16.64%), methyl-propyl-trisulfide (14.21%), dietil-1,2,4-tritiolan (3R,5S-, 3S,5S- and 3R,5R- isomers) (13.71%), methyl-(1-propenyl)-disulfide (13.14%), and methyl-(1-propenyl)-trisulfide (13.02%). The major components of garlic EO were diallyl-trisulfide (33.55%), and diallyl-disulfide (28.05%). The mycelial growth and the STC production were recorded after 7, 14, and 21 d of the A. versicolor growth in Yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth containing different EOs concentrations. Compared to the garlic EO, the onion EO showed a stronger inhibitory effect on the A. versicolor mycelial growth and STC production. After a 21-d incubation of fungi 0.05 and 0.11 μg/mL of onion EO and 0.11 μg/mL of garlic EO completely inhibited the A. versicolor mycelial growth and mycotoxins biosynthesis. The combination of EOs of onion (75%) and garlic (25%) had a synergistic effect on growth inhibition of A. versicolor and STC production. PMID:22497489

  8. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of Br-containing oxaphosphole on Allium cepa L. root tip cells and mouse bone marrow cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The continuous production and release of chemicals into the environment has led to the need to assess their genotoxicity. Numerous organophosphorus compounds with different structures have been synthesized in recent years, and several oxaphosphole derivatives are known to possess biological activity. Such chemical compounds may influence proliferating cells and cause disturbances of the genetic material. In this study, we examined the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of 4-bromo-N,N-diethyl-5,5-dimethyl-2,5-dihydro-1,2-oxaphosphol-2-amine 2-oxide (Br-oxph). In A. cepa cells, Br-oxph (10-9 M, 10 -6 M and 10 -3 M) reduced the mitotic index 48 h after treatment with the two highest concentrations, with no significant effect at earlier intervals. Mitotic cells showed abnormalities 24 h and 48 h after treatment with the two lowest concentrations but there were no consistent changes in interphase cells. Bone marrow cells from mice treated with Br-oxph (2.82 x 10 -3 μg/kg) also showed a reduced mitotic index after 48 h and a greater percentage of cells with aberrations (principally chromatid and isochromatid breaks). These findings indicate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Br-oxph in the two systems studied. PMID:21637696

  9. Investigation of volatiles emitted from freshly cut onions (Allium cepa L.) by real time proton-transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS).

    PubMed

    Løkke, Mette Marie; Edelenbos, Merete; Larsen, Erik; Feilberg, Anders

    2012-11-22

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in cut onions (Allium cepa L.) were continuously measured by PTR-MS during the first 120 min after cutting. The headspace composition changed rapidly due to the very reactive volatile sulfurous compounds emitted from onion tissue after cell disruption. Mass spectral signals corresponding to propanethial S-oxide (the lachrymatory factor) and breakdown products of this compound dominated 0-10 min after cutting. Subsequently, propanethiol and dipropyl disulfide predominantly appeared, together with traces of thiosulfinates. The concentrations of these compounds reached a maximum at 60 min after cutting. Propanethiol was present in highest concentrations and had an odor activity value 20 times higher than dipropyl disulfide. Thus, propanethiol is suggested to be the main source of the characteristic onion odor. Monitoring the rapid changes of VOCs in the headspace of cut onion necessitates a high time resolution, and PTR-MS is demonstrated to be a very suitable method for monitoring the headspace of freshly cut onions directly after cutting without extraction or pre-concentration.

  10. Consumption of brown onions (Allium cepa var. cavalier and var. destiny) moderately modulates blood lipids, haematological and haemostatic variables in healthy pigs.

    PubMed

    Ostrowska, Ewa; Gabler, Nicholas K; Sterling, Sam J; Tatham, Brendan G; Jones, Rodney B; Eagling, David R; Jois, Mark; Dunshea, Frank R

    2004-02-01

    Although garlic and onions have long been associated with putative cardiovascular health benefits, the effects of different commercially available onions and level of intake have not been studied. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential health benefits of raw onions using the pig as a biomedical model. Twenty-five female (Large White x Landrace) pigs were used in a (2 x 2)+1 factorial experiment. Pigs were fed a standard grower diet supplemented with 100 g tallow/kg with the addition of Allium cepa var. cavalier or var. destiny at 0, 10 or 25 g/MJ digestible energy for 6 weeks. Overall, the consumption of onions resulted in significant reductions in plasma triacylglycerol; however, the reductions were most pronounced in pigs fed destiny onions (-26 %, P=0.042). Total plasma cholesterol and LDL:HDL ratios were not significantly different. Onion supplementation, regardless of the variety, resulted in dose-dependent reductions in erythrocyte counts and Hb levels, while the white blood cell concentrations, particularly lymphocytes, were increased in pigs that consumed onions. Furthermore, indices of blood clotting were largely unaffected by onion consumption. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with raw brown onions has moderate lipid-modulating and immunostimulatory properties. However, daily onion intake >25 g/MJ digestible energy could be detrimental to erythrocyte numbers.

  11. Effects of onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oils on the Aspergillus versicolor growth and sterigmatocystin production.

    PubMed

    Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Dimić, Gordana; Lević, Jelena; Tanackov, Ilija; Tepić, Aleksandra; Vujičić, Biserka; Gvozdanović-Varga, Jelica

    2012-05-01

    In the present study the effects of individual and combined essential oils (EOs) extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.) bulb and garlic (Allium sativum L.) clove on the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and sterigmatocystin (STC) production were investigated. The EOs obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by GC/MS. Twenty one compounds were identified in onion EO. The major components were: dimethyl-trisulfide (16.64%), methyl-propyl-trisulfide (14.21%), dietil-1,2,4-tritiolan (3R,5S-, 3S,5S- and 3R,5R- isomers) (13.71%), methyl-(1-propenyl)-disulfide (13.14%), and methyl-(1-propenyl)-trisulfide (13.02%). The major components of garlic EO were diallyl-trisulfide (33.55%), and diallyl-disulfide (28.05%). The mycelial growth and the STC production were recorded after 7, 14, and 21 d of the A. versicolor growth in Yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth containing different EOs concentrations. Compared to the garlic EO, the onion EO showed a stronger inhibitory effect on the A. versicolor mycelial growth and STC production. After a 21-d incubation of fungi 0.05 and 0.11 μg/mL of onion EO and 0.11 μg/mL of garlic EO completely inhibited the A. versicolor mycelial growth and mycotoxins biosynthesis. The combination of EOs of onion (75%) and garlic (25%) had a synergistic effect on growth inhibition of A. versicolor and STC production.

  12. Integrative structural annotation of de novo RNA-Seq provides an accurate reference gene set of the enormous genome of the onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungill; Kim, Myung-Shin; Kim, Yong-Min; Yeom, Seon-In; Cheong, Kyeongchae; Kim, Ki-Tae; Jeon, Jongbum; Kim, Sunggil; Kim, Do-Sun; Sohn, Seong-Han; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Doil

    2015-02-01

    The onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed vegetable crops in the world. Although a considerable amount of onion transcriptome data has been deposited into public databases, the sequences of the protein-coding genes are not accurate enough to be used, owing to non-coding sequences intermixed with the coding sequences. We generated a high-quality, annotated onion transcriptome from de novo sequence assembly and intensive structural annotation using the integrated structural gene annotation pipeline (ISGAP), which identified 54,165 protein-coding genes among 165,179 assembled transcripts totalling 203.0 Mb by eliminating the intron sequences. ISGAP performed reliable annotation, recognizing accurate gene structures based on reference proteins, and ab initio gene models of the assembled transcripts. Integrative functional annotation and gene-based SNP analysis revealed a whole biological repertoire of genes and transcriptomic variation in the onion. The method developed in this study provides a powerful tool for the construction of reference gene sets for organisms based solely on de novo transcriptome data. Furthermore, the reference genes and their variation described here for the onion represent essential tools for molecular breeding and gene cloning in Allium spp.

  13. Effect of single alien chromosome from shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) on carbohydrate production in leaf blade of bunching onion (A. fistulosum L.).

    PubMed

    Hang, Tran Thi Minh; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Yamauchi, Naoki; Tashiro, Yosuke

    2004-12-01

    We used a complete set of Allium fistulosum - shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group) monosomic addition lines (FF+1A - FF+8A) to identify shallot chromosomes affecting the production of sugars. In the alien addition lines grown over two years in an experimental field at Yamaguchi University (34 degrees N, 131 degrees E), shallot chromosomes 2A and 8A altered sugar contents in leaf-bunching onion (A. fistulosum). Except for FF+2A, every monosomic addition accumulated non-reducing sugars in winter leaf blades. FF+8A caused an increase in the amounts of non-reducing sugars in the winter. FF+2A hardly produced non-reducing sugar throughout the two-year study. These results indicated that genes related to non-reducing sugar metabolism are located on the 2A and 8A chromosomes. The results of regression analyses using 2002 data on A. fistulosum and the monosomic addition set revealed a correlation (r = 0.63 +/- 0.07; mean +/- SE., n = 9) between reducing sugar and monosaccharide (Glc+Fru) contents but no correlation between non-reducing sugar and sucrose contents. This result indicates the existence of other polysaccharides (e.g., scorodose) as non-reducing sugars in the leaf blade. PMID:15729002

  14. Vermistabilization of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L) waste produced from sugar factory using earthworm Eisenia fetida: Genotoxic assessment by Allium cepa test.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Sartaj Ahmad; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, sugar beet mud (SBM) and pulp (SBP) produced as a waste by-products of the sugar industry were mixed with cattle dung (CD) at different ratios on dry weight basis for vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida. Minimum mortality and highest population of worms were observed in 20:80 (SBM20) mixture of SBM and 10:90 (SBP10) ratios. However, increased percentages of wastes significantly affected the growth and fecundity of worms. Nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium, increased from initial feed mixture to final products (i.e., vermicompost), while organic carbon (OC), C:N ratio and electrical conductivity (EC) declined in all the products of vermicomposting. Although there was an increase in the contents of all the heavy metals except copper, chromium, and iron in SBM, the contents were less than the international standards for compost which indicates that the vermicompost can be used in the fields without any ill effects on the soil. Allium cepa root chromosomal aberration assay was used to evaluate the genotoxicity of pre- and post-vermicomposted SBM to understand the effect of vermicomposting on the reduction of toxicity. Genotoxicity analysis of post-vermicomposted samples of SBM revealed 18-75% decline in the aberration frequencies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was recorded to identify the changes in texture in the control and vermicomposted samples. The vermicomposted mixtures in the presence of earthworms confirm more numerous surface irregularities that prove to be good manure.

  15. Effects of lead on the morphology and structure of the nucleolus in the root tip meristematic cells of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ze; Zhang, Huaning; Qin, Rong; Zou, Jinhua; Wang, Junran; Shi, Qiuyue; Jiang, Wusheng; Liu, Donghua

    2014-07-31

    To study the toxic mechanisms of lead (Pb) in plants, the effects of Pb on the morphology and structure of the nucleolus in root tip meristematic cells of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. were investigated. Fluorescence labeling, silver-stained indirect immunofluorescent microscopy and western blotting were used. Fluorescence labeling showed that Pb ions were localized in the meristematic cells and the uptake and accumulation of Pb increased with treatment time. At low concentrations of Pb (1-10 μM) there were persistent nucleoli in some cells during mitosis, and at high concentration (100 μM) many of the nucleolar organizing regions were localized on sticky chromosomes in metaphase and anaphase cells. Pb induced the release of particles containing argyrophilic proteins to be released from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. These proteins contained nucleophosmin and nucleolin. Pb also caused the extrusion of fibrillarin from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. Western blotting demonstrated the increased expression of these three major nucleolar proteins under Pb stress.

  16. Characterization of a 65 kDa NIF in the nuclear matrix of the monocot Allium cepa that interacts with nuclear spectrin-like proteins.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Munive, Clara; Blumenthal, Sonal S D; de la Espina, Susana Moreno Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Plant cells have a well organized nucleus and nuclear matrix, but lack orthologues of the main structural components of the metazoan nuclear matrix. Although data is limited, most plant nuclear structural proteins are coiled-coil proteins, such as the NIFs (nuclear intermediate filaments) in Pisum sativum that cross-react with anti-intermediate filament and anti-lamin antibodies, form filaments 6-12 nm in diameter in vitro, and may play the role of lamins. We have investigated the conservation and features of NIFs in a monocot species, Allium cepa, and compared them with onion lamin-like proteins. Polyclonal antisera against the pea 65 kDa NIF were used in 1D and 2D Western blots, ICM (imunofluorescence confocal microscopy) and IEM (immunoelectron microscopy). Their presence in the nuclear matrix was analysed by differential extraction of nuclei, and their association with structural spectrin-like proteins by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization in ICM. NIF is a conserved structural component of the nucleus and its matrix in monocots with Mr and pI values similar to those of pea 65 kDa NIF, which localized to the nuclear envelope, perichromatin domains and foci, and to the nuclear matrix, interacting directly with structural nuclear spectrin-like proteins. Its similarities with some of the proteins described as onion lamin-like proteins suggest that they are highly related or perhaps the same proteins.

  17. Allium cepa Extract and Quercetin Protect Neuronal Cells from Oxidative Stress via PKC-ε Inactivation/ERK1/2 Activation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of various neurologic disorders. Allium cepa extract (ACE) and their main flavonoid component quercetin (QCT) possess antioxidant activities and protect neurons from oxidative stress. We investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms, particularly those linked to the antioxidant effects of the ACE. Primary cortical neuronal cells derived from mouse embryos were preincubated with ACE or QCT for 30 min and exposed to L-buthionine sulfoximine for 4~24 h. We found that ACE and QCT significantly decreased neuronal death and the ROS increase induced by L-buthionine-S, R-sulfoximine (BSO) in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, ACE and QCT activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), leading to downregulation of protein kinase C-ε (PKC-ε) in BSO-stimulated neuronal cells. In addition, ACE and QCT decreased the phosphorylated levels of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Our results provide new insight into the protective mechanism of ACE and QCT against oxidative stress in neuronal cells. The results suggest that the inactivation of PKC-ε induced by phosphorylating ERK1/2 is responsible for the neuroprotective effect of ACE and QCT against BSO-induced oxidative stress. PMID:27668036

  18. Effects of Lead on the Morphology and Structure of the Nucleolus in the Root Tip Meristematic Cells of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ze; Zhang, Huaning; Qin, Rong; Zou, Jinhua; Wang, Junran; Shi, Qiuyue; Jiang, Wusheng; Liu, Donghua

    2014-01-01

    To study the toxic mechanisms of lead (Pb) in plants, the effects of Pb on the morphology and structure of the nucleolus in root tip meristematic cells of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. were investigated. Fluorescence labeling, silver-stained indirect immunofluorescent microscopy and western blotting were used. Fluorescence labeling showed that Pb ions were localized in the meristematic cells and the uptake and accumulation of Pb increased with treatment time. At low concentrations of Pb (1–10 μM) there were persistent nucleoli in some cells during mitosis, and at high concentration (100 μM) many of the nucleolar organizing regions were localized on sticky chromosomes in metaphase and anaphase cells. Pb induced the release of particles containing argyrophilic proteins to be released from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. These proteins contained nucleophosmin and nucleolin. Pb also caused the extrusion of fibrillarin from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. Western blotting demonstrated the increased expression of these three major nucleolar proteins under Pb stress. PMID:25089875

  19. Allium cepa Extract and Quercetin Protect Neuronal Cells from Oxidative Stress via PKC-ε Inactivation/ERK1/2 Activation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of various neurologic disorders. Allium cepa extract (ACE) and their main flavonoid component quercetin (QCT) possess antioxidant activities and protect neurons from oxidative stress. We investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms, particularly those linked to the antioxidant effects of the ACE. Primary cortical neuronal cells derived from mouse embryos were preincubated with ACE or QCT for 30 min and exposed to L-buthionine sulfoximine for 4~24 h. We found that ACE and QCT significantly decreased neuronal death and the ROS increase induced by L-buthionine-S, R-sulfoximine (BSO) in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, ACE and QCT activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), leading to downregulation of protein kinase C-ε (PKC-ε) in BSO-stimulated neuronal cells. In addition, ACE and QCT decreased the phosphorylated levels of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Our results provide new insight into the protective mechanism of ACE and QCT against oxidative stress in neuronal cells. The results suggest that the inactivation of PKC-ε induced by phosphorylating ERK1/2 is responsible for the neuroprotective effect of ACE and QCT against BSO-induced oxidative stress.

  20. Confined direct analysis in real time ion source and its applications in analysis of volatile organic compounds of Citrus limon (lemon) and Allium cepa (onion).

    PubMed

    Li, Yue

    2012-05-30

    The DART (direct analysis in real time) ion source is a novel atmospheric pressure ionization technique that enables efficient ionization of gases, liquids and solids with high throughput. A major limit to its wider application in the analysis of gases is its poor detection sensitivity caused by open-air sampling. In this study, a confined interface between the DART ion source outlet and mass spectrometer sampling orifice was developed, where the plasma generated by the atmospheric pressure glow discharge collides and ionizes gas-phase molecules in a Tee-shaped flow tube instead of in open air. It leads to significant increase of collision reaction probability between high energy metastable molecules and analytes. The experimental results show that the ionization efficiency was increased at least by two orders of magnitude. This technique was then applied in the real time analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of Citrus Limon (lemon) and wounded Allium Cepa (onion). The confined DART ion source was proved to be a powerful tool for the studies of plant metabolomics.

  1. Comparative investigation of concentrations of major and trace elements in organic and conventional Danish agricultural crops. 1. Onions (Allium cepa Hysam) and peas (Pisum sativum ping pong).

    PubMed

    Gundersen, V; Bechmann, I E; Behrens, A; Stürup, S

    2000-12-01

    210 samples of onions (Allium cepa Hysam) from 11 conventionally and 10 organically cultivated sites and 190 samples of peas (Pisum sativum Ping Pong) from 10 conventionally and 9 organically cultivated sites in Denmark were collected and analyzed for 63 and 55 major and trace elements, respectively, by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Sampling, sample preparation, and analysis of the samples were performed under carefully controlled contamination-free conditions. Comparative statistical tests of the element concentration mean values for each site show significantly (p < 0.05) different levels of Ca, Mg, B, Bi, Dy, Eu, Gd, Lu, Rb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, U, and Y between the organically and conventionally grown onions and significantly (p < 0.05) different levels of P, Gd, and Ti between the organically and conventionally grown peas. Principal component analysis (PCA) applied to the 63 elements measured in the individual onion samples from the 21 sites split up the sites into two groups according to the cultivation method when the scores of the first and third principal components were plotted against each other. Correspondingly, for peas, a PCA applied to the 55 elements measured as mean values for each site split up the 19 sites into two groups according to the cultivation method when the scores of the third and fourth principal component were plotted against each other. The methodology may be used as authenticity control for organic cultivation after further method development. PMID:11312781

  2. Post-treatment with plant extracts used in Brazilian folk medicine caused a partial reversal of the antiproliferative effect of glyphosate in the Allium cepa test.

    PubMed

    Frescura, Viviane Dal-Souto; Kuhn, Andrielle Wouters; Laughinghouse, Haywood Dail; Paranhos, Juçara Terezinha; Tedesco, Solange Bosio

    2013-08-01

    Species of the genus Psychotria are used for multiple purposes in Brazilian folk medicine, either as water infusions, baths or poultices. This study was aimed to evaluate the genotoxic and antiproliferative effects of infusions of Psychotria brachypoda and P. birotula on the Allium cepa test. Exposure to distilled water was used as a negative control, while exposure to glyphosate was used as a positive control. The interaction of extracts (as a post-treatment) with the effects of glyphosate was also studied. Results showed that glyphosate and the extracts of both P. brachypoda and P. birotula reduced the mitotic index as compared with the negative control (distilled water). Surprisingly, however, both extracts from P. brachypoda and P. birotula caused a partial reversal of the antiproliferative effect of glyphosate when used as a post-treatment. Glyphosate also induced the highest number of cells with chromosomal alterations, which was followed by that of P. birotula extracts. However, the extracts from P. brachypoda did not show any significant genotoxic effect. Post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with distilled water allowed a partial recovery of the genotoxic effect of glyphosate, and some of the Psychotria extracts also did so. Notably, post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with P. brachypoda extracts induced a statistically significant apoptotic effect. It is concluded that P. brachypoda extracts show antiproliferative effects and are not genotoxic, while extracts of P. birotula show a less potent antiproliferative effect and may induce chromosomal abnormalities. The finding of a partial reversion of the effects of glyphosate by a post-treatment with extracts from both plants should be followed up. PMID:24392578

  3. Molecular and biochemical identification of alien chromosome additions in shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) carrying extra chromosome(s) of bunching onion (A. fistulosum L.).

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Shigenori; Hang, Tran Thi Minh; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Hoa, Vu Quynh; Masuzaki, Shin-ichi; Wako, Tadayuki; Masamura, Noriya; Onodera, Shuichi; Shiomi, Norio; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2009-02-01

    To develop the bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.; genomes, FF) chromosome-specific genetic markers for identifying extra chromosomes, eight shallot (A. cepa L. Aggregatum group; genomes, AA)--A. fistulosum monosomic addition plants (AA+nF) and 62 shallot--A. fistulosum single-alien deletion plants (AAF-nF) were analyzed by 23 different chromosome-specific genetic markers of shallot. The eight monosomic addition plants consisted of one AA+2F, two AA+6F, and five AA+8F. Of the 62 single-alien deletion plants, 60 could be identified as six different single-alien deletion lines (AAF-1F, -3F, -4F, -6F, -7F, and -8F) out of the eight possible types. Several single-alien deletion lines were classified on the basis of leaf and bulb characteristics. AAF-8F had the largest number of expanded leaves of five deletion plants. AAF-7F grew most vigorously, as expressed by its long leaf blade and biggest bulb size. AAF-4F had very small bulbs. AAF-7F and AAF-8F had different bulbs from those of shallot as well as other types of single-alien deletion lines in skin and outer scale color. Regarding the sugar content of the bulb tissues, the single-alien deletion lines showed higher fructan content than shallot. Moreover, shallot could not produce fructan with degree of polymerization (DP) 12 or higher, although the single-alien deletion lines showed DP 20 or higher. The content of S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (ACSO) in the single-alien deletion lines was significantly lower than that in shallot. These results indicated that chromosomes from A. fistulosum might carry anonymous factors to increase the highly polymerized fructan production and inhibit the synthesis of ACSO in shallot bulbs. Accordingly, alien chromosomes from A. fistulosum in shallot would contribute to modify the quality of shallot bulbs.

  4. Allium cepa L. and Quercetin Inhibit RANKL/Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS-Induced Osteoclastogenesis by Downregulating NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Tatiane; Figueiredo, Camila A; Brito, Carlos; Stavroullakis, Alexander; Ferreira, Ana Carolina; Nogueira-Filho, Getulio; Prakki, Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the in vitro modulatory effects of Allium cepa L. extract (AcE) and quercetin (Qt) on osteoclastogenesis under inflammatory conditions (LPS-induced). Methods. RAW 264.7 cells were differentiated with 30 ng/mL of RANKL, costimulated with PgLPS (1 µg/mL), and treated with AcE (50-1000 µg/mL) or Qt (1.25, 2.5, or 5 µM). Cell viability was determined by alamarBlue and protein assays. Nuclei morphology was analysed by DAPI staining. TRAP assays were performed as follows: p-nitrophenyl phosphate was used to determine the acid phosphatase activity of the osteoclasts and TRAP staining was used to evaluate the number and size of TRAP-positive multinucleated osteoclast cells. Von Kossa staining was used to measure osteoclast resorptive activity. Cytokine levels were measured on osteoclast precursor cell culture supernatants. Using western blot analysis, p-IκBα and IκBα degradation, inhibitor of NF-kappaB, were evaluated. Results. Both AcE and Qt did not affect cell viability and significantly reduced osteoclastogenesis compared to control. We observed lower production of IL-6 and IL-1α and an increased production of IL-3 and IL-4. AcE and Qt downregulated NF-κB pathway. Conclusion. AcE and Qt may be inhibitors of osteoclastogenesis under inflammatory conditions (LPS-induced) via attenuation of RANKL/PgLPS-induced NF-κB activation. PMID:26273314

  5. Identification of a novel chimeric gene, orf725, and its use in development of a molecular marker for distinguishing among three cytoplasm types in onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunggil; Lee, Eul-Tai; Cho, Dong Youn; Han, Taeho; Bang, Haejeen; Patil, Bhimanagouda S; Ahn, Yul Kyun; Yoon, Moo-Kyoung

    2009-02-01

    A novel chimeric gene with a 5' end containing the nearly complete sequence of the coxI gene and a 3' end showing homology with chive orfA501 was isolated by genome walking from two cytoplasm types: CMS-S and CMS-T, both of which induce male-sterility in onion (Allium cepa L.). In addition, the normal active and variant inactive coxI genes were also isolated from onions containing the normal and CMS-S cytoplasms, respectively. The chimeric gene, designated as orf725, was nearly undetectable in normal cytoplasm, and the copy number of the normal coxI gene was significantly reduced in CMS-S cytoplasm. RT-PCR results showed that orf725 was not transcribed in normal cytoplasm. Meanwhile, the normal coxI gene, which is essential for normal mitochondrial function, was not expressed in CMS-S cytoplasm. However, both orf725 and coxI were transcribed in CMS-T cytoplasm. The expression of orf725, a putative male-sterility-inducing gene, was not affected by the presence of nuclear restorer-of-fertility gene(s) in male-fertility segregating populations originating from the cross between a male-sterile plant containing either CMS-T or CMS-S and a male-fertile plant whose genotypes of nuclear restorer gene(s) might be heterozygous. The specific stoichiometry of orf725 and coxI in the mtDNA of the three cytoplasm types was consistent among diverse germplasm. Therefore, a molecular marker based on the relative copy numbers of orf725 and coxI was designed for distinguishing among the three cytoplasm types by one simple PCR. The reliability and applicability of the molecular marker was shown by testing diverse onion germplasm.

  6. The effect of aqueous preparation of Allium cepa (onion) and Allium sativa (garlic) on erythrocyte osmotic fragility in Wistar rats: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Salami, H A; John, A I; Ekanem, A U

    2012-06-07

    Allium cepa (onion) and Allium sativa (garlic) are bulbous herbs used as food item, spice and medicine in different parts of the world. The effects of onion and garlic on the osmotic fragility of red blood cells in albino rats were assessed in vivo and in vitro. In the in vivo studies, five albino rats weighing between 150 - 200g composed each of three study groups. Group A were administered 150mg/Kg body weight aqueous onion preparation; Group B 75mg/Kg body weight aqueous onion and 75mg/Kg body weight garlic preparations; and Group C served as the control and were administered distilled water. The treatment regimens were orally administered thrice a week, for a period of four weeks by gavages. The in vitro erythrocyte osmotic fragility was also evaluated in 12 Wistar rats that were not pre-treated with either onion alone or onion and garlic. The animals were divided into three groups. Blood samples from group A rats were treated with 150mg onion while blood from group B rats was treated with 75mg onion and 75mg garlic extracts. Group C served as the control and were treated with normal saline and osmotic fragility assays were carried out. The degree of haemolysis was greater in the treatment group compared to control and the percentage haemolysis was greater in blood samples with onion and garlic compared to the onion group. The same observation was made in the in vitro study, but the degree of haemolysis was significantly higher in in vitro than the in vivo experiments. It is concluded that onion and garlic increase the osmotic fragility of red blood cells in albino rats.

  7. Molecular and biochemical identification of alien chromosome additions in shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) carrying extra chromosome(s) of bunching onion (A. fistulosum L.).

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Shigenori; Hang, Tran Thi Minh; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Hoa, Vu Quynh; Masuzaki, Shin-ichi; Wako, Tadayuki; Masamura, Noriya; Onodera, Shuichi; Shiomi, Norio; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2009-02-01

    To develop the bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.; genomes, FF) chromosome-specific genetic markers for identifying extra chromosomes, eight shallot (A. cepa L. Aggregatum group; genomes, AA)--A. fistulosum monosomic addition plants (AA+nF) and 62 shallot--A. fistulosum single-alien deletion plants (AAF-nF) were analyzed by 23 different chromosome-specific genetic markers of shallot. The eight monosomic addition plants consisted of one AA+2F, two AA+6F, and five AA+8F. Of the 62 single-alien deletion plants, 60 could be identified as six different single-alien deletion lines (AAF-1F, -3F, -4F, -6F, -7F, and -8F) out of the eight possible types. Several single-alien deletion lines were classified on the basis of leaf and bulb characteristics. AAF-8F had the largest number of expanded leaves of five deletion plants. AAF-7F grew most vigorously, as expressed by its long leaf blade and biggest bulb size. AAF-4F had very small bulbs. AAF-7F and AAF-8F had different bulbs from those of shallot as well as other types of single-alien deletion lines in skin and outer scale color. Regarding the sugar content of the bulb tissues, the single-alien deletion lines showed higher fructan content than shallot. Moreover, shallot could not produce fructan with degree of polymerization (DP) 12 or higher, although the single-alien deletion lines showed DP 20 or higher. The content of S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (ACSO) in the single-alien deletion lines was significantly lower than that in shallot. These results indicated that chromosomes from A. fistulosum might carry anonymous factors to increase the highly polymerized fructan production and inhibit the synthesis of ACSO in shallot bulbs. Accordingly, alien chromosomes from A. fistulosum in shallot would contribute to modify the quality of shallot bulbs. PMID:19420800

  8. Change in Flavonoid Composition and Antioxidative Activity during Fermentation of Onion (Allium cepa L.) by Leuconostoc mesenteroides with Different Salt Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu Geon; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Kim, Young-Min; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the change in flavonoid composition and antioxidative activity during fermentation of onion (Allium cepa L.) by Leuconostoc mesenteroides with different NaCl concentrations. In order to qualify and quantify the flavonoids during fermentation of onion, 7 flavonoids, [quercetin 3,7-O-β-d-diglucopyranoside (Q3,7G), quercetin 3,4'-O-β-d-diglucopyranoside (Q3,4'G), quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (Q3G), quercetin 4'-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (Q4'G), isorhamnetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (IR3G), quercetin (Q), and isorhamnetin (IR)], were isolated and identified from onion. During fermentation, the contents of flavonoid glucosides (Q3,7G, Q3,4'G, Q3G, Q4'G, and IR3G) gradually decreased, whereas the contents of flavonoid aglycones (Q, IR) gradually increased. Decline rates of the flavonoid glucosides increased with the addition of L. mesenteroides. Furthermore, the activity of β-glucosidase, which is produced by L. mesenteroides, is dose-dependently inhibited with different NaCl concentrations during fermentation. The presence of L. mesenteroides enhanced the antioxidative activity of onion as demonstrated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and reducing power assays. The enhancement of antioxidative activity was considered because the content of flavonoid aglycones increased during fermentation. However, the addition of NaCl may decrease the antioxidative activity; we surmise that this phenomenon occurs because of the inhibition of β-glucosidase by NaCl. Therefore, we conclude that the addition of NaCl may be useful for the regulation of antioxidative activity via the control of β-glucosidase action, during the fermentation of flavonoid glucoside-rich foods. PMID:27175820

  9. Allium cepa L. and Quercetin Inhibit RANKL/Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS-Induced Osteoclastogenesis by Downregulating NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Tatiane; Figueiredo, Camila A.; Brito, Carlos; Stavroullakis, Alexander; Ferreira, Ana Carolina; Nogueira-Filho, Getulio; Prakki, Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the in vitro modulatory effects of Allium cepa L. extract (AcE) and quercetin (Qt) on osteoclastogenesis under inflammatory conditions (LPS-induced). Methods. RAW 264.7 cells were differentiated with 30 ng/mL of RANKL, costimulated with PgLPS (1 µg/mL), and treated with AcE (50–1000 µg/mL) or Qt (1.25, 2.5, or 5 µM). Cell viability was determined by alamarBlue and protein assays. Nuclei morphology was analysed by DAPI staining. TRAP assays were performed as follows: p-nitrophenyl phosphate was used to determine the acid phosphatase activity of the osteoclasts and TRAP staining was used to evaluate the number and size of TRAP-positive multinucleated osteoclast cells. Von Kossa staining was used to measure osteoclast resorptive activity. Cytokine levels were measured on osteoclast precursor cell culture supernatants. Using western blot analysis, p-IκBα and IκBα degradation, inhibitor of NF-kappaB, were evaluated. Results. Both AcE and Qt did not affect cell viability and significantly reduced osteoclastogenesis compared to control. We observed lower production of IL-6 and IL-1α and an increased production of IL-3 and IL-4. AcE and Qt downregulated NF-κB pathway. Conclusion. AcE and Qt may be inhibitors of osteoclastogenesis under inflammatory conditions (LPS-induced) via attenuation of RANKL/PgLPS-induced NF-κB activation. PMID:26273314

  10. Post-treatment with plant extracts used in Brazilian folk medicine caused a partial reversal of the antiproliferative effect of glyphosate in the Allium cepa test.

    PubMed

    Frescura, Viviane Dal-Souto; Kuhn, Andrielle Wouters; Laughinghouse, Haywood Dail; Paranhos, Juçara Terezinha; Tedesco, Solange Bosio

    2013-08-01

    Species of the genus Psychotria are used for multiple purposes in Brazilian folk medicine, either as water infusions, baths or poultices. This study was aimed to evaluate the genotoxic and antiproliferative effects of infusions of Psychotria brachypoda and P. birotula on the Allium cepa test. Exposure to distilled water was used as a negative control, while exposure to glyphosate was used as a positive control. The interaction of extracts (as a post-treatment) with the effects of glyphosate was also studied. Results showed that glyphosate and the extracts of both P. brachypoda and P. birotula reduced the mitotic index as compared with the negative control (distilled water). Surprisingly, however, both extracts from P. brachypoda and P. birotula caused a partial reversal of the antiproliferative effect of glyphosate when used as a post-treatment. Glyphosate also induced the highest number of cells with chromosomal alterations, which was followed by that of P. birotula extracts. However, the extracts from P. brachypoda did not show any significant genotoxic effect. Post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with distilled water allowed a partial recovery of the genotoxic effect of glyphosate, and some of the Psychotria extracts also did so. Notably, post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with P. brachypoda extracts induced a statistically significant apoptotic effect. It is concluded that P. brachypoda extracts show antiproliferative effects and are not genotoxic, while extracts of P. birotula show a less potent antiproliferative effect and may induce chromosomal abnormalities. The finding of a partial reversion of the effects of glyphosate by a post-treatment with extracts from both plants should be followed up.

  11. Regulation of miR394 in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) Infection in Garlic (Allium sativum L)

    PubMed Central

    Chand, Subodh K.; Nanda, Satyabrata; Joshi, Raj K.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of post-transcriptional regulators that negatively regulate gene expression through target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition and play important roles in plant development and stress response. In the present study, six conserved miRNAs from garlic (Allium sativum L.) were analyzed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) infection. Stem-loop RT-PCR revealed that miR394 is significantly induced in garlic seedlings post-treatment with FOC for 72 h. The induction of miR394 expression during FOC infection was restricted to the basal stem plate tissue, the primary site of infection. Garlic miR394 was also upregulated by exogenous application of jasmonic acid. Two putative targets of miR394 encoding F-box domain and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) family proteins were predicted and verified using 5′ RLM-RACE (RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends) assay. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the transcript levels of the predicted targets were significantly reduced in garlic plants exposed to FOC. When garlic cultivars with variable sensitivity to FOC were exposed to the pathogen, an upregulation of miR394 and down regulation of the targets were observed in both varieties. However, the expression pattern was delayed in the resistant genotypes. These results suggest that miR394 functions in negative modulation of FOC resistance and the difference in timing and levels of expression in variable genotypes could be examined as markers for selection of FOC resistant garlic cultivars. PMID:26973694

  12. Implementing the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD): achievements, open questions and strategies for the way forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigozzi, Mary Joy

    2010-06-01

    This paper looks at the implementation of the DESD from a global perspective. It takes the position that quality education is fundamental for learning how to live sustainably, and that the DESD needs to be better positioned in the education landscape and conceived as a global social movement that must be fostered and nurtured for the well-being of humankind. It suggests that, while there has been progress, much remains to be achieved. Several key challenges are identified. With regard to overcoming these obstacles, it focuses on macro-level strategies that would allow the development of environments in which actions can take root and grow so that the work of the DESD endures beyond the decade itself. Finally, it suggests that there are some opportunities that can be seized to make the task ahead easier to accomplish.

  13. Polyphenols Isolated from Allium cepa L. Induces Apoptosis by Induction of p53 and Suppression of Bcl-2 through Inhibiting PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway in AGS Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Sup; Yi, Sang Mi; Yun, Jeong Won; Jung, Ji Hyun; Kim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Hye Jung; Chang, Seong-Hwan; Kim, GonSup; Ryu, Chung Ho; Shin, Sung Chul; Hong, Soon Chan; Choi, Yung Hyun; Jung, Jin-Myung

    2014-01-01

    Background: The extract of Allium cepa Linn is commonly used as adjuvant food for cancer therapy. We assumed that it includes a potential source of anti-cancer properties. Methods: We investigated anti-cancer effects of polyphenols extracted from lyophilized A. cepa Linn (PEAL) in AGS human cancer cells. Results: PEAL inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. It was related to caspase-dependent apoptosis. We confirmed this finding with annexin V staining. PEAL up-regulated p53 expression, and subsequent Bax induction, down regulated Bcl-2 protein, anti-apoptotic protein. In addition, PEAL suppressed Akt activity and PEAL-induced apoptosis were significantly accentuated with Akt inhibitor (LY294002). Conclusions: Our data suggested that PEAL induce caspase-dependent apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway by up-regulating p53 protein, and subsequent Bax protein as well as by modulating Bcl-2 protein, and that PEAL induces caspase-dependent apoptosis at least in part through the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. This study provides evidence that PEAL might be useful for the treatment of cancer. PMID:25337568

  14. Combination of physico-chemical analysis, Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay/nuclear abnormalities tests for cyto-genotoxicity assessments of treated effluents discharged from textile industries.

    PubMed

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2016-09-01

    Bioassays for cyto-genotoxicity assessments are generally not required in current textile industry effluent discharge management regulations. The present study applied in vivo plant and fish based toxicity tests viz. Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay and nuclear abnormalities tests in combination with physico-chemical analysis for assessing potential cytotoxic/genotoxic impacts of treated textile industry effluents reaching a major river (Kelani River) in Sri Lanka. Of the treated effluents tested from two textile industries, color in the Textile industry 1 effluents occasionally and color, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand in the Textile industry 2 effluents frequently exceeded the specified Sri Lankan tolerance limits for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. Exposure of A. cepa bulbs to 100% and 12.5% treated effluents from both industries resulted in statistically significant root growth retardation, mito-depression, and induction of chromosomal abnormalities in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water in all cases demonstrating cyto-genotoxicity associated with the treated effluents. Exposure of O. niloticus to the 100% and 12.5% effluents, resulted in erythrocytic genetic damage as shown by elevated total comet scores and induction of nuclear abnormalities confirming the genotoxicity of the treated effluents even with 1:8 dilution. The results provide strong scientific evidence for the crucial necessity of incorporating cyto-genotoxicity impact assessment tools in textile industry effluent management regulations considering human health and ecological health of the receiving water course under chronic exposure.

  15. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction and DNA repair network are involved in aluminum-induced DNA damage and adaptive response in root cells of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Brahma B.; Achary, V. Mohan M.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we studied the role of signal transduction in aluminum (Al3+)-induced DNA damage and adaptive response in root cells of Allium cepa L. The root cells in planta were treated with Al3+ (800 μM) for 3 h without or with 2 h pre-treatment of inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and protein phosphatase. Also, root cells in planta were conditioned with Al3+ (10 μM) for 2 h and then subjected to genotoxic challenge of ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS; 5 mM) for 3 h without or with the pre-treatment of the aforementioned inhibitors as well as the inhibitors of translation, transcription, DNA replication and repair. At the end of treatments, roots cells were assayed for cell death and/or DNA damage. The results revealed that Al3+ (800 μM)-induced significant DNA damage and cell death. On the other hand, conditioning with low dose of Al3+ induced adaptive response conferring protection of root cells from genotoxic stress caused by EMS-challenge. Pre-treatment of roots cells with the chosen inhibitors prior to Al3+-conditioning prevented or reduced the adaptive response to EMS genotoxicity. The results of this study suggested the involvement of MAPK and DNA repair network underlying Al-induced DNA damage and adaptive response to genotoxic stress in root cells of A. cepa. PMID:24926302

  16. Two different Bacillus thuringiensis toxin genes confer resistance to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) in transgenic Bt-shallots (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Si-Jun; Henken, Betty; de Maagd, Ruud A; Purwito, Agus; Krens, Frans A; Kik, Chris

    2005-06-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation was applied to produce beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) resistant tropical shallots (Allium cepa L. group Aggregatum). A cry1Ca or a H04 hybrid gene from Bacillus thuringiensis, driven by the chrysanthemum ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (Rubisco SSU) promoter, along with the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt) driven by the CaMV 35S promoter, was employed for genetic transformation. An average transformation frequency of 3.68% was obtained from two shallot cultivars, Tropix and Kuning. After transfer of the in vitro plants to the greenhouse 69% of the cry1Ca and 39% of the H04 transgenic shallots survived the first half year. After one year of cultivation in the greenhouse the remaining cry1Ca and H04 transgenic plants grew vigorously and had a normal bulb formation, although the cry1Ca transgenic plants (and controls) had darker green leaves compared to their H04 counterparts. Standard PCR, adaptor ligation PCR and Southern analyses confirmed the integration of T-DNA into the shallot genome. Northern blot and ELISA analyses revealed expression of the cry1Ca or H04 gene in the transgenic plants. The amount of Cry1Ca expressed in transgenic plants was higher than the expression levels of H04 (0.39 vs. 0.16% of the total soluble leaf proteins, respectively). There was a good correlation between protein expression and beet armyworm resistance. Cry1Ca or H04 gene expression of at least 0.22 or 0.08% of the total soluble protein in shallot leaves was sufficient to give a complete resistance against beet armyworm. This confirms earlier observations that the H04 toxin is more toxic to S. exigua than the Cry1Ca toxin. The results from this study suggest that the cry1Ca and H04 transgenic shallots developed could be used for introducing resistance to beet armyworm in (sub) tropical shallot.

  17. Two different Bacillus thuringiensis toxin genes confer resistance to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) in transgenic Bt-shallots (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Si-Jun; Henken, Betty; de Maagd, Ruud A; Purwito, Agus; Krens, Frans A; Kik, Chris

    2005-06-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation was applied to produce beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) resistant tropical shallots (Allium cepa L. group Aggregatum). A cry1Ca or a H04 hybrid gene from Bacillus thuringiensis, driven by the chrysanthemum ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (Rubisco SSU) promoter, along with the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt) driven by the CaMV 35S promoter, was employed for genetic transformation. An average transformation frequency of 3.68% was obtained from two shallot cultivars, Tropix and Kuning. After transfer of the in vitro plants to the greenhouse 69% of the cry1Ca and 39% of the H04 transgenic shallots survived the first half year. After one year of cultivation in the greenhouse the remaining cry1Ca and H04 transgenic plants grew vigorously and had a normal bulb formation, although the cry1Ca transgenic plants (and controls) had darker green leaves compared to their H04 counterparts. Standard PCR, adaptor ligation PCR and Southern analyses confirmed the integration of T-DNA into the shallot genome. Northern blot and ELISA analyses revealed expression of the cry1Ca or H04 gene in the transgenic plants. The amount of Cry1Ca expressed in transgenic plants was higher than the expression levels of H04 (0.39 vs. 0.16% of the total soluble leaf proteins, respectively). There was a good correlation between protein expression and beet armyworm resistance. Cry1Ca or H04 gene expression of at least 0.22 or 0.08% of the total soluble protein in shallot leaves was sufficient to give a complete resistance against beet armyworm. This confirms earlier observations that the H04 toxin is more toxic to S. exigua than the Cry1Ca toxin. The results from this study suggest that the cry1Ca and H04 transgenic shallots developed could be used for introducing resistance to beet armyworm in (sub) tropical shallot. PMID:16145834

  18. Survival or growth of inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on yellow onions (Allium cepa) under conditions simulating food service and consumer handling and storage.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Vanessa M; Zhao, Irene Y; Schaffner, Donald W; Danyluk, Michelle D; Harris, Linda J

    2015-01-01

    Whole and diced yellow onions (Allium cepa) were inoculated with five-strain cocktails of rifampin-resistant Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella and stored under conditions to simulate food service or consumer handling. The inoculum was grown in broth (for both whole and diced onion experiments) or on agar plates (for whole onion experiments). Marked circles (3.3 cm in diameter) on the outer papery skin of whole onions were spot inoculated (10 μl in 10 drops) at 7 log CFU per circle, and onions were stored at 4°C, 30 to 50 % relative humidity, or at ambient conditions (23°C, 30 to 50 % relative humidity). Diced onions were inoculated at 3 log CFU/g and then stored in open or closed containers at 4°C or ambient conditions. Previously inoculated and ambient-stored diced onions were also mixed 1:9 (wt/wt) with refrigerated uninoculated freshly diced onions and stored in closed containers at ambient conditions. Inoculated pathogens were recovered in 0.1 % peptone and plated onto selective and nonselective media supplemented with 50 μg/ml rifampin. Both E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella populations declined more rapidly on onion skins when the inoculum was prepared in broth rather than on agar. Agar-prepared E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella declined by 0.4 and 0.3 log CFU per sample per day, respectively, at ambient conditions; at 4°C the rates of reduction were 0.08 and 0.06 log CFU per sample per day for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella, respectively. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella did not change over 6 days of storage at 4°C in diced onions. Lag times of 6 to 9 h were observed with freshly inoculated onion at ambient conditions; no lag was observed when previously inoculated and uninoculated onions were mixed. Growth rates at ambient conditions were 0.2 to 0.3 log CFU/g/h for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in freshly inoculated onion and 0.2 log CFU/g/h in mixed product. Diced onions support pathogen growth and should be kept refrigerated.

  19. Cytotoxicity of Spent Pot Liner on Allium cepa root tip cells: A comparative analysis in meristematic cell type on toxicity bioassays.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Marcel José; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; Campos, José Marcello Salabert; Dos Santos Gedraite, Leonardo; Davide, Lisete Chamma

    2016-11-01

    Spent Pot Liner (SPL) is a waste generated during the production of aluminum. It is comprised of a mixture of substances most of which, like cyanide, aluminum and fluoride, are toxic. Previous studies indicate the highly toxic nature of SPL. However studies using cells of the differentiation/elongation zone of the root meristem (referred as M2 cells in this study) after a proper recovery period in water were never considered. Using these cells could be useful to further understanding the toxicity mechanisms of SPL. A comparative approach between the effects on M2 cells and meristematic cells of the proximal meristem zone (referred as M1 cells in this study) could lead to understanding how DNA damage caused by SPL behaves on successive generations of cells. Allium cepa cells were exposed to 4 different concentrations of SPL (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10gL(-1)) mixed with soil and diluted in a CaCl2 0.01M to simulate the ionic forces naturally encountered on the environment. A solution containing only soil diluted on CaCl2 0.01M was used as control. M1 and M2 cells were evaluated separately, taking into account four different parameters: (1) mitotic alterations (MA); (2) presence of condensed nuclei (CN); (3) mitotic index (MI); (4) presence of micronucleus (MCN). Significant differences were observed between M1 and M2 roots tip cells for these four parameters accessed. M1 cells was more prompt to reveal citogenotoxicity through the higher frequency of MA observed. Meanwhile, for M2 cells higher frequencies of MCN and CN was noticed, followed by a reduction of MI. Also, it was possible to detect significant differences between the tested treatments and the control on every case. These results indicate SPL toxic effects carries on to future cells generations. This emphasizes the need to properly manage this waste. Joint evaluation of cells from both M1 and M2 regions was proven valuable for the evaluation of a series of parameters on all toxicity tests. PMID:27517141

  20. Cytotoxicity of Spent Pot Liner on Allium cepa root tip cells: A comparative analysis in meristematic cell type on toxicity bioassays.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Marcel José; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; Campos, José Marcello Salabert; Dos Santos Gedraite, Leonardo; Davide, Lisete Chamma

    2016-11-01

    Spent Pot Liner (SPL) is a waste generated during the production of aluminum. It is comprised of a mixture of substances most of which, like cyanide, aluminum and fluoride, are toxic. Previous studies indicate the highly toxic nature of SPL. However studies using cells of the differentiation/elongation zone of the root meristem (referred as M2 cells in this study) after a proper recovery period in water were never considered. Using these cells could be useful to further understanding the toxicity mechanisms of SPL. A comparative approach between the effects on M2 cells and meristematic cells of the proximal meristem zone (referred as M1 cells in this study) could lead to understanding how DNA damage caused by SPL behaves on successive generations of cells. Allium cepa cells were exposed to 4 different concentrations of SPL (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10gL(-1)) mixed with soil and diluted in a CaCl2 0.01M to simulate the ionic forces naturally encountered on the environment. A solution containing only soil diluted on CaCl2 0.01M was used as control. M1 and M2 cells were evaluated separately, taking into account four different parameters: (1) mitotic alterations (MA); (2) presence of condensed nuclei (CN); (3) mitotic index (MI); (4) presence of micronucleus (MCN). Significant differences were observed between M1 and M2 roots tip cells for these four parameters accessed. M1 cells was more prompt to reveal citogenotoxicity through the higher frequency of MA observed. Meanwhile, for M2 cells higher frequencies of MCN and CN was noticed, followed by a reduction of MI. Also, it was possible to detect significant differences between the tested treatments and the control on every case. These results indicate SPL toxic effects carries on to future cells generations. This emphasizes the need to properly manage this waste. Joint evaluation of cells from both M1 and M2 regions was proven valuable for the evaluation of a series of parameters on all toxicity tests.

  1. Radio-Observaciones del OH EN la Coma del Cometa Halley Desde EL Hemisferio Sur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. M.; Bajaja, E.; Morras, R.; Cersosimo, J. C.; Martin, M. C.; Arnal, E. M.; Poppel, W. G. L.; Colomb, F. R.; Mazzaro, J.; Olalde, J. C.; Boriakoff, V.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1987-05-01

    Se utilizó una antena de 30 metros del Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía para observaciones diarias Cf ebrero a abril de 1986) de la transición en 1667 MHz ( λ = 18 cm) del OH en la coma del cometa Halley. De las observaciones realizadas se concluye: 1) El número promedio de moléculas de OH en la coma durante 37 días de observación fue de (8.9±3.5)x1034 moléculas, lo que implica una tasa de producción promedio de OH de 1.8x1029 moléculas seg-1 y consecuentemente una pérdida de masa promedio de 17±6 toneladas seg-1 . Este valor está de acuerdo con las mediciones realizadas por las sondas Vega y Giotto. 2) El monitoreo desde el lAR revela la existencia de variaciones bruscas en los flujos de absorción del OH. Estas variaciones son consistentes con los modelos que representan la producción gaseosa a partir de ejecciones y/o desprendimientos discretos de materia congelada del núcleo. 3) Las variaciones en la densidad de flujo son consistentes con las estimaciones de los tiem- pos de vida medios del H2O y del OH en presencia del campo de radiación solar. 4) Se encuentra una correlación entre la intensidad del flujo absorbido y anisotropías en Ia dinamica de la coma.

  2. Combination of physico-chemical analysis, Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay/nuclear abnormalities tests for cyto-genotoxicity assessments of treated effluents discharged from textile industries.

    PubMed

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2016-09-01

    Bioassays for cyto-genotoxicity assessments are generally not required in current textile industry effluent discharge management regulations. The present study applied in vivo plant and fish based toxicity tests viz. Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay and nuclear abnormalities tests in combination with physico-chemical analysis for assessing potential cytotoxic/genotoxic impacts of treated textile industry effluents reaching a major river (Kelani River) in Sri Lanka. Of the treated effluents tested from two textile industries, color in the Textile industry 1 effluents occasionally and color, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand in the Textile industry 2 effluents frequently exceeded the specified Sri Lankan tolerance limits for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. Exposure of A. cepa bulbs to 100% and 12.5% treated effluents from both industries resulted in statistically significant root growth retardation, mito-depression, and induction of chromosomal abnormalities in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water in all cases demonstrating cyto-genotoxicity associated with the treated effluents. Exposure of O. niloticus to the 100% and 12.5% effluents, resulted in erythrocytic genetic damage as shown by elevated total comet scores and induction of nuclear abnormalities confirming the genotoxicity of the treated effluents even with 1:8 dilution. The results provide strong scientific evidence for the crucial necessity of incorporating cyto-genotoxicity impact assessment tools in textile industry effluent management regulations considering human health and ecological health of the receiving water course under chronic exposure. PMID:27209118

  3. Evaluation of an integrated system for classification, assessment and comparison of services for long-term care in Europe: the eDESDE-LTC study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The harmonization of European health systems brings with it a need for tools to allow the standardized collection of information about medical care. A common coding system and standards for the description of services are needed to allow local data to be incorporated into evidence-informed policy, and to permit equity and mobility to be assessed. The aim of this project has been to design such a classification and a related tool for the coding of services for Long Term Care (DESDE-LTC), based on the European Service Mapping Schedule (ESMS). Methods The development of DESDE-LTC followed an iterative process using nominal groups in 6 European countries. 54 researchers and stakeholders in health and social services contributed to this process. In order to classify services, we use the minimal organization unit or “Basic Stable Input of Care” (BSIC), coded by its principal function or “Main Type of Care” (MTC). The evaluation of the tool included an analysis of feasibility, consistency, ontology, inter-rater reliability, Boolean Factor Analysis, and a preliminary impact analysis (screening, scoping and appraisal). Results DESDE-LTC includes an alpha-numerical coding system, a glossary and an assessment instrument for mapping and counting LTC. It shows high feasibility, consistency, inter-rater reliability and face, content and construct validity. DESDE-LTC is ontologically consistent. It is regarded by experts as useful and relevant for evidence-informed decision making. Conclusion DESDE-LTC contributes to establishing a common terminology, taxonomy and coding of LTC services in a European context, and a standard procedure for data collection and international comparison. PMID:23768163

  4. The effects of anti-DNA topoisomerase II drugs, etoposide and ellipticine, are modified in root meristem cells of Allium cepa by MG132, an inhibitor of 26S proteasomes.

    PubMed

    Żabka, Aneta; Winnicki, Konrad; Polit, Justyna Teresa; Maszewski, Janusz

    2015-11-01

    DNA topoisomerase II (Topo II), a highly specialized nuclear enzyme, resolves various entanglement problems concerning DNA that arise during chromatin remodeling, transcription, S-phase replication, meiotic recombination, chromosome condensation and segregation during mitosis. The genotoxic effects of two Topo II inhibitors known as potent anti-cancer drugs, etoposide (ETO) and ellipticine (EPC), were assayed in root apical meristem cells of Allium cepa. Despite various types of molecular interactions between these drugs and DNA-Topo II complexes at the chromatin level, which have a profound negative impact on the genome integrity (production of double-strand breaks, chromosomal bridges and constrictions, lagging fragments of chromosomes and their uneven segregation to daughter cell nuclei), most of the elicited changes were apparently similar, regarding both their intensity and time characteristics. No essential changes between ETO- and EPC-treated onion roots were noticed in the frequency of G1-, S-, G2-and M-phase cells, nuclear morphology, chromosome structures, tubulin-microtubule systems, extended distribution of mitosis-specific phosphorylation sites of histone H3, and the induction of apoptosis-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD). However, the important difference between the effects induced by the ETO and EPC concerns their catalytic activities in the presence of MG132 (proteasome inhibitor engaged in Topo II-mediated formation of cleavage complexes) and relates to the time-variable changes in chromosomal aberrations and AL-PCD rates. This result implies that proteasome-dependent mechanisms may contribute to the course of physiological effects generated by DNA lesions under conditions that affect the ability of plant cells to resolve topological problems that associated with the nuclear metabolic activities. PMID:26233708

  5. Direct comparison between genomic constitution and flavonoid contents in Allium multiple alien addition lines reveals chromosomal locations of genes related to biosynthesis from dihydrokaempferol to quercetin glucosides in scaly leaf of shallot (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Masuzaki, S; Shigyo, M; Yamauchi, N

    2006-02-01

    The extrachromosome 5A of shallot (Allium cepa L., genomes AA) has an important role in flavonoid biosynthesis in the scaly leaf of Allium fistulosum-shallot monosomic addition lines (FF+nA). This study deals with the production and biochemical characterisation of A. fistulosum-shallot multiple alien addition lines carrying at least 5A to determine the chromosomal locations of genes for quercetin formation. The multiple alien additions were selected from the crossing between allotriploid FFA (female symbol) and A. fistulosum (male symbol). The 113 plants obtained from this cross were analysed by a chromosome 5A-specific PGI isozyme marker of shallot. Thirty plants were preliminarily selected for an alien addition carrying 5A. The chromosome numbers of the 30 plants varied from 18 to 23. The other extrachromosomes in 19 plants were completely identified by using seven other chromosome markers of shallot. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses of the 19 multiple additions were conducted to identify the flavonoid compounds produced in the scaly leaves. Direct comparisons between the chromosomal constitution and the flavonoid contents of the multiple alien additions revealed that a flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) gene for the synthesis of quercetin from kaempferol was located on 7A and that an anonymous gene involved in the glucosidation of quercetin was on 3A or 4A. As a result of supplemental SCAR analyses by using genomic DNAs from two complete sets of A. fistulosum-shallot monosomic additions, we have assigned F3'H to 7A and flavonol synthase to 4A.

  6. Disintegration efficiency of pulsed electric field induced effects on onion (Allium cepa L.) tissues as a function of pulse protocol and determination of cell integrity by ¹H-NMR relaxometry.

    PubMed

    Ersus, Seda; Oztop, Mecit Halil; McCarthy, Michael J; Barrett, Diane M

    2010-09-01

    The influence of electrical pulse protocol parameters on cell rupture of onion tissues was investigated in order to improve fundamental understanding and to enhance the processing of plant tissues with pulsed electric fields (PEFs). The impact of PEF parameters on cell integrity of 20 mm dia, 4-mm thick disks of Don Victor onions (Allium cepa L.) was determined by ion leakage measurements. Electric field strength, pulse width, total pulse duration, and frequency effects were determined in relation to their effects on cell damage as a function of pulse protocol. Electric field strengths up to 500 V/cm increased the damage efficiency but there was no significant difference in efficiency beyond this field strength. Larger pulse widths increased the degree of tissue disintegration at a constant pulse number. Higher PEF efficiency was achieved with shorter pulse widths and a larger number of pulses at a constant total treatment time. Lower frequencies caused a greater degree of disintegration at constant number of pulses. ¹H-NMR experiments were performed to determine the proton relaxation components of the PEF-treated onion samples and to obtain cell damage information nondestructively. Paramagnetic ion uptake by the onion sample was used to identify different proton relaxation components. Five different proton relaxation components were observed and changes in the 2 components representing different proton environments showed high correlations with ion leakage results (R²= 0.99), indicating that T(2) distributions can be used to obtain information about cell membrane integrity in PEF-treated samples. 1H-NMR proved to be an effective method for nondestructive quantification of cell membrane rupture in onions.

  7. Characterization of three active transposable elements recently inserted in three independent DFR-A alleles and one high-copy DNA transposon isolated from the Pink allele of the ANS gene in onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunggil; Park, Jee Young; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2015-06-01

    Intact retrotransposon and DNA transposons inserted in a single gene were characterized in onions (Allium cepa) and their transcription and copy numbers were estimated in this study. While analyzing diverse onion germplasm, large insertions in the DFR-A gene encoding dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) involved in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were found in two accessions. A 5,070-bp long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon inserted in the active DFR-A (R4) allele was identified from one of the large insertions and designated AcCOPIA1. An intact ORF encoded typical domains of copia-like LTR retrotransposons. However, AcCOPIA1 contained atypical 'TG' and 'TA' dinucleotides at the ends of the LTRs. A 4,615-bp DNA transposon was identified in the other large insertion. This DNA transposon, designated AcCACTA1, contained an ORF coding for a transposase showing homology with the CACTA superfamily transposable elements (TEs). Another 5,073-bp DNA transposon was identified from the DFR-A (TRN) allele. This DNA transposon, designated AchAT1, belonged to the hAT superfamily with short 4-bp terminal inverted repeats (TIRs). Finally, a 6,258-bp non-autonomous DNA transposon, designated AcPINK, was identified in the ANS-p allele encoding anthocyanidin synthase, the next downstream enzyme to DFR in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. AcPINK also possessed very short 3-bp TIRs. Active transcription of AcCOPIA1, AcCACTA1, and AchAT1 was observed through RNA-Seq analysis and RT-PCR. The copy numbers of AcPINK estimated by mapping the genomic DNA reads produced by NextSeq 500 were predominantly high compared with the other TEs. A series of evidence indicated that these TEs might have transposed in these onion genes very recently, providing a stepping stone for elucidation of enormously large-sized onion genome structure.

  8. Direct comparison between genomic constitution and flavonoid contents in Allium multiple alien addition lines reveals chromosomal locations of genes related to biosynthesis from dihydrokaempferol to quercetin glucosides in scaly leaf of shallot (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Masuzaki, S; Shigyo, M; Yamauchi, N

    2006-02-01

    The extrachromosome 5A of shallot (Allium cepa L., genomes AA) has an important role in flavonoid biosynthesis in the scaly leaf of Allium fistulosum-shallot monosomic addition lines (FF+nA). This study deals with the production and biochemical characterisation of A. fistulosum-shallot multiple alien addition lines carrying at least 5A to determine the chromosomal locations of genes for quercetin formation. The multiple alien additions were selected from the crossing between allotriploid FFA (female symbol) and A. fistulosum (male symbol). The 113 plants obtained from this cross were analysed by a chromosome 5A-specific PGI isozyme marker of shallot. Thirty plants were preliminarily selected for an alien addition carrying 5A. The chromosome numbers of the 30 plants varied from 18 to 23. The other extrachromosomes in 19 plants were completely identified by using seven other chromosome markers of shallot. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses of the 19 multiple additions were conducted to identify the flavonoid compounds produced in the scaly leaves. Direct comparisons between the chromosomal constitution and the flavonoid contents of the multiple alien additions revealed that a flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) gene for the synthesis of quercetin from kaempferol was located on 7A and that an anonymous gene involved in the glucosidation of quercetin was on 3A or 4A. As a result of supplemental SCAR analyses by using genomic DNAs from two complete sets of A. fistulosum-shallot monosomic additions, we have assigned F3'H to 7A and flavonol synthase to 4A. PMID:16411131

  9. Characterization of three active transposable elements recently inserted in three independent DFR-A alleles and one high-copy DNA transposon isolated from the Pink allele of the ANS gene in onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunggil; Park, Jee Young; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2015-06-01

    Intact retrotransposon and DNA transposons inserted in a single gene were characterized in onions (Allium cepa) and their transcription and copy numbers were estimated in this study. While analyzing diverse onion germplasm, large insertions in the DFR-A gene encoding dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) involved in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were found in two accessions. A 5,070-bp long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon inserted in the active DFR-A (R4) allele was identified from one of the large insertions and designated AcCOPIA1. An intact ORF encoded typical domains of copia-like LTR retrotransposons. However, AcCOPIA1 contained atypical 'TG' and 'TA' dinucleotides at the ends of the LTRs. A 4,615-bp DNA transposon was identified in the other large insertion. This DNA transposon, designated AcCACTA1, contained an ORF coding for a transposase showing homology with the CACTA superfamily transposable elements (TEs). Another 5,073-bp DNA transposon was identified from the DFR-A (TRN) allele. This DNA transposon, designated AchAT1, belonged to the hAT superfamily with short 4-bp terminal inverted repeats (TIRs). Finally, a 6,258-bp non-autonomous DNA transposon, designated AcPINK, was identified in the ANS-p allele encoding anthocyanidin synthase, the next downstream enzyme to DFR in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. AcPINK also possessed very short 3-bp TIRs. Active transcription of AcCOPIA1, AcCACTA1, and AchAT1 was observed through RNA-Seq analysis and RT-PCR. The copy numbers of AcPINK estimated by mapping the genomic DNA reads produced by NextSeq 500 were predominantly high compared with the other TEs. A series of evidence indicated that these TEs might have transposed in these onion genes very recently, providing a stepping stone for elucidation of enormously large-sized onion genome structure. PMID:25515665

  10. Identification and Quantification of Flavonoids from Two Southern Italian Cultivars of Allium cepa L., Tropea (Red Onion) and Montoro (Copper Onion), and Their Capacity to Protect Human Erythrocytes from Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, Idolo; Carbone, Virginia; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Minasi, Paola; Russo, Gian Luigi

    2015-06-01

    Onions (Allium cepa) are consumed worldwide and represent an important source of dietary phytochemicals with proven antioxidant properties, such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, thiosulfinates, and anthocyanins. Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that regular consumption of onions is associated with a reduced risk of degenerative disorders. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate the biological properties of different varieties of onions. Here, we characterized for the first time a variety of onion, called Ramata di Montoro (coppery onion from Montoro), grown in a niche area in southern Italy, and compared its phenolic profile and antioxidant properties to a commercial ecotype of red onion, Tropea, also present in southern Italy. An analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detection and mass spectrometry was used to separate and characterize the phenolic fraction (anthocyanins and flavonols) extracted from both coppery and red types. The main compounds detected in the two ecotypes were quercetin and quercetin glucosides, isorhamnetin glucosides, kaempferol glucoside, and, among anthocyanins, cyanidin glucosides. Tropea ecotype onion showed a higher content of flavonols (632.82 mg/kg fresh weight) than Montoro type onion (252.91 mg/kg fresh weight). Accordingly, the antioxidant activity of the former was 2.8-fold higher compared to the latter. More pronounced were the differences existing between the four anthocyanins detected in the two ecotypes, with those in the Tropea ecotype onion present at concentrations 20-230-fold higher than in the Montoro type onion. Both extracts reduced LDL oxidation about 6-fold and protected human erythrocytes from oxidative damage induced by HClO by about 40%. In addition, as a consequence of HClO treatment, glutathione concentration in erythrocytes was reduced about 50% and pretreatment with onion extracts induced a recovery of glutathione level by about 15-22%. Qualitative

  11. A Toolkit for bulk PCR-based marker design from next-generation sequence data: application for development of a framework linkage map in bulb onion (Allium cepa L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although modern sequencing technologies permit the ready detection of numerous DNA sequence variants in any organisms, converting such information to PCR-based genetic markers is hampered by a lack of simple, scalable tools. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop with a complex, heterozygous genome where genome-based research has previously been hindered by limited sequence resources and genetic markers. Results We report the development of generic tools for large-scale web-based PCR-based marker design in the Galaxy bioinformatics framework, and their application for development of next-generation genetics resources in a wide cross of bulb onion (Allium cepa L.). Transcriptome sequence resources were developed for the homozygous doubled-haploid bulb onion line ‘CUDH2150’ and the genetically distant Indian landrace ‘Nasik Red’, using 454™ sequencing of normalised cDNA libraries of leaf and shoot. Read mapping of ‘Nasik Red’ reads onto ‘CUDH2150’ assemblies revealed 16836 indel and SNP polymorphisms that were mined for portable PCR-based marker development. Tools for detection of restriction polymorphisms and primer set design were developed in BioPython and adapted for use in the Galaxy workflow environment, enabling large-scale and targeted assay design. Using PCR-based markers designed with these tools, a framework genetic linkage map of over 800cM spanning all chromosomes was developed in a subset of 93 F2 progeny from a very large F2 family developed from the ‘Nasik Red’ x ‘CUDH2150’ inter-cross. The utility of tools and genetic resources developed was tested by designing markers to transcription factor-like polymorphic sequences. Bin mapping these markers using a subset of 10 progeny confirmed the ability to place markers within 10 cM bins, enabling increased efficiency in marker assignment and targeted map refinement. The major genetic loci conditioning red bulb colour (R) and fructan content (Frc) were located on

  12. [Assessment of the journal Nutrición Hospitalaria (part I): authors, institutions, articles].

    PubMed

    Iglesias Vázquez, E; Culebras, J M; García de Lorenzo, A

    2001-01-01

    An analysis is made into the productivity of the authors publishing in Hospital Nutrition and the Institutions to which they belong. Spanish authors are dominant, mainly ones from Madrid, and coming to a large extent from the health-care field (75.8%), basically in general hospitals. The types of article very over the period under study, with examples of purely technical articles alongside others such as bibliographical reviews, or Letters to the Editor.

  13. Organic acid contents in onion cultivars (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Galdón, Beatriz; Tascón Rodríguez, Catalina; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2008-08-13

    The following organic acids (glutamic, oxalic, pyruvic, malic, tartaric, citric, and fumaric), pungency, Brix degree, acidity, and pH were determined in onion cultivars (Texas, Guayonje, San Juan de la Rambla, Carrizal Alto, Carrizal Bajo, and Masca) harvested in the same agroclimatic conditions. Glutamic acid was the most abundant organic acid (325 +/- 133 mg/100 g) followed by citric acid (48.5 +/- 24.1 mg/100 g) and malic acid (43.6 +/- 10.4 mg/100 g). There were significant differences between the onion cultivars in the mean concentrations of all of the analyzed parameters. The San Juan de la Rambla and Masca cultivars presented, in general, higher concentrations of the organic acids than the other cultivars. Significant differences in most of the analyzed parameters were observed between the two seed origins for the Masca and San Juan de la Rambla cultivars. The onion samples tended to be classified according to the cultivar and, in the case of San Juan de la Rambla cultivar, according to the precedence of the seeds after applying discriminant analysis. PMID:18616262

  14. Residual behavior of quizalofop ethyl on onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Sahoo, S K; Mandal, Kousik; Singh, Gurmail; Kumar, Rajinder; Chahil, G S; Battu, R S; Singh, Balwinder

    2013-02-01

    Quizalofop ethyl, a phenoxy propionate herbicide, is used for postemergence control of annual and perennial grass weeds in broad-leaved crops in India. The experiments were designed to study the dissipation kinetics of quizalofop ethyl on onion for two seasons. A simple, rapid, and sensitive method for estimation of quizalofop ethyl residues in onion and soil was developed and validated. The recoveries of quizalofop ethyl residues from onion and soil at different spiking level range from 84.81 to 92.68 %. The limit of quantification of this method was found to be 0.01 μg g(-1). The risk assessment through consumption of the onion in comparison to its acceptable daily intake which is an important parameter for the safety of the consumer was also evaluated. Standardized methodology supported by recovery studies was adopted to estimate residues of quizalofop ethyl on onion and soil. The average initial deposits of quizalofop ethyl on onion were observed to be 0.25 and 0.33 mg kg(-1), following single application of the herbicide at 50 g active ingredient (a.i.) ha(-1) during 2009 and 2010, respectively. The half-life values (T (1/2)) of quizalofop ethyl on onion crop were worked out to be 0.85 and 0.79 days, respectively, during 2009 and 2010. At harvest time, the residues of quizalofop ethyl on onion and soil were found to be below the determination limit of 0.01 mg kg(-1) following single application of the herbicide at 50 and 100 g a.i. ha(-1) for both the periods.

  15. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Pérez de la Cruz, Antonio J; Fernández Soto, María Luisa

    2016-06-30

    La detección de la desnutrición hospitalaria continúa de plena actualidad en la literatura médica y, a pesar de que desde hace dos décadas dejó de ser un tema novedoso, constituye un elemento recurrente en la bibliografía y motivo de abordajes monográficos en congresos y reuniones científicas.

  16. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Pérez de la Cruz, Antonio J; Fernández Soto, María Luisa

    2016-01-01

    La detección de la desnutrición hospitalaria continúa de plena actualidad en la literatura médica y, a pesar de que desde hace dos décadas dejó de ser un tema novedoso, constituye un elemento recurrente en la bibliografía y motivo de abordajes monográficos en congresos y reuniones científicas. PMID:27513480

  17. Determining redundancy of short-day, onion (Allium cepa L. var. cepa) accessions in a germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System is one of the world’s largest national genebank networks focusing on preserving the genetic diversity of plants by acquiring, preserving, evaluating, documenting and distributing crop-related germplasm to researchers worldwide. Maintaining viable germplasm co...

  18. Comparison of outcomes in patients with insulin-dependent versus non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus receiving drug-eluting stents (from the first phase of the prospective multicenter German DES.DE registry).

    PubMed

    Akin, Ibrahim; Bufe, Alexander; Eckardt, Lars; Reinecke, Holger; Senges, Jochen; Richardt, Gert; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Schneider, Steffen; Nienaber, Christoph A

    2010-11-01

    Drug-eluting stents have been effective in randomized controlled trials, but their safety and efficacy in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes has not been well studied. Baseline clinical and angiographic characteristics and in-hospital and follow-up events were recorded for enrolled patients. From October 2005 and October 2006, 581 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes and 1,078 with non-insulin-dependent diabetes treated with sirolimus- and paclitaxel-eluting stents were enrolled at 98 sites. The composite of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke, defined as major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events, as well as target vessel revascularization was used as the primary end point. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for confounding parameters. Baseline clinical characteristics were more severe in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes, whereas descriptive characteristics were not unique. At 1-year follow-up, the comparison between the 2 groups revealed significantly higher rates of overall death (7.4% vs 4.6%, p <0.05), target vessel revascularization (15.1% vs 10.4%, p <0.05), and overall stent thrombosis (6.5% vs 4.1%, p <0.05) for insulin-dependent patients, while rates of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events were not significantly different (12.8% vs 9.9%, p = 0.09). These results persisted even after risk adjustment for heterogenous baseline characteristics of the 2 groups. In conclusion, the data generated from the German Drug-Eluting Stent (DES.DE) registry revealed that even with drug-eluting stents, the annual risk for death, target vessel revascularization, and thrombotic events remains higher in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes compared to those with non-insulin-dependent diabetes.

  19. [Hospital efficiency measured by bed space use in a secondary care hospital].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Martínez, Roberto; Martínez-Cruz, Rocío Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: reconociendo que los recursos disponibles en las unidades médicas forman parte de los factores que condicionan la atención médica de calidad, resulta de importancia medir su aprovechamiento. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la eficiencia hospitalaria a través del recurso cama en un hospital de segundo nivel. Métodos: del Sistema de Información Médico Operativo, se examinaron los cuadros de salida mensuales de julio 2012 a junio 2013 que incluyen variables como egresos, días paciente, porcentaje de ocupación y promedio de días de estancia por especialidad y división, se obtuvieron los resultados por cada indicador estratégico y se relacionaron dichos resultados proponiendo supuestos para valorar la eficiencia hospitalaria. Resultados: de manera global, se identifica una óptima eficiencia hospitalaria, sin embargo el análisis por servicio y división señala una eficiencia deteriorada y baja. El resultado global de los cinco indicadores aplicados ignora la saturación de los servicios al interior de la unidad médica. Sin embargo, el análisis en conjunto revela dicha problemática, demostrando la ventaja de evaluar un mismo escenario desde diferentes perspectivas. Conclusiones: incluir indicadores que midan la eficiencia hospitalaria partiendo del recurso cama, permite considerar deficiencias no identificadas, con lo que se fortalece la toma de decisiones en salud.

  20. Identification and biological activity of antifungal saponins from shallot ( Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group).

    PubMed

    Teshima, Yoshiki; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Imada, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Kazunori; El-Sayed, Magdi A; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Shuhei; Ito, Shin-Ichi

    2013-08-01

    The n-butanol extract of shallot basal plates and roots showed antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungi. The purified compounds from the extract were examined for antifungal activity to determine the predominant antifungal compounds in the extract. Two major antifungal compounds purified were determined to be alliospiroside A (ALA) and alliospiroside B. ALA had prominent antifungal activity against a wide range of fungi. The products of acid hydrolysis of ALA showed a reduced antifungal activity, suggesting that the compound's sugar chain is essential for its antifungal activity. Fungal cells treated with ALA showed rapid production of reactive oxygen species. The fungicidal action of ALA was partially inhibited by a superoxide scavenger, Tiron, suggesting that superoxide anion generation in the fungal cells may be related to the compound's action. Inoculation experiments showed that ALA protected strawberry plants against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides , indicating that ALA has the potential to control anthracnose of the plant.

  1. Quercetin from shallots (Allium cepa L. var. aggregatum) is more bioavailable than its glucosides.

    PubMed

    Wiczkowski, Wieslaw; Romaszko, Jerzy; Bucinski, Adam; Szawara-Nowak, Dorota; Honke, Joanna; Zielinski, Henryk; Piskula, Mariusz K

    2008-05-01

    The lipophilic character of quercetin suggests that it can cross enterocyte membranes via simple diffusion. Therefore, it should be more bioavailable than its glucosides, which require preliminary hydrolysis or active transport for absorption. However, the published human studies show that quercetin is less bioavailable than its glucosides. Assuming that low bioavailability of quercetin aglycone provided to humans as a pure substance is the result of its low solubility in the digestive tract, we studied its bioavailability from dietary sources in which quercetin was dispersed in the food matrix. In a randomized crossover study, 9 volunteers took a single dose of either shallot flesh (99.2% quercetin glucosides and 0.8% quercetin aglycone) or dry shallot skin (83.3% quercetin aglycone and 16.7% quercetin glucosides), providing 1.4 mg quercetin per kg of body weight. Blood samples were collected before and after consumption of shallot preparations. Plasma quercetin was measured on HPLC with electrochemical detection after plasma enzymatic treatment. The maximum plasma quercetin concentration of 1.02 +/- 0.13 micromol/L was reached at 2.33 +/- 0.50 h after shallot flesh consumption compared with 3.95 +/- 0.62 micromol/L at 2.78 +/- 0.15 h after dry skin consumption. The area under the concentration-time curve after dry skin consumption was 47.23 +/- 7.53 micromol x h(-1) x L(-1) and was significantly higher than that after shallot flesh intake (22.23 +/- 2.32 micromol x h(-1) x L(-1)). When provided along with dietary sources, quercetin aglycone is more bioavailable than its glucosides in humans. Results point to the food matrix as a key factor.

  2. Effect of processing conditions on the organosulfides of shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group).

    PubMed

    Tocmo, Restituto; Lin, Yi; Huang, Dejian

    2014-06-11

    There is a growing account of the health benefits of H2S as an endogenous cell-signaling molecule. H2S from organic polysulfides, in particular, is increasingly gaining attention for their beneficial effects to cardiovascular health. Here, we studied shallot as a potential dietary source of organic polysulfides and examined the effects of processing conditions on its polysulfide profiles. Boiling, autoclaving, and freeze-drying were tested on whole and crushed shallot bulbs, analyzing their effect on the yield of organosulfides. Seventeen organosulfides, including disulfides, trisulfides, and cyclic polysulfides, were identified. Significant differences in the quantitative and qualitative profiles of organosulfides in the hydrodistilled and solvent extracted oils were observed. Freeze-drying retained the majority of the organosulfides, but the whole-autoclaved and whole-boiled shallots lost more than 95% of their organic polysulfides. Crushed-boiled and crushed-autoclaved shallot lost 76-80% of their organosulfides, likely due to the thermal sensitivity of these compounds. The organosulfide profiles are sensitive to the pH values of the processing media. In general, disulfides increased at basic pH (pH 9.0) while trisulfides and cyclic organosulfides are much higher at the acidic to neutral pH values (pH 3.0-5.0). Our results provide important information on the effects of processing conditions that are relevant for optimizing extraction of organosulfides from shallot for further studies evaluating their H2S-releasing activity.

  3. Characterization of industrial onion wastes (Allium cepa L.): dietary fibre and bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Benítez, Vanesa; Mollá, Esperanza; Martín-Cabrejas, María A; Aguilera, Yolanda; López-Andréu, Francisco J; Cools, Katherine; Terry, Leon A; Esteban, Rosa M

    2011-03-01

    The food industry produces a large amount of onion wastes, making it necessary to search for possible ways for their utilization. One way could be to use these onion wastes as a natural source of high-value functional ingredients, since onion are rich in several groups of compounds, which have perceived benefits to human health. The objective of this work is to gain knowledge of any differences between the different onion wastes obtained from industry and non-commercial bulbs to use them as food ingredients rich in specific compounds. The results showed that brown skin and top-bottom could be potentially used as functional ingredient rich in dietary fibre, mainly in insoluble fraction, and in total phenolics and flavonoids, with high antioxidant activity. Moreover, brown skin showed a high concentration of quercetin aglycone and calcium, and top-bottom showed high concentration of minerals. Outer scales could be used as source of flavonols, with good antioxidant activity and content of dietary fibre. However, inner scales could be an interesting source of fructans and alk(en)yl cystein sulphoxides. In addition, discarded onions (cvs Recas and Figueres) could be used as a good source of dietary fibre, and cv Recas also as a source of phenolics compounds.

  4. Effect of different storage temperature on chemical composition of onion (Allium cepa L.) and its enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kavita; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-03-01

    Onion stored at 4, 10, and 25 °C for 9 months were analyzed for changes in quercetin and its glucosidase content, enzymes, pyruvic acid, and sugar content. During storage, concentration of quercetin and its glucosidase showed an irregular variation at all studied temperature but at 4 °C the rate was high as compared to 10 and 25 °C. The enzymatic activity of Q4'G glucosidase and Q4'glucosyltransferase increased progressively until six months at 4, 10 and 25 °C, but later it started to decrease. At 4 and 10 °C, peroxidase activity increased during the first five weeks then decreased, while at 25 °C peroxidase activity decreased progressively after two months storage. Fructose, glucose and sucrose showed a different although more regular pattern by decreasing progressively at 4, 10 °C. At 4 °C fructose and glucose accumulated in the initial 3 to 4 months of storage while sucrose was unchanged. However, at 10 and 25 °C, fructose and glucose concentration continuously decreased, while sucrose increased consistently. Onion pyruvic acid increased at 4 and 10 °C during the first six months, while at 25 °C the fluctuation was observed during the whole storage period. Overall, we conclude that storage at 4 °C maintained the quality of onions best, as evidenced by the positive changes. PMID:27570287

  5. Chromosomal aberrations in onion (Allium cepa) induced by water chlorination by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Sabti, K.; Kurelec, B.

    1985-01-01

    It has recently come to light that water chlorination generates mutagens and carcinogens. The mutagenicity of nonvolatile mutagenic by-products of water chlorination has been demonstrated in short-term biological testings. The predictive value of short-term tests is considerably enhanced by the use of more than one test system. A scientifically stringent approach in formulating a testing program for the assessment of genotoxins is to rely on tests that directly measure gene mutations and chromosome alterations. Chromosome aberrations (CA) become such a relevant bioassay. The CA measurement in the allium test is suitable for measuring the cytogenotoxic potential of chemicals present in water; it is simple, cheap, sensitive, and it does not require a generally undefined step of concentrating chemicals present in polluted waters. In the present investigation CA in Allium were chosen for the detection of mutagenic potential of a polluted river waters before and after the under-breakpoint chlorination.

  6. Comparative analysis of cesium and potassium uptake in onion Allium cepa L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, P. Ł.; Bystrzejewska-Piotrowska, G.

    2003-01-01

    Cesium uptake in onion (from 0.3 mM CsCl solution traced with 137CsCl) has been examined. The highest uptake occurred at pH 4-5 and it decreased with increasing pH. The intensity of Cs translocation depended on acidity of the solution. For acidic solutions, translocation of cesium into bulbs and leaves was greater than in case of alkaline solutions, where most of the cesium remained in the roots. Addition of potassium into the solutions (millimolar K concentrations) inhibits Cs uptake. The potassium pH-influx/efflux characteristic does not coincide with the Cs uptake.

  7. Bioefficacy, dissipation kinetics and safety evaluation of selected insecticides in Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Srinivas P, Satya; Banerjee, Kaushik; Jadhav, Manjusha R; Ghaste, Manoj S; Lawande, K E

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the bioefficacy of selected insecticides against thrips and their pre-harvest intervals (PHI) in onion pertaining to their recommended application rates and maximum residue limits. Profenophos, methomyl and imidacloprid showed comparatively higher bioefficacy against thrips. GC-MS and LC-MS/MS-based residue analysis methods in onion bulbs and composite matrix of bulbs+leaves were thoroughly validated. The residue data for bulb+leaves was assessed with reference to the EU-MRLs applicable for spring onion. Dimethoate was the most stable chemical with PHI of 52.5 days, followed by monocrotophos (24 days) and carbofuran (20.5 days). The PHIs of profenophos, chlorpyrifos, methomyl and cypermethrin were similar and within the range of 10-13 days. Imidacloprid and λ-cyhalothrin had similar PHI of 4.5 days. Spinosad was the fastest-degrading chemical with PHI of 2 days. The combined bioefficacy and residue dynamics information will support label-claim of these insecticides for the management of thrips in onion, help in scheduling their applications in pest management program as per relative PHIs and minimize the residue accumulations at harvest. The dietary exposure was less than the maximum permissible intake for most of the insecticides on all sampling days except for dimethoate and monocrotophos. PMID:22560033

  8. Conservation of Arabidopsis thaliana photoperiodic flowering time genes in onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew; Massiah, Andrea Juliet; Thomas, Brian

    2010-10-01

    The genetics underlying onion development are poorly understood. Here the characterization of onion homologs of Arabidopsis photoperiodic flowering pathway genes is reported with the end goal of accelerating onion breeding programs by understanding the genetic basis of adaptation to different latitudes. The expression of onion GI, FKF1 and ZTL homologs under short day (SD) and long day (LD) conditions was examined using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). The expression of AcGI and AcFKF1 was examined in onion varieties which exhibit different daylength responses. Phylogenetic trees were constructed to confirm the identity of the homologs. AcGI and AcFKF1 showed diurnal expression patterns similar to their Arabidopsis counterparts, while AcZTL was found to be constitutively expressed. AcGI showed similar expression patterns in varieties which exhibit different daylength responses, whereas AcFKF1 showed differences. It is proposed that these differences could contribute to the different daylength responses in these varieties. Phylogenetic analyses showed that all the genes isolated are very closely related to their proposed homologs. The results presented here show that key genes controlling photoperiodic flowering in Arabidopsis are conserved in onion, and a role for these genes in the photoperiodic control of bulb initiation is predicted. This theory is supported by expression and phylogenetic data.

  9. Human exposure modelling of quercetin in onions (Allium cepa L.) following thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Harris, S; Brunton, N; Tiwari, U; Cummins, E

    2015-11-15

    Post-harvest treatment can influence levels of secondary metabolites in fruits and vegetables. Onions contain high levels of quercetin but are commonly heat-treated before consumption. Hence, the objective of this study was to examine the effect of cooking treatments on the flavonoid (3,4'-Qdg and 4'-Qmg) concentrations in onion and to determine, by simulation modelling, probable human exposure. Onion samples (n=3) were cooked using three processes (fry, bake and steam) for three time intervals (5, 10 and 15 min). Frying (<10 min) was the ideal cooking method which retained concentrations of 3,4'-Qdg and 4'-Qmg at >50%. Thermal processing (>10 min) was shown to decrease quercetin content in all samples. The simulation model predicted human absorption and exposure. Steaming (15 min) resulted in the lowest quercetin exposure, with mean values of 4000 and 400 μg/day for 3,4'-Qdg and 4'-Qmg, respectively. Untreated onions had mean exposures of 14,000 and 3000 μg/day for 3,4'-Qdg and 4'-Qmg, respectively.

  10. Onion (Allium cepa L.) peel extract has anti-platelet effects in rat platelets.

    PubMed

    Ro, Ju-Ye; Ryu, Jin-Hyeob; Park, Hwa-Jin; Cho, Hyun-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    The effects of onion peel extract (OPE) in collagen (5 μg/mL)-stimulated washed rat platelet aggregation were investigated. OPE inhibited platelet aggregation via inhibition of aggregation-inducing molecules, intracellular Ca(2+) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) by blocking cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and TXA2 synthase (TXAS) activities in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, OPE elevated the formation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), aggregation-inhibiting molecule, but not cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of OPE revealed that OPE contains quercetin, one of the major flavonoids, which has anti-platelet effect. In conclusion, we suggest that OPE is an effective inhibitor of collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation in vitro. Therefore, it can be a promising and safe strategy for anti-cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25628983

  11. Identification of an NAC Transcription Factor Family by Deep Transcriptome Sequencing in Onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xia; Tang, Shouwei; Zhu, Siyuan; Dai, Qiuzhong; Liu, Touming

    2016-01-01

    Although onion has been used extensively in the past for cytogenetic studies, molecular analysis has been lacking because the availability of genetic resources is limited. NAM, ATAF, and CUC (NAC) transcription factors (TFs) are plant-specific proteins, and they play key roles in plant growth, development, and stress tolerance. However, none of the onion NAC (CepNAC) genes had been identified thus far. In this study, the transcriptome of onion leaves was analyzed by Illumina paired-end sequencing. Approximately 102.9 million clean sequence reads were produced and used for de novo assembly, which generated 117,189 non-redundant transcripts. Of these transcripts, 39,472 were annotated for their function. In order to mine the CepNAC TFs, CepNAC genes were searched from the transcripts assembled, resulting in the identification of all 39 CepNAC genes. These 39 CepNAC proteins were subjected to phylogenetic analysis together with 47 NAC proteins of known function that were previously identified in other species. The results showed that they can be divided into five groups (NAC-I-V). Interestingly, the NAC-IV and -V groups were found to be likely related to the processes of secondary wall synthesis and stress response, respectively. The transcriptome analysis generated a substantial amount of transcripts, which will aid immensely in identifying important genes and accelerating our understanding of onion growth and development. Moreover, the discovery of 39 CepNAC TFs and the identification of the sequence conservation between them and NAC proteins published will provide a basis for further characterization and validation of their functions in the future. PMID:27331904

  12. Identification of an NAC Transcription Factor Family by Deep Transcriptome Sequencing in Onion (Allium cepa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Siyuan; Dai, Qiuzhong; Liu, Touming

    2016-01-01

    Although onion has been used extensively in the past for cytogenetic studies, molecular analysis has been lacking because the availability of genetic resources is limited. NAM, ATAF, and CUC (NAC) transcription factors (TFs) are plant-specific proteins, and they play key roles in plant growth, development, and stress tolerance. However, none of the onion NAC (CepNAC) genes had been identified thus far. In this study, the transcriptome of onion leaves was analyzed by Illumina paired-end sequencing. Approximately 102.9 million clean sequence reads were produced and used for de novo assembly, which generated 117,189 non-redundant transcripts. Of these transcripts, 39,472 were annotated for their function. In order to mine the CepNAC TFs, CepNAC genes were searched from the transcripts assembled, resulting in the identification of all 39 CepNAC genes. These 39 CepNAC proteins were subjected to phylogenetic analysis together with 47 NAC proteins of known function that were previously identified in other species. The results showed that they can be divided into five groups (NAC-I–V). Interestingly, the NAC-IV and -V groups were found to be likely related to the processes of secondary wall synthesis and stress response, respectively. The transcriptome analysis generated a substantial amount of transcripts, which will aid immensely in identifying important genes and accelerating our understanding of onion growth and development. Moreover, the discovery of 39 CepNAC TFs and the identification of the sequence conservation between them and NAC proteins published will provide a basis for further characterization and validation of their functions in the future. PMID:27331904

  13. Effect of processing conditions on the organosulfides of shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group).

    PubMed

    Tocmo, Restituto; Lin, Yi; Huang, Dejian

    2014-06-11

    There is a growing account of the health benefits of H2S as an endogenous cell-signaling molecule. H2S from organic polysulfides, in particular, is increasingly gaining attention for their beneficial effects to cardiovascular health. Here, we studied shallot as a potential dietary source of organic polysulfides and examined the effects of processing conditions on its polysulfide profiles. Boiling, autoclaving, and freeze-drying were tested on whole and crushed shallot bulbs, analyzing their effect on the yield of organosulfides. Seventeen organosulfides, including disulfides, trisulfides, and cyclic polysulfides, were identified. Significant differences in the quantitative and qualitative profiles of organosulfides in the hydrodistilled and solvent extracted oils were observed. Freeze-drying retained the majority of the organosulfides, but the whole-autoclaved and whole-boiled shallots lost more than 95% of their organic polysulfides. Crushed-boiled and crushed-autoclaved shallot lost 76-80% of their organosulfides, likely due to the thermal sensitivity of these compounds. The organosulfide profiles are sensitive to the pH values of the processing media. In general, disulfides increased at basic pH (pH 9.0) while trisulfides and cyclic organosulfides are much higher at the acidic to neutral pH values (pH 3.0-5.0). Our results provide important information on the effects of processing conditions that are relevant for optimizing extraction of organosulfides from shallot for further studies evaluating their H2S-releasing activity. PMID:24840922

  14. Quercetin from shallots (Allium cepa L. var. aggregatum) is more bioavailable than its glucosides.

    PubMed

    Wiczkowski, Wieslaw; Romaszko, Jerzy; Bucinski, Adam; Szawara-Nowak, Dorota; Honke, Joanna; Zielinski, Henryk; Piskula, Mariusz K

    2008-05-01

    The lipophilic character of quercetin suggests that it can cross enterocyte membranes via simple diffusion. Therefore, it should be more bioavailable than its glucosides, which require preliminary hydrolysis or active transport for absorption. However, the published human studies show that quercetin is less bioavailable than its glucosides. Assuming that low bioavailability of quercetin aglycone provided to humans as a pure substance is the result of its low solubility in the digestive tract, we studied its bioavailability from dietary sources in which quercetin was dispersed in the food matrix. In a randomized crossover study, 9 volunteers took a single dose of either shallot flesh (99.2% quercetin glucosides and 0.8% quercetin aglycone) or dry shallot skin (83.3% quercetin aglycone and 16.7% quercetin glucosides), providing 1.4 mg quercetin per kg of body weight. Blood samples were collected before and after consumption of shallot preparations. Plasma quercetin was measured on HPLC with electrochemical detection after plasma enzymatic treatment. The maximum plasma quercetin concentration of 1.02 +/- 0.13 micromol/L was reached at 2.33 +/- 0.50 h after shallot flesh consumption compared with 3.95 +/- 0.62 micromol/L at 2.78 +/- 0.15 h after dry skin consumption. The area under the concentration-time curve after dry skin consumption was 47.23 +/- 7.53 micromol x h(-1) x L(-1) and was significantly higher than that after shallot flesh intake (22.23 +/- 2.32 micromol x h(-1) x L(-1)). When provided along with dietary sources, quercetin aglycone is more bioavailable than its glucosides in humans. Results point to the food matrix as a key factor. PMID:18424596

  15. Identification and biological activity of antifungal saponins from shallot ( Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group).

    PubMed

    Teshima, Yoshiki; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Imada, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Kazunori; El-Sayed, Magdi A; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Shuhei; Ito, Shin-Ichi

    2013-08-01

    The n-butanol extract of shallot basal plates and roots showed antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungi. The purified compounds from the extract were examined for antifungal activity to determine the predominant antifungal compounds in the extract. Two major antifungal compounds purified were determined to be alliospiroside A (ALA) and alliospiroside B. ALA had prominent antifungal activity against a wide range of fungi. The products of acid hydrolysis of ALA showed a reduced antifungal activity, suggesting that the compound's sugar chain is essential for its antifungal activity. Fungal cells treated with ALA showed rapid production of reactive oxygen species. The fungicidal action of ALA was partially inhibited by a superoxide scavenger, Tiron, suggesting that superoxide anion generation in the fungal cells may be related to the compound's action. Inoculation experiments showed that ALA protected strawberry plants against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides , indicating that ALA has the potential to control anthracnose of the plant. PMID:24138065

  16. Effect of turgor pressure on water permeability of Allium cepa epidermis cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Palta, J P; Stadelmann, E J

    1977-05-12

    Using onion epidermis layer a very accurate method for measuring the permeability of epidermis cells to water was standardized. In this method a 1.4 cm diameter epidermis disc was soaked in tritiated water (50 micronCi/ml) for about 1 hr. Next the disc was mounted in a specially designed elution chamber where it was held flat and washed on the noncuticular side with ordinary water. A constant flow rate, high enough to minimize unstirred layer effect, was used. Permeability was calculated in the usual way after separating different exponentials from the efflux curve of tritiated water. Turgor pressure of the cell was regulated by soaking thedisc in mannitol solutions containing tritiated water and washing it in the chamber with same concentration mannitol solution containing no radioactivity. Water permeability values were found to decrease less than 8% when the turgor pressure was decreased from 8 atm (full turgor) to zero. Turgor pressure had no significant effect on the water permeability of onion epidermal cells. Our results are contradictory to the findings of Zimmerman and Steudle (1974, J Membrane Biol. 16:331) but aresimilar to the findings of Tazawa and Kamiya (1966, Aust J. Biol. Sci. 19:399) and Kiyosawa and Tazawa (1972, Protoplasma 74:257).

  17. Interactions Between Frankliniella fusca and Pantoea ananatis in the Center Rot Epidemic of Onion (Allium cepa).

    PubMed

    Dutta, Bhabesh; Gitaitis, Ronald; Barman, Apurba; Avci, Utku; Marasigan, Kathleen; Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu

    2016-09-01

    An Enterobacteriaceae bacterium, Pantoea ananatis (Serrano) Mergaert, is the causal agent of an economically important disease of onion, center rot. P. ananatis is transmitted by an onion-infesting thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds). However, interactions between F. fusca and P. ananatis as well as transmission mechanisms largely remain uncharacterized. This study investigated P. ananatis acquisition by thrips and transstadial persistence. Furthermore, the effects of bacterial acquisition on thrips fitness were also evaluated. When thrips larvae and adults were provided with acquisition access periods (AAP) on peanut leaflets contaminated with the bacterium, an exponentially positive relationship was observed between AAP and P. ananatis acquisition (R(2) ≥ 0.77, P = 0.01). P. ananatis persisted in thrips through several life stages (larvae, pupae, and adult). Despite the bacterial persistence, no significant effects on thrips fitness parameters such as fecundity and development were observed. Immunofluorescence microscopy of adult thrips with P. ananatis-specific antibody after 48 h AAP on contaminated food revealed that the bacterium was localized only in the gut. These results suggested that the pathogen is not circulative and could be transmitted through feces. Mechanical inoculation of onion seedlings with fecal rinsates produced center rot symptoms, whereas inoculation with rinsates potentially containing salivary secretions did not. These results provide evidence for stercorarian transmission (transmission through feces) of P. ananatis by F. fusca. PMID:27135678

  18. Cytotoxic effects of five commonly abused skin toning (bleaching) creams on Allium cepa root tip mitosis.

    PubMed

    Udengwu, O S; Chukwujekwu, J C

    2008-09-15

    The Allium test was used to study the cytotoxic effects of five commonly abused skin toning creams--Ikb, Tura, Top gel, Dorot and Mililo. These creams are commonly used by some black skinned people (especially the females) as skin lightening (bleaching) agents. The results showed that all the five bleaching creams were mito-depressive in action. They exhibited both chromatoclassic and mitoclassic effects. Their depressive effects were found to increase with duration of treatment. The induced abnormalities included chromosome contraction, spindle breakages, c-metaphase, star anaphase, chromosome stickiness and sticky bridges, precocious chromosome movement as well as endomitosis. It is suggested that since all eukaryotic cells are basically the same, these observed abnormalities could be similar to the effects these chemicals have on human skin when they are applied. Some of these are known to cause alteration in melanin formation as well as the biosynthesis of the enzyme tyrosinase. Furthermore, since certain points on the chromosomes called fragile sites have been implicated in oncogenesis, the observed abnormalities may be part of (or include) the switching on mechanisms of such genes, which could be responsible for the transformation of normal skin cells to malignant cells in those who abuse these creams. PMID:19137826

  19. Observación solar desde el espacio, resultados recientes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M. E.

    Presentaremos un resumen de los resultados más recientes sobre la física del sol, obtenidos por medio del análisis de datos de satélites artificiales como el Yohkoh, SOHO y COMPTON/GRO. En particular, nos referiremos a la acción y dinámica de los campos magnéticos en la generación de fenómenos activos y el calentamiento coronal.

  20. Non-destructive flavour evaluation of red onion (Allium cepa L.) ecotypes: an electronic-nose-based approach.

    PubMed

    Russo, Mariateresa; di Sanzo, Rosa; Cefaly, Vittoria; Carabetta, Sonia; Serra, Demetrio; Fuda, Salvatore

    2013-11-15

    This work reports preliminary results on the potential of a metal oxide sensor (MOS)-based electronic nose, as a non-destructive method to discriminate three "Tropea Red Onion" PGI ecotypes (TrT, TrMC and TrA) from each other and the common red onion (RO), which is usually used to counterfeit. The signals from the sensor array were processed using a canonical discriminant function analysis (DFA) pattern recognition technique. The DFA on onion samples showed a clear separation among the four onion groups with an overall correct classification rate (CR) of 97.5%. Onion flavour is closely linked to pungency and thus to the pyruvic acid content. The e-nose analysis results are in good agreement with pyruvic acid analysis. This work demonstrated that artificial olfactory systems have potential for use as an innovative, rapid and specific non-destructive technique, and may provide a method to protect food products against counterfeiting.

  1. Influence of Sulfur Induced Stress on Oxidative Status and Antioxidative Machinery in Leaves of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Neelam; Pandey, Nalini

    2014-01-01

    A pot culture experiment was carried out to assess the effect of sulfur stress on growth, oxidative status, and antioxidative metabolism. Onion plants were treated with three different levels of sulfur, namely, 1.0, 4.0, and 8.0 mM S L(-1). Plants raised with 4.0 mM S L(-1) represent sufficient growth for the best vegetative yield. Plants supplied with 1.0 and 8.0 mM S L(-1) showed retarded growth, chlorosis, and reduction in biomass and photoassimilatory pigments. Tissue sulfur concentration and cysteine were increased with increasing sulfur supply. Carbohydrates (sugars and starch) were accumulated in sulfur stressed plants. Hydrogen peroxide levels were increased in sulfur stressed plants. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels were also increased which was an indicator of lipid peroxidation. Enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) and nonenzymatic (asorbate) antioxidative components were enhanced in sulfur stressed plants. Glutathione was increased with increasing sulfur supply. The present study showed that the adverse effects of inadequate sulfur supply result in irregular metabolic activities and antioxidant machinery. PMID:27379315

  2. In vitro bulb development in shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum Group): effects of anti-gibberellins, sucrose and light.

    PubMed

    Le Guen-Le Saos, F; Hourmant, A; Esnault, F; Chauvin, J E

    2002-04-01

    Bulbing was studied in shallot plants cultured in vitro. Bulbing occurred under a 16 h photoperiod with fluorescent + incandescent light and 30-50 g 1(-1) sucrose in the culture medium. Exogenous gibberellin (10 microM GA3) inhibited leaf and root growth and bulbing. When added to the medium at a concentration of 10 microM, three inhibitors of gibberellin biosynthesis (ancymidol, flurprimidol and paclobutrazol) promoted bulb formation and the percentage of bulbing. When ancymidol was used in combination with GA3, it did not reverse the effect of GA3 applied alone. Under treatments with 30-70 g l(-1) sucrose, bulbing ratios greater than those found in control plants were achieved by addition of ancymidol, and bulb fresh weight was increased in the same way. Ancymidol caused a 66% decrease in sucrose content in leaf bases but greatly increased the glucose, fructose and fructan contents. The increase in fructan content by ancymidol could result from the three-fold rise in total [14C]sucrose uptake per plant from the culture medium associated with a marked increase in leaf base labelling at the expense of root labelling. The possible role of ancymidol is discussed and evidence supports a major regulatory role for gibberellins in bulbing.

  3. Characterisation of onion (Allium cepa L.) by-products as food ingredients with antioxidant and antibrowning properties.

    PubMed

    Roldán, Eduvigis; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; de Ancos, Begoña; Cano, M Pilar

    2008-06-01

    Processing and stabilising onion wastes (residues and surpluses of onion) could solve the environmental problem derived from a great onion wastes disposal. Moreover, obtaining stabilised onion by-products as natural antioxidant food ingredients could be advantageous to food industry, not only to improve the use of onion wastes but also to obtain new natural and functional ingredients. The aim of this study was to characterise onion by-products - juice, paste and bagasse - from two Spanish onion cultivars - 'Figueres' and 'Recas' - that have been stabilised by thermal treatments - freezing, pasteurisation and sterilisation - in order to evaluate the effect of the processing and stabilisation treatment on the bioactive composition, antioxidant activity and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme inhibition capacity. The results obtained triggered to choose one onion by-product offering better characteristics for its potential development as a food ingredient: source of antioxidant and antibrowning bioactive compounds. In this study it was shown that processing of 'Recas' onion wastes to obtain a paste (mixture content) and applying a mild pasteurisation were the best alternatives to obtain an interesting stabilised onion by-product with good antioxidant properties that made useful its use as functional food ingredient.

  4. Potassium chloride as stomatal osmoticum in Allium cepa L. , a species devoid of starch in guard cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schnabl, H.; Raschke, K.

    1980-01-01

    KCl was, in general, the major osmoticum in guard cells, irrespective of whether stomata had opened on leaves or in epidermal strips floating on solutions. The solute requirement varied between 50 and 110 femtomoles KCl per micrometer increase in aperture per pair of guard cells. Stomata did not open on solutions of K iminodiacetate, presumably because its anion could not be taken up. Stomata opened if KCl or KBr was provided. Taken together, the results indicate that the absence of starch from guard cells deprived them of the ability to produce malate in amounts of osmotic consequence and that the presence of absorbable Cl/sup -/ (or Br/sup -/) was necessary for stomatal opening. Previous nutrient supply of the plants determined whether the charges of K/sup +/ in guard cells were completely balanced by Cl/sup -/ or only partially. Addition of K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ to the nutrient solution reduced the participation of Cl/sup -/ in stomatal ion transfer, even if epidermal strips of these plants were later exposed to KCl solution. Although malate appeared not to participate in stomatal ion transfer in onion, epidermal samples of this species did contain malate. Malate accumulated in the epidermis of leaves put into the light but disappeared from illuminated epidermal strips floating on solutions. In whole leaves, epidermal malate content was positively correlated with stomatal opening; in epidermal strips floating on solutions, the correlation was negative or absent.

  5. Proteomic changes associated with freeze-thaw injury and post-thaw recovery in onion (Allium cepa L.) scales.

    PubMed

    Chen, Keting; Renaut, Jenny; Sergeant, Kjell; Wei, Hui; Arora, Rajeev

    2013-04-01

    The ability of plants to recover from freeze-thaw injury is a critical component of freeze-thaw stress tolerance. To investigate the molecular basis of freeze-thaw recovery, here we compared the proteomes of onion scales from unfrozen control (UFC), freeze-thaw injured (INJ), and post-thaw recovered (REC) treatments. Injury-related proteins (IRPs) and recovery-related proteins (RRPs) were differentiated according to their accumulation patterns. Many IRPs decreased right after thaw without any significant re-accumulation during post-thaw recovery, while others were exclusively induced in INJ tissues. Most IRPs are antioxidants, stress proteins, molecular chaperones, those induced by physical injury or proteins involved in energy metabolism. Taken together, these observations suggest that while freeze-thaw compromises the constitutive stress protection and energy supply in onion scales, it might also recruit 'first-responders' (IRPs that were induced) to mitigate such injury. RRPs, on the other hand, are involved in the injury-repair program during post-thaw environment conducive for recovery. Some RRPs were restored in REC tissues after their first reduction right after thaw, while others exhibit higher abundance than their 'constitutive' levels. RRPs might facilitate new cellular homeostasis, potentially by re-establishing ion homeostasis and proteostasis, cell-wall remodelling, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, defence against possible post-thaw infection, and regulating the energy budget to sustain these processes.

  6. Effect of processing and cooking conditions on onion (Allium cepa L.) induced antiplatelet activity and thiosulfinate content.

    PubMed

    Cavagnaro, Pablo F; Galmarini, Claudio R

    2012-09-01

    Allium vegetables serve as sources of antiplatelet agents that may contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, onion and garlic, the major Allium species, are usually cooked before consumption. Here, we examined the effect of cooking on onion in vitro antiplatelet activity (IVAA). Two different cooking systems (convection oven and microwaves) and several time-temperature variables were tested on whole bulbs, quarters of bulbs, and completely crushed bulbs, monitoring the degradation of sulfur antiplatelet compounds (e.g., thiosulfinates) by analysis of pyruvate levels. Although heating was, in general, detrimental for onion IVAA, the extent of this effect varied greatly, from unaffected antiplatelet activity (AA) (i.e., similar to raw onion) to a complete lost of activity, depending upon the manner in which onions were prepared prior to heating, the cooking method, and the intensity of the heat treatment. "Whole", "quarters", and "crushed" onions lost their IVAA after 30, 20, and 10 min of oven heating, respectively. The longer retainment of AA in intact bulbs was attributed to a later alliinase inactivation. Proaggregatory effects observed in samples subjected to the most intense oven and microwave heat treatments suggest that extensively cooked onions may stimulate rather than inhibit platelet aggregation. The efficacy of Allium species as antiplatelet agents, as affected by preparation and cooking conditions, is discussed.

  7. Assessment of antioxidant capacities and phenolic contents of nigerian cultivars of onions (Allium cepa L) and garlic (Allium sativum L).

    PubMed

    Onyeoziri, Ukoha Pius; Romanus, Ekere Nwachukwu; Onyekachukwu, Uzodinma Irene

    2016-07-01

    This report assessed and compared the antioxidant potentials, quantities of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds in methanolic extract of varieties of onions and garlic cultivars in Nigeria. The pH and total acidity of the extracts were equally determined. Antioxidancy of the cultivars were analysed using the in vitro assay techniques with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl Hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing capacity. Ascorbic acid phenolic content were determined by volumetric and Folin-Ciocalteu's method respectively. The pH and total acidity were respectively 5.65 and 0.150mmol/L (red onion), 5.69 and 0.123mmol/L (white onion) and 6.94 and 0.105mmol/L (garlic). Red onion had the highest value of total phenols, ascorbic acid and free radical scavenging activity of 14.25±0.35mg GAE/ml, 229.098mg/100g, 66.44% respectively. In DPPH assay, red and white onion showed higher tendency to inhibit auto-oxidation when compared to garlic. The ferric reducing ability was greatest in garlic and least in white onions. These data indicate that with respect to antioxidant activity, red onion variety has highest health promoting potential among others.

  8. Polyphenolics from various extracts/fractions of red onion (Allium cepa) peel with potent antioxidant and antimutagenic activities.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brahma N; Singh, B R; Singh, R L; Prakash, D; Singh, D P; Sarma, B K; Upadhyay, G; Singh, H B

    2009-06-01

    In order to determine antioxidant activity, the five extracts/fractions of red onion peel were studied for their total content of phenolics (TPC), flavonoids (TFC), antioxidant activity (AOA), free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), assayed by DPPH radical in the terms of anti-radical power (ARP) and reducing power (RP), expressed as ascorbic acid equivalents (ASE)/ml. High TPC (384.7 +/- 5.0 mg GAE/g), TFC (165.2+/- 3.2 mg QE/g), AOA (97.4 +/- 7.6%), ARP (75.3 +/-4.5) and RP (1.6 +/-0.3 ASE/ml) were found for the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction. EA fraction had markedly higher antioxidant capacity than butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in preventive or scavenging capacities against FeCl3-induced lipid peroxidation, protein fragmentation, hydroxyl (site-specific and non-site-specific), superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals. EA fraction also showed dose dependent antimutagenic activity by following the inhibition of tobacco-induced mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA102) and hydroxyl radical-induced nicking in plasmid pUC18 DNA. HPLC and MS/MS analysis showed the presence of ferulic, gallic, protocatechuic acids, quercetin and kaempferol. The large amount of polyphenols contained in EA fraction may cause its strong antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. This information shows that EA fraction of red onion peel can be used as natural antioxidant in nutraceutical preparations. PMID:19425188

  9. Dyeing of γ-irradiated cotton with natural flavonoid dye extracted from irradiated onion shells (Allium cepa) powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Fazal-ur; Adeel, Shahid; Shahid, Muhammad; Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Nasir, Faiza; Akhtar, Nasim; Ahmad, Zulfiqar

    2013-11-01

    Powder of Onion shells as a source of natural flavonoid dye (Quercetin) and cotton fabrics were exposed to absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. Irradiated and un-irradiated dye powder was used for extraction of quercetin as well as antibacterial, hemolytic and antioxidant activities were also determined to observe the effect of radiation. Furthermore, color strength and colourfastness of irradiated fabrics were improved by using pre and post-mordants such as alum and iron. It is found that 4 kGy is the optimal absorbed dose for extraction of natural quercetin extracted from onion shells while maximum color strength and acceptable fastness properties are obtained on dyeing of irradiated fabric at 60 °C keeping M:L of 1:30 using 10% alum as pre-mordant and 6% alum as post-mordant. Gamma irradiation has not only improved the color strength of the dye using irradiated cotton but also that of colourfastness properties.

  10. Doubled haploid production from Spanish onion (Allium cepa L.) germplasm: embryogenesis induction, plant regeneration and chromosome doubling

    PubMed Central

    Fayos, Oreto; Vallés, María P.; Garcés-Claver, Ana; Mallor, Cristina; Castillo, Ana M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of doubled haploids in onion breeding is limited due to the low gynogenesis efficiency of this species. Gynogenesis capacity from Spanish germplasm, including the sweet cultivar Fuentes de Ebro, the highly pungent landrace BGHZ1354 and the two Valenciana type commercial varieties Recas and Rita, was evaluated and optimized in this study. The OH-1 population, characterized by a high gynogenesis induction, was used as control. Growing conditions of the donor plants were tested with a one-step protocol and field plants produced a slightly higher percentage of embryogenesis induction than growth chamber plants. A one-step protocol was compared with a two-step protocol for embryogenesis induction. Spanish germplasm produced a 2–3 times higher percentage of embryogenesis with the two-step protocol, Recas showing the highest percentage (2.09%) and Fuentes de Ebro the lowest (0.53%). These percentages were significantly lower than those from the OH-1 population, with an average of 15% independently of the protocol used. The effect of different containers on plant regeneration was tested using both protocols. The highest percentage of acclimated plants was obtained with the two-step protocol in combination with Eco2box (70%), whereas the lowest percentage was observed with glass tubes in the two protocols (20–23%). Different amiprofos-methyl (APM) treatments were applied to embryos for chromosome doubling. A similar number of doubled haploid plants were recovered with 25 or 50 μM APM in liquid medium. However, the application of 25 μM in solid medium for 24 h produced the highest number of doubled haploid plants. Somatic regeneration from flower buds of haploid and mixoploid plants proved to be a successful approach for chromosome doubling, since diploid plants were obtained from the four regenerated lines. In this study, doubled haploid plants were produced from the four Spanish cultivars, however further improvements are needed to increase their gynogenesis efficiency. PMID:26074944

  11. Assessment of antioxidant capacities and phenolic contents of nigerian cultivars of onions (Allium cepa L) and garlic (Allium sativum L).

    PubMed

    Onyeoziri, Ukoha Pius; Romanus, Ekere Nwachukwu; Onyekachukwu, Uzodinma Irene

    2016-07-01

    This report assessed and compared the antioxidant potentials, quantities of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds in methanolic extract of varieties of onions and garlic cultivars in Nigeria. The pH and total acidity of the extracts were equally determined. Antioxidancy of the cultivars were analysed using the in vitro assay techniques with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl Hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing capacity. Ascorbic acid phenolic content were determined by volumetric and Folin-Ciocalteu's method respectively. The pH and total acidity were respectively 5.65 and 0.150mmol/L (red onion), 5.69 and 0.123mmol/L (white onion) and 6.94 and 0.105mmol/L (garlic). Red onion had the highest value of total phenols, ascorbic acid and free radical scavenging activity of 14.25±0.35mg GAE/ml, 229.098mg/100g, 66.44% respectively. In DPPH assay, red and white onion showed higher tendency to inhibit auto-oxidation when compared to garlic. The ferric reducing ability was greatest in garlic and least in white onions. These data indicate that with respect to antioxidant activity, red onion variety has highest health promoting potential among others. PMID:27393431

  12. Antioxidant Effects of Methanol Extract of Allium cepa linn on Cyanide-induced Renal Toxicity in Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Ola-Mudathir, K F; Maduagwu, E N

    2014-12-29

    The protective effects of onion was assessed in the Kidney of rats following sub-acute exposure to cyanide. These effects were compared to those of sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3), a classical antidote of cyanide toxicity. The rats were divided into 6 groups of 6 animals each. Group 1 was administered distilled water, Group 2,3,4, 5, and 6 were administered 600 mg onion/kg bwt/day, 7 mg KCN/kg bwt/day, 300 mg onion/kg bwt/day+ 7 mg KCN/kg bwt/day, 600 mg onion/kg bwt/day+ 7mgKCN/kg bwt/day, 600mg Na2S2O3/kg bwt/day+ 7mgKCN/kg bwt/day respectively for 2 weeks. Group 3, 4 and 5 were pre-administered with 300mg onion/kg bwt/day, 600mg onion/kg bwt/day and 600mg Na2S2O3 /kg bwt/day respectively for 2 weeks. Serum and urine creatinine and urea level were assessed as a measure of kidney function. Oxidative stress and antioxidant parameters were estimated in Kidney. Serum creatinine and urea levels were significantly higher in the cyanide treated rats compared with control. This was accompanied by significant reduction in the urine level of creatinine and urea. Co-administration with onion extract and Na2S2O3 reverse the situation in both the serum and urine. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in rats treated with cyanide (3.846±0.20μg/g) was significantly increased in the kidney relative to control (0.691±0.15μg/g). This was accompanied with a decreased in antioxidant enzymes Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) (2.0±0.09U/mg), Catalase (CAT) (0.014±0.001katf),Glutathione-S-Tranferase (GST) (0.015±0.009nMol/mg) and non-enzymatic antioxidant Reduced Glutathione (GSH) (4.006±0.09μg/ml) compared with control (4.8±0.13 U/mg, 0.047±0.001 katf, 0.022±0.0013 nMol/mg, 6.802±0.2 μg/ml respectively). Co-administration with onion extract and Na2S2O3 significantly increased these antioxidant enzymes and significantly decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde in the kidney. The results indicate that onion extract reduced lipid peroxidation in the kidney and increased antioxidant status of animals exposed to cyanide in a dose dependent manner.

  13. [Use of bacteriphages against Salmonella Enteritidis: a prevention tool].

    PubMed

    García, Cristina; Marín, Clara; Catalá-Gregori, Pablo; Soriano, Jose Miguel

    2015-06-01

    Introducción: la salmonelosis es una enfermedad de alta prevalencia, siendo la búsqueda de herramientas preventivas para evitar la contaminación una prioridad a nivel de salud pública. Objetivo: en el presente trabajo se evaluó el efecto in vitro de bacteriófagos frente a Salmonella enteritidis como una herramienta de prevención. Método: se realizaron dos pruebas con tres concentraciones de bacteriófagos frente a dos cepas de Salmonella enteritidis inoculadas en muestras de heces frescas de gallinas ponedoras, y el correspondiente control positivo. Así, se testaron cuatro grupos en cada una de las dos pruebas. Cada grupo experimental contó con dos réplicas, y en cada réplica se incubaron tres placas. Las concentraciones ensayadas fueron tres: solución comercial (5 × 107 pfu/mL), y dos diluciones de la misma (1/10 y 1/30). Una de las cepas testada fue la cepa CECT 4300, cepa certificada de la Colección Española de Cultivo Tipo, y la otra una cepa de campo aislada en una explotación de ponedoras sacrificadas. Ambas cepas se inocularon en muestras de heces a la dosis de 1,3 × 105 ufc/g de heces en cada uno de los cuatro grupos. Se procedió con el aislamiento e identificación de la bacteria por ISO 6579 a varios tiempos desde la inoculación: 1 minuto, 24 h y 7 días. Resultados: en la primera prueba, con la cepa certificada, se aisló Salmonella en todos los grupos a tiempo 1 minuto. A las 24 h se aisló Salmonella en todos los grupos excepto en una de las réplicas tratada con la dilución 1/10 de bacteriófagos, en una de las placas de la otra réplica tratada con la dilución 1/10, y en dos placas de cada una de las dos réplicas tratadas con la solución comercial. A partir de los 7 días ya no se aisló la bacteria de ninguno de los grupos experimentales. En la segunda prueba, con la cepa de campo, se aisló Salmonella en todos los grupos a tiempo 1 minuto. A las 24 h se aisló Salmonella en todos los grupos excepto en una de las r

  14. [Parenteral administration medicines: recommendations of preparation, administration and stability].

    PubMed

    Gaspar Carreño, M; Torrico Martín, F; Novajarque Sala, L; Batista Cruz, M; Ribeiro Gonçalves, P; Porta Oltra, B; Sánchez Santos, J C

    2014-11-03

    Objetivo: Elaborar unas recomendaciones de preparacion de medicamentos de administracion parenteral (MAP) para valorar la posibilidad de transferir su preparacion, desde las unidades de enfermeria en planta de hospitalizacion al servicio de farmacia (SF). Método: Se procede a elaborar una tabla de estabilidades de los medicamentos incluidos en la guia farmacoterapeutica del Hospital, aplicando la Guia USP (Pharmaceutical compounding Sterile Preparations) y la Guia de de buenas practicas de preparacion de medicamentos en los servicios de farmacia hospitalaria. Se recopilo informacion sobre las MAP: metodo de preparacion, compatibilidad, conservacion, periodo de validez, modo de administracion y tipo de envase. Los datos se obtuvieron mediante consulta de las fichas tecnicas, laboratorios, revision bibliografica y otras bases de datos. Resultados: Tras revisar 209 farmacos se elaboro un listado de recomendaciones. Segun los datos obtenidos, las MAP se prepararan de la siguiente forma: 89 seran preparadas desde el SF, 62 en unidad de enfermeria en planta de hospitalizacion pues son medicamentos que requieren administracion inmediata y 58 ya van acondicionados para su administracion por la industria. De los 62 farmacos que se prepararan por enfermeria, en 14 de ellos las dosis siguientes se prepararan desde el SF. Por lo tanto de los 209 farmacos solo 48 se prepararan exclusivamente en la unidad de enfermeria. Conclusiones: Desde el SF se ha establecido un metodo normalizado de preparacion, conservacion, administracion y periodo de validez de MAP. La preparacion de MAP en SF ampliaria su tiempo de conservacion, al tener en cuenta la estabilidad fisicoquimica, el nivel de riesgo y la vulnerabilidad del preparado a la contaminacion microbiologica. La informacion aportada contribuira a una disminucion de errores asociados al proceso de preparacion y administracion de MAP.

  15. Distinción Empírica Entre Engagement y Trabajolismo en Enfermeras Hospitalarias de Japón: Efecto Sobre la Calidad del Sueño y el Desempeño Laboral

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Kazumi; Shimazu, Akihito; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Nakata, Akinori; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo El objetivo de este estudio es demostrar la distinción entre engagement y trabajolismo, estudiando su relación con la calidad del sueño y el desempeño laboral. Método Un total de 447 enfermeras de 3 hospitales de Japón fueron entrevistadas mediante un cuestionario autoadministrado que incluía la escala Utrecht (UWES, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale), la Escala de Adicción al Trabajo Holandesa (DUWAS, Dutch Workaholism Scale), preguntas sobre la calidad del sueño (7 ítems) con respecto a (1) dificultad para conciliar el sueño, (2) dificultad para mantener el sueño, (3) despertar temprano por la mañana, (4) dormirse o tomar siestas durante el día, (5) somnolencia diurna excesiva en el trabajo, (6) dificultad para despertarse por la mañana, y (7) despertar cansado en la mañana, y el Cuestionario sobre Salud y Desempeño (CSD) de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados Los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales demostraron que el engagement se relaciona positivamente con la calidad del sueño y el rendimiento laboral, mientras que el trabajolismo tiene una relación negativa con la calidad del sueño y el desempeño laboral. Conclusión Los resultados indican que el engagement y el trabajolismo son conceptualmente diferentes. El primero tiene una connotación positiva, mientras que el segundo se asocia de manera negativa al bienestar (buena calidad del sueño y buen rendimiento en el trabajo). PMID:26752805

  16. Estudio de variabilidad del blazar BL Lacertae: desde radio hasta rayos gamma (2008-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichel, A.; Rovero, A. C.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work is to study the blazar BL Lacertae during extended periods (greater than weeks), by characterizing the changes in flux and polarization at optical, radio, X-rays and gamma rays; also to investigate the possible correlations between different bands. We look for periodicity in the flux variations in different bands, looking for criteria to predict high activity states of the source. We use multi-frequency observations of BL Lacertae obtained during the years 2008--2015, from radio to very-high-energy gamma rays. During this period, the source remained mainly in a low state of activity at the high energy bands, with several episodes of high activity (flares) in different bands, some of them observed simultaneously in several bands.

  17. 28 Tau: comportamiento espectroscópico desde 1971 hasta 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorec, J.; Ballereau, D.; Chauville, J.; Cidale, L. S.

    Observations of the long-term spectroscopic behaviour from 1971 to 2001 of the late type Be star Pleione (HD 23862) are presented. From the characteristics of the Hβ line emission component, the variable physical properties of the circumstellar envelope of the star are studied. We used Huang's relation for a Keplerian movement to get a first estimate of the size of the disc and a simple emitting ring like model to infer the envelope physical parameters that can explain the observed emission intensity as well as the Hβ emission line profile. The enhancement of the ``shell" spectroscopic aspects seem to be produced by a shrinked circumstellar envelope. The emission observed since 1994 cannot be accounted for by a strongly flattened circumstellar envelope.

  18. MIRADA A LA MENTORÍA EN INVESTIGACIÓN DESDE LA PERSPECTIVA SOCIOCULTURAL DE VYGOTSKY

    PubMed Central

    SANTIAGO, NILDA G. MEDINA; RIVERA, TANIA M. CRUZ; ORTIZ, NATALIA JORDÁN

    2015-01-01

    In this article the authors illustrate the mentoring process through the framework of Vygotsky's sociocultural perspective regarding education and human development. To achieve this goal, they describe their experience as mentor and mentees in a research training mentoring program for undergraduate students. The authors argue that this theoretical and philosophical perspective offers a solid background to mentoring as a real option that contributes to the learning process. They recommend these programs to be encouraged by academic institutions in order for more students and professors to benefit from this process. PMID:27042255

  19. Reading: Birth to Age 5 = La Lectura: Desde El Nacimiento Hasta Los 5 Anos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Point Associates / North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL), 2005

    2005-01-01

    Besides a change in the expectations of parents, other shifts are occurring in society that impact the youngest children (Bowman, Donovan, & Burns, 2000): (1) More women are in the workforce than ever before, which means more children are in child care or preschool; (2) There is increasing evidence of, and conviction from educators, that preschool…

  20. [Probiotics: from the lab to the consumer].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, J M

    2015-02-07

    Introducción: En los últimos años, el campo de los probióticos ha experimentado un gran auge. Sin embargo, de los miles de cepas aisladas cada año por su potencial probiótico en los laboratorios de todo el mundo, muy pocas pasan a una fase de desarrollo industrial y menos aún son las que consiguen una vida comercial. Objetivo: En este artículo, se revisan los principales aspectos que se deben tener en cuenta en el, habitualmente, largo y tortuoso camino que debe seguir una cepa desde su aislamiento inicial hasta su comercialización. Resultados y conclusiones: Cualquier microorganismo probiótico debe estar correctamente identificado a nivel de especie y cepa. La secuencia del genoma es la mejor identificación posible, además de proporcionar información muy valiosa sobre su seguridad, funcionalidad y propiedades de interés tecnológico. Los casos en los que se ha podido establecer una relación entre un probiótico y un efecto adverso son muy escasos y han afectado a personas con patologías subyacentes. Globalmente, aunque las distintas pruebas in vitro, ex vivo y en modelos animales proporcionan información útil durante el proceso de selección de cepas, los únicos datos que permiten evaluar la seguridad y eficacia de un probiótico de una forma directa son los que se obtienen en el curso de ensayos clínicos correctamente diseñados y dirigidos específicamente a la población diana. Por otra parte, las empresas que comercializan probióticos tienen la necesidad de obtener una biomasa muy elevada de forma económicamente rentable y de que la concentración de bacterias viables necesaria para ejercer el efecto beneficioso se mantenga hasta el final de la vida útil del producto. Finalmente, los aspectos comerciales son determinantes en la decisión de afrontar el desarrollo industrial y la puesta en el mercado de un probiótico.

  1. Identification of bacteria pathogenic to or associated with onion (Allium cepa) based on sequence differences in a portion of the conserved gyrase B gene.

    PubMed

    Bonasera, Jean M; Asselin, Jo Ann E; Beer, Steven V

    2014-08-01

    We have developed a method for the identification of Gram-negative bacteria, particularly members of the Enterobacteriaceae, based on sequence variation in a portion of the gyrB gene. Thus, we identified, in most cases to species level, over 1000 isolates from onion bulbs and leaves and soil in which onions were grown.

  2. Citricoccus zhacaiensis B-4 (MTCC 12119) a novel osmotolerant plant growth promoting actinobacterium enhances onion (Allium cepa L.) seed germination under osmotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Govindan; Bhatt, Ravindra M; Upreti, Kaushal K; Bindu, Gurupadam Hema; Shweta, Kademani

    2015-05-01

    The water potential of rhizospheric soil is a key parameter that determines the availability of water, oxygen, and nutrients to plants and microbes. Recent global warming trends and erratic precipitation patterns have resulted in the emergence of drought as a major constraint of agricultural productivity. Though several strategies are being evaluated to address this issue, a novel approach is the utilization of microbes for alleviation of drought stress effects in crops. Citricoccus zhacaiensis B-4 is an osmotolerant actinobacterium isolated from banana rhizosphere on mannitol supplemented medium (-2.92 MPa osmotic potential). This isolate expressed plant growth promotion traits viz, IAA, GA3 production, phosphate, zinc solubilization, ACC deaminase activity and ammonia production under PEG induced osmotic stress and non-stress conditions. Under in vitro osmotic conditions, biopriming with the actinobacterium improved the percent germination, seedling vigour and germination rate of onion seeds (cv. Arka Kalyan) at osmotic potentials up to -0.8 MPa. Considering its novelty, osmotolerance and plant growth promoting traits, biopriming with C. zhacaiensis is suggested as a viable option for the promotion of onion seed germination under drought stressed environments.

  3. Tyramide-FISH mapping of single genes for development of an integrated recombination and cytogenetic map of chromosome 5 of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Dmitry; Divashuk, Mikhail; Havey, Michael J; Khrustaleva, Ludmila

    2015-03-01

    Chromosome 5 of onion carries major quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control dry-matter content, pungency and storability of bulbs, amounts and types of epicuticular waxes, and resistances to abiotic factors, all of which are of interest to breeders. SNPs, SSRs, and RFLPs in expressed regions of the onion genome have been genetically mapped, and we used these clones and sequences from the NCBI database to develop DNA probes for in situ hybridization to integrate the genetic and physical maps of onion chromosome 5. We produced genomic amplicons from expressed regions of the onion genome that carried both exons and introns in order to increase the hybridization specificity of the probes and to enlarge the target DNA sizes. Tyramide-FISH technique was used to increase the detection sensitivity of relatively short target DNA regions, which range from 950 to 2100 bp. Through the integration of genetic and chromosomal maps, we were able to estimate the distribution of recombination events along onion chromosome 5. We demonstrated the efficiency of chromosomal in situ mapping of exon-intron genomic clones for the extremely large genome of onion. PMID:26158384

  4. Localization of single-copy T-DNA insertion in transgenic shallots (Allium cepa) by using ultra-sensitive FISH with tyramide signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Khrustaleva, L I; Kik, C

    2001-03-01

    The sensitivity of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for mapping plant chromosomes of single-copy DNA sequences is limited. We have adapted for plant cytogenetics a new signal-amplification method termed tyramide-FISH (Tyr-FISH). Until present this technique has only been applied to human chromosomes. The method is based on enzymatic deposition of fluorochrome-conjugated tyramide. With Tyr-FISH it was possible to detect target T-DNA sequences on plant metaphase chromosomes as small as 710 bp without using a cooled CCD camera. Short detection time and high sensitivity, in combination with a low background, make the Tyr-FISH method very suitable for routine application in plant cytogenetic research. With Tyr-FISH we analysed the position of T-DNA inserts in transgenic shallots. We found that the inserts were preferentially located in the distal region of metaphase chromosomes. Sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization with a 375 bp satellite sequence suggested that a specific T-DNA insert was located within the satellite sequence hybridization region on a metaphase chromosome. Analysis of less-condensed prophase and interphase chromosomes revealed that the T-DNA was integrated outside the satellite DNA-hybridization region in a more proximal euchromatin region.

  5. The cytotoxic effect of wastewater from the phosphoric gypsum depot on common oak (Quercus robur L.) and shallot (Allium cepa var. ascalonicum).

    PubMed

    Pavlica, M; Besendorfer, V; Rosa, J; Papes, D

    2000-11-01

    The effect of wastewater from a phosphoric gypsum depot on common oak, Quercus robur L., at cytogenetical level was studied. Allium-test was used as a control. The treatment of common oak seedlings with wastewater under laboratory conditions caused mitodepressive effect. Chromosome aberrations and mitotic irregularities were found. Cytogenetic analysis of common oak seedlings grown from acorns collected near the depot did not show changes in mitotic activity in comparison to control but the number of aberrations was higher than in control. In comparison to Alliumtest common oak was found to be more tolerant to wastewater from the phosphoric gypsum depot.

  6. Cytotoxicity on Allium cepa of the two main sulcotrione photoproducts, xanthene-1,9-dione-3,4-dihydro-6-methylsulphonyl and 2-chloro-4-mesylbenzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Goujon, Eric; Richard, Claire; Goupil, Pascale; Ledoigt, Gérard

    2015-10-01

    The cytotoxic effects of 2-chloro-4-mesylbenzoic acid (CMBA) and xanthene-1,9-dione-3,4-dihydro-6-methylsulphonyl (XDD), the two main photoproducts of sulcotrione, were investigated on Allium root meristematic cells at different concentrations. Degradation of sulcotrione was correlated to mitotic index decrease, together with increasing anomaly and c-mitosis frequencies. Mitotic index significantly decreased with increasing XDD and CMBA concentrations. Cell frequency with abnormal chromosomes increased with CMBA or XDD application rates. In contrast, CMBA induced a low micronucleus rate even for high concentrations while XDD increased the micronucleus ratio. C-mitoses, chromosomal aberrations due to an inactivation of the spindle, were enhanced by CMBA treatments but not by XDD. The photochemical degradation process of the pesticide can change the risk for the environment. PMID:26453228

  7. Antioxidant effect of onion oil (Allium cepa. Linn) on the damages induced by nicotine in rats as compared to alpha-tocopherol.

    PubMed

    Helen, A; Krishnakumar, K; Vijayammal, P L; Augusti, K T

    2000-07-27

    The beneficial effects of onion oil as an antioxidant has been assessed in nicotine administered rats by studying whether the peroxidative damage caused by nicotine can be effectively combated with the onion oil and the effects compared to vitamin E, a highly efficient antioxidant. Lipid peroxidation products and antioxidant defence system have been studied in liver, lungs, and heart. The rats were injected with nicotine (0.6 mg/kg body wt.) and simultaneously given onion oil (100 mg/kg body wt.) or vitamin E (100 mg/kg body wt.) for 21 days. Concentration of free fatty acids, TBA reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes and hydroperoxides were significantly increased in the tissues of nicotine treated rats as compared to normal rats. Onion oil supplemented to nicotine treated rats showed increased resistance to lipid peroxidation and the effect was near to that of vitamin E fed rats. The activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase decreased in nicotine treated rats. Antioxidants-glutathione content, vitamin C and retinol showed no significant difference but liver vitamin E content significantly decreased in nicotine treated rats. On onion oil or vitamin E supplementation, the concentration of antioxidants were significantly raised in all the tissues studied, however, a significantly increased concentration of glutathione, vitamin E and retinol was noticed in vitamin E+nicotine treated rats. Thus, these results indicate that onion oil is an effective antioxidant against the oxidative damage caused by nicotine as compared to vitamin E. PMID:10906423

  8. Antioxidant role of oils isolated from garlic (Allium sativum Linn) and onion (Allium cepa Linn) on nicotine-induced lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Helen, A; Rajasree, C R; Krishnakumar, K; Augusti, K T; Vijayammal, P L

    1999-10-01

    Nicotine, a major component of tobacco, is partly responsible for the development of atherosclerosis. It has been suggested that antioxidant nutrients are protective against degenerative diseases. So we have studied the antioxidant effect of oils isolated from onion and garlic on nicotine-induced lipid peroxidation in rat tissues. The lipid peroxidation products and scavenging enzymes were assessed in liver, lungs, heart and kidney. The rats were treated with 0.6 mg nicotine/kg bw and simultaneously given 100 mg garlic or onion oils/kg bw for 21 d. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, conjugated dienes and hydroperoxides concentrations were significantly increased in the tissues of nicotine-treated rats. Both the garlic oil and onion oil supplementation to nicotine-treated rats increased resistance to lipid peroxidation. The activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased in nicotine-treated rats, but there was a trend to increased glutathione content. With garlic oil or onion oil supplementation, nicotine-treated rats had increased activities of antioxidant enzymes and increased concentrations of glutathione. These results indicate that oils of garlic and onion are effective antioxidants against the oxidative damage caused by nicotine. PMID:10509436

  9. Fructan of the inulin neoseries is synthesized in transgenic chicory plants (Cichorium intybus L.) harbouring onion (Allium cepa L.) fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Vijn, I; van Dijken, A; Sprenger, N; van Dun, K; Weisbeek, P; Wiemken, A; Smeekens, S

    1997-03-01

    Fructan (polyfructosylsucrose) is an important storage carbohydrate in many plant families. fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase (6G-FFT) is a key enzyme in the formation of the inulin neoseries, a type of fructan accumulated by members of the Liliales. We have cloned the 6G-FFT from onion by screening a cDNA library using barley sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) as a probe. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a high homology with plant invertases and 6-SFT. Incubation of protein extracts from transgenic tobacco plants with the trisaccharide 1-kestose and sucrose resulted in the formation of neokestose and fructans of the inulin neoseries with a degree of polymerization up to six. Introduction of the onion 6G-FFT into chicory resulted in the synthesis of fructan of the inulin neoseries, in addition to the synthesis of linear inulin.

  10. Tyramide-FISH mapping of single genes for development of an integrated recombination and cytogenetic map of chromosome 5 of Allium cepa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chromosome 5 of onion carries major quantitative trait loci (QTL) of interest to breeders that control dry-matter content, pungency and storability of bulbs, amounts and types of epicuticular waxes, and resistances to abiotic factors. SNPs, SSRs and RFLPs in expressed regions of the onion genome hav...

  11. Interactions between sanitizers and packaging gas compositions and their effects on the safety and quality of fresh-cut onions (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Page, Natalie; González-Buesa, Jaime; Ryser, Elliot T; Harte, Janice; Almenar, Eva

    2016-02-01

    Onions are one of the most widely utilized vegetables worldwide, with demand for fresh-cut onions steadily increasing. Due to heightened safety concerns and consumer demand, the implications of sanitizing and packaging on fresh-cut onion safety and quality need to be better understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of produce sanitizers, in-package atmospheres, and their interactions on the growth of Salmonella Typhimurium, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeast and mold, and the physico-chemical quality of diced onions to determine the best sanitizer and in-package atmosphere combination for both safety and quality. Diced onions were inoculated or not with S. Typhimurium, sanitized in sodium hypochlorite, peroxyacetic acid, or liquid chlorine dioxide, and then packaged in either polylactic acid bags containing superatmospheric O2, elevated CO2/reduced O2, or air, or in polyethylene terephthalate snap-fit containers. Throughout 14 days of storage at 7 °C, packaged diced onions were assessed for their safety (S. Typhimurium), and quality (mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeasts and molds, physico-chemical analyses, and descriptive and consumer acceptance sensory panels). While sanitizer affected (P<0.05) fewer parameters (S. Typhimurium, mesophiles, yeasts and molds, headspace CO2, weight loss, and pH), in-package atmosphere had a significant (P<0.05) effect on all parameters evaluated. Two-way interactions between sanitizer and atmosphere that affected S. Typhimurium and pH were identified whereas 3-way interactions (sanitizer, atmosphere and time) were only observed for headspace CO2. Sodium hypochlorite and elevated CO2/reduced O2 was the best sanitizer and in-package atmosphere combination for enhancing the safety and quality of packaged diced onions. In addition, this combination led to diced onions acceptable for purchase after 2 weeks of storage by trained and consumer panels.

  12. Effects of dietary onion (Allium cepa) powder on growth, innate immune response and hemato-biochemical parameters of beluga (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1754) juvenile.

    PubMed

    Akrami, Raza; Gharaei, Ahmad; Mansour, Majid Razeghi; Galeshi, Ali

    2015-08-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of dietary onion powder on growth, innate immune response and hemato-biochemical parameters of beluga juvenile (Huso huso). Basal diets containing onion powder 0 (control), 0.5 and 1% of feed were fed to beluga juvenile. At the end of the experiment, the highest weight gain (WG%) and specific growth rate (SGR) was observed in group fed with 1% onion (P < 0.05). There were no significant difference (P > 0.05) about feed conversion ratio (FCR) in treatment groups that fed diets containing various levels of onion powder. After 8 weeks, serum lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), respiratory burst activity and serum total immunoglobulin (Ig) showed a significant increase in treatment group with 1% onion powder compared to other groups (P < 0.05). The group fed 1% onion showed a significantly increases in the number of erythrocytes (RBC), leucocyte (WBC), haematocrit (Hct) levels compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Haemoglobin, monocyte, lymphocyte and neutrophil had no significant change (P > 0.05) in treatment groups and control. The analysis of AST and LDH levels showed a significant decrease in 1% onion compared to the control and 0.5% onion diet (P < 0.05), while ALT and ALP levels were not influenced (P > 0.05). The blood glucose, total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol, albumin and globulin levels were lower in treated groups compared with the control (P < 0.05). The results of this study demonstrated that dietary onion powder could be an improvement in growth, hematological parameters and immune function of beluga juvenile.

  13. Transmission of Pantoea ananatis and P. agglomerans, causal agents of center rot of onion (Allium cepa), by onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) through feces.

    PubMed

    Dutta, B; Barman, A K; Srinivasan, R; Avci, U; Ullman, D E; Langston, D B; Gitaitis, R D

    2014-08-01

    Frankliniella fusca, the tobacco thrips, has been shown to acquire and transmit Pantoea ananatis, one of the causal agents of the center rot of onion. Although Thrips tabaci, the onion thrips, is a common pest of onions, its role as a vector of P. ananatis has been unknown. The bacterium, P. agglomerans, is also associated with the center rot of onion, but its transmission by thrips has not been previously investigated. In this study, we investigated the relationship of T. tabaci with P. ananatis and P. agglomerans. Surface-sterilized T. tabaci were provided with various acquisition access periods (AAP) on onion leaves inoculated with either P. ananatis or P. agglomerans. A positive exponential relationship was observed between thrips AAP duration and P. ananatis (R² = 0.967; P = 0.023) or P. agglomerans acquisition (R² = 0.958; P = 0.017). Transmission experiments conducted with T. tabaci adults indicated that 70% of the seedlings developed center rot symptoms 15 days after inoculation. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies specific to P. ananatis revealed that the bacterium was localized only in the gut of T. tabaci adults. Mechanical inoculation of onion seedlings with fecal rinsates alone produced center rot but not with salivary secretions. Together these results suggested that T. tabaci could efficiently transmit P. ananatis and P. agglomerans.

  14. Proton response of CEPA4: A novel LaBr3(Ce)-LaCl3(Ce) phoswich array for high-energy gamma and proton spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nácher, E.; Mårtensson, M.; Tengblad, O.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Bendel, M.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Gernhäuser, R.; Le Bleis, T.; Maj, A.; Nilsson, T.; Perea, A.; Pietras, B.; Ribeiro, G.; Sánchez del Río, J.; Sánchez Rosado, J.; Heinz, A.; Szpak, B.; Winkel, M.; Zieblinski, M.

    2015-01-01

    A new phoswich array, for the detection of high-energy protons and gamma rays from nuclear reactions, has been built. This new detector consists of four individual closely packed scintillator detectors, each of them made of 4 cm of LaBr3(Ce) and 6 cm of LaCl3(Ce) in phoswich configuration (optically coupled and with a common readout). In this paper we report on the results of a beam test performed at the Bronowice Cyclotron Centre (CCB) in Krakow, showing the response of this versatile instrument to high energy protons (70-230 MeV). Furthermore, for the first time we prove that we can reconstruct the original energy of fast protons (E > 200 MeV) which pass through the total length of the crystal while still retaining a good energy resolution.

  15. First insights into the mode of action of a "lachrymatory factor synthase"--implications for the mechanism of lachrymator formation in Petiveria alliacea, Allium cepa and Nectaroscordum species.

    PubMed

    He, Quan; Kubec, Roman; Jadhav, Abhijit P; Musah, Rabi A

    2011-11-01

    A study of an enzyme that reacts with the sulfenic acid produced by the alliinase in Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae) to yield the P. alliacea lachrymator (phenylmethanethial S-oxide) showed the protein to be a dehydrogenase. It functions by abstracting hydride from sulfenic acids of appropriate structure to form their corresponding sulfines. Successful hydride abstraction is dependent upon the presence of a benzyl group on the sulfur to stabilize the intermediate formed on abstraction of hydride. This dehydrogenase activity contrasts with that of the lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS) found in onion, which catalyzes the rearrangement of 1-propenesulfenic acid to (Z)-propanethial S-oxide, the onion lachrymator. Based on the type of reaction it catalyzes, the onion LFS should be classified as an isomerase and would be called a "sulfenic acid isomerase", whereas the P. alliacea LFS would be termed a "sulfenic acid dehydrogenase".

  16. Interactions between sanitizers and packaging gas compositions and their effects on the safety and quality of fresh-cut onions (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Page, Natalie; González-Buesa, Jaime; Ryser, Elliot T; Harte, Janice; Almenar, Eva

    2016-02-01

    Onions are one of the most widely utilized vegetables worldwide, with demand for fresh-cut onions steadily increasing. Due to heightened safety concerns and consumer demand, the implications of sanitizing and packaging on fresh-cut onion safety and quality need to be better understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of produce sanitizers, in-package atmospheres, and their interactions on the growth of Salmonella Typhimurium, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeast and mold, and the physico-chemical quality of diced onions to determine the best sanitizer and in-package atmosphere combination for both safety and quality. Diced onions were inoculated or not with S. Typhimurium, sanitized in sodium hypochlorite, peroxyacetic acid, or liquid chlorine dioxide, and then packaged in either polylactic acid bags containing superatmospheric O2, elevated CO2/reduced O2, or air, or in polyethylene terephthalate snap-fit containers. Throughout 14 days of storage at 7 °C, packaged diced onions were assessed for their safety (S. Typhimurium), and quality (mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeasts and molds, physico-chemical analyses, and descriptive and consumer acceptance sensory panels). While sanitizer affected (P<0.05) fewer parameters (S. Typhimurium, mesophiles, yeasts and molds, headspace CO2, weight loss, and pH), in-package atmosphere had a significant (P<0.05) effect on all parameters evaluated. Two-way interactions between sanitizer and atmosphere that affected S. Typhimurium and pH were identified whereas 3-way interactions (sanitizer, atmosphere and time) were only observed for headspace CO2. Sodium hypochlorite and elevated CO2/reduced O2 was the best sanitizer and in-package atmosphere combination for enhancing the safety and quality of packaged diced onions. In addition, this combination led to diced onions acceptable for purchase after 2 weeks of storage by trained and consumer panels. PMID:26656528

  17. [Cognitive assessment in children who presented gastroschisis: a case-control study].

    PubMed

    Villasenor-Cabrera, Teresita; Pacheco-Sanchez, Ilude; Rizo-Curiel, Genoveva; Nuno-Romero, Ricardo; Garcia-Estrada, Joaquín

    2016-04-16

    Introduccion. La gastrosquisis es una malformacion de la pared abdominal que se corrige mediante cirugia y requiere cuidados hospitalarios especiales, como inmovilizacion, restriccion alimenticia y separacion de la madre durante tiempo variable, entre otros; para analizar las posibles repercusiones cognitivas se aplico la prueba de Bayley III a 14 niños. Sujetos y metodos. Siete casos (nacidos con gastrosquisis) y siete controles, en los hospitales civiles de Guadalajara, en el periodo enero-abril de 2013. Resultados. Los casos no evidenciaron retraso en las evaluaciones relacionadas con la cognicion, el lenguaje y la conducta motora, en tanto que en las asociadas a la conducta socioemocional y adaptativa las puntuaciones favorecieron al grupo control, lo que refleja que poseen mejores estrategias de adaptacion e interaccion respecto al grupo de casos. Conclusiones. La gastrosquisis no afectara el neurodesarrollo ulterior, por lo menos en este grupo que presento esta unica anormalidad y deficits explicables por sus circunstancias perinatales, sin que este pronostico pueda generalizarse a otros casos con un cuadro clinico mas grave, mayor duracion de la estancia hospitalaria y comorbilidad asociada. De cualquier forma, es importante informar a los padres desde la etapa prenatal respecto a las consecuencias esperadas de esta patologia.

  18. [Development of integrated support software for clinical nutrition].

    PubMed

    Siquier Homar, Pedro; Pinteño Blanco, Manel; Calleja Hernández, Miguel Ángel; Fernández Cortés, Francisco; Martínez Sotelo, Jesús

    2015-09-01

    Objetivos: desarrollar una aplicacion informatica integral en el soporte nutricional especializado, e integrado en la historia clinica electronica, que detecte de forma automatizada y precoz a los pacientes desnutridos o en riesgo de desarrollar desnutricion, determinando puntos de oportunidad de mejora y evaluacion de resultados. Métodos: se han tenido en cuenta los estandares de calidad publicados por el grupo de trabajo de nutricion de la Sociedad Espanola de Farmacia Hospitalaria (SEFH) y las recomendaciones del grupo de farmacia de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral (SENPE). De acuerdo con dichos estandares de calidad, las etapas o subprocesos asistenciales que debe contemplar el soporte nutricional son: cribado nutricional, valoracion nutricional, plan de cuidados nutricionales, formulacion, elaboracion y administracion. Resultados: la aplicacion permite, de forma automatizada, realizar una valoracion nutricional especifica a los pacientes con riesgo nutricional, instaurando, si fuese preciso, un plan de tratamiento nutricional y realizando el seguimiento y trazabilidad de los resultados derivados de la implantacion de acciones de mejora y, cuantificando en que medida nuestra practica se aproxima a la establecida como estandar. Conclusiones: la aplicacion permite estandarizar el soporte nutricional especializado desde un punto multidisciplinar, introduciendo el concepto de control de calidad por procesos y al paciente como cliente principal.

  19. [Personality traits in patients with chronic migraine: a categorial and dimensional study in a series of 30 patients].

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Irene; Domínguez, Elena; Hernández, Marta S; Ruiz-Piñero, Marina; Isidro, Guillermo; Mayor-Toranzo, Eduardo; Sotelo, Eva M; Molina, Vicente; Uribe, Fernando; Guerrero-Peral, Ángel L

    2015-07-16

    Introduccion. El papel patogenico de la personalidad en la migraña no esta definido. Para su estudio se pueden utilizar instrumentos de medida dimensional o categorial, sin que haya tampoco acuerdo acerca del abordaje mas adecuado. Objetivo. Analizar la personalidad de pacientes con migraña cronica desde el punto de vista dimensional y categorial. Pacientes y metodos. Como test categorial utilizamos el cuestionario Salamanca, y, como dimensional, el Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). Evaluamos trastornos del animo con la escala de ansiedad y depresion hospitalaria y el impacto de la migraña mediante el Headache Impact Test-6 (HIT-6). Resultados. Incluimos 30 pacientes (26 mujeres), con una edad media de 40,7 ± 9,6 años. Un caso (3,3%) presentaba criterios de depresion, y 4 (13,3%), de ansiedad. En el test Salamanca, los rasgos de personalidad mas frecuentes fueron los integrados en el cluster C: anancastico (n = 28; 93,3%), ansioso (n = 18; 60%) y dependiente (n = 7; 23,3%). En el MMPI-2, 16 pacientes (53,3%) cumplian criterios de hipocondria; 7 (23,3%), de depresion, y 10 (33,3%), de histeria, rasgos integrados en la triada neurotica. Se objetivo una configuracion denominada 'conversiva V'. No hallamos correlacion entre los rasgos de personalidad y el tiempo de migraña cronica, la intensidad medida por el HIT-6 o el uso excesivo de medicacion sintomatica. Conclusiones. En el analisis de la personalidad en la migraña cronica destaca, desde el punto de vista dimensional, el neuroticismo, y respecto al categorial, el rasgo obsesivo-compulsivo o anancastico. Es necesario el estudio de series mas extensas y la comparacion con pacientes con migraña episodica y poblacion control.

  20. [Design and validation of a satisfaction survey with pharmaceutical care received in hospital pharmacyconsultation].

    PubMed

    Monje-Agudo, Patricia; Borrego-Izquierdo, Yolanda; Robustillo-Cortés, Ma de Las Aguas; Jiménez-Galán, Rocio; Almeida-González, Carmen V; Morillo-Verdugo, Ramón A

    2015-05-01

    Objetivo: Diseñar y validar un cuestionario para valorar la satisfacción con la Atención Farmacéutica (AF) recibida en la farmacia hospitalaria. Métodos: Estudio multicéntrico en cinco hospitales andaluces. En enero 2013 se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en PUBMED; términos MESH pharmaceutical services, patients satisfaction and questionnaire. Seguidamente se elaboró el cuestionario, según metodología Delphi, formado por 10 ítems, con variables demográficas, sociales, farmacológicas y clínicas; donde se preguntaba al paciente sobre la repercusión de la AF en su tratamiento y enfermedad y sobre la conformidad con el servicio prestado. El paciente podía responder desde uno=muy deficiente a cinco=excelente. Se realizó una fase piloto previa a la fase de validación de los cuestionarios. Análisis descriptivos y la medida del valor del alfa de Cronbach y el coeficiente de correlación intraclase (CCI) se llevaron a cabo en ambas fases. Se utilizó el programa estadístico SPSS versión 20.0. Resultados: Se incluyeron 21 encuestas en la fase piloto y 154 en la fase de validación (índice de respuesta 100%). De esta última fase, el 62% (N=96) eran hombres. Más del 50% de los pacientes contestaron de forma “excelente” a todos los ítems de la encuesta en ambas fases. Los valores del alfa de Cronbach y CCI fueron 0.921 y 0.915 (IC95%: 0.847-0.961) y 0.916 y 0,910 (IC95%: 0.886-0.931) para fase piloto y validación, respectivamente. Conclusión: Se ha diseñado y validado un instrumento de alta fiabilidad para medir la satisfacción de los pacientes con la AF recibida en las consultas de farmacia hospitalaria.

  1. [Reference curves for assessing the physical growth of male Wistar rats].

    PubMed

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Gómez Campos, Rossana; Vargas Vitoria, Rodrigo; Hochmuller Fogaça, Rosalvo Tadeu; de Arruda, Miguel

    2013-11-01

    Introducción: Las ratas Wistar son una de las cepas más populares y utilizadas cotidianamente para la investigación en el laboratorio sirviendo como una importante herramienta de investigación, por lo que, exige el control estricto de variables como la edad, el sexo y el peso corporal, y de esta forma poder extrapolar los resultados al modelo humano. Objetivo: Desarrollar curvas de referencia para valorar el crecimiento físico de ratas machos Wistar en función de la edad cronológica y la maduración somática desde una perspectiva no-invasiva. Metodología: Fueron estudiadas 731 ratas machos Wistar de forma transversal. Se evaluó la edad, peso corporal y la superficie corporal. Se utilizó el método LMS para construir curvas de percentil en función del peso y la maduración somática. Resultados: Las curvas de crecimiento físico propuestas sirven para realizar el seguimiento del crecimiento físico y el diagnóstico del estado nutricional de ratas machos de cepa Wistar. Los puntos de corte prepuestos son: P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90 y P97. Conclusión: Los resultados sugieren que los científicos de diversas áreas puedan usar tales referencias, con el objetivo de extrapolar las fases del crecimiento somático de la rata de laboratorio al modelo humano y es una alternativa no-invasiva para valorar el crecimiento y el estado nutricional.

  2. Versión final del relevamiento de HI en el hemisferio sur realizado desde el IAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajaja, E.; Arnal, E. M.; Morras, R.; Pöppel, W. G. L.; Kalberla, P.

    The incorporation to the IAR equipment, of the Arecibo 1008 channels digital auto-correlator and of a cooled receiver for 21 and 18 cm and two polarizations, built at the MPIfR at Bonn (Germany) with the participation of argentine Engineers, made it possible to carry out the surveying of the HI in the part of the southern sky visible with the IAR dish No. 1. The parameters chosen for this survey were similar to those of a similar survey of HI in the northern sky, made from Dwingeloo (Holland) by the Leiden Observatory, in order that both surveys were compatible for producing a whole sky HI survey. The main parameters were: a) Spatial coverage: 50980 points below -25o in declination, spaced 0oċ5 in galactic latitude and approximately 0oċ5/cos φ in longitude, with an angular resolution of 0oċ5; b) Velocity coverage: from -527 to +528 km s-1 with channels spaced 1.047 km s-1 and with a velocity resolution of 1.27 km s-1, and c) Sensitivity: rms noise ≤ 70 mK. The observations started in 1994 and ended in 1997. Spectra reduction was completed in 1999 without including stray radiation corrections. The work for this correction started in 2002 and was completed recently through a collaboration between the IAR and the Radioastronomisches Institut der Universität Bonn. The maps produced with the whole sky HI survey, built adding the northern and southern surveys, show the consistency of the observations and corrections in both surveys and the enormous amount of information provided by them.

  3. Comparison of mono- and di-saccharides release in aqueous solutions by raw or fried dice of onion (Allium Cepa L.) bulbs using quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR).

    PubMed

    Tardieu, Audrey; Guerez, Alice; Phana, Sidarin; de Man, Walter; This, Hervé

    2009-01-01

    Although onion bulb tissues, either raw or thermally processed, are widely used as culinary ingredients in homes, in restaurants, and in the food industry, especially for sauces, little is known about the chemical constituents released from such systems. To get a straightforward and fast analysis of sugars released from onion dice soaked in model aqueous solutions, quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) spectroscopy was applied, and the effect of a preliminary thermal processing in oil was investigated. Soaking of raw or fried onion bulb dice at room temperature was followed for 11 d as a model of long-term storage. For the Armstrong cultivar, the extracted dry matter (in milligrams per gram of fresh weight) as well as the content in 3 sugars (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) increased up to a maximum after about 48 h of soaking. Frying induces no measurable new water-soluble compounds. However, extraction kinetics are different (about 3 times faster with frying). Using additional microscopic studies, a possible extraction mechanism is proposed: compounds from sap-including sugars-would diffuse through conductive tissue channels. PMID:19490318

  4. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Candela, Carmen; Pérez Fernández, Laura; Sanz Paris, Alejandro; Burgos Peláez, Rosa; Matía Martín, Pilar; García Almeida, José M; Martín Palmero, Ángela

    2016-02-16

    Introducción: la malnutrición es un problema de primer orden en el paciente hospitalizado que prolonga la estancia hospitalaria y la tasa de infecciones. El paciente diabético representa un porcentaje importante de la población hospitalizada. El estudio VIDA tiene como objetivo analizar el estado nutricional de pacientes ancianos con diabetes hospitalizados en España.Objetivo: describir la población del estudio VIDA, incluyendo datos del perfil bioquímico y antropométrico en el momento del ingreso.Métodos: estudio multicéntrico, transversal, observacional llevado a cabo en 1098 pacientes mayores de 65 años. Se incluyeron 35 hospitales españoles.Resultados: la edad media de los pacientes ingresados fue 78 ± 7,1 años. El motivo de ingreso más frecuente fueron las infecciones respiratorias (32,4%). El 51,2% estaban diagnosticados de diabetes desde hacía más de 10 años. Un 33,09% recibía tratamiento con insulina. Un 39,07% presentaba riesgo de malnutrición y un 21,22% estaba mal nutrido en el momento del ingreso. Se encontró mayor prevalencia de malnutrición en el grupo de mujeres (p < 0,0002)Conclusiones: el estudio VIDA es el primero que analiza el estado nutricional de una cohorte de pacientes ancianos diabéticos en España. Enlos resultados de este proyecto se concluye que un 21,2% de la muestra presenta malnutrición. Esta condición es edad y sexo dependiente, y puede empeorar la tasa de mortalidad.

  5. ECONOMIC BURDEN OF HOME ARTIFICIAL NUTRITION IN THE HEALTH AREA OF SANTIAGO DE COMPOSTELA.

    PubMed

    Villar-Taibo, Rocío; Martínez-Olmos, Miguel Ángel; Bellido Guerrero, Diego; Peinó-García, Roberto; Martís-Sueiro, Aurelio; Camarero-González, Emma; Ríos-Barreiro, Vanessa; Cao-Sánchez, Pilar; Durán Martínez, Reyes; Rodríguez Iglesias, María José; Rodríguez-Blanco, Brígida; Rojo Valdés, Juan

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: la nutrición artificial domiciliaria (NAD) es una terapia en creciente desarrollo, pero la ausencia de registros obligatorios hace difícil calcular la carga económica que implica. Nuestro objetivo es evaluar el estado y el impacto económico de la NAD en nuestra área sanitaria. Métodos: estudio observacional y prospectivo diseñado para estimar el gasto en fórmulas y materiales nutricionales en los pacientes que iniciaron NAD durante 1 año. Resultados: se incluyeron 573 pacientes que iniciaron NAD en el período de estudio. El 60% recibieron suplementos orales. La mediana de gasto diario fue de 3,65 (RIC 18,63) euros en la NAD oral y de 8,86 (RIC 20,02) euros en la NAD por acceso enteral. El gasto por 1.000 kcal de dieta fue superior en los pacientes con NAD oral respecto a los pacientes con NAD enteral (5,13 vs. 4,52 euros, p < 0.001). Asimismo se calculó la mediana de gasto completo de los tratamientos durante todo el período de estudio (186,60 euros y 531,99 euros en NAD oral y enteral, respectivamente). Considerando el gasto conjunto de todos los pacientes que iniciaron NAD en el período de estudio, el gasto estimado estaría en torno a un millón de euros. Conclusiones: la NAD representa una importante carga económica en nuestra área sanitaria. Sin embargo, el gasto diario estimado fue moderado, probablemente por la elevada proporción de NAD oral en nuestra muestra, la revisión frecuente de la indicación y la centralización de la dispensación desde el servicio de Farmacia Hospitalaria.

  6. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Candela, Carmen; Pérez Fernández, Laura; Sanz Paris, Alejandro; Burgos Peláez, Rosa; Matía Martín, Pilar; García Almeida, José M; Martín Palmero, Ángela

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la malnutrición es un problema de primer orden en el paciente hospitalizado que prolonga la estancia hospitalaria y la tasa de infecciones. El paciente diabético representa un porcentaje importante de la población hospitalizada. El estudio VIDA tiene como objetivo analizar el estado nutricional de pacientes ancianos con diabetes hospitalizados en España.Objetivo: describir la población del estudio VIDA, incluyendo datos del perfil bioquímico y antropométrico en el momento del ingreso.Métodos: estudio multicéntrico, transversal, observacional llevado a cabo en 1098 pacientes mayores de 65 años. Se incluyeron 35 hospitales españoles.Resultados: la edad media de los pacientes ingresados fue 78 ± 7,1 años. El motivo de ingreso más frecuente fueron las infecciones respiratorias (32,4%). El 51,2% estaban diagnosticados de diabetes desde hacía más de 10 años. Un 33,09% recibía tratamiento con insulina. Un 39,07% presentaba riesgo de malnutrición y un 21,22% estaba mal nutrido en el momento del ingreso. Se encontró mayor prevalencia de malnutrición en el grupo de mujeres (p < 0,0002)Conclusiones: el estudio VIDA es el primero que analiza el estado nutricional de una cohorte de pacientes ancianos diabéticos en España. Enlos resultados de este proyecto se concluye que un 21,2% de la muestra presenta malnutrición. Esta condición es edad y sexo dependiente, y puede empeorar la tasa de mortalidad. PMID:27019239

  7. [MÉDERI MODEL NUTRITIONAL CARE HOSPITAL].

    PubMed

    Pinzón-Espitia, Olga Lucia; Pardo Oviedo, Juan Mauricio; González Rodríguez, Javier Leonardo

    2015-10-01

    Introducción: la necesidad de modelos en atención nutricional para responder a la problemática de la malnutrición en los hospitales, conlleva desarrollar el modelo Méderi de Atención Nutricional, con el fin de elevar la calidad de la atención en salud y promover buenas prácticas de nutrición clínica. Objetivo: describir el proceso de nutrición y soporte metabólico, orientado a medir la eficacia del modelo, el cual se constituye actualmente en un centro de referencia nacional e internacional. Materiales y métodos: estudio de tipo descriptivo, evaluativo, transversal y observacional. Incluye el análisis de la información consolidada desde la implementación del modelo en el año 2008 hasta el año 2014. El número de sujetos del estudio fue de 163.575 y las variables medidas para probar la eficacia fueron: productividad y calidad percibida de la atención nutricional. Resultados: realizado el análisis de los procedimientos claves en los que se fundamenta el modelo: atención nutricional hospitalaria adulta y neonatal, soporte nutricional, interventoría a servicios de alimentación, y docencia e investigación, se encuentra un aumento en la productividad del servicio de un 591%, así como un incremento del porcentaje de satisfacción de los pacientes del 50 % al 95,8%. Conclusión: el éxito de un modelo de atención nutricional radica en la consolidación de una estructura administrativa y asistencial, que a su vez promueva el desarrollo del talento humano, la docencia y la investigación en nutrición.

  8. [THE CASE OF ENTERAL NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT TUBE IN COLOMBIA: INSTITUTIONAL COORDINATION PROBLEMS].

    PubMed

    Pinzón-Espitia, Olga Lucia; Chicaiza-Becerra, Liliana; Garcia-Molina, Mario; González-Rodríguez, Javier Leonardo

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: el presente artículo estudia el caso de la prescripción del soporte nutricional enteral por sonda en Colombia, analizada desde el marco del Sistema de Seguridad Social en Salud, y lo explica como resultado de un problema de coordinación institucional. Para ello se identifican el papel y los incentivos de los distintos agentes y se muestra cómo la interacción de los mismos desincentiva el uso de la nutrición enteral, en casos en los que esta es necesaria, con su correspondiente efecto clínico para el paciente y el aumento de costes para el sistema. Métodos: análisis de los efectos que puede tener en la práctica clínica el problema de la coordinación institucional de los entes reguladores del país. Analiza su origen y los incentivos e intereses de los distintos agentes involucrados, previa síntesis de la revisión bibliográfica pertinente. Se realizó la búsqueda en las siguientes bases de datos: PubMed, Medline, ScienceDirect y Embase. Conclusiones: la situación actual del soporte nutricional enteral en Colombia es un equilibrio subóptimo, resultado de un problema de coordinación institucional que solo puede ser resuelto cuando los agentes miren más allá de sus incentivos locales, ya que el soporte nutricional es un componente fundamental de la atención hospitalaria y se constituye en un medio para lograr el objetivo de la salud de la población atendida.

  9. Typology of public outreach for biodiversity conservation projects in Spain.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Amanda; Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; Muñoz-Santos, Maria; Martín-López, Berta; Jacobson, Susan K; Benayas, Javier

    2014-06-01

    Conservation education and outreach programs are a key approach to promote public understanding of the importance of biodiversity conservation. We reviewed 85 biodiversity conservation projects supported by the Spanish Ministry of Environment's Biodiversity Foundation. Through content analysis and descriptive statistics, we examined how the projects carried out communication, education, and public awareness and participation (CEPA) actions. We also used multivariate statistical analysis to develop a typology of 4 classes of biodiversity conservation projects on the basis of CEPA implementation. The classifications were delineated by purpose of CEPA, level of integration of CEPA actions, type of CEPA goals, main CEPA stakeholders, and aim of conservation. Our results confirm the existence of 2 key positions: CEPA has intrinsic value (i.e., they supposed the implementation of any CEPA action indirectly supported conservation) and CEPA is an instrument for achieving conservation goals. We also found that most CEPA actions addressed general audiences and school children, ignored minority groups and women, and did not include evaluation. The characteristics of the 4 types of projects and their frequency of implementation in the sample reflect the need for better integration of different types of actions (communication, education, and participation) and improved fostering of participation of multiple stakeholders in developing policy and implementing management strategies. PMID:24400698

  10. Typology of public outreach for biodiversity conservation projects in Spain.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Amanda; Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; Muñoz-Santos, Maria; Martín-López, Berta; Jacobson, Susan K; Benayas, Javier

    2014-06-01

    Conservation education and outreach programs are a key approach to promote public understanding of the importance of biodiversity conservation. We reviewed 85 biodiversity conservation projects supported by the Spanish Ministry of Environment's Biodiversity Foundation. Through content analysis and descriptive statistics, we examined how the projects carried out communication, education, and public awareness and participation (CEPA) actions. We also used multivariate statistical analysis to develop a typology of 4 classes of biodiversity conservation projects on the basis of CEPA implementation. The classifications were delineated by purpose of CEPA, level of integration of CEPA actions, type of CEPA goals, main CEPA stakeholders, and aim of conservation. Our results confirm the existence of 2 key positions: CEPA has intrinsic value (i.e., they supposed the implementation of any CEPA action indirectly supported conservation) and CEPA is an instrument for achieving conservation goals. We also found that most CEPA actions addressed general audiences and school children, ignored minority groups and women, and did not include evaluation. The characteristics of the 4 types of projects and their frequency of implementation in the sample reflect the need for better integration of different types of actions (communication, education, and participation) and improved fostering of participation of multiple stakeholders in developing policy and implementing management strategies.

  11. El uso de las simulaciones educativas en la ensenanza de conceptos de ciencias y su importancia desde la perspectiva de los estudiantes candidatos a maestros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo Ramos, Edwin O.

    This research was aimed at establishing the differences, if any, between traditional direct teaching and constructive teaching through the use of computer simulations and their effect on pre-service teachers. It's also intended to gain feedback on the users of these simulations as providers of constructive teaching and learning experiences. The experimental framework used a quantitative method with a descriptive focus. The research was guided by two hypothesis and five inquiries. The data was obtained from a group composed of twenty-nine students from a private Metropolitan University in Puerto Rico and elementary school pre-service teachers. They were divided into two sub-groups: experimental and control. Two means were used to collect data: tests and surveys. Quantitative data was analyzed through test "t" for paired samples and the non-parametric Wilcoxon test. The results of the pre and post tests do not provide enough evidence to conclude that using the simulations as learning tools was more effective than traditional teaching. However, the quantitative results obtained were not enough to reject or dismiss the hypothesis Ho1. On the other hand, an overall positive attitude towards these simulations was obtained from the surveys. The importance of including hands-on activities in daily lesson planning was proven and well recognized among practice teachers. After participating and working with these simulations, the practice teachers expressed being convinced that they would definitely use them as teaching tools in the classroom. Due to these results, hypothesis Ho2 was rejected. Evidence also proved that practice teachers need further professional development to improve their skills in the application of these simulations in the classroom environment. The majority of these practice teachers showed concern about not being instructed on important aspects of the use of simulation as part of their college education curriculum towards becoming teachers.

  12. La Educacion Especial para Ninos con Impedimentos Desde Recien Nacidos Hasta Cinco Anos de Edad = Special Education for Handicapped Children Birth to Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept. Albany. Office for the Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions.

    The manual, in Spanish, describes programs and resources available for preschool handicapped children and their families in conjunction with the New York State Education Department. Section 1 on assistance in securing services, reviews the service provided by Early Childhood Direction Centers, and outlines the role of local Committees on the…

  13. Las normas de desempeno matematico desde el preescolar hasta el segundo grado (Mathematics Standards for Pre-Kindergarten through Grade 2). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Kathy

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics recently published "Principles and Standards for School Mathematics." For the first time, these new standards include pre-kindergarten standards, while outlining the mathematics that children should learn as they progress through school. The standards present a broad view of what mathematics is and…

  14. Guia para Padres Intervencion Temprana en Pennsylvania para Bebes desde el Nacimiento a los Tres Anos (A Parent Guide to Early Intervention in Pennsylvania for Infants and Toddlers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent Education Network, York, PA.

    This guide, in Spanish, is intended to help Pennsylvania parents of infants and toddlers with disabilities to understand their rights and assist in the design of an appropriate early intervention preschool educational program. An overview of special education laws focus on the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Parts B and C. The main…

  15. Monitoreo fotométrico de η Carinæ desde el OALP Temporadas de observación 2011-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Lajús, E.; Giudici, F. N.; Ramos, X. S.; Scalia, M. C.; Salerno, N. E.

    η Carinæ is the brightest Luminous Blue Variable in our Galaxy, and is one of the most intriguing stellar objects of the sky because of its historic and spectacular brightness variations. In particular η Car presents photometric events that repeat with a periodicity of 5.54 years. To analyze this periodic behavior and other features in their light curves, we performed since 2003 a long-term CCD monitoring at the La Plata Observatory. In this work we present the light curves resulting from observing seasons 2011 and 2012. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  16. State of malnutrition in cuban hospitals; a needed update.

    PubMed

    Santana Porbén, Sergio

    2015-05-01

    Justificación: El Estudio Cubano de Desnutricion Hospitalaria, conducido en el bienio 1999 – 2001 con 1,905 pacientes atendidos en 12 hospitales de 6 provincias del pais, revelo una tasa de desnutricion hospitalaria del 41.2%. Transcurrida una decada de aquella indagacion, se impone la actualizacion de este estimado. Objetivo: Actualizar el estado de la desnutricion hospitalaria en Cuba. Material y método: La presencia de desnutricion en 1,664 pacientes ingresados en 12 hospitales de 8 provincias del pais entre Marzo del 2012 y Marzo del 2014 se documento mediante la Encuesta Subjetiva Global (ESG). El estado de los procesos hospitalarios de cuidados alimentarios y nutricionales se evaluo con la Encuesta de Nutricion Hospitalaria (ENH). Resultados: La tasa corriente de desnutricion hospitalaria fue del 36.9% (Δ = +4.3%; p < 0.05). Las tasas de completamiento de los ejercicios hospitalarios de evaluacion nutricional y de uso de terapias de replecion nutricional fueron superiores. Conclusiones: Transcurridos 10 anos de la primera edicion del Estudio ELAN CUBA, se aprecian modestos avances en la identificacion y el tratamiento de la desnutricion en los hospitales en Cuba. Se percibe que la formacion e insercion de nutricionistas verticalizados en la actuacion hospitalaria haya contribuido al cambio observado. Asimismo, la actividad de la Sociedad Cubana de Nutricion Clinica y Metabolismo en el avance de las disciplinas de la terapia nutricional, la nutricion artificial y el metabolismo puede haber servido para un mejor reconocimiento del problema de salud representado por la desnutricion hospitalaria.

  17. [VALIDATION OF A COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR DETECTION OF MALNUTRITION HOSPITAL AND ANALYSIS OF HOSPITAL COSTS].

    PubMed

    Fernández Valdivia, Antonia; Rodríguez Rodríguez, José María; Valero Aguilera, Beatriz; Lobo Támer, Gabriela; Pérez de la Cruz, Antonio Jesús; García Larios, José Vicente

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: uno de los métodos de diagnóstico de la desnutrición es la albúmina sérica, por la sencillez de su determinación y bajo coste. Objetivos: el objetivo principal es validar e implementar un programa informático, basado en la determinación de albúmina sérica, que permita detectar y tratar precozmente a los pacientes desnutridos o en riesgo de desnutrición, siendo otro objetivo la evaluación de costes por grupos relacionados por el diagnóstico. Métodos: el diseño del estudio es de tipo cohorte, dinámico y prospectivo, en el que se han incluido las altas hospitalarias desde noviembre del año 2012 hasta marzo del año 2014, siendo la población de estudio los pacientes mayores de 14 años que ingresen en los diversos servicios de un Hospital Médico Quirúrgico del Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Granada, cuyas cifras de albúmina sérica sean menores de 3,5 g/dL, siendo el total de 307 pacientes. Resultados: de los 307 pacientes, 141 presentan desnutrición (sensibilidad del programa: 45,9%). El 54,7% de los pacientes son hombres y el 45,3% mujeres. La edad media es de 65,68 años. La mediana de la estancia es de 16 días. El 13,4% de los pacientes han fallecido. El coste medio de los GRD es de 5.958,30 € y dicho coste medio después de detectar la desnutrición es de 11.376,48 €. Conclusiones: el algoritmo que implementa el programa informático identifica a casi la mitad de los pacientes hospitalizados desnutridos. Es fundamental registrar el diagnóstico de desnutrición.

  18. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Giner, Manel; Culebras, Jesús M; Meguid, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    En agosto de 1976, un joven llamado LeRoy cayó desde una cornisa fracturándose el fémur. Se sospechó una hemorragia interna importante. Durante una laparotomía se comprobó que todos los órganos internos estaban intactos y los cirujanos ortopédicos arreglaron la fractura. Treintadías después, LeRoy murió. Había comido poco; diariamente, tan solo había recibido tres litros de la glucosa, el equivalente a 510 calorías, por vía intravenosa. La glucosa fue insuficiente para satisfacer sus necesidades nutricionales, perdiendo más del 20% de su peso corporaldurante su estancia en el hospital. La causa de la muerte se debió a "desnutrición médicamente inducida". Mientras tanto, un artículo científico documentó que la prevalencia de desnutrición en los hospitales de Boston era del 44% y que la desnutrición en sí era un predictor de altas tasas de complicaciones y muerte.Como resultado, los médicos sensibilizados formaron una sociedad que creó programas de formación y alentó la formación de equipos de nutrición en los hospitales. La industria comercializó fórmulas de nutrición y catéteres. Las complicaciones en enfermos hospitalizados cayeron en picado, mientras que las tasas de supervivencia aumentaron. California aprobó una legislación para regular el soporte nutricional. Aunque la industria de la atención sanitaria reconoce la importancia de la nutrición en los cuidados al paciente, el Congreso no proporcionó apoyo fiscal para los equipos de nutrición. Como resultado, los hospitales disolvieron sus equipos de nutrición de reciente creación. La educación y las habilidades en nutrición disminuyeron, y las complicaciones hospitalarias y las tasas de mortalidad aumentaron de nuevo. PMID:27238814

  19. ROLE OF PARENTERAL NUTRITION IN ONCOLOGIC PATIENTS WITH INTESTINAL OCCLUSION AND PERITONEAL CARCINOMATOSIS.

    PubMed

    Aría Guerra, Eva; Cortés-Salgado, Alfonso; Mateo-Lobo, Raquel; Nattero, Lía; Riveiro, Javier; Vega-Piñero, Belén; Valbuena, Beatriz; Carabaña, Fátima; Carrero, Carmen; Grande, Enrique; Carrato, Alfredo; Botella-Carretero, José Ignacio

    2015-09-01

    Introducción y objetivos: el papel preciso de la nutrición parenteral en el manejo de los pacientes oncológicos con obstrucción intestinal no está bien definido todavía. El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar los efectos de la nutrición parenteral en este tipo de pacientes en cuanto al pronóstico. Material y métodos: fueron incluidos 55 pacientes con obstrucción intestinal y carcinomatosis peritoneal. La nutrición parenteral proporcionó 20-35 kcal/Kg/día y 1.0 g/kg/día de aminoácidos. El peso, el IMC, el tipo de tumor, el tipo de quimioterapia recibida y el ECOG, entre otras variables, fueron recogidas y analizadas. Resultados: un 69,1% de los pacientes presentaban tumors gastrointestinales, un 18,2% ginecológicos y otros tumores el 12,7% restante. La edad media fue de 60 ± 13 años, con un ECOG basal de 1,5 ± 0,5 y un IMC de 21,6 ± 4,3. La presencia de malnutrición fue de un 85%. La supervivencia desde el inicio de la nutrición parenteral no fue significativamente distinta entre los pacientes al considerar su ECOG basal (log rank = 0,593, p = 0,743), las líneas previas de quimioterapia recibida (log rank = 2,117, p = 0,548), el IMC basal (log rank = 2,686, p = 0,261), o el tipo de tumor (log rank = 2,066, p = 0,356). La supervivencia en los pacientes en que fue posible el alta hospitalaria con nutrición parenteral fue superior (log rank = 7,090, p = 0,008). La supervivencia en los pacientes en que se inició la quimioterapia durante o tras iniciar la nutrición parenteral fue también superior (log rank = 17,316, p < 0,001). Un total de 3,6% de los pacientes presentaron infección relacionada con el catéter sin afectar la supervivencia (log rank = 0,061, p = 0,804). Conclusión: la nutrición parenteral en los pacientes oncológicos con obstrucción intestinal y carcinomatosis peritoneal es segura y, en aquellos que responden a qui mioterapia, el uso de la nutrición parenteral domiciliaria, junto con en tratamiento antitumoral activo

  20. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Giner, Manel; Culebras, Jesús M; Meguid, Michael M

    2016-03-01

    En agosto de 1976, un joven llamado LeRoy cayó desde una cornisa fracturándose el fémur. Se sospechó una hemorragia interna importante. Durante una laparotomía se comprobó que todos los órganos internos estaban intactos y los cirujanos ortopédicos arreglaron la fractura. Treintadías después, LeRoy murió. Había comido poco; diariamente, tan solo había recibido tres litros de la glucosa, el equivalente a 510 calorías, por vía intravenosa. La glucosa fue insuficiente para satisfacer sus necesidades nutricionales, perdiendo más del 20% de su peso corporaldurante su estancia en el hospital. La causa de la muerte se debió a "desnutrición médicamente inducida". Mientras tanto, un artículo científico documentó que la prevalencia de desnutrición en los hospitales de Boston era del 44% y que la desnutrición en sí era un predictor de altas tasas de complicaciones y muerte.Como resultado, los médicos sensibilizados formaron una sociedad que creó programas de formación y alentó la formación de equipos de nutrición en los hospitales. La industria comercializó fórmulas de nutrición y catéteres. Las complicaciones en enfermos hospitalizados cayeron en picado, mientras que las tasas de supervivencia aumentaron. California aprobó una legislación para regular el soporte nutricional. Aunque la industria de la atención sanitaria reconoce la importancia de la nutrición en los cuidados al paciente, el Congreso no proporcionó apoyo fiscal para los equipos de nutrición. Como resultado, los hospitales disolvieron sus equipos de nutrición de reciente creación. La educación y las habilidades en nutrición disminuyeron, y las complicaciones hospitalarias y las tasas de mortalidad aumentaron de nuevo.

  1. DNA base composition of Allium genomes with different chromosome numbers.

    PubMed

    Ricroch, A; Brown, S C

    1997-12-31

    The present report examines whether the presence of an additional chromosome can be detected as modifying the nuclear DNA amount and base composition of the cell, determined here by flow cytometry of interphasic nuclei, using four monosomic additions (chromosomes 3C, 4C, 7C and 8C transmitted from Allium cepa to Allium fistulosum L.). A. cepa differs significantly from A. fistulosum in genome size (2C DNA = 33.2 pg in A. cepa and 23.3 pg in A. fistulosum) as well as in GC content (38.7% and 39.8%, respectively). The presence of an extra chromosome of A. cepa obviously increases the nuclear DNA amount above the A. fistulosum value but also alters the apparent mean GC content. By comparing the monosomic additions and the parental background, the DNA amount and base composition of each of the four single chromosomes were calculated to quantify the GC content per chromosome and therefore to deduce their initial contribution to the A. cepa genome. Taken individually, some chromosomes are atypical in terms of GC content: the single chromosome 3C is AT-rich, having only about only 25% GC. However, the three other chromosomes examined are typical of the A. cepa genome in base composition. Indeed, this biological panel gives access to chromosomal features via a cytometric assay of nuclei. It should facilitate quantification of GC-rich repetitive sequences forming heterochromatic domains located mainly at the telomeres in the monocotyledonous A. cepa genome. PMID:9461399

  2. [An automated registry program for nosocomial infections].

    PubMed

    Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Polanco-González, Carlos; Samaniego-Mendoza, José Lino; Buhse, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Las infecciones nosocomiales presentan un gran reto para la medicina hospitalaria, en general, y para las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos, en particular. Su elevada prevalencia, la gran morbilidad y mortalidad asociadas, el incremento de la estancia hospitalaria y, en consecuencia, los costos de la atención médica han hecho que los programas de vigilancia, control y prevención de infecciones nosocomiales sean una parte toral de los protocolos de seguridad para el paciente y un indicador de calidad de la atención médica. PMID:25643679

  3. [An automated registry program for nosocomial infections].

    PubMed

    Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Polanco-González, Carlos; Samaniego-Mendoza, José Lino; Buhse, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Las infecciones nosocomiales presentan un gran reto para la medicina hospitalaria, en general, y para las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos, en particular. Su elevada prevalencia, la gran morbilidad y mortalidad asociadas, el incremento de la estancia hospitalaria y, en consecuencia, los costos de la atención médica han hecho que los programas de vigilancia, control y prevención de infecciones nosocomiales sean una parte toral de los protocolos de seguridad para el paciente y un indicador de calidad de la atención médica.

  4. International prospects for clean coal technologies (Focus on Asia)

    SciTech Connect

    Gallaspy, D.T.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to propose Asia as a focus market for commercialization of CCT`s; describe the principles for successful penetration of CCT`s in the international market; and summarize prospects for CCT`s in Asia and other international markets. The paper outlines the following: Southern Company`s clean coal commitment; acquisition of Consolidated Electric Power Asia (CEPA); the prospects for CCT`s internationally; requirements for CCT`s widespread commercialization; CEPA`s application of CCT`s; and gas turbine power plants as a perfect example of a commercialization driver.

  5. Interspecific chromosomal rearrangements in monosomic addition lines of Allium.

    PubMed

    Barthes, L; Ricroch, A

    2001-10-01

    Monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) are useful for assigning linkage groups to chromosomes. We examined whether the chromosomal rearrangements following the introduction of a single onion (Allium cepa) chromosome into the Allium fistulosum genome were produced by homeologous crossing over or by a nonreciprocal conversion event. Among the monosomic lines available, 17 were studied by fluorescent genomic in situ hybridisation, using total A. cepa genomic DNA as the probe and total A. fistulosum genomic DNA as the competitor. In this way, rearrangements such as chromosomal translocations between A. cepa and A. fistulosum were identified as terminal regions consisting of tandem DNA repeats. Homeologous crossing over between the two closely related genomes occurred in 4 of the 17 lines, suggesting that such events are not rare. On the basis of a detailed molecular cytogenetic characterisation, we identified true monosomic alien addition lines for A. cepa chromosomes 3, 4, 5, 7, and 8 that can reliably be used in genetic studies. PMID:11681618

  6. Phosphonate-hydroxyapatite hybrid compounds prepared by hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agougui, H.; Aissa, A.; Maggi, S.; Debbabi, M.

    2010-12-01

    Calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHAp) was prepared in the presence of two alkylphosphonates, the tert-butyl phosphonic acid TBPOH and the 2-carboxyletylphosphonic acid 2-CEPA, by hydrothermal method at 120 °C for 15 h. The modification of hydroxyapatite by grafting organic moieties is confirmed by IR and NMR MAS ( 1H and 31P) spectroscopy and chemical analysis. X-ray powder diffraction patterns show that the incorporation of organic moieties induces a significant loss of the material crystallinity and a clear increase of the unit cell lattice parameter a as function of 2-CEPA grafting rate. The specific surface area (SSA) increases with increasing phosphonate amount especially for 2-CEPA. All techniques show the lower reactivity of TBPOH due to the steric effects of tert-butyl, whereas the 2-CEPA with a linear chain and double acidic functions is more reactive and can replace the OH - groups of the apatitic structure.

  7. ABILITY OF ECOSAR, TOPKAT, NEURAL NETWORKS, AND ASTER TO PREDICT TOXICITY OF CHEMICALS TO AQUATIC BIOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) which provides the basis for assessing and managing toxic substances in Canada, is being revised. Several new mandates have been introduced in the Act...

  8. Is duration of postoperative fasting associated with infection and prolonged length of stay in surgical patients?

    PubMed

    de Assis, Michelli Cristina Silva; Silveira, Carla Rosane de Moraes; Beghetto, Mariur Gomes; de Mello, Daniel Elza

    2014-10-01

    Objetivo: Constatar si el periodo de ayuno postoperatorio aumenta el riesgo de infeccion y prolonga la estancia hospitalaria. Métodos: Estudio de cohorte prospectivo. Fueron incluidos pacientes en cirugia selectiva. Se excluyeron aquellos sin posibilidades de evaluacion nutricional, ingresados a unidades de cuidado minimo y con.

  9. The Portrayal of EFLTeachers in Official Discourse: The Perpetuation of Disdain (La imagen de los profesores de inglés como lengua extranjera en el discurso oficial: la perpetuación del desdén)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Carmen Helena

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer an interpretation of the images of Colombian English teachers constructed in official discourse, particularly (but not exclusively) in the document "Estándares básicos de competencias en lenguas extranjeras: inglés. Formar en lenguas extranjeras, el reto". This is part of a larger critical…

  10. La mejora de la educacion infantil desde el analisis del pensamiento practico de sus educadores. [The Improvement of Early Childhood Education from an Analysis of the Practical Thinking of Early Childhood Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argos, Javier

    2000-01-01

    Discusses proposals for the innovation and development of early childhood education practice, based on findings from case studies on the practical knowledge of four experienced female early childhood educators. Argues that improving early childhood education should be based on its reasons and purposes rather than content or method. (JPB)

  11. Como ayudar a su hijo a ser un buen lector: Con actividades para los ninos desde el nacimiento hasta los 6 anos (Helping Your Child Become a Reader: With Activities for Children from Infancy through Age 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Fran; Osborn, Jean

    When parents and other family members read with their children, help them with homework, talk with their teachers, and participate in school or other learning activities, they give their children a tremendous advantage. The foundation for learning to read is in place long before children enter school and begin formal reading instruction. Families…

  12. Como ayudar a su hijo durante la edad preescolar, con actividades para los ninos desde el nacimiento hasta los 5 anos (Helping Your Preschool Child, with Activities for Children from Infancy through Age 5).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    The first 5 yeas of a child's life are a time of tremendous physical, emotional, social, and cognitive growth. Noting that research shows that children are more likely to succeed in learning when their families actively support them, this Spanish-language booklet is intended for families and caregivers who want to help their preschool children…

  13. National Migrant Education Program: Early Childhood Development Skills--Birth Through 5 Years (Desarrollo de Destrezas en la Temprana Infancia--Desde el Nacimiento Hasta los Cinco Anos de Edad).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    Compiled to ensure cooperation between states and to provide continuity of reporting on developmental skills for the migrant child from birth through five years of age, this booklet lists the psychomotor, cognitive, and affective skills which are reported through the Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS). Published in both English and…

  14. Teacher Collaboration Praxis: Conflicts, Borders, and Ideologies from a Micropolitical Perspective (La práctica colaborativa entre docentes: conflictos, fronteras e ideologías desde una perspectiva micropolítica)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keranen, Nancy; Encinas Prudencio, Fátima

    2014-01-01

    This paper looks at a feature of teacher collaboration within Achinstein's (2002) micropolitics of collaboration but from an intrapersonal perspective. Results discussed feature issues of conflict, borders, and ideologies within each participating teacher rather than between teachers. Unresolved or unacknowledged intrapersonal conflict might lead…

  15. A Guide for Reading: How Parents Can Help Their Children Be Ready To Read and Ready To Learn = Guia Para Leer: Como los padres pueden preparar a sus hijos a leer y aprender desde la infancia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans, Washington, DC.

    As part of the White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans, this brochure (in English and Spanish) provides a guide to assist parents in helping their children become ready to read and to learn. The suggestions include: (1) talking to infants/toddlers to help them learn to speak and understand the meaning of words; (2)…

  16. [Absence of mutagenic effect of Pseudomonas syringae pv. atrofaciens 9400 and Pantoea agglomerans P324 culture liquids].

    PubMed

    Bohdan, Iu M; Butsenko, L M; Pasichnyk, L A; Hvozdiak, R I

    2010-01-01

    The mutagenic activity of the culture liquids of phytopathogenic strain Pseudomonas syringae pv. atrofaciens 9400 and epiphytic strain Pantoea agglomerans P324 was studied in the Ames test and Allium cepa-test. In pro- and eucariotic test-systems no effect of the culture liquids of these bacteria on spontaneous mutations of Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 or chromosome aberrations in the cells of Allium cepa root apical meristem was found. PMID:20812509

  17. [Mortality associated with a diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults of Mexican health institutions].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Moreno, Rogelio; Tolosa-Tort, Paulina; Patiño-Tamez, Anais; Quintero-Bauman, Alejandra; Collado-Frías, Deisy K; Miranda-Rodríguez, María G; Canela-Calderón, Obet J; Hurtado-Valadez, Pablo; de Gante-Castro, Raúl; Ortiz-Guillén, Karoll M; Estañol-Vidal, Bruno; Sentíes-Madrid, Horacio; García-Ramos, Guillermo; Cantú-Brito, Carlos; Ruiz-Sandoval, José Luis; Chiquete, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Introduccion. El sindrome de Guillain-Barre (SGB) es una urgencia neurologica que constituye la principal causa de paralisis flacida en el mundo, y que afecta a todos los grupos etarios. Se desconocen notablemente las caracteristicas epidemiologicas esenciales del SGB en la mayor parte de los paises de America Latina. Objetivo. Determinar la mortalidad asociada con el diagnostico de SGB en altas hospitalarias efectuadas durante el año 2010 en instituciones de la Secretaria de Salud, Mexico. Pacientes y metodos. Se analizo la base de datos de altas hospitalarias de instituciones que pertenecen a la Secretaria de Salud. Se identificaron los casos de SGB mediante el codigo G61.0 de la Clasificacion Internacional de Enfermedades, 10.ª revision (CIE-10). Se excluyeron los registros de pacientes menores de 18 años y los casos sin informacion demografica completa. Resultados. Durante el año 2010 se registraron 2.634.339 altas de hospitales que pertenecen a la Secretaria de Salud. Se identifico un total de 467 hospitalizaciones por SGB en adultos (mediana de edad: 41 años; 62,1% hombres) de 121 instituciones sanitarias de los 32 estados federados de Mexico. Durante el verano y otoño se registro la mayor frecuencia de hospitalizaciones por SGB. La mediana de la estancia hospitalaria fue de 8 dias y la tasa de mortalidad hospitalaria, del 10,5%. La probabilidad de muerte se asocio directamente con la edad, sin una tendencia particular respecto al sexo, hospital de atencion o entidad federativa. Conclusiones. En 2010, la mortalidad hospitalaria por SGB en esta parte del sistema sanitario mexicano fue mas alta de la que se informa en estudios contemporaneos. Se observo una asociacion estacional con la frecuencia de hospitalizaciones por SGB.

  18. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma in the oral cavity: a huge oral cavity mass with neck metastasis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyun Jun; Byeon, Hyung Kwon; Bae, Seong Hoon; Park, Ah Young; Choi, Eun Chang; Choi, Hong-Shik

    2013-11-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CEPA) is a rare, aggressive, poorly understood malignancy. In CEPA, an epithelial malignancy develops in association with a primary or recurrent benign pleomorphic adenoma. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma is very difficult to identify before surgery because the clinical presentation of many cases is similar to that of pleomorphic adenomas. The risk for malignancy increases with the duration of a mixed tumor. Treatment of CEPA must be individualized on the basis of the tumor location, involvement of adjacent structures, histologic subtype, and grade. The authors recently experienced a case of CEPA arising in the oral cavity with neck metastasis. The patient was a 70-year-old man presenting a huge mass that was present for 20 years and that slowly grew on the left side of the neck. We treated it with a total excision with wide margins and neck dissection. There was no recurrence during the follow-up period of 5 years up until now. We present a case of an unusually huge CEPA in the oral cavity.

  19. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Burgos, Rosa

    2016-03-25

    La desnutrición relacionada con la enfermedad (DRE) es un problema sanitario de elevada índole que impacta fuertemente en la morbilidad, mortalidad y calidad de vida de los pacientes ancianos ingresados en el hospital. Además, incrementa enormemente el gasto sanitario, sobre todo a través del aumento de la estancia hospitalaria, incremento de las complicaciones y necesidad de centro de convalecencia u otros recursos sanitarios al alta hospitalaria. Conjuntamente con la osteoporosis y la sarcopenia, contribuye de forma directa a la discapacidad y a la pérdida de autonomía del anciano, con las repercusiones familiares y sociales que ello implica.

  20. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Burgos, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    La desnutrición relacionada con la enfermedad (DRE) es un problema sanitario de elevada índole que impacta fuertemente en la morbilidad, mortalidad y calidad de vida de los pacientes ancianos ingresados en el hospital. Además, incrementa enormemente el gasto sanitario, sobre todo a través del aumento de la estancia hospitalaria, incremento de las complicaciones y necesidad de centro de convalecencia u otros recursos sanitarios al alta hospitalaria. Conjuntamente con la osteoporosis y la sarcopenia, contribuye de forma directa a la discapacidad y a la pérdida de autonomía del anciano, con las repercusiones familiares y sociales que ello implica. PMID:27238773

  1. Effects of ZnO nanoparticles in plants: Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, deregulation of antioxidant defenses, and cell-cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Manosij; Jana, Aditi; Sinha, Sonali; Jothiramajayam, Manivannan; Nag, Anish; Chakraborty, Anirban; Mukherjee, Amitava; Mukherjee, Anita

    2016-09-01

    Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and biochemical effects were evaluated in the plants Allium cepa, Nicotiana tabacum, and Vicia faba following exposure to ZnO nanoparticles (np; diameter, ∼85nm). In the root meristems of Allium cepa cells, we observed loss of membrane integrity, increased chromosome aberrations, micronucleus formation, DNA strand breaks, and cell-cycle arrest at the G2/M checkpoint. In Vicia faba and Nicotiana tabacum, we observed increased intracellular ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and activities of some antioxidant enzymes. TEM images revealed gross morphological alterations and internalization of the np. Our findings provide evidence of ZnO np toxicity, characterized by deregulation of components of ROS-antioxidant machinery, leading to DNA damage, cell-cycle arrest, and cell death. These plants, especially Allium cepa, are reliable systems for assessment of np toxicology. PMID:27542712

  2. Construction of SSR-based chromosome map in bunching onion (Allium fistulosum).

    PubMed

    Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Yamashita, Ken-Ichiro; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Masuzaki, Shinichi; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki; Yonemaru, Junichi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Kono, Izumi; Hang, Tran Thi Minh; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Kojima, Akio; Wako, Tadayuki

    2008-11-01

    We have constructed a linkage map of bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L., 2n = 16) using an F(2) population of 225 plants. The map consists of 17 linkage groups with 212 bunching onion SSR markers and 42 bulb onion (A. cepa L.) SSR, InDel, CAPS or dCAPS markers, covering 2,069 cM. This is the first report of a linkage map mainly based on SSR markers in the genus Allium. With the 103 anchor markers [81 bunching onion SSRs, 11 bulb onion SSRs and 11 bulb onion non-SSRs (1 InDel, 9 CAPSs and 1 dCAPS)] whose chromosome assignments were identified in A. cepa and/or A. fistulosum, via the use of several kinds of Allium alien addition lines, 16 of the 17 linkage groups were connected to the 8 basic chromosomes of A. cepa. PMID:18818898

  3. Testing decisions of the TSCA Interagency Testing Committee for chemicals on the Canadian Environmental Protection Act Domestic Substances List and Priority Substances List: Di-tert-butylphenol, ethyl benzene, brominated flame retardants, phthalate esters, chloroparaffins, chlorinated benzenes, and anilines

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    In 1976, under section 4(e) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), the US Congress created the TSCA Interagency Testing Committee (ITC) to decide which chemicals should be recommended to the Administrator of the US Environmental Protection Agency for testing. In 1988, under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA), the Government of Canada created the Domestic Substances List and Priority Substances List. This paper briefly describes the ITC, the different ITC testing decisions and a few of the ITC`s 11,150 testing decisions for the 21,413 chemicals on the CEPA Domestic Substances List and some of the 24 testing decisions for the 44 chemicals and chemical groups on the CEPA.

  4. [RISK OF MALNUTRITION ASSOCIATED WITH POOR FOOD INTAKE, PROLONGED HOSPITAL STAY AND READMISSION IN A HIGH COMPLEXITY HOSPITAL IN COLOMBIA].

    PubMed

    Vesga Varela, Andrea Liliana; Gamboa Delgado, Edna Magaly

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: la desnutrición hospitalaria es altamente prevalente y se relaciona con estancias hospitalarias prolongadas, aumento de costes de la atención y complicaciones clínicas asociadas. Objetivo: determinar el riesgo de desnutrición en pacientes hospitalizados en una institución de cuarto nivel de atención y sus factores asociados. Métodos: se aplicaron los cuestionarios de la iniciativa Nutrition Day a 70 pacientes adultos de una institución de salud de alto nivel de complejidad, en Bucaramanga, Colombia. Los parámetros del estudio incluyeron datos antropométricos y demográficos, historia clínica, factores relacionados a la dieta y percepción del estado de salud. Se aplicó el Malnutrition Screenning Tool (MST, por sus siglas en inglés) para medir el riesgo de desnutrición. Para establecer las razones de prevalencia (RP) se utilizaron modelos de regresión binomial. Resultados: la edad y los días de estancia hospitalaria, en el momento de la medición basal fueron, en promedio, 61,89 ± 15,17 años y 7,96 ± 9,79 días. La prevalencia de riesgo de desnutrición fue 52,86% (IC 95%: 40,55% - 64,91%); 40,91% en mujeres y 58,33% en hombres (p = 0,175). Un 18,57% de los pacientes no consumió alimento alguno en el almuerzo. Un 40,00% de los participantes manifestó haber tenido una ingesta de alimentos menor a la normal, durante la última semana. Las variables asociadas a riesgo de desnutrición, ajustadas por edad y sexo, fueron: ingesta de alimentos al corte del estudio, reingreso y días de estancia hospitalaria al seguimiento. Conclusión: la evidencia sobre la importancia del diagnóstico temprano y el manejo nutricional adecuado de la desnutrición hospitalaria indican la necesidad de implementar intervenciones nutricionales efectivas.

  5. Hoop house production of onion transplants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are important in Oklahoma in garden plantings and as fresh-market commercial crops. Plantings are generally established in late winter using transplants. The predominate type of transplants used are bare-rooted plants that are produced out of state. Observations over several ...

  6. Biodegradability, toxicity and mutagenicity of detergents: Integrated experimental evaluations.

    PubMed

    Pedrazzani, Roberta; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Zerbini, Ilaria; Casale, Rosario; Gozio, Eleonora; Bertanza, Giorgio; Gelatti, Umberto; Donato, Francesco; Feretti, Donatella

    2012-10-01

    The widespread use of detergents has raised concern with regard to the environmental pollution caused by their active ingredients, which are biorefractory, toxic and persistent. Since detergents are complex mixtures of different substances, in which synergistic effects may occur, we aimed to assess the mutagenicity of different detergent formulations, taking into account aquatic toxicity and ready biodegradability. We performed a ready biodegradability test (OECD 301 F), Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri toxicity tests, and mutagenicity tests (Salmonella/microsome test, Allium cepa test and comet assay). Six detergent formulations were examined, 3 pre-manufacture and 3 commercially available. All detergents presented ready biodegradability. EC50 values varied for all products, according to the marker organism used, but were always higher than the more stringent value considered for aquatic toxicity assessment (V. fischeri 10-60 mg/L; D. magna 25-300 mg/L; A. cepa 250-2000 mg/L). None of the detergents caused mutations in bacteria. However, one commercial ecolabelled product induced an increase in micronucleus frequency in A. cepa root cells. All pre-manufacture detergents and one commercial one, which gave negative results in the Ames and A. cepa tests, induced DNA damage in human leukocytes. A more accurate evaluation of the environmental impact of complex mixtures such as detergents requires a battery of tests to describe degradation, as well as toxicological and mutagenic features.

  7. Soil Rhizosphere Microbial Communities and Enzyme Activities under Organic Farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the activities of ß-glucosidase (C cycling, ß-glucosaminidase (C and N cycling), acid phosphatase (P cycling) and arylsulfatase (S cycling) under lettuce (Lactuca sativa), potato (Solanum Tuberosum), onion (Allium cepa L), broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Tall f...

  8. Nutrient content and yield in relation to top breakover in onion developed from greenhouse-grown transplants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) generally are harvested based on percentage of tops broken over. Since plant metabolism changes over time, percentage of tops broken over may be used to determine a harvest time to deliver marketable bulbs with the best nutrient content. The cultivars Candy and Texas Grano ...

  9. Development of greenhouse grown onion transplants and effect of plant density and fertilizer rate on marketable yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse grown onion (Allium cepa L.) transplants may have potential for use in production systems, but how they respond to cultural practices needs clarification. Seedlings of ‘Candy' and ‘Texas Grano 1015Y' were raised in a greenhouse. ‘Candy' seedlings were heavier than ‘Texas Grano 1015Y' se...

  10. Economics of supplemental weed control applications on spring-transplanted onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field research conducted to determine the relative benefits among alternative herbicides for weed control in onions (Allium cepa L.) measured weed control efficacy, impact of herbicides on crop injury, and the resulting weed competition on crop yields and marketable bulb size. Weed competition produ...

  11. Genetic variation for epicuticular waxes in onion: a thrips-avoidance mechanism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion (Allium cepa) is the second most valuable vegetable crop in the world and the third most valuable in the USA. Thrips are one of the main insect pests of onion, causing damage to leaves and stored bulbs as well as transmitting serious diseases such as Iris Yellow Spot Virus and bacterial bulb r...

  12. Pilot Sequencing of Onion Genomic DNA Reveals Fragments of Transposable Elements, Low Gene Densities, and Significant Gene Enrichment After Methyl Filtration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion (Allium cepa) is a diploid (2n=2x=16) monocot with one of the largest nuclear genomes among cultivated plants, over 6 and 16 times that of maize and rice, respectively. In this study, we sequenced onion BACs to estimate gene densities and investigate the nature and distribution of repetitive ...

  13. Acetic acid and weed control in onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Although corn gluten meal shows great promise as an organic preemergent herbicide for onions, research has shown the need for supplemental, postemergen...

  14. Translational Genomics of Onion: Challenges of an Enormous Nuclear Genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of high throughput DNA sequencing to address important production constraints has been termed “translational genomics”. Classical breeding of onion (Allium cepa) is expensive and slow due to a long generation time and the high costs of crossing with insects. Translational genomics should r...

  15. Evaluation of onion germplasm for resistance to Iris yellow spot (Iris yellow spot virus) and onion thrips, Thrips tabaci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is the most economically important monocot outside of the grasses. This important crop suffers severe damage from onion thrips (Thrips tabaci), a cosmopolitan and polyphagous insect pest. In addition to direct feeding damages, onion thrips has emerged as the principal vector o...

  16. New report of Lolium multiflorum and Rumex crispus as weed hosts of epiphytic populations of Psuedomonas sp., causal agent of yellow bud in onion in Geogia, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow bud, an emerging bacterial disease of onion (Allium cepa L.), has been spreading throughout the Vidalia onion-growing region in Georgia since 2007. Symptoms of yellow bud include intense chlorosis in emerging leaves and severe blight in the older leaves leading to stand loss and reduced bulb ...

  17. Quantitative trait loci controlling amounts and types of epicuticular waxes in onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural variation exists in onion (Allium cepa L.) for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on leaves. Wild-type waxy onion possesses copious amounts of these waxes, while the foliage of semi-glossy and glossy phenotypes accumulate significantly less wax. Reduced amounts of epicuticular waxes hav...

  18. Genetic Analyses of Soluble Carbohydrate Concentrations in Onion Bulbs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fructans are the primary soluble carbohydrate in onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs and show significant correlations with dry weights and pungency. In this research, we estimated the genetic effects and interactions between two chromosome regions associated with higher amounts of soluble carbohydrates i...

  19. Acetic acid: Crop injury and onion yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Organic herbicides for sweet onions are limited to non-selective materials, such as corn gluten meal and vinegar. Research at Lane, Oklahoma has shown...

  20. Onion thiosulfinates: some like them hot, others not

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion (Allium cepa) efficiently acquires and accumulates sulfur. In most plants, the majority of sulfur is located in proteins in the amino acids cysteine and methionine; however in onion a significant proportion of the sulfur is found in non-protein amino-acid derivatives. In onion, sulfur is most ...

  1. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Inula viscosa Leaf Extracts with Allium Test

    PubMed Central

    Aşkin Çelik, Tülay; Aslantürk, Özlem Sultan

    2010-01-01

    I. viscosa has been used for years in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antiseptic, and paper antiphlogistic activities. In this study, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of I. viscosa leaf extracts on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa have been examined. Onion bulbs were exposed to 2.5 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml, and 10 mg/ml concentrations of the extracts for macroscopic and microscopic analysis. Tap water has been used as a negative control and Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) (2 · 10−2 M) has been used as a positive control. The test concentrations have been determined according to doses which are recommended for use in alternative medicine. There has been statistically significant (P < .05) inhibition of root growth depending on concentration by the extracts when compared with the control groups. All the tested extracts have been observed to have cytotoxic effects on cell division in A. cepa. I. viscosa leaf extract induces the total number of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei (MNC) formations in A. cepa root tip cells significantly when compared with control groups. Also, this paper shows for the first time the induction of cell death, ghost cells, cells with membrane damage, and binucleated cells by extract treatment. These results suggest the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the I. viscosa leaf extracts on A. cepa. PMID:20617136

  2. Relations between the physiological state of onions and an effective sprout inhibition by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlhelm, H.; Matejko, C.

    The mitotic activity in shoot meristem was examined during the entire storage period of onions ( Allium cepa L.) and was compared with the growth of the inner bud of the bulbs unirradiated and after irradiation. The meaning of cell division at the shoot apex for the sprouting of onions and the effect of γ-irradiation are discussed.

  3. 7 CFR 959.5 - Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Onions. 959.5 Section 959.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.5 Onions. Onions means all varieties of Allium cepa commonly known as...

  4. 7 CFR 955.5 - Vidalia onion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vidalia onion. 955.5 Section 955.5 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Definitions § 955.5 Vidalia onion. Vidalia onion means all varieties of Allium cepa of the hybrid...

  5. 7 CFR 959.5 - Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Onions. 959.5 Section 959.5 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.5 Onions. Onions means all varieties of Allium cepa commonly known as...

  6. 7 CFR 955.5 - Vidalia onion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vidalia onion. 955.5 Section 955.5 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Definitions § 955.5 Vidalia onion. Vidalia onion means all varieties of Allium cepa of the hybrid...

  7. 7 CFR 959.5 - Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Onions. 959.5 Section 959.5 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.5 Onions. Onions means all varieties of Allium cepa commonly known as...

  8. 7 CFR 955.5 - Vidalia onion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vidalia onion. 955.5 Section 955.5 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Definitions § 955.5 Vidalia onion. Vidalia onion means all varieties of Allium cepa of the hybrid...

  9. 7 CFR 955.5 - Vidalia onion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vidalia onion. 955.5 Section 955.5 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Definitions § 955.5 Vidalia onion. Vidalia onion means all varieties of Allium cepa of the hybrid...

  10. 7 CFR 959.5 - Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Onions. 959.5 Section 959.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.5 Onions. Onions means all varieties of Allium cepa commonly known as...

  11. 7 CFR 959.5 - Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Onions. 959.5 Section 959.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.5 Onions. Onions means all varieties of Allium cepa commonly known as...

  12. 7 CFR 955.5 - Vidalia onion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vidalia onion. 955.5 Section 955.5 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Definitions § 955.5 Vidalia onion. Vidalia onion means all varieties of Allium cepa of the hybrid...

  13. [Genetic effects of root extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. on different test-systems].

    PubMed

    Agabeĭli, R A

    2012-01-01

    The antimutagenic and geroprotective activities of root extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra have been demonstrated both on plant test systems--Allium fistulosum L., Allium cepa L., Vicia faba L. and on animals--Vistar rats. The possibilities of the mobilization of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extracts as antimutagenic agents are discussed. PMID:23342648

  14. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, genome size, and genomic in situ hybridization of triploid viviparous onions

    PubMed

    Puizina; Javornik; Bohanec; Schweizer; Maluszynska; Papes

    1999-12-01

    Triploid viviparous onions (Allium cepa L. var. viviparum Metzg. (ALEF.), auct.), (2n = 3x = 24), are known in some countries only as a rare relic crop, while in other parts of the world they are still traditionally or even commercially cultivated. Results indicating an identical random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) banding pattern and the same DNA content (2C = 43.4 pg) establish the high genetic similarity and the unique origin of the Croatian clone Ljutika and the Indian clone Pran. In order to determine the parental Allium species of these natural triploid hybrids, genomic fluorescent in situ hybridization (GISH) was applied. Biotinylated genomic DNAs from six diploid Allium species (A. cepa L., A. fistulosum L., A. roylei Stearn, A. vavilovii M. Pop. et Vved., A. galanthum Kar. et Kir., A. oschaninii O. Fedtsch.) were used as probes in this study. While probes obtained from genomic DNA of A. cepa, A. vavilovii, and A. roylei hybridized to somatic chromosomes of Ljutika probes from A. fistulosum, A. galanthum, and A. oschaninii did not. The DNA probes of A. cepa and A. roylei each completely or predominantly labelled one genome (eight chromosomes). A few chromosomes, the markers of the triploid karyotype, were not completely labelled by any probe applied. Our GISH results indicate that triploid viviparous onions might possess a complex triparental genome organization. PMID:10659789

  15. [Number of aberrations per cell as a parameter of chromosome instability. 2. Comparative analysis of the factors of different nature].

    PubMed

    Kutsokon', N K; Lazarenko, L M; Bezrukov, V F; Rashydov, N M; Grodzyns'kyĭ, D M

    2004-01-01

    The average number of aberrations per aberrant cell was concluded to carry out information on chromosome instability peculiarities induced by different mutagens as it was shown in our previous work. The purpose of the current study was to present comparative analysis of intercellular distribution of number of aberrations and their theoretical approximations. Distribution of numbers of aberrations per cell in Allium cepa L. and Allium fistulosum L. root tip cells induced by different mutagenic factors (gamma-irradiation, thiotepa, formaldehyde and seed aging) have been studied. The results were approximated to theoretical Poisson, geometric and negative binomial distributions. The intercellular distribution of aberrations did not correspond to any of the used theoretical distributions when A. cepa seeds were gamma-irradiated. There was some, but not regular, accordance with theoretical distributions when chemical mutagens thiotepa in A. cepa and formaldehyde in A. fistulosum and seed aging in both species were evaluated. During seed aging frequency of aberrant cells increased more quickly in A. fistulosum in comparison with A. cepa. PMID:15098449

  16. Revisiting Bioaccumulation Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of workgroup 5 was to revisit the B(ioaccumulation) criteria that are currently being used to identify POPs under the Stockholm Convention and PBTs under CEPA, TSCA, REACh and other programs. Despite the lack of a recognized definition for a B substance, we defined ...

  17. ESD and the Rio Conventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarabhai, Kartikeya V.; Ravindranath, Shailaja; Schwarz, Rixa; Vyas, Purvi

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 36 of Agenda 21, a key document of the 1992 Earth Summit, emphasised reorienting education towards sustainable development. While two of the Rio conventions, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developed communication, education and public awareness (CEPA)…

  18. First Report of Iris yellow spot virus on Onion and Leek in Western Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion (Allium cepa) and leek (Allium porrum) are grown on approximately 600 ha in western Oregon annually for bulb and seed production. Plants with elongated to diamond-shaped, straw-colored lesions characteristic of those caused by Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) were observed on onion bulb crops an...

  19. Evaluation of allium and its seasoning on toxigenic, nutritional, and sensorial profiles of groundnut oil.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kasi; Anandaraj, K; Al-Sohaibani, Saleh A

    2014-04-01

    Mitigation of xerophilic storage fungi-associated aflatoxin threat in culinary oil will be a new technology advantage to food industries. Groundnut oil isolate Aspergillus flavus MTCC 10680 susceptibility to Allium species (A. sativum L., A. cepa L., and A. cepa var. aggregatum) extracts, composition, and in silico confirmation of extract's phytoconstituent aflatoxin synthesis inhibition were determined. The behavior of seasoning carrier medium groundnut oil in the presence of Allium was also determined. All the Allium species extracts exhibited concentration dependent in vitro inhibition on mycelial biomass, radial growth, and toxin elaboration. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 28, 16, and 9 compounds in the extracts of A. sativum, A. cepa, A. cepa var. aggregatum, respectively. The Allium phytocostituents-like hexadecanoic acid, 5-Octanoyl-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-pyrimidinetrione, Guanosine, and so on, showed higher binding energy with aflatoxin synthesis key enzyme ver1. Allium seasoning increased the typical nutty odor of the groundnut oil with sweet aroma note as well as intensification of pale yellow color. Allium seasoning exhibited the highest aflatoxin detoxification and aroma development without any nutritional loss. Culinary oil Allium seasoning has anti-aflatoxin and food additive potential for use in food industries.

  20. Evaluation of phytotoxicity of municipal landfill leachate before and after biological treatment.

    PubMed

    Klauck, C R; Rodrigues, M A S; Silva, L B

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, leachate toxicity of a municipal solid waste landfill located in the Sinos River Valley region (southern Brazil) was evaluated using plant bioassays. Leachate toxicity was assessed by analysis of seed germination and root elongation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and rocket plant Eruca sativa Mill.) and root elongation of onions Allium cepa L.). Bioassays were performed by exposing the seeds of L. sativa and E. sativa and the roots of A. cepa to raw leachate, treated leachate (biological treatment) and negative control (tap water). The levels of metals detected in both samples of leachate were low, and raw leachate showed high values for ammoniacal nitrogen and total Kjeldahl nitrogen. There is a reduction in the values of several physicochemical parameters, which demonstrates the efficiency of the treatment. Both L. sativa and A. cepa showed a phytotoxic response to landfill leachate, showing reduced root elongation. However, the responses of these two plant species were different. Root elongation was significantly lower in A. cepa exposed to treated leachate, when compared to negative control, but did not show any difference when compared to raw leachate. In L. sativa, seeds exposed to the raw leachate showed significant reduction in root elongation, when compared to treated leachate and negative control. Seed germination showed no difference across the treatments. The results of the study show that plant species respond differently and that municipal solid waste landfill leachate show phytotoxicity, even after biological treatment. PMID:26270214

  1. Host ranges of North American isolates of Penicillium causing blue mold of bulb crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single isolates of four Penicillium species belonging to series Corymbifera (Penicillium allii, P. hirsutum, P. tulipae, P. venetum) plus an isolate of P. polonicum, all from North American sources, were inoculated individually into Crocus sativus, Allium sativum (garlic), A. cepa (onion), Iris holl...

  2. Onion is a host for two phytoplasma lineages, subgroups 16SrI-A and 16SrI-L, in Lithuania: a HinfI site revealed a SNP marking divergent branches of evolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onions (Allium cepa.L) being grown for seed production in the Kaunas region of Lithuania exhibited symptoms including mild yellowing of leaves and stems, stunting of plants, phyllody, and proliferation of flowers. RFLP and sequence analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA, ribosomal protein, and secY gen...

  3. Electrophoretic analysis of Allium alien addition lines.

    PubMed

    Peffley, E B; Corgan, J N; Horak, K E; Tanksley, S D

    1985-12-01

    Meiotic pairing in an interspecific triploid of Allium cepa and A. fistulosum, 'Delta Giant', exhibits preferential pairing between the two A. cepa genomes, leaving the A. fistulosum genome as univalents. Multivalent pairing involving A. fistulosum chromosomes occurs at a low level, allowing for recombination between the genomes. Ten trisomies were recovered from the backcross of 'Delta Giant' x A. cepa cv., 'Temprana', representing a minimum of four of the eight possible alien addition lines. The alien addition lines possessed different A. fistulosum enzyme markers. Those markers, Adh-1, Idh-1 and Pgm-1 reside on different A. fistulosum chromosomes, whereas Pgi-1 and Idh-1 may be linked. Diploid, trisomic and hyperploid progeny were recovered that exhibited putative pink root resistance. The use of interspecific plants as a means to introgress A. fistulosum genes into A. cepa appears to be successful at both the trisomic and the diploid levels. If introgression can be accomplished using an interspecific triploid such as 'Delta Giant' to generate fertile alien addition lines and subsequent fertile diploids, or if introgression can be accomplished directly at the diploid level, this will have accomplished gene flow that has not been possible at the interspecific diploid level.

  4. Orbital-optimized coupled-electron pair theory and its analytic gradients: Accurate equilibrium geometries, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and hydrogen transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkaya, Uǧur; Sherrill, C. David

    2013-08-01

    Orbital-optimized coupled-electron pair theory [or simply "optimized CEPA(0)," OCEPA(0), for short] and its analytic energy gradients are presented. For variational optimization of the molecular orbitals for the OCEPA(0) method, a Lagrangian-based approach is used along with an orbital direct inversion of the iterative subspace algorithm. The cost of the method is comparable to that of CCSD [O(N6) scaling] for energy computations. However, for analytic gradient computations the OCEPA(0) method is only half as expensive as CCSD since there is no need to solve the λ2-amplitude equation for OCEPA(0). The performance of the OCEPA(0) method is compared with that of the canonical MP2, CEPA(0), CCSD, and CCSD(T) methods, for equilibrium geometries, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and hydrogen transfer reactions between radicals. For bond lengths of both closed and open-shell molecules, the OCEPA(0) method improves upon CEPA(0) and CCSD by 25%-43% and 38%-53%, respectively, with Dunning's cc-pCVQZ basis set. Especially for the open-shell test set, the performance of OCEPA(0) is comparable with that of CCSD(T) (ΔR is 0.0003 Å on average). For harmonic vibrational frequencies of closed-shell molecules, the OCEPA(0) method again outperforms CEPA(0) and CCSD by 33%-79% and 53%-79%, respectively. For harmonic vibrational frequencies of open-shell molecules, the mean absolute error (MAE) of the OCEPA(0) method (39 cm-1) is fortuitously even better than that of CCSD(T) (50 cm-1), while the MAEs of CEPA(0) (184 cm-1) and CCSD (84 cm-1) are considerably higher. For complete basis set estimates of hydrogen transfer reaction energies, the OCEPA(0) method again exhibits a substantially better performance than CEPA(0), providing a mean absolute error of 0.7 kcal mol-1, which is more than 6 times lower than that of CEPA(0) (4.6 kcal mol-1), and comparing to MP2 (7.7 kcal mol-1) there is a more than 10-fold reduction in errors. Whereas the MAE for the CCSD method is only 0.1 kcal

  5. Orbital-optimized coupled-electron pair theory and its analytic gradients: accurate equilibrium geometries, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and hydrogen transfer reactions.

    PubMed

    Bozkaya, Uğur; Sherrill, C David

    2013-08-01

    Orbital-optimized coupled-electron pair theory [or simply "optimized CEPA(0)," OCEPA(0), for short] and its analytic energy gradients are presented. For variational optimization of the molecular orbitals for the OCEPA(0) method, a Lagrangian-based approach is used along with an orbital direct inversion of the iterative subspace algorithm. The cost of the method is comparable to that of CCSD [O(N(6)) scaling] for energy computations. However, for analytic gradient computations the OCEPA(0) method is only half as expensive as CCSD since there is no need to solve the λ2-amplitude equation for OCEPA(0). The performance of the OCEPA(0) method is compared with that of the canonical MP2, CEPA(0), CCSD, and CCSD(T) methods, for equilibrium geometries, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and hydrogen transfer reactions between radicals. For bond lengths of both closed and open-shell molecules, the OCEPA(0) method improves upon CEPA(0) and CCSD by 25%-43% and 38%-53%, respectively, with Dunning's cc-pCVQZ basis set. Especially for the open-shell test set, the performance of OCEPA(0) is comparable with that of CCSD(T) (ΔR is 0.0003 Å on average). For harmonic vibrational frequencies of closed-shell molecules, the OCEPA(0) method again outperforms CEPA(0) and CCSD by 33%-79% and 53%-79%, respectively. For harmonic vibrational frequencies of open-shell molecules, the mean absolute error (MAE) of the OCEPA(0) method (39 cm(-1)) is fortuitously even better than that of CCSD(T) (50 cm(-1)), while the MAEs of CEPA(0) (184 cm(-1)) and CCSD (84 cm(-1)) are considerably higher. For complete basis set estimates of hydrogen transfer reaction energies, the OCEPA(0) method again exhibits a substantially better performance than CEPA(0), providing a mean absolute error of 0.7 kcal mol(-1), which is more than 6 times lower than that of CEPA(0) (4.6 kcal mol(-1)), and comparing to MP2 (7.7 kcal mol(-1)) there is a more than 10-fold reduction in errors. Whereas the MAE for the CCSD method is

  6. Courtship behavior of different wild strains of Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Briceno, D.; Eberhard, W.; Vilardi, J.; Cayol, J.-P.; Shelly, T.

    2007-03-15

    This study documents differences in the courtship behavior of wild strains of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) from Madeira (Portugal), Hawaii (U.S.A.), Costa Rica, and Patagonia (Argentina). Some traits showed large variations and others substantial overlaps. The angle at which the male faced toward the female at the moment of transition from continuous wing vibration and intermittent buzzing changed very little during the course of courtship in all strains, but males from Madeira tended to face more directly toward the female than other males. Females tended to look more, and more directly, toward the males as courtship progressed in all strains. The distance between male and female tended to decrease as courtship proceeded in all strains, but the distances at which males initiated continuous vibration, intermittent buzzing, and jumped onto the female were relatively less variable between strains, except for the strain from Costa Rica. Flies of Madeira courted for longer and the male moved his head and buzzed his wings longer than the other strains. (author) [Spanish] Este estudio documenta diferencias en el comportamiento de cortejo de cepas silvestres de Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) provenientes de Madeira (Portugal), Hawaii (Estados Unidos de Norte America), Costa Rica y Patagonia (Argentina). Algunas caracteristicas mostraron grandes variaciones y traslape substancial. Los angulos a los cuales los machos miraron hacia las hembras cambiaron muy poco en el momento de la transicion de la vibracion continua al zumbido intermitente durante el curso del cortejo en todo las cepas, pero los machos de Madeira tendieron a enfrentar mas directamente a la hembra que otros machos. Los angulos de las hembras disminuyeron claramente durante el cortejo en todas las cepas. La distancia entre el macho y la hembra tendio a disminuir conforme el cortejo continuaba en todas las cepas, pero las distancias a las cuales los machos iniciaron la vibracion continua, el zumbido intermitente

  7. Experiencias interculturales y la pedagogia de la anglofonia en la ensenanza de ingles como lengua extranjera (EILE) desde una perspectiva deweyana. Working Paper (A Deweyan Perspective on Cross-Cultural Experiences and Anglophone Pedagogy in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language. Working Paper).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee

    This paper discusses a framework for teaching English as a foreign language that incorporates significant cultural content and fosters critical encounters with Anglophone culture. It reviews relevant contemporary perspectives for understanding cross-cultural processes within the foreign language teaching environment with emphasis on the issue of…

  8. Despacio y constantemente, preparenme: El Libro de Instrucciones que Crece con su Nino(a). Un Manual para los Padres y las Madres para Ninos desde el Nacimento hasta la Edad de 5 Anos (Slow and Steady, Get Me Ready: The How-To-Book that Grows with the Child. A Parents' Handbook for Children from Birth to Age 5).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberlander, June R.

    This Spanish-language handbook, which was written by a retired kindergarten teacher with over 25 years of experience, is intended to help parents and caregivers prepare their child for formal schooling. It describes 260 learning activities, each based on a different developmental concept, and most requiring materials usually found in the home. An…

  9. Una guia para los padres sobre lo mas importante: el logro academico plan de educacion de Maryland desde preescolar hasta el 12 grado, 2002-2003. (A Parent's Guide to Achievement Matters Most: Maryland's Plan for PreK-12 Education, 2002-2003).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    To raise the achievement of every student in the state, Maryland implemented "Achievement Matters Most," a new plan for public elementary and secondary schools that sets goals in the areas of achievement, teaching, testing, safety, and family involvement in schools. This Spanish-language guide for parents outlines the goals and characteristics of…

  10. Education for Bilingualism: Connecting Spanish and English from the Curriculum, into the Classroom, and Beyond (Educación para el bilingüismo: español e inglés conectados desde el currículo hasta el salón de clase, y más allá)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordóñez, Claudia Lucía

    2011-01-01

    I present here the results of a qualitative research study on the impact of a curriculum that connects learning events in Spanish and English in authentic communicative performances during its first year of use in a private school in a medium-size Colombian city. I did discourse analysis of interviews with participating teachers and class…

  11. From Drills to CLIL: The Paradigmatic and Methodological Evolution Towards the Integration of Content and Foreign Language (Desde las repeticiones en el aula hasta AICLE: la evolución paradigmática y metodológica hacia el aprendizaje integrado de contenido y lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz-Luna, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Content and language integrated learning has become a common practice in European higher education. In this paper, I aim to describe how this integrated teaching practice comes as a result of a paradigmatic and pedagogical evolution. For this purpose, the main linguistic paradigms will be revisited diachronically, followed by a revision of the…

  12. Consejos para los Padres Sobre la Lectura: Informacion e Ideas para Ayudar a los Ninos Desde la Infancia Hasta Octavo Grado a Tener Exito en la Lectura (Tips for Parents about Reading: Information and Ideas for Helping Children through Grade Eight Succeed with Reading).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Deborah; Lewis, Jan Patricia

    Noting that all parents want the best school experience for their children, this booklet, in Spanish, gives parents some ideas about what to expect at different ages and stages of reading development, suggestions for what parents can do at home, and a list of favorite books parents can find in most libraries for parents and children to read.…

  13. [Prevalence and associated factors of hospital malnutrition in a general hospital; Perú, 2012].

    PubMed

    Veramendi-Espinoza, L E; Zafra-Tanaka, J H; Salazar-Saavedra, O; Basilio-Flores, J E; Millones-Sánchez, E; Pérez-Casquino, G A; Quispe-Moore, L M; Tapia-Vicente, M E; Ticona-Rebagliati, D I; Asato N, B; Quispe-Calderón, L; Ruiz García, H J; Chia-Gil, A; Rey-Rodríguez, D E; Surichaqui B, T; Whittembury, Á

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La desnutrición hospitalaria es un problema prevalente que genera mayor morbi-mortalidad, peor respuesta al tratamiento, mayor estancia y costo hospitalario. Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia y factores asociados a desnutrición hospitalaria en un hospital general peruano. Métodos: Estudio analítico transversal de 211 pacientes en servicios de Medicina y Cirugía. Se analizó variables demográficas, clínicas e indicadores antropométricos. El análisis multivariado fue de regresión logística binaria. El nivel de significancia fue 5% (p < 0,05). Resultados: La prevalencia de desnutrición hospitalaria fue 46.9% y las de desnutrición calórica y proteica fueron 21,3% y 37,5% respectivamente. En el análisis bivariado, estar hospitalizado en el servicio de Cirugía se asoció a un mayor riesgo de desnutrición calórica (OR = 4,41, IC 95% [1,65-11,78]) y proteica (OR = 2,52, IC 95% [1,30-4,90]). Hubo asociación significativa entre el número de comorbilidades del paciente y desnutrición calórica (p = 0,031), y el tiempo de cambio de ingesta alimentaria y presencia de desnutrición proteica (p = 0,031). El análisis multivariado mostró asociación significativa entre el diagnóstico de neoplasia y la presencia de desnutrición calórica (OR = 5,22, IC 95% [1,43-19,13]). Conclusiones: La prevalencia de desnutrición hospitalaria fue cerca del 50%, coincidiendo con estudios similares. Las prevalencias de desnutrición calórica/proteica halladas difieren de las de un estudio anterior en este hospital, explicándose por parámetros de diagnóstico diferentes y características particulares de las poblaciones, como el servicio de procedencia y comorbilidades. Se encontró asociación entre desnutrición proteica/calórica y estar hospitalizado en el servicio de Cirugía; las razones deben investigarse en estudios posteriores.

  14. HOSPITAL NUTRITIONAL CARE: PROPOSITIONS ENDORSED BY THE SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY.

    PubMed

    Diez-Garcia, Rosa Wanda; Zangiacomi Martinez, Edson; Penaforte, Fernanda Rodrigues de Oliveira; Japur, Camila Cremonezi

    2015-09-01

    Antecedentes/objetivos: la incidencia de desnutrición hospitalaria y sus consecuencias tanto para el paciente como para el hospital ha exigido procedimientos que aseguren un servicio de atención nutricional hospitalaria de buena calidad. Basado en los informes de la literatura, este estudio tuvo como objetivo construir proposiciones sobre los cuidados nutricionales hospitalarios, que después fueran evaluados y aprobados por la comunidad científica. Métodos: fueron desarrolladas cuarenta y una proposiciones relativas a la atención nutricional clínica del paciente y a la gestión del servicio de alimentación por el Servicio de Alimentación y Nutrición Hospitalaria. Un total de cien profesionales, investigadores y profesores evaluaron las proposiciones. Para analizar si los evaluadores estaban de acuerdo con las proposiciones se utilizó una escala Likert de cinco puntos (estoy en total desacuerdo, estoy parcialmente en desacuerdo, no tengo opinión, estoy parcialmente de acuerdo, estoy totalmente de acuerdo) asociada a cada proposición. Fue considerada concordancia cuando el 70% o más de los evaluadores estaban de acuerdo (totalmente o parcialmente) con la proposición. Para el análisis estadístico fue utilizado el procedimiento Proc Corresp del software SAS 10, versión 8, estadística descriptiva y análisis de correspondencias. Resultados: más del 90% de los entrevistados estaban total o parcialmente de acuerdo con el 85% (35) de las 41 proposiciones; entre el 80 y 90% de los entrevistados estaban total o parcialmente de acuerdo con el 15% (6) de las 41 proposiciones. Todos los criterios propuestos tuvieron más del 70% de concordancia (total y parcial). El menor valor de concordancia total fue del 70%, atribuido a la proposición que sugiere la participación del paciente en la intervención nutricional. Conclusiones: la comunidad científica presentó alto nivel de concordancia con las proposiciones para la atención nutricional hospitalaria, lo

  15. Triparental origin of triploid onion, Allium × cornutum (Clementi ex Visiani, 1842), as evidenced by molecular, phylogenetic and cytogenetic analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reconstruction of the parental origins of cultivated plants from wild relatives, especially after long periods of domestication, is not a trivial task. However, recent advances in molecular phylogenetics, among other approaches, have proved to be very informative in analyses of the origin and evolution of polyploid genomes. An established minor garden crop, triploid onion Allium × cornutum (Clementi ex Visiani, 1842) (2n = 3x = 24), is widespread in southeastern Asia and Europe. Our previous cytogenetic analyses confirmed its highly heterozygous karyotype and indicated its possible complex triparental genome origin. Allium cepa L. and Allium roylei Stearn were suggested as two putative parental species of A. × cornutum, whereas the third parental species remained hitherto unknown. Results Here we report the phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacers ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 of 35S rDNA and the non-transcribed spacer (NTS) region of 5S rDNA of A. × cornutum and its relatives of the section Cepa. Both ITS and NTS sequence data revealed intra-individual variation in triploid onion, and these data clustered into the three main clades, each with high sequence homology to one of three other species of section Cepa: A. cepa, A. roylei, and unexpectedly, the wild Asian species Allium pskemense B. Fedtsh. Allium pskemense is therefore inferred to be the third, so far unknown, putative parental species of triploid onion Allium × cornutum. The 35S and 5S rRNA genes were found to be localised on somatic chromosomes of A. × cornutum and its putative parental species by double fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH). The localisation of 35S and 5S rDNA in A. × cornutum chromosomes corresponded to their respective positions in the three putative parental species, A. cepa, A. pskemense, and A. roylei. GISH (genomic in situ hybridisation) using DNA of the three putative parental diploids corroborated the results of the phylogenetic study

  16. Screening in a Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus collection to select a strain able to survive to the human intestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Clotilde; Botella-Carretero, José I; García-Albiach, Raimundo; Pozuelo, María J; Rodríguez-Baños, Mercedes; Baquero, Fernando; Baltadjieva, María A; del Campo, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Se determinaron la diversidad genética y la resistencia de una colección de más de 100 cepas de Lactobacillus bulgaricus subespecie delbrueckii, aisladas de diferentes yogures caseros de las áreas rurales de Bulgaria. Métodos: La cepa K98 fue la más resistente a las sales biliares y al pH bajo. La supervivencia y los efectos sobre la producción de ácidos grasos de cadena corta se evaluó en 20 voluntarios sanos. Se observó una alta diversidad genética en la colección de L. bulgaricus mediante RAPD, mientras que la capacidad de tolerar concentraciones altas del ácido desoxicólico y de diferentes niveles de pH fue variable. Se seleccionó la cepa K98 y se usó para preparar un yogur casero que se administró a los 20 voluntarios (500 ml/día durante 15 días). Se recogieron muestras fecales basales y tras la ingesta del yogur. Resultados: Los experimentos DGGE, empleando cebadores universales y para bacterias ácido-lácticas (BAL) demostraron que no hubo cambios significativos en la composición cualitativa de la composición de la microflora intestinal. Se observó una banda correspondiente a L. bulgaricus en las 20 muestras. Sólo se recuperó una cepa viable de L. bulgaricus K98 en un único voluntario. Tras la ingesta de yogur, hallamos un aumento de BAL y de Clostridium perfringens y una disminución de Bacteroides- Prevotella-Porphyromonas. Además, se detectó un aumento en las heces de los ácidos acético, butírico y 2-hidroxibutírico. Conclusiones: La diversidad genética de L. delbrueckii subespecie bulgaricus es alta. Hemos aislado una cepa probiótica resistente a la bilis y a la acidez elevada, L. delbrueckii subesp. bulgaricus-K98. Se hallaron cambios cualitativos y cuantitativos en la microflora intestinal tras la ingesta de yogur casero que contenía esta cepa, con un aumento concomitante en las heces de AGCC. Nuestros hallazgos apoyan el interés por desarrollar estudios futuros con cantidades variables de L. delbrueckii

  17. Cytological and toxicological properties of a decoction used for managing tumors in Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oloyede, A; Okpuzor, J; Omidiji, O

    2009-02-15

    The cytological and toxicological potentials of an ethanol extract of a decoction used in South Western Nigeria for the management of breast tumors were evaluated using mice and Allium cepa models. The oral administration of the extract to the mice within the range of 400-1600 mg kg(-1) b. wt., dosage did not result in any mortality until 2000 mg kg(-1) body weight (b. wt.), when 60% mortality occurred. The LD50 of the extract administered intraperitoneally, was 400 mg kg(-1) b. wt. Furthermore, the extract induced macroscopic and microscopic changes causing a dose-related root growth inhibition and chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa. The effect of the extract was more pronounced at 1600 mg kg((-1), dose while the EC50 was at 380 mg after 72 h. This decoction may present cytological and toxicological potential for managing breast tumors and corroborates its use in ethno medicine. PMID:19579974

  18. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma originating from ectopic salivary gland in the neck region: case report.

    PubMed

    Ismı, Onur; Vayısoğlu, Yusuf; Arpaci, Rabia Bozdogan; Eti, Can; Pütürgeli, Tuğçe; Gorur, Kemal; Ozcan, Cengiz

    2015-12-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CEPA) is the malignant salivary gland tumor originating from primary (de novo) or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma. Although parotid gland is the most common site, it can also be seen in submandibular gland or minor salivary glands. It can be seen rarely in head and neck region, such as oral cavity, trachea, nasal cavity and lacrimal gland. Although pleomorphic adenoma cases originating from ectopic salivary gland tissue in the neck region are present in the English literature, there is no published pleomorphic adenoma ex carcinoma case. In this case report we presented a CEPA as a 7.5 cm long neck mass in a 72-year-old woman originating from the submandibular region apart from submandibular gland. Difficulties in diagnosis and way to appropriate treatment are discussed with current literature.

  19. Benzimidazole Based 'Turn on' Fluorescent Chemodosimeter for Zinc Ions in Mixed Aqueous Medium.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shilpa; Pradeep, Chullikkattil P; Dhir, Abhimanew

    2016-07-01

    Benzimidazole based compound 3 is designed and synthesized. The compound 3 is evaluated as fluorogenic sensor for metal ions in mixed aqueous solutions. Among all the metal ions tested, the compound 3 selectively senses Zn(2+) ions. The imine bond of 3 gets cleaved by Zn(2+) ions. Thus, 3 behave as 'turn on' fluorescent chemodosimeter for Zn(2+) ions with limit of detction in micromolar range. Furthurmore, we demonstated that 3 can detect Zn(2+) ions in cells of Allium cepa. Graphical Abstract Benzimidazole based ligand 3 is designed and synthesized which behave as chemodosimeter for Zn(2+) ions. We further demonstrated that 3 can detect Zn(2+) ions in cells of Allium cepa. PMID:27262442

  20. Ablation and analysis of small cell populations and single cells by consecutive laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Bindesh; Nemes, Peter; Vertes, Akos

    2010-10-01

    Laser ablation of single cells through a sharpened optical fiber is used for the detection of metabolites by laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) mass spectrometry (MS). Ablation of the same Allium cepa epidermal cell by consecutive pulses indicates the rupture of the cell wall by the second shot. Intracellular sucrose heterogeneity is detected by subsequent laser pulses pointing to rupturing the vacuolar membrane by the third exposure. Ion production by bursts of laser pulses shows that the drying of ruptured A. cepa cells occurs in ˜50 s at low pulse rates (10 pulses/s bursts) and significantly faster at high pulse rates (100 pulses/s bursts). These results point to the competing role of cytoplasm ejection and evaporative drying in diminishing the LAESI-MS signal in ˜50 s or 100 laser pulses, whichever occurs first.

  1. DNA methylation and histone modification in onion chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Go; Shiomi, Maho; Morihana, Sayuri; Yamamoto, Maki; Mukai, Yasuhiko

    2010-01-01

    Onion, Allium cepa, is a model plant for experimental observation of somatic cell division, whose mitotic chromosome is extremely large, and contains the characteristic terminal heterochromatin. Epigenetic status of the onion chromosome is a matter of deep interest from a molecular cytogenetic point of view, because epigenetic marks regulate chromatin structure and gene expression. Here we examined chromosomal distribution of DNA methylation and histone modification in A. cepa in order to reveal the chromatin structure in detail. Immunodetection of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and in situ nick-translation analysis showed that onion genomic DNA was highly methylated, and the methylated CG dinucleotides were distributed in entire chromosomes. In addition, distributions of histone methylation codes, which occur in close association with DNA methylation, were similar to those of other large genome species. From these results, a highly heterochromatic and less euchromatic state of large onion chromosomes were demonstrated at an epigenetic level.

  2. DNA integrity of onion root cells under catechol influence.

    PubMed

    Petriccione, Milena; Forte, Valentina; Valente, Diego; Ciniglia, Claudia

    2013-07-01

    Catechol is a highly toxic organic pollutant, usually abundant in the waste effluents of industrial processes and agricultural activities. The environmental sources of catechol include pesticides, wood preservatives, tanning lotion, cosmetic creams, dyes, and synthetic intermediates. Genotoxicity of catechol at a concentration range 5 × 10(-1)-5 mM was evaluated by applying random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and time-lapse DNA laddering tests using onion (Allium cepa) root cells as the assay system. RAPD analysis revealed polymorphisms in the nucleotidic sequence of DNA that reflected the genotoxic potential of catechol to provoke point mutations, or deletions, or chromosomal rearrangements. Time-lapse DNA laddering test provided evidence that catechol provoked DNA necrosis and apoptosis. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining could distinguish apoptotic from necrotic cells in root cells of A. cepa.

  3. A Coupled-Cluster Study of the Molecular Structure, Vibrational Spectrum, and Relative Energies of the XCN and XNC (X=F, Cl) Isomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Timothy J.; Racine, Stephen C.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The XCN and XNC (X=F, Cl) isomers have been investigated using the CCSD and CCSD(T) methods in conjunction with a TZ2P basis set. Equilibrium geometries, dipole moments, harmonic frequencies, IR intensities and relative energies have been evaluated. The CCSD(T) geometries and vibrational frequencies for the XCN isomers are in good agreement with the available experimental data. The CCSD(T) results for FCN and FNC are in good agreement with the CEPA calculations of Botshwina et al., with the exception of the energy difference, which the CEPA method underestimates by about 1.2 kcal/mol. FCN and CICN are shown to be lower in energy than the FNC and ClNC isomers by 69.511.0 and 42.711.0 kcal/mol (0 K), respectively.

  4. Comparative study of eicosapentaenoic acid metabolism by human platelets in vivo and in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    von Schacky, C.; Siess, W.; Fischer, S.; Weber, P.C.

    1985-04-01

    During long-term dietary n-3 fatty acid supplementation, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is not incorporated into phosphatidylinositol or -serine of human platelets in vivo and is not detectable in phosphatidic acid upon stimulation with thrombin. However, EPA is released from platelet phospholipids and metabolized to thromboxane B3 (TXB3). In contrast, in vitro, platelets incorporate (/sup 14/C)EPA into phosphatidylinositol, whether they contain endogenous EPA in their cellular lipids or not. Following platelet stimulation, (/sup 14/C)EPA appears in phosphatidic acid, as free fatty acid, and is transformed to TXB3. The authors conclude that the fatty acid compositions of platelet phospholipid subclasses are regulated with a high degree of specificity in vivo. Qualitative differences exist between in vivo and in vitro uptake of EPA into platelet phospholipid subclasses. After in vivo incorporation, EPA is released by action of a phospholipase A2.

  5. Genotoxicity assessment in aquatic environment impacted by the presence of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, J S; Cabral, T M; Ferreira, D N; Agnez-Lima, L F; de Medeiros, S R Batistuzzo

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to access the genotoxic potential of Extremoz Lake waters in Northeastern Brazilian coast, using the Allium cepa system, piscine micronucleus test and comet assay. In addition, heavy metal levels were quantified by atomic absorption flame spectrometry. The results of the A. cepa system showed significant changes in the frequency of chromosome aberrations and in the mitotic index compared to negative control. No significant changes were observed in micronuclei frequency in the erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus. The comet assay showed a statistically significant alteration in the level of DNA breaks of O. niloticus. Chemical analysis detected an increase in heavy metal levels in different sampling periods. These results point out a state of deterioration of water quality at Extremoz Lake, caused by heavy metal contamination and genotoxic activity. It is recommended to establish a monitoring program for the presence of genotoxic agents in this water lake. PMID:19910047

  6. Cytotoxicity of aqueous extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Labiatae) in plant test system.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, G H S; Dantas, E B S; Sousa, F R C; Peron, A P

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the cytotoxic activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) aqueous extract on the cell cycle of Allium cepa. To this end, crude aqueous leaf extracts at four concentrations, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mg/mL, were tested on A. cepa meristematic root cells, at exposure times of 24 and 48 h. Slides were prepared by the crushing technique, and cells analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control group and concentration. The four concentrations tested, including the lowest and considered ideal for use, at all exposure times, showed a significant antiproliferative effect on the cell cycle of this test system and presented a high number of cells in prophase. Our results evidenced the cytotoxicity of rosemary extracts, under the studied conditions. PMID:25627599

  7. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma originating from ectopic salivary gland in the neck region: case report

    PubMed Central

    Vayısoğlu, Yusuf; Arpaci, Rabia Bozdogan; Eti, Can; Pütürgeli, Tuğçe; Gorur, Kemal; Ozcan, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CEPA) is the malignant salivary gland tumor originating from primary (de novo) or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma. Although parotid gland is the most common site, it can also be seen in submandibular gland or minor salivary glands. It can be seen rarely in head and neck region, such as oral cavity, trachea, nasal cavity and lacrimal gland. Although pleomorphic adenoma cases originating from ectopic salivary gland tissue in the neck region are present in the English literature, there is no published pleomorphic adenoma ex carcinoma case. In this case report we presented a CEPA as a 7.5 cm long neck mass in a 72-year-old woman originating from the submandibular region apart from submandibular gland. Difficulties in diagnosis and way to appropriate treatment are discussed with current literature. PMID:26645012

  8. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of water samples from the Monjolinho River (Brazil) after receiving untreated effluents.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Jaqueline; Espindola, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2011-05-01

    Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity assays, using the Allium cepa test-system, were carried out in order to evaluate the effects of domestic and industrial effluents in the Monjolinho River in different seasons of the year. In the summer and intermediate seasons, chromosome aberration, micronuclei, cell death and inhibition of the mitotic index were observed in water samples collected at different sites. In the winter, either chromosome or cellular alterations were not observed. Through chemical analysis, we infer that the excessive metals such as Pb, Ni and Cu were mainly responsible for the effects observed in A. cepa cells. Limnologic analysis like electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and the presence of nitrogen and phosphated compounds showed that the river's contamination is due to organic matter discharge along its course. Moreover we note that this river had a higher self-depurative capacity at the end of its course, before its confluence with the Jacaré-Guaçu River. PMID:21176964

  9. [Auditing as a tool for ongoing improvement in the Stroke Care Plan of the Region of Aragon].

    PubMed

    Gimenez-Munoz, A; Palacin-Larroy, M; Bestue, M; Marta-Moreno, J

    2016-07-16

    Introduccion. El Plan de Atencion al Ictus de Aragon (PAIA) se creo en 2008 en el marco de la Estrategia Nacional en Ictus del Sistema Nacional de Salud. La monitorizacion de la atencion hospitalaria al ictus mediante auditorias periodicas se definio como una de sus lineas de trabajo. Objetivo. Determinar la calidad del proceso asistencial hospitalario prestado al paciente con ictus en Aragon mediante el uso de indicadores de calidad. Materiales y metodos. Se realizaron tres audits (en los años 2008, 2010 y 2012) siguiendo la misma metodologia, basada en la revision retrospectiva de una muestra representativa de ingresos por ictus en cada uno de los hospitales generales del Servicio Aragones de Salud. Se recogio informacion sobre 48 indicadores seleccionados segun su evidencia cientifica o relevancia clinica. Resultados. Se estudiaron 1.011 casos (331 en el primer audit, y 340 en el segundo y en el tercero). Treinta y un indicadores presentaron una mejoria significativa (entre ellos destacan los indicadores de calidad de la historia clinica, de evaluacion neurologica, las medidas preventivas iniciales y, con especial relevancia, la realizacion de test de deglucion), dos sufrieron empeoramiento (relacionados con el tratamiento rehabilitador) y 15 no registraron variaciones significativas. Conclusiones. La implantacion del PAIA ha supuesto una mejoria notable en la mayoria de los indicadores de calidad evaluados, reflejo de una mejora continua en la atencion hospitalaria del ictus. La generalizacion progresiva de la atencion especializada y la creacion de las areas de ictus son algunos de los factores determinantes.

  10. COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF EARLY NUTRITIONAL THERAPY IN MALNOURISHED ADULT PATIENTS IN A HIGH COMPLEXITY HOSPITAL.

    PubMed

    Giraldo Giraldo, Nubia Amparo; Vásquez Velásquez, Johanna; Roldán Cano, Paula Andrea; Ospina Astudillo, Carolina; Sosa Cardona, Yuliet Paulina

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: la malnutrición hospitalaria es un problema frecuente en el mundo que aumenta las complicaciones, los días de estancia, la mortalidad y los costes sanitarios. Objetivos: el objetivo de este estudio fue establecer la coste-efectividad de la terapia nutricional precoz en pacientes malnutridos en un hospital de alta complejidad. Materiales y métodos: este estudio analítico con valoración económica, incluyó 227 adultos hospitalizados y malnutridos según Valoración Global Subjetiva. La cohorte prospectiva recibió Terapia Nutricional Precoz (TNP), mientras que la cohorte retrospectiva recibió Terapia Nutricional Tardía (TNT). Las medidas del coste- efectividad incluyeron costes por: días de estancia, complicaciones y condición de egreso. Resultados: las cohortes fueron similares en cuanto a características clínicas y demográficas, excepto en la mediana de edad; para la TNP fue 61 años (rango intercuartil [RIQ]: 48-71) y para la TNT fue 55 años (RIQ: 44-67) (p=0,024). La TNP se encontró costo-efectiva en la reducción de los días de estancia hospitalaria (11 días, RIQ: 7-17) en comparación con la TNT (18 días, RIQ: 10-28) (p.

  11. Learning about the Sky from the Environment: An Experience Working Along One Year with Students of Elementary Education. (Spanish Title: Aprendiendo sobre EL Cielo Desde el Entorno: Una Experiencia Trabajando Durante un Año Junto a Estudiantes del Primario.) Aprendendo sobre o Céu a Partir do Entorno: Uma Experiência de Trabalho ao Longo de um Ano com Alunos de Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel; Gomide, Hanny Angeles

    2014-12-01

    Research developed with 95 students of the 6th year of elementary education in a public school of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. It was a continuous work from February to December 2013, which led the students to participate in activities of observation of the environment, specifically the sky, analyzing the changes occurred. We focused on the study of variations in temperature, rainfall, day length, variations in the size of the shadows and changes in the aspect of the Moon. Our focus of analysis targeted the discussion of the knowledge that these students had about the topics indicated and as they entered the stage during the implementation of the proposal. The results showed a limited perception that students have of their environment, however, lately expanded due to the undertaken activities, especially in relation to the Moon. Working with systematic measure procedures reveals the careful handling of data so that they become understandable to students, and working with the shadows points towards the students first understand how shadows are formed, and then apply this knowledge to Astronomy. Finally, we conclude that the lived process consisted of an initial step of a work that should be encouraged for the subsequent years of training of these students. Proyecto de investigación desarrollado con 95 alumnos del sexto año de primaria en una escuela pública de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Fue un trabajo continuo, de febrero a diciembre de 2013, que llevó a los estudiantes a participar en actividades de observación de su entorno, entre ellas, el cielo, analizando los cambios ocurridos. Nos centramos en el estudio de las variaciones en la temperatura, las precipitaciones, la duración del día, las variaciones en el tamaño de las sombras y los cambios en los aspectos de la Luna. Nuestro foco de análisis se centró en discutir el conocimiento que estos estudiantes tenían sobre los temas indicados al inicio y término de la propuesta. Los resultados mostraron una percepción limitada que los estudiantes tienen de su alrededor la cual, sin embargo, se expandió debido a las actividades llevadas a cabo, sobre todo en relación con la Luna. Trabajar con medidas sistemáticas revela el manejo cuidadoso de los datos para que sean comprensibles para los estudiantes, así como el trabajo con las sombras para que comprendan primero como se forman estas para después trabajarlas en Astronomía. Por último, llegamos a la conclusión de que el proceso desarrollado consistió en una etapa inicial de una obra que debe ser profundizado en los años posteriores de la formación de estos estudiantes. Projeto de pesquisa desenvolvido com 95 alunos do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental de uma escola pública estadual de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Foi um trabalho contínuo, de fevereiro a dezembro de 2013, o qual levou os alunos a participarem de atividades de observação do entorno, dentre ele, o céu, analisando as mudanças ocorridas. Focamos no estudo das variações de temperaturas, chuvas, duração do dia, variações do tamanho das sombras e mudanças nos aspectos da Lua. Nosso foco de análise centrou-se em discutir os conhecimentos que os referidos alunos tinham acerca dos temas indicados no início e ao término da implementação da proposta. Os resultados mostraram a percepção limitada que os estudantes possuem de seu entorno, todavia, ampliada em função das atividades desenvolvidas, principalmente no que se refere à Lua. O trabalho com medidas sistemáticas revela o cuidado no tratamento dos dados para que eles se tornem compreensíveis aos alunos, assim como o trabalho com as sombras sinaliza para que os alunos primeiramente compreendam como as sombras são formadas para depois trabalhar isso em Astronomia. Por fim, concluímos que o processo vivido constituiu-se em uma etapa inicial de um trabalho que deve ser estimulado para os anos subsequentes da formação desses alunos.

  12. Genotoxic potential of the latex from cotton-leaf physicnut (Jatropha gossypiifolia L.).

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Pedro Marcos; de Sousa Araújo, Silvany; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana Christina

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae), popularly known as cotton-leaf physicnut, is a milky shrub notable for its medicinal properties. The present study aimed to evaluate the toxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the latex of J. gossypiifolia, using Allium cepa L. as test system. Seeds of A. cepa were exposed to five concentrations of the latex (1.25; 2.5; 5; 10 and 20 mL/L) in order to evaluate parameters of toxicity (evaluation of root growth), cytotoxicity (mitotic index frequency) and genotoxicity (frequency of chromosome alterations). The latex showed a significant decrease in root mean growth value as well as mitotic index for the tested concentrations, except for 1.25 mL/L, when compared to results from the negative control. The 1.25, 2.5 and 5 mL/L concentrations induced significant chromo-some adherences, C-metaphases and/or chromosome bridges, as genotoxic effects. The significant frequency of chromosome bridges also indicated mutagenic potential for chromosomes of J. gossypiifolia as discussed in the paper. Considering that the latex is used in popular therapies, and that the test system A. cepa presents good correlation with tests carried out in mammals, it can be pointed out that its use for medicinal purposes may be harmful to human health especially if ingested. PMID:25983630

  13. Direct determination of the chromosomal location of bunching onion and bulb onion markers using bunching onion-shallot monosomic additions and allotriploid-bunching onion single alien deletions.

    PubMed

    Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Yamashita, Ken-ichiro; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Yamashita, Koichiro; Hagihara, Takuya; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Kojima, Akio; Wako, Tadayuki

    2011-02-01

    To determine the chromosomal location of bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and bulb onion (A. cepa L.) expressed sequence tags (ESTs), we used a complete set of bunching onion-shallot monosomic addition lines and allotriploid bunching onion single alien deletion lines as testers. Of a total of 2,159 markers (1,198 bunching onion SSRs, 324 bulb onion EST-SSRs and 637 bulb onion EST-derived non-SSRs), chromosomal locations were identified for 406 markers in A. fistulosum and/or A. cepa. Most of the bunching onion SSRs with identified chromosomal locations showed polymorphism in bunching onion (89.5%) as well as bulb onion lines (66.1%). Using these markers, we constructed a bunching onion linkage map (1,261 cM), which consisted of 16 linkage groups with 228 markers, 106 of which were newly located. All linkage groups of this map were assigned to the eight basal Allium chromosomes. In this study, we assigned 513 markers to the eight chromosomes of A. fistulosum and A. cepa. Together with 254 markers previously located on a separate bunching onion map, we have identified chromosomal locations for 766 markers in total. These chromosome-specific markers will be useful for the intensive mapping of desirable genes or QTLs for agricultural traits, and to obtain DNA markers linked to these.

  14. Ecotoxicological and Genotoxic Evaluation of Buenos Aires City (Argentina) Hospital Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Juárez, Ángela Beatriz; Dragani, Valeria; Saenz, Magalí Elizabeth; Moretton, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Hospital wastewater (HWW) constitutes a potential risk to the ecosystems and human health due to the presence of toxic and genotoxic chemical compounds. In the present work we investigated toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewaters from the public hospital of Buenos Aires (Argentina). The effluent from the sewage treatment plant (STP) serving around 10 million inhabitants was also evaluated. The study was carried out between April and September 2012. Toxicity and genotoxicity assessment was performed using the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the Allium cepa test, respectively. Toxicity assay showed that 55% of the samples were toxic to the algae (%I of growth between 23.9 and 54.8). The A. cepa test showed that 40% of the samples were genotoxic. The analysis of chromosome aberrations (CA) and micronucleus (MN) showed no significant differences between days and significant differences between months. The sample from the STP was not genotoxic to A. cepa but toxic to the algae (%I = 41%), showing that sewage treatment was not totally effective. This study highlights the need for environmental control programs and the establishment of advanced and effective effluent treatment plants in the hospitals, which are merely dumping the wastewaters in the municipal sewerage system. PMID:25214834

  15. Ecotoxicological and genotoxic evaluation of Buenos Aires city (Argentina) hospital wastewater.

    PubMed

    Magdaleno, Anahí; Juárez, Angela Beatriz; Dragani, Valeria; Saenz, Magalí Elizabeth; Paz, Marta; Moretton, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Hospital wastewater (HWW) constitutes a potential risk to the ecosystems and human health due to the presence of toxic and genotoxic chemical compounds. In the present work we investigated toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewaters from the public hospital of Buenos Aires (Argentina). The effluent from the sewage treatment plant (STP) serving around 10 million inhabitants was also evaluated. The study was carried out between April and September 2012. Toxicity and genotoxicity assessment was performed using the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the Allium cepa test, respectively. Toxicity assay showed that 55% of the samples were toxic to the algae (%I of growth between 23.9 and 54.8). The A. cepa test showed that 40% of the samples were genotoxic. The analysis of chromosome aberrations (CA) and micronucleus (MN) showed no significant differences between days and significant differences between months. The sample from the STP was not genotoxic to A. cepa but toxic to the algae (%I = 41%), showing that sewage treatment was not totally effective. This study highlights the need for environmental control programs and the establishment of advanced and effective effluent treatment plants in the hospitals, which are merely dumping the wastewaters in the municipal sewerage system.

  16. [The effect of ethylene biosynthesis regulators on metabolic processes in the banana fruits in various physiological states].

    PubMed

    Bulantseva, E A; Thang, Nguyen Tien; Ruzhitskiĭ, A O; Protsenko, M A; Korableva, N P

    2009-01-01

    The effects of ethylene-evolving preparations-2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (2-CEPA), the new generation binary preparation ethacide, and the specific inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis aminooxyacetic acid (AOA)--on the ethylene evolution by banana (Musa sp.) fruits at various ripening stages and the content of protein inhibitor of polygalacturonase (PIPG), associated with prevention of fruit tissue softening, were studied. It was demonstrated that the ripening stage was of significant importance for the results of treatment with the mentioned preparations. Their effects were most pronounced in the fruits of medium ripeness. 2-CEPA and ethacide increased the ethylene evolution in banana fruits on the average by 25-30%. AOA treatment decreased the ethylene evolution in these fruits by 30%. The PIPG content in fruit pulp was insignificant; 2-CEPA almost did not change its content in banana skin, while ethacide and AOA somewhat decreased it. Consequently, the regulators of ethylene biosynthesis have a potential for optimizing the state of banana fruits during storage and sale. PMID:19235517

  17. Genotoxic potential of the latex from cotton-leaf physicnut (Jatropha gossypiifolia L.)

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Pedro Marcos; de Sousa Araújo, Silvany; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana Christina

    2015-01-01

    Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae), popularly known as cotton-leaf physicnut, is a milky shrub notable for its medicinal properties. The present study aimed to evaluate the toxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the latex of J. gossypiifolia, using Allium cepa L. as test system. Seeds of A. cepa were exposed to five concentrations of the latex (1.25; 2.5; 5; 10 and 20 mL/L) in order to evaluate parameters of toxicity (evaluation of root growth), cytotoxicity (mitotic index frequency) and genotoxicity (frequency of chromosome alterations). The latex showed a significant decrease in root mean growth value as well as mitotic index for the tested concentrations, except for 1.25 mL/L, when compared to results from the negative control. The 1.25, 2.5 and 5 mL/L concentrations induced significant chromo-some adherences, C-metaphases and/or chromosome bridges, as genotoxic effects. The significant frequency of chromosome bridges also indicated mutagenic potential for chromosomes of J. gossypiifolia as discussed in the paper. Considering that the latex is used in popular therapies, and that the test system A. cepa presents good correlation with tests carried out in mammals, it can be pointed out that its use for medicinal purposes may be harmful to human health especially if ingested. PMID:25983630

  18. Ecotoxicological and genotoxic evaluation of Buenos Aires city (Argentina) hospital wastewater.

    PubMed

    Magdaleno, Anahí; Juárez, Angela Beatriz; Dragani, Valeria; Saenz, Magalí Elizabeth; Paz, Marta; Moretton, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Hospital wastewater (HWW) constitutes a potential risk to the ecosystems and human health due to the presence of toxic and genotoxic chemical compounds. In the present work we investigated toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewaters from the public hospital of Buenos Aires (Argentina). The effluent from the sewage treatment plant (STP) serving around 10 million inhabitants was also evaluated. The study was carried out between April and September 2012. Toxicity and genotoxicity assessment was performed using the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the Allium cepa test, respectively. Toxicity assay showed that 55% of the samples were toxic to the algae (%I of growth between 23.9 and 54.8). The A. cepa test showed that 40% of the samples were genotoxic. The analysis of chromosome aberrations (CA) and micronucleus (MN) showed no significant differences between days and significant differences between months. The sample from the STP was not genotoxic to A. cepa but toxic to the algae (%I = 41%), showing that sewage treatment was not totally effective. This study highlights the need for environmental control programs and the establishment of advanced and effective effluent treatment plants in the hospitals, which are merely dumping the wastewaters in the municipal sewerage system. PMID:25214834

  19. Evaluation of the antiproliferative effect of infusions and essential oil of Aloysia gratissima.

    PubMed

    Hister, C A L; Laughinghouse, H D; Da Silva, C B; Dorow, T S Do C; Tedesco, S B

    2009-12-15

    Aloysia gratissima is used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of digestive and respiratory diseases. The infusions (6 and 24 g L-1) and essential oils (0.25%, on ethanol) were prepared and we used groups of five Allium cepa bulbs for each treatment. A total of 2500 cells per treatment were analyzed and the mitotic indexes were calculated. The antiproliferative effect of infusions and essential oils of Aloysia gratissima on the Allium cepa (onion) cell cycle was evaluated using the leaves of studied specimens. The infusions presented a significant decrease in the mitotic index (4.55% at 6 g L-1 and 2.04% at 24 g L-1) compared to the control-water (6.83%), as well as for the essential oil (2.58%), in comparison to the control-ethanol (3.65%). This investigation showed that the infusions and essential oil of Aloysia gratissima present important antiproliferative effects on the Allium cepa cell cycle. PMID:20334120

  20. Direct determination of the chromosomal location of bunching onion and bulb onion markers using bunching onion-shallot monosomic additions and allotriploid-bunching onion single alien deletions.

    PubMed

    Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Yamashita, Ken-ichiro; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Yamashita, Koichiro; Hagihara, Takuya; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Kojima, Akio; Wako, Tadayuki

    2011-02-01

    To determine the chromosomal location of bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and bulb onion (A. cepa L.) expressed sequence tags (ESTs), we used a complete set of bunching onion-shallot monosomic addition lines and allotriploid bunching onion single alien deletion lines as testers. Of a total of 2,159 markers (1,198 bunching onion SSRs, 324 bulb onion EST-SSRs and 637 bulb onion EST-derived non-SSRs), chromosomal locations were identified for 406 markers in A. fistulosum and/or A. cepa. Most of the bunching onion SSRs with identified chromosomal locations showed polymorphism in bunching onion (89.5%) as well as bulb onion lines (66.1%). Using these markers, we constructed a bunching onion linkage map (1,261 cM), which consisted of 16 linkage groups with 228 markers, 106 of which were newly located. All linkage groups of this map were assigned to the eight basal Allium chromosomes. In this study, we assigned 513 markers to the eight chromosomes of A. fistulosum and A. cepa. Together with 254 markers previously located on a separate bunching onion map, we have identified chromosomal locations for 766 markers in total. These chromosome-specific markers will be useful for the intensive mapping of desirable genes or QTLs for agricultural traits, and to obtain DNA markers linked to these. PMID:20938763

  1. Fumonisins in foods from Cordoba (Argentina), presence and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lerda, D; Biaggi Bistoni, M; Peralta, N; Ychari, S; Vazquez, M; Bosio, G

    2005-05-01

    Fumonisins B(1), B(2)yB(3) (FB(1), FB(2)yFB(3)), are a group of toxins produced by different mold species, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium proliferatum being the most important ones. Its compounds were tested in chromosome aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE), and micronucleus (MN) in human lymphocytes, and, in Allium cepa (onion), the chromosomal aberrations (CA) assay was used. Moreover, the presence of fumonisins and their producer moulds was determined in different food substrata in Cordoba city, Argentina. Cytogenetic studies using FB(1), FB(2) and FB(3) levels gave positive results for the higher concentrations (5 and 10mug/g) with FB(1). As regards the cytogenetic aspect of FB(1), we found an increase in the incidence of genetic damage measured by chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchange, micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa. These results indicate that human lymphocytes cells and plants cells (Allium cepa) have a very sensitive cellular response to the mycotoxin fumonisin B(1) as observed at the highest concentrations.

  2. Phylogenetic relationships among cultivated Allium species from restriction enzyme analysis of the chloroplast genome.

    PubMed

    Havey, M J

    1991-06-01

    The genus Allium contains many economically important species, including the bulb onion, chive, garlic, Japanese bunching onion, and leek. Phylogenetic relationships among the cultivated alliums are not well understood, and taxonomic classifications are based on relatively few morphological characters. Chloroplast DNA is highly conserved and useful in determining phylogenetic relationships. The size of the chloroplast genome of Allium cepa was estimated at 140 kb and restriction enzyme sites were mapped for KpnI, PstI, PvuII, SalI, XbaI, and XhoI. Variability at restriction enzyme sites in the chloroplast DNA was studied for at least three accessions of each of six cultivated, old-world Allium species. Of 189 restriction enzyme sites detected with 12 enzymes, 15 mutations were identified and used to estimate phylogenetic relationships. Cladistic analysis based on Wagner and Dollo parsimony resulted in a single, most-parsimonious tree of 16 steps and supported division of the species into sections. Allium species in section Porrum were distinguished from species in sections Cepa and Phyllodolon. Two species in section Rhiziridium, A. schoenoprasum and A. tuberosum, differed by five mutations and were placed in separate lineages. Allium cepa and A. fistulosum shared the loss of a restriction enzyme site and were phylogenetically closer to each other than to A. schoenoprasum. This study demonstrates the usefulness of restriction enzyme site analysis of the chloroplast genome in the elucidation of phylogenetic relationships in Allium. PMID:24221436

  3. Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) and Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burmeister, Mareike; Rauch, Franz; Eilks, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    The years between 2005 and 2014 have been declared as a worldwide Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) by the United Nations. DESD's intended purpose is to promote and more thoroughly focus education as a crucial tool preparing young people to be responsible future citizens, so that our future generations can shape society in a…

  4. A United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-14): What Difference Will It Make?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mula, Ingrid; Tilbury, Daniella

    2009-01-01

    The launch of the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) (2005-2014) was accompanied by a series of high-profile events and celebratory activities across the globe, which raised awareness about the Decade's objectives. Now, as the DESD approaches its mid-term, many stakeholders are asking these questions: What will…

  5. What Happened during the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeown, Rosalyn

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) drew to a close at the end of 2014. People ask: What happened? In broad brushstrokes, the author describes activities of the DESD in the formal and nonformal education sector of the education community. The author also identifies some enablers and barriers to advancing…

  6. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Flores, Juan Emmanuel; Chávez-Tostado, Mariana; Larios-Del-Toro, Youné Elizabeth; García-Rentería, Jesús; Rendrón-Félix, Jorge; Salazar-Parra, Marcela; Irusteta-Jiménez, Leire; Michel-Espinoza, Luis Rodrigo; Márquez-Valdez, Aída Rebeca; Cuesta-Márquez, Lisbeth; Álvarez-Villaseñor, Andrea Socorro; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; González Ojeda, Alejandro

    2016-07-19

    Introducción: la desnutrición intrahospitalaria se ha descrito hace más de 70 años como un problema frecuente. En México se reportan cifras de entre el 20% al 50%; sin embargo no se ha estudiado su prevalencia ni su asociación con la morbilidad y mortalidad hospitalaria.Objetivos: evaluar el estado nutricional y su relación con la morbimortalidad hospitalaria en pacientes mexicanos.Métodos: cohorte prospectiva de pacientes que ingresaron en un hospital de referencia para una estancia hospitalaria mayor de 5 días. Se capturó peso, talla, índice de masa corporal (IMC), estado nutricional de acuerdo con la valoración global subjetiva (VGS) a su ingreso y egreso hospitalario, así como diagnóstico médico, complicaciones y mortalidad. Los datos fueron analizados mediante la prueba T de Student, prueba Chi-cuadrado y prueba Exacta de Fisher.Resultados: se incluyeron 610 pacientes en total, con un promedio de edad de 50,8 ± 17,32 años, 267 mujeres (43,8%) y 343 hombres (56,2%). Del total, 154 fueron catalogados con sospecha de desnutrición o desnutrición (pacientes expuestos, 25,2%) y 456 bien nutridos (pacientes no expuestos, 74,8%), con una relación de 1 a 3. La morbilidad total de la cohorte tuvo un RR = 2,70, IC 95 % (2,06-3,55) y la mortalidad con un RR = 2,64, IC 95% (1,74-4,0), siendo ambas estadísticamente significativas (p = 0,001).Conclusiones: el diagnóstico de desnutrición al ingreso hospitalario constituye un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de complicaciones y mortalidad. Este padecimiento al ingreso en comparación con el paciente que no presenta desnutrición incrementó el riesgo de mortalidad hasta en 2.64 veces.

  7. [Ethical and methodological quality of non-interventional post-authorization studies promoted by Hospital Pharmacy Departments].

    PubMed

    González Bermejo, D; Vicente Sánchez, M P; Pozuelo González, C; Macías Saint-Gerons, D; Greciano Greciano, V; de la Fuente Honrubia, C

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Describir la calidad ética y metodológica de los estudios posautorización de tipo observacional con medicamentos de uso humano promovidos por los Servicios de Farmacia Hospitalaria (SFH). Métodos: Se identificaron los estudios promovidos por los SFH registrados en la Agencia Española de Medicamentos y Productos Sanitarios (AEMPS) durante 2009-2011 y/o publicados en la revista Farmacia Hospitalaria en el mismo período. Se analizaron los aspectos éticos y metodológicos más relevantes. Con el fin de conocer las diferencias de los estudios promovidos por los SFH respecto a estudios realizados por otros promotores, se compararon con los estudios registrados durante 2003-2007. Resultados: Se registraron en la AEMPS 22 estudios promovidos por SFH, que comparados con aquellos realizados por promotores diferentes, mostraron un menor cumplimiento de los aspectos éticos recogidos en la normativa, así como resultados más discretos y estadísticamente significativos (p < 0,05), respecto a justificación del tamaño muestral (41,5% vs 80%) o ámbito internacional (0% vs 24%). Respecto a los estudios publicados en la revista Farmacia Hospitalaria (n = 52), ninguno fue registrado en la AEMPS. En comparación con los estudios registrados promovidos por SFH, presentaron menor calidad metodológica, en aspectos tales como presencia de grupo control (3,8% vs 27,3%) (p = 0,0072) o justificación del tamaño muestral (19,2% vs 42,8%) (p < 0,05). Conclusión: Existen aspectos administrativos, metodológicos y éticos de los estudios promovidos por los SFH que deben ser mejorados según la normativa. El registro en la AEMPS, parece tener un efecto positivo en el rigor científico y ético de los protocolos de investigación.

  8. [Effect of early nutritional intervention in the a outcome of patients at risk clinical nutrition].

    PubMed

    Montoya Montoya, Susana; Múnera García, Nora Elena

    2014-02-01

    Introducción: La desnutrición hospitalaria es un proceso multicausal y de alta prevalencia. La intervención nutricional en una etapa temprana mejora el pronóstico de los pacientes afectados. Objetivo: Comparar el efecto de una intervención nutricional temprana con el de una atención de rutina, sobre el resultado clínico, en pacientes con riesgo nutricional, detectados con la herramienta de cribado Nutritional Risk Screening NRS 2002, que ingresan a una institución de salud de alta complejidad. Materiales y métodos: Estudio cuasi experimental. Se evaluó en las primeras 48 horas de admisión a 891 pacientes, de los cuales 247 estaban en riesgo nutricional, 116 constituyeron el grupo con atención de rutina y 54 el grupo intervenido. Se evaluaron las complicaciones, días de estancia hospitalaria, pérdida de peso, cambio de índice de masa corporal y adecuación proteico-calórica. Resultados: Los pacientes intervenidos presentaron mayor consumo calórico (1617 ± 444,5 vs 1366 ± 467,1 kilocalorías, p = 0,002) y proteico (1,2 ± 0,2 vs 0,9 ± 0,3 g, p = 0,000), una ganancia de peso promedio de 0,7% vs una pérdida de 2.3% (p = 0,000), una proporción de complicaciones moderadas del 8,2% vs 25,2% (p = 0,012) y una reducción del tiempo de estancia hospitalaria de 2,2 días (p = 0,138), en comparación con el grupo con atención de rutina. Conclusión: La intervención nutricional temprana en los pacientes en riesgo nutricional, disminuyó la proporción de complicaciones moderadas, mejoró la adecuación de energía, proteína y la evolución nutricional en términos de ganancia de peso y cambio de IMC. Los días de estancia no mostraron diferencias significativas.

  9. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Flores, Juan Emmanuel; Chávez-Tostado, Mariana; Larios-Del-Toro, Youné Elizabeth; García-Rentería, Jesús; Rendrón-Félix, Jorge; Salazar-Parra, Marcela; Irusteta-Jiménez, Leire; Michel-Espinoza, Luis Rodrigo; Márquez-Valdez, Aída Rebeca; Cuesta-Márquez, Lisbeth; Álvarez-Villaseñor, Andrea Socorro; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; González Ojeda, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la desnutrición intrahospitalaria se ha descrito hace más de 70 años como un problema frecuente. En México se reportan cifras de entre el 20% al 50%; sin embargo no se ha estudiado su prevalencia ni su asociación con la morbilidad y mortalidad hospitalaria.Objetivos: evaluar el estado nutricional y su relación con la morbimortalidad hospitalaria en pacientes mexicanos.Métodos: cohorte prospectiva de pacientes que ingresaron en un hospital de referencia para una estancia hospitalaria mayor de 5 días. Se capturó peso, talla, índice de masa corporal (IMC), estado nutricional de acuerdo con la valoración global subjetiva (VGS) a su ingreso y egreso hospitalario, así como diagnóstico médico, complicaciones y mortalidad. Los datos fueron analizados mediante la prueba T de Student, prueba Chi-cuadrado y prueba Exacta de Fisher.Resultados: se incluyeron 610 pacientes en total, con un promedio de edad de 50,8 ± 17,32 años, 267 mujeres (43,8%) y 343 hombres (56,2%). Del total, 154 fueron catalogados con sospecha de desnutrición o desnutrición (pacientes expuestos, 25,2%) y 456 bien nutridos (pacientes no expuestos, 74,8%), con una relación de 1 a 3. La morbilidad total de la cohorte tuvo un RR = 2,70, IC 95 % (2,06-3,55) y la mortalidad con un RR = 2,64, IC 95% (1,74-4,0), siendo ambas estadísticamente significativas (p = 0,001).Conclusiones: el diagnóstico de desnutrición al ingreso hospitalario constituye un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de complicaciones y mortalidad. Este padecimiento al ingreso en comparación con el paciente que no presenta desnutrición incrementó el riesgo de mortalidad hasta en 2.64 veces. PMID:27571661

  10. NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND PERIOPERATIVE FASTING TIME VERSUS COMPLICATIONS AND HOSPITAL STAY OF SURGICAL PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    de Amorim, Ana Carolina Ribeiro; Costa, Milena Damasceno de Souza; Nunes, Francisca Leide da Silva; da Silva, Maria da Guia Bezerra; de Souza Leão, Cristiano; Gadelha, Patrícia Calado Ferreira Pinheiro

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: muchos factores pueden influir negativamente en los resultados quirúrgicos, tales como el estado nutricional deteriorado y la extensión del tiempo de ayuno perioperatorio. Objetivo: evaluar la influencia del estado nutricional y el tiempo de ayuno perioperatorio en la aparición de complicaciones quirúrgicas y la duración de la estancia hospitalaria en pacientes sometidos a cirugía del tracto gastrointestinal y/o la pared abdominal, que fueron sometidos a protocolo de atención nutricional. Métodos: estudio de cohorte, realizado con 84 pacientes, de junio a noviembre de 2014. La recolección de datos se realizó mediante la aplicación de un cuestionario estructurado, búsqueda en los registros y prescripción médica y/o nutricional. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó el programa STATA/SE 12.0 y se adoptó el nivel de significación del 5%. Resultados: el riesgo nutricional estuvo presente en el 26,2% de los casos, y de estos el 45,4% realizaron terapia nutricional preoperatoria, con una media de 6,6 ± 2,79 días. El ayuno preoperatorio fue de 4,5 (3,66; 5,50) horas y el ayuno postoperatorio fue de 5,1 (2,5; 20,5) horas. No se encontraron asociaciones entre los parámetros para evaluar la composición corporal y la presencia de complicaciones. Se observó una correlación negativa entre la duración de la estancia y el IMC (p = 0,017), y una correlación positiva entre la pérdida de peso y el tiempo de estancia hospitalaria (p = 0,036). Los pacientes con mayor tiempo de ayuno postoperatorio tuvieron una mayor incidencia de complicaciones (p = 0,021). Conclusión: el mal estado nutricional y la extensión del tiempo de ayuno perioperatorio están asociados a la aparición de complicaciones quirúrgicas y a una mayor duración de la estancia hospitalaria.

  11. [Integration of a software for hospital nutritional support prescription and the electronic medical record].

    PubMed

    Alfaro Martínez, José Joaquín; López Díaz, Mariano; Hernández López, Antonio; Gonzalvo Díaz, César; Botella Romero, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La prescripción y seguimiento de la nutrición parenteral es un acto médico que debe ser correctamente documentado y que precisa de una adecuada comunicación entre médicos, farmacéuticos y personal de enfermería. Dicha prescripción puede realizarse mediante órdenes y formularios en papel o con aplicaciones informáticas, en cuyo caso surge la dificultad de su integración con el resto de la informática hospitalaria. Presentamos la experiencia de nuestro centro en la integración de un programa informático de prescripción de nutrición hospitalaria con la historia clínica electrónica. Material y métodos: Con objeto de desarrollar una aplicación informática de prescripción de nutrición artificial se llevaron a cabo reuniones entre personal de la Unidad de Nutrición Clínica y el Servicio de Informática donde se establecieron las necesidades de los servicios implicados y las características que debía tener la aplicación. Descripción de la aplicación: El programa informático permite la prescripción de nutrición parenteral componente por componente o mediante plantillas prediseñadas, genera alertas en caso de valores extremos de componentes o posible incompatibilidad físico-química, importa y almacena los resultados de las analíti cas de los pacientes y escribe la composición de la fórmula de nutrición parenteral prescrita en la historia clínica electrónica, entre otras características. Discusión: Nuestra experiencia muestra que la colaboración entre los servicios clínicos y de Informática permite desarrollar aplicaciones hospitalarias adaptadas a la forma de trabajo de los equipos clínicos y que pueden integrarse con el resto de los programas informáticos del hospital.

  12. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Calleja Fernández, Alicia; Vidal Casariego, Alfonso; Cano Rodríguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros Pomar, María D

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la dieta hospitalaria deberá aportar la suficiente cantidad de energía a partir de una adecuada distribución de macronutrientes.Objetivo: determinar la calidad nutricional de las dietas hospitalarias.Metodología: estudio transversal realizado en condiciones de práctica clínica habitual. Se realizó una valoración nutricional de todas las dietas hospitalarias y una estimación de las necesidades energéticas y proteicas del paciente hospitalizado. Finalmente, se valoró la adecuación del diseño nutricional y dietético de las dietas actuales teniendo en cuenta las necesidades nutricionales del paciente. Se consideró: "Dieta energética y proteicamente completa" si el aporte de energía y proteínas estaba por encima del percentil 95 de las necesidades nutricionales detectadas en los pacientes del centro; "Dieta energética y proteicamente potencialmente completa" si el aporte de energía y proteínas estaba comprendido entre el percentil 75 y 95 de las necesidades nutricionales detectadas en el centro; "Dieta energética y proteicamente incompleta" si el aporte de energía y proteínas estaba por debajo del percentil 75 de las necesidades nutricionales detectadas en el centro.Resultados: fueron evaluadas nutricionalmente 54 dietas destinadas a pacientes adultos. Fueron valorados un total de 201 pacientes con una mediana de edad de 71,60 (RIC 21,40) años y el 51,25% fueron mujeres. Sus necesidades energéticas fueron 25,84 (DE 2,55) kcal/kg peso/ día o 1.753,54 (DE 232,51) kcal/día, el percentil 95 fue de 2.153,9 kcal/día y el percentil 75 fue 1.772,5 kcal/día. Las necesidades proteicasfueron 1,2 (DE 0,10) g/kg peso/día o 82,30 (DE 16,76) g/día, el percentil 95 fue 112,3 g/día y el 75 fue 91,8 g/día. El 25% de las dietas cubrían las necesidades energéticas de la población hospitalaria; una dieta cubría las necesidades proteicas.Conclusión: las dietas evaluadas no cubrían las necesidades nutricionales del paciente hospitalizado

  13. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Ortega Anta, Rosa M

    2016-01-01

    En el presente suplemento de la revista Nutrición Hospitalaria se resumen las conferencias presentadas en las Terceras Jornadas UCMASEN (Universidad Complutense de Madrid - Asociación de Estudios Nutricionales), bajo el título "Nutrición como estrategia en la mejora y promoción de la salud", que se celebraron durante los días 3 y 4 de febrero de 2016 en la Facultad de Farmacia de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Estas Jornadas han sido una actividad promovida por el grupo de investigación UCM-VALORNUT y han contado con el apoyo institucional de la Fundación Española de la Nutrición (FEN). PMID:27571854

  14. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Calleja Fernández, Alicia; Vidal Casariego, Alfonso; Cano Rodríguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros Pomar, María D

    2016-02-16

    Introducción: la dieta hospitalaria deberá aportar la suficiente cantidad de energía a partir de una adecuada distribución de macronutrientes.Objetivo: determinar la calidad nutricional de las dietas hospitalarias.Metodología: estudio transversal realizado en condiciones de práctica clínica habitual. Se realizó una valoración nutricional de todas las dietas hospitalarias y una estimación de las necesidades energéticas y proteicas del paciente hospitalizado. Finalmente, se valoró la adecuación del diseño nutricional y dietético de las dietas actuales teniendo en cuenta las necesidades nutricionales del paciente. Se consideró: "Dieta energética y proteicamente completa" si el aporte de energía y proteínas estaba por encima del percentil 95 de las necesidades nutricionales detectadas en los pacientes del centro; "Dieta energética y proteicamente potencialmente completa" si el aporte de energía y proteínas estaba comprendido entre el percentil 75 y 95 de las necesidades nutricionales detectadas en el centro; "Dieta energética y proteicamente incompleta" si el aporte de energía y proteínas estaba por debajo del percentil 75 de las necesidades nutricionales detectadas en el centro.Resultados: fueron evaluadas nutricionalmente 54 dietas destinadas a pacientes adultos. Fueron valorados un total de 201 pacientes con una mediana de edad de 71,60 (RIC 21,40) años y el 51,25% fueron mujeres. Sus necesidades energéticas fueron 25,84 (DE 2,55) kcal/kg peso/ día o 1.753,54 (DE 232,51) kcal/día, el percentil 95 fue de 2.153,9 kcal/día y el percentil 75 fue 1.772,5 kcal/día. Las necesidades proteicasfueron 1,2 (DE 0,10) g/kg peso/día o 82,30 (DE 16,76) g/día, el percentil 95 fue 112,3 g/día y el 75 fue 91,8 g/día. El 25% de las dietas cubrían las necesidades energéticas de la población hospitalaria; una dieta cubría las necesidades proteicas.Conclusión: las dietas evaluadas no cubrían las necesidades nutricionales del paciente hospitalizado

  15. [Thoracoscopic lung lobectomy: preliminary results in pediatric patients].

    PubMed

    Martínez Ferro, Marcelo; Vidaurreta, Santiago; Buela, Enrique; Bignon, Horacio

    2010-04-01

    The objective of the present study consists of revising our initial experience with the use of thoracoscopic surgery for lung resections and their complications. Clinical histories and videos, from patients treated surgically at the Fundación Hospitalaria-Private Children Hospital and CEMIC Universitary Hospital from april 2005 to october 2008, were retrospectivelly estudied. Eleven female and 9 male patients were included. The median surgical time was 150 min (range: 60-270 min). The median time of chest tube permanence was 3 days (range: 2-10 days). Median hospital stay was 15 days (range: 3-29 days). It was concluded that thoracoscopic lung lobectomies are technically feasible and applicable to all paediatric ages; they should be considered as an alternative approach for trained groups.

  16. [State of food and nutritional care in public hospitals of Ecuador].

    PubMed

    Gallegos Espinosa, Sylvia; Nicolalde Cifuentes, Marcelo; Santana Porbén, Sergio

    2014-10-03

    Justificación: El Estudio ELAN Ecuatoriano de Desnutrición Hospitalaria en los hospitales públicos del Ecuador devolvió una tasa de desnutrición del 37.1% [Gallegos Espinosa S, Nicolalde Cifuentes M, Santana Porbén S; para el Grupo Ecuatoriano de Estudio de la Desnutrición Hospitalaria. Estado de la desnutrición en los hospitales del Ecuador. Nutr Hosp (España) 2014;30:425-35]. La desnutrición hospitalaria podría ser la resultante de prácticas culturales institucionales que afectan el estado nutricional del enfermo. Objetivos: Presentar el estado corriente de los cuidados alimentarios y nutricionales que se le ofrecen al enfermo atendido en los hospitales públicos del Ecuador. Material y Método: El estado de los cuidados alimentarios y nutricionales provistos a 5,355 enfermos atendidos en 36 hospitales de 23 provincias del país se documentó mediante la Encuesta de Nutrición Hospitalaria (ENH), conducida dentro del Estudio ELAN. La ENH registró el completamiento de los ejercicios de evaluación nutricional, el estado del uso de la vía oral, el tiempo de ayuno, el uso de suplementos dietéticos orales, y la implementación y conducción de esquemas de Nutrición artificial (Enteral/ Parenteral); respectivamente. Resultados: Menos del 0.1% de las historias clínicas tenía un diagnóstico de desnutrición dentro de las listas de problemas de salud del paciente. Menos de la mitad de los pacientes había sido tallado y pesado al ingreso. La Albúmina sérica y los Conteos Totales de Linfocitos estaban registrados en el momento del ingreso en solo el 13.5% y el 59.2% de las instancias, respectivamente. El valor corriente del Peso solo se anotó en el 59.4% de los pacientes con una estadía³ 15 días. Se indicó algún tipo de suplemento dietético en solo el 3.5% de los pacientes no desnutridos en los que concurrían estrés metabólico significativo y/o ingresos dietéticos disminuidos. A pesar de que se identificaron hasta 10 indicaciones diferentes

  17. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Ortega Anta, Rosa M

    2016-07-12

    En el presente suplemento de la revista Nutrición Hospitalaria se resumen las conferencias presentadas en las Terceras Jornadas UCMASEN (Universidad Complutense de Madrid - Asociación de Estudios Nutricionales), bajo el título "Nutrición como estrategia en la mejora y promoción de la salud", que se celebraron durante los días 3 y 4 de febrero de 2016 en la Facultad de Farmacia de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Estas Jornadas han sido una actividad promovida por el grupo de investigación UCM-VALORNUT y han contado con el apoyo institucional de la Fundación Española de la Nutrición (FEN).

  18. [Surgical complications of gallbladder and the biliary tree in the elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Albores-de la Riva, Nallely Xellic; Chávez-Delgado, María Estela; Servín-Torres, Erick; Velázquez-García, José Arturo; Delgadillo-Teller, Germán; Arenas-Osuna, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: en el anciano, la morbilidad posoperatoria en la cirugía de vesícula y vía biliar se relaciona con el pronóstico. Se describen las complicaciones trans y posoperatorias en el anciano sometido a esa cirugía. Métodos: estudio transversal descriptivo en pacientes mayores de 60 años. Se integraron dos grupos: I, pacientes de 60 a 69 años; II, mayores de 70 años. Se registraron comorbilidad, riesgo quirúrgico, tipo de cirugía, complicaciones trans y posoperatorias inmediatas, conversión y estancia hospitalaria. Resultados: se incluyeron 236 pacientes (65.2 % mujeres) con edad media de 68.5 años. La colecistitis crónica litiásica representó 83 % y la colecistectomía laparoscópica se utilizó en 72.8 %. La cirugía fue programada en 92 %. Se identificó ASA I-II en 76.2 y 70.1 % de los grupos I y II, respectivamente; la conversión fue de 2.5 %. Hubo complicaciones en 13.5 % (9.3 % en el posoperatorio y 4.2 % en el transoperatorio) y su proporción fue mayor en las cirugías urgentes (36.8 %) que en las programadas (11.8 %). La estancia hospitalaria fue de 4.2 días. No hubo mortalidad. Conclusiones: las complicaciones no se incrementaron con la edad pero sí con la urgencia de la cirugía. La colecistectomía laparoscópica es segura en geriatría.

  19. BTEX biodegradation by bacteria from effluents of petroleum refinery.

    PubMed

    Mazzeo, Dânia Elisa Christofoletti; Levy, Carlos Emílio; de Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2010-09-15

    Groundwater contamination with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) has been increasing, thus requiring an urgent development of methodologies that are able to remove or minimize the damages these compounds can cause to the environment. The biodegradation process using microorganisms has been regarded as an efficient technology to treat places contaminated with hydrocarbons, since they are able to biotransform and/or biodegrade target pollutants. To prove the efficiency of this process, besides chemical analysis, the use of biological assessments has been indicated. This work identified and selected BTEX-biodegrading microorganisms present in effluents from petroleum refinery, and evaluated the efficiency of microorganism biodegradation process for reducing genotoxic and mutagenic BTEX damage through two test-systems: Allium cepa and hepatoma tissue culture (HTC) cells. Five different non-biodegraded BTEX concentrations were evaluated in relation to biodegraded concentrations. The biodegradation process was performed in a BOD Trak Apparatus (HACH) for 20 days, using microorganisms pre-selected through enrichment. Although the biodegradation usually occurs by a consortium of different microorganisms, the consortium in this study was composed exclusively of five bacteria species and the bacteria Pseudomonas putida was held responsible for the BTEX biodegradation. The chemical analyses showed that BTEX was reduced in the biodegraded concentrations. The results obtained with genotoxicity assays, carried out with both A. cepa and HTC cells, showed that the biodegradation process was able to decrease the genotoxic damages of BTEX. By mutagenic tests, we observed a decrease in damage only to the A. cepa organism. Although no decrease in mutagenicity was observed for HTC cells, no increase of this effect after the biodegradation process was observed either. The application of pre-selected bacteria in biodegradation processes can represent a reliable and

  20. Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from garlic (Allium sativum) and clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata) oils against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe).

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2005-06-01

    Plant essential oils from 29 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against the Japanese termite, Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe, using a fumigation bioassay. Responses varied with plant material, exposure time, and concentration. Good insecticidal activity against the Japanese termite was achived with essential oils of Melaleuca dissitiflora, Melaleuca uncinata, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus polybractea, Eucalyptus radiata, Eucalyptus dives, Eucalyptus globulus, Orixa japonica, Cinnamomum cassia, Allium cepa, Illicium verum, Evodia officinalis, Schizonepeta tenuifolia, Cacalia roborowskii, Juniperus chinensis var. horizontalis, Juniperus chinensis var. kaizuka, clove bud, and garlic applied at 7.6 microL/L of air. Over 90% mortality after 3 days was achieved with O. japonica essential oil at 3.5 microL/L of air. E. citriodora, C. cassia, A. cepa, I. verum, S. tenuifolia, C. roborowskii, clove bud, and garlic oils at 3.5 microL/L of air were highly toxic 1 day after treatment. At 2.0 microL/L of air concentration, essential oils of I. verum, C. roborowskik, S. tenuifolia, A. cepa, clove bud, and garlic gave 100% mortality within 2 days of treatment. Clove bud and garlic oils showed the most potent antitermitic activity among the plant essential oils. Garlic and clove bud oils produced 100% mortality at 0.5 microL/L of air, but this decreased to 42 and 67% after 3 days of treatment at 0.25 microL/L of air, respectively. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of three major compounds from garlic oil and two from clove bud oils. These five compounds from two essential oils were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against Japanese termites. Responses varied with compound and dose. Diallyl trisulfide was the most toxic, followed by diallyl disulfide, eugenol, diallyl sulfide, and beta-caryophyllene. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for termite

  1. Demonstration of sperm head shape abnormality and clastogenic potential of cypermethrin.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Gautam, A K; Agarwal, K R; Shah, B A; Saiyad, H N

    2004-04-01

    Adult male Swiss albino mice were administered ip. suspension solution of cypermethrin in 0.15% DMSO at the doses of 30 mg, 60 mg and 90 mg/kg b. wt. daily for 5 days. Another group of animals was injected cyclophosphamide ip. (60 mg/kg b. wt.) in similar manner which served as positive control. Effect of cypermethrin on body and testes weight and sperm head morphology was studied. Clastogenic potential of cypermethrin was studied by using modified Allium test. The cytological changes were studied in the root tip cells of Allium cepa after 3 days treatment with three different concentration of cypermethrin (0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 microg/ml). The results revealed that body weight gain was considerably reduced in higher dose groups, but the testicular weight did not change significantly in any of the cypermethrin treated groups. However, a significant elevation in the number of abnormal shape of sperm head was noticed in higher dose groups as compared to control. It was observed that the abnormality in the shape of sperm head was dose-dependent. The cytological changes in the root tip cells of Allium cepa indicated that cypermethrin is having toxic effects on the root tip cells in the form of stickiness of chromosomes and also affect the mitotic activity. This study suggest that cypermethrin may have the potential to induce adverse effects on sperm head shape morphology of mouse as well as clastogenic effects on root tip cells of Allium cepa. PMID:15529877

  2. Ground and Surface Water for Drinking: A Laboratory Study on Genotoxicity Using Plant Tests

    PubMed Central

    Feretti, Donatella; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Gustavino, Bianca; Zerbini, llaria; Zani, Claudia; Monarca, Silvano; Rizzoni, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Surface waters are increasingly utilized for drinking water because groundwater sources are often polluted. Several monitoring studies have detected the presence of mutagenicity in drinking water, especially from surface sources due to the reaction of natural organic matter with disinfectant. The study aimed to investigate the genotoxic potential of the products of reaction between humic substances, which are naturally present in surface water, and three disinfectants: chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid. Commercial humic acids dissolved in distilled water at different total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were studied in order to simulate natural conditions of both ground water (TOC=2.5 mg/L) and surface water (TOC=7.5 mg/L). These solutions were treated with the biocides at a 1:1 molar ratio of C:disinfectant and tested for genotoxicity using the anaphase chromosomal aberration and micronucleus tests in Allium cepa, and the Vicia faba and Tradescantia micronucleus tests. The tests were carried out after different times and with different modes of exposure, and at 1:1 and 1:10 dilutions of disinfected and undisinfected humic acid solutions. A genotoxic effect was found for sodium hypochlorite in all plant tests, at both TOCs considered, while chlorine dioxide gave positive results only with the A.cepa tests. Some positive effects were also detected for PAA (A.cepa and Tradescantia). No relevant differences were found in samples with different TOC values. The significant increase in all genotoxicity end-points induced by all tested disinfectants indicates that a genotoxic potential is exerted even in the presence of organic substances at similar concentrations to those frequently present in drinking water. PMID:25170443

  3. Nutrient composition and nutritional importance of green leaves and wild food resources in an agricultural district, Koutiala, in southern Mali.

    PubMed

    Nordeide, M B; Hatløy, A; Følling, M; Lied, E; Oshaug, A

    1996-11-01

    This paper discusses the nutrient composition and the nutritional importance of green leaves and wild gathered foods in an area with surplus food production in Mali. In this West African country, there is little information about the nutrient composition and the nutritional quality of foods in general, and of wild gathered foods in particular. Food frequency was collected in two cross-sectional surveys. Focus group discussions with women in the area were used to collect information about seasonality, availability and preparation of various foods. Selected food samples were collected for chemical analysis of nutrient composition. The food samples of green leaves (Adansonia digitata, Amaranthus viridis, Tamarindus indica, Allium cepa), seeds and flour (Parkia biglobosa) and fruits (Tamarindus indica) were analysed for water, energy, fat, protein, minerals, amino acids and carotenoids. Availability and use of the foods varied with seasons. In the rainy season, wild gathered foods (e.g. A. digitata) were used as much as fresh cultivated foods (e.g., A. viridis and A. cepa). The wild food resources were more frequently used in rural than in urban areas, with A. digitata as the dominating green leaves. Green leaves were rich in energy, protein and minerals (calcium, iron). Leaves of A. viridis were, in particular, rich in beta-carotene (3290 micrograms/100 g). Chemical score in dried green leaves varied from 47 (A. cepa) to 81 (A. digitata), with lysine as the first limiting amino acid. P. biglobosa fermented seeds, with 35% fat and 37% protein were a complementary source of lysine in the diet. Based on the seasonality, the frequency of use and the nutrient contents of selected green leaves and wild gathered foods in Koutiala district, it is concluded that these traditional and locally produced foods are valuable and important nutrient contributors in the diet both in rural and urban areas, but most important in rural areas.

  4. Gamma radiation/H2O2 treatment of a nonylphenol ethoxylates: Degradation, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Munawar; Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad

    2015-12-15

    Gamma radiation/H2O2 treatment of nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEO) was performed and treatment effect was evaluated on the basis of degradation, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC), and toxicity reduction efficiencies. The radiolytic by-products were determined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. Low mass carboxylic acids, aldehyde, ketone, and acetic acid were identified as the by-products of the NPEO degradation. NPEO sample irradiated to the absorbed dose of 15 kGy/4.58% H2O2 showed more than 90% degradation. Allium cepa (A. cepa), brine shrimp, heamolytic tests were used for cytotoxicity study, while mutagenicity was evaluated through Ames test (TA98 and TA100 strains) of treated and un-treated NPEO. The reductions in COD and TOC were greater than 70% and 50%, respectively. Gamma radiation/H2O2 treatment revealed a considerable reduction in cytotoxicity and mutagenicity. A. cepa, heamolytic and shrimp assays showed cytotoxicity reduction up to 68.65%, 77%, and 94%, respectively. The mutagenicity reduced up to 62%, 74%, and 79% (TA98) and 68%, 78%, and 82% (TA100), respectively of NPEO-6, NPEO-9, and NPEO-30 irradiated to the absorbed dose of 15 kGy/4.58% H2O2. NPEO-6 detoxified more efficiently versus NPEO-9 and NPEO-30 and results showed that Gamma radiation/H2O2 treatment has the potential to mineralize and detoxify NPEO. PMID:26143198

  5. BTEX biodegradation by bacteria from effluents of petroleum refinery.

    PubMed

    Mazzeo, Dânia Elisa Christofoletti; Levy, Carlos Emílio; de Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2010-09-15

    Groundwater contamination with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) has been increasing, thus requiring an urgent development of methodologies that are able to remove or minimize the damages these compounds can cause to the environment. The biodegradation process using microorganisms has been regarded as an efficient technology to treat places contaminated with hydrocarbons, since they are able to biotransform and/or biodegrade target pollutants. To prove the efficiency of this process, besides chemical analysis, the use of biological assessments has been indicated. This work identified and selected BTEX-biodegrading microorganisms present in effluents from petroleum refinery, and evaluated the efficiency of microorganism biodegradation process for reducing genotoxic and mutagenic BTEX damage through two test-systems: Allium cepa and hepatoma tissue culture (HTC) cells. Five different non-biodegraded BTEX concentrations were evaluated in relation to biodegraded concentrations. The biodegradation process was performed in a BOD Trak Apparatus (HACH) for 20 days, using microorganisms pre-selected through enrichment. Although the biodegradation usually occurs by a consortium of different microorganisms, the consortium in this study was composed exclusively of five bacteria species and the bacteria Pseudomonas putida was held responsible for the BTEX biodegradation. The chemical analyses showed that BTEX was reduced in the biodegraded concentrations. The results obtained with genotoxicity assays, carried out with both A. cepa and HTC cells, showed that the biodegradation process was able to decrease the genotoxic damages of BTEX. By mutagenic tests, we observed a decrease in damage only to the A. cepa organism. Although no decrease in mutagenicity was observed for HTC cells, no increase of this effect after the biodegradation process was observed either. The application of pre-selected bacteria in biodegradation processes can represent a reliable and

  6. Mutagenic screening of some commonly used medicinal plants in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akintonwa, Alade; Awodele, Olufunsho; Afolayan, Gbenga; Coker, Herbert A B

    2009-09-25

    The uses of medicinal plants have always been part of human culture. The World Health Organization estimates that up to 80% of the world's population relies on traditional medicinal system for some aspect of primary health care. However, there are few reports on the toxicological properties of most medicinal plants especially, their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Therefore, this research is to determine the mutagenic potentials of Morinda lucida [Oruwo (Root)], Azadirachta indica [Dongoyaro (Leaf)], Terapluera tetraptera [Aridan (Fruit)], Plumbago zeylanica [Inabiri (Root)], Xylopia aethiopica [Erunje (Fruit)], Newbouldia laevis [Akoko (Leaf)], Alstonia boonei [Ahun (Bark)], Enantia chlorantha [Awopa (Bark)], and Rauvolfia vomitoria [Asofeyeje (Root)] using the Allium cepa Linn. model and the modified Ames assay. Allium cepa model was used to determine the mean root length, mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations effects of these plants on onion bulbs using 0.1, 1, 5 and 10mg/ml concentration of the plant extracts. The modified Ames test which is a modification of the standard Ames test as described by Ames et al. [Ames, B.N., McCann, J., Yamasaki, E., 1975. Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. Mutation Research 31, 347-364] was done using Escherichia coli (0157:H7) that has the phenotypic characteristics of glucose and lactose fermentation, motile, urease negative, indole positive and citrate negative. The results obtained from Allium cepa assay showed increasing root growth inhibition with increased concentration, decreasing mitotic index with increased concentration and chromosomal aberrations. The modified Ames test showed an alteration in the biochemical characteristics of Escherichia coli (0157:H7) for all plants except Rauvolfia vomitoria and Plumbago zeylanica. Three of the medicinal plants altered at least three of the normal biochemical characteristics thus demonstrating mutagenic

  7. Monitoring of alcoholic fermentation of onion juice by NIR spectroscopy: valorization of worthless onions.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Saiz, José María; Pizarro, Consuelo; Esteban-Díez, Isabel; Ramírez, Oscar; Gonzalez-Navarro, Carlos Javier; Saiz-Abajo, María José; Itoiz, Reyes

    2007-04-18

    The valorization of vegetable byproducts is one of the main objectives of industry today. The project on which this study is based examined the potential usefulness of worthless onions (Allium cepa L. sp.) and overproduction to obtain several functional products with different applications in the food industry. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, combined with multivariate calibration, has been used to monitor the alcoholic fermentation of onion juice. Good results were obtained, revealing the suitability of NIR spectroscopy for controlling and optimizing this process in real time.

  8. Measuring stall forces in vivo with optical tweezers through light momentum changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mas, J.; Farré, A.; López-Quesada, C.; Fernández, X.; Martín-Badosa, E.; Montes-Usategui, M.

    2011-10-01

    The stall forces of processive molecular motors have been widely studied previously in vitro. Even so, in vivo experiments are required for determining the actual performance of each molecular motor in its natural environment. We report the direct measurement of light momentum changes in single beam optical tweezers as a suitable technique for measuring forces inside living cells, where few alternatives exist. The simplicity of this method, which does not require force calibration for each trapped object, makes it convenient for measuring the forces involved in fast dynamic biological processes such us intracellular traffic. Here we present some measurements of the stall force of processive molecular motors inside living Allium cepa cells.

  9. Response of animal and vegetative cells to the effect of a typical magnetic storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talikina, M. G.; Izyumov, Yu. G.; Krylov, V. V.

    2013-12-01

    Experimentally reproduced fluctuations of a low-frequency magnetic field in a nanotesla range (magnetic storm) affect the mitosis of animals and vegetative cells. Action of this factor during twenty four hours leads to a significant increase in the proliferative activity of embryo cells in roach ( Rutilus rutilus L.) and meristem cells of onion rootlets ( Allium cepa). The clastogenic effect statistically confirmed only in the Allium test seems to reflect the species specificity of the response and higher sensitivity of the cell association of the onion meristem to magnetic storm.

  10. PubMed

    Eichenberger, W; Grob, E C.

    1970-12-01

    The contents of sterol derivatives (sterols + esters, glycosides and acylated glycosides) have been determined using thin layer chromatography in leaves and bulky and organs from carrots (Daucus carota L.) potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), onion (Allium cepa L.) two varieties of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and Gentiana purpurea L. plants. Ether-soluble lipids of leaves contain 2.8-5.2%, those of storage tissue 3.1-8.9% sterol derivatives. The fractionation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., Burpee's Ruby Red) leaf homogenates indicates steryl glycosides to be accumulated in a microsomal fraction. PMID:11945480

  11. Accurate theoretical chemistry with coupled pair models.

    PubMed

    Neese, Frank; Hansen, Andreas; Wennmohs, Frank; Grimme, Stefan

    2009-05-19

    almost forgotten) of this class of methods, the coupled-electron pair approximation (CEPA), performs exceedingly well in chemical applications. In this Account, we examine the performance of CEPA in chemical applications. One attractive feature of CEPA, in addition to its surprising accuracy that surpasses that of DFT and MP2 theory, is a simplicity that allows for straightforward and very efficient approximations and extensions to be developed; these are much more difficult or even impossible with the more rigorous CC theory. Thus, approximate CEPA methods can be implemented efficiently enough to allow for calculations on molecules of 50-100 atoms, perhaps the most common range in contemporary chemical research.

  12. On the mechanism of callose synthesis induction by metal ions in onion epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    Kartusch, R

    2003-03-01

    Metal ions induce the synthesis of callose in Allium cepa epidermal cells. Callose is deposited as single knoblike local accumulations, aggregates of knobs, or furrowed clusters tightly attached to the cell wall. The most effective metal is copper, it induces callose formation at micromolar concentrations. Agents acting on inositolphosphate metabolism, phospholipase inhibitors, calcium channel inhibitors, modulators of cytoplasmic calcium, or receptor antagonists influence callose synthesis. It is concluded that metal ions, especially Cu(2+), initiate a signal transduction chain by activation of phospholipases and generation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and that callose synthesis is a cellular defence reaction caused by the disturbance of intracellular calcium homeostasis. PMID:12664286

  13. [Isolated bacteria from nasal cultures. Are they important in patients with acute leukemia?].

    PubMed

    Barranco-Lampón, Gilberto; Mendoza-García, Carlos Alberto; Cabrera-Osuna, Silvia; Olarte-Carrillo, Irma; Ventura, Yanet; Gutiérrez-Romero, Mario; Martínez-Murillo, Carlos; Martínez-Tovar, Adolfos; Ramos-Peñafiel, Christian Omar

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la colonización nasal por Staphylcoccus epidermidis y Staphylococcus aureus es frecuente y se ha relacionado con bacteremia en huéspedes inmunocomprometidos. En la investigación que se presenta, los objetivos fueron determinar la frecuencia de cepas que colonizan la mucosa nasal en pacientes en tratamiento de leucemia aguda y su relación con los cultivos de sangre periférica. MÉTODOS: estudio retrospectivo, observacional, transversal, retrolectivo de cultivos nasales obtenidos durante cuatro semanas. La relación con los hemocultivos se estableció mediante chi cuadrada; se calculó razón de momios.

  14. A comparative study of the potentiating effect of caffeine and poly-D-lysine on chromosome damage induced by X-rays in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Mateos, S; Panneerselvam, N; Mateos, J C; Cortés, F

    1992-04-01

    X-Ray-induced chromosomal aberrations (CA) were potentiated by post-treatments in G2 with either caffeine (caff) or poly-D-lysine (PDL) in root-tip cells of Allium cepa. The enhancement of the yield of CA was concomitant with an increase in the frequency of mitosis. Our results seem to support the idea of a direct relationship between radiation-induced G2 delay and repair of chromosome damage. Here we report on similarities between caffeine and PDL in both decreasing G2 delay and enhancing chromatid aberration yield. The possible molecular mechanism(s) of action responsible for the cytogenetic effects observed are discussed.

  15. In Vitro picosecond ultrasonics in a single cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossignol, C.; Chigarev, N.; Ducousso, M.; Audoin, B.; Forget, G.; Guillemot, F.; Durrieu, M. C.

    2008-09-01

    Ultrasonics signals at frequencies 5.7±0.1 and 6.8±0.1GHz are measured in two organelles of a single vegetal cell in vitro with a picosecond ultrasonic technique. Using standard values for cell optical index, ultrasound velocities of 1.6±0.1 and 2.0±0.1μm/ns are measured from several signals recorded in the vacuole and in the nucleus of a single Allium cepa cell, respectively. A 1μm lateral and 0.25μm depth resolution is attained.

  16. OEM--a new medium for rapid isolation of onion-pathogenic and onion-associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zaid, Ali M; Bonasera, Jean M; Beer, Steven V

    2012-12-01

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are plagued by a number of bacterial pathogens including Pantoea ananatis, P. agglomerans, Burkholderia cepacia, Enterobacter cloacae, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. axonopodis and several Pseudomonas spp. We developed a semi-selective medium, termed onion extract medium (OEM), to selectively and rapidly isolate bacteria pathogenic to and associated with onions and onion-related samples including bulbs, seeds, sets, transplant seedlings, soil and water. Most strains of interest grow sufficiently on OEM in 24h at 28°C for tentative identification based on colony morphology, facilitating further characterization by microbiological and/or molecular means. PMID:23041494

  17. When do arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi protect plant roots from pathogens?

    PubMed

    Sikes, Benjamin A

    2010-06-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are mainly thought to facilitate phosphorus uptake in plants, but they can also perform several other functions that are equally beneficial. Our recent study sheds light on the factors determining one such function, enhanced plant protection from root pathogens. Root infection by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum was determined by both plant susceptibility and the ability of an AM fungal partner to suppress the pathogen. The non-susceptible plant species (Allium cepa) had limited F. oxysporum infection even without AM fungi. In contrast, the susceptible plant species (Setaria glauca) was heavily infected and only AM fungi in the family Glomeraceae limited pathogen abundance. Plant susceptibility to pathogens was likely determined by contrasting root architectures between plants, with the simple rooted plant (A. cepa) presenting fewer sites for infection.AM fungal colonization, however, was not limited in the same way in part because plants with fewer, simple roots are more mycorrhizal dependent. Protection only by Glomus species also indicates that whatever the mechanism(s) of this function, it responds to AM fungal families differently. While poor at pathogen protection, AM fungal species in the family Gigasporaceae most benefited the growth of the simple rooted plant species. Our research indicates that plant trait differences, such as root architecture can determine how important each mycorrhizal function is to plant growth but the ability to provide these functions differs among AM fungi. PMID:20400855

  18. Genotoxicity assessment of a pharmaceutical effluent using four bioassays

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Pharmaceutical industries are among the major contributors to industrial waste. Their effluents when wrongly handled and disposed of endanger both human and environmental health. In this study, we investigated the potential genotoxicity of a pharmaceutical effluent, by using the Allium cepa, mouse- sperm morphology, bone marrow chromosome aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) assays. Some of the physico-chemical properties of the effluent were also determined. The A. cepa and the animal assays were respectively carried out at concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10%; and 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50% of the effluent. There was a statistically different (p < 0.05), concentration-dependent inhibition of onion root growth and mitotic index, and induction of chromosomal aberrations in the onion and mouse CA test. Assessment of sperm shape showed that the fraction of the sperm that was abnormal in shape was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than the negative control value. MN analysis showed a dose-dependent induction of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes across the treatment groups. These observations were provoked by the toxic and genotoxic constituents present in test samples. The tested pharmaceutical effluent is a potentially genotoxic agent and germ cell mutagen, and may induce adverse health effects in exposed individuals. PMID:21637694

  19. Relative turnover of (/sup 3/H)arachidonic acid and (/sup 14/C)eicosapentaenoic acid in stimulated human platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, B.J.; Holub, B.J.

    1986-03-05

    The relative release of arachidonic acid (AA) versus eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from platelet phospholipids may be important in accounting for the potential of dietary fish oil containing EPA to alter platelet reactivity. Human platelets enriched in EPA and prelabelled with (/sup 3/H)AA and (/sup 14/C)EPA were used to examine the relative losses of these fatty acids from platelet phospholipids upon stimulation. Washed dual-labelled platelets were incubated with and without thrombin in the presence of BW755C and in the presence and absence of trifluoperazine. The platelet lipids were extracted and the individual phospholipids as well as diacylglycerol (DG), phosphatidic acid (PA), etc. were separated by thin-layer chromatography and the radioactivity in each fraction determined. The (/sup 3/H)AA/(/sup 14/C)EPA dpm ratio for the loss in radioactivity from PC upon thrombin stimulation was similar to that for the PC in resting platelets. This suggests no marked selectivity in the degradation of AA versus EPA species of PC during platelet activation. The (/sup 3/H)/(/sup 14/C) ratios for the increased radioactivity in DG and PA upon thrombin stimulation were slightly higher than the ratio in PI from resting platelets suggesting only a minor preference for 1-acyl 2-arachidonoyl PI over 1-acyl 2-eicosapentaenoyl PI in the pathway from PI to DG to PA.

  20. Transmission of alien chromosomes from selfed progenies of a complete set of Allium monosomic additions: the development of a reliable method for the maintenance of a monosomic addition set.

    PubMed

    Shigyo, M; Wako, T; Kojima, A; Yamauchi, N; Tashiro, Y

    2003-12-01

    Selfed progeny of a complete set of Allium fistulosum - Allium cepa monosomic addition lines (2n = 2x + 1 = 17, FF+1A-FF+8A) were produced to examine the transmission rates of respective alien chromosomes. All eight types of the selfed monosomic additions set germinable seeds. The numbers of chromosomes (2n) in the seedlings were 16, 17, or 18. The eight extra chromosomes varied in transmission rate (%) from 9 (FF+2A) to 49 (FF+8A). The complete set of monosomic additions was reproduced successfully by self-pollination. A reliable way to maintain a set of Allium monosomic additions was developed using a combination of two crossing methods, selfing and female transmission. FF+8A produced two seedlings with 18 chromosomes. Cytogenetical analyses, including GISH, showed that the seedlings were disomic addition plants carrying two entire homologous chromosomes from A. cepa in an integral diploid background of A. fistulosum. Flow cytometry analysis showed that a double dose of the alien 8A chromosome caused fluorescence intensity values spurring in DNA content, and isozyme analysis showed increased glutamate dehydrogenase activity at the gene locus Gdh-1.

  1. Genotoxicity evaluation of tannery effluent treated with newly isolated hexavalent chromium reducing Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Vineeta; Yadav, Ashutosh; Haq, Izharul; Kumar, Sharad; Bharagava, Ram Naresh; Singh, Sudheer Kumar; Raj, Abhay

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the efficiency of free and immobilized cells of newly isolated hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] reducing Bacillus cereus strain Cr1 (accession no. KJ162160) was studied in the treatment of tannery effluent. The analysis of effluents revealed high chemical oxygen demand (COD-1260 mg/L), biological oxygen demand (BOD5-660 mg/L), total dissolved solids (TDS-14000 mg/L), electrical conductivity (EC-21.5 mS/cm) and total chromium (TC-2.4 mg/L). The effluents also showed genotoxic effects to Allium cepa. Treatment of tannery effluent with isolated B. cereus strain led to considerable reduction of pollutant load. The pollutant load reduction was studied with both immobilized and free cells and immobilized cells were more effective in reducing COD (65%), BOD (80%), TDS (67%), EC (65%) and TC (92%) after 48 h. GC-MS analysis of pre and post-treatment tannery effluent samples revealed reduction of organic load after treatment with free and immobilized cells. An improvement in mitotic index and reduction in chromosomal aberrations was also observed in A. cepa grown with post-treatement effluent samples compared to untreated sample. Results demonstrate that both methods of bacterial treatment (free and immobilized) were efficient in reducing the pollutant load of tannery effluent as well as in reducing genotoxic effects, however, treatment with immobilized cells was more effective. PMID:27591849

  2. Releases from copper smelters and refineries and zinc plants in Canada: human health exposure and risk characterization.

    PubMed

    Newhook, R; Hirtle, H; Byrne, K; Meek, M E

    2003-01-01

    In these assessments of releases from copper smelters and refineries and from zinc plants as Priority Substances under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA), available data were critically evaluated to determine if environmental exposure to selected components of these releases poses a risk to human health. The data on airborne levels of a variety of toxic substances near these facilities in Canada were obtained from the companies or provinces and systematically analyzed. Monitoring of ambient air near the Canadian copper smelters and refineries and zinc plants indicates that releases from these facilities result in increased potential for inhalation exposure of local human populations to several components of releases (As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, SO(2) and PM(10)). Airborne levels in the vicinity of these metal-processing operations overlap those associated with cardiorespiratory effects for PM(10), and exceed health-based guidelines for SO(2) and, near some facilities, Pb. In addition, the margin between levels of As, Cd, Cr and Ni near these facilities in Canada and carcinogenic potency for each of these metals is relatively small near copper smelters, larger near copper refineries, and intermediate near zinc plants. On this basis, the risk to human health from environmental exposure to releases from these facilities is considered to be high compared with other Priority Substances assessed under CEPA, especially for facilities where copper is smelted.

  3. Pulsed Direct Current Electrospray: Enabling Systematic Analysis of Small Volume Sample by Boosting Sample Economy.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhenwei; Xiong, Xingchuang; Guo, Chengan; Si, Xingyu; Zhao, Yaoyao; He, Muyi; Yang, Chengdui; Xu, Wei; Tang, Fei; Fang, Xiang; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2015-11-17

    We had developed pulsed direct current electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (pulsed-dc-ESI-MS) for systematically profiling and determining components in small volume sample. Pulsed-dc-ESI utilized constant high voltage to induce the generation of single polarity pulsed electrospray remotely. This method had significantly boosted the sample economy, so as to obtain several minutes MS signal duration from merely picoliter volume sample. The elongated MS signal duration enable us to collect abundant MS(2) information on interested components in a small volume sample for systematical analysis. This method had been successfully applied for single cell metabolomics analysis. We had obtained 2-D profile of metabolites (including exact mass and MS(2) data) from single plant and mammalian cell, concerning 1034 components and 656 components for Allium cepa and HeLa cells, respectively. Further identification had found 162 compounds and 28 different modification groups of 141 saccharides in a single Allium cepa cell, indicating pulsed-dc-ESI a powerful tool for small volume sample systematical analysis.

  4. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity assessment of industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Masood, Farhana; Malik, Abdul

    2013-10-01

    The genotoxicity of industrial wastewaters from Jajmau (Kanpur), was carried out by Ames Salmonella/microsome test, DNA repair-defective mutants, and Allium cepa anaphase-telophase test. Test samples showed maximum response with TA98 strain with and without metabolic activation. Amberlite resins concentrated wastewater samples were found to be more mutagenic as compared to those of liquid-liquid extracts (hexane and dichloromethane extracts). The damage in the DNA repair defective mutants in the presence of Amberlite resins concentrated water samples were found to be higher to that of liquid-liquid-extracted water samples at the dose level of 20 μl/ml culture. Among all the mutants, polA exhibited maximum decline with test samples. Mitotic index (MI) of root tip meristematic cells of A. cepa treated with 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 % (v/v) wastewaters were significantly lower than the control. Complementary to the lower levels of MI, the wastewaters showed higher chromosomal aberration levels in all cases investigated. PMID:23640391

  5. Pulsed Direct Current Electrospray: Enabling Systematic Analysis of Small Volume Sample by Boosting Sample Economy.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhenwei; Xiong, Xingchuang; Guo, Chengan; Si, Xingyu; Zhao, Yaoyao; He, Muyi; Yang, Chengdui; Xu, Wei; Tang, Fei; Fang, Xiang; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2015-11-17

    We had developed pulsed direct current electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (pulsed-dc-ESI-MS) for systematically profiling and determining components in small volume sample. Pulsed-dc-ESI utilized constant high voltage to induce the generation of single polarity pulsed electrospray remotely. This method had significantly boosted the sample economy, so as to obtain several minutes MS signal duration from merely picoliter volume sample. The elongated MS signal duration enable us to collect abundant MS(2) information on interested components in a small volume sample for systematical analysis. This method had been successfully applied for single cell metabolomics analysis. We had obtained 2-D profile of metabolites (including exact mass and MS(2) data) from single plant and mammalian cell, concerning 1034 components and 656 components for Allium cepa and HeLa cells, respectively. Further identification had found 162 compounds and 28 different modification groups of 141 saccharides in a single Allium cepa cell, indicating pulsed-dc-ESI a powerful tool for small volume sample systematical analysis. PMID:26488206

  6. Inhibition of uracil-DNA glycosylase increases SCEs in BrdU-treated and visible light-irradiated cells

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, A.; Hernandez, P.; Gutierrez, C.

    1985-11-01

    The authors have approached the study of the ability of different types of lesions produced by DNA-damaging agents to develop sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) by analyzing SCE levels observed in Allium cepa L cells with BrdU-substituted DNA and exposed to visible light (VL), an irradiation which produces uracil residues in DNA after debromination of bromouracil and enhances SCE levels but only above a certain dose. They have partially purified an uracil-DNA glycosylase activity from A. cepa L root meristem cells, which removes uracil from DNA, the first step in the excision repair of this lesion. This enzyme was inhibited in vitro by 6-amino-uracil and uracil but not by thymine. When cells exposed to VL, at a dose that did not produce per se an SCE increase, were immediately post-treated with these inhibitors of uracil-DNA glycosylase, a significant increase in SCE levels was obtained. Moreover, SCE levels in irradiated cells dropped to control level when a short holding time elapsed between exposure to VL and the beginning of post-treatment with the inhibitor. Thus, our results showed that inhibitors of uracil-DNA glycosylase enhanced SCE levels in cells with unifilarly BrdU-substituted DNA exposed to visible light; and indicated the existence of a very rapid repair of SCE-inducing lesions produced by visible light irradiation of cells with unifilarly BrdU-containing DNA.

  7. A test battery for the ecotoxicological evaluation of pentachlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Repetto, G; Jos, A; Hazen, M J; Molero, M L; del Peso, A; Salguero, M; Castillo, P D; Rodríguez-Vicente, M C; Repetto, M

    2001-01-01

    Experimental bioassays are currently used in ecotoxicology and environmental toxicology to provide information for risk assessment evaluation of new chemicals and to investigate their effects and mechanisms of action; in addition, ecotoxicological models are used for the detection, control and monitoring of the presence of pollutants in the environment. As a single bioassay will never provide a full picture of the quality of the environment, a representative, cost-effective and quantitative test battery should be developed. The effects of pentachlorophenol were studied using a battery of ecotoxicological model systems, including immobilization of Daphnia magna, bioluminiscence inhibition in the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, growth inhibition of the alga Chlorella vulgaris, and micronuclei induction in the plant Allium cepa. The inhibition of cell proliferation and MTT reduction were investigated in Vero cells. Neutral red uptake, cell growth, MTT reduction, lactate dehydrogenase leakage and activity were studied in the salmonid fish cell line RTG-2, derived from the gonad of rainbow trout. Pentachlorophenol was very toxic for all biota and cells. The system most sensitive to pentachlorophenol, was micronuclei induction in A. cepa, followed by D. magna immobilization, bioluminescence inhibition in V. fischeri bacteria at 60 min and cell proliferation inhibition of RTG-2 cells at 72 h. Inhibition of cell proliferation and MTT reduction on Vero monkey cells showed intermediate sensitivity. PMID:11566584

  8. Transmission of alien chromosomes from selfed progenies of a complete set of Allium monosomic additions: the development of a reliable method for the maintenance of a monosomic addition set.

    PubMed

    Shigyo, M; Wako, T; Kojima, A; Yamauchi, N; Tashiro, Y

    2003-12-01

    Selfed progeny of a complete set of Allium fistulosum - Allium cepa monosomic addition lines (2n = 2x + 1 = 17, FF+1A-FF+8A) were produced to examine the transmission rates of respective alien chromosomes. All eight types of the selfed monosomic additions set germinable seeds. The numbers of chromosomes (2n) in the seedlings were 16, 17, or 18. The eight extra chromosomes varied in transmission rate (%) from 9 (FF+2A) to 49 (FF+8A). The complete set of monosomic additions was reproduced successfully by self-pollination. A reliable way to maintain a set of Allium monosomic additions was developed using a combination of two crossing methods, selfing and female transmission. FF+8A produced two seedlings with 18 chromosomes. Cytogenetical analyses, including GISH, showed that the seedlings were disomic addition plants carrying two entire homologous chromosomes from A. cepa in an integral diploid background of A. fistulosum. Flow cytometry analysis showed that a double dose of the alien 8A chromosome caused fluorescence intensity values spurring in DNA content, and isozyme analysis showed increased glutamate dehydrogenase activity at the gene locus Gdh-1. PMID:14663528

  9. Antifungal effects of the volatile oils from Allium plants against Trichophyton species and synergism of the oils with ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Pyun, M-S; Shin, S

    2006-06-01

    In an attempt to develop stable and safe antifungal agents from natural products (daily foodstuffs in particular), the activities of essential oils from Allium sativum for. pekinense, A. cepa, and A. fistulosum against three Trichophyton species responsible for severe mycoses in humans were investigated and compared with activity of allicin in this study. The fungistatic activities of Allium oils were evaluated by the broth dilution method and disk diffusion assay. The combined effects of Allium oils with ketoconazole were tested by the checkerboard titer test. Among the tested oils, A. sativum for. pekinense oil exhibited the strongest inhibition of growth of T. rubrum, T. erinacei, and T. soudanense with MICs (minimum inhibiting concentrations) of 64microg/ml, while the activities of A. cepa and A. fistulosum were relatively mild. The inhibiting activities of the oils on Sabouraud agar plates were dose dependent against Trichophyton species. Additionally, these oils showed significant synergistic antifungal activity when combined with ketoconazole in the checkerboard titer test and disk diffusion test. PMID:16716908

  10. The effects of the oral administration of fish oil concentrate on the release and the metabolism of (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid and (/sup 14/C)eicosapentaenoic acid by human platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, A.; Terano, T.; Hamazaki, T.; Sajiki, J.; Kondo, S.; Ozawa, A.; Fujita, T.; Miyamoto, T.; Tamura, Y.; Kumagai, A.

    1982-11-01

    It has been suggested by several investigators that eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 omega 3, EPA) might have anti-thrombotic effects. In this experiment, the effect of the oral administration of EPA rich fish oil concentrate on platelet aggregation and the release and the metabolism of (/sup 1 -14/C)arachidonic acid and ((U)-/sup 14/C)eicosapentaenoic acid by human platelets was studied. Eight healthy male subjects ingested 18 capsules of fish oil concentrate (EPA 1.4 g) per day for 4 weeks. Plasma and platelet concentrations of EPA markedly increased, while those of arachidonic acid (C20:4 omega 6, AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 omega 3, DHA) did not change. Platelet aggregation induced by collagen and ADP was reduced. Collagen induced (/sup 14/C)thromboxane B2 (TXB2) formation from (/sup 14/C)AA prelabeled platelets decreased. There was no detectable formation of (/sup 14/C)TXB3 from (/sup 14/C)EPA prelabeled platelets, and the conversion of exogenous (/sup 14/C)EPA to (/sup 14/C)TXB3 was lower than that of (/sup 14/C)AA to (/sup 14/C)TXB2. The release of (/sup 14/C)AA from (/sup 14/C)AA prelabeled platelets by collagen was significantly decreased. These observations raise the possibility that the release of arachidonic acid from platelet lipids might be affected by the alteration of EPA content in platelets.

  11. Are salty liquid food flavorings in vitro antitumor substances?

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Francisco R S; Moura, Antonio G; Rodrigues, Gardenia F; Nunes, Narcia M F; Lima, Daisy J B; Pessoa, Claudia; Costa, Marcilia P; Ferreira, Paulo M P; Peron, Ana Paula

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative, cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of salty liquid synthetic flavorings of Butter, Cheddar Cheese and Onion. The antiproliferative potential (2.9-1500 µg/mL) was assessed by MTT assay after 72h using the human tumor lines SF-295 (glioblastoma), OVCAR-8 (ovarian), HCT-116 (colon) and HL-60 (promyelocytic leukemia) and primary cultures of murine Sarcoma 180 (S180) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Allium cepa bulbs were exposed to growing respective doses (1 mL and 2 mL). Only Butter and Cheddar flavorings revealed cytotoxic activity on cancer cells, with IC50 values ranging from 125.4 µg/mL (Cheddar - HCT-116) to 402.6 µg/mL (Butter - OVCAR-8). Butter flavoring was the most cytotoxic on PBMC (136.3 µg/mL) and increased cell division rate in relation to the mitotic index but did not cause cellular aberrations. Onion and Cheddar flavorings reduced the mitotic index after 24h and 48h exposure, but only Onion flavoring resulted in cellular aberrations and mitotic spindle abnormalities, such as anaphase and telophase bridges, micronucleated cells, conchicine-metaphases and amplifications. So, Butter, Onion and/or Cheddar flavorings caused significant changes in the division of meristematic cells of A. cepa and presented cytotoxic action even on decontrolled proliferating human tumor cells.

  12. Antiproliferative and genotoxic effects of nature identical and artificial synthetic food additives of aroma and flavor.

    PubMed

    Nunes, R D M; Sales, I M S; Silva, S I O; Sousa, J M C; Peron, A P

    2016-07-25

    This study aimed to analyze the antiproliferative and genotoxic potential of synthetic food flavorings, nature identical passion fruit and artificial vanilla. This assessment used root meristem cells of Allium cepa L., in exposure times of 24 and 48 hours and using doses of 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 mL. Roots were fixed in Carnoy's solution, hydrolyzed in hydrochloric acid, stained with acetic orcein and analyzed with optical microscope at 400× magnification, 5,000 cells for each treatment. For data analysis, it was used Chi-square test at 5%. Doses of 0.2 mL at ET 48 h; 0.4 and 0.6 mL at ET 24 and 48 h of passion fruit flavor, and the three doses of the vanilla flavor at ET 24 and 48 h significantly reduced the cell division rate in the meristems of roots, proving to be cytotoxic. Doses of 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 mL of the passion fruit additive, and the three doses of vanilla tested, in the two exposure times, induced mitotic spindle changes and micronuclei formation in the cells of the test organism used, proving to be genotoxic. Therefore, under the studied conditions, flavoring solutions of vanilla and passion fruit, marketed nationally and internationally, significantly altered the functioning of the cell cycle in root meristem cells of A. cepa.

  13. Group A rotavirus gastroenteritis: post-vaccine era, genotypes and zoonotic transmission.

    PubMed

    Luchs, Adriana; Timenetsky, Maria do Carmo Sampaio Tavares

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACTThis article provides a review of immunity, diagnosis, and clinical aspects of rotavirus disease. It also informs about the changes in epidemiology of diarrheal disease and genetic diversity of circulating group A rotavirus strains following the introduction of vaccines. Group A rotavirus is the major pathogen causing gastroenteritis in animals. Its segmented RNA genome can lead to the emergence of new or unusual strains in human populations via interspecies transmission and/or reassortment events.RESUMOEste artigo fornece uma revisão sobre imunidade, diagnóstico e aspectos clínicos da doença causada por rotavírus. Também aponta as principais mudanças no perfil epidemiológico da doença diarreica e na diversidade genética das cepas circulantes de rotavírus do grupo A, após a introdução vacinal. O rotavírus do grupo A é o principal patógeno associado à gastroenterite em animais. Seu genoma RNA segmentado pode levar ao surgimento de cepas novas ou incomuns na população humana, por meio de transmissão entre espécies e eventos de rearranjo.

  14. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of fluoxetine hydrochloride (Prozac), with or without vitamins A and C, in plant and animal model systems.

    PubMed

    Düsman, E; Almeida, I V; Mariucci, R G; Mantovani, M S; Vicentini, V E P

    2014-01-28

    Fluoxetine, commonly known as Prozac, is the first representative of the so-called new generation of antidepressants that promise efficacy, with few side effects, against deep depression, nervous bulimia, and anxiety. As there is a growing number of people suffering from anxiety and depression; consequently, the use of fluoxetine is also increasing. Verifying absence of drug effects such as cytotoxicity or mutagenicity is of great importance. Certain vitamins, such as vitamin A (retinol, retinoids) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) protect and are extremely active against mutagens. We evaluated the cytotoxic and mutagenic activity of fluoxetine, with and without concomitant administration of vitamin A or C, in Allium cepa meristem cells and Wistar rat bone marrow cells. The A. cepa meristem cells showed fluoxetine cytotoxicity; concomitant treatment with vitamin A or C proved non-protective. Treatment of Wistar rats with fluoxetine intraperitoneally or via gavage did not affect cell division or cause clastogenic effects. Vitamin A and C did not affect the cytotoxicity or mutagenicity of fluoxetine in the rat cells.

  15. Determination of the antimutagenicity of an aqueous extract of Rhizophora mangle L. (Rhizophoraceae), using in vivo and in vitro test systems

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    An aqueous extract of Rhizophora mangle L. bark is used as raw material in pottery making in the State of Espirito Santo, Brazil. This extract presents large quantities of tannins, compounds possessing antioxidant properties. Tannin antioxidant activity, as a plant chemical defense mechanism in the process of stabilizing free radicals, has been an incentive to studies on anti-mutagenicity. The present work aimed to evaluate possible antimutagenic activity of a R. mangle aqueous extract, using the Allium cepa test-system and micronuclear (MN) assay with blockage of cytokinesis in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1). The Allium cepa test-system indicated antimutagenic activity against the damage induced by the mutagenic agent methyl methanesulfonate. A reduction in both MN cell frequency and chromosome breaks occurred in both the pre and post-treatment protocols. The MN testing of CHO-K1 cells revealed anti-mutagenic activity of the R. mangle extract against methyl methanesulfonate and doxorubicin in pre, simultaneous and post-treatment protocols. These results suggest the presence of phyto-constituents in the extract presenting demutagenic and bio-antimutagenic activities. Since the chemical constitution of Rhizophora mangle species presents elevated tannin content, it is highly probable that these compounds are the antimutagenic promoters themselves. PMID:21637623

  16. Genotoxicity reduction in bagasse waste of sugar industry by earthworm technology.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Sartaj Ahmad; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the genotoxicity reduction in post vermicompost feed mixtures of bagasse (B) waste using earthworm Eisenia fetida. The genotoxicity of bagasse waste was determined by using Allium cepa root chromosomal aberration assay. Bagasse was amended with cattle dung in different proportions [0:100 (B0) 25:75 (B25), 50:50 (B50), 75:25 (B75) and 100:0 (B100)] on dry weight basis. Genotoxic effects of initial and post vermicompost bagasse extracts were analysed on the root tips cells of Allium cepa. Root length and mitotic index (MI) was found to be increased in post vermicompost extracts when compared to initial bagasse waste. The maximum percent increase of root length was observed in the B50 bagasse extract (96.60 %) and the maximum MI was observed in B100 mixture (14.20 ± 0.60) 6 h treatment which was similar to the control. Genotoxicity analysis of post vermicompost extracts of bagasse revealed a 21-44 % decline in the aberration frequencies and the maximum reduction was found in B75 extract (44.50 %). The increase in root length and mitotic index, as well as decrease in chromosomal aberrations indicates that E. fetida has the ability to reduce the genotoxicity of the bagasse waste. PMID:27516924

  17. Genotoxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Nitro-Derived in Respirable Airborne Particulate Matter Collected from Urban Areas of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Ramos de Rainho, Claudia; Machado Corrêa, Sérgio; Luiz Mazzei, José; Alessandra Fortes Aiub, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution toxic effects are mainly attributed to small inhalable particulates with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 µm (PM 2.5). Our objective was to investigate mutagenic and clastogenic activity in PM samples collected in Rio de Janeiro. Samples were collected using a high-volume sampler at three sites: with low traffic and (2) and (3) with a heavy traffic. Six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and the derivative strains YG1021 and YG1024 were used in mutagenicity assays in the presence of organic extracts (10–50 µg/ plate) with and without exogenous metabolization. Allium cepa test was performed to evaluate possible cytotoxic and clastogenic activities. The highest PM 2.5 µm (132.73 µm/m3) and PAH values (1.22 ng/m3 for benzo(a)pyrene) were detected at site 3. High mutagenic frameshift responses in absence and presence of metabolic activation were detected at site 3. The participation of nitroarenes and dinitroarenes was detected in the total mutagenicity of the extracts studied. The cytotoxic effect and the abnormalities detected by Allium cepa test can be attributed to the PAH nitroderivatives in the organic extracts. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of urban airborne particulate matter is important as a basis for decision making by regulatory authorities. PMID:23738331

  18. Management of corm-rot disease of Gladiolus by plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Tariq; Nawaz Khan, Salik; Javaid, Arshad

    2010-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of aqueous extracts of six plant species, namely Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (neem), Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br., Lawsonia alba Lam., Allium cepa L., A. sativum L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and a systemic fungicide carbendazim 50% (w/w) WP, to manage the corm-rot disease of Gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus L.) caused by a fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli (Massey) Snyd. & Hans. Fusarium inoculation showed 80% disease incidence with 54 disease lesions per corm. Recommended dose of the chemical fungicide carbendazim significantly reduced the disease incidence to 13% and number of lesions to six per corm. Plant extract treatments exhibited variable effects on the incidence and severity of the disease. In general, all the test plant extracts managed the corm-rot disease to some extent. Aqueous bulb extracts of A. sativum and A. cepa and the rhizome extract of Z. officinale showed better disease management potential than that of the recommended dose of carbendazim. Fusarium inoculation significantly declined shoot growth. In general, carbendazim, as well as aqueous extracts, enhanced shoot growth to variable extents as compared to the Fusarium control. PMID:19557652

  19. Determination of the antimutagenicity of an aqueous extract of Rhizophora mangle L. (Rhizophoraceae), using in vivo and in vitro test systems.

    PubMed

    Malini, Maressa; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida; Mantovani, Mário Sérgio; Jamal, Claudia Masrouah; Nati, Natália; da Silva Passos, Tatiane; Matsumoto, Silvia Tamie

    2010-01-01

    An aqueous extract of Rhizophora mangle L. bark is used as raw material in pottery making in the State of Espirito Santo, Brazil. This extract presents large quantities of tannins, compounds possessing antioxidant properties. Tannin antioxidant activity, as a plant chemical defense mechanism in the process of stabilizing free radicals, has been an incentive to studies on anti-mutagenicity. The present work aimed to evaluate possible antimutagenic activity of a R. mangle aqueous extract, using the Allium cepa test-system and micronuclear (MN) assay with blockage of cytokinesis in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1). The Allium cepa test-system indicated antimutagenic activity against the damage induced by the mutagenic agent methyl methanesulfonate. A reduction in both MN cell frequency and chromosome breaks occurred in both the pre and post-treatment protocols. The MN testing of CHO-K1 cells revealed anti-mutagenic activity of the R. mangle extract against methyl methanesulfonate and doxorubicin in pre, simultaneous and post-treatment protocols. These results suggest the presence of phyto-constituents in the extract presenting demutagenic and bio-antimutagenic activities. Since the chemical constitution of Rhizophora mangle species presents elevated tannin content, it is highly probable that these compounds are the antimutagenic promoters themselves. PMID:21637623

  20. Textile dye degradation by bacterial consortium and subsequent toxicological analysis of dye and dye metabolites using cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress studies.

    PubMed

    Phugare, Swapnil S; Kalyani, Dayanand C; Patil, Asmita V; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2011-02-15

    The present study aims to evaluate Red HE3B degrading potential of developed microbial consortium SDS using two bacterial cultures viz. Providencia sp. SDS (PS) and Pseudomonas aeuroginosa strain BCH (PA) originally isolated from dye contaminated soil. Consortium was found to be much faster for decolorization and degradation of Red HE3B compared to the individual bacterial strain. The intensive metabolic activity of these strains led to 100% decolorization of Red HE3B (50 mg l(-1)) with in 1h. Significant induction of various dye decolorizing enzymes viz. veratryl alcohol oxidase, laccase, azoreductase and DCIP reductase compared to control, point out towards their involvement in overall decolorization and degradation process. Analytical studies like HPLC, FTIR and GC-MS were used to scrutinize the biodegradation process. Toxicological studies before and after microbial treatment was studied with respect to cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzyme status, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation analysis using root cells of Allium cepa. Toxicity analysis with A. cepa signifies that dye Red HE3B exerts oxidative stress and subsequently toxic effect on the root cells where as biodegradation metabolites of the dye are relatively less toxic in nature. Phytotoxicity studies also indicated that microbial treatment favors detoxification of Red HE3B.

  1. A test battery for the ecotoxicological evaluation of pentachlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Repetto, G; Jos, A; Hazen, M J; Molero, M L; del Peso, A; Salguero, M; Castillo, P D; Rodríguez-Vicente, M C; Repetto, M

    2001-01-01

    Experimental bioassays are currently used in ecotoxicology and environmental toxicology to provide information for risk assessment evaluation of new chemicals and to investigate their effects and mechanisms of action; in addition, ecotoxicological models are used for the detection, control and monitoring of the presence of pollutants in the environment. As a single bioassay will never provide a full picture of the quality of the environment, a representative, cost-effective and quantitative test battery should be developed. The effects of pentachlorophenol were studied using a battery of ecotoxicological model systems, including immobilization of Daphnia magna, bioluminiscence inhibition in the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, growth inhibition of the alga Chlorella vulgaris, and micronuclei induction in the plant Allium cepa. The inhibition of cell proliferation and MTT reduction were investigated in Vero cells. Neutral red uptake, cell growth, MTT reduction, lactate dehydrogenase leakage and activity were studied in the salmonid fish cell line RTG-2, derived from the gonad of rainbow trout. Pentachlorophenol was very toxic for all biota and cells. The system most sensitive to pentachlorophenol, was micronuclei induction in A. cepa, followed by D. magna immobilization, bioluminescence inhibition in V. fischeri bacteria at 60 min and cell proliferation inhibition of RTG-2 cells at 72 h. Inhibition of cell proliferation and MTT reduction on Vero monkey cells showed intermediate sensitivity.

  2. Group A rotavirus gastroenteritis: post-vaccine era, genotypes and zoonotic transmission.

    PubMed

    Luchs, Adriana; Timenetsky, Maria do Carmo Sampaio Tavares

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACTThis article provides a review of immunity, diagnosis, and clinical aspects of rotavirus disease. It also informs about the changes in epidemiology of diarrheal disease and genetic diversity of circulating group A rotavirus strains following the introduction of vaccines. Group A rotavirus is the major pathogen causing gastroenteritis in animals. Its segmented RNA genome can lead to the emergence of new or unusual strains in human populations via interspecies transmission and/or reassortment events.RESUMOEste artigo fornece uma revisão sobre imunidade, diagnóstico e aspectos clínicos da doença causada por rotavírus. Também aponta as principais mudanças no perfil epidemiológico da doença diarreica e na diversidade genética das cepas circulantes de rotavírus do grupo A, após a introdução vacinal. O rotavírus do grupo A é o principal patógeno associado à gastroenterite em animais. Seu genoma RNA segmentado pode levar ao surgimento de cepas novas ou incomuns na população humana, por meio de transmissão entre espécies e eventos de rearranjo. PMID:27462899

  3. Antiproliferative and genotoxic effects of nature identical and artificial synthetic food additives of aroma and flavor.

    PubMed

    Nunes, R D M; Sales, I M S; Silva, S I O; Sousa, J M C; Peron, A P

    2016-07-25

    This study aimed to analyze the antiproliferative and genotoxic potential of synthetic food flavorings, nature identical passion fruit and artificial vanilla. This assessment used root meristem cells of Allium cepa L., in exposure times of 24 and 48 hours and using doses of 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 mL. Roots were fixed in Carnoy's solution, hydrolyzed in hydrochloric acid, stained with acetic orcein and analyzed with optical microscope at 400× magnification, 5,000 cells for each treatment. For data analysis, it was used Chi-square test at 5%. Doses of 0.2 mL at ET 48 h; 0.4 and 0.6 mL at ET 24 and 48 h of passion fruit flavor, and the three doses of the vanilla flavor at ET 24 and 48 h significantly reduced the cell division rate in the meristems of roots, proving to be cytotoxic. Doses of 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 mL of the passion fruit additive, and the three doses of vanilla tested, in the two exposure times, induced mitotic spindle changes and micronuclei formation in the cells of the test organism used, proving to be genotoxic. Therefore, under the studied conditions, flavoring solutions of vanilla and passion fruit, marketed nationally and internationally, significantly altered the functioning of the cell cycle in root meristem cells of A. cepa. PMID:27463833

  4. Are salty liquid food flavorings in vitro antitumor substances?

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Francisco R S; Moura, Antonio G; Rodrigues, Gardenia F; Nunes, Narcia M F; Lima, Daisy J B; Pessoa, Claudia; Costa, Marcilia P; Ferreira, Paulo M P; Peron, Ana Paula

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative, cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of salty liquid synthetic flavorings of Butter, Cheddar Cheese and Onion. The antiproliferative potential (2.9-1500 µg/mL) was assessed by MTT assay after 72h using the human tumor lines SF-295 (glioblastoma), OVCAR-8 (ovarian), HCT-116 (colon) and HL-60 (promyelocytic leukemia) and primary cultures of murine Sarcoma 180 (S180) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Allium cepa bulbs were exposed to growing respective doses (1 mL and 2 mL). Only Butter and Cheddar flavorings revealed cytotoxic activity on cancer cells, with IC50 values ranging from 125.4 µg/mL (Cheddar - HCT-116) to 402.6 µg/mL (Butter - OVCAR-8). Butter flavoring was the most cytotoxic on PBMC (136.3 µg/mL) and increased cell division rate in relation to the mitotic index but did not cause cellular aberrations. Onion and Cheddar flavorings reduced the mitotic index after 24h and 48h exposure, but only Onion flavoring resulted in cellular aberrations and mitotic spindle abnormalities, such as anaphase and telophase bridges, micronucleated cells, conchicine-metaphases and amplifications. So, Butter, Onion and/or Cheddar flavorings caused significant changes in the division of meristematic cells of A. cepa and presented cytotoxic action even on decontrolled proliferating human tumor cells. PMID:27627067

  5. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and microvascular density in salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Faur, Alexandra Corina; Lazar, Elena; Cornianu, Marioara

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates whether salivary tumours with different morphology and evolution also differ in terms of neovascularization and VEGF expression and the prognostic value of the results. Surgical specimens from 45 patients - 8 pleomorphic adenomas (PA), 7 Warthin tumours (WT), 5 basal cell adenomas (BA), 6 carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenoma (CEPA), 6 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC), 5 acinic cell carcinomas (AC), 4 adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) and 4 adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified (ADK NOS) - were immunostained. In malignant salivary tumours, the following mean microvascular density (MVD) values were recorded (± SD = Standard Deviation): 27.61 (SD ± 2.27) in cases with CEPA, 27.08 (DS ± 7.81) in AC and 32.93 (SD ± 7.76) in ADK NOS, with lower values for MEC 24.31(SD ± 2.88) and for ACC 22.13 (SD ± 5.44). For benign tumours, an MVD of 35.71 (SD ± 2.09) was recorded in WT and lower average values in PA (MVD = 14.84; SD ± 4.86) and in BA (MVD = 23.96; SD ± 9.13). MVD did not correlate with the investigated clinicopathological parameters. The VEGF expression is significantly more important (p = 0.001) in malignant salivary tumours as compared with benign ones. The VEGF expression and the microvascularization in salivary gland tumours are important elements to be considered when formulating a diagnosis and assessing case evolutions in patients with such tumours.

  6. Genotoxic assessment on river water using different biological systems.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Emilene Arusievicz; de Lemos, Clarice Torres; Gavronski, Léia; Moreira, Tiago Nunes; Oliveira, Nânci C D; da Silva, Juliana

    2011-06-01

    This paper reports genotoxicity and toxicity data in water samples collected in Sinos River, an important water course in the hydrographic region of Guaíba Lake, Rio Grande do Sul State, south of Brazil. This river is exposed to intense anthropic influence by numerous shoes, leather, petrochemical, and metallurgy industries. Water samples were collected at two moments (winter 2006 and spring 2006) at five sites of Sinos River and evaluated using in vitro V79 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (cytotoxicity, comet assay and micronucleus test) and Allium cepa test (toxicity and micronucleus test). Comet and micronucleus tests revealed that water samples collected exerted cytotoxic, toxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects. The results showed the toxic action of organic and inorganic agents found in the water samples in all sites of Sinos River, for both data collections. The main causes behind pollution were the domestic and industrial toxic discharges. The V79 and A. cepa tests were proved efficient to detect toxicity and genotoxicity caused by complex mixtures. This study also showed the need for constant monitoring in sites with strong environmental degradation caused by industrial discharges and urban sewages. PMID:21435689

  7. Genotoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitro-derived in respirable airborne particulate matter collected from urban areas of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Ramos de Rainho, Claudia; Machado Corrêa, Sérgio; Luiz Mazzei, José; Alessandra Fortes Aiub, Claudia; Felzenszwalb, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution toxic effects are mainly attributed to small inhalable particulates with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 µ m (PM 2.5). Our objective was to investigate mutagenic and clastogenic activity in PM samples collected in Rio de Janeiro. Samples were collected using a high-volume sampler at three sites: with low traffic and (2) and (3) with a heavy traffic. Six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and the derivative strains YG1021 and YG1024 were used in mutagenicity assays in the presence of organic extracts (10-50 µ g/ plate) with and without exogenous metabolization. Allium cepa test was performed to evaluate possible cytotoxic and clastogenic activities. The highest PM 2.5 µ m (132.73 µ m/m(3)) and PAH values (1.22 ng/m(3) for benzo(a)pyrene) were detected at site 3. High mutagenic frameshift responses in absence and presence of metabolic activation were detected at site 3. The participation of nitroarenes and dinitroarenes was detected in the total mutagenicity of the extracts studied. The cytotoxic effect and the abnormalities detected by Allium cepa test can be attributed to the PAH nitroderivatives in the organic extracts. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of urban airborne particulate matter is important as a basis for decision making by regulatory authorities. PMID:23738331

  8. Effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Azzeh, Firas S; Alazzeh, Awfa Y; Dabbour, Ibrahim R; Jazar, Abdelelah S; Obeidat, Ahmed A

    2014-10-01

    Introducción: Los bebés con bajo peso al nacer reciben asistencia nutricional hospitalaria para reforzar su supervivencia y peso corporal. Sin embargo, cada hospital tiene su propia fórmula de asistencia nutricional. Por lo tanto, la efectividad de esta asistencia nutricional debería ser investigada. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto de la asistencia nutricional hospitalaria sobre la velocidad del crecimiento velocidad del crecimiento y el estado nutricional de bebés con bajo peso al nacer en el hospital Al-Noor, Arabia Saudita. Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio interseccional entre octubre de 2010 y diciembre de 2012. Se seleccionó a trescientos recién nacidos del hospital Al-Noor de la ciudad de Makkah, Arabia Saudita. Los bebés fueron seleccionados según su peso al nacer y fueron separados en tres grupos iguales: (i) Bajo peso al nacer (BPN) (peso de nacimiento 1501- 2500 g), (ii) Muy Bajo peso al nacer (MBPN) (peso de nacimiento 1001-1500 g) y (iii) Peso extremadamente bajo al nacer (PEBN) (peso de nacimiento < 1000 g). Los datos fueron recopilados en el momento del nacimiento y en el momento del alta. Los pesos fueron registrados y se calculó la velocidad del crecimiento. Se hizo la medición de algunos tests bioquímicos y niveles minerales. Resultados: los valores de índice de masa corporal del VBPN y EBPN fueron menores (p < 0.05) que los del grupo BPN. La velocidad de crecimiento de los niños de todos los grupos osciló entre 8.7 y 10.2 g/kg/d sin diferencias (p > 0.05) observadas entre grupos. Los niveles de suero, calcio, fósforo y potasio en el momento del alta fueron superiores (p < 0.05) que los del momento del nacimiento para los grupos de EBPN y VBPN, mientras que los niveles de sodio descendieron en el grupo de EBPN hasta un rango normal. El nivel de albúmina mejoró (p < 0.05) en el grupo de EBPN. Conclusión: La gestión de la atención sanitaria para bebés con bajo peso al nacer en el hospital Al-Noor no fue suficiente para alcanzar

  9. Macronutrients and energy content of oral hospital diet prescribed to chronic kidney disease patients on conservative treatment.

    PubMed

    David Silva, Janiara; Louvera Silva, Karine A; Baggio, Sueli R; Morgano, Marcelo A; Aguiar Nemer, Aline S; Quintaes, Késia D

    2014-11-01

    Introducción: La contribución de la dieta y planificación del tratamiento en el tratamiento de la enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) ha sido reconocida por tener un impacto clínico significativo si introducida tempranamente. Objetivo: determinar los niveles de hidratos de carbono, proteínas, lípidos, energía y densidad de energía (DE) en una dieta hospitalaria oral recetada para los pacientes con ERC, y evaluar la adecuación de esta dieta con respecto a las recomendaciones dietéticas. Métodos: Las dietas fueron recogidas en un hospital público brasileño en dos días no consecutivos de seis semanas diferentes. Los contenidos de los hidratos de carbono, proteínas, y lípidos (totales, saturadas, monoinsaturadas, poliinsaturadas, ácidos grasos linoleico, linolénico y trans) fueran determinados en un laboratorio. La cantidad de energía y la DE de las dietas se calcularon utilizando el factor de corrección de Atware, dividiendo la energía total de la dieta en peso, respectivamente. Resultados y Discusión: Fueran analizadas cerca de 14.3% de las dietas producidas y servidas a los pacientes con ERC. La densidad media de las di etas fue baja (0,7 kcal/g). Fue encontrada inadecuación nutricional para el contenido medio en lípidos (15%) y contenido de ácido graso linolénico (0,4%) y de energía (23,4 kcal/kg/día). El contenido de carbohidratos (63,5%) y el contenido de proteínas (1,0 g/kg/día) superaron los niveles de recomendaciones. Conclusiones: La dieta hospitalaria oral preparada para los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica se muestra desequilibrada y desfavorable para el tratamiento clínico de los pacientes.

  10. [The functional planning of a enteral nutrition unit for home care at a hospital in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Salomon, Ana Lúcia; Carvalho Garbi Novaes, Maria Rita

    2013-11-01

    Introducción: Con el objeto de garantizar la calidad del producto ofrecido a los clientes en sus domicilios, las unidades hospitalarias necesitan adecuar sus áreas físicas para poder desarrollar todas las actividades especializadas que conlleva la nutrición enteral. Objetivo: Proporcionar una planificación funcional y las herramientas para la reorganización del espacio físico de una unidad de nutrición enteral, describiendo el proceso de preparación, la descripción de sus características y funciones laborales. Métodos. Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y documental, proporcionando las herramientas para la planificación funcional y de gestión de calidad en una unidad de preparación de la nutrición enteral en un hospital público del Distrito Federal, Brasil. Los datos fueron recolectados en el período comprendido entre los años 2000 y 2010. Resultados. A través de la creación de un programa de nutrición enteral en el Departamento de Salud Pública del Distrito Federal y según lo dispuesto por la legislación nacional, se efectuó un plan de alta complejidad respecto de la nutrición enteral en atención al perfil demográfico y epidemiológico de la población. Este trabajo consiste en una propuesta de implementación de terapia nutricional dentro de un plan de alta complejidad, y de acuerdo a lo prescrito por la legislación del Ministerio de Salud Brasileño. El número de pacientes atendidos por esta modalidad terapéutica se ha ido incrementando, por consiguiente se hace necesario garantizar la calidad del servicio, por medio de la organización de los espacios funcionales. Conclusión. Por medio de la planificación funcional de un Laboratorio de Nutrición Enteral, se puede garantizar la asistencia nutricional especializada y de calidad, a la población hospitalaria o domiciliaria, tomando las precauciones necesarias en la manipulación de las fórmulas enterales.

  11. A review of metal (Pb and Zn) sensitive and pH tolerant bioassay organisms for risk screening of metal-contaminated acidic soils.

    PubMed

    Chapman, E Emily V; Dave, Göran; Murimboh, John D

    2013-08-01

    To improve risk estimates at the screening stage of Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA), short duration bioassays tailored to undisturbed soil cores from the contaminated site could be useful. However, existing standardized bioassays use disturbed soil samples and often pH sensitive organisms. This is a problem as naturally acidic soils are widespread. Changing soil properties to suit the test organism may change metal bioavailability, leading to erroneous risk estimates. For bioassays in undisturbed soil cores to be effective, species able to withstand natural soil properties must be identified. This review presents a critical examination of bioassay species' tolerance of acidic soils and sensitivity to metal contaminants such as Pb and Zn. Promising organisms include; Dendrobaena octaedra, Folsomia candida, Caenorhabditis elegans, Oppia nitens, Brassica rapa, Trifolium pratense, Allium cepa, Quercus rubra and Acer rubrum. The MetSTICK test and the Bait lamina test were also identified as suitable microorganism tests.

  12. Clastogenicity of landfarming soil treated with sugar cane vinasse.

    PubMed

    da Silva Souza, Tatiana; Hencklein, Fabiana Aparecida; de Franceschi de Angelis, Dejanira; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2013-02-01

    The addition of nutrients and/or soil bulking agents is used in bioremediation to increase microbial activity in contaminated soils. For this purpose, some studies have assessed the effectiveness of vinasse in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum waste. The present study was aimed at investigating the clastogenic/aneugenic potential of landfarming soil from a petroleum refinery before and after addition of sugar cane vinasse using the Allium cepa bioassay. Our results show that the addition of sugar cane vinasse to landfarming soil potentiates the clastogenic effects of the latter probably due the release of metals that were previously adsorbed into the organic matter. These metals may have interacted synergistically with petroleum hydrocarbons present in the landfarming soil treated with sugar cane vinasse. We recommend further tests to monitor the effects of sugar cane vinasse on soils contaminated with organic wastes. PMID:22580848

  13. Evaluation of the toxic and genotoxic potential of acid mine drainage using physicochemical parameters and bioassays.

    PubMed

    Netto, E; Madeira, R A; Silveira, F Z; Fiori, M A; Angioleto, E; Pich, C T; Geremias, R

    2013-05-01

    Carboniferous activity generates acid mine drainage (AMD) which is capable of unleashing toxic effects on the exposed biota. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic and genotoxic potential of untreated-AMD and AMD treated with calcinated sediment, using physicochemical parameters and bioassays. Results revealed that untreated-AMD presented low pH values and elevated concentrations of the metals Fe, Al, Mn, Zn and Cu. High acute toxicity was observed in Artemia sp. and Daphnia magna, and sub-chronic toxicity and genotoxicity in Allium cepa L. as well as scission of plasmid DNA exposed to untreated-AMD. Treatment of AMD with calcinated sediment promoted the reduction of acidity and the removal of metals, as well as a reduction in toxic and genotoxic effects. In conclusion, the calcinated sediment can be used as an alternative AMD treatment.

  14. Ecofriendly degradation, decolorization and detoxification of textile effluent by a developed bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Phugare, Swapnil S; Kalyani, Dayanand C; Surwase, Shripad N; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2011-07-01

    Present study illustrates the effectual decolorization and degradation of the textile effluent using a developed bacterial consortium SDS, consisted of bacterial species Providencia sp. SDS and Pseudomonas aeuroginosa strain BCH, originally isolated from dye contaminated soil. The intensive metabolic activity of the consortium SDS led to complete decolorization of textile effluent within 20 h at pH 7 and temperature 30°C. Significant induction in the activities of veratryl alcohol oxidase, laccase, azoreductase and DCIP reductase were observed during decolorization, which indicates their involvement in decolorization and degradation process. The decolorization and biodegradation was monitored using UV-vis spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, HPLC and HPTLC analysis. Toxicological analysis of effluent before and after treatment was performed using classical Allium cepa test. Investigations of various toxicological parameters viz, oxidative stress response, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and phytotoxicity, collectively concludes that, the toxicity of effluent reduces significantly after treatment with consortium SDS.

  15. Onion: nature protection against physiological threats.

    PubMed

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Saeed, Farhan; Khalid, Nauman

    2015-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is found in various regions of Europe, North America, Asia, and Africa. It is one of the classic examples of Allium species used not only for culinary preparations but also for medicinal purposes. Onion with a variety of purposes is often used as a raw material in many dishes and accepts almost all of the traditions and culture. Owing to its storage characteristics and durability of shipping, onions have been traded more widely than most vegetables. The pungent fractions of garlic are mostly sulfur-containing moieties while its two chemical groups have marked effect on human health. These are flavonoids and ALK (EN)-based cysteine sulfoxides (ACSOs). Compounds in onions have been reported with a range of health benefits, including anticancer properties, antiplatelet activity, antithrombotic activity, antiasthmatic activity, and antibiotic effects. PMID:24915405

  16. Quality control method to measure predator evasion in wild and mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrichs, M.; Wornoayporn, V.; Hendrichs, J.

    2007-03-15

    varias razones, incluyendo perdidas debidas a diferentes tipos de depredadores. Estudios anteriores conducidos en el campo, y en jaulas de campo, han confirmado que las cepas de machos de laboratorio tienen menos capacidad de evadir depredadores que los machos silvestres. Estos estudios involucran, sin embargo, una considerable cantidad de manipulacion y observacion de depredadores, por lo que no son adecuados para ser usados como medidas rutinarias en los programas de cria masiva. Aqui describimos un metodo sencillo de control de calidad usando aspiradores para medir agilidad en la mosca del Mediterraneo y mostramos que este parametro esta relacionado a la capacidad de la moscas a evadir a depredadores. Aunque aun es necesario refinar la estandarizacion de este metodo para permitir la comparacion entre cepas, los resultados confirman la importancia de tener un metodo rutinario para medir la capacidad de evasion de depredadores en cepas de cria de laboratorio de la mosca del Mediterraneo. Ademas de medir este parametro de control de calidad de los machos esteriles, el metodo descrito podria tambien ser usado para la seleccion sistematica de cepas con una mayor capacidad de evasion de depredadores. (author)

  17. Plants of the genus Allium as antibacterial agents: From tradition to pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Sharifi-Rad, J; Mnayer, D; Tabanelli, G; Stojanović-Radić, Z Z; Sharifi-Rad, M; Yousaf, Z; Vallone, L; Setzer, W N; Iriti, M

    2016-08-29

    Plants belonging to the genus Allium are widely cultivated and used all over the world as food and medicinal plants. Since ancient times, these plants, particularly garlic (Allium sativum L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.), have represented important components of typical recipes and traditional healing systems. Not the least of which, their use as food biopreservatives is well documented, due to the relevant antibacterial activity of their extracts and essential oils. In addition to garlic and onion, this review article deals with the main members of the genus Allium, including A. ampeloprasum (Leek), A. schoenoprasum (Chive) and A. ascalonicum (Shallot), focusing both on their ethnonutritional uses and potential as promising food biopreservative agents. Noteworthy, recent research has demonstrated Allium derivatives to be novel components in active edible coatings as well as nanoformulates.

  18. Onion dehydration: a review.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Jayeeta; Shrivastava, S L; Rao, P S

    2012-06-01

    Onion (Allium cepa), a very commonly used vegetable, ranks third in the world production of major vegetables. Apart from imparting a delicious taste and flavour due to its pungency in many culinary preparations, it serves several medicinal purposes also. Processing and preservation of onion by suitable means is a major thrust area since a long time. The various kinds of treatments followed for dehydration of onion such as convective air drying, solar drying, fluidized bed drying, vacuum microwave drying, infrared drying and osmotic drying are reviewed here. These techniques are mainly used for preservation and value addition of onion. Several researchers have tried for decades to model the drying kinetics and quality parameters, which are also compiled here briefly.

  19. Intracellular dynamics with the phase microscope Airyscan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tychinsky, Vladimir P.; Perevedentseva, Elena V.; Vyshenskaia, Tatiana V.; Kufal, Georgy E.

    1997-12-01

    Investigation of intracellular dynamics of Allium cepa inner epidermal cells are described. The applicability of the method for quantitative estimation of spatio-temporal phase fluctuations and the effect due to external factors is discussed. The analysis of time-sampled series allows one to detect the regions of various motility in cytoplasm. The intense Fourier-spectra harmonics in 0.2 - 8 Hz interval were observed inside a cell wall and cytoplasm. Regularly spaced 2- to 4-s long batches of 100-ms pulses at cell-wall sites are recorded. The phase-fluctuation intensity decreased and the frequencies of certain harmonics were shifted with lowering temperature. The advantages and specific features of the method are discussed.

  20. 57 Fe Mössbauer probe of spin crossover thin films on a bio-membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Anil D.; Garcia, Yann

    2012-03-01

    An illustrious complex [Fe(ptz)6](BF4)2 (ptz = 1-propyl-tetrazole) ( 1) which was produced in the form of submicron crystals and thin film on Allium cepa membrane was probed by 57Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy in order to follow its intrinsic spin crossover. In addition to a weak signal that corresponds to neat SCO compound significant amount of other iron compounds are found that could have morphed from 1 due to specific host-guest interaction on the lipid-bilayer of bio-membrane. Further complimentary information about biogenic role of membrane, was obtained from variable temperature Mossbauer spectroscopy on a ~5% enriched [57Fe(H2O)6](BF4)2 salt on this membrane.